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A semi-modular approach to programming by questionnaire, as illustrated by a general service system simulator Siu, John K. 1974

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A SKIT-MODULAR APPROACH TO PROilRAMMElO PY QUESTIONNAIRE : as i l l u s t r a t e d by A GENERAL SERVICE SYSTEM oJJlULATOR by JOHN K. 3 IU ( 3 .Sc., U.B.C., 1972 ) A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Pulfillraent of thE Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science i n Pusiness Administration i n the faculty of Commerce and Pusiness Administration We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE U N I V E R S I T Y 6* BRITISH COIPIMniA MARCH 197J ( In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. )epartment of CtnvmvluZa. 4j 6u$.Vu;s* A ^ . W fr*vfr» The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date Aj?su£ 3A , I f 7<4~ i ABSTRACT Simulation i s a powerful technique to analyse decision problems, but'the high cost associated with computer simulation has impeded i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The objec-tive of this research i s to develop an approach to reduce the cost. An extensive study of the e x i s t i n g techniques which would reduce the costs of computer simulation (and/or pro-gramming) was undertaken. The contribution of t h i s study has been the development of a modular concept of model formulation and a semi-modular approach of programming by questionnaire. These provide the basis f o r an e f f e c t i v e program-generator. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a General Service System Simulator (G.S.S.S.) was b u i l t . Several experiments were conducted to test i t s e f f i c i e n c y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two major conclu-sions were apparent: (a) the approach introduced i s v a l i d and f e a s i b l e ; (b) The General Service System Simulator i t s e l f i s a very valuable t o o l . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i i i CHAPTER I. AN OVERVIEW 1 CHAPTER II. A SURVEY OF EXISTING METHODS ; '' 11 CHAPTER III. ON MODELLING 27 CHAPTER IV. A SEMI-MODULAR'APPROACH ' 33 CHAPTER V. THE GENERALISED SERVICE SYSTEM SIMULATOR • ' 1 l * a . CHAPTER VI. EXPERIMENT .. % \. CHAPTER VII. FINALE ./.•'• 60 ' FOOTNOTES 63 ' • REFERENCES ,. 6i|; . APPENDIX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. D. Uyeno. Apart from teaching me the art of simulation, he has been giving me his constant supervision and advice on this thesis. I would also like to thank Dr. K. R. MacCrimmon for reading and commenting on my earlier drafts, and Dr. I. Vertinsky for reading the manuscript and giving me kindly encouragement. None of my teachers is of course responsible for the errors that may remain. CHAPTER I. AN OVERVIEW " . . . only by observing the crane and nature as a whole could you understand why the crane would f l a p i t s wings, bl i n k i t s eyes, twitch i t s beak . . . " Chang San-fung, Sung Dynasty 1 1.1. Introduction No one i s certa i n when simulation was f i r s t employed as an aid to solve problems or choose strategies. Perhaps i t was i n 2500 A.D. when the Yellow Emperor of China invented the game of GO to help to decide on a strategy to f i g h t against barbarians (Chieu, 1951). Since then, simulation has been used by analysts i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s , d i f f e r e n t countries and d i f f e r e n t eras. War games are commonly used by m i l i t a r y analysts (Quade, 1968). Wind tunnels and scale models of ships and bridges play a major role i n the world of engineers. The introduction of Monte Carlo analysis by Von Neumann and Ulam (Naylor, et. a l . , 1968) i n the la t e 1940's was a giant step forward for simulation. I t was the application of a mathematical technique to solve c e r t a i n nuclear-shielding problems that were too expensive and too complicated for experi-mental solution. Yet, the biggest leap i n simulation came after the development of computers. With t h e i r improvements, 1 2 i n terms of both hardware and software, simulation became as indispensable to analysts solving i l l - s t r u c t u r e d problems as spanners are to mechanics. Successful applications of computer simulation can be found i n researches of many d i s -c i p l i n e s - ranging from the f i e l d s of commerce, economics and engineering to those of medicine, fishery, psychology and p o l i t i c a l science.^ 1.2 Simulation Defined The word "simulation" has been used f r e e l y i n the preceding section. I t was used to r e f e r to d i f f e r e n t forms of model bu i l d i n g - from scale models of ships and bridges, mathematical models of nuclear-shielding, ,to computer models of an economy. Unfortunately, d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s have been supplied by d i f f e r e n t people. A few are quoted below. (i) 'x simulates y 1 i s true i f and only i f (a) x and y vare formal systems, (b) y i s taken to be the r e a l system, (c) x i s taken to be an approximation to the r e a l system, and (d) the rules of v a l i d i t y i n x are non^error-free. 1 (Churchman, 1963) ( i i ) A simulation of a system or an organi-zation i s the operation of a model or simulator which i s a representation of the system or organization. The model i s amenable to manipulations which would be impossible, too expen-sive, or impractical to perform on the en t i t y i t portrays.' The operation of the model can be studied and from i t , properties concerning the behaviour of the actual system can be i n f e r r e d . (Shubik, 1960). 3 ( i i i ) Simulation i s a systematic approach to improve on i n t u i t i v e , or 'seat of the pants' analysis. (Wagner, 1970) Throughout th i s thesis, we are interested i n simu-l a t i o n of formal, mathematical models on d i g i t a l computers only. The following d e f i n i t i o n of simulation, which i s most appropriate for our purpose, w i l l be used. Simulation i s a numerical technique for conducting experiments on a d i g i t a l computer, which involves cer t a i n types of mathematical and l o g i c a l models that ascribe the behaviour of a business or economic system over extended periods of r e a l time. (Naylor, 1968). Simulation can be considered to be composed of 4 phases: (1) Defining a model: the formulation of the problem and the formulation of a mathematical model to represent the problem. (2) C o l l e c t i n g data: the c o l l e c t i o n and processing of r e a l world data, the estimation of para-meters of operating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from r e a l world data and the evaluation of the model and parameter estimates. (3) Formulating and executing a computer model: the con-str u c t i o n and execution of a computer program to obtain simulation r e s u l t s . (4) Analysing and v a l i d a t i n g the simulation r e s u l t s : the comparison of the predicted behaviour obtained from phase 3 to the r e a l world behaviour of the system. 4 The relationships of them are shown i n Figure 1.1. DEFINITION OF FORMAL MODEL _i COLLECTION OF DATA J L _ FORMULATION AND EXECUTION OF COMPUTER MODEL 1, VALIDATION OF RESULTS Figure 1.1 As mentioned above, the focus of th i s thesis l i e s mainly i n Phase (3) which can be considered to be composed of 3 stages: (a) programming, (b) debugging, and (c) executing the program. 1.3 The Application of Simulation to Real World As mentioned before, successful applications of simu-l a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l e s of research are numerous but, to our surprise, applications of simulation i n the r e a l world are few. The executives of most organisations are reluctant to accept simulation. The probable causes are d i s -cussed i n the following sub-sections. 1.3.1 Changes i n Organisational Structure associated with Simulation If simulation i s to be introduced into an organization (e.g. an analysis group), major organizational changes may be required. Consider an operations research organization before the introduction of simulation. B a s i c a l l y , an analysis unit and an information unit would be s u f f i c i e n t . In the event that a problem ar i s e s , the analysis unit investigates the problem and models i t . Then, i t asks the information u n i t to gather the relevant data. The r e s t w i l l then be completed by the analysis unit. F i g . 1.2 indicates the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of the 2 units. Following the structure introduced i n the previous section, the analysis unit does phases 1, 3, 4 while the information unit does Phase 2. phase 1 phase 3 phase h PROBLEM study/problem collect data ask data^ ANALYSIS > INFORMATION UNIT UNIT give data phase 2 Figure 1.2 6 With the introduction of simulation, a computer unit would have to be set up. When a problem a r i s e s , the analyst unit investigates and models the problem and passes i t s analysis to the computer unit. The computer unit, i n turn, translates the information obtained into a computer model and asks for relevant data from the information unit. The re s u l t s obtained by the computer unit i s then passed back to the analysis unit. But before any decision can be made, the analysis unit must validate the r e s u l t s by comparing them against new data from the information u n i t . The new i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s between the units are described i n figure 1.3. Following the structure introduced e a r l i e r , the analysis unit does phases 1 and 4; the information unit phase 2 and part of phase 4; and the computer unit does phase 3. I t i s apparent that more information transmission i s required of this organi-zation structure than the previous one. With these two structures i n mind, we can proceed to the next section. 1.3.2 The extra Cost, Time and Transmission of Information Associated with Simulation One of the major impediments to the p r a c t i c a l applica-tion of computer simulation i s the extra cost associated with i t . From the background of section 1.3, these extra costs are apparent. They are: CI. The set up cost associated with the extra "computer unit". e.g. cost of h i r i n g personnel. C2. The variable cost.associated with the "computer unit". e.g. s a l a r i e s of programmers, h i r i n g and tr a i n i n g extra programmers etc. C3. The execution cost, e.g. the cost associated with computer time. Most organisations, when they have decided to set up a com-puter unit, w i l l primarily be concerned with C2. Their concern i s j u s t i f i e d i f we consider the amount of money that has to be spent on t r a i n i n g and keeping programmers. Generally, l i t t l e attention i s paid to C3, unless the computer load reaches the maximum capacity of the computer system. Usually, C2 i s so high that i t makes most organisations reluctant to employ simulation. Another impediment to the-use of simulation i s the extra time involved. With the computer group as a separate 8 u n i t , e x t r a t i m e h a s t o b e s p e n t o n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( a c t i v i t y o f l e n g t h T l ) . A n d w i t h i n t h e c o m p u t e r u n i t i t s e l f , t i m e h a s t o b e s p e n t o n ( i ) c o n s t r u c t i n g , t e s t i n g a n d d e b u g g i n g t h e c o m p u t e r m o d e l ( a c t i v i t y o f l e n g t h T 2 ) , a n d ( i i ) e x e c u t i n g t h e p r o g r a m ( a c t i v i t y o f l e n g t h T 3 ) . B u t , s i n c e m o s t o f t h e d e c i s i o n s t o b e made a r e t i m e - d e p e n d e n t , a n o r g a n i s a t i o n i s r e l u c t a n t t o e m p l o y a t e c h n i q u e t h a t w o u l d r e q u i r e e x t r a t i m e . T h i s i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h h i n d e r s t h e w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s i m u l a t i o n . A t h i r d h i n d r a n c e i s t h e t i m e a n d e x p e n s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e m o r e t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s , t h e n o i s i e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d b e c o m e . F i g u r e 1 . 4 c a p t u r e s t h i s n o t i o n c l e a r l y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r u n i t i n c r e a s e s t h e n u m b e r o f t r a n s m i s s i o n s f r o m o n e t o f o u r . 1 . 3 . 3 I g n o r a n c e o f S i m u l a t i o n A n o b v i o u s w a y t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e c e p t i v e n e s s o f p e o p l e t o w a r d s s i m u l a t i o n i s ' t o e d u c a t e t h e m . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s t e x t b o o k s o n s i m u l a t i o n o n t h e m a r k e t ; a n d t h e r e a r e c o u r s e s o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f f e r e d a t v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , b u t t h e i r g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h i s t h e s a m e : " m o d e l m o r e a n d p r o g r a m m o r e " . No e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d o n t h e c o m p a r i -s o n o f d i f f e r e n t m o d e l s f o r t h e same p r o b l e m . I t i s f e l t t h a t o n e m a j o r m e t h o d o f l e a r n i n g i s t o e x a m i n e v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o t h e same p r o b l e m . 9 ANALYSIS INFORMATION UNIT N UNIT transmission PROBLEM 1\ transmissions i vand i i i transmission INFORMATION XV UNIT transmission i i Figure 1.4 10 1.4 Thesis Defined The objectives of the author are two-fold. F i r s t l y , he wishes to develop a technique which would reduce the cost, the elapsed time and the information flow of applying simulation, hoping that t h i s would lead to a wider applica-ti o n . Secondly, he wishes to introduce a learning aid to the students of computer simulation. In the past, various cost reduction techniques have been introduced. They are discussed i n Chapter I I . The two chapters following w i l l be focussed on a technique which w i l l reduce the cost, the elapsed time and the organisational changes that are usually associated with the introduction of simulation. Chapter III introduces a modular concept of model formulation and Chapter IV a semi-modular concept of building a simulator. To i l l u s -trate the f e a s i b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of these concepts, a General Service System Simulator (G.S.S.S.) i s b u i l t . I t i s described i n Chapter V. The p o t e n t i a l benefits of the General Service System Simulator towards simulation and as a learning aid were tested i n an experiment i n August, 1973. The r e s u l t s are reported i n Chapter VI. Major conclusions, extensions and applications of the General Service System Simulator are summarised i n Chapter VII. CHAPTER I I . A SURVEY OF EXISTING METHODS . . . thinking, i f not complemented by studying i s dangerous . . . Confucius^ 2.1 Introduction During the past 12 years, numerous attempts have been made to reduce the cost (and the elapsed time) of pro-gramming. These can be grouped into two categories: (A) Methods to reduce the variable cost (C2) alone; (B) Methods to reduce both the set-up cost (CI) and variable cost (C2). There are 3 basic approaches under category B: (i) Single Model Approach: by using a general pre-stored program, ( i i ) Modular Approach: by using program packages, ( i i i ) Atomic Approach: by generating programs from raw state-ments . The concepts, basic features and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each w i l l be described i n the following sections. A comparison w i l l also be included. 11 12 2.2. Methods for Reducing Variable Cost Most computer veterans probably remember the time and e f f o r t that they spent i n programming i n the early 50's, by the manipulation of circuit-boards. The introduction of machine language and assembler languages was indeed a giant step i n the reduction of programming e f f o r t s . During the past 15 years, numerous high l e v e l languages (e.g. FORTRAN, PL/1, COBOL, Al g o l , Simscript, GPSS, etc.) have been developed. They cut down the programming and debugging time d r a s t i c a l l y . For quite a while, i t was a common b e l i e f that the development of high l e v e l languages would be the answer to the problem of reduction of programming time. But, while a high l e v e l language reduces the physical time involved i n programming, i t increases the cognitive s t r a i n on the programmer. Hence, errors occur more frequently. This was noted by D i j k s t r a : "Another lesson we should have learned from the recent past i s that the development of 'richer' or 'more powerful' programming languages was a mistake i n the sense that these baroque monstrosities, these conglomerations of idiosyncrasies, are r e a l l y unmanageable, both mechanically and mentally". (Dijkstra, 1972). Now, l e t us again think about the whole process of simulation, as described i n Chapter I. The process i s repre-sented diagrammatically i n F i g . 2.1. With better programming languages, an organization may cut down i t s programming cost but, no matter how good or e f f i c i e n t the language i s , the 13 account-balance, c a l c u l a t i n g interests on loans and p r i n t i n g out statements. Therefore, for organizations of this type, i t i s un-economical to keep a team of programmers. Instead, a general pre-stored program i s a l l they need. The concept of'the single model approach i s simple. It involves the construction of one large program which includes a l l - t h e procedures to be performed. The user controls the sequences of the procedures to be executed by specifying the parameters of the input data. This i s represented i n Fig. 2 . 2 . DEFINITION OF FORMAL MODEL > f COLLECTION OF DATA < FORMULATION AND EXECUTION OF COMPUTER MODEL > VALIDATION OF RESULTS Figure 2.t. With this approach, an organization would not require a team of programmers.. A l l they need i s someone to enter the para-14 organization s t i l l has to hire some programmers. Hence, CI and C2 always e x i s t . STORED 7 PROGRAM J <s USER Figure 2.2 The approaches discussed below go one step further i n attempting to reduce CI and C2 together. 2.3 Methods for reducing both the set-up cost and the variable cost 2.3.1 Single Model Approach (Pre-stored programs) In most organizations that are equipped with the computer, only a few standard procedures need to be performed each day. A bank might only employ the computer i n updating procedure 1 procedure n e n c e i o n 15 meters. This would reduce C2 d r a s t i c a l l y . Since most of the commonly used programs'are available on the computer mar-ket, the set up cost, CI, i s also reduced. This approach works very well i n cases where the procedures are simple and s p e c i f i c , i . e . when options are few. The complexity of the procedures, however, i s actually constrained by the memory space of the computer. In deciding which options to perform, the program must continually interrogate the parameters that are s p e c i f i e d by the user, and use the r e s u l t of the i n t e r r o -gation to decide which part of the program to perform. A l l these options and the l o g i c necessary to choose from among them must reside i n the computer memory during the program's execution. Hence, th i s approach i s not applicable to simula-ti o n where the procedures are complex and generality i s re-quired. 2.3.2 Modular Approach (programming packages) The modular approach i s one step ahead of the generalized model approach. I t . i s designed to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n the generalized model approach; Instead of building a complex, general program, t h i s approach u t i l i z e s a l i b r a r y of subroutines. These subroutines, each responsible for a s p e c i f i c procedure, are pre-coded and stored. Then, from the user's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , i n accordance with the a n a l y t i c a l model, the desired program i s b u i l t by se l e c t i n g and f i t t i n g together the appropriate sub-routines. 16 Only then,,, w i l l the f i t t e d program be compiled. Hence, the savings on the memory space are large. * The question that may be raised at t h i s point i s "How general could t h i s approach be?" I t should be apparent that the generality would depend on the number of sub-routines stored i n the l i b r a r y ; however, three new problems a r i s e : (i).when the number of sub-routines i n the l i b r a r y i s large, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make the various sub-routines l o g i c a l l y compatible, ( i i ) the transmission of information from and to various sub-routines i s not e f f i c i e n t when the problem i s complex, and ( i i i ) for a general program, the l i b r a r y has to be enormously large, and a great amount of time i s required to " f i t - u p " a program. Modified forms of t h i s approach are commonly used i n simulation. The SPURT package i s a representative case but, i n using i t , the user must be f a m i l i a r with FORTRAN. Hence, i t i s useless to a non-technical person. Recently, s i m p l i f i e d simulation packages which are s p e c i f i c to some systems have been designed. Unlike most e x i s t i n g languages, they require that the user know only a few rules (Cooley, 1973), but they are constrained by the.complexity of the models. (Cooley, 1973). 2.3.3 Atomic Approach (The Program Generator - from raw Statement From the previous sections, i t i s obvious that a 17 trade-off exists between the e f f i c i e n c y and generality of a program. A program i s more e f f i c i e n t i f i t i s designed e s p e c i a l l y for a s p e c i f i c task. Hence, i t i s desirable to have a program constructed for the s p e c i f i c model that i s being analysed. This i s the basis for the program generator approach which aims at constructing a program generator, once and for a l l , that would generate programs according to the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the users. This w i l l be described i n more d e t a i l i n the following sub-sections. 2.3.3.1 The A r t i f i c i a l Intelligence F i e l d The generation of programs by another program has long been a central issue i n the f i e l d of a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i -gence. The Heuristic Compiler, written by Herbert Simon, con-si s t e d of 2 independent programs c a l l e d the State Description Compiler and the Descriptive Name Compiler. Both parts write programs i n a manner s i m i l a r to the way that the General Problem Solver solves problems; and both write i n 1PL-V pro-gramming language (Newell, 1961), which was designed to manipu-late l i s t s . However, up to 1970, only 2-instruction and 7-instructioh 1PL-V programs have been written. 2.3.3.2 The Program Generator Before applying the program generator approach, i t i s useful to obtain a systematic understanding of i t s basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . We s h a l l consider some of them under three headings: input, process and output. (a) The Input: The major inputs to a program generator are 18 the structures of the model and the data. Some of the considerations are l i s t e d i n outline below. 1. Should the structure of the model and the data be input together? It i s always desirable to separate the input into 2 stages, allowing more time for the analyst to c o l l e c t data. 2 . Should the model be confined to a s p e c i f i c struc-ture? Since a program generator can only generate pro-grams of the same "family", i t i s common practice to impose a r i g i d structure on the models. 3. How should the structure be inputted? In a l l e x i s t i n g program generators, a fixed l i s t of variables i s pre-designed, and a l l t h e i r values must be inputted, regardless of t h e i r redundancy, (b) The Process: After the input phase, the program generator would generate a program and process the data. The main cate-gories of the process are given below: 1. The major process of selecting raw statements for the construction of the program. Different heur-i s t i c s are used by d i f f e r e n t designers. 2. The e d i t i n g of the constructed program. This i s usually done manually to guard against unfore-seeable "bugs". 3. The processing of the data by the generated pro-gram. 19 2.3.3.3 A Program Generator Approach i n Simulation This approach has been.applied to simulation with great success by Ginsberg, Love, Markowitz and Oldfather from 196 5 to 19 6 8 i n t h e i r job shop model and also by Connors, Coray, Cuccaro, Green, Low and Markowitz i n 1972 i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n system simulator. As mentioned i n previous sections, t h e i r basic objectives have been that of reducing the e f f o r t required to produce large computer programs within s p e c i f i e d areas. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r approach are described below i n 2 stages, both following the format out-l i n e d i n the l a s t section: STAGE I. (a) Input 1. In stage I, only the structure of the model i s defined, with a minimal amount of numerical data. 2. The structure of the model i s defined by f i l l i n g out a set of pre-designed questionnaires. The questionnaires completely define the scope and structure of a l l possible models of a family. They are presented i n natural English language so that an analyst without computer knowledge can s t i l l u t i l i z e the program generators. (b) The Process During the process, the editor w i l l accept the answers to the questionnaires as input and w i l l generate a program by extracting statements from a statement l i s t . The statements to be extracted are determined by the decision tables. 20 1. The Statement L i s t : The statement L i s t i s a l i s t of a l l the v a l i d pro-gramming statements required to b u i l d any program that may be described on the questionnaire. The commands can be written i n any computer language, from machine language to higher l e v e l languages, such as FORTRAN, ALGOL and SIMSCRIPT. The statement l i s t of the Job Shop Simulation Program Generator (Markowitz, 1965) contains commands i n SIMSCRIPT, and that of the DSS (Conners, 1973) contains commands i n PL/1. The commands on a statement l i s t look exactly as they would i n any other program, except for t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers, which are used as keys to sele c t i n g commands. 2. Decision Tables The decision tables are employed by the Editor to decide, based on the responses to the questionnaires, which commands i n the statement l i s t to include i n the generated program. To b u i l d the statement l i s t , the programmer must have in mind the various combinations of commands needed to s a t i s f y a l l the options that the user may se l e c t on the questionnaire. The decision tables are merely a formal statement of the re-latio n s h i p between the questionnaire choices and the program-ming statements. They give the editor a set of rules, i n a standardized manner, so that i t can choose the r i g h t statements and handle them properly. The operation of the decision tables i s best understood by considering the decision tables as composed of four quad-.y. 21 rants. F i g . 2.3 shows the names usually attached to each quadrant: condition stub, action stub, conditions and actions. The entries i n the condition stub are keys to the questions on the questionnaire, and the entries on the action stub correspond to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers i n the statement l i s t . CONDITION CONDITION STUB ACTION ACTION STU 8 Figure 2.3 The conditions indicate the responses to the questionnaire that are required for action to be taken. The actions i n d i -cate which statements should be included i n the generated program, given that c e r t a i n questions, or combinations of questions, have been answered i n a certain way. 3. The Editor The editor i s the program that translates the res-ponses to the questionnaires i n t o a computer program. I t treats the questionnaires, the statement l i s t and the decision tables as input. I t has four functions: i) to translate the answers to the questionnaire into a computer program; i i ) to check the answers to the questionnaires f o r complete-ness and consistency; i i i ) to supply control statements for the execution of the generated program; and iv) to provide a l i s t of the variables that are required for execution. (c) Output The output consists of the generated program and a l i s t of data required for execution. The generated program and control statements appear i n the form of a deck of punched cards. STAGE II In the second stage, the generated program would be executed. This could again be described i n 3 headings: (a) Input: In a l l e x i s t i n g program generators, the user i s required to organise the deck of generated program 23 and control statements manually before sub-mitting i t through the card reader. He i s also required to submit a deck of required data. (b) The Process: The process involves the compilation and execution'of the program. (c) Output: The res u l t s of the execution w i l l be printed out in a pre-designed format. 2.3.3.4 Merits and Drawbacks The merits and drawbacks of t h i s approach are des-cribed below: merits: (i) The use of a natural language questionnaire eliminates the requirement of a det a i l e d programming knowledge of a programming language and format s p e c i f i c a t i o n ; hence the analyst can execute the simulation program a f t e r constructing the model; ( i i ) Relative to other approaches, the programs that are generated w i l l be e f f i c i e n t i n t h e i r use of computer time and memory space; and ( i i i ) I t has the a b i l i t y to provide a very large range of options i n any one questionnaire. drawbacks: (i) In using the approach f o r simpler models (which i s usually the case), the analyst has to go through a huge y set of pre-designed questionnaires i n which most of the questions are i r r e l e v a n t , thereby increasing the pr o b a b i l i t y of making errors; ( i i ) To construct a program from raw statement requires a huge set of statements, e s p e c i a l l y when generality i s desired; t h i s means that a l o t of e f f o r t i s required to bu i l d the statement l i s t ; ( i i i ) A long statement l i s t . i n turn requires a complex deci-sion table; (iv) The construction of questionnaires to cope with a l l possible options i s d i f f i c u l t ; (v) Computer time i s wasted i n processing long question-naires ; (vi) In th i s approach, only the editor i s general. Hence, in adapting the system for d i f f e r e n t families of program, the necessity of rewriting the statement l i s t , the decision tables and the questionnaires, (vii) In doing s e n s i t i v i t y analysis, the whole process has to be repeated. . ( v i i i ) One error i n answering the questionnaire would require the r e p e t i t i o n of the whole process. 2.3.4. Summary The merits and drawbacks of the four approaches des-cribed i n the preceding sections are summarized i n table 2.4. reduction of C1 reduction of C2 complexity of problaas handled f l e x i b i l i t y of program adaptability to other type of problem eff ic iency of method wrt elapsed time progamming language approach poor • fa i r execellent execellent execellent poor single model approach f a i r good poor poor poor f a i r modular approach f a i r . good' fa i r ' fa i r poor f a i r existing program generator (atomic approach) good execellent execellent execellent poor good In the following chapters, a semi-modular approach w i l l be presented. Chapter III focusses on the a n a l y t i c a l modelling aspect of t h i s approach. Chapter IV describes the program generation aspect, and Chapter V elaborates on the detailed processes. Chapter VI i s a description of an experi-ment for t e s t i n g a program generator b u i l t on the semi-module approach. CHAPTER I I I . ON MODELLING . . . there are many routes leading to Peking . . . 5 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen 3.1 Introduction An organisation can be analysed through the analysis of i t s parts, but thi s view has not been widely adapted i n simulation. This chapter attempts to discuss the use of p a r t i t i o n i n g i n model formulations. 3.2 Why Partioning? There are several advantages i n p a r t i t i o n i n g an 6 organization into small groups or teams; (i) the analyst can gain a better understanding of the roles 7 . of the d i f f e r e n t processors and t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s ; ( i i ) he can test his model by making small perturbations on one or more teams without disturbing the whole organiza-t i o n a l structure. (this i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n simula-tion) ; ( i i i ) by using a decomposition technique, he can focus his attention on one part of the organization at a time; and (iv) the p a r t i t i o n may conform to organizational structures 28 of the r e a l world. 3.3 Methods of P a r t i t i o n i n g There are an i n f i n i t e number of ways to p a r t i t i o n an organization into teams. A small restauran.t can be con-sidered as composed of a "team" i n the kitchen and a "team" on the f l o o r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t could be considered to con-s i s t of a "team" of males and a "team" of females; or even, taking the concept to an extreme, as a "team" of human beings and a "team" of equipment. The methods of p a r t i t i o n i n g have a d i r e c t bearing on the ease and accuracy of analysis. There are normally 2 general ways of p a r t i t i o n i n g : (A) Physical P a r t i t i o n i n g - the p a r t i t i o n i n g of an organization by physical locations. e.g. a team i n the kitchen and a team i n the dining room. (B) P a r t i t i o n i n g by Sub-goals: t h i s method par-t i t i o n s an organization by the common sub-goals of the workers: e.g. (1) In a restaurant: a team whose sub-goal i s the prepara-ti o n of food; and a team whose sub-goal i s the serving of customers. (2) In a h o s p i t a l : a team whose sub-goal i s to do surgery; and a team whose sub-goal i s to do administrative work. For a system analyst, whose aim i s to improve the performance of an organisation, the second method would be more preferable. Generally, i t i s easier to analyse and improve on a group with the same objectives than one with con-t r a d i c t i n g objectives. This approach i s adopted throughout the r e s t of the thesis. 3.4 Formal D e f i n i t i o n 1 and Concepts Throughout the following chapters, the following d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be used. The basic unit of an organization i s a "ro l e " . For an organization that services customers, a "role" i s a service that the organization can perform. A c o l l e c t i o n of roles constitutes a role set. Two ro l e sets are i d e n t i c a l i f and only i f they contain the same elements. A "processor" i s a role set with a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vector attached. Two processors are i d e n t i c a l i f and only i f the role set and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vectors are the same. A team i s a c o l l e c t i o n of processors. An example w i l l c l a r i f y these: Let us consider a barber shop. The roles could be: (i) : cut hair ( i i ) : shave ( i i i ) : shampoo (iv) : c o l l e c t money from customer A set { (i) , ( i i ) , ( i i i ) } could be a role-set; s i m i l a r l y {(iv)} could be a role-set. A barber who could do a hair cut i n 5 minutes, shave i n 6 minutes and shampoo i n 3 minutes would be a personnel. He would be represented by { ( i ) , ( i i ) , ( i i i ) , (5, 6, 3,)). Hence, 2 barbers who could perform the same job with the same e f f i c i e n c y would be considered as the same type 30 of processor. A cashier or another barber, who has a d i f f e r e n t set of tasks or e f f i c i e n c y l e v e l s , would be con-sidered a d i f f e r e n t type of processor. A team would be a c o l l e c t i o n of processors. One way of p a r t i t i o n i n g t h i s or-ganization would be a team of barbers and a team of cashiers. In:the remaining part of the thesis, a generalized service system w i l l be presented with the above notions i n mind. A service system i s an organization which provides services to customers. A summary of d e f i n i t i o n s i s given below, i n algol-type notations: | ::= or •(value): := integer, r e a l number or word (role): := terminal (role set) : := j(role^)} | ( r o l e set) (J (role set) ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vector): := -(value) | (character i s t i c vector) Rvalue) (processor): := ( r o l e s e t > ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vector> (team): := (processor*) | (team) ('processor) (organization) : := (^  team) J (organization > (team) (customer)::= ( r o l e s e t ) ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vector) 3.5 An Example to I l l u s t r a t e the Concept Suppose we have a small bank which only handles deposits, withdrawals and loans. Among the employees, there i s a bank manager who handles loans only; a secretary whom the customers must contact for an appointment to see the 31 manager; and 5 t e l l e r s who work at an i d e n t i c a l rate. Let us further assume that customers have only four possible roles to.be served: (a) withdrawal (b) deposit (c) withdrawal and deposit (d) loans The following model would be applicable Roles: ( i ) : withdrawal ( i i ) : deposit . ( i i i ) : appointment ( i v ) : loan Role Sets: { ( i ) ; (ii)} . { ( i i i ) ! Processors: T e l l e r s : ( (i) ; ( i i ) ; k l } Secretary; ( ( i i i ) ; k2j Manager: { (iv) ; k3\ Team 1: contains the manager and the secretary, with the sub-goal of making loans Team 2: contains the 5 t e l l e r s , with the sub-goals of making deposits and withdrawals. Bank: contains Team 1 and Team 2. Customers: a l l possible subsets of | ( i ) ; ( i i ) ; ( i i i ) and ( i v ) ; k4 } 32 where k l ; k2 and k3 are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vectors of the processors and k4 the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vector defining the input d i s t r i b u t i o n of the customer. CHAPTER IV. A SEMI-MODULAR APPROACH . . . I was i n the process before; I under-stand the process . . . J.W. Dean III, 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents a b r i e f overview of the approach adopted for the construction of a program generator. B a s i c a l l y , i t i s a combination of approach 3 and approach 4 described i n Chapter I I . During the design stage, the author had the following objectives i n mind: (i) Easy input: Solutions - (a) the use of a natural language question-naire so that no computer knowledge i s required of the user. (b) the generation of a set of question-naires as a response to a simple master questionnaire; so that no i r r e l e v a n t or redundant answers are required of the user. This w i l l , hopefully, reduce the cognitive s t r a i n of the user. ( i i ) E f f i c i e n t Process: Solutions - (a) statement l i s t : both raw statements and subroutines w i l l be used i n the statement, l i s t i n order to reduce the computer time for the selection statements and- the construction of programs. (b) Adaptability: i n order to have a program generator that could e a s i l y be adapted to d i f f e r e n t types of problems, a fixed statement l i s t , decision table and master questionnaire are used. Only the editor i s s p e c i f i c to each type of problem, y 34 ( i i i ) F l e x i b l e Output: Solutions - Different output formats are available. They are to be s p e c i f i e d by the user. 0 1 4.2 The Concept The concept of the semi-modular approach i s described below i n three sub-sections: stages, components, and charac-t e r i s t i c s . 4.2.1 Stages In understanding the semi-modular approach of program generation, l e t us consider the process to be composed of three d i f f e r e n t stages. These three stages are described below i n the same format as i n Chapter I I I . STAGE I: the questionnaire generation stage In a l l e x i s t i n g program generators, a pre-designed set of questionnaires i s used. In a l l the cases, the user has to answer a l l the questions, even i f some of them are re-dundant. To overcome this drawback, stage 1 i s introduced. (i) user's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : In the f i r s t stage, the user i s asked to f i l l i n a simple master questionnaire. In the master questionnaire, he indicates the rough skeleton of the model; i . e . how he i s p a r t i t i o n i n g his models. ( i i ) input: The answers to the master questionnaire are the input of th i s stage. 35 ( i i i ) the process: The questionnaire generator w i l l process the answer and produce a set of relevant questionnaires. The complexity of the questionnaires produced depends on the complexity of the model defined. For simple problems, only a'very small set of questionnaire w i l l be produced. (iv) output: There are two categories of output produced. A set of questionnaires w i l l be printed out for the user; and a supplementary decision table (containing the information about the skeleton of the model) w i l l be stored i n t e r n a l l y on a f i l e . STAGE 2: the program generation stage Stage 2 i s responsible for the generation of the computer program. • (i) user's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : The user i s required to answer, to the best of his knowledge, a l l the questionnaires pro-duced i n stage 1. His answers, are information on the detailed structure of the model. ( i i ) input: The input includes the answers from the user and the supplementary decision table b u i l t i n stage 1. ( i i i ) the process: A monitor w i l l accept the answers of the questionnaires, and check for t h e i r completeness and con-s i s t e n c i e s . Then, with the help of the pre-stored deci-sion tables and the supplementary decision tables b u i l t i n stage 1, i t w i l l extract statements and sub-routines from a pre-stored statement l i s t . The statements and sub-routines w i l l then be edited by the editor to form a simu-36 Although each program generator i s designed for s p e c i f i c types of. programs (e.g. job shop, d i s t r i b u t i o n system, e t c . ) , i t s performance can be judged by the following c r i t e r i a : 1. Degree of ''automation". How "automatic" i s the program generator? How much intervention i s required from the user? 2. Degree of "accuracy". How close do the generated programs represent the desired model? 3. Degree of F l e x i b i l i t y . How many d i f f e r e n t "models" of the same family could the program generator handle? 4. Degree of Errors. How "bug-free" are the gener-ated programs? 5. Adaptability. How easy i s i t to modify the generator for models of d i f f e r e n t families? 6. E f f i c i e n c y . How much time i s required to generate a program? (c) The Output: The input and the process used w i l l , to a large extent, determine the output. However, there are s t i l l some aspects that need consideration: 1. F l e x i b i l i t y . Can the user specify d i f f e r e n t out-put formats? 2. S e n s i t i v i t y . Can the user execute the program again with small perturbations on some of the variables? l a t i o n program. The editor w i l l also check for missing information. (iv) Output: A blank data sheet w i l l be printed out for the user. I t s p e c i f i e s a l l the data that must be inputted before the program could be executed. The user i s also asked to specify the f i n a l form of output desired. If inconsistencies are found, i t w i l l also be printed out. Internally, additional decision rules are b u i l t i n for the next stage. STAGE 3: the execution stage During t h i s stage, the program w i l l be executed with the data supplied by the user. (i) user's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : The user must provide a l l the data, i r o n out a l l inconsistencies, i f any, and specify an output format of the f i n a l r e s u l t . ( i i ) input: The answers supplied by the user are the input of t h i s stage. ( i i i ) the process: The ed i t o r would accept the data, correct the inconsistencies, and supply the control statement for the execution of the program. (iv) output: The f i n a l r e s u l t s a f t e r the execution of the program w i l l be printed out i n the format s p e c i f i e d by the user. 4.2.2 The Components After understanding how the "semi-modular approach" program generator works, we could now proceed to examine i t s 38 basic components. (A) Master Questionnaire (MQ) The master questionnaire i s introduced to reduce the complexity of the pre-designed set of questionnaires. 1 I t should be as simple as possible and each master question-naire i s s p e c i f i c to each, family of problems. Responses to i t s questions w i l l define the complexity of the,questionnaire required to give a precise and accurate description of the model. An example i s given i n Chapter V. (B) The Questionnaire Generator (QG) The questionnaire generator i s a program which: (i) accepts answers of the master questionnaire as input and produces a set of relevant questions as output; and ( i i ) adds decision rules for the input of responses to questionnaires. A s p e c i f i c questionnaire generator w i l l be required for each family of problems, but i t i s not a big problem as the. questionnaire i s very, simple to construct. Functionally, i t cuts down the time that the analyst has to spend i n reading and f i l l i n g i n i r r e l e v a n t questionnaires, and the p r o b a b i l i t y of the occurrence of errors. (C) The Statement L i s t In a l l e x i s t i n g program generators, the statement l i s t contains a l i s t of computer commands s p e c i f i c to each family of problems. I t i s agreed that b u i l d i n g the statement l i s t i s the most d i f f i c u l t part of the whole process of building a program generator. Realising t h i s , we would l i k e to construct a l i s t that could be adapted to a l l types of models. I t i s obvious that the generality desired of the program generator would, to a great extent, determine the length of the statement l i s t . However, for si m i l a r l e v e l of generality, the most c r u c i a l factor i s the choice of programming lang-uages. (D) The Program Generator: The program generator consists of two parts: the monitor and the editor. The monitor i s responsible for selec t i n g the appropriate statements and sub-routines from the statement l i s t ; and the editor i s responsible for arrang-ing them into an executable program. The procedures are dependent upon the responses from the users and the b u i l t - i n decision table. (E) The Decision Tables: The decision table consists of formal statements r e l a t i n g the answers of the questionnaires to the appropriate statement i n the statement l i s t . 4.2.3. The Characteristics of the Semi-Modular Approach * The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the semi-modular approach are described i n the following subsections: (A) p a r t i t i o n i n g : By employing the concept of p a r t i t i o n i n g , an organization can be viewed as a set of teams with the same ske l e t a l structure. This makes the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of ques-4 0 tionnaires possible. Moreover, each team can be constructed from a standard team with very l i t t l e modification. This cuts down the computer time required and reduces the complex-i t y of the decision table.. (B) Perturbations: ' Since the whole process i s divided into three stages, the analyst could apply small perturbations on the organiza-t i o n without having to go through the whole process of program generation. At the end of the execution, the analyst could repeat the process by making small changes on the teams. The' monitor would create new teams, delete o l d teams, make the appropriate modifications i n stage 2, and repeat stage 3 again. (C) Modular Statement l i s t In order to reduce the length of the statement l i s t and consequently the complexity of the decision tables, i t i s b e n e f i c i a l to have each statement on the statement l i s t represent a set of operations. The use of GPSS as a program-ming language, as described above, achieves this aim. More-over, the grouping of statements into modular form further reduces the complexity of the decision table. As an example, i f we have a single-queue single-server model, and i f we would l i k e to keep the queue s t a t i s t i c s , the following blocks i n GPSS would form a module: QUEUE' SEIZE DEPART ADVANCE RELEASE 41 Yet i t could also be considered as a combination of 3 sub-modules: ^ (1 ) QUEUE DEPART ( 2 ) SEIZE RELEASE ( 3 ) ADVANCE Hence, i n using t h i s semi-modular approach, the search for 5 statements i s reduced to the search for 3 appropriate groups. This w i l l further be elaborated i n Chapter V. This i s also applicable to other programming language, e.g. a DO-LOOP i n FORTRAN: DO 10 1=1,20,2 10 CONTINUE CHAPTER V: THE GENERALIZED SERVICE SYSTEM SIMULATOR (G.S.S.S.) - an i l l u s t r a t i v e example "try i t , y o u ' l l l i k e i t " - t.v. commercial 5.1 Introduction In this chapter, the d e t a i l processes of bui l d i n g a system simulator with a semi-modular approach and the team concept w i l l be described. A comparison of the time one w i l l have to spend using this system versus that which he has to spend i n writing a complete program w i l l be pre-sented i n Chapter VI. 5.2 Choice of Problem A generalized service system was chosen because i t i s one of those models to which many r e a l world organizations conform. Secondly, service systems have a wide range of com-pl e x i t y , ranging from a single-server-single-queue model (e.g. a barber shop) to a multi-server-multi-queue model (e.g. a large department store). 42 5.3 Choice of Programming Language A l l programming languages can be used i n building the system. However, GPSS was used i n the example. There are two reasons. F i r s t of a l l , GPSS has only a small set of possible statements r e l a t i v e to other languages. Secondly, the GPSS language has a modular concept i m p l i c i t l y , as each GPSS block i s , by i t s e l f , a complete module of sub-routine. A detailed description of the General Service System Simulator (G.S.S.S.) i s given below, following the format of Chapter IV. 5.4 Stages As discussed previously, the procedure consisted of 3 d i s t i n c t stages: the questionnaire generation stage, the program generation stage and the execution stage. 5.4.1 Stage 1: the questionnaire generation stage. In using the G.S.S.S., as well as any other simula-tors b u i l t on the semi-modular approach, the user i s required to f i l l i n a master questionnaire i n stage 1. The master questionnaire takes on a very simple form. I t i s intended to c o l l e c t a s k e l e t a l structure of the system only. In the General Service System Simulator, the s k e l e t a l structure of any s p e c i f i c system would be: (i) number of teams; 44 ( i i ) number of the d i f f e r e n t types of processors; ( i i i ) number of services that could be provided; (iv) number of types of equipment required; (v) number of types of product required; (vi) number of types of customers to be served. The concepts of team, processors, services (role) and cus-tomers have been discussed i n Chapter I I I , but that of equipment and products need to be explained here. Equipment i s a f a c i l i t y that i s required by a processor to complete a service; and i t could be shared between teams. A product i s perishable equipment. In addition, the names of each member of the six categories are also to be entered on the master questionnaire. These alphabetic names w i l l be used as variable names i n the program generated to f a c i l i t a t e easier references. A sample of the master questionnaire i s shown i n F i g . 6.1. To i l l u s t r a t e the process, l e t us consider the follow-ing example: There i s a service s t a t i o n with 2 employees: a mechanic and a helper. The service station possesses 2 gas pumps, a regular and a supreme, with 100 gallons of each every day. In addition, there i s a garage for car repairs. Normally, the helper i s i n charge of f i l l i n g up the cars, and the mechanic i s i n charge of repairing the cars. But, i n the case where there i s no car i n repair, the mechanic w i l l help with the f i l l i n g up when there i s more than 1 car at the pumps. On the other hand, i f there are cars i n repair and no cars at the pump, the helper w i l l come and help the mechanic. To make everything simple, l e t us suppose that there are only 5 types of customers: trucks for regular gas; f u l l - s i z e cars for supreme gas; compact cars for supreme gas;, small cars for regular gas and cars for repair. Because of the d i f f e r e n t tank si z e s , each of the cars w i l l take d i f f e r e n t lengths of service time. 4 5 A n a l y s i s : T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t o f 2 t e a m s , t h e pumps a n d t h e r e p a i r s h o p . Now, s i n c e t h e m e c h a n i c a n d t h e h e l p e r a r e b o t h b e i n g s h a r e d b y t h e 2 t e a m s , t h e y w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a s e q u i p m e n t . The g a s w i l l be t h e p r o d u c t . T h e p r o c e s s o r s w i l l b e t h e 2 pumps a n d t h e g a r a g e . ( i ) u s e r ' s r e q u i r e m e n t The u s e r i s r e q u i r e d t o f i l l i n t h e m a s t e r q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . F o r t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e , t h e m a s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d b e f i l l e d i n a s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 6 . 1 . MASTER QUESTIONNAIRE ENTER THE NUMBER OF : TEAMS PROCESSORS ROLES EQUIPMENTS PRODUCTS CUSTOMERS a 3 5 2 , z j r ENTER THEIR NAMES BELOW, EACH NAME CAN HAVE AT HOST 6 CHARACTERS: 'LLLLJJJ: (llrjl!ll ST£d'£-i- • Ji~L>i„. „Ji§jL t i i i i ^ '£§JZf- 5iLLi=- J^S*-F".- iI 3 SMALL _f,Jl±_ ' tKOKEll F i g u r e 6 . 1 46 ( i i ) input-The information on the master questionnaire could be submitted as punched cards through the card reader, or typed i n d i r e c t l y from a terminal. The format of the input of the above example i s shown i n Figure 6.2. F ' H 1 .4 f l i t s HiVrikVN XI-WI I "  SUP? Fill.? ME'Ill^iV ! rfFPAlftfirffi? f'Tt .1.1 HF"I.PF'?XIP fc]'iif:rt* ! r'H.l'.'.lpri^ i'flhF'PF'pi] h'i'1F'i':H K'F'fi TF/lj':*' ii . * * * . f ft 5 1 1 i i t o > i i i • i n » 1 3 3-3 1 1 4 1 4 i 1 5 5 5 5 i t ( S mi } 1 1 1 ! { 1 ! 1 ! J *oc 0 0 I  0 1111 9 9 9 9 1 i ' i ami i o o o o i o o o g o ii 9 o o o o 9 o a o o o o o o o o o g o o o o o o o i o o o o g o o J D O O O 1 .11 II II I] II II If II II 11 II II 71 11 11 11 11 11 II 11 II 11 II 11 U II 11 1) It 11 ti i i i l II M 41 II 11 II II II II 11 11 II U II 11 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 : 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 i 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 < 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 M 4 4 4 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 < 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 . 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E E E E G E S E E E 5 E S E 6 E G E E G E G E C G E E E E & E E E G 6 E G E E E E 6 G E 6 G E 6 G B IT 1 7 7 7 7 7 1 1 7 7 7 7 T 11 7 1 I 1 J ) 1 7 1 7 7 7 J 7 1 11 11 11 7 ! 17 27 7 ! 7 J i 7 0 9 0 0 9 0 II II II I] II u 111111 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 E 9 E S 6 5 7 1 7 7 7 7 I M 8 8 8 8 J 8 8 5 8 B B 8 « 8 a 8 8 8 8 8 « 8 8 B « B 8 8 8 8 S 8 8 « I 8 8 3 8 8 8 8 8 3 8 8 8 8 « 8 8 « 8 8 9 ! 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 S 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ! 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 9 9 : II II ii u ti n it •! II II :i it n n :i ;i n n ;i n » ii u ii M uii i> j u ti n u n it n n n ti o u ii u ii ;t is '• n u » ti ti ii u u ti 0 0 0 0 li II II II i:: i 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 B B t 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 6 9 9 9 9 ii II II ii 0 0JULI in, 1 I 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 . ' E S S E 7 7 7 7 7 8 g a 81 9 9 9 9 9 ;i n i i i i i i 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 J 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 B 6 B 6 6 7 , 1 7 7 1 8 8 9 1 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 II II II 11 H Figure 6.2 ( i i i ) the process -The program PROGEN ( l i s t e d i n the Appendix) ' w i l l process the input submitted and produces a set of questionnaires. (iv) output -The output from the Questionnaire Generator w i l l be a set of questionnaires. The questionnaires w i l l ask for a l l the relevant information required to generate the program. In the General Service System Simulator, the set of questionnaires w i l l consist of the following types of questionnaires: 47 ( i ) t a s k s e q u e n c i n g ; ( i i ) t a s k v s . equipme n t / p r o d u c t r e q u i r e m e n t s ; ( i i i ) p r o c e s s o r v s . t a s k s , i . e . which t a s k s can each type o f p r o c e s s o r p e r f o r m , w i t h s e r v i c e t ime d i s t r i b u t i o n and mean; ( i v ) team s t r u c t u r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; and (v) c ustomer-type d e f i n i t i o n s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . These forms w i l l be c o m p u t e r - p r i n t - o u t s . They a r e shown i n the examples i n Appendix B. A few o f them are shown below i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e how they work. A. Task Sequencing Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s T h i s t a k e s the form o f a square m a t r i x , w i t h the number o f rows (and columns) e q u a l t o the number o f t a s k s i n d i c a t e d on t h e master q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The names o f the t a s k s are a l s o p r i n t e d above and a c r o s s f o r r e f e r e n c e . I f 5 t a s k s ( w i t h names: t a s k 1 , t a s k 2 , t a s k 3 , t a s k 4 , t a s k 5) were i n d i c a t e d on the master q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the " t a s k s e q u e n c i n g " q u e s t i o n n a i r e would t a k e on the form shown i n F i g u r e 6 . 3 . T 1 T T T A A A A A 3 S S 3 3 K K K K K 1 2 3 ^ 5 'IA3K1 _ ^ _ _ _ TASK2 TA3K3 TA5K3 TASK** F i g u r e 6 . 3 48 I f a l l t h e t a s k s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r , n o e n t r i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y . H o w e v e r , i f t a s k 1 c a n n o t b e p e r -f o r m e d u n t i l t a s k 2 i s d o n e ( i . e . 2 p r e c e d e s 1), t h e n e n t e r a m a r k i n p o s i t i o n (1,2). I n o u r e x a m p l e , t h e t a s k - s e q u e n c i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 6 . 4 . ft F F F F E I I I I P L L L L A L L L L I 1 ?. : 4 R •REPAIR _ _ _ _ _ FILL1 FILL2 _ _ . _ _ ' _ FILL3 FILL'J-F i g u r e 6 . 4 B . T a s k v s . E q u i p m e n t / P r o d u c t r e q u i r e m e n t s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e t a s k s (as i n d i c a t e d o n t h e m a s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) w i l l b e t h e r o w s , a n d e q u i p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t s ( w i t h t h e same n u m b e r a n d names a s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e m a s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) w i l l b e t h e c o l u m n s . L e t u s c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e . On t h e MQ, 2 i t e m s o f e q u i p m e n t (MECH, H E L P E R ) a n d 2 p r o d u c t s ( R E G , SUP) w e r e i n d c a t e d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e f o r e w i l l b e a s f o l l o w s : 49 M H 5 E E E U c L G P H P III R RSPAIR " _ 0 0 I / F I L L 2 0 1 / FILL3 0 1 _ F I L L 4 0 1 y F i g u r e 6 .5 S i n c e REPAIR cannot be per fo rmed w i t h o u t MECH, e n t e r a mark i n p o s i t i o n (5,1) and so o n . C. P r o c e s s o r v s . Task Q u e s t i o n n a i r e For each p r o c e s s o r , one q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be g e n e r a t e d . In the example , 3 p r o c e s s o r s were i n d i c a t e d , w i t h names REGP, SUPP and GARAGE; t h e r e f o r e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r REGP would be as shown i n F i g . 6 . 6 . •PROCESSOR : R E G P 1 2 3 4 5 MEAN F I L L 2 / . " " . . . . F 1 L L 3 50 H e r e , t h e u s e r w i l l h a v e t o f i l l i n t h e t a s k ( s ) t h a t REGP c a n p e r f o r m , a n d i n d i c a t e t h e s e r v i c e t i m e d i s t r i -b u t i o n , w h e r e : 1 : c o n s t a n t s e r v i c e t i m e 2 : u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n 3 : n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n 4 : e x p o n e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n 5 : u s e r - s u p p l i e d f u n c t i o n The o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e s h o w n i n A p p e n d i x B . T h e y f o l l o w r o u g h l y t h e same p a t t e r n a s t h o s e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a n d t h e y c a n b e e n t e r e d w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t i e s . 5 . 4 . 2 S t a g e 2 : t h e p r o g r a m g e n e r a t i o n s t a g e ( i ) u s e r ' s r e q u i r e m e n t -D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , t h e u s e r o f G . S . S . S . i s r e q u i r e d t o f i l l i n a l l t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s g e n e r a t e d b y s t a g e 1 . T h i s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t s u b - s e c t i o n , a n d a c o m -p l e t e e x a m p l e c a n b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B . ( i i ) i n p u t -The a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d b e i n p u t t e d v i a t h e c a r d r e a d e r o r d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h a t e r m i n a l . E a c h l i n e o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e o n e e n t r y ( i . e . 1 d a t a c a r d ) , a n d t h e o r d e r s h o u l d b e t h e same a s t h a t o f t h e q u e s -t i o n n a i r e . D u r i n g s t a g e 1 , a d d i t i o n a l d e c i s i o n r u l e s r e -g a r d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f i n p u t r e q u i r e d w e r e s t o r e d i n s i d e t h e c o m p u t e r m e m o r y , a n d t h e u s e r d o e s n o t n e e d t o w o r r y a b o u t t h a t . A s a m p l e i n p u t i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 6 . 7 . 51 ii ix il IX 11'lX l . i QODC00GOQD1 1 1 1 * i I t I I l| 1| (J |] ; 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 | 12 2 2 2 2 2 1333323 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 S 5 5 5 5 5 fi fi G 6 6 B 6 lit mi I 8 8 8 o : 3 B 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 - . f i i i i H O C S O B I I M 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 S 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 1 9688888888 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1! 1 1 II I I II \ I I I ! 1 I II 1 I I  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 13 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 14 4 4 4 4 4 ( 4 4 4 4 4 < 4 4 4 5 5 S 5 5 5 5 5 b 5 5 5 5 5 S 5 5 G6G&G6GGGGGG666G6 m n i n m i m i i 2 2 z 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 ) 7 1 I I I I I II I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 S S 5 5 5 5 5 5 G 6 6 G 6 S 6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( 7 7 7 - 7 7 7 7 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 -3 3 3 3 3 3 3"? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 << 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 i 4 I 4 4 4 4 < 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 G E 6 6 G 6 6 G 6 S 6 6 5 G S t, 3 G S G G 6 S 6 G G G 7 M 7 ? 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 7 7 7 7 I I 7 7 7 I 7 7 7 I 1J 7 7 7 7 . 1 7 ! T 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 3 8 8 i 8 8 8 8 8 < 8 8 8 I 8 9 a 8 1 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 8 B 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 8 8 8 1 8 9 8 8 8 I S 9 3 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 9 9 9 9 5 9 9 9 9 9 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 S 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 ! 9 9 9 9 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 9 9 ' l : <i " u u n :i >t '< it i l n n ii ii II ;s r; ii a it ii i: ii ii ii is it i i 'i ii ii II i! n u n is n n II si si si si si ss " L: II si it n l i si n is si si u it n n n i] n is n n n 'I u i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i : : i i i i i i i i i i i i Figure 6.7 ( i i i ) the process -The program generator would process the input and extract statement from the statement l i s t to form a computer program. The computer program would be stored i n t e r n a l l y . If the user desired, he could l i s t the program out by the following MTS command: LIST INTERPRO. (iv) the output -The output from this stage would be a print-out as shown i n Figure 6.8. 52 PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1 . WHAT 13 THE MEAN ARRIVAL RATE OF CUSTOMER: TRUCK? 2. WHAT IS THE ARRIVAL RATE OF CUSTOMER : BIGCAR? e t c . Figure 6.8 5.4.3. Stage 3: Execution Stage In t h i s stage, a l l that i s required of the user would be his answers to the output of Stage 2. The answers could again be entered either through a card reader or a terminal. 5.5 The components - i The major components are s i m i l a r to those described i n Chapter IV. A few of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are given below 5.5.1 The Program Generator The Program Generator takes as input the re s u l t s of the Questionnaires. It i s composed of 2 basic compon-ents: (i) Statement l i s t ; and .. ( i i ) A generator program Its output w i l l be a simulation program as indicated by the user. 5.5.2 The Statement L i s t The Statement L i s t contains a l l statements required to b u i l d a simulation model. In the General Service System Simulator, the Schriber version of GPSS i s as used."^ This version consists of 73 blocks, hence a minimum of 73 state-ments are required but, owing to the semi-modular approach, some of them are grouped i n pairs; e.g.: ENTER LEAVE SEIZE RELEASE; etc. For some other blocks, (e.g. Test) they must be expanded into a few. The whole statement L i s t consists of approxi-mately 150 statements, which i s much, much less than the. 20,000 statements used i n the D.D.S. (Conners, e t . a l , 1972). The Statement L i s t i s shown i n Appendix C. 5.5.3 The Decision Tables The decision tables are of two types. Type 1 i s a pre-defined table, i n d i c a t i n g the location of s p e c i f i c statements i n the Statement L i s t . The second type of decision table i s that which i s s p e c i f i c to a s p e c i f i c model. For example, i f there are 3 types of customers, there would be three generate blocks, and so on. 5.6 The Program The program i s written i n FORTRAN IV, with a few Assembler macros, and consists of around 800 statements. The general flow-chart i s shown i n F i g . 4.7; the l i s t i n g s of the p r i n c i p a l sub-routines are i n Appendix D. The basic sub-routines are: (1) SUB-ROUTINE MAIN: It i s the driv i n g program. I t c a l l s a l l the sub-routines sequentially i n a pre-determined order. (2) SUB-ROUTINE INIT: It i n i t i a l i z e s most of the parameters, and assigns l o g i c a l I/O units to the appropriate f i l e s . (3) SUB-ROUTINE CONST: It constructs matrices from the r e s u l t s of the ques-tionnaires. I t can be considered as the f i r s t stage of building decision tables. (4) SUB-ROUTINE CON2 It i n t e r - r e l a t e s a l l the information and builds the necessary decision tables for l a t e r references. (5) SUB-ROUTINE PARA It extracts the appropriate parameters from the decision tables (both type 1 and type 2) so that Sub-routine EDTR would know where the appropriate statements are located i n the statement l i s t . (6) SUB-ROUTINE PARA2 It arranges the parameters generated from sub-routine PARA i n an orderly fashion and passes the re s u l t s to EDTR. (7) SUB-ROUTINES EDTR and MONITOR These are the two most important sub-routines. They do the following: (i) check for consistency of the parameters;, ( i i ) extract the correct statements from statement l i s t ; ( i i i ) arrange the statements into a l o g i c a l program CHAPTER VI. EXPERIMENT . . . I see and I forget, I l i s t e n and I r e a l i s e , I do and I understand . . Confucius 6.1 Introduction . After reading the lengthy discussion on the semi-modular approach of programming by Questionnaires, most readers probably have the following queries i n th e i r minds: (i) How e f f i c i e n t i s the method? i . e . How much time would one save i n using t h i s method instead of writing a problem from scratch? ( i i ) How e f f i c i e n t i s the program generated? i . e . As compared to a manually written program, how much more CPU time i s spent per execution? ( i i i ) What are the attitudes of a computer programmer to-wards such an approach? (iv) How much time i s required of an analyst before he can learn to use this method? To a s s i s t i n answering the above important questions, an experiment was conducted by applying the method to a General-ized Service System. 6.2 Choice of Problem ' ' The Generalized Service System context was chosen for two reasons: (i) service systems are common i n the r e a l world; ( i i ) the author i s interested i n service systems. A l l the subjects for th i s experiment were computer science graduates who had taken at l e a s t an introductory course i n computer simulation. Four of the six subjects are working as computer programmers i n business firms i n Vancouver. Three of those four s p e c i a l i z e d i n simulation. Of the other two subjects, one i s a graduate student i n Business Administration and the other a graduate student i n Computer Science. They had not been exposed to the idea.of programming by question-naire before, nor had they been exposed to the notion of par-t i t i o n i n g a system into teams. The experiment consisted of two 3-hour sessions per . subject. The experimenter was present in a l l of the experi-ments. In the f i r s t hour, the concept of p a r t i t i o n i n g and the operation of the GSSS was introduced. In the next hour, a simple system was presented to them and they were asked to use the GSSS to generate a program, and then they were asked to write a program on the system manually. The time spent was noted. In the next lh hours of the f i r s t session, the whole process was repeated for a s l i g h t l y more complex problem. The second session was conducted on the next day, repeating the process with a complex problem. The subjects were free to ask questions during the very f i r s t hour. Then they were l e f t to work on t h e i r own. The sequencing of the experiment 58 was thus biased i n favour of the manual program. 6.3 Results " The contexts of the experiment and the programs generated are l i s t e d i n Appendix C. For the f i r s t model (the gas s t a t i o n ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t differences could be found between the time spent and the execution time of the two programs (the program generated by G.S.S.S., and the manually written program). The whole procedure with the G.S.S.S. took an average of 10 minutes i n construction; while a manually written program took an average of 11 minutes. For the mediumly complex model (a restaurant)-, the construction time d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The G.S.S.S. took an average of 18 minutes, while constructing a program manually would take up to an average of 33 minutes. On comparing the e f f i c i e n c y of the two programs, the G.S.S.S. program would require almost 20% more GPU time during execution. For the complex model (the bank), no comparison could be made. The G.S.S.S. would take around 30 minutes for the construction of a program but, unfortunately, none of the 8 participants succeeded i n con-structing a program within 2 hours. I t was discovered that the program constructed by the G.S.S.S. i s not very e f f i c i e n t , but i t i s always better to have a less e f f i c i e n t program than none. 59 6 . 4 Conclusion From the construction of the General Service System Simulator, i t i s apparent that i t i s fea s i b l e to b u i l d a program generator by the approach discussed i n Chapters III and IV. CHAPTER VII. FINALE . . . there i s no ending, i t i s just another . beginning . . . Lao Tzu 7.1 Summary of Thesis In the preceding chapters, a semi-modular concept of constructing a program generator was introduced. The concept was validated by the construction of a General Service System Simulator. In the present version, the General Service System Simulator consists of a l l the GPSS statements introduced i n A GPSS Primer, by Screiber. The other GPSS statements are not included. As i t i s , the GSSS i s capable of handling models from simple structures to the rather complex. I t was proved to be more e f f i c i e n t than an average programmer i n writing service simulation programs. The programs that the G.S.S.S. produced are most e f f i c i e n t when the models are mediumly complex. The possible extensions of the technique are discussed below. 7.2 Extensions (a) The inc l u s i o n of a l l GPSS-V statements. The most obvious extension of the G.S.S.S. would be to include a l l the GPSS-V statements i n the statement l i s t . J 60 This would require a r e v i s i o n of the e x i s t i n g decision tables, but only very l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i s expected. (b) The use of other programming languages The G.S.S.S., i n i t s present version, i s being constrained by the features of the G.P.S.S. language. I t would be desirable to try to b u i l d a simulator using a new language to t e s t the semi-modular approach. (c) Interactive programming. Instead of using questionnaires, the G.S.S.S. could be modified to be an in t e r a c t i v e program. Very l i t t l e change i s required for this modification but i t would reduce the time that the user has to spend i n answering the questions and increase the cognitive s t r a i n . 7.3 The Use of the General Service System Simulator The use of the G.S.S.S. as a program generator i s apparent. Moreover, i t could also be used as a learning aid for students of computer simulation. Students could be benefitted by comparing t h e i r own programs to those that the G.S.S.S. produced, both i n terms of modelling and programming. If employed by an organization, the G.S.S.S. could cut down the cost, the elapsed time and the transmission of information that i s associated with the application of computer simulation. 62 7.4 Conclusion The thesis has presented an approach for the con-struction of a program generator. I t i s hoped that, through thi s approach, computer simulation would be accepted by more organizations. FOOTNOTES T r a n s l a t e d f r o m C . C h a n , A H i s t o r y o f T a i - C h i -C h u a n , W a i C h i n g P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , H o n g K o n g , 1 9 5 4 . 2 E x a m p l e s c a n b e f o u n d b y r e f e r r i n g t o B i b l i o g r a p h y  o n S i m u l a t i o n , I . B . M . , 1 9 6 6 . 3 . . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V I I . 4 T r a n s l a t e d f r o m The F o u r B o o k s . 5 T r a n s l a t e d f r o m K . K . Wu ( e d . ) , Famous Q u o t a t i o n s  f r o m Famous C h i n e s e , The W o r l d C o . , H o n g K o n g , 1 9 6 0 . ^The w o r d " t e a m " i s n o t u s e d h e r e i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s e n s e a s i n t h e e c o n o m i c t h e o r y o f t e a m s . 7 . . . . . . F o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n i s g i v e n i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . 64 Ri.EERENCES Chieu,C., History of China: the Legendary Era, The Hong Kong Publishing Co.,Pong Kong, 19^ 'i-« Churchman,C.W.," An Analysis of the Concept of Simulation", Symposium on Simulation Models, ed. A.C.Hoggatt and E•E.Balderston. Conners,Coray,Cuccaro,Green,Low,and Markowitz, Vthe Distribution • System Simulator",Management Science,Vol. 18,No. 8 ,April, 1 9 7 2 . Cooley,P.C.,"General Purpose Simulator",Research Triangle I n s t i t u t i o n , North Carolina, 1970. _, f An Approach to Modelling Simulation Problems", Research Triangle I n s t i t u t i o n , North Carolina, 1973. Diikstra,E.W., "The Mumble Programmer",C.ACM,Vol. 1jJ,No. 10, 1972. Cyert,R.M., and J.G.march, A Pehavorial Theory of the Ei.rm,Prentice-Hall, Eriglewood C l i f f s , N . J .,1963. Ginsberg,A.S., H.M.Markowitz and P.M. Oldfather," Programming by . Questionnaire ", Rand Corp., RMl|I|60PR, A p r i l , 1965. , . , "Programming by Questionnaire.,.. ..' Questionnaire ", Rand Corp., I£M;>1 29PR, Nov., 1966. , , and. P.L.love, "Job Shop Simulator", ',' Rand Corp., RI'-l^l62PR, July, 1967. Love, P.L. and P.M.Oldfather, "Auxiliary Programs", Rand Corp., RM5689PR, August, 1968. 6 5 , I.D.M. Manual : GPSS-V Introductory Manual, 5'73h-VS2. : GPSS-V System / 3 6 0 User's Manual, 360-)|.CS -176. Naylor,T .H.,J . L.])alintfy,D.S.jXirdick, and K.Chu, Computer Simulation Techniques , John Wiley & Sons, N.Y., 1 9 6 8 . Newell,A. (ed ), "Information Processing Lamruap.e V Manual", Prentice - H a l l , •Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.,1961. P r i t s k e r , A . A . B o , and P.J. K i v i a t , Simulation with GASP I I , Prentice - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1969. Schriber,T.J . , A GPSS Primer, preliminary p r i n t i n g , 1 9 7 2 . ShubikjM., "Simulation of the Industry and Eirm", A.E.R., L, NO.5, Dec, 1 9 6 0 , p p . 9 0 8 - 9 1 9 . Siu,J.K., "Simulation by Questionnaire : a p i l o t study", unpublished paper, 1 9 7 2 c Simon.H.A., "Experiments with a Hemx'istic Compiler", J-ACM, Vol. 1 0 , Oct., 1 9 6 3 . Quade., C., Analysis of M i l i t a r y Decisions, Ram:! Corp., 1 9 6 8 . Wagner, H., P r i n c i p l e s of Operations Research, Prentice -Hall ,Englewood C l i f f ; s , N . J . , 1 9 7 0 . •p&ie.x&i&V 9axcuuox'4b*aub , :o soy at e;ts .loci.E.Taua^ 8..["i:u;ujoi'ji;-jiib .;<•> PirtqtJX" 99 67 R R B P B P B B B B R " P R R R R K P R B R B B R R P R B R P R R R H B r w P P P R P R R R P R P R R B P » B B P R B B '" P,B R B RR R B ^ pTT p R FB B B~B R R R R R R R R R B P B P P R P T R R P R B B H E B P P R R P R B I B R B P B <l B V B B R B B P R P Pf B P R B B R P B R P R B B B B B B RR " B B R B P B I B ^ B P T ' f V B P r ^ F T B R P B P B P B B B P /\ AAA A A A A A A "A A A A A A A A A A A A " A A A A A A A A A A ~ A A " A A AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA '"A A " " " A A ' A A A A A A A A ~ S 7 T ~S7T A A AA G G O G G O G G G G G G O G G G G G C G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G ' G G G G G G G G ~ G G G nGG7JGGGl7G~ G G G G G G G G G G CCCCCCCCCC N N M N TT TTT T T T T T T T P . R R P P R R R R P R "cccccccccccc N M T rTTTTYTTTTT R P R R R~R~R R W R R cc cc N N N N M N RP. RR cc MM NM M N T T RR P R re M N MM f M " TI RR —• P R cc N N N N MM T T RR R P P . R P R R R R R cc NM NN MM T T R R R R R R P R R R R cc MM r\!N N N T T RR RR cc MM N M M N T T RR RR cc cc MM N N N T T RR RR Tcccr.cr.ccccc" ~'M'M ' _ M M T^ — RR " R R ~ " ~ . C C C C C C C C C C NM N T T RR RR U S E R " P B A G " SIGNED O N AT 2 2 : 0 2 : I B ON M O N A P R 0 2 / 7 3 ML I ST 0UE5.S "~~ 1 S U B R O U T I N E M A I N 2 C o^jt ;"i >! >; if A if ir ?f I'f if -|c if it A if if if if if if if if if if if if Jjt if i,; if if if if if if if 1 C *~OPv I V T W i P^ TJ'rjT{7\"H~CrF QOE3~-GT£N'FTA7ATTJP * 4 C * X> * * * $ s; if if if if if if if. t'fifi, • ifif i, if if if if if i: * if if if if if if if if if if if if if 5 CfJM'-in NJ / M i l l / R ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , P ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , W ( 1 C 0 ,6) , H ^ P ( l r 0 > ^  1 g o ? 6 1 ,c( ion, 6) 7 .. D I M E N S I O N I P T ( l l O ) R L O G I C A L - 1 R , » , W , C , M , C , I P T " 9 r A r A IP T 7 l l T * ' V / 1 0 C O M M O N ' U l ' U / N R , N P , N W , N E , N M , N C 11 R E A O ( 5 , 1 ) N R , M P , N W , M E , N M , N C j 2 c — — R p - A n T - N G — I N | ~ - ...... 13 C * M P = N O . O F P E P S O M M E L L TYPE ' 14 C * NW = N O . O F T A S K S 13 z ^ T r ^ l ^ 0 T r j F ^ 0 i J l T J ^ T f 3 J T 3 \h C * N M = N O C F R P O O I J C T S ] 7 C * N C = N O , O F C U S T O M E R S 19 1 FORMAT (6<2X, I 4 M 20 MAX= NR 7 1 C ~ " " " * " F I N: > I r (i 1 1 1 ' M A X HI" A l l . NU M\\ P R S 7 7 [ f : ( M ' . O r . MAX ) M A X - M P I F |\IW. G T . w AX ) N A X - N W 7 4 I i : ( N t : . G T . V A X ) M A X = N F 7 5 I F If"' M . G T . tv AX ) A X = f'J M 2 ^ l ^ C - l C . ( i T . M A X ) N A X = N C 2 7 0 0 1 0 I = 1 , M A X ? R R E A 0 ( 5 , 2 ) (R ( I , J ) , J = 1 » 6 ) , ! P < I , J ) , J = 1 1 6 ) , !W ( I , J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) 2 q 'I , ( E ( I » J ) , J = l , 6 ) , <M( I , J ) t J = l . 6 ) , ( C ! I , J ) , J = l , 6 ) HO 1 0 CO NT 1 N U F 3 1 C * R E AH I M G I N T H E N A M E S . 3 7 2 F H R M A T ( 6 ! 6 A 1 ) ) 3 1 ?('•) " F O R M A r ( ' """AMBR CV I AT I" " ( T N T "US 1.0 T N S i Mill A T I O N M O D E L S : • T 3 4 2 i . « l F O R M A T ( • T E A M 51 : - ' ) 3 5 , 2 0 2 F O R M A T ! ' M O . O F T F A M S = ' , 1 4 ) 3 6 " " 2 0 3 F O R M AT ( ' ' T E A M " , 1 2 , ' = ' , 6 A 1 ) """ 3 7 2 0 4 F O R M A T ( ' 0 ER S O N N E L L S : - • ) 3 8 2 0 5 F 0 R M A T { ' N O . OF P F R S C N N E L l . T Y P E S = ' t I 4 )  > 'i ~ 2 0 6 F : V ' A r ( ' l ' " ! ' ' •, I 2 , • = ' , 6 A 1 > 4 0 2 0 7 F O R M A T ( ' T A S K S : - • ) 4 1 .20 3 F O R M A T ( » N O . O F T A S K S = ' , 1 4 ) 4 2 2 1 . 9 " " F 1R '•' AT ( • M S < ' , I 2 , • = ' , 6 A 1 ) ~ ' " 4 3 2 1 0 F O R M A T ! ' E Q U I P M E N T S : - » » 4 ^ 2 1 1 F O R M A T ( • N O . O F C O . T Y P E S = ' , 1 4 )  "4l> 212 F i ) RH AT ( 1 i :Ef ; • , I 2 » ' ^ ' , 6 A IF 4 6 2 1 3 F O R M A T ! • P R O D U C T S : - • ) 4 7 2 1 4 F OR MA T ( ' T Y P E S O F P R O D U C T S = ' , 1 4 ) 4 R ~ 2 1 5 F O R MA T ( •" P P P • , [ 2 , ' = » , 6 A 1 ) " " " ~ 4 9 2 1 6 F O R M A T ( ' C U S T O M E R S : - • ) 5 0 2 1 7 F O R M A T ! • T Y P E S O F C U S T O M E R S 1 4 ) -51- 218 " T O R F A T T ^ r a r T T ^ , ' = S 6 A 1 ) 5 2 / W R I T E ( 6 , 2 < n ) 5 3 C * P R I N T O U T T H E A B B R E V I A T I O N S " 5 4 " ~ ' ~ 5 j R - I T C ( 6 " f 2 0 n " ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 5 W R I T E ( 6 , 2 ) 2 ) N R 5 5 0 0 2 0 I = 1 » N R 3 7 215 W~RTT"PT6 721T3 ) I » ( P ( I ? J ) , J = l »6> 5 3 WR I T E ! 6 , 2 C 4 ) 5 9 W R T T E ( 6 , 2 0 5 ) N P 7 , 0 D O V ) T - 1 7 M P 6 1 3 0 W R I T E ! 6 , 2 0 6 ) I , ( P < I , J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) 6 2 W R I T F ( 6 , 2 0 7 ) "TTJ w PTIT E f Trrzr 8~TNT<1 6 4 DO 4 0 I = l , N W 6 5 4 0 W R I T E ! 6 , 2 0 9 ) I , (w( I , J ) , J = l , 6 ) 6 6 I F ( M E . r 0 . 0 ) G (7 T O " " 1 U 0 0 ~ — C I W R I T F . 1 6 , 2 1 0 ) 6 B W R I T E ! 6 , 2 1 1 I N F ~u) ^ rr~5 n "~r ^ T , T J E 7 0 5 0 W R I T E ( 6 , 2 1 2 ) I , ( E ( I » J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) 7 1 1 0 0 0 I F ( N M . [ 0 . 0 ) G O T O 1 0 0 1 7 2 w"R~TTE"( 6 , 2 1 3 ) 7"-J W R I T E ( 6 , 2 1 4 ) K M 7 4 DO 6 0 I = 1 , N M -7"s sr. ^ r T T ^ " 6 7 7 r n T 7 r M T T . J I , J = I , 6 » 7 6 1 0 0 1 W R I T F ! 6 , 2 1 6 ) 7 7 W R I T E ( 6 , 2 1 7 ) N C 7 P . ~ ~ ~ 7 . ) 1 = 1 , N C 7 9 7 0 W R I T E ! 6 , 2 1 8 ) I , ( C ( I , J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) RO I F ( M E . E Q . O ) G O T O 7 1 C M . i. T C A L L 0> •)'« i n 1 = 1 , N P C A L L ) M ! ) ' - . _ DO 1 ] ) I - 1 , M R ) C A l . L 0 4 ( 1 ) C A| | 0 5 ; R E T U R N E N D S ' P W O U T I M E 0 1 ' " •fc # 3j- ; J c > ! c :|< # N ! « * ^ ^ :!< ; J ; )|s ; | c >!~ ;< >'* i j f # ^ : ^ ^ V r jje ^ ;*e # # i j c # ^ # # # ^ & # # j j t 3}c # * T H E F O L L O W I NO S U B R O U T I N E S W i l l . P R I N T ni.JT * * 0 ! <-.-:<>! K T Q U E S i t CNN; A"I P. P S . T H E Y " A P . E~ S F L " F - * * E X P L A N A T O R Y R Y L O O K I N G A T T H E F O R M A T S T M T S . * * * *** •'- i, * * * * * * * * * sV * * .'V * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C O M M f M / I . J T i L / R ( l O O , 6 ) , P ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , W ( 1 0 0 , 6 " ) , E ( If r . , 6 ) , M( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , C ( I C O , 6 ) D I M E N S I O N I P T ( l l O ) 1 . 0 ' - , I C A t . : 0 R , P , W , P , M , C , T P T / . , - ^ ' ( ) / / O A T A I P T / l l O * 1 . ' / ^ • P/iTA I H ' 3 ^ C O M M O N / U U I J / N R , N P , N W , N E , N w , N J C " W R I T E ( 6 , 1 ) "" • " " " F O R M A T ( ' 1 ' , 3 3 X , ' T A S K - E Q U I P M E N T - P R O D U C T Q U E S T I O N N A I R E ' ) C A L L P O I N T " 0 0 2 I J - 1 , 6 ~C~TA ty 4 R I T E ( 6 , ? ) ( E ! I , J ) , I = 1 , N E ) , < M ( I , J ) , I =1 , NM ) v [\\^ 3 ° \ F O R M A T ! H X » I O D A I ) fovii4 WL-^VvH^ <^A-l .L P O I N T - - " r — — 0 0 3 0 I = 1 , N W R I T E ( 6 , 3 ) I , ( W ! I , J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) , I P T £ 4 !.»-•'• r a i . ' - i x : — • C E N T I N U F / F O R M A T ( 1 2 , 1 X , 6 A 1 , 1 1 0 A l ) " " " R E T U R N " ' E N H _ . — s u P T O U T I N T O ? " ~ CD"MM D N T T J T T U T R { 1 ' ) ( ) , 6 T 1 M ( 1UU , 6 I , W I 1 00 ,6) , 4: E ( K 0 , 6 ) , M ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , C ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) DIMc.NSICM IPTU 1 0 ) L 0 GI C A L * 1 R , P , W , E , M , C , I P T " _ „ / , * / * f j A T A I P T ^ L I O * ' . ' / < I A T A TfTf *b * 1 ^ 7 COMMON / U I U / N R , N P , N W , N E , N M , N C W^TTE ( h , II F O R M A T ( ' 1 ' , 6 0 X , • T A S K C R D E R') CALL P 0 1 MT DO 2 0 J = l . , 6 WRITE! 6 , 2 )(W( I » J ) » I = 1 » NW ) r n k ! A ^ ^ ^ F O R M A T ! 1 1 X , 1 0 0 A 1 )• - > v 0 ^ ^C -A+ .L—P^TAUT--D O 3 0 1 = 1 , NW • \i W R I T E ! 6 , 3 ) I , ( W( I , J ) , J = l , 6 ) j , I P T _ „ ^ ^ " v r . A i - L - : - p n - i N T - " • ' " " " " . V f A i v - f ' " * > ' C O N T I N U E ^ M F O R M A T ! 1 2 , I X , 6 A 1 , 1 1 C A D " ' RFTi"rPTr E N D S U B R O U T I N E Q 3 ( N ) C O M M O N / U T I 1 7 R " ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , P ! T W , 6 ) , W ( I 0 0 , 6 ) V E ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , V ! 1 0 0 , 6 ) , C ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) D I M E N S I O N I P T ( l l O ) 1 4 5 1 4 6 i u 1 4 ? vt\W I n T / U )* '. v l'> 3 C O M M O N / l j l i . j / N R • NI-» T N W , N C , N M , N C 1 4 ^ w r m F ( f 1 > ' ' " - O R M AT { • 1 • , 4 0 X , • P E R Sf N N F l . L f. T A S K S ' ) -1 R I T F ( A , ?_ ) ( p {H, J ) , J = 1 , 6 ) 1 4 7 2 F n R M A T ( i' N A M E ": ' , 1 X , 6 A 1 ) 1 4 0 C A L L P H I N T . •-i f W 1 5 0 " 3 " " " ' F O R M AT ( 1 0 X , ' T 2 3 4 5 ' K " " ~~ ^ " \ v ' 1 5 1 |)0 1') K = l , Nw t ' 1 5 2 W R I T F ( 6 , 4 ) K _ , (W ( K , J ) , J = l , 6 ) , I P T , ' \ 1 5 3' " v C A L L " H I N T -1 5 ' f 1 0 C O N T I N U E , r \ f 1 5 5 F O R M A T ( 1 2 , 1 X , 6 A 1 , 1 1 0 A 1 H " 1 0 ' ' 1 5 6 R E T U R N -1 5 1 E N 0 . 1 5 B " S U R R 01] f T?] n 1 5 9 C 0 MM ON / i) TTI /' R ( 1 0 ) , 6 ) , P ( 1 00 , 6 ) , W ( 1 W , 6 ) , 1 6 0 H F ( II 0 , 6 ) , VI 1 0 0 , 6 ) , C ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) 161 O I M P N S I O N I P T ( 1 1(- ) j W \ ' / 1 6 3 V T A T A I P T / 1 1 0 * ' . 1 6 4 C O M M O N / U t U / N R , N P , N W , N E , N M , N C 1 6 5 : ' W R I T F ( 6 , 1 ) 1 6 6 ,1 F O R M A T ( • 1 • , 6 0 X , ' C U S T O M E R S I N F O R M A T I O N ' ) 1 6 7 C A L L P O I N T 1 6 9 10 / W R I T E ( 6 , 2 ) ( W( I , J ) , 1 = 1 , N W ) ^ C^fi & l B ' J 1 7 0 2 \ / r O P M AT ( 2 1 X , 1 3 0 A 1 )4-— — '"M ^ ' f 1 7 2 3 \f 0 RM AT ( 1 0 X , ' 1 23 4 5 ' , ' S ' , ' — %—• J 0 O A 1 H — ' Y X 1 7 3 0 0 2 0 1 = 1 , N C 1 7 4 " WP T T F ( 6 , 4 ) I , ( C ( I , .1) , J = 1 , 6 ) , I P T y 1 7 5 C A L L P O I N T . / ^  I , ; *»iMy 1 A 1 7 6 20 C C N T I N U F t ^ p j M ' f <• "TT7 5 ~ ~ ^ n T H 7 r r n ~ 2 , i x , 6 7 r r , i i U A i ) 4--1 7 8 ' R E T U R N 1 7 9 E N O " 1 R 0 ~ ~ ° S U B R O U T I N E 0 4 : (M ) " " ~ 1 R 1 C O M M O N / U T I L / R ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , P ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , W ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , 1 R ? « E ( U 0 , 6 ) , w ( 1 1 0 , 6 ) , C ( 1 0 0 , 6 ) , " T « 3 3 T ' ^ N r 5 I C ' I I P T ( V . P ) , g> -¥-~C~ " 1 R 4 L O G I C A L * ! R , P , W , E , M , C , I P T . f ^ T-U / ^ 1 8 5 V)ATA T P T / 1 1 0 * ' . ' / A "—" " 1 8 6 ' — C " " ' M O ' ] / I ' l U / N R , ' N P , NW , N E , N M , N C ~ 1 8 7 W R I T E ! 6 , 1 ) 1 B R 1 F O R M A T ( ' 1 • , 5 0 X , ' T E A M S T R U C T U R E ' ) T H 9 S T R 1 T E ( 6 , 2 )TPT(TT7T1T7=T75_J rPr7T 1 0 0 2 F O R M A T ( ' N A M E : ' , 1 X , 6 A 1 ) ^.\0 ^  1.9 1 C A L L P O I N T . . . r r , -1Q2 W R I T ^ ( 6 , 3 ) 1 9 3 1 9 4 3 ^ . i n R l 0 T { : ^ « | P N N " P « - L - N O - Y / N . , 10X , • AVA IL ABLF HOURS', 1 ^ " ^TTTrnr^TTTTT-iJr -r—n—T-_ , 1 9 6 . C A L L P O I N T -J^ I- IP _ C O N F r N U F . , - , , 1 x 1 ^ ^ ^ FORMAT TT 2 , l X , 6 A r , 1 1 0 A n - ^ ' ' - -I™ IF( NE .E0 .0 )G0T0 1000 2 0 0 r- WRI/TE(6,5) %[, Mfl S I I J K V^> i . ' . , 1 - . 1 , ^ + ••: >:- * * * * * « * •* * >:• 5; * >:• * y -'• >•• * * >:• * * -jt > * M A S T E R 0 )1 S I H f i ' l A I T * * * :| * y,^  * >; y,: y y: t^;!f y- y y,: y,t y .'jt y y- y-y yr * .v yr ^y-. .;e y,e E N T E R T E E N O . HI-" E A C M T Y ^ E B E L O W : T E A M j I » F R S | T A S K S I E . " I I P | P R O T S | C U S T n | . . . J I . . . I I . . . . II . . . A I. . . . . I F N T ^ P T L F 1 R N A M E S : t C H I J T • 1 2 * S I v|K*^ -cc I I I I I I S U R G R Y A I O E S I N J E C T X - R A Y P A R F R P A T . 0 1 MF 0 C N F n n F . P I Y I A K FT P H I F R MOP F N C I L P A T . 0 2 G Y N A C O s T N I J P T C I T W G T T H U r^TiTJTD^TToT" P A F D I F J A N I T R W A S HN G 0 R - 3 E 0 F I L M P A T . 0 ' t E . N . T . R G N Q R S T P A V F L T F L E p N R R O D . 2 R A T . 0 5 R A O f O L G . P . F O R .G"n"STF f O S ~P5T7f)6~ E M F R G C S P . S U R F O R . S R E ' ) . 0 0 6 OR S T L T S P . M F O F O R . M Q E Q . 0 0 7 ; A O M I N S S P . P A E F O R . P A E Q . 0 0 8 1R Q U F S . O 5 = 1 2 E X F C U T I O N B E G I N S ' A I V U ^ V I AT I C N S U >L 0 I N S I M U L A T I O N MOD F L 5 T f A " S : -N 0 „1) F T E A M S = 9 T F A M 1 = .SUKGRY TF AM 2 = M E O C N F J E AM 3 - G Y N A C O TEA'. 4 = P A E )[E T F A M <> = E . N . T . T F A M 6 = R A D I O L T E A M 7 V ' E M F P G C TP AM H = O P S T E T TEAM o = A D M I N S P E R S O N N E L L S NO. OF P E R S O N N E L ! T Y P E S = 9< pop l = A I D E S PPP ? - O D E R L Y ppp 7 = S T M U R S 1 P P P = J AN I TR  ppo 5 = R G N U R S PPP 6 - G.P. P P P 7 = S P . S U R PPP R 5P. MED PPP 9 = S P . P A E T A S K S :-NO. O F T A S K S = 9 T A S K 1 = I N J E C T T A S K ? _ = _ T A K E T P T A S K 3 = C L E A N G T A S K 4 = K A S H N G _T A S K 5 = T R A V E L  T A S K 6 = F O R . G P T A S K 7 = F O R . S R T A S K fl = F O R . M D " T A S K 9"'=' E O P . P A E Q U I P M E N T S :-NO.QP F Q . T Y P E S = 9 E E E 1 = X - R A Y E E E 2 = T H E R M O _ E F P ? _ = _ A M R H L A E E E 4 = O P - R E D E P F 5 = T E L E P N F E E 6 = S T E T O S  F E E 7 = E Q . 0 0 6 F P F P = E 0 . C 0 7 _T-EE 9 = E Q . 0 C 8 P R O D U C T S T Y P E S OF P P O D U C T S = 5 PPP 1 = P A P E R  PPP 2 = P E N C I L PPP 3 = P P 0 D . 1 _ppp 4 = F I L M PPP 5 = PR0072 C U S T O M E R S •-T Y P E S O F C U S T O M E R S = 6 CCC 1 = P A T . 0 1 CCC ? = P A T . 0 2 JOCC 3 = PATVjO3 CCC 4 = D A T . 0 4 CCC 5 = PAT.05 CCC 6 = PAT.06 T ADT SE E S P P P E P . X H M R E T C P O A E R IR - E R - L E . . . P N G I 0 RR 1.1 B E T E O ' U C O ' 1 0 jf.' ~ AMLEPn'w.JQR » . ~ l~< YOADNS6 7S L I I • . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . ! . . . . : . . . . : . . . » : « . . . : . . . . : 1 I N J E C 1$. .'. . . ...'.V. . . . .... . . 7.7. . . . . .......... . . . .. . ......... 2 T AK r j o . . . . , - . _ . . . 3 C L E A N G . « i • 4 wAs 1 I M G . . . . . . " y . y 7 . T . v . ~ . T . T ^ . . . . . . .7..7.7 '3 T R A V E L »  6 F O R . G P . . . . . - . . - . - . • • - - - • • • • - • - • • * • - • • • • • • • • • • • • 7 F O R . S R ' . J . . . » : • • • • : •••• : * ••• : • • • • : : : * " ' * * * B F D R . MO • ...:....:..««:...«:*. ••:••»••»• !••••••••••••••••••••••••* 9 F O R . P A . . . . / T T C W T F F F F • N A L A P norm J K F . S A R R R * F F A H V . . . . C T N N F G S M " T P G G I . P R C A • • • • • • • • • • * i ' I N J E C T . . . . . . . . T . T . ,V~.V.V.V.~V.'...".'. . Y . . V .7 . . " . ---------7 T A K F T P . . . . . . .j^ I>FMS( N N F I . l f. T A S K S N A M F : A I D E S I I N . I F T T . • • * 1 2 3 4 5 • • < • • • • 3 C1 E A NG • • * . . : . . • • • • . . . : * . • • • • • • • • . ; ~ - ; . • • • • • * • * • • • • • • • • • 6 F D R . G P • * • * « • « • • • • • • 7 F n i < . SR • • * • • • * • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • / / P F R S C N M F I . I, f. T A S K A M F : u n h ' R L Y 1 2 3 4 5 I N J L ' C T T AK F T P , • • * • * • < A N G . • • * • « • < WAS U N G , • • • • • • TK A V F T . • • • • e q F O R . G P • • * • • • F O R . S R • • • ... FOR . MF) • 1 • • • • 1 • F O P . P A I • • • ... .._ — - PERSPNNFLL f. TASKS 7£ A ME : STNIIRS ? FOR .PA Lt-Z^Jz^llJL^JLJLl^ —;—-—-—. ; ; — • . . " . . . . r.T.-n—.7T7TTTTr.T;-T.. : •••••• •; • * * * PERSONNEL! & TASKS NAME : JANITR * * * * * * * * * • • • 1P345 1 INJECT 2 T AK E TP • . . . . • • • • • • 3 C L E A N G . . . . . . . . . • ••JL!-±±1J!L1-1JL1J!-!JL • • • • • • 4 WAS HNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....: : : : . .. . • ''''''^////////////.'.'.'/.V. 5 TRAVEL t..... 6 P Q k . G P ± ± 1 J > J Z J L ; ^ ^ ^ • • • • • ^ ^ "."."V. :7.7. :T.~.Ti":r.Tl .T.".T.T. . . . . : '-....'> ' • • • • :  7 FOR.SR . . . . : : ; ; : : : R -FOR .MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : :  9 FOP.PA .^•••_2J!-?_? •. »J JL-JLSAi.: A^^A^A*..* * , — — ^ ^ # * » * ( P P R S T T N N F L L "f." T A S K S ~ 7 5 _ N A M F : RGNURS • • ; IZ 3 o 1 T N. J HI' T 2~T AKTTP . 7 7 7 . 7 7 7 . 7 7 7 7 . . . .77777 * • • • • • • • • * • • • 4 WASHNG. • . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . ^ : • —~~~ • 5 TRAVEL . . . . . : . • • • • • • ft FOP -GP._..j^...v.r^ . . . . : . 7 7 . " : : : ••••: ••••: . . . . . . . 7 FOR.SR ! - - - - ! - " - ! - - - - !  8 Fn p .MO . . . . . . . . . . ^ . • • • • • • _ _ 9 F O P . P A. . . . . . . » « JM « ! J L ^ * J L 1 4 - r i ^ 4 ^ ^ - t • • • * • • • • • • — ~ PERSPNNELL G TASKS NAME : G .P . 12345 1 INJECT • • • • • • • * «:*..*:< • • • : '* r| • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * . * * * * * • * • *  ? T A K F T P . . . . . ° 3 CLE ANG • 4 WAS HNG 5 TRAVEL. . . . • 6 F OF . G P j__.^JL»JLiA..rJlA-TJLLlJiJLi.!L?.lJiJL • • • • • • • 7 FOR. SR. . . . . . . . . ° 8 FOR. MO 9* FOR . PA. . VrJLV^-^JL^!L^^ 'V7T. : T T 7 7 : . 7 : . . . . ^ . J •••• : •••• : • • • • : « • • • : • • • • : P P « S ( M N E I L " f. T A S K S 8 X 3 NAME : SP.SUP ) 2 3 "t 5 1 P l J f C T . . . . . * * ! I ? • ? • • t i "? T \ v P T P T . . . .777 .77777.7. .77.7... .777777777. .777 77777 . . . , : , . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . .> . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . 5 . 3 CI.f. A N G . 7.7 7: 7 . . . : 7 . . . . . :. 7.. :777. : • 7 . . :. . .7:7. 7. : . . 7. :. 7.. :.7 4 W A S I I M G . « ....:....:....:....:....:•.•.:....:....:.... :.... :....:....:•••.:••••:.. 5~TR " A VUT. 7777 .77777 777777 7 . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . 7 . . : . . . . : . . . . : . • • • : . . . . : • • • • : • < . . : . . 6 FOR . Gf . . • . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . : . . . . :7.7.: .77.: . 77.: .7 . . : .7..: 7 7..: .77.:..77*7. •.:7. .7:.7 .7:77 7 F O R . S R . . . . : . . . . :••••: . . . . : . .••: . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : .•••: . . . . : .•••: .•••:••••:«• 8 F O R . MO ....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:.. 9 F O R . P A ^ . . . . . .j. • » j _ •_• • • P E R S O N N E L L & T A S K S N A M E : S P . M E D 12 345 • • : • . . . *• . . . : . . • • : • • . . : . . • A M P : S P . P A F 1 2 3 4 5 I N J F C T • # t « e • • • < ! « • • • • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . : . • > . . : • • • • : • 0 • • • O • • • • I S * * * * * * * * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • T A K F T P • • • • • • • • • • « « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * * * > : • • • • • • • • • • • • • * * n . r A N G e • * • • « • • « 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • * • • • W A S U N G • « • • * • D « « • • • • • • • • • « « o • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • « • * • * * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ! ( i « • ' • • • * * • • * • • • • • • • e • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • T R A V E L . • o • e * • • • • • • * • • • • « • • « >••••••• • • • * • « • • • • • • • : • • * « : • • • <i : • 0 • * • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • F f H ' . G ° . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • t > • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * o • • • • ••••< m • » • • • • « • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • F OR , S R • • • • o • • • • « « « > • • • • • * • * < • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • < i * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • « • • • • • • • ! « • • • * • • • • • • • « ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • F I R • M O • f> • C • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • # > • • • • < . • • • • * * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • r r i R • P A * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ^ • • • • ^ • • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • • • / / ' " " " T f AM S T R U C T U R E ME : S U R G R Y R S O N N E L L - M n - Y / i M A V A I L A B L E H O U R S [JJ t . ) . C i . n i M R L Y . . • • • • ...:.. * • • • • • • • • • S P . S U R . • S P . M E D S P . P AE. U I P M E N T S O W N E D : - N O - , S ? X - R A Y L . . . .JC'JL THE P M O . , • 4 • • • • • — • ~ - . , - — • , • « • • • * • * • . : . • . • * • • t • E Q . (oa •DUCTS S U P P L I E D : U N I T " P A P E R P E M C I L P R O D - 1 F I L M P R O D . 2 T F A M S T R U C T U R E N A M E : G Y N A G O P E P S O N N E L L - N O - Y / M A V A I L A B L E U O I J P S ... .' *.. • • * _ * * a • a • • a • • • • • * 9 • • « • • 3 S T N U R S . • • • • O * • * i e • •«•«••««••••••••••->«••«• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4 J A N I T R . • • • • • * • • • • • • • * ••• • *••••••••« • • • • • B * * « * « « :. • • • • • • • • • a a a a • • * • • • • • a • 1 a » a • • • « • • • • • • 7 S P . S U R . « • • • • • : . V . . : . . . . * • • : . . . . : . . . . * . . . . ' . . . . * . . . . : . . • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • * . . • , • • • • • • E Q U I P M E N T S O W N E D : • • a a 1 X - R A Y . - i MO - , s? a « • ' • • • • « • • • • • • > T H E R M O f. • • • L_ 1 > 1 » ' • • * • • • * • • • • • • a • a • a a * • • * * • • a « a 4 • • • • • 5 T F l E P N _ . . . , • • • * • * • • • a • • • • * • • a a a a • * * * • * • • • • • • ' # • a . • a • • 8 F O . ( VI • • • • « • a * • • * • • • • • • a a • • * • • • a a • • P R O D U C T S S U P P L I E D : • « • • • • • • • a • • * 1 1 P A P F R U N I T • a a • a • a . a • a • • _ # a a a a « a • • • * • • * • • a a a a a » * a . I a. a, m. • • • • • • • * • « • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • * * • • • • • • 7 • t . a s — " ' ' " Tt-AM"STP.UCTUPE M»- ; PAFDIF • R s , 1 N f IF | i - N i l - Y 'H'f'i A V A T L A <H. F U H U P S » . : . . . «• • • ••••• • • • • • • ••• ..:«•••:••••:••••*•••••••••• •••• •• • • • • ••••»«*»••••• ••••• •••• • : • • •:••• • : • • • • • • • • • • • * • * * * * * I U I P M F N T S O W M F O : - N 0 - , S 2 > . . . . WDIJCTS SUPPLIED: i IN I r „, . _ ... . •— ; ± « • • • * FILM PRUD .2 ' " " " T E A M S T R U C T U R E j '•'E : R A D I O L ..:....:....:.,..:....:«...:....:....:«...:....:....:....:....:....:....:....; i 51 M' ME L L - N O - Y /N A V A I L A •>LP H O U R S A \ D E S . . . . . . . . . . e . . i . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . • • • ! 00PR I Y , 777 . .. . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : - . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . .•: .••.: . . . . : .•••:.•••:••••:•••• S T N U ° S . . . . . . . • • • « : . . _ . _ . _ . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V * . . : 7 7 . . : . . . . : . . . 7 : 7 7 . 7 : 7 . . . : . . . . : . .77 : . . . . : . . . . :" , .7 . : . 7 . . : . . . . " : . 7 .7" : . . . . : . . . . J A N I T R . e • . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . 7 . : . 7 . . : • • . . : . . • • : • • . • : • • • • : • • • • : • • • « : • • • • p GNITRS 7 , . 7 . 7 : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . P . P . . . _ . . . • • • T _ i » _ _ . . : . . . . : . 7 . . : 7. 77: • 7 . . : . 7 7 . : 7 . . 7 : . . 7 . : . 7 . 7 : 7 7 7 7 : . . 7 . : 7 . . 7 : . . 7 7 : 7. •. : . 7 . . : . . . 7 S D . S U R : . . . .•' . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : .*. . S^7M( n . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . : . « . . . : . . . . S P . P A fc ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , A . . . . J L V ' * ' •_• _ _ • • • ' • !!•_•_•_• . 7 : 7 . . . : 7 7 7 7 : 7 7 . 7 : 7 7 7 . : . . . . : . 77 • :7 . .7 : . . . . : . . . 7: 7.7 . : . 7. . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . U I P M E N T S O W N E D : _______ X - R A Y • • , • • • • • • • • • • * * * THE RM07 . 7 7 7 7 . 7 77-77777777777.7 77 ^ T r 7 7 7 7 ^TT77r7 ; T ; 7 T 7 r 7 r r r . " r ; A M R U L A . . . ^ % % ^ t _ ^ ~ - - - » • a * O R - B E D * ..:.-...:...*:....:....:*...:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:....:.... T E L E P N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 77 .7 •... .77777777777 • . : . . . . : . « • • : . . . . : . . . . S T F T O S * " * * * * * * A * * • * • • • • • * • E Q . 0 0 6 . ...:.. .€..:.. . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . .* : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . E Q .00 777777777. . . . . . .77777T7777777777 . . . . .7777777:777777777.... .777 • • • • • • • • ••• • #••* • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • EQ.( oa » • • • • • • • • • • • • ••• ••• • • • • • • • • • • •>••• ••• * • • • • • • • • • *• * • • • • • • • • • 1 0 0 U C T S S U P P L I E D : P A P E R P E N G I L :....:....:....:....:....:. ...:....:••..:....:....:....:....:. P R n f ) _ 1__ _• • • • »«»•« « , . 7 : 7 . 7 . :7 .77 : . . . . : . . . . : 7 7 7 7 1 7 7 . . : . . . . : . 777:77 . . . . . : . . . . :7 . . . :7 " . . . *• .77" F I I . H PROD.2 — ' ~ ~ ' T F A M S T R U C T U R E N A M F : F M F R C C • • • • * * * * * R E P S U M NE l l . . - N ' ~ ) - Y / N . A V A I L A B L E H O U R S 3 S T N U R S « . . . • •••••••• :••••••••• • • E O U I P M F N T S D W N E 1 ' . . : . . . » : . » _ - N O - , S ? 1 X - R A Y r . . . . . . . : . . . . : • • • • : • • 2 T U f - R M O 7 . . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : • • 3 A MB UL A A F I R - R E D . ••••*•••< ~5 TEI E P N , 6 S T E T O S , •J f • • * IT • • • 9 P R O D U C T S S U P P L I E D : U N I T 1 P A P F R 2 P E N C I L 3 P R O D . l 4 F I L M 5 P R O D . 2 T F A M S T R U C T I I P E N A M E : O R S T F T PFPSUMNFill . -NO-Y/N A V M L A B L r H O U R S 1 M I P S • • ? not P L Y , 3 S T N U R S . • • • • • • mm* '\ J A M I T R , 5 ROM I IRS , t • •••••••< ft r,. P . , 7 S P . S t J R . R S P . M L D • • • 9 S P . P A F . . . . . . . . . • • • F O U I P M F M T S O W N E D : - N O - , S ? 1 X - R A Y . . » 2 T H E R M O , 3 A MP HI. A , 4 O R - R E D . • • • • • • n e t 5 T E L E P N , 6 S T E T O S , 7 EQ.C06, 8 F O . l 0 7 , 9 E Q . ( 0 8 , P R O D U C T S S U P P L I E D U N I T 1 P A P E R , 2 P E N C I L . 3 P R O O . l 4 FILM 5 P R O D . 2 , T F A M S T P U C T U R E N A M E : A D M I N S • • • • • P E P S O N N E LL-MI..1 -Y/N A V A I L A B L E H O U R S L • * • . . : . . - # . /. • • . : . . . 5 • 7 t • Q • • Q • E Q U I P M E N T S O W N E D : i - N O - , S ? l 3 • • • • • • • • \> 6. • • * • • 7 * • • • • • « • • • • • • • # # • 9 P R O D U C T S S U P P L I E D : • • • • • _ -UN I T 1 • * • • • 2 • • • • • • • • • • • 5 • • • • • / ITCW7T F F F (ixjai. A icnrr L l K E S A R P R R IcTMNFGSMP 12345S —X—^rPGGl. PRC A • ••"*:• • . . : * • • * ' • • : ••• • • • • • 0 • • • • • • o e • • • • • o • « • • * • • • • • • • • • • • 9 • • • • • • • • • • • • * • * * « t * • • * 4 P A T ,0^. ,...«.»•••«« ' • • • • • « * • . • • • • • • • • • • • • * * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * * • • • • • • • EXECUTION TERMINATED $SIG $ . i I i i I U S E R "RPAG"_ S I G N E D ON AT 1 3 : 4 5 : 3 4 ON S A T MAR 3 1 / 7 3 * L D A T A ~ * " ~ 1 2 2 2' 2 2 2 V 2 " R I L L 1 S T E L L E R W I T H D W F I L E S P F.NC I L G E N R A L ( {HrlCT ' "3 T6M VS"~CTTRK~ D _PS~ l "T " t " _ L P H N F A P E R 'S"P E N D O F F I L E *R ' QUE S.O 5 = C A T A • . . K 1 . F X F X 0't I O N PEG I N S A R R R E V I A T I O N S U S E D I N S I M U L A T I O N M O D E L S : T E A M S :- A _ • NO.OF T E A M S "= 2 " " " ~ >"~ 7" T E A M 1 = R I L L ' S y/Ar T E A M 2 - T C M ' S , • ' ' P E R T H N N F C T ' S :-NO. O F P E R S O N N E L L T Y P E S 2 ' 1 P P P 1 =. T E L L E R • | . ; '.' ' P P P 2 = C L E R K ! T A S K S :-NO. OF T A S K S = 2 ,  T A S K 1 = WITHDW . T A S K 2 = D E P S I T E Q U I P M E N T S :- , N O . O F E Q . T Y P E S = 2 E E E 1 = F I L E S F F F 2 = T E L P H N  P R O D U C T S :-T Y P E S OF P R O D U C T S = 2 P P P 1 = P E N C I L P P P ? ' =" " P A P E R C U S T O M E R S :-T Y P E S O F C U S T O M E R S = 2 C C C 1 = G E N R A L C C C 2 = . S P T ASK -EQU I'RMtN I-I'KMtJUO I u u c s i IUI'IINH FTPP I F C A LLNP _ EPCE ; ~ S H IR ' " NL W ITHHW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . PEPS IT -TASK ORDER WD IE TP DI WT • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • * • • AME : TELLER PERSONNELL E, TASKS • • • * • 12345 • • 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • ' * • " " " * - •* - „ • JAME : CLERK PERSONNELL & TASKS 12345 L WITHDW > OEPSIT TEAM S T H U L I U K i r AMP : B I L L ' S ER SONNE LL-NO-Y/N TELLER ... ... c L E R k " T . . . . . . . 7 T . T . T 7 7 . Y A V A I L A B L E HOURS QUIPMENTS OWNED: -MO-,S? • ••••••• • • • • • • • F I L F S TEL P HN • * • RODUC TS SUP PL I ED * • • UNIT PENC I L , PAPER ........... ..... AME : TOM'S TEAM STRUCTURE ER SONNE LL-NO-Y/N T E L L E R . , CLERK ......... • • • OU IP ME NTS OWNED: • • • -NO-.S? A V A I L A B L E HOURS F I L E S TELPHN, RODUCTS SUPPLIED:' " " UNI T PENC IL PAPER CUSTOMERS INFORMA1 WD IE TP DI TT'ST-WT GFNRAL SP XECUTION TERMINATED APPENDIX 3 the statement l i s t examples of the input-output of sta^e I I 1 M M M ? ? ST O P AGI - ? . 2 E E E ? ? ST OR A G E ? 3 P P P ? ? S T O R A G E ? 4 4 . 1 4 . 2 < E X P O F ' I M C T I O N R N 1 , C 2 4 0 , 0 / . l / . l 0 4 / . 2 , . 2 2 2 / . 3 , . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 3 4 , l . P 3 / . R 3 , ? . 1 2 / . 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 8 1 / . 9 5 , 2 . 2 / . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 4 . 3 . 9 7 , 3. 5 / . 9 P , 3 . 9 / . 9 9 , 4 . 6 / . 9 9 5 , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 . 2 / . 99 9, 7 / . 9 9 9 8 ,8 6 G E N E R A T E . ?,?,,,t ?PH • 7 AS S I G N ? , ? , P H R T R A N S F E R , MON I 1 9 9 . 1 M O N I A S S I G N T E S T E 1 + , 1 P * 1 , 0 , G O 9 . 2 T E S T E P I , ? , E X I T 9 . 3 T R A N S F E R , M C N I 1 0 GO TR A N S F E R , TE A M 1 1 I GO T E S T E P 1 , 2 , N E X T 1 • 1 1 . 1 T R A N S F E R , T E A M 1 1 2 N E X T ? T E S T E' P I , ? , N E X T ? 1 2 . 1 . . 1 3 ' N E X T ? T R A N S F E R T E S T E . , T E A M ? . P I , ? , E X I T 1 3 . 1 T R A N S F E R , T E A M ? 2"n. T F A M ? " " A S S I GN ? + a 2 0 . 1 A S S I G N ?,? 2 0 . 1 5 A S S I G N ?+, ? 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 3 ' / 1 i i T E S T E T E S T E r > * ? , 0 , E X E ? P ? , ? , M O N I ' - • ;. • 2 0 . . 4 1 T R A N S F E R , T E A M ? . . 3 0 I E X E ? " T F S 1 E P?,?"i"MONI • 3 0 . 1 4 0 - E X E ? T R A N S F E R T E S T E . , D 0 0 ? 1 P ? , ? , O F F ? ? 4 0 . 1 5 0 OFF?? T R A N S F E R T E S T E , D ' J ' J ? ? P ? , ? , O F F ? ? 5 0 . 1 TR A N S F E R , C 0 0 ? ? 6 0 OFF?? T E S I t P'7, ? , MfJNl : 6 0 . 1 T R A N S F E R , 0 0 0 ? ? • 7 0 DOO?? Q U E U E Q C M ? ? ' E N 1 h R 7 0 . 1 5 OE P A R T O C M ? ? • , " 7 0 . 2 A D V A N C E ? , F N ? • 7 0 . 3 L F A V E •— V M M ? ? 7 0 . 4 T R A N S F E R , T E A M ? 2 C O G E N E R A T E ? 2 0 1 G E N E R A T E ?,? 2 C 2 G E N E R A T E ?•?,? v 2 0 3 G E N E R A T E ?,?,?,? 2 0 4 " " i l E N F R A T E 7 , V , 7 , V , Y 2 0 5 G E N E R A T E ?,?,?,?,?,? 1 - . •, -2 0 6 G E N E R A T E ?,?,?t ?,?,?,? 1 5 0 0 A D V A N C E V ' - ' ' ••.' 5 0 1 A D V A N C E ?,? .'• ' 1, -'.' V •""'7 5 5 0 A L T E R ?,?,?,?,?,?•? '•i'l'.-'' .... •~l.(A) A S S E M B L E ? 5 7 0 A S S I G N ?»? • >''" 5 7 1 AS S I GN ?'*,? 5 7 2 AS S I G N - ?-»? 6 0 0 B U F F E R 6 2 0 C H A N G E ?,? 6 6 0 D E P A R T ?,? 6 7 0 E N T E R ? 6 7 1 E N T E R ?»? 1 • 2 TE S1 GF ? , ? , ? 1 'j'1? F E S T ir ?,?, ? 1'"'^  TEST G ?,?,? 1505 TEST L ?,?,? 1^50 TRACE 1555 O M TRACE  166U ? FlJNCT 10 N TT? 1660.1 ? 166 0.2 ?  1660V3 ? ~ ~ W O F F I L E 2 3 : 4 9 : 5 6 O N T U E A P R 0 3 / 7 3 U S E R " T E L E " S I G N E 1 ) O N A T "t'R"""0"PTI TST .TA 'TA 6 = * S ' O T K * E X E C U T I O N B E G I N S MMMin S T O R A G E 3 F M T T ? I S T O R A G E E X P O F U N C T I O N R N 1 , C 2 4 ~ ~ , C / . l / . nV4~77 2t. 2 2 2 / . 3 7 T 3 3 3 7 . 4 , , 5 0 9 V " . b , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 T 5 7 . M.2T7 7b. 1 . 3 - 8 . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . 3 8 , 2 . 1 2 / . 1 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . B l / . 9 5 , 2 . 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 K 9 7 , 3 . 5 / . 9 8 , 3 . 9 / . 9 9 , 4 . 6 / . 9 9 5 , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 . 2 / . 9 9 9 , 7 / . 9 9 9 8 , 8  GFNfcPATE 9 . , 2 , , , , 1 4 P H " : ~ ~ ~ • A S S I O N 1 , 0 , P H A S S I G N 2 , 4 , P H _ A S S I G N — 3 T 7 T P T T A S S I G N A S S I G N " A S S I G N " / ' A S S I G N A S S I G N T R A N S F E R G E N E R A T E 4 , 0 , P H 5 , 0 , P H ' 6 , 0 , P H 7 , 0 , P H 3 , 0 , ° H , MO N I 4 . 1 5 , 5 , , ttl.^PH <••:'.r>;,?j micron .M-.- ,K 0 3\ V. ,/;iAi:t' 2 1 LA 1 . I: C U / . ^ U Y > 7 ^ , ( , ; . >,x:<,>x^..xx,x; < i , ^ , , ^ > > . > « > > > > : > x > •.-•>> 7 0 0 0 \T 1 I.S ?7? • - - 9 6 7 ' M G A T E L P ? , ? 702 G A T E N I ? , ? 7 0 3 • G A T E t ? , ? 7 0 4 G A F F N U ? , ? 7 0 5 G A T E U T i l ? 7 0 6 : G A T E FV T7? 7 0 7 . G \ T E F N V ' • ? » ? _7( 8 GA T E _ S F J ? t ? ;  ' 7'V>T G A T E ' S P " S ? , ? 71 0 G A T E S M E S ? , ? 71 J G A T E S N E S ? , ? V. f l 2 . • G A T E S V S ? » ? 7 1 3 G A T E S N V S ? , ? ' 7 7 0 G A T E M 7 , ? —m—: : GATF~K^ ?T? : — : ~ ~ 7 5 0 G A T H E R ? 7 7 7 H E L P A ? • ' _ _ , H E L P R '. ? : 7 7 9 H E L P C ? 8 0 0 I N D E X ? , ? _____ ; j y p g -777 • ; ; — :—: 9 0 0 A L T E R G ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? . 9 0 1 . A L T E R G E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? • 9 0 2 T~ A L T E R L V t ?, ? , ? , 7 , 7 , ? ! ~ 9 0 3 / A L T E R L E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? • , ? . 9 0 4 / A L T E R F ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? cjTj-i; - ' A T T E R NT£ 7 , ? , ?~, ? , 7 , 7 , V : ; ~ 9 0 6 / A L T E R M I N ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 9 1 7 A L T E R M A X ? » ? » ? , ? ' » ? » ? , ? • 1 0 0 0 > CTXTI r E R 'A 1 N A T F : : ! : ~ T 1 0 0 0 . 1 / G E N E R A T E 4 8 0 1 0 0 0 . 2/ . ' T E R M I N A T E 1 I'DT'n—1 rTfTTMI N A T E ? ~ ™ ~ ~ 1 0 1 1 . S T A R T ? 1 0 3 0 S ° L I T ? , ? , ? . ? , ? . ? • ?  DTTI S P H I 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 , V , 7 , ~~ 1 0 4 0 S E L E C T G ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1 0 4 1 S E L E C T G E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? ~UW2 : ' S E L E C T L ? , ? , 77T7TT? ~ 1 0 4 3 S E L E C T L E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1 0 4 4 S E L E C T E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1045 SELFCT N E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? : ~ ' :  1 0 4 6 S E L F C T U ? , ? , ? , . ? , ? , ? . ? 1 0 4 7 S E L E C T NU ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? ""IW : SELECT I -7,7, 77T7777T7 : ~ : 1 0 4 9 S E L E C T N I ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1 0 5 0 S E L F C T S E ? , ? » ? , ? 1 ? , ? , ? • • 1 0 5 1 : S t L E C I E M E ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? ! : 1 0 5 2 S E L E C T S F ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1 0 5 3 S E L E C T S N F ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? ~T71T5 : STTErrHLHR 7 T ? 7 T , 7,7, 7 H " 1 0 5 5 S E L E C T LS ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? 1 . 0 6 0 T A B U L A T E ? , ? IT0T5 : — T R A N S F E R T 7 : : ~ :  1 1 0 1 T R A N S F E R ? , ? 1 1 0 2 T R A N S F E R B O T H , ? , ? ______ TR^WF*"—ATU7T7? ~ ~~ ; 1 5 0 0 T E S T E ? , ? , ? 1 5 0 1 T E S T N E ? , ? , ? "*  AS S I G N 1 , 0 , 97 A S S I G N 2 , 4 , P H A S S I G N < 3 , 7 , P H A S S I G N 4 , 0 , P H A S S I G N 5 , 0 , PH. A S S I G N 6 , < > , P H A S S I G N 7 , 0 , PIT A S S I G N 8 , 0 , P H • 1 A S S I G N 9 , 0 , P H T R A N S F E R N I J N I A S S IGN I N 1 T E S T E p-n ,o ,Go T E S T E P I , 3 , E X I T T R A N S F E R , M O N I .1 T E S T E P L , 2 , N E X T 1 ——• ' T R A N S F E R " , T E A M1 I X T 1 T E S T E P I , 3 , E X I T T R A N S F E R , T E A M 2 . - A M I A S S I G N 4 + , 1 A S S I G N 1 1 , 4 A S S I G N 11*- , 4 T E S T T ~ " * 1 1 , 0 , F X E 1 * T E S T c P 4 , 2 , M 0 N I T R A N S F E R » TE AM 1 < E l T E S T E. < H , l , M O N I T R A N S F E R , 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 Q U E U E ' Q Q M 1 0 E N T E R 'MMM 1 0 D E P A R T Q Q M 1 0 A D V A N C E 4 , F N 1 L E A V E MMM 1 0 T R A N S F E R , TE A M l E A M 2 . A S S I G N 7 + , 1 A S S I G N 1 1 , I A S S I GN, 1 1 + , 7 T E S T E P * 1 1 , 0 , E X E 2 . T E S I t T t _ , f U N I T R A N S F E R , T E A M 2 X E 2 T E S T E P 7 , 2 , M C N I T R A N S F E R " , 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 2 Q U E U E Q Q M 2 1 E NT E R M MM 2 1 D E P A R T ' Q Q M 2 1 . , = A D V A N C E 3 , F N 6 [ , ' L E A V E M M M 2 1 . ' " T R A N S F E R ,TE A M 2 XI T T E R M I N A T E / • ; G E N E R A T E 4 3 0 T E R M I N A T E 1 X E C U T I Q N T E R M I N A T F O • ; , R O R J 5 = 0 A T A . 2 6=*SINK* X F . C U T ION BEGINS M M 1 2 S T O R A G E 1 M M 3 0 S T O R A G E 5 X P Q FuNCTION R N 1 . C 2 4 , 0 / . l / . 1 0 4 / . 2 , . 2 2 2 / . 3 , . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 2 / . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 1 . 6 / . 8 4, J . '1 3 f . >i J, £ ' , 3 . 6/ . 93, 3 . 9 / . 9 >, '+ 6 / . ° 9 5 , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 b 2 / . 9 9 9 , 7 / . 9 9 9 8 , 8 GENERATE 0 , 0 , , , , 1 8 P H ASSIGM L , 0 , R H ASSIGN ? , 5 , P H ASSIGN 3 , 3 , P H ASSIGN 4 , 1 1 , P H ASSIGN 5 ,0 , P H ASSIGN 6 , 9 , P H > ASSIGN 7 ,0 ,PH ASSIGN 8 , 0 , P H ASSIGN T , 0 , P H ASSIGM 10 ,0 ,PH ASSIGN H O , P H ASS ION 1 2 , 0 » P H ASSIGN I 3 , 0 , P H TRANSFER GFNFRATE , C N I 0 , 9 , , , , 1 8 P H ASSIGN ASSIGN ASSIGN NEXT1 "ASSIGN ASSIGN ASS If.N ASSIGN ASSIGM ASSIGN TT53TGT1 ASSIGN ASSIGN A S S1GN TRANSFER ASSIGN rEs i t TEST E TRANSFER TEST b TRANSFER TEST E "TTWJSFLR . 1 , 0 , P M 2 , 5 , ° H 3 , B , P H T a i , R H 5 , 0 , ° H 6 ,0 , P H 7 , 0 , P H 3,.0 , P H Q,0,P H TITOTPH-1 1 . 0 , P H 12,0 , P H U , 0 , P H NEXT2 TEAM1 T E S T T P A N ; ASSK E ,FER rN P I , 4 ,EXIT , if NI PI ,2 ,NbX TI , T E A M l PI ,3 ,NEXT2 , I b A M 2 P I , 4 , E X I T ,TE AM3 ASSIGN A S SIGN "TEST - E TEST E TRANSFER TF.S1' b + , ) 15 ,5 15+ , 5 W l 5 , 0 , b Xbl" P 5 , 2 , M G N I , T E A M 1 1 . M I 1 N I 0 0 0 1 1 TEAM2 TRANSFER1 QUEUE "TTNTFR DEPART ADVANCE I bAVb TRANSFER ASSIGN ""A l^TjT I^ ASSIGN TEST E ~P~5T ,00 011 O0M12 T w n — GQM1 2 3.FN6 MMH12 : — " ,TE AMI 8+, 1 ~T5775 _  15+,8 P*J. 5 , 0 , E XE 2 T E S T E P R , 2 , M C N I 9 9 T R A N S F E R , TE A w 2 <F2 T E S T E P 3 , l » O F F 2 1 - F 2 1 T R A N S F E R T E S T F T R A N S F E R tur.o P Q , U N D E F I N F O , 0 F F 2 2 , D ( ' 0 2 U N P E P I N E C ,, r F 2 - l T E S T F T R A N S F E R PR . U N D E F I N E D . M O M I , , D n C 1 2 U N D F F I K E D E A M 3 A S S T G N 1 1 + , 1 A S S I G N A S S I G N T E S T E 1 5 , 1 1 1 5+ , 1 1 P * 1 5 , 0 , E X E 3 T F S T E P 1 1 , 2 , MD N I T R A N S F E R , T E A M 3 . ' , X E 3 • T E S T E P l l , 1 , M O N I T R A N S F E R , DO 0 3 1 0 0 3 1 Q U E U E E N T E R OQM 3 0 M M M 3 0 D E P A R T Q Q M 3 0 A D V A N C E 4 , F N 1 L E A V E M M M 3 0 T R " A N S F T P f - , T E A W 3 X I T T E R M I N A T E G E N E R A T E 4 3 0 T E R M I N A T E 1 XECUTION TERMINATED ' ' / -. '. / S T G / 100 APPENDIX G l i s t i n g of the program generator .PPPB BBRBB RPBPBBBRBBB . AAAAAjAAAAA GGGGGGGGGG .BBBBBPBBBB PRBODBBBBBBB A A 0AAAAAAAAA GGGGGGGGGGGG p R . A A A A GG. GG • p, B A A AA GG  BB BB P.B BR B BB 3PBPBRBBB BBBBRPBBB B : B B BB BB BB PPBBBPBBBBB BBBBBPBBBB BB BB BPBPBBPBBB _B RB BP BBBBB RR ' " BB " P. B PB BB P B AA • AA GG A AAAAAAAAAAA GG A A AAA A AAAAAA GG "A A A A GG A A AA GG AA AA GG B.BBPBBBBBBB AA BBBPBBBBBBP AA GGGGG_ GG'GGG GG GG AA GGGGGGGGGGGG AA GGGGGGGGGG CCCCCCCCGC / N N CCCCCCCCCCC C CG C •' c : ; N N . C N N C N N N N N N N NN N N NN NN MN N N N N N N cc  NN NN NN MN NNNN NNN TTTTTTTTTTTT RRRRRRRRRRR NN TTTTTTTTTTTT NN T T NN TT CCCCCCCCCCC NN CCCCCCCCCC NN NN N TT TT TT TT TT TT TT TT RRRRRRRRRRRR RR RP RR RR RR RR RRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR USER "BBAG" SIGNED PN AT 2 1 : 3 1 : 1 5 ON MON APR 02/73 IL PPOGEN.S 1 2 .'C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 7 9 10 11_ 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C C c c c c c c * * THIS IS THE DRIVING PROGRAM * . . : _____ ~~_ ft OF TETAMS" NTEAM NPER NT ASK NEO NPR NCUS H. OF PERSONNEL!. TYPES # OF TASK TYPES H OF EQUIPMENT T Y P t -H OF PRODUCT TYPES H OF CUSTOMER TYPES * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * IMPLICIT INTEGER(A-T) COMMON /UTIL/NTEAM,NPER,NTASK,NEQ,NPR,NCUS, 1NU, I lR H ,ATR,TOTAL COMMCN /ARE/PET A (30 ,30 ) , T E T AJ3Qj_2 (OJ jTEPEl [3j0i3QU — — xTrMlT3"0YWr7TE E Q ( 30 , 30 ) , T E PR ( T 0 , 3 0 ) T # TAEQ(30 ,30) , TAPR(30 ,30) COMMON /ARB/CUTA(30 ,30) ,CUSD(30) ,XCUM(30) ,PA(200) , 21 22 « ttr1  C P A ( 3 0 , 2 0 0 ) , 0 I S ( 5 ) , K T R ( 3 0 ) , C O U N ( 3 0 ) , " TEMP(30 ,30) , T0 (50) , TT0<10) ,ATC (10) . 23 24 C c" * * READING IN NTEAM,NPER E T C . » F R O M PREVIOUSLY • 25 C * STORED I/O UNIT. 2 6 c * — 21 READ(2,1)NTEAM,NPER,NTASK,NEQ,NPR,NCUS 2 8 1 F 1RMAT(614) 29 ' f. ALL I NIT : i ! : — 30 31 . C C * ' RASIC INPUT 3? c * 33 CALL CONST , .•• / 34 3 5 C c * * CONSTRUCTION OF BASIC MATRICES 36 37 C * •  CALL C0N2 ' 1 38 c * 39 C * CONSTRUCTION OF SECONDARY MATRICES, I . E . , D E C ISIUN TABlfcb, 40 41 c CALL PARA '- ' 42 43 c C * FINDING -THE APPROPRIATE PARAMETERS 4 4 c 45 CALL ED TR ' 46 47 c c * ' • '•' '"• * EDITOR 4 8 49 c * •.' . ..• • RETURN 50 ENO 51 52 -f / c SUBROUTINE INIT * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 53 / c * * 5 4 - ^ c * INITIALIZATION * 55 •' 56 c c * * .. * * * * * * * * * ********** ******** * * * * * * * * * * * * * 57 58 IMPLICIT INTEGER { A -T ) COMMON /UTIL/NTEAM,NPER,NTASK,NEQ,NPR,NCUS, IND,TTR 59 ,ATR,TOTAL 60 61 # COMMON /ARE/PETA (30 ,30 ) ,TETA( 30 , 30) , l h P M 3 0 , 3 0 ) , XPTM(30,?0) , TEE0(3C ,30 ) , T E PR ( 30, 30 ) , ,. . . K 62 a TAFQ(30 ,30) , TAPR(30 ,30) 63 64 6 5 H ft COMMON /ARB/CUTA(30 ,30) ,CUS0(30) ,XCUM(30) ,PA(200) , C P A ( 3 0 , 2 0 0 ) , 0 I S ( 5 ) , K T R ( 3 0 ) , C 0 U N ( 3 0 ) , TFMP(30 , 3 0 ) , T 0 ( 5 0 ) , T T 0 ( 1 0 ) , A T 0 ( 1 0 ) 6 6 67 EXTERNAL SPRINT CALL ASSIGN! '1=R3AG:LIST •> . ' 6 8 c * 69 c * I/O UNIT 1 CONTAINS STATEMENT L IST . . ; ' 7 0 71 c * CALL IMSG(1, •?•• ,SPRINT) 72 RETURN . . . i . 73 •  74 . ENO SUBROUTI-NE CCNST 75 c * ******* *** ******* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *** , 76 c * INPUT FROM QUESTIONNAIRE . * 77 c * MATRICES CONSTRUCTED * 78 79 c c * NO INTER-RELATION YET * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 80 IMPLICIT INT EGER(A-T) R] ft ?. 83 84 85 _R6_ 87 88 8,9 '•'9 0 ' 91 9 2_ "93" 04 95 9 6 97 98 99 10 0 10 1 "lbY 103 . 10 4 105 106 107 10 8 10 9 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 _ U 9 12 0" 121 122 123 12 4 125 "12 6" 127 128 129 130 131 '13 2 133 134 135 13 6 1.3 7 13 3' 139 140 COMMON COMMON COMMON /UTTL/NTEAM,NPER,NTASK,NEQ,NPK,NUJb ? HNU» I i K , A TR , TOTAL /ARE/PET A ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , TETA(30, 3 0 ) , T E P E ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , XPTM(30 ,30) , T E F Q ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , T E P R ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) » TAEQ(30,30) ,TAPR(30,30) /ARB/CUT A (30 ,30 ) ,CUSO( .30 I , XCUM( 30) ,PA(200) , C P A ( 3 0 , 2 0 0 ) , D I S ( 5 ) , K T R ( 3 0 ) , C 0 U N ( 3 0 > , T E M P ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , T 0 ( 5 0 ) , T T O ( 1 0 ) , A T O ( 1 0 ) RFADINO IN TASK VS EQUI P. AND PROD. • IF ( NEQ. EQ.O ) GOTO 398 00 31" 0 1 = 1, NT ASK RE AO(5, 1 I(TAEQ( I , J ) , J = l ,NEQ) 1 FORMAT ( 30 II ) 300 . CONTINUE 398 _IF(NPR.EQ.OJGOTO 399 00 301 1 = 1 ,NTASK RE A 0 ( 5 , 1 ) ( T A P R ( I » J ) , J = 1 » N P R ) 301 CO NT INUE . 399 C * 102 110 401 40 2 500 601 CONTINUE READING IN PERSONMELLS VS TASKS Y DO 100 I^1 ,NPER "J=r, NTASK DO 101 REAC(5 ,2) (DIS(K) ,K = 1 , 5 ) , XMEAN FDRMAT( 51 1 ,F-5.2 ) 00 102 J J = 1 , 5 IF ( DIS( J'J ) . E Q . l JGOTO CONTINUE ' 110 PE T A ( I , J ) = 0 GOTO 10 3 P E T A ( I , J ) = J J 103 XP TM( I , J ) = XMEAN 101 CONTINUE 100 CONTINUE DO 400 I=1,NTEAM DO 401 J=1 ,NPER RE AC(5,3)NUM F1R M A T( 14) TEPE ( I, J ) = NUM-CONTINUE IF(NEQ.EQ.O)GOTO 00 402 11=1,NEQ RE AC(5,3)NUM 500 TEEQ( I, II )=NUM CO NT I Nil E CONTINUE T F T N P R . " E Q . 0 )"00TO" DO 403 JL=1,NPR REAC(5,3)NUM 0±L bo. a. ~5cT TEPR( I , J L >=NUM 403 CONT I NUE 501 CONTINUE "400 CONTINUE 00 600 1=1,NCUS READ(5,4) (DIS(K) » K = l t 5 ) t XME AN, ( CUT A ( I, LL ) t U = l t NT ASK ) "4 FORMAT( 5 U t F 5 . 2 , 7 0 1 l k '•• '. ~~ ~~ " ~~ DO 601 J J = i , 5 IF(DIS( J . M . E Q . 1 )GOTO 6,11 '  CONTTNUE CUSD( I) =0 60 2 .GOTO C'JSDl I ) =JJ XC UM(I) =X ME A N CON TTNUE ' . RETURN END ' SUBROUTTNE CGM2 • ",  * F NTER-REL ATEO MATRICES FORMED * ********************************** IMP II CI T I N T EGER ( A-T ) — — ~ : COMMON /UTIL/NTEAM, NPER,NT ASK,NEG,NPR ,NCUS,I NO,TTR , ATR , TOTAL COMMON /ARE/PET A<30 ,30) ,TE.TA( 30 , 30).,TEPE( 30,30) , XPTM(3 0 , 3 0 ) , T E E Q ( 3 0 , 3 0 l , T E P R ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , TAEQ(30 ,30) , TAPR(30 ,30) _ CO M MON /ARB/CUT A(30 , 30) ,CUSD(30) ,XCUM(30) , P A ( 2 0 0 ) , C P A ( 3 0 , ? 0 0 ) , D I S ( 5 ) , K T R ( 3 0 ) , C 0 U N ( 3 0 ) , TPMP(30,30 ) ,T0(50) ,TTO(10)tATO( IO) DO ICO 1=1 tNTEAM 00 100 J=1,NTASK TE TA ( I , J ) =0 : CC N TINUE DO 200 1=1, NTEAM \\ . . . \ - \ • \\ DO 201 J = 1,NPER \i VJ.\~oor ^ I F ( T E P E ( I , J ) .EQ.OJGOTO 201 DO 202 K = l » NT ASK JTETAt I, K)= TETA( I ,K) + PETA(J ,K) CONTINUE CONTINUE CONTINUE 00 500 1=1 , AI PA(I)=0 DO 300 1=1 ,NTFAM DO 300 J=1,NTASK I F (TETA( I , J ) . EO .O )GOTO 300 TETA( I,J ) = 1 . CONTINUE ' T0TAL=NTEAM+1+NTEAM*(NTASK+1) ^ ^ ^ ^ M ^ l f t ^ v ? "| i_L AI=T0TAL+5 00 400 1=1,NTEAM 11=1+1 PA( I I )=( I -1) * (NTASK+D+NTEAM+2 CONTINUE 00 7( 0 1=1 ,NCUS DO 7Q1 J=1,AI CPAf I , J ) = PA(J) CONTINUE CONTINUE PA(1)=1 DO 401 1=1,NTEAM 11=1+1 KK = PA ( I I ) \. PA(KK)=1 CONTINUE RETURN END SUBROUTINE EDTR _ ~* * ** * * * * "*'* * * * *"*"* ************** *~*~* *** * * THIS IS THE EDITOR SUBROUTINE ; * * PLEASE REFER TO WRITE-UP. *_ ?(*}' C * *'< ** * *y: * ***** ******** ****** * * * 105 202 IMPLICIT INTEGER( A-T ) 203 CUMMGN /UT I L / NT E AM , NPFP.» NT ASK , NE Q ,NPR, NCU S, I NO, TTR 204 /' , A TP, TOTAL 205 COMMON /ARE/PET A(30 ,30),TETA(30,30),TEPE( 30, 30) , J06 _ XPTMOO ,30) ,TE EQ ( 30 , 3f. ) , TE PR (30 , 30 ) ,  20 7 # TAEQ(3C,30),TAPR(30,30) 208 CO. MCN /AR 0/CUT A ('3 0 ,30),CUSD(30),XCUM(30)» P A(200)» 209 * CPA .30,200)_,_DI_S(_5_)_t_KTR(_30)jC0UN(30J_, 210 H "TEMP(30,30),TO(50),T TO(16), A TOTlO) 211 00 1 1 = 1,NT_ AM 212 00 2 J=1,NPER • '  213 • I n ( T E P E (I,J)•EQ.0)GOTO 2 _ 214 K=J-1 ' • • '. . 215 KK = TE P E ( I , J ) ,  216 CALL EM SG(1,I ,K,KK) 217 2 CONTINUE 216 1 CONTINUE  219 IF(NEQ. EQ.O)GOTO 711 220 00 3 1=1,NTFAM 221 DO 4 J = l , NEQ_ •  "222 IF (TEED (T, T) .EQ.O) GOTO 4 223 K=J-1 224 KK=TEEO ( I , J ) -225 . CALL EMSGL2 , I ,K,KK) 22 6 4 CONTINUE 22_7 3 CONT INU E 223 711 CONTINUE 22" IF(NPR.EQ.0)GOTO 712 , 230 DO 5 1= 1, NTE AM . .  231 DO 6 J=1,NPR 232 - IF( TEPR(I,J) .EQ.OGOTO 6 2? 3 K= J - l '  23 4 KK = TE PR(I ,J) 235 CALL EMSG(3,I,K,KK) 236 6 CONTINUE • • 237 5 CONTINUE 238 ' 712 . CONTINUE ! 23 9 CALL EMSG(4) . .  240 DO 10 1=1,NCUS 241 Z = XCUM( I ) 24 2 KK-CUSD(I) • " 243 KKK=T0TAL+5 . 244 CALL EM SG(6,Z,KK,KKK) " _245__ DO 11 J=l ,TOTAL " • 246 K"=CPA(I,J) 24 7 CALL EM SG(7,J,K ) 248 11 CONTINUE ; .  249 • CALL EM SG ( 8) '. , 250 10 CONTINUE 251 L--NTEAM+ 1 •• '  25 2 CALL EM SG(9,L) 253- IF (NTEAM.NF. 1 )GOTO 33 • , 254 CALL E MS G( 10) • •  255 GOTO 44 256 33 CALL EM SG(11 ) _25 7 • I F_( N T EA M.EO* 2)G0T0 35 . •  ' 2 5 8" At = NTEA M- 1 259 DO 34 1=2 , Al y 260 ' K=I-1 • '  106 261 KK=7+1 : • : ~~ ?.h2 CALL EMSGf 12 , K , K K , 1,11 26 3 . 3 4 CONTINUE -264 35 K= NT E AM-1 .265. '<K = NTEA M+l __266__ CALL__EM SO ( 13 ,K,KK,NTEAM ) ••  26 7 44 CONTINUE 260 on uo r = i ,NTEAM 269 11=1 + 1 t___ 270 K = P A ( H ) 271 KK = TOTA L + 2 27 2 CALL EMSG ( 20 ,,I ,K ,KK,K ,KK,K ,KK, I ,K T NTASK, I )  27 3 TTR=0 274 00 101 J=1,NTASK 27 5 I F ( TE TA ( I , J) . EQ.0)GOTO 101  276' ' TTR = TTP +l" r~ 277 TTO(TTR)=J 278 101 CONTINUE Q IP(TTR.NE.1)G0T0 80 MX=TTO( 1) -11 \ P ALL E MSG (30 ,I,K,MX, I,MX) 28 2 GOTO 88 8 " — 2B3 80 MX=TTO(1) 28 4 - .^Y = 1 285 / CALL EMSG/40 ,I , K , M X , I, MY ) 286 /- IF (TTR. EQ.2) GOTO 89 28 7 TTQ = TTR-1 28 8 00 81 "MZ = 2 ,TTQ 289 MX=TTO(MZ) 29Q .'• NZ = MZ-1  291 CALL EMSG(50,I,NZ ,K ,MX, I ,MZ , I ,MX) 292 / 81 CONTINUE 29 3 / 8 9 TTQ=T TR-1 2 9 ^ / M^TTOTTTRT ,295 / CALL EMSG(6(),I,TT0,K,MX,I,MX) 29 6 / B88 CONT INUE  297 , 00 70 E1 = 1,T TR 29 8 ' F=TTO(EI) _299 • AT R = 0 300 00 71 Ht=l,NPER 301 IF(PETA(HI,F).EO.O)GOTO 71 30 2 IF(TEPE( I,HI).EQ.O)GOT0 71 303 ATR = ATP +1 304 ATO ( A TP ) = H I - 1 305 71 CONTINUE 30 6 IF(ATR.EO.O)GOTO 70 307 IF(ATR.EQ.1)CALL UN(I.F) 308 IF(ATR.GT.1)CALL TW(I,F) 70 CONTINUE 100 CONTINUE -£ALL . . E M SG (1000) RETURN" END SUBROUTINE UN(I,F) 3 J 5 IMPLICIT T F T E G T R T A ^ n l \ j ^ _ _ _ ± ^ Q U / U T I L / N ^ ^ V ^ ^ N T A S K ^ E Q ' N P R , N C U S , I N O 320 ' I JPTM ( 3 0 , 3 0 , , T E E Q ( 3 0 , 3 0 » , T E P R ( 3 0 30 * TAEQ(30,30) ,TAPR(30.30 t COM Mr) N| f AR B / CI J~T A (30 ,3 01 ,CU~Sn ( 30) tXCUM(To~) ,PA( 200) , CPA( 30 ,200 >,DIS(5),KTR(30),CHUN(30), TEMP(30,30),T0(50),TT0(10),AT0(10) G=AT0 ( 1 ) GG^ =G + 1 M= \ F I X (_XP TM( GG,F ) ) FN0=PET A ( GG , F ) CALL EMSG(70 ,1,F,I ,G,I,G,I,G,FN0,M,I,G,I) RETURN _. . SUB ROUT INE TW( I ,F) IMPLICIT INTEGER(A-T) COMMON /UT IL /NTf A!., NPER , NT ASK , N EQ,NP R t NCUS , I ND, TTR iATR,TOTAL COMMON /ARE/PETA(3 0,30),TETA(30,30),TEP E( 3 0,30 )_!___ . . _.pYwy^o',30 j ,TEEo (ToT3Fr7tTpRT3'07To~)T </ T A E Q ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , T A P R ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) COMMON /ARB/CUT A ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) ,CUSD(30 ) ,XCUM(30 ) , P A ( 2 0 0 ) , # C P A ( 3 0 , 2 0 0 ) , D I S ( 5 ) , K T R ( 3 0 ) , C O U N ( 3 0 ) • U T E M P ( 3 0 , 3 0 ) , T 0 ( 5 0 ) , T T O ( 1 0 ) ,ATO(1 0 ) C A L L E.MSG. 72,1_, FJ on" i J= I f 2 G =ATC( J) GG=G+1 M=IFIXt XPTM(GG,F)) FNO = PET A(GG,F) CALL EMSG(70,I,G,I,G,I,G,FNO,M,I,G,I) CONTINUE RETURN END APPENDIX complete examples U S r r " B R A G " S I G N E T CN AT ^23_J_\__JJ_lL!il^.--XM^—-^-^—^2J~2JL ( ,<- .CPVM A ST ER~~T S I M - « C C * * * * * * * * / * *<** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * RASTbK 1 JEST U J M N A 1 K E * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ***** E N T E R THE N O . OF E A C H T Y P E R E L O W : TF AM* 1 * P E R S *| T A S K S i E Q U I P I P RODS I GUSTO I . . . . . 4 - . . . 3 . . . . ^ . . - - ^ ! J L l l f L l l ^ , i -F N T E R T H E I R NAMES !!!!! i ! . . . . i Wft* i 1 1 ' TrrrFV oui+io . . . . . I ' u _ 1.2. " 1 *S IN KM-.IX 1 "2~ AID+OR PADPOT I _ 3 . C L AIU RM-OROPROGM PADOPERT I "POTRIXOVF. PAD-PM SR Q U E S . O 5=10 „ 3 . 6 -- n r PAT I FI PAT IF?. PA I 1 TJT PAT IE4 PATIE5 T T A T T F - T P A T I E 7 PAT IE8 PA 11 b y PATIEO I .^ ..iSlIoS-'S-O ! N S I M U l - T I C N MODELS, TF&MS : - i NO. OF TEAMS = 2 " . TEAM 1 = AI0+0R T F AM 2 = P A DPDT •PFRSONNELLS :-NO. OF PERSONNELL TYPES = ppp 1 = A 10 _ PPP ?^=-ppo 3 = TASKS PAD POT NO. OF TASKS = TASK 1 = RM-OR TASK 2 = OPERTI TASK 3 = RECOVE TASK 4 = PAD-RM EQUIPMENTS NO.OF EQ. TYPES = FEE 1 = OPROOM- • CUSTC_MER_S :-TYPES OF "CUSTOMER'S"^ "" CCC 1 = PAT I E l CCC 2 = P AT I Eg CCC 3 = PATIE3 CC.C 4 - PATI E4 CCC 5•= PATIE5 XZL 6 = PTTTEF CCC 7 = PATIE7 CCC 8 = PATIE8 T O " CCC 9 = PA'I ifcy" CCC10 = PATIEO TAin^FOU I PMeNT-PRODUCT QUfc'S'i iONN A IRE 111 n p' R n K 1 7 PPFRTI..U. ...... - • • • I • •••••• ••••• ••••• • • < 3 P F C . n v F , . ; . • ORP RPEA MFCD -RO-DTVR R I EM NAME PAD 12345 PERSONNEL!. _ TASKS P E R S O N N E L L £ T A S K S NAME : ' A I D 1 2 3 4 5 1 R M - H R • • « • • X T I R T K T I . . . . . vt........ . T • • • • • 3 R'tCOVF . . . . . . . 4 P A D - R V • • • • • • • • • > I • •••••• • •••••• • • • • • • • P E R S O N N E L L & T A S K S N A M E : P<TT 1 2 3 4 5 1 R M - O R , 2 O P E R T I , 3 R E C O V E 4 P A D - R M , ,-Vm « : T E A M S T R U C T U R E N A M E : A I D + O R P E R S O N N F L L - N O - Y / N A V A I L A B L E H O U R S i A I D #.y. 2 P A D E Q U I P M E N T S O W N E O : • « • • • * * * - N O - , S ? ' * * * * 1 TEAM STRUCTURE 1 1 3 . : . . . . : . . . . :>• MAM F : PAOPGT PFPSHNNFI L-MO-Y/M AVAILABLE HOURS • • • • : * J _ _ _ . . ~l P AD* . . . . • - . . : : : : : • : • * • • EQUIPMENTS OWNED: " -NO - » S? 1 OPROCM. . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . : . - . . J ' ~ : CUSTGMERS INF OR f * * * • * • • * \ • m * m m mm ORP . ' -.-.v.: ' • F P E A ME CQ • . - R O - \ \ .  OTV'R 12 3 4 5 S — Z—- R I E M 1 P A T I E I , , UJSlV. . . . . . . • • « • 2 PATIE2 I/. WuW« . . . . # ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • O • • 3 P A T I E 3 y» . . • j/t>^* •• • •• ! * * • " * * _ _> * • *_ * * * m m * * • " 4 P A T T E 4 . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . »_._• • •_ a . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : « • • • : • • • • : • • » « • • • • • • • • • » • • • » • : • • • • • • • • • • ' 5 PATIE5 i/. ..... e/C^ V 6 PAT I E6. . . . . . . . . t/U'V. . . . 1 PAT I_E_7_._.._. . j/ . • •. •: » . . . ' » » •» • B PATI E8. . . . . . . / - V ^ • • • • 9 PATIE9 */......*/+M*. .......................... 5 • • • • • • • • • 0 PATIEO * * * • EXECUTION TERMINATED $SIG f'pPPR BF 8BBB f" PPBBBP PBBPBB RB BB P B _ • ' BB BR " " BB , PBPPB.RRBBB RC BBH BP BP B B B YR" BB BB • BB BB BPB Bl BBBBBB YOB'PPR'BBlWrr BB MB BB r B BB BB P PBPf BRPBB PRRPIBRBBB •" "RB" BB BB BB P.RBPBBBBRRBB RPBRBP BBBBB BB BB BCB RPR B BRPBB RRB PPBBBBBR r /* AA A A A A A A " A A A A A A A A A A A A " A A A A A A A A G G O G G G G G G G G O G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G A A A A G G A / A A A A A A A A A A G G A A A A A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G A A " ( "A A G G G G G G G ' A A V ' . A A G G G G A A A A G G G G " A A A A "AA G G G G G G G G G G G G AA G G G G G G G G G G CCCCCCCCCC NN NN TTTTTJTTTTTT RRRP RRRRR RR CCCCCCCCCCCC NNN CC CC N NN N CC • • / NN NN "CC cc cc "CC ~~ NTT CC / NN CC CC NN xcccccccccrc m i CCCCCCCCCC NN NN NN N N_ "NN NN N"N~ MN NM NN NN NN NN NN NN TTTTTTTTTTTT TT TT Tr TT TT RRRRRP.RRRRRR PR RR RR RR "RR" RTT RRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRR NNNN NNN " r r TT TT N T T T T TTT RR RR RR TTR RR RR —~RTT RR USER " BBAG" SIGNED ON AT 12:08:36 ON TUE APR 03/73 t L PRO 1 SIMULATE 2 1 FUNCTION RN1,03 3 .25, 7/.B,B/l,9 4 2 FUNCTION RN2,D2 5 .95,0/1,1 1 6 3 Fi INC T I (TN" R"N'3TD3 7 .85,0/. 15, 1/1,2 R 4 FUNCTION RN4,D4 9 .7,0/. 8^i, 1/.95 ,2/1 ,3 * 10 5 FUNCTION RN5,D6 1 1 .05,1/.45 , 2/.70, 3 / . 8 5 , 4 / . 9 0 , 5 / l , 6 "". T"2' 6 FUNCTION Rr\6,03 13 .65,0/ .85 , 1./1, 2 14 7 FUNCTION RN7,D5 15 . 15,0/. >3,l/.VO, 2/.95,3/1,4 16 8 FUNCTION RN8,04 ' . ' 17 .3,0/. 75, 1/.95 ,2/1 , 3 IB 9 FUNCTION RN1,D6 19 .05,0/.15,1/.55, 2/.8,3/.95,4/i,6 20 10 FUNCTION RN2,D2 115 ? l . 9 0 , 0 / 1,1. • 22 11 FUNCTION RN6,C16 ? *> • . 01 , 5 / . 02 , 6/.( R, 7/. 10,8/. 1 2 , 9 / . 30 , 1 0 24 .32,11/.3 6 ,12/.50 , 1 3/. 5 S, 14/.76, 15/. 78 ,16/.84,17 / . 9 2,18/.94,19/ 25 12 FUNCTION RNR,CT2 2 6 . 14, 1/. 16, 2 / . 3 R , 3/. 50, 4/. 80, 5/. 84 , 6/. 90 ,7/. 92 ,8/. 94,9 21 .96, 10 /.9 7, 1 1/ 1, 12 - . 28 13 FUNCTION R M , 05 .38,60/.r> 6, 9 0 / . 68 ,105/.96,120/1,180 3 0 14 FUNCTION R N2, D5 31 . 2,6 0/. +8 ,90/. 68 120/. 76, 150/1 ,180 3 2 EXPO FUNCTION R N l , C24 3 3 0 , 0 / . 1 , .104/.2 ,. J 227. 3,. 3 55/. 4,. 509/. 5 ,.69/.6,.915/.7,1.2/.75,1 .8,1 .6/.R4,1.R3/.PR , 2.12/ . 9,2.3/.92,2. 52/.94,2.81/.95,2.99/.961 35 . 9 7 , 3. 5 / . c 8,3. 9 / . 90 , 4. 6/. 99 5 , 5 . 3/. 99 8 , '"'MMM10 S T O R A G E 9 6.2/,. 999, 7 / .9998,8 37 EEE10 STORAGE 50 3 3 MMM20 STORAGE 50 39 MMM21 STORAGE 3 4 0 GENERATE , , ,FN1 41 TRANSFER ,MCNI 42 GENERATE ,,60,FN2 43 TRANSFER , MON I 44 GFNERATE , ,120,FN3 45 / TRANSFER / GENERATE / TRANSFER , MON I i 46 .', ,150,FN4 4 7 ,MONI 48 • GENERATE , ,180,FN5 49 , TRANSFER , MON I 50 GENERATE , ,210,FN6 51 r TR ANSFER , MON I 5 2 •/ GENERATE , ,27.0,FN7' 5 3 / TRANSFER , MON I 54 , GENERATE , ,300,FN8 55' . TRANSFER ,MCNI 56 • GENERATE , ,360,FN9 57 TRANSFER ,^CNI 58 GENERATE , ,450,FN10 59 TRANSFER , MON I 60 MONI TRANSFER ,TfcAMl 61 TEAM1 QUEUE 0CM10 62 ENTER 'MMM10 63 DE-PART QCM10 64 .. ADVANCE F NT 1 6 5 TRANSFER ,C0011 6 6 D0011 ODfTJ" QQtlO 67 ENTER EEE10 68 DEPART QQE10 • 69 . ADVANCE F N13 , 70 LEAVE EEE10 ' 71 LEAVE MMM10 . 72 TR'ANSFFR , TE"AM2 • • " •' 73 . TEAM2 QUEUE OCM20 ' .. 74 ENTER MVM20 • 75 DEPART G(,M2 0 ' 7 6 ADVANCE FN14 77 LEAVE MMM20 78 . TRANSFER ,00021 79 D0021 QUEUE 0CM2] 80 ENTER MMM21 M J ~ UE P AR T OCM21 P:2 ADVANCE FN11 • 83 ' LEAVE MMM21 84 ' TRANSFER . , EXIT B 5 EXIT TERMINATE 86 GE NE-RAT E_ 4 80 ~~~H7 TERM IN A TE 1 BR START 1 8 9 E_N0_ END OF FILE " ' *R *OPSSV SCARDS="RO PAR=SIZE=C FXECUTION BEGINS —G'"p"ST S V ~ ~ ~ - """M~~TS~~ F F T *** IBM PROGRAM PRODUCT 5734-XS2 FOR UP-TO-DATE INFORMATION REGARDING *GPSSV » $L "BTOCK . NUMBER *LCC OPERATION A , 8 , C , D , E , F , G , H » I COMMENTS. SIMULATE '' ' ; 1 F U N C T i c N RNTVC3 < : : \ . 25,It. 3, 8 . 1 , 9 2 FUNCTION RN2,02 ' "  . 9 571)71 , I ""' 3 / FUNCTION RN3,D3 . 85,,0/. 9- , 1 / 1 , 2 : '  - v - p , K i C T I o K f RN4y0'4 ~~- " ~~~ " ' . 7 , 0 / . 8 5 , 1 /. 95 ,2/ 1 ,3 5 FUNCTICN RN5,D6 ' .  : — . 0 5 , 1/. 45 , V . 7 0 ,It. 8 5, 4/ . 90, 5/1,6 : : 6 FUNCTION ' RN6,D3 . 6 5 , 0 / . 3 L . / 1 / 1 , 2 ' • . ' . 7 EU NCTTCN T.M7-,T:5 • " ~ : : " /. 15 ,0/ . 55 , 1 / . 9 0 , 2 / . 9 5 , 3 / 1 ,4 . 8 FUNCTICN RN8,D4 . • ' ' '  . 3 , 0 / . 7 5 , l / . 9 5 , 2 / l , 3 ~"~ " 7 — : ~ ~ 7 ~ " ' ~ ~ ~ 9 FUNCT ION RN1, D6 7 . . 0 5 , 0 / . 1 5 , 1 / . 5 5 , 2 / . 8 , 3 / . 95,4/1 ,(y • ' . . __. FI iNCTTON RN2TDI ~~~ ~. " . 9 9 , 0 / 1 ,1 11 FUNCT I FN RN6,C16 ~~" . 01 , 5/. 02 , 6 / . 0 3 , 7/. 1 C , 8 / . 1 2 , 9 / . 3 0 , 1 0 ; . 32, 1 1/.3 6,12 / . 5 0 , 13/. 5 8, 1 4 / . 7 6 , 15/ .78 , 1 6 / . 8 4 , 1 7 / . 9 2 , 18/. 9 4 , 1 9 / 1 , 2 0 12 FUNCTION RN8,C12 : .T^7vur;ir^ —: . 9 6 , 1 0 / . ' . 7 , 1 1 / 1 , 1 2 1.3 ' FUNCT I ON RN1. ,D5 . 38 ,60/ .56 , 90/768 ,10 5 / . 9 6 , 12U/1, 100 ~ : ~~ 14 FUNCT ICN RN2 , D5 . 2 , 60/. 48 , 90 /. 68, 1207. 76, 150/1 ,1 80 , ^ P . Q _ N M C T [ Q N R - ^ T ^ X Z ^ . - ~ : 0 , 0 / . l , . 1 0 4 / . 2 , . 2 2 2 / . 3 , . 3 5 5 / . 4 , . 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 2 / . 7 5 , 1.3 8 . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . P8, 2. 12/. 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2 , 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 8 1 / . 9 5 , 2 . 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 . 9 7 , 3 . 5/. 9 8, 3 . 9 / . 9 9 , 4. 6/. 995 , 5 . 3/ . 99B , 6. 2 / . y9y , ft* W 9 8 , B ; ~~ MMM10 STORAGE 9 . • ! . ' • . EFE10 STORAGE 50 _ • • '• " M M M 2 0 'STORAGE" " 50 . ~\ ' ~ " ~ MMM21 STORAGE 3 j : • . • y 1 GENERATE , , ,FN1. J 2 TRANSFER , MOM I . 3 OF ME'. A TE ,,60 ,FM2 4 TRANSFER , MON I 5 01. NER ATE , , 120,FN3 6 TRANSFER ,MOM I ' 7 • OF NERATE , , J. 5 0, F N 4 8 TRANSFER , MOM I 9 GENERATE. , , 18 0,FN5v t l'O TR ANSFER , MCNI. ] 1 "GENERATE"' ' , , 21 0,FN6 •-•••» r 12 TRANSFER , MONI 13 GE NERATE , , ?70,FN7 14 TR ANSWER , MOM I 1 5 GE NERATE ,-, 300,FNfl 16 TP ANSF ER , MON I 17 "GENERATE"' " , , 360,FN9 • * • 18 TRANSFER .MON I 19 GENERATE, , ,45G,FN10 20 TR ANSFER , MONI 21 MON I TRANSFER ,TEAM1 • • 22 TE A Ml QUEUE Q Q v 10 23 ENTER MM Ml 0 24 on P .RT 0QM10 25 ADVANCE F M11 26 TPANSF ER ,D00 11 77 00011 QUEUE QQEio ; 28 / ENTER E F c 1 0 79 DEPART QQEIO . . . . 30 ADVANCE FN13 i 31 LEAVE E F E 1 0 3? / LEAVE MMM10 33 j TRANSFER , T E A f.2 , 34 TEAM2 QUEUE QQM20 35 ENTER M M V 2 0 | 36 / DEPART QQV2 0 37 ADVANCE• FN 14 .. 38 LEAVE MMM20 ' ' 39 TRANSFER ,00021 40 COO 21 QUEUE . QQM21 ' 41 ENTER MMN21 j 47 DEP\RT 0QM21 43 ADVANCE FN11 44 LEAVE MMM21 45 TR ANSFER , E XI T j 46 EXIT TFRMINATE 47 GFNER ATE 4"8(J 48 TFRMI NATE START 1 • • . • 1.. ! • C R O S S - R E F E R E N C E B L O C K S S Y M B O L N U M B E R R E F E R E N C E S n o n j 1 2 7 6 5 n o n 2 1 4 0 7 8 F X I T 4 6 8 4 M O N I " ~ 2 1 4 1 4 3 4 5 . 47 ' 4'9 ~ 51 i T E A M 1 2 2 6 0 T E A M 2 3 4 7 2 C R O S S - R E F E R E N C E S T O R A G E S S Y M B O L N U M B E R R E F E R E N C E S E F F I O / 3 7 6 7 7 0 M MM 1(1 1 3 6 6 2 7 1 M M M 2 C 3 3 8 7 4 . 7 7 • ' . ' V M M 2 1 4 3 9 80 8 3 C R O S S - R E F E R E N C E Q U E U E S S Y M B O L / N U M B E R R E F E R E N C E S • / C O E 1 0 / 2 6 6 6 8 0QM10 / 1 6 1 6 3 Q O M 2 0 / 3 - 7 3 7 5 O Q M 2 1 /' 4 7 9 81 C R O S S - R E F E R E N C E " F U N C T I U N b S Y M B O L N U M B E R R E F E R E N C E S E X P O 1 5 3 2 **** ASSEMBLY TIME = .06 MINUTES * S I Ml j LATE 1 FUNCTION <N1 ,03 .25 2 '7 FUNCTION . 8 RN?,02 8 1 9 •.Q5 0 1 1 3 FUNCTION RN3,0 3 .85 0 .95 1 1 • 2 A, FUNCTION RN4,04 .7 0 .35 1 • • ; .95 . 2 i 3 5 FUNCTION RN5 ,06 .05 1 .45 2- .70 3 </' .85 . 90 5 ; 1 • 6 6 FUNCTION RN6.0 3 .65 0 ~ " . 3 5 • 1 1 1 2 7 FUNCTION RN7 ,05 i .15 0 .55 1 .90 2 . .95 3 1 4 : 8 FUNCTION RN3 ,04 .3 0 .75 1 .95 2 ' 1 ~ 3"" 9 FUNCTION *N1,D6 ! .(.'5 0 ' .15 1 .55 2 '. . 8 3 .95 4 1 1 1 6 10 . FUNCT/iON 0 ' *N2,02 . 1 ...99 1 1 11 FUNCTION RN6 , C16 ; .01 5 .02 6 ~ \ .08 7 .10 8 . 12 9 [ . 30 10 . 32 11 .36 12 ; . 50 13 .58 / 14 .76 15 • | • .78 16 . 84 .' 17 . 92 18 . 94 19 1 20 i 12 FUNCTION R N 8 , C12 ! .14 r\ . 16 2 . ; . 38 3 .50 4 . 30 5 ! . .84 6 . • .90 7 . 92 8 • ; .94 9 .96 10 .97 11 1 ! 1 12 13 FUNCTION RNt,05 .38 60 .56 90 • 1 • ,68 105 .96 120 1 180 ! 14 FUNCTION . RN2,05 • .2 60 .48 so ; . 68 120 .76 150 1. 180 ' 15 FUNCTION *NL,C24 i < 0 0 ••• . 1 .104 j . 2 .222 . 3 .355 .4 . 5( 9 ; .5 .69 .6 .915 .7 1.2 ; . lb 1.38 . 8 1. 6 . 84 1.83 !• . . • .88 2.12 .9 2.3 .92 2.52 ! .94 2.81 .95 . 2. 99 . 96 3.2 j .37 3.5 .98 3.9 .99 . .995 5.3 .998 6. 2 .999 7 1 • 1 .9998 8 1 STORAGE 9 IV 2 STORAGE 50 j 3 STORAGE 50 4 STORAGE 3 1 GENERATE ,,,FN1 2 TRANSFER ,21 •L fa- \J 3~ GENERATE ,,60, FN? 1 -•' 4 TRANSFER ,2 1 . ' i • 1 ' 5 GENFRATE , , 120,FN3 ' /. TRANSFER ,2 1 • '•>• 7 ' GENFRATE ,,150,FN4 ; • n TRANSFER ,2 1 9 GFNFRATE ,,130,FN5 ID TRANSFER ,2 1 1 • , • ,1 l GENERATE , , 210 ,F N6 ;.; • 12 ' TRANSFER , 2 i . . •.. 13 • GENERATF ,, 2 70,FN7 ; . . .:. ' iV ; . . "'- ' ' y-14 TRANSFER 2 11 5 GENERATE , , 300,FNS , • • - .'; :-; 1 6 TRANSFER ,21 , . ; . - . I 7 GENERATE , , 3 60 ,FN9 18 TRANSFER »2l •• 19 GENERATE • , ,450,FN10 ''•>.'•••\--.T~-20 TRANSFER ,2 1 : ••• : 21 TRANSFER ,2 2 . ' :-,•.--..'.:;:•„:;• • 2 2 QUFUE i • . 2 3 ENTER i . ' '• 24 OF PART 25 ADVANCE FN 11 ' !: v':: 'y.— ' 26 TRANSFER ,27 !!27 QUEUE 2 8 'ENTER 2 :j ,\ .' W ' • ', , : ,:": 20 DEPART 7 \ 30 ADVANCE FN 13 . , J • • • y ; 31 LEAVE r. 32 LEAVE i • ..' . • 33 TRANSFER .34 .i. 34 QUEUE 3 ! .' . 35 ENTFR 3 36 DEPART 3 ; 37 .ADVANCE FN 14 | 38 / LEAVE 3 • . 39 TRANSFER ,40 j , 40 QUEUE * ! • •' ; • v : 41 ENTER 4 : . • . • 42 DEPART 4 ! 43 ADVANCE FN 11 j 44 LEAVE 4 45 TRANSFER ,46 . • • . 46 TERMINATE 47 GENERATE 480 1 48~ TERMINATE 1 START .• 1 . i • • :. *C MASTER * S T 'v)K *.i)-.CC * * *** >!• * * * * **. t-t ****>: * >: * * ****** * * * * MASTER QUESTIONNAIRE * * * * * * * * * * * " * * *y * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ENTER THE NO. OF EACH TYPE BELOW: TEAM* | *PERS| TASKS I EQU I PIPRODS1CUSTO I ( O F7/lfV\ M<l J l . . . /I.../.I..../.I t.\...l.\ , .  ENTER THEIR NAMES : VJ/C SW*X^ PoT&Jt- B^uUr PRoPniT—OS**-"-• • • • <r « • • * • • • » « • • o • c * | * e/e c if e e « « o • • • * < » • I . . . . . . I I I I I - . . . I - - I 1 I $COPY OUT + Uj_jLSlt^Kj*j^CJl EXAMPLSERVERDOTASKEQUIPTPROOCTCUSTMR • ~ • ' *R QUES.O 5=11 EXECUTION BFGINS : , ; ABBREVIATIONS USED IN SIMULATION MODELS: f^Urv TEAMS : - - j : NO.OF TEAMS = 1 .. / '. '. : : TEAM I = EXAMPL A Vr ~r -PERSONNEl.LS '•- • . i I C/U f^ r «'( • NO. OF PERSONNELL TYPES' = . • 1 _ PPP 1 = SERVER TASKS : -TASK 3 = 00TASK , • EQUIPMENTS : -_N 0 ._0 F EQ. TYPE S^= FEE '}. = ECU IPT PRODUCTS : - , i ' ... £ Xhku. \f<uzd&h TYPES OF PRODUCTS = 1 . ' , ; v w » ~ ~ - x "P P R" 1~"= PRO OCT CUSTOMERS : -TYPES OF CUSTOMERS = CCC 1 - CUS1 MR T^Sl^F~3UTnMTMT-PR00IJCT QUESIlONNA I RE 1__ TP OR DO 10 PC TT r onTATKTTt^iT • '. . *' ........ w. v : TASK ORDER • • * 0 o ' T A S K • • • • • • *€• 1 DOT ASK " • • • • • " : PERSONNEL- & TASKS NAME : SERVER . 1 nOTASK . « < « . . . « . V * • • • • • « : ~ " TFAM STRUCTURE NAME : EXAMPL • . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . ' • • • . : • . •• : • • • • : • • • • • • : • • • • : • • • • • • : •< PEPSONNFLL-NO-Y/N AVAILABLE HOURS 1 SERVER.-..-'..... -NO-,S? 1 FQUIPT..,.4Zt.. PRODUCTS SUPPLIED: . :  UNIT " ''. • 1 PRODCT. . . C O . . . . 123 R E L A T I V c CLOCK 480 ~ ABSOLUTE CLOCK . 4S0 BLOCK C J V. "TS . j BLOCK CiJr "E^iT TOTAL BLOCK CURRENT TOTAL BLOCK CURRENT TOTAL BLOCK CURRENT TOTAL BLOCK CURRENT TOTAL I 0 9 11 0 " 0 21 o . 17 31 0 16 41 0 14 2 0 9 12 0 0 22 0 $ 17 32 0 16 42 0 14 i 3 0 0 13 0 0 23 Q 17 33 c 16 43 0 14 ; 4 0 0 14 C 0 24 0 17 34 C 16 44 0 14 — y 5 0 0 15 0 0 25 c 17 35 C 16 45 C 14 6 u 0 16 0 0 26 0 17 36 0 16 46 0 14 7 0 0 17 0 3 27 0 17 37 2 16 47 0 1 8 0 0 18 0 3 28 c 17 38 C 14 48 0 1 9 0 5 19 0 0 29 0 17 " 39 0 14 10 0 5 20 0 0 30 1 17 40 - 0 14 ********* ******************************* * * * STORAGES * * **: . ^ , >l- .1- J- -~ JL, XJ,^ L vVJ.<L X J.vV • T * * r "r" •-*'_* f *«* -v •*r 'r* •S*' i * T "r f *r STORAGE CAPACITY MMM 10 EEE10 MMM2G MMM 2 1 50 50 3 AVERAGE CONTENTS 3.691. 3. 252 3.572 .389 ENTRIES 17 I T 16 14 AVERAGE TlME/UNIT 1G4.23 5 91.82 3 107.187 13.357 -AVERAGE UTILIZATION DURING-UNAVAIL. CURRENT TOTAL TIME .410 A V A I L . -TIME TIME STATUS R h R C h N I AVAILABIL ITY 1 n A . n CUR REN 1 CONTENTS ... 1 ro65 071 129 100.0 100.0 10C.0 "T 2 MA XI M U M — CONTENTS - — £ 7 2 ********* ** * **- :*********£************* * QUEUES * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ^ ^ * ^ * * * * * > J : ^ * = ? ¥ « ^ ? : * QUEUE 0QM10 MAXIM U A CONT E N T S 1 AVERAGE CONTENTS • cr-o TOTAL ENTRIES 17 ~ T T _ W ~ EMTRI ES 17 ZEROS 1 0 0 . C A V E R A G E -TIME/TRANS .OCO $ AVTiTT ATJE TIME/TRANS .000 I ABLE NUMBER CURRENT" CONTENTS QQE10 QQ.M20 Q Q M 2 1 .QUO . 000 .000 i AV E R. A GTT END P T _ 7 T T ' \ N S = A V E R T G T r T T T ^ T T ^ " N " S 100.0 100.0 1C0.0 0~ENIKIES .000 .000 . OCO .000 .000 .000 . CUSTOMERS INFORMA * • - i - • . • • • * • • • • • • o • . • • • • T ; A_ •  S 1 2 3 4 5 S — — K 1 Ci 1ST MR . . -V . .' f4<? EXECUTION TERMINATED USE" "P F. A G _ -i t 1ST PRO 1 SIGNED ON AT 17:29:56 CN MCN APR 02/73 9 1(» 1 1 " 1 2 1-3/ 1.4 MMM K ; SI MUL ATE STORAGE 3 . E E E I n STORAGE 2 4 , EXPO FUNCTION R'N1,C.?4 •5 __j_>»0_/.l ,.104/. 2 ,.222/.3 ,.355/. 4,.509/. 5,. 69/.6 ,.91 5/.7 ,1 .2/.75, 1.36 :6 7 .RVT.677S47178 3/7¥8V2.'l2/'.9 7 .97,3.5/.98,3.9/.90,4.6/.995,5.3/.998,6.2/.999,7/.9998,8 8 j GENERATE 20,FN*EXPO TEA Ml * 3 TR AN QUEUE ENTER _ DEPART" QUEUE ENTER FR , TEAMT GCM10 M r M l 0 _ "QCM1 0 0CE10 F EE10 . • 15 • DEPART OQE10 . . 16 ' QUEUE CCP1P •' 1 7 ENTER PPP10,2. ' • 13,. DE PART OQP'l 0 x : .19 LEAVE PPP10 20 ADVANCE 6C,15 ^ g . i w s s .JS?1 ;!:;^ :;S^ ,,>iai'?-t::!i'ir!.: • . • • '•-' ,fr77:7:;;: ' <^^^^^VM^3 :' :' Y" - ' I R I - - - 1 2 5 -I F w:: i E E I O -f L E A V P M] 0 2 \ r R \ M S i~ F P , E X I T 2 4 ' E X I T T E R M I N A T E - / 2 5 G E M E R A T E 4 8 0 ' . ' ' : 7 6 T E R M I N A T E T ' : \ \ 2 7 S T A R T 1 2 8 E N D 11F F I L F . { R U N * G P S S V S C A R D S = P R O , . . . . . E X E C U T I O N R E G I N S * *_ * _ G p s S ' V - _ M T _S V E R S ~ " " " " " " ""**"* I R M " P R O G R A M P R O D U C T " 5 7 3 4 - X S 2 '( F O R U P - T O - D A T E I N F O R M A T I O N R E G A R D I N G * G P S S V • $ L T S B L O C K ' •'" '  N U M B E R • * L O C O P E R A T I O N A , B , C , D , E:, F , G , H , I C O M M E N T S S I M J L A T E . _ f - ' M M 1 0 S T O R A G E 4 • _ Y E E 1 0 . S T O R A G E 2 " " ~ " " " 7 "' E X P O ^ U N C T I O N R N 1 , C 2 4 0 , 0 / . I t , 1 0 4 / . 2,.? 2 V _ . _ 3 , • 2 5 _ 5 ^ i _ 7 J L # 5 0 9 / . 5 , . 6 9 / . 6 , . 9 1 5 / . 7 , 1 . 2 / . 7 5 , 1 . 3 8 . 8 , 1 . 6 / . 8 4 , 1 . 8 3 / . P R , ? . 1 2 / . 9 , 2 . 3 / . 9 2", 2 . 5 2 / . 9 4 , 2 . 8 1 / . 9 5 , 2 . 9 9 / . 9 6 , 3 . 2 • 9 7 / 3 . 5 / . 9 8 , ? . 9 / . 9 9 , 4 . 6 / . 9 9 5 , 5 . 3 / . 9 9 8 , 6 . 2 / . 9 9 9 , 7 / . 9 9 9 8 , 8 1 _____ G E M E R A T E 20 , F N * E X P O 2"". / ~ T < V N S F E R , T r A V 1 T 3 T E A M I Q U E U E O C M ] 0 - j 4 E N T E R M _1_0 5 : ' '' . • ' C E O A R T O C ^ I O 6 / Q U E U E 0 Q E 1 0 j 7 ' _ '_J_ E N T E R _ _ „ F ? E 1 0 _ _ •'_ 8 ~ ~ D E P A R T Q Q E I O " "j 9 / . Q U E U E 0 Q P 1 0 J 1 0 ' / ' E N T E R P P P 1 C , 2 . 1 1 . / D E P A R T P G P ] 0 . ! 1 2 L C A V E P P P 1 0 1 3 •_ A D V A N C E 6 0 , 1 5 _____ 1 4 " L E T V E ' F E E 1 0 ,; 1 5 L E A V E M M M ] 0 lb T R A N S F E R , E X I T 1 7 E X I T T E R M I N A T E 1 8 G E N E R A T E 4 8 0 19 . _____ T E R M I N A T E 1 . _ . E N D CP-0S S r RF F ER EMC C BLOCKS SYMBOL NUMBER REFERENCES ExYf ' 1 7 ~ '• 2 3 ~ ~ " '. TEAM1 3 9 CRCSS-REFEPENCE ;_ " ' STORAGES 1 ' ' ' S Y M BO L LUMBER REF.E RENCES \ ;  E F F i n 2 3 1 4 2 1 v M M ] Q 1 [ 2 1 1 2J2 . .'• - P P 1 0 3 1 7 1 9 CROSS-REFERENCE QUEUES NUMBER REFERENCES 1 3 . 1 0 : 1 6 1 5 1 2 1 8 CROSS-REFERENCE. FUNCTIONS NUMBER 1 REFERENCES 4 . • 8 **** ASSEMBLY TIME,-;.05 MINUTES**** ST VIII ATT- ' 1 STORAGE 4 2 STCFAGE 2 1 FUNCTTCM RN1,C24 ! 0 ____ o . I __. 1 04 .2 .222 • 3 .355 .4 .50 0 : .5 .~69 .6 .915 .7 1.? .75 1.38 1.6 __ _.84 1.83 < .88 2.12 .9 . 2 . 3 " " " " . ' 9 2 " 2 . 5 2 ~ ~'.g4' 2"."01 .95 2.99 .96 3.2 \ . .97 3.5 • 98 ' _3._5 __9__ 4.6 ! ___<_} 5.3 .998 6.2 .999 7 , .9998 8 I GENERATE 20,FN1 7 TRANSFER ,3 4 FNTi=R 1 5 DEPART 1 6 QUEUE 2 7 ENTFR 2 8_ DEPART 2 9 "QUEUE 3 10 ENTER 3,2 I I DEPART 3 12 LEAVE 3 13 ADVANCE 60,15 I 4___ L E AVE_ 2 15 LEAVF ~ 1 16 TRANSFER ,17 17 TERMINATE  18 GENERATE 480 19 . TERMINATE 1 S/TflRT 1 •.: / i I 128 2 0 i Z I 26 13 2 f ' 4 0 20 14 - 0 5 0 20 15 0 6 2 20 16 0 7 0 18 17 .0 8 0 18 18 0 9 0 18 19 0 10 0 18 18 16 16 16 16 1 1 ********* ******** * *******;!;* * * * £ $ * * * * * * * * * * * STORAGES * * r'- 2*- -** o- . ^ "**_-r» -r- - i " *»* - i - ~r T- • ************* STORAGE CAPACITY E EE 1 0 P P P 1 C Q U E U E AV ERAGE CONTENTS 3. 964 2147433 547 1.987 9. 218 ENTRIES 2 C 18 36 MAX I:-1 UM AVERAGE 0 0 ' 1 1 0 Q 0 E 1 0 lOPIO SAVER AGE END C C N T E N T S 10 2 " r CONTENTS" 4. 90 6 ' I . £77 _ JL°JA L ENTRIES. 26 20 AVERAGE TIME/UNIT 9 2 . 75C--AVERAGE UTILIZATION D U R - I N G -TOTAL TIME . 96 6 AVAIL. TIME UNAVAI L, TIME CURRENT STATUS 53.0CC 122.916 .993 .000 PERCENT AVAILABILITY 10C.-0 roTTTo 1 0 0 . 0 CURRENT CONTENTS 4 ~T 18 MAX I ML CONTE' J r U. J , .L J . -Xr . T* '.- T- T -I 'f- 1* • * :*******. * Q U E U E D * I T * . o o - o^ - i — I . ****** ** ZERO ENTRIES" 6 ~> J_ERCENT ZEROS -23.0 9.9 TIME/TRANS = .COO A V E R A G E -18 TI ME/TRANS AVERAGE TIME /TRANS' 90.576 45.049 18 EXCLUDING 1 0 0 . 0 ZERO ENTRIES $ AVERAGE TIME / T R A I N S " 117.75C 5C.C55 TABLE "NUMBER" CURRENT .000 ~ 0 W "CTJ^ T^ET^ ^^ s_ 6 2 EXECUTICN TERMINATED ***** TOTAL RUN TIME (INCLUDING ASSEMBLY) = .08 MINUTES ***** ? ^  7 G 

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