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Cone-dwelling fleshy basidiomycetes from British Columbia Redhead, Scott Alan 1974

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CONE-DWELLING FLESHY BASIDIOMYCETES FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA by SCOTT ALAN REDHEAD B'.Sc., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of Botany We aco^/pt th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 197^ In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f /~>0l <*-^-i^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date /K^ y^mY a J 1 ABSTRACT Cone-dwelling agarics from B r i t i s h Columbia were surveyed. Strobilurus l i g n i t i l i s , S, occidentalis and t r u l l i s atus comb, nov, are redescribed. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of these species i s based mainly on p l e u r o c y s t i d i a l charac-t e r i s t i c s which are i l l u s t r a t e d . Strobilurus l i g n i t i l i s i s reported on Douglas F i r and pine cones for the f i r s t time. Its range i s extended to B r i t i s h Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and Idaho., The range of S_. occidentalis i s extended south from Alaska to southwest B r i t i s h Columbia. Strobilurus  t r u l l i s a t u s i s reported on pine cones as well as Douglas F i r cones. Its range has been extended to B r i t i s h Columbia C a l i f o r n i a and Idaho. A l l three species are described from cultures. Strobilurus t r u l l i s a t u s produces f e r t i l e basidio carps i n culture. A key to the described species of Strobilurus i s given. Baeospora myosura i s reported from B r i t i s h Columbia, Alaska and Idaho on Engelmann and Si t k a Spruce cones. Conidia are formed by clampless hyphae i n cultures of B. myosura. The following basidiomycetes have been found on cones in B r i t i s h Columbiai Auriscalpium vulgare on pine and Douglas F i r cones, Mycena epipterygia on Mountain Hemlocik cones, M. sanguinolenta oil Douglas F i r and Western Hemlock cones, Mycena sp. on S i t k a Sprue© cones, Ramaria p i n i c o l a on Douglas F i r cones, and Xeromphalina c a u t i c i n a l i s on Western White Pine cones. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Dr. R.J. Bandoni f o r h i s guidance, encouragement and support throughout my s t u d i e s . Thanks are a l s o due to. Dr. G.C. Hughes f o r h i s assistance and .: encouragement. The f o l l o w i n g persons k i n d l y loaned herbarium specimens f o r t h i s study: Dr. W.C. Denison ( C o r v a l l i s , WS), Dr. J.H. Haines (New York, NY), Dr. R.S. Hunt ( V i c t o r i a , DAVFP), Dr. P.L. Lentz ( B e l t s v i l l e , BPI), Dr. J.A. Parmelee (Ottawa, DAOM), Dr. D.A. Reid (Surrey, Kew), Dr. R.L. Sha f f e r (Ann Arbor, Mich.) and Ms. Joanne Williams (Univ. of Washington). I a l s o wish to thank my w i f e , Judy, f o r as s i s t a n c e i n the f i e l d , l a b o r a t o r y , t a k i n g most of the photographs and typ i n g the manuscript. I was supported by two teaching a s s i s t a n t s h i p s and a N.R.C. Post Graduate S c h o l a r s h i p . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS , i i TABLE OF CONTENTS „ - i i i LIST OF FIGURES v INTRODUCTION 1 METHODS ^ F i e l d Studies It-Culture S t u d i e s . . . . . k Herbarium M a t e r i a l 5 S t a i n s and Mounting Media.... 6 D e s c r i p t i o n s 7 AURISCALPIUM VULGARE 8 BAEOSPORA MYOSURA 9 MYCENA EPIPTERYGIA. . . . 15 M. SANGUINOLENTA 1 6 MYCENA SP 17 RAMARIA PINICOLA 19 STROBILURUS 20 H i s t o r y of the genus S t r o b i l u r u s .. . ., 20 P o s s i b l e e v o l u t i o n a r y l i n e s 2k Key to the species of S t r o b i l u r u s ,. 27 S. ALBIPILATUS 29 S. CONIGENOIDES 32 S. CONIGENUS 33 S. ESCULENTUS 3k S. LIGNITILIS 35 S. OCCIDENTALIS *H S. TENACELLUS kk Iv TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page S. TRULLISATUS ^ 5 S. WYOMINGENSIS 53 XEROMPHALINA CAUTICINALIS 5 ^ MYCOGEOGRAPHY OF CONIGENOUS BASIDIOMYCETES 55 SUMMARY.. 57 LITERATURE CITED 58 FIGURES 62 V LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES Page 1 P l e u r o - and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a of S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s .. . . . 63 2 P i l e o - and c a u l o c y s t i d i a of S. t r u l l i s a t u s ,,. , 65 3 P i l e o - and c a u l o c y s t i d i a of S, l i g n i t i l i s , . . . 67 k P i l e o - and p l e u r o c y s t i d i a of S . l i g n i t i l i s , 69 5 P l e u r o - and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a of S. l i g n i t i l i s 71 6 P l e u r o - and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a of S. o c c i d e n t a l i s .. 73 7 P l e u r o - and p i l e o c y s t i d i a of S. o c c i d e n t a l i s 75 8 C a u l o c y s t i d i a of S. o c c i d e n t a l i s 77 9 Caulo-, p i l e o - and p l e u r o c y s t i d i a and basidiospores of S. a l b i p i l a t u s 79 10 Basidiospores of S. l i g n i t i l i s ...'•t 79 11 Basidiospores of S. o c c i d e n t a l i s 79 12 Basidiospores of S_. t r u l l i s a t u s 79 13 Germinated basidiospores of S_, t r u l l i s a t u s 79 1^ ; ' - Conidiogenous c e l l s and a clamp connection of Baeospora myosura 79 1 5 C h e i l o c y s t i d i a and basidiospores of Mycena sp 81 16 Mycena e p i p t e r y g i a on Mountain Hemlock cone „.„ 83 17 Baeospora myosura on S i t k a Spruce cone 83 18 S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s on Douglas F i r cone 83 19 S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s b a s i d i o c a r p i n c u l t u r e 83 v i LIST OF FIGURES (continued) FIGURES Page 20 Strobilurus l i g n i i t i l i s on Douglas F i r cone , .. 83 21 Ramaria p i n i c o l a on buried wood 85 22 Strobilurus t r u l l i s a t u s basidiocarp i n culture 85 23 Strobilurus t r u l l i s a t u s on Douglas F i r cone 85 24 Conidia of Baeospora myosura i n culture ,, 85 25 Conidia of B. myosura i n culture.. 85 '.'26 Clamp connection of B. myosura 85 1 INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y began as an attempt t o name a common c o l l y b i o i d a g a r i c found on Douglas F i r cones, i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o lumbia, A p r e v i o u s s t u d y o f a g a r i c s from Vancouver ( D a v i d s o n , 1 9 3 0 ) , o l d e r t e x t s c o n c e r n i n g N o r t h A merican a g a r i c s (Graham, 1 9 ^ ; Kauffman, 1 9 1 8 ; M c l l v a i n e and MacAdams, 1 9 0 2 ) and a l l h o s t i n d i c e s used (Conners, 1 9 6 7 ; Lowe, 1 9 6 9 ; Shaw, 1 9 7 3 ; Z i l l e r , 1 9 5 7 , 1 9 5 8 ) r e f e r r e d t o e i t h e r t h r e e European s p e c i e s : S t r o b i l u r u s conigenus ( P e r s , ex, F r . ) Gulden, S. e s c u l e n t u s (Wulf. ex. F r . ) S i n g e r , and S. t e n a c e l l u s ( P e r s . ex. F r , ) S i n g e r , t o two e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e rican s p e c i e s s S. a l b i p i l a t u s (Pk.) W e l l s and Kempton, S, c o n i g e n o i d e s ( E l l i s ) . S i n g e r or one s p e c i e s common t o b o t h c o n t i n e n t s , Baeospora myosura ( F r . ) S i n g e r . The c o l l e c t i o n s from Vancouver d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from these s p e c i e s i n t h e i r spore s i z e , c y s t i d i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p i l e u s c o l o u r s . U s i n g W e l l s and Kempton's ( 1 9 7 1 ) r e c e n t monograph of the N o r t h A m erican s p e c i e s o f S t r o b i l u r u s most of the c o l l e c t i o n s from Vancouver were i d e n t i f i e d as S e  kemptonae W e l l s and Kempton, W e l l s and Kempton ( 1 9 7 1 ) had r e c o g n i z e d a l l o f the S t r o b i l u r u s s p e c i e s known from w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . However a f t e r many more S t r o b i l u r u s c o l l e c t -i o n s were examined i t became apparent t h a t t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f the s p e c i e s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r t o a l l o w r e c o g n i t i o n o f many c o l l e c t i o n s . Two o r more s p e c i e s o f S t r o b i l u r u s were found on Douglas F i r cones but how many and which s p e c i e s o t h e r t h a n S. kemptonae c o u l d not be answered u s i n g 2 Wells and Kempton's descriptions. Collections of Strobilurus on pine cones could not be i d e n t i f i e d s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y e i t h e r . An attempt i s made here to distinguish among and describe the species of Strobilurus and other conigenous agarics occuring i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Species of Strobilurus are characterized by t h e i r growth on cones of conifers and magnolias, t h e i r c o l l y b i o i d aspect and the development of a pseudorhiza. Pseudorhizal length varies with the depth to which the substrate i s buried. The lack of clamp connections, nonamyloid smooth hyaline spores, an epicutis composed of a palisade of saccate c e l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pleuro-, cheilo-, caulo- and p i l o -c y s t i d i a are also important features (Singer, 1962b). Wells and Kempton (1971) have reported Strobilurus  kemptonae on Douglas F i r cones from Washington and Oregon, §.• l i g n i t i l i s Wells and Kempton on various woods from Alaska and Washington and S. occidentalis Wells and Kempton on spruce cones from Alaska. Strobilurus a l b i p i l a t u s on pine cones from New York and S, wyomingensis (Smith and Arenb.) Wells and Kempton on wood from Wyoming are known only from t h e i r type l o c a l i t i e s . Three other species, S. conigenus. S. esculentus and S, tenacellus are known only from Europe and Asia. Strobilurus conigenoides on Magnolia cones is known only from the south eastern United States (Singer 1962b). Three species of Strobilurus are reported for the f i r s t time from B r i t i s h Columbia; S, l i g n i t i l i s , 3 "£>.. o c c i d e n t a l i s and S. t r u l l i s a t u s . Two are obligate cone dwellers , S, o c c i d e n t a l i s on Picea cones and S, t r u l l i s a t u s on Pseudotsuga and r a r e l y Pinus cones. The t h i r d species is found on woody substrates other than cones and on Pinus and Pseudotsuga cones. Baeospora myosura has been found on Picea cones and Auriscalpium vulgare S . F . Gray, on Pinus and Pseudotsuga cones. In a d d i t i o n to these, four p r i m a r i l y l i g n i c o l o u s f l e s h y basidiomycetes have been c o l l e c t e d on cones i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Mycena e p i p t e r y g i a (Fr . ) S . F , Gray, on Tsuga cones, M. sanguinolenta (Fr . ) Quelet , on Pseudotsuga and Tsuga cones, Ramaria p i n i c o l a (Burt) Corner, on Pseudotsuga cones and Xeromphalina c a u t i c i n a l i s (Fr . ) Kuhn.and Marie, on Pinus cones. A l l of these species are discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g tex t , with emphasis on Baeospora and S t r o b i l u r u s . Genera and species are l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . METHODS FIELD STUDIESs Coniferous fores ts surrounding Vancouver and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were v i s i t e d f requent ly during the s p r i n g and f a l l c o l l e c t i n g seasons of 1973. Four longer c o l l e c t i n g t r i p s were made; to Vancouver Island from Nanaimo to U c l u e l e t ; to A l t a and A l i c e Lakes near G a r a b a l d i ; to Hope, and Lightning Lake i n Manning Park. These t r i p s covered v i r g i n forests of Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga menzies i i (Mirb. ) Franco) , with Grand F i r (Abies grandis (Dougl.) Forbes) , and coasta l subalpine forests with Yellow Cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), S i l v e r F i r (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) and Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) C a r r . ) . Plantat ions of Douglas F i r and coastal r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n s with' S i t k a Spruce (Picea s i t c h e n s i s (Bong.) Carr) also were v i s i t e d . The f o l l o w i n g observations were recorded on the fungi c o l l e c t e d : macroscopic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as p i l e u s c o l o u r s , t as te , odour and dimensions; spore deposits also were obtained. The pseudorhizae were c a r e f u l l y traced to t h e i r substra tes ; these were recorded along with other habitat data . Photographs were taken of some f resh c o l l e c -t ions . CULTURE STUDIES: Fresh basidiocarps were transported to the laboratory and decapitated. The detached p i l e i were f i x e d to the tops of Petr ie plates e i t h e r by water surface tension or by tape, 5 with the l a m e l l a r side f a c i n g down towards the agar. Multispore i s o l a t e s of S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s , S. o c c i d e n t a l i s and S. t r u l l i s a t u s were obtained t h i s way. A t i ssue cul ture of S. t r u l l i s a t u s from the p i l e u s context was obtained a l s o . Microscopic d e t a i l s were recorded from cultures grown on malt ex t rac t , yeast extract and soytone medium (MYS^) at 1 5 ° C l i g h t / d a r k . Attempts were made to induce basidiocarp p r o -duction by growing i s o l a t e s on s t e r i l i z e d (autoclaved) cones of Picea s i t c h e n s i s and Pseudotsuga menzies i i h a l f buried i n s t e r i l e moist quartz sand. S t e r i l i z e d whole wheat was used a l s o . Subcultures of S. t r u l l i s a t u s which were known to produce basidiocarps were grown i n s lant tubes of MYS at k, 1 0 , 15 and 2 0 ° C i n 12 hr l i g h t / 1 2 hr dark and at 15 and 2 0 ° C i n continuous darkness. Aerat ion of f e r t i l e i s o l a t e s by a continuous slow flow of f i l t e r e d moist a i r i n a 125 ml Erlenmeyer f l a s k at 2 0 ° C l i g h t / d a r k was also used. Monospore i s o l a t e s were obtained from S. t r u l l i s a t u s basidiocarps produced i n c u l t u r e . Basidiosporesl were dispersed on agar and i s o l a t e d spores were removed under a d i s s e c t i n g micros-cope . HERBARIUM MATERIAL: Major c o l l e c t i o n s of conigenous agarics from the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Herbarium, Ottawa (DAOM) and the National Fungus C o l l e c t i o n , B e l t s v i l l e (BPI) were examined. : 1 D i f c o Malt Extract 7 . 0 g, D i f c o Bacto-Soytone 1 . 0 g, Difco Yeast Extract 0 . 5 g, D i f c o Bacto-Agar 1 5 . 0 g, d i s t i l l e d water 1 0 0 0 ml . 6 These included c o l l e c t i o n s of the indigenous European species , S , conigenus, S. esculentus and S , t e n a c e l l u s . Holotype or syntype c o l l e c t i o n s of S, a l b i p i l a t u s , S, kemptonae, S . l i g n i t i l i s , S, o c c i d e n t a l i s , S . t r u l l i s a t u s and S. wyomingensis from North America were obtained. Representative c o l l e c t i o n s of S. conigenoides were seen. In a d d i t i o n , specimens upon which published reports of relevent species were based, were checked. New c o l l e c t i o n s made f o r t h i s study, a l l of which came from B r i t i s h Columbia, are deposited i n the Mycological Herbarium of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (UBC). Unless otherwise noted a l l c o l l e c t i o n s are deposited at UBC. STAINS AND MOUNTING MEDIAs Melzer ' s Reagent f o r amyloidi ty tests and Aqueous Cresyl Blue f o r metachromatic tests were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y used. T h e i r use has been discussed by Singer (1962a). Hot Cotton Blue i n L a c t i c A c i d s o l u t i o n was found to be the best mounting f l u i d f o r viewing the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a l shapes i n the genus S t r o b i l u r u s . Singer (1972) discusses i t s use i n the Agaricales and gives fur ther references . Hoyer's mounting medium was used to revive o ld herbarium material i n p a r t . Its c l e a r i n g propert ies made v i s i b l e the r o o t i n g bases of the p i l e o c y s t i d i a i n some S t r o b i l u r u s s p e c i e s . Cunningham (1972) discusses i t s use f o r f u n g i . Congo Red and Phloxine i n 3 % KOH s o l u t i o n were also used as general s tains (Singer, 1962a, Smith 19^7) . 7 DESCRIPTIONS: S n e l l and Dick (1971) has been consulted regarding mycological terminology. Colour names i n quotation marks r e f e r to those i n Rayner ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Descr ipt ions of S_. l i g n i t i l i s and S, t r u l l i s a t u s are supplemented by Wells and Kempton's (1971) d e s c r i p t i o n s . 8 Auriscalpium vulgare S . F . Gray. 1821. Nat. A r r . B r i t . Plants 1 : 6 5 0 . This species has been recorded and described i n d e t a i l by H a l l and Stuntz ( 1 9 7 1 ) f o r western Washington, and by Harr ison ( 1 9 6 1 ) f o r Nova S c o t i a . In western North America i t has been reported only on Douglas F i r cones where as i n eastern North America and i n Europe i t i s found on pine cones, A u r i s c a l l i u m vulgare was observed on a pine cone near Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia i n May 1973 "but the c o l l e c t i o n was l o s t . It has also been found oh Douglas F i r cones i n B r i t i s h Columbia. SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA, Horton Bay, Mayne I s . , Nov. 2 1 , 1 9 6 5 , on cones of Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , c o l . G . D . Pentland; Francis Park, V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s , , Dec. 3 » 1 9 6 1 , on Douglas F i r cone, c o l . M.C. Melburn; Port A l b e r n i , Oct . 1 9 7 1 , c o l , W. Zwarch. 9 -Baeospora myosura (Fr . ) S inger . 1 9 3 8 . Rev. Mycol . 3 ' 1 9 3 . F i g . 1 7 , 2 4 - 2 6 . Basionym? Agaricus myosurus F r . 1 8 2 1 . S y s t . Myc. 1 : 1 3 2 . Synonyms: C o l l y b i a myosura (Fr . ) Quel . 1 8 7 2 , Champ. Jura et Vosges 1 : 9 5 . Mycena myosura (Fr . ) Kuhner. 1 9 3 8 , Le genre Mycena: 526 C o l l y b i a s t r o b i l i n a V e l e n . 1 9 2 0 . Ceske Houby 1 1 : 3 ^ 1 . C o l l y b i a f r i e s i i Bres. 1 9 2 8 , Icon, myc, No.V 2 1 4 ( 2 ) . Marasmius f r i e s i i (Bres.) Rea. 1 9 3 2 . Trans. B r i t . Mycol . Soc. 1 7 * 4 6 . I l l u s t r a t i o n s : Only a selected few are l i s t e d here, Bresadola ( 1 9 2 8 ) water co lour ; Cooke ( 1 8 8 1 - 1 8 8 3 ) water co lour , Favre ( 1 9 3 9 ) l i n e drawings; Hennig ( 1 9 6 4 ) l i n e drawings; Horak ( 1 9 6 8 ) , water co lour ; Imazeki and Hongo ( 1 9 5 7 ) water co lour ; Jahn ( 1 9 6 2 ) photograph; Pegler and Young ( 1 9 7 1 ) e l e c t r o n micrograph, BASIDIOCARP: P i leus ( f i g . 17 ) 3 - 1 6 mm broad, convex, s l i g h t l y umbonate, margins i n r o l l e d when young, "s ienna" to "cinnamon" developing grey t i n t s , dry, unpolished, rugulose . Lamellae narrow, crowded, edges even, 2 0 - 2 4 reaching the s t i p e , white to pale grey. St ipe 2 - 4 cm l o n g , 0 , 5 - 1 mm wide, furfuraceous, hollow, s t u f f e d , concolourous with the p i l e u s , tapering down to a 10 ;pseudorhiza: pseudorhiza up to 6 cm l o n g , becoming white b a s a l l y , white mycelia strands up to 5 mm long e i t h e r r a d i a t i n g out i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s or , more of ten , i n a s ingle plane pressed against the substrate . MICROANATOMY: Spores minute 2 - ^ . 5 x 1 . 5 - 3 p» amyloid, smooth t h i n -walled, h y a l i n e , white i n mass, e l l i p s o i d - c y l i n d r i c . B a s i d -i a 9 - 1 5 x 2 - 3 . 5 p, c lavate , k spored. C h e i l o c y s t i d i a h y a l i n e , abundant, ventricose or f u s o i d ventricose with obtuse apices , 20-28 x ^ - 7 }xt t h i n - w a l l e d . G i l l trama composed of clamped hyphae 3 - 3 0 JI broad, t h i n - w a l l e d . Context hyphae s i m i l a r , walls t h i n to 1 )\ t h i c k , h y a l i n e . E p i c u t i s composed of repent p a r a l l e l hyphae, ^-18 jx broad, with ends up-turned to form p i l e o c y s t i d i a . P i l e o c y s t i d i a 5 - i ( ' 0 : x : 5 - 1 0 jx, t h i n - w a l l e d , smooth, becoming ventr icose with obtuse apices . C a u l o c y s t i d i a s i m i l a r to p i l e o c y s t i d i a , 5 - 3 0 x 7 - 1 0 )x, abundant. Outer cortex hyphae of s t ipe p a r a l l e l , 3 - 1 0 }x broad, with clamp connections. Inner cortex hyphae 2 - 2 0 )x broad, p a r a l l e l , clamped. Medullary hyphae interwoven widely spaced, 2-k jx broad, smooth, t h i n -wal led . Hyphae of the mycel ia l strands 2 - 3 . 5 )* "broad, with clamp connections, smooth, t h i n - w a l l e d h y a l i n e , p a r a l l e l , spreading at the t i p s of strands appressed to the substrate . HABITAT, OCCURENCE AND RANGE: On cones of Picea engelmannii Parry, Picea s i t c h e n s i s (Bong.) C a r r , , Picea sp. and Pinus strobus L . S e p t . - Nov. ^Alaska, B r i t i s h Columbia, Idaho, Ontar io , Quebec, Michigan, 11 New York, Massachusetts, Vermont, also i n Europe and A s i a . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. A l i c e Lake Park, Nov. 3 , 1973, on "buried Picea s i t c h e n s i s cones, S . A . R . # BC 1; Oct . 21, 1973, S . A . R . # BB 2, BB 8; Flood p l a i n s near Squamish, Nov. 3 , 1973, on buried Picea s i t c h e n s i s cones, S . A . R . # BC ?a. ONTARIO. Timagami I s . , Lake Timagami, Sept . 11, 1935, on cones of Pinus s trobus, (DAOM # 80336) ;Rockcliffe Park, Sept . 14 I898, on Pinus strobus cones, (DAOM # F -7 9 2 0 ) ; F a l l o w f i e l d , Oct . 4, 1957, on pine cone s c a l e s , (DAOM # 5 4 0 6 0 ) ; York County, Sept. 19, 1953, on Pinus strobus cones, (DAOM # 50892); West of Maple, York County, Sept . 27, 1937, on Pinus strobus cones, (DAOM # 48488); Cory Lake, Sept . 5, 1941, on pine cones, (DAOM # 10581). QUEBEC, Kingsmere R d . , Sept . 17, 1953, on pine cones, (DAOM # 40213); Kingsmere, Sept. 2 5 , 1956, on pine cones, (DAOM # 51996). UNITED STATES, ALASKA. Sandy Cove, G l a c i e r Bay Nat. Monument, Aug. 18, 1952, on Picea cones, (WS # 4 2 5 5 5 ) ; T l i n g i t P o i n t , on Picea cones, Aug. 20, 1952, (WS # 4 2 5 9 7 ) ; Sandy Cove, G l a c i e r Bay Nat, Monument; Aug. 18, 1952, on Picea cones, (WS # - 4 2 5 5 5 ) . IDAHO. 3 miles north of Upper P r i e s t Lake, Bonner County, Sept. 20, 1966, on Picea  engelmanriii cone, (WS # 56575)', MASSACHUSETTS. Conway, Sept. 16, I960, on pine cones (DAOM # 71683). NEW YORK. Ithaca, Oct . 4, 1902, 6n pine cones, c o l . C, Thorn, (BPI), VERMONT. Middlebury, Sept. 24, 1898, on buried pine cones, from Herb. E . A . Burt , (BPI). ENGLAND. South Ascot , Nov. 8, 1 2 1 9 5 9 , under Pinus s y l v e s t r i s , (DAOM # 7 4 7 8 2 ) . SWEDEN. Uppsala Botanical Garden, on a spruce cone, Sept. 2 6 , 1 9 4 6 , (DAOM # 6 5 2 9 0 ) . BOHEMIA. Five specimens from 1 9 0 4 - 5 by F . Bubak as C o l l y b i a conigena or C_. esculenta ( s c r i p t undecipherable) , (BPI). CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS. 1 Multispored i s o l a t e s were obtained from s ingle b a s i d i o -carps. Germination of a small number of basidiospores was observed a f t e r 4 8 hrs , at 1 5 ° C. A f t e r one week, most basidiospores had germinated. Macroscopical ly each of the i s o l a t e s was white to cream coloured and produced no noticeable pigments i n the hyphae or the medium. No a e r i a l f loccose hyphae were produced, the whole colony having a water soaked appearance. This appearance was not caused by contamination by b a c t e r i a or yeasts . V/ith i n a week of s u b c u l t u r i n g , gl.oeoid masses of hyaline c o n i d i a formed on the surface at the point of i n o c u l a t i o n ; c o n i d i a ( f i g . 2 4 , 2 5 ) also formed on submerged hyphae i n sectors of the colony having a ' feathery* edge. Other sectors f a i l i n g to produce c o n i d i a developed an even edge. The vegetative hyphae ranged from 1 . 5 - 4 , 0 ji i n diameter. Hyphae i n the c o n i d i a l forming sectors averaged 3 )*> were much branched, and were f requent ly septate . Hyphae from the even edged sectors averaged 2 u, were mainly unbranched and i n f r e q u e n t l y septate . Simple and clamped septa were present, sometimes interspersed along a s ingle hypha. Clamped hyphae ( f i g . 2 6 ) v/ere most f requent ly found i n the c o n i d i a l forming sectors but clamp connections were not formed on the hyphal segments 13 d i r e c t l y a s s o ciated with c o n i d i a l formation. Most septa, clamped or not, possed l a r g e d o l i p o r e apparatuses v i s i b l e at 1000 x i n Congo Red i n KOH s o l u t i o n . The c o n i d i a l s t a t e w a s S p o r o t h r i x - l i k e , and formed as erect clumps of c o n i d i o -genous c e l l s at the point of i n o c u l a t i o n or as i n d i v i d u a l conidiogenous c e l l s along submerged hyphae. C o n i d i a were formed from the blown out ends of conidiogenous c e l l s . These were then cut o f f by septa. The conidiogenous c e l l s then elongated sympodially. This process occured up to 20 times on a s i n g l e conidiogenous c e l l u l t i m a t e l y producing a z i g - z a g shaped c e l l up to 2 i n diameter and 20 u l o n g . The conidiogenous c e l l s were sometimes branched i n the area of c o n i d i a l formation ., The c o n i d i a were h y a l i n e , 4-7.5 x 2-3 JA, ovate, e l l i p s o i d or c y l i n d r i c , with a truncated base, o c c a s i o n a l l y v . - f r i n g e d with w a l l m a t e r i a l from the conidiogenous c e l l . Germination of the c o n i d i a was i n h i b i t e d u n t i l they were r e p l a t e d on f r e s h media. On f r e s h media,-germination of most c o n i d i a occured with i n 24 hr. Sub-c u l t u r e s propagated from c o n i d i a l o s t the a b i l i t y to form clamp connections i n most cases. Dolipore septa continued to be formed i n these l a t t e r s u b c u l t u r e s . DISCUSSION: Baeospora myosura was described from Europe ( P r i e s , 1821) and has been documented i n d e t a i l from there by Favre (1939), Gulden (1966) and Reid (195*0. I t has been reported 'from eastern North America as C o l l y b i a conigena by Peck i '(1895) and Kauffman (1918). In t h a t r e g i o n i t i s commonly 1 4 found on Eastern White Pine cones where as i n western North America i t i s commonest on spruce cones. The presence of c o n i d i a has not been reported before i n t h i s spec ies . Great d i f f i c u l t y was encountered when I t r i e d to observe an organic connection between clamp-bearing hyphae and c o n i d i a - b e a r i n g hyphae. Only once was t h i s observed but i t involved an i s o l a t e d hypha which was easy to t race , thus l e a v i n g no doubt concerning the connect-i o n . Conidia were not observed on cones or mycelium from nature. However a l l hyphae associated with the basidiocarps i n nature produced clamp connections and therefore were not the types known to produce c o n i d i a . Baeospora myosura i s character ized by i t s c o l l y b i o i d h a b i t , amyloid spores, an e p i c u t i s composed of repent hyphae, a pseudorhiza and i t s conigenous h a b i t a t . 15 -Mycena e p i p t e r y g i a (Fr . ) S . F . Gray, 1821 Nat. A r r . B r i t . P lants , Is619. F i g . 1 6 . Basionyms Agaricus epipterygius F r . 1821, Sys t , Myc. 1 : 1 5 5 . This species has been recorded, i l l u s t r a t e d and described i n d e t a i l from North America i n c l u d i n g the western United States by Smith (1947). A more complete l i s t of synonyms i s given there . It grows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y on debris under c o n i f e r s . In B r i t i s h Columbia i t has been found on needles and twig l i t t e r under Pinus contorta D o u g l , , Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Tsuga heterophyl la (Raf.) Sarg . and T. mertensiana. On Mt. Seymour i t was f requently found on cones of Tsuga mertensiana ( f i g . l 6 ) . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Mt. Seymour near Vancouver, Sept. 22, 1973, ca . 4,000 f t = o n coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # AI 18; on cones of Tsuga mertensiana, S . A . R . # AL 21, AI 23; U . B . C , Sept. 9, 1973, on coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # AE 14; Sept. 29, 1973, on coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # AK 6; U . B . C . Research Fores t , Haney, Oct . 31, 1965, col. , and det . D. S tuntz ; 2 miles from the west coast of Vancouver I s . by the T o f i n o - U c l u e l e t Hwy., Oct . 7, 1973, S . A . R . # AR 1; 30 miles east of the Tofino Ucluelet Hwy. on Hwy. # 4, Vancouver Is . Oct . 6, 1973, S . A . R . # AM 22; Sydney, Vancouver I s . , Nov. 6, 1915, on leaves i n woods, c o l . John Dearness. 16 Mycena sanguinolenta (Fr . ) Quelet , 1872. Champ. Jura et Vosges, p.. 244. Basionyms Agaricus sanguinoletus F r . 1821. S y s t . Myc. I s l 4 9 . This species was described i n d e t a i l and i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith (1947) from North America. Both Smith (1947) and Davidson (1927,1930) reported i t from B r i t i s h Columbia. It occurs i n both the spr ing and f a l l on l e a f mold or needle carpets , Davidson (1927) reported i t growing at the bases of old stumps i n Stanley Park, Vancouver B . C . Mycena  sanguinolenta has been c o l l e c t e d on o ld cones of Pseudotsuga  menzies i i and Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a . The conigenous forms were u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y and more robust than neighbouring basidiocarps on needle carpets . SPECIMENS EXAMINED s CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Vancouver, on coniferous twigs and needles, A p r i l 7, 197^» c o l . M. Rabas, T , Taylor and S . A . Redhead; On cones of Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , A p r i l 7, 197^» c o l . S . A . Redhead; On needles, twigs and cones of Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a , A p r i l 13, 197^, c o l . S . A . Redhead, 17 Mycena sp . (close to M. s t r o b i c o l a Favre et Kuhner) F i g . 15. One c o l l e c t i o n was made of two Mycena basidiocarps on a S i t k a Spruce cone from A l i c e Lake Park, B . C . , Oct . 21, 1973. The p i l e i were 10-12 mm broad, c o n i c a l , t ransluscent s t r i a t e except i n the center , pale brown to dark brown i n the center , with an odour of bleach . The lamellae were adnexed, white, moderately broad, with even edges. The s t ipes were smooth, 4 cm long by 1-2 mm broad, brown l i k e the p i l e u s , with a short 2-3 mm long pseudorhiza covered with white mycelium. No la tex was exuded. Basidiospores ( f i g . 15) were 8-9 x 4-4.5 u, amyloid, t h i n - w a l l e d , smooth, h y a l i n e , e l l i p s o i d - c y l i n d r i c , with one large vacuole each. B a s i d i a were 25-35 x 7-8 u, c lavate , 4 spored. C h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 15) abundant, crowded, 18-23 x 9-12 u, broadly f u s o i d with obtuse apices , t h i n -wal led . Context hyphae up to 20 u wide, clamped. P e l l i c l e hyphae 1-2 u wide, embedded i n a gelatinous matrix . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n place i t close to Mycena s t r o b i c o l a Favre et Kuhner. It d i f f e r s mainly by i t s smaller p i l e u s and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a l s izes and i t s autumn occurence. Based on the above d e s c r i p t i o n the c o l l e c t i o n does not key out to any species i n Smith's (1947) monograph of North American Mycenas. Mycena s t r o b i c o l a i s described i n d e t a i l and i l l u s t r a t e d 'by Kuhner (1938) and a photograph i s given by Lundel l (1937) as M. v e r n a l i s . Mycena s e y n i i Quelet also occurs on c o n i f e r 18 iones. It i s described i n d e t a i l and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Kuhner (1938) and a photograph i s present i n K l e i n (1935-3 6 ) . Both species only occur i n Europe and Asia. 1 9 Ramaria p i n i c o l a (Burt . ) Corner. 1 9 6 1 , Trans. B r i t , mycol. Basionyms C l a v a r i a p i n i c o l a Burt . 1922. Ann. M i s s o u r i . This species has been recorded and described i n d e t a i l from western Washington by Marr and Stuntz ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A more complete l i s t of synonyms i s given there . Marr and Stuntz record the habitat as, " l i g n i c o l o u s , growing on small branches, twig l i t t e r or cones under Western Hemlock and Douglas F i r . " In B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s species has been found on buried and exposed coniferous wood and cones of Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Saturna I s . , Nov. 1 3 , I 9 6 0 , on f a l l e n Pseudotsuga menzies i i cone, c o l . P. P i l l s b u r y , det . (?) E . J . H . Corner; U . B . C . Sept. 1 9 7 3 , on Douglas F i r cone, c o l . M. Rabas; P a r k s v i l l e , Vancouver I s . , Oct . 8 , 1 9 7 3 , on coniferous twig, S . A . R . # AT 3 ; Manning Park west of the lodge i n the burnt area, v a l l e y bottom, on a coniferous l o g , Oct , 1 3 , 1 9 7 3 , S . A . R . # AW 6 . Soc. 44:237. F i g . 2 1 . Bot. Gard. 9:25. 20 'Strobilurus Singer. 1962, Persoonia 2:409 Type Species: Strobilurus conigenoides ( E l l i s ) Singer. Basidiocarps c o l l y b i o i d to marasmioid; epicutis hymeniform; dermato- and hymenial c y s t i d i a present, frequently incrusted; spores nonamyloid, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled: hymenophoral trama regular; pseudorhizae present, covered by u n i c e l l u l a r , smooth, pigmented h a i r s ; vegetative and f e r t i l e hyphae simple septate; gloeovessels present, sporadic; on cones of conifers and Magnolia as well as angiosperm and gymnosperm wood; Northern Hemisphere only. HISTORY OF THE GENUS STROBILURUS. Fries (1821) described three species, Agaricus  esculentus (Wulf. apud. J a c q . ) Fr., A_. tenacellus Pers. ex. Fr. and A. conigenus Pers. ex. Fr., which are now placed i n the genus Strobilurus. These species were separated from each other by macroscopic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which at a l a t e r date proved to be extremely variable and unreliable. Although there are s t i l l only three species known i n Europe, the lack of type c o l l e c t i o n s and the variable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s chosen by Fries led to erroneous applications of the s p e c i f i c epithets among the three species. For example, the fungus now known as Strobilurus esculentus (Wulf. apud. J a c q . ex. Fr.) Singer has i n the past been referred to as C o l l y b i a  esculenta, C. conigena and C. tenacella, depending on various Jauthors* interpretations of F r i e s ' descriptions. The two other European species have s i m i l a r h i s t o r i e s . The confusion 3>f t h i s early period of time i s summed up by a statement to 21 -the B r i t i s h Mycological Socie ty by Plowright ( I 8 9 6 ) , " There are three C o l l y b i a e e i t h e r growing upon f i r cones or under f i r t r e e s , both Spruce and Scotch, which are very d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , v i z . C o l l y b i a t e n a c e l l a J a c q . , esculenta P e r s . , and conigena Pers, They are a l l common and occur a l l year round; but personal ly I must admit my i n a b i l i t y to discr iminate them . . . " Favre (1939) i s c redi ted with f i r s t d e l i m i t i n g three d i s t i n c t species using microscopic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and subsequently s t a b i l i z i n g the concept of the three spec ies . From t h i s date onward these three species e a s i l y could be recognized and a s p e c i f i c epi thet could be applied to each. However a ser ies of name changes then followed which added considerable complex-i t y to the European l i t e r a t u r e . Favre (1939) re ta ined the three taxa i n the genus Marasmius and recognized only two species , one with two subspecies, Marasmius conigenus (Pers.) Favre, M. conigenus ssp. esculentus (Wulf.) Favre and M. tenacel lus (Pers.) Favre. Singer (19^3) subst i tu ted the s p e c i f i c epi thet esculenta f o r conigenus, and created the names M, esculentus ssp, p i n i and M, esculentus ssp . t y p i c a . Singer (1951) then t ransfer red both subspecies to the genus Pseudohiatula, a more r e s t r i c t e d genus than Marasmius. However only the t r a n s f e r P. esculenta (Wulf. apud. Jacq. ex. \ F T . ) S inger , r e f e r r i n g to both subspecies p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, has been recorded i n the Index of F u n g i . Metrod ^(1952) r a i s e d a l l three taxa to the s p e c i f i c l e v e l and created 22 the new combinations Pseudohiatula conigena (Pers, ex, F r . ) Met. and P. t e n a c e l l a (Pers. ex. F r . ) Met. Tuomikoski ( 1 9 5 3 ) r e i n t e r p r e t e d F r i e s ' descr ipt ions and came to the conclusion that the s p e c i f i c epithets were being used erroneously. He therefore r e d i s t r i b u t e d the e p i t h e t s . One of the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was that Agaricus conigenus was placed i n synonymy with Agaricus myosurus another conigenous species described by F r i e s and the type species of Baeospora, a d i s t i n c t genus. With just two combinations i n the genus Pseudohiatula to apply to the three species , Tuomikoski created the new name P. f a v r e i Tuom. to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . Tuomikoski's l o g i c i s not general ly accepted and his changes add much confusion to an already complex case. Reid (195*0 maintained S i n g e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Singer, 19^3) of the taxa i n the genus Marasmius but changed the name M, esculenta v a r . t y p i c a to M. esculenta v a r . esculenta . Within the genus Pseudohiatula Moser ( 1 9 5 5 ) preferred to use the s p e c i f i c epithet conigena over esculenta and reduced the two subspecies p r e v i o u s l y r a i s e d to s p e c i f i c l e v e l by Metrod to the v a r i e t a l l e v e l . This necessi tated the c r e a t i o n of the new combination Pseudohiatula conigena (Pers, ex, F r . ) Met. v a r . esculenta (Wulf. ex, F r . ) Moser. Hongo ( 1 9 5 9 ) t reated a l l three taxa i n one species with three subspecies . The new combination P. esculenta (Fr . ) Singer ssp . t e n a c e l l a (Fr . ) Hongo was i n e v i t a b l e . Hora ( i960) v a l i d l y published the new name P. stephanocystis which replaced the name P. conigenus. Hera's change of names i s based upon Kiihner and Romagnesi's 23 : ( 1 9 5 3 ) d e c i s i o n to use t h i s name over that of Agaric us  conigenus which they used f o r the species now known as Baeospora myosura (Fr . ) S inger , Singer (1962b) created the genus S t r o b i l u r u s to which he t ransfer red the three taxa at the s p e c i f i c l e v e l , S. stephanocystis (Hora) Singer , S_. tenacel lus (Pers. ex, F r . ) S i n g , and S. esculentus (V/ulf, apud. Jacq. ex. F r . ) S i n g . Gulden (1966) be l ieved that Kuhner*s and Romagnesi's reasons f o r the c r e a t i o n of the name stephanocystis and therefore Hora's reasons f o r v a l i d a t i o n , are i n v a l i d i n view of the present a p p l i c a t i o n s of the s p e c i f i c epithets to the b i o l o g i c a l s p e c i e s . He therefore proposed the new combination S t r o b i l u r u s conigenus (Pers, ex. F r . ) Gulden. In North America, E l l i s (I876) described Agaricus  conigenoides E l l i s on Magnolia cones and noted s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h i s species to A. ' conigena ' i n Europe. Singer (1951) l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d E l l i s ' species to the genus Pseudohiatula along with the European species discussed p r e v i o u s l y . Singer (1962a) noted that Mycena wyomingensis might be placed i n the genus Pseudohiatula . He then based the new genus S t r o b i l u r u s on A, conigenoides p l a c i n g at that time the three European species i n the new genus (Singer, 1962b). Wells and Kempton ( 1 9 7 1 ) t ransfer red C o l l y b i a a l b i p i l a t a Peck (1895) and Mycena wyomingensis Smith and Arenb. (1941) to the genus S t r o b i l u r u s . At t h i s time they also described three new spec ies , S, kemptonae, S. o c c i d e n t a l i s and S. : \ • l i - g n i t i l i s . However, Joanne Williams at the U n i v e r s i t y of 24 Washington (personal communication) has informed me that S. kemptonae i s synonymous with Gymnopus t r u l l i s a t u s M u r r i l l (1916) f o r which the new combination S, t r u l l i s a t u s ( M u r r i l l ) Williams ( q . v . ) i s being proposed. POSSIBLE EVOLUTIONARY LINES The most common c y s t i d i a l form found among S t r o b i l u r u s species i s a l e c y t h i f o r m or modified l e c y t h i f o r m t h i n - w a l l e d type. These are represented i n a l l species except S. tenacel lus by c a u l o c y s t i d i a or p i l e o c y s t i d i a . The p l e u r o -c y s t i d i a vary more than other c y s t i d i a l forms and each form corre la tes with the substrate f o r each spec ies . S t r o b i l u r u s  l i g n i t i l i s may be considered the species c loses t to the basic stock from which a l l other S t r o b i l u r u s species evolved. I t i s the only species other than S.. a l b i p i l a t u s to posses p l e u r o c y s t i d i a of the commonest and general ized type. In a d d i t i o n S. l i g n i t i l i s colonizes a l a r g e r v a r i e t y of s u b s t r -ates than any other species i n c l u d i n g both angiosperm and coniferous woods. The l i g n i c o l o u s habi ta t u s u a l l y i s considered p r i m i t i v e i n f u n g i . S t r o b i l u r u s a l b i p i l a t u s , i f maintained as a separate species , appears to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to S. l i g n i t i l i s . Both species produce the l e c y t h i f o r m type of p l e u r o c y s t i d i a and both are known to occur on pine cones. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s also appears to be r e l a t e d to S. l i g n i t i l i s . Both species produce capitate p l e u r o c y s t i d i a , r o o t i n g p i l e o c y s t i d i a and both are known to occur on Douglas F i r cones. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s i s the more h i g h l y evolved of the p a i r . It produces unique p l e u r o c y s t i d i a with swollen 25 a p i c a l walls enclosing a resinous mass. The development of the r o o t i n g p i l e o c y s t i d i a , found only i n these two spec ies , i s developed to a greater extent i n S , t r u l l i s a t u s than i n S, l i g n i t i l i s . S t r o b i l u r u s conigenus, S, esculentus and S. o c c i d e n t a l i s form a group that i s more d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to S. l i g n i t i l i s than S, a l b i p i l a t u s or S. t r u l l i s a t u s . S t r o b i l u r u s • o c c i d e n t a l i s i s extremely close to S. esculentus i n p l e u r o -c y s t i d i a l form and h a b i t a t . Both species are only found on spruce cones but S , esculentus i s found only i n Europe and A s i a and S. o c c i d e n t a l i s only i n North America. The walls of the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a from S. o c c i d e n t a l i s are, on the average, thinner than those of S . esculentus (Wells and Kempton, 1971)". The incrus ta t ions of S. esculentus u s u a l l y are coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e where as those of S, o c c i d e n t a l i s are f i n e l y granular to res inous . S t r o b i l u r u s conigenus i s of ten t reated as a variety . -of S. esculentus and vice versa . The p l e u r o c y s t i d i a of S. conigenus are shorter and broader than S. esculentus . In both species the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a l walls tend to become thickened and the incrus ta t ions are p l e n t i f u l and c r y s t a l l i n e , S. conigenoides. S . tenacel lus and S , wyomingensis are a l l d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d to S. l i g n i t i l i s . A l l three produce f u s o i d or ventricose p l e u r o c y s t i d i a but each i s found on i t s own p a r t i c u l a r substrate , S . conigenoides on Magnolia f r u i t s , S. tenacel lus on pine cones and S. wyomingensis on wood. S t r o b i l u r u s tenacel lus d i f f e r s from a l l other species of S t r o b i l u r u s by producing acute p l e u r o - , 26 p i l e o - and c a u l o c y s t i d i a . 27 KEY TO THE SPECIES OF STROBILURUS 1 . Mature p l e u r o c y s t i d i a u s u a l l y capitate or clavate or both. Aborted or immature p l e u r o c y s t i d i a sometimes ventricose . . . , 2, 1. Mature p l e u r o c y s t i d i a u s u a l l y ventricose with acute or obtuse apices . Capitate or subcapitate p l e u r o c y s t i d i a sometimes present i n small numbers i n two species . . . . . . . . 5 . 2. A p i c a l c o l l a r e t t e s present on some or most of the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a . Metachromatic and/or brown t i n t e d contorted long r o o t i n g p i l e o c y s t i d i a l bases u s u a l l y abundant. P i leus u s u a l l y with a p i n k i s h t i n t . S . t r u l l i s a t u s . 2. A p i c a l c o l l a r e t t e s not present on pleurocys-t i d i a . P i l e o c y s t i d i a e i t h e r l a c k i n g r o o t i n g bases or when present only sporadic . P i leus colour v a r i a b l e , never p i n k i s h . 3 . 3 . Mature p l e u r o c y s t i d i a c y l i n d r i c capitate or l e c y t h i -form with the c o n s t r i c t e d neck as long as or longer than the length of the swollen head. Scant resinous incrus ta t ions sometimes present . . . . . 4 . 3 . Mature p l e u r o c y s t i d i a clavate or capitate but b a s i c a l l y l a c k i n g a long neck. Heavy c r y s t a l l i n e incrus ta t ions u s u a l l y present S. conigenus . 4 . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a 27 -38 x 7 - 1 0 u , S . a l b i p i l a t u s . 4 . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a 4 0 - 7 0 - x, 7 . 5 - 1 3 Ji , S. l i g n i t i l i s . 28 P l e u r o c y s t i d i a , c a u l o c y s t i d i a and p i l e o c y s t i d i a a l l narrow f u s o i d and a c u t e , , . . . S, t e n a c e l l u s . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a , c a u l o c y s t i d i a and p i l e o c y s t i d i a mainly broadly ventricose with obtuse to acute a p i c e s . . . . . . 6 . 6 . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a a l l t h i n - w a l l e d , the walls l e s s than 1 jx t h i c k . Incrustations inconspicuous. Known only from wood i n western North America. .S. wyomingensis. 6. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a tending to develop walls up to or greater than 1 jx i n th ickness . Incrustat ions scant to abundant. Res t r i c ted to c o n i f e r or Magnolia cones , 7. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a s c a n t i l y i n c r u s t e d . R e s t r i c t e d to Magnolia cones i n eastern North America. S . conigenoides. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a u s u a l l y h e a v i l y i n c r u s t e d . R e s t r i c t e d to spruce' cones , 8 , 8 . Coarse c r y s t a l l i n e incrus ta t ions u s u a l l y present on the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a l walls of ten 2 - 3 )x t h i c k or greater . R e s t r i c t e d to Europe and A s i a S, esculentus . 8 , Coarse incrus ta t ions l a c k i n g , u s u a l l y res inous . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a l walls u s u a l l y 2 jx or less t h i c k . R e s t r i c t e d to North America , . Sj o c c i d e n t a l i s . 29 S t r o b i l u r u s a l b i p i l a t u s (Peck) Wells and Kempton. 1971. Mycologia 6 3 1 3 7 7 . F i g . 9. Basionym: C o l l y b i a a l b i p i l a t a Peck. 1895 (1897) Rep. State Bot. Ann. Rep. N.Y. State Mus. 49, V o l . 1 :5^ . Synonyms: Gymnopus a l b i p i l a t u s (Peck) M u r r i l l . 1916. N. Amer. F l o r a 9:366. BASIDIOCARP: Peck's d e s c r i p t i o n was as f o l l o w s . The comments w i t h i n brackets are mine: "Pi leus t h i n , convex or nearly plane, sometimes s l i g h t l y depressed i n the center , most minutely pubescent with short hyaline or whit ish h a i r s , brown; lamellae rather broad, rather c l o s e , adnexed, minutely h a i r y on the edge, white ; stem slender , hollow, p a l l i d , adorned with a pulverulent pubescence or somewhat scat tered whit ish h a i r s , terminating i n a f i b r i l l o s e r a d i c a t i n g base; spores minute, e l l i p t i c a l , .00016 to .0002 inch l o n g , .0001 to, .00012 broad [4-5 x 2 .5 -3 ^3. Pi leus 4-to 6 l i n e s broad [16-26 mm}; stem 1 to 2 inches long [2 .5-5 cm], s carce ly h a l f a l i n e t h i c k [ca . 1 mmj Buried pine cones, Albany County [New York3. October. These [the hai rs on the lamellae edges] gradual ly tapering toward the apex which sometimes ends i n a knob or abrupt enlargement. " MICROANATOMY (Type c o l l e c t i o n , NY): Spores ( f i g . 9) 4 . 5 - 5 x 2.25 -3 p, h y a l i n e , nonamyloid, smooth, t h i n - w a l l e d , e l l i p t i c a l to s l i g h t l y arcuate. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 9) s i m i l a r , 27 - 3 8 x 7-10 p, h y a l i n e , with scant i n c r u s t a t i o n s , t h i n - w a l l e d , 30 f u s o i d ventricose with obtuse apices , or l e c y t h i f o r m , or ventr icose with a f i n g e r - l i k e process at the apex. E p i c u t i s c o n s i s t i n g of a palisade of clavate c e l l s embedded i n a gelatinous matrix, c e l l s 3-10 jx wide. P i l e o c y s t i d i a abundant, 55-75 x 9-11 u, h y a l i n e , tapering a p i c a l l y capitalt-e',. , t h i n - w a l l e d or moderately thickened, up to 1.0 ji t h i c k . C a u l o c y s t i d i a abundant, 40-75 x 9-10 JJ., s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a , l e c y t h i f o r m , sometimes truncated at the base, t h i n to moderately thickened w a l l s , 1.5 JA t h i c k . Stipe hyphae s t r a i g h t , p a r a l l e l , simple septate, 3-10 JA i n diameter on the outer cortex . DISCUSSION: Because so l i t t l e mater ia l of the type c o l l e c t i o n was a v a i l a b l e a more d e t a i l e d study cannot be made u n t i l such time as f resh c o l l e c t i o n s are avai lable from eastern North America. S t r o b i l u r u s a l b i p i l a t u s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to S, l i g n i t i l i s ( q . v . ) and may be synonymous. It d i f f e r s by producing shorter p l e u r o c y s t i d i a and c h e i l o c y s t i d i a . In a d d i t i o n the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a tend to be more i r r e g u l a r i n shape. Smith (1938) examined the type c o l l e c t i o n of S, a l b i p i l a t u s . Although no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were described d i r e c t l y from i t , the microscopic and macroscopic appearances were s a i d to be s i m i l a r to those of a c o l l e c t i o n on buried cones made by Smith at Lake Crescent, Washington, Wells and Kempton (1971) and I have examined the l a t t e r c o l l e c t i o n and found i t to be S. l i g n i t i l i s . Smith's i l l u s t r a t i o n s 31 of the c a u l o c y s t i d i a of the type c o l l e c t i o n of S, a l b i p i l a t u s show them to be acute. However when J . Williams (personal communication) and I examined the type c o l l e c t i o n , t h e c a u l o c y s t i d i a were found to be l e c y t h i f o r m . In North America the only species other than S, a l b i p i l a t u s known to occur on pine cones i s S. l i g n i t i l i s . A l l invest igated reports of S_. a l b i p i l a t u s from North America prove to be cases of m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v i n g e i t h e r S, t r u l l i s a t u s or S. l i g n i t i l i s . 3? Strobilurus conigenoides ( E l l i s ) Singer. 1962. Persoonia 2:409. Basionym: Agaricus conigenoides E l l i s , 1876. B u l l . Torr. bot. c l . 6:76. This species i s known only on Magnolia cones from the south—eastern United States. It i s described i n d e t a i l by Singer (19621?) and i l l u s t r a t e d and described by Horak ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Hesler ( i 9 6 0 ) shows an excellant photograph of the basidio-carps on Magnolia cones. Strobilurus conigenoides has frequently been reported on conifer cones, but most reports are based on m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . M i l l e r (1972) reports i t on Picea cones. Strobilurus occidentalis which occurs on Picea cones produces s i m i l a r p l e u r o c y s t i d i a and actually may be the fungus M i l l e r observed. SPECIMENS EXAMINED: UNITED STATES, GEORGIA. Cuthbert, Oct. 21, 1902, on cones of Magnolia grandiflora R.M..: Harper # 1766b, (BPI). TENNESEE. Indian Camp Creek, Great Smokey Mts., Aug. 30, 1938, A.H. Smith # 10655. (Mich.). WEST VIRGINIA. Mingo, Sept. 3. 1933. on Magnolia fraseriy. c o l . C L . Shear, (BPI). 33 Strobilurus conigenus (Pers, ex, Fr.) Gulden. 1966, Nytt. Mag. Bot. Basionym: Agaricus conigenus Pers, ex. Fr. 1821. Syst. Myc. 1:132. This species i s described i n d e t a i l by Favre (1939), Gulden (1966) and Reid ( 1 9 5 4 ) . Gulden (1966) gives a l i s t of most synonyms. Strobilurus conigenus i s known only from Europe and Asia on pine, cones, SPECIMENS EXAMINED: BOHEMIA. Two co l l e c t i o n s i n 1905 by F. Bubak on pines. (BPI). ENGLAND. Heath and Reach (Bedfordshire), A p r i l 18, 1953, on buried pine cone (DAOM # 4 2 0 5 2 ) ; May 14, 1955, (DAOM # 4 2 9 1 9 ) ; Bletchley, Bucks, A p r i l 18, I960, on pine cones, (DA0.M # 74817); A p r i l 16, 1965, (DAQM # 1 1 3 4 3 7 ) . GERMANY (?). As C o l l y b i a esculenta. May, 1924, i d . P. Sydow, Sydow # 2251, Mycotheca germanica (BPI); as Agaricus  esculentus 9 A p r i l 24, 1916, Krieger, Fungi saxonici # 24l4, i d . G. Feurich, (BPI). ITALY (?). As C o l l y b i a esculenta, 1922, 1924, 1899, i d . Bresadola. (BPI). SWEDEN. Uppsala, Uppland, May 16, 1946, (DAOM # 65310). 3** S t r o b i l u r u s esculentus (Wulf. ex. F r . ) S inger . 1962. Persoonia 2:409. Basionym: Agaricus esculentus Wulf, ex, F r , 1821. S y s t . Myc. 1:131. Favre (1939), Gulden (1966) and Reid ( 1 9 5 * 0 described t h i s species from Europe. Gulden (1966) gives a l i s t of the synonyms. S t r o b i l u r u s esculentus i s the only species other than S, t r u l l i s a t u s and S. l i g n i t i l i s known to occur on Douglas F i r cones. Usual ly i t i s only found on spruce cones. Reid (195*0 noted that there were a number of p e c u l i a r i t i e s associated with t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . My exam-i n a t i o n of the c o l l e c t i o n confirms Reid 's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Reid (personal communication) informs me that the two other species of S t r o b i l u r u s found i n England have not been found on the imported Douglas F i r . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: ENGLAND. Nickleham, Oct . 19*+5, on Douglas F i r cone, H. 1372/73, (KEW). GERMANY (?) . On (?) spruce cones, 189*1-, Herbaier Fuckel # 2098, (BPI). ITALY (?) . As C o l l y b i a  conigena. Feb. 1923, i d . Bresadola, (BPI). SWEDEN. Bondkyrka P a r i s h , Uppland, A p r i l 22, 1946, (DAOM # 65313); Uppsala, Botanical Garden, Oct . 26, 1946, # 65309); J a r l a s a , Sept. 22, 1945, (DAOM # 6 5 3 1 1 ) . 35 S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s Wells and Kempton 1 9 7 1 ..Mycologia 6 3 : 3 7 5 . F i g . 3 - 5 , 1 0 , 18, 2 0 . I l l u s t r a t i o n : Wells and Kempton ( 1 9 7 1 ) , F i g s . 3 , a-c. BASIDIOCARP: P i l e u s ( f i g . 18 , 2 0 ) 5-24 mm broad, convex to plane or s h a l l o w l y c o n i c a l , depressed with age, margin i n r o l l e d i n i t i a l l y , subhygrophanous to hygrophanous, wholly t r a n s l u c e n t or m a r g i n a l l y t r a n s l u c e n t s t r i a t e when moist, darker towards the center i n moist or f u l l y d r i e d specimens, v a r y i n g extremely i n c o l o u r from c o l l e c t i o n to c o l l e c t i o n , ranging from "vinaceous b u f f " to "greyish s e p i a " to " s e p i a " or white, dry, unpolished, rugulose, densely pruinose with white c y s t i d i a . Lamellae white, close to distant., 2 - 3 t i e r e d , 1 5 - 2 0 reaching the s t i p e , edge even, adnate to adnexed, moderately broad. S t i p e proper up t o 4 cm long, up to 2 . 5 mm wide, dry, densely pruinose, hollow with age, s t u f f e d , with or without a pseudorhiza, pseudorhizae up to 6 cm long, s t i p e white at the apex, "sienna" or "umber" b a s a l l y , pseudorhiza covered w i t h a pale "ochreous" coloured f l o c o s s i t y . Taste m i l d ; odor nondescript; l a t e x not n o t i c e d ; colour changes not as s o c i a t e d with i n j u r i e s . MICROANATOMY: Spores ( f i g . 1 0 ) 3 - 7 V 5 x 1 . 5 - 3 . 5 u, e l l i p s o i d to s u b l a c r y -moid, smooth, t h i n - w a l l e d , h y a l i n e , white i n mass, nonamyloid. B a s i d i a 1 7 - 2 5 x 2-4 . 5 u, c l a v a t e , 4 spored. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a 36 X f i g . 4,5) scat tered to abundant, c y l i n d r i c c a p i t a t e , to l e c y t h i f o r m to ventricose with obtuse apices , t h i n - w a l l e d or o c c a s i o n a l l y t h i c k wal led , s c a n t i l y incrusted with a resinous substance, 40-70 x 7.5-13 p . C h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 5,6) abundant, s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a . G i l l trama composed of s u b p a r a l l e l hyaline hyphae, simple septate , i n f l a t e d , t h i n - w a l l e d , 4-15 p wide. E p i c u t i s a palisade of c lavate , sphaeropedunculate or globose hyaline c e l l s , 20-45 x 7.5-24 p , in terrupted by the occasional giant c e l l up to 60 p long and 30-42 p broad with contorted bases, P i l e o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 3»*0 abundant, s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o -c y s t i d i a , long t i b i i f o r m , capitate c y l i n d r i c , minutely i n c r u s t -ed mostly o r i g i n a t i n g with the e p i c u t i c u l a r c e l l s , occasion-a l l y deeply r o o t i n g with a brown t i n t e d base but not to the same extent as S, t r u l l i s a t u s , p r o j e c t i n g port ions h y a l i n e , 5^-135 x 6-18 p . Context hyphae s i m i l a r to the g i l l trama hyphae. Outer cortex of the s t ipe 20-35 p wide, composed of p a r a l l e l hyphae 3-5 y wide, with brown t i n t e d walls up to 2 )i thick; ' Interior cortex hyphae of two types ; mainly 3-20 )i wide, p a r a l l e l , s ingle septate, t h i n - w a l l e d , angular i n cross section, with 0-20 scat tered gloeovessels i n any one segment, gloeovessels p a r a l l e l to unmodified hyphae, round i n cross s e c t i o n , with dense highly r e f r a c t i v e contents, 7-15 M i n diameter. Medullary hyphae interwoven, simple septate , branched, 2-3 p wide, C a u l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 3) abundant, scattered to clumped, s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a , 70-170 x 6,5-20 ji, tapering a p i c a l l y from a 3 7 sometimes truncated base to a capitate head, s c a n t i l y i n c r u s t e d , moderately t h i c k walled at times, 1 - 2 u t h i c k . Pseudorhizal hai rs moderately abundant, interspersed with c a u l o c y s t i d i a , walls brownish, 4 - 7 u broad, smooth, t h i n - w a l l e d , up to 1 ju t h i c k , non-septate, r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t , interwoven, with obtuse apices . HABITAT, OCCURENCE AND RANGE : On cones of Pseudotsuga menzies i i and Pinus s p . , coniferous and deciduous wood, debris and humus. Aug. -Nov. A l a s k a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Ontar io , Quebec. SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. A l i c e Lake Park, Oct . 2 1 , 1 9 7 3 , on bur ied mound of Pseudotsuga menzies i i s c a l e s , S . A . R . # BB 5? on f a l l e n l i c h e n incrusted Douglas F i r cone, S . A . R . # BB 3 ; C a t h e d r a l . Grove, Vancouver I s l a n d , Oct. 6 , 1 9 7 3 , on Douglas F i r cones, S . A . R . # AN 1 4 ; on coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # AN 1 7 ; on f a l l e n Douglas F i r cones, S . A . R . # AN 3 ; on s o i l , S . A . R . # AN 1 2 ; on twigs and cones of Douglas F i r , S . A . R . # AN 9 , AR 1 0 ; The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Sept . 2 8 , 1 9 7 3 , on Douglas F i r cones, S . A . R . s . n . ; 15 miles west of Port A l b e r n i , Vancouver I s . , near Hwy. # 4 , Oct . 7 , 1 9 7 3 , on coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # AP 5 ; on buried mound of Douglas F i r s c a l e s , S . A . R . # AP 1 1 ; 30 miles east of the Tofino-UcLuelet Hwy. on Hwy. # 4 , Oct . 6 , 1 J 9 7 3 , on buried wood, S . A . R . # AM 3 ; U . B . C . Research Forest Haney, Sept. 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 , on coniferous d e b r i s , c o l . M. Rabas 38 and T . T a y l o r . ONTARIO. Long P o i n t . Lake Timagami, Sept . 12, 1936, on ground, (DAOM # 48480); Bear I s , , Lake Timagami, Sept. 8, 1936, (DAOM # 8 0 6 1 2 ) . QUEBEC. S t . Aubert , Sept . 26, 19^6, on pine needles, (DAOM # 17127); S t . Aubert , Sept, 19, 1946, on r o t t i n g stump, (DAOM # 17126). UNITED STATES, WASHINGTON. Whitman County, Sept. 28, 1947, on pine cone s c a l e s , (WS # 30001, i n p a r t ) ; Spokane County, Nov. 13, 1948, (WS # 29953)5 Whitman County, Nov. 28, 1948, (WS # 2 9 9 9 9 ) ; Spokane County, Nov. 13, 1948, (WS # 2 9 9 4 9 ) ; Spokane County, Nov. 23, 19^8, (WS # 29998); Lake Crescent, A . H . Smith # 3028, (Mich. ) . IDAHO. Latah County, Oct . 9, 1948, (WS # 3 0 0 0 5 ) ; Latah County, (WS # 29951); Latah County, Oct. 2, 1948, (WS # 30008). ALASKA. Anchorage, Sept . 25, 1965, Wells and Kempton # 2757 (Type of S. l i g n i t i l i s ) . (Mich). CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS; Multispore i s o l a t e s grew wel l on MYS at 1 5 ° C i n 12 hr l ight/12 hr dark. Basidiospores germinated w i t h i n 12 h r . Growth rates were comparable to those of S. t r u l l i s a t u s ( q . v . ) Abundant f loccose white a e r i a l hyphae were produced i n some subcul tures . Others appeared e i t h e r e n t i r e l y or p a r t i a l l y water soaked. Brown t i n t s developed with age i n some subcul tures . The mycelium consisted of septate branched hyphae with t h i n w a l l s . The septa were simple but with dolipore appa-tuses . The hyphae were 1 .5 -5 p broad, averaging broader i n the a e r i a l hyphae than the submerged hyphae. Thin-wal led 39 •swellings up to 7.5 p i n diameter developed o c c a s i o n a l l y . DISCUSSION: S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s colonizes a l a r g e r v a r i e t y of substrates than any other species i n the genus. Wells and Kempton (1971) report i t growing on buried wood of Betula p a p y r i f e r a Marsh, and other u n i d e n t i f i e d deciduous and coniferous woods or l i t t e r . Smith (1938) records the species (as C o l l y b i a a l b i p i l a t a ) on buried cones i n western Washington. C o l l e c t i o n s I examined also occured on cones of Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Pinus s p , , and on buried wood, twigs, l i t t e r or humus. Three c o l l e c t i o n s , inclusive&of ' the most robust specimens seen, were made from basidiocarps growing on buried masses of cone s c a l e s . These mounds c o n s i s t i n g almost e n t i r e l y of Douglas F i r cone s c a l e s , appeared to have been made by rodents. The macroscopic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S t r o b i l u r u s  l i g n i t i l i s are also more var iable than those of any other species i n the genus. The p i l e u s colour var ies from colony to colony. Two c o l l e c t i o n s from L i t t l e Qualicum F a l l s Park on "Vancouver Island were taken from separate Douglas F i r cones not more than 10 cm apart . Both were i n the same exposure and l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . Each c o l l e c t i o n had young and o ld p i l e i but a l l the p i l e i from one c o l l e c t i o n were white or near white and a l l those from the other c o l l e c t i o n were brown and dark brown. M i c r o s c o p i c a l l y the two c o l l e c t i o n s were v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . There appear \o be brown, smoky grey and white v a r i e t i e s of t h i s spec ies . 40 S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s i s a common fungus i n western North America. Frequently i t i s found growing next to S, t r u l l i s a t u s with which the l i g h t e r v a r i e t i e s may be confused. 41 S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s Wells and Kempton. 1971. Mycologia 63:372 F i g . 6 - 8 , 11. I l l u s t r a t i o n s ! Wells and Kempton (1971). F i g s . 2, a -c . BASIDIOCARP: P i leus 3-9 mm broad, convex or s l i g h t l y umbonate; i n i t i a l l y with incurved margins, subhygrophanous, "vinaceous b u f f " , " h a z e l " or "greyish s e p i a " to white ; margins t ranslucent s t r i a t e , darker towards the center , t h i n and p l a i n t ; surface dry, unpolished, smooth to rugulose . Lamellae white, adnate to adnexed, c l o s e , edges even, moderately broad, up to 24 reaching the s t i p e , 2-3 t i e r e d . Stipe proper up to 5 cm long , 1-2 mm wide becoming hollow, s t u f f e d , pruinose to almost glabrous, with or w i t h -out a pseudorhiza, hyaline at the apex, "cinnamon" to "umber" below, tapering down; pseudorhiza, up to 6 cm l o n g , covered with a pale "ochreous" coloured f l o c c o s i t y . MICROANATOMY: Spores ( f i g . 11) 4-6 x 2-3 u, h y a l i n e , white i n mass, nonamyloid, t h i n - w a l l e d , smooth, c y l i n d r i c - e l l i p s o i d . P l e u r o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 6,7) abundant, 35-^5 x 9-12 j i , ventricose with obtuse apices , or f u s o i d vent r i cose , or r a r e l y capitate to subcapitate (mainly t h i c k walled c y s t i d i a involved i n these cases) , t h i n to t h i c k walled, walls f requent ly 2 )x t h i c k , o c c a s i o n a l l y up to 3.5 u, and unevenly thickened, o c c a s i o n a l l y g r e a t l y thickened below the apex and then t h i n n i n g out r a p i d l y at the apex, h e a v i l y incrusted with a resinous and granular substance often forming a large globose head. C h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 6) abundant, s i m i l a r to 42 i E e p l e u r o c y s t i d i a , 35-^2 x 6-11 ja. E p i c u t i s composed of a palisade of clavate c e l l s , 10-20 x 4-10 jx, h y a l i n e , embedded and covered up to 5 deep i n a gelatinous matrix . P i l e o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 7) s ca t tered , infrequent , 20-30 x 9-10 jx tapering a p i c a l l y , c a p i t a t e . C a u l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 8) abundant, 40-95 x 10-13 )x, tapering from a truncated base to a capitate apex, o c c a s i o n a l l y noncapitate , and shor ter , sometimes c l u s t e r e d . B a s i d i a c lavate , 15-20 x 3-5 )x, 4 spored. Sterigmata up to 3 )i l o n g , s t r a i g h t . G i l l trama composed of s u b p a r a l l e l , simple septate hyphae, 3-11 )x wide, h y a l i n e , nonamyloid. Context hyphae s i m i l a r to g i l l trama hyphae. Stipe hyphae s t r a i g h t , p a r a l l e l , anastomo-s ing f r e q u e n t l y . Outer cortex hyphae 2-5 )x broad, t h i c k wal led . Inner cortex hyphae of two types; mainly t h i n -walled, p a r a l l e l , h i g h l y vacuolate , simple septate, 4-11 p wide; c y l i n d r i c h i g h l y r e f r a c t i v e gloeovessels present, p a r a l l e l to the unmodified hyphae. Medullary hyphae i n t e r -woven 2-3 )x wide, widely spaced simple septate , Pseudorhizal hairs l o n g , r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t , mattedy smooth, t i n t e d brown, nonseptate, 4-6 u wide, walls 1.5 JX t h i c k , or l e s s , s w e l l i n g at the base to 10 j i , apices obtuse, or c o r a l l o i d when contact ing some substrates . HABITAT, OCCURENCE AND RANGE s On cones of Picea s i t c h e n s i s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Alaska and P. glauca (Moench) Voss i n A l a s k a . 1-4 b a s i d i o -carps per cone, Sept. - Nov. SPECIMENS EXAMINED 8 i t CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. A l i c e Lake Park, Nov. 3, 1973, ^3 on buried Picea s i t c h e n s i s cones, S . A . R . # BC 6; on exposed Picea s i t c h e n s i s cone, S . A . R , # BC 2; Flood p l a i n near Squamish, Nov. 3 , 1973, on deeply buried Picea s i t c h e n s i s cone, S . A . R . # BC 8. UNITED STATES, ALASKA. Alyeska , Sept, 18, 1969, on Picea cones, Wells and Kempton # 4297 (Type m a t e r i a l ) , (Mich), CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS: Multispore i s o l a t e s grew wel l on MYS at 1 5 ° C i n 12 hr l i g h t/12 hr dark. Basidiospores germinated w i t h i n 12 h r . Growth rates were comparable to those of S. t r u l l i s a t u s ( q . v . ) . Few or no a e r i a l hyphae were produced by various subcul tures . Colony colours ranged from white to creamy white. Colonies f requently appeared water soaked. The mycelium consisted of septate branched hyphae with t h i n w a l l s . The hyphae were 1,5-5 u broad, simple septate, with dolipore apparatuses v i s i b l e i n Congo Red i n 3 % KOH s o l u t i o n , DISCUSSION: S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s has been found i n two loca t ions i n B r i t i s h Columbia but i s probably common where spruce are more abundant. It was found on spruce cones adjacent to other spruce cones with Baeospora myosura and Douglas F i r cones with S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s . 44 S t r o b i l u r u s tenacel lus (Pers. ex. F r . ) S inger . 1962. Persoonia 2:409. Basionym; Agaricus tenacel lus F r . 1821. S y s t . Myc. 1:131. Descr ipt ions are supplied by Favre (1939), Gulden (1966) and Reid (195*0. Gulden • (1966) gives a l i s t of synonyms. This species i s known only from Europe and A s i a on pine cones. SPECIMENS EXAMINED: .BOHEMIA. As C. conigena, 1904, i d . F . Bubak. (BPI). ENGLAND. Oxfordshire , Mar. 29, 1964, on pine cones, (DAOM # 107778): B l e t c h l e y , Bucks, A p r i l 18, i 9 6 0 , on pine cones, (DAOM # 7^817). GERMANY (?) . As C o l l y b i a esculenta , i d . K a r l K e i s s l e r ; As G. esculenta , i d . Van der Lets (?) ( s c r i p t ) , (BPI). ITALY (?) . Two specimens as C. conigena, i d . Bresadola, 1901 and 1923, (BPI). SWEDEN. Uppsala, Uppland, June 22, 19*1-6, (DAOM # 65312); Bergsbrunna, Uppland, Aug, 15, 19^8, (DAOM # 65308). 45 S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s ( M u r r i l l ) Joanne Williams comb. nov. F i g . 1,2,12,13,19,22,2 Basionym: Gymnopus t r u l l i s a t u s M u r r i l l . 1916. North America. F l o r a 9 0 6 7 . Synonyms: C o l l y b i a t r u l l i s a t a ( M u r r i l l ) M u r r i l l . 1916 Mycologia 8:219. S t r o b i l u r u s kemptonae Wells , 1971. Mycologia 63:371. I l l u s t r a t i o n s : Smith (1938), F i g . 3 , d , r , ; Wells and Kempton (1971), F i g . 1, a -c . BASIDIOCARP: P i leus ( f i g , 19,22 , 2 3 ) 5 - 2 0 mm broad, convex to plane, center depressed and edges turned up i n robust o ld specimens, subhygrophanous to hygrophanous, t ranslucent s t r i a t e wholly or marginal ly , white to pale "peach", "salmon" or " s ienna" , center darker when moist, l i g h t e r when p a r t i a l l y dr ied and darker when f u l l y d r i e d , smooth or rugulose, densely pruinose, dry , unpolished, margins even, i n r o l l e d when young, s t r a i g h t to upturned with age, o c c a s i o n a l l y s p l i t . Lamellae white or pink t i n t e d , 2-3 t i e r e d , 12-18 reaching the s t i p e , adnexed, c l o s e , moderately broad, edges even. St ipe up to 5 cm l o n g , 2 mm broad, dry, densely pruinose, u s u a l l y with a pseudorhiza, becoming hollow, s t u f f e d , white at the apex, pale " lu teous" , " s ienna" , "umber" or "cinnamon" b a s a l l y ; pseudorhiza 5 cm or less l o n g , covered with a "s ienna" to "orange" f l o c c o s i t y . 46 Taste m i l d ; odor nondescript ; la tex not n o t i c e d ; no colour changes associated with i n j u r i e s . MICROANATOMY: Spores ( f i g . 12,13) e l l i p s o i d , 3-6 x 1 . 5 - 3 . 5 j i , t h i n -wal led , smooth, h y a l i n e , white i n mass, rioiamyloid. B a s i d i a c lavate , 4 spored, 13-26 x 2-5 p. Sterigmata s t r a i g h t , up to 3 /A l o n g , very narrow. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 1) abundant, c y l i n d r i c to clavate to broadly l e c y t h i f o r m with a s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d apex, u s u a l l y with an a p i c a l c o l l a r e t t e formed by the apparent ruptur ing or d i s s o l u t i o n of an outer wal l layer over the apex which enclosed a mass of resinous to f i n e l y granular material (an ' i n c r u s t a t i o n ' ) , t h i n - w a l l e d or thickened s l i g h t l y , up to 2 p t h i c k , th inning abruptly towards the apex a f te r the c o l l a r e t t e , 27-60 x 5 -1^ p» with or without a globose resinous head. C h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 1) abundant, s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a , c y l i n d r i c , c lavate , l e c y t h i f o r m , or f u s o i d ventricose with an obtuse apex, with or without an a p i c a l c o l l a r e t t e , with or without resinous i n c r u s t a t i o n s , 23 - 4 5 x 6-10 p. G i l l trama composed of s u b p a r a l l e l s l i g h t l y interwoven, simple septate hyphae. Hyphae sometimes swollen, branched, 3-10 p i n diameter, t h i n - w a l l e d , const r i c ted or not at the septa . E p i c u t i s a palisade of c lavate , sphaeropedunculate or globose c e l l s , 5-30 x 12-25 ja, h y a l i n e , t h i n - w a l l e d , embedded i n a c l e a r gelatinous matrix . P i l e o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 2) abundant, s i m i l a r to the p l e u r o c y s t i d i a but e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g c o l l a r e t t e s , 42-85 x 5-13 long narrow f u s o i d ventricose to t i b i i f o r m , 4? s c a n t i l y i n c r u s t e d , hyaline on the p r o j e c t i n g p o r t i o n , hyaline to brown t i n t e d on the emersed base, with a very contorted deeply root ing base on most but not a l l p i l e o -c y s t i d i a . Context hyphae s i m i l a r to those of the g i l l trama. Outer cortex of the s t ipe up to 30 u t h i c k , composed of p a r a l l e l simple septate hyphae, 2-10 u wide with brown t i n t e d walls up to 2 ji t h i c k . Inner cortex hyphae of two types ; mainly 2-25 /J- wide, p a r a l l e l , simple septate , t h i n - w a l l e d , h y a l i n e , angular, with large vacuoles ; with 0-20 scat tered gloeovessels running through any one plane, p a r a l l e l to unmodified hyphae, t h i n - w a l l e d , c y l i n d r i c , s o l i d with dense h i g h l y r e f r a c t i v e contents d i f f e r e n t i a l l y s t a i n i n g i n c r e s y l b l u e . Medullary hyphae interwoven, t h i n -walled, branched, simple septate, 2-2.5 u wide. C a u l o c y s t i d i a ( f i g . 2) abundant, 23-100 x 6.5-15 u, tapering from the truncated base up to the capitulum, s c a n t i l y i n c r u s t e d , t h i n or t h i c k wal led , up to 3.7 t h i c k , sometimes c l u s t e r e d . Pseudorhizal hairs abundant, intermixed with c a u l o c y s t i d i a , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the pseudorhiza. Hairs up to 15 mm l o n g , smooth, nonseptate, mostly unbranched, with walls 0.5-1.5 p t h i c k , brownish, matted, forming branched c o r a l l o i d processes at t h e i r apices upon contact ing some objects , otherwise with obtuse apices , mostly 4-6 jx wide, s w e l l i n g at the base to 15 u, o c c a s i o n a l l y clasped at the base by contorted f i n g e r - l i k e hyphal processes. HABITAT, OCCURENCE AND RANGE: On cones of Pseudotsuga menzies i i and r a r e l y Pinus . 48 1-11 basidiocarps per cone. Sept. - Nov. B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, C a l i f o r n i a . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. On Pseudotsuga menzies i i cones, Cathedral' . Grove, Vancouver I s . , Oct . 6, 1973» S . A . R . # AN 15 and AN 11; P a r k s v i l l e , Vancouver I s . , Oct . 8, 1973, S . A . R . # AT 5; Near Hwy. #3 west of Manning Park before the Hope-Princeton s l i d e , Oct. 13, 1973, S . A . R . # AV 4; U . B . C . Research Forest Haney, Sept. 23, 1973, c o l . M. Rabas and T . T a y l o r ; U . B . C , Sept. 15, 1973, S . A . R . # AG 17; Sept. 9, 1973, S . A . R . # AE 1; Sept. 28, 1973, S . A . R . # AD 12b; Sept. 23, 1972, S . A . R . s . n . ; Camp E l p h i n Stone, Gambier I s . , Sept. 29, 1962, c o l . J . A . McDonald; Cordova Bay, Saanich, Vancouver I s . , Oct . 25, 1952, (DAVFP # 9 0 6 7 ) ; Haney, Oct . 23, 1952, (DAVFP # 8 3 6 2 ) ; V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s . , Nov. 1957, (DAOM # 5 7 6 1 4 ) ; Braefor t , Vancouver I s . , Nov. 12, 1942, (DAOM # 1 1 2 3 9 ) ; Sidney, Vancouver I s . , Sept. 24, 1965, (DAOM # 1 1 0 4 6 1 ) ; Bowser, Vancouver I s . , Oct . 9, 1952, (DAOM # 4 5 0 2 4 ) ; Saanich, Vancouver I s . , Oct. 25, 1952, (DAOM # 4 5 0 4 5 ) . UNITED STATES, WASHINGTON. M a r y s v i l l e , Nov. 1928, c o l . J . M . Grant (BPI); M a r y s v i l l e , Oct . 1923, c o l . J . M . Grant (BPI); M a r y s v i l l e . Oct . 1924, c o l . J . M . Grant, (BPI); Whiteman County, Sept . 28, 1947, (WS # 30001, i n part) on Pinus cone s c a l e s ; Spokane County, Oct . 2, 1948, (WS # 3 0 0 0 6 ) ; Latah County, Nov. 24, 1946, (WS # 3 0 0 0 4 ) ; Moscow M t s . , Latah County, Sept . 23, 1959, (WS # 4 9 2 2 7 ) ; Mt. Spokane, Spokane County, Oct. 1967, (WS # 58188); 49 Stevens County, Oct . 2, 1948, (WS # 3 0 0 0 7 ) ; Whitman County, Nov. 26, 19^8 (WS # 3 0 0 0 0 ) ; Shelton A i r p o r t , Oct. 1968, on Douglas F i r cones, Wells and Kempton # 2721, (Type of S. kemptonae), ( M i c h ) . ; S e a t t l e , Oct . 20 - Nov. 1, 1911, W.A. M u r r i l l # 439, (Type of Gymnopus t r u l l i s a t u s ) , (NY), prepared s l i d e of J . W i l l i a m s . IDAHO. Winchester, Lewis County, Nov. 2, 1947, (WS # 30003); Nez Perce National Forest , Idaho County, Sept. 20, 1947, (WS# 2 9 9 5 0 ) ; Nez Perce County, Sept . 19, 1947, (WS # 3 0 0 0 2 ) ; V o i l a , Latah County, Sept. 23, 1959, (WS # 4 9 1 1 6 ) . CALIFORNIA. Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , Santa C l a r a , Oct . 12, 1901, (WS # 2 3 7 8 7 ) . CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS s Isolates obtained from spore deposi ts , p i leus t i ssue and s i n g l e spores grew w e l l on MYS at 15 and 2 0 ° C . Basidiospores germinated w i t h i n 12 h r . Maximum vegetative growth rates were observed at 20° C when a colony covered a Petr ie dish 9 cm i n diameter i n 4-5 weeks. Slow growth was observed at 4 ° C. A e r i a l hyphae were produced more abundantly at warmer temperatures (15-20° or higher) than at temperatures below 1 5 ° C. Colony colours var ied from pure white to cinnamon with age. Colony edges grew i r r e g u l a r l y on occasion and appeared feathery . Basidiocarps formed s p o r a d i c a l l y i n Petr ie plate and s lant tube cultures at 15 and 2 0 ° C under 12 hr l i g h t A 2 hr dark condit ions . , Primordia formed i n t o t a l darkness but were not observed to sporulate or expand t h e i r caps. Sporula t ion was observed only at 1 5 ° C. Developing basidiocarps aborted or grew 50 abnormally when they contacted a e r i a l hyphae. Colonies producing quant i t ies of a e r i a l hyphae did not form b a s i d i o -carps. Basidiocarps at tained t h e i r maximum height when Petr ie plate cul tures were f l o a t e d on water i n large containers . Basidiocarps up to 10 cm long were produced but a l l toppled over owing to t h e i r s p i n d l y growth. Pseudor-h i z a l hairs formed up to h a l f way up the s t i p e . The growth of these hai rs was determinant .v. ; Hairs were 5 mm or less i n l e n g t h . P i leus colours var ied from white to cinnamon with age. P i n k i s h t i n t s were not n o t i c e d . The dimensions of a l l microscopic s tructures f e l l w i t h i n the ranges described for basidiocarps produced i n nature. However the average s ize of the e p i c u t i c u l a r c e l l s increased. T y p i c a l " i n c r u s t a -t i o n s " were formed. These did not occur on as many p l e u r o -c y s t i d i a as d id those from nature and, corre la ted with t h i s fac t fewer p l e u r o c y s t i d i a had c o l l a r e t t e s . Rooting p i l e o c y s t i d i a formed but d id not develop brown t i n t s u n t i l the p i l e i were over - r ipe and becoming brown themselves, Basidiocarps were not produced by monospore i s o l a t e s under i d e n t i c a l condit ions as used f o r the f e r t i l e s t r a i n s from which they were obtained, Basidiocarps continued to be formed from one contaminated Petr ie plate from the end of September 1973 to May 197*+. M i c r o s c o p i c a l l y and macro-s c o p i c a l l y monospore and multispore i s o l a t e s were i d e n t i c a l . The hyphae ranged from '(1.5^) 3-*+ (-7) fi i n diameter, were a l l simple septate with dolipore apparatuses, h y a l i n e , t h i n -walled, f requent ly branched, with occasional i n t e r c a l a r y 51 s w e l l i n g s . No c o n i d i a or clamp connections were formed. M y c e l i a l growth occured on s t e r i l i z e d cones of Picea sp, and Pseudotsuga menzies i i and s t e r i l i z e d whole wheat .at 15 and 20° G. No basidiocarps formed. DISCUSSION: A number of species i n the S t r o b i l u r u s complex have been reported on Douglas F i r cones i n North America. However when the specimens upon which the reports are based have been re-examined they a l l have proven to be S. t r u l l i s a t u s . Z i l l e r (1957) reported C o l l y b i a a l b i p i l a t a (S, a l b i p i l a t u s ) on Douglas F i r cones i n B r i t i s h Columbia and l a t e r (1958) reported C_. conigenoides (S, conigenoides) on the same substrate i n B r i t i s h Columbia. On the basis of these reports these host-fungus records were included by Conners (1967), Lowe (1969) and Shaw (1973). Both specimens have been examined and proved to be S. t r u l l i s a t u s . Kauffman (1925) reported C, a l b i p i l a t a on Douglas F i r cones i n Oregon, This specimen has been examined by Wells and Kempton (1971) and i d e n t i f i e d as S. kemptonae, a synonym of £>. t r u l l i s a t u s . Z e l l e r (1929) records C, conigenoides on Douglas F i r cones i n Oregon. No basidiocarps are now present i n the specimen packet designated as the voucher specimen. The small spore s ize and the habitat suggest S. t r u l l i s a t u s and not S_, conigenoides. Davidson (1930), reported C. conigenoides on Douglas F i r cones i n Vancouver, B . C . No specimens have been examined but a l l c o l l e c t i o n s on Douglas F i r cones from Vancouver prove to be S. t r u l l i s a t u s 52 or o c c a s i o n a l l y S. l i g n i t i l i s . Most of these erroneous reports probably stem from e a r l i e r m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s such as those of Peck (1895) and Kauffman (1918) made i n a time when microscopic d e t a i l s were just coming into common use. Wells and Kempton (1971) were the f i r s t to describe S. t r u l l i s a t u s on Douglas F i r cones i s d e t a i l and thus properly define i t . Their name (S_. kempt onae Wells) proves to be a synonym of Gymnopus t r u l l i s a t u s M u r r i l l ( 1 9 1 6 ) , This was f i r s t not iced by Joanne Williams at the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington during her studies of M u r r i l l * s type c o l l e c t i o n s . Her s l i d e s of the type were k i n d l y loaned to me and I confirmed her c o n c l u s i o n . The new combination S t r o b i l u r u s  t r u l l i s a t u s ( M u r r i l l ) J . Williams has yet to be publ ished , S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s i s an extremely common fungus i n south-western B r i t i s h Columbia. Except f o r one c o l l e c -t i o n from Washington, i t i s found only on Douglas F i r cones. In a s ingle herbarium c o l l e c t i o n examined basidiocarps were found to be attached by t h e i r bases to pine cone s c a l e s . 53 S t r o b i l u r u s wyomingensis (Arenb. and Smith) Wells and Kempton, 1971. Mycologia 63:378. Basionym: Mycena wyomingensis Arenberg. and Smith. 19*1-1. Mycologia 33'50. This species i s known only from the type l o c a l i t y . It has been described and i l l u s t r a t e d by Arenberg (19*+1) and Smith (19*+7). SPECIMENS EXAMINED: UNITED STATES, WYOMING, U n i v e r s i t y of Wyoming, Summer Science camp. Snowy Range, Medicine Bow M t s . , June 21, 1938, on r o t t i n g wood, F . P . Arenburg # 1, (Syntype of Mycena  wyomingensis), (Mich). 5k Xeromphalina c a u t i c i n a l i s (Fr . ) Kiihn. and Maire 1 9 3 ^ . B u l l Soc. Mycol , F r . 5 0 : 1 8 . Basionym: Marasmius c a u t i c i n a l i s With, ex, F r . I 8 3 8 . E p i c r . P. 383. This species has been described i n d e t a i l and i l l u s t r a t e d from the western United States by M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) . It has been recorded on needles of Douglas F i r , Hemlock, Western White Pine and on cones of Douglas F i r , In B r i t i s h Columbia th is species has been found on c o n i f e r wood, needles and cones of Western White Pine (Pinus monticola D o u g l . ) . SPECIMENS EXAMINED: CANADA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Cathedral Grove, Vancouver I s . , Oct, 6, 1 9 6 3 , on coniferous d e b r i s , S . A . R . # A N 1 , AN 5; A l t a Lake, Sept, 8 , 1 9 7 3 on needles and cones of Pinus  monticola . S . A . R . # AF 1 8 . 55 MYC0GEOGRAPHY OF CONIGENOUS BASIDIOMYCETES Six obligate conigenous agaric spec ies ; Strobulurus  conigenus, S. esculentus, S, t e n a c e l l u s , Baeospora myosura, Mycena s t r o b i l i c o l a and M. s e y n i i , as wel l as one hydnaceous species , Auriscalpium vulgare occur i n Europe and A s i a . However only two, B. myosura and A. vulgare , are found i n N. America. Presumably B. myosura and A. vulgare are e i t h e r bet ter adapted f o r long range d i s p e r s a l , thus maintaining a flow of genes, or are g e n e t i c a l l y more stable than S t r o b i l u r u s and Mycena spec ies . Both a l t e r n a t i v e s seem f e a s i b l e . The l a t t e r i s supported by the facts that although there i s only one species each of Baeospora and Auriscalpium i n h a b i t i n g cones, there are s i x conigenous S t r o b i l u r u s species and two Mycena spec ies . In s p i t e of the the v a r i e t y of conigenous substrates a v a i l a b l e , there has been no d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n e i ther Baeospora or Aur isca lpium . The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e , that of maintaining a flow of genes between the cont inents , i s also indica ted at l e a s t i n the case of Baeospora myosura. Baeospora myosura i s the only species known to produce large numbers of c o n i d i a . These c o n i d i a o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e means of d i s p e r s a l . Baeospora  myosura i s also the only agar ico id species to produce minute amyloid spores. Amyloid spores may be considered an advantage. Dodd and McCracken (1972) suggested that the amyloid mater ial w i t h i n the walls of fungal spores acts as an oxygen b a r r i e r to slow the metabolizing of food reserves, thus lengthening the v i a b i l i t y l i f e span of the spores. This hypothesis i s based on t h e i r discovery that the amyloid 56 __materials i n the spore walls are short chain amylose molecules s i m i l a r to plant starches which i n h i b i t oxygen passage. Dodd and McCracken also noted that the amylose was soluble i n cold water. This would be b e n i f i c a l to the fungus once the spores s e t t l e d i n a s u i t a b l y moist environment. Because of i t s amyloid spores B. myosura may have a greater chance ' of s u r v i v i n g long journeys than the nonamyloid spores of S t r o b i l u r u s spec ies . Although the Mycena species both produce amyloid spores, they do not at the same time produce minute spores which perhaps would enhance long distance d i s p e r s a l . The absence of the European Mycena species i n North America also may be due to a time f a c t o r . The c o n i -genous Mycena species are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a large group of l i g n i c o l o u s species and may not have had s u f f i c i e n t time since t h e i r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n to disperse . F i n a l l y Aurisalpium vulgare i s known to produce minute amyloid spores s i m i l a r t o Baeospora myosura which may account f o r i t s wide d i s t r i b u t i o n . 57 SUMMARY Four obligate conigenous agarics have been discovered i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S ix a d d i t i o n a l l i g n i c o l o u s f l e s h y basidiomycetes have been found also on cones i n t h i s province. The genus S t r o b i l u r u s as out l ined by Singer (1962b) i s thought to be a natural genus with a common ancestor. The lack of clamp connections i n the vegetative hyphae supports S i n g e r ' s d e l i m i t a t i o n of the genus. The presence of gloeovessels i n at l e a s t three species also supports the d e l i m i t a t i o n of the genus. P l e u r o c y s t i d i a c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s are thought to be the best d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features of each spec ies . Baeospora myosura, the type species of Baeospora, produced c o n i d i a i n pure c u l t u r e . The c o n i d i a l state appears to be an undescribed S p o r o t h r i x - l i k e s t a t e . 58 LITERATURE CITED Arenberg, F . F , 194 -1 . Agarlcaceae from the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming. Mycologia 33 s 50-53. Bresadola, J . 1928, Iconographia mycologica. V o l . V. No. 214(2), Soc ie ta Botanica I t a l i a n a , Museo C i v i c o d i S t o r i a Naturale di Trento . M e d i o l a n i , Conners, I . L . 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases i n Canada. Canada Dept. A g r i c . P u b l . 1251. 381 p . Cooke, M.C. 1881-1883. I l l u s t r a t i o n s of B r i t i s h F u n g i . V o l . I I . Williams and Northgate. London. Cunningham, J . L . 1972. A miracle mounting f l u i d f o r permanent whole-mounts of microfungi . Mycologia 64: 906-910. Davidson, J . E . 1927. Agaricace.ae of Vancouver D i s t r i c t . Master of Arts Thes is , Dept. Biology, Univ . B . C . . 1930. Notes on the Agaricaceae of Vancouver (B .C. ) D i s t r i c t - I . Mycologia 22: 80-93. Dodd, J . L . and D . A . McCracken. 1972. Starch i n f u n g i : Its molecular s tructure In three genera and a hypothesis concerning i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l r o l e , Mycologia 64: 1341-13^3. E l l i s , J . B . I876. New fungi found at New F i e l d , New Jersey. B u l l . T o r r . bot . C l . 6: 75 - 7 7 . Favre, J . 1939. Les champignons collybio ' ides des cones des resineuses . Schweiz. Z . P i l z k , 17s 162-168, 178-182. F r i e s , E , 1821, Systema mycologicum. V o l . 1. E . B e r l i n g , Lund. Graham, V . O . 1 9 ^ . Mushrooms of the Great Lakes r e g i o n . The Chicago Academy of Sciences and The Chicago Natural H i s t o r y Museum. Chicago. 390 p, 49 p i . Gulden, G. 1966, Cone- inhabi t ing agarics, , with s p e c i a l reference to Norwegian m a t e r i a l , Nyt t . Mag. Bot. 13 : 39-55. H a l l , D. and D . E . Stuntz . 1971. P i l e a t e Kydnaceae.. of. the Puget Sound area.. I . White-spored genera: Auriscalpium, Hericium, Dentinum and Phellodon. Mycologia 63: 1099-1128. ' 59 —Harrison, K . A , 1961, The S t i p i t a t e hydnums of Nova S c o t i a . Canada Dept. A g r i c . P u b l . 1099. 60 p . Hennig, B. 1964. Handbuch f u r P i l z f r e u n d e . V o l . I I I . H e l l b l a t t e r und L e i s t l i n g e . Gustav F ischer V e r l a g , Jena. 286 p . 295 f i g . Hesler , L . R . i 9 6 0 . Mushrooms of the Great Smokies, Univ . Tenn. Press . K n o x v i l l e , 289 p . Hongo, T . 1959. The agaricales of Japan. Mem. Fac. l i b . Arts Educ. Shiga U n i v . , nat . S c i . 9 : 47-94. Hora, F . B . i 9 6 0 . New check l i s t of B r i t i s h agarics and b o l e t i . Part 4. Trans. B r i t . Myc. Soc. 43: 440-459. Horak, E , 1968. Beitrage zur kryptogamenflora der Schweig. V o l . 13, Synopsis generum Agar ica l ium. Druckeri Buchler Co AG. Wabern-Bern. 741 p . Imazeki, R. and T . Hongo. 1957. Coloured i l l u s t r a t i o n s of fungi of Japan. Hockusha. Osaka, Japan. 181 p . 76 p i . Jahn, H, 1962, Mauseschwanz (Baeospora) und Nagelschw'amme (Pseudohiatula) i n Westfalen, Natur und Heimat 22: 65-69. Kauffman, C H , 1918, The Agaricaceae of Michigan. Mich. G e o l . B i o l , Survey, B i o l . Ser . 5. P u b l . 26. . 1925. The fungus f l o r a of Mount Hood with some new spec ies . Pap. Mich. Acad. S c i . 5 ' 115 - 1 ^ 8 . K l e i n , R. 1935-36. De Kegel-Mycena. Fungus 7: 50, Kuhner, R. 1938. Le Genre Mycena. Encyclopedie Mycologique 10: 1 - 7 1 0 . Paul L e c h e v a l i e r . P a r i s , Kuhner, R. and H. Romagnesi, 1953. F lore Analytique des Champignons Super ierurs , Masson i t C i e , P a r i s . 557 p . Lowe, D . P , 1969. Check l i s t and host index of b a c t e r i a fungi and mistletoes of B r i t i s h Columbia. Forest Research Laboratory, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Information Report BC-X-32. Dept. F i s h e r i e s and Forestry* L u n d e l l , S. 1937. Three undescribed vernal agar ics , Mycena  v e r n a l i s H, v . Post i n S h e d . , Cl i tocybe verna Egeland i n Sched. and Entoloma vernum. Svensk Bot. T i d s k r . 31: 186-195. Marr, C D . and^D.E. Stuntz . 1973, Ramaria of western Washington, Biblotheca Myc. , Bd. 38. J . Cramer, West Germany. 232 p . 60 M c l l v a i n e , C. and R .K. MacAdams. 1902. One thousand American f u n g i . 2 nd. ed, Bowen-Merril l Co, Indianapol is , 729 p . Metrod, G. 1952, Les C o l l y b e s . Rev. Mycol . 17s 60 -93 . M i l l e r , O.K. 1968. A r e v i s i o n of the genus Xeromphalina. Mycologia 60: 156-188. . 1972. Mushrooms of North America, E . P , Dutton and Co. N.Y. 360 p . 108 p i . 108 f i g s . Moser, M, 1955. Helmont Gam's Kleine Kryptogamenflora von Mit te leuropa . ed. 2 I I . b , M u r r i l l , W.A. 1916. North Amer, F l o r a 9 : 296-37*+. Peck, C H . 1895 (1897). Rep. State Bot. Ann. Rep. N.Y. State Mus. 49. V o l . 1 . p . 19-83 . Pegler , D . N . and T.W.K. Young, 1971. Basidiospore morphology i n the A g a r i c a l e s , Nova Hedwigia. Beihefte 35. J . Cramer. West Germany. 210 p . 53 p i . Plowright , C B . I 8 9 6 . Notes and comments on the a g a r i c i n i of Great B r i t a i n . Trans. B r i t . Mycol . Soc. Is 37-46. Rayner, R.W, 1970, A mycological colour char t . Commonwealth Mycological I n s t i t u t e , Kew, Surrey. Reid , D . A . 195*+. The Marasmius "conigenus" i n B r i t a i n . Kew B u l l . 195*+. p . 279-288. Shaw, C G . 1973. Host fungus index f o r the P a c i f i c northwest. I, Hosts . Washington A g r i c . E x p t l . S t a , B u l l . 765. 1 Singer , R. 19*+3. Das System der Agaricales I I I , Ann. Myc. *+l: 1-189. ' . 19*+9 (1951). The Agaricales (Mushrooms) i n modern ; taxonomy. L i l l o a 22s I - 8 3 2 . . 1962a. The Agaricales i n Modern Taxonomy. 2 nd. • ed. J , Cramer. West Germany, 915 p . 73 p i . ,1962b. New genera of fungi - V I I I , Persoonia 2 : *+07-*+15. . 1972, Cyanophilous spore walls i n the Agaricales and a g a r i c o i d Basidiomycetes, Mycologia 64s 822-829. Smith, A . H . 1938. New;and unusual agarics from North America I . Mycologia 30s 20-41. 61 . 19*1-7. North American species of Mycena. Univ . Mich. Press . Ann Arbor . 521 p . S n e l l , W.H. and E . A . D i c k . 1971. A Glossary of mycology. 2 nd, ed. Harvard Univ . Press, Cambridge. Tuomikoski, R, '1953. Notes on F i n n i s h Agaricales I I . Cone-dwelling a g a r i c s . Kars tenia 2: 28-30. Velenovsky, J . 1920. Ceske Houby. D i l . I I : 201-424. Wells , V . L . and P . E . Kempton. 1971. Studies on the f l e s h y fungi of Alaska V. The genus S t r o b i l u r u s with notes on e x t r a l i m i t a l species , Mycologia 63: 370 -379. Z e l l e r , S . M . 1929. C o n t r i b u t i o n to our knowledge of Oregon fungi I I I . Mycologia 21: 97-111. Z i l l e r , W.G. 1957. Fungi of B r i t i s h Columbia deposited i n the herbarium of the Forest Biology Laboratory, V i c t o r i a , B . C . , Canada. . 1958. Fungi of B r i t i s h Columbia deposited i n the herbarium of the Forest Biology Laboratory, V i c t o r i a , B . C . , Addit ions f o r the year 1958. 62 'F ig . 1. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s . ( S . A . R . # AN 1 5 ) . p l e u r o c y s t i d i a (PL), c h e i l o c y s t i d i a ( C H ) , surface l e v e l of the hymenium (bracketing l i n e s ) . 63 64 F i g . 2. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s . ( S . A . R . # AN 1 5 ) . caulocystidium (CA), p i l e o c y s t i d i a (PI) , surface l e v e l of the e p i c u t i s (bracketing l i n e s ) . 65-25 66 r P i g . 3 . S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s . (S.A.R. # BB 5 ) . c a u l o c y s t i d i u m (CA), p i l e o c y s t i d i u m ( P I ) , surface l e v e l the e p i c u t i s ( b r a c k e t i n g l i n e s ) . 67 CA 68 F i g . k. S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s , ( S . A . R . # AR 9). p l e u r o c y s t i d i a (PL), p i l e o c y s t i d i u m (PI), surface l e v e l s of e i t h e r the hymenium or the e p i c u t i s (bracketing l i n e s ) . 69 70 F i g . 5. S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s . ( S . A . R . # BB 5 ) . p l e u r o c y s t i d i a (PL), c h e i l o c y s t i d i a (CH), surface l e v e l of the hymenium (bracketing l i n e s ) . 72 iF ig . 6 . S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s , ( S . A . R . # BC 8 ) . p l e u r o c y s t i d i a (PL), c h e i l o c y s t i d i a (CH), surface l e v e l of the hymenium (bracketing l i n e s ) . 74 FjLg-. 7. S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s , (S . A.R. # BC 6). p l e u r o c y s t i d i a (PL), p i l e o c y s t i d i u m (PI), s u r f a c e l e v e l s o f e i t h e r the hymenium or the e p i c u t i s ( b r a c k e t i n g l i n e s ) . 75. 76 F i g . 8 . S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s . ( S . A . R . # BC 8 ) . c a u l o c y s t i d i a (CA), •77. 78 F i g . 9. S t r o b i l u r u s a l b i p i l a t u s , (type c o l l e c t i o n of C o l l y b i a a l b i p i l a t a Peck), c a u l o c y s t i d i a (CA), p l e u r o -c y s t i d i a (PL), p i l e o c y s t i d i u m (PI), basidiospores (SP). F i g . 10. S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s , (holotype, 2 7 5 7 ) . basidiospores . F i g . 11. S t r o b i l u r u s o c c i d e n t a l i s , (holotype, 4 2 9 7 ) . basidiospores . F i g . 12. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s , (holotype of S_. kempt onae, 2 7 2 1 ) . bas idiospores . F i g . 13. S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s . germinated b a s i d i o -spores on MYS at 1 5 ° C a f t e r 24 h r s . F i g . 14. Baeospora myosura. c o n i d i a and conidiophores from cul ture (CO), clamped hypha from culture (HY). 80 ' f i g . 15. Mycena sp . ( S . A . R . # BB 9). c h e i l o c y s t i d i a (CH), basidiospores (SP), 82 -Fig . 16. Mycena e p i p t e r y g i a on a Mountain Hemlock cone, ca . 1.5 x. F i g , 17. Baeospora myosura on a S i t k a Spruce cone, mm scale present . F i g . 18. S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s on a Douglas F i r cone, ca , 1 x. F i g . 19. Basidiocarp of S. t r u l l i s a t u s i n c u l t u r e , mm scale present . F i g . 20. S t r o b i l u r u s l i g n i t i l i s on a Douglas F i r cone, ca, 1 x. P i g . 21. Ramaria p i n i c o l a on buried coniferous wood, ca . 1 x. P i g . 22. Basidiocarp of S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s i n c u l t u r e , mm scale present . P i g . 23, S t r o b i l u r u s t r u l l i s a t u s on Douglas F i r cone, ca . j/k x. F i g . 24. Conidia of Baeospora myosura. ca . 1,000 x F i g . 25. Conidia of B. myosura. c a . 1,000 x. F i g . 26. Clamp connection of B. myosura. c a . 1,000 'x. 

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