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Structure and meaning in Defoe’s Roxana Allin, Robert Stewart 1974

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STRUCTURE AND MEANING IN DEFOE'S ROXANA by Robert Stewart A l l i n B.A., University of Victoria, 1970 i A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e 9 October 1974 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is three-fold. F i r s t , i t is intended as a demonstration that Defoe wrote Roxana with a high degree of conscious awareness. Secondly, i t is to be a reading which shows that Roxana is a well unified novel, the meaning of which emerges clearly because of i t s structure. Thirdly, i t is to be the basis for a reappraisal of Defoe the novelist. The study is comprised of an investigation of the nature and function of the six structuring devices I have found in Roxana. Of these, foreshadowing was considered f i r s t . The analysis of fore-shadowing shows that Defoe used .this .device in a calculated way, and the study leads to the conclusion.that Defoe was writing the novel as a conscious and subtle craftsman and ar t i s t . It becomes apparent that Defoe was using foreshadowing in a sophisticated way to bind the plot together, to provide f o c i i which draw together and make the reader acutely aware of the material between a foreshadowing and it s resolution, to set up relationships between characters and between events, to set up expectations, and to unify the various thematic threads. The episodic divisions were considered next, and i t was found that they provide the novel with an underlying architectonic framework and make the novel easier to comprehend by breaking i t into "manageable" units which show the stages in Roxana's moral deterioration and show the choices and actions which led to her downfall. The third stage of the analysis i s an examination of the motif of images which pertain - i -i i to Roxana's dancing and Turkish dress. These images highlight and bring into acute focus the various stages of Roxana's moral deterioration and provide points of reference which allow the reader to measure the development of the heroine's character and to assess the author's themes, attitudes, and values amid changing f i c t i o n a l circumstances. The fourth stage of the analysis is comprised of an examination of Defoe's use of geographical settings. It was found that the connotations of the countries Roxana travels to and her responses to these countries either mirror and emphasize her moral state or contrast with her moral state and thus emphasize both the positive values implicit in the work and the precise nature of Roxana's moral flaws. As well, the changes in location tend to mark the stages in Roxana's degeneration and to make the novel a continuous development, Studied next were the revelatory comparisons and contrasts between characters and between situations. The contrasts between Roxana and the secondary characters simultaneously point out the flaws in her character, her refusal to learn by positive examples,, and,.the .pattern of right conduct the novel sets forth. The similarities between Roxana and several of the major characters also ironically expose her shortcomings and vices. A result identical to that produced.by the contrasts is yielded by the inclusion of.situations .which- parallel, ones Roxana is involved in but wherein the characters concerned take courses of action radically different from hers. As well, the strategic re-emergence of characters assists in accentuating the decay of Roxana's moral sense. The progressive divergence between Roxana's rise to material prosperity and her moral deterioration was considered in the f i n a l stage of the study. This showed that wealth is worthless as an ultimate value, i i i and that one should not engage in a material quest at the expense of spiritual well-being and social responsibility. This divergence helps to define Defoe's attitudes towards economic individualism and, more generally, towards individualism and social responsibility. The investigation of these formal structuring devices suggests that Defoe's last novel is a unified whole which was written with a high degree of awareness and with a great deal of sophistication, that the novel's meaning emerges clearly and forcefully because of i t s structure, and that Eoxana is among the most carefully wrought novels of i t s century, I am indebted, as anyone who studies Defoe i s , to the works of J. R. Moore, George A. Starr, Maximillian E. Novak, James Sutherland, and other authors too numerous to be mentioned. In addition, stimulation was derived from Robert D. Hume, Ralph E. Jenkins, and John Henry Raleigh, who find formal bases of unity in Roxccna. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I The Nature and Function of Foreshadowing in Roxccna 11 CHAPTER II Roxana's Episodic Divisions 38 CHAPTER III The Motif of Images Pertaining to Roxana's Dances and Turkish Dress 65 CHAPTER IV The Connotative Use of Geographical Settings 80 CHAPTER V An Examination of Some Revelatory Similarities and Contrasts Between Characters and Between Situations 95 CHAPTER VI The Progressive Divergence Between Roxana's Moral Deterioration and Her Rise to Prosperity 125 CHAPTER VII Conclusion 132 APPENDIX 138 FOOTNOTES 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY 166 INTRODUCTION The narra tor of D u r r e l l ' s Justine s tates that "our common act ions i n r e a l i t y are simply the sackc loth covering which hides the c l o t h - o f -gold<—the meaning of the pat tern" . Through the w r i t e r , " r e a l i t y " i s "reordered, reworked and made to show i t s s i g n i f i c a n t side"."'" Though the language i s , perhaps, too romantic for Defoe, the b a s i c concept i s not . The narra tor i s descr ib ing a process a l l c rea t ive wr i t er s engage in—the process of s e l e c t i n g mater ia l s from the external world and of ordering them into a coherent f i c t i o n a l world designed i n such a manner that i t guides the reader towards a p a r t i c u l a r point of view about that ex terna l wor ld . While penetrat ing i n s i g h t and acute s e l e c t i o n are e s s e n t i a l to give, the w r i t e r ' s work s i g n i f i c a n c e , the way i n which the w r i t e r orders h i s m a t e r i a l i s u l t i m a t e l y of more importance, for th i s synthesizes and shapes what could be merely a s er i e s of random observations o r . i s o l a t e d episodes in to a uni ty which functions as a medium for the, a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n . In other words, s t r u c t u r a l elements serve as s ignposts by which the reader i s guided towards the nove l ' s t o t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , as devices which guide the reader through an i n t e l l e c t u a l prelude before he f i n a l l y experiences the novel as an organism greater than the sum of i t s p a r t s . Because formal s t ruc ture defines meaning to a great extent , the degree to which a n o v e l i s t contro ls h i s n a r r a t i v e has a s i g n i f i c a n t ro l e i n determining the success or f a i l u r e of h i s work as an a r t i s t i c whole. F i n a l l y , we must add, however, that a novel i s i d e a l l y more than a r- 1 T-2 t e c h n i c a l construct and that i t s sole purpose i s not to convey meaning, and tha t , to be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must please a e s t h e t i c a l l y as w e l l . Before proceeding i n th i s d i s cuss ion i t w i l l be w e l l to define formal s t ruc ture—at l eas t for the purposes of th i s paper. Any work can be regarded as being s tructured inso far as i t has a beginning , a middle , and an end. But th i s k ind of s t ruc ture i s present of necess i ty and does not f u l f i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t funct ion r e l a t e d to conveying the author's moral v i s i o n , Even such things as the continuous presence of one character do not n e c e s s a r i l y possess the a r t i f i c e required to uni fy the work or to transmit and heighten i t s meaning. By a formal s t r u c t u r i n g device I am r e f e r r i n g to any element i n a novel which i s used cons i s t en t ly and. which seems to be used c a l c u l a t e d l y to make the author's f i c t i o n a l world cohere, and which funct ions to convey and heighten h i s meaning, - This concept can be c l a r i f i e d by example. To beg in , consider .the references to books i n Jane Eyre. The books and Jane's react ions to. them a s s i s t i n de f in ing her character and i n penetrating- her psyche, i n showing the development of her be ing , and i n d e l i n e a t i n g Bronte ' s .moral v i s i o n . In contrast to th i s i s Jake's announcement i n The Sun Also -Rises that Robert Cohn has been reading W. H, Hudson's.The Purple Land, This d i s c l o s u r e serves the l i m i t e d purpose of g i v i n g .us an immediate i n s i g h t i n t o Cohn's character by showing us that he i s an incurable romantic. But i t does not act as a touchstone for the novel as a whole. Consider as w e l l , the references to Miss Havisham's house i n Great Expectations. The house acts as a locus for the n o v e l , and because a great many assoc ia t ions attach to i t , i t serves as a point of reference which helps to def ine , among other th ings , Dickens's a t t i t u d e towards grat i tude and the 3 r e l a t i o n s h i p between happiness and m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g . On the other hand, Santiago's f isherman's shack i s simply a place for the o ld man to l i v e . As a f i n a l example, consider how Emily Bronte uses weather throughout Wuthering Heights as a large background for r e f l e c t i n g her characters ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s and for m i r r o r i n g the s h i f t s from emotional turbulence to p l a c i d i t y which occur i n that nove l . Opposed to t h i s i s the opening of the second chapter of Tender is the Eight, which reads , i n p a r t , "It was a damp A p r i l day, with long diagonal clouds over the A l b i s h o r n and water inert , i n the low places",^ and which ex i s t s as d e t a i l for descr ib ing one p a r t i c u l a r day. This d e f i n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of formal s t ruc ture w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d when we a c t u a l l y i s o l a t e and discuss the s t r u c t u r a l devices i n Roxana. While Defoe's novels are pra i sed for t h e i r r e a l i s m , for t h e i r p o r t r a y a l of the mercant i le mind, for t h e i r indomitable unheroic heroes, and so on, t h e i r structures*have s a t i s f i e d few i n d i v i d u a l s . Bonamy Dobree, for example, . curt ly s tates that "they lack form. Apart from the rough m o r a l . s c a f f o l d i n g , they have hardly any s t r u c t u r e : they j u s t s t a r t , and go on to the end"."^ James Sutherland expresses a widely accepted view when he. suggests that "Most of Defoe's s t o r i e s are concerned with a concatenation of events which are e i ther d i s c r e t e or not s t r i c t l y s e q u e n t i a l , and these, may s t r e t c h over the greater part of a l i f e t i m e . The reader ' s a t t en t ion i s held by h i s i n t e r e s t i n the i n d i v i d u a l episodes, and only to a l i m i t e d extent by h i s concern for the u l t imate fate o f . the hero or hero ine , or by any strong f e e l i n g that what happens i s the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of what has gone before"."' A s i m i l a r opinion i s voiced by Jonathan Bishop who pos i t s that Defoe "was not in teres ted i n construct ing what we now c a l l a p l o t , that i s , 4 a s k e l e t a l framework of cause and e f fec t so p l a u s i b l y put together as to contr ibute to an aes thet ic apprec ia t ion of the whole. Uni ty i s to be found . , . not i n each book as a whole, but i n the separate problems which the heroes face and for which Defoe's d e t a i l becomes re levant" . The assessments out l ined above do, i n my op in ion , apply to Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, Colonel Jack, and Captain Singleton. For though these novels are u n i f i e d i n a rudimentary fashion by the continuous presence of one character , by the quest each character engages i n , by a sketchy pat tern of s i n , repentance and redemption, and by pervading but s p o r a d i c a l l y . i n t r o d u c e d e t h i c a l and s p i r i t u a l cons iderat ions , they f a i l to coalesce in to u n i t i e s embodying c lear thematic developments because events .do not flow i n causa l progress ions but ex i s t d i s c r e e t l y i n what.might be termed continuous presents , because c lumsi ly introduced digress ions d i v e r t our a t t en t ion from c e n t r a l to p e r i p h e r a l - o r irre levant . , i s sues , ,because formal s t r u c t u r i n g devices—which could inc lude .foreshadowing, reve la tory character groupings, and symmetrical p lo t t ing , , . for...example-"-are. e i ther t o t a l l y absent or are unsystemat ica l ly used. This looseness of construct ion has .g iven r i s e to a great dea l of confusion about Defoe's intentions' . As Mart in P r i c e has s a i d : Defoe remains a .puzz le because he imposes l i t t l e thematic un i ty on h i s m a t e r i a l s . Usua l ly the w r i t e r who i s content to give us the shape of a t a l e by i t s e l f has a shapely t a l e to t e l l ; a ta l e with i t s own l o g i c , i t s awakening of tensions and expectat ions , i t s mounting r e p e t i t i o n , i t s e laborate devices for f o r e s t a l l i n g too d i r e c t a r e s o l u t i o n and i t s satisfying—-perhaps ingenious ly surpris ing—way of ty ing a l l i t s threads i n one great s troke . Such a t a l e need not leave those gaps i n i t s n a r r a t i v e that are occasions for us to consider i t s meaning or theme. In Defoe's n a r r a t i v e s the incons i s t enc ie s are such that we want to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t des ign , yet they hardly accommodate our wish.^ 5 Lacking the signposts provided by formal structure, c r i t i c s have been unable to decide whether Defoe was a conscious ironist or a writer of paradox, whether he was confused about his own values, or was simply a sloppy craftsman writing hastily contrived stories: themes and values do not emerge at a l l clearly. Numerous commentators have attempted to clarify these blurred issues by concentrating on individual aspects and dealing with them in isolation. This approach seems to generate i t s own problems, however, for the studies which emerge from i t render i t increasingly d i f f i c u l t to arrive at any kind of agreement—even of a tentative sort—about the actual nature of Defoe's values. As an example of.this problem, let us compare in a very general way the findings..of.Maximillian Novak and G. A. Starr. Although Novak recognizes.the. existence of spiritual matters in Defoe's novels he concentrates .on and stresses the primacy of economic concerns. Professor ..Starr does, just the opposite. While i t i s not my intention to denigrate these scholars, whose studies have certainly proven to be among.the most illuminating in Defoe criticism, I would like to.suggest that ideally we should be attempting to discover how these themes, and others, qualify each other in context. For even i f the novels are not clearly unified, each is nevertheless a totality whose meaning depends on a contextual qualification of everything in the novel. Finally, however, i t must be admitted that i t is conceivable that, given the fact that the f i r s t four novels do not contain clear bases of formal structure, such efforts might well be fruit l e s s , and that, to be practical, studies of the kind Starr and Novak have undertaken w i l l be the most rewarding. But, I submit, this i s true only of the four novels which preceed Roxana, and that 6 the last novel, because i t contains a firm basis of formal unity, can successfully be approached with a view to discovering how Defoe's values qualify each other in context, or in other words, with a view to discovering the novel's total meaning. Roxana is usually regarded as sharing the same deficiencies as the earlier novels, E. Anthony James, for example, has recently said that "structurally the novel is arranged in a clearly haphazard manner which sometimes suggests that more afterthought than premeditation governed Defoe's plotting','. """^  Even those writers who find Defoe evincing a degree of a r t i s t i c control have expressed dissatisfaction with the novel's ending, John Henry Raleigh, one of the earliest c r i t i c s to find some unity ±n .Roxana, states that although this " i s the most nearly unified" of.Defoe's novels, i t is "structurally deficient. It i s , in fact, unfinished".""'^ James Sutherland also sees the novel as being "the most elaborately constructed of a l l 12 Defoe's novels" ---though he does not substantiate this claim—but he too finds that "the narrative comes to a sudden stop leaving 13 Roxana's story manifestly unfinished". Jane Jack also suggests that Defoe had a partial.control, over.his material when she describes the ending as a " b r i l l i a n t compromise". According to Mrs. Jack, "If Defoe had followed his.sources, Roxana's story would have ended with her exposure and death, He had identified himself with her too much for that; but on the other hand he had allowed her to become too guilty a woman for a happy ending to be acceptable. And so he adopted the b r i l l i a n t compromise of leaving her in physical safety and prosperity, yet in spiritual torment"."^ But I would suggest that Mrs. Jack's stance must be rejected, that the ending is not a compromise, 7 and that i t represents the best possible way in which Defoe could at once impress the reader with the proportions of Roxana's mental suffering and demonstrate the utter worthlessness of material wealth when i t is possessed by an unregenerate individual. I w i l l demonstrate that the ending becomes imminent early in the novel and is an integral part of Defoe's original design, and that, f i n a l l y , the novel i s a whole which clearly conveys Defoe's, themes and values. The relative formlessness of Defoe's earlier novels seems to have conditioned the majority of his c r i t i c s to overlook the possibility of seeing Roxccna as a structurally .unified whole and they have primarily treated the novel from extrinsic points of view.^ Only two commentators, to my knowledge, have seriously defended the idea that an underlying structure exists. In "The Conclusion of Roxana: Fiasco or Tour de Force"?," Robert D. Hume finds that the events of the novel are "tightly integrated.*.into a clear and coherent structure". In his opinion the major organizational device consists of "half a dozen distinct but related .episodes"."^ While I agree with Hume's idea that the novel i s broken, down into these divisions, I feel that he misreads the novel when he- states..that Roxana i s relatively innocent to the mid-point of the novel, and that u n t i l she rejects the Dutch Merchant she has largely been reacting to necessity and a fear of the 18 return of poverty. As I w i l l point out below, Roxana sinks into sin by fa i l i n g to curb the growing influence of the character traits she manifested from her childhood and not because of necessity. In light of this she becomes culpable much earlier than Hume suggests. This contention is based on an analysis of six structuring devices which conspire forcefully to transmit the same meaning. In his 8 a r t i c l e "The Strucutre of Roxana," Ralph E . Jenkins contends that the novel i s an " a r t i s t i c w h o l e " , a n d he supports th i s c la im by r e f e r r i n g to Defoe's use of foreshadowing, to "pointed contrasts between characters 20 and s i t u a t i o n s " , and to " a l l e g o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between characters". However, he too regards Roxana as an innocent at the outset of her 21 career and consequently, i n my o p i n i o n , misreads the nove l . Moreover, while I agree that foreshadowing i s a s t r u c t u r a l dev ice , I disagree that the examples Jenkins of fers a c t u a l l y cons t i tu te forecas t s . And, f i n a l l y , I be l ieve , that he d i s t o r t s the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of Roxana's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with Amy and Susan by regarding 22 them as a l l e g o r i c a l . While these.two studies come as a welcome r e l i e f and open the door to viewing Defoe's l a s t nove l as a u n i f i e d whole they should be considered only as a foundation for further c r i t i c a l readings . My purpose i n th i s paper i s t h r e e - f o l d . F i r s t , I intend to demonstrate that Roxana has an extremely soph i s t i ca ted formal s t r u c t u r e , and that an examination of at l eas t s i x s t r u c t u r a l devices Defoe u t i l i z e d w i l l lead to an understanding of the nove l ' s themes and meaning. Among the devices Defoe used are two of those suggested by Jenkins-—foreshadowing and i l l u m i n a t i n g comparisons and contrasts between characters and between s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , Defoe r e l i e d on i t e r a t i v e imagery to underscore meaning and to provide u n i t y . A t h i r d device i s Defoe's connotative use of geographical s e t t i n g , which emphasizes the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of Roxana's moral sense. A fourth s t r u c t u r i n g device—one of major importance i n synthes iz ing s t ruc ture and meaning^--is the fundamental a r c h i t e c t o n i c framework comprised of s i x d i s t i n c t but continuous phases i n Roxana's l i f e arranged i n groups 9 of three around a central episode-—Roxana's i n i t i a l dealings with the Dutch Merchant in Paris and Holland. A f i n a l device, also of major importance in creating the novel's structure, unity and meaning, is a consistently developed linear progression towards Roxana's moral deterioration which is coextensive and coterminus with a clear linear progression towards her increased prosperity. A detailed analysis of a l l the structural devices I have discovered in Roxana w i l l show that in this novel Defoe unified meaning and structure to an extent he did not achieve in any of his earlier novels. This structural analysis w i l l comprise the greatest part of the paper. It w i l l illuminate the thematic concerns, i n the novel and w i l l guide us towards comprehending the novel's total meaning and not simply isolated themes. Secondly, this study is. planned, in essence, as a point of departure for a larger study. While considerations of length w i l l not allow anything more'extensive.than a few suggestions to be made here, I w i l l point out that because, the problems dealt with in this novel were also Defoe's major concerns in his earlier novels, an analysis of the themes and structure of Roxana w i l l shed light on the earlier novels and w i l l aid in clarifying the interpretive problems which have been encountered by c r i t i c s of these works. Finally, this analysis w i l l prepare the ground for a reappraisal of Defoe's stature as a novelist, for a reappraisal of his achievement. While Defoe admittedly does show some aesthetic weaknesses in Roxana, the brilliance of the underlying structure is not impaired, and I suggest that we w i l l be compelled to raise our estimate of Defoe the novelist from that of a haphazard experimenter proceeding by " t r i a l and error" in the no-man's land between Bunyan and Aphra Behn, and Richardson and 10 F i e l d i n g , to that of a conscious a r t i s t who produced a novel as great s t r u c t u r a l l y — i f not a e s t h e t i c a l l y — a s any w r i t t e n i n the Eighteenth Century, with the obvious exception of Sterne's Tristram Shandy. CHAPTER I The Nature and Funct ion of Foreshadowing i n Roxana One method of a r r i v i n g at some i l l u m i n a t i n g i n s i g h t s in to Defoe's composit ional techniques, and of construct ing an index to the degree of a u t h o r i a l c o n t r o l evinced i n Roxana i s to study h i s use of foreshadowing. I t w i l l be found that the foreshadowings i n Roxana axe strong evidence that Defoe had planned and was c a r e f u l l y developing h i s n a r r a t i v e , that at l a s t he was attempting to order events w i th in an o v e r a l l conception. S u r p r i s i n g l y , no systematic analyses of the nature and funct ion of these foreshadowings have appeared. As one of the few. who. have given any d i scuss ion to foreshadow-ing as i t appears i n th i s novel.,, E . Anthony James takes a rather negative p o s i t i o n , s t a t i n g that ..although Defoe could use foreshadowing e f f e c t i v e l y , as i n Crusoe's dream about acqu ir ing a s l ave , the device occurs with the most i r r i t a t i n g frequency i n works which d i s p l a y evidence of having been too r a p i d l y put to paper. Roxana, for ins tance , proves an inveterate foreshadower, and i t i s impossible not to t i r e of her constant ly s t a r t i n g on one n a r r a t i v e tack, h a l t i n g with an abrupt "of that more l a t e r , " and.then careening of f i n qui te another d i r e c t i o n . Most of the instances of forecast i n Roxana do not serve any d i s c e r n i b l e a r t i s t i c purpose, and seem instead to r e f l e c t only the author's grave uncerta inty about the sequent ia l cons truct ion of h i s p l o t . I t may be that the adumbrations in t h i s and s i m i l a r l y flawed works were se l f -addressed manuscript reminders to Defoe concerning the d i r e c t i o n he should take i n subsequent sessions of composit ion. But that he sometimes f a i l e d to heed these reminders i s evident i n the fac t that Roxana and some other narrators often f a i l completely to r e t u r n to events which they have promised to treat i n subsequent pages.^ James gives no t ex tua l examples to support these claims about foreshadowing, - 11 -12 but h i s thes i s becomes suspect when we consider one of the instances he of fers as evidence of what he c a l l s " p r e c i p i t a t e composit ion".^ According to James, "Defoe has h i s heroine announce, a f ter the departure of her brewer-husband, that she never saw him again , but i n fac t she does see him and not much l a t e r at that".^ Roxana a c t u a l l y says thet fo l l owing : I t must be a l i t t l e s u r p r i z i n g to the Reader to t e l l him at once, that a f ter t h i s , I never saw my Husband more; but to go f a r t h e r , I not only never saw him more, but I never heard from him, or of him, ne i ther of any or e i t h e r of h i s two Servants or of the Horses , e i ther what became of them, where, or which Way they went, or what they d i d , or intended to do, no. more than i f the Ground had open'd and swallow'd them a l l up, and no-body had known i t ; except as hereafter (p. 1 2 , . i t a l i c s mine).4 Af ter the heavy negative emphasis, .throughout th i s paragraph the f i n a l phrase comes as a surpr i se ..and. almost has the appearance of being an af terthought; . Whether i t was.present i n the f i r s t draf t of the novel or whether i t was inser ted fo l lowing ; a . r e v i s i o n — i f Defoe rev i sed at a l l — i s immater ia l , however, for the point i s that the phrase i s inc luded , and i t s presence per,.se. demonstrates that Defoe was aware of h i s n a r r a t i v e and had prepared for the Brewer's reappearance. Moreover, three pages l a t e r Roxana ..remarks, "What part of the World they went to , I never heard for many Years" (p. 15). While t h i s sentence does not const i tute a forecast i t does r e i n f o r c e the not ion that Defoe intended to mention the Brewer at a l a t e r time. I dwell on th i s example because i t i s prominent i n Roxana, and because i t suggests that Defoe's use of foreshadowing i s not haphazard and therefore demands more c r i t i c a l a t t ent ion than i t has so far rece ived . Ralph E . Jenkins takes a point of view opposite to James's when he designates foreshadowing as one of severa l s t r u c t u r a l devices which 13 c l a r i f y Defoe's values and guide the reader towards a moral judgment of Roxana.^ While I agree implicitly with his fundamental idea, I question whether the instances he points to are actually foreshadowings. Consider, for example, an instance which is typical of what Jenkins regards as foreshadowing. In his opinion, Roxana's debauching of Amy "serves to foreshadow the f i n a l crime, the murder of Susan. Iri both cases Roxana alleviates her own situation by sacrificing someone else; in both cases she has the same choice—to clear her conscience by acknowledging her sins and reforming, or to s t i f l e the accusing voice—and she chooses to s t i f l e the accuser".^ Although the two scenes he refers to have parallels, only in the broadest sense does the f i r s t prepare the reader for. what, comes—and i t does this by revealing Roxana's character—which, for a l l the reader knows, may or may not change as the novel.progresses, Nothing in the f i r s t scene sets up and then channels expectations—nothing in i t s nature actually forewarns the reader, of what is to come. The scene's major purpose is to reveal Roxana'.s. character at one particular time. Again, I submit, a detailed analysis of the foreshadowings in Roxana is called for. It might seem that a logical starting point for considering the foreshadowings would be the novel's long-title and i t s preface. However, the preface is basically an apology and is not primarily concerned with the events in.the narrative, whereas the long-title, although i t is descriptive, is sketchy and does not s t r i c t l y accord with Roxana's story. The reader of Defoe's novelistic fiction should be aware that the long-titles are not accurate abstracts as are, say, the arguments which preceed the epistles in Pope's Essay on Man. In fact, they 14 often bear as l i t t l e relationship to the works as do the sensational and luring comments found on the covers of some pulp f i c t i o n . As Rodney M. Baine has pointed out, " i t i s delusive to suppose that the t i t l e page of a Defoe novel reproduces his own suggested t i t l e and especially fallacious to expect that i t provides evidence of his original plan. The t i t l e page of a f i r s t edition was normally set last . . , [and i t was, moreover,] primarily the publisher's advertisement, or b i l l of fare, especially for popular literature like f i c t i o n and rogue biography",^ He goes on to warn against using the t i t l e pages of Defoe's novels "to demonstrate his heedlessness in planning Q and writing his novels". In other words, the long-title and preface should not be regarded as integral parts of the novel. And so we must turn to the main text for ...examples of foreshadowing. With the exception of a few .outstanding instances such as the general prophecy at the beginning, of Robinson Crusoe and Crusoe's dreams, foreshadowing in Defoe's^novels is usually very explicit in nature. That i s , a character w i l l break off his discussion of a situation, an event, or another character, with a summary comment such as "but more of this later", or "I w i l l speak of this again". This distinguishes Defoe's type from the less overt, more suggestive forecast we normally find in later novels. To devise two broad categories, these forecasts may take the form of an ominous and pregnant prophecy, the f u l l significance of which is revealed only as the novel completes i t s e l f , as in Walpole's Castle of Otranto and Hawthorne's House of the Seven Gables, or the form of a highly singular description of a person or thing which captures our attention and raises our expectations by hinting at but withholding a greater importance, as in the i n i t i a l 15 description of Jaggers in Dickens's Great Expectations. Undoubtedly there are many permutations of these two categories. But the main point here i s that unlike those in the f i r s t category Defoe's foreshadowings are not given the encompassing role of determining the overall movement of the novel, and that, unlike those in the second category, Defoe's forecasts lack a subtle enigmatic quality—although, as the examples in Crusoe demonstrate, he was capable of producing one. Nevertheless, i t should be emphasized at once that foreshadowing in Roxana is s t i l l complex in nature and function and is never merely a mechanical forecast~resolution equation. The foreshadowing in this novel is designed not only, with the narrow aim of holding plot together, but with the richer function of setting up expectations, and of providing f o c i i which not only draw together, but make the reader acutely aware of, the material between a forecast and it s resolution. Ultimately i t draws .together.the plot, relationships between characters and between events, and between the various thematic threads. The analysis of foreshadowing w i l l be comprised of four stages, 9 each of which i s necessary to supplement and qualify the others. Together they w i l l reveal the nature and function of the foreshadowings in Roxana and furnish a seminal picture of Defoe's conscious awareness of structure. First a count of the number of forecasts w i l l be made and this, in turn, w i l l be cross-checked by a count of the number of resolutions. This w i l l yield at once a germinal impression of Defoe's craftsmanship. While a l l the foreshadowings are specific in nature insofar as they explicitly outline the subject to be referred to later 16 and demand resolutions which f a l l within extremely limited scopes of po s s i b i l i t i e s , (although none is specific to the extent that the exact circumstances surrounding the resolutions are described), i t w i l l be found that a distinction can be made between those which are committal because promissory phrases such as "as you w i l l hear" are used, and those which are non-committal because of phrases like "as you may have an account hereafter". At this point, then, the forecasts which do not oblige Defoe to provide resolutions must be studied to discover whether Defoe was merely, allowing himself f l e x i b i l i t y to work out what he had not predetermined, ;or whether he was using them for a r t i s t i c reasons. As well, the number'- of completely unresolved forecasts must be taken into account to aid further in determining the degree of Defoe's control.. The natures of the unresolved forecasts must then be considered to discover.their effect on the work as a whole. This second stage, of the., analysis'must be supplemented by a consideration of the distance.between the foreshadowings and their fulfillments to provide a basis for conjecturing about how far ahead Defoe was planning, and to show how individual scenes and larger narrative units are unified. The findings of this phase of the study w i l l be augmented by an examination of the dispersal of forecasts and resolutions to show—as the study of distance alone w i l l not—how much of Roxana is unified by foreshadowing and how cogently i t is unified. Now, because the author can forecast and then abruptly incorporate an obviously contrived resolution at any point in the novel demonstrating nothing except, perhaps, that he had forgotten and then suddenly recalled his forecast and f e l t obliged to account for i t , the study of distance w i l l be followed by a fourth stage in which the 17 contexts in which the resolutions are introduced w i l l be studied to reveal whether the author intended to incorporate his resolutions where he did, or whether he introduced them arbitrarily. If a resolution is introduced naturally and does not disrupt the texture i t w i l l be assumed-—and i t must be emphasized that we can do no more than assume—that Defoe had preconceived the situation in which the forecast is resolved. If the texture is broken or i f Defoe has to shape events to f i t the resolution in a noticeable way i t w i l l be assumed that he was not planning his narrative. When they w i l l illuminate the discussion, comparisons w i l l be made with Defoe's earlier novels. The count of foreshadowings. alone w i l l not direct us to any firm conclusions about the conscious structuring of Roxana, but i t w i l l begin to give us insights into the amount-of planning involved in the composition, and, while the count .of resolutions w i l l not permit anything conclusive to be said.about-Defoe's conscious artistry, i t w i l l provide a foundation for making tentative statements about Defoe's awareness of what he was writing. By my count a total of thirty-five foreshadowings appear, in Roxana-'-or, in other words, although the dispersals do not occur with this frequency, one foreshadow-ing exists for approximately every nine pages of text. Of these thirty-five only four are unresolved, and in one of these cases Defoe has Roxana state that she "may", rather than " w i l l " , relate the story afterwards. This frees Defoe from commitment and possibly demonstrates authorial control insofar as he was not binding himself too rigidly. It is conceivable that he was including material for possible development and to enrich the implications of certain narrative 18 events and to expand the f i c t i o n a l bounds, but was not committing himself to develop i t . Of the other three unresolved forecasts only two d i s turb the texture of the work,, but i n terms of the novel as a whole t h e i r e f fec t s are of minor importance only and are subsumed by the surrounding n a r r a t i v e f a b r i c . Three of the remaining t h i r t y - o n e do not have the prec i se reso lu t ions one expects from the forecasts g iven , and these must be examined to see whether they serve a r t i s t i c funct ions or are simply evidence of loose composition. The committal nature of t h i r t y - o n e of the forecasts combined with the h igh ra te of r e s o l u t i o n makes i t p o s s i b l e to conclude that Defoe was w r i t i n g Roxana with some plan i n mind. The number of foreshadowings alone creates the impression that Defoe was looking ahead, and the number of re so lu t ions s trongly suggests that he had an overview of h i s m a t e r i a l . Moreover, the nature ,of the reso lut ions to the non-committal forecasts u s u a l l y , as we w i l l .see, suggests Defoe had an eye on aes thet ic and dramatic matters and on the p o s s i b i l i t y of g i v i n g h i s heroine p s y c h o l o g i c a l depth. We have now, however, to be more s p e c i f i c and discuss the e f f e c t . o n the nove l ' s o v e r a l l texture and design of the four unresolved foreshadowings i n the three which are not completed as we would expect.. Let us f i r s t consider the unresolved non-committal forecast which occurs when Roxana, speaking of the outcome of her l i a i s o n with the French P r i n c e , says: I found he appointed the C h i l d r e n a s e t t l e d Allowance, by an Assignment of annual Rent, upon the Bank of Lyons, which was s u f f i c i e n t for b r i n g i n g them handsomely, tho' p r i v a t e l y , up i n the World; and that not i n a Manner unworthy of t h e i r Fa ther ' s B lood , tho' I came to be sunk and forgotten i n the Case; nor d i d the C h i l d r e n even know anything of t h e i r Mother, to th i s Day, o ther , than as you may have an Account hereafter (p. 80). 19 Defoe has used "may" rather than the " w i l l " or " s h a l l " which appear most frequent ly i n Roxana, and th i s ind ica tes that he was a l lowing himself latitude'—not to change the shape of the s t o r y , for other s t r u c t u r i n g devices are simultaneously at work here—but to inc lude or exclude m a t e r i a l as he saw f i t . Here he has merely opened up p o s s i b i l i t i e s so that i f he decides to develop th i s in to an inc ident i t can be introduced n a t u r a l l y , and i f he decides not to i t s absence w i l l not j a r the reader. He i s i n c l u d i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l as w e l l , undoubtedly, to suggest dimensions.beyond those contained i n the l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e thread, and thereby, to expand the f i c t i o n a l w o r l d , g i v i n g i t a sense of v i t a l i t y and .rea l i sm absent from the e a r l i e r narra t ives which focus on one. protagonist—probably with the purpose of impressing us with h i s or. .her. r e a l i t y — t o the exc lus ion of a sense of the i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s of the . .protagonist' s immediate world with the past and with c o l l a t e r a l ex is tences . As i t i s , the non-completion has no e f fec t on e i t h e r the texture or the shape of the n o v e l . F i n a l l y , we can say that t h i s instance i s not i n d i c a t i v e of a lack of a u t h o r i a l c o n t r o l but suggests Defoe was leav ing himself a c e r t a i n amount of f l e x i b i l i t y i n developing h i s story—as any n o v e l i s t sure ly does. However, Defoe d id not always protect himself i n th i s way, and blundered three times by having h i s heroine o u t l i n e a f o r e c a s t , promise to f u l f i l l i t , and then f a i l to do so. This f i r s t happens when Roxana states This {being v ir tuous^ and constant to her husband, the Dutch Merchant] I reso lved upon, tho' had the great Temptation o f f e r ' d , as i t did afterwards, I had reason to question my S t a b i l i t y : But of that hereafter (p. 301; f i r s t i t a l i c s mine). 20 Roxana's hint that she was tempted to or actually did sl i p back into her former way of l i f e simply does not materialize. Perhaps Defoe excluded the resolution because he saw i t would destroy the novel's symmetry and distort i t s theme. However, the absence of any supporting evidence prevents speculation. It can be said, though, that this uncompleted foreshadowing is not evidence of a lack of planning in Roxana, The absence of a resolution disrupts the texture but does not affect the novel's main design. The next unresolved committal forecast appears when Roxana outlines part of the l i f e of the illegitimate son she had by the Prince: This Child liv'd to be. a considerable Man: he was f i r s t , an Officer of the Guard, du Corps of France; and afterwards Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons, in Italy; and on many extraordinary'Occasions, show'd, that he was not unworthy such a Father, but many ways deserving a legitimate Birth, and a better Mother: Of which hereafter (p. 82). No resolution is provided for/this forecast, but, because the history of this son possesses only a.very minimal peripheral importance— (in fact, i t is almost irrelevant)—the texture of the novel goes undisturbed. This is not true of the remaining unresolved committal forecast, however, which comes when Roxana advises us that I went about with a Heart loaded with Crime, and altogether in the dark, as to what I was to do; and in this Condition I languish'd near two Years; I may well c a l l i t languishing, for i f Providence had not reliev'd me, I shou'd have died in l i t t l e time: But of that hereafter (p. 265). Clearly this forecast i s a blunder on Defoe's part, for i t suggests a direction which goes completely counter to the course of Roxana's l i f e . Contrary to what this forecast suggests, she is not relieved by repentance but remains tormented by the awareness of her l i f e of crime. We are disturbed, then, by the nature of this forecast. 21 Perhaps Defoe failed to supply a resolution because he realized that one could not be supplied. But this does not explain why he included the forecast in the f i r s t place, and, f i n a l l y , we must regard this instance as a lapse in Defoe's craftsmanship. These faults occur only three times and their effects are ,more than countered by the high number of resolved forecasts and.by the presence of other structuring devices. I am not suggesting that we .can quantitatively evaluate Defoe's success, for conceivably one. gross error could seriously impair our understanding and aesthetic appreciation of the work. But, curiously, because the instances I have pointed to do emerge clearly as errors they do not introduce destructive ambiguities which would obscure Defoe's meaning. Moreover, the interest generated by Roxana's adventures draws our attention away from these forecasts and leaves the texture disrupted..in a minor way only. The three remaining cases do.not:' seem to be resolved as they should. But their effects make.,it...possible to conclude with a large measure of assurance that Defoe..,was ..intentionally seeking a r t i s t i c effects. The f i r s t instance appears when Roxana concludes, after describing her spiritual torment,, at some length, "But I shall perhaps, have Occasion to speak of all..these things by-and-by" (p. 260). Although she does refer to the."Blast of Heaven" (p. 260) at the very end of the novel, the phrase is introduced almost incidentally, albeit crucially, and does not constitute an extended analysis of soul—which the phrase " a l l these things" leads us to expect. Defoe's decision not to give a f u l l discussion of Roxana's spiritual state is part of the reason for the novel's abrupt ending, so disturbing to many c r i t i c s , but i t should be viewed as a strong display of dramatic 22 acumen. Any expansion was unnecessary because we a r e , or should be, already aware of the proport ions of her s u f f e r i n g . I f he had lengthened the treatment of her s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n , an a n t i c l i m a c t i c conclusion would have been produced. This example, then, does not amount to a breach of design but , on the contrary , supports the not ion that Defoe had an overview of h i s novel .and was s e n s i t i v e to aes the t i c matters. In view of the sketchy r e s o l u t i o n we can only speculate about why Defoe worded the forecast the .way he d i d , but two reasonable theories suggest themselves. F i r s t , perhaps . i t was only a f ter Defoe wrote the forecast that he r e a l i z e d that the. r e s o l u t i o n i t demanded would produce an unef fect ive overstatement, Or, secondly, perhaps he i n t e n t i o n a l l y r e l i e d on the strong forecast to impress us with the magnitude of Roxana's s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g because he was aware that he could not dwell on i t at the nove l ' s end. Two other cases, which r e l a t e to Susan's fa te have s t i l l to be considered. The f i r s t i s found towards the end of the novel when Roxana.. t e l l s the reader she had a great-mind to leave Amy behind too, as an A s s i s t a n t , because she understood ..so p e r f e c t l y w e l l , what to advise upon any Emergence.; and. Amy., importun'd me to do so; but I know not what secret .Impulse p r e v a i l ' d over my Thoughts, against i t , . I cou!d,.not do i t , for fear the wicked Jade shou'd make her [Susan"]: away, which my very Soul abhorr 'd the Thoughts of; which however, Amy found Means to b r i n g to pass afterwards; as I may in time relate move particularly (p. 302).10 Granted, Roxana says she "may" r e l a t e the s t o r y , but l a t e r she commits h e r s e l f by s t a t i n g that Susan "did venture i n t o Amy 's Company again af ter tha t , once too much; as I shall relate by i t s e l f " (p. 315). Nevertheless , Roxana does not describe Susan's murder and only t e l l s us that she be l i eved "Amy had made her away; and I b e l i e v ' d i t the more, because Amy came no more near me, but conf irm'd her G u i l t by 23 her Absence" (p. 325). Defoe's combination of e x p l i c i t commentary and suggestion again points towards a f ine dramatic s e n s i b i l i t y . The s p e c i f i c forecasts c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e Susan's f a t e , and the shadowy r e s o l u t i o n ensconces that fate i n mystery, whereas an a c t u a l account would be a n t i c l i m a c t i c , would leave the inc ident almost c l i n i c a l l y exposed, and would, moreover, c r e a t e . a d i s t r a c t i n g emphasis by focusing on Amy and Susan rather than on Roxana, the vagueness creates a tremendous mystery, and-, more important ly , because the uncerta inty about the prec i se d e t a i l s surrounding Susan's death constant ly torments Roxana, the reader i s made•aware, of, the magnitude of the horror and g u i l t Roxana f e e l s . It i s extremely reasonable to assume that Defoe knew exact ly what he was doing and. was manipulat ing h i s m a t e r i a l to produce a powerful dramatic e f fec t and to give the hero ine ' s character psycho log i ca l depth.. This p a r t i a l ana lys i s t e l l s us=a grea t .dea l about Defoe's craftsmanship. That t h i r t y - f i v e . i n s t a n c e s of foreshadowing occur and that t h i r t y - o n e are resolved suggests that Defoe was planning h i s novel and was attempting to bind i t together. Defoe commits r e a l f a u l t s only three times and. .their., e f fec t s are minimal—indeed, i n s i g n i f i c a n t . In the f i r s t episode alone-—that i s , the events extending from the beginning to the f i r s t appearance of the Jewel ler— s ix foreshadowings are inc luded and f i v e of these l i n k t h i s sec t ion to subsequent scenes or episodes i n the nove l . Compared with t h i s the f i r s t episode of Moll Flanders, which comprises the events up to and i n c l u d i n g the death of M o l l ' s f i r s t . h u s b a n d (and which includes approximately twice as much text) contains only one foreshadowing— one which does not l i n k th i s p o r t i o n to any fo l lowing episodes.''"''" 24 Captain Singleton i s l ess easy to d i v i d e in to marked episodes, but i n a volume of text equivalent to the opening episode of Moll Flanders no forecasts are inc luded . We can conclude, t e n t a t i v e l y at any r a t e , that the greater number of foreshadowings i n Defoe's l a s t novel denotes an increased concern for s tructure on the author's p a r t , and that the dramatic and a r t i s t i c e f fec t s produced by t h i s manipulat ion of forecasts— p a r t i c u l a r l y those which are non-committal'--is evidence of an advance i n craftsmanship and a r t i s t r y . When the a n a l y t i c a l stages for the study of foreshadowing were out l ined above i t was stated that an examination of the distances between foreshadowings and reso lut ions would a f ford i n s i g h t s in to how far ahead Defoe was planning Roxana,- And indeed l i g h t w i l l be shed on the quest ion. But distance i t s e l f i s not the most r e l i a b l e index to the reaches of Defoe's p lann ing , for while foreshadowing i s a u n i f i e r i t i s not given a significant-* ro l e i n determining the shape of the o v e r a l l conception. To . r e - s t a t e , then, the study of dis tance w i l l y i e l d only m a r g i n a l l y . s a t i s f y i n g answers about t o t a l planning and i t w i l l have to be supplemented by f indings from the considerat ions of forecast d i s p e r s a l s . However, i t . w i l l supply other va luable informat ion . F i r s t i t w i l l show that foreshadowings and reso lut ions bracket and uni fy i n d i v i d u a l scenes, and provide l i n k s between scenes, and between-major episodes. In other words, i t w i l l show that Defoe was apparently planning scenes as wholes and had future scenes and episodes i n mind. Secondly, while the count of foreshadowings and reso lu t ions led to the conclusion that Defoe conscious ly incorporated foreshadowings as s t r u c t u r a l elements, th i s step of the ana lys i s w i l l deepen and p a r t i c u l a r i z e that impression by making i t obvious that 25 Defoe definitely understood the possibilities and limitations of this device, the effects i t could and could not produce. Again we w i l l see Defoe as a conscious, aware, and subtle craftsman and ar t i s t . There are no set distances between foreshadowings and their resolutions in this novel; they range between one and one hundred and sixty-nine pages. But the distances are such that a sequence of events almost always takes place between a foreshadowing and i t s resolution, and this indicates that Defoe was projecting and was not using foreshadowing simply to introduce immediately following scenes and that he was not developing an ad hoc episodic narration lacking interconnections between scenes and episodes. For example, when Roxana is explaining her i n i t i a l ruin, she refers to an inheritance which was l e f t "in the Hands of my Elder Brother, who^running on too rashly in his Adventures, as a Merchant, failed,.*.and lost not only what he had, but what he had for me too;.as you shall, hear presently" (p. 9). Later she connects this event. ..with her- other misfortunes by stating that " i t was almost half a Year..before this Elopement of my Husband, that the Disaster I mention'd. .above befel my Brother; who Broke, and that in such bad Circumstances, that I had the Mortification to hear not only that he was in Prison, but that there would be l i t t l e or nothing to be had by Way of Composition" (p. 13). The distance involved is only four pages and yet, in compressed fashion, a complete unit of narration i s presented, Roxana manages to relate a f a i r l y detailed account of the decline of the Brewer's business concerns, his bankruptcy, and his departure, before she concludes this section by re-introducing the subject of her lost legacy. The resolution is brought in to compound the picture of Roxana's poverty and i t is 26 f a i r l y obvious that Defoe planned this scene as a whole in order to exploit the f u l l dramatic potential of his materials. In other words, this example shows that Defoe was planning scenes as unities and was relying on foreshadowing to bind them together. In addition, foreshadowings and resolutions serve as links between scenes. An example of this can be found when Roxana asks the rhetorical question, "What could I say to the Gentleman..I the Jeweller] when he press'd me to yield to him, and argued the.Lawfullness of it? But of that in i t s Place" (p. 35). The resolution is provided when Roxana actually becomes his mistress and announces that "Amy put us to-Bed" (p, 45). Internal cohesion between scenes within the major Roxana-Jeweller episode is provided by this foreshadowing-resolution pair. It appears, then, that Defoe was. not planning scenes one at a time but was looking forward. More often the resolutions act as bridges between the major episodes. For examplewhen she concludes the discussion of her relationship with.the French Prince, Roxana informs us that she '.'never heard of .him. more, I mean, not as a Mistress" Cp, 111). Later, in the f i n a l narrative episode, Roxana does hear from him indirectly via Amy, The purpose of the re-introduction w i l l 12 be discussed below, but i t suffices here to say that the foreshadowing and resolution show that Defoe was not planning one scene or even one major episode at a time, but was looking forward as much as four episodes—in this case from the end of the French Prince episode to the beginning of the f i n a l Dutch Merchant segment. Although distance w i l l reveal this much i t w i l l not disclose how much of the novel Defoe had in mind at the outset. That i s , when we consider the resolution involving the French Prince just referred to, 27 we can say with assurance that Defoe had at l eas t an i n c i p i e n t not ion of the novel up to the point of r e s o l u t i o n . But i t i s equal ly poss ib le that he may have had the e n t i r e novel planned. Although sect ions of the novel may have been planned at the outset or even before the beginning, an i n d i c a t i o n of planning might not be given u n t i l w e l l on i n the nove l . I t would be inexpedient d r a m a t i c a l l y , unpleasing a e s t h e t i c a l l y , and i n e f f e c t i v e s t r u c t u r a l l y to frame the novel with forecasts which appear at sthe beginning and are resolved only at the end. I t may seem gratui tous to p r a i s e Defoe for avoiding something which i t i s commonsensical to avo id , but when i t i s remembered that he appears to have been very conscious of s t ruc ture i n th i s work and that s t r u c t u r a l devices were something of a novel ty to him, i t i s not unreasonable to expect obtrus ive and mechanical uses of s t r u c t u r e . But that we do not f i n d these suggests that Defoe was aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of foreshadowing. That Defoe was a lso aware of. the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of foreshadowing can be seen i f one looks at-.how and where the foreshadowings and reso lu t ions are introduced. Rather than construct ing a crude frame, Defoe created an i n t r i c a t e network of interwoven threads to uni fy and strengthen the nove l and to produce an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l eas ing texture . One way i n which t h i s i s e f fec ted can be seen i f we look at the d i s p e r s a l s of forecasts and the overlapping of forecasts and r e s o l u t i o n s . Forecasts are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Roxana wi th the f i r s t appearing on the f i r s t page and the l a s t s ixteen pages from the end (and r e s o l v i n g i n the l a s t paragraph). I n d i v i d u a l f o r e c a s t -r e s o l u t i o n p a i r s are not introduced one a f t er the other i n a l i n e a r fash ion , but overlap with other p a i r s so that a t i g h t l y k n i t interwoven 28 fabric i s created without drawing the reader's attention to the structure i t s e l f . Although forecasts are introduced with great frequency, the distances between forecasts and between forecasts and resolutions are a l l varied so a cogent but unmechanical unity is effected. At no point in the novel i s there a lapse in the use of forecasting; the entire narrative i s affected by the device. Defoe's structural sense and subtle dramatic sense are also exhibited when he leads up to a resolution with several foreshadowings to produce an incremental build-up. Consider, for example, the foreshadowings which lead to the debauching of Amy. The f i r s t comes when Roxana says "tho' I acknowledg'd her [Amy's] Kindness and Fidelity, yet i t was with but a bad Coin that she was paid in at last, as w i l l appear in i t s Place" (p. 16); the next when she.remarks "I have often wonder'd at the faithful Temper of the poor G i r l ; for which I but i l l requited her at last" (p. 26) ; and a third,, more:, ominous, with the words "the Mirth of that Night, and a few more, such afterwards, ruin'd the Girl's Modesty for ever, as. shall...appear by and by, in i t s Place" (p, 44). Structurally, these repetitions bind a section of the narrative together. The build-up also gives some psychological depth to the heroine, for the reader i s given some idea of the enormity of the impression this act has made on Roxana. As well, a mature and sustained response i s demanded of the reader when he realizes that Defoe was not relying on simple shock tactics, for when the resolution comes the reader is shocked with the act i t s e l f and this response i s deepened when he realizes that he has been prepared for the act. A picture of Defoe's increasing maturation as an artist emerges when this scene i s compared with the revelation of Moll's incestuous 29 relationship. The absence of forewarning in the earlier novel suggests two things: that this relationship was not part of a conscious design on Defoe's part but was merely an expedient to tumble Moll from a too comfortable situation back .into turbulent circumstances; and that, psychologically, the relationship weighed l i t t l e upon Moll's mind and did not preoccupy her at a l l . This second result may have been against Defoe's wishes, or perhaps he was totally unconcerned with psychological depth,, but, nevertheless, because Moll's responses take place almost in a void, as i t were, without a pattern of stimulii and motivations ..to define character, psychological realism is absent. Other examples, of incremental repetition include the foreshadowings of Susan's'death, which have been discussed above, and the longer, more complex, build-up to Roxana's dance before the King at P a l l Mall. This is closely, linked to the use of iterative imagery and w i l l be treated fully, in the discussion of imagery in Chapter I I I . 1 3 . This aspect of foreshadowing could be dealt with at greater length, but enough has been said.to.show that while distance i t s e l f is not the most suitable indication of the extent of planning because i t brings us too close to the work when we need to observe larger shapes—when we need to observe devices which outline the novel as a whole—Defoe's handling of forecast dispersals is evidence that he could use foreshadowing to produce superb results and that, in his last novel, he was becoming increasingly mature as a craftsman and an ar t i s t . From the study of distance came the impression that Defoe was planning Roxana at least several major episodes in advance and that 30 he was concerned both with the construction of individual scenes and with the unification of a l l narrative segments. A look at the contexts surrounding the resolutions further substantiates this impression and adds to the view that Defoe was unifying his novel as an a r t i s t , that he was creating i t as an organic unity rather than as a series of narrative blocks mechanically linked together. Whether the resolutions stand out from the contexts or are continuous with the texture, whether they merge naturally or emerge unnaturally, will suggest the presence or absence of a controlling creative consciousness and w i l l reflect on the quality of the a r t i s t i c performance. Length does not permit an analysis of every context, and such a discussion would involve a great deal of duplication, so three contexts only w i l l be considered: : one for a resolution introduced a short distance after i t s foreshadowing; one for a;.resolution effected at an intermediate distance; and one involving:a.resolution separated from i t s forecast by a considerable distance. .These..examples w i l l at once be f a i r l y representative and w i l l complement the three examples used above in the discussion of distance. The f i r s t resolution to be discussed occurs in a unit of narrative which is brief enough to allow the scene to be dealt with as a whole. Thus, not only the context of the resolution, but the f u l l function and effect of the forecast-resolution pair can be outlined. The scene follows immediately after Roxana's marriage to the Dutch Merchant and is devoted, in part, to describing the entertainment the Quaker provides for the couple. This, to begin with, is a plausible outgrowth from the marriage. As the Quaker's entertaining proceeds she finds herself without sufficient plate—another reasonable inclusion in 31 view of the relative austerity of Quakers and the fact that she is in reduced financial circumstances.. And so the events flow smoothly and the forecast is naturally introduced: She was only at a loss for Plate, which she gave me a Whisper of; and I made Amy fetch a large strong Box, which I had lodg'd in a .safe Hand, in which was a l l the fine Plate, which I had provided on a worse Occasion, as is mention'd before', and I put i t into the QUAKER'S Hand; obliging her not to use i t as mine, but as her own, for a Reason I shall mention presently (p. 246). The post-wedding scene also pictures Roxana and her husband settling their financial and domestic aff a i r s . . As part of their plans they decide to reward the Quaker for her. generosity and hospitality, and thus an intermediate reference to the plate between the forecast and resolution is facilitated. For, following her husband's suggestion to allot the woman sixty pounds... a. year, Roxana decides to reduce the stipend to forty pounds, announcing to. the reader, but not to her husband, that her cr i t e r i a for.doing so rest on the fact that she has already given her a large .quantity-of plate. This reference keeps the forecast in mind and ..aids„in..binding the scene together. During a conversation, between the two women Roxana gives the Quaker the plate. Immediately following the description of this act Roxana t e l l s us why she wanted her ownership of the plate concealed: the Box of Plate, a good part of which I gave her, and some I gave to Amy, for I had so much Plate, and some so large, that I thought i f I let my Husband see i t , he might be apt to wonder what Occasion I cou'd ever have for so much, and for Plate of such a kind too . . . (p. 254). Thus the resolution is synthesized with the preceeding narrative, and this lends support to the notion that the scene was conceived as a unit—'and the logical progression of events throughout the scene compounds this impression. 32 The ostensible purpose of this scene is to show Roxana and her husband arranging their affairs following their marriage. Yet because of the forecast and resolution, because these are specifically concerned with Roxana's plate, her desire to be r i d of i t , and her reasons for concealing her ownership of i t from her husband, the scene takes on a much more significant function. In combination with the Turkish dress, the plate formed a focal point for the P a l l Mall scenes. Roxana informed the reader that while furbishing her rooms she bought a handsome Quantity of Plate, necessary to have served a l l the Side-Boards, but the Gentlemen would not suffer any of i t to be us'd; telling me, they had bought fine China Dishes and Plates for the whole Service; and that in such Publick Places they cou'd not be answerable for the Plate; so it was set-up in a large Glass-Cupboard in the Room I sat in, where it made a very good Show indeed (p. 177, italics.mine). Re-introduced later the plate takes, on .an almost symbolic dimension connoting Roxana's vanity,.her love of.luxury, and her immoral past l i f e . These associations act as foils, to.Roxana's present l i f e - s t y l e and emphasize her deceit and hypocrisy by showing that inwardly no change has occured although she has altered her outward appearances; that she has made no attempt to make amends for or to repent of her former l i f e . Her eagerness to dispose of the plate is consistent with her desire to obscure the past and begin a new l i f e , but this again emphasizes her fundamentally.unchanged nature. The discrepancy between appearances and true nature is. brought to a peak when the Dutch Merchant responds to Roxana's offer to reward the Quaker by making his speech "upon the Subject of Gratitude", telling her that i t was one of the brightest Parts of a Gentlewoman; that i t was so twisted with Honesty, nay and even with 33 R e l i g i o n too, that he quest ion'd whether e i ther of them cou'd be found, where Grat i tude was not to be found; that i n th i s Act there was not only G r a t i t u d e , but C h a r i t y ; and that to make the Char i ty s t i l l more C h r i s t i a n - l i k e , the object too had r e a l Mer i t to a t t r a c t i t . . . (p. 249). Roxana's c h a r i t a b l e gestures are completely undercut and her dissembling and immorality are f o r c e f u l l y exposed by her husband's exemplary m o r a l i t y , h i s ingenuous good f a i t h , and h i s speech on C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s . By construct ing a scene with the nominal funct ion of having Roxana s e t t l e her a f f a i r s with her husband and reward the Quaker, Defoe re - in troduces the p la te and not only binds the scene together and binds i t with the e a r l i e r P a l l M a l l scenes, but c a l l s in to play past assoc iat ions which permeate t h i s / s e c t i o n and dramat i ca l ly underscore Roxana's moral and s p i r i t u a l corrupt ion and guide the reader towards a moral judgement of the hero ine . . . The second example depicts. Roxana dispos ing of her jewels and c l a r i f i e s why she regret ted keeping.!, them.. At the end of the French Pr ince episode Roxana resolves,..to. leave P a r i s and "go d i r e c t l y to England" (p. 111). In preparat ion she converts her goods i n t o b i l l s of exchange, and, because she fears t r a v e l l i n g with the jewels , she decides to convert them a l s o . Hearing of h i s r e p u t a t i o n , she goes to the Dutch Merchant, The Jew i s present , of course, and as soon as he sees the jewels recognizes them as the ones a l l e g e d l y s to l en from Roxana's former "husband". Immediately he suspects her of compl ic i ty i n the Jewe l l er ' s murder and i n i t i a t e s h i s b lackmai l p l o t . As i n the previous example the events are a l l p l a u s i b l e and flow smoothly so that the r e s o l u t i o n i s introduced as a n a t u r a l extension of the n a r r a t i v e . And aga in , the texture i s evidence of Defoe's planning and craftsmanship. Despite the f i f t y - s i x pages between the 34 resolution and the foreshadowing Defoe did not lose sight of the narrative commitment he had made. The distance of f i f t y - s i x pages is too great to allow the forecast and i t s resolution to function as unifiers in the same way as the less widely separated forecast-resolution pairs do. The pair completely bridges the French Prince episode and by the time the reader reaches the resolution he has probably forgotten the forecast—or at least i t s precise details and those of the surrounding situation. However, this stimulates a mental flashback in the reader, and consequently, past and possibly half-forgotten.events are brought to the fore and re-emphasized. Moreover, the events.the reader recalls from the Jeweller episode act as a backdrop which underscores Roxana's present moral and spiritual state and dramatizes her increasing degeneracy; the brazen defence she makes of,her, .innocence and her failure to feel any sense of moral wrong, compared-with her earlier trepidations and slightly more feeling attitude.,..demonstrate her increasing callousness, hypocrisy and adeptness at masquerading. Finally, the resolution allows for the natural introduction of the Dutch Merchant whose moral virtues and natural generosity act as strong f o i l s to Roxana's moral corruption and lack of human compassion. The resolution, then, brings .past material back into.focus, and fa c i l i t a t e s character revelation by setting up associations between characters, and between situations. Again, the reader is guided towards a moral judgement as Defoe clearly portrays his heroine's character and transmits a positive set of values. From this we can begin to see how Defoe overcame the ambiguity which clouds his earlier novels. And, one must point out, this clarity of presentation should be regarded as 35 a v i r t u e . F o r , genera l ly speaking, e ighteenth-century l i t e r a t u r e was d i d a c t i c i n i t s underly ing intent and strove to present as c l e a r l y as poss ib le i t s moral . And, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , Defoe i n d i c a t e d that h i s aim i n w r i t i n g f i c t i o n was to instruct."*"^ While we have come to p r i z e an element of ambiguity i n l i t e r a t u r e we cannot denigrate Defoe because h i s concept of the novel was d i f f e r e n t from ours . And, f i n a l l y , we must remind ourselves that the ambiguity we d e l i g h t i n i s a construct ive rather than a des truc t ive ambiguity which adds complexity to a work but does not u l t i m a t e l y render i t s meaning impossible to a s c e r t a i n , The t h i r d r e s o l u t i o n i s separated from i t s forecast by a distance more than twice that i n the previous example, and y e t , everything about i t from the way i t i s incorporated to the way i t funct ions marks i t as an i n t e g r a l part ,of. a planned piece of w r i t i n g . The reader's expectations are aroused.-at the end of the French Pr ince episode when Roxana states "I never, heard of him [the French Pr ince] more, I mean not as a Mis tress" (p. I l l ) . One hundred and twenty pages later-—that i s , a f ter the c e n t r a l Dutch Merchant episode and Roxana's P a l l M a l l adventures'—the expectations are answered i n Amy's l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the Pr ince ' s , des i re to seek out and marry Roxana. I t i s obvious that the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Pr ince i s a means of p r o v i d i n g a standard to assess Roxana's moral and s p i r i t u a l s ta te and thus of c l a r i f y i n g Defoe's values and guiding the reader towards a moral judgement, and that i t i s , then, the main purpose of i n c l u d i n g Amy's journey to Europe. However, the reader i s never aware of Defoe's p l o t machinations, never fee ls any sense of contr ivance . The r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n i s prepared for w e l l i n advance, for i t i s seventeen 36 pages earlier that Amy embarks for France. Moreover, the reference to the Prince i s made to appear almost incidental and hence a l l the more uncontrived because Amy's ostensible purpose in going to France is to discover news about the Dutch Merchant. This foreshadowing-resolution pair functions even less as a unifier than do the previous ones discussed. But the resolution does allow for the creation of illuminating character associations. The Prince's repentance and penance contrast strongly with Roxana's unreflecting and unregenerate nature. His behaviour becomes a standard of right conduct and forces the reader to condemn Roxana for her failure to make amends for her l i f e of sin. As well, Roxana's response to the letter further reveals her callous and opportunistic nature as she prepares to abandon the Merchant for the Prince, Not only is the re-introduction dramatically effective, but i t also introduces a standard which.clarifies Defoe's attitudes towards ethical and spiritual.conduct. Defoe's, advance in artistry can be seen i f this event i s compared to the.reappearance of Moll's Lancashire husband, which is not only grossly handled but f a i l s to serve any function, unless i t be that of allowing a romantic, happy ending. Although his cavalier reaction to the imminent possibility of death contrasts with Moll's, neither character is an effective f o i l to the other— for neither character represents a set of values well enough defined to emphasize and c l a r i f y meaning. To re-state, then, the strategic reference to the Prince not only illustrates Defoe's dramatic and structural sensibility, but serves to crystallize some of the novel's themes and values. More w i l l be said below about the precise nature of these values. My concern here is to point out that many of the 37 revelatory associations between characters and between situations are made possible through the use of foreshadowing. The four stages of this analysis make i t clear beyond doubt that a controlling consciousness was at work in the composition of Roxana. The sophisticated use of foreshadowing could not be the product of chance, and only one£- conclusion is possible*—that Defoe planned and carefully developed his last novel. The device is used consistently and serves the inclusive purpose of ..unifying the entire span of narration, creating expectations, adding complexity to character, re-emphasizing certain portions of the novel, and:making possible the associations which dramatize the novel's themes, and values. Not only does this device function effectively, but it..is organically interrelated with a l l the other structural devices ..and with the novel as a whole. And although the actual forecasts are.perhaps abrupt and lack the sophistication of those* used by later* novelists,, the purely functional nature of the forecast-resolution.pairs is masked by narrative interest, by dramatic effects, and.by thematic interests. Foreshadowing not only functions effectively, then,.but i t does so in a manner which contributes to the supra-mechanical level of the novel—to the novel as an a r t i s t i c whole. Foreshadowing in Roxana is definitely evidence of authorial control and i t i s one example of a marked advance in Defoe's novelistic technique. CHAPTER II Roxana's E p i s o d i c D i v i s i o n s The main purpose for the analys i s of foreshadowing was to show how that device i s evidence that Defoe was consciously s t r u c t u r i n g Roxana. Now that a s t r u c t u r a l awareness has been demonstrated we must consider the remaining f i v e s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s — p r i m a r i l y from the point of view of how they c l a r i f y and convey meaning—and an exce l lent i n t r o d u c t i o n to th i s study i s an examination of the seven major episodes in to which the novel f a l l s . In the process of seeing how the novel i s d iv ided and o f . d i s c o v e r i n g what e f fec t s the d i v i s i o n s have we w i l l gather an awareness of the larger shape of the n o v e l , and t h i s , i n t u r n , w i l l form a s o l i d comprehensive foundation for our cons iderat ion of the other s t r u c t u r i n g devices which b r i n g us much c loser to the nove l . Defoe d id not employ chapters i n any of h i s nove l s , and i n the four preceeding Roxana i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s cern any marked n a r r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s at a l l . A c t u a l l y we can detect some d i v i s i o n s i n Robinson Crusoe, and these are a l igned with-—for example—his escape from Sallee., h i s a r r i v a l on the i s l a n d , h i s departure from i t , and so on. But they lack the a r t i f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n or d i s t i n c t i o n which n o v e l i s t s commonly use to s i g n i f y that a major importance attaches to the change from one scene to another, to h i g h l i g h t the importance of a ser ies or un i t of events i n a charac ter ' s l i f e , and to produce dramatic emphasis. Consequently one scene fol lows another with no - 38 -39 accentuation un t i l the novel completes i t s e l f . This is true of Moll Flanders as well, and i t is even more true of Captain Singleton and Colonel Jack which seem to lack internal divisions altogether, and more or less simply begin, continue on, and end. Defoe cannot be denigrated because his novels are so constructed: we must keep in mind that he did not have a tradition to follow and could not be aware of the potentialities of a r t i f i c e . But as a result of the absence of divisions, events which are perhaps meant to be significant tend to blend into the general narrative .fabric and the novels are deficient dramatically. A degree of a r t i f i c i a l i t y in some form or another is necessary, then, to prevent the,.novel from becoming a collage of unstressed events, from fragmenting.as some of Defoe's do, or from becoming a d i f f i c u l t maze of. events, the meaning of which is obscure. From the point of view of meaning Defoe could not write successfully without divisions as—--let us. say—Bunyan could. The Pilgrim's Progress does not require structural.. aids-_ of the type found in novelistic f i c t i o n by. virtue of the. f act..that., given a character named Graceless who becomes Christian, the.reader.already knows the overall shape and direction of the allegory„..-: But- Defoe's stories were new and needed structuring to assist the-reader... Thus a r t i f i c e i s also necessary to break the novel into "manageable" units—units which enable the reader to ponder them as wholes and to thus extract as fu l l y as possible their meanings before proceeding to the next. Unless a f i c t i o n a l work is as short a s — t o choose one which preceeds Defoe^—Henry Neville's Isle of Pines (or even Aphra Behn's Oroonoko), a r t i f i c i a l divisions are needed to prevent the reader from losing the narrative thread. To a certain extent chapters or episodes help the reader through 40 the work and the divisions between the episodes act as punctuation marks which allow him to pause, to reflect on, and better to comprehend sections of the narrative and, ultimately, the whole narrative. 1 Apparently Defoe was aware of the problem by the time he wrote Roxana, for this work is comprised of seven distinct (but, as we w i l l see, continuous) episodes, Roxana's moral deterioration is a continuous process, but the episodes break i t down into stages so that we can understand the nature of the deterioration, see highlighted the actions and choices which precipitate .her downfall, and understand the precise nature of her sins, Basically the episodes block out her career and make i t easier to follow and understand. Roughly the episodes are .bracketed by the beginnings and ends of Roxana's relationships and. they are arranged in groups of three around a central pivotal episode,. The f i r s t , which extends from the beginning of Roxana's story to the arrival of the Jeweller, demonstrates that while she is not p o s i t i v e l y e v i l at this point in her l i f e she is strongly controlled by vanity, and egocentricity and that she is passive and irresponsible. In the. .second, episode, which begins with the Jeweller's arrival and ends, with..his death, Roxana becomes more irresponsible as she f a i l s to act on her own behalf to remain virtuous but becomes a mistress, albeit reluctantly, as the easiest way of escaping poverty. The third episode covers the duration of her relationship with the French Prince and shows Roxana more strongly dominated by vanity and avarice and less reluctant to sin. In the fourth and central episode Roxana meets the Merchant. Although—or because—he is a model of virtue, she rejects him and the opportunity he offers for reforming and leading an honourable l i f e , and by doing 41 so Roxana deepens her sins by actually rejecting a l l moral concerns to indulge her greed. In the f i f t h episode, which is comprised of her stay at the Pal l Mall and the period of her mistresship to the King, Roxana consciously sets out, motivated by a vain conceit of her own beauty, with the express intent of accumulating wealth by becoming a mistress, and thus a further decay is indicated as she becomes almost totally motivated by greed and.vanity. In the sixth episode Roxana appears even more calculating and. mercenary when she engages in a relationship with the lecherous. Old Lewd Favourite with the exclusive aim of adding to her wealth, ..The f i n a l episode, which begins after her liaison with the Favourite ends, pictures Roxana returning to an outwardly respectable existence and returning to the company of the Merchant, The respectable..circumstances stress Roxana's hypocrisy and inner corruption and her,marriage emphasizes her avarice and egocentricity. Together ..the..episodes, present clearly, in a step by step fashion, the course of Roxana's moral deterioration. And, in addition, a symmetry of structure and a cohesive and informative dramatic irony i s imparted to. the. work by the nature of the f i r s t , fourth, and seventh episodes... In the f i r s t Roxana is married to a man of the mercantile class, but one who is indolent and indulges in decadent pursuits. In. the central episode she meets another merchant who is his complete opposite, but rejects him out of hand to pursue a career as a mistress. In the final.episode she marries the Merchant but cannot enjoy the fruits of the relationship because, overwhelmed with a sense of guilt and unable to repent, she is torn by spiritual torment. Finally, this arrangement of two groups of three episodes around a central episode, which is too well organized to be the product 42 of chance, clearly conveys the novel's values and highlights significant turning points in Roxana's decay. This, in brief, is an outline of the nature and function of the episodes, and we w i l l now examine each of them in more detail. The f i r s t episode is concerned, to a large extent, with delineating Roxana's character traits and with establishing her behavioural patterns. The novel's second paragraph gives us a concise and incisive insight into her basic nature: I, who knew l i t t l e or nothing of what I was brought over hither for, was well-enough pleas'd with being here; London, a large and gay City, took with me mighty well, who, from my being a Child, lov'd a Crowd, and to see a great-many fine Folks (p. 5). This confession reveals the vanity which is to grow into a ruthless egocentricity and the eager impressionability which causes Roxana to love show and facade more. .than...true .value and leads her to pursue wealth and luxury rather than virtue. In the following paragraph, where Roxana describes herself as a g i r l and which, by the way, introduces the dancing motif., the portrait of a vain woman is reinforced: I was {speaking of myself as about Fourteen Years of Age) t a l l , and very well made; sharp as a Hawk in Matters of common Knowledge; quick and smart in Discourse; apt to be Satyrical; f u l l of Repartee, and a l i t t l e too forward in Conversation; or, as we c a l l i t in English, Bold, tho' perfectly Modest in my Behaviour. Being French Born, I danc'd, as some say, naturally, lov'd i t extremely, and sung well also, and so well, that, as you w i l l hear, i t was afterwards some Advantage to me: With a l l these Things, I wanted neither Wit -, Beauty, or Money. In this Manner I set out into the World, having a l l the Advantages that any Young Woman cou'd desire, to recommend me to others, and form a Prospect of happy Living to myself (pp. 6-7). In i t s e l f this i s not a damning picture but i t does betray an exuberant self-conceit uninformed by self-knowledge and a preoccupation with 43 s o c i a l a c t i v i t y uncoupled with s o c i a l commitment. Perhaps innocuous here , these tendencies are to transform into an exc lus ive e g o c e n t r i c i t y and a t o t a l lack of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e i r e f fec t s are soon made apparent as Roxana marries , the Brewer, a "handsome, j o l l y Fellow" (p. 7) , a f t er f i r s t b e i n g . a t t r a c t e d to him because "he danc'd we l l" (p. 7). And whi le the Brewer's indolence places Roxana i n a s i t u a t i o n of r e l a t i v e poverty he i s n o t , .as .Roxana c la ims , "the Foundation of [her] Ruin" (p, 7) , for i t i s . her own i m p r e s s i o n a b i l i t y which leads her to marry him, and, as we d i s c o v e r , i t i s p r i m a r i l y her p a s s i v i t y , v a n i t y , and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which lead her to s i n a f ter h i s deser t ion . When the Brewer departs , Roxana takes no measures to fend for h e r s e l f even though she.has "some P la te and Jewels" (p. 13), "Seventy Pound i n Money" (p, 12) , and. a. ,furnished house; instead she languishes for a year u n t i l the Jewel ler appears. Admittedly the burden of f i v e c h i l d r e n prevents her from.working b u t . i t does not exclude the expedient (which, i t becomes obvious l a t e r , i s the one she should have chosen) of accommodating lodgers Reduced to extreme poverty by i n a c t i v i t y Roxana allows the c h i l d r e n ..to be deposited with her husband's r e l a t i v e s . Af ter th i s and jus t p r i o r u t o the J e w e l l e r ' s a r r i v a l the f i r s t episode ends, and, as Roxana advises us , she "was now . . . enter ing on a new Scene of L i f e " (p, 25), During th i s per iod Roxana i s not a conscious s i n n e r , but the van i ty of her chi ldhood and youth have grown i n t h e i r inf luence to the point where she i s pass ive , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , and more concerned with h e r s e l f than with the welfare of others . At the end of the f i r s t episode Roxana cannot be judged g u i l t y of being a s i n n e r , but ne i ther i s she t o t a l l y innocent , and she can be held respons ib le for the fates of 44 her children and for allowing herself to become more controlled by her malign character traits and for thus preparing the way for a l i f e of sin, On relating her story Roxana apparently senses this irresponsibility and attempts to enlist our sympathy and to divert blame. First she berates her husband and holds him totally accountable for her ruin. At the outset we are inclined to .side with Roxana, but even though we never absolve the Brewer we do .begin to entertain doubts about the extent to which he can be blamed..when Roxana launches her lengthy tirade against "Fools" (p, 8).,,.; The speech has a rhetorical tone and an excessive nature which seem,.designed to steer us away from the complete truth. But, in fact, ,the. tone and excess lead us to suspect (and to suspect correctly);.that Roxana is not an innocent victim of circumstances. Our misgivings..are reinforced when Roxana informs us that the Brewer "had not.been.put to the'Necessity of r i f l i n g " (p, 13) her before departing.,.,. i f this is not a noble gesture i t does, at least, demand a certain amount, of admiration and raises him slightly in our estimation. To sustain the facade of wounded innocence Roxana s k i l l f u l l y presents a sentimentalized picture of her poverty: You shall judge a l i t t l e of my present Distress by the Posture she [the old "Aunt" and friend to the family] found me i n : I had five l i t t l e Children, the Eldest was under ten Years old, and I had not one Shilling in the House to buy them Victuals, but had sent Amy out with a Silver Spoon to s e l l i t , and bring home something from the Butcher's; and I was in a Parlour, sitting on the Ground, with a great Heap of. old Rags, Linnen, and other things about me, looking them over, to see i f I had any thing among them that would Sell or Pawn for a l i t t l e Money, and had been crying ready to burst myself, to think what I should do next (p. 17). This very persuasive description lends conviction to Roxana's claims 45 about her husband and engages our sympathy. That i s , i t does u n t i l we round out the account and penetrate her t a c t i c s . When Roxana's s i t u a t i o n i s considered o b j e c t i v e l y , i t i s c l ear that she has not taken any steps towards s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n but has simply wasted away what the Brewer l e f t her , When, i n the second episode, the Jewel ler suggests that Roxana take i n lodgers , and when the Quaker's response to a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i s reported i n the f i n a l episode, Roxana's p a s s i v i t y becomes even more manifest , Roxana also seems to sense her i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y while these events are t r a n s p i r i n g and therefore employs a number of t a c t i c s to d i v e r t blame. For example, she commits an ac t ion which i s , i n i t s underly ing motives , damning, "When.her resources are v i r t u a l l y depleted she s t i l l does not act but. allows Amy to suggest and execute the scheme of abandoning the chi ldren. , Roxana advises us that she has l e f t "the Management of the whole..Matter.-to my. Maid Amy" (p. 19). She does vo ice some concern about p a r t i n g with her c h i l d r e n but her maternal i n s t i n c t s are qu ick ly p a c i f i e d when she considers "they must i n e v i t a b l y be S t a r v ' d , and I too, i f .I..continued to keep them about me" (p. 19). Af ter doing nothing for.them.she. takes . the easy way out, and not only i s her s e l f - concern dominant here , but by a l lowing Amy to c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n she i s making her p a r t i a l l y responsible for the ac t . Roxana's argument that she has allowed Amy to carry out the p lan because she h e r s e l f i s at a loss about what to do i s unconvincing, for we have already seen, when.she advises her husband before h i s r u i n , that she i s extremely prac t i ca l -minded and i s very adept at making dec i s i ons . A l l Roxana's evasive t a c t i c s and ploys to engage sympathy eventual ly 46 f a i l and the reader i s l e f t free o b j e c t i v e l y to assess the hero ine . Again , whi le Roxana i s not a conscious and a c t i v e s inner at t h i s po int she does evince a marked degree.of e g o c e n t r i c i t y which renders her s o c i a l l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e , and a degree of indolence and vani ty which prevents her from preserving even her own wel fare . The reader must not go too f a r , however, and must ensure the v a l i d i t y of h i s assessment by viewing Roxana's character in. context. To beg in , although Roxana makes no e f f o r t to overcome t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , she i s c e r t a i n l y being quite honest when she advises that she was "not bred to Work" (p. 15). And though she i s wrong to lay a l l the blame for her circumstances at the Brewer's f ee t , we do sympathize with Roxana for being married to an unthinking and lazy husband. F i n a l l y , a f t er the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Roxana's unchar i table re la t i ve s—and e s p e c i a l l y of the s i s t e r - i n - l a w who has even f irmer notions, about c h a r i t y than F i e l d i n g ' s Mrs. Tow-wouse— our judgment i s considerably softened. The f u l l impl i ca t ions of...the, f i r s t episode have not been d i scussed , for i t contains numerous th ings .which , although they r e f l e c t on Roxana's charac ter , do not.-become s i g n i f i c a n t u n t i l l a t e r i n the n o v e l . The d e t a i l s about Roxana's French. .or ig in .and about her parents ' reasons for leav ing France , for example, become important only when she returns o to her homeland. And the b r i e f sketch of her fa ther , who was not only a good businessman but who possessed strong moral and r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , a l so takes on a d d i t i o n a l meaning when Roxana becomes less moral and more mater ia l i s t i c .and;when she meets and re jec t s the Dutch Merchant who s i m i l a r l y possesses the a b i l i t y to harmonize economic and moral concerns. But enough has been s a i d to demonstrate that the events o u t l i n e d above do, i n f a c t , cons t i tu te an episode, and that 47 i t isolates a phase in Roxana's moral deterioration and thereby allows us to comprehend the cause and nature of the decay. That the episodes function in this way w i l l become more evident during the discussion of the next episode which highlights the second major stage in her decline and permits us to compare.that stage to her character as i t is i n i t i a l l y presented, In the second episode Roxana allows the traits which reduced her to poverty to lead her to sin,. This episode also contains details which reflect back on and further c l a r i f y the f i r s t episode. For example, the Jeweller proposes.that Roxana accommodate lodgers as a scheme !'by which I she] w i l l easily get a good comfortable Subsistance" (p. 2), Roxana admits this "was,,a very probable Way . . . seeing we had very good Conveniences, six. Rooms on a Floor, and three Stories high" Cp. 32). Her failure ,to.develop such a plan on herrown clearly points to her lack of initiative, and.indicates that, although the Brewer put her in financial d i f f i c u l t i e s , the extreme of poverty she suffered was the result-of her. lack, of industriousness. In addition, Roxana's journey to France..and.her activities there bring out the f u l l significance of her remarks about France. 3 When the Jeweller assists Roxana, Amy Cand the reader) suspects him of having ulterior motives. Roxana protests against this, rebukes Amy, and states that even " i f he would give me an.Estate to live on, he should not lye with me" (p. 28). While her failure to suspect the Jeweller's intentions is possibly artful ingenuousness and while her protestations perhaps sound too pat to be totally sincere, there are s t i l l no firm grounds for sceptically suspecting her of blatant hypocrisy. But i f she is sincere at this point, after receiving the 48 Jewe l l er ' s g i f t s and l i s t e n i n g to h i s persuas ions , she does become a hypocr i t e and widens the d i s j u n c t i o n between her moral sense and her inner des ires when, a f ter confessing that she "was i n c l i n ' d " (p, 35) to give i n to him, she throws up a moral front and expresses ind ignat ion when she l i s t e n s to Amy: vo ice her own thoughts. By dec id ing to become the Jewe l l er ' s mistress Roxana i s ac t ing very much i n character . Again her lack of i n i t i a t i v e and indolence p r e v a i l , and af ter assessing her s i t u a t i o n Roxana sees only two p o s s i b l e ways to cope with her circumstances. Instead of h i t t i n g upon a way of e x i s t i n g wherein she could l i v e comfortably and v i r t u o u s l y , she determines that she can e i ther re turn to her former " h o r r i b l e Dis tresses" (p. 44) and l i v e v i r t u o u s l y .or become a mistress and l i v e immorally but i n m a t e r i a l comfort,^ T y p i c a l l y , even though she knows she i s s i n n i n g , she takes the course.of ' ac t ion which requires the l ea s t e f f o r t , By committing, her thoughts and words to ac t ion she becomes even more m a t e r i a l i s t i c and,..less moral . She summarizes her f ee l ings on becoming a mis tress : • , And thus i n Grat i tude f o r the Favours I r e c e i v ' d from a Man, was a l l Sence of R e l i g i o n , and Duty to God, a l l Regard to V i r t u e and Honour, given up at once . . . (p. 43).~* As i n the f i r s t episode Roxana asks for the reader's sympathy and pleads her case. But now she does so more o v e r t l y and more i n s i s t e n t l y and th is suggests that. Roxana now possesses a stronger sense of g u i l t . At f i r s t she appeals d i r e c t l y to the reader: Poverty was my Snare; dreadfu l Poverty! the Misery I had been i n , was great , such as wou'd make the Heart tremble at the Apprehensions of i t s Return; and I might appeal to any that has had any Experience of the World, whether one so e n t i r e l y d e s t i t u t e as I was, of a l l manner of a l l He lps , or F r i e n d s , e i ther to support me, or to a s s i s t me to support myself , could withstand the Proposa l ; not 49 that I plead th i s as a J u s t i f i c a t i o n of my Conduct ? but that i t may move the P i t y , even of those that abhor the Crime (p. 39), Again th i s i s persuas ive , but Roxana has chosen a course of a c t i o n without explor ing and te s t ing other p o s s i b i l i t i e s . And once more i t i s c l ear that Roxana fee l s g u i l t y at the time she s i n s , f o r , j u s t as she d id before , she now allows Amy to make her dec i s i ons . Af ter Roxana has already determined t o . g i v e h e r s e l f to the Jewel ler she complains to Amy."I know not what to do" (p. 40). Amy expresses an opinion which echoes Roxana's own sentiments and Roxana decides to abide by th i s advice . Moreover, a f t er Amy of fers advice Roxana blames her , saying that she "had but. too much Rhetorick i n t h i s Cause" (p. 39) and "prompted the.Crime": (p. 40). Roxana's t a c t i c s are more obvious here than they, were i n the f i r s t episode and th i s ind ica te s that she i s now more culpable and i s aware of i t . Her e f f o r t s to pac i fy her conscience are s trongly dramatized when, af ter s leeping wi th . the Jewel ler and becoming a "Whore" (p. 43) as she b l u n t l y terms it-v-and.her frankness seems to be another attempt to disarm us—she makes Amy a whore as w e l l by f o r c i n g her to copulate with the Jewel ler so tha t .her presence w i l l not serve as a reproach. And we must see Amy as an innocent here , for despite her o f fer to p r o s t i t u t e h e r s e l f she i s shocked by the act and has twice before stated that her o f fer was mere t a l k . By using another person to pac i fy her conscience rather than reforming, Roxana further d i sp laces moral concerns and becomes more deeply entrenched i n g u i l t . In the second episode we see that the character t r a i t s revealed i n the f i r s t episode have gained increas ing c o n t r o l and that indolence and van i ty have l ed Roxana into s i n . But the a c t i v e p u r s u i t of wealth through p r o s t i t u t i o n has not , at th i s stage, f igured i n her behaviour, 50 for af ter her union with the Jewel ler she i s s a t i s f i e d with her m a t e r i a l circumstances and a per iod of s t a b i l i t y p r e v a i l s u n t i l he d i e s . Nor has she l o s t a l l compassion y e t , for she does love him, and she i s d i s t r a c t e d by the premonition o f . h i s murder, and does g r i e v e , s h o r t -l i v e d as the per iod of mourning i s , a f t er he i s murdered. So although she has allowed her b a s i c t r a i t s to lead h e r , and has consequently become less mora l , she i s not as. s i n f u l as she i s to become. The t h i r d episode begins with Roxana becoming the P r i n c e ' s mi s t re s s , and because the second episode begins i n the same way we are provided with a p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n which, enables us to gauge the increase i n her moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n . . Roxana.-;offers much less res i s tance to the Pr ince than she d id to the Jewel ler i n sp i t e of her very comfortable circumstances, and voices none of the moral sentiments she ra i s ed p r e v i o u s l y . Although she tel ls . , us she "hesitated much at consent ing, at f i r s t asking" (p, .65). ...this.., is' not. born out by the readiness with which she agrees to become, his , m i s t r e s s , and, i n fac t she a c t u a l l y advances a reason for quickly, c a p i t u l a t i n g — t h a t a P r i n c e , un l ike other men, cannot be he ld i n waiting—and t h i s suggests that any h e s i t a t i o n on her part would only have been designed to conceal a too great eagerness with a token show of modesty. Indeed, Roxana informs us that a f t er the Pr ince aroused her van i ty she c u l t i v a t e d her beauty to win h i s favour: -I was dres s 'd i n a kind of ha l f -Mourning , had t u r n ' d off my Weeds., and my Head, tho' I had yet no Ribbands or Lace, was so d r e s s ' d , as f a i l ' d not to set me out with Advantage enough, for I began to understand h i s Meaning; and the Pr ince p r o f e s s ' d , I was the most b e a u t i f u l Creature on Earth . . . (p. 61). So van i ty has become more powerful than before and Roxana uses her 51 beauty to win the P r i n c e . And, when Roxana represents h e r s e l f to the Pr ince as a poor widow we see that avar ice has a lso gained more in f luence . The standard of comparison provided by the opening of the f i r s t episode s trongly points to the fac t that Roxana has now become less re luc tant to s i n , and that avar ice and van i ty now f igure much more prominent ly . in her behaviour. This i s also made c lear as,we read on, and as th i s episode develops i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious .that her van i ty grows and that her i n c i p i e n t recogn i t ion of her beauty as an asset develops i n t o a f u l l conscious r e c o g n i t i o n ' o f i t s va lue . As Roxana senses the end of her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Pr ince approaching and with an eye on the f u t u r e , she speaks of "the Great A r t i c l e , that supported my I n t e r e s t , I mean what he [the Pr ince] call.'.d Beauty" (p. 105). Her avar ice cont inues , to;grow as w e l l , and th i s becomes apparent when she describes the .Pr ince ' s*muni f i cence : As I had thus given the Pr ince the Last Favour, and he had a l l the Freedom with me, that i t was pos s ib l e f o r me to grant , so he gave me Leave to use as much Freedom with him, another Way, and that was, to have every thing of him, I thought f i t to command; and yet I d id not ask of him with an A i r ,of A v a r i c e , as i f I was g r e e d i l y making a Penny of him; but I Manag'd him with such A r t , that he genera l ly an t i c ipa ted my Demands . . . (p. 66). At th i s point Roxana has not only become much more mercenary and c a l c u l a t i n g than p r e v i o u s l y , but she has a lso become very adept at d i s g u i s i n g i t . Roxana's d e t e r i o r a t i o n also becomes obvious from a d i f f e r e n t angle. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the easy i m p r e s s i o n a b i l i t y f i r s t apparent i n the nove l ' s second paragraph has now. s trongly af fected Roxana's moral va lues . She advises the reader that at the time of her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Pr ince she f e l t the l i a i s o n to be moral ly r i g h t , and i n 52 explaining her reasons for this belief she offers an interesting equation of values: To finish the F e l i c i t y of this Part, I must not forget, that the Devil had play'd a new Game with me, and prevail'd with me to sati s f i e myself with this Amour, as a lawful thing; that a Prince of such Grandeur, and Majesty; so in f i n i t e l y superior to me; and one who had made such an Introduction by an unparallel'd Bounty, I could not resist; and therefore, that i t was very Lawful for me to do i t . . . (p. 68). In other words Roxana has lost sight of true worth and considers virtue to be dependent upon the largely material standards of rank and position, and because her keeper is a Prince she regards their relationship as lawful. Her decay i s also made, evident when the Brewer reappears in France. Rather than being motivated to reform when faced with this tangible reminder of the fact that she is an adulterer, Roxana takes a great deal of precaution to ensure that the Brewer w i l l not disrupt her l i f e , Characteristically., she. conceals her sins rather than atoning for them. But to pacify her. own conscience and to attempt to delude the reader she does raise the question of repentance—and then dismisses i t with a totally specious, argument based on the contention that her husband is a "Fool" (p. 93). Of course the Brewer's f o l l i e s in no way excuse Roxana's behaviour and she is simply using him here as a scapegoat. Reform is not in Roxana's thoughts at a l l , then, and this becomes apparent again when she regards the end of her relationship with the Prince as a time to concern herself with preserving her wealth (pp. 110-111) even though she is impressed with the Prince's repentance (p. 110) and with his wife's virtue (pp. 107-110). The contrast between Roxana's passive acknowledgement of the Princess's virtue and the Prince's reformation forcefully closes this episode and 53 e f f e c t i v e l y d r a m a t i z e s t h e d e g r e e o f h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n a n d r e v e a l s t h a t s h e h a s b e c o m e i m m u n e t o t h e e x a m p l e o f p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o u r a n d h a s b e c o m e a l m o s t s o l e l y m o t i v a t e d b y a n e g o c e n t r i c d e s i r e t o a c c u m u l a t e w e a l t h . T h e f i r s t t h r e e e p i s o d e s s h o w R o x a n a a s a v a i n a n d i n d o l e n t p e r s o n w h o l a p s e s i n t o s i n a n d g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e s d o m i n a t e d b y v a n i t y a n d a v a r i c e . E v e n w i t h s u f f i c i e n t w e a l t h t o b e u n a f f e c t e d b y a n y e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s s h e r e f u s e s t o r e p e n t a n d i g n o r e s w a r n i n g s s u c h a s t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e P r i n c e s s ' s v i r t u e , t h e P r i n c e ' s r e p e n t a n c e , a n d t h e B r e w e r ' s r e a p p e a r a n c e . A t t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d e p i s o d e r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e r n i n g h e r s e l f w i t h r e f o r m a t i o n , s h e t u r n s h e r a t t e n t i o n t o p r e s e r v i n g h e r w e a l t h . R o b e r t D . H u m e q u i t e c o r r e c t l y s e e s t h e f o u r t h e p i s o d e a s f a l l i n g i n t o t h r e e s u b - s e c t i o n s : t h e s c e n e s i n P a r i s w h e r e R o x a n a i s t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e J e w ; t h o s e o n b o a r d t h e H o l l a n d - b o u n d s h i p w h e r e R o x a n a a n d A m y , t e r r i f i e d b y t h e p r o s p e c t o f d e a t h , t e m p o r a r i l y r e p e n t ; a n d t h e s c e n e s i n H o l l a n d w h e r e R o x a n a r e j e c t s t h e M e r c h a n t ' s m a r r i a g e o f f e r . ^ B u t i t s e e m s h e m i s r e a d s t h e : n o v e l . w h e n h e s t a t e s t h a t u p t o t h e m i d p o i n t o f t h e n o v e l . R o x a n a " h a s n o t b e e n . g r e a t l y t o b l a m e f o r h e r a c t i o n s " b e c a u s e s h e h a s b e e n r e a c t i n g t o n e c e s s i t y a n d a f e a r o f p o v e r t y , a n d w h e n h e g o e s o n t o s a y t h a t h e r " r e f u s a l I o f t h e D u t c h M e r c h a n t ] i s , t h e k e y t o h e r f a l l " a n d o n l y a t t h i s s t a g e d o h e r a c t i o n s b e c o m e " u t t e r l y u n j u s t i f i a b l e " . ^ I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s R o x a n a p o s s e s s e d f r o m h e r c h i l d h o o d a n d w h i c h s h e f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l e v e n t h o u g h c o n s c i o u s o f t h e m h a v e m a d e h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f r o m t h e o u t s e t f o r t h e c o u r s e h e r c a r e e r t o o k a n d t h a t , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a v i c t i m o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s h e f a i l e d t o s e i z e e v e n t h e m o s t 54 o b v i o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c h a n g e h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n l i g h t o f t h i s h e r r e f u s a l o f t h e D u t c h M e r c h a n t i s n o t h e r f i r s t s t e p i n t o s i n b u t a c t u a l l y m a r k s a m o r e a d v a n c e d s t a g e o f t h e p a t h o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n s h e w a s a l r e a d y o n , T h e f i n a l s e g m e n t o f t h i s e p i s o d e m a r k s a s t a g e i n h e r c a r e e r w h e r e s h e d o e s n o t m e r e l y f o l l o w a p a t h o f s i n b u t c o n s c i o u s l y c o n f r o n t s a n d t u r n s h e r b a c k o n t h a t w h i c h i s m o r a l l y r i g h t . B u t b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p a r t o f t h e e p i s o d e we m u s t d e t e r m i n e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t t w o s e g m e n t s . I n t h e f i r s t R o x a n a m e e t s t h e M e r c h a n t a n d g i v e s a r e p o r t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r : " W h e n I came t o h i m . m y s e l f , I p r e s e n t l y s a w s u c h a p l a i n n e s s i n h i s D e a l i n g , a n d s u c h H o n e s t y . ; i n h i s C o u n t e n a c e , t h a t I m a d e n o S c r u p l e t o t e l l h i m my w h o l e S t o r y , . , " ( p . 1 1 2 ) . A f t e r w i t n e s s i n g h i s b e h a v i o u r s h e g o e s on , t o . c o n f e s s t h a t " I c o u ' d h a v e t r u s t e d a l l I h a d w i t h h i m , f o r h e w a s p e r f e c t l y h o n e s t , a n d h a d n o t t h e l e a s t V i e w o f d o i n g me a n y W r o n g " , ( p , 1 2 0 ) . B a s i c a l l y t h e s e s c e n e s i n P a r i s a c q u a i n t u s w i t h t h e , . M e r c h a n t ' s c h a r a c t e r a n d g i v e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f h i s i n t e g r i t y , s o t h a t , w h e n . , R o x a n a l a t e r q u e s t i o n s t h e h o n o u r a b l e n e s s o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s , h e r o b j e c t i o n s a r e d i s q u a l i f i e d a n d e m e r g e a s e x c u s e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g h e r l i f e a s : a m i s t r e s s . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n R o x a n a . t r a v e l s f r o m F r a n c e t o H o l l a n d , a n d d u r i n g t h e v o y a g e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s t o r m w h i c h c a u s e s h e r t o f e a r d e a t h , t o r e p e n t a n d r e s o l v e t o " l i v e a s i n g l e a n d a v i r t u o u s L i f e , a n d s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f w h a t I h a d t h u s w i c k e d l y g o t , i n A c t s o f C h a r i t y , a n d d o i n g G o o d " ( p . 1 2 6 ) . B u t a s s h e s t a t e s : t h i s I n c i d e n t [ d i d n o t ] d o e i t h e r Amy o r me m u c h S e r v i c e ; f o r t h e D a n g e r b e i n g o v e r , t h e F e a r s o f D e a t h v a n i s h ' d w i t h i t ; a y , a n d o u r F e a r o f w h a t w a s b e y o n d D e a t h a l s o ; o u r S e n c e o f t h e L i f e we h a d l i v ' d , w e n t o f f , a n d w i t h o u r r e t u r n t o L i f e , o u r w i c k e d T a s t e o f L i f e r e t u r n ' d , a n d we w e r e b o t h t h e s a m e a s b e f o r e , i f n o t w o r s e : So 55 c e r t a i n i s i t , that the Repentance which i s brought about by the meer Apprehensions of Death, wears of f as those Apprehensions wear o f f ; and Death-bed Repentance, or Storm-Repentance, which i s much the same, i s seldom true (p. 128). In sp i t e of t h i s warning, which i s the most dramatic she has r e c e i v e d , Roxana goes on to r e j e c t the opportunity to lead a v i r tuous l i f e which the Merchant's marriage proposal br ings and to p r o s t i t u t e h e r s e l f i n order to indulge her greed. This, temporary repentance makes her r e j e c t i o n of the Merchant stand out a l l the more prominently and impresses us deeply with the p i t c h of s i n . a t which she has a r r i v e d . In f a c t , both th i s s ec t ion and t h e . f i r s t , b u i l d up to dramatize and impress us with the wickedness of Roxana ' s . re j ec t ion of the Merchant. The t h i r d sect ion i s e s sen t ia l l y . compr i sed of an extended debate between the Merchant, who argues..for marriage and v i r t u e , and Roxana, who argues with him for- independence, and pleads with the reader for the justness, of her l i f e as. .a. mis tres s . This debate i s analyzed i n d e t a i l below, and i t w i l l . s u f f i c e here to provide only a b r i e f summary of the e f fec t th i s s ec t ion .has , . Although Roxana. loves...the Merchant, she dismisses h i s o f f er of marriage. The fears she f i r s t ra i se s about becoming a wife have already been i n v a l i d a t e d by .the report of the Merchant's character Roxana gives i n the f i r s t sub-sect ion and by the account he gives of the s a c r i f i c e s he endured for Roxana's .sake. And they are further i n v a l i d a t e d when he of fers Roxana very generous marriage terms. To support her stance she invents.new reasons for 'remaining independent. Quite c l e a r l y Roxana i s ac t ing more greed i ly than before and recognizes the opportunity to benef i t m a t e r i a l l y by l i v i n g as a mis t re s s . By r e j e c t i n g the Merchant she compounds her s i n s , for whereas she l i v e d as a mistress before because i t was an easy means of e x i s t i n g , she 56 lives as one now because i t is lucrative. And she adds to her sins in another way, for the debate with the Merchant forces her to deal with her values and motives on a conscious level, and her choice to forgo a virtuous l i f e for an immoral one is made consciously. Moreover, she does not simply choose to become a mistress but actually defends her position through specious logic, whereas the Merchant leaves Roxana because he "cannot.give up Soul as well as Body" (p. 157), Roxana confesses that "tho" I cou'd give up my Virtue, and expose myself, yet I.wou'd not give up my Money" (p. 147), and journeys to England fired by the knowledge that she "cou'd make a Figure at London" (p. 161) and with the aspiration of becoming "nothing less . . . {than the] Mistress of the King .himself" (p. 161). This section of the narrative is made particularly effective by it s central position and because.of. the stark polar contrast between the Merchant's and Roxana'.s. characters.. Moreover, the l i f e he offers contrasts sharply with the one Roxana,has l e f t and the one she is going to, But perhaps more, .effective.is. the irony which emerges through the link between the Merchant. and,. the Brewer. The fact that Roxana rejects a man who is the very opposite of the man whom she labelled the cause of her downfall forcefully conveys an impression of the degree of Roxana's deterioration at this time. Roxana leaves Holland and sets out for England with one thing in mind—to be "a kept Mistress, and to have a handsome Maintenance" C p . 169). When she turns her back on the virtuous l i f e offered in Holland no moral qualms disturb her. On arriving in England she no longer lives concealed, but, supported by her gains as a mistress, she indulges herself as far as possible. Living in "very richly furnish'd" 57 (p. 165) apartments and dress ing "to the height of every mode" (p. 165) Roxana becomes a focus for the Town's a t t en t ion and s t r i v e s to become as much as poss ib le a part of the court c i r c l e , peopled as i t i s with Court iers who "were as wicked as any-body i n reason cou'd des ire" (p. 172), Although she recognizes her f o l l y i n re fus ing the Dutch Merchant and eulogizes the c lass by s t a t i n g that "a true-bred Merchant i s the best Gentleman i n the Nation" (p, 170), she forgoes an opportunity to marry one because she was "not averse to adding to my Estate at a far ther Expense of V i r t u e " (p; 171). And now Roxana c a p i t a l i z e s on her c h i e f asset , her beauty , -by adorning h e r s e l f with the Turkish dress and by d i s p l a y i n g h e r s e l f i n the.dances which form the f o c a l points of her b a l l s . Her s t ra teg ie s are success fu l and she becomes, i t i s made c l e a r , a mistress to the K i n g , When her a f f a i r with the.King: ends, Roxana notes that she "had l a i d - u p an i n c r e d i b l e Wealth"'(p. 182) and that "the common Vice of a l l Whores, I mean Money, was: out..of the Question [and] even Avar ice i t s e l f seem'd to be glutted".:.(p., 182),. But she s t i l l does not have "the l ea s t Thought of reforming" (p. 182). Contrary to the e a r l i e r stages i n her career Roxana now of fers no excuses for her conduct but goes on to seek another keeper. This keeper i s the Old Lewd F a v o u r i t e . And aga in , when Roxana becomes h i s mistress she openly declares "that her motives for so doing are to accumulate wealth. She now measures her own worth i n m a t e r i a l terms and s tates that her "being so rich, serves only to make it cost [the Favouri te ] the dearer" (p. 183), and Roxana a c t u a l l y equates love and money when she states that h i s d i s c u s s i o n of love was " r i d i c u l o u s to me, without the main t h i n g , I mean the Money . . . " (p. 183). 58 Roxana's avarice is further stressed by an ironic parallel which is set up between the beginning of this episode and the beginning of the second. She was reluctant to become the Jeweller's for moral reasons, and she advises the reader that she showed some reticence in becoming the Favourite's, But her motives for yielding to the Favourite only after "great D i f f i c u l t y " (p. 183) are to force him into offering more money as a settlement. At this point in her l i f e greed has almost totally consumed her moral sense, and to stress the depth of her decay Defoe makes her the mistress of a lecher who "grew worse and wickeder the older he grew" (p. 199). As a prelude to leaving the Favourite Roxana questions herself and finds absolutely no reason for remaining a mistress: Avarice cou'd have no Pretence; I was out of the reach of a l l that Fate could be suppos'd to do to reduce me; now I was so far from Poor, or the Danger of i t , that I had f i f t y Thousand Pounds in my Pocket at least; nay, I had the Income of f i f t y Thousand Pounds; for I had 2500 1. a Year coming in, upon very good Land-Security, besides 3 or 4000 1. in Money, which I kept by me for ordinary Occasions, and besides Jewels and Plate, and Goods, which were worth near 5000 1. more; these put together, when I ruminated on i t a l l in my Thoughts, as you may be sure I did often, added Weight s t i l l to the Question , . , and i t sounded continually in my Head . . . What am I a Whore for now? (pp. 202-203) Consequently, abundantly wealthy, "sick of the vice" (p. 200), and "sick of his Lordship" (p. 200) as well, Roxana ends her career as a mistress. But this eventuality i s not accompanied by repentance and penance, for Roxana advises us that "there was not the least Hint in a l l this, from what may be call'd Religion or Conscience, and far from any-thing of Repentance, or any-thing that was a-kin to i t , . ." (p. 200). And as Roxana ends this relationship she announces that she gave a "Turn to my Way of Living" (p. 203). What she is 59 r e f e r r i n g to i s her move to the Quaker's and her marriage to the Dutch Merchant, But th i s re turn to outwardly respectable circumstances only serves to emphasize Roxana's inner corrupt ion and to mark a further moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n which Roxana r e l i e s on the v i r t u e of others as a facade to d i sguise her corrupt ion and to preserve her s e c u r i t y . In the f i n a l episode, then, Roxana, os tens ib ly motivated by a des ire to be reuni ted with her . c h i l d r e n , determines to a l t e r her l i f e . However, she contemplates a change which i s pure ly s u p e r f i c i a l and she describes i t as "putting a.new Face upon"' (p. 208)" her l i f e . Without attempting to prove h e r s e l f wrong Roxana concludes that her former l i f e "cannot be remedy'd now", (p. 208)",, and that only "the Scandal of i t , . . may be thrown off" (p. 208). As part of her scheme to conceal the past Roxana.takes lodgings with the Quaker. Not only does she d i sguise h e r s e l f .by dress ing i n a Quaker's habit—which stresses her corrupt ion the . m o r e b u t she wins the Quaker's f r i endsh ip so that she can r e l y o n . h e r . i n t e g r i t y and v i r t u e to preserve h e r s e l f . At th i s stage Roxana has gone fur ther than turning her back on moral prob i ty and has incorporated good into a facade which masks her inner c o r r u p t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , when Roxana looks back on her former l i f e she does not do so with any sense of de tes ta t ion for her s i n s , but with a strong long ing: We l i v ' d here very eas ie and q u i e t , and yet I cannot say I was so i n my Mind; I was l i k e a F i s h out of Water; I was as gay, and as Young i n my D i s p o s i t i o n , as I was at f i v e and twenty; and as I had always been courted , f l a t t e r ' d , and us 'd to love i t , so I miss 'd i t i n my Conversat ion; and t h i s put me many t imes, upon l o o k i n g -back upon things past (p. 214). 6 0 The change i n Roxana's l i f e does n o t , t h e n , e l i c i t t h e r e a d e r ' s a p p r o v a l b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , draws h i s condemnation. Roxana's b a s i c c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s and h e r unchanged n a t u r e a r e a g a i n h i g h l i g h t e d when they a r e b r o u g h t i n t o immediate j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h a s t a n d a r d o f p o s i t i v e v i r t u e when t h e Dut c h Merchant i s r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s e p i s o d e . F o r example, i n the m i d s t of b e i n g c o u r t e d by t h e M e r c h a n t , Roxana r e c e i v e s news o f t h e . F r e n c h P r i n c e ' s d e s i r e t o marry h e r and she p r e p a r e s t o abandon t h e Merchant. When h e r p l a n s a r e t h w a r t e d by t h e P r i n c e ' s h u n t i n g . a c c i d e n t and subsequent r e p e n t a n c e ( f r o m w h i c h she l e a r n s n o t h i n g ) .she, schemes t o r e g a i n t he Me r c h a n t ' s f a v o u r . When Roxana does.marry him she l o o k s back on h e r former l i f e w i t h d e t e s t a t i o n b u t she s t i l l refuses., t o r e p e n t : Thus I put an End t o . a l l t he i n t r i e g u i n g P a r t o f my L i f e ; a L i f e f u l l of p r o s p e r o u s W i c k e d n e s s ; t h e R e f l e c t i o n s upon w h i c h , were so "much.the more a f f l i c t i n g , as t h e t i m e had been s p e n t i n the g r o s s e s t C r i m e s , w h i c h t h e more I look'd-back.'upon.,-,;.the more b l a c k and h o r r i d t h e y a p p e a r ' d , e f f e c t u a l l y d r i n k i n g up a l l t h e Comfort and S a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h I m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have t a k e n i n t h a t P a r t o f L i f e w h i c h was s t i l l b e f o r e me (p. 243). Here she i s much more concerned w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g h e r w o r l d l y s t a t u s t h a n w i t h l o o k i n g t o the s t a t e o f h e r s o u l . That Roxana f a i l s t o r e p e n t even though she has a f u l l c o n s c i o u s awareness o f h e r s i n s r e n d e r s h e r more g u i l t y t h a n b e f o r e . F a r fr o m m a k i n g . h e r . l i f e more c o m f o r t a b l e t h i s wedding makes Roxana more v u l n e r a b l e , f o r she i s now f o r c e d t o c o n c e a l h e r former l i f e f rom t h e Mer c h a n t . I n s t e a d of c h a n n e l l i n g h e r e n e r g i e s i n t o r e p e n t i n g and. a t o n i n g f o r h e r s i n s and th u s a c h i e v i n g a s t a t e o f t r u e v i r t u e , she c o n c e n t r a t e s them on p r e s e r v i n g a f a c a d e of v i r t u e . R a t h e r t h a n r e f o r m i n g , . R o x a n a works h e r s e l f f a r t h e r i n t o a web of d e c e p t i o n " — w h i c h , o f c o u r s e , u l t i m a t e l y e n s n a r e s h e r and en s u r e s h e r r u i n . 61 Roxana's circumstances are fur ther complicated and she i s dr iven to even more d r a s t i c and s i n f u l ways of escaping detect ion when Susan appears and demands love and recogn i t ion from her mother. Again Roxana i s more concerned with preserving her m a t e r i a l and worldly l o t than with the s ta te of her s o u l . For rather than atoning for the s i n of abandoning her c h i l d r e n by accepting them and g i v i n g them the u n s e l f i s h love they deserve, she.attempts to keep her i d e n t i t y from them, That Roxana's motives are pure ly s e l f i s h and are rooted i n a des i re to preserve her marriage i s made qui te c l ear when her protests that Susan would hate .her i f she ever discovered her immoral l i f e are i n v a l i d a t e d by Susan ' s -d i sc lo sure that she knows both Roxana's i d e n t i t y and h i s t o r y and s t i l l pleads for recogn i t ion from her mother. We must keep i n mind here t h e . p u r i t y of Susan's in tent ions ,10 for she i s s t r i c t l y in teres t ed .in. gaining Roxana's love and p e r s i s t s i n her search even af ter Amy threatens to sever her maintenance. In view of Susan's u n s e l f i s h quest Roxana's ca l lous , se l f -centredness emerges i n . a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y . h a r s h . l i g h t and forces the reader to condemn her even more severely than before,. Moreover, Defoe augments the reader's condemnation when he portrays Roxana s t i f l i n g her maternal i n s t i n c t s to escape her daughter. As Susan's p u r s u i t becomes more intense and as discovery becomes more imminent, Roxana s truggles i n c r e a s i n g l y to conceal h e r s e l f and shows h e r s e l f w i l l i n g to r i s k everything—conscience and sou l included'—to maintain her m a t e r i a l comfort, so dominated has she-become by avar ice and s e l f - c o n c e i t . When Amy f i n a l l y murders Susan we are compelled to ho ld Roxana d i r e c t l y respons ible for f a i l i n g to acknowledge the g i r l , for f a i l i n g to prevent Amy from murdering her , and for e s s e n t i a l l y shaping Amy's 62 character . This act br ings Roxana's career of crime to a culmination and makes her fate uncontrover t ib le because i t i s an i r r e v e r s i b l e act which cannot be atoned f o r , Roxana's repeated s a c r i f i c e s of v i r t u e for wealth have l ed to t h i s a c t , and, overwhelmed by a tremendous sense of g u i l t , she i s unable to ;repent . I t i s extremely i r o n i c , of course, that Roxana's s p i r i t u a l torment prevents her from enjoying the Dutch Merchant, a man the very, opposite of her f i r s t husband, and a man whose v i r t u e she once re jec ted but f i n a l l y came to apprec ia te . Because Roxana i s i n h i s company, r e a l i z e s h i s worth, i s aware of the abominable nature of her s i n s , , and . i s .unab le to a r r i v e at a s tate of v i r t u e , the novel i s brought :to an extremely intense c lose which conveys with absolute c l a r i t y the nove l ' s va lues . The d i v i s i o n of Roxana in to seven episodes i s an a id which a s s i s t s the reader to fo l low the hero ine ' s career , to understand the nature of her d e t e r i o r a t i o n of character,' and. to d i s cern the p o s i t i v e values contained i n the n o v e l . Step by step the episodes show Roxana becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by v a n i t y , p r i d e , and a v a r i c e , and they show the widening d i s j u n c t i o n i n Roxana between moral and m a t e r i a l concerns and the eventual des t ruc t ion of her moral sense. Now that we have considered these episodes separate ly , however, we must not assume that they ex i s t d i s c r e t e l y , for a strong system of in t er -pene tra t ions fuses them into a whole. Professor S tarr seems to be mistaken when he suggests that Roxana i s a "series of d i s c r e t e , mutual ly independent c r i s e s " and that "new episodes generate f re sh complexit ies . . . but these do not make for greater depth, s ince they tend to supplant e a r l i e r ones, not to r e f i n e or reso lve them".''""'" I have endeavoured to demonstrate that Roxana's career i s a continuous 63 development and that her f i n a l downfal l i s dependent upon her i n i t i a l character t r a i t s . And not only does a cause and e f fec t r e l a t i o n s h i p b ind her act ions and character together, but a l s o , as her career progresses and she becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y degenerate, she resorts to more complicated ploys to mainta in .a facade of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y u n t i l th i s dense web f i n a l l y traps and destroys her . Moreover, because the same character t r a i t s grow s t e a d i l y i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , a sense of the i n e v i t a b l e enters the work and adds i t s own energy, momentum and complexity, and infuses the novel with a mounting c l i m a c t i c tens ion . As we have seen, foreshadowing provides a.network of connect ions , and as we w i l l see, s t r u c t u r a l , and^aesthetic cohesion i s a lso imparted by the other s t r u c t u r i n g devices...which overlap the ep i sod ic d i v i s i o n s . The episodes break down Roxana's career , then, and make i t easy to fo l low and comprehend, but. her_..character i t s e l f and the other s t r u c t u r i n g devices tightly...draw the. novel together and make i t a complex, interwoven fab.ric_.wh.ich. ex i s t s as a whole. Defoe's, use of episodic , d i v i s i o n s c e r t a i n l y sets Roxana ahead of h is e a r l i e r novels and makes ..it eas ier to understand. As w e l l , i t makes i t a more p leas ing a e s t h e t i c . c o n s t r u c t , But now we should attempt to put Defoe's achievement i n - p e r s p e c t i v e by comparing Roxana to some l a t e r e ighteenth-century nove l s . And perhaps we can determine some of the a t t r i b u t e s and weaknesses of Defoe's a r t i s t r y by cons ider ing the d i v i s i o n s i n Pamela and Joseph Andrews, The un i t s i n Richardson's novel a r e , of course, based on Pamela's e p i s t l e s . While the e p i s t l e s y i e l d a nominal sort of s t r u c t u r i n g a n d . c o n t i n u i t y , and whi le they allow for psycho log i ca l pene tra t ion , : they impose the severe r e s t r i c t i o n s which F i e l d i n g s a t i r i z e d i n Shomela, And, i n my o p i n i o n , the 64 l i m i t a t i o n s of Richardson's approach are much more pronounced than are those of Defoe's method. But , on the other hand, Defoe d id not seem to possess e i ther the great confidence with s t ruc ture or the comic sense which allowed F i e l d i n g to .use h i s chapter d i v i s i o n s for s a t i r i c e f f e c t s . In a sense, by comparing these three authors we are attempting to assess the r e l a t i v e merits of three completely d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i t i e s , but at l east we do rece ive a general not ion of the nature of Defoe's accomplishment. CHAPTER I I I The Mot i f of Images P e r t a i n i n g to Roxana's Dances and Turk i sh Dress The motif of i t e r a t e d images p e r t a i n i n g to Roxana's dancing and Turk i sh dress"'" focusses much more.acutely on Roxana's d e t e r i o r a t i o n than do the ep i sod ic d i v i s i o n s . . H i g h l y charged images d id not f i r s t appear i n Defoe's novels, with, the w r i t i n g of Roxana, An outstanding e a r l i e r example i s Crusoe's canoe.which, too large to launch, lay r o t t i n g i n the woods as a monument to h i s shortsightedness and overreaching. But i t was i n . h i s l a s t novel that Defoe f i r s t constructed a mot i f . L i k e the canoe . in ,Crusoe the i n d i v i d u a l images i n Roxana are tang ib le f o c i i which draw together and i n t e n s i f y the n a r r a t i v e segments i n which they appear., -...But the motif has the added v i r t u e s of p r o v i d i n g l i n k s between,.episodes, and of supply ing po ints of reference which,, because.of, . .their c l ear connotat ions, allow the reader to measure the development of the heroine 's character and to assess the author's themes, a t t i t u d e s , and values amid changing 2 f i c t i o n a l circumstances, . . . One of the main themes i n Roxana centres on v a n i t y , and intertwined with t h i s i s a thematic complex, which deals with luxury , a v a r i c e , and unrepentance. Vani ty i s a c t u a l l y symptomatic of the core flaw i n Roxana's persona l i ty—her lack of self-awareness and lack of human concern, or her s p i r i t u a l and moral bl indness—and luxury , a v a r i c e , and unrepentance represent i n c r e a s i n g l y serious degrees of - 65 -66 the same character weakness. The development (or , rather decay) of Roxana's character i s portrayed p a r t l y through the i t e r a t i o n of the dancing and T u r k i s h dress mot i f . With successive appearances new l eve l s of meaning are added to . the mot i f . These added l e v e l s of meaning show v a n i t y developing in to a love of luxury , in to avar ic iousness , in to f i n a l unrepentance, and show the hero ine ' s decreasing moral and s p i r i t u a l awareness and her progress ion from mere unth ink ing , f o o l i s h behaviour to outr ight immoral ac t s . As we are channelled towards a condemnation of her a t t i tudes and behaviour, we are a l so guided .towards an awareness of the need for self-knowledge, and towards admiring acts l i k e the P r i n c e ' s repentance and penance and va lu ing the moral a t t r i b u t e s of i n d i v i d u a l s such as the exemplary Dutch Merchant, and v ir tuous Quaker. Th i s mot i f , then, i s a key to an understanding.of Roxana's charac ter , and, by extension, of Defoe's moral and s p i r i t u a l .values . An understanding of the .mot i f ' s funct ion i s e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of the n o v e l , f or the moti f places emphasis on character rather than on s i t u a t i o n or .c ircumstances: for example, while Roxana was led towards poverty by her husband's indolence , the extreme of poverty she suffered a f ter h i s departure was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the p a s s i v i t y and shortsightedness caused by the van i ty she had d isp layed from her chi ldhood, and therefore the necess i ty she experienced was l a r g e l y of her own making. Destiny i s determined p r i m a r i l y by character and not by circumstances. And, i t should be pointed out, t h i s i s true i n a l l Defoe's nove l s . For example, though poverty sets M o l l ' s career i n motion, the c o n t r o l l i n g energy which shapes her responses to that poverty , i s grounded i n her 67 idee fixe, her des ire to become a "gentlewoman". In a s i m i l a r fashion Colonel Jack ' s ambitions are guided by h i s b e l i e f that he i s a gentleman, and Crusoe's are guided by h i s passionate wish to r a i s e himself above the "middle S ta t ion o f L i f e . " 4 An awareness of the r e l a t i v e l y autonomous nature of character i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l i n the case of Roxana to guarantee that we do not overlook the source, true nature , and f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the heroine 's s i n , and grant her some extenuation... by assuming that she was f i r s t r eac t ing to necess i ty and then overreact ing to the "Apprehensions of i t s Return" (p. 3 9 ) , Once .we r e a l i z e that Roxana f a i l e d to take the opportunity of as ser t ing h e r s e l f we can c l e a r l y see that although circumstances may s trongly a f fec t a character she can, through self-knowledge, e i ther p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l h e r s e l f i n those circumstances, or avoid them a l together , and :.that she i s i n any event f i n a l l y respons ible for her moral .being .and for her s p i r i t u a l s a l v a t i o n . We w i l l see that change lay.open, to Roxana from the beginning of her career and at a l l points, dur ing ,her l i f e , and that her r e f u s a l to a l t e r her bas ic nature c a u s e d . a l l her misfortunes and her i r r e v o c a b l e damnation. A l l Defoe'.s .main characters are , to begin w i t h , moral ly and s p i r i t u a l l y . b l i n d , but only i n Roxana do we f i n d such a cons i s tent , f o r c e f u l , and c l ear dramatizat ion of the danger and s in fu lness of a character t r a i t which an i n d i v i d u a l allows to go unchecked throughout l i f e , and which prevents her from developing and act ing upon s e l f -knowledge, and from c u l t i v a t i n g and act ing i n accord with a s o c i a l awareness. Roxana i n i t i a l l y d i sc loses her penchant for dancing whi le descr ib ing her childhood and youth. "Being French Born ," she says , "I danc 'd , 68 as some say, n a t u r a l l y , l o v ' d i t extremely, and sung w e l l a l s o , and so w e l l , tha t , as you will hear, i t was afterwards some Advantage to me . , •" (p, 6 ) , (It i s the dancing, of course, rather than s inging which serves to her "Advantage", and the change was probably made because i t afforded Defoe a.more graphic way of d i s p l a y i n g Roxana's v a n i t y . ) Dancing takes on assoc ia t ions at once, for i t i s f i r s t mentioned i n a passage which portrays an extremely v a i n woman. The l a r g e r context surrounding the above quotat ion i s as fo l lows; I was (speaking of myself as about Fourteen Years of Age) t a l l , and very w e l l made; sharp as a Hawk i n Matters of common Knowledge; quick and smart i n Discourse; apt to be S a t y r i c a l ; f u l l of Repartee, and a l i t t l e too forward i n Conversat ion; o r , as we c a l l i t i n English, B o l d , tho' p e r f e c t l y Modest in. my Behaviour. Being French Born , I danc'd , as some say , n a t u r a l l y , l o v ' d i t extremely, and sung w e l l a l s o , and so w e l l , tha t , as you will hear, i t was afterwards some Advantage to me: With a l l these th ings , I wanted n e i t h e r . W i t , Beauty, or Money (p. 6 ) . Despite Roxana's c la im to '"modest" deportment, th i s sketch reveals a strong sense of personals p r i d e ; thus a f i r m connection i s made between dancing and vanity.-.at. the outset . Consequently, these overtones come to mind with subsequent references . Once Defoe has c l e a r l y depicted Roxana's character i n the f i r s t few pages, and has e s tab l i shed dancing as a shorthand way of present ing i t , he next uses the motif as a means of revea l ing how vani ty and other permutations of s e l f - c e n t r e d behaviour a f fec t her l i f e . Almost immediately a f ter the i n i t i a l , mention of dancing comes a second when Roxana t e l l s of her marriage to the Brewer, and the nature of th i s reference and i t s proximity to the f i r s t a l e r t us to the fac t that dancing i s , indeed, meant to bear the connotations out l ined above. Although he was a "weak, empty-headed, untaught Creature" (p. 7), 69 Roxana was a t t r a c t e d to the Brewer because "he danc'd we l l" (p. 7).^ This i s a compressed way of saying that because he was a "handsome, j o l l y Fellow" (p. 7)—and, one might add, a wealthy fellow—he impressed her sense of s t y l e rather than her common sense. I f we accept Roxana's boast that she was "sharp as a Hawk" and "quick and smart" we cannot excuse her choice of men with the p l ea of youthfu l na ive te . Even i f she was naive we are . forced to condemn her because she i s not w i l l i n g to see f a u l t s i n h e r s e l f ; her n a r r a t i v e , which i s t o l d from a re trospec t ive point of view, i s e n t i r e l y devoid of h u m i l i t y and betrays a strong sense of p r i d e , and so u l t i m a t e l y the quest ion of naivete' can be dismissed as i r r e l e v a n t . This shallowness of percept ion sustained by s e l f - l o v e should make us suspic ious of Roxana's c la im that her .husband "was the Foundation of [her] Ruin" Cp, 7). The blame she . l eve l s ..at the Brewer, while being p a r t i a l l y warranted, f or indeed he was an i r r e s p o n s i b l e "Fool" (p. 8), i s an example o f . u n j u s t i f i e d . se l f -r ighteousness . To a degree Roxana chose her own fate and far., from sympathizing with her we begin to censure her u n r e f l e c t i n g and.egocentr ic behaviour and to become aware of i t s inherent .dangers . Although numerous commentators^ have regarded Roxana as an i n n o c e n t . a t . t h i s point and have commiserated with her when she i s abandoned, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to take i n t o account t h i s s ec t i on of the n a r r a t i v e , the meaning of which i s centred on and heightened by the mot i f , so that we recognize her c u l p a b i l i t y and see that Roxana was l ed in to necess i ty because of her van i ty and shortsightedness and not because of ex terna l circumstances. With the exception of the Old Lewd F a v o u r i t e , dancing i s mentioned at l eas t once i n connection with each of Roxana's men. The motif 70 remains r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped, however, u n t i l the Turk i sh dress i s introduced i n the French Pr ince s e c t i o n . Then i t becomes more prominent and important. With th i s i n mind l e t us now consider the t h i r d reference to dancing which comes.after Roxana consents to being the Jewe l l er ' s mi s t re s s . Were i t not for the fac t that the motif becomes c r u c i a l l y important i n . o t h e r parts of the novel t h i s instance of dancing would probably go unnot iced , for i t appears only i n c i d e n t a l l y i n a paragraph p r i m a r i l y concerned with Amy, and i t i s almost completely absorbed by the context. I quote the e n t i r e paragraph surrounding the image:. The res t of the Evening we spent very agreeably to me; he was p e r f e c t l y good-humour'd, and was at that time very merry; then he made Amy dance with him, and I t o l d him, I wou'd put Amy to Bed to him; Amy sa id ,^with a l l her Hear t , she never.had been a Br ide i n her L i f e ; i n s h o r t , he made t h e . G i r l so ,merry, that had he not been to lye with me the same. N ight , I be l i eve he wou '.d have p l a y ' d the Foo l -wlth-.Amy for h a l f an Hour, and the G i r l wou'd have no more have:re fus 'd him, than I intended to do; yet before , . I ,had always found her a very modest Wench,.as any I .ever; saw i n a l l my L i f e ; but , i n s h o r t , the M i r t h of that., N i g h t , and a few more such afterwards, r u i n ' d the G i r l ' s Modesty for ever , as s h a l l appear by and by, i n i t s p lace (p. 44). A great dea l could be sa id about t h i s paragraph but n a t u r a l l y I hes i ta te to p lace a great deal of i n t e r p r e t i v e weight on the reference to dancing. Quite poss ib ly Defoe inc luded dancing as a normal part of the evening's entertainment and for no other reason. However, that he l o s t s ight of the s i t u a t i o n ' s rea l i sm by f a i l i n g to provide the three people with music seems to suggest that he had something e l se i n mind. Of course the absence of music may simply be overs ight . On the other hand, i t i s fact that dancing occurs or i s mentioned i n connection with a l l but one of Roxana's men, and so a pat tern does e x i s t , and i t i s conceivable that dancing i s being used metaphorica l ly 71 here. Defoe may be suggesting that Roxana's character i s now a f f e c t i n g people other than h e r s e l f , that Amy has come under Roxana's inf luence and i s now manifest ing the same type of behaviour as her mis t re s s . Or , when we r e c a l l the bas is of Roxana's a t t r a c t i o n to the Brewer, we can conjecture that th i s reference i s an i n d i r e c t means of p o i n t i n g out that Roxana has become b l inded by the Jewe l l er ' s person and wealth. C e r t a i n l y the context re in forces both hypotheses, but th is does not al low us automat ica l ly to. s tate that Defoe intended to convey these meanings. Both,these suppos i t ions , even with the connotations of the p r e v i o u s , examples and the unthinking behaviour being exhib i ted here , are too t enta t ive to support. But that dancing i s r e f erred to at a l l seems s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of the o v e r a l l pat tern the motif forms, and I would suggest that i t i s inc luded here to keep the pa t t ern . cons i s t en t but that i t i s submerged because meaning i s c l ear without i t . The next occasion on which dancing i s mentioned has a v i t a l s t r u c t u r a l funct ion w i t h i n the n o v e l . Roxana informs us that during her v i s i t to I t a l y , o r , more p r e c i s e l y , during her stay i n Naples , where, she informs us , women genera l ly l i v e very loose l i v e s (p. 102), the Pr ince "bought me a l i t t l e Female Turkish Slave . . . and of her I l earnt the Turkish Language; t h e i r Way of Dress ing , and Dancing, and some Turkish, or rather Moorish Songs, of which I made Use, to my Advantage, on an extraordinary Occasion, some Years a f t e r , as you s h a l l hear i n i t s Place" (p. 102). Each r e p e t i t i o n w i th in the motif helps to make the novel cohere, of course, but th i s i t e r a t i o n , because of the nature of i t s wording, dramat i ca l l y re in forces the nove l ' s u n i t y . Roxana's phrasing here echoes her f i r s t words about 72 dancing and this backward glance draws together the two portions of the novel. The Naples repetition also prepares for the Turkish dress and looks forward to the P a l l Mall scenes, so that i t appears that Defoe had definitely envisioned the P a l l Mall episode in some form or another from this point. This intermediate repetition of the motif also further reveals Roxana's character^ by highlighting a new stage in her moral decay. To understand this new stage we must f i r s t become aware of Defoe's reason for including the Italian journey, James Sutherland, who has otherwise made very perceptive comments about Roxana, suggests that Defoe wrote the Italian scenes only, to mark time: when Roxana "becomes the mistress of a prince, Defoe is out of his depth, and can do l i t t l e more than recount her travels in France and Italy . . . ." Professor Novak is surely more correct.when he states that Italy represents "the very seat of luxury".^ The relatively simple vanity of Roxana's youth has now expanded into a craving for luxury which further debilitates her awareness and augments her egocentricity. Further, Italy i s a setting fraught with traditional associations of decadence, corruption and venality, 1^ and Roxana's condemnatory words about Italian morals allow us to bring these into play. But that she goes on to say "I began to be so in Love with Italy, and especially with Naples and Venice, that I could have been very well satisfied to have , , . taken up my Residence there for L i f e " (p. 103) forces us to turn that condemnation on Roxana herself. This irony—which is certainly conscious on Defoe's part 1 1-—shows that Roxana has even less moral awareness than previously. Her condemnation of Italy i s a sign that she s t i l l has a moral voice, but her expressed love of 73 I t a l y shows the moral vo ice i s i n e f f e c t u a l and that she has now a l igned h e r s e l f with the corrupt values I t a l y represents . I have disgressed here in to a d i scuss ion of geographical s e t t i n g , but a few remarks were necessary to c l a r i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l o c a t i o n and hence of Roxana's moral state and of the values which attach to the dress . Once Defoe has made h i s p o i n t , the funct ion of the I t a l i a n journey has been f u l f i l l e d , and he moves Roxana back to France , but Roxana does "carry the I t a l i a n way of l i v i n g with h e r " , l and the T u r k i s h dress becomes a tang ib le representat ion of the I t a l i a n values which Roxana has come to share. Fol lowing the I t a l i a n journey the rather general references to dancing are mostly replaced by the s p e c i f i c object'—the Turk i sh dress—and i t c o n c r e t i z e s t h e image and creates a more pointed and emphatic touchstone. The f i r s t a c t u a l reappearance of the dress i s i n the P a l l M a l l episode and i t s importance there i s suggested by 13 the fact that approximately seven pages are devoted to i t . This scene i s of major importance to the novel and most of i t s e f fect iveness and meaning depend on the dres s , for the dress reveals Roxana's moral condi t ion and acts as a l i n k between her l i f e as a mistress and the l i f e of ret irement i n which she attempts to mask her true nature behind a facade of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Let us now consider more c l o s e l y the motif as i t appears i n the P a l l M a l l scenes. I t has already been sa id that the dress and dancing connote van i ty and luxury . These two l e v e l s of meaning are c l e a r l y transmitted here. As we see i n the fo l lowing paragraph Roxana's awareness of how the dress adorns her person accentuates her v a n i t y : 74 I had no Mask, ne i ther d id I P a i n t ; and yet I had the Day of a l l the Ladies that appear T d at the B a l l , I mean, of those that appear'd with Faces on; as for those Mask'd , nothing cou'd be sa id of them, no doubt there might be many f i n e r than I was; i t must be confess 'd , that the Habit was i n f i n i t e l y advantageous to me, and every-body l o o k ' d at me with a k ind of P leasure , which gave me great Advantage too (p. 180). As w e l l , t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n and the many references to c lo th ing throughout the nove l suggest that Roxana measures and values h e r s e l f and others p r i m a r i l y i n terms of externals as i f . she i s unaware of or i s unconcerned with any sense of inner w o r t h . ^ And Roxana's d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a v i s h dress , part of which I have, given here , h i g h l i g h t s her love of luxury; The Dress was extraordinary f i n e indeed, I had bought i t as a C u r i o s i t y , having never seen the l i k e ; the Robe was a f ine Persian, or India Damask; the Ground white , and the Flowers Blue and g o l d , and the T r a i n he ld f i v e Yards; the Dress under i t , was a Vest o f . the same, embroider'd wi th G o l d , and set with some P e a r l i n the Work, and some Turquois Stones; to the Ves t , was a. G i r d l e f i v e or s i x Inches wide, a f t er the Turkish Mode; and on both Ends where i t j o i n ' d , or hook'd , was set with Diamonds for e ight Inches e i ther way, only they were not true Diamonds; but no-body knew that but myself . The Turban or Head-Dress, had a P i n a c l e on the top, but not above f i v e Inches, with a Piece of loose Sarcenet hanging from i t ; and on the F r o n t , j u s t over the Forehead, was a good Jewel , which I had added to i t (p. 174). But now, i n a d d i t i o n to van i ty and a love of l u x u r y , another meaning emerges. Up to t h i s point Roxana has been a pass ive i n d i v i d u a l . The Jewel ler approached her and only a f ter the P r i n c e ' s advances d id she rather p a s s i v e l y ent ice him. Now, however, she i s no longer content wi th i n a c t i o n , but asserts h e r s e l f . . Fol lowing the terminat ion of her a f f a i r with the P r i n c e , she sets out for England with the express i n t e n t i o n of becoming a mistress and states that "nothing less than the KING himself was i n my Eye" (p. 172). Although Roxana says 75 that " l i t t l e did I think, when I bought i t [the dress], that I shou'd put i t to such a Use as this" (p, 174), the dress and dance become her tools for luring a keeper, and so the dress acquires a new level of meaning and represents a new stage in Roxana's decay. Roxana's passive love of luxury and incipient greed have now transformed into an avariciousness which she actively and almost single-mindedly strives to satisfy. When Roxana feels she has accomplished her goal, we see the void into which she has'moved: "that Notion of the KING being the Person that danc'd with me,, puff'd me up to that Degree, that I not only did not know any-body else, but indeed, was very far from knowing myself" (p. 176). Although she is to debase herself further by submitting to the perversions,of the Old Lewd Favourite and is to manifest stronger anti-social behaviour by f a i l i n g to accept Susan as her daughter, her moral being is.effectively dead at this point in the same way as, say,.that of a Tennysonian figure who has withdrawn from social obligation and who has lost contact with himself. This is obvious on a purely narrative level, but the dress is a locus which heightens Defoe's moral intent. After having been kept by the King and then by the Old Lewd Favourite, Roxana decides to end her l i f e as a mistress. The irrevocable decay of her moral and spiritual being is prepared for when she chooses disguise rather than repentance as a means of dealing with her past. After the spectacles at P a l l Mall Roxana withdraws from public view f i r s t by isolating herself at Kensington and then by adopting the habit of a Quaker and locating in London away from the fashionable Tox-m. As we have seen the change is superficial and is effected for selfish motives. Roxana's withdrawal from the 76 beau monde and her Quaker guise represent a des ire to conceal her past rather than a des ire to change her nature or i n c l i n a t i o n s and consequently Roxana adds hypocrisy to her s ins . - ' What began as v a n i t y and then transformed into a love of luxury and avar ice now becomes t o t a l unregeneracy. Sincere repentance i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d as being expedient because i t w i l l al low her to acknowledge the past which she cannot e f f e c t i v e l y conceal . And only by repenting can Roxana a r r i v e at a f u l l awareness of her own nature.and at a f u l l conscious awareness and d e t e s t a t i o n . o f her s i n s . But she chooses to disguise her-past and h e r . t r u e nature . We have already seen how the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the P a l l M a l l p l a t e in to these scenes undercuts Roxana's facade of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s tresses her hypocr isy and unregenerate n a t u r e . ^ References to dancing and the cont inua l reappearances of the Turk i sh dress point th i s out even more f o r c e f u l l y . ^ I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when Roxana informs us of the a c t i v i t i e s fo l lowing her marriage to the Dutch Merchant, she mentions that "We had no Musick a t - a l l , or Dancing" (p. 246). But she goes on i n the same paragraph to say that she dressed h e r s e l f i n the Turk i sh costume for the d i v e r s i o n of her husband (af ter she had exacted a promise from him "never to des i re me to appear i n i t before company" (p. 246), on the pretext that i t was "not a decent Dress i n th i s Country, and wou'd not look Modest" (p. 247). Fol lowing th i s she describes the dress which i s even more l a v i s h now that she has "loaded i t with Jewels" (p. 247). Of course, from the point of view of the reader's knowledge t h i s p o r t r a i t i s redundant, but i t i s jus t as c l ear that i t i s inc luded here to deepen our impression of her van i ty and love of luxury . More important ly , however, the 77 appearance of the dress suggests that while there is no longer any dancing—or to drop the metaphor—that while her outward actions have changed, her basic character has not altered. The contrast between the Turkish dress and the Quaker attire is even more dramatic in making this point. When Roxana lodges with the Quaker, she adopts her habit; I pretended, after I had been there some time, to be extreamly in Love with the Dress of the QUAKERS, and this pleas'd her I the Quaker] so much, that she wou'd needs dress me up one Day in a Suit of Her Cloaths; by my veal Design was, to see whether it wou'd pass upon me for a Disguise (p.,211,.italics mine). There i s , by the way, a double irony attached to Roxana's new guise, for in addition to disguising her, the new outfit also flatters her vanity. When Amy t e l l s Roxana that " i t makes you look Ten Years younger than you did" (p, 211) Roxana characteristically replies that "Nothing cou'd please me better than that" (p. 211). But Roxana's major interest in the Quaker dress is the disguise i t affords. And the irony which becomes apparent here stresses the pitch of Roxana's immorality. She is impressed with the ethical values represented by the dress, but for the wrong reasons. While they do not steer her towards reformation she selfishly recognizes their value in bolstering her facade. A l l the while that Roxana masquerades in the Quaker outfit she has in her possession the Turkish dress. Even without the Turkish dress the irony of Roxana's disguise is acute, but the dress, which she cherishes and cannot resist admiring and displaying in spite of her frantic desire to conceal her past, betrays the strong underlying 18 love Roxana has for her former l i f e . Thus although she has divorced herself from her old comrades, is no longer a mistress, and has divested 78 herself of most of her old trappings, the Turkish dress remains and emphatically indicates that Roxana's basic nature has not changed. When we watch the developments of her confrontations with Susan i t becomes even more evident that Roxana has not changed, that her disguise was affected with the purpose of making her simply appear respectable, and that i t was affected for purely selfish reasons. And here again the Turkish dress has a v i t a l function. During one of their interviews Susan advises Amy that she knows the Lady Roxana only because of the dress. She states that tho' I l i v ' d near two Years in the House, I never saw my Mistress in my Li f e , except i t was that publick Night when she danc'd in the fine Turkish Habit, and then she was so disguis'd, that I knew nothing of her After-wards (p. 206). The dress, then, is Susan's means of identifying Roxana. When Susan pursues her mother, Roxana s t i l l refuses to relinquish the dress. In other xrords, she refuses to sever her connections with the past, to break down her egocentricity and accept her moral responsibilities. Finally, rather than changing she permits the presence which reminds her of her i n i t i a l irresponsibility to be sealed off by f a i l i n g to prevent Amy from committing murder, Roxana's intense desire to preserve herself at a l l costs is demonstrated through her adamant refusal to divest herself of the Turkish dress, which in addition to being the overwhelming image of her vanity, her love of luxury, and her avarice, i s now a sign of her unregeneracy. To recapitulate, the motif takes emphasis away from situation and places i t on character. It provides a continuum which, because of the incremental layering of meanings, highlights the successive stages in Roxana's movement away from positive moral standards. It focusses Roxana's character q u a l i t i e s around not iceable act ions or tang ib le objec t s , and i t i s through studying the motif that we become aware of her character f laws, the decay of her character , and of how the i n i t i a l character weakness p r e c i p i t a t e s her f i n a l downfal l . We must r e a l i z e at the outset that v a n i t y and e g o c e n t r i c i t y d r i v e a wedge between her and those she encounters and that th i s r i f t d i l a t e s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and inf luence as her career progresses . The ser ious crimes she perpetrates , the unfee l ing a t t i t u d e she manifests , and the hardships she forces people l i k e the Merchant to endure, a l l stem from her f a i l u r e to r e c t i f y her basic, weakness. And a study of the mot i f , as i t reveals Roxana's character, also reveals Defoe's va lues , for i t shows that he i s i m p l i c i t l y condemning.Roxana's w i l l f u l l y sustained moral and s p i r i t u a l b l indness;and her acqui s i t iveness and i s commending self-knowledge, and, as a means of regenerat ion , repentance. Whereas the meanings of the l e s s . s t r u c t u r e d or unstructured e a r l i e r novels are d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n , the e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , marked connotations of the motif help to c l a r i f y Defoe's a t t i tudes as they appear i n Roxana. And I would suggest that we can read the meaning of Roxana back .into these novels . Among other th ings , our doing so would a s s i s t i n d i spers ing the rather shallow not ion that 19 Defoe's was a "morality of measurement", and i t would p o s s i b l y open 20 the way to re so lv ing the s o - c a l l e d "paradox of trade and m o r a l i t y " , because we can now see that Defoe was not advocating the accumulation of mater ia l things as an end i n i t s e l f but was advis ing that the p u r s u i t of m a t e r i a l wealth must not become obsessive to the point where the i n d i v i d u a l loses an awareness of himself and of others and enters a moral and s p i r i t u a l v o i d . CHAPTER IV The Con.notative Use of Geographical Sett ings In the four novels preceeding Roxana geographical s e t t i n g has the appearance of being randomly chosen; Defoe's characters move from country to country pursuing t h e i r quests , and t h i s wandering r e f l e c t s t h e i r anchorless s ta te s , t h e i r l ack of s e c u r i t y and permanent va lues . S i g n i f i c a n t i s the fact that these characters are a d r i f t ; meaning does not der ive from s p e c i f i c assoc ia t ions connected with p a r t i c u l a r countr ie s . One obvious exception i s Crusoe's I s land of Despair , and another i s Defoe's use of the New World as a p lace of r e b i r t h for some of h i s characters - -which , perhaps i n t e n t i o n a l l y , i s not employed i n Roxana. But genera l ly the l o c a l e s , l i k e those i n picaresque nove l s , are simply places for the heroes to journey t o , and one might w e l l be subst i tuted for another without a f f e c t i n g the work. For th i s reason, p o s s i b l y , commentators have overlooked the importance of s e t t ing i n Roxana.^~ In th i s novel the se t t ings e i t h e r take on r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c associat ions—through h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n , or the context of the novel'—or they e l i c i t very revea l ing responses from the hero ine . Roxana t r a v e l s to four countr ies and t h e i r connotations and her responses e i t h e r mirror and emphasize her moral s ta t e , as i n the case of I t a l y , or they contrast with her moral s tate and thus emphasize both the p o s i t i v e values i m p l i c i t i n the work and the prec i s e nature of Roxana's moral f laws, as i n the case of Ho l land . As w e l l , l i k e the successive i t e r a t i o n s i n the mot i f , the - 8 0 -81 changes of location tend to mark the stages in Roxana's degeneration and to make the novel a continuous development which culminates with Susan's murder and Roxana's reaction to i t . The settings, then, provide the novel with another basis of unity, and the reader with another guide to understanding and judgement. Occasionally the geographical settings (like the images) produce pointed effects—particularly when Roxana is overtly responding to a country. More often, however, their associations permeate large sections of the novel and add a richness which complements and balances the motif. For the most part setting and the motif (and the majority of the other structuring devices) are mutually reinforcing. At times they function simultaneously, and while a setting may infuse an entire section of the novel with i t s connotations, the images, as we have already seen in the Italian scenes, intensify and bring into relief certain thematic.concerns. At other times the two devices work in counterpoint, for an image may appear in a place where setting i s unimportant of a setting may continue to exude meaning where the nature of the action would render the use of an image inappropriate, and this sort of layering and counterpointing imparts a strong, unmechanical, organic unity to the work. At the beginning of the novel Defoe carefully establishes his heroine's character. He does this mainly through the direct means of her confessions and her conversations with Amy, and for most of the f i r s t English scenes he util i z e s the specific setting of Roxana's house, Thus at this point geographical setting does not come into play extensively as a device calculated to illuminate character. Nevertheless London, or Roxana's reaction towards London, is put to 1 82 great advantage i n prov id ing us with an immediate and i n c i s i v e i n s i g h t i n t o her nature. Roxana informs us that I , who knew l i t t l e or nothing of what I was brought over h i t h e r f o r , was well-enough p l e a s ' d with being here; London, a large and gay C i t y , took with me r i g h t w e l l , who from my being a C h i l d , l o v ' d a Crowd, and to see a great-many f i n e Folks (p. 5) , This i s only the second paragraph i n the novel and yet wi th remarkable compression Defoe has already n i c e l y del ineated Roxana's e s s e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y . These few l i n e s c l e a r l y sketch the unthinking woman who i s governed by her not ion of what i s "fine" regardless of inherent worth, who lacks the i n s i g h t to penetrate "gay" facades, and whose evaluations of h e r s e l f and a t t i tudes towards others are l i m i t e d by t h e i r s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . L i k e the f i r s t dancing image,. Roxana's response to London shows that the unawareness and se l f - cen tered a t t i t u d e s which lead to the death of her moral sense and the murder of Susan ex i s ted from her chi ldhood. S e t t i n g , then, l i k e the images, a s s i s t s i n making the novel a continuous development which traces the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of Roxana's character and which stresses—among other things—the themes of self-knowledge and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . And, i t w i l l be noted, Roxana's reac t ion to London emerges from her own being and i s not the r e s u l t of her being condit ioned by the s e t t i n g , so that , l i k e the images, aga in , s e t t i n g s tresses character and ind ica te s to the reader tha t , with the necessary self-knowledge, one i s r e l a t i v e l y free to c o n t r o l h i s being and that he i s , there fore , respons ib le for i t s s tate and for the e f fec t s i t has on others . We next become aware of s e t t i n g when Roxana accompanies the Jewel ler to France. Where her e n t h u s i a s t i c response to London proved 83 revealing, the fact that she reacts to France in a manner almost the opposite to that which the reader expects further characterizes her by embuing that section of the narrative with an instructive irony. That i s , while speaking about the emigration of Protestants from France she makes a distinction between those, like her parents, who le f t because of conscience and those who l e f t for the economic benefits which could be had in England, and she adopts a righteous attitude towards the latter group which leads the reader to believe she w i l l entertain some scruples, i f not about merely returning to France, at least about opportunistically masquerading as a Roman Catholic. Before I discuss the role France plays in baring Roxana's character, however, I wish to indulge in some speculation about another possible function of the French setting. The extent to which one can trust the chronology i n this novel is open to question. It breaks down at some point and this becomes glaringly obvious when Roxana returns to England during the reign of 9 Charles I I : Charles died in 1685—two years after Roxana f i r s t came to England as a child of ten. Defoe clearly indicates that Roxana resides at P a l l Mall during the reign of Charles. Yet he also specifies that she f i r s t arrives in England "about the Year 1683" (p, 5). His reasons for using the Court of Charles seem readily apparent, The opulent and licentious court forms a perfect background for the protagonist. But why Defoe did not change the date of 1683 to some plausible earlier date i s impossible to determine. Perhaps i t was after he chose 1683 as a starting date that the thought of including a reference to the reign of Charles came to mind and he failed to revise the i n i t i a l date; possibly he was originally developing 84 a progressive chronology and then decided to break i t to bring in the Restoration Court. And i f this is so then the France to which Roxana travels becomes rich with suggestions. She would have returned in approximately 1696'—if we can accurately trace the chronology from 1683—the period when Louis XIV's Court was at the peak of i t s splendour--and decadence. If this is the date of Roxana's arrival then Defoe has provided an excellent setting capable of emphasizing his heroine's character. And with the court of Charles II incorporated as well he has furnished an outstanding yardstick for measuring the decay of her character, for numerous similarities existed between the two courts and essentially only the degree of Roxana's involvement with them varies. Where she is only remotely connected with Louis' Court (through"the'Prince) she is much nearer to that of Charles. And the closer proximity could indicate a stronger alliance with the general (reputed) level of ethics and morals of those attached to the courts. However, this is mere speculation and no sound textual evidence can be drawn on for support. To move onto firmer ground, I w i l l now outline one effect definitely produced by Roxana's return to France. At the beginning of her story, before she t e l l s us anything else, Roxana relates a portion of her family's history. Among other things she advises us that her parents "fled [to England] for their Religion . . . when the Protestants were Banish'd from France by the Cruelty of their Persecutors" C p . 5). These family details are not included merely for the sake of realism as are those at the beginning of Robinson Crusoe, for these not only add to a body of information which proves, as i t were, the existence of the protagonist, but go further to establish an attitude 85 towards convic t ions and conscience which i s i n e v i t a b l y going to come into p lay at some point i n the nove l ' s moral f a b r i c . And so i t does when Roxana returns to France. A very informative irony i s created when the reader juxtaposes the fac t that Roxana's parents f l e d France because they f i r m l y adhered to the d i c ta te s of a c t i v e consciences with the fac t that Roxana, far from enter ta in ing any convict ions about r e t u r n i n g , goes so far as to br ibe "a c e r t a i n Person, who went impudently to the Curate of the P a r i s h S t . Sulpitius, i n Paris, and t o l d him, that the Gentleman that was k i l l ' d , was a Cathol ick" (p. 54) and f ee l s no compunctions about t e l l i n g the Pr ince that one of her brothers i s an abbot at P o i c t i e r s . The quest ion of r e l i g i o u s denomination i s not the main i s sue .here . What i s important i s the fac t that Roxana c e r t a i n l y has no share of the convict ions which caused her parents to f l e e on "Account of Conscience" (p. 5 ) . The e f fec t of the contrasted a t t i tudes i s heightened when one re f er s back to Roxana's d e s c r i p t i o n of the refugees who l e f t France for reasons other than conscience, She adopts a denigrat ing tone as she speaks of "Those, who, for any Religion they had, might e'en have s t a y ' d where they were" (p, 5) . In ac tua l f a c t , however, Roxana resembles these opportunists a great d e a l . While any s e t t i n g could have been used to show Roxana's lack of p r i n c i p l e s , France , a Roman Catho l i c country with s tr ingent l e g i s l a t i o n applying to n o n - C a t h o l i c s , forces her to choose between convic t ions and greedy expediency. And because i t i s the homeland her parents f l e d , i t focusses the irony produced by the discrepancy between her outlook and t h e i r s . In the e a r l i e r nove l s , with the exception of Robinson Crusoe where Crusoe refuses to re turn to Roman C a t h o l i c B r a z i l , Defoe's a t t i t u d e towards 8 6 th i s brand of expediency i s often d i f f i c u l t to determine, but i n Roxana the hero ine ' s opening words and her subsequent behaviour leave no ambiguity. The French s e t t i n g brings out the irony of Roxana's remarks about her homeland and underscores the d i s j u n c t i o n between her conduct and moral r h e t o r i c , and between her p r i n c i p l e s , or l ack of them, and those of her parents'—and those of i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e the repentant P r i n c e , the v i r tuous Quaker,-'and the exemplary Merchant. Af ter r e s i d i n g i n France for a number of years Roxana t r a v e l s to I t a l y . The values centered on th i s country and t h e i r funct ion i n r e f l e c t i n g Roxana's moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n have been discussed above. B a s i c a l l y i t was stated that whi le Roxana speaks harshly of I t a l i a n morals her expressed love for the country undermines her moral stance and shows her sharing the very values she denounces. I t remains now to substant iate the contention that I t a l y i s representat ive of v i c e and to demonstrate that Roxana's p r a i s i n g and damning i s an i rony which Defoe consciously created to impress the reader with the discrepancy between Roxana's moral facade and her ac tua l values and behaviour, and to guide him towards a judgement of th i s incons i s tency . Authors had t r a d i t i o n a l l y used I t a l y to suggest corrupt ion and immorality before the w r i t i n g of Roxana. Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, Jonson's Votpone, and numerous seventeenth century revenge tragedies come to mind immediately, and, as a few t e x t u a l examples w i l l conf irm, both Roxana's and the P r i n c e ' s remarks give Defoe's I t a l y s i m i l a r overtones. While de scr ib ing the major domo i n charge of the P r i n c e ' s entourage Roxana announces: I made some very d i v e r t i n g and u s e f u l Observations i n a l l these Places [Rome, Venice , and Naples ] ; and p a r t i c u l a r l y 87 of the Conduct of the Ladies; for I had Opportunity to converse very much among them, by the Help of the old Witch that Travell'd with us; she had been at Naples, and at Venice, and had l i v ' d in the former, several Years, where as I found, she had l i v ' d but a loose L i f e , as indeed, the Women of Naples generally do; and in short, I found she was fu l l y acquainted with a l l the intrieguing Arts of that Part of the World (p. 102). The disjunction which becomes glaring later is already apparent here when Roxana terms her "Observations" both "diverting" and "useful". She goes on to designate Rome as the "unpleasantest Place in the World" (p, 103) because of i t s "scoundrel-Rabbles of the Common People" Cp. 103) who "have an Air of sharping and couzening, quarrelling and scolding, upon their general Behaviour" (p. 103). To show that this i s not merely a reflection of her upper-class bias she recounts a scene reminiscent of the feuds in Romeo and J u l i e t : The Footmen:, made such a Broil between two Great Families in Rome, about which of their Coaches (the Ladies being in the Coaches on either side,) shou'd give Way to t'other; that there was above thirty People wounded on both Sides; five or six k i l l ' d outright; and both the Ladies frighted almost to Death (p. 103). As a summary comment Roxana describes Italy as a "Country, where 'tis well known a l l manner of Liberties are taken" (p. 103) with the women. The Prince corroborates her point of view when he points out that whoring is "not such a Crime here [Italy in general, and Venice and Naples in particular], as 'tis in other Places" (p. 104). The nature of these comments and their numbers definitely give the setting an atmosphere of moral decadence. This atmosphere is congruous with Roxana's moral state, and we learn this through the discrepancy between her avowed opinion of the moral and ethical standards in Italy and her actual attitudes. After denigrating the people in Italy, Roxana advises the reader that "I 88 began to be so in Love with Italy, and especially with Naples and Venice, that I cou'd have been very well satisfied to have sent for Amy, and have taken up my Residence there for L i f e " (p. 103). Every other remark made about Italy is in moral or ethical terms and this tends to place this declaration within the novel's moral framework as well, and consequently i t is tantamount to admitting she is corrupt, That this sentence appears between censuring statements does not seem to be a slip on Defoe's part. Rather the fact that i t i s framed by condemnatory paragraphs makes i t highly unlikely that even the sloppiest of craftsmen could have lost track of the narrative thread so entirely as to have completely reversed directions. The close juxtaposition of disapproving and laudatory prouncements seems calculated and the effect produced is certainly harmonious with Defoe's portrayal of Roxana as an unaware woman. So i t can fi n a l l y be said that Defoe's fictionalized image of Italy and Roxana's response to i t reflect her increasing turpitude. If we pause now to look back over Roxana's career in terms of what we have learned from geographical setting we w i l l discover that our findings correspond with the results of the study of images; each new setting marks a more advanced state in Roxana's decline. The f i r s t use of setting, Roxana's response to London, established the heroine as a woman easily impressed, with a superficial notion of values, and an inability to assess merit. Her return to France not only made this clear but also showed she was devoid of principles and was possessed of an opportunistic nature. And her strong love for Italy highlighted a more advanced degree of corruption. The images and settings, then, both dramatize from different angles Roxana' 89 descent into a moral void, and while both devices overlap to point out certain of the same character weaknesses each diverges to stress new shortcomings. While Italy harmonizes with and thus accentuates Roxana's moral state Holland forms a contrast which brings both Roxana's moral flaws and the novel's positive values into strong r e l i e f . The ethos of Holland is generated through the presence of the Dutch Merchant, of course, but i t is also developed independently through the other individuals Roxana encounters there, and thus a general impression is created about the country i t s e l f , The Dutch Merchant, who is himself beyond any sort of reproach, directs her to a jeweller i n Amsterdam who "would deal fa i t h f u l l y " (p. 112) with her and who does take particular care to ensure that she is not "impos'd upon" (p. 131). Another merchant honours one of her disputed b i l l s without question. The charitable and honest business practices of these merchants create a prevailing air of virtuousness which draws the reader's attention to Roxana's own unscrupulous ethics. Further, Holland becomes a place of security where Roxana can reform, repent, and lead a virtuous l i f e , and when the Dutch Merchant arrives from Par is'-.it becomes a place where she can marry a responsible husband. In Roxana's words: Here I might have settled myself out of the reach of Disaster i t s e l f . . . I had now an Opportunity to have quitted a l i f e of Crime and Debauchery, which I had been given up to for several Years, and to have set down quiet in Plenty and Honour, and to have set myself apart to the Great Work which I have since seen so much Necessity of, and Occasion for; I mean that of Repentance (pp. 158-159). In spite of the "safe Harbour presented" (p. 162), though, Roxana has "no Heart to cast-Anchor in i t " (p. 162). Her outright rejection of 90 Holland in favour of the English Court which provides an opportunity to become a wealthy mistress i s a complete Volte face from the position she occupied after being deserted by the Brewer, and this setting along with other of the structuring devices such as the contrasts between characters powerfully sets forth the polar contrast between Roxana's values and those associated with Holland. The image this setting conveys and the contrast between i t and the settings which precede and follow i t are powerful in drawing our attention to the novel's positive values and to the degree of Roxana's corruption., A more marked contrast than that between Holland and the Restoration Court could hardly have been conceived, and Roxana's departure from Holland and subsequent immersion in the Court milieu is highly effective in underlining a further step towards total depravity. At this point we see that Roxana has discarded every vestige of morality in favour of a purely material l i f e . Even though she could have been virtuous, repentant, and s t i l l have " l i v ' d like a queen" (p. 159) she abandons this opportunity to gratify her ever growing and ever more powerful avariciousness. The setting, then, not only helps to indicate the degree of Roxana's decay, but, because i t acts as a f o i l to her attitudes and behaviour, i t becomes a standard of reference which c l a r i f i e s and emphasizes the novel's positive values. Against honest industry, active charity, and principled dealings are pitted luxurious indolence, avarice, and unscrupulosity, and, obviously, we are meant to applaud the former. Just as clearly we see that Defoe is casting a disapproving light on the purely material when i t dominates an individual, debilitates his conscience, and prevents him from acting responsibly and charitably. 91 The Town and Court which a t t r a c t Roxana next are the complete a n t i t h e s i s to the sober, v i r t u o u s , mercant i le soc ie ty of H o l l a n d . And once again Roxana i s i n her element; once again the s e t t i n g mirrors her moral c o n d i t i o n . The Town and Court of the Restorat ion era would have suggested to Defoe's readers as , indeed, they do to readers today, a p i c t u r e of excess, debauchery, and decadence, a l l indulged magni f i cent ly . However th i s p i c t u r e may have been a d i s t o r t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , i t ex i s ted and ex i s t s nevertheless as a myth ica l r e a l i t y . The bare mention of the Court would have t r iggered i n the minds of Defoe's readers , P u r i t a n or otherwise, ideas of sp lendid decadence, and with a c e r t a i n r e l i s h Roxana confirms these notions when she describes the Court: the Court was exceeding gay and f i n e , tho' f u l l e r of Men than of Women, the Queen not a f f e c t i n g to be very much i n p u b l i c k ; on the other hand, i t i s no Slander upon the C o u r t i e r s , to say, they were as wicked as any-body i n reason cou'd des i re them: the KING had severa l M i s t r e s s e s , who were prodigious f i n e , and there was a g lor ious Show on that Side indeed; I f the Sovereign gave himself a Loose, i t cou'd not be expected the res t of the Court shou'd be a l l Saints . . . (p. 172). Defoe could have chosen no be t t er s e t t i n g to r e f l e c t h i s hero ine ' s indolence , debauchery, and love of luxury . To become as much a part of t h i s soc ie ty as poss ib le Roxana takes "handsome large apartments i n the Pall-Mail" (p. 164) and began to make a Figure s u i t a b l e to my E s t a t e , which was very great . . . I dres s 'd to the height of every Mode; went extremely r i c h i n Clothes; and as for Jewels, I wanted none; I gave a very good L i v e r y l a c ' d with S i l v e r , and as r i c h as any-body below the N o b i l i t y cou'd be seen with . . . [and] made as gay a Show as I was able to do, and that upon a l l Occasions . . . (p. 165). Her style of l i v i n g i s on the grand sca le and surpasses a l l her previous modes of ex is tence . Moreover, now she f r e e l y and openly c u l t i v a t e s 92 her l i f e of elegant debauchery and even becomes a focus for the Town's attention for a time. The setting creates a picture of flagrant immorality indulged to the peak in almost overbearing opulence. Roxana's move to the P a l l Mall and her manner of living there underscore the fact that pridefulness, base luxury, and avarice no longer simply affect her l i f e , but have indeed become her l i f e to the total exclusion of any sense of conscience. Roxana has eschewed everything to become one with this milieu. Roxana's f i n a l move, her return to Holland, gives the novel a neat symmetry and produces a tension which brings the novel to an emotionally compelling culmination at the same time that i t vividly presents, for a f i n a l time, Defoe's moral intent. The reader cannot f a i l to recall that Roxana once found refuge in Holland, Her return demonstrates beyond any doubt that while she can evade things external, spiritual torment and an unclear conscience cannot be escaped but must be remedied through repentance.^ whereas Roxana once scorned the virtues of Holland, she now desires them and recognizes the need for reform. However, she experiences a spiritual ennervation so that her "Repentance seem'd to be only the Consequence of [her] Misery, as [her] Misery was of [her] Crimes" (p. 230). Unable to repent sincerely, the l i f e she previously rejected remains out of reach and this unattaina-b i l i t y places i t in an ineffably appealing light. The inevitable juxtaposition of a picture of that l i f e with one of Roxana locked in mental agony strongly enhances the attractiveness of the rejected l i f e - s t y l e and thus not only allows Defoe to convey his moral with absolute lucidity but enables him to present i t in poignant human terms and thus to avoid any sort of didacticism. The unresolvable inner 93 conflict between a simultaneous awareness of her sins and of her irrevocable damnation brings the novel to a close on a near tragic level. The swiftness of the novel's denouement may result in an abrupt ending, but the tour de force of the dramatic irony produced by Roxana's flight to Holland causes her f i n a l plight to reverberate in the reader's mind. Were the f i n a l scenes not set in Holland the intensity of the novel's ending and the compelling impact of i t s moral would have been considerably diffused. As with the image motif, Defoe seems to have consciously used geographical setting to unify the novel, to define his heroine's character, and to enforce his moral. In particular his ironic uses of setting have an important unifying function. For example, while another locale might have revealed Roxana's unprincipled nature equally well, France stimulates the reader to recollect the beginning of the novel which contains the opening words about France. The f i n a l voyage to Holland imparts an even stronger cohesion, for i t invites the reader to keep in mind the long central episode. Setting assists, too, in unifying the development of Roxana's character. Each new setting mirrors the fact that she has become less principled, more vain, more avaricious and more egocentric. The settings mirror Roxana's moral state, then, and emphasize the dilation of her character traits as they gradually consume her moral being. With the total displacement of her moral being the novel reaches i t s culmination and ends in Holland to augment the impression of Roxana's mental agony and to bring before the reader a graphic picture of the values Defoe advocates, Defoe particular use of geographical setting distinguishes him from most other eighteenth century novelists. Indeed, few novelists other 94 than, say, F i e l d i n g , who employs Joseph's progress from c i t y to country to r e f l e c t that pro tagon i s t ' s s p i r i t u a l growth, use s e t t i n g as a means of m i r r o r i n g a character ' s development. To be sure , Anne R a d c l i f f e and, i n the nineteenth century, Scott and Austen, r e l y on s e t t i n g for atmosphere, but i t i s not u n t i l Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights that l o c a t i o n i s again put to such a soph i s t i ca ted use. CHAPTER V An Examination of Some Revelatory S i m i l a r i t i e s and Contrasts Between Characters and Between S i tuat ions Unl ike those i n Defoe's e a r l i e r novels the characters i n Roxana succes s fu l ly e luc idate the novels ' meaning and enable the reader to assess and judge the heroine. . In the f i r s t p l a c e , they are w e l l defined and represent r e a d i l y d i scernable va lues .^ For example, we can e a s i l y perce ive that the Brewer i s an ignorant and decadently indolent man and that the Merchant i s a model of i n d u s t r y , benevolence and i n t e g r i t y . This c l a r i t y i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y present i n the preceding nove l s , and by s i g n i f i c a n t l y I mean that even when w e l l def ined characters are present they are e i ther not used cons i s t en t ly or t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with the main character are not c lose enough to r e f l e c t on him. For example, while the b r u t a l and s u r l y Captain Jack acts as a good f o i l to Colonel Jack during Jack' s youth, no character helps us to determine whether we should commend Jack as a humanitarian for h is treatment of Mouchat or whether we should damn him as a tyrant who knows how to make h i s s laves more product ive . In h i s a r t i c l e , "The Structure of Roxana," Ralph E . Jenkins p a r t i a l l y out l ines the nature and funct ion of Defoe's use of character: Roxana has f a i l e d to l earn a b a s i c C h r i s t i a n lesson . She has pre ferred the v ices of a v a r i c e , v a n i t y , and adultery to love , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and repentance; she has stored up r iches i n th i s world rather than i n the next , has chosen m a t e r i a l s e c u r i t y over a c l ear conscience, and must suf fer for her mistakes. Defoe guides the reader to t h i s judgment of Roxana by us ing , i n add i t i on to her acerb ic - 95 -96 comments, a number of structural devices, among which are, foreshadowing, pointed contrasts between characters and situation, and the establishment of allegorical relationships between characters.2 The contrasts between Roxana and the secondary characters simultaneously point out the flaws in her character, her refusal to learn by positive examples, and the pattern of right conduct the novel sets forth. In addition to the contrasts Jenkins mentions there are also similarities between Roxana and several of the major characters and these also ironically expose her shortcomings and vices. A result identical to that produced by the contrasts is yielded by the inclusion of situations which parallel ones Roxana is involved in but wherein the characters concerned take courses of action radically different from hers. As well, the strategic re-emergence of a number of characters assists in accentuating the decay of Roxana's moral sense and her desire to accumulate material wealth, and in demonstrating her continuing refusal to abandon a precarious veneer of respectability for a l i f e of true respectability, security, and responsibility in which the demands of conscience would not merely be masked but would be satisfied through repentance. These uses of character and situation set Roxana apart from the novels which precede i t and make i t a much more effective vehicle for transmitting Defoe's convictions. The earlier novels contain many more characters, but for the most part the intense focus on the main character in each novel minimizes the importance of the secondary personages while they are present and renders most of them virtually non-existent once they are "off the stage". Some exceptions exist, as the presence of Quaker William Walters (in Captain Singleton) t e s t i f i e s , but the values Walters represents are too ill-defined^ to 97 help c l a r i f y the theme of that nove l . Moreover, these works are almost, i f not completely, devoid of reve la tory p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s . And, f i n a l l y , the instances of characters reappearing to t ighten the s tructure or enforce the moral are infrequent . Aga in , there are exceptions to th i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , as i n Colonel Jack where Jack ' s f i r s t wife a r r i v e s at h i s p l a n t a t i o n years a f ter t h e i r d ivorce as a demonstration, perhaps, that v i r t u e i s rewarded; but more often the reappearances are much less important , as i n Moll Flanders where the re turn of M o l l ' s Lancashire husband merely f a c i l i t a t e s a happy ending. The secondary character who f i r s t receives extended a t t e n t i o n i s the Brewer, but i t seems h i s funct ion i s not immediately apparent to a l l readers . The p o r t r a i t Roxana draws of her f i r s t husband at the beginning of her s tory has fooled a number of commentators in to b e l i e v i n g that she i s an innocent v i c t i m of circumstances.^ Apparently they have f a i l e d to penetrate the one-sided nature of her comments. The excessive c r i t i c i s m Roxana metes out to him when he reappears i n France , however, should awaken the reader to the fac t that Roxana has always shared the same s lo thfu lness which she so vehemently c r i t i c i z e s i n her husband and that i t was her f a i l u r e to overcome t h i s t r a i t which a c t u a l l y caused her to s ink in to poverty and s i n . On seeing the Brewer i n France Roxana describes him as "a meer motionless Animal , of no Consequence i n the World" (p. 9 5 ) . But she protes ts too much and the reader begins to suspect the justness of her complaints . I t becomes c l ear that Roxana has never been i n a p o s i t i o n to judge her husband and that she i s g u i l t y of the very indolence she denounces. Af ter the Brewer's desert ion she took no steps towards s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n but languished for approximately one year u n t i l she lapsed in to s i n 98 by becoming the Jeweller's mistress. Following his death she made no move towards repenting, although her financial position provided the necessary security, but immediately became the Prince's mistress and led a l i f e as unproductive as the Brewer's. Indeed, the only pertinent difference between the two centres on the fact that he is poorer because he has not prostituted himself! Once we realize this i t becomes apparent that he figured as a scapegoat in her f i r s t tirade against "Fools" (p. 8) and that Roxana was attempting to mollify her own conscience and to mislead the reader by shifting any blame away from herself, and that she uses his reappearance to do the same. Her tactics are particularly revealing when, after having spied on him in France, she not only judges him morally but goes so far as to adopt a condescending attitude when speaking about him: Tho' this wicked Life he led, sometimes mov'd me to pity him, and to wonder how so well-bred, Gentlemanly a Man as he once was, could degenerate into such a useless thing, as he now appear'd; yet at the same time, i t gave me most contemptible Thoughts of him . . . (p. 96). Here Roxana goes too far, gives herself away, and wins our censure. Her diatribe does not produce the effect she intends, and instead of seeing her as a "helpless victim of circumstances," we realize that from the beginning of her career Roxana was unwilling to accept any sort of responsibility or to exert any positive effort towards self-preservation and that she was not forced into sin by necessity but accepted i t as the easiest way of existing. The Brewer's presence in France, then, seems to remind Roxana that she is sinning but i t does not cause her to detest her sins and reform. Rather, i t motivates her to crowd out conscience, to conceal her unsavoury past so that she w i l l remain appealing in the eyes of the \ 99 Prince, and to attempt to mislead the reader with a barage of criticism. Indeed, Roxana is a consumate manipulator, and instead of completely side-stepping the idea of reform, which would be begging the question, she uses the Brewer as a scapegoat again by raising the topic of repentance only to dismiss i t with the absurd reason that reformation would be f u t i l e because her husband is a "Fool": had he been a Man of any Sense, and of any Principle of Honour, I had i t in my Thoughts to retire to England again, send for him over, and have li v ' d honestly with him . . . (p. 93). Obviously Roxana is striving to silence her.conscience and to divert the reader's judgment by blackening the Brewer's image, and this is a tactic she employs time and ..again—not only with him but with other characters as well. The effort she expends to absolve herself at the Brewer's expense clearly points to her guilt and her concluding words about him only make her culpability more manifest: once I had nothing to hope for, but to see him again; now my only F e l i c i t y was, i f possible, never to see him, and, above a l l , to keep him from seeing me; which, as above, I took effectual Care of (p. 96). These remarks show that Roxana has reversed her i n i t i a l p r i o r i t i e s and has consciously chosen the l i f e of a mistress over that of a wife, that she desires wealth above true respectability, and that, as a result, she has put aside the dictates of conscience to conceal her past and to thus retain the Prince's favour. Roxana does manage to keep her history from the Prince and their relationship ends only with the death of his wife. The contrast between the Prince's and Roxana's reactions to this eventuality again shows that she is more concerned with preserving her wealth than with reforming. Reflecting on his wife's piety and stricken by pangs of 100 g u i l t the Pr ince not only a l t e r s h i s l i f e but abhors h i s former s i n s : he look 'd back with Detes tat ion upon the former Part of h i s L i f e ; grew melancholy and r e s e r v ' d ; chang'd h i s Soc ie ty , and much of the general Conduct of h i s L i f e ; r e s o l v ' d on a L i f e regulated most s t r i c t l y by the Rules of V i r t u e , and P i e t y ; and i n a word, was qui te another Man (p. 109). From h i s wi fe ' s death-bed words he learns the value of v i r t u e and the abominable nature of h i s s ins and according ly looks to the s tate of h i s s o u l , Roxana, on the other hand, i s not af fected by the P r i n c e s s ' words or the P r i n c e ' s behaviour and regards the end of t h e i r a f f a i r as a s i g n a l to look to her wealth. She i s aware of the need for repentance and states " I . . . . had so much to r e f l e c t upon more, than the Pr ince" (p. 110), but excuses h e r s e l f by p lead ing a fear of poverty . Her arguments are completely foundat ionless , however, for she i s " R i c h , and not only R i c h , but . . . . very Rich" (p. 110) and i s , moreover, i n very l i t t l e danger of being "circumvented and dece iv 'd" (p. I l l ) , for she i s , as we have seen, an eminently capable businesswoman. I t i s qu i te c l ear that she refuses to heed the P r i n c e ' s example and ignores conscience to g r a t i f y her avar ic iousness . The P r i n c e ' s response to h i s w i f e ' s death i s the second dramatic warning Roxana r e c e i v e s , but , once again, , she places m a t e r i a l wealth over sou l and conscience. The P r i n c e s s ' death serves another funct ion inso far as i t reminds us that death terminated .one of Roxana's other r e l a t i o n s h i p s — h e r l i a i s o n with the Jewe l l er . Almost immediately af ter h i s death Roxana began to "look in to [her] A f f a i r s " (p. 55). Even though she "had the S a t i s f a c t i o n n o t , t o be l e f t i n D i s t r e s s , or i n Danger of Poverty" (p. 55) , and i n fac t was "possess'd of almost ten Thousand Pounds S t e r l i n g " (p. 55), she ordered Amy to s t r i p the J e w e l l e r ' s house i n 101 England and to s e l l his effects before his relations could assert their ownership. Further she made "no Scruple" (p. 56) about calling herself the Jeweller's wife—which she adamantly refused to do while he was alive—-and actually denigrated him while feigning surprise and indignation on "discovering" that he had a wife in England. Far from quitting her l i f e as a mistress at this point she perverts the love she held for the Jeweller, steeps herself in hypocrisy, and encourages the Prince's advances and s o l i c i t s his sympathy by advising him that the Jeweller l e f t her in d i f f i c u l t financial circumstances. By i t s e l f this i s a harsh portrait of a mercenary individual and needs no amplification to convince us of Roxana's growing callousness and greed. Nevertheless, the inclusion of a parallel situation later, in which the Prince reveals his strong love and deep sense of loss, makes her unfeeling materialistic attitude seem a l l the more base. Defoe could hardly have been more emphatic about Roxana's lack of conscience, her unfeeling nature, her avarice, and her failure to detest her sins and learn the value of repentance, but he was also careful to endow her with sufficient humanity to engage the reader, and one way i n which he impresses us with her humanity is through the person of the Jew. Some similarities link the Jew and Roxana: both are greedy, unscrupulous, and callous. Yet when the Jew almost psychopathically persecutes the Merchant and Roxana a vicious animality emerges which renders him utterly despicable and shows that Roxana, in'spite of her failings, is s t i l l human.. Like Hindley Earnshaw whose brutish and cowardly ravings ennoble Heathcliff in Wutheving Heights, the Jew is a necessary check to Roxana and prevents us from regarding her as a monster, and for this reason the contrast between 102 their characters is one of the most essential in the work. The Jew's presence, which has not otherwise been explained,^ superbly demonstrates Defoe's acumen, and tends to indicate that he was acutely aware of the impressions his characters were generating and that he was cautiously guiding us towards a particular judgement of Roxana. Introduced at the same time as the Jew is the Dutch Merchant, and the contrast between his character and Roxana's is the most marked and the most informative in the novel. The scenes between them in Paris, and, even more, those in Holland bring to the fore and crystallize a l l the novel's main issues. The Merchant's charity, piety, responsibility, unselfish love, integrity, honesty, compassion, and a b i l i t y to harmonize economic and moral concerns, mark him as Defoe's ideal and contrast with a black and white clarity against Roxana's self-love, hypocrisy, sloth, ingratitude, and exclusive materialism. Against the Merchant, Roxana's obliquity stands out dramatically, and i t is augmented when she rejects his values and attempts to justify her own through wrangling sophistry, or "subtle reasoning" (p. 153), as the Merchant charitably calls i t . When Roxana f i r s t meets the Merchant in Paris we immediately notice his virtuous qualities, and his behaviour towards Roxana and the torments and sacrifices he.endur.es for her sake are a testimony to his absolute good faith. Roxana even admits I cou'd have trusted a l l I had with him, for he was perfectly honest, and had not the least View of doing me any Wrong; indeed, after i t was so apparent that he had, as i t were, sav'd my Lif e , or at least, sav'd me from being expos'd and ruin'd; I say, after this, how cou'd I doubt him in any thing? (pp. 120-121). Consequently the fears she raises later about the honourableness of his marriage proposals are already invalidated and her objections 1 0 3 emerge as b la tant excuses. In f a c t , the whole process which leads up to Roxana's d i s m i s s a l of the Merchant amounts to an extended debate between r i g h t reason and s o p h i s t r y , and i t forces Roxana to deal with her values and motives on a conscious l e v e l and to make a conscious choice between r i g h t and wrong. By fo l lowing t h i s debate we w i l l see Roxana anatomize her va lues , and we w i l l become aware of the fact that she has not only ignored another warning to repent and has d iscarded an i d e a l opportunity to do so, but has, i n a d d i t i o n , a c t u a l l y used specious l o g i c to defend her l i f e as a mistress and has, there fore , become more reprehens ib le . S h o r t l y a f t er h i s a r r i v a l i n Hol land the Merchant proposes to Roxana, This b r i n g matters to a head, for she can e i ther marry the Merchant, whom she loves , and lead a v i r tuous l i f e , or she can continue to l i v e as a mis t re s s . She reso lves on the l a t t e r and her choice i n i t i a t e s a debate which reveals the p i t c h of immorality she has a r r i v e d at , Roxana bases her arguments on the contention that a Mis tres s has more c o n t r o l over her money than does a wi fe . In an e f f o r t to make her p o s i t i o n sound unmercenary and to win our approval she begins defens ive ly with a tone of ca l cu la ted reasonableness: "Now because t h i s may seem a l i t t l e odd, I s h a l l s ta te the Matter c l e a r l y , as I understood i t myself", and she goes on: I knew that while I was a M i s t r e s s , i t i s customary for the Person kept , to receive from them that keep; but i f I shou'd be a Wife , a l l I had then, was given up to the Husband, I was thenceforth to be under h i s Author i ty only; and as I had Money enough, and needed not fear being what they c a l l ' d a oast-off Mistress, so I had no need to give him twenty Thousand Pound to marry me, which had been buying my Lodging too dear a great dea l (p. 144). T y p i c a l l y Roxana i s th ink ing i n pure ly m a t e r i a l terms and when the 104 Merchant offers her complete control of her own money " a l l [her] Objections" (p. 147) are removed. But she refuses to capitulate because this would be tantamount to confessing that " i t was upon the Account of my Money that I refus'd him" (p. 147). To avoid disclosing her true reasons she "give[s] a new Turn" (p. 147) to her s t o r y — even though this "was not in [her] Thoughts at f i r s t " (p. 147)—and states that a wife i s "but an Upper-Servant" (p. 148), and that "the very Nature of the Marriage-Contract was, in short, nothing but giving up Liberty, Estate, Authority, and every-thing, to the Man . . ." (p. 148). Of course the Merchant has a reasonable counter to Roxana's concocted generalization and replies that "if the Husband acted as became him" (p. 148) i t was his business to "make the Woman live quiet and unconcern'd in the World" (p. 148). Even though Roxana knows that the Merchant's deeds would accord with his words, she remains obstinate and tries a new tack by arguing that a wife could lose her portion and be le f t in poverty by a foolish husband. Again her objections are answered when the Merchant, who i s , to begin with, an intelligent and cautious businessman, proposes to retire from business and to trust Roxana with his money as well as her own. If Roxana were not absolutely bent on remaining a mistress, of course, she would have acquiesced much earlier in the argument, but corrupt as she i s , she objects to these generous terms. The Merchant then states that marriage is decreed by Heaven. Hard pressed by the strength of this argument, Roxana changes the direction of her argument and practically accuses her suitor of rape by claiming that she "suffer'd [his] Rudeness, and gave up [her] Virtue" (p. 151) to him and that in light of this i t would be best for her to avoid his reproaches by not marrying 105 him and by engaging i n "Repentance for what i s pas t , and put t ing an End to i t for Time to come" (p. 151). Again demonstrating tremendous magnanimity the Merchant promises not to reproach Roxana. Determined to remain independent, Roxana r e p l i e s that " i t wou'd be adding one Weakness to another" (p. 152) to marry a man af ter having been h i s m i s t r e s s , and again she turns the tables on him by s t a t i n g that "to r e s i s t a Man [who has claimed one's v i r t u e ] , i s to act with Courage and Vigour" (p. 152). That the Merchant has preserved h i s equanimity to t h i s point i s c e r t a i n l y a testimony to h is character i f pat ience i s a v i r t u e , but f i n a l l y he ends the d i scuss ion by saying that only i n marriage w i l l he cohabit with Roxana because he "cannot give up Soul as w e l l as Body" (p. 157). Roxana, on the other hand, w i l l not r e l i n g u i s h her m a t e r i a l quest and admits that "tho' I cou'd give up my V i r t u e , and expose myself , yet I wou'd not give up my Money" (p. 147). Her r e f u s a l of the Merchant not only shows that she i s dominated by m a t e r i a l concerns but i t br ings her a step c loser to r u i n because she now uses perverted arguments to support her stance while being f u l l y cognizant of her s i n f u l n e s s . Although the contrast between Roxana and the Merchant makes her immorality abundantly c l e a r , the impression of her s in fu lness i s strengthened by a reference to the Brewer which appears i n t h i s s ec t ion of the n o v e l . During her stay i n Hol land Roxana receives news from Amy that the Brewer has d i e d . At the mention of her husband Roxana exclaims against marriage aga in , but we are already aware that she has used him to j u s t i f y her conduct be fore , and when we r e c a l l that she once advised the members of her sex to marry "any Husband rather than a Foo l" (p. 8) and that she "knew Ithe Merchant] to be no Foo l" (p. 145), our conclus ion that 106 Roxana is not truly afraid of marriage but is merely fabricating excuses to continue her l i f e as a mistress is reinforced. Q No one character at P a l l Mall reflects on Roxana and, as i t was pointed out above, the setting i t s e l f , the overall cultural milieu, and Roxana's dance and dress convey and amplify a great deal of the meaning of that episode. The next important character association is that between Roxana and the Old Lewd Favourite. Almost predictably, Roxana informs us that he was a "Person of a very great Estate" (p. 183), but missing when she f i r s t describes him is any account of his personal qualities or of her responses to him as a person. By contrast, we know that Roxana was attracted to the Jeweller's person, to the Prince's and to the Merchant's, and that she actually loved each of them. But Roxana scornfully remarks that when the Old Lewd Favourite "turn'd his Discourse to the Subject of Love" (p. 183) before propositioning her to become his mistress, she found this to be a "Point so ridiculous . . . without the main, thing, I mean the Money" (p. 183). If possible, then, Roxana.seems to have become even more callous. And we learn something else about her from the way she describes her keeper towards the end of their relationship. To say the least, she presents a picture of a disgusting lecher who "grew worse and wickeder the older he grew, and that to such a Degree, as is not f i t to write of" (p. 199). Admittedly Roxana l e f t him partially for this reason, but at the same time the reader is given the impression that she endured his perversions for some time before terminating the relationship. And so his corruption reflects directly on her moral character and suggests that she has allowed herself to undergo a further deterioration for the sake of accumulating more money. 107 After making the decision to quit her l i f e as a mistress and after leaving the Old Lewd Favourite, Roxana resolves to sever herself as completely as possible from her former associations and takes lodgings with the Quaker. This move is extremely significant for three reasons. F i r s t , i t introduces a situation which parallels an earlier one. If Roxana's sentimentalized picture of her poverty perhaps won our sympathy and i f the reintroduction of the Brewer failed to unmask her efforts to delude us, the Quaker's circumstances cannot but force us to see Roxana's i n i t i a l irresponsibility and failure to act to preserve her virtue. The similarities between the Quaker's situation and Roxana's at the time of the Brewer's desertion are emphatically marked. But the women's respective responses to those situations could hardly be more divergent. Consequently the reader cannot f a i l , even though Roxana apparently does, to draw an extremely pointed moral lesson. Roxana advises us that This good (tho' unhappy) QUAKER had the Misfortune to have had a bad Husband, and he was gone beyond-Sea; she had a good House, and well-furnish'd, and had some Jointure of her own Estate, which supported her and her Children, so that she did not want; but she was not a t - a l l above such a Help, as my being there was to her; so she was as glad of me, as I was of her (p. 212). The Quaker's circumstances are almost identical to Roxana's and yet she preserves her material comfort and virtue by taking in lodgers. Roxana, on the other hand, took no steps towards self-preservation and even failed to think of accommodating boarders u n t i l the Jeweller advanced the idea. The Quaker's responses emphasize Roxana's by contrast and against the Quaker's industry, self-reliance, and virtue Roxana's inactivity, irresponsibility, and immorality stand out 108 dramatically. This parallel brings together the womens' sharply defined and almost antithetical responses and demonstrates beyond any doubt that the blame Roxana levelled at the Brewer when he deserted was unjustified, or was, at least, one-sided, and that she sinned, not out of necessity, but because of her own inclinations. The move to the Quaker's i s also highly important for another reason. Specifically, the contrast between the Quaker and Roxana draws attention to the outwardness of Roxana's changed l i f e - s t y l e and pointedly emphasizes her inner corruption. When Roxana and Amy discuss the change Amy informs Roxana that you must put off a l l your Equipages, and Servants, Coaches, and Horses; change your Liveries, nay, your own Cloathes, and i f i t was possible, your very Face (p. 208). Her emphasis f a l l s s t r i c t l y on externals and there is absolutely no talk about reform. Indeed, Roxana has already determined, without having made any effort to prove herself wrong, that she cannot atone for her l i f e as a mistress. Rhetorically she asks "how can i t be remedy'd now?" (p. 208.); and answers that "the thing cannot be remedy'd. now, but the Scandal of i t , I fancy, may be thrown off" (p. 208). The superficial nature of the change i s thus made apparent and the presence of the virtuous Quaker keeps the reader acutely aware of the inner corruption which Roxana has failed to correct. We w i l l bear in mind as well that Roxana's plate, the Quaker, habit she now wears, and the Turkish dress she s t i l l possesses also give us this awareness. Roxana's attitude towards the Quaker also shows she has actually compounded her sins by turning virtue to her own ends, for whereas she simply ignored virtue before, Roxana now relies on the goodness of others to reflect on her and on their unquestioning honesty to 109 protec t h e r s e l f . She i s p a r t i c u l a r l y de l ighted to d iscover that the Quaker i s a woman of s t r i c t i n t e g r i t y and uses th i s to her advantage when escaping detect ion by her daughter. I f the Merchant's presence revealed Roxana's w i l l ingness to defend her improbi ty , the Quaker's f o r c e f u l l y d i sc loses a further d e t e r i o r a t i o n wherein good becomes one of Roxana's tools for r e a l i z i n g her egocentr ic des i re s . Instead of being motivated to reform by the Quaker's v i r t u e , she a c t u a l l y incorporates i t in to her facade. The tension created by the simultaneous presence of Roxana and the Quaker i s augmented when references to other characters are introduced in to t h i s s ec t ion of the n a r r a t i v e . During her concealment at the Quaker's , Roxana receives a l e t t e r from Amy o u t l i n i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the Brewer, the Jew, the Merchant, and the P r i n c e . And t h i s s t r a t e g i c grouping of references allows the reader to r e f l e c t on the course of her d e t e r i o r a t i o n , suppl ies him with a sca le against which to measure the hero ine ' s v ices and v i r t u e s , and provides a further demonstration of Roxana's opportunism and of her f a i l u r e to l e a r n from the example of p o s i t i v e behaviour. Mentioning the Jew was an extremely deft s troke on Defoe's p a r t , and at a c r u c i a l po int i n the novel we are again reminded of Roxana's e s s e n t i a l humanity. Such a reminder i s p a r t i c u l a r l y needful here i n l i g h t of the step she i s to contemplate—that of r e j e c t i n g the Merchant i n s p i t e of her agreement to marry him i n favour of the more pres t i g ious and rewarding marriage she be l ieves i s pending between her and the P r i n c e . Had the Jew not been mentioned here there would be a great danger of the reader l o s i n g a l l sympathy for the heroine . A d e l i c a t e balance p r e v a i l s , i n other words, and i s preserved by 110 the admission, of the inhumanly c r u e l Jew who a c t i v e l y persecutes and e x p l o i t s the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of others. Roxana may be a p a r a s i t e , but w i t h the exception of her debauching of Amy she does not m a l i c i o u s l y set out to b e n e f i t from people w i t h the c e r t a i n knowledge that i n doing so she w i l l destroy them. Also s t r a t e g i c i s the reference to the Brewer, f o r i t allows us to assess the degree of Roxana's degeneration. Hearing of him again should remind Roxana that her i n i t i a l d e s i r e was to marry a r e s p o n s i b l e husband who would give her the s e c u r i t y necessary to preserve her from poverty and s i n . As w e l l , the news of h i s death should put Roxana i n mind of the f a c t that she can now l e g a l l y marry again. But she overlooks these things and continues on i n her o l d path seeking to preserve her " r e s p e c t a b i l i t y " , to escape the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of her f a m i l y , and to make arrangements advantageous to her m a t e r i a l s i t u a t i o n , and so her r e a c t i o n to the news of the Brewer shows her moving f u r t h e r away from v i r t u e . Included i n Amy's l e t t e r as w e l l i s news of the P r i n c e and Merchant. Amy's inf o r m a t i o n about the Merchant i s out of date, f o r Roxana has already encountered him i n England and has, i n f a c t , agreed to marry him. But when she le a r n s of the P r i n c e ' s d e s i r e to marry her she again r e v e a l s her opportunism by planning to d i s c a r d the Merchant. Roxana col d - h e a r t e d l y s t a t e s that she "wish'd [she] had never r e c e i v ' d him a t - a l l " (p. 234) and re s o l v e s to " b e - r i d of him f o r - e v e r " (p. 234). V i r t u e i s once more d i s p l a c e d as Roxana informs us that a l u s t f o r w o r l d l y possessions and grandeur l a y behind her d e s i r e f o r the P r i n c e : although she had "an i n e x p r e s s i b l e A f f e c t i o n remaining f o r h i s Person" Cp, 236) she also had a "f i r m e r I n t e r e s t i n him" (p. 236) i n view I l l of h i s wealth and a b i l i t y to make her a p r i n c e s s . And even though Roxana r e a l i z e s the "Baseness of [her contemplated] Act ion" (p. 234), she nevertheless attempts to excuse her behaviour. F i r s t , she terms the P r i n c e ' s reappearance an "Accident" (p. 230) which "un luck i ly in terven 'd" (p. 234) i n her a f f a i r with the Merchant, and then goes on to blame Amy for f l a t t e r i n g her van i ty and whetting her ambit ions. Far from reducing our condemnation, these weak attempts to excuse greed and ambition i n t e n s i f y our impression of Roxana's c o r r u p t i o n . Roxana's ambitions are thwarted, however, when the Pr ince turns "Penitent [ fo l lowing a hunting accident] and [can]not th ink anymore" (p, 237) about marrying, I r o n i c a l l y Roxana i s not impressed with the P r i n c e ' s repentance and does not regard i t as a warning to h e r s e l f but qu ick ly back-steps i n order to regain the Merchant's favour. A number of i r o n i e s emerge when she does so, f or her main reason for marrying the Merchant, or at l eas t for being pleased about the match, i s grounded i n the Merchant's o f fer to purchase her two t i t l e s of n o b i l i t y , and although she cannot be a pr incess she i s "not a l i t t l e t i c k l ' d with the S a t i s f a c t i o n of being s t i l l a Countess" (p. 242). Roxana chooses the Merchant, then, for the wrong reasons. She ignores h i s v i r t u e s and holds paramount his a b i l i t y to advance her s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . In teres t ing as w e l l i s the irony which develops out of the contrast between Roxana's and the Merchant's respect ive opinions about the worth of a t i t l e . Though he holds that " P r i n c i p l e s of Honour" (p. 240) cannot be purchased with money, he fee l s that " T i t l e s of Honour" (p. 240) "sometimes a s s i s t to e levate the Soul and to infuse generous P r i n c i p l e s in to the Mind" (p. 240). Roxana, on the other hand, values a t i t l e only i n terms of the pres t ige i t w i l l b r i n g . 1 1 2 Amy's l e t t e r , then, re-groups a number of the characters who have been important i n Roxana's l i f e and who contrast s i g n i f i c a n t l y with her, draws together a number of the novel's threads, provides a powerful and l u c i d depiction of Roxana's character, and gives a graphic demonstration of her further descent into immorality. Following her marriage to the Merchant, Roxana encounters her daughter Susan. The contrast between t h e i r characters and between t h e i r respective desires, and the nature and outcome of t h e i r intercourse, not only drives the novel to an intense and compelling close but shows Roxana irrevocably damning her s e l f i n another e f f o r t to free h e r s e l f from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and to maintain independence from r e l a t i o n -ships which could uncover her past. Ralph E. Jenkins states that with the murder of Susan Roxana has f i n a l l y silenced "the accusing voice 9 of conscience". But he i s quite wrong, for i f Roxana has succeeded i n doing t h i s then she would f e e l no sense of g u i l t . Quite c l e a r l y the opposite i s true. With the murder of Susan Roxana has indeed made a d r a s t i c e f f o r t to s i l e n c e the voice of conscience, as she has been attempting to do throughout her career, but th i s act a c t u a l l y awakens her conscience and overwhelms i t with a sense of g u i l t so that she i s l e f t with a f u l l awareness of her sins but with a sense of despair which prevents her from s i n c e r e l y repenting. Jenkins describes Roxana's and Susan's as an " a l l e g o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " ^ and uses as h i s authority a quotation from The History and Reality of Apparitions which reads, "As there i s no i n s t r u c t i n g you, without pleasing you, and no pleasing you but i n your own way, we must go on i n that way; the understanding must be refined by allegory and enigma . . , . H e goes on to say that "Roxana has, l i k e Defoe's 113 o t h e r w o r k s , a r e a l i s t i c s u r f a c e , b u t b e l o w t h a t s u r f a c e t h e r e i s 1 2 a l l e g o r y " . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s , i n m y o p i n i o n , n o s o u n d b a s i s f o r a s s u m i n g t h a t D e f o e w a s u s i n g t h e t e r m " a l l e g o r y " i n a p r e c i s e t e c h n i c a l f a s h i o n , a n d i t s e e m s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t h e w a s s i m p l y s a y i n g t h a t a n o v e l i s t m u s t p r e s e n t h i s d i d a c t i c i n t e n t i n a p l e a s i n g o r e n t e r t a i n i n g f o r m , o r , a s F i e l d i n g w r o t e l a t e r i n t h e " A u t h o r ' s P r e f a c e " t o Joseph Andrews, a n o v e l i s t m u s t n o t o n l y i n s t r u c t b u t h e m u s t , a s w e l l , m a k e h i s t e a c h i n g s p a l a t a b l e b y e n t e r t a i n i n g . " A l l e g o r y " , t h e n , s i m p l y s e e m s t o b e a t e r m l o o s e l y u s e d t o m e a n t h e f i c t i o n a l c o n t e n t w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e d i d a c t i c e l e m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e s e e m s t o b e n o t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t D e f o e w a s w r i t i n g a l l e g o r y , B u t i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S u s a n a n d R o x a n a , l i k e t h a t b e t w e e n R o x a n a a n d A m y , i s n o t a l l e g o r i c a l , i t c a n s t i l l b e d i s c u s s e d m o s t s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y i n t e r m s o f a r e a l i s t i c s u r f a c e o n w h i c h S u s a n i s a t a n g i b l e r e m i n d e r t o R o x a n a o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s h e i s s h i r k i n g a n d o f t h e l o v e s h e i s d e n y i n g , a n d i n t e r m s o f a n i n f r a - r e a l i s t i c s u r f a c e o n w h i c h S u s a n ' s c u r i o u s l y t i m e d r e - e m e r g e n c e s e r v e s a s a r e m i n d e r t o b o t h R o x a n a a n d t h e r e a d e r , t h a t d e s p i t e o n e ' s e f f o r t s o n e c a n n o t u l t i m a t e l y e s c a p e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d t h e p r o d d i n g s o f c o n s c i e n c e . S u s a n ' s r e a p p e a r a n c e t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e n o v e l a c c e n t u a t e s R o x a n a ' s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d i n h u m a n i t y m o r e s t r o n g l y t h a n a n y o f R o x a n a ' s p r e v i o u s e n c o u n t e r s . - ' - 3 A s w e h a v e s e e n , R o x a n a c o n s t a n t l y p u t s a s i d e h e r d u t i e s a n d h o l d s h u m a n l o v e s u b s e r v i e n t t o m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , O n l y t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f h e r c a r e e r , a f t e r s h e h a s p r o v i d e d f o r h e r s e l f , d o e s R o x a n a t h i n k o f s e e k i n g o u t a n d p r o v i d i n g f o r h e r c h i l d r e n , a n d e v e n t h o u g h s h e d o e s s o s h e s t i l l r e f u s e s o p e n l y t o 114 acknowledge and a c c e p t them, and the c o n t r a s t between Susan's l o v e and Roxana's s t r u g g l e s t o s u p p r e s s h e r m a t e r n a l f e e l i n g s i s t h e s t r o n g e s t d i s p l a y o f Roxana's e g o c e n t r i c i t y . A l t h o u g h Roxana a t t e m p t s t o r a t i o n a l i z e h e r b e h a v i o u r by s t a t i n g t h a t h e r c h i l d r e n would d e t e s t h e r i f th e y knew of h e r l i f e as a whore, Susan's b e h a v i o u r d e f l a t e s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n and a i d s i n r e v e a l i n g Roxana's t r u e m o t i v e s . W i t h a knowledge of Roxana's a c t i v i t i e s a t P a l l M a l l and a f t e r Amy's t h r e a t s t o s e v e r h e r m a i n t e n a n c e , Susan s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n h e r q u e s t t o w i n Roxana's l o v e . A b s o l u t e l y no a m b i g u i t y c l o u d s t h e i s s u e and Roxana's b e h a v i o u r i s c l e a r l y s e l f i s h . By s u p p r e s s i n g h e r n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s and by f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e and l o v e Susan Roxana b r i n g s h e r s e l f t o a degree of baseness w h i c h i s s u r p a s s e d o n l y by h e r f a i l u r e t o p r e v e n t Amy.from m u r d e r i n g t h e g i r l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Roxana and Susan has a l e v e l of meaning o t h e r t h a n t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e r e a l i s t i c n a r r a t i v e s u r f a c e and t h i s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h r e e t h i n g s . F i r s t , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r names a r e t h e same e s t a b l i s h e s a l i n k between the two.-^ Only f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n the work a r e g i v e n p r o p e r names: Amy, the h i s t o r i c a l S i r R o b e r t C l a y t o n , Roxana, and Susan. A g a i n s t t h i s d e a r t h o f names Roxana's d i s c l o s u r e t h a t Susan had "my own name" (p. 205) a l e r t s t h e r e a d e r to l o o k f o r some s p e c i a l i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . S e c o n d l y , we are u r g e d t o l o o k f o r some s p e c i a l l i n k between them when Roxana a d v i s e s us t h a t Susan, "was t h e v e r y C o u n t e r p a r t o f m y s e l f " (p. 3 2 9 ) . And, f i n a l l y , two of Susan's a p p e a r a n c e s — o n e a t Roxana's r e s i d e n c e at P a l l M a l l and t h e o t h e r on b o a r d t h e H o l l a n d - b o u n d s h i p — a r e n o t p l a u s i b l e on a r e a l i s t i c l e v e l and would have t o be r e g a r d e d as " u n s k i l l f u l l c o i n c i d e n c e s " ^ ^ i f t h e y o p e r a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y on t h a t l e v e l . 115 It is reasonable to suggest that "Susan is a part of Roxana that she cannot escape", that Susan represents the past which cannot be silenced and which must, therefore, be confronted. Roxana has always attempted to avoid things which threatened to disrupt her narrowly egocentric existence and her reaction to Susan is consistent with this behaviour. Rather than acknowledging Susan and accepting her, and thereby atoning for her earlier irresponsibility, Roxana evades her daughter. In other words, rather than confronting her sins, accepting her guilt, and making atonement, Roxana attempts to evade the issue to maintain a surface respectability. Susan, or Roxana's past, is irrepressible, however. It f i r s t surfaces while Roxana is at P a l l Mall at the height of her career and suggests that in spite of Roxana's splendid l i f e - s t y l e , regardless of the appearance of success, Roxana's l i f e is a mere outward display uninformed by any true values, and that Roxana's past is a part of her being which cannot be sealed off and which, therefore, must be confronted. Susan's unexpected appearance at this point suggests that "the most secret Crimes, are, by the most unforeseen Accidents, brought to light, and discover'd" (p, 297) and "that the Crime going before, the Scandal is certain to follow; and that 'tis not in the Power of humane Nature to conceal the f i r s t , or avoid the last" (p. 298). Susan's unexpected appearance on board the ship bound for Holland—which can only be seen as a gross coincidence on a r e a l i s t i c level—reinforces this idea. By booking passage for Holland Roxana is making a desperate bid to escape her past. In terms of the extra-realistic level of meaning, i t becomes apparent that Roxana cannot escape herself. It is a tribute to Defoe's artistry, by the way, that while these 116 appearances break the surface of realism, they do not jar the reader because we are caught up in the intensity of the flight and pursuit and because we glean from the narrative a grim sense of the inevitability of Roxana's exposure, and the means of how this is accomplished are overshadowed by the impending exposure i t s e l f . Rather than confronting Susan, or her past, Roxana attempts to avoid the past, and while she would not be concerned i f Susan were accidentally k i l l e d she is repulsed, by Amy's murder scheme. But she takes no measures to ensure that Amy does not carry out her plans and this i s entirely consistent with her past behaviour, with her continual ignoring or side-stepping of responsibility. Ironically i t is Roxana's passivity which effectively causes Susan's death, and so, as passivity led Roxana into crime at the outset and kept her from confronting herself throughout her career, i t f i n a l l y results in the act which, because of i t s irreversible nature, destroys any possibility of her making atonement. When Susan is murdered, Roxana's crimes are brought to a culmination, for the horror of the act awakens Roxana's dormant conscience and overwhelms i t with an ennervating sense of guilt.. Roxana's entire l i f e has led to this act and i t s irreversible nature seals her doom. Susan's death and Roxana's reaction to i t form, then, the "right" ending for the novel because they extend to i t s limits in an uncompromising manner the course of Roxana's irresponsibility and egocentricity. By f a i l i n g to prevent Amy from murdering Susan, Roxana loses her last chance to reform and to account for her past. Susan's death denies Roxana the opportunity to extend love to another being and to assume her duties as a mother and i t marks the peak of her moral decay, the 117 point where her vanity, egocentricity, and social irresponsibility overwhelm her and render her unable to escape, to mask, to defend, or to repent her l i f e of crime. The nightmarish quality of tension and suspense emanating from this section of the narrative deserves some discussion here because i t depends a great deal on Susan's presence. Benjamin Boyce astutely points out that one source of Defoe's power is his "representation of 17 18 anxiety", and notes that "the real power" of Roxana comes in the story of Roxana and Susan. He adds that Roxana "is a more agonizing spectacle than Crusoe in his haunted period because, unlike him, she is constantly and closely surrounded by people, and those who would 19 befriend her are, unknown to themselves, those who terrify her". A major source of the tension i s grounded in the fact that Susan is Roxana's daughter and in the struggle Roxana experiences as she attempts to combat her maternal instincts. As we see from her account of their meeting on board ship, these feelings are very strong: notwithstanding there was a secret Horror upon my Mind, and I was ready to sink when I came close to her; to salute her; yet i t was a secret inconceivable Pleasure to me when I kiss'd her . . . I f e l t something shoot thro' my Blood; my Heart flutter'd; my Head flash'd, and was dizzy . . . and much ado I had, not to abandon myself to an Excess of Passion at the f i r s t Sight of her . . . 1 thought I must have taken her in my Arms, and kiss'd her again a Thousand times, whether I wou'd or no (p. 277). Yet Roxana battles with herself to displace these impulses, and, because she is not completely successful, she becomes emotionally rent. The emotional tension is added to by the frustration Susan experiences as she vainly tries to win her mother's love. And while force was given to earlier episodes through the mere presence of characters who contrasted with Roxana, that intensity is increased here by Susan's 118 r e l e n t l e s s pursu i t and Roxana's desperate f l i g h t . Furthermore, each encounter with other characters has brought Roxana a step c loser to her downfa l l , and by th i s point a strong sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y looms. F i n a l l y , the charged atmosphere i s added to by the dense and complex intervolvement of the other s t r u c t u r i n g devices . The Dutch s e t t i n g , for example, permeates the close of the work with an irony based on the discrepancy between the l i f e Roxana re jec ted and now d e s i r e s , and the l i f e which i s now i n e l u c t a b l y her l o t . As w e l l , the presence of the Merchant—who i s the complete a n t i t h e s i s of her f i r s t husband and the model of the man she o r i g i n a l l y des ired to marry—makes extremely poignant Roxana's i n a b i l i t y to enjoy her marriage with him. And the cont inua l reappearances of the T u r k i s h dress impress us with the s trength 'o f the s e l f - l o v e and van i ty which are t ear ing Roxana away from her daughter. At the nove l ' s c lose a l l i t s elements conspire with a crushing densi ty to show how the web of dece i t Roxana spun to avoid confront ing h e r s e l f , to preserve her egocentr ic l i f e , and to free h e r s e l f of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to anyone but h e r s e l f , has f i n a l l y enmeshed her and how her e f f o r t s to e x t r i c a t e h e r s e l f are t o t a l l y d i s a s t r o u s . Amy's character remains to be d i scussed , and because she i s an int imate a id and confidant to Roxana for the durat ion of Roxana's career we are allowed to overhear a number of Roxana's inner-most expressions of f e e l i n g . Moreover, because more than any other character she i s given an opportunity to speak i n her own person, we are enabled to assess any d iscrepancies between her a c t u a l behaviour and Roxana's reports about i t , and between t h e i r respect ive a t t i tudes towards the same phenomena and thus to determine the extent to which Roxana i s being honest with us. 119 For the purposes of ana lys i s we can say that Amy has three r o l e s . The f i r s t i s one which almost every character plays at one time or another—that of being Roxana's scapegoat. Throughout t h e i r a s soc ia t ion Roxana s h i f t s most of the blame for her act ions onto Amy. Consider , as one example among many, that a f ter she has already decided to give h e r s e l f up to the Jewel ler she denounces Amy as the one who prompted her to s i n : had I consulted Conscience and V i r t u e , I shou'd have r e p e l l ' d th i s Amy, however f a i t h f u l and honest to me i n other th ings , as a V i p e r , and Engine of the D e v i l (p. 38). At times Roxana's r h e t o r i c i s very persuasive and almost convinces us , but she has a propensi ty for excess which a l e r t s the reader to search for flaws i n her moral f r o n t . In th i s ins tance , as i n the others , we are able to detect Roxana's t a c t i c s , to discover the d iscrepancies i n her s t o r y , and to see that Amy i s not respons ible for Roxana's s i n s . One curious and h igh ly important e f fec t produced by Amy i n her r o l e as a scapegoat, even though we eventual ly do penetrate F.oxana's c r i t i c i s m s , i s that of d e f l e c t i n g our c r i t i c i s m and softening our censure so that we judge Roxana by delayed r e a c t i o n , as i t were, and consequently do not become t o t a l l y a l i enated from her . Were Amy not present as a b u f f e r , Roxana's motives and schemes would stand out harsh ly and, unless some other means were employed, the reader would have a great d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y mainta ining any degree of sympathy for her . That the opposite e f fec t does not r e s u l t when we see Amy being used can probably be explained by the fac t that she i s not e n t i r e l y innocent h e r s e l f and our ind ignat ion i s not aroused 120 to the extent i t i s when we witness Roxana duping individuals like the Merchant and the Quaker. Indeed, Roxana's using Amy disgusts us only once'—when she forces her to fornicate with the Jeweller. And y e t — t o digress for a moment-—Defoe is not simply trying to shock and t i t i l l a t e us with pornographic detail, for this action is entirely consistent with Roxana's character. Her debauching of Amy appears as an indication that Roxana not only knows she is sinning but is so strongly affected by this knowledge that Amy's mere presence is a reproach. To this point Amy has been relatively innocent; afterwards she is reduced to Roxana's l e v e l — a t least in Roxana's eyes. And, of course, i t is ironic but typical that Roxana should take this course of action. Her choices are to reform or to attempt to assuage her conscience. She. chooses the latter, as she does throughout her l i f e , and succeeds in entrenching herself deeper in sin and in bringing herself closer to ruin. Amy also has an important function as Roxana's decision maker. At various times throughout her career Roxana advises Amy that she does not know what course of action to take and thus gives her the opportunity to offer decisions—which Roxana invariably accepts, This happens f i r s t when Amy proposes to leave the children with the Brewer's relatives and Roxana passively, "leave|"s] the Management of the whole Matter" (p. 19) to her. After Roxana has already decided to become the Jeweller's mistress, she informs Amy that i f the Jeweller asked her she would "know not what to say to him" (p. 37) and thus allows Amy to become morally implicated by offering an opinion. Following her affair with the Old Lewd Favourite, Roxana suggests retiring to the country to avoid detection by her old associates. 121 Amy advises that Roxana can do th i s j u s t as e f f e c t u a l l y by d i s g u i s i n g h e r s e l f and remaining i n London. Of course Amy's p lan appeals to Roxana's bas i c i n c l i n a t i o n s much more than her own scheme, and she gives Amy the job of arranging the e n t i r e a f f a i r . And while Susan i s pursuing her mother, Amy reveals her i n t e n t i o n to murder her . While Roxana i s shocked by t h i s d i s c l o s u r e she takes no steps to deter Amy and accepts her back afterwards—in sp i t e of her resolve never to admit Amy into her presence again . That Roxana i s manipulat ing Amy to make her moral ly respons ible i s quite c l ear when we consider that often Roxana has already made a d e c i s i o n before consul t ing Amy, when we consider that Roxana makes no object ions to Amy's dec i s ions— or when she does makes no e f f o r t to prevent her from p u t t i n g them in to action—and when we consider that Roxana i s very adept h e r s e l f at planning and executing s trategy . A t h i r d and h igh ly important r o l e Amy has i s that of po inted ly r e f l e c t i n g Roxana's moral decay. Roxana moves i n i n c r e a s i n g l y soph i s t i ca ted s o c i a l spheres, and consequently Defoe i s r e s t r i c t e d i n the means he can use to portray her d e t e r i o r a t i o n . In order to maintain a sense of rea l i sm he i s often obl iged to revea l her character through i n d i r e c t i o n . We have already examined the ways i n which the motif of i t e r a t e d images and s e t t i n g do t h i s . He also uses Amy to i l l u m i n a t e character i n d i r e c t l y , and th i s i s e f fected most subt l e ly through the changes i n her speech. Despite the fac t that Amy begins as Roxana's maid and goes on to become a gentlewoman-companion, her language, contrary to our expectat ions , becomes more c o l l o q u i a l and s langy. When she i s Roxana's maid, for example, we n o t i c e nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y coarse about her way of speaking. Witness, for example, 122 the fo l lowing dialogue between her and Roxana: Dear Madam! says she, what does th i s Gentleman mean? Nay, Amy, said I, he means to do us Good, you see, don't he? I know no other Meaning he can have, for he can get nothing by me: I warrant you, Madam, says she, h e ' l l ask you a Favour by and by; No, no, you are mistaken, Amy, I dare say, said I; you heard what he s a i d , d i d n ' t you? Ay, says Amy, i t ' s no matter for t h a t , you s h a l l see what he w i l l do a f ter Dinner . . . (p. 27). Yet years l a t e r a f ter having l i v e d among the beau monde i n France and England a very marked c o l l o q u i a l tone has dominated her speech. When remarking on the P r i n c e ' s repentance, for example, she exclaims Law'd Madam I never be concern'd at i t ; you see he i s gotten among the P r i e s t s ; and I suppose, they have s a u c i l y impos'd some Pennance upon him; and, i t may-be, sent him of an Errand barefoot , to some Madonna or Nosterdame or other; and he i s off of h i s Amours for the present; I ' l l warrant you, h e ' l l be as wicked again as ever he was, when he i s got thorow-wel l , and gets but out of t h e i r Hands again: I hate th i s out-o'-Season Repentance . . . (pp. 237-238). This degeneracy increases i n an inverse manner, and t h i s tends to mark i t as a device c a l c u l a t e d to r e v e a l Amy's increas ing moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n . And Amy's decay i n turn r e f l e c t s back on Roxana who has been her major guide and in f luence . Defoe's use of character and s i t u a t i o n i n Roxana sets t h i s novel f ar ahead of h i s e a r l i e r ones i n terms of a r t i s t r y and succes s fu l l y e luc idates i t s meaning. In p a r t i c u l a r , the P r i n c e , Merchant, Jew, and Quaker—whose characters are c l e a r l y delineated—emerge as standards which enable us to determine the prec i s e nature of Roxana's weaknesses and to a r r i v e at a v a l i d judgment of her character and ac t ions , In add i t i on to c l a r i f y i n g meaning, the nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n s between the characters powerful ly conveys that meaning. Probably the best examples of th i s are the debate between Roxana and the Merchant which, i n a d i r e c t confronta t ion , enables each character 123 to argue and defend his own point of view, and the intensely wrought relationship between Roxana and Susan which gives Roxana an emotional complexity and depth surpassing anything Defoe achieved in his other novels. And, of course, the intermeshing of characters with other devices produces a rich texture which enforces the moral from several different angles," Defoe's handling of character also places the main character in perspective and enables us to see the relationship between the individual and society, The acute focus on the main protagonist in each of the earlier novels perhaps gives the impression that Defoe's heroes are completely autonomous and that Defoe was advocating an existence wherein the individual was completely detached from society and was responsible only to himself. The emphasis on more secondary characters in Roxana gives a sense of the intervolvement between characters, creates a picture of society, and stresses the need for social responsibility and reciprocity between humans. The picture of individualism is thus qualified, and from Roxana i t is clear that while the individual is more autonomous than he ever was in preceding history insofar as he can control and is responsible for his own moral and spiritual being, he s t i l l has very strong obligations towards family and towards the community at large. The re-emergence of characters also helps to define the concepts of individualism and social responsibility by giving a sense of the past, of a cause and effect relationship between one's actions, and by showing that the individual is therefore responsible for the ramifications of his behaviour on himself and on others. Greater importance i s thus attached to social responsibility and to the need for self-awareness. 124 The handl ing of character i n Roxana takes us away from the v o i d - l i k e continuous presents we f i n d i n the e a r l i e r novels which tend to give the impression that the i n d i v i d u a l i s of paramount importance, and helps to define the parameters of i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to soc i e ty . CHAPTER VI The Progress ive Divergence Between Roxana's Moral D e t e r i o r a t i o n and Her Pdse to Prosper i ty This study has shown that as Roxana's career unfolds and she becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y wealthy, she experiences a corresponding moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n . I t remains now to make a few remarks about t h i s progress ive divergence. Because Roxana's moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n has already been studied i n a f a i r l y thorough manner i t need not be focussed on here and the other pole of the divergence, Roxana's r i s e to p r o s p e r i t y , w i l l rece ive the main emphasis. Defoe's e a r l i e r novels abound i n c h e c k - l i s t s and catalogues of mater ia l s and money. While they appear n a t u r a l l y enough as summary comments at the ends of the many escapades the characters have, they also appear with great frequency i n other places to give an o v e r a l l impression of randomness. These economic d e t a i l s do not seem to f u l f i l l any d i scernable s t r u c t u r a l funct ion re la t ed to conveying the author's moral v i s i o n , but on the other hand, apprise us of the o s c i l l a t i o n s i n the protagoni s t s ' economic a f f a i r s , of the successes and f a i l u r e s of t h e i r ventures , and of t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n with accumulating wealth. In Roxana, however, these inventor ies do not appear randomly., but only at c r u c i a l phases i n Roxana's career , which u s u a l l y co inc ide with the beginnings or ends of her r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus they are not only introduced n a t u r a l l y , but they dramat i ca l ly punctuate her s tory as comments on her moral c o n d i t i o n , on the - 125 -126 worthlessness of material wealth as an ultimate value, and on the destructiveness of a pursuit which is not held in subservience to moral and spiritual convictions but which becomes obsessive. With the exception of the juxtapositions of Roxana's and the Merchant's characters, this divergence—which is grounded on an economic baseline which shows Roxana rising from poverty to an incredible wealth—is the device which most forcefully creates an equation between material wealth and moral and spiritual well-being. The f i r s t pertinent economic detail comes when Roxana informs us that after the Brewer's desertion she was l e f t with "seventy Pound in Money" (p. 12). This disclosure is not a comment on her moral condition, but i t does suggest the direction the novel w i l l take insofar as her financial straits w i l l lead to a struggle for material security. As her career progresses we learn that this struggle w i l l not only involve material concerns but w i l l involve, as well, a conflict with virtue. As we have seen, to extricate herself from poverty Roxana becomes the Jeweller's mistress. In so doing she compromises her moral principles, but as we have also seen, Roxana s t i l l manages to maintain a balance—even though i t is a disjunctive balance—between her moral sense and her concern with money. That i s , although she knowingly sins by becoming the Jeweller's mistress, she is s t i l l impressed by a sense of guilt and does not allow greed to dominate her actions. After the Jeweller's death Roxana supplies the second inventory of her worth. Besides what the Jeweller had put into my Hands f a i r l y , i n his Life-time, which amounted to a very considerable Value, I found above seven Hundred Pistoles in Gold, in his Scrutore, of which he 127 had given me the Key; and I found Foreign-Bills accepted, for about 12000 Livres; so that, in a Word, I found myself possess'd of almost ten Thousand Pounds Sterling, in a very few Days after the Disaster (p. 55). With this wealth Roxana knows that she is "not in Distress, or in danger of Poverty" (p. 55), and clearly her proper course of action is to repent for her moral lapse, to make atonement for her sins, and to reunite herself with her children. But she chooses to remain a mistress and this indicates that she is no longer simply concerned with material security but has developed a desire to accumulate wealth. By becoming the Prince's mistress Roxana further displaces virtue; by turning away from the Jeweller's memory she begins to displace human love; and by f a i l i n g to reunite with her children she puts aside both love and responsibility. In other words, Roxana's original quest for material security has begun to transform into an egocentric drive to amass wealth. At the end of her affair with the Prince she states that she was "grown not only well supply'd, but Rich, and not only Rich, but was very Rich; in a word, richer than I knew how to think of . . ." (p. 110). This information impresses us with the fact that Roxana now has even less j u s t i f i c a t i o n for being a mistress. And, in addition, i t dramatizes the fact that she has become wealthy at the expense of virtue, and when she turns to a financial advisor (the Dutch Merchant) rather than following the Prince's example and repenting, the reader realizes that wealth has become paramount in Roxana's scale of values. From this point Roxana allows nothing to hinder her drive to amass wealth and channels a l l her energies into increasing her fortune. The shock generated by her rejection of the Merchant is augmented 128 when, on her return to England, Roxana gives a detailed account of her worth (pp. 162-163) and discloses that she possesses a fabulous wealth. Once again Roxana turns to a financial advisor, and her inventories are replaced by long discussions with Sir Robert Clayton. 1 Out of these emerge several facts which further underscore the stage of Roxana's deterioration. When she answers one of Sir Robert's questions with the declaration that she has no children "but what are provided for" (p. 168), the reader is forcefully reminded that she has now put her children by the Brewer out of mind. And when she assesses the relative merits of noblemen and merchants in terms of economic c r i t e r i a i t becomes clear that she now regards humans as commodities. Further, when she rejects the marriage proposal of a merchant who has a "flourishing Business, and a flowing Cash" (p. 170) with the reason that she "was not averse to adding to my Estate at the farther Expence of my Virtue" (p. 171), i t becomes patent that Roxana has become obsessed with accumulating wealth to the total exclusion of every other concern. Juxtaposed with these economic details are the scenes of Roxana's splendid displays at P a l l Mall, and the economic details further underscore the fact that her l i f e is supported solely by ill-gotten wealth and is entirely uninformed by moral values. When P.oxana includes another inventory at the end of her relationship with the King (p. 182) the reader is overwhelmed by the staggering proportions of her wealth, and when she announces that she did not have "the least Thought of reforming" (p. 182) he is overwhelmed by the pitch of her callousness and the strength of her immunity to good examples and to conscience. But i f the reader feels that Roxana's avarice has been satiated, 129 Roxana quashes this notion when she becomes the Old Lewd Favourite's mistress and demonstrates that she is quite capable of prostituting herself further and of w i l l f u l l y engaging in an affair devoid of any sense of love and fraught with sordid overtones. Another inventory appears at the end of this relationship (pp. 202-03) and coupled with i t is Roxana's resolve to end her l i f e as a mistress. But the worthless-ness of a l l her wealth is made apparent when she states that she s t i l l has no thoughts of repenting and marking penance. Moreover, her return to an outwardly respectable l i f e does not curb her obsession for accumulating money, for, in fact, she very nearly dismisses the Dutch Merchant in the hopes of marrying the French Prince. When Roxana f i n a l l y does marry the Merchant, she supplies a l i s t of wealth (pp. 257-260) of proportions so great that even she "stood Amaz'd at the Account" (p. 257). At this point, i t is more than apparent that in the process of putting together her enormous fortune Roxana has discarded every vestige of virtue, has become increasingly callous, and has suppressed even her maternal instincts. When Roxana fi n a l l y ends her material quest, she realizes that far from securing comfort she has destroyed any possibility of attaining inner peace and she ends her l i f e in s p i r i t u a l torment: let nor-body conclude from the strange Success I met with in a l l my wicked Doings, and the vast Estate which I had rais'd by i t , that therefore I either was happy or easie: No, no, there was a Dart struck into the Liver; there was a secret Hell within, even a l l the while, when our Joy was at the highest; but more especially now, after i t was a l l over, and when according to a l l appearances, I was one of the happiest Women upon Earth; a l l this while, I say, I had such a constant Terror upon my Mind, as gave me every now and then very terrible Shocks, and which made me expect something very fri g h t f u l upon every Accident of Life (p. 260). 130 From this divergence we see that the wealthier Roxana becomes and the more dominated she becomes by the material quest, the less she values moral principles, and that, when she reaches the peak of worldly prosperity, she is at the depth of her moral deterioration. At this point Roxana develops a belated awareness of her guilt and lives in "outwardly happy Circumstances" (p. 329) but in inner torment— and while this torment stresses the worthlessness of her prosperity, her prosperity reciprocally accentuates her torment. At the novel's end Defoe intervenes and administers poetic justice by reducing Roxana to poverty. While the value of human relationships and the need for social responsibility and moral and spiritual awareness are enhanced, worldly wealth divorced from these things and gained at their expense is shown to be worthless. But i t must not be concluded that Defoe is condemning those who pursue wealth, for the Dutch Merchant, who is certainly a model of virtue, is also shown to be a very prosperous businessman. But unlike Roxana he values humans over money and refuses to sacrifice his moral principles. Whereas Roxana is willing to dismiss virtue for gain, the Merchant refuses to "give up Soul as well as Body" (p. 157), whereas Roxana is totally unconcerned with her children, the Merchant takes a great deal of care to see that his bastard son is well provided for, and .whereas Roxana does not permit anything to block the way of making a profit, the Merchant would sooner experience financial loss than put aside his convictions. In short, whereas Roxana holds wealth paramount, the Merchant holds profits subservient to strong moral and spiritual convictions and allows the profit motive to operate only within their bounds. Because 1 3 1 the Merchant's a t t i tudes and behaviour are advanced as p o s i t i v e i d e a l s , h i s presence re inforces our judgement of Roxana and helps to def ine Defoe's a t t i tudes towards economic i n d i v i d u a l i s m and, more g e n e r a l l y , towards i n d i v i d u a l i s m and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . CHAPTER VII Conclusion In th i s study my i n t e n t i o n was to demonstrate that Defoe wrote Roxana as a conscious a r t i s t , that the novel i s not unf in ished but ex i s t s as a w e l l u n i f i e d whole, and that i t s meaning emerges with c l a r i t y and forcefulness as a r e s u l t of a soph i s t i ca ted s t r u c t u r e . And, I suggest, the examination of the s i x s t r u c t u r i n g devices overwhelmingly proves these content ions . While one can never make dogmatic assert ions about the extent to which an a r t i s t was . consc ious ly c o n t r o l l i n g h i s n a r r a t i v e , i t seems that we can, with confidence, ass ign to Defoe a high degree of awareness. For the complex interweavings of foreshadowings and r e s o l u t i o n s , the f i n e l y traced thread of images, the symmetrical ly constructed p l o t , the i r o n i e s which emerge from the uses of geographical s e t t i n g , and the revea l ing groupings of characters could hardly be the product of chance s i n g l y / P and together they conspire to suggest that an extremely mature craftsman was at work i n the composition of Roxana. The underly ing s t ruc ture of Roxana sets t h i s novel much i n advance of Defoe's e a r l i e r novels . I t allows us to see th i s work as a whole which traces the development of a character who f a i l s to l e a r n the need for self-knowledge, s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and—for regenerat ion— repentance, who f a i l s to l earn the value of human love and c h a r i t y , but who becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by v a n i t y , e g o c e n t r i c i t y , and avar ice u n t i l she commits a crime which ensures her damnation by f i l l i n g - 132 133 her with an ennervating sense of horror and g u i l t . The s t r u c t u r i n g devices point out the stages i n her decay, the precise nature of her d e t e r i o r a t i o n , and guide the reader towards a moral judgement of the heroine. But i n addition to enabling a moral judgement to be made, they allow the reader c l e a r l y to see the author's moral v i s i o n i n p o s i t i v e terms. S p e c i f i c a l l y , such characters as the repentant Prince, the Dutch Merchant, and the Quaker, who are portrayed unambiguously, emerge as p o s i t i v e i d e a l s , and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with Roxana emphatically dramatize the pattern of r i g h t conduct the novel sets f o r t h . Indeed, i f by examining the character-illuminating s t r u c t u r a l devices we can detect Defoe's condemnation of Roxana's d e b i l i t a t i n g t r a i t s which lead to i r r e s p o n s i b l e behaviour, callousness, and unregeneracy, we can also examine them to discover the values he approves of. In f a c t , a summary of the Merchant's t r a i t s , which are the strongest f o i l s to Roxana's, w i l l y i e l d this knowledge. The Merchant i s an industrious and astute businessman, but he i s also seif-aware, s o c i a l l y responsible, c h a r i t a b l e , and virtuous, and he acts i n s t r i c t accordance to unswerving moral convictions. I t becomes clear that Defoe envisions man as an i n d i v i d u a l who i s capable of c o n t r o l l i n g h i s circumstances and who i s , therefore, responsible for the state of his s p i r i t u a l being and for the influence his behaviour has on others. Defoe seems to be advocating the active and industrious assertion of one's'"individuality, but at the same time he i s strongly warning the i n d i v i d u a l to develop self-knowledge and s o c i a l awareness i n order not to damn himself and i n order not to impinge on the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of others. And so i n a comprehensive but minutely anatomized fashion Defoe explores and defines a concept of individualism wherein a c t i v i t y and industry are fused with 134 a f i rm bas is of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y and benevolence. To a great extent the c l a r i t y of Defoe's moral v i s i o n i s dependent on Roxana's s t r u c t u r e , and i n th i s novel the questions about Defoe's a t t i tudes and b e l i e f s which have plagued c r i t i c s are answered. The most prominent among these quest ions , i t seems, centres on the r e l a t i o n -ship of the i n d i v i d u a l to soc ie ty and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of economic i n d i v i d u a l i s m to m o r a l i t y . In Robinson Crusoe Defoe seems to have del ineated a not ion of s p i r i t u a l i n d i v i d u a l i s m which keeps Crusoe self-aware and aware of h i s God but which allows him to pursue h i s economic goals unimpeded by any strong sense of o b l i g a t i o n towards h i s fe l low man. And i n Moll Flanders and Captain Singleton he seems to have become so fasc inated by the economic quest that he l e f t h imsel f open to the charge of i n c l u d i n g the pro tagon i s t s ' repentances as means of making h i s works "respectable", while i n Colonel Jack he managed to allow Jack the p r i v i l e g e of l i v i n g i n a d iv ided world wherein economic and moral i ssues do not i n t e r f u s e at a l l . None of these moral v i s i o n s i s s a t i s f y i n g . But I would suggest that the ambiguity which surrounds these novels r e s u l t s from t h e i r unstructured natures . With th i s i n mind, and because they deal with e s s e n t i a l l y the same types of characters and s i t u a t i o n s , and because we can assume that Defoe's values d id not a l t e r dramat ica l ly between 1719 when he wrote Robinson Crusoe and 1724 when he wrote Roxana, I would also submit that Roxana can be used as a va luable t o o l i n reading these novels . I have returned again and again to the idea that the s t ruc ture of Roxana conveys the nove l ' s moral c l e a r l y and f o r c e f u l l y . And again, perhaps i t i s necessary to o f fer some defense of th i s as a p a r t i a l c r i t e r i o n for evaluat ing the nove l . To begin with a 135 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i t can be sa id that Augustan l i t e r a t u r e was e s s e n t i a l l y d i d a c t i c , To be more p a r t i c u l a r , Defoe stated that h is aim i n w r i t i n g f i c t i o n was to impart instruction."'" And, l e s t i t be of fered that such aims should be confined to moral t r e a t i s e s , i t should be pointed out that Defoe, i n Roxana at l e a s t , i s never f l a t l y moral and always transcends pure d i d a c t i c i s m , for he shows a n o v e l i s t ' s f a s c i n a t i o n with human nature and engages the reader's i n t e r e s t by p o r t r a y i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of a s o c i a l l y aberrant pro tagon i s t , but demonstrates a m o r a l i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by i n c l u d i n g a background of p o s i t i v e examples and by pun i sh ing ,h i s heroine . .Thus a tension i s set up which generates p l o t i n t e r e s t (and which i s added to by the complexit ies of the hero ine ' s character) but which does not d i s t o r t or compromise the m o r a l . ' Important as w e l l are the other ways i n which Defoe presents h i s d i d a c t i c intent i n an en ter ta in ing fash ion . Gone i n th i s novel are the i r r i t a t i n g d i g r e s s i o n s , the tedious i n v e n t o r i e s , the laborious m o r a l i z i n g s , and i n t h e i r p lace are dramat ica l ly e f f e c t i v e scenes which engage and manipulate the reader ' s emotions, dialogue more f a i t h -f u l l y capturing the v i t a l i t y of l i v i n g speech, i r o n i e s which, though they are often subt le and complex, do not r e s u l t i n des t ruc t ive ambiguity, and a depth of p s y c h o l o g i c a l penetrat ion which reveals a character ' s motives and motivations and which r e s u l t s from.a sharp focus not only on the main character but on an anatomization of her i n t e r a c t i o n s with others . As readers we are impressed not only by the f i c t i o n a l element but by the moral as w e l l . Defoe's concept of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y i s profound and awful i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y — a n d i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so for 136 the tweritiethr*century reader. But just as engaging is Defoe's presentation of human nature, and we are drawn to a close identification with Roxana as she ambitiously and defiantly asserts herself and then suffers and is defeated by fear and anxiety. For Roxana, though she is in extraordinary circumstances, is^a person as ordinary as Crusoe, and she experiences emotions which are intense, but which are intensely human. Although Defoe informs the novel with a solid moral vision and puts forth the Dutch Merchant as an ideal exemplar, he makes no attempt to resolve or reduce the complexities of human nature. But we must balance our impression of this novel with a recognition of i t s weaknesses. Most obvious, in my opinion, is i t s syntax which, although i t never obscures the meaning, is extremely awkward, slows down the pace, and robs the work of i t s f u l l dramatic potential. In addition, a number of inconsistencies disrupt the texture. The most marked example of this is the work's chronology which is impossible to follow. And yet, because chronology is not a structuring device and because i t is largely subsumed by the narrative fabric, the meaning is not confused and the underlying concept is not marred. Even the lapses in foreshadowing are balanced by the other structuring devices. But perhaps Roxana's major shortcoming is i t s lack of humour, and thus Roderick Random, for example, has an engaging v i t a l i t y which is almost totally absent in Roxana even though Smollett flaunts technical finesse. There are, then, aesthetic shortcomings which prevent this novel from being a masterpiece. And yet we can find flaws similar in nature, i f not in degree, in numerous novels which are often reckoned to be masterpieces of the f i r s t rank, For example, a "literary", 137 derivitive tone occasionally surfaces in Jane Eyre to mar the tenor of Bronte's style. And James's great preoccupation with technique dessicates The Ambassadors, while Robbe-Grillet's La Maison de Rendez-vous is a virtuoso intellectual puzzle which seems devoid of metaphysical depth altogether. My purpose here is not to denigrate these works or to apologize for Defoe, but to show that the novel must f a l l short of an ideal fusion of the artist's technique and style. And in spite of i t s obvious aesthetic limitations Roxana exists as Defoe's most carefully wrought novel and shows him as a consummate ar t i s t . After studying Roxana we are, I think, compelled to raise our estimate of Defoe the novelist, For i t becomes clear that he was not writing this novel by " t r i a l and error" and that he was not simply a great master of realism. Indeed, Defoe possessed the technical proficiency we admire so much in later novelists.and he possessed the a b i l i t y to depict in a compelling and instructive manner both the individual and the human condition. Finally, i t can be said that this novel is among the greatest of i t s century in strength of vision and in technique i f not in style. APPENDIX To al low the reader to see the novel as a whole, as i t were, to enable him to see where the forecasts and reso lut ions appear, and to see how and where the f o r e c a s t - r e s o l u t i o n p a i r s over lap , a graph has been inc luded . This i s fol lowed by a catalogue of a l l the f o r e c a s t - r e s o l u t i o n p a i r s which I have d i scovered . I t points out what the forecasts and reso lut ions are , where they appear, the distances between them, whether the forecasts are committal or non-committal , and whether the re so lu t ions are introduced n a t u r a l l y or not . - 138 -139 (l'l to o Tj 4-11 01 r i 4-1 •rl nrt-cd -w Tl •P - o . QJ 1 _QJ l i TJ cd "to d 41 | z a cu 4-) (-j H-1 _ —(3-- C U -_ 60 -ty— -N JO JA.. d Tl ~4 "tl 1 43 1° ~cfl 4-> -Gi-rrt O 1 - C U -,o - C O •rH cu 1 to 1 t> to to rl o 1 " C U "66 • c -•rl— 4-1 ta --& cd _)... , -4-1-r| •rl™ i c H Jo o " C O Tj 60 cu C O 33-- C O -C U -to y i cu C O 6i -cd- — C O — C. -| d j_J " f l •rl o — C D ciq y. •cu-ng rO—led 1 — • <r< "Tl CO c 1 -w -O —t— _cu_ _cd In N 4J o to cu C O •iri •iH u cu "P" -©-H_ C - C U -_nl_ p 3 =j CJ -cu-—M- © 11 1 o o , 4- I QJ 4J to cu <u cl) cu X - 3 411 1 1 1 1 3' 1 3 •i 1 2) H i i •> 1 I I —1— i 1 ] G G O a O C • L O i O' , o _ Tl -p rH 1— t C N C N 1 t i 1 1 1 i J i 1 i j 1 1 140 No. Page, 1 6 a , Forecast: "I danc'd, as some say, naturally, lov'd i t extremely, and sung well also, and so well, that, as you will hear, i t was afterwards some Advantage to me . , .". b. Committal. 173 c. Resolution: Introduced in the P a l l Mall scenes when Roxana dances in the Turkish habit and attracts the King, Specifically, i t is introduced when Roxana advises us that "A-while after, the Masks came in, and began with a Dance a la Comique, performing wonderfully indeed; while they were dancing, I withdrew, and l e f t a Lady to answer for me, that I wou'd return immediately; in less than half an Hour I return'd, dress'd in the Habit of a Turkish Princess . . . ." The resolution is well prepared for by the repeated references to dancing (see the discussion of iterative imagery in Chapter III) and i s introduced as a natural part of the entertainments at P a l l Mall. d. Distance: 169 pages. 2 7 a . Forecast: "With this Thing call'd a Husband, I liv'd eight Years in good Fashion, and for some Part of the Time, kept a Coach, that is to say, a kind of Mock-Coach; for a l l the Week the Horses were kept at Work in the Dray-Carts, but on Sunday I had the Privilege to go Abroad in my Chariot, either to Church, or otherways, as my Husband and I cou'd agree about i t ; which, by the way, was not very often: But of that hereafter". b. Committal. Roxana implies that the subject w i l l definitely be re-introduced later. c. Resolution: Comes in discussion of how she and the Brewer could not agree on anything (pp. 8-9). Naturally introduced in the discussion of her husband. d. Distance: 1 page. 8 a. Forecast: "But to leave this [her diatribe against the Brewer] a-while, for I shall have Occasion to speak of i t again . . . ." b. Committal. 96 c. Resolution: Roxana recommences the subject as a natural result of seeing her husband in Paris,.. d. Distance: 59 pages. 141 Forecast : Roxana's inher i tance was l e f t " in the Hands of my E l d e r Brother , who running on too rash ly i n h i s Adventures, as a Merchant, f a i l ' d , and lo s t not only what he had, but what he had for me too; as you s h a l l hear p r e s e n t l y . " Committal. Reso lut ion: " i t was about h a l f a Year before th i s Elopement of my Husband, that the D i sas t er I mention'd above b e f e l my Brother; who Broke, and that i n such bad Circumstances, that I had the M o r t i f i c a t i o n to hear not only that he was i n P r i s o n , but that there would be l i t t l e or nothing to be had by Way of Composition" Introduced n a t u r a l l y as part of the d i s cuss ion of her misfortunes and i s introduced s t r a t e g i c a l l y to heighten the impression of her poverty . Dis tance: 4 pages. Forecast : "It must be a l i t t l e s u r p r i z i n g to the Reader to t e l l him at once, that a f ter t h i s , I never saw my Husband more . . . except as hereaf ter" . Committal. Implies that the subject w i l l d e f i n i t e l y be introduced l a t e r , Reinforced on p. 15 where Roxana says "What part of the world they went t o , I never heard for many years". Reso lut ion: In P a r i s "to my i n e x p r e s s i b l e Confusion, I saw Mr. , my f i r s t Husband, the Brewer". The r e s o l u t i o n comes as a shock as, of course , i t i s meant to to explore Roxana's reac t ion on unexpectedly happening on her husband. Dis tance: 73 pages. Forecast : " . . . tho' I acknowledg'd her [Amy's] Kindness and F i d e l i t y , yet i t was but a bad Coin that she was paid i n at l a s t , as w i l l appear i n i t s P lace". Reinforced on p. 26 and p. 44. Committal. Reso lu t ion: " , . , so I f a i r l y s t r i p t her , and then I threw open the Bed, and thrust her i n " . The r e s o l u t i o n i s prepared for by Roxana's fears that Amy w i l l upbraid her and by her b e l i e f that "so empty was I now of a l l P r i n c i p l e " (p. 44) that "I was then f i t f o r any Wickedness" (p. 44). Dis tance: 30 pages. 142 22 a. Forecast: " . . . but I remain'd in the House a good while after that; as you shall hear". b. Committal. 25 c. Resolution: "But I had l i v ' d three Quarters of a Year in His House after that, and had paid him no Rent . . . ." This is naturally prepared for by the introduction of the Jeweller. That Roxana is permitted to live in the house without paying rent is a natural detail in view of the fact that the reader suspects the Jeweller of having ulterior motives from his f i r s t appearance. d. Distance: 3 pages. 35 a. Forecast: "What could I say to this Gentleman when he press'd me to yield to him, and argued the Lawfullness of it? But of that in i t s Place". b. Committal. Roxana's wording indicates that she w i l l definitely raise the subject again. 45 c. Resolution: The resolution is provided when Roxana bluntly reports that "Amy put us to-Bed . . . ." The question, which i s rhetorical, supplies i t s own answer so that i t is only a matter of time before the resolution is given. The resolution i s provided as the obvious and natural result of the Jeweller's persuasions. d. Distance: 10 pages. 44 a. Forecast: " . . . the Mirth of that Night, and a few more such afterwards, ruin'd the Girl's Modesty for ever, as shall appear by and by, in i t s Place". b. Committal. 46 c. Resolution: ". , . so I f a i r l y stript her, and then I threw open the Bed, and thrust her in". Prepared for by a previous forecast (see no. 6 above), and by Roxana's fears that Amy would upbraid her, and by Roxana's belief that she was " f i t for any Wickedness" (p. 44). d. Distance: 2 pages. 10 56 a. Forecast: Roxana allows people to believe that the Jeweller's jewels were stolen but "sorely repented this Part afterward, as you shall hear". b. Committal. 143 112 c. Resolution: "As soon as the Jew saw the Jewels, I saw my Folly , . . ." Very naturally introduced. When Roxana decides to leave Paris she decides to dispose of her goods which include the jewels. d. Distance: 56 pages. 11 56 a. Forecast: "I took Care to let the Ladies see, that I knew how to receive them; that I was not at a Loss how to Behave to any of them; and in short, I began to be very popular there; but I had an Occasion afterwards, which made me decline that kind of Management, as you shall hear presently". b. Committal. c. Resolution: Comes almost immediately when Roxana relates the story of how the Prince solicited her to become his mistress. This has already been prepared for so the resolution comes naturally. d. Distance: Almost none. The story of the Prince's taking her as a mistress follows almost immediately after the forecast. 12 75 a. Forecast: "0! could we hear now, the Reproaches this Great Man afterwards loaded himself with . . . but I shall come to this again". b, Committal, 109 c. Resolution: "This Discourse from a Princess so valuable in herself, and so dear to him, and the Loss of her following so immediately after, made such deep Impressions on him, that he look'd back with Detestation upon the former Part of his Life; grew melancholly and reserv'd; chang'd his Society, and much of the general Conduct of his Life; resolv'd on a Life regulated most s t r i c t l y by the Rules of Virtue, and Piety; and in a word, was quite another Man". This is introduced naturally after Roxana informs us that her relationship with the Prince was drawing to a close (p. 107) and after we have become familiar with the Prince who is extremely virtuous in spite of the fact that he keeps Roxana as a mistress. d. Distance: 26 pages. 13 a. Forecast: ". . .1 found he appointed the Children a settled Allowance, by an Assignment of annual Rent, upon the Bank of Lyons, which was sufficient for bringing them 144 handsomely, tho' privately, up in the World . . . tho' I came to be sunk and forgotten in the Case; nor did the Children even know any-thing of their Mother, to this Day, other, than as you may have an Account hereafter". b. Non-committal. c. Resolution: None. Defoe appears, at this point, to be opening up possibilities for this material. While he outlines a forecast he gives himself room to either use i t or not. d. Distance: None. 14 82 a. Forecast: "This Child [of Roxana and the Prince] li v ' d to be a considerable Man: He was f i r s t , an Officer of the Guard du Corps of France; and afterwards Colonel of a Regiment of Dragoons, in Italy; and on many extraordinary Occasions, shew'd, that he was not unworthy such a Father, but many ways deserving a legitimate Birth, and a better Mother: Of which hereafter". b. Committal, c, Resolution: None. The committal nature of the forecast suggests that Defoe had something definite i n mind. But that a resolution does not appear indicates that he either forgot the forecast or changed his mind. d. Distance: None. 15 102 a. Forecast: "Here my Lord bought me a l i t t l e Female Turkish Slave . . . and of her I learnt the Turkish Language; their Way of Dressing, and Dancing, and some Turkish, or rather Moorish Songs, of which I made Use, to my Advantage, on an extraordinary Occasion, some Years after, as you shall hear in i t s Place". b. Committal. 173 c. Resolution: Introduced in the P a l l Mall scenes when Roxana. dances in the Turkish habit and attracts the King. See forecast no, 6 above. d. Distance: 71 pages. 16 111 a. Forecast: "I never heard of him [the Prince] more, I mean, not as a Mistress". 145 231 17 135 143 18 135 159 19 138 b. Non-committal, Defoe leaves himself room to introduce the Prince or to leave him out, c. Resolution: Roxana hears of the Prince again via Amy's letter. The resolution is introduced naturally as a result of Amy's voyage to France. That her mission is to go to France for news of the Merchant rather than of the Prince provides a degree of indirection which obscures Defoe's plot machinations. d. Distance: 120 pages. a. Forecast: "It is most certain, that speaking of Originals, I was the Source and Spring of a l l that Trouble and Vexation to this Honest Gentleman [the Merchant]; and as i t was afterwards in my Power to have made him f u l l Satisfaction, and did not, I cannot say but I added Ingratitude to a l l the rest of my Follies; but of that I shall give a fu l l e r Account presently". b, Committal, c, Resolution: Comes when Roxana refuses the Merchant's offer as "the only thing [she] cou'd not grant" (p. 143). Follows naturally from what we know of Roxana's nature and inclinations. d. Distance: 8 pages, a. Forecast: "I added Ingratitude to a l l the rest of my Follies; but of that I shall give a fuller Account presently". b. Committal. c. Resolution: "But my Measure of Wickedness was not yet f u l l ; I continued obstinate against Matrimony . . . I was stupid and senceless, deaf to a l l his Importunities, and continued so to the last; so we parted . . . ." This conclusion follows naturally from the debate on marriage which commences on page 143 where the Merchant asks Roxana to marry him. d. Distance: 24 pages. a, Forecast: ", . . .1 found him [the Merchant] s t r i c t l y virtuous, t i l l I made him otherwise myself, even almost whether he wou'd or no; as you shall hear". b. Committal, 146 Resolution: ". , ,1 resolv'd from the Beginning, he shou'd lye with me i f he wou'd, . . . ." This i s prepared for by our knowledge of Roxana's attitude towards the Merchant and by our knowledge about her attitude towards marriage. Distance: 5 pages. Forecast: " . . . But there was another Reason why I resolv'd not to have him [the Merchant], when, at the same time, i f he had courted me in a Manner less honest or virtuous, I believe I shou'd not have denied him; but I shall come to that Part presently". Committal. Resolution: "I was rich, beautiful, and agreeable, and not yet old . . . I knew I cou'd make a Figure at London, and how well I cou'd grace that Figure; I was not at a Loss how to behave, and having already been ador'd by Princes, I thought of nothing less than of being Mistress to the King himself . . . ." This resolution has been prepared for by the debate on marriage, by Roxana's growing avarice, and by her growing awareness that her beauty is an asset from which she can benefit materially. Distance: 20 pages. Forecast: "It is true, this [Roxana's conclusion that she no longer has any just i f i c a t i o n for being a mistress] was, as I say, seldom out of my Thoughts, but yet i t made no Impressions upon me of that Kind which might be expected from a Reflection of so important a Nature, and which had so much of Substance and Seriousness in i t . Committal. Resolution: Amy proposes a "Scheme how [Roxana] shall . . . finish.a perfect Change of [her] Figure and Circumstances . . ." (p. 209). Following her decision to end her l i f e as a mistress Roxana concludes that although her former l i f e cannot be "remedy'd" (p. 208) she can change the appearance of her l i f e and live one which is at least superficially respectable. This is prepared for and is introduced naturally as a result of Roxana's decision to end her career as a mistress which appears on page 202. Distance: 5 pages. 147 22 205 a. Forecast: "Thus i t was with me; and thus, no doubt, considering Parents always find i t , that their own Children are a Restraint to them in their worst Courses, when the Sence of a Superiour Power has not the same Influence: But of that Here after". b. Committal. 265 c. Resolution: Nothing specific can be quoted as a resolution. However, the resolution i s comprised of the story of Susan's re-appearance. See page 265: "I must now go back to another scene . . . ." Roxana then relates the history of her encounter with Susan. This introduction is abrupt but no more so than many flash-backs in more modern novels. d. Distance: 60 pages. 23 224 a. Forecast: " . . . this [the Merchant's behaviour towards her] made me behave to him awkwardly, and I know not how, for a good-while; but this by the way", b. Committal. 230 c. Resolution: " . . . Ihbegan to be kind to him in process of time, as they c a l l i t , and we grew very intimate ... . ." This is introduced naturally as the outcome of the Merchant's courtship of Roxana. d. Distance: 6 pages. 24 242 a. Forecast: " . . . tho' Amy was in jest, she put the Thought into my Head, and I resolv'd, that, in short, I wou'd be both of them [a Baronet's lady and a Countess]; which I manag'd as you shall hear". b. Committal. 243 & 261 c. Resolution: "It was not above three or four Days after, but that, without giving me the least Notice that he had so much as been about the Patent for Baronet, he brought i t me in a fine embroider'd Bag . . . ." And, "The f i r s t thing which happen'd after our coming to the Hague . , • was, that my Spouse saluted me one Morning with the T i t l e of Countess . . . ." These resolutions follow naturally as part of the history of Roxana's l i f e after marrying the Merchant. d. Distance: 1 page and 15 pages. 148 25 244 a. Forecast: "This was a l l Jest and Allegory; but i t was a l l true, in the Moral of the Fable, as you shall hear in i t s Place . . . ." Exactly what "this" and " i t " refer to is not clear, although generally, they refer to the Merchant's vow that he would give up his business concerns and let Roxana take charge of their affairs. •• And more generally the suggestion is that Roxana is to pay the price for her former desire to remain independent. b. Committal. c. Resolution: There is no specific resolution which can be pointed out, but generally the outcome of Roxana's story ironically bears out the forecast. d. Distance: Impossible to determine. 26 246 a. Forecast: ", . .1 put i t the Plate into the QUAKER'S Hand; obliging her not to use i t as mine, but as her own, for a Reason I shall.mention presently". b. Committal. 254 c. Resolution: " . . . I had so much Plate, and some so large, that I thought i f I let my Husband see i t , he might be apt to wonder what Occasion I cou'd ever have for so much . . . ." The resolution is introduced naturally into the discussion of how to reward the Quaker. d. Distance: 8 pages. 27 248 a. Forecast: " . . . there was good Reason why I shou'd not receive any Company in this Dress [the Turkish habit], that is to say, not in England; I need not repeat it; you w i l l hear more of it". b. Committal. 284 c. Resolution: Susan describes Roxana's Turkish dress after being reminded of i t by the "Dishabille" (p. 283) Roxana was wearing when Susan visited her. The dress is introduced naturally into the discussion of clothing and is prepared for by Roxana's wearing of the "Dishabille" d. Distance: 36 pages. 28 260 a. Forecast: "But I shall perhaps, have Occasion to speak of a l l these things [her spiritual torment] again by-and-by . . . ." b. Non-committal. 149 330 c. Resolution: At the end of her story Roxana advises the reader that she was followed by "the Blast of Heaven", or, in other words, that she was locked in spiritual agony. This is the natural outcome of her l i f e of crime and of her failure to repent. d. Distance: 70 pages. 29 261 a. Forecast: Roxana refers to "my two Daughters; of whom I have yet much to say", b, The wording indicates that she is definitely going to return to the subject. 265 c. Resolution: "But I have not gone thorow the Story of my two Daughters . . . ." This comes suddenly and although i t could have the appearance of being the result of Defoe forgetting that he had Roxana promise to t e l l the story of her daughters i t is more likely that he separated the story to give i t dramatic emphasis. d. Distance: 4 pages. 30 265 a. Forecast: ". . .1 went about with a Heart loaded with Crime, and altogether in the dark, as to what I was to do; and in this Condition I languish'd near two Years; I may well c a l l i t languishing, for i f Providence had not reliev'd me, I shou'd have died in l i t t l e time: But of that Hereafter". b. Committal. c. Resolution: No resolution exists for this forecast, for Roxana never repents and i s , therefore, never "reliev'd" by Providence. Clearly this forecast is a blunder on Defoe's part, for i t suggests a direction which goes completely counter to the course of Roxana's l i f e . d. Distance: None. 31 267 a. Forecast: " . . . she [Amy] was so confounded with i t [Susan calling her her mother], that she was not able to govern herself, or to conceal her Disorder from the G i r l herself, as you shall hear . . . ." b. Committal. 268 c. Resolution: Susan's account of the history of Roxana's l i f e "put Amy out of a l l Temper again; and she rav'd at her like a Bedlam . . . ." In view of Susan's persistence and of Amy's lack of tolerance this reaction follows as a natural result of their exchange. 150 d. Distance: 1 page. 32 301 a. Forecast: " . . . this [being virtuous and constant to her husband] I resolv'd upon, tho' had the great Temptation offer'd, as i t did afterwards, I had reason to question my Stability: But of that hereafter". b. Committal. c. Resolution: None. Defoe definitely had something in mind but either forgot about i t or, what is more like l y , purposely abandoned i t . d. Distance: None. 33 302 a. Forecast: Roxana mentions the murder of Susan which "Amy found Means to bring to pass afterwards; as I may in time relate more particularly". b. Non-committal. But see forecast no. 34 below. 325 c. Resolution: see forecast no. 34 below, d. Distance: 23 pages. 34 315 a. Forecast: Susan "did venture into Amy's Company again after that, once too much; as I shall relate by itself". b. Committal. 325 c. Resolution: "I believ'd . . , Amy had made her away; and I believ'd i t the more, because Amy came no more near me, but confirm'd her Guilt by her Absence". The resolution is introduced in an extremely natural manner into the nightmarish atmosphere which pervades the closing pages of the novel. d. Distance: 10 pages. 35 313 a. Forecast: ". . , Amy pack'd up her A l l s , and march'd off, and was gone for almost good-and-all: But of that in its Order , , . ." b. Committal. 329 c. Resolution: ", . . she came over to Holland without giving my Friend any of that Satisfaction or any Account that she intended to come over". This is introduced without explanat ion . But th i s tends to heighten the sense of mystery surrounding the fate of Susan. Dis tance: 16 pages. FOOTNOTES Introduction Laurence Durrell, Justine (London: Faber and Faber, 1957), p, 14. 2 Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926), p, 9. 3 F. Scott Fitzgerald, Tender is the Bight (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933), p, 7. * Bonamy Dobree, The Oxford History of English Literature: English Literature in the Early Eighteenth Century: 1700-1740 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959), VII, p. 428. 5 James Sutherland, Daniel Defoe: A Critical Study (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 167-170. Jonathan Bishop, "Knowledge, Action, and Interpretation in Defoe's Novels," Journal of the History of Ideas, 13, No. 1 (1952), 4. ^ Martin Price, To the Palace of Wisdom: Studies in Order and Energy From Dry den to Blake (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 264. 8 See Maximillian E. Novak, Economics and The Fiction of Daniel Defoe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), 9 See G, A. Starr, Defoe and Spiritual Autobiography (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). E. 1, Anthony James, Daniel Defoe's Many Voices: A Rhetorical Study of Prose Style and Literary Method (Amsterdam, 1972), p. 231. H John Henry Raleigh, "Style and Structure and Their Import in Defoe's Roxana," The University of Kansas City Review, 20, No. 2 (1953), 132, Raleigh suggests that the novel's unity derives from the continuous presence of the protagonist, from the recurring appearance of characters, and from Defoe's instinctive, primal portrayal of basic l i f e impulses. His statements about the f i r s t two bases of structure are unilluminating and those he makes about the last are, while enthusiastic, unconvincing. 1 2 Sutherland, p. 205. 1 3 Sutherland, p. 206. - 152 -153 Daniel Defoe, Roxana, ed. Jane Jack (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. x i . See, for example, Spiro Peterson, "The Matrimonial Theme of Defoe's Roxana," Publications of the Modern Language Association, 70 (1966), pp. 166-191, and Michael Shinagel, Daniel Defoe and Middle-Class Gentility (Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968). 16 Robert D. Hume, "The Conclusion of Defoe's Roxana: Fiasco or Tour de Force,," Eighteenth-Century Studies, 3, No. 4 (1969), 477. 1 7 Hume, p. 480. 1 8 Hume, p. 479. 1 9 Ralph E, Jenkins, "The Structure of Roxana," Studies in the Novel, 2, No. 2 (1970), 145. 2 0 Jenkins, p. 147. 21 Jenkins, p, 147. 22 see below, p. 97. 2 3 Alan Dugald McKillop, The Early Masters of English Fiction, 2nd ed. (1956; rpt. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1967), p. 25. FOOTNOTES Chapter I ^ E. Anthony James, Daniel Defoe's Many Voices, (Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 143-144. James, p. 143. 3 James, p. 231. ^ A l l references are to Roxana, ed. Jane Jack (London: Oxford University Press, 1964). Mrs. Jack's edition is based on the f i r s t edition, the only one published in Defoe's lifetime. Apparently the f i r s t edition is relatively free from bibliographical problems and therefore any fa i t h f u l reproduction of i t w i l l be a reliable text. Mrs. Jack's edition is an obvious choice because of i t s easy availability. An alternate choice would be the 1927 Shakespeare Head edition. Ralph E. Jenkins, "The Structure of Roxana," 147. Jenkins, by the way, does not define his concept of foreshadowing. ^ Jenkins, p, 148, 7 Rodney M. Baine, "The Evidence From Defoe's T i t l e Pages," Studies in Bibliography, 25 (1972), 185. Q Baine, p, 186, Q See the appendix which follows the main text. It contains a graph which shows where each of the forecasts and resolutions occurs. As well, i t contains a catalogue and partial analysis of a l l the instances of foreshadowing I have discovered. 10 Admittedly this is speculation, but I would suggest that "particularly" indicates that Roxana means she w i l l return to give a more detailed discussion of the subject of Susan's murder, and that i t does not necessarily mean that she knows the precise details of the murder. 1 1 Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders, ed. G. A. Starr (London: Oxford University Press, 1971). The foreshadowing occurs on page 25: It w i l l not strange, i f I now began to think, but alas! i t was but with very l i t t l e solid Reflection: I had a most unbounded Stock of Vanity and Pride, and but a very l i t t l e Stock of Vertue; I did indeed cast sometimes with myself what my young Master aim'd at, but thought nothing, but the fine Words, and the Gold; whether he intended to - 154 <-155 Marry me, or not to Marry me, seem'd a Matter of no great Consequence to me; nor did my Thoughts so much as suggest to me the Necessity of making any Capitulation for myself, t i l l he came to make a kind of formal Proposal to me, as you shall hear presently. This is resolved on page 28 when the elder brother offers to marry Moll. 1 2 See below, p. 95. 13 See Maximillian Novak's "Crime and Punishment in Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 460. Novak regards the foreshadowing of Roxana's dance before the King as being much more sophisticated than the other instances of foreshadowing in the novel. I agree with Novak insofar as this foreshadowing is sophisticated, but as I have attempted to point out, the other instances are f a i r l y sophisticated too. 1^ For Defoe's views on f i c t i o n see Maximillian E. Novak, "Defoe's Theory of Fiction," Studies in Philology, 51 (1964), pp. 650-68. To my knowledge this is the most comprehensive study of Defoe's views on fi c t i o n . Invaluable in i t s own right, i t is particularly useful to the non-specialist. FOOTNOTES Chapter II 1 Cf. "Of division in authors" in Joseph Andrews and see Martin Price's statement quoted above, p. 4. 2 See below, p. 72. 3 See below, p. 72. 4 Professor Novak seems to think that at this point Roxana does have only two choices. See Maximillian E. Novak, Defoe and the Nature of Man (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), pp. 116-117. -> See Maximillian E. Novak, "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), p. 448. Novak claims Roxana's actions are excusable because of her debt of gratitude and because of her necessity. See also my statements on pp. 98-99 above and those in fn. 6 Ch. I l l below to the effect that Roxana was responsible for her own poverty. In view of this she cannot honestly plead necessity. Moreover, the debt of gratitude is one which she herself incurred. 6 Roxana, pp. 29, 33, 7 Hume, "The Conclusion of Roxana," 478. 8 Hume, 479. 9 See below, pp. 88-90. 10 For an opposing point of view see p. 454 of Maximillian Novak's 'Crime and Punishment in Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966). There he states that "Susan is not to be regarded as an innocent, loving duaghter seeking maternal affection". He goes on to say that Susan seeks her mother "partly from affection and partly from a desire to get something—perhaps money or power" (p. 455). 11 G. A. Starr, "Sympathy V. Judgement in Roxana's First Liaison," in The Augustan Milieu: Essays Presented to Louis A. Landa, ed. Henry Knight Miller, Eric Rothstein, and G. S. Rousseau (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 75. - 156 -FOOTNOTES Chapter I I I x On d iscuss ing the foreshadowings of Roxana's dance before the King Novak c i t e s a l l the references to dancing i n Roxana. He does not , however, discuss them as an image mot i f . See "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 460. No other c r i t i c , as far as I am aware, has discussed the mot i f . 2 To measure Defoe's achievement against those of other e ighteenth-century n o v e l i s t s , compare the motif of Dancing and Dress images to the ontes created by the flowered waistcoat i n Richardson's Pamela. In my opinion that motif a c t u a l l y works at cross purposes with Richardson's moral . That i s , the waistcoat was incorporated as a " s t a l l i n g " device to j u s t i f y Pamela's remaining at Mr. B ' s . But with each mention of the waistcoat we are reminded that i f Pamela was t r u l y i n t e r e s t e d i n preserv ing her v i r t u e she would have abandoned her projec t and returned to her parents . My i n t e n t i o n i s not to put Defoe i n a favourable l i g h t by using th i s example. Rather I inc lude i t as a reminder that we should not take l i g h t l y Defoe's achievement of synthes iz ing s tructure and meaning. 3 For an opposing view see M a x i m i l l i a n E . Novak, "The Problem of Necess i ty i n Defoe's F i c t i o n , " Philological Quarterly, 40 (1961), 523. He claims that Roxana "is thrown in to a state of necess i ty through condit ions which she cannot c o n t r o l " . ^ Dan ie l Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, ed. J . Donald Crowley (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1972), p . 5. 5 See Novak, "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 260. 6 See Novak, "Crime and Punishment," p. 455 where he c a l l s Roxana's f i r s t s i n "the most j u s t i f i a b l e s i n " , and p. 448 where he s tates that "as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for her act ions she could r i g h t l y p l ead: that she was i n the s tate of neces s i ty ; that she was a c t u a l l y the wife of the Jewe l l er ; that she was under an o b l i g a t i o n of g r a t i t u d e . A l l three of these are v a l i d pleas under the law of nature . . . . " See as w e l l h i s Economics and the Fiction of Daniel Defoe (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1962), p . 96, and his "The Problem of Necess i ty i n Defoe's F i c t i o n , " Philological Quarterly, 40 (1961), p . 523 where he states that Roxana i s "thrown in to a s tate of necess i ty through condit ions which she cannot c o n t r o l " . For others who voice s i m i l a r opinions see James Sutherland, Daniel Defoe: A Critical Study (Cambridge, - 157 -158 Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 190; Spiro Peterson, "The Matrimonial Theme in Defoe's Roxana," Publications of the Modern Language Association, 70 (1955), p. 170; the "Introduction" to Roxana, ed. Jane Jack (Oxford University Press, 1964), p. v i i i ; Ralph E. Jenkins, "The Structure of Roxana," Studies in the Novel, 2 (1970), p. 147; and Robert D. Hume, "The Conclusion of Defoe's Roxana: Fiasco or Tour de Force!," Eighteenth Century Studies, 3 (1970), p. 479. 7 Of necessity I am concentrating on only certain aspects of Roxana's character. I am mainly concerned with her dominant character traits and with the major flaws in her character. This tends to give the false impression that Roxana's is a simple, almost-one dimensional character. In fact, however, while her idee fixe, her passionate desire to accumulate wealth, channels her actions in rather confined directions, an underlying complexity of character exists. This becomes apparent when we overhear her engineering schemes to manipulate others, and when we sense her experiencing tremendous reproaches of conscience, and when we sense the great fear and anxiety she feels as discovery becomes immanent. See, in particular, the scenes wherein she uses the Brewer as a scapegoat in an attempt to persuade the reader into believing in her innocence, her debate with the Merchant where she divulges her true motives to the reader and strives to make them seem reasonable and where she hypocritically conceals these motives from the Merchant, and the scenes between her and Susan where fear and anxiety give the closing episode a tense nightmarish quality. Also see my discussion on p, 28 of how the foreshadowings of Susan's murder lend complexity and depth to Roxana's character. See as well Benjamin Boyce's article "The Question of Emotion in Defoe," Studies in Philology, 50, No. 1 (1953), 45-58. I disagree with the assertion Novak makes in Defoe and the Nature of Man to the effect that "Defoe has failed to delineate the entire character" (p. 133). His contention that Defoe's "major concern was moral rather than.psychological" (p. 136) seems to be true in part, but at the same time i t is perhaps extreme. I suggest that while Defoe's concerns were moral, he managed, in the presentation of Roxana at least, to transcend a f l a t , allegorical-like figure, and to infuse her character with a firm sense of psychological realism. In fact, Novak seems to be of this opinion himself in "Crime and Punishment" where he states that "the f i n a l section of the novel reflects Defoe's growing interest in psychology . . . [and] represents his most determined effort to look into the heart of a character" (p. 456). 8 James Sutherland, Defoe (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1954), p. 22. 9 Maximillian E. Novak, Economics and the Fiction of Daniel Defoe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), p. 134. 10 See Chapter IV, below for a discussion of geographical setting. 11 See below, pp. 74-75. 1^ Novak, Economics and the Fiction of Daniel Defoe, p. 135. See Roxana, pp. 174-180, 159 ± H See above, f n . 7. To r e - s t a t e , I am not suggesting that Roxana's i s a one dimensional character . She i s not a character l i k e Etherege's S i r Fopl ing F l u t t e r who lacks depth a l together and who ex i s t s only i n terms of ex terna l s . For a s i m i l a r conclus ion see Novak, "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 463. 16 See above, pp. 25-27. -*-7 See Novak, "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 463. 1 8 Novak, p . 463. 19 Mark Schorer, "A Study i n Defoe: Moral V i s i o n and S t r u c t u r a l Form," Thought, 25, No. 97 (1950), 284. 20 For the c l a s s i c a r t i c l e on th i s subject see Hans H . Andersen, "The Paradox of Trade and M o r a l i t y i n Defoe," Modern Philology, 39 (1941), 23-46. FOOTNOTES Chapter IV -1- To my knowledge no one has undertaken a study of the geographical settings in Roxana. Indeed, I have encountered only two passing comments pertaining to i t s significance, These are the statements by Sutherland and Novak mentioned in Chapter III, above. See p. 72. 2 Rodney M. Baine seems to be alone when he asserts that "the chronology of the novel i t s e l f is f a i r l y consistent". See "The Evidence from Defoe's T i t l e Pages", Studies in Bibliography, 25 (1972), 190. Consult pp. 187-188 of Roxana for a demonstration of i t s chaotic nature. Baine goes on to suggest that the P a l l Mall scenes are set in the London of George I rather than that of Charles II. To support his position he cites evidence that Defoe did not have a hand in writing the t i t l e page of Roxana. He suggests that i t s reference to Charles II was the invention of Defoe's publishers. Further, he contends that "Roxana's Turkish costume suggests that Defoe expected the alert reader to visualize present time, in the fringes of the court of George I, where Lady Mary Wortley Montague had recently popularized Turkish dress for women" (p. 190). While I accept Baine's claim that the t i t l e page was not of Defoe's writing, I am reticent to agree with his opinion that the Pall Scenes are set in the time of George and prefer to maintain that these scenes occur in the time of Charles II in spite of the novel's starting date of 1683. Baine's evidence about Defoe's being influenced by Lady Mary seems highly speculative. In addition we know that in his earlier novels Defoe meticulously avoided his own age and used seventeenth century settings. Further, i t seems highly unlikely that Defoe would risk winning George's displeasure by portraying him as a licentious monarch. It seems that Defoe was not interested in satirizing the Hanoverian Court but was concerned with providing a background for his heroine. Ultimately, however, which court Defoe was referring to is not crucially important, for the description of the court within the novel quite adequately reflects on Roxana, 3 See above, pp. 60-61, ^ In the chapter on foreshadowing, we saw, of course, that Defoe was capable of such blunders. However, Roxana's insistent and repeated moral judgments here seem designed to draw our attention and to make any inconsistency with them appear glaring. We are, I think, forced to ask ourselves why Roxana has suddenly become so moral. Possibly she is attempting to better her image. And yet, she usually employs this tactic only when she is about to commit an act which w i l l raise the reader's indignation. Here she is merely continuing on in her career as - 160 -161 a mis tress , Arid so Defoe seems to have included Roxana's moral iz ings i n order to draw the reader 's a t t ent ion to her increas ing degeneration, 5 See Ralph E . Jenk ins , "The Structure of Roxana," 156, f or the same op in ion . FOOTNOTES Chapter V 1 See above, p, 158, f n . 7. 2 Jenk ins , "The Structure of Roxana," 146-147. Perhaps I should emphasize at the outset that I am not p r i m a r i l y concerned with the way i n which Defoe constructs h is character but with the i n t e r a c t i o n s between them. ^ When he counsels Captain Singleton against v i o l e n c e , f or example, i s he being an humanitarian or an expedient p i r a t e ? 5 See above, p . 157., f n . 6. 6 G. A. S t a r r , "Sympathy V. Judgement i n Roxana's F i r s t L i a i s o n , " 60. 7 In "The Question of Emotion i n Defoe", Benjamin Boyce gives scant a t t en t ion to the Jew and simply says that "An e v i l j ewe l l e r pursues Roxana i n P a r i s , but th i s s tory i s a cloak-and-sword a f f a i r of s l i g h t emotional power" (p. 52). 8 A c t u a l l y S i r Robert Clayton's presence i s r e v e a l i n g , but because h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e depends on an h i s t o r i c a l knowledge I have excluded him from the d i scuss ion of characters . In Economics and the Fiction of Daniel Defoe M a x i m i l l i a n E . Novak points out that "Defoe always accused Clayton of avarice" (p. 131), and that Clayton was "one of the most unscrupulous f i n a n c i e r s " (p. 132) of Roxana's day. He describes Clayton as "the perfec t adviser for Roxana" (p. 132). 9 Jenk ins , "The Structure of Roxana," 146. 1 0 Jenkins , "The Structure of Roxana," 156. From The History and Reality of Apparitions, c i t e d i n Jenk ins , 11 "The Structure of Roxana," 146. 12 Jenkins , "The Structure of Roxana," 146. 1 3 i n Be foe and the Nature of Man Novak describes th i s r e l a t i o n s h i p as being "probably the most ambiguous and complex s i t u a t i o n i n a l l of Defoe's f i c t i o n " (p. 126). He p a r t i a l l y damns Susan, whom he says is-"unquestionably not the shy, g r a t e f u l daughter that Roxana might have expected" (p. 126). And he p a r t i a l l y absolves Roxana by s t a t i n g that - 162 -163 although she Is "a bad parent" (p, 126) "she fee l s an overwhelming a f f e c t i o n for Susan" (p, 126). I f a i l to see where the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e i ther except iona l ly ambiguous or complex. Susan, i f we fo l low the t ex t , i s not mercenary as Novak would l i k e us to b e l i e v e , and i s qu i te w i l l i n g to lose f i n a n c i a l support i f she can win her mother's love . Roxana's very a b i l i t y to s t i f l e her strong maternal a f f e c t i o n seems designed to impress us with the strength of her s e l f - l o v e . Far from being ambiguous the s i t u a t i o n seems designed to overwhelm us with i t s f o r c e f u l s traightforwardness . 14 Jenkins also points t h i s out on p. 156 of "The Structure of Roxana". 1 5 Jenk ins , "The Structure of Roxana," 156. 16 Jenkins , p . 156. 1 7 Boyce, "The Question of Emotion i n Defoe," 45. 18 Boyce, p. 52. 19 Boyce, p . 53. FOOTNOTES Chapter VI See above, p. 162, f n . 8. r- 164 -FOOTNOTES Chapter V II 1 See M a x i m i l l i a n E. Novak, "Defoe's Theory of F i c t i o n , " Studies in Philology, 61 (1964), 650-668. 2 For a quick glance at the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the chronology see Roxana, pp. 187-188. 3 Alan Dugald M c K i l l o p , The Early Masters of English Fiction, 2nd ed. (1956; r p t . Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas P r e s s , 1967), p. 25. - 165 -BIBLIOGRAPHY 017 WORKS CONSULTED A l l e n f Walter . Six Great Novelists. London: Hamish Hamil ton, 1955. A l t e r , Robert. Rogue's Progress; Studies in the Picaresque Novel. Cambridge, Mass . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1964. Anderson, Hans H. "The Paradox of Trade and M o r a l i t y i n Defoe." Modern Philology, 39 (1941), 23-46. Baine , Rodney M. "The Evidence From Defoe's T i t l e Pages." Studies in Bibliography, 25 (1972), 185-191. Bishop, Jonathan. "Knowledge, A c t i o n , and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Defoe's Nove l s ." Journal of the History of Ideas, 30 (1952), 3-16. Boyce, Benjamin. "The Question of Emotion i n Defoe." Studies in Philology, 50 (1953), 45-58. Cather, W i l l a . On Writing: Critical Studies on Writing as an Art. New York: A l f r e d Knopf, 1953. Church, Richard . The Growth of the English Novel. London: Methuen & Co, L t d , , 1951. C l i f f o r d , James L , , ed. Eighteenth-Century Literature: Modern Essays in Criticism. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1968. Defoe, D a n i e l , Captain Singleton. Ed. Shiv K. Kumar. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1969. ^-^->--—t Colonel Jack. E d . Samuel Hol t Monk. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1965. — — — . Moll Flanders. Ed . G. A. S t a r r . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1971. — — - . . Robinson Crusoe. E d . J . Donald Crowley. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1972. —•-———. Roxana. E d . Jane Jack. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1964. Dobree', Bonamy. English Literature In the Early Eighteenth Century: 1700-1740. Oxford: Clarendon Pres s , 1959. Donoghue, Denis . "The Values of M o l l F l a n d e r s . " Sewanee Review, 71 (1963), 287-303. - 166 -167 Donovan, Robert Alan.' The Shaping Vision: Imagination in the English Novel from Defoe to Dickens, Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1966. Durrell, Laurence. Justine. London: Faber and Faber, 1957. Fitzgerald, Brian. Daniel Defoe: A Study in Conflict. London: Secher & Warburg, 1954. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender is the Night. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. Freeman, William. The Incredible. Defoe. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1950. Forster, E. M. Aspects of the Novel. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1927. Grossvogel, David I. Limits of the Novel: Evolutions of a Form from Chaucer to Robbe-Grillet. Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1968. Harlan, Virginia. "Defoe's Narrative Style." The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 30 (1931), 55-73. Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926. Hocks, Richard. "Defoe and the Problem of Structure: Formal 'Ropes' and Equivalent Technique." Literature In Wiss.enschaft & Unterricht, 3 (1970), 221-235. Howard, William J. "Truth Preserves Her Shape: An Unexplored Influence on Defoe's Prose Style." Philological Quarterly, 47 (1968), 193-205. Hume, Robert D. "The Conclusion of Defoe's Roxana: Fiasco or Tour de Force!" Eighteenth Century Studies, 3 (1970), 475-490. Hunter, J. Paul. The Reluctant Pilgrim: Defoe's Emblematic Method and Quest for Form in Robinson Crusoe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966, James, E. Anthony. Daniel Defoe's Many Voices: A Rhetorical Study of Prose Style and Literary Method. Amsterdam, 1972. Jenkins, Ralph E. "The Structure of Roxana." Studies in the Novel, 2 (1970), 145-158. Kermode, Frank. The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. 168 K e t t l e , A r n o l d , An Introduction to the English Novel. 2 v o l s . 1951, r p t . ; New York; Harper & Row, 1960, Lee , W i l l i a m . Daniel Defoe: His Life, and Recently Discovered Writings: Extending from 1716 to 1729. 3 v o l s . London: John Camden Hotten, 1869. Mack, Maynard, and Ian Gregor, eds. Imagined Worlds: Essays on Some English Novels and Novelists in Honour of John Butt. London: Methuen, 1967. MacPherson, C. B. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism. Oxford: Clarendon Pres s , 1962, M c K i l l o p , Alan Dugald. The Early Masters of English Fiction. Lawrence: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas Pres s , 1967. Moore, John Robert. Daniel Defoe: Citizen of the Modern World. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Pres s , 1958. Moore, John Robert. Defoe in the Pillory and Other Studies. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1939. Novak, M a x i m i l l i a n E . "Crime and Punishment i n Defoe's Roxana," The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 65 (1966), 445-465. - r r - . — — D e f o e and the Nature of Man, London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1963. — — r - r - . "Defoe's Theory of F i c t i o n . " Studies in Philology, 61 •(1964), 650-668. Economics and the Fiction of Daniel Defoe. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Pres s , 1962. "The Problem of Necess i ty i n Defoe's F i c t i o n . " Philological Quarterly, 40 (1961), 513-524. % "'Simon F o r e c a s t l e ' s Weekly J o u r n a l ' : Some Notes on Defoe's Conscious A r t i s t r y . " Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 6 (1964), 433-440. — — , and Herbert J . Davis . The Uses of Irony: Papers on Defoe and Swift Read at a Clark Library Seminar, April 2, 1966. Los Angeles: U . C. L . A . , C lark Memorial L i b r a r y , 1966, Peterson, S p i r o . "The Matr imonia l Theme of Defoe's Roxana." Publications of the Modern Language Association, 70 (1955), 166-191. Phe lps , W i l l i a m Lyon. The Advance of the English Novel. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1927. P r i c e , M a r t i n , To the Palace of Wisdom: Studies in Order and Energy from Dryden to Blake. New York: Doubleday, 1964. 169 R a l e i g h , John Henry. "Style and Structure and The ir Import i n Defoe's Roxana." The University of Kansas City Review, 20 (1953), 128-135. R i c h e t t i , John J . Popular Fiction Before Richardson: Narrative Patterns, 1700-1739. Oxford: Clarendon Pres s , 1969. Robertson, H . M. Aspects of the Rise of Economic Individualism: A Criticism of Max Weber and his School. 1933, r p t . ; New York: Augustus M. K e l l e y , 1965, Schorer, Mark, "A Study i n Defoe: Moral V i s i o n and S t r u c t u r a l Form." Thought, 25 (1950), 275-287. r . r „ r , „ , „ r . , , r , „ , "Technique as Di scovery ." Hudson Review, 1 (1948), 67-87. Secord, Arthur Wel le s l ey . Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe. 1924; r p t ; , New York: R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l I n c . , 1963. Sen, S r i C, Daniel Defoe: His Mind and Art. C a l c u t t a ; F o l c r o f t Pres s , 1948. Sh inage l , M i c h a e l . Daniel Defoe and Middle-Class Gentility. Cambridge, Mass . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1967. Stamm, Rudolf G. "Daniel Defoe: An A r t i s t i n the P u r i t a n T r a d i t i o n . " Philological Quarterly, 15 (1936), 225-246. S t a r r , George A. Defoe and Casuistry. P r i n c e t o n : Pr ince ton U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1971. —^—— . Defoe and Spiritual Autobiography. P r i n c e t o n : Pr ince ton U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1965, Steeves, H a r r i s o n R. Before Jane Austen: The Shaping of the English Novel of the Eighteenth Century, New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1964. Suther land, James. Daniel Defoe: A Critical Study. Cambridge, Mass . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Pres s , 1971. r - T - r - r " ! - — — . Defoe, P h i l a d e l p h i a and New York: J . B. L i p p i n c o t t , 1938, T i l l y a r d , E , M, W, The Epic Strain in the English Novel. F a i r Lawn, N, Y , : E s s e n t i a l Books, 1958. Watt, Ian, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. 1957, r p t . ; Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1967, Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Trans . T a l c o t t Parsons. London: G. A l l e n and Unwin, 1930. 170 W i l l e y , B a s i l . The Eighteenth Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period. 1940, r p t . ; Boston: Beacon Pres s , 1961. 

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