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A study of parametric organization in selected works of Luigi Nono Needley, Douglas 1974

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A STUDY OF PARAMETRIC ORGANIZATION IN SELECTED WORKS OF LUIGI NONO  by DOUGLAS NEEDLEY B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department  of  MUSIC We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I further for  of  freely  available  for  of  the  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  reference and copying o f  this  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  thesis for  It  financial  i s understood that gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  British  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  representatives.  this  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y of  s h a l l make it  scholarly  by h i s  in p a r t i a l  October  Columbia  7th, 1974  not  copying or  publication  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s study i s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  the  changes i n L u i g i Nono's treatment of techniques of p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n as found i n f i v e works composed s u c c e s s i v e l y from 1954  t o 1957:  Incontri  L i e b e s l i e d (1954), C a n t i per t r e d i c i  (1955), I I Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i  (1956/1957).  The  method employed i s t h a t of e s t a b l i s h i n g the  composer's p r o c e s s e s of o r d e r i n g , extent  (1954/1955),,  and  determining t o what  they are a p p l i e d w i t h i n each composition.  Through a  comparison o f the systems of o r g a n i z a t i o n used i n each o f  the  f i v e works i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assess L u i g i Nono's development i n the use  o f s e r i a l techniques.  p r i m a r i l y t o studying Although these two  This analysis i s l i m i t e d  the parameters of p i t c h and  duration.  parameters are the o n l y v a r i a b l e s which  are c o n s i s t e n t l y examined w i t h i n each composition,  other  parameters, i n c l u d i n g dynamics, are d i s c u s s e d when i t i s found t h a t t h e i r systems o f s e r i a l o r d e r i n g are  directly  r e l a t e d t o and governed by the same o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s which are a p p l i e d t o p i t c h and In the f i r s t  duration.  f o u r works d i s c u s s e d  L i e b e s l i e d , C a n t i per t r e d i c i ,  i n t h i s paper, namely  I n c o n t r i and  I I Canto sospeso,  p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l i n k e d c l o s e l y t o a technique which, f o r the purpose o f t h i s study, has been termed timbral continuity."  T h i s concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l  which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  "poly-  continuity,  t o have developed from K l a n g f a r b e n -  melodie, c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f a continuous l i n e o f sound which has a c o n s t a n t l y v a r y i n g  timbre.  In comparing the methods o f p a r a m e t r i c  organization  as found i n the f i v e works, two b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are evident. The and  analysis o f L i e b e s l i e d , Canti per t r e d i c i ,  1 1 Canto sospeso have shown t h a t w i t h each  Incontri  successive  composition the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems n o t o n l y become more complex b u t are a l s o g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o a g r e a t e r  extent.  C o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h i s i s the development o f a technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f which i n each  s u c c e s s i v e work becomes more i n t r i c a t e .  A t the same time,  the number o f s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n s o f p o l y t i m b r a l i n the o r d e r i n g o f p a r a m e t e r s i i s  continuity  increased.  In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s t r e n d towards a g r e a t e r degree o f organization within L i e b e s l i e d , Canti per t r e d i c i , and  Incontri  1 1 Canto sospeso, there can be found, w i t h i n each o f  these compositions, areas i n which the systems o f o r d e r i n g are not a p p l i e d .  S i m i l a r l y , polytimbral c o n t i n u i t y i s not  c o n s t a n t l y employed throughout a l l works.  In V a r i a n t i , the  iv concept and method o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s now completely. tinuity,  changed  In d i s c a r d i n g the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l con-  Nono abandons the tendency o f employing  systems  which s p e c i f i c a l l y determine o r d e r i n g o f v a r i a b l e appearances. P o s s i b l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t y i n Nono's development o f s e r i a l techniques i s the composer's to adopt completely, systems o f t o t a l c o n t r o l .  reluctance Although  methods*, o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n become more complex, always r e t a i n s a c e r t a i n degree o f c h o i c e .  Nono  T h i s avoidance  of complete p r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n as t o why Nono seldom employs systems c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout a work. l a r i t i e s may  organizational The extent o f i r r e g u -  v a r y from one composition t o the next but change  i s always e v i d e n t .  There can be no doubt t h a t Nono has i n -  t e n t i o n a l l y r e f r a i n e d from u n e r r i n g l y f o l l o w i n g systems o f total  serialism.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  LIST OF TABLES  .'.vi  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  viii  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I.  LUIGI NONO  6  Works Composed Before L i e b e s l i e d . . . Works Composed A f t e r V a r i a n t i II. III. IV.  LIEBESLIED  44  CANTI PER TREDICI AND INCONTRI  84  I L CANTO SOSPESO Movement Movement Movement Movement Movement  V.  VI.  8 14  II IV V VI B VII  VARIANTI  124 •• • •  ,  1  2  9  148 156 169 172 184  Section A Section B  189 245  CONCLUSIONS  273  APPENDIX  278  BIBLIOGRAPHY  283  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  .2. 3. 4.  5. 6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  Page P i t c h Omissions From Row Statements i n the F i r s t H a l f o f the Second Movement o f Canti per t r e d i c i  95  I r r e g u l a r i t i e s of P i t c h Presentation F i r s t Half of Incontri  99  i n the  Statements o f Duration M u l t i p l e S e r i e s i n the F i r s t H a l f o f I n c o n t r i  118  Statements o f Duration M u l t i p l e S e r i e s i n the F i r s t S e c t i o n o f Movement I I o f I I Canto sospeso  143  Statements o f Duration M u l t i p l e S e r i e s i n Movement IV o f I I Canto sospeso  153  P i t c h Ordering W i t h i n Each o f the Three L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement V o f I I Canto sospeso.  161  Duration M u l t i p l e P r e s e n t a t i o n i n Each L i n e o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement V o f I I Canto sospeso  166  Statements o f Duration M u l t i p l e S e r i e s i n Movement VI B o f I I Canto sospeso  171  D e n s i t y o f the Sound-Blocks Contained Withi n Each Measure-Grouping o f S e c t i o n A of V a r i a n t i  197  Frequency o f M u l t i p l e - V o i c e Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings I n v o l v i n g Both Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra i n S e c t i o n A o f Varianti  203  vii Table 11. 12. 13.  14.  15.  16. 17. 18.  Page Employment o f B a s i c Durations i n S e c t i o n A of V a r i a n t i  216  Duration M u l t i p l e s Employed W i t h i n Measure Groupings o f S e c t i o n A o f V a r i a n t i  225  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Length o f Segment and Range o f D u r a t i o n M u l t i p l e s i n Section A of V a r i a n t i  226  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Sound-Block Density t o Duration M u l t i p l e Employment i n the F i r s t Four Measure-Groupings o f V a r i a n t i  227  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f P i t c h t o Sound-Block D e n s i t y i n O r c h e s t r a l Segments o f S e c t i o n A o f Varianti  233  Range o f R e g i s t e r s Employed By Sound-Blocks i n the F i r s t Four Segments o f V a r i a n t i  236  Dynamic L e v e l s Employed W i t h i n MeasureGroupings o f S e c t i o n A o f V a r i a n t i  239  Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s Employed With S p e c i f i c Dynamic P a t t e r n s i n S e c t i o n B of Varianti  262  viii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure  Page  1.  I n t e r v a l Palindromes i n L i e b e s l i e d  60  2.  Polytimbral Continuity i n L i e b e s l i e d  68  3.  Note Durations Employed W i t h i n L i e b e s l i e d . . . .  76  4.  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n the F i r s t H a l f o f the Second Movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i  106  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n the F i r s t H a l f o f I n c o n t r i . . .  108  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement I I o f I I Canto sospeso  136  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement IV o f I I Canto sospeso  151  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement V o f 11 Canto sospeso  158  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement V I I o f I I Canto sospeso  175  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Measure Groupings i n Section A of V a r i a n t i  189  Arrangement o f M u l t i p l e - V o i c e Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings I n v o l v i n g Both Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra i n S e c t i o n A o f Varianti  204  5. 6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  ix Figure 12.  13. 14.  15.  16.  17.  18.  Page P i t c h O r d e r i n g o f S o l o - V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a Sound-Blocks o f S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i  251  P i t c h Content o f S o l o - V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a Sound-Blocks i n S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i . . . . . .  253  Dynamic P a t t e r n O r d e r i n g o f S o l o - V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a Sound-Blocks o f S e c i o n B of V a r i a n t i  256  Dynamic Comparison With Respect t o P i t c h of O r c h e s t r a l Sound-Blocks o f P a i r i n g s 1 and 12 o f S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i  257  O r d e r i n g o f Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s i n S o l o - V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a l Sound-Blocks of Section B of V a r i a n t i  260  Performance I n d i c a t i o n Comparison o f O r c h e s t r a l Sound-Blocks o f P a i r i n g s of S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i  263  1 and 12  B a s i c D u r a t i o n Content o f Sound-Blocks i n Section B of V a r i a n t i  265  1  INTRODUCTION The main purpose o f t h i s study i s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the changes i n L u i g i Nono*s treatment o f techniques o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n as found i n f i v e works composed s u c c e s s i v e l y from 1954 t o 1957: Incontri  Liebeslied  (1954), C a n t i per t r e d i c i  (1954/1955),  (1955), I I Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i  (1956/1957). the composer's  The method employed w i l l be t h a t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o c e s s e s o f o r d e r i n g , and d e t e r m i n i n g t o what  extent they are a p p l i e d w i t h i n each c o m p o s i t i o n .  Through a  comparison o f the systems o f o r g a n i z a t i o n used i n each o f the f i v e works i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o assess L u i g i Nono s develop1  ment i n the use o f s e r i a l t e c h n i q u e s . The term "parameter" was  i n t r o d u c e d i n music theory by  Dr. Meyer-Eppler o f the I n s t i t u t e o f Communication the U n i v e r s i t y o f Bonn."''  I,t was borrowed  Theory a t  from mathematical  jargon where i t means "an independent v a r i a b l e through functions 2 o f which o t h e r f u n c t i o n s may be expressed"  and i s now  employed  ^"Ernst Krenek, "Extents and L i m i t s o f S e r i a l T e c h n i ques, " i n Problems o f Modern Music. E d i t e d by P.H. Lang (New York: W.W. Norton, 1960), p. 72. 2 . . Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y . Edited by P.B. Grove ( S p r i n g f i e l d : G. and C. Merriam Co., 1969), p. 1638.  2  i n w r i t i n g s on. music t o denote the v a r i a b l e s o f sound. article  "Metamorphoses o f M u s i c a l Form," Gyflrgy L i g e t i  In h i s observes  t h a t w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e r i a l processes t o a number o f b o t h s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e event v a r i a b l e s , the s e r i a l ment o f p i t c h , which was  the f i r s t parameter  arrange-  t o be ordered i n  such a manner, has now become, i n many composer's works, the 3 " f i r s t t h i n g s a c r i f i c e d i n t h i s s h i f t o f emphasis." to  In order  determine whether or not t h i s i s the case w i t h Nono's  compositions, t h i s study i s l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y t o the p a r a meters o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n . are  Although these two  parameters  the o n l y v a r i a b l e s which w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t l y examined  w i t h i n each composition, other parameters,  including  dynamics,  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d when i t i s found t h a t t h e i r systems o f s e r i a l o r d e r i n g are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o and governed by the same o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s which are a p p l i e d t o p i t c h  and  duration. In  the f i r s t  four works d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, namely  L i e b e s l i e d , C a n t i per t r e d i c i ,  I n c o n t r i and I I Canto  sospeso,  p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l i n k e d c l o s e l y t o a technique which, for  the purpose o f t h i s study, has been termed  continuity."  "polytimbral  T h i s concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , which  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o have developed from Klangfarbenmelodie, 3 Gytirgy L i g e t i , "Metamorphoses o f M u s i c a l Form," Die Reihe, VII (1960), p. 5.  3 c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f a continuous l i n e o f sound which has a c o n s t a n t l y v a r y i n g timbre.  In c o n t r a s t t o the  Klangfarben-  melodie technique where there are o f t e n b r i e f p e r i o d s o f s i l e n c e , p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y as found i n these f o u r compos i t i o n s c o n t a i n s no stoppages but r a t h e r there i s a continuous stream o f sounds.  A l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y can be  t r a c e d without i n t e r r u p t i o n from v o i c e t o v o i c e throughout the score with the parameter o f timbre changing from one note t o the next. The primary d i s t i n c t i o n between the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y and Schflnberg's  concept o f  melodie i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l i d e a . scores,  In Nono s 1  Klangfarbenpointillistic  the s i n g l e tone i s not i s o l a t e d as such w i t h i n the com-  p o s i t i o n but r a t h e r i t i s r e l a t e d t o the e n t i r e musical t u r e through the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y . note becomes p a r t o f one o f a number o f c o n t i n u o u s l y  strucEvery  sounding  l i n e s o f c o n s t a n t l y changing timbre which move throughout these works.  Nono's technique o f a t r a n s i t i o n from a s i n g l e tone t o  musical  s t r u c t u r e i s t h e r e f o r e remote from Schflnberg's  concept o f a contrapuntal-melodic More i m p o r t a n t l y , C a n t i per t r e d i c i ,  poetic  flow o f sounds.  through i t s employment i n L i e b e s l i e d ,  I n c o n t r i and I I Canto sospeso, p o l y t i m b r a l  c o n t i n u i t y i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g developed and i t assumes s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n , p i t c h  4 and dynamics. each of  the In  two to  Through an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  works,  basic  describe  the  3 to  functions  d i s c u s s i n g Nono's  terms,  system.  these  In  duration  will  methods o f  works  and d u r a t i o n  7 equal parts  to  the  unit  beat  create basic  technique  become  multiple, of  in  evident.  organizing  fundamental components  these  this  his  duration, are  employed  structural  can be  divided  into  durations  ranging  f r o m JL 3  t o JL r e s p e c t i v e l y .  A duration multiple  is  the  number  by  7 which the b a s i c  duration  the  a specific note.  duration  uity  is  multiplied in  a s s i g n e d one p a r t i c u l a r  employed i n As  of  is  determining the  an example,  the b a s i c  of  basic  duration  a quarter-note  duration  A line  in  1 must be  order of  notes  result  of  contin-  and no o t h e r in  a polytimbral the  determine  polytimbral  duration of  to  this  line  is  line.  utilizing  a basic  duration  3  of  1 m u l t i p l i e d by  the  duration  multiple of  three.  This  rule  3  of  every note  within  defined by p r a c t i c e obviously be  seen i n As  a line  having  very  compositions  or  same b a s i c  and s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  symmetrical patterns the  the  discussion of little  of  the  the  I  has been  a brief  background  of  this  in  as  was  of will  compositions.  has been w r i t t e n  included  employment  duration multiples,  on the  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l ideology  Chapter  duration  this  composer  of  study for  in  the  life,  Luigi  musical Nono,  order reader.  to  provide  5 The  author's t r a n s l a t i o n s o f each f o r e i g n language  q u o t a t i o n employed i n the t e x t are i n c l u d e d i n the Appendix with the footnote numbers corresponding t o those w i t h i n the r e s p e c t i v e c h a p t e r s .  utilized  6  CHAPTER I LUIGI NONO L u i g i Nono was born on January i t was there t h a t he spent h i s youth.  29, 19 24 i n Venice and Although he s t u d i e d  law a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Padua and r e c e i v e d a degree i n 1946,  Nono a l s o became i n v o l v e d w i t h composition d u r i n g  this period.  A t the age o f seventeen he met M a l i p i e r o who,  i n the words o f Nono, "m'ouvrit tous l e s h o r i z o n s de l a musigue.""'"  He then began s t u d y i n g music,  auditing  classes  at the Benedetto M a r c e l l o Conservatory i n Venice which was at t h a t time headed by M a l i p i e r o .  In 1946 Nono became  acquainted w i t h Bruno Maderna who, a c c o r d i n g t o G.W.  Hopkins,  "pointed out t o him the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the academic mode o f 2 t e a c h i n g and gave him a course i n composition." r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Maderna,  Nono has made  stating:  Avec l u i , j e recommencai toute 1'harmonie e t r e p r i s mes etudes a l e u r de*but! C'est Maderna q u i m'a donne' l a technique."^  Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les N o u v e l l e s L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p.9. 2 .. G.W. Hopkins, " L u i g i Nono," Music and M u s i c i a n s , XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 32. 3 Martine Cadieu, op. c i t . , p. 9.  7 On the advise  o f M a l i p i e r o , Nono i n 1948 continued  w i t h Hermann Scherchen i n Venice and then l a t e r  h i s studies  followed  Scherchen t o Z u r i c h where he attended a l l o f h i s teacher's rehearsals.  I t was through t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  Scherchen t h a t Nono became most knowledgeable o f the composit i o n s o f SchOnberg and Webern.  In t a l k i n g about h i s s t u d i e s  w i t h Scherchen, Nono s t a t e d : Avec l u i , durant ses voyages, j ' a i decouvert - e t aime - l a t r a d i t i o n allemande. Nous f a i s i o n s des analyses trks approfondies de SchOnberg e t de Webern. Ces deux compositeurs ont a g i profondement sur moi . J admire particulie*rement SchOnberg, c:S.ar i l a touche a t o u t , a t t e i n t t o u t ce q u ' i l v o u l a i t a t t e i n d r e , dans toutes l e s d i r e c t i o n s . Webern e s t c e r t e s p l u s l i m i t e , mais i l a t a n t approfondi ses ^ recherches q u ' i l a une i n f l u e n c e c e r t a i n e t grave. 1  In 1950, Nono began an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the I n t e r nationale Ferienkurse provided  f u r Neue Musik i n Darmstadt which  him w i t h a d d i t i o n a l s t i m u l i and i n c r e a s e d t e c h n i c a l  knowledge.  The annual F e r i e n k u r s e ,  Dr. Wolfgang Steinecke  organized  i n i t i a l l y by  i n 1946, had by t h i s time e s t a b l i s h e d  Darmstadt as an important center performance o f new music.  f o r both the d i s c u s s i o n and  Throughout the f i f t i e s Nono became  i n c r e a s i n g l y more c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the post-Webern movement a t Darmstadt where he presented l e c t u r e s and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n composition workshops. 4 Ibid.  Most i m p o r t a n t l y  i t was here t h a t  8 many o f h i s e a r l y compositions were g i v e n t h e i r premiere performances.  I t was mainly as a r e s u l t o f these perform-  ances t h a t Nono became w e l l known throughout Germany as one 5 of  the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s o f the avant-garde. Works Composed B e f o r e L i e b e s l i e d Nono's f i r s t composition/ the o r c h e s t r a l V a r i a z i o n i  canoniche based on the tone row from Schonberg's Napoleon,  Opus 41, was w r i t t e n e a r l y i n 1950.  performance was g i v e n a t Darmstadt on August  Ode t o  I t s premiere 27, 1950, w i t h  Hermann Scherchen conducting and, a c c o r d i n g t o H.H. Stuckenx  6  schmidt, i t enjoyed a "succes de scandale." of  As the s c o r e  t h i s work was l o s t b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n , the s o l e method o f  a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s through examining secondary source m a t e r i a l .  The o n l y w r i t e r t o  comment a t a l l on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r composition i s G.W.  Hopkins  who suggests: . . . s e r i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s are a p p l i e d t o a l l the aspects of sound; many k i n d s o f canon a r e used i n simple t e x t u r e s , and s i l e n c e s p l a y a c r u c i a l p a r t . I t was undoubtedly t h i s r a d i c a l r e s t r a i n t and g e n t l e n e s s which A l f r e d F r a n k e n s t e i n , "Three I t a l i a n M o d e r n i s t s , " High F i d e l i t y , XI (December, 1961), p. 70 5  H.H. Stuckenschmidt, Twentieth Century Music York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969), p. 235 6  (New  9 shocked the Darmstadt l i s t e n e r s , and which l a t e r l e d a P a r i s i a n c r i t i c t o e n t i t l e an a r t i c l e "En attendant Nono." 7  However, as Hopkins has p r o b a b l y not s t u d i e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n of V a r i a z i o n i canoniche i n g r e a t depth, these above observat i o n s may be c o n s i d e r e d q u e s t i o n a b l e . In 1951, Nono completed two c o m p o s i t i o n s : per  Composizione  o r c h e s t r a , which was f i r s t performed on February 18, 1952  i n Hamburg, and P o l i f o n i c a - M o n o d i a - R i t m i c a f o r f l u t e , c l a r i n e t , bass c l a r i n e t ,  E - F l a t a l t o saxophone,  B-Flat  horn i n F,  piano, xylophone, cymbals, tom-tom, side-drum, and two small drums, which was g i v e n i t s premiere a t Darmstadt on J u l y 10, 1951.  With the appearance o f h i s e a r l y works, Nono was c a t e -  g o r i z e d perhaps somewhat too h a s t i l y as a "pur Weberien" by • 8 Antoine Golea  and undoubtedly t h i s was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a  r e s u l t o f the b r i e f three-movement chamber p i e c e  Polifonica-  Monodia-Ritmica i n which c e r t a i n aspects o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o f Webern are q u i t e e v i d e n t .  In  a d d i t i o n t o the element o f p o i n t i l l i s m which was b e g i n n i n g to make an appearance i n s e v e r a l o f the compositions on d i s p l a y a t Darmstadt a t t h i s time and which can be seen i n t h i s 7 . . . G.W. Hopkins, " L u i g i Nono," Music and M u s i c i a n s , XIV (April,  1966), p. 32.  8 Mario B o r t o l o t t o , "The New Music i n I t a l y , " i n Contemporary Music i n Europe: A Comprehensive Survey, e d i t e d by P.H. Lang and N. Broder (New York: G. Schirmer, 1965), p. 61.  10  work, t h e r e i s evidence i n P o l i f o n i c a - M o n o d i a - R i t m i c a o f a m o t i v i c s t r u c t u r e based on the r e c u r r e n c e and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f rhythmic and i n t e r v a l l i c c e l l s i n the manner employed by Webern.  Udo Unger examines t h i s aspect i n h i s a r t i c l e  "Luigi  9 Nono" i n Die Reihe.  In s t u d y i n g the score, i t becomes ap-  parent t h a t m o t i v i c v a r i a t i o n o f rhythmic c e l l s i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t element piece.  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the  Although separate tone rows are e v i d e n t i n both  Monodia and Ritmica, they are not employed i n a manner cons i s t e n t w i t h the technique developed by and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " c l a s s i c a l " Viennese s c h o o l .  I t i s i n t h i s composition  t h a t the e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n can be found o f the t r e n d i n Nono's development o f s e r i a l techniques t o l i m i t g e n e r a l l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h to t h a t o f h a v i n g the v a r i o u s tones o f the row merely d i s t r i b u t e d evenly throughout the composition w h i l e a t the same time s t r e s s i n g and d e v e l o p i n g more complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems f o r the parameters rhythm.  o f d u r a t i o n and  T h i s emphasis on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f rhythm over t h a t  o f p i t c h c o n t i n u e s i n the succeeding compositions o f Nono and, as w i l l be found l a t e r ,  i s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the f i v e works analyzed i n t h i s study.  In the  second movement o f P o l i f o n i c a - M o n o d i a - R i t m i c a another compos i t i o n a l technique i s used, the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f which i n c r e a s e s 9  Udo Unger, " L u i g i Nono," Die Reihe, IV, pp.  5-13.  11 when i t s employment here i s compared t o t h a t found i n the f i v e p i e c e s analyzed i n t h i s study.  Monodia p r e s e n t s one o f the  e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Nono's employment o f K l a n g f a r b e n melodie.  The usage o f Klangfarbenmelodie here i s extremely  s i m i l a r to that of polytimbral c o n t i n u i t y  1 0  which,  i n Liebes-  l i e d and the compositions immediately f o l l o w i n g i t , becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f Nono s complex system o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i 1  zation . In to  1952,  the f i r s t  r e a l evidence o f a s t r o n g commitment  r e l a t e a r t i s t i c r e v o l u t i o n with contemporary  social  p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n appears i n Nono's compositions.  and Helmut  Lachenmann comments: Zu e i n e r Z e i t , a l s noch k e i n e r daran dachte, mit r o t e n ^F&hnchen s e i n D i r i g e n t e n p u l t zu schmtlcken, " F r e i b r i e f e fflr d i e Jugend" zu v e r f l f f e n t l i c h e n oder Opernhauser anzuzflnden, v e r s t a n d s i c h Nono schon a l s p o l i t i s c h e n g a g i e r t e r und wirkender Musiker, dessen Kunst A p p e l l s e i n w o l l t e , A u f r u f zu neuem Denken, vor a l l e m gegentlber den o f f e n e n und l a t e n t e n Denkformen des Faschismus und s e i n e r Wurzeln, d i e e r auch und besonders g e f S h r l i c h i n V e r g e s s l i c h k e i t und Bequeml i c h k e i t sah - e i n e r v e r g e s s l i c h k e i t Bequemlichkeit, die es n i c h t z u l e t z t im a s t h e t i s c h e n B e r e i c h nachzuweisen und a u f z u r t t t t e l n g i l t . H Massimo M i l a t a l k s o f Nono's p a s s i o n a t e p o l i t i c a l and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n contemporary  civil  a f f a i r s and s t a t e s t h a t the  " c i v i l p a s s i o n coupled w i t h h i s l o v e o f l i f e and h i s f a i t h i n l i f e and i n the v a l u e s o f human r e l a t i o n s o f t e n merge f o r him l ^ F o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s term p l e a s e r e f e r t o the Introduction. "'""'"Helmut Lachenmann, " L u i g i Nono oder Rttckblick auf d i e s e r i e l l e Musik," Melos, XXXVIII (June, 1971), p. 225.  i n the myth o f Spain, i t s r e v o l u t i o n and p o l i t i c a l martyrdom, 12 and the v e r s e s o f i t s p o e t s . " Nono's next  T h i s i s most apparent i n  composition.  E p i t a f f i o per G a r c i a Lorca c o n s i s t s o f three main p a r t s , each o f which was occasions: was  g i v e n i t s premiere performance  Espana en e l  f i r s t performed  was  c o r a z 6 n  on J u l y 21, 1952  completed  on separate  i n 1952  and  a t Darmstadt where i t  met w i t h g r e a t success; Y su sangre ya v i e n e cantando was  com-  p l e t e d i n the same year and g i v e n i t s premiere a t Baden-Baden on December 17, 1952; espaqnola was  Momento, Romance de l a g u a r d i a c i v i l e  not f i n i s h e d u n t i l 1953  Hamburg on February 16, 1953. been d e s c r i b e d as "una  and was  f i r s t heard i n  E p i t a f f i o per G a r c i a Lorca has  s e r i e d i l a v o r i d i Nono s u l l a guerra  c i v i l e spagnola, con r i t o r n o a l i a t o n a l i t a , c o r i p a r l a t i , f o r mule d i a r i o s i o p e r i s t i c i ,  r i t m i d i danze p o p o l a r i e canto g r e -  13 goriano."  Needless t o say, Nono's employment o f these com-  p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s was avant-garde  not viewed  a t Darmstadt.  Nono's next composition, Due was  f a v o r a b l y by many o f the  completed  i n 1953  e s p r e s s i o n i per o r c h e s t r a ,  and g i v e n i t s premiere performance  on  October 11, 1953 a t the Donaueschingen F e s t i v a l w i t h Hans Rosbaud c o n d u c t i n g . I t was a l s o l a t e r heard a t Darmstadt a f t e r _ Massimo M i l a , " L u i g i Nono," j a c k e t notes f o r The New Music: Volume 3 ( V i c t r o l a 1313) . 13 H.K. Metzger, " E c k s t e i n e neuer Musik" quoted by Massimo M i l a , "La L i n e a Nono," La Rassegna musicale, XXX (1960, p. 310).  which B r i g i t t e S c h i f f e r d e s c r i b e d the work as b e i n g "two s t u d i e s i n which the problems o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique a r e 14 subordinate t o the e x p r e s s i v e content."  In the f i r s t o f the  Due e s p r e s s i o n i , Klanqfarbenmelodie found i n i t i a l l y  i n Monodia  i s developed t o a f u r t h e r e x t e n t . The b a l l e t Per r o t e Mantel which a c c o r d i n g t o Nono 15 "rapporta musica e c o r e o g r a f i a "  was completed  i n 1954. I t s  premiere was given on September 20, 1954 a t the B e r l i n val  f o r which i t had been commissioned.  Nono's f i r s t soli,  Festi-  Per r o t e Mantel,  stage work, i s scored f o r soprano and b a r i t o n e  chorus and o r c h e s t r a and i s based on L o r c a ' s poem In  seinem Garten l i e b t Don P e r l i m p l i n B e l i s a .  T h i s composition  i s c o n s t r u c t e d p r i m a r i l y on the rhythms o f Spanish f o l k  music  which are employed not o n l y t o g i v e l o c a l c o l o u r b u t a l s o a r e developed i n a manner t h a t moves p a r a l l e l t o the dramatic 16 action.  Per r o t e Mantel p r e s e n t s the f i n a l example o f Nono's  use o f dance movements which are found f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s e a r l y works. 14 Brigitte Schiffer, garde, " '' Th^22 i^_2LJl*SiSi£/ r  i  "Parmstadt, X  I  C i t a d e l o f the Avant-  (1969), p . 36.  15 L u i g i Nono, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960," La Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p. 277. 16 G.W. Hopkins, " L u i g i Nono," Music and M u s i c i a n s , XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p . 33.  14  A l s o completed i n 1954,  La V i c t o i r e de Guernica f o r  chorus and o r c h e s t r a i s d e d i c a t e d t o Hermann Scherchen conducted i t s f i r s t performance stadt.  on August  25, 1954  who  a t Darm-  T h i s composition i s based on a poem by Paul E l u a r d  which was  i n s p i r e d by P i c a s s o ' s p i c t u r e o f the same name.  powerful t e x t which evokes memories o f the f a s c i s t  The  destruction  of  the Spanish town Guernica has been used by Nono i n a v a r i e t y  of  ways.  The techniques o f sprechstimme  and speech chorus  again p l a y an important p a r t as speech and song are employed a l t e r n a t e l y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d i f f e r e n t throughout the work. of  La V i c t o i r e de Guernica i s an  exposure  and p r o t e s t a g a i n s t man's inhumanity as seen through the  tragedy o f war. the  combinations  In t h i s composition Nono abandons t e m p o r a r i l y  b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f s e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which have been  advocated by h i s c o l l e a g u e s a t Darmstadt  i n order t o achieve a  dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s message.  Works Composed A f t e r V a r i a n t i After Liebeslied Incontri  (1954), C a n t i per t r e d i c i  (1954),  (1955), I l Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i  (1956/1957) the f i v e works examined i n t h i s study, Nono i n 1957 and 1958 tenor s o l i , the  c r e a t e d La t e r r a e l a compagna f o r soprano  chorus and instruments which was  Norddeutschen  Rundfunks o f Hamburg.  commissioned  I t was  i n that  and by city  15 t h a t the composition was g i v e n i t s premiere performance on January 12, 1958.  The t e x t o f La t e r r a e l a compagna i s taken  from the c o l l e c t i o n o f poems V e r r a l a morte e avra l t u o i o c c h i by Cesare Pavese. The  T h i s composition c o n s i s t s o f three movements,.  two poems, "Terra r o s s a t e r r a nera" and "Tu s e i come una  t e r r a " which are employed i n the f i r s t movement, were w r i t t e n by Pavese two days apart; the former has the date October 27, 1945  w h i l e the l a t t e r ,  t h a t o f October  29, 1945.  Although the  l a s t movement, b e i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l , does not o b v i o u s l y u t i l i z e a t e x t , the second movement employs another Pavese poem "Tu non s a i l e c o l l i n e " which was w r i t t e n on November 9, 1945.  These  three poems have i n common " l a tematica d e l rimpianto s t r u g 17 gente p e r I c a d u t i n e l l a guerra p a r t i g i a n a . "  The two poems  o f the opening movement "appaiono q u a s i d i f f e r e n t i  modulazioni  18 d i un mede'simo sentimento" setting.  and they are superimposed on t h e i r  L i n e s o f t e x t from these two poems are presented a t  times s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e a t o t h e r p o i n t s d u r i n g the movement they are a l t e r n a t e l y employed.  These l i n e s are always s e t  completely and the o r i g i n a l o r d e r i n g i s g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d . . However, the words are d i v i d e d and t r e a t e d s y l l a b i c a l l y . r e s u l t o f t h i s treatment 17  i t i s n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r the lis??' .  Armando G e n t i l e c c i ,  .  Ibid.  .  .  "La t e c n i c a c o r a l e d i L u i g i Nono,  R i v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i M u s i c o l o g i a , I I (1967), p. 123. 1 8  As a  16 tener t o p e r c e i v e the meaning o f the t e x t . ance o f a new  With each  s y l l a b l e the l i n e o f t e x t moves t o a new  appearvoice;  no one v o i c e p r e s e n t s any more than one s y l l a b l e o f a word i n succession. varied,  The parameter  o f timbre then i s c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g  f o l l o w i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t e x t .  It i s inter-  e s t i n g t o note t h a t Nono has i n c l u d e d d o t t e d l i n e s i n the score to i n d i c a t e t h i s r a p i d movement o f the t e x t between v o i c e s . La t e r r a e l a compagna i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h i s study i n t h a t i n t h i s composition t h e r e are apparent o r g a n i z a t i o n a l techniques which are s i m i l a r t o c e r t a i n o f those p l o y e d i n the f i v e p r i n c i p a l works a n a l y z e d i n t h i s The two most important o f these a r e :  em-  paper.  (1) the technique o f  19 polytimbral continuity  which i s found i n i t s most s o p h i s t i -  cated form i n I I Canto sospeso and i s , i n La t e r r a e l a compagna, m o d i f i e d and u t i l i z e d i n c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t e x t ; and  (2) the p r a c t i s e o f  sound-block  o r d e r i n g as seen i n V a r i a n t i , now b e i n g a l t e r e d from a cont e n t o f unison notes t o t h a t o f m u l t i p l e p i t c h e s . A d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s can be found i n La t e r r a e l a compagna which are s i m i l a r t o those o f the e a r l i e r works, one o f the most obvious b e i n g the c l e a r l y emphasized  employment o f  19 F o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s term p l e a s e r e f e r t o the Introduction.  17 V a r i a n t i ' s " a l l i n t e r v a l " row a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the second movement.  A l s o , i n Nono's e a r l i e r compositions t h e r e can be  seen a movement towards an i n c r e a s i n g l y more r h y t h m i c a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y complex s c o r e and La t e r r a e l a compagna w i t h i n t h i s development.  falls  L i k e w i s e , the scores are becoming  more dense and the f i r s t movement o f t h i s composition, f o r 24 p a r t chorus accompanied ments (8 cymbals  by 12 m e t a l l i c p e r c u s s i o n  and 4 tamtams), a t t e s t s t o t h i s .  instru-  And f i n a l l y ,  i n La t e r r a e l a compagna can be found the d i v i s i o n o f the u n i t beat i n t o 3 t o 7 equal p a r t s c r e a t i n g the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s 1_ t o 3 JL r e s p e c t i v e l y and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case i n both I I Canto 7 sospeso and V a r i a n t i . All  o f these f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity  and sound-block o r d e r i n g , a r e most e v i d e n t i n Nono's next com)position.  Completed  i n 1958, C o r i de Didone,  ed chorus and p e r c u s s i o n (8 suspended cymbals, b e l l s ) , was commissioned  f o r 32 p a r t mix4 tamtams and  by the c i t y o f Darmstadt and i t was  t h e r e on September 7, 1958 t h a t the work was g i v e n i t s f i r s t performance w i t h Bernhard Zimmermann c o n d u c t i n g the chorus o f Radio Cologne.  T h i s s i x movement composition i s based on  t e x t s from La t e r r a promessa by the contemporary I t a l i a n poet Giuseppe U n g a r e t t i .  While i n the p r e v i o u s work, the t e x t was  presented s y l l a b l e by s y l l a b l e ,  there i s now an even g r e a t e r  18 d i v i s i o n o f the words i n t o consonant and vowel sounds.  This  technique o f employment i s not used e n t i r e l y throughout b u t r a t h e r i t i s found supplemented a t times by the s y l l a b i c method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .  A good example o f t h i s can be seen  i n examining the s e t t i n g i n the opening movement o f the  first  two words "La s e r a " where the s u b d i v i s i o n s "La s e - r a " and "L-a s - e - r - a " are b o t h employed.  Although the t e x t i s p r e s e n t e d  completely and i n i t s o r i g i n a l o r d e r i n g , t h i s treatment makes the  words completely u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . During 1958 Nono made a v i s i t t o Poland and i t was i n  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i s s t a y there t h a t a new work was  sketched out.  Composizione per o r c h e s t r a Nr. 2: D i a r i o p o l a c c o '58 d e d i c a t e d t o h i s w i f e N u r i a , was  f  which i s  completed i n I t a l y on J u l y  15, 1959 and was g i v e n i t s premiere performance on September 2, 1959 a t Darmstadt w i t h Bruno Maderna c o n d u c t i n g .  I t should be  mentioned t h a t a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n i n which e l e c t r o n i c tape i s employed near the end o f the composition was p u b l i s h e d i n 1965. The score o f Composizione per o r c h e s t r a Nr. 2 i s the most dense Nono has c r e a t e d up t o t h i s p o i n t and c o u l d p o s s i b l y be cons i d e r e d the c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  development.  The work r e q u i r e s four complete o r c h e s t r a s each w i t h 22 i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s and the l o c a t i o n o f every performer on the stage i s s p e c i f i e d by Nono in:.,a/diagram which precedes the p i e c e i n the  19 published score.  Throughout these 88 i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s , no  instrument g e n e r a l l y p l a y s a t any g i v e n e n t r y more than one s i n g l e tone and t h i s r e s u l t s i n p r o d u c i n g the most e x t e n s i v e example o f the employment o f p o i n t i l l i s m i n Nono's works. A f t e r t h i s composition, he g r a d u a l l y abandoned the t e c h n i q u e . Most o f the f e a t u r e s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h both La t e r r a e l a compagna and C o r i d i Didone can a l s o be found i n Composizione  per o r c h e s t r a Nr. 2 however, they are  now g r e a t l y m o d i f i e d and f o r the most p a r t do not p l a y as s i g n i f i c a n t a r o l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the work. While through h i s m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y a t Darmstadt Nono became q u i t e popular w i t h the p u b l i c o f West Germany d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f the f i f t i e s , n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s toward l a t e r became most apparent. leagues and the populace.  Nono  These emanated both from h i s c o l With h i s e a r l y compositions, the  f i r s t r e a l evidence appears o f what i s t o develop i n t o a s t r o n g commitment t o r e l a t e a r t i s t i c r e v o l u t i o n w i t h contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n .  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s aspect,  which a t t h a t time was not common i n contemporary compositions, Nono's music had a s t r o n g appeal t o the p u b l i c .  F o r Nono,  music "e un mezzo d i i n t e r v e n t o , a t t i v o o p a s s i v o , n e l l a 20 societa attuale"  and as can be seen through examining the  —_  Leonardo P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 79.  20 works mentioned up t o now, h i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  commitment  became even s t r o n g e r .  activity  With the i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l  o f Nono who by t h a t time had been drawn t o communism, he exp e r i e n c e d , toward the end o f the decade, West German p u b l i c .  the r e a c t i o n o f the  They had endured enough o f the " l e f t i s h "  f l i r t i n g and d i d n o t wish t o be i r r i t a t e d on t h e i r p a t h t o r e s t o r a t i o n by a man who, beyond w o r l d l y humanism, was s e r i o u s 21 about s o c i a l i s m .  Nono was b e i n g shown the c o l d s h o u l d e r .  While a t one time he was supported by German's avant-garde c i r c l e s t h i s was no l o n g e r the c a s e .  Helmut Lachenmann  comments: Aber Nono entzog s i c h a l i e n Umarmungen, a l s e r sah, wie f e i n d l i c h und g l e i c h g t t l t i g man s e i n e n e i g e n t l i c h e n I d e a l e n gegenttber v e r h a r r t e . Seine Texte wurden H i r e k t e r , seine Musik wurde p l a k a t h a f t e r , e r s e l b s t wurde menschlich h S r t e r , s e i n V e r h a l t e n i n a l i e n Bereichen, auch gegenflber d e r jungen Generation, immer p r o v o r z i e r e n d e r . Es s c h i e n manchmal, a l s l a u f e er Amok gegen a l l e s , was s i c h an F r e u n d s c h a f t e n und Verbindungen zu ihm g e b i l d e t h a t t e . Aber e r zog urid er e r t r u g a l l e Konsequenzen s e i n e r p o l i t i s c h e n H a l t ung, wobei das Unrecht, welches gerade d i e O f f e n t l i c h k e i t b i e uns ihm antat, indem s i e i h n w e i t h i n zu i g n o r i e r e n s i c h a n s c h i c k t e und g l a u b t e , i h n abtun zu kflnnen a l s einem durch p o l i t i s c h e i d e e n vom k t l n s t l e r i s c h e n Wege Abgekommenen - wobei d i e s e s Unrecht seine EnttSuschung und Ressentiments gegenflber den Westdeutschen r e c h t f e r t i g t . 2 2 T h i s Enttauschung and Ressentiments can be sensed i n a r e c e n t Helmut Lachenmann, " L u i g i Nono oder Rtlckblick auf d i e s e r i e l l e Musik," Melos, XXXVIII (June, 1971), p . 226. 22 Ibid.  21 i n t e r v i e w w i t h Leonardo P i n z a u t i where Nono makes s e v e r a l n e g a t i v e comments about the people o f West Germany and t h e i r music and a t one p o i n t suggests t h a t the German r a d i o and 23 m u s i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have b o y c o t t e d him f o r y e a r s . Although Nono had been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the p o s t Webern movement a t Darmstadt s i n c e 1950, he was not t o t a l l y committed t o every concept and technqiue p u t forward by h i s colleagues.  In s e v e r a l compositions, Nono u t i l i z e s what was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be " t r a d i t i o n a l " c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n c l u d i n g those mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f E p i t a f f i o per G a r c i a L o r c a and t h i s employment was not i n l i n e w i t h avantgarde i d e a l s .  T h i s was one o f the e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n s o f a d i s -  agreement between Nono and c e r t a i n members o f the contemporary music scene a t Darmstadt which was e v e n t u a l l y t o l e a d t o a d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n 1959.  I t was i n t h a t year a t the I n -  t e r n a t i o n a l e F e r i e n k u r s e fttr Neue Musik t h a t Nono gave a l e c t u r e on " H i s t o r y and Present i n Today's Music" s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o f the New Music movement.  criticizing According to  K a r l H. W<3rner, Nono condemned "the r a d i c a l r e j e c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n , the r e p u d i a t i o n o f h i s t o r y as a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n c i e n t Chinese c o n c e p t i o n s i n t o present-day 23 Leonardo P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p . '-76 .."'i ;  music, the a b s t r a c t i o n and i d o l i z i n g o f the m a t e r i a l  itself,  the idea t h a t i m p r o v i s a t i o n and chance are a u n i v e r s a l pana24 cea." article  As t h i s l e c t u r e l a t e r evolved i n t o the, p e r i o d i c a l "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y o f Music Today" which i s 25  easily accessible,  i t i s not necessary  a t t h i s time t o f u r -  t h e r e l a b o r a t e on i t s content but the r e s u l t i n g consequences o f t h i s event should be examined.  Not o n l y d i d t h i s l e c t u r e  d e f i n e Nono's p o s i t i o n and separate him i d e o l o g i c a l l y from many other avant-garde composers but i t a l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o Massimo M i l a , "segno l ' i n i z i o  d'una d i f f e r e n z i a z i o n e i n seno  a l gruppo, f i n o a l l o r a compatto, d e i m u s i c i s t i d e l l a  nouvelle  26 vague."  A l t h o u g h i n h i s l e c t u r e Nono o n l y mentioned by  name Joseph S c h i l l i n g e r and John Cage, K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen must undoubtedly have f e l t t h a t he had been d i r e c t l y  attacked  by Nono's remarks as i n the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w e d an argument between the two o c c u r r e d .  T h i s was h a r d l y unexpect-  ed s i n c24 e as M a r c e l l a B a r z e t t i has s t a t e d " L u i g i Nono appears, K a r l H. Worner, "Germany, " Musical'. Q u a r t e r l y , XLVI (1960), p. 271. 25 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y o f Music Today," Score, XXVII ( J u l y , 1960), pp. 41-45. 26 Massimo M i l a , "La L i n e a Nono," La Rasseqna musicale, XXX (1960), p. 297.  23 27 i n d i s c u s s i o n s , more m i l i t a n t than p e r s u a s i v e . "  While  the  28 argument i t s e l f d i d not get v e r y f a r a t the time,  i t marked  the b e g i n n i n g o f a c o n f l i c t which appears t o have been going on ever s i n c e .  In Nono's l e c t u r e , he c r i t i c i z e s the  "im-  p e r i a l i s t t h i n k i n g " o f "some European a r t i s t s " s t a t i n g t h a t "Instead o f u n d e r t a k i n g a s e r i o u s study o f the  spiritual  substance o f other c i v i l i z a t i o n s - which i s c e r t a i n l y  valid  and n e c e s s a r y - they e x c i t e d l y grab the products o f the E a s t 29 i n order t o t i t i l l a t e the f a s c i n a t i o n o f t h e i r e x o t i c i s m . " I t i s t h i s " i m p e r i a l i s t i c " a t t i t u d e t h a t i s one o f Nono's main c r i t i c i s m s o f " K a r l h e i n z I " as he c a l l s Stockhausen i n t e r v i e w w i t h Leonard P i n z a u t i i n 1970,  and i n an  Nono speaking o f  Stockhausen s t a t e d : E g l i s i r i f a - mettiamo i n Stimmung - a c e r t i f a t t i , s t i m o l i o ambienti s o n o r i che s i r i s c o n t r a n o i n I n d i a (mi r i f e r i s c o a c e r t e r i t u a l i t a b u d d i s t e d e l T i b e t ) e l i usa i n modo c o l o n i a l i s t i c o (questo termine l o d i s s i g i a n e l 1959 a p r o p o s i t o d i una p r a t i c a music a l e d i Cage): a s t r a e n d o l i d a l l o r o c o n t e s t o , d a l l a l o r o funzione e d a l l a l o r o s t o r i a i n un modo t i p i c a mente n e o c l a s s i c o (Messiaen i n questo "caso I n d i a " i n s e g n a ) . Hymnen, p o i , e p e r me f r a l e c o m p o s i z i o n i p i u esemplari d i un p r e c i s o , a t t e g g i a m e n t o i m p e r i a l i s t i c o : d i K a r l h e i n z I anziche d i Wilhelm I I (ma e 27 M a r c e l l a B a r z e t t i , "A Meeting w i t h L u i g i Nono," Recorded Sound, XXlV (October, 1966), p. 118. 28 K a r l H. Worner, "Germany," M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , XLVI (1960s)', p. 272. 29 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y o f Music Today," Score, XXVII ( J u l y , 1960), p. 44. -  24 lo  stesso...).  T h i s l e c t u r e o f 1959 i n e f f e c t r e s u l t e d i n Nono's break not o n l y w i t h the m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y o f Darmstadt but a l s o w i t h many composers who  were i n v o l v e d t h e r e .  Nono has  s i n c e then  expres-  sed h i s r e g r e t a t b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as one o f the "Darmstadt 31 composers"  and has gone so f a r as t o say t h a t " Q u e l l i  della 32  s c u o l a d i Darmstadt s i sono f e r m a t i come d a v a n t i ad un muro." In I 9 6 0 , Nono completed t a c e r e , Ha v e n i d o Vedova.  #  Canciones  three compositions, Sara d o l c e  para S i l v i a and Omaggio e E m i l i o  Dedicated t o Bruno Madefna, Sara d o l c e t a c e r e was  ed A p r i l 1 3 , 1960 and g i v e n i t s f i r s t performance on 17, 1961 i n Washington, D.C.  dat-  February  T h i s work which i s scored f o r  e i g h t s o l o i s t s arranged i n t o two q u a r t e t s of s o p r a n o - a l t o - t e n o r -bass was  commissioned by the E l i z a b e t h Sprague Coolidge Found-  a t i o n i n the L i b r a r y o f Congress,  and as was  the case w i t h La  t e r r a e l a compagna, the t e x t i s taken from Cesare Pavese's V e r r a l a morte e r a v r a i t u o i o c c h i w i t h d i f f e r e n t poems now ing u t i l i z e d .  be-  The method o f t e x t s e t t i n g i n Sara d o l c e t a c e r e  i s somewhat s i m i l a r ,tb t h a t o f La t e r r a e l a compagna and  Cori  d i Didone however the p o i n t i l l i s t i c q u a l i t y once so prominent 30 Leonardo P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 7 2 . 31 I b i d , p. 7 5 . 32 I b i d , p. 8 1 .  25  i s not as s i g n i f i c a n t here s i n c e t h e r e f r e q u e n t l y appear s e v e r a l notes p r e s e n t e d i n s u c c e s s i o n by one v o i c e a t a time. The l i g h t s c o r i n g o f S a r i d o l c e t a c e r e i s a g r e a t c o n t r a s t t o the  compositions completed immediately p r e c e d i n g which were  r h y t h m i c a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y complex as w e l l as dense. T h i s l i g h t s c o r i n g and t h i n t e x t u r e i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n Ha v e n i d o  #  Canciones para S i l v i a which Nono d e d i c a t e d t o h i s  daughter S i l v i a  f o r her f i r s t b i r t h d a y .  T h i s work f o r s o l o  soprano and chorus o f s i x sopranos i s dated May  16, I960,  g i v e n i t s premiere performance i n London on November 3,  was  1960  and has as i t s t e x t four b r i e f poems by A n t o n i o Machado. P o i n t i l l i s m i s even l e s s o f a f a c t o r here than i n the p r e v i o u s works. of  In c e r t a i n passages throughout Ha Venido, the technique  p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y can even now  s t i l l be seen,  mainly i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s o l o soprano  employed  line.  Omagqio a E m i l i o Vedova, f o r tape only, i s Nono's e l e c t r o n i c music composition and i t was at his  first  c r e a t e d i n October  1960  the S t u d i o d i F o n o l o g i a RAI i n M i l a n under the guidance o f former t e a c h e r Bruno Maderna.  The p a i n t e r Vedova i s a close:  f r i e n d o f the composer and Nono. has s a i d o f him: Vous savez que nous t r a v a i l l o n s sur des v o i e s p a r a l l e l e s et que nous nous aidons beaucoup, en bonne a i m i t i e . L u i a u s s i a p r i s une p o s i t i o n engage'e, "responsable, " devant  26 l e monde d'aujourd'hui, p o s i t i o n f a i t e de p i t i e , c o l ^ r e s , de r e v o l t e s . . . 33 Since completing t h i s f i r s t venture i n t o e l e c t r o n i c  de  music,  Nono has employed e l e c t r o n i c tape f r e q u e n t l y , e i t h e r by i t s e l f or i n combination w i t h instruments and/or v o i c e s . P o s s i b l y Nono's best, known composition i s the stage work, or r a t h e r more c o r r e c t azione s c e n i c a as the composer has termed i t , I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960.  There can be l i t t l e doubt  t h a t o f h i s output up t o date t h i s composition has r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n a t i t s performances I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960  was  than any other work.  g i v e n i t s f i r s t performance  A p r i l 13, 1961-iwith Bruno Maderna c o n d u c t i n g the BBC O r c h e s t r a and the RAI  on  Symphony  Chorus a t the Teatro l a F e n i c e i n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l o f Contemporary Music of  theVVenice B i e n n a l e .  demonstrations  I t r e s u l t e d i n one o f the n o i s i e s t  i n the h i s t o r y o f V e n e t i a n t h e a t r e .  This d i s -  34 turbance a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l reviews, stemmed from two i n t e r r e l a t e d sources:  appeared  t o have  m u s i c a l and  Mario Labroca, the f e s t i v a l ' s d i r e c t o r , contends  political.  that  "conser-  v a t i v e musicians, opposed t o the avant-garde s t y l e o f Nono's 33 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les N o u v e l l e s L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 34 E v e r e t t Helm, "Bedlam i n V e n i c e , " New York Times, CX (May 7, 1961), p. 11 and M.J. Matz, " F i r e b r a n d o f V e n i c e , " Opera News, XXIX (February 13, 1965), p. 7.  music,  j o i n e d hands w i t h n e o - F a s c i s t s , who  are opposed  to  twelve-tone music i n any form, t o i n s t i g a t e t h i s o b v i o u s l y 35 planned and prepared r i o t . "  The a g i t a t o r s , equipped w i t h  w h i s t l e s and s t e n c h bombs, shouted obscene names from t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the b a l c o n y and they showered the t h e a t r e w i t h leaflets entitled  "The New  Order" which a t t a c k e d Nono's music,  terming i t "...nothing but a s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f c o n t r a r y notes which showed us what can happen when democracy i s extended 36 i n t o the f i e l d o f music,"  Other members o f the audience  countered w i t h shouts o f " F a s c i s t i " and " C r e t i n i " and the p e r formance had t o be stopped f o r s e v e r a l minutes as p o l i c e moved i n to restore order.  The work was  by the chorus o f c o n s t a n t b o o i n g .  then completed,  accompanied  A t one p o i n t d u r i n g the  evening the stage d e s i g n e r E m i l i o Vedova, a 6 f o o t 6 i n c h  man,  rose from h i s s e a t on the main f l o o r and shouted i n s u l t s t o the  demonstrators, t a u n t i n g them t o come down and f i g h t . 37  No  one took up the c h a l l e n g e . The f i r s t German performance April  o f I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960  on  3, 1962 i n Cologne, although not as v i o l e n t as the Venice 35 E v e r e t t Helm, "Bedlam i n V e n i c e , " New York Times, CX (May 7, 1961), p. 11. 36 37 " R i o t g r e e t s new Nono opera i n Venice premiere performance, " M u s I bi icda.l C o u r i e r , XLXIII (May, 1961), p. 34.  28  premiere, was none the .less a v e r y stormy o c c a s i o n w i t h c e r t a i n numbers o f the audience f u r i o u s l y v o i c i n g  their v  38 protest.  I n c i d e n t s surrounding the North American  o f t h i s work are a l s o noteworthy. Nono, an acknowledged was  premiere  The t r o u b l e s t a r t e d when  member o f the I t a l i a n Communist P a r t y  r e f u s e d a v i s a t o go t o Boston i n accordance w i t h a  U n i t e d S t a t e s immigration ban on " s u b v e r s i v e s . "  He  finally  made i t t h e r e thanks t o i n t e r v e n t i o n by some Boston musicians and Senator Edward Kennedy.  Nono was  then l a t e r upset a t the  performance g i v e n by the Boston Opera Company and he  subse-  q u e n t l y wrote a l e n g t h y l e t t e r i n R i n a c i t a , an I t a l i a n Commun39 i s t weekly, about h i s t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s i n Boston. Problems  i n v o l v i n g Nono's p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y have even reached  the p o i n t where performances o f h i s compositions have had t o be c a n c e l l e d .  I n t o l l e r a n c a 1960 was  t o have been performed  a t the 1972 F l o r e n c e Maggio M u s i c a l e but Nono withdrew h i s work from the f e s t i v a l when he r e a l i z e d t h a t M e n o t t i ' s The Consul was  t o be i n c l u d e d .  Nono termed.Menotti's opera "pro-American, 40 conceived d u r i n g the Korean war" which l e a d t o f u r t h e r a t t a c k s 38 H o r s t Koegler, "Cologne," Opera, X I I I (June, 1962), ••. p. 402. 39 "Red composer d i s g r u n t l e d ; he came, was heard, then lambasted Boston Opera," V a r i e t y , CCXXXIX (June 9, 1965), p. 1. 40 "Spoleto: P o l i t i c a l storm i n a tea-cup," Opera, XXIII (March, 1972), p. 217.  29 and c o u n t e r a t t a c k s i n p u b l i c by the two composers.  Interest-  i n g l y enough, even though the I t a l i a n Communist p r e s s have defended both Nono and h i s compositions, p a r t i c u l a r l y l e r a n z a 1960,  Intol-  t h i s azione s c e n i c a has been c o o l l y r e c e i v e d .  41  behind the I r o n C u r t a i n . In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Martine Cadieu, Nono p o i n t e d out t h a t s i m i l a r t o I I Canto sospeso the s u b j e c t o f I n t o l l e r a n z a * 42 1960  i s " L ' i n t o l e r a n c e du monde contemporam."  a f t e r i t s premiere performance  Shortly  i n Venice, Nono wrote an exten-  s i v e a r t i c l e on I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960  a t which p o i n t he  stated  t h a t "sempre l a genesi d i un mio l a v o r o e da r i c e r c a r e i n una 'provocazione  1  umana: un avvenimento un'esperienza un  d e l l a n o s t r a v i t a provoca i l mio  i s t i n t o e l a mia c o s c i e n z a a 43  dare t e s t i m o n i a n z a come musicista-uomo. f o r t h i s work i n c l u d e :  testo  11  The " p r o v o c a z i o n i "  (1) mining d i s a s t e r s caused by  criminal  n e g l i g e n c e , one o f the most t r a g i c o f those b e i n g t h a t o f c i n e l l e s i n Belgium;  Mar-  (2) the g r e a t demonstrations which i n J u l y  1960 b l o c k e d an attempted  restoration of fascism i n I t a l y ;  41 (3) the s t r u g g l e s o f the A l g e r i a n s f o r t h e i r own l i b e r t y ; M.J. Matz, " F i r e b r a n d o f V e n i c e , " Opera News, XXIX (February 13, 1965), p. 6. 42 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les N o u v e l l e s L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 43 L u i g i Nono, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960," Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p. 279.  30 (4) s e v e r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s r i g u r q i t i i n 1960; tragedy o f  and  Polesine.  o f r a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e and  finally  44  All  (5) the  neo-Nazi  f l o o d o f the Po and  of these i n c i d e n t s have d i r e c t l y  a f f e c t e d the content o f the work as obvious r e f e r e n c e s can be  the  t o each  seen throughout. The  l i b r e t t o o f t h i s azione s c e n i c a i s p r i m a r i l y  adaption by Nono o f a much more e x t e n s i v e Mario R i p e l l i n o , however, o t h e r m a t e r i a l points during  l i b r e t t o by Angelo i s added at c e r t a i n  the composition i n c l u d i n g i n s e r t s o f p o e t r y by  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y Brecht.  an  and  Communist w r i t e r s E l v a r d , Majakowski  and  There i s a l s o found what Nono terms "documentazione  d i r e t t a " which c o n s i s t s o f :  (1) the  slogans "nie wieder!"  from post-World War  I I Germany, "no pasaran!" o f the  franchise  "morte a l fascismo e l i b r e t a a i p o p o l i ! "  struggle,  o f the Communist p a r t i s a n s , st racism  i n the U n i t e d  "down w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ! "  States  and  " l a sale guerre"  the Franco-Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t war; interrogation i n J u l i u s Fucik's  45  Ibid. I b i d , p.  Sartre's  (3) intro-  (5) some e x p r e s s i o n s o f  45  For Nono, I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960 44  against  S c r i t t o sotto l a forca;  ductory w r i t i n g f o r l a t o r t u r a ; and  again-  (2) r e p o r t s o f Nazi  from l a t o r t u r a by H e n r i A l l e g ; (4) from J.-P.  P a r i s i a n policemen.  anti-  280.  " represents  the  awakened  31 conscience  o f a man  i n r e b e l l i o n - a refugee miner - a g a i n s t  the c o n s t r a i n t o f n e c e s s i t y , s e a r c h i n g existence."  46  f o r a humane b a s i s o f  . . . . work i s d i v i d e d i n t o two  The  four scenes r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  a c t s o f seven  c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the p l o t  i s d r i v e n by homesickness back t o h i s n a t i v e l a n d . way  On  he gets i n v o l v e d i n a p o l i t i c a l demonstration and  the i s ar-  r e s t e d , which l e a d s t o a brain-washing and t o r t u r e scene, commentary by A l l e g and S a r t r e , and of a concentration of J u l i u s Fucik. The  first  i s f o l l o w e d by the  camp where a t o r t u r e d man The  and  with  horrors  sings the words  refugee then escapes with an A l g e r i a n .  scene o f A c t I I e n t i t l e d i n the>JGerman e d i t i o n "Einige  Absurdit&ten  des heutigen  e l e c t r o n i c e f f e c t s and  Lebens" consists ;  o f a tape montage o f  spoken v o i c e s i n v a r i o u s languages as  ac-  companiment t o a pantomime p o r t r a y i n g the decadent nature o f the c a p i t a l i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n and  i n c l u d i n g a s t r i p tease.  t e d r a d i o announcements t e l l o f p r e p a r a t i o n  and  atomic  a t t a c k s ; the scene then ends with a g r e a t e x p l o s i o n and  black-  out,  s i g n i f y i n g the atomic bomb.  The  f o r war  Simula-  stage a c t i o n then con-  t i n u e s and the refugee meets a woman who  becomes h i s companion.  In the l a s t scene, when f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g home they f i n d v i l l a g e about t o be  f l o o d e d as the r e s u l t o f a b u r s t i n g  the dam.  46 L u i g i Nono, "Sul ponte d i Hiroshima," M u s i c a l XVIII (September, 1963), p. 11.  Events,  At the c l o s e o f the work they are engulfed at l e a s t a c c o r d i n g  i n the f l o o d but,  t o Stuckenschmidt, the b e l i e f t h a t the 47  world can be changed, s u r v i v e s .  s A t the premiere o f I n t o l -  l e r a n z a 1960 i n Venice, E m i l i o Vedova was r e s p o n s i b l e  for  s t a g i n g and f o r t h a t performance the scenery c o n s i s t e d o f more o r l e s s n e u t r a l c o l o u r e d metric  f l a t - d r o p s i n a v a r i e t y o f geo-  shapes which were lowered and r a i s e d i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s  o f the stage as the scenes changed.  Hundreds o f s l i d e s i n c l u d -  i n g a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g s by Vedova, slogans and segments o f the l i b r e t t o were shown b y more than twenty p r o j e c t o r s these drops.  against  Nono maintains t h a t these "Image f i l m e e s (ab-  s t r a i t e s ou non - pour moi e l l e s sont concues p a r Vedova) en mime temps que l ' a c t i o n , non comme une support p a s s i f mais * 48 . . comme une a c t i o n p a r a l l e l e . " Nono employs these p r o j e c t i o n s along w i t h the a c t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r s t o move toward, as he 49 puts i t , a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  use o f the v i s u a l space.  I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960 i s scored  for five  soloists,ifour  a c t o r s , l a r g e mixed chorus and o r c h e s t r a o f e i g h t y which includes a large percussion  section.  A l l o f the choruses a r e  47 H.H. Stuckenschmidt, Twentieth Century Music (New York McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969), p. 236.. 48 M a r t i n e Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les N o u v e l l e s L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p . 9. 4 ^ L u i g i Noni, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su I n t o l l e r a n z a I960, Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p . 281.  recorded on tape and t r a n s m i t t e d t o the audience by means o f four groups o f loudspeakers p l a c e d i n v a r i e d s p e c i f i c t i o n s i n the h a l l as d e f i n e d i n the s c o r e .  posi-  By moving the  s i g n a l from one channel t o another on the tape, Nono i s a b l e t o make the sound t r a n s f e r from one source t o another the audience.  Throughout  around  the choruses, the sound d i r e c t i o n  i s changing c o n s t a n t l y and i n the score t h e r e i s n o t a t e d the combination o f loudspeakers which i s employed a t any time.  specific  Nono speaks o f t h i s technique i n terms o f c r e a t i n g a 50  m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l use o f the sonorous As Nono i n h i s a r t i c l e anza 1960" it  space.  "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su I n t o l l e r -  w r i t e s about p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s work,  i s not e s s e n t i a l t o pursue i t any f u r t h e r a t t h i s p o i n t .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s one c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique which i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note and t h a t i s the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f r o l e s by means o f i n t e r v a l employment.  Although not found c o n s t a n t l y ,  there i s a d i r e c t and obvious a s s o c i a t i o n made between s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s and each o f the p r i n c i p a l r o l e s , w i t h each c h a r a c t e r 51 b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d w i t h the i n t e r v a l s a l l o t t e d t o him. The next composition completed by Nono was  Canti d i  v i t a e d'amore which was dated June 30, 1962 and f i r s t performed . 50 I b i d , p. 285. 51 For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s technique see I b i d , pp. 282-285.  34  at  the 1962 Edinburgh I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l f o r which i t was  commissioned.  T h i s three movement work i s scored f o r soprano  and tenor s o l o i s t s w i t h o r c h e s t r a and the t e x t f o r each movement i s taken from the w r i t i n g s o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t men. f i r s t movement e n t i t l e d  The  "Sul ponte d i Hiroshima" employs v e r s e  from Gunther Anders' E s s e r e on non E s s e r e - D i a r i o d i Hiroshima e Nagasaki w h i l e i n the second, "Djamila Boupacha," a canto o f E s t a noche by Jesus Lopez Pacheco i s found. ment which i s c a l l e d per  In the l a s t move-  "Tu" a poem from Cesare Pavese's Passero  P i a z z a d i Spaqna i s used.  The theme o f C a n t i d i v i t a e  d'amore i s , i n Nono's words, "to show l o v e w i t h i n the c o n s c i o u s ness o f today's r e a l i t i e s  ("No  more Hiroshima," the two  epi-  sodes i n the a n t i - f a s c i s t and a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s t s t r u g g l e , i . e . Spain and A l g e r i a ) , and i n the sense o f the s t r u g g l e o f l i f e 52 today and i t s i n e s c a p a b l e outcome."  In d i s c u s s i n g the first'?.:,  movement the composer has s t a t e d t h a t " t h e " c o m p o s i t i o n a l  techni-  que... i n c l u d e s a continuous space o f sound, i n the compass o f an octave subsequently enlarged t o four superimposed octaves, and b l o c k s o f sound c o n s i s t i n g o f v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s down t o 53 quarter-tones."  He l a t e r continues, s t a t i n g "I use q u a r t e r -  52 Ibid. L u i g i Nono, " S u l ponte d i Hiroshima," M u s i c a l Events, XVIII (September, 1963), p. 11. 5 3  35  tones ( s t r i n g s and b r a s s ) here f o r the f i r s t time, f o r subd i v i d i n g and expanding the harmonic f i e l d :  thus I am p e r -  m i t t e d t o enlarge i t t o four octaves and y e t t o a v o i d the 54 r e l a t i o n o f the o c t a v e . " Canciones a Guiomar, a l s o w r i t t e n i n 1962,  i s scored  for  soprano, c e l e s t a , g u i t a r , v i o l a , c e l l o and p e r c u s s i o n and  was  f i r s t performed a t D a r l i n g t o n under the composer's d i r e c t -  ion.  Having the t e x t o f a poem by A n t o n i o Machado, i t i s a  l o n e l y r e f l e c t i o n by a l o v e r , or as i n the words o f Nono, 55 "the dream o f r e a l l o v e . " In  1964,  Nono completed La f a b b r i c a i l l u m i n a t a f o r s o l o  soprano and e l e c t r o n i c tape i n the s t u d i o a t M i l a n .  T h i s compo-  s i t i o n makes use o f b l a s t furnace n o i s e s and v o i c e s which have been r e c o r d e d i n a m i l l .  These are then i n t e g r a t e d on tape  w i t h e l e c t r o n i c a l l y generated sounds and s u b j e c t e d t o many transformations.  During the tape performance  a commentary t o the events happening ary  the soprano s i n g s  on the tape.  T h i s comment-  r e f e r s d i r e c t l y t o the tape music and i n d i r e c t l y t o the  s i t u a t i o n under which the n o i s e s were recorded:  the working 56 process and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i n a f a c t o r y or m i l l . The t e x t 54 I b i d , p. 12. 55 I b i d , p. 11. 56 Konrad Boehmer, "Uber L u i g i Nono," brochure f o r Wergo S c h a l l p l a t t e n (Wer 60038), p. 8.  36 o f La f a b b r i c a i l l u m i n a t a i n c l u d e s w r i t i n g s o f G i u l i a n o Scabia and Cesare Pavese combined w i t h " f a c t o r y jargon,  quotations 57  from l a b o u r c o n t r a c t s and p o l i t i c a l Nono has  definitions."  i n the p a s t few years taken h i s works employing  e l e c t r o n i c tape, i n c l u d i n g La f a b b r i c a i l l u m i n a t a , and sented them w i t h or without  l i v e performers  f a c t o r i e s and open spaces throughout I t a l y .  pre-  i n small town h a l l s , He contends t h a t  "La r i v o l u z i o n e non  e mandare i c o n t a d i n i a t e a t r o a l i o s t e s s o 58 \ modo d e i b o r g h e s i . " Nono's a s p i r a t i o n "e q u e l l a d i p o t e r f a r musica per i n v e s t i r e s t r a d e , p i a z z e , campi, i s t i t u z i o n i , u n i t a 59 mente a l i a c l a s s e o p e r a i a e contadina i n l o t t a " t h i s i t was  rumoured t h a t he was  and  i n view o f  none too p l e a s e d when Josephine.  Nendick sang La f a b b r i c a i l l u m i n a t a i n a bourgeous temple o f 60 a r t , the E l i z a b e t h H a l l , i n November 1970.  In t a k i n g La  b r i c a i l l u m i n a t a t o the workers, Nono has a t times n e g a t i v e response,  fab-  encountered  n e v e r t h e l e s s he p o i n t s out a l s o t h a t  "altri  ancora 57mi hanno d e t t o d i aver preso c o s c i e n z a , p r o p r i.o . a s c o l A d r i a n Jack, "Kagel and Nono," Music and Musicians, XX  (August, 1972), p.  63.  58 Leonardo P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 74. 59 I b i d , p. 76. 60 A d r i a n Jack, "Kagel and Nono," Music and Musicians, XX (August, 1972), p. 63. ;  37  t a n t o questo l a v o r o , d e l l o s t a t o d i alienazione' i n c u i e s s i 61 s i trovano, d i v e n t a t i come d i e r o b o t . " In 1965 Nono c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h Peter Weiss and Erwin P i s c a t o r on the documentary p l a y Die E r m i t t l u n g d e a l i n g w i t h the t r i a l o f Nazi guards.  From t h i s work came R i c o r d a cosa  t i hanno f a t t o i n Auschwitz,  f o r e l e c t r o n i c tape o n l y , c r e a t e d  in Milan. Nono's next composition A f l o r e s t a e jovem e chea de v i d a was completed  i n 1966 and g i v e n i t s premiere  i n Venice on September 7 o f t h a t same y e a r . soprano,  clarinet,  and manipulated e l e c t r o n i c tape.  speaking v o i c e s , copper  performance  I t i s scored f o r sheets t o be s t r u c k  i n v a r i o u s ways by the percussionists, and Dedicated t o the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t  o f Vietnam, t h i s work d i r e c t l y a t t a c k s the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r i t s p a r t i n the war i n Vietnam.  The p o l y g l o t t e x t i s d e r i v e d  from e l e v e n d i f f e r e n t sources i n c l u d i n g statements workers,  of I t a l i a n  F i d e l Castro, B a t r i c i e Lumumbo, Nguyen Van Troys,  North and L a t i n American r e s i s t a n c e f i g h t e r s , Vietnam sans and K a r l Marx.  To t h i s i s added a l i s t ,  parti-  published o r i g i n -  a l l y by Herman Kahn i n the A p r i l 1965 i s s u e o f Fortune magazine, i n m i l i t a r y terminology, o f the f o r t y - f o u r steps i n v o l v e d i n ^ L e o n a r d o P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono, " Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 77-78.  38  e s c a l a t i n g a war.  A f l o r e s t a e jovem e chea de v i d a concludes  w i t h the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from an appeal by the American Committee f o r the C e s s a t i o n o f the War  i n Vietnam:  America i s a t War. Thousands o f Vietnamese d i e f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t the Americans f o r the r i g h t t o t h e i r freedom. America has f e a r e d f o r a hundred years t o g i v e votes t o the Negroes, f e a r s t o g i v e the vote t o the South Vietnamese. America bombs, burns, t o r t u r e s , Here i s a world where l i e s become t r u t h s where war i s freedom p a i n i s peace ^2 murder i s honor. Somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l i s the f a c t t h a t the massive t e x t o f t h i s work, a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Vietnam war,  i s a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l reviewers who were a t the premiere 63  i n Venice,  f o r the most p a r t  unintelligible.  Completed i n 1967, Per B a s t i a n a Tai-Yang Cheng f o r an o r c h e s t r a d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e d i f f e r i n g ' i n s t r u m e n t a l groups and e l e c t r o n i c tape was  composed t o c e l e b r a t e the b i r t h o f  Nono's second daughter B a s t i a n a .  I t was  commissioned by The  Toronto Symphony and r e c e i v e d i t s premiere performance i n Toronto on October 31, 1967.  T h i s work, the t i t l e o f which  can be t r a n s l a t e d "For B a s t i a n a the Sun R i s e s , " i s based, a c c o r d i n g t o a note i n the score, on the Chinese f o l k s o n g R e g i n a l d Smith B r i n d l e , "Current c h r o n i c l e : M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , L I I I (January, 1967), p. 96-97.  Italy,"  fi 3  See I b i d , p. 97 and E v e r e t t Helm, "Venice B i e n n a l e , " Music Review, XXVII (1966),; p. 329.  39 "The  East i s Red  Glow" and  s u r p r i s i n g l y enough n e i t h e r  f o l k s o n g d e r i v a t i o n nor i t s i m p l i e d p o l i t i c a l  the  connotations  64 are evident i n the music. Yang Cheng was  As  a copy o f Per B a s t i a n a T a i -  not a v a i l a b l e at the time o f t h i s study,  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , which p r e s e n t s  the  a general d e s c r i p t i o n  o f the work by S. Keats, i s i n c l u d e d . While the i n s t r u m e n t a l s c o r i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s an a l e a t o r y work, Nono has l e f t very l i t t l e t o chance. The make-up and arrangement o f the three i n s t r u m e n t a l groups, the s e a t i n g o f each p l a y e r , the l o c a t i o n s o f the speakers f o r the tape, as w e l l as the p i t c h , d u r a t i o n , and dynamic l i m i t s w i t h i n which each p l a y e r i s to improvise, are a l l accounted • f o r . The s e m i - c i r c u l a r s e a t i n g arrangement, w i t h speakers d i v i d i n g the three i n s t r u m e n t a l wedges, c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a concern on Nono's p a r t f o r the stereophonic p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f sounds o r i g i n a t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . T h i s s p a t i a l concept i s b a s i c t o the work; p a r t o f i t s p o i n t i s the v a r i e t y and c o n t r a s t p o s s i b l e from a three-dimensional a u r a l approach. For Nono, i t would appear, has conceived t h i s as music o f s e n s a t i o n , as an a u r a l , r a t h e r than an i n t e l l e c t u a l or a e s t h e t i c , experience. The i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s are p r e d i c a t e d on a q u a r t e r tone b a s i s , and every p l a y e r i s i n s t r u c t e d t o a v o i d d e f i n i t e chromatic p i t c h e s i n h i s i m p r o v i s a t o r y p a t t e r n s . To f u r t h e r i n s u r e a quarter-tone t e x t u r e , and to make i t e a s i e r f o r the p l a y e r s to a v o i d outspoken chromatic p i t c h e s , Nono f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e s the t u n i n g f o r each s t r i n g p l a y e r . Everybody tunes i n f i f t h s as u s u a l , but the f i f t h s are based on v a r y i n g fundamentals, a q u a r t e r tone above or below the normal 440-A t u n i n g . 6 5  Assuming t h a t t h i s passage i s c o r r e c t i n i t s content, S. Keats, "Current c h r o n i c l e : New Q u a r t e r l y , LVII (1971), p. 142. 65 ,. , Ibid. T  i t is  York," M u s i c a l  40  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Nono has  i n h i s compositional  ment a r r i v e d a t the p o i n t where he  i s now  develop-  employing the same  66 technique,  the  "chance element,"  t h a t he once c r i t i c i z e d  both i n h i s l e c t u r e i n Darmstadt and  i n the a r t i c l e  "The  H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y o f Music Today." Contrappunto d i a l e t t i c o a l i a Mente f o r soprano, speaking v o i c e s , chorus and 1968  and d e d i c a t e d  e l e c t r o n i c tape, was  four  composed i n  t o Douglas Bravo, the l e a d e r o f N a t i o n a l  L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t i n Venezuala.  In the f o l l o w i n g year, Nono,  i n a d d i t i o n t o w r i t i n g Musiche per Manzu f o r a documentary f i l m on the famous s c u l p t o r , c r e a t e d a v a s t two-part work f o r v o i c e s and  e l e c t r o n i c tape.  The  f i r s t p a r t Un v o l t o , d e l mare  employs as i t s t e x t p o e t r y by Cesare Pavese while Non  the  second,  consumiamo Marx, u t i l i z e s w r i t i n g s which appeared'.on the  w a l l s o f P a r i s i n May In 1970,  of  1968.  Nono completed two  compositions:  comprendio, f o r women's v o i c e s , chorus and which has  Y entonces  e l e c t r o n i c tape,  as i t s t e x t poems by C a r l o s F r a n q u i ;  and V o c i  de-  s t r o y i n g muros, f o r four s o l o sopranos, s i x t e e n c h o r a l v o i c e s and  an o r c h e s t r a with  four each o f f l u t e s , c l a r i n e t s , horns,  66 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y o f Music Today," Score, XXVII ( J u l y , I960), p. 45.  41 trumpets, v i o l a s and c e l l o s w i t h two p e r c u s s i o n i s t s , which i s based on t e x t s by women i n the r e s i s t a n c e movement.  At';the  premiere performance o f V o c i d e s t r o y i n g muros on June 25,  1970  i n Amsterdam, the e i g h t sopranos and e i g h t c o n t r a l t o s o f the chorus were p l a c e d around the h a l l e n c l o s i n g the audience, each on a p l a t f o r m w i t h a microphone, w h i l e the four soprano s o l o i s t s moved around the h a l l  "sometimes a c t i n g r o l e s and 67  sometimes d e l i v e r i n g t h e i r t e x t s w i t h dramatic emphasis." T h i s work i s d i v i d e d i n t o four episodes w i t h the f i r s t  dedi-  c a t e d t o Rosa Luxemburg, the second t o the Dutch r e s i s t a n c e f i g h t e r s Hannie S c h a f t and Riek S n e l , the t h i r d t o the Cuban f i g h t e r s Haydee Santamaria and C e l i a Sanchez and the f o u r t h p r e s e n t i n g t e x t s by I t a l i a n female f i g h t e r s . In the f o l l o w i n g year, E i n Gespenst geht urn' i n d i e Welt, f o r s o l o soprano, chorus and o r c h e s t r a , was I t was  commissioned by the Westdeutschen  Rundfunks  completed. and g i v e n  i t s premiere performance on February 11, 1971 i n Cologne. T h i s work was,  a c c o r d i n g t o the composer's  notes p u b l i s h e d  w i t h the score, " i n s p i r e d by the Communist M a n i f e s t o by K. 67 Denby R i c h a r d s , "Holland F e s t i v a l , " Music and M u s i c i a n s, XIX (October, 1970), p. 26.  42  Marx and F. Engels"  68  and i s d e d i c a t e d t o Angela Davis, Bobby  Seale and E r i c k a Huggins.  The t e x t i n c l u d e s excerpts from  Die I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , Bandiera r o s s a and The E a s t i s r e d as w e l l as w r i t i n g s o f Haydee Santamaria  and C e l i a Sanchez on the  b a t t l e a t Moncada which i n Nono's words was "the b e g i n n i n g o f 69 the v i c t o r i o u s armed f i g h t i n Cuba."  In 1972, Nono  Como una o l a de f u e r z a y l u z f o r soprano and piano  completed  soloists,  o r c h e s t r a and e l e c t r o n i c tape and i t was f i r s t performed i n M i l a n on June 28 o f t h a t same y e a r . its title  T h i s composition takes  from a poem by the A r g e n t i n i a n J u l i o Haasi and i s  d e d i c a t e d t o L u c i a n o Cruz, the twenty-seven  year o l d C h i l e a n  r e v o l u t i o n a r y who d i e d i n mysterious circumstances i n 1971 70 and was, a c c o r d i n g t o a program note, Nono's p e r s o n a l f r i e n d . In  r e c e n t y e a r s Nono has done a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f  travelling,  i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l t r i p s t o L a t i n America.  i n t e r v i e w w i t h Leonardo P i n z a u t i he b r i n g s up the f a c t his  In an that  experience i n Cuba has had a profound e f f e c t on h i s m u s i c a l  output, 68 s t a t i n g t h a t "a Cuba - dove ho avuto r a p p o r t i con L u i g i Nono, E i n Gespenst gent urn i n d i e Welt (Milano: G. R i c o r d i , 1971), p. i . 69 I b i d , p. i i . 70 . . . Max Loppert, "La S c a l a , " Music and M u s i c i a n s , XXI (October, 1972), p. 72.  43  uomini d i governo, con g u e r r i g l i e r i , con c o n t a d i n i , con studenti/  con r a g n a z z i  - i l mio modo i l comunicare e r a d i v e r s o ,  senza l e b a r r i e r e d a l l e q u a l i siamo q u i r i t a r d a t i  (cioe  cate-  71  gorie estetiche, l a t e r that  s t r a t i f i c a z i o n i c o n d i f i c a t e , e c c . ) - was  "dove c'e una c l a s s e operaia  /J  i n situazione d i l o t t a  - non d i consumismo, d i goduria, e c c . - i o ho t r o v a t o una f r e s chezza d i comunicazione, n e g a t i v a o p o s i t i v a , a u t e n t i c a e 72 . . . diretta." In s p i t e o f t h i s " f r e s c h e z z a d i comiinicazione" i n L a t i n America, Nono s t i l l makes h i s permanent r e s i d e n c e i n Venice a t Giudecca 882.  71 Leonardo P i n z a u t i , "A C o l l o q u i o con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 78. I b i d , p . 79. 7 2  44  CHAPTER I I LIEBESLIED Liebeslied,  f o r chorus, harp, vibraphone, g l o c k e n s p i e l ,  f i v e suspended cymbals and timpani, was  composed at Darmstadt  i n 1954 and d e d i c a t e d by Nono t o h i s wife, N u r i a , a daughter o f A r n o l d Schonberg. "*" T h i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t work, w i t h a p l a y i n g time o f approximately s i x minutes, was not g i v e n i t s f i r s t performance u n t i l A p r i l 16, 1956.  The premiere was  at B r o a d c a s t i n g House i n London where L i e b e s l i e d was  held  included 2  i n a c o n c e r t o f contemporary music by the B.B.C. Chorus. I t should be mentioned t h a t s e v e r a l w r i t e r s i n c l u d i n g Armando 3 Gentilucci  4 and L u i g i P e s t a l o z z a  have p o i n t e d out t h a t con-  s i d e r i n g i t s importance i n the development  o f Nono's music,  L i e b e s l i e d m e r i t s more a t t e n t i o n than i t has h e r e t o f o r e been given.  (April,  In comparison t o some o f h i s l a t e r compositions "'"G.W. Hopkins, " L u i g i Noni," Music and M u s i c i a n s , XIV 1966), p. 33. 2  D. M i t c h e l l , "London Concerts: Some F i r s t Performances," The M u s i c a l Times, XCVII (June, 1956), p. 316. 3 . . . Armando G e n t i l u c c i , "La T e c n i c a C o r a l e d i L u i g i Nono," R i v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i M u s i c o l o g i a , I I (1967), p. 115. 4 L u i g i P e s t a l o z z a , " L u i g i Nono e I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960," La B i e n n a l e d i Venezia, XI ( a p r i l e - g i u g n o ^ 1961), p~. 21.  45 i n c l u d i n g I I Canto sospeso and V a r i a n t i which are  highly  complex, Nono has made L i e b e s l i e d i n the author's  opinion  r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e not o n l y to the performer but t o l i s t e n e r and The  the  a n a l y s t as w e l l .  t e x t o f L i e b e s l i e d was  w r i t t e n by Nono.  The  dis-  p o s i t i o n o f i t s verses p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n determining the musical  form o f the composition and  a l s o , as w i l l be  l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h . i n g the form o f the t e x t , L i e b e s l i e d i s d i v i d e d i n t o main p a r t s :  S e c t i o n I, measures 1 t o 33;  S e c t i o n I I I , measures 70 t o 74.  separated  by double b a r l i n e s , are c o n t r a s t e d by tempi.  The  Followthree  S e c t i o n I I , measures  34 t o 69;  metres and  seen  These three  t e x t i s presented i n a  sections,  differing  straightforward  manner, t h a t i s , i t i s s t a t e d completely i n the o r i g i n a l  order  which i s i n c o n t r a s t t o s e v e r a l of Nono's l a t e r c h o r a l works i n which o n l y s e l e c t e d s y l l a b l e s o f the t e x t are employed. t h i s composition each l i n e o f t e x t i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y and t i n c t l y and  d i s t i n c t i v e musical  the  segments w i t h i n  each o f the three p r i n c i p a l s e c t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n the •ing "scheme:  dis-  furthermore, Nono has used the l i n e d i v i s i o n o f  text to create smaller,  In  follow:^-,  46  Section I  II  III  Measures -  Erde b i s t Du Feuer Himmel i c h l i e b e Dich  1-9 9-29 29-33  mit D i r i s t Ruhe Freude b i s t Du Sturm mit mir b i s t Du  34-42 42-52 52-65 65-69  Du b i s t Leben Liebe b i s t Du  70-72 72-74  These s m a l l e r segments are d e f i n e d by c o n t r a s t i n g t e x t u r e s , dynamic l e v e l s and i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , rhythmic p a t t e r n s .  47 Example 1.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 43-55.'  / senzo pedale bocche** di legno  gbro  6kk«p.  Timp.  Every musical concert p i t c h .  score presented  i n t h i s paper i s i n  48 The  above passage p r e s e n t s one such example where the s e t t i n g  o f the l i n e  "Freude b i s t Du" i s c o n t r a s t e d t o the s e t t i n g o f  the f o l l o w i n g l i n e  "Sturm."  Not o n l y does the t e x t s e t t i n g determine the o v e r a l l scheme o f L i e b e s l i e d with the d i v i s i o n i n t o t h r e e main sect i o n s and s m a l l e r segments b u t i t a l s o has i n f l u e n c e d the form o f the t h i r d and f i n a l s e c t i o n .  A t the suggestion o f  the t e x t "Du b i s t Leben/Liebe b i s t Du", Nono c r e a t e s a small m i r r o r s t r u c t u r e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter.  In t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n o f L i e b e s l i e d ,  t h e r e i s found one o f the e a r l i e s t and most s i g n i f i c a n t examples o f Nono's use o f the palindrome, a d e v i c e which assumes g r e a t importance i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s l a t e r works, i n c l u d i n g C a n t i per t r e d i c i  (1954/1955), I n c o n t r i (1955),  I I Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i  (1956/1957).  In a d i s c u s s i o n o f Nono's s e r i a l technique,  Roman V l a d  s t a t e s "La sua emancipazione d a i m o d e l l i v i e n n e s i comporta a v o l t e anche d e l l e s e m p l i f i c a z i o n i , n e l senso d i un allentamento, se non d e i procedimenti impone l a perpetua  s e r i a l i , perlomeno d e l l a norma che  a p p l i c a z i o n e d i t a l i procedimenti  a l totale  6 cromatico."  T h i s term "allentamento"  appears most a p p r o p r i a t e  6 . Roman V l a d , S t o r i a d e l l a dodecafonia S u v i n i Zerboni, 1958), p. 264.  , . (Milano:  .. Edizioni  49 when c o n s i d e r i n g the s e r i a l i z a t i o n o f p i t c h i n L i e b e s l i e d . In c o n t r a s t t o h i s e a r l i e r works where the Viennese twelve-tone technique i s s t i l l  "traditional"  i n evidence ( f o r  example i n V a r i a z i o n i Canoniche (1950) i n which the p i t c h s e r i e s from A r n o l d  Schonberg's Opus 41 i s employed and  Polifonica-Monodia-Ritmica o f the gradual  (1951)), L i e b e s l i e d presents  f i r s t examples o f what i s to be  i n Nono's music  degeneration o f the o r i g i n a l purpose and  the tone row.  Instead  in  r a t h e r merely a r e g u l a t o r  t h a t " i l t o t a l e cromatico non imperativa."  and  era s t a t o ne  to  selected pitches.  Commenting on t h i s "allentamento," L u i g i P e s t a l o z z a  appear  the  There i s , i n r e a l i t y , no longer a " s e r i e s "  ensure an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the v a r i o u s  For the  the  o f a f i x e d twelve-tone s e r i e s , Nono  the t r a d i t i o n a l sense but  norma  one  technique o f  uses v a r i o u s permutations o f the notes i n s e c t i o n s o f chromatic s c a l e .  also  states  sara per Nono una  7  f i r s t t h i r t y - t w o measures o f S e c t i o n I  only f i v e d i f f e r e n t pitches:  E flat,  A flat,  there G,  B  E natural.  L u i g i P e s t a l o z z a , " L u i g i Nono e I n t o l l e r a n z a 1960," La Biennale d i Venezia, XI ( a p r i l e - g i u g n o , 1961), p. 21.  50 Example 2.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 1-5.  As can be seen from the above example, r a t h e r than a s t r i c t o r d e r i n g o f tones Nono employs a f r e e continuous permutation of these f i v e p i t c h e s . several points,  These s u c c e s s i o n s o f notes i n c l u d e a t  s h o r t m i r r o r o r p a l i n d r o m i c segments.  Nono's  d e v i a t i o n from the c l a s s i c a l Viennese Zwfllftonsystem i s a l s o r e v e a l e d through h i s frequent use o f both unisons and octaves, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g example.  51 Example 3.  */  ft'atti  soepest  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 21-25.  i 1.2. Sogrono  +. Ttrtort 3. Ba*ao  I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t although there i s a more o r l e s s even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these  f i v e p i t c h e s w i t h i n the s e c t i o n ,  Nono does not h e s i t a t e to emphasize a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s , c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c note combinations.  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can  be seen i n measures 12, 13 and the b e g i n n i n g o f 14, where, i n order t o c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s , o n l y three p i t c h e s , E, E - f l a t and;.:B, are employed. In the l a s t measure o f S e c t i o n I which can be found i n Example 4, there appears a s i x t h p i t c h , A completing the hexachord and emphasizing the word "Dich".  A f t e r a long  continuous r e p e t i t i o n of f i v e notes, t h i s new  note has a  most n o t a b l e e f f e c t , assuming a c a d e n t i a l v a l u e . Example 4.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 31-33,  Coro  Arpa  Tfmp-  ffif p  •  f f h- -  y  #J S.A.B- meta a bocca dtiusa  T h i s note i s f u r t h e r emphasized  by the dynamic l e v e l of f o r t e  and the octave d o u b l i n g s . In the second s e c t i o n o f the work, measures 34 t o 69, there i s found a new  s p a z i o armonico.  In b a r s 34 t o 67,  f o l l o w i n g s e t o f f i v e p i t c h e s i s employed: and D - f l a t . here as was  C, D, F,  the  B-flat  The technique o f p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n i s the same employed i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n .  There i s a  continuous permutation o f these notes u n t i l measures 68, where  a new p i t c h , F-sharp, i s i n t r o d u c e d , hexachord emphasizing the word "Du".  completing  the second  T h i s sudden appearance  o f a new tone has the same dynamic c a d e n t i a l e f f e c t as was the case i n measure 33 o f S e c t i o n I .  I t should be p o i n t e d  out t h a t i n S e c t i o n I I there i s one note presented  which  does n o t c o i n c i d e with the s p a z i o armonico. Example 5.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 62-65.  54 In measure 65, presented a B-natural.  i n the above example, there appears  As t h i s i s the o n l y exception  g a n i z a t i o n o f the f i r s t two there was  sections, i t i s possible that  an e r r o r i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the score and  t h i s note was The presents  to the p i t c h o r -  intended by Nono to be  t h i r d and  B-flat.  f i n a l s e c t i o n o f L i e b e s l i e d , which  the l a s t two  l i n e s o f the t e x t , i s q u i t e b r i e f ,  b e i n g merely f i v e measures i n l e n g t h .  T h i s p a r t has been  r e f e r r e d to by a t l e a s t one w r i t e r as resembling L u i g i P e s t a l o z z a has  l a v o r o che e una  a coda.  s t a t e d t h a t " u n ' u l t e r i o r e pausa p o r t a  a l l ' u l t i m a s t r o f a d i due del  that  v e r s i , e quindi a l i a terza parte  s o r t a d i 'coda' d i appena cinque  bat-  8 tute."  Although there are h a r d l y s u f f i c i e n t reasons to con-  s i d e r t h i s s e c t i o n as b e i n g a coda i t should be p o i n t e d  out  t h a t there are c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t r e f e r e n c e s to the p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n found i n the p r e v i o u s seen i n Example 6, section ployed  two  sections.  As can  the f i r s t three measures o f t h i s  (measures 70 to 74), p r e s e n t  final  f i v e o f the notes  i n S e c t i o n I, t h a t i s , E - f l a t , A - f l a t , G, E and  with o n l y note #4,  be  B - n a t u r a l , b e i n g omitted.  The  last  emA, two  bars c o n t a i n four notes which were employed i n S e c t i o n I I , t h a t i s , D, F, D - f l a t and F-sharp, with notes #7 Ibid. 8  and  #10,  55 C and B - f l a t r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  Example 6 .  being  omitted.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d ,  measures  68-74.  56  Another s i m i l a r i t y i n p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n between S e c t i o n I I I and  the p r e v i o u s  emphasized.  two s e c t i o n s i s t h a t the same p i t c h e s a r e  The f i n a l notes o f S e c t i o n s  I and I I , A and  F-sharp r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e a l s o prominent i n the l a s t s e c t i o n . The A, note #6 from S e c t i o n I, i s the o n l y note presented i n measure 72 as w e l l as b e i n g the c e n t e r p o i n t o f the s e c t i o n , while F-sharp, note #12 from S e c t i o n I I , has a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n the soprano and a l t o l i n e i n the l a s t measure o f the p i e c e . In a d i s c u s s i o n o f the t e x t o f L i e b e s l i e d , P e s t a l o z z a has  suggested t h a t there i s a correspondence between the  meter o f the l i n e s o f t e x t and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p i t c h e s employed i n the s e t t i n g o f those p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s .  He s t a t e d :  Ma e p i u t t o s t o s t i m o l a n t e o s s e r v a r e come, p e r esempio, n e l L i e b e s l i e d s i s t a b i l i s c a una c o r r i spondenza f r a l a m e t r i c a d e i v e r s i e l e s e r i e : i l primo verso d i q u a t t r o s i l l a b e assume n e l coro q u a t t r o note d e l l a prima s e r i e mentre a f f i d a l a q u i n t a a i timpani; l a seconda s e r i e s u l verso i n i z i a l e d e l l a t e r z a s t r o f a , che e d i cinque s i l l a b e , l'espone i s coro i n un rapido squarcio a cappella....9  Ibid.  57 T h i s concept o f r e l a t i n g the m e t r i c a l arrangement o f the verses  t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h p r o v i d e s  explanation As  a possible  o f the p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n found i n S e c t i o n I I I .  the l a s t two l i n e s o f the t e x t o f L i e b e s l i e d each c o n t a i n  four s y l l a b l e s , Nono may have decided  t o employ o n l y  four  d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s o f the p o s s i b l e s i x i n each o f these two c h o r a l passages.  In should be p o i n t e d  out t h a t ,  although  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l technique suggested by P e s t a l o z z a may be considered  i n l o o k i n g a t t h i s b r i e f s e c t i o n o r a t the two  examples c i t e d i n h i s q u o t a t i o n ,  t h i s concept i s by no means  employed c o n s i s t e n t l y i n L i e b e s l i e d and these r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d examples are not s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o cons i d e r t h a t Nono c o n s c i o u s l y employed t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l method. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the t h i r d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a small p a l i n d r o m i c  structure.  Here there i s a complete  change i n t e x t u r e as, i n c o n t r a s t t o the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s , the w r i t i n g i s s t r i c t l y homophonic i n n a t u r e . movement presents  the f o l l o w i n g s u c c e s s i o n  This  o f note  block durations:  58  u.n. j n J 9o  l*s'  j n J  J. Ui  Lie -  T h i s d u r a t i o n p a t t e r n c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s palindrome symmetry. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the palindrome suggested by the t e x t c o i n c i d e s with the d u r a t i o n palindrome. P o s s i b l y the most complex o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p a l i n drome s t r u c t u r e o f S e c t i o n I I I can be seen i n examining the i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , both v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l , between the two two-measure c h o r a l passages and a l s o i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c e n t r a l p o i n t o f the cons t r u c t i o n , t h a t i s , the s i n g l e note o f the timpani 72.  In these two c h o r a l passages, i n order t o o b t a i n p i t c h  o r g a n i z a t i o n s which, as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , those o f the p r e v i o u s  r e f e r back t o  two s e c t i o n s , Nono a t measure 73,  r a t h e r than merely s t a t i n g an exact r e t r o g r a d e found i n measure 70 t o 72, p r e s e n t s passage transposed is,  i n measure  the e n t i r e  one whole tone down.  o f the p i t c h e s retrograde  As a r e s u l t ,  there  i n s t e a d o f a p i t c h palindrome, a palindrome o f i n t e r v a l l i c  59 relationships.  In examining the f o l l o w i n g diagram which  shows the i n t e r v a l s formed by the notes o f these two segments, i t w i l l be n o t i c e d palindrome o f i n t e r v a l l i c several.  choral  t h a t there i s not merely one  r e l a t i o n s h i p s involved but  Figure  1 . —  Interval  Palindromes  in  Liebeslied  S.  A.  T.  |«-B  B.  Measures:  70  71  73  74  In t h i s diagram there are four palindrome presented.  Palindrome number 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the m i r r o r  with respect The  structures  to i n t e r v a l content o f the  six v e r t i c a l  ordering  structures.  i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n each o f these s i x v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s  a l s o arranged i n a m i r r o r p a t t e r n number 2.  An  as p o i n t e d  example o f t h i s can be  are  out i n palindrome  seen i n examining  the  f i r s t v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f measure 70 where the i n t e r v a l arrangement i s :  E The  minor  2nd  Perfect  4th  minor  2nd  palindromes numbered 3 and  ordering  o f the p r e v i o u s two.  4 are a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f  Palindrome number 3 i l l u s t r a t e s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the i n t e r v a l s which separate the tical  structures.  the  s i x ver-  In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s palindrome s t r u c t u r e i t  should be noted t h a t although the i n t e r v a l content i s s t r i c t l y mirrored,  the i n t e r v a l d i r e c t i o n i n the r e t r o g r a d e  palindrome i s a r e v e r s a l o f t h a t found i n the i s obviously  due  t o the  passage i s a r e t r o g r a d e tone.  the  f i r s t h a l f which  f a c t t h a t the e n t i r e second c h o r a l o f the  f i r s t transposed down one  As a r e s u l t o f the m i r r o r o r d e r i n g  number 2, the Soprano and content and  h a l f of  shown by  Bass l i n e s have the  l i k e w i s e the A l t o and  whole  palindrome  same i n t e r v a l  Tenor l i n e s have the same  62 i n t e r v a l content, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Palindrome number 4. P o s s i b l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l aspect noted i n t h i s work, c o n s i d e r i n g the p l a c e o f L i e b e s l i e d i n the development o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n as found i n the compos i t i o n s covered by t h i s study, i s t h a t o f p o l y t i m b r a l uity.  As was p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  contin-  i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n where 10  the term " p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y " was o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d , t h i s technique, which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o have developed from Klangfarbenmelodie, c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f a continuous l i n e o f sound which has a c o n s i s t e n t l y v a r y i n g timbre.  In  c o n t r a s t t o the Klangfarbenmelodie technique where t h e r e are o f t e n b r i e f p e r i o d s o f s i l e n c e as would be the case i n any o t h e r form o f melodic l i n e , w i t h p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , as found i n the compositions s t u d i e d i n t h i s paper, t h e r e are f o r the most p a r t no stoppages b u t r a t h e r a continuous o f sounds.  stream  An e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the p o l y t i m b r a l  t i n u i t y found i n L i e b e s l i e d can be noted i n the f o l l o w i n g example.  10  See pp. 2-4.  con-  63 Example 7.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 16-25.  16  *l  Pr'affi' sotpesi: 1.2. Soprano 3. Alto 3. 0auo  In Example 7, there i s an u n i n t e r r u p t e d movement o f the melodic l i n e from one v o i c e t o another.  C e r t a i n notes o f t h i s l i n e are  f r e q u e n t l y doubled i n unison and/or a t the octave by one or more a d d i t i o n a l v o i c e s .  Through t h i s f r e q u e n t employment o f  64 u n i s o n and octave doublings, Nono i s a b l e t o expand what i s i n f a c t a s i n g l e melodic l i n e t o a s e t t i n g o f extremely v a r i e d timbre and t e x t u r e .  I f the doublings o f Example 7 are  reduced t o s i n g l e notes, the f o l l o w i n g melodic l i n e would result: Example 8.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures  In viewing the above i l l u s t r a t i o n  16-25.  i t should be noted  that  when the octave doublings o f measures 22 t o 25 were omitted, i t was a c c o r d i n g t o the a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n t h a t the note chosen would be t h a t which was c l o s e s t t o the p r e c e d i n g note of  the melodic l i n e .  In order t o m a i n t a i n the concept t h a t  where the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s employed the score can be reduced t o a s i n g l e melodic l i n e ,  i t i s obviously  e s s e n t i a l t h a t w i t h each o f these doublings the notes  employed  not o n l y d u p l i c a t e the p i t c h but a l s o share a common d u r a t i o n .  Although Nono u s u a l l y f o l l o w s t h i s p r a c t i c e q u i t e it  should be mentioned t h a t a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s  L i e b e s l i e d there a r e exceptions be d i s c u s s e d  throughout  to this practice.  a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h l a t e r in. t h i s  Although the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l  strictly,  These w i l l  chapter. continuity  appears t o be r e l a t i v e l y obvious t o one who s t u d i e s the score o f L i e b e s l i e d , no w r i t e r up t o now has examined t h i s i n any great d e t a i l .  feature  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Armando G e n t i -  l u c c i i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s composition mentions b r i e f l y a melodic l i n e which moves from v o i c e t o v o i c e ,  stating " l a '  c a s t a monodia che t r a s c o l o r a passando da una voce  all'altra,  secondo una g r a f i a gicl r i n t r a c c i a b i l e i n c e r t o D a l l a p i c c o l a . f'-J-  1  However he merely notes i t s e x i s t e n c e  and presents  a short  example i l l u s t r a t i n g i t r a t h e r than i n v e s t i g a t i n g the extent and  significance of i t s application.  G e n t i l u c c i does make a  p o i n t o f n o t i n g the s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s Vcasta- monodia" t o a technique found i n s e v e r a l passages o f c e r t a i n compositions w r i t t e n by L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a .  F o r example, on the f i r s t page  o f the score t o D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s C a n t i d i l i b e r a z i o n e there can be  found a melodic l i n e which d i s p l a y s f e a t u r e s common t o those 12  o f the p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y presented i n L i e b e s l i e d . "'""'"Armando G e n t i l u c c i , "La T e c n i c a Corale d i L u i g i Nono, " R i v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i M u s i c o l o g i c a , I I (1967), p. 115. 12 See L. D a l l a p i c c o l a , C a n t i d i l i b e r a z i o n e (Milano: E d i z i o n i S u v i n i Zerboni, 1955), p. 1.  66 Although there i s not a continuous employment o f  the  technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y throughout L i e b e s l i e d , i t i s c e r t a i n l y predominant i n both S e c t i o n s I and  II.  Nono's  use o f t h i s technique i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n a segment c r e a t e d by the s e t t i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l l i n e o f the t e x t . t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s i n v o l v e d w i t h i n one  When p o l y -  o f these segments i t  i s employed i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner w i t h v e r y few i r r e g u larities.  There are, however, i r r e g u l a r i t i e s a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s ,  a l l o f which i n v o l v e the note doublings  o f the  "casta monodia".  These i r r e g u l a r i t i e s f a l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s which are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g example. Example 9 .  (a) Duration  I r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f Note Doublings Within Polytimbral Continuity. (b) P i t c h  (c) Duration  and  Pitch  Example 9 (a) p r e s e n t s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f n o t e d u r a t i o n w h i c h i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f Nono's c h o i c e o f instrumentation a t that time.  Although both notes i n question  s t a r t a t t h e same t i m e , t h e h a r p ' s l a c k o f s u s t a i n i n g  ability  w o u l d h a v e made i t i m p r a c t i c a l t o w r i t e a s i n g l e t o n e  with  t h e same l e n g t h a s t h a t p r e s e n t e d b y t h e s u s p e n d e d I t appears  cymbal.  f r o m t h i s e x a m p l e t h a t Nono d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r i t  necessary t o s l a v i s h l y  f o l l o w the concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l  con-  t i n u i t y as t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y c o u l d have been e a s i l y a v o i d e d by changing the instrumentation.  E x a m p l e s 9 (b) a n d ( c ) a l s o  i l l u s t r a t e w h a t a p p e a r s t o b e a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t b y Nono t o interrupt, continuity.  i f o n l y f o r an i n s t a n t , t h e e f f e c t o f p o l y t i m b r a l T h e s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n n o t e d o u b l i n g do n o t  appear v e r y f r e q u e n t l y throughout t h e c o m p o s i t i o n .  From t h e  f o l l o w i n g c h a r t i t c a n be d e t e r m i n e d i n w h i c h segments t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s employed and a l s o i n L i e b e s l i e d t h e s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s c a n be found.  where  Figure 2.— Measures  Text  Polytimbral Continuity i n L i e b e s l i e d  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Technique  Irregularities  Type o f I r r e g u l a r i t y  1-9  Erde b i s t Du  Free  9-29  Feuer Himmel  Polytimbral  Continuity  measure 13 measure 26  Duration Duration  and P i t c h  29-33  i c h l i e b e Dich  Polytimbral  Continuity  measure 29 measure 30 measure 32  Duration Duration Duration  and P i t c h and P i t c h  34-42  m i t D i r i s t Ruhe  Polytimbral  Continuity  no i r r e g u larities  42-52  Freude b i s t Du  Polytimbral  52-65  Sturm  B r i e f Suggestion o f Polytimbral Continuity  65-69  m i t mir b i s t Du  Polytimbral Continuity  70-72  Du b i s t Leben  72-74  Liebe b i s t Du  Palindrome  Continuity  CD  measure 46 measure 49 measure 50  Duration Pitch Pitch  measure 68  Duration  and P i t c h  69 In examining  f u r t h e r the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s p o i n t e d out i n  t h i s c h a r t , i t can be found t h a t s e v e r a l o f these have f e a t u r e s i n common.  In the f o l l o w i n g example the t h r e e note doublings  i n which there i s d u r a t i o n a l i r r e g u l a r i t y are p r e s e n t e d . Example 10.  (a) Measure 26  I r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f Duration i n Note Doublings. (b) Measures 31-33  (c) Measures 68-69  70 Each o f these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s harp, an aspect  i n v o l v e the employment o f the  o f envelope which was p r e v i o u s l y  Example 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  discussed.  found i n the f i f t h  segment, t h a t i s , measures 42 to 52. Example 11.  Coro  Coro  GkJcvp-  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 43-50.  As  can be  seen above, these three i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n note  doublings a l l i n v o l v e the same two  pitches, that i s , C  C-sharp, which c e r t a i n l y d i s c o u n t s  any p o s s i b i l i t y o f  and an  error i n publication. In each, o f the segments o f the c h a r t t h a t p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , Nono has a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner.  contain  employed t h i s technique i n  I t should be p o i n t e d  out, however,  t h a t i n the s i x t h segment, t h a t i s , measures 52 t o 65,  although  there i s not a s i n g l e , continuous melodic l i n e which moves from one  v o i c e t o another throughout, c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s  p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y are Example 12.  evident.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 52-61.  of  72 Example 12 c o n t i n u e d .  In examining the above example, i t can be seen t h a t  from  measures 52 t o 57 a s i n g l e l i n e can be t r a c e d through the score.  However, d u r i n g t h i s passage  t h e r e are many o t h e r  notes which are n o t accounted f o r v i a the technique o f p o l y timbral continuity.  Prom measure 52 on, i t becomes i n c r e a s -  i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t t o determine which o f the many notes p r e s e n t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h i s s i n g l e , uous melodic  contin-  line.  Although the parameter  o f dynamics i n t h i s composition  i s n o t o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the concepts o f s e r i a l i s m , an examination o f the employment o f dynamic markings does expose a technique o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t w i l l prove s i g n i f i c a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g the p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the l a t e r works covered by t h i s paper.  In L i e b e s l i e d , the dynamic i n d i c a t i o n s  are employed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l continuity.  In s t u d y i n g segments 2 through 7 i n which p o l y -  t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s employed, i t can be seen t h a t when a note o f the "continuous melodic l i n e " i s doubled, the same dynamic marking i s a l s o employed.  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s  can be found i n the f o l l o w i n g example. Example 13.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 39-42.  t  1  i'  As a r e s u l t o f the c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s technique, the dynamics can be reduced t o a s i n g l e l i n e o f markings i n t u r n supports the main concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l  which  continuity.  There are i n s t a n c e s i n L i e b e s l i e d where e i t h e r a gradual c r e s cendo o r decrescendo c o v e r i n g a span o f s e v e r a l notes occurs and w i t h i n t h i s passage o n l y one o f the notes i s doubled.  74 Example 14.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 48-49.  As can be seen from the above example, Nono, i n order t o comply w i t h the concept o f a s i n g l e l i n e o f dynamics, doubled notes the v a l u e approximate  g i v e s these  t o t h a t o f the dynamic  found w i t h i n the crescendo and decrescendo a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r time.  Although t h i s technique o f p r e s e n t i n g dynamic markings  i s employed i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner throughout  Liebeslied  i n segments where p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s c o n s i s t e n t , l a r i t i e s do occur i n measures 26, 31 and 32. employing  irregu-  T h i s technique o f  i n L i e b e s l i e d , dynamic l e v e l s i n accordance w i t h the  s i n g l e continuous l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y g a i n s even more s i g n i f i c a n c e when i t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the complex s e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f dynamics i n I I Canso sospeso i s a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l Although the parameter  continuity.  o f d u r a t i o n i n L i e b e s l i e d i s not  s t r i c t l y determined by an o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system,  there  are c e r t a i n a s p e c t s which would t e n d t o suggest t h a t Nono has c a r e f u l l y predetermined which durations w i t h i n each segment.  a r e t o be  employed  I f the s i x t e e n t h note i s c o n s i d e r e d the  13  basic duration,  the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t , i n w h i c h t h e numbers  r e p r e s e n t m u l t i p l e s o f t h i s b a s i c d u r a t i o n , p r e s e n t s the durations  employed w i t h i n each segment o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n .  A term d e f i n e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n .  F i g u r e 3 . — Note Durations Employed W i t h i n  Sections I  Segments 1  Measures 1-9  Liebeslied  M u l t i p l e s o f the B a s i c Duration  Irregularities  3, 4, 6, 10, 20  One d u r a t i o n o f 17 found i n measure 3  II  2  9-29  3  29-33  4  34-42  1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 1, 10, 14  5  42-52  1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14  6  52-65  1/ 2, 3, 5, 7  7  65-69  2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ( l a s t note only) 18  8  70-72.  9  72-74  1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 20 3, 4, 6, 10, 16  An i r r e g u l a r i t y i n note d o u b l i n g r e s u l t s in a multiple of 2 i n measure 29 -j  III  6, 8, 10 6, 8, 10  CTl  77 P o s s i b l y the most obvious f e a t u r e d i s c o v e r e d  i n l o o k i n g at  t h i s c h a r t i s t h a t i n s e v e r a l segments o n l y f i v e d u r a t i o n s are employed. when one  T h i s number has  different  an added s i g n i f i c a n c e  remembers t h a t the b a s i c spazio armonico o f b o t h  S e c t i o n s I and Segments 1,  II c o n s i s t s of f i v e d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s .  3 and 6 are each based p r i m a r i l y on f i v e  different  d u r a t i o n s although there i s a b r i e f i r r e g u l a r i t y , as s t a t e d i n the c h a r t , i n both segments l r a n d 3. the most p a r t , c o n s t r u c t e d  Segment 7 i s a l s o , f o r  of f i v e various durations.  the l a s t note o f t h i s segment a new  d u r a t i o n appears which  a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o i n c i d e s with the appearance o f the p i t c h of Section I I .  In comparing the d u r a t i o n s  sixth  employed  w i t h i n each o f the f i r s t t h r e e segments which make up I,  a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y becomes apparent.  (3, 4, 6,  10 and  With  The  five  Section  durations  20) which are used i n segment 1 are a l s o  found i n the second segment employed i n combination with new  durations.  The  d u r a t i o n s o f segment 3 c l e a r l y r e f e r back  t o those o f the f i r s t durations  (3, 4, 6,  segment.  and  10)  These two passages have four  i n common, with the o n l y  exception  b e i n g the f i f t h d u r a t i o n which i n segment 1 i s 20 while segment 3 i t i s 16.  four  in  T h i s method o f d u r a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n  S e c t i o n I, with the m u l t i p l e content c l o s e t o t h a t o f the f i r s t  o f segment 3 b e i n g  segment, c o u l d p o s s i b l y be  ered y e t another example o f Nono s frequent 1  so  consid-  employment o f  the  78 palindrome. Evidence can a l s o be support  the theory  t h a t Nono has  d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s are t o be m u l t i p l e content  found i n the second s e c t i o n to c a r e f u l l y predetermined which  employed w i t h i n each segment.  The  o f the firstt.two segments o f S e c t i o n I I i s  v e r y s i m i l a r , w i t h the o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t y b e i n g t h a t m u l t i p l e 3 from segment 4 i s repeated segment. 6 and  by the m u l t i p l e 5 i n the  In comparing the d u r a t i o n s  employed i n segments  7, an obvious c o n t r a s t i s apparent as the  seventh  segment i s based'on a m u l t i p l e s e r i e s o f even i n t e g e r s the s i x t h segment i s based, w i t h the exception 2, on a s e r i e s o f odd represents  the f i r s t  integers.  fifth  while  o f the m u l t i p l e  T h i s s e r i e s from segment 6  f i v e terms o f the i n f i n i t e s e r i e s o f  prime numbers, t h a t i s , numbers without i n t e g r a l f a c t o r s . T h i s aspect o f an i s o l a t e d number s e r i e s employed w i t h i n L i e b e s l i e d may  appear t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t , however, a f t e r  c o n s i d e r i n g Nono's frequent employment o f s p e c i f i c  infinite  s e r i e s i n l a t e r works covered by t h i s study, i n c l u d i n g I I 14 Canto sospeso i n which the F i b o n a c c i Numbers are  utilized.  T h i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f the s e r i e s o f prime numbers i n L i e b e s l i e d , i s one  o f the e a r l i e s t examples o f a p r a c t i c e which becomes  more e x t e n s i v e w i t h subsequent  compositions.  Although i t i s apparent t h a t Nono has 14 See Chapter IV.  s e l e c t e d the  79 d u r a t i o n s i n order t o c o n t r a s t the m u l t i p l e s e r i e s o f one segment from t h a t o f another,  i t should be mentioned t h a t  t h e r e a r e two d u r a t i o n s both o f which a r e used i n each segment o f L i e b e s l i e d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f segment 6.  These two  d u r a t i o n s a r e represented by the m u l t i p l e s 6 and 10. has  This  even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e when i t i s remembered t h a t t h e r e  i s a d i s t i n c t change o f meter between S e c t i o n s I and I I , from the simple meter o f 4/4 t o the compound meter o f 6/8.  Nono  has employed these two d u r a t i o n s throughout the p i e c e i n s p i t e o f the marked change from a duple d i v i s i o n o f the beat to a t r i p l e d i v i s i o n .  The d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s remain the same  w i t h r e s p e c t t o the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f the s i x t e e n t h note however the n o t a t i o n o f these notes  i s obviously altered.  In examining the f i n a l notes o f both S e c t i o n s I and I I , one  can see a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how Nono has r e l a t e d  this  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n s t o the p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s c u s s e d previously.  The note d u r a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by the m u l t i p l e s  16 and 18 a r e employed o n l y once each i n L i e b e s l i e d and t h i s occurs a t the end o f S e c t i o n s I and I I r e s p e c t i v e l y .  This  c o i n c i d e s p e r f e c t l y w i t h the o n l y appearance o f the p i t c h e s A n a t u r a l i n S e c t i o n I and F sharp i n S e c t i o n I I . A f t e r an examination  o f the d u r a t i o n s i n the l i n e o f  p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , i t i s safe t o say t h a t t h e r e i s no consistent a p p l i c a t i o n of s e r i a l organization with respect to  80 the m u l t i p l e event parameter o f rhythm w i t h i n L i e b e s l i e d . The  d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s o f F i g u r e 3 are not  strictly  w i t h i n each segment but r a t h e r they are s t a t e d w i t h  organized contin-  uous permutation i n a manner which i s extremely s i m i l a r t o the method o f p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter.  However a t one p o i n t i n L i e b e s l i e d , Nono repeats  rhythmic p a t t e r n which was sition.  T h i s can be  employed p r e v i o u s l y i n the compo-  seen i n comparing the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l  c o n t i n u i t y i n measures 11 t o 15 with t h a t found i n measures 17 t o  21.  a  81 Example 15.  Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 11-21.  82 The  two  passages marked i n the above example are  constructed  on the same rhythmic l i n e which, i n terms o f m u l t i p l e s o f basic  i s represented  duration  series:  by the f o l l o w i n g number  1 0 - 3 - 1 0 - 1 0 - 6 - 4 - 1 - 6 - 6 . In reviewing  it  the  the i n f o r m a t i o n  i s apparent t h a t one  presented i n t h i s chapter  o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f L i e b e s l i e d i s the importance given by Nono to the t e x t .  The  t e x t i n f l u e n c e s not o n l y the o v e r a l l form o f  the p i e c e , t h a t i s , i t s d i v i s i o n i n t o t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s e c t i o n s , but a l s o the segmentation found w i t h i n each o f these  sections  r e s u l t i n g from Nono's s e t t i n g o f the i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s o f text.  the  In a d d i t i o n , the m e t r i c a l arrangement o f the t e x t i n -  f l u e n c e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h . i s t h a t a t the suggestion i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n .  P o s s i b l y most important  o f the t e x t a palindrome i s employed  L i e b e s l i e d i s one  o f Nono's e a r l i e s t  works i n which he has used the palindrome and been p o i n t e d  out,  as has  already  t h i s technique p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the composition.  The  palindrome i s used  even more e x t e n s i v e l y i n l a t e r compositions covered by  this  study. The  study o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n i n L i e b e s l i e d has  uncovered one  o f the f i r s t examples o f what i s to be  music the gradual  i n Nono's  degeneration o f the o r i g i n a l purpose  technique o f the tone row.  and  With the v a r i o u s permutations o f  83  the notes found i n s e c t i o n s o f the chromatic s c a l e there i s no longer a " s e r i e s " i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense but r a t h e r a means o f e n s u r i n g more o r l e s s even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the selected pitches.  Nono has  employed t h i s method o f continuous  permutation not o n l y i n connection presentation of duration.  various  with p i t c h but a l s o i n the  S p e c i f i c d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s have  been chosen by the composer f o r employment w i t h i n each segment and  these m u l t i p l e s are l i k e w i s e c o n t i n u a l l y v a r i e d . P o s s i b l y the most important s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e noted  i n L i e b e s l i e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the p l a c e o f t h i s work i n the development o f parametric  o r g a n i z a t i o n as found i n the compo-  s i t i o n s covered by t h i s study, i s t h a t o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n uity.  L i e b e s l i e d presents  e a r l i e s t and  polytimbral continuity i n i t s  l e a s t complex form.  Although the parameters i n  t h i s work are not determined a c c o r d i n g t o an o v e r a l l  serial  system, the b a s i c concepts o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y are dent and one  can see how  the parameters o f p i t c h and  are l i n k e d t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s  technique.  evi-  dynamics  84  CHAPTER I I I CANTI PER TREDICI AND  INCONTRI  A f t e r f i n i s h i n g L i e b e s l i e d , Nono worked on two compositions d u r i n g 1954 and e a r l y 1955. was  new  C a n t i per t r e d i c i  the f i r s t t o be completed and was g i v e n i t s premiere  performance i n P a r i s on March 26, 1 9 5 5 . T h i s  work which i s  d e d i c a t e d t o P i e r r e Boulez "per l a sua umanita" i s scored for  t h i r t e e n instruments:  soprano saxophone,  clarinet,  B f l a t bass c l a r i n e t , bassoon, horn i n F,  trumpet, tombone, v i o l i n , was  f l u t e , oboe, B - f l a t  v i o l a , c e l l o and b a s s .  commissioned by the Sudwestfunks  completed i n Venice i n 1955.  Incontri  o f Baden-Baden and  T h i s composition, f o r a chamber  o r c h e s t r a c o n t a i n i n g two f l u t e s ,  two oboes, two B - f l a t  clar-  i n e t s , two bassoons, two horns i n F, trumpet, trombone, timpanists,  four v i o l i n s ,  two v i o l a s ,  basses, was  f i r s t performed on May  two c e l l o s and  two  two  30, 1955 a t Darmstadt w i t h  2 Hans Rosbaud c o n d u c t i n g .  As these two works were c r e a t e d  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y w i t h i n such c l o s e p r o x i m i t y and, more importa n t l y , as the c o m p o s i t i o n a l techniques employed  in their  ~*"Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Music i n Gesc h i c h t e und Gegenwart, IX (1961), c o l . 1555. 2 Ibid.  85 c o n s t r u c t i o n bear c e r t a i n obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s to one each aspect  another,  o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n to be d i s c u s s e d  in this  chapter w i l l be examined as i t a p p l i e s j o i n t l y to both C a n t i per t r e d i c i and  Incontri.  While i n L i e b e s l i e d the palindrome i s evident s e v e r a l phases of o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  in  t h i s m i r r o r technique becomes  even more s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i I n c o n t r i where i t i s a p p l i e d to o v e r a l l form. t r e d i c i c o n s i s t s o f two  Canti  and  per  movements both o f which have the  t u r e o f a complete palindrome.  These two  movements are  ted by a measure o f s i l e n c e at measure 173 and  the  strucsepara-  following  diagram f u r t h e r d e f i n e s t h e i r form:  A Measures  The  mirror  can be  1-86  A 87-172  B  » <  174-263  -  B  264-354  s t r u c t u r e o f the f i r s t movement i s not p e r f e c t  seen i n Example 1 which presents  the center  sures o f the movement; note the dynamic and  as  four mea-  t i m b r a l changes.  87 The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f most parameters  i n the second h a l f i s  an exact r e t r o g r a d e o f t h a t found i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the movement, however, t h i s i s not the case w i t h the v a r i a b l e s o f dynamics and timbre which are found a l t e r e d i n the l a s t h a l f o f the s e c t i o n . The form o f the second movement i s t h a t o f an exact palindrome with the o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t y b e i n g the a d d i t i o n o f an e x t r a measure a t the end o f the p i e c e a t which p o i n t notes from the p r e v i o u s measure are h e l d over.  specific  The f o l l o w i n g  example c o n t a i n s the c e n t r a l p o i n t o f t h i s m i r r o r s t r u c t u r e .  89 In p r e s e n t i n g the r e t r o g r a d e , Nono i s very accurate i n c r e a t i n g a m i r r o r image as every parameter i s p r e c i s e l y  reversed.  The o v e r a l l form o f I n c o n t r i , :".a. r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t  one  movement work, 217 measures i n l e n g t h , i s a complete palindrome. In the middle o f measure 109 which can be  seen i n Example 3,  an exact r e t r o g r a d e o f a l l m a t e r i a l presented up to t h a t point  begins.  90 Example 3.  Nono, I n c o n t r i , measures 108-110.  91  As  was  the  the case  parametric  precise  the  of that  first  sections  half  formal A  Measures:  1-48  While  the fermata  169  Since sistently per  zation  in  prin-  occuring again i n  which  results  i n the  B «  109-136  section  i s found  A  137-169  i n the fermata  separates  A  placement.  from  on t h e l a s t  170-217  section note  of  B i n section  i n the retrograde presentation  barline  which  the technique i n just  only this  to that  contrast  three  fermata  divides  found  t o Nono's  Viennese  twelve-tone  presents  one  of polytimbral o n e movement,  movement w i l l  o f the parameter  similar  i s a  t h e two  sections  and 1 7 0 ) .  employed  tredici,  82-109  o f t h e work  i n the double  (measures  these  into  C (  irregularity  which  the corresponding  occurs  tredici,  part.  i s divided  ^  49-81  i s however one  A,  per  of Incontri  i n the f i r s t  of Incontri  »B  part  half  of the composition  There  first  found  of Canti  pattern.  Sections:  the  movement  b y means o f f e r m a t a s ,  retrograde half  following  the second  o r d e r i n g i n the second  reversal The  cipal  with  of pitch  technique  o f the f i r s t  the second, examined.  i n this  i n Incontri. earlier  be  continuity  movement  As mentioned  works where i s s/till  examples  the  of  Canti  The o r g a n i i s quite i n Chapter I I ,  "traditional"  i n evidence,  o f what  i s con-  i s t o be  Liebeslied i n Nono's  92 music the g r a d u a l degeneration o f the o r i g i n a l purpose and technique o f the tone row.  An a n a l y s i s o f the p i t c h o r d e r i n g  i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i w i l l  further  illustrate  Nono's movement away from the s e r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s The tone row employed  parameter.  i n the second movement o f C a n t i  per t r e d i c i has an i n t e r v a l l i c  s t r u c t u r e which i s t o be found  i n a number o f Nono's l a t e r works i n c l u d i n g I I Canto and V a r i a n t i .  As John S. Weissmann i n h i s a r t i c l e  sospeso  " L u i g i Nono  und s e i n Werk" has s t a t e d "Nono z e i g t e i n e entschiedene V o r l i e b e f u r symmetrische  Reihen, d i e z u g l e i c h auch A l l i n t e r v a l l -  3  reihen sind."  The A l l i n t e r v a l l r e i h e n o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i i s  as f o l l o w s : 1  2  A  B  3 b  A  4  5  B  b  6 G  7 C  8 F#  9 C#  F  10  11  12  D  E  E  b  In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s s e r i e s c o n s t r u c t i o n , Weissmann comments t h a t "Aus den Besonderheiten der I n t e r v a l l v e r h a l t n i s s e der Reihe e r geben s i c h auch d i e w e i t e r e n M f l g l i c h k e i t e n , d i e i h r e b e i d e n H a l f t e n d a r b i e t e n : d i e chromatischen Skalen, d i e von b e i d e n S e i t e n gegen e i n 'tonales Zentrum' k o n v e r g i e r e n , wie oben 4 ersichtlich."  A f u r t h e r symmetry can be seen when the i n t e r -  v a l s o f the row are reduced by i n t e r v a l i n v e r s i o n : 3 John S. Weissmann, " L u i g i Nono und s e i n Werk," Schw e i z e r i s c h e Musikzeitung, CI (November-December, 1961), p. 358. 4 Ibid.  93  1  2  A  B  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  A B G C F# C# F D E E \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / m2 M2 m3 M3 P4 T P4 M3 m3 M2 m2 b  b  I I I  1  I  1  b  |  Upon v i e w i n g the above diagram, i t becomes obvious t h a t a palindrome r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i n the i n t e r v a l l i c of the p i t c h  structure  series.  The tone row i s employed a manner as p r i m a r i l y of the p i t c h e s .  i n Canti  per t r e d i c i i n such  t o ensure a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n  Throughout the f i r s t h a l f o f the second move-  ment, the complete s e r i e s , i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, i s c o n s t a n t l y repeated w i t h the p i t c h appearance always c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the o r d e r i n g o f the row.  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s method o f  p r e s e n t a t i o n can be found i n Example 4.  94  i  i  Nono does not u t i l i z e v a r i a b l e s of the " c l a s s i c a l " system such as transposed, row. ing  While,  ZwOlfton-  i n v e r t e d o r r e t r o g r a d e forms o f the  i n the second h a l f o f the movement, r e v e r s e d o r d e r -  o f p i t c h e s i s at times p r e s e n t as the r e s u l t of the  formal palindrome  overall  s t r u c t u r e , f o r the most p a r t the s e r i e s i s  not r e t r o g r a d e d i n the c o r r e c t order o f appearance.due t o the f a c t t h a t the rhythmic p a t t e r n s o f the f i r s t h a l f , when r e peated backwards, a l t e r the p l a c i n g o f the p i t c h e s . In the f i r s t h a l f of the movement,^the o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s which occur i n t h i s s t r i c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the 29 p i t c h - r o w statements  are the omissions which are l i s t e d  3/4  on  the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : TABLE 1 PITCH OMISSIONS FROM ROW STATEMENTS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SECOND MOVEMENT OF CANTI PER TREDICI Measure  Pitch  177 179-180 193 195 197 . 200 218 245 251 258  F# C C# F B A D E B . G b  b  P i t c h Number 7 6 8 9 4 3 10 11 2 5  Statement Number 2 3 7 8 , 9 10 14 24 27 29  96 I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t a t the time o f most o f these omissions, the same p i t c h was h e l d over from the p r e v i o u s row statement.  Each o f the p i t c h i r r e g u l a r i t i e s p r e s e n t e d by-  Table 1 was  a l s o omitted a t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o i n t i n the  r e t r o g r a d e h a l f o f the movement which tends to suggest t h a t these omissions were the r e s u l t not o f an e r r o r i n p r i n t i n g but r a t h e r o f an i n t e n t i o n a l move on the composer's p a r t . T h i s i s supported by the more than c o i n c i d e n t a l f a c t t h a t o f the ten omissions no p i t c h was  skipped more than once and  t h a t notes A and E - f l a t , numbers 1 and 12 r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the row are the o n l y p i t c h e s t o be p r e s e n t i n every o f the  statement  series. In I n c o n t r i the f o l l o w i n g tone row i s employed:  1 B  b  .2  3  4  5  6  7  8  C  C#  F#  G  E  D  E  \ / \ M2  m2  b  9  10  11  12  F  A  B  A  b  / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / ' \ ' ' P4  m2  m3  M2  m2  M2  M3  M2  m3  Although the aspect o f symmetry found i n the s e r i e s o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i i s not e v i d e n t here, the tone rows o f both compos i t i o n s are u t i l i z e d i n r e l a t i v e l y the same manner.  In  I n c o n t r i the tone row i s again r e l e g a t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g merely a r e g u l a t o r to assure an even p i t c h arrangement. I t i s used o n l y i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y r e p e a t ed i n the f i r s t h a l f as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 5.  97 Example 5 .  Nono, I n c o n t r i , measures 1-4,  Incontri Luigi Nono  7taut* 2  \  to noi<*rt, wit «/• hiingmn . CW*"  Vlvi Vet U( (Hrnnttin Sd*rrt«n> CmbH l?>M  98 In  the f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i there are 40 row  p l u s one a d d i t i o n a l note, B - f l a t ,  statements  l o c a t e d p r e c i s e l y at the  c e n t e r o f the composition i n measure 109.  The o r d e r i n g o f  p i t c h appearance f o r most o f these statements c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t o f the o r i g i n a l tone row, few e x c e p t i o n s .  although there are a  In measure 1 of Example 5, i t can be  t h a t p i t c h number 6, E, appears  seen  s l i g h t l y b e f o r e p i t c h number  5, G, and t h i s type o f r e v e r s a l o r d e r i n g does occur a t s e v e r a l other p o i n t s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the work. Three other types o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n row p r e s e n t a t i o n are a l s o e v i d e n t , the f i r s t o f these b e i n g p i t c h omission, the o n l y case o f which appearing i n measure 60, where note number 4, F-sharp i s skipped.  The next type o f i r r e g u l a r i t y was  r e s u l t o f an e r r o r on the composer's p a r t which he  the  later  5 acknowledged i n a p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e . in  At s i x d i f f e r e n t places  the f i r s t h a l f o f the composition, l i s t e d below i n Table 2,  the i n c o r r e c t p i t c h i s p r e s e n t e d .  L u i g i Nono, "Su Fase seconda d i Mario B o r t o l o t t o , " Nuova R i v i s t a M u s i c a l e I t a l i a n a I I I (September-October, 1969), p. 851. #  99 TABLE 2 IRREGULARITIES OF PITCH PRESENTATION IN THE FIRST HALF OF INCONTRI Measure  Pitch  18 27 28 39 43 108  Presented  P i t c h Needed f o r Row Completion  C B G sharp A flat F G  C sharp D F sharp A natural A A  Each o f these p i t c h e s i s a l s o found i n the r e t r o g r a d e h a l f o f Incontri,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Nono d i d n o t e i t h e r n o t i c e o r want  t o change these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s .  In measures 82 t o 89  v a r i a t i o n i n tone row p r e s e n t a t i o n o c c u r s . i n the composition,  another  Up~^to t h i s p o i n t  each p i t c h o f a s e r i e s statement  i s pre-  sented by o n l y one v o i c e a t a time although t h i s v o i c e may repeat the p i t c h .  However, s t a r t i n g a t measure 82 there i s a  s e r i e s o f unison p i t c h doublings.  T h i s technique l a s t s o n l y  u n t i l measure 89 and then the o r i g i n a l method i s again employed. As was the case i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i , no forms o f the tone row other than the o r i g i n a l are employed i n the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri.  In the second h a l f o f I n c o n t r i ,  i s not presented i n c o r r e c t  the s e r i e s  r e t r o g r a d e ; t h i s i s a g a i n the  r e s u l t o f the rhythmic p a t t e r n u t i l i z e d i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the composition.  With the e x c e p t i o n o f the i n c r e a s e d number o f  100  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s found i n I n c o n t r i , the parameter  of p i t c h i n  these two works i s o r g a n i z e d and p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the same method. The q u a l i t y o f p o i n t i l l i s m ,  found t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t  i n L i e b e s l i e d , i s employed t o a much g r e a t e r degree i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i .  While i n h i s e a r l i e r works the tone  row served the purpose o f m o t i v i c g e n e r a t i o n , Nono has, w i t h these two works, u t i l i z e d the s i n g l e tone as h i s b a s i c compos i t i o n a l element and abandoned t o t a l l y any m o t i v i c employment. The s i n g l e tone, though,  i s not i s o l a t e d as such w i t h i n the  composition but r a t h e r i t i s r e l a t e d t o the e n t i r e m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e through the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity.  Each note becomes p a r t o f one o f a number o f c o n t i n u o u s l y sounding l i n e s o f c o n s t a n t l y changing timbre which move throughout these two works. which was  T h i s concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity  p r e s e n t e d i n v a r i o u s segments o f L i e b e s l i e d i s now  employed c o n s t a n t l y throughout I n c o n t r i and the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i w i t h g r e a t s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . mentioned  As  i n Chapter I I , t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique i s l i n k e d  c l o s e l y t o Klangfarbenmelodie, although what separates i t from SchOnberg's concept i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l i d e a .  Nono's t e c h n i -  que o f a t r a n s i t i o n from a s i n g l e tone t o m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s remote from Schflnberg's p o e t i c concept o f a contrapuntal-melod—.. i c .flow.  101 While i n L i e b e s l i e d o n l y one l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l cont i n u i t y was p r e s e n t  a t any s i n g l e p o i n t , throughout I n c o n t r i  and the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i a v a r y i n g number o f continuous l i n e s are employed.  Each o f these l i n e s i s  assigned  a s p e c i f i c basic duration.  The f o l l o w i n g example  presents  the opening measures o f the second movement o f C a n t i  per t r e d i c i w i t h the four l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y marked.  102 Example 6.  Nono, C a n t i per t r e d i c i , measures 173-176.  103 In Example 6, the two b l u e markings i n d i c a t e l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y which employ o n l y the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1, t h a t i s , with a d i v i s i o n o f the u n i t beat i n t o 3, 3 w h i l e the two r e d markings denote l i n e s which use the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f JL o n l y . 5  As can be seen from t h i s example, t h e r e  are no breaks i n v o l v e d i n these l i n e s and there i s not any unison o r octave d u p l i c a t i o n o f notes as was found i n L i e b e s lied.  G e n e r a l l y throughout t h i s movement no instrument p r e -  sents any more than one p i t c h i n s u c c e s s i o n and as a r e s u l t the timbre o f these l i n e s i s c o n s t a n t l y changing.  I t should  be s t r e s s e d t h a t every note i n t h i s movement can be accounted f o r through the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity.  T h i s method employed i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i ' s second movement i s a l s o found i n I n c o n t r i .  104 Example 7.  Nono, I n c o n t r i , measures 1-4.  Incontri Luigi Nono  2 j  |^  "  C h » * n V t . . V » l H r m i » i n S d . « t t c n ) C m b H IV* u (  e  1  ,  ;  ^  ^  ^^^^^ ^  105 In Example 7 which i l l u s t r a t e s the s i x l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n measures 1 t o 4 o f I n c o n t r i / the green, r e d and b l u e markings denote continuous l i n e s employing the b a s i c durat i o n s o f 1, 1 and _1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4  5  The employment o f polytimbrar.  6  c o n t i n u i t y i n t h i s work i s e x a c t l y the same as t h a t o f the p r e vious composition except f o r one s l i g h t i r r e g u l a r i t y . t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y i n connection organization,  As. men-  w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n on p i t c h  from measures 82 t o 89, there  i s a series of  u n i s o n p i t c h doublings which does not occur a t any other  point  i n the work o r i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i . Throughout both I n c o n t r i and the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i the number o f these ;polytimbral l i n e s  vary.  Although both compositions commence w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e maximum number o f p o l y t i m b r a l and  l i n e s , the p a t t e r n o f l i n e  e x i t s i s completely d i f f e r e n t .  entrances  The f o l l o w i n g diagram p r e -  sents the arrangement o f l i n e s found i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i .  Figure  —  \~  M e a SlIT 6 £  L7 4  4 . — Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n the F i r s t H a l f o f the Second Movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i  tc  21 3  I  T Jttt >  M e a SI XT e s  /a*  114  tc  m  26 3  •  4MA  H  B a s i c Durations:  — 2J«I  »>  =1,  =1.  3  5  251 >  107 In F i g u r e 4, i t can be seen t h a t f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f the f i r s t h a l f o f the movement a l l four p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s are present, although from measures 214 t o 233, the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f one o f the l i n e s i s changed from 1 t o 1. 3 5  There appears t o be no  obvious reason f o r t h i s b a s i c d u r a t i o n a l t e r a t i o n  and t h i s  type o f i r r e g u l a r i t y does not appear again i n any o f Nono's works i n v o l v i n g p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y . l i n e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above f i g u r e  The arrangement o f  f a l l s i n t o two p a t t e r n s ,  measures 174 t o 213 and measures 214 t o 263, which are s i m i l a r i n design and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an extended p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l four l i n e s f o l l o w e d by three s u c c e s s i v e e x i t s , l e a v i n g o n l y one  l i n e which i n both cases has the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1. I t 5 i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t both cases have the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1.. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the more than c o i n c i d e n t a l 5 f a c t t h a t i n the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s movement which commences i n measure 174, a number o f s t r u c t u r a l l y take p l a c e :  s i g n i f i c a n t changes  a t measure 104, the f i r s t l i n e disappears; a t  measure 214, a l l four l i n e s reappear; a t measure 234 there i s a change i n b a s i c d u r a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y the center o f the movement occurs  a t measure 264; a l l o f these are separated by  a m u l t i p l e o f 10 measures. The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s i n the f i r s t  of I n c o n t r i i s d e f i n i t e l y more complex than t h a t o f the second movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i .  half  Figure 5 . —  J  L  >n  m<  H 4-  2 S  rid  ,. L L.  n— j  / L.  J ; i -O  1C  >n  D  —1  \  im 2 a  Continuity  1  o . ^—i  J3  7  —e c  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l i n the F i r s t H a l f o f I n c o n t r i  25  S L ir<iS  JL Q L  \9  to  Q  V  '  o . L)  1 \  00  . 1 It  — •  c c:  1  62  n  i1  1  V  mc ;asu  7V  5S  e2  t  0  jy  ;  **  too  B a s i c Durations:  =1_,  6  J J  =1,  5  =1.  4  109 As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i i s d i v i d e d i n t o three separate  s e c t i o n s by means o f fermate.  three s e c t i o n s , as can be seen i n F i g u r e  These  5, are f u r t h e r de-  f i n e d by the o r d e r i n g o f l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y . Although d i f f e r i n g i n l e n g t h , there can be no doubt t h a t  sec-  t i o n s A and C are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d one t o the other as s e c t i o n C presents  an approximate r e t r o g r a d e  z a t i o n o f l i n e s found i n ' t h e f i r s t  i n v e r s i o n o f the o r g a n i -  section.  S e c t i o n A's p a t -  t e r n o f a g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g number o f l i n e s  (with those  having  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f _1 d i s a p p e a r i n g f i r s t ) i s completely/ 6 i n v e r t e d and r e v e r s e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n where the l i n e s with the _1 b a s i c d u r a t i o n are the f i r s t t o b e g i n . 6  The o r d e r i n g o f  the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n s e c t i o n B i s i n the form o f a complete i n v e r t e d palindrome with i t s c e n t e r o c c u r r i n g a t measure 66. are presented having  While two l i n e s having  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1. 6 s e c t i o n B ends w i t h two l i n e s  a t the beginning,  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n 1, and s i m i l a r l y , the other  line  4 entrances and e x i t s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f B are found i n i n v e r s i o n i n the second h a l f .  mirrored  In c o n s i d e r i n g the o v e r a l l  p a t t e r n o f p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i , i t can be seen t h a t , with a c e r t a i n leeway b e i n g g i v e n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n s e c t i o n lengths,  t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s based,  with  o n l y s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n , on the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f an i n v e r t e d palindrome.  I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t there i s a  110 v a l i d s t r u c t u r a l reason f o r the i r r e g u l a r i t y i n s e c t i o n lengths.  In s t u d y i n g  the  score i t can be  found t h a t a t each  p o i n t where there i s an a l t e r a t i o n i n the number o f b r a l l i n e s present, line, The  polytim-  Nono marks t h i s change w i t h a double  thus c r e a t i n g s m a l l e r  segments w i t h i n the  bar-  sections.  l e n g t h o f these segments i s determined a l s o , as w i l l  discussed  l a t e r i n t h i s chapter,  by a s e r i e s o f numbers which  are taken from d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s employed i n the o f the parameter o f  organization  duration.  In comparing F i g u r e 4 and patterns  be  5, i t i s most obvious t h a t  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n are g r e a t l y c o n t r a s t e d .  the  While i n the  second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i a b i n a r y d i v i s i o n i s e v i dent, three main s e c t i o n s are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n I n c o n t r i . a d d i t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p o l y t i m b r a l i n I n c o n t r i i s much more complex than t h a t o f C a n t i per i n t h i s l a t e r work there  lines  tredici,  i s a symmetry o f o r d e r i n g which  not as apparent i n the p r e v i o u s  In  was  composition.  Nono has been most c r i t i c a l o f the v a r i o u s techniques o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p l i e d t o the parameters o f d u r a t i o n and employed by many composers.  rhythm  Konrad Boehmer suggests t h a t Nonos  discontentment l i e s i n the f a c t  that:  Der Ton s e i e i n Punkt geblieben, und d i e Pause e i n Loch zwischen den Punkten. Dauer und Abstand der Punkte, sowie Dauer der Lflcher und deren Abstand voneinander s e i e n s e r i a l i s i e r t worden, n i c h t aber  Ill s e i das P r i n z i p ge&ndert oder auch nur v e r f e i n e r t worden, welches b i s h e r k a t e g o r i s c h LOcher von Punkten, Minus von P l u s , geschieden habe. K e i n Versuch s e i - zumindest i n der Instrumentalmusik - unternommen worden, den U n t e r s c h i e d zwischen Klang und N i c h t - K l a n g aufzuheben, der b i s h e r (mit wenigen Ausnahmen) d i e B a s i s der m u s i k a l i s c h e n Z e i t a r t i k u l a t i o n , des Rhythmus g e b i l d e t habe.^ Through the development and a p p l i c a t i o n o f the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , Nono has been a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between "Klang" and "Nicht-Klang." In the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f both I n c o n t r i and the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i , Nono e s t a b l i s h e s a s p e c i f i c s e r i e s o f numbers which he then employs as d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s . The d u r a t i o n o f a s i n g l e note i s determined  through m u l t i p l y -  i n g the b a s i c d u r a t i o n by the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e . Whenever p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s i n e f f e c t the composition can be reduced down t o a s p e c i f i c number o f continuous, u n i n t e r r u p t e d l i n e s and so, o b v i o u s l y , the aspect o f s i l e n c e o r "Nicht-Klang" i n t h i s state i s non-existent.  When the music i s transformed  back t o the s t a t e presented in-.the completed  score, the l e n g t h s  o f "Nicht-Klang" are c o n t r o l l e d by the same d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s as t h a t determining the s i n g l e note d u r a t i o n s . With both compositions,  i n order t o determine  6 Konrad Boehmer, "Uber L u i g i Nono," brochure S c h a l l p l a t t e n (Wer 60038), p. 3.  note  f o r Wergo  112  d u r a t i o n i n t h e s e c o n t i n u o u s l i n e s , the s e r i e s o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s are presented i n connection w i t h the p i t c h statements. When a new p i t c h o f the tone row appears, the n e x t d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e t a k e n from i t s s e r i e s i s u t i l i z e d .  The b a s i c  duration  o f t h i s new p i t c h i s o b v i o u s l y determined by the l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y t o which i t b e l o n g s .  The f o l l o w i n g example  i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s a t the openi n g o f the second movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i .  113  114 In studying Example 8,  i t can be  m u l t i p l e s e r i e s corresponding tone row  i s as  found t h a t the  to the f i r s t  duration  statement o f  the  follows:  P i t c h Number:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  Duration Multiple:  1  3  5  8  13  18  18  13  8  5  3  1  The palindrome s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t but t h i s i s as f a r as the symmetry o f m u l t i p l e p r e s e n t a t i o n goes.  Although each o f the remaining 28  multiple series presentations  3/4  c o n s i s t s o f numbers taken from  t h i s o r i g i n a l s e r i e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f these m u l t i p l e s w i t h i n each statement does not c o i n c i d e with any o v e r a l l g a n i z a t i o n a l system. reversed multiple  In f a c t no two  s e r i e s has  or-  the same or  ordering.  Nono's method o f o r d e r i n g the parameter o f d u r a t i o n i n t h i s movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i might b e s t be d e s c r i b e d one  as  o f continuous permutation, s i m i l a r to t h a t employed p r e -  viously in Liebeslied.  The  organization of duration i n  I n c o n t r i i s however more complex. In c o n s t r u c t i n g the number s e r i e s to be employed f o r the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e row  i n I n c o n t r i , Nono took the s i x d i f f e r e n t  numbers from the m u l t i p l e s e r i e s o f the p r e v i o u s work, t h a t i s ,  115 1-3-5-8-13-18, and added the terms 2-4-6-10-10-16.  This  r e s u l t e d i n the twelve term d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s 1-2-3-45-6-8-10-10-13-16-18.  The technique o f permutation i s again  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s work although more s t r i c t c o n t r o l s are p l a c e d on i t s use.  Each o f the 40 complete s e r i e s statements i n the  f i r s t h a l f o f the work i n c l u d e s every one o f the above twelve terms although the o r d e r i n g need not be the same. i s f o r the most p a r t f o l l o w e d s t r a n g e l y enough, there sentation.  This r u l e  throughout I n c o n t r i although  i s an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the f i r s t  pre-  116 Example 9.  Nono, I n c o n t r i , measures 1-4,  Incontri Luigi Nono  <3 Vo  t  In d;***r Pattitur */W otle Inttrummnf* ra not'%rt, rrt'm »<• kttngvn,  I C W Ar»VI»»VtrU( (Hemunn S<*tr<*tn) CmbH 1WI  117 In t h i s f i r s t  statement, 10-16-8-6-4-2-1-3-5-8-13-18, the  l a s t s i x terms correspond t o the f i r s t  s i x terms o f the dura-  t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s p r e s e n t e d p r e v i o u s l y f o r C a n t i per t r e d i c i w h i l e the f i r s t  s i x numbers o f t h i s I n c o n t r i p r e s e n t a t i o n are  the new m u l t i p l e s .  The i r r e g u l a r i t y o f t h i s statement i s t h a t  there i s a - d u p l i c a t i o n o f the m u l t i p l e 8 r a t h e r than the m u l t i p l e 10 which i s the case i n the other m u l t i p l e s e r i e s  ;  present-  a t i o n s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the work.  In examining the f o l l o w -  ing  complete d u r a t i o n  t a b l e which presents  the forty-one  p l e s e r i e s statements c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f o r t y - o n e  multi-  p i t c h row  r e p e t i t i o n s , i t w i l l become obvious t h a t the t h i r d p i t c h o f the  first  statement should have had the m u l t i p l e o f 10.  118 TABLE  3  S T A T E M E N T S OF DURATION M U L T I P L E S E R I E S I N T H E F I R S T H A L F OF I N C O N T R I  No.  Mm.  B  b  10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 10 6 4 2 1 3 5 8 13 18 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 2 18 4 13 6 1  C  C#  G  E  D  E  16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 2 3 8 18 10 10 4 1 5 13 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 10 2 5 18 12  8 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 6 3 15 10 1 13 16 2 8 10 4 5 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 3 10 13 2 10  4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 10 2 5 18 16 4 3 13 10 6 1 8 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 10 6 2 3 8  2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 4 13 6 8 10 5 16 3 10 1 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 10 16 10 6 4  1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 18 13 8 5 3 1 2 4 6 10 16 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 1 10 3 16 5  3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 14 6 13 5 1 4 10 10 17 8 3 2 6 16 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 8 1 6 10 6  4 5 4 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 6 3 18 10 1  b  F  A  B  A  5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 10 8 2 16 13 1 10 18 2 6 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 4 8 16 1 8  8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 4 8 16 1 18 6 5 10 2 13 10 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 5 4 10 8 2  13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 8 1 6 10 11 3 4 16 18 5 2 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 13 5 1 4 4  18' " 135- |  b  1 10-  16-11 3^ 10— 2— 1 10 3 16 3 10 8 6 13 4 18 2 10j-  16-1  10218j 12-J 5-  4-1 8 — i; 118 13 8 5 1  119 In  T a b l e 3 the b l a c k and r e d l i n e s denote d i r e c t and r e t r o g r a d e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s p e c t i v e l y and these, through t h e i r employment, d i v i d e the 41 statements i n t o t h r e e groups o f twelve w i t h f i v e complete p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t the end. c h a r t , i n the opening group,  As can be seen from t h i s  statements numbered 7 through 12  p r e s e n t r e t r o g r a d e forms o f s e r i e s 1 through 6, and i n t u r n every remaining d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i can be r e l a t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r by r e t r o g r a d e t o t h i s s e t o f twelve statements. The d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s o f statement number 13 correspond e x a c t l y t o those p r e s e n t e d by the s e r i e s formed from the f i r s t m u l t i p l e o f each o f the statements 1 through 12.  In the same  manner, the next e l e v e n m u l t i p l e statements, t h a t i s numbers 14 through 24, are r e l a t e d t o the m u l t i p l e s e r i e s p r e s e n t e d by each o f the remaining eleven p i t c h e s o f the f i r s t group.  Mul-  t i p l e statements 25 t o 36 are r e t r o g r a d e forms o f statements 1 to  12 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In the l a s t f i v e complete  statements, i n  s p i t e o f an i n c r e a s e d r a t e o f m u l t i p l e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ,  a dis-  t i n c t r e t r o g r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s ...between-these s e r i e s and statements 20 t o 24 as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s t a b l e . Thus through the method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n Table 3, a l l f o r t y - o n e d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e statements were d e r i v ed from m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the s e r i e s  10-16-10-6-4-2-1-3-5-8-13-18.  I t i s t h i s s e r i e s o f numbers which was a l s o the c o n t r o l l i n g  120 f a c t o r i n the placement o f double bar l i n e s throughout f i r s t h a l f of I n c o n t r i .  As has  the  a l r e a d y been mentioned,  measure l e n g t h o f the segments c r e a t e d by these bar  the  lines  correspond t o terms taken from the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s . A t separate  p o i n t s i n the f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i Nono  makes three sudden a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h i s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d system o f d u r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . it  Although the r e s u l t i s known  i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine whether changes were made i n  the p a t t e r n o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n s or d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s . a t measure 49 and  c o n t i n u i n g t o the middle o f the work, each  note on the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y employing b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1. i s twice as l o n g as i t should be 6  Likewise  the according  to the system o f d u r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a t the b e g i n n i n g composition.  Starting  of  the  the d u r a t i o n o f notes on the continuous  l i n e s i n v o l v i n g the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s o f 1 and 5 measures 66 and 98 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1_ are doubled a t 6  Whether the b a s i c  durations  o r d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s were doubled i s i n e f f e c t i r r e l e v a n t . The  s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t t o note i s t h a t f o r reasons about which  one  can o n l y s p e c u l a t e , Nono f e l t the need or d e s i r e to modify  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system e s t a b l i s h e d to c o n t r o l the presentation-, o f a s p e c i f i c parameter throughout the work.  This i s just  one  o f a number o f examples which w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s paper where a system i s set up and i n some cases abandoned  then e v e n t u a l l y e i t h e r m o d i f i e d  completely.  or  121 The parameter  o f dynamics i n the second movement o f  C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i i s not s t r i c t l y o r g a n i z e d .  As  can be seen i n viewing Examples 8 and'9, each s i n g l e p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n o f both C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i i s g i v e n i t s own  dynamic i n d i c a t i o n although these i n d i v i d u a l dynamic l e v e l s  are  not determined or c o n t r o l l e d i n e i t h e r composition by an  o v e r a l l system o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  In both works, o n l y s i x d i f -  f e r e n t dynamic i n d i c a t i o n s , f f f , f, mf,  mp,  p and ppp,  are  u t i l i z e d and t h e i r method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n might b e s t be s c r i b e d as one o f continuous permutation.  Of the 29  de-  3/4  dynamic s e r i e s p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the tone  row  r e p e t i t i o n s i n the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i  no  two dynamic l e v e l  statements are i n any way  related.  This i s  s i m i l a r l y the case w i t h the 41 row statements o f I n c o n t r i .  In both the second movement o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i  and  I n c o n t r i , c e r t a i n techniques o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which were found i n i t i a l l y i n L i e b e s l i e d are employed and developed t o a f u r t h e r extent.  P o s s i b l y the most obvious example o f t h i s i s the aspect  of the palindrome.  Although palindrome s t r u c t u r e s were u t i l i z -  ed i n L i e b e s l i e d t o a c e r t a i n degree, they are employed more  122  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the two works d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Not o n l y does the o v e r a l l form o f b o t h compositions make use of palindrome c o n s t r u c t i o n s b u t a l s o the palindrome i s e v i d e n t i n the tone row s t r u c t u r e o f C a n t i per t r e d i c i ,  i n the arrange-  ment o f the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n I n c o n t r i as w e l l as i n the o r d e r i n g o f the f i r s t d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s o f the second movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i . As was the case i n L i e b e s l i e d , the parameter  of pitch  i n these two works i s n o t o r g a n i z e d i n the complex manner p u t forward by the post-Viennese movement.  Although complete  rows are c l e a r l y e v i d e n t and repeated i n a more o r l e s s  tone  strict  manner, (which was not so i n L i e b e s l i e d ) , o n l y the o r i g i n a l and q u a s i r e t r o g r a d e forms o f the s e r i e s i s employed.  This  tends t o support the i d e a p u t forward i n Chapter I I t h a t Nono's prime concern i n o r d e r i n g the parameter  o f p i t c h was  merely t o ensure even d i s t r i b u t i o n . The technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y which was employed i n i t i a l l y  i n s e l e c t e d segments o f L i e b e s l i e d i s found without  i n t e r r u p t i o n throughout both I n c o n t r i and the second movement of  Canti per t r e d i c i .  I t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a much more complex  form i n these two works and i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system o f d u r a t i o n . is  still  The aspect o f continuous permutation  i n e f f e c t with the o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n i n both C a n t i  per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i , however, other more s p e c i f i c mining f a c t o r s are a l s o e v i d e n t .  deter-  T h i s i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n  I n c o n t r i where the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s are employed t o a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l method.  according  I t i s i n con-  n e c t i o n w i t h the o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n t h a t one o f the e a r l i e s t examples can be found where Nono m o d i f i e s l i s h e d system o f parametric  organization.  a previously  estab-  124  CHAPTER IV IL  CANTO SOSPESO  A f t e r completing I n c o n t r i , Nono composed I I Canto sospeso which i s scored f o r soprano, a l t o and tenor s o l o i s t s , mixed chorus and o r c h e s t r a . the  Westdeutschen  Rundfunks and c r e a t e d d u r i n g 1955 and the  f i r s t p a r t o f 1956. performance  T h i s work was commissioned by  I l Canto sospeso was g i v e n i t s premiere  i n Cologne on October 24, 1956 w i t h Hermann  Scherchen conducting" " and p u b l i s h e d i n the f o l l o w i n g year 1  by A r s V i v a V e r l a g o f Mainz. On i n i t i a l viewing, one b a s i c q u a l i t y o f the score o f I l Canto sospeso which becomes e v i d e n t i s t h a t o f i t s complexity.  In Chapter I, i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t through the n i n e -  teen- f i f t i e s Nono's compositions became i n c r e a s i n g l y more comp l e x both r h y t h m i c a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y ' while a t the same time the  o r c h e s t r a l d e n s i t y was l i k e w i s e expanded.  i s apparent as L i e b e s l i e d , C a n t i per t r e d i c i , Canto sospeso a r e s t u d i e d i n s u c c e s s i o n .  This  development  I n c o n t r i and I I  With I I Canto sospeso,  "'"Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Musik i n Gesc h i c h t e und Gegenwart, IX (1961), c o l . 1555.  the score has become so complex t h a t due t o the r e s u l t i n g t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n i t s execution, Nono has had c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e i n a r r a n g i n g performances o f t h i s work. I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX  Orchestra Chorus a c a p p e l l a Soprano, A l t o and Tenor S o l o i s t s with Orchestra Orchestra Tenor S o l o and Orchestra Chorus and Orchestra Soprano Solo, Female C h o i r and O r c h e s t r a Orchestra Chorus and Tympani  Through the employment o f fermate and other d i r e c t i o n s i n the score, Nono i n d i c a t e s t h a t the above d i v i s i o n s are grouped t o gether i n t o s u c c e s s i v e s e c t i o n s o f four, three and two movements . The  s u b j e c t o f I I Canto sospeso, i s , a c c o r d i n g t o the  composer, " L ' i n t o l e r a n c e du monde contemporain," employed are taken  3  and the t e x t s  from the c o l l e c t i o n L e t t e r e d i condannati  a  morte d e l l a r e s i s t e n z a europa which was p u b l i s h e d i n I t a l y i n 4 1954.  Nono uses nine fragments o f l a s t l e t t e r s o f r e s i s t a n c e  "Meyer Glickman, "New Sounds Amid O l d , " M u s i c a l C o u r i e r , CLXIII (June, 1961), p. 16. 3  Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 4 L e t t e r e d i condannati a morte d e l l a r e s i s t e n z a europa ( T u r i n : E d i z i o n i G u i l i o E i n a u d i , 1954)  126  f i g h t e r s who were condemned t o death by Germany d u r i n g World War I I . II ". . .muoio er un mondo che splendera" con l u c e t a n t o f o r t e con t a l e b e l l e z z a che i l mio s t e s s o s a c r i f i c i o non e n u l l a . Per esso sono m o r t i m i l i o n i d i uomini s u l l e b a r r i c a t e e i n g u e r r a . Muoio p e r l a g i u s t i z i a . Le n o s t r e idee vinceranno..."  III "...mi portano a K e s s a r i a n i p e r l ' e s e c u z i o n e insieme a a l t r i s e t t e . Muoio p e r l a l i b e r t a e per l a p a t r i a . . . " "...oggi c i f u c i l e r a n n o . Moriamo da uomini p e r l a patria. S i a t e degni d i n o i . . . " "...m'impiccheranno n e l l a p i a z z a perche sono p a t r i o t a . Tuo f i g l i o se ne va, non sentira* l e campane d e l l a l i b e r t a ..."  V "...se i l c i e l o f o s s e c a r t a e t u t t i i mari d e l mondo i n c h i o s t r o non p o t r e i d e s c r i v e r v i l e mie s o f f e r e n z e e t u t t o c i S che vedo i n t o r n o a me. Dico addio a t u t t i e piango..."  VI " . . . l e p o r t e s'aprono. E c c o l i i n o s t r i a s s a s s i n i . V e s t i t i d i nero. C i c a c c i a n o d a l l a sinagoga. Com'e* duro d i r e addio p e r sempre a l i a v i t a cosx b e l l a ! "  VII "...addio mamma, t u a f i g l i a Liubka se ne va n e l l ' umida t e r r a . . . "  127 IX "...non ho paura d e l l a morte..." "...saro calmo e t r a n q u i l l o d i f r o n t e a l p l o t o n e d i e s e c u z i o n e . Sono c o s i t r a n q u i l l i c o l o r o che c i hanno condannato?..." "...vado con l a fede i n una v i t a m i g l i o r e per voi..." 5  The q u a l i t y o f immortal f a i t h and courage i l l u s t r a t e d by these fragments suggests two p o s s i b l e meanings f o r the somewhat ambiguous t i t l e o f t h i s composition which t r a n s l a t e d i s "suspended song":  not o n l y i s t h e i r song c u t s h o r t by execu-  t i o n but a l s o i t s message may  continue f o r e v e r .  These  l e t t e r s chosen by Nono were a l l w r i t t e n by young people, i n c l u d i n g a B u l g a r i a n t e a c h e r and j o u r n a l i s t , two students and a h a i r d r e s s e r from Greece, a f o u r t e e n year o l d P o l i s h  farmboy,  women from the U.S.S.R., an I t a l i a n t y p e s e t t e r and a female l a b o u r e r from Germany. "a t u t t i  I l Canto sospeso i s d e d i c a t e d  loro."  The tone row u t i l i z e d i n I I Canto sospeso i s the same as t h a t found i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i :  5 A t r a n s l a t i o n o f the t e x t can be found i n the Appendix. 6 R e g i n a l d Smith B r i n d l e , "Current C h r o n i c l e : I t a l y , " M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , XLVII (1961), p. 248.  128  1  2  A  B  3 A  b  4  5 B  b  6 G  7 C  8 F#  9 D#  F  10  11  12  D  E  E  b  \/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ m2  M2  m3  M3  P4  T  P4  T h i s symmetrical a l l - i n t e r v a l row  M3  m3  M2  m2  i s employed throughout  I l Canto sospeso i n v a r y i n g degrees.  In movements where the  s e r i e s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d , the method o f o r d e r i n g i s very s i m i l a r t o t h a t seen i n both C a n t i per and  Incontri.  Techniques common to the  tredici  " c l a s s i c a l " Viennese  twelve-tone school i n c l u d i n g row-form v a r i a t i o n are  neglected,  the o r i g i n a l p i t c h s e r i e s b e i n g  In  movements o f the composition,  s t r i c t l y repeated.  the tone row  other  i s hardly discern-  able, w i t h the parameter o f p i t c h b e i n g q u i t e unordered. Various  l e v e l s o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n between these two  extremes  a l s o e x i s t and w i l l be examined f u r t h e r w i t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f each i n d i v i d u a l movement. Of the f i v e compositions examined by t h i s study, technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y assumes the g r e a t e s t n i f i c a n c e i n I I Canto sospeso.  from b e g i n n i n g  sig-  T h i s technique i s employed i n  v a r y i n g degrees throughout the work r a t h e r than b e i n g ed c o n t i n u o u s l y  the  to end.  present-  In f a c t , i n c e r t a i n  129 sections i t i s scarcely v i s i b l e .  Polytimbral continuity i s  o f g r e a t e s t s t r u c t u r a l importance i n movements I I , IV, V, VI B and V I I and f o r t h i s reason p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n these movements w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l . Movement I I Of the n i n e movements i n I I Canto sospeso, more has been w r i t t e n on the second than any o t h e r movement.  In 1958  K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen had p u b l i s h e d i n Darmstadter B e i t r a g e 7 zur neuen Musik, the a r t i c l e  "Sprache und Musik"  which included  a c o n t r o v e r s i a l and y e t i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t i a l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s movement.  S i n c e then a number o f t h e o r i s t s have w r i t t e n about  the second movement i n c l u d i n g Reginald Smith B r i n d l e whose e f f o r t s t o e l u c i d a t e on the matter o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f dura-  g t i o n have been f a r from complete.  As a r e s u l t o f these numer-  ous a n a l y s e s , the second movement o f I I Canto sospeso i s probabl y the most c e l e b r a t e d i n a n a l y t i c l i t e r a t u r e o f any o f Nono's works. The second movement i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s o f 34 and 16 measures i n l e n g t h r e s p e c t i v e l y : 7 K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen, "Sprache und Musik," Darmstadter B e i t r g q e zur neuen Musik, (1958), pp. 57-81. T r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by Ruth Koenig and r e p u b l i s h e d as "Speech and Music," Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 40-64. 8 R e g i n a l d Smith B r i n d l e , "Current C h r o n i c l e : I t a l y , " M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , XLVII (1961), pp. 247-255 and S e r i a l Compos i t i o n (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), pp. 163-167.  130  Section 1 Section 2  -  measures 108 t o 141 measures 142 t o 157  These s e c t i o n s are d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the parameter o f d u r a t i o n as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  later.  In t h i s movement, the parameter o f p i t c h i s s t r i c t l y controlled.  In a manner i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t employed i n both  C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i / the tone row i s c o n t i n u a l l y repeated  i n i t s o r i g i n a l form only, with no t r a n s p o s i t i o n s / as  can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g example.  131 Example 1.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 108-119.  132 The  order o f p i t c h appearance c o i n c i d e s with the o r d e r i n g  the tone row  i n every statement.  There are f i f t e e n s e r i e s  statements i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n while are o n l y four p r e s e n t a t i o n s . which p r e s e n t s cases any  i n s e c t i o n two  As can be  the opening measures o f the movement, i n most  v o i c e a t a time.  presented  This p r a c t i c e i s followed  throughout the movement with o n l y two measure 108  there  seen i n Example 1  s p e c i f i c p i t c h w i t h i n aV.row statement i s  by o n l y one  of  irregularities:  the E-sharp i s doubled; while  (1) i n  (2) i n measure  110  there i s a d u p l i c a t i o n of C n a t u r a l . The  technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s a p p l i e d  throughout t h i s movement and v i a t h i s procedure. employed and  every note can be accounted f o r  There are f o u r separate,  each o f these has  continuous  a different basic  The u n i t beat i s d i v i d e d by the numbers 2,  duration.  3, 4 and  5 to create  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s o f _1, 1, 1, and :1_ r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 3 4 5  This i s  the g r e a t e s t number o f d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s p r e s e n t any one work up to t h i s p o i n t i n Nono's c o m p o s i t i o n a l ment.  lines  within  develop-  In the f o u r compositions examined so f a r the number o f  basic durations i v e l y by one.  employed w i t h i n each work has  increased  success-  In L i e b e s l i e d o n l y one b a s i c d u r a t i o n , 1, was 4 u t i l i z e d , i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i 1_ and 1. were found and l a t e r i n 3 5 I n c o n t r i , three b a s i c d u r a t i o n s 1, 1 and 1 were employed. 4 5 6  133 The  four l i n e s of polytimbral c o n t i n u i t y i n t h i s  second movement are p r e s e n t e d i n the manner i l l u s t r a t e d by Example 2 i n which the b l a c k , blue,  green and r e d markings  i n d i c a t e continuous l i n e s h a v i n g the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s 1, 1 and _1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 3 4 5  o f _1, 2  134 Example  2.  Nono,  Il  Canto  sospeso,  measures  108-119.  135 In the p r e s e n t a t i o n one  o f these l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity,  i r r e g u l a r i t y can be found and t h i s i s p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t  o f an e r r o r i n the process o f p u b l i c a t i o n . Example 2, the note D-natural  As can be seen i n  presented by the second bass a t  the end o f measure 109 has two d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s , _1 5 and 1_. In order t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the other notes found w i t h i n 3 t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l i n e , the note i n q u e s t i o n should have the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f _1 o n l y . 5 Within  each o f the p o l y t i m b r a l  l i n e s i n d i v i d u a l notes  are p r e s e n t e d without v e r t i c a l d u p l i c a t i o n . ions t o t h i s r u l e are e v i d e n t and  Only two except-  and these occur i n measures 108  110 where, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, p i t c h e s are doubled.  In comparing the score o f t h i s movement with t h a t o f both C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i , i t i s most apparent t h a t the q u a l i t y o f p o i n t i l l i s m i s not as predominant now as was the case i n the e a r l i e r works.  T h i s has had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the  technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y .  In the two p r e v i o u s  com-  p o s i t i o n s , no v o i c e presented any more than one p i t c h i n sue- -; c e s s i o n and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a r a p i d change i n timbre. movement o f I I Canto sospeso, v o i c e s  In t h i s  f r e q u e n t l y have a number  o f d i f f e r e n t notes i n a row and as a r e s u l t , timbre no longer v a r i e s as q u i c k l y .  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the  second s e c t i o n o f the movement, measures 142 t o 157. The  arrangement o f the v a r i o u s  lines of polytimbral  c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n the movement i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g :  F i g u r e 6.—  M 2a sv  ir<2S J .0  3  tc  u  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l i n Movement I I o f I I Canto sospeso  Continuity  L5 7  1  tit  >  Jit  Ub  m  1  B a s i c Durations:  =_1, 5  =1,  4  -1. 3  2  m  137 T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s d e f i n e s somewhat the two  s e c t i o n s o f the movement.  s e c t i o n , t h a t i s , measures 108 continuously  employed.  o f l i n e entrances and drome p a t t e r n .  Throughout the  to 141,  first  a l l four l i n e s  In the second s e c t i o n , the  ordering  e x i t s i s c l e a r l y fashioned on a p a l i n -  As can be  seen i n the above i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  sequence b l a c k - b l u e - g r e e n - r e d  The  the  which i n d i c a t e s the b a s i c dura-  t i o n o f each s u c c e s s i v e l i n e e n t r y i s reversed when the order o f l i n e  are  determining  termination.  technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n I I Canto  sospeso has  the same f u n c t i o n s as were d i s c u s s e d i n  with both C a n t i per t r e d i c i and technique p r o v i d e o f sound and  Incontri.  Not  connection  o n l y does t h i s  a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  ordering  t h a t o f a s i l e n c e but a l s o , through the employment  o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c note i s e s t a b l i s h e d . p i t c h succession tone row;  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the o r d e r i n g o f  c o i n c i d e s with the o r d e r i n g o f the  as each p i t c h i n the row  i s due  original  to be presented  i s given t o whichever p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e i s next a v a i l a b l e . each l i n e has  a d i f f e r e n t basic duration,  i t i s this  it As  technique  o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y which i s the c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n the determination As was  o f a note's b a s i c  duration.  the case i n both C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i ,  138 the system o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the parameter o f d u r a t i o n has two main components:  b a s i c d u r a t i o n and d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e .  While the former i s c o n t r o l l e d through the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , the l a t t e r i s determined through the employment o f a s t r u c t u r e d p a t t e r n o f number s e r i e s presented i n c l o s e connection w i t h the tone row statements. In c r e a t i n g the number s e r i e s t o be employed as d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s , Nono uses the f i r s t  s i x terms o f the F i b o n a c c i num-  b e r s and i t i s p o s s i b l y t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n o f such an i n t r i g u i n g number sequence t h a t i n s p i r e d t h e o r i s t s t o choose t o analyze and w r i t e about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r movement r a t h e r than any o f the other such s i m i l a r l y organized movements o f I I Canto sospeso. In 1202, an I t a l i a n mathematician Leonardo o f P i s a , b e t ter  known b y the name F i b o n a c c i , wrote L i b e r a b a c i , a compre-  hensive work c o n t a i n i n g almost a l l o f the a r i t h m e t i c and a l g e 9 b r a i c knowledge o f t h a t day.  I t was i n the L i b e r a b a c i  that  the sequence 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, ... was f i r s t mentioned; a sequence i n which each term i s the sum o f the two p r e c e d i n g terms. tially  T h i s sequence which was i n i -  employed by Leonardo t o s o l v e a problem i n v o l v i n g r a b b i t  r e p r o d u c t i o n has s i n c e become known as the F i b o n a c c i sequence 9 N.N. Vorobyov, The F i b o n a c c i Numbers. T r a n s l a t e d by Norman D. Whaland, J r . , and Olga A. Titelbaum (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1963), p . 1.  139 10 and i t s terms, the F i b o n a c c i numbers. The systems o f p r o p o r t i o n a p p l i e d t o the parameters o f most t o n a l music have been based p r i m a r i l y on two simple series:  (1) the g e o m e t r i c a l  series 1,  2, 4, 8, 16,  the a r i t h m e t i c a l s e r i e s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ...  number  ... and (2)  In  developing  h i s systems f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the parameter o f d u r a t i o n , Nono has avoided  employing these two s e r i e s .  A l t h o u g h Nono has u t i l i z e d  the F i b o n a c c i numbers i n o n l y one i n s t a n c e , t h a t b e i n g second movement o f I I Canto sospeso, on other occasions  this he has  used sequences which have d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s i n common with the F i b o n a c c i sequence.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the F i b o n a c c i  sequence i s c l a s s i f i e d as a r e c u r s i v e sequence, t h a t i s , a sequence i n which each term i s d e f i n e d as a c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n o f the p r e c e d i n g  terms.  As w i l l be seen, Nono has employed r e -  c u r s i v e sequences i n s e v e r a l systems o f d u r a t i o n  organization.  Nono's concept o f a p p l y i n g F i b o n a c c i numbers i n the o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n i n the second movement o f I I Canto sospeso i s by no means unique s i n c e numerous composers  i n the  twentieth-  century have employed t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sequence f o r the purpose 11 : o f parametric  o r g a n i z a t i o n . Through the w r i t i n g s o f Erno Lendvai..  "*"^Ibid, pp.  3-4.  "'""'"Including Ernfl Lendvai, " I n t r o d u c t i o n aux formes e t harmonies b a r t o k i e n n e s , " Bartok: sa v i e e t son oeuvre. E d i t e d by Bence S z a b o l c s i (Budapest: Corvina, 1956), pp. 88-136 and B e l a Bartok: an A n a l y s i s o f H i s S t y l e (London: Kahn and Ave:-:', r i l l , 1971).  140 B e l a Bartok's apparent use o f the F i b o n a c c i sequence and the mean p r o p o r t i o n a l o f the golden s e c t i o n which i s determined .  1  2  from F i b o n a c c i numbers  . i n a r r a n g i n g v a r i o u s parameters i n  a c e r t a i n number o f h i s works, has become w e l l known.  Working  p r i m a r i l y i n West B e r l i n , B o r i s B l a c h e r d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n 13 f i f t i e s developed a system o f v a r i a b l e meters. In Ornamente f u r K l a v i e r d a t i n g from 1950, he employs terms from the F i b o n 14 a c c i sequence t o determine the v a r i o u s meters.  Ernst  Krenek  has "used the terms o f the F i b o n a c c i s e r i e s from 2 t o 21 t o determine the speed zones i n a r e c e n t o r c h e s t r a l composition 15 e n t i t l e d Q u a e s t i o temporis" and these numbers a l s o p l a y a . 16 s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e i n h i s work F i b o n a c c i - M o b i l e . I t i s a l s o most i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Nono's c o l l e a g u e K a r l h e i n12 z Stockhausen was  employing terms from the F i b o n a c c i  N.N. Vorobyov, The F i b o n a c c i Numbers (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1963), p. 40. 13 E.B. C a r l s o n , A B i o - B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f Twelve-Tone and S e r i a l Composers (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1970), pp. 47-48. 14 Howard E. Smither, "The Rhythmic A n a l y s i s o f Twentieth-Century Music," J o u r n a l o f Music Theory, V I I I (Spring, 1964), p. 82-83. 15 E r n s t Krenek, "Extents and L i m i t s o f S e r i a l T e c h n i ques, " i n Problems o f Modern Music. E d i t e d by P.H. Land (New York: W.W. Norton, 1960), p. 92. ~^W. Ogdon, " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h E r n s t Krenek," P e r s p e c t i v e s o f New Music, X (Spring-Summer, 1972), p. 106.  141  sequence i n K l a v i e r s t f l c k IX a t approximately the same time as Nono was composing  I I Canto sospeso.  The d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s f o r the f i r s t  section of  the second movement o f I I Canto sospeso i s formed from the first  s i x terms o f the F i b o n a c c i sequence arranged i n the  f o l l o w i n g manner:  1  2  3  5  8  13  13  8  5  3  2  1  These numbers, based on a palindrome s t r u c t u r e , are then employed as m u l t i p l e s t o determine the d u r a t i o n o f the f i r s t twelve notes o f the movement, t h a t i s , the f i r s t tone row statement.  142 Example 3.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 108-109.  N9 2  par Sfer  - to  un  S i m i l a r t o the p i t c h o r d e r i n g , t h i s d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s i s s t r i c t l y presented  c o i n c i d i n g p r e c i s e l y with the  o f the palindrome p a t t e r n presented  above.  mentioned, there are f i f t e e n tone row one  and  ordering  As has been a l r e a  statements i n s e c t i o n  l i k e w i s e t h e r e are the same number o f d u r a t i o n mul-  t i p l e series presentations. m u l t i p l e statements has  Each o f the remaining  the same content  fourteen  as the f i r s t s e r i e s  although the o r d e r i n g o f m u l t i p l e appearance i s m o d i f i e d t i n u a l l y as can be  con-  seen through examining the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  143 TABLE 4 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN THE FIRST SECTION OF MOVEMENT I I OF IL CANTO SOSPESO  '^No. 1 |U 2 —3 _4 —5 — 6 — 7 _8 — 9 -10 -11 -12 13 14 15  Mm!  A  B  b  108-110 1 2 110-112 2 3 112-114 3 5 114-117 5 8 117-119 8 13 119-121 13 13 121-123 13 8 123-125 8 5 125-127 5 3 128-130 3 2 130-132 2 1 132-135 1 1 135-137 2 3 137-139 3 5 139-142 5 8  A  b  3 5 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 5 8 13  b  B  G  C  F#  c#  F  D  E  E  5 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 8 13 13  8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 13 13 8  13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 8 5  13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 8 5 3  8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 5 3 2  5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 3 2 1  3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 2 1 1  2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 2 1 1 2  1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 3 3 1 2 3  From Table 4 which p r e s e n t s the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s as they appear t o g e t h e r w i t h the tone row statements, i t can be seen t h a t m u l t i p l e statements 2 through 15 have the same s u c c e s s i o n o f numbers as statement 1, although the statements commence on d i f f e r e n t terms.  The o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t y t o t h i s i s found i n  statement 12 where the l a s t two terms are r e v e r s e d , p o s s i b l y as the r e s u l t o f a p r i n t e r ^ s v e r r o r .  As each s u c c e s s i v e i n i t i a l  m u l t i p l e o f statements 1 through 12 c o i n c i d e s w i t h the o r d e r i n g o f statement 1, t h i s r e s u l t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d  144 i n the t a b l e :  the f i r s t twelve h o r i z o n t a l number rows are  i d e n t i c a l t o the r e s p e c t i v e twelve v e r t i c a l rows.  With s t a t e -  ment number 13, Nono s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e s t h i s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d pattern o f entrances.  While i t might have been expect-  ed t h a t the s e r i e s would again commence on the m u l t i p l e 1 and thus repeat the p a t t e r n o f statement 1, Nono avoids t h i s repet i t i o n by s k i p p i n g t o a s e r i e s s t a r t i n g w i t h the m u l t i p l e 2. Again, here i s an example o f where the composer f e l t  i t nece-  s s a r y t o modify an otherwise symmetrical, l o g i c a l system o f ordering. Although t h i s system o f m u l t i p l e s does g e n e r a l l y determine the d u r a t i o n o f notes i n the f i r s t  section, i t i s  not a system o f t o t a l c o n t r o l s i n c e Nono s t i l l has a l i m i t e d amount o f freedom  i n i t s application.  from two o r more p o l y t i m b r a l  T h i s occurs when notes  l i n e s end a t the same time.  145 Example 4.  Nono, I I Canto sospeso, measure 126.  il  a  o  at  o  In measure 126, notes from the l i n e s having the b a s i c durat i o n s o f _1 and 1 both terminate a t the end o f the f i r s t 3 beat.  unit  5  As a r e s u l t , Nono can choose t o which p o l y t i m b r a l  the next two m u l t i p l e s , 3 and 5, w i l l be  lines  applied.  The d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s f o r the second h a l f o f the movement i s c o n s t r u c t e d from the same s i x F i b o n a c c i numbers but they are now  r e v e r s e d t o form a d i f f e r e n t palindrome  structure: 13  8  5  3  2  1  1  2  3  5  8  13  146 F o r the  f i r s t time i n any  system o f d u r a t i o n  organization  examined so f a r i n t h i s study, the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s i s presented completely by one h o r i z o n t a l l i n e o f continuity. the order  The  polytimbral  s e r i e s i s no longer employed v e r t i c a l l y with  o f appearance c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the p i t c h s e r i e s  statements. In t h i s second s e c t i o n each l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l u i t y presents  one  contin-  complete statement o f the above s e r i e s o n l y .  These l i n e s are so arranged t h a t the c e n t r a l p o i n t o f each s e r i e s statement occurs a t approximately the same p o i n t . Example 5.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 145-150.  147 As a r e s u l t o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p a l i n d r o m i c m u l t i p l e s e r i e s a l l o w i n g each o f the f o u r l i n e s t o reach i t s midpoint a t approximately the same time, t h e r e i s an ordered i n c r e a s e and decrease i n note a c t i v i t y throughout the second  section.  There are no m u l t i p l e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o r simultaneous note commencements and thus t h i s system c o n t r o l s completely the parameter  o f d u r a t i o n i n the second s e c t i o n o f the move-  ment . In t h i s second movement o f I I Canto sospeso t h e r e i s not, f o r the parameter  o f dynamics,  an o v e r a l l system o f  organization applied either i n conjunction with p i t c h  appear-  ance o r w i t h the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y ,  even  though each note i n the movement has i t s own dynamic i n d i c a tion.  In h i s a n a l y s i s , K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen  suggests ."that  each o f the twelve p i t c h e s r e c e i v e s a d i f f e r e n t  intensity  17 whenever i t r e c u r s .  He does n o t however prove  conclusively  t h a t t h i s i s i n f a c t the case, o r f o r t h a t matter, t h a t t h e r e was any i n t e n t by Nono t o o r d e r the parameter any manner.  o f dynamics i n  By t h i s p o i n t i n Stockhausen' s a r t i c l e ,  the:, reader  may be somewhat s c e p t i c a l o f the a n a l y s i s s i n c e Nono, by the time the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n appeared, had informed  Stockhausen  17 K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen, "Speech and Music," by Ruth Koenig, Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 52-53.  translated  148 t h a t h i s b a s i c p o i n t o f the e x i s t e n c e  of s e r i a l  vocal  s t r u c t u r e i n t h i s movement was i n c o r r e c t and m i s l e a d i n g .  18  Movement IV The  orchestra  i n the f o u r t h movement o f I I Canto  sospeso i s d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t groups. the; movement c e r t a i n wind and p e r c u s s i o n one  Throughout  instruments  l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y while the s t r i n g  present instru-  ments d u p l i c a t e s e l e c t e d p i t c h e s from t h i s continuous  I b i d , p. 49.  line.  149 Example 6.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 240-246.  150 As can be seen i n Example 6, a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s w i t h i n the l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i t s e l f there are note One n o t a b l e  doublings.  d i f f e r e n c e between these d u p l i c a t i o n s and those  of e a r l i e r compositions i n v o l v i n g p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s t h a t now o n l y d u r a t i o n i s doubled.  In; p r e v i o u s works both  d u r a t i o n and-'pitch were d u p l i c a t e d . While the p i t c h e s i n the s t r i n g s a r e i n t r o d u c e d  both  at the same time and i n the same r e g i s t e r s as t h e i r p o l y t i m b r a l counterparts  i n the winds and p e r c u s s i o n ,  the d u r a t i o n s  correspond.  These notes i n the s t r i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y  do not  sustained  f o r a longer p e r i o d o f time. In movement IV, there a r e a l s o four d i f f e r e n t b a s i c durations  employed.  o f 1, 1, 1 and 1^ as was found i n 2 3 4 5 the second movement, the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s a r e now 1, 1, 1 and 1 3 4 5 7 which a r e represented respectively.  Instead  by the c o l o u r s b l u e , green, r e d and b l a c k  The b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f the l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l  c o n t i n u i t y which runs throughout t h i s movement, r a t h e r than r e maining constant, following pattern:  i s changed p e r i o d i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g  t o the  Figure  7 . — Arrangement o f B a s i c Durations f o r the L i n e o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement IV o f I l Canto sospeso  1  -  J  —  >  >  -4-1  1  23.  B a s i c Durations:  1  H —  *  -  r  2*3  2M*  r  =1_/—— =1_, 7 5  =1, 4  =1. 3  152 In  v i e w i n g F i g u r e 7 i t can be seen t h a t the arrangement o f  b a s i c d u r a t i o n s i s based on a palindrome  structure.  The technique o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s movement i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f I n c o n t r i and movement I I o f I l Canto sospeso, i n t h a t one number s e r i e s i s employed throughout  the movement, w i t h each statement f o l l o w i n g the o r d e r i n g  of  the s e r i e s although the s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s never the same.  The d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s o f movement IV i s formed  from  the  f i r s t twelve terms o f the simple a r i t h m e t i c s e r i e s and  the  first  statement i s as f o l l o w s :  4, 8, 10, 5.  11, 2, 1, 9, 7, 12, 6, 3,  With each o f the remaining seven and o n e - h a l f  statements t h i s s u c c e s s i o n o f m u l t i p l e s i s p r e s e n t although every statement commences w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  term.  153 TABLE 5 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN MOVEMENT IV OF IL CANTO SOSPESO  No. Mm.  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  1  240-246 11  2  1  9  7 12  6  3  4  8 10  2  246-251  5 11  2  1  9  7 12  6  3  4  3  252-256  4  8 10  5 11  2  1  9  7  12  6  3  4  257-260 10  5 11  2  1  9  7 12  6  3  4  8  5  260-263  9  7 12  6  3  4  8 10  5  11  2  1  6  264-268  3  4  8 10  2  1  9  7 12  6  7  269-274  2  1  9  5 11  10 11 12  7 12  6  3  4  8  10  9  7 12  6  5  8 10  Basic Duration k 3 1 4 1 5 1  5 11  1  8  275-281  8 10  5 11  2  1  9  281-284  7 12  6  4  8  3  3  4  I] 7 1_ 5~" 1_ 4~  i3  As can be seen i n Table 5, the b a s i c d u r a t i o n changes a f t e r each complete m u l t i p l e s e r i e s statement of  (with the e x c e p t i o n  statement 4) and these b a s i c d u r a t i o n s a r e arranged  a c c o r d i n g t o a palindrome p a t t e r n . A l t h o u g h a t f i r s t g l a n c e t h e r e appears t o be no obvious system f o r determing on which m u l t i p l e the statements a r e t o commence, i f one examines the d i f f e r e n c e between each  initial  m u l t i p l e o f the s u c c e s s i v e s e r i e s statements, a d i s t i n c t pattern: becomes apparent:  154  Statement 1  First Multiple  Difference  11  2 3 4  10  5 6  7 8 9  These d i f f e r e n c e s form an a l t e r n a t i n g p a t t e r n with two terms, 6 and 1. entrances,  Thus there i s a symmetrical o r d e r i n g o f statement as was the case i n the second movement.  One s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s i s t h a t there are no i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the system o f m u l t i p l e o r d e r i n g and as a r e s u l t t h i s system c o n t r o l s  completely,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the parameter o f d u r a t i o n . The strictly.  parameter o f p i t c h i n t h i s movement i s n o t ordered Although the complete tone row i s presented' i n i t s  c o r r e c t order i n the f i r s t seven measures, i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are i n t r o d u c e d by the notes o f d u p l i c a t i o n o f the p o l y t i m b r a l  line.  These a d d i t i o n a l p i t c h e s are c i r c l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g example.  155  156 In the remainder o f the movement w h i l e there i s a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p i t c h e s , most statements are n o t s t r u c t ured. line  I t i s not u n t i l the l a s t twelve notes o f the p o l y t i m b r a l (notes  7 t o 12 o f statement 8 and notes 1 t o 6 o f statement  9) t h a t the o r d e r i n g o f the tone row again becomes apparent. S i m i l a r t o statement 1, a d d i t i o n a l p i t c h e s a r e a l s o  present.  Movement V In the f i f t h movement o f I I Canto sospeso, the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y p l a y s a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n than has been found i n any other examined so f a r i n t h i s study.  system  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p o l y t i m b r a l  c o n t i n u i t y t o the o r d e r i n g o f c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d parameters i s developed t o the most complex form t o be a t t a i n e d i n Nono s 1  compositions.  In the second s e c t i o n o f movement I I o f I I  Canto sospeso, the d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s was presented h o r i z o n t a l l y by each i n d i v i d u a l p o l y t i m b r a l  line.  T h i s has  been a new step f o r Nono s i n c e up t o t h a t time d u r a t i o n was ordered i n c l o s e connection row.  w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f the tone  In the f i f t h movement, t h i s new p r a c t i c e has been ex-  panded t o i n c l u d e other note v a r i a b l e s .  The parameters o f  p i t c h , d u r a t i o n and dynamics are now a l l organized, c l o s e l y the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity.  following  157 In t h i s movement every note can be accounted f o r through the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y .  There are  t h r e e p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s which run through the movement and they are arranged a c c o r d i n g t o the p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 8.  The b a s i c d u r a t i o n s f o r these l i n e s are 1, 1 and 4 5 JL which are r e p r e s e n t e d by the c o l o u r s green, r e d and b l u e 6 respectively.  8 . — Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l Movement V o f I I Canto sospeso  Figure  M  si  ir  .>8 5  i  tr i  i  R  I  211  V i  1  B a s i c Duration:  Continuity i n  =1,  6  =1,  5  =1.  4  Mi  CD  159  As might be expected,  the o r d e r i n g o f l i n e e n t r i e s  t e r m i n a t i o n s i s based on a palindrome The  and  pattern.  o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f these l i n e s i s , f o r the  first  time i n Nono's employment o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y ordered.  The  f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r e s e n t s the  u t i l i z e d by each o f the t h r e e  instruments  lines:  Red S o l o Tenor Vibraphone Marimba  Green  Blue  Solo V i o l i n I  Solo V i o l i n I Solo V i o l i n II Solo V i o l a Solo V c l . S o l o Cb. Harp I  Solo V i o l a Solo V c l . S o l o Cb. Harp I I  FI. Clar. I Ob. I Fg. I C l a r . basso  I  Ob. I Fg. I C l a r . basso Cor. I Tr. II Tr. I l l Tr. V  Tr. II Tr. I l l Tr. V Trb. I  Trb. II T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the next  example.  160 Example 8.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 290-293.  161 The  q u a l i t y o f p o i n t i l l i s m here i s much more evident  the case i n the second movement.  With the exception  than was o f the  s o l o tenor p a r t s o f the l i n e employing the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1., timbre once again changes q u i t e r a p i d l y w i t h i n a l i n e . 5 The  system o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  forpitch i n this  movement i s more complex than any other paper.  Whereas i n p r e v i o u s  fifth  examined i n t h i s  compositions the tone row g e n e r a l l y  was merely repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, t h i s i s no longer the case.  P i t c h o r d e r i n g now s t r i c t l y f o l l o w s the l i n e s o f  polytimbral continuity.  Each p o l y t i m b r a l  l i n e presents t e n  tone row statements and these are given i n the f o l l o w i n g table.  I t should be s t r e s s e d t h a t w i t h Table 6 the p i t c h e s  are s t a t e d i n order o f appearance w i t h i n each l i n e . TABLE 6 PITCH ORDERING WITHIN EACH OF THE THREE LINES OF POLYTIMBRAL CONTINUITY IN MOVEMENT V OF I L CANTO SOSPESO Green L i n e No. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10  E A A B A G b E F D  b  b  E  n  2  3  4  5  E B B C A C E F  D A F F# D  F B b E b  •C# G Bb A G G# D  b  b  c# c#  „ _, Order o f Appearance 6 8 9 10 11 7 LI  b  F  ft  B B G G  b  E  E  c#  A B B Ab b  c#  b E E  F# C C G# C B F F# D F#  C F# F# D F# F B C G# C  G C# E b C# D G# G A B E  b  B F G# B B A C# E E E b  b  b  A D G G B B F# D F# F b  b  B E C# bb F E C A C B  12  b  b  DF —I E E n G J A b  A -  162  Red  Line Order of Appearance  No.  1  1 2  A B A G b E F D b A  3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10  b  E  8  9  10  11  12  F# D F# F B C A C C F#  E b  G# B B A  G G B B F# D F# F G# D  c# c#  D F —1  F E C A C B B E  1 G J A -J B A — A -1 E J  9  10  11  12  G  B E B B G A B D B E  A D F F  A  3  B B A C E F  F F# D F# B B G G D G#  A B B A F B  3  4  5  6  7  8  e# G E D b F A F# F A  F B A A B B E b  C F# F# B F# G  F# C C E C  °8  G E G# A  B F D D# F E A A G B  b  E B  4  b  c# c#  E  7  2  b  E  5  b  E b E  c# Tb  6  B A G G# D b  c#  b E E  b  c#  G  C A C B F F# D F# F# C b  b  E  c#  D G# G A B G D*> b  b  ^  E E E B F  b  b  b  E  b  b  b  b  Blue L i n e Order o f Appearance No. 1 2 3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10  1 E  2  b  A A A A B E C B D  D A G F# B F# D B b b b  b  b  b  E E  E B  b  c#  C E C A F A A  b  E  b  b  b  b  E  c#  C  b  B D D  b  c#  b  b  b  °$ B b  G, A A b b  E  c#  C F  * The b r a c k e t s i n d i c a t e r e t r o g r a d e  b  b  c# b b  b b  D E A E A  1  E -i b  E  ^  D D b A G F# B b  E  b  relationships.  P o s s i b l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect o f these t h r e e s e t s o f o r d e r i n g s i s t h a t the p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f both the red  and  b l u e l i n e s are d i r e c t l y and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h a t o f the green l i n e .  The order o f p i t c h appearance i n the red l i n e  (with the e x c e p t i o n o f note 2 o f statement 2) i s an r e t r o g r a d e o f t h a t presented by the green l i n e .  The  exact pitch  o r g a n i z a t i o n of:.'the b l u e l i n e i s r e l a t e d t o t h a t o f the green  163 l i n e through i n v e r s i o n .  Each row statement i n the b l u e l i n e  i s an exact r e t r o g r a d e o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g statement o f the green l i n e , w i t h the o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h notes 7 and 8 o f statement 7 and notes 5 and 6 o f statement  10.  Through the two procedures o f r e t r o g r a d e and i n v e r s i o n , the p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r e d and b l u e l i n e s were d e r i v e d from t h a t o f the green  line.  As a r e s u l t o f these r e t r o g r a d e and i n v e r s i o n p i t c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o r d e r i n g s o f the t h r e e l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , t h e r e can be found i n t h i s movement the four d i f f e r e n t forms o f the tone row: grade, i n v e r s i o n and r e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n .  original,  retro-  The row i s p r e s e n t -  ed i n i t s o r i g i n a l form i n statements 2 and 10 o f the green and red l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y w h i l e the r e t r o g r a d e form i s p r e s e n t e d by statements 1 and 9 o f the green and r e d l i n e s Even more s i g n i f i c a n t ,  respectively.  statements 1 and 2 o f the b l u e l i n e  p r e s e n t s the r e t r o g r a d e - i n v e r s i o n and i n v e r s i o n forms o f the tone row.  T h i s i s the o n l y system o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n  stu-  d i e d i n t h i s paper i n which these four row forms are employed. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 6, r e t r o g r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s exi s t between the row statements w i t h i n a l l t h r e e l i n e s . o n l y one such r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i n the b l u e l i n e ,  While  within  the o t h e r two l i n e s the r e t r o g r a d e statement r e l a t i o n s h i p s are organized i n t o palindromic structures.  As the r e d l i n e i s a  164 m i r r o r o f the green, these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e v e r s e d a c c o r d ingly. In  f u r t h e r examining the p i t c h o r d e r i n g o f the green  l i n e i t can be seen t h a t w h i l e I I Canto sospeso's  principal  tone row i s employed i n statements 1 and 2, w i t h statements 3 through 10 i t i s no l o n g e r v i s i b l e . the i n t e r v a l l i c  In the f o l l o w i n g  s t r u c t u r e s o f statements  diagram  3 t o 6, which a r e o f  course r e v e r s e d t o form statements 7 t o 10, are p r e s e n t e d :  Statement  1  3  M2  I  2 T  3  4  M2  l  5 P4  6 M2  \  4  iM2  T  M2  P4  5  im2  T  m2j  M3  6  ,P4  T  P4,  P4 .m3  f  m2  f  l  P  4  7 T T  8  M2  i m  2  |  9  10  11  12  m2 I  T  M3 ' .-JM3  T  M3 ^  M3  m2  f  T  P4, m3  ,m2  T  m2,  T  m3, P4  ,m2  T  m2j  Although the a c t u a l p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f these f o u r s t a t e ments are not c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d , i t can be seen t h a t intervallic  s t r u c t u r e s are somewhat s i m i l a r .  Each  their  statement  i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h r e e groupings o f t h r e e i n v e r v a l s each, w i t h the remaining two i n t e r v a l s s e p a r a t i n g the groupings. The c e n t r a l i n t e r v a l o f each:>of these groupings i s a t r i t o n e and i n every case the outer two i n t e r v a l s are the same.  This  165 r e s u l t s i n t h r e e s m a l l palindrome s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n every statement. present  T h i s method o f .".intervallic s t r u c t u r i n g i s a l s o  i n both the r e d and b l u e l i n e s s i n c e the p i t c h s t a t e -  ments o f a l l t h r e e l i n e s a r e r e l a t e d , as mentioned b e f o r e , e i t h e r through r e t r o g r a d e  or i n v e r s i o n .  The parameter o f d u r a t i o n i s a l s o o r g a n i z e d the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y . timbral l i n e s presents rows.  following  Each o f the t h r e e  poly-  t e n statements o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e  There are f o u r d i f f e r e n t forms o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e  rows, each o f which c o n t a i n s  four presentations  o f the terms  1, 2 and 7.  (1)  7  7  2  2  1  1  1  1  2  2  7  7  (2)  1  7  1  7  2  2  2  2  7  1  7  1  (3)  1  2  7  1  7  2  2  7  1  7  2  1  As can be seen above, each o f these m u l t i p l e s e r i e s d i s p l a y s palindrome symmetry. multiple presentations found.  In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , the d u r a t i o n o f the t h r e e p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s can; be  Since the-, order o f m u l t i p l e appearance i n the green  and b l u e l i n e s i s i d e n t i c a l , o n l y two c h a r t s a r e necessary within this table.  166  TABLE 7 DURATION MULTIPLE PRESENTATION OF EACH LINE OF POLYTIMBRAL CONTINUITY IN MOVEMENT V OF IL CANTO SOSPESO  Green L i n e and Blue L i n e Statement  1  2  Order o f Appearance 4 6 7 8 3 5  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  7 1 1 7 1 2 1 2 1 7  7 7 7 7 2 1 7 1 2 7  2 1 1 2 7 2 1 2 7 2  1 2 2 1 7 7 2 7 7 1  2 7 7 2 1 7 7 7 1 2  2 .1 1 2 7 2 1 2 7 2  7 7 7 7 2 1 7 1 2 7  9  10  11  1 7 7 2 1 2 7 7 1 7  7 2 1 2 7 2 1 2 7 2  2 1 7 7 2 7 7 1 2 1  Red  2 7 7 2 1 7 7 7 1 2  1 2 2 1 7 7 2 7 7 1  1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1  1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1  9  10  11  12 7-  7121217—  3  Line  Statement  1  2  Order o f Appearance 3 4 5 6 7 8  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  1 2 1 7 1 7 1 2 1 2  2 1 7 7 2 7 7 1 2 1  7 2 1 2 7 2 1 2 7 2  1 7 7 2 1 2 7 7 1 7  7 7 2 1 7 1 2 7 7 7  2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1..  2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1  7 7 2 1 7 1 2 7 7 7  12 1— 21-  1. 21' 2  167 In both o f the m u l t i p l e schemes given  i n Table 7, a l l four  d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e rows are p r e s e n t .  In«' these two c h a r t s ,  the row form statements a r e a l s o ordered a c c o r d i n g drome s t r u c t u r e s .  With the green and b l u e l i n e s ,  1 t o 9 are organized  statements  i n t o two small palindrome p a t t e r n s  the l a s t statement r e p e a t i n g the i n i t i a l line,  to p a l i n -  series.  with  In the r e d  statements 1 t o 9 form one l a r g e palindrome w i t h the l a s t  statement r e p e a t i n g the o r d e r i n g o f statement 2. The polytimbral ordering  duration multiple presentation  o f each o f these  l i n e s i s much more symmetrical than any m u l t i p l e  found up t o t h i s p o i n t i n the study.  Palindrome  o r g a n i z a t i o n not o n l y determines the s t r u c t u r e o f each m u l t i p l e s e r i e s statement b u t i t a l s o determines the order o f appearance o f these statements w i t h i n each l i n e . In the second s e c t i o n o f movement I I o f I I Canto sospeso i t was.discovered t h a t the m u l t i p l e s e r i e s was p r e s e n t e d by each p o l y t i m b r a l  l i n e i n such a way t h a t the c e n t r a l p o i n t o f  each s e r i e s was reached i n the score a t approximately the same time.  T h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case i n the f i f t h movement.  c e n t r a l p o i n t o f the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e p r e s e n t a t i o n  The  o f each  p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e , t h a t i s , a t the end o f the f i f t h rstatement, occurs i n measure 301. Although the parameter o f dynamics i s n o t organized i n a complex manner i n t h i s movement, what l i t t l e o r d e r i n g o f  168 dynamic i n d i c a t i o n s does e x i s t , timbral continuity. p, mp,  mf and  f o l l o w s the l i n e s o f p o l y -  Only f i v e d i f f e r e n t  dynamic l e v e l s ,  ppp,  f, are employed; c r e s c e n d i and d e c r e s c e n d i  not u t i l i z e d .  are  Nono - d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  dynamics t o t h a t o f d u r a t i o n . m u l t i p l e appearance was  While the o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n  i d e n t i c a l i n the b l u e and green l i n e s ,  another p a t t e r n o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was  employed by the red l i n e .  T h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case with the dynamics. o f appearance o f dynamic l e v e l s  The  ordering  i n the b l u e and green  i s the same, while the red l i n e has a new  scheme o f  lines  present-  ation. Of the ten dynamic s e r i e s statements i n both the green and b l u e l i n e s , the o n l y example o f s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n o f o r d e r i n g i s found i n comparing statement 1 t o statement 10. dynamic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the f i r s t statement, ppp, PPP/  P/ P/ m  statement.  P/ P/ m  The  P/ P/ m  P#  different  c e n t r a l e i g h t statements o f both o f  dynamic l e v e l s with no  at a l l e v i d e n t .  p, ppp,  i s e x a c t l y r e v e r s e d f o r the  l i n e s merely p r e s e n t a continuous  The  permutation o f the  p,  last  these five  symmetry o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  In the red l i n e , thet o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  aspect  o f o r d e r i n g i s t h a t the dynamic l e v e l s are g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d i n s e t s o f three, i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  169  Order o f Appearance Statement 1 2  1  2  3  ppp ppp ppp P P P  4 m  p P  5 m  p P  6  7  p m  P  mp m  f  m  8  9  10  11  12  mp mp p p p f rnf" mp mp mp  Other than t h i s t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l l i n g  factor  i n the d e t e r -  mination o f dynamics i n the r e d l i n e . In r e v i e w i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h ,  d u r a t i o n and  dynamics i n t h i s f i f t h movement, i t should be s t r e s s e d t h a t the o r d e r i n g o f a l l t h r e e parameters f o l l o w s the l i n e s o f polytimbral continuity.  With d u r a t i o n and dynamics, the  p a t t e r n s o f o r d e r i n g f o r the green and b l u e l i n e s are i d e n t i c a l w h i l e i n both cases the r e d l i n e p r e s e n t s a new scheme. In the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p i t c h however, the r e d l i n e p r e s e n t s a r e t r o g r a d e form o f the green l i n e w h i l e the b l u e l i n e has an i n v e r t e d form o f the green  line.  Movement VI B I n s t e a d o f c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the system o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n employed i n movement V, Nono i n t h i s movement r e v e r t s back t o t h a t u t i l i z e d i n movement I I . The parameter o f p i t c h  i n movemerit VI B i s ordered i n  e x a c t l y the same manner as i t was i n the second movement. tone row A, B / A , B, G, C, F#, C#, F, D, E, E , i s again b  ;  r  b  b  f  The  con-  t i n u a l l y repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form only, w i t h no transpo-  170 sitions.  The s e r i e s i s p r e s e n t e d v e r t i c a l l y w i t h p i t c h  appearance  c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the o r d e r i n g o f the o r i g i n a l  tone row.  There are eleven complete tone row  p l u s one s i n g l e note, A n a t u r a l . -  statements  The o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t y o f  p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n i s found i n measure 392 where the c e l l o s have an E n a t u r a l r a t h e r t h a t the expected  E-flat.  There are f o u r l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i n t h i s movement; two l i n e s employ the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1 w h i l e the 3 other two have the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1_. Although every note 5 can be accounted f o r by t h i s technique, t h e r e can be  found,  f o r the f i r s t time i n t h i s composition, breaks i n the p o l y timbral  lines. As was  the case i n the second movement where the  F i b o n a c c i numbers were employed, the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e  series  i n movement VI B i s c o n s t r u c t e d from s i x termsoof a r e c u r s i v e sequence:  2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17.  In t h i s sequence,  the difference  between c o n s e c u t i v e terms i n c r e a s e s each time by one.  These  s i x terms are p r e s e n t e d twice, forming the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s which i s as f o l l o w s :  171 L i k e the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e rows o f movements I I and V, t h i s m u l t i p l e s e r i e s d i s p l a y s palindrome symmetry. The technique o f employing the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s e r i e s i n t h i s movement i s e x a c t l y the same as t h a t found i n the second movement.  The eleven and o n e - t w e l f t h m u l t i p l e s e r i e s  statements a r e p r e s e n t e d c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the e l e v e n and onet w e l f t h p i t c h s e r i e s statements.  The m u l t i p l e s e r i e s , 17, 12,  8, 5, 3, 2, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17 i s employed throughout the movement, w i t h each statement f o l l o w i n g the o r d e r i n g o f the s e r i e s b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s t a r t i n g a t the same p o i n t . TABLE 8 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN MOVEMENT VI B OF IL CANTO SOSPESO  No . 1 — 2 3 1 4 _5 6 7 8 9 __10 —11 12  Mm.  A  B  b  364-370 .117 12 370-374 12 8 374-377 8 5 377-381 5 3 381-386 3, 2 2 386-396 2 392-396 2 3 396-400 3 5 400-403 5 8 403-407 8 12 407-411 12 17 411-413 17  A  b  8 5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17  B  G  C  F#  c#  F  D  E  E  5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12  3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8  2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5  2 3 5 8 12 17 16 12 8 5 3  3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2  5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2  8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3  12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5  17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 3  b  From Table 8 which p r e s e n t s the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s as they appear c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the tone row statements, i t can be seen t h a t  172 m u l t i p l e statements 2 through 11 have the same s u c c e s s i o n o f numbers as statement 1, although, these statements commence oh d i f f e r e n t terms.  The o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t o t h i s a r e found on  F-sharp o f statement 7 and E - f l a t o f statement 11.  As each  s u c c e s s i v e ^ i n i t i a l m u l t i p l e o f statements 1 through 12 c o i n c i d e s w i t h the o r d e r i n g o f statement 1, the r e s u l t i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the 'table:  the f i r s t  eleven  h o r i z o n t a l number rows a r e i d e n t i c a l t o the r e s p e c t i v e v e r t i c a l rows ( t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the m i s s i n g  eleven  multiples  r e s u l t i n g from incomplete statement 12). L i k e w i s e the o n l y m u l t i p l e o f statement 12 i s the same as note 1 o f statement 1. The technique o f r e l a t i n g h o r i z o n t a l m u l t i p l e rows t o v e r t i c a l m u l t i p l e rows was employed p r e v i o u s l y i n the second movement.  In the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s e a r l i e r movement i t was  mentioned t h a t Nono f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d system o f o r d e r i n g .  an otherwise symmetrical  T h i s tendency i s a l s o apparent i n movement  VI B i n t h a t , f o r no l o g i c a l reason, he r e f r a i n e d from completing  the symmetry o f t h i s  pattern.  Movement VII In the f i f t h movement, the parameters o f p i t c h , and dynamics were organized continuity.  duration  f o l l o w i n g the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l  They are not d i s t i n g u i s h e d , as has been the case  up t o now, by having d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  s i n c e a l l three  173 v o i c e s employ the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f _1. 4 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o r c h e s t r a t i o n . three d i f f e r e n t v o c a l p a r t s : tralto.  One p o l y t i m b r a l  these three p a r t s .  Rather, they are  In movement V I I there are  solo-soprano, soprano and con-  l i n e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f  In t h i s movement the three c o l o u r s , red,  b l u e and green w i l l be employed t o i n d i c a t e the p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s presenting  the solo-soprano, soprano and c o n t r a l t o  parts repectively. Example 9.  Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 440-444.  /ca.  96  174  The p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g the v o c a l p a r t s presented by one s p e c i f i c polytimbral l i n e only i s followed s t r i c t l y  through-  out the movement. In  movement VI B t h e r e are found frequent breaks i n  the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y and t h i s i s again the case i n the seventh movement.  Now however these l i n e e n t r a n -  ces and t e r m i n a t i o n s a r e arranged a c c o r d i n g t o a symmetrical p a t t e r n which i s presented i n F i g u r e 9.  Each l i n e i s s t r u c -  t u r e d i n t o h o r i z o n t a l statements o f twelve notes and i n the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e , the v e r t i c a l d o t t e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e s i o n s between two s u c c e s s i v e statements.  divi-  Figure  9.—  Arrangement o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l Movement V I I o f I I C a n t o s o s p e s o  Continuity i n  I4e a s u-r e s_ 4: L4 t .o 4 5C i  i  1  r  i  i 1  •  1  i  :  » i  •  1  45Z  J  IV ! 1  1  t  t  2 L  Number o f 12-note statements:  2 -J  3  J  H Ln  Mf  3  2  r)  S 4 5"  t c  J  1  1  l i  1 1  L  1  i  1  3 Hb I  7  i  Line,  r  m  1 J  3 -1  L  = Solo Soprano  f  1  •  2  i  - i l  i  Number o f 12-note statementsi  —  Soprano  Line,'  = Contralto  Line.  176 Movement VII c o n s i s t s o f two s e c t i o n s , measures 414 t o 450 and measures 451 to 488, which are d e f i n e d not o n l y by the arrangement systems  o f p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s but a l s o by the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  f o r the parameters o f p i t c h , d u r a t i o n and There are twelve p r e s e n t a t i o n s  dynamcis.  o f the twelve-tone  statements i n both the f i r s t and second h a l f o f the seventh movement.  The number o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e s e n t e d statements  are arranged a c c o r d i n g t o palindrome symmetry w i t h i n each s e c t i o n , as can be seen i n F i g u r e 9.  While the solo-soprano  l i n e i s found throughout, the two l i n e s from the chorus are presented i n such a way  t h a t m i r r o r p a t t e r n s o f statement  d e n s i t i e s , r a n g i n g from one t o three i n number, are produced. As mentioned  e a r l i e r , p i t c h , d u r a t i o n and dynamics  are  ordered f o l l o w i n g the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y and these l i n e s p r e s e n t i n t o t a l twenty-four h o r i z o n t a l statements o f twelve notes each.  F o r the purpose o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , these  statements are numbered as f o l l o w s : First  Section  Statement Number (1) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 414 t o 420 (2) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 420 t o 426 (3) Soprano L i n e , measures 420 t o 426 (4) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures 420 t o 426 (5) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 426 t o 432 (6) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures 426 t o 432 (7) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 432 to 438 (8) Soprano L i n e , measures 432 t o 438 (9) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 438 t o 444  17,7 First  Section  Statement Number (10) Soprano L i n e , measures 438 t o 444 (11) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures, 438 t o 444 (12) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 445 t o 451 Second S e c t i o n Statement Number (13) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 451 t o 457 (14) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures 451 t o 457 (15) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 457 t o 463 (16) Soprano L i n e , measures 457 t o 46 3 (17) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures 457 t o 463 (18) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 463 t o 469 (19) Soprano L i n e , measures 463 t o 469 (20) C o n t r a l t o L i n e , measures 463 t o 469 (21) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 469 t o 475 (22) Soprano L i n e , measures 469 t o 475 (23) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 476 t o 482 (24) Solo-Soprano L i n e , measures 482 t o 488 The method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r each o f the three parameters i s e x a c t l y the same.  Regarding p i t c h ,  the tone  row employed i n p r e v i o u s movements i s not u t i l i z e d but r a t h e r the twelve notes o f the chromatic s c a l e are arranged i n v a r i o u s ways t o produce twelve d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s , which are p r e s e n t e d below.  178 Statement Number  Order o f Appearance A B G B F#  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (.12)  b  c#  G A E C Eb D  B G E E E D E D B E  C G# B c#  E G E G G# G# B F  b  b  b  b  b  c#  c#  B  G E Bb A Ab B Ab B D  b  D F#  Ab F# F# F# B A G Eb F B A F  B E D C G F# F  b  c#  b E G A E  b  b A b B A D# B C B D C G# E  E  F# C C F Bb Ab C E A A G# c#  E Bb  c#  F A b  c#  D C b D G# G G E D# B  E  c#  C A F F# F F# B  D D F  F Ab  —  —  F E Bb F#  D F  c#  c#  B B E  b b  c#  b C F# F C B  The number g i v e n w i t h each o f these p a t t e r n s r e f e r s t o the statement  (from the p r e v i o u s l i s t i n g ) i n which the p i t c h  p a t t e r n i s found. With dyanamics t h e r e i s s i m i l a r l y ; no.>one b a s i c  series  u t i l i z e d but r a t h e r the three d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p and mf, are employed t o c r e a t e twelve d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s . Again, the numbers g i v e n w i t h these dynamic p a t t e r n s r e f e r t o the statements  o f the f i r s t  s e c t i o n i n which they o c c u r .  Statement Number (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)  PPP P mf mf mf PPP mf PPP PPP P mf P  mf PPP PPP P PPP P mf P mf PPP P mf  mf mf PPP PPP P mf P mf mf P PPP mf  P mf-". mf mf P P PPP PPP PPP mf P PPP  P P mf PPP P P PPP mf P mf PPP mf  PPP PPP P mf mf mf P PPP PPP P mf PPP  P mf P PPP P mf P PPP mf PPP PPP P  PPP PPP PPP P mf PPP P P P mf mf PPP  P PPP PPP P PPP PPP P mf mf mf P PPP  mf PPP P PPP mf mf PPP P PPP P mf P  mf mf mf  -  P P PPP.  -  PPP PPP. P P mf mf mf P PPP P P PPP PPP PPP mf mf  179 In o r g a n i z i n g the parameter o f d u r a t i o n , s i x d i f f e r e n t  terms,  1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12 are each p r e s e n t e d twice t o c r e a t e a m u l t i p l e pattern.  There are s i x d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e p a t t e r n s and i n the  f i r s t s e c t i o n each o f these i s employed t w i c e .  They are  l i s t e d below a l o n g w i t h t h e i r corresponding statement  numbers.  Statement Number (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)  Order o f Appearance 12 8 5 5 12 2 2 12 5 12 8 5  1 12 2 5 8 12 12 8 2 1 12 5  2 5 2 3 5 3 3 5 2 2 5 3  8 12 5 3 2 5 5 2 5 8 12 3  3 8 12 8 1 1 1 1 12 3 8 8  12 2 3 2 5 5 5 5 3 12 2 2  1 1 12 2 12 8 8 12 12 1 1 2  5 5 3 8 3 2 2 3 3 5 5 8  2 3 1 12 8 1 1 8 1 2 3 12  8 1 8 12 1 12 12 1 8 8 1 12  3 2 1  5 3 8  3 8 8 3 1 3 2 1  2 3 3 2 8 5 3 1  -  -  In the second h a l f o f the movement, each o f the twelve p a t t e r n s o f a l l t h r e e parameters i s repeated i n r e t r o g r a d e . s h i p o f any one  The  relation-,  s p e c i f i c dynamic p a t t e r n t o i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g  p i t c h and d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e p a t t e r n s i s however maintained. For example, statement  number 1 from the f i r s t  section presents  the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s . pitch  A  C  B  1  12  2  8  mf  mf  p  b  G  A  B  b  E  b  F#  E  C#  D  F  duration multiple  dynamics ppp  3  5 p  ppp  1  12 p  ppp  2 p  8 mf  3  5  mf  p  180 The r e t r o g r a d e o f statement number 1 i s found i n statement 22 which i s as f o l l o w s : pitch  F  duration multiple  5  dynamics  P  D 3 mf  C#E 8  2 mf  F # D # B 12  p  1  ppp p  5 ppp  Each p a r a m e t r i c p a t t e r n from the f i r s t r e v e r s e d i n t h i s statement.  G#G 3  B  8 p  b  C  2 p  A 12  mf  1  mf ppp  statement i s p r e c i s e l y  T h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case w i t h  r e t r o g r a d e forms i n the second s e c t i o n , o f statements 2 through 12. The r e t r o g r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the twelve in  statements  the f i r s t h a l f o f the movement V I I t o those o f the second  h a l f are as f o l l o w s :  O r i g i n a l Statement  Corresponding Retrograde Form  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)  (22) (20) (23) (24) (19) (21) (17) (18) (16) (13) (15)  (12)  (14)  Each o f these p a i r i n g s , then, p r e s e n t s a palindrome  ordering  of the p a t t e r n s o f p i t c h , dynamics and d u r a t i o n s , s i n c e the basic d u r a t i o n i s the same f o r every l i n e . The o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are  181 the two omissions which can be seen i n the three l i s t i n g s o f patterns. T h i s method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n movement VII p r e s e n t s one  o f the few examples o f Nono's work where systems o f o r d e r -  i n g f o r two o r more d i f f e r e n t parameters c o i n c i d e  completely.  In examining the f i v e movements o f I I Canto sospeso i n which p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s most evident,  i t i s apparent  t h a t t h i s technique becomes more s t r u c t u r a l l y important.  In  movements I I , IV and VI B where the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the s t r i c t r e p e t i t i o n s o f the tone row, p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y has b a s i c a l l y the same f u n c t i o n s as were seen i n C a n t i per t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i . functions being:  (1) t o p r o v i d e  The two prime  a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the o r d e r i n g o f sound and t h a t o f s i l e n c e ; and (2) t o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f a note f o r the purpose o f o r g a n i z i n g the parameter o f d u r a t i o n . In movements V and VII, p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y assumes even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  During these movements the p o l y -  t i m b r a l l i n e s become v e h i c l e s f o r the h o r i z o n t a l statement o f  182  s e r i e s from the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems o f not o n l y p i t c h d u r a t i o n but dynamics as w e l l .  and  In a d d i t i o n , movement VII  p r e s e n t s one o f the few examples o f Nono's c o m p o s i t i o n a l output where systems o f o r d e r i n g f o r two or more d i f f e r e n t  parameters  c o i n c i d e completely. Undoubtedly  the most f r e q u e n t l y employed  structural  d e v i c e d u r i n g these f i v e movements i s t h a t o f the While i t was palindrome  palindrome.  c e r t a i n l y important i n the p r e v i o u s works, the  i s now  found governing every c o n c e i v a b l e aspect o f  the systems o f < o r g a n i z a t i o n . In I I Canto sospeso the o r c h e s t r a t i o n o f l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y becomes important. was  In movement V i t  seen t h a t , f o r the f i r s t time p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s are p r e -  sented by s p e c i f i c instruments.  T h i s i n i t s e l f i s not extrem-  e l y s i g n i f i c a n t although w i t h the seventh movement i t becomes more so.  Up t o t h i s p o i n t the v a r i o u s l i n e s have been d e f i n e d  by d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s but here o n l y one b a s i c .duration i s found.  As a r e s u l t t h e y are now  d e f i n e d by o r c h e s t r a t i o n .  G e n e r a l l y speaking the parameter o f p i t c h i n these movements i s not' o r g a n i z e d i n a complex manner. tone row i s , i n most cases, merely  Rather,  the  repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l  form w h i l e the parameter o f d u r a t i o n i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r d e r e d . In movements I I and VI B, Nono has even e l e c t e d t o employ  183  r e c u r s i v e sequences i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d u r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n u t i l i z i n g t h e more e l e m e n t a r y a r i t h m e t i c o r g e o m e t r i c sequences.  I n movements V and V I can';>be found t h e o n l y  i n s t a n c e s where t h e parameter o f dynamics i s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e c o n c e i v e d system.  184  CHAPTER V VARIANTI Varianti/  commissioned by the r a d i o s t a t i o n Stldwest-  funk o f Baden-Baden, was A p r i l 1957  w r i t t e n between November 1956  and i s scored f o r s o l o v i o l i n ,  v i o l a s , 8 c e l l o s , 6 contrabasses, inets. 20,  I t was  1957^  f i r s t performed  10 v i o l i n s ,  and 8  3 f l u t e s and 3 B - f l a t  a t Donaueschingen on  a t which time the s o l o i s t was  clar-  October  Rudolf K o l i s c h ,  to  whom the composition i s d e d i c a t e d , and the o r c h e s t r a was t h a t o f the Stldwestfunk under the d i r e c t i o n o f Hans Rosbaud. With V a r i a n t i , Nono has presented a t h a t i s h i g h l y complex and, t o perform a c c u r a t e l y .  composition  as a r e s u l t , extremely  difficult  In f a c t , the score i s so i n v o l v e d  t h a t i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as t o whether or not an exact ance i s a t a l l p o s s i b l e .  Assuming t h a t Nono was  perform-  cognizant of  the extremely h i g h and perhaps even i m p o s s i b l e demands put the performers,  c o u l d he not have intended t h a t t h e r e be  approximate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r a t h e r than an exact  on  an  execution?  Although there i s n o t h i n g i n Nono's l i m i t e d w r i t i n g s t o  suggest  "^Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Musik i n Gesc h i c h t e und Gegenwart, IX (1961), C o l . 1555.  185 t h a t t h i s i s the case, would i t not be p o s s i b l e t h a t has p u r p o s e l y  he  c r e a t e d a score which i s so complex t h a t  the v a r i a b l e s i n execution,  t h a t i s , the parameter o f  inde-  terminacy, w i l l p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the performance o f the work? to say,  Even though o b v i o u s l y no one but Nono i s able  t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y should hot be completely  when i n v e s t i g a t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s With each s u c c e s s i v e composition  overlooked  compositions.  examined i n t h i s  study there has been an increase:*:.in o r c h e s t r a l d e n s i t y . T h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case w i t h V a r i a n t i .  In the f o u r p r e -  v i o u s works, i n order to accommodate t h i s expanded d e n s i t y , the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y had and  to be  expanded  developed, w i t h the number o f p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s  i n c r e a s e d as w e l l .  I l Canto sospeso presented  c o n t i n u i t y i n i t s most complex form and now, Nono i s moving away from t h i s  being  polytimbral  in Varianti,  technique.  For the f i r s t time i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l  development,  Nono i n V a r i a n t i employs the concept o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b l o c k s o f sound, and  these sound-blocks, as w i l l be  seen l a t e r ,  have f e a t u r e s i n common w i t h the d u p l i c a t e d notes o f the t i m b r a l l i n e s of e a r l i e r works.  poly-  Throughout V a r i a n t i Nono uses  s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods o f c o n s t r u c t i n g these b l o c k complexes t h a t are somewhat s i m i l a r t o those d e s c r i b e d  noteby  186 2  P i e r r e Boulez i n h i s book Boulez on Music Today. As a r e s u l t of the implementation o f t h i s sound b l o c k technique, G.W. Hopkins contends t h a t "the work h e r a l d e d one  o f Nono's most  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c o m p o s i t i o n a l techniques, which i s r e f l e c t e d i n much r e c e n t music b u i l t a c c o r d i n g to  geo-  3 m e t r i c a l formations" o f music i n V a r i a n t i  and he  suggests  that t h i s  conception  "comes c l o s e s t t o an a n t i c i p a t i o n o f  the s t y l e s o f such composers as L i g e t i ,  Castiglioni  and  4 Penderecki."  In a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s  "geometrical"  conception o f music, Hopkins says t h a t the b l o c k note-complex may  be predetermined  i n r e s p e c t t o p i t c h and d u r a t i o n , a f t e r  which the composer,-, i s f r e e to manipulate 5 which go t o make up the complex. i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case. through  the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s  However i n V a r i a n t i  this  As w i l l become more e v i d e n t  the a n a l y s i s which i s t o f o l l o w , Nono o r g a n i z e s to  v a r y i n g degrees s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t parameters w i t h i n these b l o c k note-complexes and the s e l e c t i o n o f these parameters as w e l l as the extent to which they are o r g a n i z e d i s a l t e r e d 2  P i e r r e Boulez, Boulez on Music Today, t r a n s l a t e d by Susan Bradshaw and R i c h a r d Rodney Bennett (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), pp. 54-58. 3 G.W. Hopkins, " L u i g i Nono," Music and M u s i c i a n s , XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 34. 4 Ibid. 5  Ibid.  187 at s e v e r a l p o i n t s throughout the composition. S i m i l a r t o two e a r l i e r works, C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i and Incontri,. the o v e r a l l form o f V a r i a n t i i s based a palindrome. The c e n t r a l p o i n t  o f t h i s 308 measure score i s a t b a r 155  which i s a measure o f s i l e n c e . a t b a r 80 d i v i d e s and  Another measure o f s i l e n c e  the f i r s t h a l f o f V a r i a n t i i n t o two d i s t i n c t  separate s e c t i o n s ,  measures 1 t o 79 and measures 81 t o 154,  which f o r the sake o f convenience s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o as sections  A and B r e s p e c t i v e l y .  when these two s e c t i o n s  I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t  a r e presented i n the r e t r o g r a d e h a l f  of the composition there i s n o t a measure o f s i l e n c e between them as i n the f i r s t h a l f b u t merely a double b a r l i n e . Although the concept o f the palindrome i s an i n t e g r a l o f the form o f V a r i a n t i , t h i s m i r r o r s t r u c t u r e  part  i s more com-  p l e x than t h a t employed i n the two p r e v i o u s compositions. following of Canti  diagram p r e s e n t s the form o f the palindrome  The  structure,  p e r t r e d i c i and I n c o n t r i :  Canti  per t r e d i c i :  Incontri:  A  ^B  A »C  > ><  - A C<  B  > <  B*  In V a r i a n t i however s e c t i o n A appears f i r s t  •B  A  i n the r e t r o g r a d e  h a l f o f the p i e c e f o l l o w e d by s e c t i o n B which r e s u l t s i n the following  pattern:  188  Section:  A  > <  Measures:  1-79  In p r e s e n t i n g  statements. reversed.  81-154 156-234  the r e t r o g r a d e  i s very accurate  A<—  B  235-308  /forms o f s e c t i o n s A and B, Nono  i n c r e a t i n g a m i r r o r image o f the  In f a c t , n e a r l y every parameter i s e x a c t l y The  only discrepancy  i s found i n the  o f s e c t i o n A where the bowing i n d i c a t i o n s do not completely w i t h those employed i n the f i r s t  intervallic  coincide  the same  c o n s t r u c t i o n as t h a t found i n b o t h C a n t i per t r e -  I I Canto sospeso.  However, the a l l - i n t e r v a l - r o w now  begins on C whereas i n the two on  retrograde  presentation.  The p i t c h s e r i e s employed i n V a r i a n t i has  d i c i and  original  e a r l i e r compositions i t s t a r t e d  A. 1  2  C  C#  3  4  B  T h i s p i t c h row  5 D  6 B  b  7 E  b  8 A  9 E  A  b  10  11  12  F  G  F#  i s employed both i n s e c t i o n s A and B o f  the  composition. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the two V a r i a n t i , A and B,  are separate and  basic sections  d i s t i n c t from one  of another.  They are c o n t r a s t e d by a change i n the system o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and  as a r e s u l t these s e c t i o n s w i l l be  discussed  189 s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . Section A Throughout s e c t i o n A,  the number s e r i e s 1-2-3-4-5  p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the system o f parametric zation.  P o s s i b l y the most important  s e r i e s can be  organi-  employment o f t h i s  seen i n examining the d i v i s i o n o f s e c t i o n A  i n t o s m a l l e r segments.  The measures are grouped together  by  means o f double bar l i n e s i n t o u n i t s o f from 1 t o 5 measures i n length.  The  f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e presents  these measure groupings,  the o r d e r i n g o f  w i t h the numbers r e p r e s e n t i n g  the  l e n g t h o f each i n d i v i d u a l segment. Figure 10.—  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Measure Groupings i n Section A of V a r i a n t i  Measures 1 t o 33 Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra t  Orchestra  only  r  , . 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1  5  4  3  2  1  Measures 34 t o 79 Solo V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a  1  Orchestra  only  3 2  4  5  1  5  As can be  seen from F i g u r e 10,  concludes  w i t h the arrangement o f measure groupings 5  4  3  2  s e c t i o n A both commences and  with o n l y the o r c h e s t r a p l a y i n g .  r  Between these two  4  3"  passages  2~*  190 there e x i s t s two  s e r i e s o f segments the s t r u c t u r e o f which  has been i n f l u e n c e d by the concept o f the palindrome. n i n g on measure 15,  the s o l o v i o l i n and o r c h e s t r a  the s e r i e s o f measure groupings,  1  which c o u l d p o s s i b l y be c o n s i d e r e d  a modified  the p r e v i o u s  2  1  fourteen measures, t h a t i s ,  3  5  1  Begin-  present  4  1  5  1  retrograde 4  3  , of  2 .  The  f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s o f measure groupings t h a t s t a r t s a t bar  34  i s i n the form o f a complete palindrome.  1  5  3  2  | 1 1 '  The  4  1  1  4 1  •  2  'I  2  3  5  I  P  c e n t r a l p o i n t o f t h i s passage occurs i n the segment which  i s one measure i n l e n g t h and  from t h a t p o i n t on,  the order  measure groupings i s a r e v e r s a l o f t h a t o f the f i r s t  of  half.  There i s however an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the l a s t h a l f of the palindrome where Nono has two measures i n l e n g t h .  i n s e r t e d an a d d i t i o n a l grouping  of  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, not o n l y i s  there t h i s palindrome o f the a c t u a l number s e r i e s which repr e s e n t s the l e n g t h o f the v a r i o u s measure groupings but i s a l s o an i n v e r t e d palindrome o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n .  The  there  measure  groupings which i n the f i r s t h a l f are assigned to the o r c h e s t r a only, i n the r e t r o g r a d e c o n t a i n both o r c h e s t r a and  solo v i o l i n ;  l i k e w i s e the f i r s t h a l f segments which c o n t a i n s o l o v i o l i n  and  o r c h e s t r a , i n the second h a l f are given t o the o r c h e s t r a o n l y .  191 C e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l techniques, further discussed  l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, i  o f the main passages and  1  5  f u r t h e r one  3  2  4  1  1  2  2  3  employed w i t h i n each k  1 5  be  i  5 4 3 2 , 4  which w i l l  1  ,  2  1  3  1  4  1  5  1  tend to d e f i n e even  s e r i e s o f measure groupings from another.  As  has  a l r e a d y been mentioned, the grouping o f measures i s probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e use  o f the number s e r i e s 1-2-3-4-5  s i n c e t h i s o r d e r i n g o f the measure groupings has  an  influence  on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n parameters found w i t h i n  these  i n d i v i d u a l groupings.  impor-  In the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs the  tance o f t h i s number s e r i e s 1-2-3-4-5 i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n other parameters w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y more As has been d i s c o v e r e d  of  evident.  i n the works s t u d i e d  previously  i n t h i s paper, Nono seldom employs a c o n s i s t e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system completely throughout a composition. the case i n V a r i a n t i .  The b a s i c systems o f parametric  z a t i o n f o r s e c t i o n A are e s t a b l i s h e d i n the measures, t h a t i s , the represented  i n Figure  This i s s i m i l a r l y  first  first  organi-  fourteen  f o u r measure groupings which are  10 by the number sequence 5  4  3  Here, the p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n are w e l l d e f i n e d and the most p a r t are c l o s e l y observed.  Although the  2. for  organization  systems e s t a b l i s h e d i n the opening measures form the b a s i s f o r p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n throughout the remainder o f s e c t i o n A  192 they are n e i t h e r c l o s e l y nor c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w e d .  While  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aspects o f these systems are a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s evident,  at other times d u r i n g t h i s s e c t i o n they are  or even abandoned completely.  I t should be  stressed  modified that  even though c e r t a i n systems o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n  are  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , the degree t o which each system i s ordered throughout the s e c t i o n i s independent from t h a t o f any The  method and  extent  v a r i e s from one prevalent  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n through t h i s  parameter t o the next.  other.  section  Undoubtedly the most  and p o s s i b l y even the o n l y f e a t u r e these systems  have i n common w i t h one  another i s t h a t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e i s  most c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d u r i n g the  first  fourteen measures o f  the  section. In V a r i a n t i Nono employs the concept o f o r g a n i z a t i o n sound-blocks.  Although t h i s technique i s employed throughout  the c o n s t r u c t i o n , there are two o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , one B, o f the work. que  of  separate and  d i s t i n c t methods  method i n each o f the two  sections, A  and  Throughout s e c t i o n A t h i s sound-block t e c h n i -  c o n s i s t s o f c r e a t i n g note-complexes w i t h a v a r y i n g group o f  instruments ranging  from 1 t o 5 i n number and w i t h each i n s t r u -  ment p l a y i n g the same tone. d i f f e r e n t duration, ces and  terminations  As  each note i n the complex has  there r e s u l t s a s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s i v e o f sounds.  the note complexes of the  The  f o l l o w i n g example  entranpresents  f i r s t measure grouping, t h a t i s ,  measures 1 t o 5, o f s e c t i o n  A.  a  193  194  195 In a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t seen above, the throughout s e c t i o n A i s o r g a n i z e d d e n s i t i e s v a r y i n g from 1 t o 5.  i n t o b l o c k s o f sound w i t h  The  d e n s i t y o f these  v i d u a l note complexes i s c l e a r l y organized w i t h the measure-groupings and  score  indi-  i n conjunction  as a r e s u l t there i s a  general  o v e r a l l o r d e r i n g o f the score w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e n s i t y  content  w i t h i n the measure-groupings.  T h i s can p o s s i b l y be most  c l e a r l y seen by examining the f i r s t s e c t i o n A.  As can be  f o u r t e e n measures o f  found i n Example 1, the f i r s t segment  o r measure-grouping which i s f i v e measures i n l e n g t h note-complexes w i t h : d e n s i t i e s o f two, voices.  The  three,  f o u r and  next segment o f f o u r measures i n l e n g t h  sound-blocks o f four, t h r e e and  two  contains  v o i c e s while  the  five has following  t h r e e measure segment c o n s i s t s o f note-groupings o f e i t h e r t h r e e or two  voices.  The  f o u r t h measure-grouping o f  measures i n l l e n g t h c o n t a i n s o n l y sound-blocks w i t h two ments.  Nono has  two instru-  e s t a b l i s h e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the range o f  p o s s i b l e d e n s i t i e s o f the sound-blocks w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c measure grouping i s determined by,the l e n g t h i n measures o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r segment; t h a t i s , a note complex cannot c o n t a i n a g r e a t e r number o f v o i c e s than the f i g u r e which r e p r e s e n t s  the  l e n g t h o f measures o f the segment i n which i t i s l o c a t e d .  As  a r e s u l t o f t h i s r u l e , the g e n e r a l o v e r a l l d e n s i t y o f each  196  segment i s governed by i t s l e n g t h i n t h a t the l o n g e r the measure-grouping, the g r e a t e r the d e n s i t y p o s s i b l e f o r each note-complex and thus the segment as a whole.  This  r u l e governing the range o f employable d e n s i t i e s o f soundb l o c k s i s f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y throughout s e c t i o n A, although it  should not be assumed t h a t each d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t y w i t h i n  t h i s range i s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l segment. A c t u a l l y , Nono has been more s e l e c t i v e i n the use o f these d e n s i t i e s as f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s have been i n t r o d u c e d the course o f the s e c t i o n .  during  As a r e s u l t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between sound-block d e n s i t y and segment l e n g t h can o n l y be completely  understood by examining the d e n s i t y content o f  each measure grouping i n S e c t i o n A, which i s p r e s e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .  197 TABLE 9 DENSITY OF THE SOUND-BLOCKS CONTAINED WITHIN EACH MEASURE-GROUPING OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI Density o f Soundr-Blocks Segment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Note:  Measure Length 5 4 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 1 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 1 5 4 3 2  5  4  3  2  X  X X  X X X  X X X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X X X X  X X  X  X  X X X  Present 1  X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X  In every case, a sound b l o c k o r note grouping i s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f the measure grouping i n which i t begins.  198 As can be seen from Table 9, a t no p o i n t i n S e c t i o n A does sound-block d e n s i t y exceed t h a t determined by the l e n g t h o f the segment although i n a number o f p l a c e s the  complete  range o f p o s s i b l e d e n s i t i e s i s not used i n i t s e n t i r e t y . the f i r s t  In  four measure groupings the sound-block d e n s i t y o f  1 i s not employed and i t i s not u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the s o l o v i o l i n t h a t a note i s heard without simultaneous d u p l i cation.  In segments 5 through 13, which r e p r e s e n t what might  be c o n s i d e r e d a m o d i f i e d r e t r o g r a d e o f the p r e v i o u s four measure-groupings,  the complete range o f p o s s i b l e d e n s i t i e s i s  used and there are no i r r e g u l a r i t i e s .  Segment 15 marks the be-  g i n n i n g o f a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n d e n s i t y employment i n t h a t from t h i s p o i n t u n t i l the end o f the s e c t i o n o n l y sound-blocks w i t h the d e n s i t i e s o f e i t h e r 5, 2 o r 1 are used. l y mentioned still  The p r e v i o u s -  r u l e r e g a r d i n g p o s s i b l e sound-block d e n s i t i e s i s  i n e f f e c t however i t now  than f i v e d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s . measure-groupings  applies only to three rather Throughout  s e c t i o n A, most  have c o n t a i n e d sound-blocks o f the g r e a t e s t  a l l o w a b l e d e n s i t y but three segments, 21, 22 and 29, o n l y s i n g l e notes while a c c o r d i n g t o the system  contain  established,  sound-blocks w i t h a d e n s i t y o f two v o i c e s were t o be expected. Another i r r e g u l a r i t y i n t h i s technique o f determining soundb l o c k d e n s i t i e s occurs i n segment 25 when i n f a c t no notes commence a t a l l .  Although the b a s i c concept o f r e l a t i n g  199 the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the measure-groupings  t o t h a t o f the  d e n s i t y o f sound-blocks i s prominent throughout, the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s which occur i n the second h a l f o f s e c t i o n A a r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f Nono's modus operandi i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e a r l i e r works where a system o f determinants i s e s t a b l i s h e d and then e v e n t u a l l y abandoned.  A f u r t h e r example o f t h i s  can be seen i n examining the frequency o f employment o f each o f the v a r i o u s d e n s i t i e s w i t h i n each separate  measure-grouping.  While i n many segments the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e n s i t i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y even, i n c e r t a i n measure-groupings,  particularly  those i n which the s o l o v i o l i n i s p r e s e n t , the s i n g l e note appears a .great many-more times than the sound-blocks w i t h d e n s i t i e s r a n g i n g from 2 t o 5. Before d i s c u s s i n g f u r t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the soundb l o c k s o f s e c t i o n A, i t should be p o i n t e d out how these m u l t i p l e - v o i c e , note-complexes i s scored f o r s o l o v i o l i n ,  are o r c h e s t r a t e d .  Varianti  10 v i o l i n s , 8 v i o l a s , 8 c e l l o s ,  6 contrabasses, 3 f l u t e s and 3 B - f l a t c l a r i n e t s and w h i l e the s t r i n g instruments o f the o r c h e s t r a are employed throughout s e c t i o n A, the woodwinds a r e found o n l y i n segments i n which the s o l o v i o l i n i s p r e s e n t .  There are two d i f f e r e n t b a s i c  methods o f o r c h e s t r a t i n g the sound-blocks and the p r i n c i p a l determining f a c t o r f o r the method t o be employed i s whether or n o t the s o l o v i o l i n i s p r e s e n t . i l l u s t r a t e s these two methods.  The f o l l o w i n g example  200  201  In Example 2 (a) i t can be seen how o r c h e s t r a t e d i n measure-groupings employed.  the sound-blocks  are  where o n l y the o r c h e s t r a i s  W i t h i n each s e t t i n g o f these note complexes, the  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s homogeneous.  T h i s procedure i s f o l l o w e d  s t r i c t l y throughout as t h e r e i s not one  sound-block  i n an  o r c h e s t r a - o n l y segment i n which two d i f f e r e n t types o f i n s t r u ments are employed. sound-block  Up t o t h i s p o i n t i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f  d e n s i t i e s w i t h i n measure-groupings  just  involving  o r c h e s t r a , o n l y the d e n s i t y content o f each segment has been examined. are  However, i t should he- p o i n t e d out t h a t the d e n s i t i e s  ordered w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the segment  and t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be s t u d i e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the examination o f the parameter An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the other technique o f  of p i t c h . sound-block  o r c h e s t r a t i o n can be found i n Example 2 (b) where t h i s method i s employed i n s e t t i n g every note-complex which appears i n segments where the s o l o v i o l i n i s p r e s e n t .  These  sound-blocks  r e s u l t from the d u p l i c a t i o n i n the o r c h e s t r a accompaniment o f c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d notes taken from the s o l o v i o l i n l i n e .  Obvi-  o u s l y then, the s o l o v i o l i n i s a constant v o i c e i n these notecomplexes and the remaining p a r t s are p r o v i d e d by s t r i n g instruments o f the o r c h e s t r a .  certain  In a s i m i l a r manner to the  p r e v i o u s method d i s c u s s e d , these remaining v o i c e s are  always  202  s e t w i t h the same type o f i n s t r u m e n t w i t h i n ' each sound b l o c k . I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n e v e r y case t h e s t r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e o r c h e s t r a chosen t o be a p a r t o f t h e n o t e complex a l l employ harmonics i n . d u p l i c a t i n g t h e same n o t e i n the s o l o v i o l i n p r e s e n t s n o r m a l l y . T h i s method o f sound-block o r c h e s t r a t i o n i s somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t o f the note d u p l i c a t i o n s i n the l i n e s o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y as found i n the p r e v i o u s works.  Not e v e r y  note o f t h e s o l o v i o l i n l i n e i s d u p l i c a t e d i n the o r c h e s t r a , r a t h e r , o n l y c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d n o t e s a r e employed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e m u l t i p l e - v o i c e sound-block t e c h n i q u e .  From an  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , one can more e a s i l y determine how  f r e q u e n t l y t h e s e m u l t i p l e - n o t e - c o m p l e x e s appear.  203 TABLE 10 FREQUENCY OF MULTIPLE-VOICE SOUND-BLOCKS IN MEASURE-GROUPINGS INVOLVING BOTH SOLO VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI Solo V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a Measure Grouping  Length  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 21 22 23  Number o f Multiple-Voice Sound-Blocks  1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 1 5 4 1 2 2 3  0. 6 0 10 0 9 0 12 0 0 5 6 0 0 0 4  T o t a l Number of Solo V i o l i n Notes 2 10 2 14 2 16 3 14 1 4 11 18 2 10 7 15  As can be seen from Table 10, t h e r e are o n l y seven measure groupings i n v o l v i n g s o l o v i o l i n and o r c h e s t r a i n which m u l t i p l e v o i c e sound b l o c k s appear and they are segments 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18 and 23. complexes i n r e l a t i o n  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these note  t o the s o l o v i o l i n l i n e o f the above  segments, i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 11.  204 F i g u r e 1 1 . — Arrangement o f M u l t i p l e - V o i c e Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings I n v o l v i n g Both S o l o V i o l i n and Orchestra i n S e c t i o n A o f Varianti Measure Grouping 6 F# B  Solo V i o l i n  Pitches  Sound Block  Densities  D# E  F  1 1 2  Measure Grouping 8 Solo V i o l i n P i t c h e s  F# B  A  C# D  E  Sound Block  2  2  1  1  2  C  D  1 1 1  3  Densities  3  C  B  3  3  2  1  E  C  E  F  C# B  B  4  4  1  1  G# C# D  D  b  A  b  E  b  Measure Grouping 10 Solo V i o l i n F# D G# C# E Pitches Sound Block . 3 4 4 3 . 1 Densities \  A  b  F  b  b  1  b  Measure Grouping 12 Solo V i o l i n  Pitches  B  Sound Block  Densities 2  Measure Grouping 15 Solo V i o l i n  Pitches  B  Sound Block  Densities  2  E  b  b  1 1 1 5  5  Measure Grouping 18 Solo V i o l i n C Pitches Sound Block 1 Densities  B  G# G  B  2 L  Jt=  C# D  A  b  b  A  F# B  G# F  2 2 L. —i  2  1 1 J J  1  1  E  L  F# B  1  Measure Grouping 23 Solo V i o l i n Pitches Sound Block Densities  A 1  F 1  C  B  2 1 1 ' i' '  B 1  b  2  A 1  b  1  F# E j  1  f  b  2  A '  G# G 1  »  1  B  b  2 1 I I  E 1  b  A  b  1  G 1  b  A  205 Although a l l o f the palindrome r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n F i g u r e 11 may  suggested  not be e n t i r e l y v a l i d , t h e r e does seem t o be  a conscious attempt by Nono t o employ t h i s type o f symmetrical arrangement i n o r d e r i n g the appearance sities.  o f the sound-block  den-  P o s s i b l y the most c o n v i n c i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the  e x i s t e n c e o f palindrome o r d e r i n g can be seen i n measure-groupi n g 12, t h a t i s measures 28 t o 32, which i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g example.  206  207  208 In s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the numerous s i n g l e notes i n the o r c h e s t r a tend t o c o n c e a l t h i s o r d e r i n g from the  listener,  there can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the concept o f the palindrome p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e n s i t i e s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure grouping. The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system f o r the parameter o f  duration  i n s e c t i o n A i s l i n k e d very c l o s e l y to the sound-block t e c h n i que.  There are two  method o f o r d e r i n g :  fundamental components e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s basic, d u r a t i o n and  duration multiple.  For the sake o f c l a r i t y i n p r e s e n t a t i o n , the f a c t o r o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n w i l l be  the employment o f  examined i n i t i a l l y  before  the element o f d u r a t i o n . m u l t i p l e i s d i s c u s s e d . In s e c t i o n A there are f i v e d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e i o n s o f the u n i t beat, t h a t i s , by  divis-  3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, which  r e s u l t s i n the f i v e b a s i c d u r a t i o n s o f 1, 1, 1, 1 and 3  4  5  6  1. 7  Since p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s not u t i l i z e d i n V a r i a n t i , b a s i c d u r a t i o n to be  employed f o r a s p e c i f i c note can  no  longer be determined o b v i o u s l y by the p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e . now  determined i n accordance w i t h a system o f b a s i c  It is  duration  o r d e r i n g which can be more c l e a r l y understood through the f o l l o w i n g example.  the  studying  209  210  211 As can be  seen i n Example 4 which presents  grouping o f s e c t i o n A,  the f i r s t measure  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content  w i t h i n each  o f the f o u r d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e - v o i c e sound-blocks i s s t r i c t l y organized.  The  f i v e - v o i c e note-complexes employ each o f  the  f i v e d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s while w i t h each s u c c e s s i v e l y l e s s dense sound b l o c k , durations  5 voices  i s omitted  the l a r g e s t o f the remaining b a s i c  which r e s u l t s i n the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n :  -  T-  7,  7  1 6  4 voices  1 6  1 5  1 5  1 4  1  1  7 3 voices  1 6  2 voices  1  15  L.4  1 3 The b a s i c d u r a t i o n content  o f every sound-block i n  the  f o u r measure-groupings complies with t h i s o r d e r i n g and f o r the most p a r t the a c t u a l arrangement i n the score w i t h t h a t presented  above i n t h a t , as a g e n e r a l  first also  coincides  rule, within a  sound-block the s m a l l e r the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f a note the higher  t h a t note appears on the page. Now  t h a t the m u l t i p l e v o i c e note-complexes w i t h  orches-  t r a o n l y have been s t u d i e d , the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content  of  m u l l t i p l e - v o i c e sound-blocks i n v o l v i n g the s o l o v i o l i n  should  212  be examined.  For approximately  the f i r s t h a l f of s e c t i o n A  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n c o n t e n t o f t h e s e sound-blocks i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e o r c h e s t r a - o n l y note-complexes a l t h o u g h t h e arrangement o f t h e b a s i c d u r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e d i f f e r considerably.  Although  sound-blocks  n o t i n e v e r y case, Nono g e n e r a l -  l y gives the solo v i o l i n the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e b a s i c duration and t h e r e m a i n i n g b a s i c d u r a t i o n s a r e employed i n t h e o r c h e s t r a i n a manner w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n t h e o r c h e s t r a - o n l y sound-blocks.  This r e s u l t s i n the f o l l o w i n g arrange-  ment: Solo V i o l i n 5 voices Orchestra  4 voices  3 voices  2 voices  1  7 1 6 1 5 1 .4  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can be found i n t h e f o l l o w i n g example.  213  214 The  i r r e g u l a r i t y o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n content i n the two-voice  sound-block o f Example 5 i s b u t one o f a number o f s i m i l a r such i n s t a n c e s regard  i n s e c t i o n A r e s u l t i n g from a problem w i t h  t o the employment o f the s o l o v i o l i n .  I n order t o  achieve a c o n t i n u i t y i n the s o l o v i o l i n l i n e , many notes o f v a r y i n g b a s i c d u r a t i o n and d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e are presented i n s u c c e s s i o n without i n t e r r u p t i o n and as a r e s u l t many times the n o t a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t b a s i c d u r a t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e •withim the accepted t r a d i t i o n a l n o t a t i o n  system..  An e x c e l -  l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can be seen i n Example 5 where i n order t o accommodate the o r d e r i n g o f the t h r e e - v o i c e complex, the s o l o v i o l i n i n the p r e c e d i n g  note-  two-voice sound-  b l o c k must employ the b a s i c d u r a t i o n ofl.l r a t h e r than the 5 normal 1, 6 Due  t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedure i n s e c t i o n A t h a t  the l e n g t h o f a measure-grouping determines i n p a r t t h e d e n s i t y o f the sound-blocks contained  w i t h i n the segment and,  i n t u r n , the p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h i s d e n s i t y determines the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content, there r a t h e r o b v i o u s l y e x i s t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the l e n g t h o f a measure-grouping determines what the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content o f t h a t s p e c i f i c segment i s going t o be. For i n s t a n c e ,  i n a segment f o u r measures i n l e n g t h , o n l y sound-  b l o c k s w i t h d e n s i t i e s o f from 1 t o 4 v o i c e s a r e employed and as  215 a r e s u l t only b a s i c durations c o n t r a s t t o the  1 through 1. are found.  4  s p e c i f i c ordering of b a s i c duration  within multiple-voice  sound-blocks, the  a v a r i e t y of b a s i c durations.  In  7  content  s i n g l e notes employ  For approximately the  h a l f o f s e c t i o n A the boundaries o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n  content  f o r each measure-grouping e s t a b l i s h e d through the use m u l t i p l e v o i c e sound-blocks are f o l l o w e d by the  s i n g l e notes o f the  first  of  f o r the most p a r t  segment as w e l l .  Therefore i n a  f o u r measure segment, the s i n g l e notes a l s o employ o n l y b a s i c durations  r a n g i n g from 1 t o 1..  4 r e s t r i c t i o n on the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  i n a measure-grouping, the o r d e r i n g durations freely.  While there  used by  s i n g l e notes  i n which these b a s i c  appear i s not r e g u l a t e d but The  i s this  7  r a t h e r they are  employed  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s the b a s i c d u r a t i o n  t e n t o f every measure-grouping i n s e c t i o n  A.  con-  216 TABLE 11 EMPLOYMENT OF BASIC DURATIONS IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI M u l t i p l e V o i c e Sound B l o c k s Measure Grouping  Length  1  5  2  4  3  3  4  2  5*  1  6*  2  5  4  3  Single 2  Solo-Violin  Notes Orchestra  1-1-1-1-1 1-1-1-1 1-i-I 1-1 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 76  I-I-I-I I-I-I I-I 7654  765  76  I-i-I I-I 76 5 7 6 1-1 76 1 7 1-1 76  I 7  1/1 7 6  !» 1 7 6  7*  1  8*  3  9*  1  10*  4  11*  1  12*  5  13*  . 1  I  14*  1  1 7  .15*  5  16  3  1-1-1 1-1 76576  1' 1 76 1 5  1 ' 1' I 7 6 5  1-1-1-1 1 - 1 - 1 1 - 1 765476576  1' 1 75  1 ' 1' 1 ' 1 7 6 5 4  I 7 I - i - i - i - i 1-1-1-1 1 - 1 - 1 I-I 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 7 6  1 7  1 ' 1' 1 ' 1 ' 1 7 6 5 4 3  7  17  1-1-1-1-1 76543  1-1 75  1» 1/ 1 7 6 5  I-I  2  7 5  1 6  I-I  I  7 5 18*  4  19*  1  20  4  21*  2  22*  2  1» 1» 1» I» 1 7 6 5 4 3  1-1, 1-1 7564  6  I, 1 76  1, 1, 1, 1 7 6 5 4  1 7 1-1, 1-1 7 5 6 4  1 6 1, 1 7 6  .  1 7  1, 1 7 6  217  Measure Grouping Length 23* 3 24  M u l t i p l e Voice Sound Blocks 5  4  3  Single Notes  2 1-1. 1-1 7 6 7 5  Solo-Violin  I< I' I  Orchestra  7 6 5  I. I' I 7 6 5  1-1-1-1-i 7 6 5 4 3  I-I. 1-1 6 5 6 4  1 6  I-i-1-1-1 7 6 5 4 3  1-1. I-I 7 5 6 4  i 6  1-1. I-I 7 5 6 4  1 6  25 26  5  27  i  1-1  28  7 5  6  I  1 6  29  6  •Measure Grouping which contains S o l o - V i o l i n .  A s i d e from the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n i n the s o l o v i o l i n l i n e mentioned i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Example 5, the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content o f the f i r s t f o u r t e e n measure groupings o f s e c t i o n A complies with the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d p r i n c i p l e s of ordering.  However, a t segment 15, there i s a  change i n t h i s system o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which,  significantly,  c o i n c i d e s w i t h the a l t e r a t i o n i n the o r d e r i n g o f d e n s i t i e s as seen i n Table 9.  fundamental  sound-block  In t h i s f i f t e e n t h measure-  grouping, the segment i n which the r e s t r i c t i o n o f  sound-blocks  to those w i t h d e n s i t i e s o f 5, 2 and 1 begins, the b a s i c  dura-  t i o n content o f two-voice note-complexes i s changed from 1,-1, 7 6 t o 1-1. T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s now i n e f f e c t f o r the remainder 7 5 o f the s e c t i o n . A l s o i n segments 18, 20, 24, 26 and 27, a new  218 p a i r i n g J.-1 i s employed i n a d d i t i o n . 6 4  The o n l y exception  to  t h i s new method o f o r d e r i n g can be found i n segment 23, the f i r s t measure o f which can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g example, Example 6.  Nono, V a r i a n t i , measure 58.  219 In measure 58, Nono b r i e f l y r e v e r t s back t o the o r i g i n a l b a s i c d u r a t i o n s o f _1 and 1, however t h i s i s o n l y an i s o l a t e d 7 6 i n s t a n c e as the _1-_1 combination r e t u r n s and i s prominent 7 5 throughout the r e s t o f the s e c t i o n . In s p i t e o f the new b a s i c d u r a t i o n content  o f the  two-voice sound-blocks, the number o f d i f f e r e n t b a s i c  dura-  t i o n s employed w i t h i n each measure-grouping o f the second h a l f o f s e c t i o n A i s i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases e q u i v a l e n t t o the l e n g t h i n measures o f the s p e c i f i c segment i n v o l v e d . The  o n l y exceptions  22,  25 and 29.  t o t h i s r u l e are found i n segments 17,  The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n i n the  s o l o v i o l i n found i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the s e c t i o n appear i n the second h a l f as w e l l .  Another i n t e r e s t i n g although not  frequent type o f d i s c r e p a n c y be  i n b a s i c d u r a t i o n content can  seen i n segment 16 which i s presented  i n Example 7.  221 Throughout t h i s three measure segment, the arrangement o f 1-1 f o r the two v o i c e sound-blocks and _1 f o r the s i n g l e notes 7 5 6 i s followed s t r i c t l y . There i s however one i r r e g u l a r i t y and i t can be found i n measure 40 where the second presents  one note having  of i r r e g u l a r i t y ,  contrabass  the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1_. 5  T h i s type  a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n from the e s t a b l i s h e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system, has by now become an accepted i s t i c o f Nono's method o f parametric  character-  organization.  As mentioned e a r l i e r , each note i n s e c t i o n A can be expressed as the r e s u l t  o f one o f the f i v e b a s i c  m u l t i p l i e d by a d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e .  The d u r a t i o n  durations multiples  range from 1 t o 12 and t h e i r employment i n c o n j u n c t i o n the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the next example.  with  222 Example 8.  Nono, V a r i a n t i , measures 1-6.  223 -  224  Only one  d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e i s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n any  s p e c i f i c sound b l o c k throughout the s e c t i o n .  This p r a c t i c e  c l e a r l y r e f e r s back t o the d u p l i c a t e d notes o f the l i n e s where the same d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e was  single  polytimbral  employed.  The  a c t u a l note d u r a t i o n s o f the sound-blocks are d i f f e r e n t due  t o the f a c t t h a t v a r i o u s b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  was  not the case w i t h p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y .  now  are used.  This  As can be observed from s t u d y i n g Example 8, there i s not a s t r i c t o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s but r a t h e r m u l t i p l e s are d i s t r i b u t e d more or l e s s evenly and throughout the measure-grouping here and der o f s e c t i o n A.  freely  throughout the  Although m u l t i p l e appearance w i t h i n  measure-groupings i s not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y organized, o r d e r i n g o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e content  the  remainthe  a distinct  o f these segments can  be observed i n examining the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .  225 TABLE 12 DURATION MULTIPLES EMPLOYED WITHIN MEASURE GROUPINGS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI  Measure Grouping  Length 5 4 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 1 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 1 5 4 3 2  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  Duration M u l t i p l e s Employed 1 t o 11 1 t o 10 1 to 9 1,2,3,4,6,7 4,11 .1 t o 7 10 1 to 9 1/ 8 1 t o 10 3,5,9 1 t o 12 10 1,4,5,11 1 t o 12 1 to 9 1 t o 7, 1 t o 10 5,12 1 to 9 1 to 6 ..•,3,6,7,8111 1 to 9 1 t o 12 nil 1 t o 12 1 t o 10 1 to 9 2,3,4,7  Although numerous i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s e x i s t ,  there i s ,  without a doubt, s u f f i c i e n t evidence i n Table 12 t o support the statement  t h a t the l e n g t h o f a measure-grouping  i n p a r t the m u l t i p l e content employed w i t h i n .  determines  While the  226 d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e content  o f the s i n g l e measure segments  i s c o n s t a n t l y changing, the range o f m u l t i p l e s found i n segments o f from two  t o f i v e measures i n l e n g t h i s  systematic-  a l l y r e g u l a t e d ; the longer the segment, the g r e a t e r the number of d i f f e r e n t multiples p o s s i b l e . groupings o f the composition  The  first  f o u r measure-  e s t a b l i s h the p a t t e r n o f m u l t i -  p l e s used i n r e l a t i o n to the l e n g t h o f the segments, which i s as f o l l o w s :  TABLE 13 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF SEGMENT AND RANGE OF DURATION MULTIPLES IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI Length o f Segment  Range o f M u l t i p l e s  5  1 to  11  4  1 to  10  3  1 to 9  2  1 to 7  T h i s scheme i s a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y i n measure-grouping 12 which p o i n t the m u l t i p l e 12  f i r s t appears and  at  as a r e s u l t  the  range 1 t o 11 i s o b v i o u s l y i n c r e a s e d t o 1 t o 12 which becomes the accepted  content  f o r each: o f the remaining segments o f  f i v e measures i n l e n g t h . Table  13,  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p presented  in  t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the above m o d i f i c a t i o n ,  227 i s followed  g e n e r a l l y throughout s e c t i o n A, although i n  s e v e r a l segments there are c e r t a i n o m i s s i o n s . groupings 4, 20 and 21 the m u l t i p l e s  I n measure-  5, 9 and 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y  are m i s s i n g w h i l e i n segment 29, t h r e e expected m u l t i p l e s 1,  5 and 6 a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d .  The o n l y other  irregularity  appears i n measure-grouping 22 which i s the segment t h a t has been added t o d i s t o r t the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned palindrome o f measure-grouping  lengths.  Another f a c t o r governing the employment o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s can be found i n examining t h e i r presence w i t h r e s p e c t t o the sound-blocks o f v a r i o u s i n g t a b l e presents  densities.  The f o l l o w -  the m u l t i p l e content o f the f i r s t  segments as used by the d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e - v o i c e  four  note-  complexes . TABLE 14 RELATIONSHIP OF SOUND-BLOCK DENSITY TO DURATION MULTIPLE EMPLOYMENT IN THE FIRST FOUR MEASURE-GROUPINGS OF VARIANTI Density  o f Sound B l o c k  M u l t i p l e s Employed  5  1, 2, 3,4, 5,6,7,8,10,11  4  1,2,4,5,6,7,9,10  3  1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9  2  1,2,3,4,5,6,7  228 As  can be  seen above, the range o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s  by the v a r i o u s  sound b l o c k s  13.  i t can be  Therefore  employed  i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t found i n Table  s a i d t h a t by means o f the same numeri-  c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , sound-block d e n s i t y and  measure-grouping  l e n g t h both are determining f a c t o r s i n the employment o f duration  multiples.  The  number s e r i e s , 1-2-3-4-5 gains more s i g n i f i c a n c e  when, i n s t u d y i n g Varianti, 80,  76,  the tempo i n d i c a t i o n s o f s e c t i o n A o f  i t i s discovered  60 and  t h a t f i v e b a s i c markings,  52 are employed.  T r a n s i t i o n s between these  tempo l e v e l s are made p o s s i b l e through the use and  r a l l e n t a n d i and  the frequent  104,  of  accelerandi  tempo changes i n t h i s  section  g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e the a l r e a d y d i f f i c u l t task o f p e r f o r m i n g score.  the  As each o f these tempo i n d i c a t i o n s i s i n common use  today, there appears t o be  little  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Nono's  de-  c i s i o n t o employ s p e c i f i c a l l y these f i v e numbers, however, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t each o f these terms i s a m u l t i p l e o f 4 and  a l s o t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between each o f these terms  can be reduced to the number s e r i e s , 6,  1, 4,  2 respectively.  Although an o v e r a l l system o f tempo o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not apparent,, " i n c e r t a i n segments a r e l a t i o n s h i p between sound b l o c k and  tempo p r e s e n t a t i o n  1, the  i s suggested.  As  can be  density  seen i n Example  f i r s t measure-groupings o f V a r i a n t i begins a t the tempo  o f q u a r t e r note = ca.80 which i s i n c i d e n t a l l y the slowest p o i n t  229 i n the segment. i s accompanied  An i n c r e a s e then i n note-complex  density-  by an a c c e l e r a n d o which l e a d s t o the marking  o f q u a r t e r note = ca.104 and more f i v e - v o i c e sound-blocks. T h i s concept o f r e l a t i n g the employment o f sound-block  den-  s i t y t o t h a t o f tempo i n d i c a t i o n so t h a t the g r e a t e r the d e n s i t y o f the note-complexes  b e i n g used a t any g i v e n time  the f a s t e r the tempo marking,  i s also hinted at i n several  other segments.  However these are r e l a t i v e l y  isolated  examples and as a r e s u l t t h e i r importance i s s l i g h t when c o n s i d e r i n g tempo employment o f the e n t i r e  section.  In examining the compositions e a r l i e r i n t h i s study i t was  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a t no p o i n t i n these works does Nono  employ the " c l a s s i c " Viennese twelve tone system and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case w i t h V a r i a n t i .  The parameter o f p i t c h i n  s e c t i o n A i s not o r g a n i z e d i n a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner and, as a matter o f f a c t , i t appears as though Nono has employed the tone row o f C, C-sha.rp, B, D, B - f l a t , E - f l a t , A, E, A - f l a t , F, G, F-sharp i n such a manner as a g a i n p r i m a r i l y t o ensure a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p i t c h e s .  The  technique o f p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i e s s l i g h t l y form segments i n v o l v i n g j u s t o r c h e s t r a t o those c o n t a i n i n g both o r c h e s t r a and s o l o v i o l i n and as a r e s u l t these two methods w i l l treated  be  separately. In measure-groupings  where o n l y the o r c h e s t r a i s  p r e s e n t , the tone row i s g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d completely, although  230 n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w i n g the b a s i c o r d e r i n g  o f the s e r i e s .  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can be found i n examining the f i r s t measure-grouping i n the next  example.  o f the c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d  231 Example 9.  Nono, V a r i a n t i , measures 1-6.  233 T h i s method o f unordered p r e s e n t a t i o n the o r c h e s t r a l segments.  i s continued throughout  Although t h e r e a r e a few p i t c h  omissions i n s e r i e s statements o f c e r t a i n measure-groupings, these do n o t occur f r e q u e n t l y enough t o warrant s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n as the o u t l i n e and concept o f the row i s s t i l l evident. While d i s c u s s i n g the p i t c h o r d e r i n g o f the o r c h e s t r a l segments, i t should be mentioned  t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  p i t c h s e r i e s i n these measure-groupings  determines t o a  c e r t a i n e x t e n t the l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c sound-block d e n s i t i e s w i t h i n the segments i n v o l v e d .  The f i r s t  four measure-group-  ings o f s e c t i o n A p r e s e n t e i g h t complete row statements followed by the f i r s t e i g h t notes o f a n i n t h s e r i e s .  The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s the sound-block d e n s i t y f o r each o f these p i t c h e s . TABLE 15 RELATIONSHIP OF PITCH TO SOUND-BLOCK DENSITY IN ORCHESTRAL SEGMENTS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI Pitch number 1 2 3 4 5 6  7  8 9 10 11 12  Sound--Block D e n s i t i e s Found i n 6 4 5 7 2 3 1 2 2 4 2 3 5 5 2 4 3 2 3 5 5 2 4 3 2 3 5 5 2 4 3 3 2 5 5 2 4 4 3 5 5 3 2 4 3 4 5 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 2 2 4 4 5 3  Row 8 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2  S 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  234 I t appears obvious t h a t Nono, i n determining s p e c i f i c row  the d e n s i t y o f a  complex, f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the o r d e r i n g o f p i t c h e s  as they apply to the tone row.  There i s a t a l l times through-  out these four segments a step by step movement from d e n s i t y l e v e l t o another and  one  i f the s u c c e s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n s o f  d e n s i t i e s are reduced, the f o l l o w i n g scheme o f l e v e l s Density level  5 4 5 2 f~l  5 4 3 2 i 4 3 2 3 4 i  Number o f 5 4 3 4 3 4 9 4 3 4 3 8 3 Successive * ' Presentations  results:  2 3 2 3 2  4 3 4 3 4 6 4 5 14  As has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above diagram the s t r u c u t r e o f the s e r i e s o f d e n s i t y l e v e l s i s based on f i v e palindromes c o n s i s t i n g o f 5, 4, 4, ively...  3 and  successive  3 densities respect-  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the a c t u a l numbers chosen  by Nono f o r d e n s i t y l e v e l r e p e t i t i o n s ; with o n l y one the d e n s i t y o f three i s presented times i n s u c c e s s i o n are presented  and  three, or a m u l t i p l e  s i m i l a r l y the d e n s i t i e s o f two  four, or a m u l t i p l e t h e r e o f ,  a l i m i t e d extent,  exception, thereof, and  times i n a row.  four To  the o r d e r i n g o f r e p e t i t i o n s i s a l s o based on  palindrome f i g u r e s however the numerous i r r e g u l a r i t i e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  reduce  this.  In measure-groupings which c o n t a i n s o l o v i o l i n , p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n i s centered  around the s o l o l i n e .  T h i s can  be  seen through s t u d y i n g Example 10 which}-presents the s o l o v i o l i n  235 p a r t o f segment 18, t h a t i s , measure 45 t o 48. Example 10.  Nono, V a r i a n t i , measures 45 t o 48.  Although the parameter o f p i t c h i n t h i s l i n e i s n o t s t r i c t l y organized,  there are c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s p u t on p i t c h c o n t e n t .  While s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s are n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y determined, the solo v i o l i n part i s divided i n t o a b s t r a c t l y defined  small  groups o f from one t o f i v e notes i n l e n g t h which r e p r e s e n t incomplete row statements.  In Example 10, f i v e p i t c h groups  or more c o r r e c t l y , s e r i e s fragments, are presented, 4, 2, 5, 4 and 3 notes r e s p e c t i v e l y .  containing  While c e r t a i n p i t c h e s  which were omitted from the incomplete s o l o v i o l i n row s t a t e ments are presented i n a seemingly a r b i t r a r y f a s h i o n i n the o r c h e s t r a p a r t , by no means can i t be s a i d t h a t there are complete and w e l l d e f i n e d row statements i n segments i n v o l v i n g solo v i o l i n ,  as i s the case i n the measure groupings  only orchestra.  containing  However, i n every s o l o v i o l i n segment, the  technique o f p r e s e n t i n g  incomplete row fragments o f from one  236 t o f i v e notes i n l e n g t h i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t .  While there i s  a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n , there does n o t appear t o be any s p e c i f i c ,  systematic o r d e r i n g o f the lengths o f these  fragments. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the parameter o f r e g i s t e r i n s e c t i o n A, though n o t ordered i n a complex manner, i s r e l a t e d somewhat t o sound-block d e n s i t y i n t h a t the v a r i e t y o f r e g i s t e r s poss i b l e t o be employed by a note-complex i s determined i n p a r t by the d e n s i t y o f t h a t s p e c i f i c sound  complex.  TABLE 16 RANGE OF REGISTERS EMPLOYED BY SOUND-BLOCKS IN THE FIRST FOUR SEGMENTS OF VARIANTI Sound Block Density  Highest Note Employed  Lowest Note Employed  Range  3 octaves & dim. 7th  12  4 octaves  ii  m  4 octaves & Perfect 4th  5 octaves & Major 2nd  I t can be seen t h a t the l e s s dense the sound-block, the l a r g e r the r e g i s t r a l range p o s s i b l e and a l s o the l e s s dense the n o t e complex, the lower the range o f the notes p o s s i b l e .  Although  t h i s g e n e r a l procedure f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the r e g i s t e r content is of l i t t l e  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s e l f i n arstudy o f p a r a m e t r i c  o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t does i l l u s t r a t e i f o n l y s l i g h t l y  further  the importance o f the sound-block d e n s i t y o r d e r i n g and i t s r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n p a r t the employment o f o t h e r parameters. By t h i s p o i n t i n the examination o f s e c t i o n A, i t should be q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n here i s not one o f s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r i n g but r a t h e r o f d e f i n i n g the content o r range o f parameter employment w i t h i n e i t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l sound-block o r measuregrouping o r i n c e r t a i n cases both and then p r o c e e d i n g w i t h i n these bounds.  T h i s has g e n e r a l l y been the r u l e w i t h parameters  d i s c u s s e d up t o t h i s p o i n t and i t i s d e f i n i t e l y the procedure f o l l o w e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the parameter o f p o s s i b l e employable  o f dynamics.  The range  dynamic l e v e l s i s d e f i n e d f o r both  sound-blocks and measure-groupings. In s e c t i o n A, s i x b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p, mp, mf, f and f f f ,  a r e found and, through the use o f c r e s c e n d i and  d e c r e s c e n d i , another e i g h t e e n s i n g l e event markings a r e c r e a t e d . As can be seen i n Example 1, each s i n g l e note o f a sound-block has i t s own s p e c i f i c dynamic marking which may o r may n o t be the same as the o t h e r notes o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r note complex. Although t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t combinations o f dynamics w i t h i n the v a r i o u s sound-blocks i t should be r e a l i z e d  that  238 c e r t a i n note-complexes do have i d e n t i c a l markings.  A good  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can be found i n the f i r s t measure o f the composition where the note-complexes on B - f l a t and D b o t h have the dynamics • — T ^ * / f r  f f  mp,  f , mf and fff*^a»»f.  While sound-blocks w i t h the same markings can be found throughout the s e c t i o n , no o v e r a l l system o f o r d e r i n g i n t h e i r p l a c e ment i s apparent. Through an examination o f the f i r s t  f o u r segments o f  the composition, i t can be determined t h a t , c o n s i d e r i n g the s i x b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s , the content o f p o s s i b l e dynamics f o r each o f the four sound-block d e n s i t i e s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y defined.  The ranges o f dynamics employed i n these note-  complexes are found i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t .  fff f  5 voice sound blocks  mp P  mf  mf  mf 4 voice sound blocks  mp p PPP  3 voice sound blocks  mp  ppp  2 voice sound blocks  mp P PPP  I t should be s t r e s s e d t h a t the above c h a r t p r e s e n t s ranges of dynamics t h a t are used with, i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s w i t h i n the ranges b e i n g v a r i a b l e .  239 As has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d , the range o f b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s  f o r use w i t h i n s p e c i f i c measure-groupings  a l s o d e f i n e d and t h i s can be determined through examining the dynamics employed i n each segment o f the s e c t i o n . TABLE 17 DYNAMIC LEVELS EMPLOYED WITHIN MEASURE-GROUPINGS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI  Measure Grouping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  Length 5 .. 4 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 1 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 1 5 4 3 2  PPP  p  mp  mf  f  fff  X X X X X X  X X X X  x:,„.  X X X  X X  X  X  X  X X X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  x:;  X  X  X X X  X X  X X  X  X  X X X  X  X  X X X  X X X  X  ix  X X X  X  X X X X  X  X X  X X  X X  X X X X  X X X  X X X X  X  X X  X  X X X  X  X  X X X  X X  X  240 While the segments one measure i n l e n g t h have a c o n s t a n t l y v a r y i n g content o f dynamic l e v e l s , t h i s i s n o t the case w i t h the  measure-groupings o f from two t o f i v e measures i n l e n g t h .  With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f measure-grouping 22 where an mf i s present, these m u l t i p l e measure segments employ b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s  the ranges o f which are v e r y s i m i l a r  t o those  of the sound-blocks.  fff f  mp measure segments  P PPP  mf  mf  mf 4 measure segments  mp  mp  PPP  mp measure segments  measure segments  PPP  PPP  In most measure-groupings, a l l dynamics w i t h i n these ranges are  used.  As mentioned a l r e a d y , there a r e e i g h t e e n ' v a r i a n t s  of the s i x b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s mp<^>  and they are ppp<">»-, P«< "> ,  , mf <*>• , ppp <C P/ P">PPP/ PPP-<mp, mp ;> ppp,  ppp < mf, mf > ppp, p <C mf/ mf >• p, p <*Tmp,. mp f !>mf, f < f f f  and fff>»- f .  p, mf «<C f ,  A couple o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s occur,  however i t i s p o s s i b l e t o j u s t i f y them as b e i n g the r e s u l t o f printing  errors.  A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s can be seen i n  segment 1 where i n measure 5, v i o l a 7 has a s i n g l e event  241 marking of, mf ppp  which undoubtedly should be mf  ppp.  These eighteen v a r i a n t s are employed f o l l o w i n g the  limita-  t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the ranges of the b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s . For example, i n a segment two  measures i n lenght,  v a r i a n t s u t i l i z i n g the l e v e l s mp,  p or ppp  In a d d i t i o n t o the means d i s c u s s e d blocks  o f s e c t i o n A can  o n l y dynamic  c o u l d be already,  a l s o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d one  employed. the  sound-  from another  through t h e i r employment o f the performance techniques o f am  Steg, f l a u t a t o and  d i r e c t i o n o f bow  stroke.  These v a r i a b l e s ,  w h i l e not : b e i n g t o t a l l y organized, e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n vague 1  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r employment and In the pointed  study o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h a t o f the  o f dynamic l e v e l s i t  dynamics. was  out t h a t c e r t a i n note-complexes throughout s e c t i o n A  have i d e n t i c a l dynamic markings. groupings, there are 104  In the  sound-blocks and  i n d i v i d u a l note-complexes have at one ordering duplicated p r e s e n t s two  f o u r measure  of t h i s t o t a l ,  74  p o i n t t h e i r exact dynamic  i n another b l o c k .  o f these 74  first  sound-blocks.  The  f o l l o w i n g example  242  243 The two sound-blocks o u t l i n e d i n the above example both have the dynamic p a t t e r n o f ppp  , mp^> ppp, p •<>  and ppp  <mp..  However, t h i s i s n o t the o n l y v a r i a b l e o r d e r i n g they have i n common s i n c e the top note i n both sound-blocks i s p l a y e d f l a u t a t o w h i l e the remaining tones a r e performed n o r m a l l y . Throughout  s e c t i o n A, Nono p r e s e n t s sound-blocks w i t h e i t h e r  none, one o r two notes p l a y e d f l a u t a t o and the p o s i t i o n o f these f l a u t a t o tones a r e f r e q u e n t l y v a r i e d .  F o r example, i n  sound-blocks c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e notes, the f o l l o w i n g o f performance  -p  i n d i c a t i o n s are possible:  n.  n.  fl.  n.  fl.  n.  n.  n.  fl.  fl.  n.  fl.  n.  fl.  n.  _  arrangement  There a r e s i m i l a r arrangements  o f f l a u t a t o and normal w i t h  sound-blocks o f o t h e r d e n s i t i e s .  The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n  the employement o f these arrangements  i s t h a t w i t h every  d u p l i c a t i o n o f dynamic o r d e r i n g o f the p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned  74 sound-blocks, the exact same f l a u t a t o - n o r m a l o r d e r i n g i s also present. The two note-complexes  o f Example 11 a l s o have the same V  o r d e r i n g o f bowing i n d i c a t i o n s which i s  .  In s p i t e o f the  V  f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s an extremely g r e a t v a r i e t y o f combinations p o s s i b l e , i n most cases where the dynamic o r d e r i n g o f two  244 sound-blocks i s i d e n t i c a l , the o r d e r i n g o f bowing  indications  i s l i k e w i s e the same. The performance i n d i c a t i o n o f am Steg i s employed c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout a note-complex and as a r e s u l t two p o s s i b i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r the complete b l o c k i s p l a y e d am Steg or normal.  The two  only  sound-  note-complexes  o f Example 11 are both performed without am Steg and i n many cases, the dynamic d u p l i c a t i o n s o f the o t h e r 72 sound-blocks are s i m i l a r l y accompanied by a d u p l i c a t i o n o f e i t h e r am Steg or normal performance markings.  There can be no doubt t h a t  the c o i n c i d i n g d u p l i c a t i o n o f dynamics w i t h the performance i n d i c a t i o n s o f f l a u t a t o , am Steg and bowing were intended by Nono and although t h i s i s not a s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  sys-  tem, i t does show t o a c e r t a i n extent an e f f o r t t o r e l a t e  one  t o another the employment o f these d i f f e r e n t  variables.  In r e v i e w i n g the p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c t i o n A, there can be no doubt t h a t the fundamental technique u t i l i z e d i s one o f d e f i n i n g the content or range o f parameter employment w i t h i n e i t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l sound-block o r measuregrouping or b o t h .  The number s e r i e s 1-2-3-4-5 p l a y s an impor-  t a n t r o l e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s e r i e s o f measure-groupings and i t i s the l e n g t h o f these segments which i s a d e t e r m i n i n g element o f t h e i r sound-block d e n s i t y . The s t r u c t u r a l o f these two f a c t o r s ,  significance  sound-block d e n s i t y and measure-grouping  245 length,  i s great.  duration,  The former determines i n p a r t the b a s i c  d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e , r e g i s t e r and dynamic l e v e l  content o f the i n d i v i d u a l sound-blocks w h i l e the l a t t e r l i k e w i s e determines i n p a r t the b a s i c d u r a t i o n ,  duration  m u l t i p l e , r e g i s t e r and dynamic l e v e l content f o r the i n d i v i d u a l measure-groupings.  Relationships  of organization also exist  between tempo and sound-block d e n s i t y as w e l l as.between sound-block d e n s i t y and p i t c h . S i m i l a r t o the o t h e r compositions examined i n t h i s study, the palindrome f r e q u e n t l y appears i n the p a r a m e t r i c organization of section A of V a r i a n t i .  Palindrome  can be seen i n the o r d e r i n g o f measure-grouping arrangement,of m u l t i p l e - v o i c e  structures  lengths,  the  sound-blocks i n the s o l o v i o l i n  segments as w e l l as i n the s e r i e s o f sound-block l e v e l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p i t c h row.  density  In c o n c l u d i n g  this  d i s c u s s i o n o f s e c t i o n A, i t must be emphasized  t h a t , as expec-  ted, there are not any systems o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  s t r i c t l y employ-  ed here i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner s i n c e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n every instance  eventually  appear.  Section B With the commencement o f s e c t i o n B at measure 81, a completely new duced.  system o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n t r o -  While throughout V a r i a n t i both number s e r i e s 1 t o 5  246 and 1 t o 12 are u t i l i z e d i n s t r u c t u r i n g the parameters,  the  former i s more s i g n i f i c a n t i n s e c t i o n A w h i l e the l a t t e r i s most prominent i n s e c t i o n B, as w i l l be d i s c o v e r e d i n the analysis to follow. Although  the second s e c t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r  segments, the measure-groupings are not c o n s i s t e n t l y ordered i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the s e r i e s 1-2-3-4-5 as was s e c t i o n A. 1, 4,  The number sequence 5, 1, 4,  the case i n  2, 3, 4,  5, 21,  15,  3, 6 r e p r e s e n t s the l e n g t h o f the s u c c e s s i v e measure-  groupings  o f t h i s s e c t i o n and as can be seen there are  three  segments which are longer than the p r e v i o u s l y accepted  maxi-  mum  duration.  I t i s obvious  about a systematic and  t h a t Nono i s not concerned here  symmetrical  ordering of lengths  has been the procedure up t o t h i s p o i n t i n the  as  composition.  In c o n t r a s t t o s e c t i o n A where segment l e n g t h was  a deter-  mining f a c t o r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f other parameters, i n s e c t i o n B t h i s i s no longer the  case.  In s e c t i o n B, the sound-block d e n s i t i e s vary, c o n t a i n i n g from 1 t o 12 p i t c h c e l l s i n number.  There are two  t i n c t types o f note-complexes presented:  one,  dis-  a horizontal  statement by the s o l o v i o l i n and the other b e i n g a r e l a t i v e l y v e r t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n by the o r c h e s t r a .  These two  types  are  ordered i n the f o l l o w i n g manner, w i t h the numbers r e p r e s e n t i n g the d e n s i t i e s o f the v a r i o u s sound-blocks i n the s e c t i o n .  247  Solo V i o l i n  1  / Orchestra  The  12  six  of  are  of  /  8  6  a decreasing  the  six  of  first  In  every  9,  the  case,  there  complexes,  The  is  first  of two  the  12  2  '' / 1  numbers  3  the  not  violin  of  of  the  density  theeorwith  solo  sound-block violin block  completed.r and  solo  As  violin  each instance  begins. density  i t s : note-complex is  odd  overlapping  orchestral  orchestral in  the  the  row o f  coincide an  2  /• 11  as  12 o f  orchestral  with  sound-block  a pairing total  is  concluded  proceed  9  obvious  integers,  score  exception  is  4  /  7  7 through  There  is  6  /  an i n c r e a s i n g  violin. as  8  5  series  violin,  of' even  it  10  /  until a note-  adding  up  cells. paring  note-complex zation  the  does  solo  with  13 p i t c h  in  with  orchestra  to  solo  11  /  density  row  and b e f o r e  preceding  result  to  the  note-complexes  starts  the  of  4  solo  identical  9  /  two  the  chestra, last  7.  /  these  terms  integers,  5  3  10  symmetry  first  /  the  of  sound-blocks  densities parameter  sound-blocks  are of of  and a l s o  important pitch. section  In  the  factors the  B are  in  next  ordering the  organi-  example,  presented.  of  the  249  250 The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t h i r t e e n p i t c h c e l l s o f t h i s p a i r i n g i s such t h a t the f i r s t note-complex  contains a l l  twelve notes o f the tone row w i t h the s o l o v i o l i n b l o c k d u p l i c a t i n g one o f these p i t c h e s t h i s case t o be C n a t u r a l ,  sound-  which happens i n  note number 1, o f the s e r i e s .  T h i s p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g every note o f the tone row as as one d u p l i c a t i o n  contained within  a note-complex  pairing  i s c o n t i n u e d throughout the remainder o f the s e c t i o n . the  following  diagram the p i t c h o r d e r i n g f o r each  well  In  sound-  b l o c k p a i r i n g o f s e c t i o n B i s presented, w i t h the d u p l i cated p i t c h b e i n g c i r c l e d .  F i g u r e 1 2 . — P i t c h O r d e r i n g o f Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks o f S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i Orchestra Pitches i n Order o f Appearance  P a i r i n g Density b  Solo V i o l i n P i t c h e s i n Order o f Appearance  Density  E B A (cT) C# B G D F  1  G# A  D  3  F# C (C#  (B)  E  A  5  G  F#  C  (D)  E  7  F  G  F#  C  9  G# F  G  F# C  A  (c)  1  12  E  2  10  B  3  8  B  4  6  A  5  4  E (  6  2  11  E  G# F  G  F# C  C# B  D  B  b  7  1•  12  E  G# F  G  F# C  C# B  D  B  b  8  3  10  G  F# C  C# B  D  9  5  E  A E  10  7  11  9  12  11  b  E b  B  b  b  F  b  E  b  b  G (C#)E b  A  B  b  D  G#  b  A ( b  ®  G  F  F  #  F )  D  G  A  E  B  B  C  E  A  B  b  8 C # B D B  C C  C#  F#  b  D  C#^G)  b  C#(F#)F  F#  B  D  G# E  B  6  B  4  E  2  G (F#  ^ ^ i n d i c a t e s the d u p l i c a t e d p i t c h  b  E  b  G#  C#(B)  b  C#  A  E  F  (G)  b  B  (D)  C# B  G#(£)  D  (B®)  B ^ )A b  b  ^#)  E  252 In examining F i g u r e 12, i t can be found t h a t the s o l o violin line  i s s t r i c t l y ordered and i t i s t h i s  organization  which i n t u r n i s a determing f a c t o r i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f p i t c h content o f the o r c h e s t r a  sound-blocks.  Inceachlsolo  v i o l i n note-complex, p i t c h movement c o i n c i d e s w i t h the a c t u a l step by step p r o g r e s s i o n being  followed  o f the b a s i c row, w i t h tone number 12  i n every case by the f i r s t note o f the s e r i e s .  P o s s i b l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the p i t c h o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s o l o v i o l i n  sound-blocks i s t h a t every note-complex i s  s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t the f i n a l p i t c h o f each o f the twelve successive  solo v i o l i n blocks present  i n consecutive  the twelve notes o f the b a s i c tone row.  order  As can be seen i n  F i g u r e 12, a l l o f the twelve f i n a l notes, with- the e x c e p t i o n o f the E - n a t u r a l  i n the s o l o v i o l i n  sound-block o f p a i r i n g 8,  are a l s o emphasized by b e i n g d u p l i c a t e d i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g o r c h e s t r a l sound-block. Although the p i t c h e s o f the o r c h e s t r a  note-complexes  are not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ordered i n appearance w i t h r e s p e c t t o the tone row, the p i t c h content f o r each sound-block, which i s p r e s e n t e d i n the next f i g u r e , i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  defined.  Figure 1 3 . —  . i r i n g Density C 1  12  2  10  3  8  4  6  5  4  6  ©  P i t c h Content of S o l o V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks i n S e c t i o n B o f V a r i a n t i  C# B  Orchestra D B E A  E  A  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  b  b  b  F  G  X  X  F# Density C X  1  ©  Solo V i o l i n C# B D B E b  b  A  E  A  X  X  X  X  X  5  X  7  X  X  X  ©  9  X  X  X  X  2  11  X  X  X  X  7  1  12  X  X  X  X  8  3  10  X  X  X  x  x (x)  X  X  9  5  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  10  7  X  11  9  12  11  £x)  (x^  X  X  X  ©  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  8  X  X  © x X  X  X  Qindicates the d u p l i c a t e d p i t c h  6 4 2  F G  F#  ©  3  X  b  x  ©  ©  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  © x X  © X  x@  u>  X  254  Each o r c h e s t r a note-complex c o n t a i n s the tones o f the row which a r e n o t presented by the corresponding  solo v i o l i n  sound-block o f the p a i r i n g , as w e l l as an added p i t c h which i s i n every case the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned note o f d u p l i c a t i o n . T h i s procedure i s f o l l o w e d s t r i c t l y throughout s e c t i o n B w i t h the o n l y i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , i n p a i r i n g 10 and 11.  which are t o be expected,  occuring  In the o r c h e s t r a l b l o c k o f the t e n t h  p a i r i n g t h e r e a r e two D-naturals whereas one o f these  should  have been a B - n a t u r a l and s i m i l a r l y i n p a i r i n g eleven, one of the two B - n a t u r a l s should be a C - n a t u r a l . In the employment o f the parameter o f dynamics, twelve  d i f f e r e n t dynamic p a t t e r n s , l i s t e d below, are u t i l i z e d . 1. 2.  fff  P>PPP fff  PPP-<P f  3. mp ^ » P  p*<mp  4.  f  5.  mp  mf  6.  mf  mp  7. 8. 9.  PPP PPP<<^> P  10.  P-<^  11.  . mp  12.  mp««<  255 The most obvious  comment t h a t can be made about the above  p a t t e r n s regards the presence o f r e t r o g r a d e forms, w i t h number 2 b e i n g a r e t r o g r a d e o f 1, number 4, o f 3 and number 6, o f 5.  These twelve p a t t e r n s are developed  b a s i c dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, found  i n s e c t i o n A.  p, mp,  mf, ^f and  from the same  fff,  as were  Nono has c o n s t r u c t e d the f i r s t  six multi-  p l e l e v e l p a t t e r n s i n such a manner t h a t the dynamic range becomes l e s s w i t h each s u c c e s s i v e p a i r i n g o f p a t t e r n s , as numbers 1 and  2 v a r y from ppp  t o f f f , numbers 3 and 4 move  from p t o f, w h i l e p a t t e r n s 5 and 6 employ o n l y mp The  and  mf.  diagram on the f o l l o w i n g page p r e s e n t s the dynamic  p a t t e r n o r d e r i n g f o r each o f the sound-blocks i n s e c t i o n B, w i t h the numbers employed corresponding of patterns.  to the above l i s t i n g  F i g u r e 1 4 . — Dynamic P a t t e r n Ordering o f Solo V i o l i n and O r c h e s t r a Sound-Blocks o f S e c t i o n B o f Varianti Dynamic P a t t e r n s i n Order o f Appearance i n O r c h e s t r a  P a i r i n g Density 1  12  4  1  6  3  5  5  4  2  3  5  2  10  3  1  1  5  5  3  5  1  3  5  3  8  4  4  6  12 12 10  8 10  5  4  12  8  6  2  7  1 9  8  3  8  8 12  9  5  4  4  4  9  10  7  7  8 11 10  2  2  8  11  9  9  7  7 11 11  9  9  5 11  12  11  4  11  5  2  4  1  4  9 10  6  5  2  4  6  5  2  1  5  8  7  9 10  4  5  5  3  6  3  -fp  6  Dynamic Patterns i n Order o f Appearance i n S o l o V i o l i n  Density  3  3 6 6 5  6  8  12 10  8 12 12  7  9 12  9 11 ,'7  . 9  12  7  7  11  11  7 10 11 11 11  12  10  3  5  4  10  10 10  4  2  W 2  9 12  10 2  8  8 11 11 11  7 10  6  5  4  4  11  2  5  3 12  2  7  7  9  j>>Ppp  fp  7 10 7  to  9 10 8  crl 1  2  8 12 12 10 12  4 f^^e 7 10  6  257 In F i g u r e 14 there are f i v e dynamic p a t t e r n s notated in., b l a c k ink which are not p a r t o f the e s t a b l i s h e d s e t o f twelve and the e x i s t e n c e o f these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s cannot be  explained  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y although  could  one may  s p e c u l a t e t h a t they  be the r e s u l t o f an e r r o r i n the p r i n t i n g o f the  score.  In s t u d y i n g t h i s diagram i t becomes obvious t h a t the dynamic p a t t e r n s by themselves are not ordered t o a s p e c i f i c system. p a t t e r n content  i n appearance  according  S i m i l a r l y , i n c o n s i d e r i n g the dynamic  o f the sound-blocks i n r e l a t i o n t o tone  no o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l system can be determined.  row,  However,  an i s o l a t e d example of a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i t c h and dynamic p a t t e r n content  i s e v i d e n t i n comparing the o r -  c h e s t r a l sound-blocks o f p a i r i n g s 1 and  12.  F i g u r e 15. — D y n a m i c Comparison With Respect t o P i t c h , o f O r c h e s t r a l Sound-Blocks o f Pairings, 1 and.M2 o f S e c t i o n B of Varianti P a i r i n g Density  C  C# B  D  B  b  E  b  A  E  A  F  b  G  1  12  4  2  3  2  5  4  6  3  5  5  12  11  4  2  3  2  5  4  6  3  5  5  F# 5  1 .11  In comparing these two note-complexes p i t c h f o r p i t c h , i t can be content  seen t h a t w i t h o n l y one is:'.identical.  exception the dynamic p a t t e r n  T h i s connection between dynamic p a t t e r n  and p i t c h appears even a l i t t l e more important  when i t i s  258 d i s c o v e r e d t h a t these dynamic^patterns  a l s o are those most  f r e q u e n t l y employed by the r e s p e c t i v e p i t c h e s o f the remaining ten o r c h e s t r a sound-blocks.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y Nono does not  extend any f u r t h e r t h i s p i t c h t o dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p and as a r e s u l t t h i s i s n o t o f extreme s i g n i f i c a n c e  structurally  when c o n s i d e r i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the e n t i r e  section.  Throughout s e c t i o n B there are s i x performance  indi-  c a t i o n s f o r the s t r i n g p l a y e r s which are employed c o n s i s t e n t l y and they are c o l legno, leqno b a t t u t o , p i z z i c a t o , a r c o , am Steg, and o f course normal.  These performance  combined i n v a r i o u s ways t o produce  i n d i c a t i o n s are  twelve d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s  which are l i s t e d below. 1.  arco  pizzicato  2.  pizzicato  arco  3.  am Steg arco  am Steq p i z z i c a t o  4.  am Steq p i z z i c a t o  am Steg arco  5.  col  legno b a t t u t o  6.  legno b a t t u t o  col  7.  am Steg c o l legno  am Steg legno b a t t u t o  8.  am Steg legno b a t t u t o  am Steq c o l legno  9.  legno  leqno  arco  10.  am Steq arco  11.  col  12.  am Steg c o l  leqno legno  259  An obvious s i m i l a r i t y can be seen when comparing i n d i c a t i o n s w i t h dynamics i n t h a t the s i x b a s i c  performance dynamic  produce twelve dynamic p a t t e r n s w h i l e s i x performance  levels  indica-  t i o n s combine t o form twelve d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f i n d i c a t i o n s . A f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f dynamics  t h a t o f performance i n d i c a t i o n s i s e v i d e n t a f t e r examining the  ordering  o f the p a t t e r n s o f performance i n d i c a t i o n s i n  each sound-block o f s e c t i o n B, which i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 16.  In t h i s diagram, the numbers employed  p r e v i o u s l i i s t o f performance i n d i c a t i o n  correspond t o the  patterns.  and  F i g u r e 1 6 . — O r d e r i n g o f Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s i n S o l o V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks o f S e c t i o n B of Varianti  Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s i n Order -of Appearance i n O r c h e s t r a  Event P a i r i n g Density 1  12  2  10  3 4  2  1  8  3  5  7  1  1  1  5  7  3  7  2  2  1  2  8  5  8  9 10  9  4 1  4  Density  3  3  Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s i n Order o f Appearance i n S o l o V i o l i n  5  2  5  4  9 10 10  5  1 8 3  1 6  5  5  8 6 10 10  9  to  7  10  9  12 11 12 11 11 11  o  9 10 12 11 12 11  5  11 12 11 12  6  11 10  11  12 10 10 12 10 11 11  7  12  12  10  3  7  2 f>«*10  9 10  9 10 9 10  8  10  9  9  10  10  9  4  4  4 10  6  9  4  4  4  2 11  8  10  11 10 12  11  12 12 12 11 12 12 12  12  11  4  2  8  9  5  4  4  6  2 10  11  4  5 12 5  2  7  3  3  2  2  10 11 12 12 11 5  1 10  4  12 12 11 11 5  9  2  2  9 11  9 11 2  9  9  9 9  6  261 The o n l y performance i n d i c a t i o n employed i n s e c t i o n B which does not f a l l w i t h i n the group o f twelve p a t t e r n s i s found i n the s o l o v i o l i n sound-block  o f p a i r i n g 7.  Significantly/  t h i s s i n g l e performance i n d i c a t i o n i r r e g u l a r i t y ,  pizzicato,  c o i n c i d e s e x a c t l y w i t h an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n dynamics which i s , as can be seen i n F i g u r e 14,  af f f .  I f one compares the o r d e r i n g o f dynamic p a t t e r n s i n s e c t i o n B w i t h t h a t o f p a t t e r n s o f performance i n d i c a t i o n s , a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes obvious.  Each o f the  twelve  dynamic p a t t e r n s i s employed i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e i t h e r o f s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s o f performance i n d i c a t i o n s ; dynamic p a t t e r n 1, p ^ > p p p  f o r example,  f f f / always appears  with  e i t h e r performance i n d i c a t i o n p a t t e r n 1, arco p i z z i c a t o , p a t t e r n 3, am Steq arco am Steg p i z z i c a t o .  two  or  The f o l l o w i n g  t a b l e p r e s e n t s the performance i n d i c a t i o n s u t i l i z e d w i t h each o f the twelve dynamic p a t t e r n s , w i t h the numbers employed c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t i n g o f p a t t e r n s .  262 TABLE 18 PERFORMANCE INDICATION PATTERNS EMPLOYED WITH SPECIFIC DYNAMIC PATTERNS IN SECTION B OF VARIANTI  Dynamic Pattern  Performance I n d i c a t i o n P a t t e r n s Employed  1  L, 3  •2  2, 4  3  1', 3  4  2, 4  5  5, 7  6  6, 8  7  11, 12  8  9, 10  9  11, 12  10  9, 10  11  11, 12  12  9, 10  '  The above r e l a t i o n s h i p o f employment i s f o l l o w e d c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout s e c t i o n B although, as can be expected,  several  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s do appear. In examining t h e dynamic p a t t e r n content o f t h e soundb l o c k s i n r e l a t i o n t o p i t c h , i t was determined t h a t no o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l system was i n e f f e c t and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e performance  i n d i c a t i o n p a t t e r n content i n  263 r e l a t i o n to p i t c h .  F i g u r e 15 i l l u s t r a t e d the i s o l a t e d example  o f the almost i d e n t i c a l dynamic p a t t e r n contents  o f the  c h e s t r a l note-complexes o f p a i r i n g s 1 and  i n the  12 and  f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e / the performance i n d i c a t i o n p a t t e r n o f these two  sound-blocks i s present,  zed p r e s e n t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e Figure 17.—  Pairing  Density  1  12  12  11  or-  content  with the numbers  utili-  patterns.  Performance I n d i c a t i o n Comparison o f O r c h e s t r a l Sound-Blocks o f P a i r i n g s 1 and 12 o f S e c t i o n B of V a r i a n t i C  C# B 4  4  4  4  D 3  3  2  B 2  E  b  5  5  A  b  2  2  8  E 8 3  A  3 7  b  7  F 5  5  G  F#  5  1 11  In comparing these two note-complexes p i t c h f o r p i t c h , i t can be  seen t h a t w i t h o n l y one  d i c a t i o n p a t t e r n content  exception  f o r performance i n -  i s likewise i d e n t i c a l .  As was  the  case w i t h dynamic p a t t e r n s , these performance i n d i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s are a l s o those most f r e q u e n t l y employed by the r e s p e c t i v e p i t c h e s o f the remaining ten o r c h e s t r a  sound-blocks.  These p o i n t s i l l u s t r a t e even f u r t h e r the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r d e r i n g o f dynamics and  t h a t o f performance  i n d i c a t i o n i n s e c t i o n B. In the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the parameter o f note d u r a t i o n i n s e c t i o n B,  the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s of b a s i c d u r a t i o n  d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e are again prominent as was  and  the case i n the  264  f i r s t s e c t i o n , however h e r e t h e y a r e employed i n a c o m p l e t e l y new manner.  Rather t h a n f i v e , t h e r e a r e now o n l y t h r e e  d i f f e r e n t basic durations:  JL, 1 and 1. The n e x t f i g u r e 3 5 7 i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e y a r e u t i l i z e d w i t h i n each sound-block.  Figure  1 8 . — B a s i c Duration Content o f Sound-Blocks i n Section B of Varianti Orchestra  P a i r i n g Density C  C# B  D  B  b  E  b  A  E  A  F  G  F# Density  Solo V i o l i n One B a s i c Duration Employed Throughout a Sound-Block  266 Throughout  each s o l o v i o l i n sound-block, o n l y one b a s i c  d u r a t i o n i s employed and, as can be seen from F i g u r e 18, the o r d e r i n g o f the b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  used i n these note  complexes i s s t r u c t u r e d i n the form o f a palindrome. the o r c h e s t r a l sound-blocks, o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b a s i c i s l i n k e d c l o s e l y t o t h a t o f the parameter the  f i r s t s i x note-complexes,  p i t c h e s i s assigned the  In  duration  of pitch.  Through  each o f the twelve tone row,  a s p e c i f i c basic duration according to  following pattern: c  c#  B  D  B  1 3  1 5  1 7  1 3  1 5  E  b  b  1 7  A  E  A  1 3  1 5  1 7  b  F  G  F#  1 3  1 5  1 7  T h i s method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n does not continue i n t o the l a s t s i x sound-blocks due t o the e x i s t e n c e ordering.  Throughout  o f another concept o f  s e c t i o n B Nono c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w s the  p r a c t i c e o f h a v i n g the two notes o f d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n a p a i r i n g both use the same b a s i c d u r a t i o n and as a r e s u l t has i n t r o d u c e d  another r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p i t c h t o b a s i c  this  duration  which i s p r e s e n t e d below. C I  C# I  3 5  B  D  B  I  I  I  7  3  5  b  E I  7  A  b  I  7 5  E  A  I  I  3  b  F  G  I  I  1  5  J  F# I  3  1  T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y the same b a s i c d u r a t i o n o r d e r i n g t h a t was found i n the s u c c e s s i v e  s o l o v i o l i n note-complexes.  As the  267 first  s i x terms o f the two  ships can c o e x i s t f o r the at  s e r i e s correspond, these r e l a t i o n f i r s t h a l f of the s e c t i o n .  p a i r i n g 7 the p a t t e r n o f b a s i c d u r a t i o n s  employed i n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h the notes o f d u p l i c a t i o n makes the ordering impossible. new  previous  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by the  However,  this  duplicated  notes i s not adopted completely i n the o r c h e s t r a l sound-blocks but r a t h e r i n the l a s t h a l f o f the s e c t i o n the  nonduplicated  p i t c h e s have a r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o r d e r i n g o f b a s i c In c o n t r a s t t o s e c t i o n A where there was  durations. a vertical  d u p l i c a t i o n o f p i t c h w i t h i n a sound-block, i n the s e c t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l p i t c h e s o f the tone row l y d u p l i c a t e d or, more c o r r e c t l y , repeated.  second  are h o r i z o n t a l -  W i t h i n both  s o l o v i o l i n and o r c h e s t r a note-complexes o f s e c t i o n B, are presented by a c e l l  c o n s i s t i n g o f from one  w i t h o r without r e s t s .  The  the  pitches  to four notes  o v e r a l l duration of t h i s  cell,  t h a t i s , from the b e g i n n i n g o f the i n i t i a l note t o the end  of  the l a s t note i n c l u d i n g r e s t s , i s determined i n the same way t h a t o f the s i n g l e note i n the p r e v i o u s  s e c t i o n w i t h the b a s i c  d u r a t i o n b e i n g m u l t i p l i e d by the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e . d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s which vary a systematic  These  from 1 t o 12 are not employed i n  manner w i t h i n e i t h e r s p e c i f i c sound-blocks or  s e c t i o n as a whole.  as  the  Rather they appear to be d i s t r i b u t e d i n  a r e l a t i v e l y even manner throughout.  In the  f o l l o w i n g example  268  t h a t p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t p a i r i n g o f s e c t i o n B, the m u l t i p l e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the green f i g u r e s .  duration  269 Example 13.  Nono, V a r i a n t i , measures 79-84.  270  271 As can be  seen from examining the red f i g u r e s which r e p r e s e n t  the l e n g t h o f the i n d i v i d u a l notes i n Example 13,  the con-  s t r u c t i o n o f these c e l l s i s r e g u l a t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . W i t h i n each c e l l  there i s a main note which i s e i t h e r preceded  o r f o l l o w e d by 1,  2 or 3 tone r e p e t i t i o n s , each b e i n g  l e n g t h o f the a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i c d u r a t i o n . the determining  the  As a g e n e r a l r u l e  f a c t o r o f thennumber o f tone r e p e t i t i o n s  employed i s the l e n g t h o f the main note, t h a t i s , the  longer  the p r i n c i p a l note, the g r e a t e r the number o f r e p e t i t i o n s . As there are so many i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ,  i t would be mere specu-  l a t i o n t o even c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the s t r u c t u r e o f the c e l l s i s governed by r e g u l a t i o n s any more s p e c i f i c than t h i s. In comparing the placement o f the s h o r t repeated  notes  w i t h i n a c e l l t o the employment o f both dynamics and performance i n d i c a t i o n s , c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the r e s u l t o f a t l e a s t a l i m i t e d amount o f p r a c t i c a l i t y on Mono's p a r t , are  visible.  In the case o f dynamics, the m u l t i p l e dynamic p a t t e r n s a p p l i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with, m u l t i p l e note c e l l s and  are  i n every  i n s t a n c e throughout s e c t i o n B, the h i g h e s t dynamic l e v e l  of  these p a t t e r n s i s employed w i t h the s h o r t notes w h i l e the main notes have the c r e s c e n d i , d e c r e s c e n d i  and  lower dynamic l e v e l s .  S i m i l a r l y the p a t t e r n s w i t h m u l t i p l e performance i n d i c a t i o n s are used w i t h m u l t i p l e note c e l l s and the i n d i c a t i o n s p i z z i c a t o  272 and  leqno b a t t u t o  are always found w i t h the  shorter  repeated  notes. In c o n c l u d i n g  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on s e c t i o n B i t i s  s a f e t o say t h a t the number s e r i e s 1 t o 12 i s more prominent i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n which was  o f parameters than the  a l l important i n the  t o s e c t i o n A,  first  s e r i e s 1 to 5  section.  In  contrast  the p i t c h content here i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  i n conjunction  w i t h the  sound-blocks.  Another aspect o f  p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system i n s e c t i o n B which was p r e s e n t i n the  first  ordered  s e c t i o n i s t h a t there  the not  i s now" a c l o s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the employment o f dynamics, performance i n d i c a t i o n s and  duration.  These are j u s t a few  of  the  s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the complete change o f parametric organization  from s e c t i o n A t o s e c t i o n  B.  273  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS In comparing the) methods o f p a r a m e t r i c  organization  as found i n the f i v e works examined by t h i s study, two b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e v i d e n t the employment o f s e r i a l The and  i n L u i g i Nono's development i n  techniques.  analysis o f L i e b e s l i e d , Canti per t r e d i c i ,  I I Canto sospeso have shown t h a t w i t h each  Incontri  successive  composition the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems n o t o n l y become more complex b u t are a l s o g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o a g r e a t e r  extent.  C o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h i s i s the development o f the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f which w i t h each  s u c c e s s i v e work becomes more i n t r i c a t e .  A t the same time,  the number o f s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n s o f p o l y t i m b r a l  continuity  i n the o r d e r i n g o f parameters i s i n c r e a s e d . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s t r e n d toward a i g r e a t e r degree o f organization within L i e b e s l i e d , Canti per t r e d i c i , and  Incontri  I I Canto sospeso, there can be found, w i t h i n each o f these  compositions, areas i n which the systems o f o r d e r i n g are n o t applied.  S i m i l a r l y , p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s not evident  274  c o n s t a n t l y throughout a l l works;'there was n o t a c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s technique i n c e r t a i n segments o f L i e b e s lied,  i n the f i r s t movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i o r i n s e v e r a l  movements o f I I Canto sospeso.  In V a r i a n t i , the concept and  method o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s now changed completely. In d i s c a r d i n g the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y , Nono abandons the tendency o f employing systems which determine o r d e r i n g o f v a r i a b l e appearances. Varianti,  specifically  In s e c t i o n A o f  r a t h e r than c o n t i n u i n g t o move toward t o t a l c o n t r o l ,  the composer u t i l i z e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems which d e f i n e and l i m i t the content o r range o f parameter employment w i t h i n e i t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l sound-block o r measure-grouping, o r b o t h . The  technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y was f i r s t  ployed by Nono i n L i e b e s l i e d . one  Only one p o l y t i m b r a l  em-  line,  with  b a s i c d u r a t i o n , was u t i l i z e d i n t h i s work and even i t d i d  not appear c o n t i n u o u s l y  throughout the c o m p o s i t i o n .  o f t h i s rudimentary form, the p r e s e n t a t i o n tinuity  of polytimbral  i n f l u e n c e d , i f o n l y t o a l i m i t e d extent,  ment o f the parameters o f p i t c h and d u r a t i o n . movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i  In s p i t e con-  the employ-  In the second  the u t i l i z a t i o n o f p o l y t i m b r a l  l i n e s becomes more i n v o l v e d , w i t h the number o f l i n e s i n c r e a s i n g to four and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The number o f b a s i c  l i k e w i s e i n c r e a s e s t o two and three r e s p e c t i v e l y .  durations Most im-  p o r t a n t l y , i n these two works the technique o f p o l y t i m b r a l  275 c o n t i n u i t y assumes more s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  It  now  r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y the d u r a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f sound to t h a t o f s i l e n c e , as w e l l as b e i n g employed t o determine the b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c note.  In movements V  and  VII o f I I Canto sospeso, p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y reaches the peak o f i t s development.  I t i s o f utmost importance t o the  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems o f p i t c h , d u r a t i o n and  dynamics:'.in  t h a t the p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s are u t i l i z e d as v e h i c l e s f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these systems.  Although p o l y t i m b r a l  continu-  i t y i s not employed i n V a r i a n t i , c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n d u r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n between the d u p l i c a t e d notes o f previous p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e s and composition  are most  Within  the  the sound-blocks o f t h i s  evident.  the systems o f parametric  each work examined i n t h i s study can be  organization of found many examples  of Nono's employment o f palindrome o r d e r i n g .  Although i t  would not be p r a c t i c a l t o c i t e every case i n which the palindrome has been u t i l i z e d , the reader by t h i s p o i n t should be  f u l l y aware o f i t s e x t e n s i v e use.  In c o n s t r u c t i n g  these systems, the composer undoubtedly must have f e l t  the  n e c e s s i t y t o i n t r o d u c e the q u a l i t y o f symmetry. In the I n t r o d u c t i o n i t was in his article  s t a t e d t h a t Gyflrgy L i g e t i ,  "Metamorphoses o f M u s i c a l Form," observes  t h a t w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e r i a l processes  t o a number o f  276 both s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e event v a r i a b l e s , the s e r i a l arrangement o f p i t c h , which was the f i r s t parameter t o be ordered in the  such a manner, has now become, i n many composers  1  works,  " f i r s t t h i n g s a c r i f i c e d i n t h i s s h i f t o f emphasis.""'"  T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y the case w i t h the f i v e Nono compositions examined i n t h i s paper.  With o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s , Nono,  i n p r e s e n t i n g the parameter o f p i t c h , appears t o be concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n than a r i g i d system o f o r d e r i n g .  rather  Even when a s p e c i f i c tone  row i s found, i t i s o n l y employed i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, b e i n g constantly repeated.  Nono's l a c k o f concern f o r a s o p h i s t i -  cated s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h i s parameter i s most.evident when i t i s remembered t h a t one s p e c i f i c tone row was used w i t h i n three d i f f e r e n t works ( C a n t i per t r e d i c i ,  I l Canto sospeso  and V a r i a n t i ) i n the same manner o f continuous r e p e t i t i o n . In  c o n t r a s t , Nono d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d has been c o n s t a n t l y  m o d i f y i n g and expanding h i s systems o f d u r a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Possibly, the most s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t y i n Nono's development o f s e r i a l techniques i s examined i n t h i s study i s the  composer's  r e l u c t a n c e t o adopt completely systems o f t o t a l  "*"Gyttrgy L i g e t i , "Metamorphoses o f M u s i c a l Form, " Die Reihe, VII (1960), p. 5.  277 control.  Although methods o f p a r a m e t r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n become  more complex,  Nono always r e t a i n s a c e r t a i n degree o f c h o i c e .  T h i s avoidance o f complete p r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n as t o why Nono seldom employs z a t i o n a l systems c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout a work.  organi-  The e x t e n t  o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s may v a r y from one composition t o the next but change i s always e v i d e n t .  There can be no doubt t h a t  Nono has i n t e n t i o n a l l y r e f r a i n e d from u n e r r i n g l y systems o f t o t a l  following  serialism.  •53  278  APPENDIX TRANSLATIONS With the e x c e p t i o n o f footnote number 5 i n Chapter IV, the f o l l o w i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s have been made by the author. Chapter I 1  "opened a l l the h o r i z o n s o f music t o  me."  3  With him, I recommenced a l l harmony and s t a r t e d again my s t u d i e s a t the b e g i n n i n g . I t i s Maderna who gave me the technique.  4  With him, d u r i n g h i s t r i p s , I uncovered - and l i k e d - the German t r a d i t i o n . We made v e r y e x t e n s i v e analyses o f Schflnberg and Webern. These two composers have had a profound e f f e c t on me. I admire p a r t i c u l a r l y Schonberg, f o r he has touched a l l , a t t a i n e d a l l t h a t he wished t o a t t a i n , i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Webern i s indeed more l i m i t e d , but h i s p u r s u i t s are so e x t e n s i v e t h a t he has a p o s i t i v e and important i n f l u e n c e .  11  A t a time when nobody thought o f d e c o r a t i n g the conduct o r ' s stand w i t h red f l a g s , or to p u b l i s h " L e t t e r s o f freedom f o r the youth" o r t o s e t opera houses on f i r e , Nono was a p o l i t i c a l l y engaged and a c t i v e musician whose a r t was an appeal t o new t h i n k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regards t o the open and l a t e n t forms o f t h i n k i n g o f f a s cism and i t s r o o t s , which he c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y dangerous because they were f o r g o t t e n owing t o a l o v e f o r comf o r t which had t o be awakened even i n the a e s t h e t i c realm.  13  "a s e r i e s o f works by Nono on the Spanish c i v i l war, r e t u r n i n g t o t o n a l i t y , c o r i p a r l a t i , forms o f o p e r a t i c a r i o s i , popular dance rhythms and g r e g o r i a n chant."  15  "connects music and choreography"  17  "the theme o f the tormenting r e g r e t f o r the dead i n the p a r t i s a n war."  279 18  "couple q u a s i d i f f e r e n t modulations o f a same sentiment"  20  " i s a means o f i n t e r v e n t i o n , a c t i v e or p a s s i v e , i n the present society"  22  But Nono edged away from a l l embraces when he r e a l i z e d how h o s t i l e or carelessly h i s i d e a l s were regarded. H i s t e x t s became more d i r e c t , h i s music more p o s t e r - l i k e , he as a person became harder; h i s a t t i t u d e i n a l l spheres, even toward the young g e n e r a t i o n , became more and more provocative. I t seemed as i f .he were running amok a g a i n s t f r i e n d s and c o n n e c t i o n s . However, he f a c e d the consequences o f h i s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The p u b l i c who cont i n u e d t o i g n o r e him, t h i n k i n g t o shame him as a man l e d a s t r a y from the a r t i s t i c path by p o l i t i c a l ideas d i d i n j u s t i c e t o Nono. T h i s i n j u s t i c e was cause f o r h i s disappointment and resentment a g a i n s t the West Germans.  26  "marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h the group o f musicians, up t o then u n i t e d , o f the n o u v e l l e vague."  30  He remarks - put i n Stimmung - c e r t a i n f a c t s , s t i m u l i or sonorous spheres t h a t are found i n I n d i a (I r e f e r t o c e r t a i n B u d d i s t r i t u a l s o f T i b e t ) and uses them i n a c o l o n i a l i s t i c way (I c a l l e d i t t h i s term a l r e a d y , i n 1959 i n r e g a r d t o a m u s i c a l p r a c t i c e o f Cage): a b s t r a c t i n g them from t h e i r context, from t h e i r f u n c t i o n and from t h e i r h i s t o r y i n a t y p i c a l l y n e o c l a s s i c a l way (Messiaen i n t h i s "India case" shows). Hymnen, l a t e r , i s f o r me among the compositions most exemplary o f a p r e c i s e imp e r i a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e : o f K a r l h e i n z I r a t h e r than Wilhelm II (but i t i s the same...).  32  "Those o f the Darmstadt s c h o o l have stopped as i n f r o n t of a w a l l . "  33  You know t h a t we work i n some p a r a l l e l ways and t h a t we h e l p each other very much, in- good f r i e n d s h i p . He a l s o has taken an engaged p o s i t i o n , " r e s p o n s i b l e , " i n f r o n t o f the world today, a p o s i t i o n made o f p i t y , anger, revolt... f  42  "The  i n t o l l e r a n c e o f the contemporary  43  "always the genesis o f my work i s t o search f o r a human ' p r o v o c a t i o n : an event, an experience, a t e x t o f our l i f e provokes my i n s t i n c t and my conscience t o g i v e w i t ness as a musician-man." 1  world."  280 48  " F i l m images ( a b s t r a c t or not - they were conceived f o r me by Vedova) a t the same time as the a c t i o n , are not l i k e a p a s s i v e support but l i k e a p a r a l l e l a c t i o n . "  58  "The r e v o l u t i o n i s not t o send the peasants t o the t h e a t r e i n the same way o f the b o u r g e o i s i e . "  59  " i s t h a t o f b e i n g a b l e t o make music f o r a t t a c k i n g , roads, squares, f i e l d s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h the working and peasant c l a s s i n s t r u g g l e t o g e t h e r . "  61  "others a g a i n have t o l d me o f becoming conscious, j u s t l i s t e n i n g t o t h i s work, o f the s t a t e o f a l i e n a t i o n i n which they f i n d themselves, becoming l i k e a robot."  71  " i n Cuba - where I came.intoi contact"! w i t h men of government, w i t h g u e r r i l l a s , w i t h peasants-, w i t h students, w i t h c h i l d r e n - my way o f communicating w i t h d i f f e r e n t , without the b a r r i e r s , b y which we are r e t a r d e d here (that is aesthetic categories, codified s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s , etc.)"  72  "where there i s a working c l a s s i n the s i t u a t i o n o f s t r u g g l e - not o f consumism, o f enjoyment, e t c . - - I have found a freshness o f communication, n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e , genuine and d i r e c t . "  0  Chapter  II  6  "His emancipation from the Viennese models t o l e r a t e s a t times a l s o the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i n the sense o f a l o o s e n ing, i f not o f the s e r i a l processes, a t l e a s t o f the r u l e t h a t imposes the p e r p e t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f such processes t o the chromatic t o t a l . "  7  "the chromatic t o t a l was imperative standard."  8  "an u l t e r i o r pause b r i n g s the u l t i m a t e strophe o f two v e r s e s , and t h e r e f o r e the t h i r d p a r t o f the work which i s a s o r t o f 'coda' o f o n l y f i v e measures."  not nor w i l l be f o r Nono an  ;  9  But i t i s r a t h e r s t i m u l a t i n g t o observe how, f o r example, i n L i e b e s l i e d he e s t a b l i s h e s a correspondence between the m e t r i c s o f the l i n e s and the s e r i e s : the f i r s t l i n e of f o u r s y l l a b l e s assumes i n the chorus f o u r notes o f the f i r s t s e r i e s w h i l e he commits the f i f t h t o the tympani; the second s e r i e s on the i n i t i a l l i n e o f the t h i r d strophe, t h a t i s o f f i v e s y l l a b l e s , exposes the chorus i n a r a p i d a c a p p e l l a passage....  281 11  "the pure monody t h a t changes c o l o u r p a s s i n g from one v o i c e t o another, a c c o r d i n g t o a w r i t i n g a l r e a d y t r a c e able i n c e r t a i n D a l l a p i c c o l a . . . "  Chapter I I I 3  "Nono has a pronounced p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r symmetrical rows, all-interval-rows."  4  "From the i n t e r v a l - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the row stem the f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s which are o f f e r e d by each h a l f : chromatic s c a l e s which converge from b o t h s i d e s towards a 'tonal c e n t r e , as can be seen above." 1  6  The tone had remained a p o i n t , and the r e s t had become a h o l e between the two d o t s . D u r a t i o n and d i s t a n c e o f the p o i n t s , as w e l l as d u r a t i o n and d i s t a n c e o f the h o l e s became s e r i a l i z e d ; however, the p r i n c i p l e which had sepa r a t e d h o l e s from dots, minus from p l u s , d i d not undergo any change o r become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . A t l e a s t i n i n s t r u m e n t a l music, no attempt had been made t o a b o l i s h any d i f f e r e n c e between sound and not-sound which had been the b a s i s o f m u s i c a l t i m e . a r t i c u l a t i o n o f rhythm.  Chapter IV 3  "the i n t o l l e r a n c e o f the contemporary world,"  4  T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n was taken from: K a r l h e i n z Stockhausen, "Speech and Music," t r a n s l a t e d by Ruth Koenig, Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 47-48. II " . . . I am d y i n g f o r a world which w i l l shine w i t h such a s t r o n g l i g h t and w i t h such beauty t h a t my s a c r i f i c e i s n o t h i n g . M i l l i o n s o f men have d i e d f o r i t on the b a r r i cades and i n war. I am d y i n g f o r j u s t i c e . Our ideas w i l l conquer..." III "...they are b r i n g i n g me t o K e s s a r i a n i t o be executed! w i t h seven o t h e r s . I am d y i n g f o r freedom and f o r the fatherland..." "...they w i l l shoot us today. We s h a l l d i e as men f o r the f a t h e r l a n d . Be worthy o f us..." "...they w i l l hang me i n the square, because I am a p a t r i o t . Your son departs, he w i l l not hear the b e l l s of freedom..."  282  V " . . . I f the;, sky were made up o f paper and a l l the sea o f ink, I G o u l d n o t d e s c r i b e t o you my s u f f e r i n g s and e v e r y t h i n g I see around me. I say f a r e w e l l t o a l l and weep..." VI "...the doors are opening. Here a r e our murderers, dressed i n b l a c k . They are hounding us out o f the synagogue. How hard i t i s t o say goodbye f o r ever to such a b e a u t i f u l l i f e ! " VII " . . . f a r e w e l l , Mother, your daughter, L i u b k a , i s going to the damp s o i l . . . " IX "...I am n o t a f a i d o f death..."' "...I s h a l l be calm and p e a c e f u l a t the; command o f e x e c u t i o n . A r e those who have condemned us a l s o so calm?..." 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