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A study of parametric organization in selected works of Luigi Nono Needley, Douglas 1974

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A STUDY OF PARAMETRIC ORGANIZATION IN SELECTED WORKS OF LUIGI NONO by DOUGLAS NEEDLEY B.Mus., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of MUSIC We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1974 In presenting th is thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of Music The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date October 7th, 1974 ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s study i s to characterize the changes i n L u i g i Nono's treatment of techniques of parametric organization as found i n f i v e works composed successively from 1954 to 1957: L i e b e s l i e d (1954), Canti per t r e d i c i (1954/1955),, Incontri (1955), II Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i (1956/1957). The method employed i s that of establishing the composer's processes of ordering, and determining to what extent they are applied within each composition. Through a comparison of the systems of organization used i n each of the f i v e works i t i s possible to assess Lu i g i Nono's development i n the use of s e r i a l techniques. This analysis i s l i m i t e d primarily to studying the parameters of p i t c h and duration. Although these two parameters are the only variables which are consistently examined within each composition, other parameters, including dynamics, are discussed when i t i s found that t h e i r systems of s e r i a l ordering are d i r e c t l y related to and governed by the same organizational p r i n c i p l e s which are applied to p i t c h and duration. In the f i r s t four works discussed i n t h i s paper, namely Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II Canto sospeso, parametric organization i s linked c l o s e l y to a technique which, for the purpose of t h i s study, has been termed "poly-timbral continuity." This concept of polytimbral continuity, which could be considered to have developed from Klangfarben-melodie, consists e s s e n t i a l l y of a continuous l i n e of sound which has a constantly varying timbre. In comparing the methods of parametric organization as found i n the f i v e works, two basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are evident. The analysis of Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and 1 1 Canto sospeso have shown that with each successive composition the organizational systems not only become more complex but are also generally applied to a greater extent. Coinciding with t h i s i s the development of a technique of polytimbral continuity, the presentation of which i n each successive work becomes more i n t r i c a t e . At the same time, the number of st r u c t u r a l functions of polytimbral continuity i n the ordering of parametersiis increased. In contrast to t h i s trend towards a greater degree of organization within Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and 1 1 Canto sospeso, there can be found, within each of these compositions, areas i n which the systems of ordering are not applied. S i m i l a r l y , polytimbral continuity i s not constantly employed throughout a l l works. In V a r i a n t i , the i v concept and method of parametric organization i s now changed completely. In discarding the technique of polytimbral con-t i n u i t y , Nono abandons the tendency of employing systems which s p e c i f i c a l l y determine ordering of variable appearances. Possibly the most s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t y i n Nono's de-velopment of s e r i a l techniques i s the composer's reluctance to adopt completely, systems of t o t a l c o n t r o l . Although methods*, of parametric organization become more complex, Nono always retains a c e r t a i n degree of choice. This avoidance of complete predetermination provides at le a s t a p a r t i a l explanation as to why Nono seldom employs organizational systems consistently throughout a work. The extent of i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s may vary from one composition to the next but change i s always evident. There can be no doubt that Nono has i n -t e n t i o n a l l y refrained from unerringly following systems of t o t a l s e r i a l i s m . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES .'.vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I. LUIGI NONO 6 Works Composed Before L i e b e s l i e d . . . 8 Works Composed After V a r i a n t i 14 I I . LIEBESLIED 44 I I I . CANTI PER TREDICI AND INCONTRI 84 IV. IL CANTO SOSPESO 124 Movement II • • • • 1 2 9 Movement IV 148 Movement V 156 Movement VI B , 169 Movement VII 172 V. VARIANTI 184 Section A 189 Section B 245 VI. CONCLUSIONS 273 APPENDIX 278 BIBLIOGRAPHY 283 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Pitch Omissions From Row Statements i n the F i r s t Half of the Second Movement of Canti per t r e d i c i 95 .2. I r r e g u l a r i t i e s of Pitch Presentation i n the F i r s t Half of Incontri 99 3. Statements of Duration Multiple Series i n the F i r s t Half of Incontri 118 4. Statements of Duration Multiple Series i n the F i r s t Section of Movement II of II Canto sospeso 143 5. Statements of Duration Multiple Series i n Movement IV of II Canto sospeso 153 6. Pitch Ordering Within Each of the Three Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Move-ment V of II Canto sospeso. 161 7. Duration Multiple Presentation i n Each Line of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement V of II Canto sospeso 166 8. Statements of Duration Multiple Series i n Movement VI B of II Canto sospeso 171 9. Density of the Sound-Blocks Contained With-i n Each Measure-Grouping of Section A of V a r i a n t i 197 10. Frequency of Multiple-Voice Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings Involving Both Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra i n Section A of Va r i a n t i 203 v i i Table Page 11. Employment of Basic Durations i n Section A of V a r i a n t i 216 12. Duration Multiples Employed Within Measure Groupings of Section A of V a r i a n t i 225 13. Relationship Between Length of Segment and Range of Duration Multiples i n Section A of V a r i a n t i 226 14. Relationship of Sound-Block Density to Duration Multiple Employment i n the F i r s t Four Measure-Groupings of V a r i a n t i 227 15. Relationship of Pitch to Sound-Block Density i n Orchestral Segments of Section A of V a r i a n t i 233 16. Range of Registers Employed By Sound-Blocks i n the F i r s t Four Segments of V a r i a n t i 236 17. Dynamic Levels Employed Within Measure-Groupings of Section A of V a r i a n t i 239 18. Performance Indication Patterns Employed With S p e c i f i c Dynamic Patterns i n Section B of V a r i a n t i 262 v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Interval Palindromes i n L i e b e s l i e d 60 2. Polytimbral Continuity i n L i e b e s l i e d 68 3. Note Durations Employed Within L i e b e s l i e d . . . . 76 4. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n the F i r s t Half of the Second Movement of Canti per t r e d i c i 106 5. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n the F i r s t Half of Inc o n t r i . . . 108 6. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement II of II Canto sospeso 136 7. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement IV of II Canto sospeso 151 8. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement V of 11 Canto sospeso 158 9. Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement VII of II Canto sospeso 175 10. Organization of Measure Groupings i n Section A of Va r i a n t i 189 11. Arrangement of Multiple-Voice Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings Involving Both Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra i n Section A of Va r i a n t i 204 i x Figure Page 12. Pitch Ordering of So l o - V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks of Section B of V a r i a n t i 251 13. Pitch Content of S o l o - V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks i n Section B of V a r i a n t i . . . . . . 253 14. Dynamic Pattern Ordering of So l o - V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks of Secion B of V a r i a n t i 256 15. Dynamic Comparison With Respect to Pitch of Orchestral Sound-Blocks of Pairings 1 and 12 of Section B of V a r i a n t i 257 16. Ordering of Performance Indication Patterns i n S o l o - V i o l i n and Orchestral Sound-Blocks of Section B of V a r i a n t i 260 17. Performance Indication Comparison of Orchestral Sound-Blocks of Pairings 1 and 12 of Section B of V a r i a n t i 263 18. Basic Duration Content of Sound-Blocks i n Section B of V a r i a n t i 265 1 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of t h i s study i s to characterize the changes i n L u i g i Nono*s treatment of techniques of parametric organization as found i n f i v e works composed successively from 1954 to 1957: Li e b e s l i e d (1954), Canti per t r e d i c i (1954/1955), Incontri (1955), II Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i (1956/1957). The method employed w i l l be that of establishing the composer's processes of ordering, and determining to what extent they are applied within each composition. Through a comparison of the systems of organization used i n each of the fi v e works i t w i l l be possible to assess L u i g i Nono 1s develop-ment i n the use of s e r i a l techniques. The term "parameter" was introduced i n music theory by Dr. Meyer-Eppler of the Inst i t u t e of Communication Theory at the University of Bonn."'' I,t was borrowed from mathematical jargon where i t means "an independent variable through functions 2 of which other functions may be expressed" and i s now employed ^"Ernst Krenek, "Extents and Limits of S e r i a l Techni-ques, " i n Problems of Modern Music. Edited by P.H. Lang (New York: W.W. Norton, 1960), p. 72. 2 . . Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Edited by P.B. Grove (Springfield: G. and C. Merriam Co., 1969), p. 1638. 2 i n writings on. music to denote the variables of sound. In his a r t i c l e "Metamorphoses of Musical Form," Gyflrgy L i g e t i observes that with the application of s e r i a l processes to a number of both single and multiple event variables, the s e r i a l arrange-ment of pi t c h , which was the f i r s t parameter to be ordered i n such a manner, has now become, i n many composer's works, the 3 " f i r s t thing s a c r i f i c e d i n t h i s s h i f t of emphasis." In order to determine whether or not t h i s i s the case with Nono's compositions, t h i s study i s l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y to the para-meters of p i t c h and duration. Although these two parameters are the only variables which w i l l be consistently examined within each composition, other parameters, including dynamics, w i l l be discussed when i t i s found that t h e i r systems of s e r i a l ordering are d i r e c t l y related to and governed by the same organizational p r i n c i p l e s which are applied to p i t c h and duration. In the f i r s t four works discussed i n t h i s paper, namely Liebe s l i e d, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II Canto sospeso, parametric organization i s linked c l o s e l y to a technique which, for the purpose of t h i s study, has been termed "polytimbral continuity." This concept of polytimbral continuity, which could be considered to have developed from Klangfarbenmelodie, 3 Gytirgy L i g e t i , "Metamorphoses of Musical Form," Die Reihe, VII (1960), p. 5. 3 consists e s s e n t i a l l y of a continuous l i n e of sound which has a constantly varying timbre. In contrast to the Klangfarben-melodie technique where there are often b r i e f periods of silence, polytimbral continuity as found i n these four compo-s i t i o n s contains no stoppages but rather there i s a continuous stream of sounds. A l i n e of polytimbral continuity can be traced without interruption from voice to voice throughout the score with the parameter of timbre changing from one note to the next. The primary d i s t i n c t i o n between the technique of poly-timbral continuity and Schflnberg's concept of Klangfarben-melodie i s the constructional idea. In Nono 1s p o i n t i l l i s t i c scores, the single tone i s not i s o l a t e d as such within the com-pos i t i o n but rather i t i s related to the entire musical struc-ture through the technique of polytimbral continuity. Every note becomes part of one of a number of continuously sounding l i n e s of constantly changing timbre which move throughout these works. Nono's technique of a t r a n s i t i o n from a single tone to musical structure i s therefore remote from Schflnberg's poetic concept of a contrapuntal-melodic flow of sounds. More importantly, through i t s employment i n Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II Canto sospeso, polytimbral continuity i s constantly being developed and i t assumes several s i g n i f i c a n t functions i n the organization of duration, p i t c h 4 a n d d y n a m i c s . T h r o u g h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n e a c h o f t h e w o r k s , t h e s e f u n c t i o n s w i l l b e c o m e e v i d e n t . I n d i s c u s s i n g N o n o ' s m e t h o d s o f o r g a n i z i n g d u r a t i o n , t w o t e r m s , b a s i c d u r a t i o n a n d d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e , a r e e m p l o y e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o m p o n e n t s o f h i s s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m . I n t h e s e w o r k s t h e u n i t b e a t c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o 3 t o 7 e q u a l p a r t s t o c r e a t e b a s i c d u r a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m JL 3 t o JL r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e i s t h e n u m b e r b y 7 w h i c h t h e b a s i c d u r a t i o n i s m u l t i p l i e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d u r a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c n o t e . A l i n e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n -u i t y i s a s s i g n e d o n e p a r t i c u l a r b a s i c d u r a t i o n a n d n o o t h e r i s e m p l o y e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f n o t e s i n t h i s l i n e . A s a n e x a m p l e , a q u a r t e r - n o t e i n a p o l y t i m b r a l l i n e u t i l i z i n g t h e b a s i c d u r a t i o n o f 1 m u s t b e t h e r e s u l t o f a b a s i c d u r a t i o n 3 o f 1 m u l t i p l i e d b y t h e d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e o f t h r e e . T h i s r u l e 3 o f e v e r y n o t e w i t h i n a l i n e h a v i n g t h e same b a s i c d u r a t i o n was d e f i n e d b y p r a c t i c e a n d s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f o b v i o u s l y s y m m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s o f d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s , a s w i l l b e s e e n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s . A s v e r y l i t t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h e l i f e , m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y o f L u i g i N o n o , C h a p t e r I h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s c o m p o s e r f o r t h e r e a d e r . 5 The author's translations of each foreign language quotation employed i n the text are included i n the Appendix with the footnote numbers corresponding to those u t i l i z e d within the respective chapters. 6 CHAPTER I LUIGI NONO Lui g i Nono was born on January 29, 19 24 i n Venice and i t was there that he spent h i s youth. Although he studied law at the University of Padua and received a degree i n 1946, Nono also became involved with composition during t h i s period. At the age of seventeen he met Malipiero who, i n the words of Nono, "m'ouvrit tous les horizons de l a musigue.""'" He then began studying music, auditing classes at the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory i n Venice which was at that time headed by Malipiero. In 1946 Nono became acquainted with Bruno Maderna who, according to G.W. Hopkins, "pointed out to him the de f i c i e n c i e s of the academic mode of 2 teaching and gave him a course i n composition." Nono has made reference to t h i s association with Maderna, stating: Avec l u i , je recommencai toute 1'harmonie et repr i s mes etudes a leur de*but! C'est Maderna qui m'a donne' l a technique."^ Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p.9. 2 . . G.W. Hopkins, "Luigi Nono," Music and Musicians, XIV (A p r i l , 1966), p. 32. 3 Martine Cadieu, op. c i t . , p. 9. 7 On the advise of Malipiero, Nono i n 1948 continued h i s studies with Hermann Scherchen i n Venice and then l a t e r followed Scherchen to Zurich where he attended a l l of h i s teacher's rehearsals. I t was through t h i s close relationship with Scherchen that Nono became most knowledgeable of the composi-tions of SchOnberg and Webern. In t a l k i n g about h i s studies with Scherchen, Nono stated: Avec l u i , durant ses voyages, j ' a i decouvert - et aime - l a t r a d i t i o n allemande. Nous fai s i o n s des analyses trks approfondies de SchOnberg et de Webern. Ces deux compositeurs ont agi profondement sur moi . J 1 admire particulie*rement SchOnberg, c:S.ar i l a touche a tout, a t t e i n t tout ce q u ' i l v o u l a i t atteindre, dans toutes les d i r e c t i o n s . Webern est certes plus l i m i t e , mais i l a tant approfondi ses ^  recherches q u ' i l a une influence c e r t a i n et grave. In 1950, Nono began an association with the Inter-nationale Ferienkurse fur Neue Musik i n Darmstadt which provided him with additional stimuli and increased technical knowledge. The annual Ferienkurse, organized i n i t i a l l y by Dr. Wolfgang Steinecke i n 1946, had by t h i s time established Darmstadt as an important center for both the discussion and performance of new music. Throughout the f i f t i e s Nono became increasingly more c l o s e l y involved with the post-Webern move-ment at Darmstadt where he presented lectures and par t i c i p a t e d i n composition workshops. Most importantly i t was here that 4 Ibid. 8 many of h i s early compositions were given t h e i r premiere performances. I t was mainly as a r e s u l t of these perform-ances that Nono became well known throughout Germany as one 5 of the p r i n c i p a l figures of the avant-garde. Works Composed Before L i e b e s l i e d Nono's f i r s t composition/ the orchestral V a r i a z i o n i  canoniche based on the tone row from Schonberg's Ode to  Napoleon, Opus 41, was written early i n 1950. Its premiere performance was given at Darmstadt on August 27, 1950, with Hermann Scherchen conducting and, according to H.H. Stucken-x 6 schmidt, i t enjoyed a "succes de scandale." As the score of t h i s work was l o s t before publication, the sole method of acquiring information regarding i t s construction i s through examining secondary source material. The only writer to comment at a l l on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r composition i s G.W. Hopkins who suggests: . . . s e r i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s are applied to a l l the aspects of sound; many kinds of canon are used i n simple tex-tures, and silences play a c r u c i a l part. I t was un-doubtedly t h i s r a d i c a l r e s t r a i n t and gentleness which 5 A l f r e d Frankenstein, "Three I t a l i a n Modernists," High F i d e l i t y , XI (December, 1961), p. 70 6H.H. Stuckenschmidt, Twentieth Century Music (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969), p. 235 9 shocked the Darmstadt l i s t e n e r s , and which l a t e r l e d a Pari s i a n c r i t i c to e n t i t l e an a r t i c l e "En attendant Nono."7 However, as Hopkins has probably not studied the organization of V a r i a z i o n i canoniche i n great depth, these above observa-tions may be considered questionable. In 1951, Nono completed two compositions: Composizione  per orchestra, which was f i r s t performed on February 18, 1952 i n Hamburg, and Polifonica-Monodia-Ritmica for f l u t e , B-Flat c l a r i n e t , bass c l a r i n e t , E-Flat a l t o saxophone, horn i n F, piano, xylophone, cymbals, tom-tom, side-drum, and two small drums, which was given i t s premiere at Darmstadt on July 10, 1951. With the appearance of h i s early works, Nono was cate-gorized perhaps somewhat too h a s t i l y as a "pur Weberien" by • 8 Antoine Golea and undoubtedly t h i s was at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a re s u l t of the b r i e f three-movement chamber piece P o l i f o n i c a -Monodia-Ritmica i n which c e r t a i n aspects of compositional technique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Webern are quite evident. In addition to the element of p o i n t i l l i s m which was beginning to make an appearance i n several of the compositions on d i s -play at Darmstadt at t h i s time and which can be seen i n t h i s 7 . . . G.W. Hopkins, "Luigi Nono," Music and Musicians, XIV (A p r i l , 1966), p. 32. 8 Mario Bortolotto, "The New Music i n I t a l y , " i n Contemporary Music i n Europe: A Comprehensive Survey, edited by P.H. Lang and N. Broder (New York: G. Schirmer, 1965), p. 61. 10 work, there i s evidence i n Polifonica-Monodia-Ritmica of a motivic structure based on the recurrence and transformation of rhythmic and i n t e r v a l l i c c e l l s i n the manner employed by Webern. Udo Unger examines t h i s aspect i n h i s a r t i c l e "Luigi 9 Nono" i n Die Reihe. In studying the score, i t becomes ap-parent that motivic v a r i a t i o n of rhythmic c e l l s i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the organizational structure of the piece. Although separate tone rows are evident i n both Monodia and Ritmica, they are not employed i n a manner con-sistent with the technique developed by and associated with the " c l a s s i c a l " Viennese school. I t i s i n t h i s composition that the e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n can be found of the trend i n Nono's development of s e r i a l techniques to l i m i t generally the organization of p i t c h to that of having the various tones of the row merely d i s t r i b u t e d evenly throughout the composition while at the same time stressing and developing more complex organizational systems for the parameters of duration and rhythm. This emphasis on the organization of rhythm over that of p i t c h continues i n the succeeding compositions of Nono and, as w i l l be found l a t e r , i s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the construction of the f i v e works analyzed i n t h i s study. In the second movement of Polifonica-Monodia-Ritmica another compo-s i t i o n a l technique i s used, the significance of which increases 9 Udo Unger, "Luigi Nono," Die Reihe, IV, pp. 5-13. 11 when i t s employment here i s compared to that found i n the f i v e pieces analyzed i n t h i s study. Monodia presents one of the e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Nono's employment of Klangfarben-melodie. The usage of Klangfarbenmelodie here i s extremely sim i l a r to that of polytimbral c o n t i n u i t y 1 0 which, i n Liebes-l i e d and the compositions immediately following i t , becomes an i n t e g r a l part of Nono 1s complex system of parametric organi-zation . In 1952, the f i r s t r e a l evidence of a strong commitment to r elate a r t i s t i c revolution with contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l revolution appears i n Nono's compositions. Helmut Lachenmann comments: Zu einer Zeit, als noch keiner daran dachte, mit roten ^F&hnchen sein Dirigentenpult zu schmtlcken, "F r e i b r i e f e fflr die Jugend" zu verflffentlichen oder Opernhauser anzuzflnden, verstand sic h Nono schon als p o l i t i s c h engagierter und wirkender Musiker, dessen Kunst Appell sein wollte, Aufruf zu neuem Denken, vor allem gegentlber den offenen und latenten Denkformen des Faschismus und seiner Wurzeln, die er auch und besonders gefShrlich i n Vergesslichkeit und Bequem-l i c h k e i t sah - einer vergesslichkeit Bequemlichkeit, die es nicht z u l e t z t im asthetischen Bereich nachzu-weisen und aufzurtttteln g i l t . H Massimo Mila talks of Nono's passionate p o l i t i c a l and c i v i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n contemporary a f f a i r s and states that the " c i v i l passion coupled with h i s love of l i f e and h i s f a i t h i n l i f e and i n the values of human relations often merge for him l^For a d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s term please refer to the Introduction. "'""'"Helmut Lachenmann, "Luigi Nono oder Rttckblick auf die s e r i e l l e Musik," Melos, XXXVIII (June, 1971), p. 225. i n the myth of Spain, i t s revolution and p o l i t i c a l martyrdom, 12 and the verses of i t s poets." This i s most apparent i n Nono's next composition. E p i t a f f i o per Garcia Lorca consists of three main parts, each of which was given i t s premiere performance on separate occasions: Espana en e l c o r a z 6 n was completed i n 1952 and was f i r s t performed on July 21, 1952 at Darmstadt where i t met with great success; Y su sangre ya viene cantando was com-pleted i n the same year and given i t s premiere at Baden-Baden on December 17, 1952; Momento, Romance de l a guardia c i v i l e  espaqnola was not finished u n t i l 1953 and was f i r s t heard i n Hamburg on February 16, 1953. E p i t a f f i o per Garcia Lorca has been described as "una serie d i l a v o r i d i Nono s u l l a guerra c i v i l e spagnola, con r i t o r n o a l i a t o n a l i t a , c o r i p a r l a t i , f o r -mule d i a r i o s i o p e r i s t i c i , r i t m i d i danze popolari e canto gre-13 goriano." Needless to say, Nono's employment of these com-po s i t i o n a l devices was not viewed favorably by many of the avant-garde at Darmstadt. Nono's next composition, Due espressioni per orchestra, was completed i n 1953 and given i t s premiere performance on October 11, 1953 at the Donaueschingen F e s t i v a l with Hans Ros-baud conducting. I t was also l a t e r heard at Darmstadt a f t e r _ Massimo Mila, "Luigi Nono," jacket notes for The New  Music: Volume 3 ( V i c t r o l a 1313) . 13 H.K. Metzger, "Ecksteine neuer Musik" quoted by Massimo Mila, "La Linea Nono," La Rassegna musicale, XXX (1960, p. 310). which B r i g i t t e S c h i f f e r described the work as being "two studies i n which the problems of compositional technique are 14 subordinate to the expressive content." In the f i r s t of the Due espressioni, Klanqfarbenmelodie found i n i t i a l l y i n Monodia i s developed to a further extent. The b a l l e t Per rote Mantel which according to Nono 15 "rapporta musica e coreografia" was completed i n 1954. Its premiere was given on September 20, 1954 at the B e r l i n F e s t i -val for which i t had been commissioned. Per rote Mantel, Nono's f i r s t stage work, i s scored for soprano and baritone s o l i , chorus and orchestra and i s based on Lorca's poem In  seinem Garten l i e b t Don Perlimplin B e l i s a . This composition i s constructed pr i m a r i l y on the rhythms of Spanish folk music which are employed not only to give l o c a l colour but also are developed i n a manner that moves p a r a l l e l to the dramatic 16 action. Per rote Mantel presents the f i n a l example of Nono's use of dance movements which are found frequently i n h i s early works. 14 B r i g i t t e S c h i f f e r , "Parmstadt, Citadel of the Avant-garde, " ''iTh^22ri^_2LJl*SiSi£/ X I (1969), p. 36. 15 Lu i g i Nono, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su Intolleranza  1960," La Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p. 277. 16 G.W. Hopkins, "Luigi Nono," Music and Musicians, XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 33. 14 Also completed i n 1954, La V i c t o i r e de Guernica for chorus and orchestra i s dedicated to Hermann Scherchen who conducted i t s f i r s t performance on August 25, 1954 at Darm-stadt. This composition i s based on a poem by Paul Eluard which was inspired by Picasso's picture of the same name. The powerful text which evokes memories of the f a s c i s t destruction of the Spanish town Guernica has been used by Nono i n a variety of ways. The techniques of sprechstimme and speech chorus again play an important part as speech and song are employed alte r n a t e l y and simultaneously i n d i f f e r e n t combinations throughout the work. La V i c t o i r e de Guernica i s an exposure of and protest against man's inhumanity as seen through the tragedy of war. In t h i s composition Nono abandons temporarily the basic p r i n c i p l e s of s e r i a l organization which have been advocated by h i s colleagues at Darmstadt i n order to achieve a dramatic presentation of t h i s message. Works Composed After V a r i a n t i A f t e r L i e b e s l i e d (1954), Canti per t r e d i c i (1954), Incontri (1955), I l Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and V a r i a n t i (1956/1957) the f i v e works examined i n th i s study, Nono i n 1957 and 1958 created La t e r r a e l a compagna for soprano and tenor s o l i , chorus and instruments which was commissioned by the Norddeutschen Rundfunks of Hamburg. I t was i n that c i t y 15 that the composition was given i t s premiere performance on January 12, 1958. The text of La te r r a e l a compagna i s taken from the c o l l e c t i o n of poems Verra l a morte e avra l tuoi occhi by Cesare Pavese. This composition consists of three movements,. The two poems, "Terra rossa terra nera" and "Tu sei come una t e r r a " which are employed i n the f i r s t movement, were written by Pavese two days apart; the former has the date October 27, 1945 while the l a t t e r , that of October 29, 1945. Although the l a s t movement, being instrumental, does not obviously u t i l i z e a text, the second movement employs another Pavese poem "Tu non sai l e c o l l i n e " which was written on November 9, 1945. These three poems have i n common " l a tematica del rimpianto strug-17 gente per I caduti n e l l a guerra partigiana." The two poems of the opening movement "appaiono quasi d i f f e r e n t i modulazioni 18 di un mede'simo sentimento" and they are superimposed on t h e i r s e t t i n g . Lines of text from these two poems are presented at times simultaneously while at other points during the movement they are al t e r n a t e l y employed. These l i n e s are always set completely and the o r i g i n a l ordering i s generally retained.. However, the words are divided and treated s y l l a b i c a l l y . As a re s u l t of t h i s treatment i t i s nearly impossible for the lis??' . 17 . . . Armando G e n t i l e c c i , "La tecnica corale d i L u i g i Nono, R i v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i Musicologia, II (1967), p. 123. 1 8 I b i d . 16 tener to perceive the meaning of the text. With each appear-ance of a new s y l l a b l e the l i n e of text moves to a new voice; no one voice presents any more than one s y l l a b l e of a word i n succession. The parameter of timbre then i s continually being varied, following the presentation of the text. I t i s i n t e r -esting to note that Nono has included dotted l i n e s i n the score to indicate t h i s rapid movement of the text between voices. La t e r r a e l a compagna i s most s i g n i f i c a n t to t h i s study i n that i n t h i s composition there are apparent organi-zational techniques which are similar to c e r t a i n of those em-ployed i n the f i v e p r i n c i p a l works analyzed i n t h i s paper. The two most important of these are: (1) the technique of 19 polytimbral continuity which i s found i n i t s most s o p h i s t i -cated form i n II Canto sospeso and i s , i n La t e r r a e l a com-pagna, modified and u t i l i z e d i n close connection with the presentation of the text; and (2) the practise of sound-block ordering as seen i n V a r i a n t i , now being altered from a con-tent of unison notes to that of multiple pitches. Additional features can be found i n La t e r r a e l a com-pagna which are similar to those of the e a r l i e r works, one of the most obvious being the c l e a r l y emphasized employment of 19 For a d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s term please re f e r to the Introduction. 17 Varianti's " a l l i n t e r v a l " row at the beginning of the second movement. Also, i n Nono's e a r l i e r compositions there can be seen a movement towards an increasingly more rhythmically and t e x t u r a l l y complex score and La terra e l a compagna f a l l s within t h i s development. Likewise, the scores are becoming more dense and the f i r s t movement of t h i s composition, for 24 part chorus accompanied by 12 metallic percussion i n s t r u -ments (8 cymbals and 4 tamtams), attests to t h i s . And f i n a l l y , i n La te r r a e l a compagna can be found the d i v i s i o n of the unit beat into 3 to 7 equal parts creating the basic durations 1_ to 3 JL respectively and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case i n both II Canto 7 sospeso and V a r i a n t i . A l l of these features, including polytimbral continuity and sound-block ordering, are most evident i n Nono's next com)-p o s i t i o n . Completed i n 1958, Cori de Didone, for 32 part mix-ed chorus and percussion (8 suspended cymbals, 4 tamtams and b e l l s ) , was commissioned by the c i t y of Darmstadt and i t was there on September 7, 1958 that the work was given i t s f i r s t performance with Bernhard Zimmermann conducting the chorus of Radio Cologne. This six movement composition i s based on texts from La terra promessa by the contemporary I t a l i a n poet Giuseppe Ungaretti. While i n the previous work, the text was presented s y l l a b l e by s y l l a b l e , there i s now an even greater 18 d i v i s i o n of the words into consonant and vowel sounds. This technique of employment i s not used e n t i r e l y throughout but rather i t i s found supplemented at times by the s y l l a b i c method of presentation. A good example of t h i s can be seen i n examining the setting i n the opening movement of the f i r s t two words "La sera" where the subdivisions "La se-ra" and "L-a s-e-r-a" are both employed. Although the text i s presented completely and i n i t s o r i g i n a l ordering, t h i s treatment makes the words completely u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . During 1958 Nono made a v i s i t to Poland and i t was i n connection with h i s stay there that a new work was sketched out. Composizione per orchestra Nr. 2: Diario polacco '58f which i s dedicated to h i s wife Nuria, was completed i n I t a l y on July 15, 1959 and was given i t s premiere performance on September 2, 1959 at Darmstadt with Bruno Maderna conducting. I t should be mentioned that a revised version i n which ele c t r o n i c tape i s employed near the end of the composition was published i n 1965. The score of Composizione per orchestra Nr. 2 i s the most dense Nono has created up to t h i s point and could possibly be con-sidered the culminating point i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r development. The work requires four complete orchestras each with 22 i n s t r u -mentalists and the location of every performer on the stage i s sp e c i f i e d by Nono in:.,a/diagram which precedes the piece i n the 19 published score. Throughout these 88 i n d i v i d u a l parts, no instrument generally plays at any given entry more than one single tone and t h i s r e s u l t s i n producing the most extensive example of the employment of p o i n t i l l i s m i n Nono's works. After t h i s composition, he gradually abandoned the technique. Most of the features mentioned previously i n conjunction with both La te r r a e l a compagna and Cori d i Didone can also be found i n Composizione per orchestra Nr. 2 however, they are now greatly modified and for the most part do not play as s i g n i f i c a n t a role i n the organization of the work. While through h i s musical a c t i v i t y at Darmstadt Nono became quite popular with the public of West Germany during the early part of the f i f t i e s , negative reactions toward Nono l a t e r became most apparent. These emanated both from h i s c o l -leagues and the populace. With h i s early compositions, the f i r s t r e a l evidence appears of what i s to develop into a strong commitment to r e l a t e a r t i s t i c revolution with contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l revolution. As a r e s u l t of t h i s aspect, which at that time was not common i n contemporary compositions, Nono's music had a strong appeal to the p u b l i c . For Nono, music "e un mezzo d i intervento, a t t i v o o passivo, n e l l a 20 societa attuale" and as can be seen through examining the —_ Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con L u i g i Nono," Nuova  Ri v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 79. 20 works mentioned up to now, hi s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l commitment became even stronger. With the increased p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y of Nono who by that time had been drawn to communism, he ex-perienced, toward the end of the decade, the reaction of the West German p u b l i c . They had endured enough of the " l e f t i s h " f l i r t i n g and did not wish to be i r r i t a t e d on t h e i r path to restoration by a man who, beyond worldly humanism, was serious 21 about socialism. Nono was being shown the cold shoulder. While at one time he was supported by German's avant-garde c i r c l e s t h i s was no longer the case. Helmut Lachenmann comments: Aber Nono entzog sic h a l i e n Umarmungen, als er sah, wie f e i n d l i c h und gleichgttltig man seinen eigen-t l i c h e n Idealen gegenttber verharrte. Seine Texte wur-den Hirekter, seine Musik wurde plakathafter, er s e l -bst wurde menschlich hSrter, sein Verhalten i n a l i e n Bereichen, auch gegenflber der jungen Generation, immer provorzierender. Es schien manchmal, als laufe er Amok gegen a l l e s , was sich an Freundschaften und Verbindungen zu ihm gebildet hatte. Aber er zog urid er ertrug a l l e Konsequenzen seiner p o l i t i s c h e n Halt-ung, wobei das Unrecht, welches gerade die Offent-l i c h k e i t bie uns ihm antat, indem sie ihn weithin zu ignorieren sich anschickte und glaubte, ihn abtun zu kflnnen als einem durch p o l i t i s c h e ideen vom ktlnstler-ischen Wege Abgekommenen - wobei dieses Unrecht seine EnttSuschung und Ressentiments gegenflber den West-deutschen rechtfertigt.22 This Enttauschung and Ressentiments can be sensed i n a recent Helmut Lachenmann, "Luigi Nono oder Rtlckblick auf die s e r i e l l e Musik," Melos, XXXVIII (June, 1971), p. 226. 22 Ibid. 21 interview with Leonardo Pinzauti where Nono makes several negative comments about the people of West Germany and t h e i r music and at one point suggests that the German radio and 23 musical i n s t i t u t i o n s have boycotted him for years. Although Nono had been a c t i v e l y involved with the post-Webern movement at Darmstadt since 1950, he was not t o t a l l y committed to every concept and technqiue put forward by h i s colleagues. In several compositions, Nono u t i l i z e s what was considered to be " t r a d i t i o n a l " compositional devices including those mentioned i n the previous discussion of E p i t a f f i o per  Garcia Lorca and t h i s employment was not i n l i n e with avant-garde i d e a l s . This was one of the early indications of a d i s -agreement between Nono and certa i n members of the contemporary music scene at Darmstadt which was eventually to lead to a d i r e c t confrontation i n 1959. I t was i n that year at the In-ternationale Ferienkurse fttr Neue Musik that Nono gave a l e c -ture on "History and Present i n Today's Music" c r i t i c i z i n g s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s of the New Music movement. According to Karl H. W<3rner, Nono condemned "the r a d i c a l r e j e c t i o n of t r a d i -t i o n , the repudiation of h i s t o r y as a continuing process, the introduction of ancient Chinese conceptions in t o present-day 23 Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con Lu i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p;. '-76 .."'i music, the abstraction and i d o l i z i n g of the material i t s e l f , the idea that improvisation and chance are a universal pana-24 cea." As t h i s lecture l a t e r evolved into the, p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Music Today" which i s 25 e a s i l y accessible, i t i s not necessary at t h i s time to fur-ther elaborate on i t s content but the r e s u l t i n g consequences of t h i s event should be examined. Not only did t h i s lecture define Nono's p o s i t i o n and separate him i d e o l o g i c a l l y from many other avant-garde composers but i t also, according to Massimo Mila, "segno l ' i n i z i o d'una differenziazione i n seno a l gruppo, fino a l l o r a compatto, dei mu s i c i s t i d e l l a nouvelle 26 vague." Although i n h i s lecture Nono only mentioned by name Joseph S c h i l l i n g e r and John Cage, Karlheinz Stockhausen must undoubtedly have f e l t that he had been d i r e c t l y attacked by Nono's remarks as i n the discussion which followed an argument between the two occurred. This was hardly unexpect-ed since as Marcella B a r z e t t i has stated "Luigi Nono appears, 24Karl H. Worner, "Germany, " Musical'. Quarterly, XLVI (1960), p. 271. 25 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Music Today," Score, XXVII (July, 1960), pp. 41-45. 26 Massimo Mila, "La Linea Nono," La Rasseqna musicale, XXX (1960), p. 297. 23 27 i n discussions, more m i l i t a n t than persuasive." While the 28 argument i t s e l f did not get very far at the time, i t marked the beginning of a c o n f l i c t which appears to have been going on ever since. In Nono's lecture, he c r i t i c i z e s the "im-p e r i a l i s t thinking" of "some European a r t i s t s " stating that "Instead of undertaking a serious study of the s p i r i t u a l substance of other c i v i l i z a t i o n s - which i s c e r t a i n l y v a l i d and necessary - they excitedly grab the products of the East 29 i n order to t i t i l l a t e the fascination of t h e i r exoticism." I t i s t h i s " i m p e r i a l i s t i c " attitude that i s one of Nono's main c r i t i c i s m s of "Karlheinz I" as he c a l l s Stockhausen and i n an interview with Leonard Pinzauti i n 1970, Nono speaking of Stockhausen stated: E g l i s i r i f a - mettiamo i n Stimmung - a c e r t i f a t t i , s t i m o l i o ambienti sonori che s i riscontrano i n India (mi r i f e r i s c o a certe r i t u a l i t a buddiste del Tibet) e l i usa i n modo c o l o n i a l i s t i c o (questo termine l o d i s s i gia nel 1959 a proposito d i una p r a t i c a musi-cale d i Cage): astraendoli dal loro contesto, d a l l a loro funzione e d a l l a loro s t o r i a i n un modo t i p i c a -mente neoclassico (Messiaen i n questo "caso India" insegna). Hymnen, poi, e per me f r a l e composizioni piu esemplari d i un preciso,atteggiamento imperial-i s t i c o : d i Karlheinz I anziche d i Wilhelm II (ma e 27 Marcella B a r z e t t i , "A Meeting with L u i g i Nono," Recorded Sound, XXlV (October, 1966), p. 118. 28 Karl H. Worner, "Germany," Musical Quarterly, XLVI (1960s)', p. 272. 29 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Music Today," Score, XXVII (July, 1960), p. 44. -24 l o stesso...). This lecture of 1959 i n e f f e c t resulted i n Nono's break not only with the musical a c t i v i t y of Darmstadt but also with many composers who were involved there. Nono has since then expres-sed h i s regret at being considered as one of the "Darmstadt 31 composers" and has gone so far as to say that "Quelli d e l l a 32 scuola d i Darmstadt s i sono fermati come davanti ad un muro." In I960, Nono completed three compositions, Sara dolce tacere, Ha venido # Canciones para S i l v i a and Omaggio e Emilio  Vedova. Dedicated to Bruno Madefna, Sara dolce tacere was dat-ed A p r i l 13, 1960 and given i t s f i r s t performance on February 17, 1961 i n Washington, D.C. This work which i s scored for eight s o l o i s t s arranged into two quartets of soprano-alto-tenor -bass was commissioned by the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Found-ation i n the Library of Congress, and as was the case with La  t e r r a e l a compagna, the text i s taken from Cesare Pavese's Verra l a morte e r a v r a i tuoi occhi with d i f f e r e n t poems now be-ing u t i l i z e d . The method of text setting i n Sara dolce tacere i s somewhat similar ,tb that of La t e r r a e l a compagna and Cori  d i Didone however the p o i n t i l l i s t i c q u a l i t y once so prominent 30 Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con L u i g i Nono," Nuova  R i v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 72. 31 Ibid, p. 75. 32 Ibid, p. 81. 25 i s not as s i g n i f i c a n t here since there frequently appear several notes presented i n succession by one voice at a time. The l i g h t scoring of Sari dolce tacere i s a great contrast to the compositions completed immediately preceding which were rhythmically and t e x t u r a l l y complex as well as dense. This l i g h t scoring and thin texture i s also evident i n Ha venido # Canciones para S i l v i a which Nono dedicated to h i s daughter S i l v i a for her f i r s t birthday. This work for solo soprano and chorus of six sopranos i s dated May 16, I960, was given i t s premiere performance i n London on November 3, 1960 and has as i t s text four b r i e f poems by Antonio Machado. P o i n t i l l i s m i s even less of a factor here than i n the previous works. In c e r t a i n passages throughout Ha Venido, the technique of polytimbral continuity can even now s t i l l be seen, employed mainly i n conjunction with the solo soprano l i n e . Omagqio a Emilio Vedova, for tape only, i s Nono's f i r s t e l e c t r o n i c music composition and i t was created i n October 1960 at the Studio d i Fonologia RAI i n Milan under the guidance of his former teacher Bruno Maderna. The painter Vedova i s a close: fr i e n d of the composer and Nono. has said of him: Vous savez que nous t r a v a i l l o n s sur des voies p a r a l l e l e s et que nous nous aidons beaucoup, en bonne a i m i t i e . Lui aussi a p r i s une p o s i t i o n engage'e, "responsable, " devant 26 le monde d'aujourd'hui, p o s i t i o n f a i t e de p i t i e , de col^res, de revoltes... 33 Since completing t h i s f i r s t venture into e l e c t r o n i c music, Nono has employed ele c t r o n i c tape frequently, either by i t s e l f or i n combination with instruments and/or voices. Possibly Nono's best, known composition i s the stage work, or rather more correct azione scenica as the composer has termed i t , Intolleranza 1960. There can be l i t t l e doubt that of h i s output up to date t h i s composition has received more attention at i t s performances than any other work. Intolleranza 1960 was given i t s f i r s t performance on A p r i l 13, 1961-iwith Bruno Maderna conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the RAI Chorus at the Teatro l a Fenice i n con-junction with the International F e s t i v a l of Contemporary Music of theVVenice Biennale. I t resulted i n one of the n o i s i e s t demonstrations i n the h i s t o r y of Venetian theatre. This d i s -34 turbance according to several reviews, appeared to have stemmed from two i n t e r r e l a t e d sources: musical and p o l i t i c a l . Mario Labroca, the f e s t i v a l ' s director, contends that "conser-vative musicians, opposed to the avant-garde style of Nono's 33 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles  L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 34 Everett Helm, "Bedlam i n Venice," New York Times, CX (May 7, 1961), p. 11 and M.J. Matz, "Firebrand of Venice," Opera News, XXIX (February 13, 1965), p. 7. music, joined hands with neo-Fascists, who are opposed to twelve-tone music i n any form, to i n s t i g a t e t h i s obviously 35 planned and prepared r i o t . " The agitators, equipped with whistles and stench bombs, shouted obscene names from t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the balcony and they showered the theatre with l e a f l e t s e n t i t l e d "The New Order" which attacked Nono's music, terming i t "...nothing but a schematization of contrary notes which showed us what can happen when democracy i s extended 36 into the f i e l d of music," Other members of the audience countered with shouts of " F a s c i s t i " and " C r e t i n i " and the per-formance had to be stopped for several minutes as p o l i c e moved i n to restore order. The work was then completed, accompanied by the chorus of constant booing. At one point during the evening the stage designer Emilio Vedova, a 6 foot 6 inch man, rose from h i s seat on the main f l o o r and shouted i n s u l t s to the demonstrators, taunting them to come down and f i g h t . No 37 one took up the challenge. The f i r s t German performance of Intolleranza 1960 on A p r i l 3, 1962 i n Cologne, although not as v i o l e n t as the Venice 35 Everett Helm, "Bedlam i n Venice," New York Times, CX (May 7, 1961), p. 11. 3 6 "Riot greets new Nono opera i n Venice premiere perform-ance, " Musical Courier, XLXIII (May, 1961), p. 34. 37 Ibid. 28 premiere, was none the .less a very stormy occasion with ce r t a i n numbers of the audience f u r i o u s l y voicing t h e i r 38 v protest. Incidents surrounding the North American premiere of t h i s work are also noteworthy. The trouble started when Nono, an acknowledged member of the I t a l i a n Communist Party was refused a vi s a to go to Boston i n accordance with a United States immigration ban on "subversives." He f i n a l l y made i t there thanks to intervention by some Boston musicians and Senator Edward Kennedy. Nono was then l a t e r upset at the performance given by the Boston Opera Company and he subse-quently wrote a lengthy l e t t e r i n Rinacita, an I t a l i a n Commun-39 i s t weekly, about h i s t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s i n Boston. Problems involving Nono's p o l i t i c a l ideology have even reached the point where performances of h i s compositions have had to be cancelled. Intolleranca 1960 was to have been performed at the 1972 Florence Maggio Musicale but Nono withdrew h i s work from the f e s t i v a l when he r e a l i z e d that Menotti's The Consul was to be included. Nono termed.Menotti's opera "pro-American, 40 conceived during the Korean war" which lead to further attacks 38 Horst Koegler, "Cologne," Opera, XIII (June, 1962), ••. p. 402. 39 "Red composer disgruntled; he came, was heard, then lambasted Boston Opera," Variety, CCXXXIX (June 9, 1965), p. 1. 40 "Spoleto: P o l i t i c a l storm i n a tea-cup," Opera, XXIII (March, 1972), p. 217. 29 and counterattacks i n public by the two composers. Interest-ingly enough, even though the I t a l i a n Communist press have defended both Nono and h i s compositions, p a r t i c u l a r l y I n t o l -leranza 1960, t h i s azione scenica has been c o o l l y received . 41 behind the Iron Curtain. In an interview with Martine Cadieu, Nono pointed out that similar to II Canto sospeso the subject of Intolleranza * 42 1960 i s "L'intolerance du monde contemporam." Shortly a f t e r i t s premiere performance i n Venice, Nono wrote an exten-sive a r t i c l e on Intolleranza 1960 at which point he stated that "sempre l a genesi d i un mio lavoro e da ricercare i n una 'provocazione 1 umana: un avvenimento un'esperienza un testo d e l l a nostra v i t a provoca i l mio i s t i n t o e l a mia coscienza a 43 dare testimonianza come musicista-uomo. 1 1 The "provocazioni" for t h i s work include: (1) mining disasters caused by criminal negligence, one of the most tr a g i c of those being that of Mar-c i n e l l e s i n Belgium; (2) the great demonstrations which i n July 1960 blocked an attempted restoration of fascism i n I t a l y ; (3) the struggles of the Algerians for t h e i r own l i b e r t y ; 41 M.J. Matz, "Firebrand of Venice," Opera News, XXIX (February 13, 1965), p. 6. 42 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles  L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 43 L u i g i Nono, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su Intolleranza 1960," Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p. 279. 30 (4) several manifestations of r a c i a l intolerance and neo-Nazi r i g u r q i t i i n 1960; and f i n a l l y (5) the flood of the Po and the affected the content of the work as obvious references to each can be seen throughout. The l i b r e t t o of t h i s azione scenica i s p r i m a r i l y an adaption by Nono of a much more extensive l i b r e t t o by Angelo Mario R i p e l l i n o , however, other material i s added at c e r t a i n points during the composition including inserts of poetry by the revolutionary and Communist writers Elvard, Majakowski and Brecht. There i s also found what Nono terms "documentazione d i r e t t a " which consists of: (1) the slogans "nie wieder!" from post-World War II Germany, "no pasaran!" of the a n t i -franchise struggle, "morte a l fascismo e l i b r e t a a i p opoli!" of the Communist partisans, "down with discrimination!" again-st racism i n the United States and " l a sale guerre" against the Franco-Indonesian c o l o n i a l i s t war; (2) reports of Nazi interrogation i n J u l i u s Fucik's S c r i t t o sotto l a forca; (3) from l a tortura by Henri A l l e g ; (4) from J.-P. Sartre's i n t r o -ductory writing for l a tortura; and (5) some expressions of tragedy of Polesine. 44 A l l of these incidents have d i r e c t l y P a r i s i a n policemen. 45 For Nono, Intolleranza 1960 " represents the awakened 44 I b i d . 45 Ibid, p. 280. 31 conscience of a man i n r e b e l l i o n - a refugee miner - against the constraint of necessity, searching for a humane basis of 46 . . . . existence." The work i s divided into two acts of seven and four scenes respectively. The central character of the p l o t i s driven by homesickness back to h i s native land. On the way he gets involved i n a p o l i t i c a l demonstration and i s ar-rested, which leads to a brain-washing and torture scene, with commentary by A l l e g and Sartre, and i s followed by the horrors of a concentration camp where a tortured man sings the words of J u l i u s Fucik. The refugee then escapes with an Algerian. The f i r s t scene of Act II e n t i t l e d i n the>JGerman e d i t i o n "Einige Absurdit&ten des heutigen Lebens" ;consists of a tape montage of e l e c t r o n i c e f f e c t s and spoken voices i n various languages as ac-companiment to a pantomime portraying the decadent nature of the c a p i t a l i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n and including a s t r i p tease. Simula-ted radio announcements t e l l of preparation for war and atomic attacks; the scene then ends with a great explosion and black-out, s i g n i f y i n g the atomic bomb. The stage action then con-tinues and the refugee meets a woman who becomes h i s companion. In the l a s t scene, when f i n a l l y reaching home they f i n d the v i l l a g e about to be flooded as the r e s u l t of a bursting dam. 46 L u i g i Nono, "Sul ponte d i Hiroshima," Musical Events, XVIII (September, 1963), p. 11. At the close of the work they are engulfed i n the flood but, at least according to Stuckenschmidt, the b e l i e f that the 47 s world can be changed, survives. At the premiere of I n t o l -leranza 1960 i n Venice, Emilio Vedova was responsible for staging and for that performance the scenery consisted of more or less neutral coloured flat-drops i n a vari e t y of geo-metric shapes which were lowered and raised i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the stage as the scenes changed. Hundreds of sl i d e s includ-ing abstract paintings by Vedova, slogans and segments of the l i b r e t t o were shown by more than twenty projectors against these drops. Nono maintains that these "Image filmees (ab-st r a i t e s ou non - pour moi e l l e s sont concues par Vedova) en mime temps que l ' a c t i o n , non comme une support p a s s i f mais * 48 . . comme une action p a r a l l e l e . " Nono employs these projections along with the action of the characters to move toward, as he 49 puts i t , a multidimensional use of the v i s u a l space. Intolleranza 1960 i s scored for f i v e s o l o i s t s , i f o u r actors, large mixed chorus and orchestra of eighty which includes a large percussion section. A l l of the choruses are 47 H.H. Stuckenschmidt, Twentieth Century Music (New York McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969), p. 236.. 48 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles  L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 4^Luigi Noni, "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su Intolleranza I960, Rassegna musicale, XXXII (1962), p. 281. recorded on tape and transmitted to the audience by means of four groups of loudspeakers placed i n varied s p e c i f i c p o s i -tions i n the h a l l as defined i n the score. By moving the signal from one channel to another on the tape, Nono i s able to make the sound transfer from one source to another around the audience. Throughout the choruses, the sound d i r e c t i o n i s changing constantly and i n the score there i s notated the combination of loudspeakers which i s employed at any s p e c i f i c time. Nono speaks of t h i s technique i n terms of creating a 50 multidimensional use of the sonorous space. As Nono i n h i s a r t i c l e "Alcune p r e c i s a z i o n i su I n t o l l e r -anza 1960" writes about parametric organization i n t h i s work, i t i s not ess e n t i a l to pursue i t any further at t h i s point. Nevertheless, there i s one compositional technique which i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note and that i s the characterization of roles by means of i n t e r v a l employment. Although not found constantly, there i s a d i r e c t and obvious association made between s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s and each of the p r i n c i p a l roles, with each character 51 being introduced with the i n t e r v a l s a l l o t t e d to him. The next composition completed by Nono was Canti d i  v i t a e d'amore which was dated June 30, 1962 and f i r s t performed . 50 Ibid, p. 285. 51 For further information on t h i s technique see Ibid, pp. 282-285. 34 at the 1962 Edinburgh International F e s t i v a l for which i t was commissioned. This three movement work i s scored for soprano and tenor s o l o i s t s with orchestra and the text for each move-ment i s taken from the writings of three d i f f e r e n t men. The f i r s t movement e n t i t l e d "Sul ponte d i Hiroshima" employs verse from Gunther Anders' Essere on non Essere - Diario d i Hiroshima  e Nagasaki while i n the second, "Djamila Boupacha," a canto of Esta noche by Jesus Lopez Pacheco i s found. In the l a s t move-ment which i s c a l l e d "Tu" a poem from Cesare Pavese's Passero  per Piazza d i Spaqna i s used. The theme of Canti d i v i t a e  d'amore i s , i n Nono's words, "to show love within the conscious-ness of today's r e a l i t i e s ("No more Hiroshima," the two e p i -sodes i n the a n t i - f a s c i s t and a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s t struggle, i . e . Spain and A l g e r i a ) , and i n the sense of the struggle of l i f e 52 today and i t s inescapable outcome." In discussing the first'?.:, movement the composer has stated that "the"compositional techni-que... includes a continuous space of sound, i n the compass of an octave subsequently enlarged to four superimposed octaves, and blocks of sound consisting of various i n t e r v a l s down to 53 quarter-tones." He l a t e r continues, stating "I use quarter-52 L u i g i Nono, "Sul ponte d i Hiroshima," Musical Events, XVIII (September, 1963), p. 11. 5 3 I b i d . 35 tones (strings and brass) here for the f i r s t time, for sub-div i d i n g and expanding the harmonic f i e l d : thus I am per-mitted to enlarge i t to four octaves and yet to avoid the 54 r e l a t i o n of the octave." Canciones a Guiomar, also written i n 1962, i s scored for soprano, celesta, guitar, v i o l a , c e l l o and percussion and was f i r s t performed at Darlington under the composer's d i r e c t -ion. Having the text of a poem by Antonio Machado, i t i s a lonely r e f l e c t i o n by a lover, or as i n the words of Nono, 55 "the dream of r e a l love." In 1964, Nono completed La fabbrica illuminata for solo soprano and electronic tape i n the studio at Milan. This compo-s i t i o n makes use of b l a s t furnace noises and voices which have been recorded i n a m i l l . These are then integrated on tape with e l e c t r o n i c a l l y generated sounds and subjected to many transformations. During the tape performance the soprano sings a commentary to the events happening on the tape. This comment-ary refers d i r e c t l y to the tape music and i n d i r e c t l y to the s i t u a t i o n under which the noises were recorded: the working 56 process and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e i n a factory or m i l l . The text 54 Ibid, p. 12. 55 Ibid, p. 11. 56 Konrad Boehmer, "Uber L u i g i Nono," brochure for Wergo Schallplatten (Wer 60038), p. 8. 36 of La fabbrica illuminata includes writings of Giuliano Scabia and Cesare Pavese combined with "factory jargon, quotations 57 from labour contracts and p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s . " Nono has i n the past few years taken h i s works employing electronic tape, including La fabbrica illuminata, and pre-sented them with or without l i v e performers i n small town halls, f a c t o r i e s and open spaces throughout I t a l y . He contends that "La rivoluzione non e mandare i contadini a teatro a l i o stesso 58 \ modo dei borghesi." Nono's aspiration "e quella di poter far musica per i n v e s t i r e strade, piazze, campi, i s t i t u z i o n i , u nita-59 mente a l i a classe operaia e contadina i n l o t t a " and i n view of t h i s i t was rumoured that he was none too pleased when Josephine. Nendick sang La fabbrica illuminata i n a bourgeous temple of 6 0 art, the Elizabeth H a l l , i n November 1970. In taking La fab-b r i c a illuminata to the workers, Nono has at times encountered negative response, nevertheless he points out also that " a l t r i ancora mi hanno detto d i aver preso coscienza, proprio a s c o l -57 . . Adrian Jack, "Kagel and Nono," Music and Musicians, XX (August, 1972), p. 63. 58 Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con L u i g i Nono,"; Nuova R i v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 74. 59 Ibid, p. 76. 60 Adrian Jack, "Kagel and Nono," Music and Musicians, XX (August, 1972), p. 63. 37 tanto questo lavoro, d e l l o stato d i alienazione' i n cui e s s i 61 s i trovano, diventati come die robot." In 1965 Nono collaborated with Peter Weiss and Erwin Piscator on the documentary play Die Ermittlung dealing with the t r i a l of Nazi guards. From t h i s work came Ricorda cosa  t i hanno fatt o i n Auschwitz, for elec t r o n i c tape only, created i n Milan. Nono's next composition A f l o r e s t a e jovem e chea de  vida was completed i n 1966 and given i t s premiere performance i n Venice on September 7 of that same year. I t i s scored for soprano, c l a r i n e t , speaking voices, copper sheets to be struck and manipulated i n various ways by the percussionists, and elect r o n i c tape. Dedicated to the National Liberation Front of Vietnam, th i s work d i r e c t l y attacks the United States for i t s part i n the war i n Vietnam. The polyglot text i s derived from eleven d i f f e r e n t sources including statements of I t a l i a n workers, F i d e l Castro, B a t r i c i e Lumumbo, Nguyen Van Troys, North and La t i n American resistance fighters, Vietnam p a r t i -sans and Karl Marx. To t h i s i s added a l i s t , published o r i g i n -a l l y by Herman Kahn i n the A p r i l 1965 issue of Fortune magazine, i n m i l i t a r y terminology, of the forty-four steps involved i n ^Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con L u i g i Nono, " Nuova R i v i s t a Musicale It a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 77-78. 38 escalating a war. A f l o r e s t a e jovem e chea de vida concludes with the following quotation from an appeal by the American Committee for the Cessation of the War i n Vietnam: America i s at War. Thousands of Vietnamese die f i g h t i n g against the Americans for the r i g h t to t h e i r freedom. America has feared for a hundred years to give votes to the Negroes, fears to give the vote to the South Vietnamese. America bombs, burns, tortures, Here i s a world where l i e s become truths where war i s freedom pain i s peace ^2 murder i s honor. Somewhat paradoxical i s the fact that the massive text of t h i s work, a protest against the continuation of the Vietnam war, i s according to several reviewers who were at the premiere 6 3 i n Venice, for the most part u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . Completed i n 1967, Per Bastiana Tai-Yang Cheng for an orchestra divided into three d i f f e r i n g ' instrumental groups and electronic tape was composed to celebrate the b i r t h of Nono's second daughter Bastiana. I t was commissioned by The Toronto Symphony and received i t s premiere performance i n Toronto on October 31, 1967. This work, the t i t l e of which can be translated "For Bastiana the Sun Rises," i s based, according to a note i n the score, on the Chinese folksong Reginald Smith Brindle, "Current chronicle: I t a l y , " Musical Quarterly, LIII (January, 1967), p. 96-97. fi 3 See Ibid, p. 97 and Everett Helm, "Venice Biennale," Music Review, XXVII (1966),; p. 329. 39 "The East i s Red Glow" and s u r p r i s i n g l y enough neither the folksong derivation nor i t s implied p o l i t i c a l connotations 64 are evident i n the music. As a copy of Per Bastiana T a i -Yang Cheng was not available at the time of t h i s study, the following quotation, which presents a general description of the work by S. Keats, i s included. While the instrumental scoring indicates that t h i s i s an aleatory work, Nono has l e f t very l i t t l e to chance. The make-up and arrangement of the three instrumental groups, the seating of each player, the locations of the speakers for the tape, as well as the p i t c h , duration, and dynamic l i m i t s within which each player i s to improvise, are a l l accounted • f o r . The semi-circular seating arrangement, with speakers d i v i d i n g the three instrumental wedges, c l e a r l y indicates a concern on Nono's part for the stereophonic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of sounds o r i g i n a t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t l ocations. This s p a t i a l concept i s basic to the work; part of i t s point i s the variety and contrast possible from a three-dimensional aural approach. For Nono, i t would appear, has conceived t h i s as music of sensation, as an aural, rather than an i n t e l l e c t u a l or aesthetic, experience. The instrumental parts are predicated on a quarter-tone basis, and every player i s instructed to avoid d e f i n i t e chromatic pitches i n h i s improvisatory pat-terns. To further insure a quarter-tone texture, and to make i t easier for the players to avoid out-spoken chromatic pitches, Nono further s p e c i f i e s the tuning for each s t r i n g player. Everybody tunes i n f i f t h s as usual, but the f i f t h s are based on varying fundamentals, a quarter tone above or below the normal 440-A t u n i n g . 6 5 Assuming that t h i s passage i s correct i n i t s content, i t i s S. Keats, "Current chronicle: New York," Musical  Quarterly, LVII (1971), p. 142. 65 T,. , Ibid. 40 i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Nono has i n h i s compositional develop-ment arrived at the point where he i s now employing the same 66 technique, the "chance element," that he once c r i t i c i z e d both i n h i s lecture i n Darmstadt and i n the a r t i c l e "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Music Today." Contrappunto d i a l e t t i c o a l i a Mente for soprano, four speaking voices, chorus and electronic tape, was composed i n 1968 and dedicated to Douglas Bravo, the leader of National Liberation Front i n Venezuala. In the following year, Nono, i n addition to writing Musiche per Manzu for a documentary f i l m on the famous sculptor, created a vast two-part work for voices and electronic tape. The f i r s t part Un volto, del mare employs as i t s text poetry by Cesare Pavese while the second, Non consumiamo Marx, u t i l i z e s writings which appeared'.on the walls of Paris i n May of 1968. In 1970, Nono completed two compositions: Y entonces  comprendio, for women's voices, chorus and electronic tape, which has as i t s text poems by Carlos Franqui; and Voci de-stroying muros, for four solo sopranos, sixteen choral voices and an orchestra with four each of f l u t e s , c l a r i n e t s , horns, 66 L u i g i Nono, "The H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Music Today," Score, XXVII (July, I960), p. 45. 41 trumpets, v i o l a s and c e l l o s with two percussionists, which i s based on texts by women i n the resistance movement. At';the premiere performance of Voci destroying muros on June 25, 1970 i n Amsterdam, the eight sopranos and eight contraltos of the chorus were placed around the h a l l enclosing the audience, each on a platform with a microphone, while the four soprano s o l o i s t s moved around the h a l l "sometimes acting roles and 6 7 sometimes d e l i v e r i n g t h e i r texts with dramatic emphasis." This work i s divided into four episodes with the f i r s t dedi-cated to Rosa Luxemburg, the second to the Dutch resistance fighters Hannie Schaft and Riek Snel, the t h i r d to the Cuban fighters Haydee Santamaria and Ce l i a Sanchez and the fourth presenting texts by I t a l i a n female f i g h t e r s . In the following year, Ein Gespenst geht urn' i n die  Welt, for solo soprano, chorus and orchestra, was completed. I t was commissioned by the Westdeutschen Rundfunks and given i t s premiere performance on February 11, 1971 i n Cologne. This work was, according to the composer's notes published with the score, "inspired by the Communist Manifesto by K. 6 7 Denby Richards, "Holland F e s t i v a l , " Music and  Musicians, XIX (October, 1970), p. 26. 42 68 Marx and F. Engels" and i s dedicated to Angela Davis, Bobby Seale and Ericka Huggins. The text includes excerpts from Die Internationale, Bandiera rossa and The East i s red as well as writings of Haydee Santamaria and Cel i a Sanchez on the b a t t l e at Moncada which i n Nono's words was "the beginning of 69 the v i c t o r i o u s armed f i g h t i n Cuba." In 1972, Nono completed Como una ola de fuerza y luz for soprano and piano s o l o i s t s , orchestra and electronic tape and i t was f i r s t performed i n Milan on June 28 of that same year. This composition takes i t s t i t l e from a poem by the Argentinian J u l i o Haasi and i s dedicated to Luciano Cruz, the twenty-seven year o ld Chilean revolutionary who died i n mysterious circumstances i n 1971 70 and was, according to a program note, Nono's personal f r i e n d . In recent years Nono has done a considerable amount of t r a v e l l i n g , including several t r i p s to La t i n America. In an interview with Leonardo Pinzauti he brings up the fact that his experience i n Cuba has had a profound e f f e c t on h i s musical output, stating that "a Cuba - dove ho avuto rapporti con 68 Lu i g i Nono, Ein Gespenst gent urn i n die Welt (Milano: G. Ricordi, 1971), p. i . 69 Ibid, p. i i . 70 . . . Max Loppert, "La Scala," Music and Musicians, XXI (October, 1972), p. 72. 4 3 uomini d i governo, con g u e r r i g l i e r i , con contadini, con studenti/ con ragnazzi - i l mio modo i l comunicare era diverso, senza l e barrier e d a l l e q u a l i siamo qui r i t a r d a t i (cioe cate-71 gorie estetiche, s t r a t i f i c a z i o n i condificate, ecc.) / J- was l a t e r that "dove c'e una classe operaia i n situazione d i l o t t a - non d i consumismo, d i goduria, ecc. - i o ho trovato una f r e s -chezza d i comunicazione, negativa o p o s i t i v a , autentica e 72 . . . d i r e t t a . " In spite of t h i s "freschezza d i comiinicazione" i n L atin America, Nono s t i l l makes h i s permanent residence i n Venice at Giudecca 882. 71 Leonardo Pinzauti, "A Colloquio con L u i g i Nono," Nuova R i v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a , IV (January-February, 1970), p. 78. 7 2 I b i d , p. 79. 44 CHAPTER II LIEBESLIED Liebeslied, for chorus, harp, vibraphone, glockenspiel, f i v e suspended cymbals and timpani, was composed at Darmstadt i n 1954 and dedicated by Nono to his wife, Nuria, a daughter of Arnold Schonberg. "*" This r e l a t i v e l y short work, with a playing time of approximately six minutes, was not given i t s f i r s t performance u n t i l A p r i l 16, 1956. The premiere was held at Broadcasting House i n London where L i e b e s l i e d was included 2 i n a concert of contemporary music by the B.B.C. Chorus. I t should be mentioned that several writers including Armando 3 4 Genti l u c c i and L u i g i Pestalozza have pointed out that con-sidering i t s importance i n the development of Nono's music, L i e b e s l i e d merits more attention than i t has heretofore been given. In comparison to some of h i s l a t e r compositions "'"G.W. Hopkins, "Luigi Noni," Music and Musicians, XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 33. 2 D. M i t c h e l l , "London Concerts: Some F i r s t Performances," The Musical Times, XCVII (June, 1956), p. 316. 3 . . . Armando Gentilucci, "La Tecnica Corale d i L u i g i Nono," R i v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i Musicologia, II (1967), p. 115. 4 Lu i g i Pestalozza, "Luigi Nono e Intolleranza 1960," La Biennale d i Venezia, XI (aprile-giugno^ 1961), p~. 21. 45 including II Canto sospeso and V a r i a n t i which are highly complex, Nono has made Lie b e s l i e d i n the author's opinion r e l a t i v e l y accessible not only to the performer but to the l i s t e n e r and analyst as w e l l . The text of L i e b e s l i e d was written by Nono. The d i s -p o s i t i o n of i t s verses plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n determining the musical form of the composition and also, as w i l l be seen l a t e r i n t h i s discussion, the organization of p i t c h . Follow-ing the form of the text, L i e b e s l i e d i s divided into three main parts: Section I, measures 1 to 33; Section II, measures 34 to 69; Section I I I , measures 70 to 74. These three sections, separated by double barlines, are contrasted by d i f f e r i n g metres and tempi. The text i s presented i n a straightforward manner, that i s , i t i s stated completely i n the o r i g i n a l order which i s i n contrast to several of Nono's l a t e r choral works i n which only selected s y l l a b l e s of the text are employed. In t h i s composition each l i n e of text i s stated c l e a r l y and d i s -t i n c t l y and furthermore, Nono has used the l i n e d i v i s i o n of the text to create smaller, d i s t i n c t i v e musical segments within each of the three p r i n c i p a l sections, r e s u l t i n g i n the follow:^-, •ing "scheme: 46 Section Measures I - Erde b i s t Du 1-9 Feuer Himmel 9-29 ich l i e b e Dich 29-33 II mit Dir i s t Ruhe 34-42 Freude b i s t Du 42-52 Sturm 52-65 mit mir b i s t Du 65-69 III Du b i s t Leben 70-72 Liebe b i s t Du 72-74 These smaller segments are defined by contrasting textures, dynamic l e v e l s and i n several instances, rhythmic patterns. 47 Example 1. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 43-55.' / senzo pedale -bocche** di legno gbro 6kk«p. Timp. Every musical score presented i n this paper i s i n concert p i t c h . 48 The above passage presents one such example where the se t t i n g of the l i n e "Freude b i s t Du" i s contrasted to the setting of the following l i n e "Sturm." Not only does the text setting determine the o v e r a l l scheme of Lie b e s l i e d with the d i v i s i o n into three main sec-tions and smaller segments but i t also has influenced the form of the t h i r d and f i n a l section. At the suggestion of the text "Du b i s t Leben/Liebe b i s t Du", Nono creates a small mirror structure, the construction of which w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. In t h i s f i n a l section of Liebeslied, there i s found one of the e a r l i e s t and most s i g n i f i c a n t examples of Nono's use of the palindrome, a device which assumes great importance i n the organization of his l a t e r works, including Canti per t r e d i c i (1954/1955), Incontri (1955), II Canto sospeso (1955/1956) and Va r i a n t i (1956/1957). In a discussion of Nono's s e r i a l technique, Roman Vlad states "La sua emancipazione dai modelli viennesi comporta a volte anche d e l l e semplificazioni, nel senso d i un allentamento, se non dei procedimenti s e r i a l i , perlomeno d e l l a norma che impone l a perpetua applicazione d i t a l i procedimenti a l tota l e 6 cromatico." This term "allentamento" appears most appropriate 6 . , . . . Roman Vlad, Storia d e l l a dodecafonia (Milano: E d i z i o n i Suvini Zerboni, 1958), p. 264. 49 when considering the s e r i a l i z a t i o n of p i t c h i n L i e b e s l i e d . In contrast to h i s e a r l i e r works where the " t r a d i t i o n a l " Viennese twelve-tone technique i s s t i l l i n evidence (for example i n V a r i a z i o n i Canoniche (1950) i n which the p i t c h series from Arnold Schonberg's Opus 41 i s employed and also Polifonica-Monodia-Ritmica (1951)), L i e b e s l i e d presents one of the f i r s t examples of what i s to be i n Nono's music the gradual degeneration of the o r i g i n a l purpose and technique of the tone row. Instead of a fixed twelve-tone series, Nono uses various permutations of the notes i n sections of the chromatic scale. There i s , i n r e a l i t y , no longer a "series" i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense but rather merely a regulator to ensure an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of the various selected pitches. Commenting on t h i s "allentamento," L u i g i Pestalozza states that " i l t otale cromatico non era stato ne sara per Nono una 7 norma imperativa." For the f i r s t thirty-two measures of Section I there appear only f i v e d i f f e r e n t pitches: E f l a t , A f l a t , G, B and E natural. L u i g i Pestalozza, "Luigi Nono e Intolleranza 1960," La Biennale d i Venezia, XI (aprile-giugno, 1961), p. 21. 50 Example 2. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 1-5. As can be seen from the above example, rather than a s t r i c t ordering of tones Nono employs a free continuous permutation of these f i v e pitches. These successions of notes include at several points, short mirror or palindromic segments. Nono's deviation from the c l a s s i c a l Viennese Zwfllftonsystem i s also revealed through his frequent use of both unisons and octaves, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following example. 51 Example 3. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 21-25. */ ft'atti soepest i 1.2. Sogrono +. Ttrtort 3. Ba*ao I t should be pointed out that although there i s a more or less even d i s t r i b u t i o n of these f i v e pitches within the section, Nono does not hesitate to emphasize at several points, c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c note combinations. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be seen i n measures 12, 13 and the beginning of 14, where, i n order to create a series of imitative entries, only three pitches, E, E - f l a t and;.:B, are employed. In the l a s t measure of Section I which can be found i n Example 4, there appears a sixth pitch, A completing the hexachord and emphasizing the word "Dich". A f t e r a long continuous re p e t i t i o n of f i v e notes, t h i s new note has a most notable effect, assuming a cadential value. Example 4. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 31-33, Coro Arpa Tfmp-f fi f f f h- -p • y #J S.A.B- meta a bocca dtiusa This note i s further emphasized by the dynamic l e v e l of forte and the octave doublings. In the second section of the work, measures 34 to 69, there i s found a new spazio armonico. In bars 34 to 67, the following set of f i v e pitches i s employed: C, D, F, B - f l a t and D - f l a t . The technique of p i t c h presentation i s the same here as was employed i n the previous section. There i s a continuous permutation of these notes u n t i l measures 68, where a new pitch, F-sharp, i s introduced, completing the second hexachord emphasizing the word "Du". This sudden appearance of a new tone has the same dynamic cadential e f f e c t as was the case i n measure 33 of Section I. I t should be pointed out that i n Section II there i s one note presented which does not coincide with the spazio armonico. Example 5. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 62-65. 54 In measure 65, presented i n the above example, there appears a B-natural. As t h i s i s the only exception to the p i t c h or-ganization of the f i r s t two sections, i t i s possible that there was an error i n the publication of the score and that t h i s note was intended by Nono to be B - f l a t . The t h i r d and f i n a l section of L i e b e s l i e d , which presents the l a s t two l i n e s of the text, i s quite b r i e f , being merely f i v e measures i n length. This part has been referred to by at l e a s t one writer as resembling a coda. L u i g i Pestalozza has stated that "un'ulteriore pausa porta a l l ' u l t i m a strofa d i due v e r s i , e quindi a l i a terza parte del lavoro che e una sorta d i 'coda' d i appena cinque bat-8 tute." Although there are hardly s u f f i c i e n t reasons to con-sider t h i s section as being a coda i t should be pointed out that there are c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t references to the p i t c h or-ganization found i n the previous two sections. As can be seen i n Example 6, the f i r s t three measures of t h i s f i n a l section (measures 70 to 74), present f i v e of the notes em-ployed i n Section I, that i s , E - f l a t , A - f l a t , G, E and A, with only note #4, B-natural, being omitted. The l a s t two bars contain four notes which were employed i n Section II, that i s , D, F, D-flat and F-sharp, with notes #7 and #10, 8 I b i d . 55 C and B - f l a t r e s p e c t i v e l y , b e i n g omitted. Example 6 . Nono, L i e b e s l i e d , measures 6 8 - 7 4 . 56 Another s i m i l a r i t y i n p i t c h organization between Section III and the previous two sections i s that the same pitches are emphasized. The f i n a l notes of Sections I and II, A and F-sharp respectively, are also prominent i n the l a s t section. The A, note #6 from Section I, i s the only note presented i n measure 72 as well as being the centerpoint of the section, while F-sharp, note #12 from Section II, has a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n the soprano and a l t o l i n e i n the l a s t measure of the piece. In a discussion of the text of Liebeslied, Pestalozza has suggested that there i s a correspondence between the meter of the l i n e s of text and the organization of the pitches employed i n the setting of those p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s . He stated: Ma e piuttosto stimolante osservare come, per esempio, nel Lie b e s l i e d s i s t a b i l i s c a una c o r r i -spondenza f r a l a metrica dei v e r s i e l e serie: i l primo verso d i quattro s i l l a b e assume nel coro quattro note d e l l a prima serie mentre af-fida l a quinta a i timpani; l a seconda serie sul verso i n i z i a l e d e l l a terza strofa, che e d i cinque s i l l a b e , l'espone i s coro i n un rapido squarcio a cappella....9 Ibid. 57 This concept of r e l a t i n g the metrical arrangement of the verses to the organization of p i t c h provides a possible explanation of the p i t c h organization found i n Section I I I . As the l a s t two l i n e s of the text of L i e b e s l i e d each contain four s y l l a b l e s , Nono may have decided to employ only four d i f f e r e n t pitches of the possible six i n each of these two choral passages. In should be pointed out that, although the organizational technique suggested by Pestalozza may be considered i n looking at t h i s b r i e f section or at the two examples c i t e d i n his quotation, t h i s concept i s by no means employed consistently i n Li e b e s l i e d and these r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d examples are not s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n to con-sider that Nono consciously employed t h i s organizational method. As mentioned previously, the t h i r d section consists of a small palindromic structure. Here there i s a complete change i n texture as, i n contrast to the e a r l i e r sections, the writing i s s t r i c t l y homophonic i n nature. This block movement presents the following succession of note durations: 58 u.n. 9o l*s' j n J j n J Lie -J. Ui This duration pattern c l e a r l y displays palindrome symmetry. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the palindrome suggested by the text coincides with the duration palindrome. Possibly the most complex organization of the p a l i n -drome structure of Section III can be seen i n examining the i n t e r v a l l i c relationships, both v e r t i c a l and horizontal, between the two two-measure choral passages and also i n v e s t i -gating t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the central point of the con-struction, that i s , the single note of the timpani i n measure 72. In these two choral passages, i n order to obtain p i t c h organizations which, as already discussed, refer back to those of the previous two sections, Nono at measure 73, rather than merely stating an exact retrograde of the pitches found i n measure 70 to 72, presents the entire retrograde passage transposed one whole tone down. As a result, there i s , instead of a p i t c h palindrome, a palindrome of i n t e r v a l l i c 59 re l a t i o n s h i p s . In examining the following diagram which shows the in t e r v a l s formed by the notes of these two choral segments, i t w i l l be noticed that there i s not merely one palindrome of i n t e r v a l l i c relationships involved but several. F i g u r e 1 . — I n t e r v a l P a l i n d r o m e s i n L i e b e s l i e d S. A. T. B. |« -B M e a s u r e s : 70 71 73 74 In t h i s diagram there are four palindrome structures presented. Palindrome number 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the mirror ordering with respect to i n t e r v a l content of the six v e r t i c a l structures. The i n t e r v a l s within each of these six v e r t i c a l structures are also arranged i n a mirror pattern as pointed out i n palindrome number 2. An example of t h i s can be seen i n examining the f i r s t v e r t i c a l structure of measure 70 where the i n t e r v a l arrangement i s : E minor 2nd Perfect 4th minor 2nd The palindromes numbered 3 and 4 are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the ordering of the previous two. Palindrome number 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n t e r v a l s which separate the six ver-t i c a l structures. In discussing t h i s palindrome structure i t should be noted that although the i n t e r v a l content i s s t r i c t l y mirrored, the i n t e r v a l d i r e c t i o n i n the retrograde h a l f of the palindrome i s a reversal of that found i n the f i r s t h a l f which i s obviously due to the fact that the entire second choral passage i s a retrograde of the f i r s t transposed down one whole tone. As a r e s u l t of the mirror ordering shown by palindrome number 2, the Soprano and Bass l i n e s have the same i n t e r v a l content and likewise the A l t o and Tenor l i n e s have the same 62 i n t e r v a l content, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Palindrome number 4. Possibly the most s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l aspect noted i n t h i s work, considering the place of L i e b e s l i e d i n the development of parametric organization as found i n the compo-s i t i o n s covered by t h i s study, i s that of polytimbral contin-u i t y . As was previously mentioned i n the Introduction where 10 the term "polytimbral continuity" was o r i g i n a l l y defined, t h i s technique, which could be considered to have developed from Klangfarbenmelodie, consists e s s e n t i a l l y of a continuous l i n e of sound which has a consistently varying timbre. In contrast to the Klangfarbenmelodie technique where there are often b r i e f periods of silence as would be the case i n any other form of melodic l i n e , with polytimbral continuity, as found i n the compositions studied i n t h i s paper, there are for the most part no stoppages but rather a continuous stream of sounds. An excellent i l l u s t r a t i o n of the polytimbral con-t i n u i t y found i n L i e b e s l i e d can be noted i n the following example. 10 See pp. 2-4. 63 Example 7. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 16-25. 16 *l Pr'affi' sotpesi: 1.2. Soprano 3. Alto 3. 0auo In Example 7, there i s an uninterrupted movement of the melodic l i n e from one voice to another. Certain notes of th i s l i n e are frequently doubled i n unison and/or at the octave by one or more additional voices. Through t h i s frequent employment of 64 unison and octave doublings, Nono i s able to expand what i s i n fact a single melodic l i n e to a setting of extremely varied timbre and texture. I f the doublings of Example 7 are reduced to single notes, the following melodic l i n e would r e s u l t : Example 8. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 16-25. In viewing the above i l l u s t r a t i o n i t should be noted that when the octave doublings of measures 22 to 25 were omitted, i t was according to the a r b i t r a r y decision that the note chosen would be that which was closest to the preceding note of the melodic l i n e . In order to maintain the concept that where the technique of polytimbral continuity i s employed the score can be reduced to a single melodic l i n e , i t i s obviously es s e n t i a l that with each of these doublings the notes employed not only duplicate the p i t c h but also share a common duration. Although Nono usually follows t h i s practice quite s t r i c t l y , i t should be mentioned that at several points throughout L i e b e s l i e d there are exceptions to t h i s p r a c t i c e . These w i l l be discussed at greater length l a t e r in. t h i s chapter. Although the technique of polytimbral continuity appears to be r e l a t i v e l y obvious to one who studies the score of Liebeslied, no writer up to now has examined t h i s feature i n any great d e t a i l . Interestingly enough, Armando Genti-l u c c i i n discussing t h i s composition mentions b r i e f l y a melodic l i n e which moves from voice to voice, stating " l a ' casta monodia che trascolora passando da una voce a l l ' a l t r a , secondo una g r a f i a gicl r i n t r a c c i a b i l e i n certo D a l l a p i c c o l a . f'-J-1 However he merely notes i t s existence and presents a short example i l l u s t r a t i n g i t rather than investigating the extent and significance of i t s appl i c a t i o n . G e n t i l u c c i does make a point of noting the s i m i l a r i t y of t h i s Vcasta- monodia" to a technique found i n several passages of certa i n compositions written by L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . For example, on the f i r s t page of the score to Dallapiccola's Canti di liberazione there can be found a melodic l i n e which displays features common to those 12 of the polytimbral continuity presented i n L i e b e s l i e d . "'""'"Armando Ge n t i l u c c i , "La Tecnica Corale d i L u i g i Nono, " Ri v i s t a I t a l i a n a d i Musicologica, II (1967), p. 115. 12 See L. Dallapiccola, Canti d i liberazione (Milano: E d i z i o n i Suvini Zerboni, 1955), p. 1. 66 Although there i s not a continuous employment of the technique of polytimbral continuity throughout L i e b e s l i e d , i t i s c e r t a i n l y predominant i n both Sections I and I I . Nono's use of t h i s technique i s consistent within a segment created by the setting of an i n d i v i d u a l l i n e of the text. When poly-timbral continuity i s involved within one of these segments i t i s employed i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner with very few i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s . There are, however, i r r e g u l a r i t i e s at c e r t a i n points, a l l of which involve the note doublings of the "casta monodia". These i r r e g u l a r i t i e s f a l l into three categories which are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following example. Example 9 . I r r e g u l a r i t i e s of Note Doublings Within Polytimbral Continuity. (a) Duration (b) Pitch (c) Duration and Pitch Example 9 (a) p r e s e n t s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f n o t e d u r a t i o n w h i c h i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f Nono's c h o i c e o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . A l t h o u g h b o t h n o t e s i n q u e s t i o n s t a r t a t t h e same t i m e , t h e ha r p ' s l a c k o f s u s t a i n i n g a b i l i t y would have made i t i m p r a c t i c a l t o w r i t e a s i n g l e tone w i t h t h e same l e n g t h as t h a t p r e s e n t e d by t h e suspended cymbal. I t appears from t h i s example t h a t Nono does n o t c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y t o s l a v i s h l y f o l l o w t h e concept o f p o l y t i m b r a l con-t i n u i t y as t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y c o u l d have been e a s i l y a v o i d e d by ch a n g i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Examples 9 (b) and (c) a l s o i l l u s t r a t e what appears t o be a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t by Nono t o i n t e r r u p t , i f o n l y f o r an i n s t a n t , t h e e f f e c t o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y . These i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n n o t e d o u b l i n g do n o t appear v e r y f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . From t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r t i t can be d e t e r m i n e d i n w h i c h segments the t e c h n i q u e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s employed and a l s o where i n L i e b e s l i e d t h e s e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s can be found. Figure 2.— Polytimbral Continuity i n Liebeslied Measures Text Description of Technique 1-9 Erde b i s t Du Free 9-29 Feuer Himmel I r r e g u l a r i t i e s Type of I r r e g u l a r i t y Polytimbral Continuity 29-33 i c h lie b e Dich Polytimbral Continuity 34-42 mit Dir i s t Ruhe Polytimbral Continuity 42-52 Freude b i s t Du Polytimbral Continuity measure 13 measure 26 measure 29 measure 30 measure 32 no irregu-l a r i t i e s measure 46 measure 49 measure 50 52-65 Sturm 65-69 mit mir b i s t Du 70-72 Du b i s t Leben 72-74 Liebe b i s t Du Palindrome Duration and Pitch Duration Duration and Pitch Duration and Pitch Duration Duration and Pitch Pitch Pitch B r i e f Suggestion of Polytimbral Continuity Polytimbral Continuity measure 68 Duration CD 69 In examining further the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s pointed out i n t h i s chart, i t can be found that several of these have features i n common. In the following example the three note doublings i n which there i s durational i r r e g u l a r i t y are presented. Example 10. I r r e g u l a r i t i e s of Duration i n Note Doublings. (a) Measure 26 (b) Measures 31-33 (c) Measures 68-69 70 Each of these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s involve the employment of the harp, an aspect of envelope which was previously discussed. Example 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s found i n the f i f t h segment, that i s , measures 42 to 52. Example 11. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 43-50. Coro Coro GkJcvp-As can be seen above, these three i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n note doublings a l l involve the same two pitches, that i s , C and C-sharp, which c e r t a i n l y discounts any p o s s i b i l i t y of an error i n p u b l i c a t i o n . In each, of the segments of the chart that contain polytimbral continuity, Nono has employed th i s technique i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner. I t should be pointed out, however, that i n the sixth segment, that i s , measures 52 to 65, although there i s not a single, continuous melodic l i n e which moves from one voice to another throughout, cert a i n features of polytimbral continuity are evident. Example 12. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 52-61. 72 Example 12 continued. In examining the above example, i t can be seen that from measures 52 to 57 a single l i n e can be traced through the score. However, during t h i s passage there are many other notes which are not accounted for v i a the technique of poly-timbral continuity. Prom measure 52 on, i t becomes increas-i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t to determine which of the many notes present could be considered as part of t h i s single, contin-uous melodic l i n e . Although the parameter of dynamics i n t h i s composition i s not organized according to the concepts of serialism, an examination of the employment of dynamic markings does expose a technique of presentation that w i l l prove s i g n i f i c a n t when considering the parametric organization of the l a t e r works covered by t h i s paper. In Liebeslied, the dynamic indications are employed i n conjunction with the technique of polytimbral continuity. In studying segments 2 through 7 i n which poly-timbral continuity i s employed, i t can be seen that when a note of the "continuous melodic l i n e " i s doubled, the same dynamic marking i s also employed. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be found i n the following example. Example 13. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 39-42. t 1 i' As a r e s u l t of the consistent application of t h i s technique, the dynamics can be reduced to a single l i n e of markings which i n turn supports the main concept of polytimbral continuity. There are instances i n L i e b e s l i e d where either a gradual cres-cendo or decrescendo covering a span of several notes occurs and within t h i s passage only one of the notes i s doubled. 74 Example 14. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 48-49. As can be seen from the above example, Nono, i n order to comply with the concept of a single l i n e of dynamics, gives these doubled notes the value approximate to that of the dynamic found within the crescendo and decrescendo at that p a r t i c u l a r time. Although t h i s technique of presenting dynamic markings i s employed i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t r i c t manner throughout L i e b e s l i e d i n segments where polytimbral continuity i s consistent, i r r e g u -l a r i t i e s do occur i n measures 26, 31 and 32. This technique of employing i n Liebeslied, dynamic le v e l s i n accordance with the single continuous l i n e of polytimbral continuity gains even more significance when i t i s discovered that the complex s e r i a l organization of dynamics i n II Canso sospeso i s also c l o s e l y related to the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. Although the parameter of duration i n L i e b e s l i e d i s not s t r i c t l y determined by an o v e r a l l organizational system, there are c e r t a i n aspects which would tend to suggest t h a t Nono has c a r e f u l l y predetermined which durations are t o be employed w i t h i n each segment. I f the s i x t e e n t h note i s considered the 13 b a s i c d u r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t , i n which the numbers represent m u l t i p l e s of t h i s b a s i c d u r a t i o n , presents the durations employed w i t h i n each segment of the composition. A term defined i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . Figure 3.— Note Durations Employed Within Li e b e s l i e d Sections Segments Measures I 1 1-9 2 9-29 3 29-33 II 4 34-42 5 42-52 6 52-65 7 65-69 III 8 70-72. 9 72-74 Multiples of the Basic Duration I r r e g u l a r i t i e s 3, 4, 6, 10, 20 One duration of 17 found i n measure 3 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 20 3, 4, 6, 10, 16 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 1, 10, 14 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14 1/ 2, 3, 5, 7 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ( l a s t note only) 18 6, 8, 10 6, 8, 10 An i r r e g u l a r i t y i n note doubling results i n a multiple of 2 i n measure 29 -j CTl 77 Possibly the most obvious feature discovered i n looking at t h i s chart i s that i n several segments only f i v e d i f f e r e n t durations are employed. This number has an added significance when one remembers that the basic spazio armonico of both Sections I and II consists of f i v e d i f f e r e n t pitches. Segments 1, 3 and 6 are each based primarily on f i v e d i f f e r e n t durations although there i s a b r i e f i r r e g u l a r i t y , as stated i n the chart, i n both segments lrand 3. Segment 7 i s also, for the most part, constructed of f i v e various durations. With the l a s t note of t h i s segment a new duration appears which appropriately coincides with the appearance of the s i x t h p i t c h of Section I I . In comparing the durations employed within each of the f i r s t three segments which make up Section I, a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y becomes apparent. The f i v e durations (3, 4, 6, 10 and 20) which are used i n segment 1 are also found i n the second segment employed i n combination with four new durations. The durations of segment 3 c l e a r l y refer back to those of the f i r s t segment. These two passages have four durations (3, 4, 6, and 10) i n common, with the only exception being the f i f t h duration which i n segment 1 i s 20 while i n segment 3 i t i s 16. This method of durational organization i n Section I, with the multiple content of segment 3 being so close to that of the f i r s t segment, could possibly be consid-ered yet another example of Nono 1s frequent employment of the 78 palindrome. Evidence can also be found i n the second section to support the theory that Nono has c a r e f u l l y predetermined which duration multiples are to be employed within each segment. The multiple content of the firstt.two segments of Section II i s very similar, with the only i r r e g u l a r i t y being that multiple 3 from segment 4 i s repeated by the multiple 5 i n the f i f t h segment. In comparing the durations employed i n segments 6 and 7, an obvious contrast i s apparent as the seventh segment i s based'on a multiple series of even integers while the sixth segment i s based, with the exception of the multiple 2, on a series of odd integers. This series from segment 6 represents the f i r s t f i v e terms of the i n f i n i t e series of prime numbers, that i s , numbers without i n t e g r a l f a c t o rs. This aspect of an i s o l a t e d number series employed within L i e b e s l i e d may appear to be more s i g n i f i c a n t , however, aft e r considering Nono's frequent employment of s p e c i f i c i n f i n i t e series i n l a t e r works covered by t h i s study, including II 14 Canto sospeso i n which the Fibonacci Numbers are u t i l i z e d . This u t i l i z a t i o n of the series of prime numbers i n L i e b e s l i e d , i s one of the e a r l i e s t examples of a practice which becomes more extensive with subsequent compositions. Although i t i s apparent that Nono has selected the 14 See Chapter IV. 79 durations i n order to contrast the multiple series of one segment from that of another, i t should be mentioned that there are two durations both of which are used i n each segment of L i e b e s l i e d with the exception of segment 6. These two durations are represented by the multiples 6 and 10. This has even greater significance when i t i s remembered that there i s a d i s t i n c t change of meter between Sections I and II , from the simple meter of 4/4 to the compound meter of 6/8. Nono has employed these two durations throughout the piece i n spite of the marked change from a duple d i v i s i o n of the beat to a t r i p l e d i v i s i o n . The duration multiples remain the same with respect to the basic duration of the sixteenth note however the notation of these notes i s obviously altered. In examining the f i n a l notes of both Sections I and II, one can see a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of how Nono has related t h i s organization of durations to the p i t c h organization discussed previously. The note durations represented by the multiples 16 and 18 are employed only once each i n L i e b e s l i e d and t h i s occurs at the end of Sections I and II respectively. This coincides p e r f e c t l y with the only appearance of the pitches A natural i n Section I and F sharp i n Section I I . Af t e r an examination of the durations i n the l i n e of polytimbral continuity, i t i s safe to say that there i s no consistent application of s e r i a l organization with respect to 80 the multiple event parameter of rhythm within L i e b e s l i e d . The duration multiples of Figure 3 are not s t r i c t l y organized within each segment but rather they are stated with contin-uous permutation i n a manner which i s extremely s i m i l a r to the method of p i t c h presentation discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. However at one point i n Liebeslied, Nono repeats a rhythmic pattern which was employed previously i n the compo-s i t i o n . This can be seen i n comparing the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n measures 11 to 15 with that found i n measures 17 to 21. 81 Example 15. Nono, Liebeslied, measures 11-21. 82 The two passages marked i n the above example are constructed on the same rhythmic l i n e which, i n terms of multiples of the series: 1 0 - 3 - 1 0 - 1 0 - 6 - 4 - 1 - 6 - 6 . In reviewing the information presented i n t h i s chapter i t i s apparent that one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n the organization of L i e b e s l i e d i s the importance given by Nono to the text. The text influences not only the o v e r a l l form of the piece, that i s , i t s d i v i s i o n into three p r i n c i p a l sections, but also the segmentation found within each of these sections r e s u l t i n g from Nono's setting of the i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s of the text. In addition, the metrical arrangement of the text i n -fluences the organization of p i t c h . Possibly most important i s that at the suggestion of the text a palindrome i s employed i n the t h i r d section. L i e b e s l i e d i s one of Nono's e a r l i e s t works i n which he has used the palindrome and as has already been pointed out, t h i s technique plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the organization of the composition. The palindrome i s used even more extensively i n l a t e r compositions covered by t h i s study. uncovered one of the f i r s t examples of what i s to be i n Nono's music the gradual degeneration of the o r i g i n a l purpose and technique of the tone row. With the various permutations of basic duration i s represented by the following number The study of p i t c h organization i n L i e b e s l i e d has 83 the notes found i n sections of the chromatic scale there i s no longer a "series" i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense but rather a means of ensuring more or less even d i s t r i b u t i o n of the various selected pitches. Nono has employed t h i s method of continuous permutation not only i n connection with p i t c h but also i n the presentation of duration. S p e c i f i c duration multiples have been chosen by the composer for employment within each segment and these multiples are likewise continually varied. Possibly the most important s t r u c t u r a l feature noted i n L i e b e s l i e d i n considering the place of t h i s work i n the development of parametric organization as found i n the compo-s i t i o n s covered by t h i s study, i s that of polytimbral contin-u i t y . L i e b e s l i e d presents polytimbral continuity i n i t s e a r l i e s t and l e a s t complex form. Although the parameters i n t h i s work are not determined according to an o v e r a l l s e r i a l system, the basic concepts of polytimbral continuity are e v i -dent and one can see how the parameters of p i t c h and dynamics are linked to the presentation of t h i s technique. 84 CHAPTER III CANTI PER TREDICI AND INCONTRI After f i n i s h i n g Liebeslied, Nono worked on two new compositions during 1954 and early 1955. Canti per t r e d i c i was the f i r s t to be completed and was given i t s premiere performance i n Paris on March 26, 1 9 5 5 . T h i s work which i s dedicated to Pierre Boulez "per l a sua umanita" i s scored for thirteen instruments: f l u t e , oboe, B - f l a t c l a r i n e t , soprano saxophone, B f l a t bass c l a r i n e t , bassoon, horn i n F, trumpet, tombone, v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o and bass. Incontri was commissioned by the Sudwestfunks of Baden-Baden and completed i n Venice i n 1955. This composition, for a chamber orchestra containing two f l u t e s , two oboes, two B - f l a t c l a r -inets, two bassoons, two horns i n F, trumpet, trombone, two timpanists, four v i o l i n s , two v i o l a s , two c e l l o s and two basses, was f i r s t performed on May 30, 1955 at Darmstadt with 2 Hans Rosbaud conducting. As these two works were created chronologically within such close proximity and, more import-antly, as the compositional techniques employed i n t h e i r ~*"Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Music i n Ges-chichte und Gegenwart, IX (1961), c o l . 1555. 2 Ibid. 85 construction bear cert a i n obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s to one another, each aspect of parametric organization to be discussed i n t h i s chapter w i l l be examined as i t applies j o i n t l y to both Canti  per t r e d i c i and Incontri. While i n L i e b e s l i e d the palindrome i s evident i n several phases of organization, t h i s mirror technique becomes even more s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri where i t i s applied to o v e r a l l form. Canti per  t r e d i c i consists of two movements both of which have the struc-ture of a complete palindrome. These two movements are separa-ted by a measure of silence at measure 173 and the following diagram further defines t h e i r form: A A B » < - B Measures 1-86 87-172 174-263 264-354 The mirror structure of the f i r s t movement i s not perfect as can be seen i n Example 1 which presents the center four mea-sures of the movement; note the dynamic and timbral changes. 87 The presentation of most parameters i n the second h a l f i s an exact retrograde of that found i n the f i r s t h a l f of the movement, however, t h i s i s not the case with the variables of dynamics and timbre which are found altered i n the l a s t h a l f of the section. The form of the second movement i s that of an exact palindrome with the only i r r e g u l a r i t y being the addition of an extra measure at the end of the piece at which point s p e c i f i c notes from the previous measure are held over. The following example contains the central point of t h i s mirror structure. 89 In presenting the retrograde, Nono i s very accurate i n creating a mirror image as every parameter i s p r e c i s e l y reversed. The o v e r a l l form of Incontri, :".a. r e l a t i v e l y short one movement work, 217 measures i n length, i s a complete palindrome. In the middle of measure 109 which can be seen i n Example 3, an exact retrograde of a l l material presented up to that point begins. 90 Example 3. Nono, Incontri, measures 108-110. 91 As was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e s e c o n d movement o f C a n t i p e r t r e d i c i , t h e p a r a m e t r i c o r d e r i n g i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f I n c o n t r i i s a p r e c i s e r e v e r s a l o f t h a t f o u n d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t . The f i r s t h a l f o f I n c o n t r i i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p r i n -c i p a l s e c t i o n s b y means o f f e r m a t a s , t h e s e o c c u r i n g a g a i n i n t h e r e t r o g r a d e h a l f o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m a l p a t t e r n . S e c t i o n s : A »B ^ C ( B « A M e a s u r e s : 1-48 49-81 82-109 109-136 137-169 170-217 T h e r e i s however one i r r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e f e r m a t a p l a c e m e n t . W h i l e t h e f e r m a t a w h i c h s e p a r a t e s s e c t i o n A f r o m s e c t i o n B i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e work i s f o u n d on t h e l a s t n o t e o f s e c t i o n A, t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f e r m a t a i n t h e r e t r o g r a d e p r e s e n t a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e d o u b l e b a r l i n e w h i c h d i v i d e s t h e two s e c t i o n s ( measures 169 and 1 7 0 ) . S i n c e t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p o l y t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y i s c o n -s i s t e n t l y e mployed i n j u s t one movement, t h e s e c o n d , o f C a n t i  p e r t r e d i c i , o n l y t h i s movement w i l l be e x a m i n e d . The o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r o f p i t c h i n t h i s movement i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n I n c o n t r i . As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r I I , i n c o n t r a s t t o Nono's e a r l i e r works where t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " V i e n n e s e t w e l v e - t o n e t e c h n i q u e i s s / t i l l i n e v i d e n c e , L i e b e s l i e d p r e s e n t s one o f t h e f i r s t e xamples o f what i s t o be i n Nono's 92 music the gradual degeneration of the o r i g i n a l purpose and technique of the tone row. An analysis of the p i t c h ordering i n Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri w i l l further i l l u s t r a t e Nono's movement away from the s e r i a l i z a t i o n of t h i s parameter. The tone row employed i n the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i has an i n t e r v a l l i c structure which i s to be found i n a number of Nono's l a t e r works including II Canto sospeso and V a r i a n t i . As John S. Weissmann i n his a r t i c l e "Luigi Nono und sein Werk" has stated "Nono zeigt eine entschiedene Vor-liebe fur symmetrische Reihen, die zugleich auch A l l i n t e r v a l l -3 reihen sind." The A l l i n t e r v a l l r e i h e n of Canti per t r e d i c i i s as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B b A b B G C F# C# F D E E b In discussing t h i s series construction, Weissmann comments that "Aus den Besonderheiten der Int e r v a l l v e r h a l t n i s s e der Reihe er-geben sich auch die weiteren Mflglichkeiten, die ihre beiden Halften darbieten: die chromatischen Skalen, die von beiden Seiten gegen ein 'tonales Zentrum' konvergieren, wie oben 4 e r s i c h t l i c h . " A further symmetry can be seen when the i n t e r -vals of the row are reduced by i n t e r v a l inversion: 3 John S. Weissmann, "Luigi Nono und sein Werk," Sch-weizerische Musikzeitung, CI (November-December, 1961), p. 358. 4 Ibid. 93 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B b A b B G C F# C# F D E E b \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / m2 M2 m3 M3 P4 T P4 M3 m3 M2 m2 I I I 1 1 I | Upon viewing the above diagram, i t becomes obvious that a palindrome relationship exists i n the i n t e r v a l l i c structure of the p i t c h s e r i e s . The tone row i s employed i n Canti per t r e d i c i i n such a manner as pr i m a r i l y to ensure a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of the pitches. Throughout the f i r s t h a l f of the second move-ment, the complete series, i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, i s constantly repeated with the p i t c h appearance always corresponding to the ordering of the row. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s method of presentation can be found i n Example 4. 9 4 i i Nono does not u t i l i z e variables of the " c l a s s i c a l " ZwOlfton-system such as transposed, inverted or retrograde forms of the row. While, i n the second h a l f of the movement, reversed order-ing of pitches i s at times present as the r e s u l t of the o v e r a l l formal palindrome structure, for the most part the series i s not retrograded i n the correct order of appearance.due to the fact that the rhythmic patterns of the f i r s t h a l f , when re-peated backwards, a l t e r the placing of the pitches. In the f i r s t h a l f of the movement,^the only irreg u -l a r i t i e s which occur i n t h i s s t r i c t presentation of the 29 3/4 pitch-row statements are the omissions which are l i s t e d on the following table: TABLE 1 PITCH OMISSIONS FROM ROW STATEMENTS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SECOND MOVEMENT OF CANTI PER TREDICI Measure Pitch Pitch Number Statement Number 177 F# 7 2 179-180 C 6 3 193 C# 8 7 195 F 9 8 197 . B 4 , 9 200 A b 3 10 218 D 10 14 245 E 11 24 251 B b . 2 27 258 G 5 29 96 I t should be pointed out that at the time of most of these omissions, the same p i t c h was held over from the previous row statement. Each of the p i t c h i r r e g u l a r i t i e s presented by-Table 1 was also omitted at the corresponding point i n the retrograde h a l f of the movement which tends to suggest that these omissions were the r e s u l t not of an error i n p r i n t i n g but rather of an intentional move on the composer's part. This i s supported by the more than coincidental fact that of the ten omissions no p i t c h was skipped more than once and that notes A and E - f l a t , numbers 1 and 12 respectively, of the row are the only pitches to be present i n every statement of the s e r i e s . In Incontri the following tone row i s employed: 1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B b C C# F# G E D E b F A B A b \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / ' \ ' ' M2 m2 P4 m2 m3 M2 m2 M2 M3 M2 m3 Although the aspect of symmetry found i n the series of Canti  per t r e d i c i i s not evident here, the tone rows of both compo-si t i o n s are u t i l i z e d i n r e l a t i v e l y the same manner. In Incontri the tone row i s again relegated to the p o s i t i o n of being merely a regulator to assure an even p i t c h arrangement. It i s used only i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, being constantly repeat-ed i n the f i r s t h a l f as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Example 5. 97 Example 5 . Nono, Incontri, measures 1-4, Incontri Luigi Nono 7taut* 2 \ to noi<*rt, wit «/• hiingmn . CW*" Vlvi Vet U( (Hrnnttin Sd*rrt«n> CmbH l?>M 98 In the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri there are 40 row statements plus one additional note, B - f l a t , located p r e c i s e l y at the center of the composition i n measure 109. The ordering of p i t c h appearance for most of these statements coincides with that of the o r i g i n a l tone row, although there are a few exceptions. In measure 1 of Example 5, i t can be seen that p i t c h number 6, E, appears s l i g h t l y before p i t c h number 5, G, and t h i s type of reversal ordering does occur at several other points i n the f i r s t h a l f of the work. Three other types of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n row presentation are also evident, the f i r s t of these being p i t c h omission, the only case of which appearing i n measure 60, where note number 4, F-sharp i s skipped. The next type of i r r e g u l a r i t y was the r e s u l t of an error on the composer's part which he l a t e r 5 acknowledged i n a p e r i o d i c a l a r t i c l e . At six d i f f e r e n t places i n the f i r s t h a l f of the composition, l i s t e d below i n Table 2, the incorrect p i t c h i s presented. L u i g i Nono, "Su Fase seconda di Mario Bortolotto," Nuova R i v i s t a Musicale I t a l i a n a # III (September-October, 1969), p. 851. 99 TABLE 2 IRREGULARITIES OF PITCH PRESENTATION IN THE FIRST HALF OF INCONTRI Measure Pitch Presented Pitch Needed for Row Completion 18 27 28 39 43 108 G sharp A f l a t C B F G C sharp D F sharp A natural A A Each of these pitches i s also found i n the retrograde h a l f of Incontri, i n d i c a t i n g that Nono did not either notice or want to change these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . In measures 82 to 89 another v a r i a t i o n i n tone row presentation occurs. Up~^to t h i s point i n the composition, each p i t c h of a series statement i s pre-sented by only one voice at a time although t h i s voice may repeat the p i t c h . However, s t a r t i n g at measure 82 there i s a series of unison p i t c h doublings. This technique l a s t s only u n t i l measure 89 and then the o r i g i n a l method i s again employed. As was the case i n Canti per t r e d i c i , no forms of the tone row other than the o r i g i n a l are employed i n the f i r s t h a l f of Inc o n t r i . In the second h a l f of Incontri, the series i s not presented i n correct retrograde; t h i s i s again the re s u l t of the rhythmic pattern u t i l i z e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the composition. With the exception of the increased number of 100 i r r e g u l a r i t i e s found i n Incontri, the parameter of p i t c h i n these two works i s organized and presented according to the same method. The q u a l i t y of p o i n t i l l i s m , found to a l i m i t e d extent i n Liebeslied, i s employed to a much greater degree i n Canti  per t r e d i c i and Incontri. While i n his e a r l i e r works the tone row served the purpose of motivic generation, Nono has, with these two works, u t i l i z e d the single tone as his basic compo-s i t i o n a l element and abandoned t o t a l l y any motivic employment. The single tone, though, i s not i s o l a t e d as such within the composition but rather i t i s related to the entire musical structure through the technique of polytimbral continuity. Each note becomes part of one of a number of continuously sounding l i n e s of constantly changing timbre which move through-out these two works. This concept of polytimbral continuity which was presented i n various segments of L i e b e s l i e d i s now employed constantly throughout Incontri and the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i with great s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . As mentioned i n Chapter II, t h i s compositional technique i s linked c l o s e l y to Klangfarbenmelodie, although what separates i t from SchOnberg's concept i s the constructional idea. Nono's techni-que of a t r a n s i t i o n from a single tone to musical structure i s remote from Schflnberg's poetic concept of a contrapuntal-melod—.. i c .flow. 101 While i n Li e b e s l i e d only one l i n e of polytimbral con-t i n u i t y was present at any single point, throughout Incontri and the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i a varying number of continuous l i n e s are employed. Each of these l i n e s i s assigned a s p e c i f i c basic duration. The following example presents the opening measures of the second movement of Canti  per t r e d i c i with the four l i n e s of polytimbral continuity marked. 102 Example 6. Nono, Canti per t r e d i c i , measures 173-176. 103 In Example 6, the two blue markings indicate l i n e s of polytimbral continuity which employ only the basic duration of 1, that i s , with a d i v i s i o n of the unit beat into 3, 3 while the two red markings denote l i n e s which use the basic duration of JL only. As can be seen from t h i s example, there 5 are no breaks involved i n these l i n e s and there i s not any unison or octave duplication of notes as was found i n Liebes-l i e d . Generally throughout t h i s movement no instrument pre-sents any more than one p i t c h i n succession and as a r e s u l t the timbre of these l i n e s i s constantly changing. I t should be stressed that every note i n t h i s movement can be account-ed for through the technique of polytimbral continuity. This method employed i n Canti per t r e d i c i ' s second movement i s also found i n Incontri. 104 Example 7. Nono, Incontri, measures 1-4. Incontri Luigi Nono 2 j | ^  " , ; ^  ^ ^^^^^ ^  C h » * n V t . . V » l u ( H e r m i » i n S d . « t t 1 c n ) C m b H IV* 105 In Example 7 which i l l u s t r a t e s the six l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n measures 1 to 4 of Incontri/ the green, red and blue markings denote continuous l i n e s employing the basic dura-tions of 1, 1 and _1 respectively. The employment of polytimbrar. 4 5 6 continuity i n t h i s work i s exactly the same as that of the pre-vious composition except for one s l i g h t i r r e g u l a r i t y . As. men-tioned previously i n connection with the discussion on p i t c h organization, from measures 82 to 89, there i s a series of unison p i t c h doublings which does not occur at any other point i n the work or i n Canti per t r e d i c i . Throughout both Incontri and the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i the number of these ;polytimbral l i n e s vary. Although both compositions commence with t h e i r respective maxi-mum number of polytimbral l i n e s , the pattern of l i n e entrances and exits i s completely d i f f e r e n t . The following diagram pre-sents the arrangement of l i n e s found i n the f i r s t h a l f of the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i . Figure 4.— Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n the F i r s t Half of the Second Movement of Canti per t r e d i c i — \~ M e a Sl IT 6 £ L7 4 t c 21 3 I T Jttt > / a * m M e a SI XT e s 11 4 t c 26 3 • 4- — MA H 2J« I »> 251 > Basic Durations: =1, =1. 3 5 107 In Figure 4, i t can be seen that for a great deal of the f i r s t h a l f of the movement a l l four polytimbral l i n e s are present, although from measures 214 to 233, the basic duration of one of the l i n e s i s changed from 1 to 1. There appears to be no 3 5 obvious reason for t h i s basic duration a l t e r a t i o n and t h i s type of i r r e g u l a r i t y does not appear again i n any of Nono's works involving polytimbral continuity. The arrangement of li n e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above figure f a l l s into two patterns, measures 174 to 213 and measures 214 to 263, which are similar i n design and characterized by an extended presentation of a l l four l i n e s followed by three successive ex i t s , leaving only one l i n e which i n both cases has the basic duration of 1. I t 5 i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that both cases have the basic duration of 1.. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note the more than coincidental 5 fact that i n the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s movement which commences in measure 174, a number of s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes take place: at measure 104, the f i r s t l i n e disappears; at measure 214, a l l four l i n e s reappear; at measure 234 there i s a change i n basic duration; and f i n a l l y the center of the movement occurs at measure 264; a l l of these are separated by a multiple of 10 measures. The organization of polytimbral l i n e s i n the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri i s d e f i n i t e l y more complex than that of the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i . Figure 5.— Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n the F i r s t Half of Incontri n — j / o . 1 J L >n m< rid 2 S J ; i -O L . ,. L L. ^ — i 7 J3 25 V Q —e H 4 - —1 im JL Q ' c 1C >n D \ 2 a SL ir< iS L \9 t o o. L) 1 \ . 1 It — • c mc ;asu 5 S e 2 t c: i 1 n V 0 j y ; 1 6 2 1 7V too ** J J 00 Basic Durations: =1_, =1, =1. 6 5 4 109 As mentioned previously, the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri i s divided into three separate sections by means of fermate. These three sections, as can be seen i n Figure 5, are further de-fined by the ordering of l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. Although d i f f e r i n g i n length, there can be no doubt that sec-tions A and C are d i r e c t l y related one to the other as section C presents an approximate retrograde inversion of the organi-zation of l i n e s found in'the f i r s t section. Section A's pat-tern of a gradually decreasing number of l i n e s (with those having the basic duration of _1 disappearing f i r s t ) i s completely/ 6 inverted and reversed i n the t h i r d section where the l i n e s with the _1 basic duration are the f i r s t to begin. The ordering of 6 the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n section B i s i n the form of a complete inverted palindrome with i t s center occurring at measure 66. While two l i n e s having the basic duration of 1. 6 are presented at the beginning, section B ends with two l i n e s having the basic duration 1, and s i m i l a r l y , the other l i n e 4 entrances and exits i n the f i r s t h a l f of B are found mirrored i n inversion i n the second h a l f . In considering the o v e r a l l pattern of polytimbral l i n e s i n the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri, i t can be seen that, with a cert a i n leeway being given for the difference i n section lengths, t h i s organization i s based, with only s l i g h t modification, on the o v e r a l l structure of an i n -verted palindrome. I t should be pointed out that there i s a 110 v a l i d s t r u c t u r a l reason for the i r r e g u l a r i t y i n section lengths. In studying the score i t can be found that at each point where there i s an a l t e r a t i o n i n the number of polytim-b r a l l i n e s present, Nono marks t h i s change with a double bar-l i n e , thus creating smaller segments within the sections. The length of these segments i s determined also, as w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, by a series of numbers which are taken from duration multiples employed i n the organization of the parameter of duration. In comparing Figure 4 and 5, i t i s most obvious that the patterns of organization are greatly contrasted. While i n the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i a binary d i v i s i o n i s e v i -dent, three main sections are c l e a r l y defined i n I n c o n t r i . In addition to the fact that the organization of polytimbral l i n e s i n Incontri i s much more complex than that of Canti per t r e d i c i , i n t h i s l a t e r work there i s a symmetry of ordering which was not as apparent i n the previous composition. Nono has been most c r i t i c a l of the various techniques of organization applied to the parameters of duration and rhythm employed by many composers. Konrad Boehmer suggests that Nonos discontentment l i e s i n the fact that: Der Ton sei ein Punkt geblieben, und die Pause ein Loch zwischen den Punkten. Dauer und Abstand der Punkte, sowie Dauer der Lflcher und deren Abstand voneinander seien s e r i a l i s i e r t worden, nicht aber I l l s e i das Prinzip ge&ndert oder auch nur verfein e r t worden, welches bisher kategorisch LOcher von Punkten, Minus von Plus, geschieden habe. Kein Versuch s e i - zumindest i n der Instrumentalmusik - unternommen worden, den Unterschied zwischen Klang und Nicht-Klang aufzuheben, der bisher (mit wenigen Ausnahmen) die Basis der musikalischen Z e i t a r t i k u l a t i o n , des Rhythmus gebildet habe.^ Through the development and application of the technique of polytimbral continuity, Nono has been able to es t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between "Klang" and "Nicht-Klang." In the construction of both Incontri and the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i , Nono establishes a s p e c i f i c series of numbers which he then employs as duration multiples. The duration of a single note i s determined through multiply-ing the basic duration by the duration multiple. Whenever polytimbral continuity i s i n e f f e c t the composition can be reduced down to a s p e c i f i c number of continuous, uninterrupted l i n e s and so, obviously, the aspect of silence or "Nicht-Klang" i n t h i s state i s non-existent. When the music i s transformed back to the state presented in-.the completed score, the lengths of "Nicht-Klang" are controlled by the same duration multiple series as that determining the single note durations. With both compositions, i n order to determine note 6 Konrad Boehmer, "Uber L u i g i Nono," brochure for Wergo Schallplatten (Wer 60038), p. 3. 112 d u r a t i o n i n these continuous l i n e s , the s e r i e s of d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s are presented i n connection w i t h the p i t c h statements. When a new p i t c h of the tone row appears, the next d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e taken from i t s s e r i e s i s u t i l i z e d . The b a s i c d u r a t i o n of t h i s new p i t c h i s o b v i o u s l y determined by the l i n e of p o l y -t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y t o which i t belongs. The f o l l o w i n g example i l l u s t r a t e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s a t the open-i n g of the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i . 113 114 In studying Example 8, i t can be found that the duration multiple series corresponding to the f i r s t statement of the tone row i s as follows: P i t c h Number: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Duration Multiple: 1 3 5 8 13 18 18 13 8 5 3 1 The palindrome structure of t h i s duration multiple series i s c l e a r l y evident but t h i s i s as far as the symmetry of multiple presentation goes. Although each of the remaining 28 3/4 multiple series presentations consists of numbers taken from t h i s o r i g i n a l series, the organization of these multiples within each statement does not coincide with any o v e r a l l or-ganizational system. In fact no two series has the same or reversed multiple ordering. Nono's method of ordering the parameter of duration i n t h i s movement of Canti per t r e d i c i might best be described as one of continuous permutation, similar to that employed pre-viously i n L i e b e s l i e d . The organization of duration i n Incontri i s however more complex. In constructing the number series to be employed for the duration multiple row i n Incontri, Nono took the six d i f f e r e n t numbers from the multiple series of the previous work, that i s , 115 1-3-5-8-13-18, and added the terms 2-4-6-10-10-16. This resulted i n the twelve term duration multiple series 1-2-3-4-5-6-8-10-10-13-16-18. The technique of permutation i s again involved i n t h i s work although more s t r i c t controls are placed on i t s use. Each of the 40 complete series statements i n the f i r s t h a l f of the work includes every one of the above twelve terms although the ordering need not be the same. This rule i s for the most part followed throughout Incontri although strangely enough, there i s an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the f i r s t pre-sentation. 116 Example 9. Nono, Incontri, measures 1-4, Incontri Luigi Nono <3 Vo In d;***r Pattitur */W otle Inttrummnf* t ra not'%rt, rrt'm »<• kttngvn, I C W Ar»VI»»VtrU( (Hemunn S<*tr<*tn) CmbH 1WI 117 In t h i s f i r s t statement, 10-16-8-6-4-2-1-3-5-8-13-18, the l a s t six terms correspond to the f i r s t six terms of the dura-t i o n multiple series presented previously for Canti per t r e d i c i while the f i r s t six numbers of t h i s Incontri presentation are the new multiples. The i r r e g u l a r i t y of t h i s statement i s that there i s a -duplication of the multiple 8 rather than the multi-ple 10 which i s the case i n the other multiple series ; present-ations i n the f i r s t h a l f of the work. In examining the follow-ing table which presents the forty-one complete duration multi-ple series statements corresponding to the forty-one p i t c h row repetitions, i t w i l l become obvious that the t h i r d p i t c h of the f i r s t statement should have had the multiple of 10. 118 TABLE 3 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN THE FIRST HALF OF INCONTRI No. Mm. B b C C# 10 16 8 16 6 2 6 3 18 3 10 13 10 2 5 2 18 4 18 13 8 13 5 1 5 4 10 4 8 16 8 1 6 1 10 3 10 16 6 16 6 3 10 2 15 6 3 10 4 8 1 2 18 13 1 10 16 3 10 2 5 4 8 8 1 10 13 5 4 18 13 5 18 13 8 13 5 1 5 4 10 4 8 16 8 1 6 1 10 3 10 16 10 16 6 2 6 3 18 3 10 13 10 2 5 2 18 4 2 10 3 18 2 10 4 5 13 13 18 2 6 12 10 1 4 5 4 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 6 3 18 10 1 G E D E b F A B A b 4 2 1 3 5 8 13 18' " 8 18 10 10 4 1 5 13-1 13 16 2 8 10 4 5- | 10 5 6 18 1 16 8 16 4 3 13 10 6 1 6 8 10 5 16 3 10 1 -3 1 2 4 6 10 16 10-10 10 18 8 3 2 6 16-11 2 16 13 1 10 18 3 18 6 5 10 2 13 10 3 ^ 13 3 4 14 18 5 2 1 0 — 5 10 8 6 13 4 18 2— 10 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 2 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 18 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 16 6 3 10 2 18 11 3 4 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 3 10 2 17 13 5 4 8 13 5 4 8 1 10 16 6 10 16 6 3 10 2 18 13 6 3 10 2 18 13 5 4 1 10 16 6 2 10 2 18 8 1 10 16 6 3 10 2 3 1 2 4 6 10 16 10j-10 10 18 8 3 2 6 16-1 2 16 13 1 10 18 3 18 6 5 10 2 13 10 13 3 4 16 18 5 2 10-5 10 8 6 13 4 18 2-4 2 1 3 5 8 13 18j 8 18 10 10 4 1 5 12-J 1 13 16 2 8 10 4 5-10 5 6 18 1 16 8 4-1 8— 16 4 3 13 10 6 1 i; 6 8 10 5 16 3 10 1 -10 10 1 8 4 5 13 18 6 16 10 1 8 4 5 13 2 10 3 6 16 10 1 8 3 6 16 10 1 8 4 5 8 4 5 6 8 2 4 1 119 In Table 3 the black and red l i n e s denote d i r e c t and retrograde relationships respectively and these, through t h e i r employment, divide the 41 statements into three groups of twelve with f i v e complete presentations at the end. As can be seen from t h i s chart, i n the opening group, statements numbered 7 through 12 present retrograde forms of series 1 through 6, and i n turn every remaining duration multiple series i n the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri can be related either d i r e c t l y or by retrograde to t h i s set of twelve statements. The duration multiples of statement number 13 correspond exactly to those presented by the series formed from the f i r s t multiple of each of the statements 1 through 12. In the same manner, the next eleven multiple statements, that i s numbers 14 through 24, are related to the multiple series presented by each of the remaining eleven pitches of the f i r s t group. Mul-t i p l e statements 25 to 36 are retrograde forms of statements 1 to 12 respectively. In the l a s t f i v e complete statements, i n spite of an increased rate of multiple i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , a d i s -t i n c t retrograde rela t i o n s h i p exists ...between-these series and statements 20 to 24 as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the previous table. Thus through the method of organization presented i n Table 3, a l l forty-one duration multiple statements were deriv-ed from modification of the series 10-16-10-6-4-2-1-3-5-8-13-18. It i s t h i s series of numbers which was also the c o n t r o l l i n g 120 factor i n the placement of double bar l i n e s throughout the f i r s t h a l f of I n c o n t r i . As has already been mentioned, the measure length of the segments created by these bar l i n e s correspond to terms taken from the duration multiple s e r i e s . At separate points i n the f i r s t h a l f of Incontri Nono makes three sudden al t e r a t i o n s i n t h i s previously described system of duration organization. Although the r e s u l t i s known i t i s not possible to determine whether changes were made i n the pattern of basic durations or duration multiples. Starting at measure 49 and continuing to the middle of the work, each note on the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity employing the basic duration of 1. i s twice as long as i t should be according 6 to the system of duration established at the beginning of the composition. Likewise the duration of notes on the continuous l i n e s involving the basic durations of 1 and 1_ are doubled at 5 6 measures 66 and 98 respectively. Whether the basic durations or duration multiples were doubled i s i n e f f e c t i r r e l e v a n t . The s i g n i f i c a n t point to note i s that for reasons about which one can only speculate, Nono f e l t the need or desire to modify an organizational system established to control the presentation-, of a s p e c i f i c parameter throughout the work. This i s just one of a number of examples which w i l l be discovered i n t h i s paper where a system i s set up and then eventually either modified or i n some cases abandoned completely. 121 The parameter of dynamics i n the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri i s not s t r i c t l y organized. As can be seen i n viewing Examples 8 and'9, each single p i t c h pre-sentation of both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri i s given i t s own dynamic in d i c a t i o n although these i n d i v i d u a l dynamic l e v e l s are not determined or controlled i n either composition by an o v e r a l l system of organization. In both works, only six d i f -ferent dynamic indications, f f f , f, mf, mp, p and ppp, are u t i l i z e d and t h e i r method of presentation might best be de-scribed as one of continuous permutation. Of the 29 3/4 dynamic series presentations corresponding to the tone row repetitions i n the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i no two dynamic l e v e l statements are i n any way related. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case with the 41 row statements of Incontri. In both the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri, c e r t a i n techniques of organization which were found i n i t i a l l y i n L i e b e s l i e d are employed and developed to a further extent. Possibly the most obvious example of t h i s i s the aspect of the palindrome. Although palindrome structures were u t i l i z -ed i n L i e b e s l i e d to a cert a i n degree, they are employed more 122 extensively i n the two works discussed i n t h i s chapter. Not only does the o v e r a l l form of both compositions make use of palindrome constructions but also the palindrome i s evident i n the tone row structure of Canti per t r e d i c i , i n the arrange-ment of the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n Incontri as well as i n the ordering of the f i r s t duration multiple series of the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i . As was the case i n Liebeslied, the parameter of p i t c h i n these two works i s not organized i n the complex manner put forward by the post-Viennese movement. Although complete tone rows are c l e a r l y evident and repeated i n a more or less s t r i c t manner, (which was not so i n Li e b e s l i e d ) , only the o r i g i n a l and quasi retrograde forms of the series i s employed. This tends to support the idea put forward i n Chapter II that Nono's prime concern i n ordering the parameter of p i t c h was merely to ensure even d i s t r i b u t i o n . The technique of polytimbral continuity which was employ-ed i n i t i a l l y i n selected segments of L i e b e s l i e d i s found without interruption throughout both Incontri and the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i . I t i s presented i n a much more complex form i n these two works and i s c l o s e l y related to the organiza-t i o n a l system of duration. The aspect of continuous permutation i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t with the ordering of duration i n both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri, however, other more s p e c i f i c deter-mining factors are also evident. This i s most noticeable i n Incontri where the duration multiples are employed according to a highly structured organizational method. I t i s i n con-nection with the ordering of duration that one of the e a r l i e s t examples can be found where Nono modifies a previously estab-l i s h e d system of parametric organization. 124 CHAPTER IV IL CANTO SOSPESO After completing Incontri, Nono composed II Canto  sospeso which i s scored for soprano, a l t o and tenor s o l o i s t s , mixed chorus and orchestra. This work was commissioned by the Westdeutschen Rundfunks and created during 1955 and the f i r s t part of 1956. I l Canto sospeso was given i t s premiere performance i n Cologne on October 24, 1956 with Hermann Scherchen conducting"1" and published i n the following year by Ars Viva Verlag of Mainz. On i n i t i a l viewing, one basic q u a l i t y of the score of I l Canto sospeso which becomes evident i s that of i t s complex-i t y . In Chapter I, i t was pointed out that through the nine-teen- f i f t i e s Nono's compositions became increasingly more com-plex both rhythmically and texturally' while at the same time the orchestral density was likewise expanded. This development i s apparent as Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II  Canto sospeso are studied i n succession. With II Canto sospeso, "'"Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Musik i n Ges-chichte und Gegenwart, IX (1961), c o l . 1555. the score has become so complex that due to the r e s u l t i n g technical d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n i t s execution, Nono has had considerable trouble i n arranging performances of t h i s work. I Orchestra II Chorus a cappella III Soprano, A l t o and Tenor So l o i s t s with Orchestra IV Orchestra V Tenor Solo and Orchestra VI Chorus and Orchestra VII Soprano Solo, Female Choir and Orchestra VIII Orchestra IX Chorus and Tympani Through the employment of fermate and other directions i n the score, Nono indicates that the above d i v i s i o n s are grouped to-gether into successive sections of four, three and two move-ments . The subject of II Canto sospeso, i s , according to the 3 composer, "L'intolerance du monde contemporain," and the texts employed are taken from the c o l l e c t i o n Lettere di condannati a morte d e l l a resistenza europa which was published i n I t a l y i n 4 1954. Nono uses nine fragments of l a s t l e t t e r s of resistance "Meyer Glickman, "New Sounds Amid Old," Musical Courier, CLXIII (June, 1961), p. 16. 3 Martine Cadieu, "Duo avec L u i g i Nono," Les Nouvelles  L i t t e r a i r e s , ( A p r i l 13, 1961), p. 9. 4 Lettere d i condannati a morte d e l l a resistenza europa (Turin: E d i z i o n i G u i l i o Einaudi, 1954) 126 fighters who were condemned to death by Germany during World War I I . II ". . .muoio er un mondo che splendera" con luce tanto forte con ta l e bellezza che i l mio stesso s a c r i f i c i o non e n u l l a . Per esso sono morti m i l i o n i d i uomini s u l l e barricate e i n guerra. Muoio per l a g i u s t i z i a . Le nostre idee vinceranno..." III "...mi portano a Kessariani per l'esecuzione insieme a a l t r i sette. Muoio per l a l i b e r t a e per l a p a t r i a . . . " "...oggi c i fucileranno. Moriamo da uomini per l a p a t r i a . Siate degni d i noi..." "...m'impiccheranno n e l l a piazza perche sono p a t r i o t a . Tuo f i g l i o se ne va, non sentira* l e campane d e l l a l i b -erta ..." V "...se i l c i e l o fosse carta e t u t t i i mari del mondo inchiostro non pot r e i descrivervi l e mie sofferenze e tutto c i S che vedo intorno a me. Dico addio a t u t t i e piango..." VI " . . . l e porte s'aprono. E c c o l i i n o s t r i a s s a s s i n i . V e s t i t i d i nero. Ci cacciano d a l l a sinagoga. Com'e* duro dire addio per sempre a l i a v i t a cosx b e l l a ! " VII "...addio mamma, tua f i g l i a Liubka se ne va n e l l ' umida t e r r a . . . " 127 IX "...non ho paura d e l l a morte..." "...saro calmo e t r a n q u i l l o d i fronte a l plotone di esecuzione. Sono cosi t r a n q u i l l i coloro che c i hanno condannato?..." "...vado con l a fede i n una v i t a migliore per v o i . . . " 5 The q u a l i t y of immortal f a i t h and courage i l l u s t r a t e d by these fragments suggests two possible meanings for the some-what ambiguous t i t l e of t h i s composition which translated i s "suspended song": not only i s t h e i r song cut short by execu-ti o n but also i t s message may continue forever. These l e t t e r s chosen by Nono were a l l written by young people, i n -cluding a Bulgarian teacher and j o u r n a l i s t , two students and a hairdresser from Greece, a fourteen year old Polish farmboy, women from the U.S.S.R., an I t a l i a n typesetter and a female labourer from Germany. I l Canto sospeso i s dedicated "a t u t t i l o r o . " The tone row u t i l i z e d i n II Canto sospeso i s the same as that found i n Canti per t r e d i c i : 5 A tr a n s l a t i o n of the text can be found i n the Appendix. 6 Reginald Smith Brindle, "Current Chronicle: I t a l y , " Musical Quarterly, XLVII (1961), p. 248. 128 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B b A b B G C F# D# F D E E b \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / m2 M2 m3 M3 P4 T P4 M3 m3 M2 m2 This symmetrical a l l - i n t e r v a l row i s employed throughout I l Canto sospeso i n varying degrees. In movements where the series presentation i s c l o s e l y controlled, the method of ordering i s very similar to that seen i n both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri. Techniques common to the " c l a s s i c a l " Viennese twelve-tone school including row-form v a r i a t i o n are neglected, the o r i g i n a l p i t c h series being s t r i c t l y repeated. In other movements of the composition, the tone row i s hardly discern-able, with the parameter of p i t c h being quite unordered. Various l e v e l s of p i t c h organization between these two extremes also e x i s t and w i l l be examined further within the discussion of each i n d i v i d u a l movement. Of the f i v e compositions examined by t h i s study, the technique of polytimbral continuity assumes the greatest s i g -n ificance i n II Canto sospeso. This technique i s employed i n varying degrees throughout the work rather than being present-ed continuously from beginning to end. In fact, i n c e r t a i n 129 sections i t i s scarcely v i s i b l e . Polytimbral continuity i s of greatest s t r u c t u r a l importance i n movements II, IV, V, VI B and VII and for t h i s reason parametric organization i n these movements w i l l be analyzed i n d e t a i l . Movement II Of the nine movements i n II Canto sospeso, more has been written on the second than any other movement. In 1958 Karlheinz Stockhausen had published i n Darmstadter Beitrage 7 zur neuen Musik, the a r t i c l e "Sprache und Musik" which included a controversial and yet i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t i a l analysis of t h i s movement. Since then a number of theorists have written about the second movement including Reginald Smith Brindle whose ef f o r t s to elucidate on the matter of the organization of dura-g t i o n have been far from complete. As a r e s u l t of these numer-ous analyses, the second movement of II Canto sospeso i s probab-l y the most celebrated i n analytic l i t e r a t u r e of any of Nono's works. The second movement i s divided into two parts of 34 and 16 measures i n length respectively: 7 Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Sprache und Musik," Darmstadter Beitrgqe zur neuen Musik, (1958), pp. 57-81. Translated into English by Ruth Koenig and republished as "Speech and Music," Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 40-64. 8 Reginald Smith Brindle, "Current Chronicle: I t a l y , " Musical Quarterly, XLVII (1961), pp. 247-255 and S e r i a l Compo- s i t i o n (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), pp. 163-167. 130 Section 1 - measures 108 to 141 Section 2 - measures 142 to 157 These sections are defined primarily by the organization of the parameter of duration as w i l l be discussed l a t e r . In t h i s movement, the parameter of p i t c h i s s t r i c t l y c o ntrolled. In a manner i d e n t i c a l to that employed i n both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri/ the tone row i s continually repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form only, with no transpositions/ as can be seen i n the following example. 131 Example 1. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 108-119. 132 The order of p i t c h appearance coincides with the ordering of the tone row i n every statement. There are f i f t e e n series statements i n the f i r s t section while i n section two there are only four presentations. As can be seen i n Example 1 which presents the opening measures of the movement, i n most cases any s p e c i f i c p i t c h within aV.row statement i s presented by only one voice at a time. This practice i s followed throughout the movement with only two i r r e g u l a r i t i e s : (1) i n measure 108 the E-sharp i s doubled; while (2) i n measure 110 there i s a duplication of C natural. The technique of polytimbral continuity i s applied throughout t h i s movement and every note can be accounted for v i a t h i s procedure. There are four separate, continuous l i n e s employed and each of these has a d i f f e r e n t basic duration. The unit beat i s divided by the numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5 to create the basic durations of _1, 1, 1, and :1_ respectively. This i s 2 3 4 5 the greatest number of d i f f e r e n t basic durations present within any one work up to t h i s point i n Nono's compositional develop-ment. In the four compositions examined so far the number of basic durations employed within each work has increased success-i v e l y by one. In L i e b e s l i e d only one basic duration, 1, was 4 u t i l i z e d , i n Canti per t r e d i c i 1_ and 1. were found and l a t e r i n 3 5 Incontri, three basic durations 1, 1 and 1 were employed. 4 5 6 133 The four l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n t h i s second movement are presented i n the manner i l l u s t r a t e d by Example 2 i n which the black, blue, green and red markings indicate continuous l i n e s having the basic durations of _1, 2 1, 1 and _1 respectively. 3 4 5 1 3 4 E x a m p l e 2 . N o n o , I l C a n t o s o s p e s o , m e a s u r e s 1 0 8 - 1 1 9 . 135 In the presentation of these l i n e s of polytimbral continuity, one i r r e g u l a r i t y can be found and t h i s i s probably the r e s u l t of an error i n the process of publi c a t i o n . As can be seen i n Example 2, the note D-natural presented by the second bass at the end of measure 109 has two d i f f e r e n t basic durations, _1 5 and 1_. In order to coincide with the other notes found within 3 that p a r t i c u l a r l i n e , the note i n question should have the basic duration of _1 only. 5 Within each of the polytimbral l i n e s i n d i v i d u a l notes are presented without v e r t i c a l duplication. Only two except-ions to t h i s rule are evident and these occur i n measures 108 and 110 where, as previously mentioned, pitches are doubled. In comparing the score of t h i s movement with that of both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri, i t i s most apparent that the qu a l i t y of p o i n t i l l i s m i s not as predominant now as was the case i n the e a r l i e r works. This has had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the technique of polytimbral continuity. In the two previous com-positions, no voice presented any more than one p i t c h i n sue- -; -cession and t h i s resulted i n a rapid change i n timbre. In t h i s movement of II Canto sospeso, voices frequently have a number of d i f f e r e n t notes i n a row and as a re s u l t , timbre no longer varies as quickly. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the second section of the movement, measures 142 to 157. The arrangement of the various l i n e s of polytimbral continuity within the movement i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following: Figure 6.— Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement II of II Canto sospeso u M 2a sv ir< 2S J .0 3 t c L5 7 1 tit > Ub Jit m m 1 Basic Durations: =_1, =1, -1. 5 4 3 2 137 This d i s t r i b u t i o n of the polytimbral l i n e s defines somewhat the two sections of the movement. Throughout the f i r s t section, that i s , measures 108 to 141, a l l four l i n e s are continuously employed. In the second section, the ordering of l i n e entrances and exits i s c l e a r l y fashioned on a p a l i n -drome pattern. As can be seen i n the above i l l u s t r a t i o n , the sequence black-blue-green-red which indicates the basic dura-tion of each successive l i n e entry i s reversed when determining the order of l i n e termination. The technique of polytimbral continuity i n II Canto  sospeso has the same functions as were discussed i n connection with both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri. Not only does t h i s technique provide a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ordering of sound and that of a silence but also, through the employment of polytimbral continuity, the basic duration of a s p e c i f i c note i s established. As mentioned previously, the ordering of p i t c h succession coincides with the ordering of the o r i g i n a l tone row; as each p i t c h i n the row i s due to be presented i t i s given to whichever polytimbral l i n e i s next a v a i l a b l e . As each l i n e has a d i f f e r e n t basic duration, i t i s t h i s technique of polytimbral continuity which i s the c o n t r o l l i n g factor i n the determination of a note's basic duration. As was the case i n both Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri, 138 the system of organization for the parameter of duration has two main components: basic duration and duration multiple. While the former i s controlled through the technique of poly-timbral continuity, the l a t t e r i s determined through the em-ployment of a structured pattern of number series presented i n close connection with the tone row statements. In creating the number series to be employed as duration multiples, Nono uses the f i r s t six terms of the Fibonacci num-bers and i t i s possibly t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n of such an i n t r i g u i n g number sequence that inspired theorists to choose to analyze and write about t h i s p a r t i c u l a r movement rather than any of the other such s i m i l a r l y organized movements of II Canto sospeso. In 1202, an I t a l i a n mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, bet-ter known by the name Fibonacci, wrote Liber abaci, a compre-hensive work containing almost a l l of the arithmetic and alge-9 braic knowledge of that day. I t was i n the Liber abaci that the sequence 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, ... was f i r s t mentioned; a sequence i n which each term i s the sum of the two preceding terms. This sequence which was i n i -t i a l l y employed by Leonardo to solve a problem involving rabbit reproduction has since become known as the Fibonacci sequence 9 N.N. Vorobyov, The Fibonacci Numbers. Translated by Norman D. Whaland, J r . , and Olga A. Titelbaum (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1963), p. 1. 139 10 and i t s terms, the Fibonacci numbers. The systems of proportion applied to the parameters of most tonal music have been based primarily on two simple number series: (1) the geometrical series 1 , 2, 4, 8, 16, ... and (2) the arithmetical series 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ... In developing h i s systems for c o n t r o l l i n g the parameter of duration, Nono has avoided employing these two s e r i e s . Although Nono has u t i l i z e d the Fibonacci numbers i n only one instance, that being t h i s second movement of II Canto sospeso, on other occasions he has used sequences which have distinguishing q u a l i t i e s i n common with the Fibonacci sequence. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the Fibonacci sequence i s c l a s s i f i e d as a recursive sequence, that i s , a sequence i n which each term i s defined as a cert a i n function of the preceding terms. As w i l l be seen, Nono has employed re-cursive sequences i n several systems of duration organization. Nono's concept of applying Fibonacci numbers i n the or-dering of duration i n the second movement of II Canto sospeso i s by no means unique since numerous composers i n the twentieth-century have employed t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sequence for the purpose 11 : of parametric organization. Through the writings of Erno Lendvai.. "*"^Ibid, pp. 3-4. "'""'"Including Ernfl Lendvai, "Introduction aux formes et harmonies bartokiennes," Bartok: sa vie et son oeuvre. Edited by Bence Szabolcsi (Budapest: Corvina, 1956), pp. 88-136 and Bela Bartok: an Analysis of His Style (London: Kahn and Ave:-:', r i l l , 1971). 140 Bela Bartok's apparent use of the Fibonacci sequence and the mean proportional of the golden section which i s determined . 1 2 . from Fibonacci numbers i n arranging various parameters i n a certain number of h i s works, has become well known. Working primarily i n West B e r l i n , Boris Blacher during the nineteen-13 f i f t i e s developed a system of variable meters. In Ornamente fur Klavier dating from 1950, he employs terms from the Fibon-14 acci sequence to determine the various meters. Ernst Krenek has "used the terms of the Fibonacci series from 2 to 21 to determine the speed zones i n a recent orchestral composition 15 e n t i t l e d Quaestio temporis" and these numbers also play a . 16 s i g n i f i c a n t organizational role i n h i s work Fibonacci-Mobile. I t i s also most i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Nono's colleague Karlheinz Stockhausen was employing terms from the Fibonacci 12 N.N. Vorobyov, The Fibonacci Numbers (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1963), p. 40. 13 E.B. Carlson, A Bio-Bibliographical Dictionary of Twelve-Tone and S e r i a l Composers (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1970), pp. 47-48. 14 Howard E. Smither, "The Rhythmic Analysis of Twenti-eth-Century Music," Journal of Music Theory, VIII (Spring, 1964), p. 82-83. 15 Ernst Krenek, "Extents and Limits of S e r i a l Techni-ques, " i n Problems of Modern Music. Edited by P.H. Land (New York: W.W. Norton, 1960), p. 92. ~^ W. Ogdon, "Conversation with Ernst Krenek," Perspect-ives of New Music, X (Spring-Summer, 1972), p. 106. 141 sequence i n Klavierstflck IX at approximately the same time as Nono was composing II Canto sospeso. The duration multiple series for the f i r s t section of the second movement of II Canto sospeso i s formed from the f i r s t s i x terms of the Fibonacci sequence arranged i n the following manner: 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 These numbers, based on a palindrome structure, are then employed as multiples to determine the duration of the f i r s t twelve notes of the movement, that i s , the f i r s t tone row statement. 142 Example 3. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 108-109. N9 2 par un Sfer - to Similar to the p i t c h ordering, t h i s duration multiple series i s s t r i c t l y presented coinciding p r e c i s e l y with the ordering of the palindrome pattern presented above. As has been alrea mentioned, there are f i f t e e n tone row statements i n section one and likewise there are the same number of duration mul-t i p l e series presentations. Each of the remaining fourteen multiple statements has the same content as the f i r s t series although the ordering of multiple appearance i s modified con-t i n u a l l y as can be seen through examining the following table 143 TABLE 4 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN THE FIRST SECTION OF MOVEMENT II OF IL CANTO SOSPESO '^ No. Mm! A B b A b 1 108-110 1 2 3 |U 2 110-112 2 3 5 — 3 112-114 3 5 8 _ 4 114-117 5 8 13 — 5 117-119 8 13 13 — 6 119-121 13 13 8 — 7 121-123 13 8 5 _ 8 123-125 8 5 3 — 9 125-127 5 3 2 -10 128-130 3 2 1 -11 130-132 2 1 1 -12 132-135 1 1 2 13 135-137 2 3 5 14 137-139 3 5 8 15 139-142 5 8 13 B G C F# c# F D E Eb 5 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 3 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 2 3 8 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 13 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 From Table 4 which presents the duration multiples as they appear together with the tone row statements, i t can be seen that multiple statements 2 through 15 have the same succession of numbers as statement 1, although the statements commence on d i f f e r e n t terms. The only i r r e g u l a r i t y to t h i s i s found i n statement 12 where the l a s t two terms are reversed, possibly as the r e s u l t of a p r i n t e r ^ s v e r r o r . As each successive i n i t i a l multiple of statements 1 through 12 coincides with the ordering of statement 1, t h i s r e s u l t s i n the organization as i l l u s t r a t e d 144 in the table: the f i r s t twelve horizontal number rows are i d e n t i c a l to the respective twelve v e r t i c a l rows. With state-ment number 13, Nono s l i g h t l y modifies t h i s previously estab-li s h e d pattern of entrances. While i t might have been expect-ed that the series would again commence on the multiple 1 and thus repeat the pattern of statement 1, Nono avoids t h i s repe-t i t i o n by skipping to a series s t a r t i n g with the multiple 2. Again, here i s an example of where the composer f e l t i t nece-ssary to modify an otherwise symmetrical, l o g i c a l system of ordering. Although t h i s system of multiples does generally determine the duration of notes i n the f i r s t section, i t i s not a system of t o t a l control since Nono s t i l l has a l i m i t e d amount of freedom i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . This occurs when notes from two or more polytimbral l i n e s end at the same time. 145 Example 4. Nono, II Canto sospeso, measure 126. il a o at o In measure 126, notes from the l i n e s having the basic dura-tions of _1 and 1 both terminate at the end of the f i r s t unit 3 5 beat. As a re s u l t , Nono can choose to which polytimbral l i n e s the next two multiples, 3 and 5, w i l l be applied. The duration multiple series for the second h a l f of the movement i s constructed from the same six Fibonacci num-bers but they are now reversed to form a d i f f e r e n t palindrome structure: 13 8 5 3 2 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 146 For the f i r s t time i n any system of duration organization examined so far i n t h i s study, the duration multiple series i s presented completely by one horizontal l i n e of polytimbral continuity. The series i s no longer employed v e r t i c a l l y with the order of appearance coinciding with the p i t c h series statements. In t h i s second section each l i n e of polytimbral contin-u i t y presents one complete statement of the above series only. These l i n e s are so arranged that the central point of each series statement occurs at approximately the same point. Example 5. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 145-150. 147 As a re s u l t of the application of t h i s palindromic multiple series allowing each of the four l i n e s to reach i t s midpoint at approximately the same time, there i s an ordered increase and decrease i n note a c t i v i t y throughout the second section. There are no multiple i r r e g u l a r i t i e s or simultaneous note commencements and thus t h i s system controls completely the parameter of duration i n the second section of the move-ment . In t h i s second movement of II Canto sospeso there i s not, for the parameter of dynamics, an o v e r a l l system of organization applied either i n conjunction with p i t c h appear-ance or with the technique of polytimbral continuity, even though each note i n the movement has i t s own dynamic i n d i c a -t i o n . In his analysis, Karlheinz Stockhausen suggests ."that each of the twelve pitches receives a d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t y 17 whenever i t recurs. He does not however prove conclusively that t h i s i s i n fact the case, or for that matter, that there was any intent by Nono to order the parameter of dynamics i n any manner. By t h i s point i n Stockhausen' s a r t i c l e , the:, reader may be somewhat sc e p t i c a l of the analysis since Nono, by the time the English t r a n s l a t i o n appeared, had informed Stockhausen 17 Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Speech and Music," translated by Ruth Koenig, Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 52-53. 148 that h i s basic point of the existence of s e r i a l vocal 18 structure i n t h i s movement was incorrect and misleading. Movement IV The orchestra i n the fourth movement of II Canto  sospeso i s divided into two d i s t i n c t groups. Throughout the; movement certa i n wind and percussion instruments present one l i n e of polytimbral continuity while the s t r i n g i n s t r u -ments duplicate selected pitches from t h i s continuous l i n e . Ibid, p. 49. 149 Example 6. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 240-246. 150 As can be seen i n Example 6, at various points within the l i n e of polytimbral continuity i t s e l f there are note doublings. One notable difference between these duplications and those of e a r l i e r compositions involving polytimbral continuity i s that now only duration i s doubled. In; previous works both duration and-'pitch were duplicated. While the pitches i n the strings are introduced both at the same time and i n the same registers as t h e i r polytimbral counterparts i n the winds and percussion, the durations do not correspond. These notes i n the strings are generally sustained for a longer period of time. In movement IV, there are also four d i f f e r e n t basic durations employed. Instead of 1, 1, 1 and 1^  as was found i n 2 3 4 5 the second movement, the basic durations are now 1, 1, 1 and 1 3 4 5 7 which are represented by the colours blue, green, red and black respectively. The basic duration of the l i n e of polytimbral continuity which runs throughout t h i s movement, rather than re-maining constant, i s changed p e r i o d i c a l l y according to the following pattern: Figure 7.— Arrangement of Basic Durations for the Line of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement IV of I l Canto sospeso 1 -J — 1 1 — -* > > -4-1 23. 2*3 r 2 M * r H Basic Durations: =1_/—— =1_, =1, =1. 7 5 4 3 152 In viewing Figure 7 i t can be seen that the arrangement of basic durations i s based on a palindrome structure. The technique of duration multiple presentation i n t h i s movement i s sim i l a r to that of Incontri and movement II of I l Canto sospeso, i n that one number series i s employed through-out the movement, with each statement following the ordering of the series although the s t a r t i n g point i s never the same. The duration multiple series of movement IV i s formed from the f i r s t twelve terms of the simple arithmetic series and the f i r s t statement i s as follows: 11, 2, 1, 9, 7, 12, 6, 3, 4, 8, 10, 5. With each of the remaining seven and one-half statements t h i s succession of multiples i s present although every statement commences with a d i f f e r e n t term. 153 TABLE 5 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN MOVEMENT IV OF IL CANTO SOSPESO No. Mm. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 240-246 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 8 10 5 2 246-251 5 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 8 10 3 252-256 4 8 10 5 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 257-260 10 5 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 8 5 260-263 9 7 12 6 3 4 8 10 5 11 2 1 6 264-268 3 4 8 10 5 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 7 269-274 1 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 8 10 5 11 8 275-281 8 10 5 11 2 1 9 7 12 6 3 4 9 281-284 7 12 6 3 4 8 Basic Duration k 3 1 4 1 5 1 I] 7 1 _ 5~" 1 _ 4~ i -3 As can be seen i n Table 5, the basic duration changes a f t e r each complete multiple series statement (with the exception of statement 4) and these basic durations are arranged according to a palindrome pattern. Although at f i r s t glance there appears to be no obvious system for determing on which multiple the statements are to commence, i f one examines the difference between each i n i t i a l multiple of the successive series statements, a d i s t i n c t pattern: becomes apparent: 154 Statement F i r s t Multiple Difference 1 11 2 3 4 10 5 6 7 8 9 These differences form an alternating pattern with two terms, 6 and 1. Thus there i s a symmetrical ordering of statement entrances, as was the case i n the second movement. One s i g n i f i c a n t point i n t h i s presentation of duration multiples i s that there are no i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the system of multiple ordering and as a r e s u l t t h i s system controls completely, the organization of the parameter of duration. The parameter of p i t c h i n t h i s movement i s not ordered s t r i c t l y . Although the complete tone row i s presented' i n i t s correct order i n the f i r s t seven measures, i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are introduced by the notes of duplication of the polytimbral l i n e . These additional pitches are c i r c l e d i n the following example. 155 156 In the remainder of the movement while there i s a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of pitches, most statements are not s t r u c t -ured. I t i s not u n t i l the l a s t twelve notes of the polytimbral l i n e (notes 7 to 12 of statement 8 and notes 1 to 6 of statement 9) that the ordering of the tone row again becomes apparent. Similar to statement 1, additional pitches are also present. Movement V In the f i f t h movement of II Canto sospeso, the technique of polytimbral continuity plays a more s i g n i f i c a n t role i n parametric organization than has been found i n any other system examined so far i n t h i s study. The relat i o n s h i p of polytimbral continuity to the ordering of certa i n selected parameters i s developed to the most complex form to be attained i n Nono 1s compositions. In the second section of movement II of II Canto sospeso, the d i v i s i o n multiple series was presented h o r i z o n t a l l y by each i n d i v i d u a l polytimbral l i n e . This has been a new step for Nono since up to that time duration was ordered i n close connection with the presentation of the tone row. In the f i f t h movement, t h i s new practice has been ex-panded to include other note variables. The parameters of pitch, duration and dynamics are now a l l organized, following c l o s e l y the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. 157 In t h i s movement every note can be accounted for through the technique of polytimbral continuity. There are three polytimbral l i n e s which run through the movement and they are arranged according to the pattern i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 8. The basic durations for these l i n e s are 1, 1 and 4 5 JL which are represented by the colours green, red and blue 6 respectively. Figure 8.— Arrangement of Lines of Polytimbral Continuity i n Movement V of II Canto sospeso i i M s i i r . >8 5 t r i R 211 I V i Mi 1 CD Basic Duration: =1, =1, =1. 6 5 4 159 As might be expected, the ordering of l i n e entries and terminations i s based on a palindrome pattern. The orchestration of these l i n e s i s , for the f i r s t time i n Nono's employment of polytimbral continuity, speci-f i c a l l y ordered. The following l i s t presents the instruments u t i l i z e d by each of the three l i n e s : Red Solo Tenor Vibraphone Marimba Green Blue Solo V i o l i n I Solo V i o l i n I Solo V i o l i n II Solo V i o l a Solo V i o l a Solo V c l . Solo V c l . Solo Cb. Solo Cb. Harp I Harp II FI. I Clar. I Ob. I Ob. I Fg. I Fg. I Clar. basso Clar. basso Cor. I Tr. II Tr. II Tr. I l l Tr. I l l Tr. V Tr. V Trb. I Trb. II This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the next example. 160 Example 8. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 290-293. 161 The q u a l i t y of p o i n t i l l i s m here i s much more evident than was the case i n the second movement. With the exception of the solo tenor parts of the l i n e employing the basic duration of 1., timbre once again changes quite r a p i d l y within a l i n e . 5 The system of organization for p i t c h i n t h i s f i f t h movement i s more complex than any other examined i n t h i s paper. Whereas i n previous compositions the tone row generally was merely repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, t h i s i s no longer the case. Pitch ordering now s t r i c t l y follows the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. Each polytimbral l i n e presents ten tone row statements and these are given i n the following table. I t should be stressed that with Table 6 the pitches are stated i n order of appearance within each l i n e . TABLE 6 PITCH ORDERING WITHIN EACH OF THE THREE LINES OF POLYTIMBRAL CONTINUITY IN MOVEMENT V OF IL CANTO SOSPESO Green Line „ n _ , Order of Appearance LI 12 D -F —I E -E b n G J A -A -No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 E b E D F •C# F# C G B A b B b 2 A B b A b B G C F# C# F D E 3 A B F Eb Bb C F# E G# G C# 4 B b C F# E A G# D E b B G bb 5 A A b D E b G C F# C# B b B F 6 G C F f t c# G# B F D A Bb E 7 Eb E B b A D F B G# C# F# C 8 E F B B b c# F# C G E b D A b 9 F c# G B Eb D G# A E F# C 10 D c# G Ab E F# C B b E b F B 162 Red Line Order of Appearance No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 A B F Eb B b C F# E G# G c# D 2 B b B F# E A A b D Eb B G c# F — 1 3 A A b D Eb G C F# c# B b B F 4 G C F# c# G# B F D A B b E E 1 5 E b E B b A T D F B G# ^ F# C G J 6 E F B B b c# F# C G E b D A b A - J 7 F c# G B E b D A b A E F# C B b 8 D c# G A b E F# C B b E b F B A — 9 Eb E D F c# F# C G B G# B b A -1 10 A B b G# B G C F# D*> F D E E b J Blue Line Order of Appearance No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 E b D E e# F C F# B G B b A b A 1 2 A A b B b G B F# C F °$ E D E b-i 3 A G c# E b A b F# C D B b B F E ^ 4 A b F# C D A B b E D# G, B F D b 5 A B b E E b B F# C F A b G c# D 6 B F# C F B b G c# E A A b D Eb 7 E b D A b A E °8 G A b Eb B b E A 8 C B F F# E b B b E A c# D A b G 9 B Eb A F c# D G# G C B b E F# 10 D Eb A A b C D A b B b F E b A B * The brackets indicate retrograde r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Possibly the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of these three sets of orderings i s that the p i t c h presentations of both the red and blue l i n e s are d i r e c t l y and c l o s e l y related to that of the green l i n e . The order of p i t c h appearance i n the red l i n e (with the exception of note 2 of statement 2) i s an exact retrograde of that presented by the green l i n e . The p i t c h organization of:.'the blue l i n e i s related to that of the green 163 l i n e through inversion. Each row statement i n the blue l i n e i s an exact retrograde of the corresponding statement of the green l i n e , with the only i r r e g u l a r i t i e s occurring with notes 7 and 8 of statement 7 and notes 5 and 6 of statement 10. Through the two procedures of retrograde and inversion, the p i t c h organization of the red and blue l i n e s were derived from that of the green l i n e . As a r e s u l t of these retrograde and inversion p i t c h relationships between the orderings of the three l i n e s of polytimbral continuity, there can be found i n t h i s movement the four d i f f e r e n t forms of the tone row: o r i g i n a l , r e t r o -grade, inversion and retrograde-inversion. The row i s present-ed i n i t s o r i g i n a l form i n statements 2 and 10 of the green and red l i n e s respectively while the retrograde form i s presented by statements 1 and 9 of the green and red l i n e s respectively. Even more s i g n i f i c a n t , statements 1 and 2 of the blue l i n e presents the retrograde-inversion and inversion forms of the tone row. This i s the only system of p i t c h organization stu-died i n t h i s paper i n which these four row forms are employed. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 6, retrograde relationships ex-i s t between the row statements within a l l three l i n e s . While only one such rela t i o n s h i p exists i n the blue l i n e , within the other two l i n e s the retrograde statement relationships are organized into palindromic structures. As the red l i n e i s a 164 mirror of the green, these relationships are reversed accord-in g l y . In further examining the p i t c h ordering of the green l i n e i t can be seen that while II Canto sospeso's p r i n c i p a l tone row i s employed i n statements 1 and 2, with statements 3 through 10 i t i s no longer v i s i b l e . In the following diagram the i n t e r v a l l i c structures of statements 3 to 6, which are of course reversed to form statements 7 to 10, are presented: Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3 M2 I T M2 l P4 M2 \ T M2 i M3 m2 I T m2 f 4 M2 i T M2f P4 fm2 T m 2 | M3 ' .-JM3 T M3 ^  5 m2 i T m2j M3 l P 4 T P4, m3 ,m2 T m2, 6 ,P4 T P4, P4 .m3 T m3, P4 ,m2 T m2j Although the actual p i t c h presentations of these four state-ments are not c l o s e l y associated, i t can be seen that t h e i r i n t e r v a l l i c structures are somewhat s i m i l a r . Each statement i s constructed of three groupings of three invervals each, with the remaining two in t e r v a l s separating the groupings. The central i n t e r v a l of each:>of these groupings i s a t r i t o n e and i n every case the outer two in t e r v a l s are the same. This 165 resu l t s i n three small palindrome structures within every statement. This method of .".intervallic structuring i s also present i n both the red and blue l i n e s since the p i t c h state-ments of a l l three l i n e s are related, as mentioned before, either through retrograde or inversion. The parameter of duration i s also organized following the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. Each of the three poly-timbral l i n e s presents ten statements of duration multiple rows. There are four d i f f e r e n t forms of duration multiple rows, each of which contains four presentations of the terms 1, 2 and 7. (1) 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 7 (2) 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 1 7 1 (3) 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 1 As can be seen above, each of these multiple series displays palindrome symmetry. In the following table, the duration multiple presentations of the three polytimbral l i n e s can; be found. Since the-, order of multiple appearance i n the green and blue l i n e s i s i d e n t i c a l , only two charts are necessary within t h i s table. 166 TABLE 7 DURATION MULTIPLE PRESENTATION OF EACH LINE OF POLYTIMBRAL CONTINUITY IN MOVEMENT V OF IL CANTO SOSPESO Green Line and Blue Line Order of Appearance Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 2 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 .1 7 3 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 1 7 4 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 5 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 6 2 1 2 7 7 1 1 7 7 2 1 7 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 1 7 8 2 1 2 7 7 1 1 7 7 2 1 9 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 10 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 12 7-7-1-2-1-2-1-7— 3 Red Line Order of Appearance Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 2 2 1 2 7 7 1 1 7 7 2 1 3 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 1 7 4 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 5 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 6 7 7 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 7 1 7 1 7 2 2 2 2 7 1 7 8 2 1 2 7 7 1 1 7 7 2 1 9 1 2 7 1 7 2 2 7 1 7 2 10 2 1 2 7 7 1.. 1 7 7 2 1 12 1— 2-1-1. 2-1' 2 167 In both of the multiple schemes given i n Table 7, a l l four d i f f e r e n t multiple rows are present. In«' these two charts, the row form statements are also ordered according to p a l i n -drome structures. With the green and blue l i n e s , statements 1 to 9 are organized into two small palindrome patterns with the l a s t statement repeating the i n i t i a l s e r i e s . In the red l i n e , statements 1 to 9 form one large palindrome with the l a s t statement repeating the ordering of statement 2. The duration multiple presentation of each of these polytimbral l i n e s i s much more symmetrical than any multiple ordering found up to t h i s point i n the study. Palindrome organization not only determines the structure of each multiple series statement but i t also determines the order of appearance of these statements within each l i n e . In the second section of movement II of II Canto sospeso i t was.discovered that the multiple series was presented by each polytimbral l i n e i n such a way that the central point of each series was reached i n the score at approximately the same time. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case i n the f i f t h movement. The central point of the duration multiple presentation of each polytimbral l i n e , that i s , at the end of the f i f t h rstatement, occurs i n measure 301. Although the parameter of dynamics i s not organized i n a complex manner i n thi s movement, what l i t t l e ordering of 168 dynamic indications does exist, follows the l i n e s of poly-timbral continuity. Only f i v e d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p, mp, mf and f, are employed; crescendi and decrescendi are not u t i l i z e d . Nono -directly relates the organization of dynamics to that of duration. While the ordering of duration multiple appearance was i d e n t i c a l i n the blue and green l i n e s , another pattern of presentation was employed by the red l i n e . This i s s i m i l a r l y the case with the dynamics. The ordering of appearance of dynamic le v e l s i n the blue and green l i n e s i s the same, while the red l i n e has a new scheme of present-ation. Of the ten dynamic series statements i n both the green and blue l i n e s , the only example of s p e c i f i c pattern of order-ing i s found i n comparing statement 1 to statement 10. The dynamic presentation of the f i r s t statement, ppp, p, ppp, p, PPP/ P/ mP/ P/ mP/ P/ mP/ P# i s exactly reversed for the l a s t statement. The central eight statements of both of these l i n e s merely present a continuous permutation of the f i v e d i f f e r e n t dynamic le v e l s with no symmetry of organization at a l l evident. In the red l i n e , thet only s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of ordering i s that the dynamic le v e l s are generally stated i n sets of three, i n the following manner: 169 Order of Appearance Statement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 ppp ppp ppp p p p mp mp mp p p p 2 P P P m P m P mP m f m f rnf" mp mp mp Other than t h i s there i s no c o n t r o l l i n g factor i n the deter-mination of dynamics i n the red l i n e . In reviewing the organization of pit c h , duration and dynamics i n t h i s f i f t h movement, i t should be stressed that the ordering of a l l three parameters follows the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. With duration and dynamics, the patterns of ordering for the green and blue l i n e s are i d e n t i c a l while i n both cases the red l i n e presents a new scheme. In the organization of p i t c h however, the red l i n e presents a retrograde form of the green l i n e while the blue l i n e has an inverted form of the green l i n e . Movement VI B Instead of continuing with the system of parametric organization employed i n movement V, Nono i n t h i s movement reverts back to that u t i l i z e d i n movement I I . The parameter of p i t c h i n movemerit VI B i s ordered i n exactly the same manner as i t was i n the second movement. The tone row;A, Bb/rAbf, B, G, C, F#, C#, F, D, E, E b, i s again con-t i n u a l l y repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form only, with no transpo-170 s i t i o n s . The series i s presented v e r t i c a l l y with p i t c h appearance coinciding with the ordering of the o r i g i n a l tone row. There are eleven complete tone row statements plus one single note, A natural.- The only i r r e g u l a r i t y of p i t c h presentation i s found i n measure 392 where the c e l l o s have an E natural rather that the expected E - f l a t . There are four l i n e s of polytimbral continuity i n t h i s movement; two l i n e s employ the basic duration of 1 while the 3 other two have the basic duration of 1_. Although every note 5 can be accounted for by t h i s technique, there can be found, for the f i r s t time i n t h i s composition, breaks i n the poly-timbral l i n e s . As was the case i n the second movement where the Fibonacci numbers were employed, the duration multiple series i n movement VI B i s constructed from six termsoof a recursive sequence: 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17. In t h i s sequence, the difference between consecutive terms increases each time by one. These six terms are presented twice, forming the duration multiple series which i s as follows: 171 Like the duration multiple rows of movements II and V, t h i s multiple series displays palindrome symmetry. The technique of employing the duration multiple series i n t h i s movement i s exactly the same as that found i n the second movement. The eleven and one-twelfth multiple series statements are presented coinciding with the eleven and one-twelfth p i t c h series statements. The multiple series, 17, 12, 8, 5, 3, 2, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17 i s employed throughout the movement, with each statement following the ordering of the series but not necessarily s t a r t i n g at the same point. TABLE 8 STATEMENTS OF DURATION MULTIPLE SERIES IN MOVEMENT VI B OF IL CANTO SOSPESO No . Mm. A B b A b B G C F# c# F D E E b 1 364-370 .117 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 — 2 370-374 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 3 374-377 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 1 4 377-381 5 3 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 _5 381-386 3, 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 6 386-396 2 2 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 7 392-396 2 3 5 8 12 17 16 12 8 5 3 2 8 396-400 3 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 9 400-403 5 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 __10 403-407 8 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 — 1 1 407-411 12 17 17 12 8 5 3 2 2 3 5 3 12 411-413 17 From Table 8 which presents the duration multiples as they appear coinciding with the tone row statements, i t can be seen that 172 multiple statements 2 through 11 have the same succession of numbers as statement 1, although, these statements commence oh d i f f e r e n t terms. The only i r r e g u l a r i t i e s to t h i s are found on F-sharp of statement 7 and E - f l a t of statement 11. As each s u c c e s s i v e ^ i n i t i a l multiple of statements 1 through 12 coin-cides with the ordering of statement 1, the r e s u l t i s the organization as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the 'table: the f i r s t eleven horizontal number rows are i d e n t i c a l to the respective eleven v e r t i c a l rows (taking into consideration the missing multiples r e s u l t i n g from incomplete statement 12). Likewise the only multiple of statement 12 i s the same as note 1 of statement 1. The technique of r e l a t i n g horizontal multiple rows to v e r t i c a l multiple rows was employed previously i n the second movement. In the discussion of t h i s e a r l i e r movement i t was mentioned that Nono frequently modified an otherwise symmetrical system of ordering. This tendency i s also apparent i n movement VI B i n that, for no l o g i c a l reason, he refrained from complet-ing the symmetry of t h i s pattern. Movement VII In the f i f t h movement, the parameters of pit c h , duration and dynamics were organized following the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity. They are not distinguished, as has been the case up to now, by having d i f f e r e n t basic durations since a l l three 173 voices employ the basic duration of _1. Rather, they are 4 characterized by orchestration. In movement VII there are three d i f f e r e n t vocal parts: solo-soprano, soprano and con-t r a l t o . One polytimbral l i n e i s associated with each of these three parts. In t h i s movement the three colours, red, blue and green w i l l be employed to indicate the polytimbral l i n e s presenting the solo-soprano, soprano and contralto parts repectively. Example 9. Nono, I l Canto sospeso, measures 440-444. / c a . 96 174 The practice of having the vocal parts presented by one s p e c i f i c polytimbral l i n e only i s followed s t r i c t l y through-out the movement. In movement VI B there are found frequent breaks i n the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity and t h i s i s again the case i n the seventh movement. Now however these l i n e entran-ces and terminations are arranged according to a symmetrical pattern which i s presented i n Figure 9. Each l i n e i s struc-tured into horizontal statements of twelve notes and i n the following figure, the v e r t i c a l dotted l i n e s indicate d i v i -sions between two successive statements. F i g u r e 9.— A r r a n g e m e n t o f L i n e s o f P o l y t i m b r a l C o n t i n u i t y i n Movement V I I o f I I C a n t o s o s p e s o Number o f 1 2 - n o t e s t a t e m e n t s : I 4e a s u-re s_ 4: L4 t .o 4 5C — i i 1 i • 1 1 r i : i » J 45Z IV 1 • i t 1 t ! 1 2 L 2 -J 3 J H Ln Number o f 1 2 - n o t e s t a t e m e n t s i 2 L Mf 3 r ) 2 S 4 5" t c 1 1 J l L 1 i 1 1 - i l i i 7 Hb 3 1 f m r i • I i 1 3 -1 1 J = S o l o S o p r a n o L i n e , S o p r a n o L i n e , ' = C o n t r a l t o L i n e . 176 Movement VII consists of two sections, measures 414 to 450 and measures 451 to 488, which are defined not only by the arrangement of polytimbral l i n e s but also by the organizational systems for the parameters of pitch, duration and dynamcis. There are twelve presentations of the twelve-tone statements i n both the f i r s t and second h a l f of the seventh movement. The number of simultaneously presented statements are arranged according to palindrome symmetry within each section, as can be seen i n Figure 9. While the solo-soprano l i n e i s found throughout, the two l i n e s from the chorus are presented i n such a way that mirror patterns of statement densities, ranging from one to three i n number, are produced. As mentioned e a r l i e r , pitch, duration and dynamics are ordered following the l i n e s of polytimbral continuity and these l i n e s present i n t o t a l twenty-four horizontal statements of twelve notes each. For the purpose of t h i s analysis, these statements are numbered as follows: F i r s t Section Statement Number (1) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 414 to 420 (2) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 420 to 426 (3) Soprano Line, measures 420 to 426 (4) Contralto Line, measures 420 to 426 (5) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 426 to 432 (6) Contralto Line, measures 426 to 432 (7) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 432 to 438 (8) Soprano Line, measures 432 to 438 (9) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 438 to 444 17,7 F i r s t Section Statement Number (10) Soprano Line, measures 438 to 444 (11) Contralto Line, measures, 438 to 444 (12) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 445 to 451 Second Section Statement Number (13) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 451 to 457 (14) Contralto Line, measures 451 to 457 (15) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 457 to 463 (16) Soprano Line, measures 457 to 46 3 (17) Contralto Line, measures 457 to 463 (18) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 463 to 469 (19) Soprano Line, measures 463 to 469 (20) Contralto Line, measures 463 to 469 (21) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 469 to 475 (22) Soprano Line, measures 469 to 475 (23) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 476 to 482 (24) Solo-Soprano Line, measures 482 to 488 The method of organization for each of the three parameters i s exactly the same. Regarding pitch, the tone row employed i n previous movements i s not u t i l i z e d but rather the twelve notes of the chromatic scale are arranged i n various ways to produce twelve d i f f e r e n t patterns, which are presented below. 178 Statement Number Order of Appearance (1) A C B b G Ab B Eb F# E c# D F (2) B G# G E b F# E A C Bb F D c# (3) G B E Bb F# D Eb C c# A F Ab (4) B b c# E A F# C B F D Eb — — (5) F# E E b Ab B G A Bb C c# F D (6) c# G D B A F# D# Ab B b C E F (7) G E E b Ab G b F B C D A Bb c# (8) A G D B Eb c# C E G# F F# B b (9) E G# B b D F Eb B A G F# c# C (10) C G# E c# B E b D A G F B b F# (11) Eb B c# D A G C G# E F# B b F (.12) D F B b F# F A G# c# D# B E C The number given with each of these patterns refers to the statement (from the previous l i s t i n g ) i n which the p i t c h pattern i s found. With dyanamics there i s similarly; no.>one basic series u t i l i z e d but rather the three d i f f e r e n t dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p and mf, are employed to create twelve d i f f e r e n t patterns. Again, the numbers given with these dynamic patterns refer to the statements of the f i r s t section i n which they occur. Statement Number (1) PPP mf mf P P PPP P PPP P mf mf P (2) P PPP mf mf-". P PPP mf PPP PPP PPP mf P (3) mf PPP PPP mf mf P P PPP PPP P mf PPP. (4) mf P PPP mf PPP mf PPP P P PPP - -(5) mf PPP P P P mf P mf PPP mf PPP PPP. (6) PPP P mf P P mf mf PPP PPP mf P P (7) mf mf P PPP PPP P P P P PPP mf mf (8) PPP P mf PPP mf PPP PPP P mf P mf P (9) PPP mf mf PPP P PPP mf P mf PPP PPP P (10) P PPP P mf mf P PPP mf mf P P PPP (11) mf P PPP P PPP mf PPP mf P mf PPP PPP (12) P mf mf PPP mf PPP P PPP PPP P mf mf 179 In organizing the parameter of duration, six d i f f e r e n t terms, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12 are each presented twice to create a multiple pattern. There are six d i f f e r e n t multiple patterns and i n the f i r s t section each of these i s employed twice. They are l i s t e d below along with t h e i r corresponding statement numbers. Statement Number Order of Appearance (1) 1 12 2 8 3 5 1 12 2 8 3 5 (2) 12 8 5 12 8 5 1 2 3 1 2 3 (3) 2 5 2 5 12 3 12 3 1 8 1 8 (4) 5 5 3 3 8 8 2 2 12 12 - -(5) 8 12 5 2 1 3 12 5 8 1 3 2 (6) 12 2 3 5 1 2 8 5 1 12 8 3 (7) 12 2 3 5 1 2 8 5 1 12 8 3 (8) 8 12 5 2 1 3 12 5 8 1 3 2 (9) 2 5 2 5 12 3 12 3 1 8 1 8 (10) 1 12 2 8 3 5 1 12 2 8 3 5 (11) 12 8 5 12 8 5 1 2 3 1 2 3 (12) 5 5 3 3 8 8 2 2 12 12 1 1 In the second h a l f of the movement, each of the twelve patterns of a l l three parameters i s repeated i n retrograde. The relation-, ship of any one s p e c i f i c dynamic pattern to i t s corresponding p i t c h and duration multiple patterns i s however maintained. For example, statement number 1 from the f i r s t section presents the following patterns. p i t c h A C B b G A b B E b F# E C# D F duration multiple 1 12 2 8 3 5 1 12 2 8 3 5 dynamics ppp mf mf p p ppp p ppp p mf mf p 180 The retrograde of statement number 1 i s found i n statement 22 which i s as follows: p i t c h F D C # E F # D # B G # G B b C A duration 5 3 8 2 12 1 5 3 8 2 12 1 multiple dynamics P mf mf p ppp p ppp p p mf mf ppp Each parametric pattern from the f i r s t statement i s p r e c i s e l y reversed i n t h i s statement. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case with retrograde forms i n the second section, of statements 2 through 12. The retrograde relationships of the twelve statements i n the f i r s t h a l f of the movement VII to those of the second h a l f are as follows: O r i g i n a l Statement Corresponding Retrograde Form (1) (22) (2) (20) (3) (23) (4) (24) (5) (19) (6) (21) (7) (17) (8) (18) (9) (16) (10) (13) (11) (15) (12) (14) Each of these pairings, then, presents a palindrome ordering of the patterns of pitch, dynamics and durations, since the ba-sic duration i s the same for every l i n e . The only irregularities are 181 the two omissions which can be seen i n the three l i s t i n g s of patterns. This method of organization i n movement VII presents one of the few examples of Nono's work where systems of order-ing for two or more d i f f e r e n t parameters coincide completely. In examining the f i v e movements of II Canto sospeso i n which polytimbral continuity i s most evident, i t i s apparent that t h i s technique becomes more s t r u c t u r a l l y important. In movements II, IV and VI B where the organization of duration i s c l o s e l y associated with the s t r i c t r epetitions of the tone row, polytimbral continuity has b a s i c a l l y the same functions as were seen i n Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri. The two prime functions being: (1) to provide a d i r e c t r elationship between the ordering of sound and that of silence; and (2) to esta b l i s h the basic duration of a note for the purpose of organizing the parameter of duration. In movements V and VII, polytimbral continuity assumes even greater s i g n i f i c a n c e . During these movements the poly-timbral l i n e s become vehicles for the horizontal statement of 182 series from the organizational systems of not only p i t c h and duration but dynamics as well . In addition, movement VII presents one of the few examples of Nono's compositional output where systems of ordering for two or more d i f f e r e n t parameters coincide completely. Undoubtedly the most frequently employed s t r u c t u r a l device during these f i v e movements i s that of the palindrome. While i t was c e r t a i n l y important i n the previous works, the palindrome i s now found governing every conceivable aspect of the systems of<organization. In II Canto sospeso the orchestration of l i n e s of polytimbral continuity becomes important. In movement V i t was seen that, for the f i r s t time polytimbral l i n e s are pre-sented by s p e c i f i c instruments. This i n i t s e l f i s not extrem-ely s i g n i f i c a n t although with the seventh movement i t becomes more so. Up to t h i s point the various l i n e s have been defined by d i f f e r e n t basic durations but here only one basic .duration i s found. As a r e s u l t they are now defined by orchestration. Generally speaking the parameter of p i t c h i n these movements i s not' organized i n a complex manner. Rather, the tone row i s , i n most cases, merely repeated i n i t s o r i g i n a l form while the parameter of duration i s systematically ordered. In movements II and VI B, Nono has even elected to employ 183 r e c u r s i v e sequences i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of du r a t i o n r a t h e r than u t i l i z i n g the more elementary a r i t h m e t i c or geometric sequences. In movements V and VI can';>be found the only instances where the parameter of dynamics i s organized according to a preconceived system. 184 CHAPTER V VARIANTI Varian t i/ commissioned by the radio station Stldwest-funk of Baden-Baden, was written between November 1956 and A p r i l 1957 and i s scored for solo v i o l i n , 10 v i o l i n s , 8 v i o l a s , 8 c e l l o s , 6 contrabasses, 3 f l u t e s and 3 B - f l a t c l a r -i n e t s . I t was f i r s t performed at Donaueschingen on October 20, 1957^ at which time the s o l o i s t was Rudolf Kolisch, to whom the composition i s dedicated, and the orchestra was that of the Stldwestfunk under the d i r e c t i o n of Hans Rosbaud. With V a r i a n t i , Nono has presented a composition that i s highly complex and, as a re s u l t , extremely d i f f i c u l t to perform accurately. In fact, the score i s so involved that i t i s questionable as to whether or not an exact perform-ance i s at a l l possible. Assuming that Nono was cognizant of the extremely high and perhaps even impossible demands put on the performers, could he not have intended that there be an approximate interpretation rather than an exact execution? Although there i s nothing i n Nono's li m i t e d writings to suggest "^Wilfried Brennecke, "Nono, L u i g i , " Die Musik i n Ges-chichte und Gegenwart, IX (1961), Col. 1555. 185 that t h i s i s the case, would i t not be possible that he has purposely created a score which i s so complex that the variables i n execution, that i s , the parameter of inde-terminacy, w i l l play a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the performance of the work? Even though obviously no one but Nono i s able to say, t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y should hot be completely overlooked when investigating the organization of h i s compositions. With each successive composition examined i n t h i s study there has been an increase:*:.in orchestral density. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case with V a r i a n t i . In the four pre-vious works, i n order to accommodate t h i s expanded density, the technique of polytimbral continuity had to be expanded and developed, with the number of polytimbral l i n e s being increased as w e l l . I l Canto sospeso presented polytimbral continuity i n i t s most complex form and now, i n V a r i a n t i , Nono i s moving away from t h i s technique. For the f i r s t time i n his compositional development, Nono i n V a r i a n t i employs the concept of organization of blocks of sound, and these sound-blocks, as w i l l be seen l a t e r , have features i n common with the duplicated notes of the poly-timbral l i n e s of e a r l i e r works. Throughout V a r i a n t i Nono uses several d i f f e r e n t methods of constructing these block note-complexes that are somewhat sim i l a r to those described by 186 2 Pierre Boulez i n h i s book Boulez on Music Today. As a r e s u l t of the implementation of t h i s sound block technique, G.W. Hopkins contends that "the work heralded one of Nono's most s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to compositional techniques, which i s r e f l e c t e d i n much recent music b u i l t according to geo-3 metrical formations" and he suggests that t h i s conception of music i n V a r i a n t i "comes closest to an a n t i c i p a t i o n of the styles of such composers as L i g e t i , C a s t i g l i o n i and 4 Penderecki." In a further explanation of t h i s "geometrical" conception of music, Hopkins says that the block note-complex may be predetermined i n respect to p i t c h and duration, a f t e r which the composer,-, i s free to manipulate the i n d i v i d u a l parts 5 which go to make up the complex. However i n V a r i a n t i t h i s i s not necessarily the case. As w i l l become more evident through the analysis which i s to follow, Nono organizes to varying degrees several d i f f e r e n t parameters within these block note-complexes and the selection of these parameters as well as the extent to which they are organized i s altered 2 Pierre Boulez, Boulez on Music Today, translated by Susan Bradshaw and Richard Rodney Bennett (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 54-58. 3 G.W. Hopkins, "Luigi Nono," Music and Musicians, XIV ( A p r i l , 1966), p. 34. 4 Ibid. 5 I b i d . 187 at several points throughout the composition. Similar to two e a r l i e r works, Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri,. the o v e r a l l form of Va r i a n t i i s based a palindrome. The central point of t h i s 308 measure score i s at bar 155 which i s a measure of sile n c e . Another measure of silence at bar 80 divides the f i r s t h a l f of Va r i a n t i into two d i s t i n c t and separate sections, measures 1 to 79 and measures 81 to 154, which for the sake of convenience s h a l l be referred to as sections A and B respectively. I t should be pointed out that when these two sections are presented i n the retrograde h a l f of the composition there i s not a measure of silence between them as i n the f i r s t h a l f but merely a double bar l i n e . Although the concept of the palindrome i s an i n t e g r a l part of the form of V a r i a n t i , t h i s mirror structure i s more com-plex than that employed i n the two previous compositions. The following diagram presents the form of the palindrome structure, of Canti per t r e d i c i and Incontri: Canti per t r e d i c i : A > - A B > < • B Incontri: A ^B »C > < C< B* A In V a r i a n t i however section A appears f i r s t i n the retrograde h a l f of the piece followed by section B which re s u l t s i n the following pattern: 188 Section: A > < A<— B Measures: 1-79 81-154 156-234 235-308 In presenting the retrograde /forms of sections A and B, Nono i s very accurate i n creating a mirror image of the o r i g i n a l statements. In fact, nearly every parameter i s exactly reversed. The only discrepancy i s found i n the retrograde of section A where the bowing indications do not coincide completely with those employed i n the f i r s t presentation. The p i t c h series employed i n V a r i a n t i has the same i n t e r v a l l i c construction as that found i n both Canti per t r e -d i c i and II Canto sospeso. However, the a l l - i n t e r v a l - r o w now begins on C whereas i n the two e a r l i e r compositions i t started on A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# This p i t c h row i s employed both i n sections A and B of the composition. As mentioned previously the two basic sections of V a r i a n t i , A and B, are separate and d i s t i n c t from one another. They are contrasted by a change i n the system of parametric organization and as a r e s u l t these sections w i l l be discussed 189 separately i n the following analysis. Section A Throughout section A, the number series 1-2-3-4-5 plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the system of parametric organi-zation. Possibly the most important employment of t h i s series can be seen i n examining the d i v i s i o n of section A into smaller segments. The measures are grouped together by means of double bar l i n e s into units of from 1 to 5 measures i n length. The following figure presents the ordering of these measure groupings, with the numbers representing the length of each i n d i v i d u a l segment. Figure 10.— Organization of Measure Groupings i n Section A of V a r i a n t i Measures 1 to 33 Solo V i o l i n , . 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 and Orchestra t 1 Orchestra only 5 4 3 2 Measures 34 to 79 r Solo V i o l i n 1 and Orchestra Orchestra only 3 2 4 5 1 5 4 3 2 As can be seen from Figure 10, section A both commences and concludes with the arrangement of measure groupings r5 4 3" 2~* with only the orchestra playing. Between these two passages 190 there exists two series of segments the structure of which has been influenced by the concept of the palindrome. Begin-ning on measure 15, the solo v i o l i n and orchestra present the series of measure groupings, 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 , which could possibly be considered a modified retrograde of the previous fourteen measures, that i s , 5 4 3 2 . The following series of measure groupings that starts at bar 34 i s i n the form of a complete palindrome. 1 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 P | 1 1 ' 1 • 1 ' I I The central point of t h i s passage occurs i n the segment which i s one measure i n length and from that point on, the order of measure groupings i s a reversal of that of the f i r s t h a l f . There i s however an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the l a s t h a l f of the palindrome where Nono has inserted an additional grouping of two measures i n length. Interestingly enough, not only i s there t h i s palindrome of the actual number series which rep-resents the length of the various measure groupings but there i s also an inverted palindrome of orchestration. The measure groupings which i n the f i r s t h a l f are assigned to the orchestra only, i n the retrograde contain both orchestra and solo v i o l i n ; likewise the f i r s t h a l f segments which contain solo v i o l i n and orchestra, i n the second h a l f are given to the orchestra only. 191 Certain organizational techniques, which w i l l be further discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, employed within each i 1 i k of the main passages 5 4 3 2 , 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 and 1 5 3 2 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 1 , tend to define even further one series of measure groupings from another. As has already been mentioned, the grouping of measures i s probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t single use of the number series 1-2-3-4-5 since t h i s ordering of the measure groupings has an influence on the organization of certain parameters found within these i n d i v i d u a l groupings. In the following paragraphs the impor-tance of t h i s number series 1-2-3-4-5 i n the organization of other parameters w i l l become increasingly more evident. As has been discovered i n the works studied previously i n t h i s paper, Nono seldom employs a consistent organizational system completely throughout a composition. This i s s i m i l a r l y the case i n V a r i a n t i . The basic systems of parametric organi-zation for section A are established i n the f i r s t fourteen measures, that i s , the f i r s t four measure groupings which are represented i n Figure 10 by the number sequence 5 4 3 2 . Here, the p r i n c i p l e s of organization are well defined and for the most part are c l o s e l y observed. Although the organization systems established i n the opening measures form the basis for parametric organization throughout the remainder of section A 192 they are neither c l o s e l y nor consistently followed. While c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aspects of these systems are at c e r t a i n points evident, at other times during t h i s section they are modified or even abandoned completely. I t should be stressed that even though cert a i n systems of parametric organization are c l o s e l y related, the degree to which each system i s ordered throughout the section i s independent from that of any other. The method and extent of organization through t h i s section varies from one parameter to the next. Undoubtedly the most prevalent and possibly even the only feature these systems have i n common with one another i s that t h e i r structure i s most c l e a r l y defined during the f i r s t fourteen measures of the section. In V a r i a n t i Nono employs the concept of organization of sound-blocks. Although t h i s technique i s employed throughout the construction, there are two separate and d i s t i n c t methods of construction, one method i n each of the two sections, A and B, of the work. Throughout section A t h i s sound-block techni-que consists of creating note-complexes with a varying group of instruments ranging from 1 to 5 i n number and with each i n s t r u -ment playing the same tone. As each note i n the complex has a d i f f e r e n t duration, there results a series of successive entran-ces and terminations of sounds. The following example presents the note complexes of the f i r s t measure grouping, that i s , measures 1 to 5, of section A. 193 194 195 In a manner sim i l a r to that seen above, the score throughout section A i s organized into blocks of sound with densities varying from 1 to 5. The density of these i n d i -vidual note complexes i s c l e a r l y organized i n conjunction with the measure-groupings and as a r e s u l t there i s a general o v e r a l l ordering of the score with respect to density content within the measure-groupings. This can possibly be most c l e a r l y seen by examining the f i r s t fourteen measures of section A. As can be found i n Example 1, the f i r s t segment or measure-grouping which i s f i v e measures i n length contains note-complexes with:densities of two, three, four and f i v e voices. The next segment of four measures i n length has sound-blocks of four, three and two voices while the following three measure segment consists of note-groupings of either three or two voices. The fourth measure-grouping of two measures i n l l e n g t h contains only sound-blocks with two i n s t r u -ments. Nono has established the p r i n c i p l e that the range of possible densities of the sound-blocks within a s p e c i f i c mea-sure grouping i s determined by,the length i n measures of that p a r t i c u l a r segment; that i s , a note complex cannot contain a greater number of voices than the figure which represents the length of measures of the segment i n which i t i s located. As a r e s u l t of t h i s rule, the general o v e r a l l density of each 196 segment i s governed by i t s length i n that the longer the measure-grouping, the greater the density possible for each note-complex and thus the segment as a whole. This rule governing the range of employable densities of sound-blocks i s followed c l o s e l y throughout section A, although i t should not be assumed that each d i f f e r e n t density within th i s range i s u t i l i z e d within each i n d i v i d u a l segment. Actually, Nono has been more selective i n the use of these densities as further r e s t r i c t i o n s have been introduced during the course of the section. As a result, the relationship between sound-block density and segment length can only be completely understood by examining the density content of each measure grouping i n Section A, which i s present i n the following table. 197 TABLE 9 DENSITY OF THE SOUND-BLOCKS CONTAINED WITHIN EACH MEASURE-GROUPING OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI Density of Soundr-Blocks Present Measure Segment Length 5 4 3 2 1 1 5 X X X X 2 4 X X X 3 3 X X 4 2 X 5 1 X 6 2 X X 7 1 X 8 3 X X X 9 1 X 10 4 X X X X 11 1 X 12 5 X X X X X 13 1 X 14 1 X 15 5 X X X 16 3 X X 17 2 X X 18 4 X X 19 1 X 20 4 X X 21 2 X 22 2 X 23 3 X X 24 5 X X X 25 1 26 5 X X X 27 4 X X 28 3 X X 29 2 X Note: In every case, a sound block or note grouping i s considered part of the measure grouping i n which i t begins. 198 As can be seen from Table 9, at no point i n Section A does sound-block density exceed that determined by the length of the segment although i n a number of places the complete range of possible densities i s not used i n i t s e n t i r e t y . In the f i r s t four measure groupings the sound-block density of 1 i s not employed and i t i s not u n t i l the introduction of the solo v i o l i n that a note i s heard without simultaneous d u p l i -cation. In segments 5 through 13, which represent what might be considered a modified retrograde of the previous four measure-groupings, the complete range of possible densities i s used and there are no i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . Segment 15 marks the be-ginning of a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n density employment i n that from t h i s point u n t i l the end of the section only sound-blocks with the densities of either 5, 2 or 1 are used. The previous-l y mentioned rule regarding possible sound-block densities i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t however i t now applies only to three rather than f i v e d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s . Throughout section A, most measure-groupings have contained sound-blocks of the greatest allowable density but three segments, 21, 22 and 29, contain only single notes while according to the system established, sound-blocks with a density of two voices were to be expected. Another i r r e g u l a r i t y i n t h i s technique of determining sound-block densities occurs i n segment 25 when i n fact no notes commence at a l l . Although the basic concept of r e l a t i n g 199 the organization of the measure-groupings to that of the density of sound-blocks i s prominent throughout, the ir r e g u -l a r i t i e s which occur i n the second h a l f of section A are reminiscent of Nono's modus operandi i n the organization of e a r l i e r works where a system of determinants i s established and then eventually abandoned. A further example of t h i s can be seen i n examining the frequency of employment of each of the various densities within each separate measure-grouping. While i n many segments the d i s t r i b u t i o n of densities i s r e l a t i v e l y even, i n ce r t a i n measure-groupings, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n which the solo v i o l i n i s present, the single note appears a .great many-more times than the sound-blocks with densities ranging from 2 to 5. Before discussing further organization of the sound-blocks of section A, i t should be pointed out how these multiple-voice, note-complexes are orchestrated. V a r i a n t i i s scored for solo v i o l i n , 10 v i o l i n s , 8 v i o l a s , 8 c e l l o s , 6 contrabasses, 3 flut e s and 3 B - f l a t c l a r i n e t s and while the st r i n g instruments of the orchestra are employed throughout section A, the woodwinds are found only i n segments i n which the solo v i o l i n i s present. There are two d i f f e r e n t basic methods of orchestrating the sound-blocks and the p r i n c i p a l determining factor for the method to be employed i s whether or not the solo v i o l i n i s present. The following example i l l u s t r a t e s these two methods. 200 201 In Example 2 (a) i t can be seen how the sound-blocks are orchestrated i n measure-groupings where only the orchestra i s employed. Within each setting of these note complexes, the instrumentation i s homogeneous. This procedure i s followed s t r i c t l y throughout as there i s not one sound-block i n an orchestra-only segment i n which two d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t r u -ments are employed. Up to t h i s point i n the discussion of sound-block densities within measure-groupings just involving orchestra, only the density content of each segment has been examined. However, i t should he- pointed out that the densities are ordered with respect to t h e i r p o s i t i o n within the segment and t h i s organization w i l l be studied l a t e r i n t h i s chapter i n conjunction with the examination of the parameter of p i t c h . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the other technique of sound-block orchestration can be found i n Example 2 (b) where t h i s method i s employed i n setting every note-complex which appears i n segments where the solo v i o l i n i s present. These sound-blocks r e s u l t from the duplication i n the orchestra accompaniment of certain selected notes taken from the solo v i o l i n l i n e . Obvi-ously then, the solo v i o l i n i s a constant voice i n these note-complexes and the remaining parts are provided by cert a i n s t r i n g instruments of the orchestra. In a similar manner to the previous method discussed, these remaining voices are always 202 set w i t h the same type of instrument within' each sound b l o c k . I t should a l s o be pointed out t h a t i n every case the s t r i n g instruments of the o r c h e s t r a chosen to be a p a r t of the note complex a l l employ harmonics i n . d u p l i c a t i n g the same note i n the s o l o v i o l i n presents normally. This method of sound-block o r c h e s t r a t i o n i s somewhat reminiscent of the note d u p l i c a t i o n s i n the l i n e s of p o l y -t i m b r a l c o n t i n u i t y as found i n the previous works. Not every note of the s o l o v i o l i n l i n e i s d u p l i c a t e d i n the o r c h e s t r a , r a t h e r , o n l y c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d notes are employed i n conjunct-i o n w i t h the m u l t i p l e - v o i c e sound-block technique. From an examination of the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , one can more e a s i l y determine how f r e q u e n t l y these multiple-note-complexes appear. 203 TABLE 10 FREQUENCY OF MULTIPLE-VOICE SOUND-BLOCKS IN MEASURE-GROUPINGS INVOLVING BOTH SOLO VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI Solo V i o l i n Number of Total Number and Orchestra Multiple-Voice of Solo V i o l i n Measure Grouping Length Sound-Blocks Notes 5 1 0. 2 6 2 6 10 7 1 0 2 8 3 10 14 9 1 0 2 10 4 9 16 11 1 0 3 12 5 12 14 13 1 0 1 14 1 0 4 15 5 5 11 18 4 6 18 19 1 0 2 21 2 0 10 22 2 0 7 23 3 4 15 As can be seen from Table 10, there are only seven measure groupings involving solo v i o l i n and orchestra i n which multiple voice sound blocks appear and they are segments 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18 and 23. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these note complexes i n r e l a t i o n to the solo v i o l i n l i n e of the above segments, i s presented i n Figure 11. 204 Figure 11.— Arrangement of Multiple-Voice Sound-Blocks i n Measure-Groupings Involving Both Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra i n Section A of Va r i a n t i Measure Grouping 6 Solo V i o l i n Pitches Sound Block Densities F# B D# E F 1 1 2 Measure Grouping 8 Solo V i o l i n Pitches F# B A Sound Block Densities 2 3 2 Measure Grouping 10 Solo V i o l i n F# D G# C# E b A b F C Pitches Sound Block . 3 4 4 3 . 1 1 1 1 Densities \ C# D E b A b C B b E 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 D 3 E 4 C 4 E b F C# B 1 1 B b 1 Measure Grouping 12 Solo V i o l i n Pitches B Sound Block Densities 2 Measure Grouping 15 Solo V i o l i n Pitches Sound Block Densities B b E b G# C# D D 2 1 1 1 5 5 Measure Grouping 18 Solo V i o l i n C B G# G B b A Pitches Sound Block 1 Densities 2 L 1 Jt= 1 C# D E b A F# B G# F F# B b A 1 J 1 J 2 L 2 L. 2 —i 1 Measure Grouping 23 Solo V i o l i n A F C B B b A b F# E b A G# G B b E b A b G Pitches Sound Block 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Densities 1 ' i ' ' 1 1 j f ' » I I 205 Although a l l of the palindrome relationships suggested i n Figure 11 may not be e n t i r e l y v a l i d , there does seem to be a conscious attempt by Nono to employ t h i s type of symmetrical arrangement i n ordering the appearance of the sound-block den-s i t i e s . Possibly the most convincing i l l u s t r a t i o n of the existence of palindrome ordering can be seen i n measure-group-ing 12, that i s measures 28 to 32, which i s presented i n the following example. 206 207 208 In spite of the fact that the numerous single notes i n the orchestra tend to conceal t h i s ordering from the l i s t e n e r , there can be l i t t l e doubt that the concept of the palindrome plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r ole i n the organization of densities i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure grouping. The organizational system for the parameter of duration i n section A i s linked very c l o s e l y to the sound-block techni-que. There are two fundamental components e s s e n t i a l to t h i s method of ordering: basic, duration and duration multiple. For the sake of c l a r i t y i n presentation, the employment of the factor of basic duration w i l l be examined i n i t i a l l y before the element of duration.multiple i s discussed. In section A there are f i v e d i f f e r e n t possible d i v i s -ions of the unit beat, that i s , by 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, which results i n the f i v e basic durations of 1, 1, 1, 1 and 1. 3 4 5 6 7 Since polytimbral continuity i s not u t i l i z e d i n V a r i a n t i , the basic duration to be employed for a s p e c i f i c note can no longer be determined obviously by the polytimbral l i n e . I t i s now determined i n accordance with a system of basic duration ordering which can be more c l e a r l y understood through studying the following example. 209 210 211 As can be seen i n Example 4 which presents the f i r s t measure grouping of section A, the basic duration content within each of the four d i f f e r e n t multiple-voice sound-blocks i s s t r i c t l y organized. The five-voice note-complexes employ each of the f i v e d i f f e r e n t basic durations while with each successively less dense sound block, the largest of the remaining basic durations i s omitted which results i n the following pattern: 5 voices 1 7 1 6 1 15 2 voices - T-7, 7 1 4 voices 1 3 voices 6 6 1 1 5 5 1 1 4 L.4 1 3 The basic duration content of every sound-block i n the f i r s t four measure-groupings complies with t h i s ordering and also for the most part the actual arrangement i n the score coincides with that presented above i n that, as a general rule, within a sound-block the smaller the basic duration of a note the higher that note appears on the page. Now that the multiple voice note-complexes with orches-tra only have been studied, the basic duration content of mulltiple-voice sound-blocks involving the solo v i o l i n should 212 be examined. For approximately the f i r s t h a l f of s e c t i o n A the b a s i c d u r a t i o n content of these sound-blocks i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of the o r c h e s t r a - o n l y note-complexes although the arrangement of the b a s i c durations w i t h i n these sound-blocks d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y . Although not i n every case, Nono general-l y gives the so l o v i o l i n the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e b a s i c d u r a t i o n and the remaining b a s i c durations are employed i n the orches-t r a i n a manner which i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n the orches-t r a - o n l y sound-blocks. This r e s u l t s i n the f o l l o w i n g arrange-ment: Solo V i o l i n 5 voices Orchestra 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 .4 4 voices 3 voices 2 v o i c e s A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be found i n the f o l l o w i n g example. 213 214 The i r r e g u l a r i t y of basic duration content i n the two-voice sound-block of Example 5 i s but one of a number of s i m i l a r such instances i n section A r e s u l t i n g from a problem with regard to the employment of the solo v i o l i n . In order to achieve a continuity i n the solo v i o l i n l i n e , many notes of varying basic duration and duration multiple are presented i n succession without interruption and as a re s u l t many times the notation of the correct basic duration i s not possible •withim the accepted t r a d i t i o n a l notation system.. An excel-lent i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be seen i n Example 5 where i n order to accommodate the ordering of the three-voice note-complex, the solo v i o l i n i n the preceding two-voice sound-block must employ the basic duration ofl.l rather than the 5 normal 1, 6 Due to the organizational procedure i n section A that the length of a measure-grouping determines i n part the density of the sound-blocks contained within the segment and, in turn, the p r i n c i p l e that t h i s density determines the basic duration content, there rather obviously exists the r e l a t i o n -ship that the length of a measure-grouping determines what the basic duration content of that s p e c i f i c segment i s going to be. For instance, i n a segment four measures i n length, only sound-blocks with densities of from 1 to 4 voices are employed and as 215 a r e s u l t only basic durations 1 through 1. are found. In 4 7 contrast to the s p e c i f i c ordering of basic duration content within multiple-voice sound-blocks, the single notes employ a va r i e t y of basic durations. For approximately the f i r s t h a l f of section A the boundaries of basic duration content for each measure-grouping established through the use of multiple voice sound-blocks are followed for the most part by the single notes of the segment as w e l l . Therefore i n a four measure segment, the single notes also employ only basic durations ranging from 1 to 1.. While there i s t h i s 4 7 r e s t r i c t i o n on the basic durations used by single notes i n a measure-grouping, the ordering i n which these basic durations appear i s not regulated but rather they are employed f r e e l y . The following table presents the basic duration con-tent of every measure-grouping i n section A. 216 TABLE 11 EMPLOYMENT OF BASIC DURATIONS IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI M u l t i p l e V o i c e Sound B l o c k s S i n g l e Notes Measure Grouping Length 5 4 3 2 S o l o - V i o l i n O r c h e s t r a 1 5 1-1-1-1-1 1-1-1-1 1-i-I 1-1 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 765 76 2 4 I-I-I-I I-I-I I-I 7 6 5 4 765 76 3 3 I-i-I I-I 7 6 5 7 6 4 2 1-1 7 6 5* 1 1 7 6* 2 1-1 I 1 / 1 7 6 7 7 6 7* 1 !» 1 7 6 8* 3 1-1-1 1-1 1' 1 1' 1' I 7 6 5 7 6 7 6 7 6 5 9* 1 1 5 10* 4 1 -1 -1-1 1 -1 -1 1-1 1' 1 1' 1' 1 ' 1 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 7 6 7 5 7 6 5 4 11* 1 I 7 12* 5 I- i - i - i - i 1 -1 -1-1 1-1-1 I-I 1 1 ' 1' 1 ' 1 ' 1 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 7 6 7 7 6 5 4 3 13* . 1 I 7 14* 1 1 7 .15* 5 1-1-1-1-1 1-1 1» 1/ 1 1» 1» 1» I» 1 7 6 5 4 3 75 7 6 5 7 6 5 4 3 16 3 I-I 1 7 5 6 17 2 I-I I 7 5 6 18* 4 1-1, 1-1 I, 1 1, 1, 1, 1 7 5 6 4 7 6 7 6 5 4 19* 1 1 7 20 4 1-1, 1-1 1 7 5 6 4 6 21* 2 1 , 1 1, 1 7 6 7 6 22* 2 1 . 7 217 Multiple Voice Sound Blocks Single Notes Measure Grouping Length 5 4 3 2 Solo-Violin Orchestra 23* 3 24 25 1-1. 1-1 I< I' I I. I' I 7 6 7 5 7 6 5 7 6 5 1-1-1-1-i I-I. 1-1 7 6 5 4 3 6 1 5 6 4 6 26 5 I-i-1-1-1 1-1. I-I i 7 6 5 4 3 7 5 6 4 6 27 28 29 1-1. I-I •Measure Grouping which contains Solo-Violin. 1 7 5 6 4 6 1-1 i 7 5 6 1 I 6 6 Aside from the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of basic duration i n the solo v i o l i n l i n e mentioned i n conjunction with Example 5, the basic duration content of the f i r s t fourteen measure groupings of section A complies with the previously discussed p r i n c i p l e s of ordering. However, at segment 15, there i s a fundamental change i n t h i s system of organization which, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , coincides with the a l t e r a t i o n i n the ordering of sound-block densities as seen i n Table 9. In t h i s f i f t e e n t h measure-grouping, the segment i n which the r e s t r i c t i o n of sound-blocks to those with densities of 5, 2 and 1 begins, the basic dura-ti o n content of two-voice note-complexes i s changed from 1,-1, 7 6 to 1-1. This modification i s now i n e f f e c t for the remainder 7 5 of the section. Also i n segments 18, 20, 24, 26 and 27, a new 218 p a i r i n g J.-1 i s employed i n addition. The only exception to 6 4 t h i s new method of ordering can be found i n segment 23, the f i r s t measure of which can be seen i n the following example, Example 6. Nono, V a r i a n t i , measure 58. 219 In measure 58, Nono b r i e f l y reverts back to the o r i g i n a l basic durations of _1 and 1, however t h i s i s only an i s o l a t e d 7 6 instance as the _1-_1 combination returns and i s prominent 7 5 throughout the rest of the section. In spite of the new basic duration content of the two-voice sound-blocks, the number of d i f f e r e n t basic dura-tions employed within each measure-grouping of the second h a l f of section A i s i n the majority of cases equivalent to the length i n measures of the s p e c i f i c segment involved. The only exceptions to t h i s rule are found i n segments 17, 22, 25 and 29. The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of basic duration i n the solo v i o l i n found i n the f i r s t h a l f of the section appear i n the second h a l f as well. Another i n t e r e s t i n g although not frequent type of discrepancy i n basic duration content can be seen i n segment 16 which i s presented i n Example 7. 221 Throughout t h i s three measure segment, the arrangement of 1-1 for the two voice sound-blocks and _1 for the single notes 7 5 6 i s followed s t r i c t l y . There i s however one i r r e g u l a r i t y and i t can be found i n measure 40 where the second contrabass presents one note having the basic duration of 1_. This type 5 of i r r e g u l a r i t y , a s l i g h t deviation from the established organizational system, has by now become an accepted character-i s t i c of Nono's method of parametric organization. As mentioned e a r l i e r , each note i n section A can be expressed as the r e s u l t of one of the f i v e basic durations mul t i p l i e d by a duration multiple. The duration multiples range from 1 to 12 and t h e i r employment i n conjunction with the basic durations i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the next example. 222 Example 8. Nono, Va r i a n t i , measures 1-6. 223 -224 Only one duration multiple i s u t i l i z e d within any single s p e c i f i c sound block throughout the section. This practice c l e a r l y refers back to the duplicated notes of the polytimbral l i n e s where the same duration multiple was employed. The actual note durations of the sound-blocks are d i f f e r e n t now due to the fact that various basic durations are used. This was not the case with polytimbral continuity. As can be observed from studying Example 8, there i s not a s t r i c t ordering of duration multiples but rather the multiples are d i s t r i b u t e d more or less evenly and f r e e l y throughout the measure-grouping here and throughout the remain-der of section A. Although multiple appearance within the measure-groupings i s not systematically organized, a d i s t i n c t ordering of duration multiple content of these segments can be observed i n examining the following table. 225 TABLE 12 DURATION MULTIPLES EMPLOYED WITHIN MEASURE GROUPINGS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI Measure Grouping Length Duration Multiples Employed 1 5 1 to 11 2 4 1 to 10 3 3 1 to 9 4 2 1,2,3,4,6,7 5 1 4,11 6 2 .1 to 7 7 1 10 8 3 1 to 9 9 1 1/ 8 10 4 1 to 10 11 1 3,5,9 12 5 1 to 12 13 1 10 14 1 1,4,5,11 15 5 1 to 12 16 3 1 to 9 17 2 1 to 7, 18 4 1 to 10 19 1 5,12 20 4 1 to 9 21 2 1 to 6 22 2 ..•,3,6,7,8111 23 3 1 to 9 24 5 1 to 12 25 1 n i l 26 5 1 to 12 27 4 1 to 10 28 3 1 to 9 29 2 2,3,4,7 Although numerous inconsistencies exist, there i s , without a doubt, s u f f i c i e n t evidence i n Table 12 to support the statement that the length of a measure-grouping determines i n part the multiple content employed within. While the 226 duration multiple content of the single measure segments i s constantly changing, the range of multiples found i n segments of from two to f i v e measures i n length i s systematic-a l l y regulated; the longer the segment, the greater the number of d i f f e r e n t multiples possible. The f i r s t four measure-groupings of the composition e s t a b l i s h the pattern of multi-ples used i n r e l a t i o n to the length of the segments, which i s as follows: TABLE 13 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF SEGMENT AND RANGE OF DURATION MULTIPLES IN SECTION A OF VARIANTI Length of Segment Range of Multiples 5 1 to 11 4 1 to 10 3 1 to 9 2 1 to 7 This scheme i s altered s l i g h t l y i n measure-grouping 12 at which point the multiple 12 f i r s t appears and as a r e s u l t the range 1 to 11 i s obviously increased to 1 to 12 which becomes the accepted content for each: of the remaining segments of f i v e measures i n length. The r e l a t i o n s h i p presented i n Table 13, taking into consideration the above modification, 227 i s followed generally throughout section A, although i n several segments there are ce r t a i n omissions. In measure-groupings 4, 20 and 21 the multiples 5, 9 and 7 respectively are missing while i n segment 29, three expected multiples 1, 5 and 6 are not presented. The only other i r r e g u l a r i t y appears i n measure-grouping 22 which i s the segment that has been added to d i s t o r t the previously mentioned palindrome of measure-grouping lengths. multiples can be found i n examining t h e i r presence with respect to the sound-blocks of various d e n s i t i e s . The follow-ing table presents the multiple content of the f i r s t four segments as used by the d i f f e r e n t multiple-voice note-complexes . Another factor governing the employment of duration TABLE 14 RELATIONSHIP OF SOUND-BLOCK DENSITY TO DURATION MULTIPLE EMPLOYMENT IN THE FIRST FOUR MEASURE-GROUPINGS OF VARIANTI Density of Sound Block Multiples Employed 5 1, 2, 3,4, 5,6,7,8,10,11 4 1,2,4,5,6,7,9,10 3 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 2 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 228 As can be seen above, the range of duration multiples employed by the various sound blocks i s i d e n t i c a l to that found i n Table 13. Therefore i t can be said that by means of the same numeri-c a l relationship, sound-block density and measure-grouping length both are determining factors i n the employment of duration multiples. The number series, 1-2-3-4-5 gains more significance when, i n studying the tempo indications of section A of V a r i a n t i , i t i s discovered that f i v e basic markings, 104, 80, 76, 60 and 52 are employed. Transitions between these tempo le v e l s are made possible through the use of accelerandi and r a l l e n t a n d i and the frequent tempo changes i n t h i s section greatly increase the already d i f f i c u l t task of performing the score. As each of these tempo indications i s i n common use today, there appears to be l i t t l e s ignificance i n Nono's de-c i s i o n to employ s p e c i f i c a l l y these f i v e numbers, however, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that each of these terms i s a multiple of 4 and also that the difference between each of these terms can be reduced to the number series, 6, 1, 4, 2 respectively. Although an o v e r a l l system of tempo organization i s not apparent,, " i n c e r t a i n segments a re l a t i o n s h i p between sound block density and tempo presentation i s suggested. As can be seen i n Example 1, the f i r s t measure-groupings of V a r i a n t i begins at the tempo of quarter note = ca.80 which i s i n c i d e n t a l l y the slowest point 229 i n the segment. An increase then i n note-complex density-i s accompanied by an accelerando which leads to the marking of quarter note = ca.104 and more five-voice sound-blocks. This concept of r e l a t i n g the employment of sound-block den-s i t y to that of tempo i n d i c a t i o n so that the greater the density of the note-complexes being used at any given time the faster the tempo marking, i s also hinted at i n several other segments. However these are r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d examples and as a r e s u l t t h e i r importance i s s l i g h t when considering tempo employment of the entire section. In examining the compositions e a r l i e r i n t h i s study i t was discovered that at no point i n these works does Nono employ the " c l a s s i c " Viennese twelve tone system and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case with V a r i a n t i . The parameter of p i t c h i n section A i s not organized i n a highly sophisticated manner and, as a matter of fact, i t appears as though Nono has employ-ed the tone row of C, C-sha.rp, B, D, B - f l a t , E - f l a t , A, E, A - f l a t , F, G, F-sharp i n such a manner as again pr i m a r i l y to ensure a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of the pitches. The technique of p i t c h organization varies s l i g h t l y form segments involving just orchestra to those containing both orchestra and solo v i o l i n and as a r e s u l t these two methods w i l l be treated separately. In measure-groupings where only the orchestra i s present, the tone row i s generally stated completely, although 230 not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w i n g the b a s i c o r d e r i n g of the s e r i e s . A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be found i n examining the f i r s t measure-grouping of the composition which i s presented i n the next example. 231 Example 9. Nono, Var i a n t i , measures 1-6. 233 This method of unordered presentation i s continued throughout the orchestral segments. Although there are a few p i t c h omissions i n series statements of certain measure-groupings, these do not occur frequently enough to warrant special attention as the outline and concept of the row i s s t i l l evident. While discussing the p i t c h ordering of the orchestral segments, i t should be mentioned that the presentation of pi t c h series i n these measure-groupings determines to a certain extent the location of s p e c i f i c sound-block densitie within the segments involved. The f i r s t four measure-group-ings of section A present eight complete row statements followed by the f i r s t eight notes of a ninth series. The following table presents the sound-block density for each of these pitches. TABLE 15 RELATIONSHIP OF PITCH TO SOUND-BLOCK DENSITY IN ORCHESTRAL SEGMENTS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI s Pi t c h Sound--Block Densities Found i n Row S number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 5 2 5 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 5 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 5 2 5 3 4 3 2 3 2 4 5 2 5 2 4 3 3 3 2 5 5 3 5 2 4 4 3 3 2 6 4 3 5 2 4 4 3 3 2 7 4 3 5 2 3 4 3 2 2 8 4 4 5 3 3 4 3 2 2 9 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 10 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 2 11 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 2 12 3 5 4 4 2 2 2 2 234 I t appears obvious that Nono, i n determining the density of a s p e c i f i c row complex, followed c l o s e l y the ordering of pitches as they apply to the tone row. There i s at a l l times through-out these four segments a step by step movement from one density l e v e l to another and i f the successive repetitions of densities are reduced, the following scheme of l e v e l s r e s u l t s : Density 5 4 5 2 f~l 5 4 3 2 i 4 3 2 3 4 i 2 3 2 3 2 l e v e l Number of 5 4 3 4 3 4 9 4 3 4 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 6 4 5 14 Successive * ' Presentations As has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above diagram the strucutre of the series of density l e v e l s i s based on f i v e successive palindromes consisting of 5, 4, 4, 3 and 3 densities respect-ively... I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the actual numbers chosen by Nono for density l e v e l repetitions; with only one exception, the density of three i s presented three, or a multiple thereof, times i n succession and s i m i l a r l y the densities of two and four are presented four, or a multiple thereof, times i n a row. To a l i m i t e d extent, the ordering of repetitions i s also based on palindrome figures however the numerous i r r e g u l a r i t i e s reduce the significance of t h i s . In measure-groupings which contain solo v i o l i n , p i t c h organization i s centered around the solo l i n e . This can be seen through studying Example 10 which}-presents the solo v i o l i n 235 part of segment 18, that i s , measure 45 to 48. Example 10. Nono, V a r i a n t i , measures 45 to 48. Although the parameter of p i t c h i n t h i s l i n e i s not s t r i c t l y organized, there are cert a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s put on p i t c h content. While s p e c i f i c pitches are not systematically determined, the solo v i o l i n part i s divided i n t o a b s t r a c t l y defined small groups of from one to f i v e notes i n length which represent incomplete row statements. In Example 10, f i v e p i t c h groups or more correctly, series fragments, are presented, containing 4, 2, 5, 4 and 3 notes respectively. While c e r t a i n pitches which were omitted from the incomplete solo v i o l i n row state-ments are presented i n a seemingly a r b i t r a r y fashion i n the orchestra part, by no means can i t be said that there are complete and well defined row statements i n segments involving solo v i o l i n , as i s the case i n the measure groupings containing only orchestra. However, i n every solo v i o l i n segment, the technique of presenting incomplete row fragments of from one 236 to f i v e notes i n length i s c l e a r l y evident. While there i s a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n , there does not appear to be any s p e c i f i c , systematic ordering of the lengths of these fragments. The application of the parameter of regis t e r i n section A, though not ordered i n a complex manner, i s related somewhat to sound-block density i n that the vari e t y of registers pos-s i b l e to be employed by a note-complex i s determined i n part by the density of that s p e c i f i c sound complex. TABLE 16 RANGE OF REGISTERS EMPLOYED BY SOUND-BLOCKS IN THE FIRST FOUR SEGMENTS OF VARIANTI Sound Block Density Highest Note Employed Lowest Note Employed 12 i i m Range 3 octaves & dim. 7th 4 octaves 4 octaves & Perfect 4th 5 octaves & Major 2nd It can be seen that the less dense the sound-block, the larger the r e g i s t r a l range possible and also the less dense the note-complex, the lower the range of the notes possible. Although t h i s general procedure for c o n t r o l l i n g the re g i s t e r content i s of l i t t l e significance i n i t s e l f i n arstudy of parametric organization, i t does i l l u s t r a t e i f only s l i g h t l y further the importance of the sound-block density ordering and i t s role i n determining i n part the employment of other parameters. By th i s point i n the examination of section A, i t should be quite c l e a r that the underlying p r i n c i p l e of para-metric organization here i s not one of systematic ordering but rather of defining the content or range of parameter employment within either the in d i v i d u a l sound-block or measure-grouping or i n ce r t a i n cases both and then proceeding within these bounds. This has generally been the rule with parameters discussed up to t h i s point and i t i s d e f i n i t e l y the procedure followed with respect to the parameter of dynamics. The range of possible employable dynamic le v e l s i s defined for both sound-blocks and measure-groupings. In section A, six basic dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p, mp, mf, f and f f f , are found and, through the use of crescendi and decrescendi, another eighteen single event markings are created. As can be seen i n Example 1, each single note of a sound-block has i t s own s p e c i f i c dynamic marking which may or may not be the same as the other notes of that p a r t i c u l a r note complex. Although there are many d i f f e r e n t combinations of dynamics within the various sound-blocks i t should be r e a l i z e d that 238 certai n note-complexes do have i d e n t i c a l markings. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be found i n the f i r s t measure of the composition where the note-complexes on B - f l a t and D both have the dynamics • f r —T^*/ f f mp, f, mf and fff*^a»»f. While sound-blocks with the same markings can be found through-out the section, no o v e r a l l system of ordering i n t h e i r place-ment i s apparent. Through an examination of the f i r s t four segments of the composition, i t can be determined that, considering the six basic dynamic l e v e l s , the content of possible dynamics for each of the four sound-block densities i s s p e c i f i c a l l y defined. The ranges of dynamics employed i n these note-complexes are found i n the following chart. 5 voice sound blocks f f f f mf mp P 4 voice sound blocks mf mp 3 voice sound p blocks PPP mf mp ppp 2 voice sound blocks mp P PPP I t should be stressed that the above chart presents ranges of dynamics that are used with, i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s within the ranges being va r i a b l e . 239 As has already been stated, the range of basic dynamic le v e l s for use within s p e c i f i c measure-groupings also defined and t h i s can be determined through examining the dynamics employed i n each segment of the section. TABLE 17 DYNAMIC LEVELS EMPLOYED WITHIN MEASURE-GROUPINGS OF SECTION A OF VARIANTI Measure Grouping Length PPP p mp mf f f f f 1 5 X X x:,„. X X X 2 . 4 X X X X X 3 3 X X X X 4 2 X X X 5 1 X 6 2 X X X 7 1 X X 8 3 X X X X 9 1 X 10 4 X X X X X 11 1 12 5 X X x:; X X 13 1 14 1 X X .  15 5 X X X X X X 16 3 X X X X 17 2 X ix X 18 4 X X X X X 19 1 X X 20 4 X X X X X 21 2 X X X 22 2 X X 23 3 X X X X 24 5 X X X X X X 25 1 26 5 X X X X X X 27 4 X X X X X 28 3 X X X X 29 2 X X 240 While the segments one measure i n length have a constantly varying content of dynamic l e v e l s , t h i s i s not the case with the measure-groupings of from two to f i v e measures i n length. With the exception of measure-grouping 22 where an mf i s present, these multiple measure segments employ basic dynamic le v e l s the ranges of which are very si m i l a r to those of the sound-blocks. measure segments f f f f mf mp P PPP 4 measure segments mf mp PPP measure segments mf mp PPP measure segments mp PPP In most measure-groupings, a l l dynamics within these ranges are used. As mentioned already, there are eighteen'variants of the six basic dynamic le v e l s and they are ppp<">»-, P«< "> , mp<^> , mf <*>• , ppp <C P/ P">PPP/ PPP-<mp, mp ;> ppp, ppp < mf, mf > ppp, p <C mf/ mf >• p, p <*Tmp,. mp p, mf «<C f, f !>mf, f < f f f and fff>»- f. A couple of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s occur, however i t i s possible to j u s t i f y them as being the r e s u l t of p r i n t i n g errors. A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s can be seen i n segment 1 where i n measure 5, v i o l a 7 has a single event 241 marking of, mf ppp which undoubtedly should be mf ppp. These eighteen variants are employed following the l i m i t a -tions established by the ranges of the basic dynamic l e v e l s . For example, i n a segment two measures i n lenght, only dynamic variants u t i l i z i n g the l e v e l s mp, p or ppp could be employed. In addition to the means discussed already, the sound-blocks of section A can also be distinguished one from another through t h e i r employment of the performance techniques of am Steg, flautato and d i r e c t i o n of bow stroke. These variables, while not 1: being t o t a l l y organized, exhibit a c e r t a i n vague relati o n s h i p between t h e i r employment and that of the dynamics. In the study of the organization of dynamic leve l s i t was pointed out that c e r t a i n note-complexes throughout section A have i d e n t i c a l dynamic markings. In the f i r s t four measure groupings, there are 104 sound-blocks and of t h i s t o t a l , 74 i n d i v i d u a l note-complexes have at one point t h e i r exact dynamic ordering duplicated i n another block. The following example presents two of these 74 sound-blocks. 242 243 The two sound-blocks outlined i n the above example both have the dynamic pattern of ppp , mp^> ppp, p •<> and ppp <mp.. However, t h i s i s not the only variable ordering they have i n common since the top note i n both sound-blocks i s played flautato while the remaining tones are performed normally. Throughout section A, Nono presents sound-blocks with either none, one or two notes played flautato and the po s i t i o n of these flautato tones are frequently varied. For example, i n sound-blocks containing three notes, the following arrangement of performance indications are possible: -p n. n. f l . n. f l . n. n. n. f l . f l . n. f l . n. f l . n. _ There are s i m i l a r arrangements of flautato and normal with sound-blocks of other d e n s i t i e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t point i n the employement of these arrangements i s that with every duplication of dynamic ordering of the previously mentioned 74 sound-blocks, the exact same flautato-normal ordering i s also present. The two note-complexes of Example 11 also have the same V ordering of bowing indications which i s . In spite of the V fact that there i s an extremely great var i e t y of combinations possible, i n most cases where the dynamic ordering of two 244 sound-blocks i s i d e n t i c a l , the ordering of bowing indications i s likewise the same. The performance i n d i c a t i o n of am Steg i s employed consistently throughout a note-complex and as a r e s u l t only two p o s s i b i l i t i e s are available, either the complete sound-block i s played am Steg or normal. The two note-complexes of Example 11 are both performed without am Steg and i n many cases, the dynamic duplications of the other 72 sound-blocks are s i m i l a r l y accompanied by a duplication of either am Steg or normal performance markings. There can be no doubt that the coinciding duplication of dynamics with the performance indications of flautato, am Steg and bowing were intended by Nono and although t h i s i s not a structured organizational sys-tem, i t does show to a c e r t a i n extent an e f f o r t to re l a t e one to another the employment of these d i f f e r e n t variables. In reviewing the parametric organization of section A, there can be no doubt that the fundamental technique u t i l i z e d i s one of defining the content or range of parameter employ-ment within either the i n d i v i d u a l sound-block or measure-grouping or both. The number series 1-2-3-4-5 plays an impor-tant role i n the construction of the series of measure-groupings and i t i s the length of these segments which i s a determining element of t h e i r sound-block density. The s t r u c t u r a l significance of these two factors, sound-block density and measure-grouping 245 length, i s great. The former determines i n part the basic duration, duration multiple, r e g i s t e r and dynamic l e v e l content of the i n d i v i d u a l sound-blocks while the l a t t e r likewise determines i n part the basic duration, duration multiple, r e g i s t e r and dynamic l e v e l content for the i n d i v i d u a l measure-groupings. Relationships of organization also e x i s t between tempo and sound-block density as well as.between sound-block density and p i t c h . Similar to the other compositions examined i n t h i s study, the palindrome frequently appears i n the parametric organization of section A of V a r i a n t i . Palindrome structures can be seen i n the ordering of measure-grouping lengths, the arrangement,of multiple-voice sound-blocks i n the solo v i o l i n segments as well as i n the series of sound-block density l e v e l s with respect to the p i t c h row. In concluding t h i s discussion of section A, i t must be emphasized that, as expec-ted, there are not any systems of organization s t r i c t l y employ-ed here i n a consistent manner since i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n every instance eventually appear. Section B With the commencement of section B at measure 81, a completely new system of parametric organization i s i n t r o -duced. While throughout V a r i a n t i both number series 1 to 5 246 and 1 to 12 are u t i l i z e d i n structuring the parameters, the former i s more s i g n i f i c a n t i n section A while the l a t t e r i s most prominent i n section B, as w i l l be discovered i n the analysis to follow. Although the second section i s divided into smaller segments, the measure-groupings are not consistently ordered i n conjunction with the series 1-2-3-4-5 as was the case i n section A. The number sequence 5, 1, 4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 21, 15, 1, 4, 3, 6 represents the length of the successive measure-groupings of t h i s section and as can be seen there are three segments which are longer than the previously accepted maxi-mum duration. I t i s obvious that Nono i s not concerned here about a systematic and symmetrical ordering of lengths as has been the procedure up to t h i s point i n the composition. In contrast to section A where segment length was a deter-mining factor i n the organization of other parameters, i n section B t h i s i s no longer the case. In section B, the sound-block densities vary, contain-ing from 1 to 12 p i t c h c e l l s i n number. There are two d i s -t i n c t types of note-complexes presented: one, a horizontal statement by the solo v i o l i n and the other being a r e l a t i v e l y v e r t i c a l presentation by the orchestra. These two types are ordered i n the following manner, with the numbers representing the densities of the various sound-blocks i n the section. 247 S o l o V i o l i n 1 3 5 7. 9 1 1 12 10 8 6 4 2 / / / / / / / '' / / / /• O r c h e s t r a 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 The s y m m e t r y o f t h e s e t w o d e n s i t y s e r i e s i s o b v i o u s a s t h e f i r s t s i x t e r m s o f t h e s o l o v i o l i n , a n i n c r e a s i n g r o w o f o d d i n t e g e r s , a r e i d e n t i c a l t o n u m b e r s 7 t h r o u g h 12 o f t h e e o r -c h e s t r a , a d e c r e a s i n g r o w o f ' e v e n i n t e g e r s , c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e l a s t s i x o f t h e s o l o v i o l i n . T h e r e i s a n o v e r l a p p i n g o f n o t e - c o m p l e x e s i n t h e s c o r e a s t h e o r c h e s t r a l s o u n d - b l o c k s t a r t s f i r s t a n d b e f o r e i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h e s o l o v i o l i n b e g i n s . I n e v e r y c a s e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o r c h e s t r a l b l o c k d e n s i t y 9 , t h e o r c h e s t r a d o e s n o t p r o c e e d w i t h i t s : n o t e - c o m p l e x u n t i l t h e p r e c e d i n g s o l o v i o l i n s o u n d - b l o c k i s c o m p l e t e d . r A s a r e s u l t t h e r e i s a p a i r i n g o f o r c h e s t r a l a n d s o l o v i o l i n n o t e -c o m p l e x e s , w i t h t h e t o t a l d e n s i t y i n e a c h i n s t a n c e a d d i n g u p t o 1 3 p i t c h c e l l s . T h e p a r i n g o f s o u n d - b l o c k s a n d a l s o t h e o r d e r i n g o f n o t e - c o m p l e x d e n s i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r o f p i t c h . I n t h e n e x t e x a m p l e , t h e f i r s t t w o s o u n d - b l o c k s o f s e c t i o n B a r e p r e s e n t e d . 249 250 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the thirteen p i t c h c e l l s of t h i s p a i r i n g i s such that the f i r s t note-complex contains a l l twelve notes of the tone row with the solo v i o l i n sound-block duplicating one of these pitches which happens i n t h i s case to be C natural, note number 1, of the s e r i e s . This practice of having every note of the tone row as well as one duplication contained within a note-complex p a i r i n g i s continued throughout the remainder of the section. In the following diagram the p i t c h ordering for each sound-block p a i r i n g of section B i s presented, with the d u p l i -cated p i t c h being c i r c l e d . Figure 1 2 . — Pi t c h Ordering of Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks of Section B of Varianti Orchestra Pitches i n Solo V i o l i n Pitches i n Pairing Density Order of Appearance Density Order of Appearance A E B b Ab(cT) C# B G D F 1 (c) E b G# A D G (C#)E B b 3 F# C (C# B b 1 12 Eb 2 10 B 3 8 B b 4 6 A 5 4 E b ( 6 2 7 1 • 8 3 A b ( 9 5 ® 10 7 11 9 A 12 11 C ( B ) E b F A b A D 5 G F# C C # ( B ) ( D ) E E b G# 7 F G F# C C # B ( D ) 9 G# F G F# C C# B D (B®) 11 E G# F G F# C C# B D B b 12 E G# F G F# C C# B D B b 10 G F # C C # B D B b ^ b ) A E G F F # C 8 C # B D B b E b A E ^#) F ) D G C C # F # 6 B b E b A E G # ( £ ) E b B B b D C # ^ G ) F # B 4 E G # F ( G ) E A B b C#(F#)F D G# E B 2 G (F# ^ ^ i n d i c a t e s the duplicated p i t c h 252 In examining Figure 12, i t can be found that the solo v i o l i n l i n e i s s t r i c t l y ordered and i t i s t h i s organization which i n turn i s a determing factor i n the d e f i n i t i o n of p i t c h content of the orchestra sound-blocks. Inceachlsolo v i o l i n note-complex, p i t c h movement coincides with the actual step by step progression of the basic row, with tone number 12 being followed i n every case by the f i r s t note of the se r i e s . Possibly the most s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the p i t c h organization of the solo v i o l i n sound-blocks i s that every note-complex i s structured so that the f i n a l p i t c h of each of the twelve successive solo v i o l i n blocks present i n consecutive order the twelve notes of the basic tone row. As can be seen i n Figure 12, a l l of the twelve f i n a l notes, with- the exception of the E-natural i n the solo v i o l i n sound-block of p a i r i n g 8, are also emphasized by being duplicated i n the corresponding orchestral sound-block. Although the pitches of the orchestra note-complexes are not systematically ordered i n appearance with respect to the tone row, the p i t c h content for each sound-block, which i s presented i n the next figure, i s s p e c i f i c a l l y defined. Figure 13.— Pitch Content of Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks i n Section B of Va r i a n t i Orchestra Solo V i o l i n .iring Density C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# Density C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# 1 12 © X X X X X X X X X X X 1 © 2 10 X X X X X X X X X 3 X © 3 8 £x) X X X X X X X 5 X x © 4 6 (x^ X X X X X 7 X X X © 5 4 X X X 9 X X X X © 6 2 11 X X X X X X X X X X u > 7 1 12 X X X X X X X X X X X 8 3 © X X 10 X X X x x (x) X X 9 5 X X X X 8 X X X X X X X © 10 7 X X X X X X 6 X X X X x © 11 9 X X X X X X X © x 4 X X X 12 11 X X X X X X X X X X 2 x @ Qindicates the duplicated p i t c h 254 Each orchestra note-complex contains the tones of the row which are not presented by the corresponding solo v i o l i n sound-block of the pairing, as well as an added p i t c h which i s i n every case the previously mentioned note of duplication. This procedure i s followed s t r i c t l y throughout section B with the only i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , which are to be expected, occuring i n p a i r i n g 10 and 11. In the orchestral block of the tenth p a i r i n g there are two D-naturals whereas one of these should have been a B-natural and s i m i l a r l y i n p a i r i n g eleven, one of the two B-naturals should be a C-natural. In the employment of the parameter of dynamics, twelve d i f f e r e n t dynamic patterns, l i s t e d below, are u t i l i z e d . 1. P > P P P f f f 2. f f f PPP-<P 3. mp ^ » P f 4. f p*<mp 5. mp mf 6. mf mp 7. PPP 8. PPP<<^> 9. P 10. P - < ^ 11. . mp 12. mp««< 255 The most obvious comment that can be made about the above patterns regards the presence of retrograde forms, with number 2 being a retrograde of 1, number 4, of 3 and number 6, of 5. These twelve patterns are developed from the same basic dynamic l e v e l s , ppp, p, mp, mf, ^f and f f f , as were found i n section A. Nono has constructed the f i r s t six multi-ple l e v e l patterns i n such a manner that the dynamic range becomes less with each successive p a i r i n g of patterns, as numbers 1 and 2 vary from ppp to f f f , numbers 3 and 4 move from p to f, while patterns 5 and 6 employ only mp and mf. The diagram on the following page presents the dynamic pattern ordering for each of the sound-blocks i n section B, with the numbers employed corresponding to the above l i s t i n g of patterns. Figure 14.— Dynamic Pattern Ordering of Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks of Section B of Va r i a n t i Dynamic Patterns i n Order Dynamic Patterns i n Order Pairing Density of Appearance i n Orchestra Density of Appearance i n Solo V i o l i n 1 12 4 1 6 3 5 5 4 2 3 5 2 5 1 6 2 10 3 1 1 5 5 3 5 1 3 5 3 3 6 6 3 8 4 4 1 4 6 5 6 - fp 5 5 6 8 12 10 4 6 12 12 10 8 10 8 7 8 12 12 7 9 11 ,'7 to 5 4 12 9 10 8 . 9 12 7 9 12 7 9 12 9 10 crl 6 2 9 10 11 11 7 10 11 11 11 7 10 8 1 2 7 1 9 12 10 3 5 4 W 10 7 8 12 12 10 12 8 3 8 8 12 10 10 10 4 2 2 2 4 f^^e 6 9 5 4 4 4 4 9 8 8 11 11 11 7 10 7 10 10 7 7 8 11 10 2 2 8 6 5 3 12 2 4 fp 11 9 9 7 7 11 11 9 9 5 11 4 11 7 9 7 12 11 4 4 6 5 2 11 5 2 5 3 3 2 5 j>>Ppp 257 In Figure 14 there are f i v e dynamic patterns notated in., black ink which are not part of the established set of twelve and the existence of these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s cannot be explained s a t i s f a c t o r i l y although one may speculate that they could be the r e s u l t of an error i n the p r i n t i n g of the score. In studying t h i s diagram i t becomes obvious that the dynamic patterns by themselves are not ordered i n appearance according to a s p e c i f i c system. S i m i l a r l y , i n considering the dynamic pattern content of the sound-blocks i n r e l a t i o n to tone row, no o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l system can be determined. However, an i s o l a t e d example of a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p i t c h and dynamic pattern content i s evident i n comparing the or-chestral sound-blocks of pairings 1 and 12. Figure 15. —Dynamic Comparison With Respect to Pitch, of Orchestral Sound-Blocks of Pairings, 1 and.M2 of Section B of V a r i a n t i Pairing Density C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# 1 12 4 2 3 2 5 4 6 3 5 5 5 1 12 11 4 2 3 2 5 4 6 3 5 5 .11 In comparing these two note-complexes p i t c h for p i t c h , i t can be seen that with only one exception the dynamic pattern content is:'.identical. This connection between dynamic pattern and p i t c h appears even a l i t t l e more important when i t i s 258 discovered that these dynamic^patterns also are those most frequently employed by the respective pitches of the remaining ten orchestra sound-blocks. Unfortunately Nono does not extend any further t h i s p i t c h to dynamic rela t i o n s h i p and as a r e s u l t t h i s i s not of extreme significance s t r u c t u r a l l y when considering the organization of the entire section. Throughout section B there are six performance i n d i -cations for the s t r i n g players which are employed consistently and they are c o l legno, leqno battuto, p i z z i c a t o , arco, am Steg, and of course normal. These performance indications are combined i n various ways to produce twelve d i f f e r e n t patterns which are l i s t e d below. 1. arco p i z z i c a t o 2. pi z z i c a t o arco 3. am Steg arco am Steq p i z z i c a t o 4. am Steq p i z z i c a t o am Steg arco 5. co l legno legno battuto 6 . legno battuto c o l leqno 7 . am Steg c o l legno am Steg legno battuto 8. am Steg legno battuto am Steq c o l legno 9. arco 10. am Steq arco 11. c o l leqno 12. am Steg c o l legno 259 An obvious s i m i l a r i t y can be seen when comparing performance indications with dynamics i n that the six basic dynamic l e v e l s produce twelve dynamic patterns while six performance i n d i c a -tions combine to form twelve d i f f e r e n t patterns of i n d i c a t i o n s . A further r e l a t i o n s h i p between the organization of dynamics and that of performance indications i s evident a f t e r examining the ordering of the patterns of performance indications i n each sound-block of section B, which i s presented i n Figure 16. In t h i s diagram, the numbers employed correspond to the p r e v i o u s l i i s t of performance i n d i c a t i o n patterns. Figure 16.— Ordering of Performance Indication Patterns i n Solo V i o l i n and Orchestra Sound-Blocks of Section B of V a r i a n t i Performance Indication Event Patterns i n Order -of Pairing Density Appearance i n Orchestra 1 12 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 4 3 5 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10 1 1 1 5 7 3 7 1 3 5 2 2 1 2 8 5 8 4 9 10 9 9 10 10 11 12 11 12 11 10 12 10 9 9 11 4 4 4 2 11 11 10 12 9 4 2 10 12 12 12 11 12 12 12 5 12 4 2 8 5 4 11 5 2 7 3 3 Density 5 1 8 Performance Indication Patterns i n Order of Appearance i n Solo V i o l i n 3 1 6 8 5 5 6 10 10 9 7 10 9 10 12 11 12 11 9 12 11 12 11 11 11 9 11 9 11 12 10 10 12 10 11 11 9 9 12 10 3 7 2 f>«*10 9 10 9 10 9 10 10 10 9 4 4 2 2 4 10 6 6 8 10 11 12 12 11 9 11 9 6 5 1 10 4 2 2 4 12 12 11 11 2 5 9 to o 261 The only performance i n d i c a t i o n employed i n section B which does not f a l l within the group of twelve patterns i s found i n the solo v i o l i n sound-block of p a i r i n g 7. S i g n i f i c a n t l y / t h i s single performance i n d i c a t i o n i r r e g u l a r i t y , p i z z i c a t o , coincides exactly with an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n dynamics which i s , as can be seen i n Figure 14, a f f f . I f one compares the ordering of dynamic patterns i n section B with that of patterns of performance indications, a d i s t i n c t relationship becomes obvious. Each of the twelve dynamic patterns i s employed i n connection with either of two s p e c i f i c patterns of performance indications; for example, dynamic pattern 1, p ^>ppp f f f / always appears with either performance i n d i c a t i o n pattern 1, arco p i z z i c a t o , or pattern 3, am Steq arco am Steg p i z z i c a t o . The following table presents the performance indications u t i l i z e d with each of the twelve dynamic patterns, with the numbers employed corresponding to the appropriate l i s t i n g of patterns. 262 TABLE 18 PERFORMANCE INDICATION PATTERNS EMPLOYED WITH SPECIFIC DYNAMIC PATTERNS IN SECTION B OF VARIANTI Dynamic Performance Indication Pattern Patterns Employed 1 L, 3 •2 2, 4 3 1', 3 ' 4 2, 4 5 5, 7 6 6, 8 7 11, 12 8 9, 10 9 11, 12 10 9, 10 11 11, 12 12 9, 10 The above rela t i o n s h i p of employment i s followed consistently throughout section B although, as can be expected, several i r r e g u l a r i t i e s do appear. In examining the dynamic pattern content of the sound-blocks i n r e l a t i o n to pit c h , i t was determined that no o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l system was i n e f f e c t and t h i s i s s i m i l a r l y the case with respect to the performance i n d i c a t i o n pattern content i n 263 r e l a t i o n to p i t c h . Figure 15 i l l u s t r a t e d the i s o l a t e d example of the almost i d e n t i c a l dynamic pattern contents of the or-chestral note-complexes of pairings 1 and 12 and i n the following figure/ the performance i n d i c a t i o n pattern content of these two sound-blocks i s present, with the numbers u t i l i -zed presenting the appropriate patterns. Figure 17.— Performance Indication Comparison of Orchestral Sound-Blocks of Pairings 1 and 12 of Section B of V a r i a n t i Pairing Density C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# 1 12 4 4 3 2 5 2 8 3 7 5 5 1 12 11 4 4 3 2 5 2 8 3 7 5 11 In comparing these two note-complexes p i t c h for p i t c h , i t can be seen that with only one exception for performance i n -dica t i o n pattern content i s likewise i d e n t i c a l . As was the case with dynamic patterns, these performance i n d i c a t i o n patterns are also those most frequently employed by the re-spective pitches of the remaining ten orchestra sound-blocks. These points i l l u s t r a t e even further the close relationship between the ordering of dynamics and that of performance in d i c a t i o n i n section B. In the organization of the parameter of note duration i n section B, the p r i n c i p a l factors of basic duration and duration multiple are again prominent as was the case i n the 264 f i r s t s e c t i o n , however here they are employed i n a completely new manner. Rather than f i v e , there are now only three d i f f e r e n t b a s i c d u r a t i o n s : JL, 1 and 1. The next f i g u r e 3 5 7 i l l u s t r a t e s how they are u t i l i z e d w i t h i n each sound-block. Figure 18.— Basic Duration Content of Sound-Blocks i n Section B of Varianti Orchestra Solo V i o l i n One Basic Duration Employed Pairing Density C C# B D B b E b A E A F G F# Density Throughout a Sound-Block 266 Throughout each solo v i o l i n sound-block, only one basic duration i s employed and, as can be seen from Figure 18, the ordering of the basic durations used i n these note complexes i s structured i n the form of a palindrome. In the orchestral sound-blocks, organization of basic duration i s linked c l o s e l y to that of the parameter of p i t c h . Through the f i r s t six note-complexes, each of the twelve tone row, pitches i s assigned a s p e c i f i c basic duration according to the following pattern: c c# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 3 5 7 3 5 7 3 5 7 This method of organization does not continue into the l a s t s i x sound-blocks due to the existence of another concept of ordering. Throughout section B Nono consistently follows the practice of having the two notes of duplication within a pa i r i n g both use the same basic duration and as a r e s u l t t h i s has introduced another rel a t i o n s h i p of p i t c h to basic duration which i s presented below. C C# B D B b E b A E A b F G F# I I I I I I I I I I I I 3 5 7 3 5 7 7 5 3 1 5 3 J 1 This i s obviously the same basic duration ordering that was found i n the successive solo v i o l i n note-complexes. As the 267 f i r s t six terms of the two series correspond, these r e l a t i o n -ships can coexist for the f i r s t h a l f of the section. However, at p a i r i n g 7 the pattern of basic durations employed i n con-junction with the notes of duplication makes the previous ordering impossible. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s new method of organization introduced by the duplicated notes i s not adopted completely i n the orchestral sound-blocks but rather i n the l a s t h a l f of the section the nonduplicated pitches have a r e l a t i v e l y free ordering of basic durations. In contrast to section A where there was a v e r t i c a l duplication of p i t c h within a sound-block, i n the second section the i n d i v i d u a l pitches of the tone row are h o r i z o n t a l -l y duplicated or, more cor r e c t l y , repeated. Within both the solo v i o l i n and orchestra note-complexes of section B, pitches are presented by a c e l l c onsisting of from one to four notes with or without r e s t s . The o v e r a l l duration of t h i s c e l l , that i s , from the beginning of the i n i t i a l note to the end of the l a s t note including rests, i s determined i n the same way as that of the single note i n the previous section with the basic duration being m u l t i p l i e d by the duration multiple. These duration multiples which vary from 1 to 12 are not employed i n a systematic manner within either s p e c i f i c sound-blocks or the section as a whole. Rather they appear to be d i s t r i b u t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y even manner throughout. In the following example 268 t h a t presents the f i r s t p a i r i n g of s e c t i o n B, the d u r a t i o n m u l t i p l e s are represented by the green f i g u r e s . 269 Example 13. Nono, Var i a n t i , measures 79-84. 270 271 As can be seen from examining the red figures which represent the length of the i n d i v i d u a l notes i n Example 13, the con-struction of these c e l l s i s regulated to a c e r t a i n extent. Within each c e l l there i s a main note which i s either preceded or followed by 1, 2 or 3 tone repetitions, each being the length of the appropriate basic duration. As a general rule the determining factor of thennumber of tone repetitions employed i s the length of the main note, that i s , the longer the p r i n c i p a l note, the greater the number of r e p e t i t i o n s . As there are so many i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , i t would be mere specu-l a t i o n to even consider the p o s s i b i l i t y that the structure of the c e l l s i s governed by regulations any more s p e c i f i c than t h i s. In comparing the placement of the short repeated notes within a c e l l to the employment of both dynamics and performance indications, c e r t a i n relationships, the r e s u l t of at l e a s t a l i m i t e d amount of p r a c t i c a l i t y on Mono's part, are v i s i b l e . In the case of dynamics, the multiple dynamic patterns are applied i n conjunction with, multiple note c e l l s and i n every instance throughout section B, the highest dynamic l e v e l of these patterns i s employed with the short notes while the main notes have the crescendi, decrescendi and lower dynamic l e v e l s . S i m i l a r l y the patterns with multiple performance indications are used with multiple note c e l l s and the indications p i z z i c a t o 272 and leqno battuto are always found with the shorter repeated notes. In concluding t h i s discussion on section B i t i s safe to say that the number series 1 to 12 i s more prominent i n the organization of parameters than the series 1 to 5 which was a l l important i n the f i r s t section. In contrast to section A, the p i t c h content here i s systematically ordered i n conjunction with the sound-blocks. Another aspect of the parametric organizational system i n section B which was not present i n the f i r s t section i s that there i s now" a close relationship between the employment of dynamics, performance indications and duration. These are just a few of the s i g n i f i c a n t points which characterize the complete change of parametric organization from section A to section B. 273 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS In comparing the) methods of parametric organization as found i n the f i v e works examined by t h i s study, two basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are evident i n L u i g i Nono's development i n the employment of s e r i a l techniques. The analysis of Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II Canto sospeso have shown that with each successive composition the organizational systems not only become more complex but are also generally applied to a greater extent. Coinciding with t h i s i s the development of the technique of polytimbral continuity, the presentation of which with each successive work becomes more i n t r i c a t e . At the same time, the number of st r u c t u r a l functions of polytimbral continuity i n the ordering of parameters i s increased. In contrast to t h i s trend toward aigreater degree of organization within Liebeslied, Canti per t r e d i c i , Incontri and II Canto sospeso, there can be found, within each of these compositions, areas i n which the systems of ordering are not applied. S i m i l a r l y , polytimbral continuity i s not evident 274 constantly throughout a l l works;'there was not a consistent application of t h i s technique i n ce r t a i n segments of Liebes-l i e d , i n the f i r s t movement of Canti per t r e d i c i or i n several movements of II Canto sospeso. In V a r i a n t i , the concept and method of parametric organization i s now changed completely. In discarding the technique of polytimbral continuity, Nono abandons the tendency of employing systems which s p e c i f i c a l l y determine ordering of variable appearances. In section A of Va r i a n t i , rather than continuing to move toward t o t a l control, the composer u t i l i z e s organizational systems which define and l i m i t the content or range of parameter employment within either the i n d i v i d u a l sound-block or measure-grouping, or both. The technique of polytimbral continuity was f i r s t em-ployed by Nono i n L i e b e s l i e d . Only one polytimbral l i n e , with one basic duration, was u t i l i z e d i n t h i s work and even i t did not appear continuously throughout the composition. In spite of t h i s rudimentary form, the presentation of polytimbral con-t i n u i t y influenced, i f only to a li m i t e d extent, the employ-ment of the parameters of p i t c h and duration. In the second movement of Canti per t r e d i c i the u t i l i z a t i o n of polytimbral l i n e s becomes more involved, with the number of l i n e s increasing to four and six respectively. The number of basic durations likewise increases to two and three respectively. Most im-portantly, i n these two works the technique of polytimbral 275 continuity assumes more st r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t now relates d i r e c t l y the durational organization of sound to that of silence, as well as being employed to determine the basic duration of a s p e c i f i c note. In movements V and VII of II Canto sospeso, polytimbral continuity reaches the peak of i t s development. I t i s of utmost importance to the organizational systems of p i t c h , duration and dynamics:'.in that the polytimbral l i n e s are u t i l i z e d as vehicles for the presentation of these systems. Although polytimbral continu-i t y i s not employed i n V a r i a n t i , c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n duration organization between the duplicated notes of the previous polytimbral l i n e s and the sound-blocks of t h i s composition are most evident. Within the systems of parametric organization of each work examined i n t h i s study can be found many examples of Nono's employment of palindrome ordering. Although i t would not be p r a c t i c a l to c i t e every case i n which the palindrome has been u t i l i z e d , the reader by t h i s point should be f u l l y aware of i t s extensive use. In constructing these systems, the composer undoubtedly must have f e l t the necessity to introduce the q u a l i t y of symmetry. In the Introduction i t was stated that Gyflrgy L i g e t i , i n h i s a r t i c l e "Metamorphoses of Musical Form," observes that with the application of s e r i a l processes to a number of 276 both single and multiple event variables, the s e r i a l arrange-ment of pitch, which was the f i r s t parameter to be ordered i n such a manner, has now become, i n many composers 1 works, the " f i r s t thing s a c r i f i c e d i n t h i s s h i f t of emphasis.""'" This i s generally the case with the f i v e Nono compositions examined i n t h i s paper. With only a few exceptions, Nono, in presenting the parameter of pi t c h , appears to be con-cerned primarily with a r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n rather than a r i g i d system of ordering. Even when a s p e c i f i c tone row i s found, i t i s only employed i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, being constantly repeated. Nono's lack of concern for a s o p h i s t i -cated structuring of t h i s parameter i s most.evident when i t i s remembered that one s p e c i f i c tone row was used within three d i f f e r e n t works (Canti per t r e d i c i , I l Canto sospeso and Varianti) i n the same manner of continuous r e p e t i t i o n . In contrast, Nono during t h i s period has been constantly modifying and expanding h i s systems of duration organization. Possibly, the most s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t y i n Nono's development of s e r i a l techniques i s examined i n t h i s study i s the composer's reluctance to adopt completely systems of t o t a l "*"Gyttrgy L i g e t i , "Metamorphoses of Musical Form, " Die  Reihe, VII (1960), p. 5. 277 c o n t r o l . Although methods of parametric organization become more complex, Nono always retains a ce r t a i n degree of choice. This avoidance of complete predetermination provides at lea s t a p a r t i a l explanation as to why Nono seldom employs organi-zational systems consistently throughout a work. The extent of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s may vary from one composition to the next but change i s always evident. There can be no doubt that Nono has i n t e n t i o n a l l y refrained from unerringly following systems of t o t a l s e r i a l i s m . •53 278 APPENDIX TRANSLATIONS With the exception of footnote number 5 i n Chapter IV, the following translations have been made by the author. Chapter I 1 "opened a l l the horizons of music to me." 3 With him, I recommenced a l l harmony and started again my studies at the beginning. I t i s Maderna who gave me the technique. 4 With him, during his t r i p s , I uncovered - and l i k e d - the German t r a d i t i o n . We made very extensive analyses of Schflnberg and Webern. These two composers have had a profound e f f e c t on me. I admire p a r t i c u l a r l y Schonberg, for he has touched a l l , attained a l l that he wished to att a i n , i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Webern i s indeed more limited, but h i s pursuits are so extensive that he has a p o s i t i v e and important influence. 11 At a time when nobody thought of decorating the conduc-tor's stand with red flags, or to publish "Letters of freedom for the youth" or to set opera houses on f i r e , Nono was a p o l i t i c a l l y engaged and active musician whose art was an appeal to new thinking, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regards to the open and latent forms of thinking of fas-cism and i t s roots, which he considered to be very danger-ous because they were forgotten owing to a love for com-fo r t which had to be awakened even i n the aesthetic realm. 13 "a series of works by Nono on the Spanish c i v i l war, returning to t o n a l i t y , c o r i p a r l a t i , forms of operatic a r i o s i , popular dance rhythms and gregorian chant." 15 "connects music and choreography" 17 "the theme of the tormenting regret for the dead i n the partisan war." 279 18 "couple quasi d i f f e r e n t modulations of a same sentiment" 20 " i s a means of intervention, active or passive, i n the present society" 22 But Nono edged away from a l l embraces when he r e a l i z e d how h o s t i l e or carelessly his ideals were regarded. His texts became more di r e c t , his music more poster-like, he as a person became harder; his attitude i n a l l spheres, even toward the young generation, became more and more provocative. I t seemed as i f .he were running amok against friends and connections. However, he faced the conse-quences of his p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The public who con-tinued to ignore him, thinking to shame him as a man led astray from the a r t i s t i c path by p o l i t i c a l ideas did i n j u s t i c e to Nono. This i n j u s t i c e was cause for h i s disappointment and resentment against the West Germans. 26 "marked the beginning of a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n with the group of musicians, up to then united, of the nouvelle  vague." 30 He remarks - put i n Stimmung - c e r t a i n facts, stimuli or sonorous spheres that are found i n India (I refer to certa i n Buddist r i t u a l s of Tibet) and uses them i n a c o l o n i a l i s t i c way (I c a l l e d i t t h i s term already,in 1959 i n regard to a musical practice of Cage): abstracting them from t h e i r context, from t h e i r function and from t h e i r h i s t o r y i n a t y p i c a l l y n eoclassical way (Messiaen i n t h i s "India case" shows). Hymnen, l a t e r , i s for me among the compositions most exemplary of a precise im-p e r i a l i s t i c attitude: of Karlheinz I rather than Wilhelm II (but i t i s the same...). 32 "Those of the Darmstadt school have stopped as i n front of a wall." 33 You know that we work i n some p a r a l l e l ways and that we help each other very much, in-fgood friendship. He also has taken an engaged position, "responsible," i n front of the world today, a po s i t i o n made of p i t y , anger, r e v o l t . . . 42 "The intollerance of the contemporary world." 43 "always the genesis of my work i s to search for a human 'provocation 1: an event, an experience, a text of our l i f e provokes my i n s t i n c t and my conscience to give wit-ness as a musician-man." 280 48 "Film images (abstract or not - they were conceived for me by Vedova) at the same time as the action, are not l i k e a passive support but l i k e a p a r a l l e l action." 58 "The revolution i s not to send the peasants to the theatre i n the same way of the bourgeoisie." 59 " i s that of being able to make music for attacking, roads, squares, f i e l d s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , with the working and pea-sant class i n struggle together." 61 "others again have t o l d me of becoming conscious, just l i s t e n i n g to t h i s work, of the state of a l i e n a t i o n i n which they f i n d themselves, becoming l i k e a robot." 71 " i n Cuba - where I came.intoi contact"! with men 0of government, with g u e r r i l l a s , with peasants-, with students, with children - my way of communicating with d i f f e r e n t , without the barriers,by which we are retarded here (that i s aesthetic categories, c o d i f i e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s , e t c . ) " 72 "where there i s a working class i n the s i t u a t i o n of struggle - not of consumism, of enjoyment, etc. --I have found a freshness of communication, negative or p o s i t i v e , genuine and d i r e c t . " Chapter II 6 "His emancipation from the Viennese models tolerates at times also the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i n the sense of a loosen-ing, i f not of the s e r i a l processes, at l e a s t of the rule that imposes the perpetual application of such processes to the chromatic t o t a l . " 7 "the chromatic t o t a l was not nor w i l l be for Nono an imperative standard." 8 "an u l t e r i o r pause brings the ultimate strophe of two verses, and therefore the t h i r d part of the work which i s a sort of ;'coda' of only f i v e measures." 9 But i t i s rather stimulating to observe how, for example, i n L i e b e s l i e d he establishes a correspondence between the metrics of the l i n e s and the series: the f i r s t l i n e of four s y l l a b l e s assumes i n the chorus four notes of the f i r s t series while he commits the f i f t h to the tympani; the second series on the i n i t i a l l i n e of the t h i r d strophe, that i s of f i v e s y l l a b l e s , exposes the chorus i n a rapid a cappella passage.... 281 11 "the pure monody that changes colour passing from one voice to another, according to a writing already trace-able i n cert a i n Dallapiccola..." Chapter III 3 "Nono has a pronounced p r e d i l e c t i o n for symmetrical rows, all-interval-rows." 4 "From the i n t e r v a l - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the row stem the further p o s s i b i l i t i e s which are offered by each h a l f : chromatic scales which converge from both sides towards a 'tonal centre, 1 as can be seen above." 6 The tone had remained a point, and the rest had become a hole between the two dots. Duration and distance of the points, as well as duration and distance of the holes became s e r i a l i z e d ; however, the p r i n c i p l e which had sep-arated holes from dots, minus from plus, did not undergo any change or become more sophisticated. At le a s t i n instrumental music, no attempt had been made to abolish any difference between sound and not-sound which had been the basis of musical time.articulation of rhythm. Chapter IV 3 "the intollerance of the contemporary world," 4 This t r a n s l a t i o n was taken from: Karlheinz Stockhausen, "Speech and Music," translated by Ruth Koenig, Die Reihe, VI (1964), pp. 47-48. II "...I am dying for a world which w i l l shine with such a strong l i g h t and with such beauty that my s a c r i f i c e i s nothing. M i l l i o n s of men have died for i t on the b a r r i -cades and i n war. I am dying for j u s t i c e . Our ideas w i l l conquer..." III "...they are bringing me to Kessariani to be executed! with seven others. I am dying for freedom and for the fatherland..." "...they w i l l shoot us today. We s h a l l die as men for the fatherland. Be worthy of us..." "...they w i l l hang me i n the square, because I am a p a t r i o t . Your son departs, he w i l l not hear the b e l l s of freedom..." 282 V " . . . I f the;, sky were made up of paper and a l l the sea of ink, I G o u l d not describe to you my sufferings and everything I see around me. I say farewell to a l l and weep..." VI "...the doors are opening. Here are our murderers, dressed i n black. They are hounding us out of the synagogue. How hard i t i s to say goodbye for ever to such a be a u t i f u l l i f e ! " VII "...farewell, Mother, your daughter, Liubka, i s going to the damp s o i l . . . " IX "...I am not af a i d of death..."' "...I s h a l l be calm and peaceful at the; command of execution. Are those who have condemned us also so calm?..." "...I go with the b e l i e f i n a better l i f e for you..." 283 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amico, F. D.' "La polemica su L u i g i Nono." Paragone, dicembre, 1962, pp. 13-26. Ba r z e t t i , Marcella. "A meeting with L u i g i Nono," Recorded  Sound, 24 (Oct. 1966), pp. 118-21. Bent, I. D. "Brussels: Reconnaissance des musiques modernes-IV," The Musical Times, 112 (Feb. 1971), p. 163. 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