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The passage of Bill 39 : reform and repression in British Columbia’s labour policy Knox, Paul Graham 1974

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THE PASSAGE OF BILL 39:  REFORM AND REPRESSION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA'S LABOUR POLICY by PAUL GRAHAM KNOX B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed w ithout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 50, 1974 i . ABSTRACT The B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e passed i n 1947 a new I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act. The act i n s t a l l e d at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l the modern system of labour r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n of labour unions, a labour r e l a t i o n s board and the government-supervised s t r i k e vote. The act was passed by a c o a l i t i o n government of L i b e r a l s and Conservatives, i n response to a wave of s t r i k e s the preceding year which c r i p p l e d , among others, the province's f o r e s t and mining i n d u s t r i e s . The l e g i s l a t i o n i n c o r -porated many r e s t r i c t i o n s on union a c t i v i t y sought by business spokesmen and gave a l e g a l basis to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l status sought by union leaders. This study examines the passage of B i l l 39 i n r e l a t i o n to three themes: the importance of cl a s s structure i n the p o l i t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia, the r o l e of the state i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , and the development of the west coast labour movement. The c l a s s and economic st r u c t u r e of the province during the 1940s i s outlined and some l i n k s are shown between heavy dependence on resource e x t r a c t i o n and low-level processing and the high incidence of labour unrest. The cl a s s bases of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s are i s o l a t e d and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n d u s t r i a l s tructure discussed. This material forms the background for a h i s t o r y of the wartime and post-war struggles between labour and employers i n B.C. The s t r i k e s of 1946 are shown to have prompted employers to press the government f o r r e s t r i c t i v e labour l e g i s l a t i o n . Considerable a t t e n t i o n i s also paid to the a r t i c u l a t i o n of working-class demands f o r s e c u r i t y and to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between labour leaders and the C o a l i t i o n labour minister, George Pearson. The d i s c u s s i o n of the passage of B i l l 39 and i t s aftermath shows how the influence of r u r a l Tory elements i n the C o a l i t i o n led to the demise of the reformist t r a d i t i o n of the depression premier, Duff P a t t u l l o . The i i . i n f l u e n c e of the labour s i t u a t i o n on the e l e c t i o n of a successor to Premier John Hart i s d iscussed, and some i n s i g h t i n t o the work ings of the c o a l i t i o n government i s gained through an examinat ion of the government 's r e a c t i o n to a n t i - B i l l 39 s t r i k e s and p r o t e s t s . The conc lud ing chapter draws on examples f rom the preced ing h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , to show t h a t the s t a t e i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y must c o n t a i n c lass c o n f l i c t , through v a r i o u s l y r e f o r m i s t or rep ress i ve methods, w i t h o u t c h a l l e n -g ing the system of wage-labour and p r o f i t . The r o l e of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the cab ine t , the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly, the government bureaucracy and the j u d i c i a r y i n t h i s process i s ana lyzed. F i n a l l y , the response of the labour movement to s t a t e a c t i o n i s d iscussed, and i t i s suggested t h a t r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have ye t t o reso lve i n p r a c t i c e the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n between work ing -c lass des i res f o r s e c u r i t y and the need f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l and economic change which they pe rce ived . i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Notes to i n t r o d u c t i o n 6 1 . COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AS AN INSTITUTION IN CANADA . 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 A. Two i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s systems 7 1 . The Wagner Act system • 7 2. "Employee r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " - the King system 9 3. Expansion of the King system 12 4 . The King and Wagner systems combined 13 B. The war and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n Canada 14 1 . Federa l ism and labour l e g i s l a t i o n . . ; 14 2. Ea r l y f e d e r a l wart ime labour p o l i c y 16 3. P.C. 1003: the Wagner Act system r e f i n e d 19 4 . - Post-war developments 22 Notes to chapter 1 24 2. THE BACKGROUND TO CLASS CONFLICT AND POLITICS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. . . 27 I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 A. The c lass s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1941-51 27 B. Class r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the 1947 l e g i s l a t u r e 33 C. Pre-war and wart ime labour r e l a t i o n s i n B.C 44 Notes t o chapter 2 49 3. THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: SKIRMISHES 52 I n t r o d u c t i o n 52 A. The demand f o r un ion s e c u r i t y 52 B. P o l i t i c a l a c t i o n : to co-opera te or no t to c o - o p e r a t e ? . . ^.J. . . . 58 C. The f i r s t labour lobby 63 i v . Notes t o chapter 3 70 4 . THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: BATTLES - I 74 I n t r o d u c t i o n 74 A. American Can: the maintenance of p r o d u c t i o n 74 B. The second labour lobby : the employers get a n g r i e r 77 Notes to chapter 4 85 5. THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: BATTLES - I I 87 I n t r o d u c t i o n 87 A. The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y 89 B. The foundr ies 98 C. The Prov ince 101 D. The meta l mines 103 Notes to chapter 5 110 6. THE GOVERNMENT REACTS: THE PASSAGE OF BILL 39 117 I n t r o d u c t i o n 117 A. Tension i n the c o a l i t i o n 118 B. A government pressured 120 C. B i l l 39: a l i b e r a l ' s de fea t 124 Notes to chapter 6 134 7. REPRESSION REFINED: THE AFTERMATH OF BILL 39 138 I n t r o d u c t i o n 138 A. The f i r s t cha l lenge 138 1 . P r e l i m i n a r i e s 138 2. The Nanaimo laundry s t r i k e 142 B. The second cha l lenge 145 V . 1 . The government t r i e s again 145 2. Pearson goes on s t r i k e . . . 146 3. The s tee lworkers 1 case 148 4 . A new m i n i s t e r : back to square one 150 C. Labour and the L i b e r a l s 153 D. The amendment of B i l l 39 1 5 6 Notes t o chapter??. 162 8. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION 1 7 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n ^1 A. P o l i t i c s and c lass c o n f l i c t : the economic base 171 1 . The c a p i t a l i s t resource economy 171 2. I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n the c a p i t a l i s t resource economy.. . 172 B. P o l i t i c s , c lass c o n f l i c t and the s t a t e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . . 177 1 . The s t a t e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y I 7 7 2. Reform and rep ress ion •. 1^1 a . The L i b e r a l s . 1 8 2 b. The Conservat ives 184 3. Methods 1 8 5 a . The execu t i ve -. l 8-> b. The assembly ^ 2 c. The bureaucracy 1^3 d . The j u d i c i a r y 194 C. The un ion movement l ^ 8 1 . The c r a f t - i n d u s t r i a l s p l i t 1 9 8 2. The communist - s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c s p l i t 200 Notes to chapter 8. 2 0 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 1 6 V I . APPENDIX: THE UNION SHOP 226 Notes t o appendix 230 v i i . LIST OF TABLES Table 2 - 1 : Class s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n , 1941-51 29 Table 2-2 : Occupat iona l and c lass composi t ion of B.C. l e g i s l a t u r e , 1947.35 Table 2-3: Occupations of B r i t i s h Columbia c a b i n e t , 1947 37 Table 3 - 1 : Union s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s i n Un i ted Steelworkers of America c o n t r a c t s , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1945-8 55 v i i i . LIST OF FIGURES F igure 2 - 1 : D i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t y support i n B r i t i s h Columbia accord ing to r e s u l t s of 1945 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n 39 F igure 5 - 1 : Person-days l o s t i n s t r i k e s , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938-48 90 F igure 5 -2 : S t r i k e s i n Canada causing t i m e - l o s s exceeding 10,000 person-days, 1946 91 F igure 5 -3 : S t r i k e s i n Canada causing t i m e - l o s s exceeding 100,000 person-days, 1946 92 F igure 5-4 : S t r i k e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, . .1946 93 INTRODUCTION This i s a study of the passage i n 1947 of B r i t i s h Columbia 's I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t , and of amendments t o i t i n 1948. Three o broad themes are d e a l t w i t h . One i s the impact of c lass c o n f l i c t upon the p o l i t i c a l process and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The second i s the development of labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y by the s t a t e i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . F i n a l l y , the study deals to some ex ten t w i t h the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s of the labour movement i n Canada's westernmost p r o v i n c e . Outside the academic sphere i t i s g e n e r a l l y taken f o r granted t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia's o f t e n t u r b u l e n t p o l i t i c a l scene i s v i t a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by c l a s s c o n f l i c t . Academic w r i t e r s too have c o n s t a n t l y found i t necessary t o t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to c lass d i v i s i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . "On the West Coas t , " says one, " t h e main cleavage i s c lass and occupa t iona l i n n a t u r e , between the labour w o r l d and the w o r l d of t he m idd lec lass and b i g business".- ' - Says ano ther , d e s c r i b i n g the 1940s: "More than ever - b e f o r e , B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h g rea t c a p i t a l i s t s and w i t h a l a r g e l a b o u r i n g f o r c e i n i t s m i d s t , was a c l a s s - d i v i d e d s o c i e t y . " 2 The e f f e c t of the c lass cleavage on the p o l i t i c a l system has a lso rece ived some a t t e n t i o n . Thomas Sanford suggests t h a t c lass c o n f l i c t p layed a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n the emergence o f the p a r t y system: I n d u s t r i a l unres t and the r e f u s a l o f the banks to f i nance the p r o v i n c i a l government any longer pushed the f a c t i o n a l managers of the p o l i t i c a l system towards an i n t r o d u c t i o n of p a r t y l i n e s . ^ M a r t i n Robin argues t h a t the "extreme a c q u i s i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m " of c a p i -t a l i s t s and the " s t r o n g c o l l e c t i v i s m " o f the labour and s o c i a l i s t movements have l e f t a " legacy of c lass o p p o s i t i o n " , ^ render ing the p r o v i n c e ' s p o l i t i c s " w h i t e - h o t " . For t h i s reason, he says, success fu l govern ing p a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia must "man ipu la te , r a t h e r than e l i m i n a t e " c lass c o n f l i c t . - ' 2. Other w r i t e r s have c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to the absence of " t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and a . shared p a s t " which i n o ther s o c i e t i e s have the e f f e c t of med ia t ing c lass c o n f l i c t s . ^ A l a c k of p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n i n much of t h i s work has l e f t the t h e s i s t h a t c lass c o n f l i c t i s the dominant f o r c e i n B.C. p o l i t i c s open to c r i t i c i s m . ' ' While c r i t i c s of the t h e s i s have ye t t o come up w i t h conv inc ing p roo f t h a t i t does not a p p l y , i t s proponents — mot i va ted by j u s t i f i a b l e moral outrage a t c e r t a i n episodes i n the p r o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y — o f t e n s u b s t i t u t e a k i n d o f robber -baron demonology f o r an e x p l o r a t i o n of the s u b t l e t i e s of c lass s t r u c -Q t u r e and i t s e f f e c t on p o l i t i c s . This study de f ines s o c i a l c lasses by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the means of p r o d u c t i o n . I t suggests t h a t much i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s has i t s bas is i n c o n f l i c t sur round ing the wage r e l a t i o n s h i p and the a t tendan t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and labour un ion ism. The overwhelming numer ica l predominance of the p r o l e t a r i a t and the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of independent commodity p r o d u c t i o n he igh ten the importance of labour p o l i c y i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . A lso c r i t i c a l i s the importance of resource e x t r a c t i o n and l o w - l e v e l process ing i n the r e g i o n a l economy.9 The l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y i n i s o l a t e d areas generates i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t which has a p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t . More i m p o r t a n t , the compe t i t i on f o r wor ld markets i n which resource i n d u s t r i e s must engage produces a d e s i r e f o r u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r o d u c t i e n a t the cheapest labour r a t e p o s s i b l y more i n tense than i n more advanced and d i v e r s i f i e d economies. The demands of resou rce -based c a p i t a l i s m played a prominent i f not c r u c i a l r o l e i n the development of the p a r t y system and of s t a t e labour p o l i c y . Any broad conc lus ions must be regarded as t e n t a t i v e s ince the study covers a l i m i t e d p e r i o d of t i m e . But the evidence shows t h a t the issues sur rounding the wage r e l a t i o n s h i p p layed a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n c e r t a i n events of major s i g n i f i c a n c e to the p o l i t i c a l system. 3. I f c lass c o n f l i c t p lays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n p o l i t i c s , a more complex ques t ion i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s t a t e to s o c i a l c lasses and the p o l i t i c a l system. The r e l a t i v e "autonomy" of the s t a t e i s a constant sub jec t of debate among p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s . The i n c r e a s i n g power of the bureaucracy and the r e c r u i t m e n t of members of d i v e r s e c lasses i n t o the s t a t e system are thought by some to absolve the s t a t e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s f rom the charge t h a t i t i s a " t o o l of the b o u r g e o i s i e . " I n h i s M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s o f the modern c a p i -t a l i s t s t a t e , Ralph M i l i b a n d chal lenges t h i s v i e w . l ^ M i l i b a n d a l lows t h a t the s t a t e possesses a degree of autonomy, and t h a t the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of democracy are more than j u s t a bourgeois p l o t . But he shows t h a t s t r u c t u r a l pressures on the s t a t e , i n terms o f i t s personnel and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r a c t i o n , make i t an agency f o r the maintenance of the c o n d i t i o n s under which the c a p i -t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n may t h r i v e . I n the area of labour r e l a t i o n s , M i l i b a n d says, t h i s f u n c t i o n d i c t a t e s a p o l i c y of " r o u t i n i s a t i o n of c o n f l i c t " to make i t more manageable, and economic c o n d i t i o n s thus more p r e d i c t a b l e , so the economic system based on wage labour may be p e r p e t u a t e d . H W r i t e r s on B r i t i s h Columbia have noted a " c l o s e connect ion between economic development and p o l i t i c a l l o n g e v i t y , and d iscuss ions of s t a t e labour p o l i c y i n Canada emphasize the dominion and p r o v i n c i a l "p reoccupat ion w i t h a t tempt ing to prevent s t r i k e s or l ockou ts by l e g i s l a t i v e means". These would appear t o i n d i c a t e a t l e a s t p a r t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of M i l i b a n d ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e i n the case of B r i t i s h Columbia. The present study lends more weight t o t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . While there were c o n f l i c t s among sec t i ons o f the c a p i t a l i s t c lass and components o f the s t a t e system on s t r a t e g i c ques t i ons , the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y was the maintenance of the c o n d i t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . I n d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -t i o n of the passage of a p a r t i c u l a r p iece of l e g i s l a t i o n , I have t r i e d to show how the d i f f e r e n t elements of the s t a t e system help f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . 4. The f i n a l theme of the study concerns the development of B r i t i s h Columbia's labour^movement. Unions represent the economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of the work ing c l a s s . They were o r i g i n a l l y formed to f i g h t f o r r e l i e f f rom the oppress ive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of wage labour through increased wages and work ing c o n d i t i o n s . I n B r i t i s h Columbia the resource economy produced un ion m i l i t a n c e and p o l i t i c a l awareness i n a number of w a y s . ^ The u n i o n s ' power de r i ved i n i t i a l l y f rom the p o t e n t i a l . f o r c o l l e c t i v e w i thd rawa l of l abour . But du r i ng the 1930s and 1940s the makers of s t a t e labour p o l i c y g r a d u a l l y came to see the advantages of a system of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n which s t a t e s a n c t i o n was g iven to un ion a c t i v i t y i n r e t u r n f o r the acceptance by the labour movement of a r o l e i n the maintenance of the c o n d i t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . Union leaders d i d not r e a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s change i n the bas is of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s because they were preoccupied w i t h wo rk ing -c lass demands f o r " s e c u r i t y " a t the end of the war. The d i v i s i o n s i n the un ion movement between c r a f t and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and between communist, s o c i a l democrat ic and l i b e r a l e lements, s i m p l i f i e d the task of employers who pressured the government t o pass r e s t r i c -t i v e labour laws. Chapter 1 of t h i s study i s a background chapter designed t o acquain t the reader w i t h the h i s t o r y of labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c i e s i n Canada and the Un i ted S ta tes , and t o show the i n f l u e n c e of f e d e r a l wart ime p o l i c y on i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n Canada. Chapter 2 descr ibes the c lass compositon of B r i t i s h Columbia du r ing the 1940s and compares i t w i t h t h a t of the l e g i s l a t u r e which passed the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act* of 1947, showing the o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of bourgeois and p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s elements i n the l e g i s l a t u r e and d iscuss ing the c lass and r e g i o n a l bases of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Also inc luded i n Chapter 2 i s a b r i e f h i s t o r y of unionism and labour r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r i o r to the end of the Second World War. Chapter 3 begins the s t o r y of the un ions ' post -war d r i v e f o r s t a t u s and 5. s e c u r i t y , emphasizing i t s importance t o un ion l e a d e r s . I t a lso descr ibes the f o rma t i on of the second B r i t i s h Columbia Federa t ion of Labour, the f i r s t c o n f l i c t s between communists and s o c i a l democrats over p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y , and the f e d e r -a t i o n ' s a t tempts to get favourab le l e g i s l a t i o n through backroom c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the c o a l i t i o n government. Chapter 4 cont inues t h i s n a r r a t i v e up to mid-1946, i n c l u d i n g m a t e r i a l which i l l u m i n a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between business and govern-ment and helps e x p l a i n the economic bas is of labour p o l i c y . I n Chapter 5 the c r i p p l i n g s t r i k e s of 1946 are desc r i bed , w i t h emphasis on the r o l e they played i n lead ing B r i t i s h Columbia's employers to seek rep ress i ve labour l e g i s l a t i o n f rom the government, and i n lead ing the government t o be r e c e p t i v e to t h i s p ressure . Chapter 6 descr ibes the tens ions w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n government du r i ng the post-war yea rs , be fo re t e l l i n g the s t o r y of the passage of the I n d u s t r i a l Con-c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act ( B i l l 3 9 ) . The b i l l s i g n i f i e d the de fea t of re fo rm l i b e r a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a development which was conf i rmed when the labour m i n i s t e r , George Pearson, res igned i n the f a l l of 1947. Chapter 7 t e l l s the s t o r y of t h i s and o ther developments which f o l l o w e d the passage of the a c t . A s e r i e s of chal lenges t o the l e g i s l a t i o n came not on ly f rom the un ion movement bu t a l so f rom the cou r t s and the L i b e r a l p a r t y i t s e l f . The issue of government labour p o l i c y p layed an impor tan t r o l e i n the December, 1947 l e a d e r -sh ip convent ion c a l l e d to p i c k a successor t o the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n p remier , John H a r t . The v i c t o r y of rep ress ion over re fo rm i n government p o l i c y was conf i rmed i n A p r i l 1948 w i t h the passage of amendments to the ac t which s t r e n g t h -ened i t s r e s t r i c t i v e c lauses . F i n a l l y , Chapter 8 o f f e r s some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the events sur rounding the post -war con t roversy over labour p o l i c y . I t a t tempts to h i g h l i g h t s i g n i f i c a n t developments which tend t o be submerged by the o f t e n - t o r t u o u s n a r r a t i v e . I t o f f e r s a number of conc lus ions concerning c lass c o n f l i c t and p o l i t i c s , s t a t e labour p o l i c y i n a resource-based c a p i t a l i s t economy, and the development of the un ion movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 6 , Notes to i n t r o d u c t i o n .1 Thomas Sanford, The p o l i t i c s of p r o t e s t : the Co-opera t ive Commonwealth  Federa t ion and the Soc ia l C r e d i t League i n B.C., PhD t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ( p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , 1961, 44. 2 Margaret Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a h i s t o r y , Vancouver: Macmi l lan , 1971, 486. 3 Sanford, op. c i t . , 72-3 . 4 M a r t i n Robin, " B r i t i s h Columbia: the p o l i t i c s o f c lass c o n f l i c t , " i n M a r t i n Robin, e d . , Canadian p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , Scarborough: P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1972, 29, 40. 5 M a r t i n Robin , "The s o c i a l bas is of p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , 72 (1966) : 689-690. 6 E. R. B lack , " B r i t i s h Columbia: the p o l i t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n " , i n R.A. Shearer, ed . E x p l o i t i n g our economic p o t e n t i a l : p u b l i c p o l i c y and the  B r i t i s h Columbia economy, Toronto : H o l t R inehar t & Winston, 1968, pp. 28-9 . See a lso Sanford , op. c i t . , 54. 7 See Mark Sproule-Jones, " S o c i a l C red i t and the B r i t i s h Columbia e l e c t o r a t e , " B.C. S tud ies , 12 (1971-2) : X 34-45; r e j o i n d e r by E. R. B lack , 46-8 ; r e j o i n d e r by M a r t i n Robin, 49-50; r e p l y to r e j o i n d e r s , 5 1 - 2 ; Donald E. B lake, "Another look a t Soc ia l C r e d i t and the B r i t i s h Columbia e l e c t o r a t e " , i b i d . , 53-62. 8 See Alan Ca i rns , "The study of the p r o v i n c e s : a rev iew a r t i c l e , " B.C.  S tud ies , 14 (1972): 73-82 and Alan Cairns and M a r t i n Robin , "Comment", B.C. S tud ies , 16 (1972-3) : 77-82. 9 See S tuar t Jamieson, "Regional f a c t o r s i n i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t : the case of B r i t i s h Columbia, " CJEPS, 28 (1962) : 405-416. 10 Ralph M i l i b a n d , The s t a t e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , London: Weidenfeld and N i co l so n , 1969. 11 I b i d . , ch . 4 - 2 . 12 B lack, op. c i t . , 33. 13 S tu a r t Jamieson, I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n Canada, second e d i t i o n , Toron to : Macmi l lan , 1973, 117. 14 Paul P h i l l i p s , No power g r e a t e r : a century of labour i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver: B.C. Federa t ion of Labour/Boag Foundat ion, 1967, 162-4. CHAPTER 1 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AS AN INSTITUTION IN CANADA I n t r o d u c t i o n State i n t e r v e n t i o n and compulsion i n labour r e l a t i o n s i s something taken f o r granted on the Nor th American c o n t i n e n t . So i s the i n s t i t u t i o n of c o l l e c -t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The two are o f t e n assumed to accompany one another as a mat ter of course, but t h i s i s not the case. The p r i n c i p l e of s t a t e i n t e r v e n -t i o n and compulsion has been p a r t of Canadian labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y s ince the t u r n of the cen tu ry . Here the f e d e r a l s t a t e i n Canada was ahead of i t s coun te rpar t i n the U.S. i n develop ing s o p h i s t i c a t e d means of dea l i ng w i t h labour m i l i t a n c y . But bo th the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l components of the Canadian s t a t e were slow to r e a l i z e the i d e o l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l va lue of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Before World War I I , the power o f labour and c a p i t a l i n Canada d e r i v e d f rom t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s t o take economic a c t i o n . I t took the pressures of wart ime to rep lace t h i s Canadian i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s system w i t h a U . S . - i n s p i r e d one i n v o l v i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . I n t h i s system, the s t a t e a l l o c a t e s r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d i s t r i b u t i n g power between the p a r t i e s accord ing to the p o l i t i c a l and economic pressures exer ted upon i t . A. Two I n d u s t r i a l Re la t i ons Systems  1 . The Wagner Act system U n t i l the 1930s, un ion r e c o g n i t i o n i n the U.S. (as i t was i n Canada u n t i l 1944) was l a r g e l y a ques t ion of muscle. For the most p a r t , i f you wanted to ba rga in w i t h an employer, you had to convince him t h a t you could h u r t him through s t r i k e s , slowdowns or o ther forms of a c t i o n which d i r e c t l y threatened p r o d u c t i o n . Freedom of o r g a n i z a t i o n had been guaranteed l e g a l l y 8. to workers i n the U.S. (as w e l l as B r i t a i n and Canada) s ince the c l o s i n g years o f the n i n e t e e n t h ' c e n t u r y , bu t i n the m a j o r i t y of cases employers had found ways to thwar t t h e i r employees' d e s i r e to u n i o n i z e . I n 1933, however, c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d almost i n one s t r o k e w i t h the passage of the N a t i o n a l Recovery A c t . A f t e r t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n f a i l e d to w i t h s t a n d a cha l lenge on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l grounds, i t was rep laced by the N a t i o n a l Labor Re la t i ons A c t , or Wagner A c t , of 1935. The Wagner Act not on ly cont inued the guarantee of freedom to organ ize but a lso prov ided a means of e l i m i n a t i n g the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and r e c o g n i t i o n d ispu tes which o f t e n f o l l o w e d an employer 's r e f u s a l to ba rga in w i t h unions which c l e a r l y had the support of employees. The technique developed was t h a t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . - ' - The s t a t e , through a system of labour r e l a t i o n s boards, was empowered t o take whatever measures were necessary to determine the wishes o f workers , and c e r t i f y or approve a un ion as the so le b a r g a i n i n g agent f o r a group of employees.. Through c e r t i f i c a t i o n , those r e c a l c i t r a n t employers who had been b l i n d to the advantages of unions as a means of c o n t r o l l i n g the express ion of c lass c o n f l i c t and making i t p r e d i c t a b l e were to be fo rced t o b a r g a i n . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , h i t h e r t o a process i n which employers were fo rced to p a r t i c i p a t e by the d i r e c t economic power of the workers they employed, now became a process begun or cont inued w i t h the s a n c t i o n , and o f t e n on ly a f t e r the i n v o c a t i o n of the power, of the s t a t e . The Wagner Act r e q u i r e d an a p p l i c a n t f o r c e r t i f i c a -t i o n to prove t h a t the employer had re fused to b a r g a i n , thus a t tempt ing t o encourage v o l u n t a r y r e c o g n i t i o n . But even i n cases where t h i s d i d occur , and employers put up l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n to un ions , they d i d so w i t h the power of the s t a t e hanging over t h e i r heads.2 The Wagner Act was one s e c t i o n of a vas t programme of re fo rm developed i n response to the c a t a s t r o p h i c depress ion of 1929-35 and the labour unres t 9. produced by hunger and unemployment. The cont roversy sur rounding the Wagner Act (and the whole New Deal package) r e f l e c t e d a d i v i s i o n among i n d u s t r i a l i s t s as to the proper method of d e a l i n g w i t h a c r i s i s i n the development of c a p i t a -l i s m . Would c e r t a i n "concess ions" be made to unions i n order t o reduce the simmering d i s c o n t e n t among workers , or would a h a r d - l i n e p o l i c y aimed a t smashing the nascent i n d u s t r i a l un ion movement and b o l s t e r i n g the o l d system of p a t e r n a l i s t i c employer-employee r e l a t i o n s be i n s t i t u t e d ? For the t ime b e i n g , the former course was chosen, "on the ground t h a t encouragement of t rade unionism and c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing was the best means f o r ach iev ing s t a b l e and peace fu l i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . " ^ The re formers had won the day. But the c o n f l i c t p e r s i s t e d through the Second World War u n t i l the balance swung toward more r e p r e s s i v e methods of containment w i t h the passage of the T a f t - H a r t l e y Act i n 1947. 2. "Employee r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " — the King system The d i v i s i o n between r e f o r m i s t s and r e a c t i o n a r i e s e x i s t e d among Canadian c a p i t a l i s t s , but the r e f o r m i s t s never r e a l l y gained the upper hand, and the reforms were never .as sweeping as those of the R-osevel t New Dea l . The r e l a t i v e weakness of r e fo rmers , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of labour r e l a t i o n s , can be t raced t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t r u c t u r e of c a p i t a l i s m i n Canada and the U . S . 4 F i r s t , the Canadian s t a t e became c r u c i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n e n t e r p r i s e s designed t o open up new h i n t e r l a n d s f o r the Eastern Canadian commercial m e t r o p o l i . Vast numbers of workers were employed on r a i l w a y s and i n the f o r e s t s and mines, a l l of which e n t e r p r i s e s had secured l a n d , money and/or tax concessions from the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. L e g i s l a t o r s were thus u n w i l l i n g t o t o l e r a t e any unres t o r , indeed, to favour improvements i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of workers i n these e n t e r p r i s e s . The s t a t e was 10. w i l l i n g to subs id i ze p r o f i t s , but no t wages. Tolerance of any t ime-was t ing labour unres t would negate the o r i g i n a l purpose of the subs id ies or g r a n t s . Second, Canada has always possessed a degree of m o n o p o l i s t i c concen t ra -t i o n h igher than t h a t i n the U.S. , and t h i s has meant there i s less compet i -t i o n f o r l a b o u r . T h i s , coupled w i t h the s p e c i a l i z e d na tu re of much Canadian e n t e r p r i s e (such as aluminum p roduc t i on ) has " tended to l i m i t wo rke rs ' choice of a l t e r n a t i v e employment i n case of c o n f l i c t . T h i r d , the lack of secondary i n d u s t r y , which tends to s t a b i l i z e s o c i a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , has meant t h a t labour p o l i c y has responded t o developments i n the pr imary s e c t o r . Pr imary r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e and resource -process ing i n d u s t r i e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f l u c t u a t i o n s i n wages and employ-ment l e v e l s , dependence on f o r e i g n markets , a tendency to l o c a t e i n remote areas away f rom mass s c r u t i n y , and the development of a u t h o r i t a r i a n company towns. I n t h i s sec to r rep ress i ve t a c t i c s are more e a s i l y used i n d e a l i n g w i t h labour unres t and the n e c e s s i t y f o r the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e g u l a t o r y dev ice of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was o b v i a t e d . By c o n t r a s t , i n the U.S. the we l l -deve loped secondary sec to r was more i n f l u e n t i a l i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f labour p o l i c y . Thus i n the Canadian contex t W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie K i n g , whom we g e n e r a l l y consider today to have been i n s u f f e r a b l y p a t e r n a l i s t i c and who encouraged be fo re 1939 on ly the weakest and most rud imentary form of o r g a n i -z a t i o n , was a re fo rmer . The employers w i t h whom he was i n v o l v e d i n c o n c i l i a -t i o n as deputy m i n i s t e r of labour i n the f i r s t decade o f the t w e n t i e t h cen-t u r y were g e n e r a l l y dead set aga ins t any o r g a n i z a t i o n whatsoever. The net e f f e c t of K i n g ' s work was to promote the system of "employee r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " , i n which employees i n a p l a n t or o ther e n t e r p r i s e chose " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " to ba rga in f o r them, but no union r e c o g n i t i o n or s e c u r i t y was g ran ted . But even 1 1 . t h i s l i m i t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the r i g h t to o rgan ize , embodied i n the I n d u s t r i a l Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n ( I D I ) Act of 1907, ran i n t o pa r l i amen ta ry o p p o s i t i o n , as King l a t e r r e c a l l e d : When i t came to cons ide r ing the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t t he re i s i n the House of Commons, a body t w o - t h i r d s of the members of wh ich , I suppose, are f rom r u r a l communities and cons ide r ing the r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s f rom urban d i s t r i c t s who f o r the most p a r t are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f labour but of c a p i t a l , i t became very apparent to those of us who were i n favour of i t ( the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p lan) , t h a t we cou ld no t get any th ing unless we had something to g i ve the State i n r e t u r n . (7) The "something" exacted was a c lause p r o v i d i n g f o r compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n Q i n the mines, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and the p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s . Because of t h i s s t r i k e - d e l a y i n g c lause , employers remained f r e e to oppose union r e c o g n i t i o n and c i rcumvent the compulsory ba rga in ing p r o v i s i o n o f the I D I Act ( i n those i n d u s t r i e s where i t a p p l i e d ) by s t a l l i n g f o r t ime to weaken the u n i o n s ' p o s i t i o n s . I n o ther i n d u s t r i e s , a l though management and unions could apply j o i n t l y f o r c o n c i l i a t i o n , the l a c k of compulsion or a c e r t i f i c a -t i o n process meant the s i t u a t i o n remained unchanged. K i n g ' s " r e f o r m s " , i t has been observed, a c t u a l l y tended to promote the f o rma t i on o f company unions through the " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " scheme, and probably encouraged more employer r e s i s t a n c e than employee o r g a n i z a t i o n . 9 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the s t r i k e which p r e c i p i t a t e d the passage o f the I D I Act occurred i n a resource i n d u s t r y — the A l b e r t a coa l f i e l d s . King was fo rced to bow to the i n t r a n s i g e n c e of r u t h l e s s mine opera tors who re fused to admit t h a t c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing might be the key to the " i n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i t y " which they d e s i r e d . Other major d ispu tes preceding the passage of the I D I Act occurred i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and on the r a i l r o a d s — one a pr imary resource and process ing i n d u s t r y and the o ther bo th m o n o p o l i s t i c and govern-m e n t - s u b s i d i z e d . ^ The passage of the I D I Act i l l u s t r a t e s how the s t r u c t u r e of Canadian c a p i t a l i s m helped produce a d i s t i n c t i v e s t a t e approach to labour r e l a t i o n s . 12. 3. Expansion of the King system The sub jec t mat te r of the I D I Act was r u l e d ou ts ide the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the f e d e r a l government by the J u d i c i a l Committee of the B r i t i s h P r i v y Counc i l i n 1925. The committee he ld t h a t the ac t d e a l t w i t h p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , a p r o v i n c i a l p r e r o g a t i v e under s e c t i o n 92 of the B r i t i s h Nor th America A c t . H Consequently the ac t was amended t o r e s t r i c t i t s compulsory coverage t o : 1) i n l a n d or mar i t ime n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , 2) i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n i a l communication, 3) f e d e r a l l y or f o r e i g n - i n c o r p o r a t e d companies, 4) i n d u s -t r i e s "dec la red by the Par l iament of Canada t o be f o r the genera l advantage of Canada, or f o r the advantage of two or more of the p r o v i n c e s " , 5) d ispu tes "no t w i t h i n the exc lus i ve l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y of any p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e " , 6) d ispu tes dec la red by the cab ine t t o c o n s t i t u t e a n a t i o n a l emergency, and 7) d ispu tes i n areas t o which the f e d e r a l ac t was a p p l i e d by the a c t i o n of p r o -12 v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the J u d i c i a l Committee's a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n ex tens ion r a t h e r than l i m i t a t i o n of the King system. The p r i n c i p l e of compulsion was extended by the 1925 amendment t o a l l d i spu tes i n the f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Ottawa then a t tempted, l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l l y , to convince the prov inces to pass laws app ly ing the ac t i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia became the f i r s t to do so, less than a year a f t e r the J u d i c i a l Committee d e c i s i o n was handed down. Saskatchewan, Mani toba, New Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a , Ontar io and Quebec had a l l passed s i m i l a r enab l ing l e g i s l a t i o n by 1932, and A l b e r t a by t h i s t ime had i t s own ac t model led on the dominion l e g i s l a t i o n . 1 3 By m i d -Depress ion, t hen , the King system of compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h o u t un ion r e c o g n i t i o n extended to a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n a l l p a r t s of Canada except P r ince Edward I s l a n d . 13. 4. The King and Wagner systems compared I t has been claimed t h a t the I D I Act "preceded the Wagner Act bo th h i s t o r i c a l l y and l o g i c a l l y " because " t h e Wagner Act p r i n c i p l e s of compulsory r e c o g n i t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing were conta ined by i m p l i c a t i o n " i n i t . ^ I n r e a l i t y two ve ry d i f f e r e n t concepts of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s under lay the two measures. Through the c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s of the Wagner A c t , the " r e f o r m e r s " of U.S. c a p i t a l i s m took c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , which was the c h i l d of c lass consciousness, and p laced i t under the f o s t e r parenthood of the s t a t e . There was a c l e a r assumption i n the American law t h a t the road t o i n d u s t r i a l peace was paved w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The r o l e of the government was t h e r e f o r e t o make t h i s process com-p u l s o r y and then l e t i t work by i t s e l f . . . ( 1 5 ) Moreover, " c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing could f u n c t i o n on ly between equa ls" .16 Since pre-Wagner Act c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g had developed through the use of economic power by the work ing c l a s s , i t t h e o r e t i c a l l y f unc t i oned ( to the ex ten t t h a t i t f unc t i oned a t a l l ) between equa ls , i f the r i g h t t o w i t h h o l d labour can be equated to the r i g h t t o w i t h h o l d employment. I n p r a c t i c e , of course, s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n of the rep ress i ve v a r i e t y tended to t i p the balance i n favour of employers. Post-Wagner c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a lso t h e o r e t i c a l l y f u n c t i o n e d between equa ls , but the na tu re of one of the p a r t i e s was a l t e r e d . Employers remained as they had always been. But the dev ice of c e r t i f i c a t i o n gave i n -s t i t u t i o n a l s a n c t i o n too the s o - c a l l e d " labour e l i t e " which undertook respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the o r d e r l y f u n c t i o n i n g of the system i n exchange f o r economic gains and "a secure s t a t u s and a u t h o r i t y comparable to those of management, i n i n d u s t r y and i n the a f f a i r s of the community."-'- 7 Hence the popular image of f a t - c a t un ion leaders meet ing employers i n board rooms to d iscuss ways of s e a l i n g out workers , which bears an element of t r u t h . Under the I D I A c t , the re was no such change i n the na tu re of the 14. p a r t i e s to the labour r e l a t i o n s system. As i n the years preceding 1907, un ion leaders ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n d u s t r i a l un ions) cou ld have l i t t l e expec ta t i on of s ta te -assu red s e c u r i t y and t h e r e f o r e tended to be more respon-s i ve to membership demands. The dichotomy between l e a d e r s ' a s p i r a t i o n s and behaviour and those of members was not so g r e a t , and consequent ly the c o l l e c -t i v e ba rga in ing system remained based i n the economic power of the work ing c l a s s . The p a r t i e s were the workers and management as opposed to the unions and management. Workers and t h e i r leaders de r i ved t h e i r power f rom t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n , f o r b e t t e r or worse and not f rom the law. I n t h i s sense the I D I Act "may w e l l have delayed the e v o l u t i o n , i n Canada, of mature c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " , 1 ^ i f by m a t u r i t y we understand a system i n which labour leaders undertake r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance of i n d u s t r i a l peace. B. The War and C o l l e c t i v e Barga in ing i n Canada  1 . Federa l ism and labour l e g i s l a t i o n There was no fundamental change i n the King system u n t i l w e l l on i n the Second World War, as n e i t h e r the f e d e r a l government nor any of the p r o -v inces in t roduced i n t o the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s arena the element of s t a t e c o n t r o l represented by c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The Wagner Act had accompanied the sweeping New Deal l e g i s l a t i o n . But f o r the f i r s t f i v e years o f the depres-s i o n there was no d e s i r e on the p a r t of the Conservat ive government to i n t r o -duce New Dea l - t ype l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. When the be la ted Bennett New Deal package was r u l e d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l by the Supreme Court of Canada i n 1936 or) and the J u d i c i a l Committee of the P r i v y Counc i l i n 1937, any l i n g e r i n g hopes of a f e d e r a l l y - s u p e r v i s e d na t i on -w ide labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y were smashed, a t l e a s t f o r the t ime b e i n g . By the s t a r t of the war, however, the prov inces had begun t o develop 15. , t h e i r own labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c i e s , a l though these d i d no t r e p r e s e n t funda-mental depar tures f rom the King system. P r o v i n c i a l cab inets represent d i f f e r -i n g aggregat ions of i n t e r e s t s , so i t i s no t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t approaches were adopted. P r ince Edward I s l a n d , f o r i n s t a n c e , was ab le to r e l y s o l e l y on common l a w ^ l because of the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n d u s t r y i n t h a t p rov ince and the consequent l a c k of wo rk ing -c lass p ressu re . The more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d prov inces had to meet the growing demand f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l u i ion ism w i t h some form of l e g i s l a t i o n . By 1938, s i x of the n ine prov inces had enacted s t a t u t e s i n t r o d u c i n g p r o v i n c i a l labour codes, and Quebec through d ive rse s t a t u t e s had l e g i s l a t e d to the same e f f e c t , so t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n a p p l y -i ng the I D I Act p r o v i n c i a l l y was i n f o r c e on ly i n On ta r io .22 Most of t h i s p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n guaranteed freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n , compulsory r e c o g n i t i o n and compulsory b a r g a i n i n g , but none of i t se t up the c e r t i f i c a t i o n machinery to c a r r y i t o u t . T y p i c a l of these ac ts was B r i t i s h Columbia's I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act of 1937,23 discussed i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I . This Act s t i p u l a t e d t h a t employee b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s must be e lec ted by m a j o r i t y v o t e , but gave the s t a t e no r o l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the p a r t i e s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The ac t c a r r i e d over f rom the I D I Act the system of compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n , but lengthened the p r o -cess cons ide rab l y , thus g i v i n g employers more t ime to weaken un ion m i l i t a n c e . An amendment to t h i s B.C. l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1943 was the r e a l fo re runner of the Wagner Act system i n Canada. I t gave the m i n i s t e r of labour a u t h o r i t y to take whatever measures he deemed necessary to determine the v a l i d i t y of a u n i o n ' s c la im to represent a group of workers . A month a f t e r t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d , Ontar io passed a law p u t t i n g a Wagner Act system, complete w i t h a network of labour c o u r t s , i n t o e f f e c t . But t h i s system f u n c t i o n e d f o r on ly a few months be fo re i t and a l l o ther p r o v i n c i a l laws were superseded by the Dominion Wartime Labour Re la t i ons Regu la t i ons . 16. 2. Ea r l y f e d e r a l wart ime labour p o l i c y I n the name of improved and speeded-up wart ime p r o d u c t i o n , the f e d -e r a l government assumed wide powers under the a u t h o r i t y of the War Measures A c t . Labour p o l i c y developed through o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l i n the e a r l y stages of the war avowedly saw " the peace-t ime emphasis on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the group f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . . . s h i f t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the g r o u p . " ^ ^ Produc t ion f o r the war e f f o r t was he ld to be supreme, and the f e d e r a l government was a f r a i d the i ncons i s tency of p r o v i n c i a l labour law might hamper i t . Late i n 1939, t h e r e f o r e , the I D I Act was a p p l i e d to "defence p r o j e c t s and a l l i n d u s t r i e s producing mun i t ions and war s u p p l i e s " , which e f f e c t i v e l y p laced the major sec to rs of the economy under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . (The p r o v i n c e s , however, r e t a i n e d some c o n t r o l over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the ac t through a system of r e g i o n a l labour boards . S tu a r t Jamieson suggests t h a t the King government should have seen the " h a n d w r i t i n g on the w a l l " and in t roduced Wagner Act l e g i s l a t i o n a t the v 27 s t a r t of the war. Undoubtedly elements i n the c a b i n e t , perhaps i n c l u d i n g King h i m s e l f , wanted to do so — j u s t as some i n d u s t r i a l i s t s recognized t h a t unions could be used to m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y i n i n d u s t r y . For most of the war, however, the r i g h t - w i n g i n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n the c a b i n e t , l e d by C. D. Howe, thwar ted the i n t r o d u c t i o n of compulsory ba rga in ing and r e c o g n i t i o n . This cab ine t f a c t i o n a l l i e d i t s e l f w i t h businessmen who had found t h e i r way i n t o the c i v i l s e r v i c e du r i ng the war. King showed h i s annoyance a t t h i s l a t t e r category when he t o l d a cab inet meet ing assembled to hear a un ion d e l e g a t i o n t h a t anyone who d i d not help to see t h a t our Labour p o l i c i e s were f u l l y c a r r i e d out would not be a i d i n g Canada's war e f f o r t . I made t h i s so s t rong t h a t l a t e r (Defence M i n i s t e r J . L . ) Ra ls ton sa id he thought I had been g i v i n g my co l leagues a spanking i n p u b l i c . I had not so in tended my words, but had meant them to he lp my co l leagues i n d e a l i n g w i t h the d o l l a r -17. a-year men (execut ives on loan f rom co rpo ra t i ons du r ing the war) and o thers who are respons ib le f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p o l i c i e s . I went p r e t t y f a r i n making c l e a r t h a t some of these men were c a r r y i n g i n t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Govern-ment p r e j u d i c e s which they , themselves, had aga ins t d e a l i n g w i t h un ions.28 A s tudent of the Canadian labour movement expressed the d i f f i c u l t y t h u s : The c o n t r o l l e r s and d i v i s i o n managers of the Department of Mun i t ions and Supply (headed by Howe) who stand a r e , on t h e i r own record f o r the most p a r t , advocates and p r a c t i -t i o n e r s of the "open shop" . Being p laced i n p o s i t i o n s as government execut ives has i n no way changed them f rom t h e i r h a b i t u a l ou t l ook i n mat te rs of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and t h e i r concept ion of e f f i c i e n t p l a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . They appra ise the q u a l i t y of management i n the f i r m s competing f o r orders by the same standards as they use toward them-selves. . 29 Not on ly the " d o l l a r - a - y e a r " men but a lso t h e i r f r i e n d s i n cab ine t were opposed to the es tab l ishment of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Howe was g iven to w i l d charges, f o r i ns tance t h a t "enemy a l i e n s " were respons ib le f o r a 1941 aluminum shutdown a l l e g e d to have s e r i o u s l y re ta rded a i r p l a n e p r o d u c t i o n . I n 1943, a t the he igh t of the wart ime " i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s c r i s i s "-^1 when the government was faced w i t h a western coa l mine s t r i k e , Howe seemed to have the o p i n i o n t h a t the miners would go back w i t h o u t t h e i r demands being met. He sa id t h a t , i n t ime of war, i t was necessary to be tough; t h a t the armed f o r c e s ordered men a t the f r o n t to be tough, e t c . (32) A v i s i t t o ' t h e 1943 convent ion of the Trades and Labour Congress convinced King t h a t " t h e loss of l a b o u r ' s support was the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t to the chances of the L i b e r a l p a r t y w inn ing the next e l e c t i o n . K i n g saw c l e a r l y how much the i n t r a n s i g e n c e of the Howe f a c t i o n endangered i n d u s t r i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y when he wrote t h a t he f e l t r e a l sadness a t hea r t to t h i n k t h a t the labour movement which I had made so much my own, had been g e t t i n g away f rom the Government o f which I am the head s imply because of the degree to which some of my col leagues have become surrounded by i n t e r e s t s t h a t are a t l e a s t not sympathet ic to l a b o u r . ( 3 4 ) 18. There was good reason f o r King to f e a r an e l e c t o r a l swing t o the Cooperat ive Commonwealth Federa t ion and t o be apprehensive about the prospect of mounting labour u n r e s t . The I D I A c t , more than 30 years o l d , could not s a t i s f y the des i res of workers and un ion leaders to be considered " f u l l p a r t n e r s " i n the war e f f o r t . I t necess i t a ted constant t i n k e r i n g i n the form of o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l concerning e v e r y t h i n g f rom wage c o n t r o l s to government-superv ised s t r i k e v o t e s . A l t h o u g h P.O. 2685 i n 1940 dec la red the govern-ment to be i n favour of f r e e (not compulsory) c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , " f a i r and reasonable" wages and freedom of o r g a n i z a t i o n , no means o f enforcement was p r o v i d e d . The r e s u l t i n g i n d u s t r i a l chaos i s documented i n Jamieson's study of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Canadian labour u n r e s t . S t r i k e s concent ra ted i n i n d u s t r i e s c r u c i a l t o the war e f f o r t , such as manu fac tu r ing , where the new i n d u s t r i a l unions sought an entrenched p o s i t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s to speed p roduc t ion .37 The h ighes t number of s t r i k e s i n the c o u n t r y ' s h i s t o r y was recorded i n 1943. Doubts about the s i n c e r i t y of the govern-ment i n i t s advocacy of compulsory r e c o g n i t i o n were r a i s e d i n s e v e r a l ins tances where employers re fused to n e g o t i a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the K i r k l a n d Lake M i n e r s ' s t r i k e du r ing the w i n t e r of 1941-42. The way out of t h i s mess, f o r the govern-ment, as f o r Canadian c a p i t a l i s m , po in ted w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c l a r i t y i n the d i r e c -t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and the entrenchment of unions i n the i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e . To Canadian labour l e a d e r s , most of whom r e p r e -sented U . S . - a f f i l i a t e d unions or o r g a n i z i n g committees and were f a m i l i a r w i t h the Wagner Act system, i t looked a t t r a c t i v e . . . and became an i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l . . ; . Since the unions were denied the use o f the s t r i k e f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or r e c o g n i t i o n purposes and s ince wages had been brought under c o n t r o l , the on ly a l t e r n a t i v e f o r them was to get government ass is tance to ensure freedom f o r workers to organize and to compel r e c o g n i t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n . 3 9 19. By 1944, the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n the King cab ine t had a lso become a t t r a c t e d to the wonders of the Wagner Act system. 3. P.C. 1003: the Wagner Act system r e f i n e d A f t e r a t o r t u o u s s e r i e s of hear ings and conferences, 4 ^* the King cab inet f i n a l l y accepted the p r i n c i p l e of compulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n September 1943. A dominion-wide labour code embodying the p r i n c i p l e was issued i n February 1944 as the Wartime Labour Re la t i ons Regu la t i ons . B e t t e r known as P.C. 1003, these r e g u l a t i o n s improved upon the Wagner Act system, adding the K i n g - i n s p i r e d compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure as a l o g i c a l ex tens ion of compulsory ba rga in ing and union r e c o g n i t i o n . As the Wagner Act had done f o r the U.S. , P.C. 1003 "brought ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law ' to the r e g u l a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s between Canadian employers and t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . " 4 ! The I D I Act was suspended. Power to c e r t i f y i n d i v i d -ua ls as "ba rga in ing r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " f o r u n i t s of workers r e s t e d w i t h a War-t ime Labour Re la t i ons Board, c o n s i s t i n g of a chairman, v i ce -cha i rman and e i g h t o t h e r s . N e g o t i a t i o n was compulsory f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n and i f the p a r t i e s could not reach agreement w i t h i n 30 days compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n took p lace f i r s t be fo re a government c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r and t h e n , i f nec-essary , be fo re a th ree-person boa rd . C o n c i l i a t i o n boards under P.C. 1003, u n l i k e most, were se lec ted by the m i n i s t e r of labour a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p a r t i e s ' recommendations — an unusual measure of s t a t e involvement i n the c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing p r o c e s s . 4 ^ F i n a l l y , P.C. 1003 wiped out s t r i k e s over j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and r e c o g n i t i o n issues by f o r b i d d i n g work stoppages be fo re b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had been e l e c t e d ( i n o ther words, be fo re c e r t i f i c a -t i o n had taken p l a c e ) . I t a lso became i l l e g a l to s t r i k e d u r i n g the term of an agreement, or be fo re 14 days had elapsed f rom the t ime of a c o n c i l i a t i o n board r e p o r t . 4 4 A 1941 o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l 4 ^ which made a government-supervised 20. s t r i k e vo te mandatory be fo re any walkout remained i n e f f e c t . By a u t h o r i t y of the War Measures A c t , P.C. 1003 covered a l l defence p r o j e c t s and war i n d u s t r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , f i v e prov inces passed l e g i s l a t i o n app ly ing i t to a l l i n d u s t r i e s under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n and undertook to admin is te r the r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i n c i a l l y . O n t a r i o , New Brunswick, Nova Sco t ia and Manitoba e s t a b l i s h e d p r o v i n c i a l wart ime labour r e l a t i o n s boards f o r t h i s purpose, but i n B.C. the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n remained w i t h the m i n i s t e r of l a b o u r , whose department s t a f f thus d i d the b u l k of the work i n v o l v e d i n the c e r t i f i -46 c a t i o n process. P.C. 1003 was both the d e c i s i v e step toward i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing i n Canada and a re f inement of the Wagner Act i n t h a t r e g a r d . I n adopt ing the c e r t i f i c a t i o n process i t t r a n s f e r r e d the bas is of the power to f o r c e un ion r e c o g n i t i o n f rom the economic p o t e n t i a l of the workers to the coerc ive p o t e n t i a l of the s t a t e . T h i s , as we have seen, was the essen-t i a l element i n the Wagner Act s y s t e m . ^ But P.C. 1003 c a r r i e d over f rom the King system a number of f ea tu res which a c t u a l l y f lowed l o g i c a l l y f rom the concept of s t a t e r e c o g n i t i o n of un ions . Among these were the ou t law ing o f s t r i k e s i n d ispu tes over j u r i s d i c t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n , or the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e agreements, the severe c u r t a i l m e n t of the s t r i k e weapon i n n e g o t i a -t i o n d i s p u t e s , and the compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n process. The Wagner A c t ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of unions as i n d u s t r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was based on the assumption t h a t so recogn ized , they would f u n c t i o n as i n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i z e r s . The d r a f t e r s of P.C. 1003 reasoned t h a t i f the s t a t e was going to g i ve i t s s a n c t i o n to unions and to c o l l e c t i v e agreements, s t r i k e s over j u r i s d i c t i o n a l or r e c o g n i t i o n issues or the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of agreements should be out lawed. To do o therwise would be to de fea t the p u r -pose of the o r i g i n a l s t a t e s a n c t i o n . And, s ince the p o i n t of the p o l i c y was 2 1 . to preserve s t a b i l i t y and t h u s , i n p a r t , to .prevent s t r i k e s , government i n t e r -v e n t i o n i n n e g o t i a t i o n s i n the form of compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n was a lso a l o g i c a l component of s t a t e labour p o l i c y . And, of course, c o n c i l i a t i o n could not work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o u t the ban on s t r i k e s du r ing the c o n c i l i a t i o n process . There could be no a p p l i c a t i o n of economic power dur ing the t ime when the s t a t e , by v i r t u e of i t s coerc ive power, was i n v o l v e d i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g process. So there was no p lace f o r h a l f - h e a r t e d s t a t e involvement i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Once the s t a t e was i n , i t had to get i n up to i t s neck. Whi le the Wagner Act had not i nc luded any of these l o g i c a l c o r o l l a r i e s of s t a t e - s a n c t i o n e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , 4 8 they were adopted and f u r t h e r s t rengthened i n the U.S. T a f t - H a r t l e y Act of 1947. T h i r t y years l a t e r , we can see t h a t P.C. 1003 ushered i n an era of s t a t e involvement i n c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing which has been of dubious b e n e f i t to the labour movement. I f the s t a t e can bestow r i g h t s on a u n i o n , many have found, i t can a lso take them away. To wart ime labour l e a d e r s , however, these r a m i f i c a t i o n s of P.C. 1003 were not immediate ly apparent . The i r r e a c t i o n was "main ly one of a p p r e c i a t i o n " . 4 9 The t r a n s i t i o n to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g system seemed to be a r e l i e f to a l l types of labour l e a d e r s . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n process he ld obvious advantages f o r the more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y -o r i e n t e d c r a f t un ion l e a d e r s , whose main concern was c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i r l eadersh ip p o s i t i o n s i n the face of a t t a c k s f rom i n d u s t r i a l un ions . The leaders of the non-Communist i n d u s t r i a l unions i n the Canadian Congress o f Labour, applauded P.C. 1003 as "a long-sought bas is on which to b u i l d . " ^ ^ And the communist leaders of CCL unions such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers of America were a lso g e n e r a l l y i n favour of P.C. 1003, perhaps b l i n d e d t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s t r i k e - r e s t r i c t i n g aspects of the order because they had v o l u n t a r i l y g iven up the s t r i k e weapon anyway f o r the d u r a t i o n of the war. 22. The CCL unions d i d , however, argue t h a t the government ought to i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e the next l o g i c a l s tep i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g process , namely un ion s e c u r i t y and un ion shop agreements.-*! 4 . Post-war developments When P.C. 1003, along w i t h o ther dominion wart ime l e g i s l a t i o n , lapsed i n March 1947, a l l the prov inces had passed or put i n t o e f f e c t t h e i r own c o l -l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g laws.^2 These p r o v i n c i a l laws have been descr ibed as S3 " s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to c o n s t i t u t e a f a i r l y un i fo rm n a t i o n a l l abor code" . Whi le t h i s i s t r u e , an impor tan t con t roversy i n each p rov ince preceded the passage of each p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e and the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of each p r o v i n c e ' s p o l i t i c s had t h e i r e f f e c t on the f i n a l outcome. The p o s s i b i l i t y of f e d e r a l d i c t a t i o n of peacetime labour p o l i c y was dead and b u r i e d . I n 1940 the r e p o r t of the S i r o i s Commission on Dominion-P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , w h i l e c r i t i c i z i n g the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y o f the f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l d i v i s i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n i n labour (as w e l l as o t h e r ) m a t t e r s , recognized t h a t some aspects of labour p o l i c y , i n p a r t i c u l a r " r e l a t i o n s o f employer and employee . . . should conform to the genera l s o c i a l ou t l ook of the r e g i o n . " ^ ^ For cases where a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y was obv ious l y d e s i r a b l e , the commission recommended t h a t u n i f o r m i t y be gained through p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s f e r of j u r i s d i c t i o n to the dominion government."^ But i n 1946, when a conference of labour m i n i s t e r s was c a l l e d to d iscuss post -war p o l i c y , even t h i s m i l d measure of n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l was handled w i t h k i d gloves and e v e n t u a l l y dropped. A r e s o l u t i o n f a v o u r i n g " t h e adopt ion as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e of un i fo rm c o l l e c -t i v e ba rga in ing l e g i s l a t i o n .by the p rov inces and the Dominion" was p a s s e d , ^ but i t was c l e a r t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r s would not l e t i t s tand i n the way of cons ide ra t i ons c lose r to home. 23. None of the l e g i s l a t i o n adopted by the prov inces a f t e r the Second World War contravened the bas ic p r i n c i p l e s o f the Wagner Act system as r e f i n e d by P.C. 1003. But f u r t h e r re f inements of the system were i n t roduced and the d e f i n i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l labour p o l i c y was a hot i t em of p o l i t i c a l debate i n the post-war y e a r s . The f o l l o w i n g chapters narrow the focus and concent ra te s p e c i f i c a l l y on the case of B r i t i s h Columbia, where the Wagner Act system was given.permanent i n s t i t u t i o n a l s ta tus by the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i -t r a t i o n Act of 1947. 2 4 , Notes to Chapter 1 1 S tuar t Jamieson, I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n Canada, Second e d i t i o n , Toron to : Macmi l lan , 1973, 120-121. See a lso P h i l i p T a f t , "Organized Labor and the New D e a l " , i n How C o l l e c t i v e Barga in ing Works, New York: The Twent ie th Century Fund. 1945. 2 H. D. Woods, Labour P o l i c y i n Canada, second e d i t i o n , Toron to ; Macmi l lan 1973, 131-132. 3 S tuar t Jamieson, " I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and government p o l i c y " , CJEPS, 17 (1951): 30. 4 S tuar t Jamieson, Times of t r o u b l e : labour unres t and i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t  i n Canada, 1900-66, Task f o r c e on labour r e l a t i o n s , study no. 22, Ottawa: P r i v y Counc i l O f f i c e , 1968, 49-50. 5 I b i d . , 50. 6 I n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t i n Canada dur ing the 1960s was much more a phenomenon of secondary than of pr imary i n d u s t r y . Here my a n a l y s i s , w h i l e v a l i d f o r the 1940s, would need e l a b o r a t i o n and q u a l i f i c a t i o n i f i t were to be a p p l i e d t o a l l p e r i o d s . 7 Quoted i n H. D. Woods, "Canadian c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and d i s p u t e s e t t l e -ment p o l i c y : an a p p r a i s a l " , CJEPS, 21 (1955): 248-249. See a lso Jamieson, Times of T roub le , 113. 8 I n d u s t r i a l Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , S. C. 1907, ch . 20, s . 2. 9 Jamieson, Times of T roub le , 70, 129. 10 See i b i d . , ch . 2. 11 See Canada, Department of Labour, J u d i c i a l proceedings respec t i ng c o n s t i t u - t i o n a l v a l i d i t y of the I n d u s t r i a l Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , 1907, Ottawa: King!?;s P r i n t e r , 1925, 3 3 - 4 1 . 12 An Act to Amend the I n d u s t r i a l Disputes I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act (1907) , S. C. 1925. 13 Woods, Labour P o l i c y , 24. 14 I b i d . , 341 . 15 I b i d . , 82. 16 Jamieson, " I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and government p o l i c y " , 30. 17 I b i d . , 28. See a lso Stanley Aronowi tz , "Trade Unionism and Workers' C o n t r o l " , i n Gerry Hunnius, G. David Garson and John Case, e d s . , Workers' C o n t r o l : a reader on labour and s o c i a l change, New York: V in tage Books, 1973, esp. 84-85. 25. 18 P r o v i s i o n f o r government r e g i s t r a t i o n of unions had e x i s t e d f rom 1872 to 1892 but few unions took advantage of i t . See Woods, Labour P o l i c y , 4 0 - 4 1 . 19 Jamieson, Times o f T roub le , 129. 20 Kenneth McNaught, The Pe l i can h i s t o r y of Canada, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969, 256. 21 Aside f rom a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f e d e r a l s t a t u t e which f r e e d workers f rom c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n f o r un ion membership. 22 Woods, Labour p o l i c y , 23; 6 6 - 7 1 . 23 S.B.C. 1937, ch . 3 1 . 24 Woods, Labour p o l i c y , 84-5 . 25 Bryce M. Stewar t , "War-t ime labour prob lems" , i n J . F. Park inson , e d . , Canadian war economics, Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1941, 75. 26 Aranka Kovacs, "Compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n i n Canada", i n Labor Law J o u r n a l , February 1959; r e p r i n t e d i n A. E. Kovacs, e d . , Readings i n Canadian labour  economics, Toron to : McGraw-H i l l , 1961, 202. 27 Jamieson, Times of T roub le , 280. 28 J . W. P i c k e r s g i l l , e d . , The Mackenzie King r e c o r d , V o l . 1 : 1939-1944, Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1962, 178. 29 H. A. Logan, "Canada's C o n t r o l of Labour R e l a t i o n s " , Behind the Head l ines , 2: 2 (October 1941) , 23. 30 See P i c k e r s g i l l , op_. c i t . , 228-33) . 31 Jamieson, Times of T roub le , 280. 32 P i c k e r s g i l l , ap_. c i t . , 593. 33 I b i d . , 572. 34 Loc. c i t . 35 For a l i s t of the o r d e r s - i r i - c o u n c i l , see H. A. Logan, Trade Unions i n Canada, Toronto : Macmi l lan , 1948, 15. 36 Stewar t , op_. c i t . , 76; Woods, Labour P o l i c y , 7 1 . 37 Jamieson, Times of T roub le , 282 f f . 38 I b i d . , 293. 39 Woods, Labour P o l i c y , 8 0 - 8 1 . 40 Discussed i n H. A. Logan, S ta te i n t e r v e n t i o n and ass is tance i n c o l l e c t i v e  b a r g a i n i n g : the Canadian exper ience, 1943-54. Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1956 (Canadian Studies i n Economics, no. 6 ) , 14-23. 26. 41 J . C. Cameron and F. J . L. Young, The s t a t u s of t rade unions i n Canada, K ings ton : Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Dept. of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , 1960, 67. 42 Wartime Labour Re la t ions Regu la t i ons , P.C. 1003 (1944) , sec. 5. 43 I b i d . , sec. 30 ( 1 ) . 44 I b i d . , sec. 21 (1) (a) and ( b ) . 45 P.C. 7307. 46 Logan, S ta te i n t e r v e n t i o n , 30. The B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t i o n app l y ing P.C. 1003 to i n d u s t r i e s under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l so suspended the p r o v i n c i a l ICA Act f o r as long as P.C. 1003 remained i n e f f e c t . See Wartime Labour Re la t i ons Regula t ions A c t , S.B.C. 1944, ch . 18. 47 While P.C. 1003 i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the unions were n o t , per se , p a r t i e s t o i t . The r e g u l a t i o n s p rov ided f o r the c e r t i f i c a t i o n not of unions but o f "ba rga in ing r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " , which meant i t was s t i l l poss ib le f o r company unions to be c e r t i f i e d and f o r employers to re fuse to accede to un ion s e c u r i t y demands. I n p r a c t i c e , of course, most " b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " were a c t u a l l y un ion o f f i c e r s . 48 H. A. Logan, "The s t a t e and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " , CJEPS, 10 (1944): 476-488. 49 Logan, Sta te i n t e r v e n t i o n , 3 1 . 50 S tee l Labor, March 3 1 , 1944, 1 . 51 See Appendix A. 52 When P.C. 1003 lapsed , the I D I Act remained i n e f f e c t i n the f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . I n 1948 i t was rep laced w i t h a new I D I A c t , embodying the bas ic p r i n c i p l e s of P.C. 1003 w i t h a s t ronger p r o v i s i o n s aga ins t company unionism and o ther minor changes. See Woods, Labour p o l i c y , 94-98. 53- 'Jamieson, I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n Canada, 124. 54 Canada, Royal Commission on Domin ion -P rov inc ia l R e l a t i o n s , Repor t , Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1940, v o l . 2 , 46. 55 This would have r e q u i r e d a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment. See Woods, Labour  p o l i c y , 98-99. 56 Logan, Sta te i n t e r v e n t i o n , 4 1 . 57 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946) , 1525. 58 I n i t s submission to the S i r o i s Commission, B.C. had recommended t h a t the Dominion have power to put f l o o r s under wages and c e i l i n g s on hours of work, but t h a t the prov inces r e t a i n a u t h o r i t y to improve the Dominion measures i f they so d e s i r e d . See B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia i n  the Canadian Confedera t ion , V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1938, 352. CHAPTER I I THE BACKGROUND TO CLASS CONFLICT  AND POLITICS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I n t r o d u c t i o n . The preceding chapter has shown the ex ten t to which dominion labour p o l i c y i n f l u e n c e d t h a t of the p r o v i n c e s . While the reader must keep t h i s i n f l u e n c e i n mind, t h i s s tudy i s concerned w i t h the i n t e r - and i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t s of a s i n g l e p rov ince and w i t h t h e i r e f f e c t on the p o l i t i c a l system of t h a t p r o v i n c e . This i s the sub jec t of the remaining chap te rs . Before passing to i t , however, i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h as much p r e c i s i o n as p o s s i b l e j u s t who we are t a l k i n g about when we r e f e r to d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , and what the c lass composi t ion of B r i t i s h Columbia was du r ing the p e r i o d under d i s -cuss ion . A f t e r doing t h i s I w i l l d iscuss the c lass compos i t ion of the l e g i s l a -t u r e and the c a b i n e t , and compare i t to t h a t of the p rov ince as a whole, suggest ing some conc lus ions about the c lass and r e g i o n a l bases of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The t h i r d p a r t of t h i s chapter discusses the growth of labour unions and the r e a c t i o n of employers du r i ng the 1930s and the Second World War, w i t h emphasis on labour l e g i s l a t i o n . A. The c lass s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1941-51., Table 2-1 shows some h i g h l i g h t s of B r i t i s h Columbia's c lass s t r u c t u r e i n 1941 and 1951. The c r i t e r i o n used f o r c lass membership i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n , as n e a r l y as i t can be determined. The p o p u l a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o those who employ o t h e r s , those who work on t h e i r "own accoun t " , those who are employed by o thers and a l a r g e c lass of " o t h e r s " who are depen-dent e i t h e r on members of these f i r s t th ree c lasses or on the s t a t e . The f i r s t th ree c lasses I s h a l l c a l l the " p r o d u c t i o n c l a s s e s " , s ince these are 28. the people a c t u a l l y engaged i n p r o d u c t i o n or i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the processes of p r o d u c t i o n . Despi te the l i m i t a t i o n s of census data d e t a i l e d i n the notes to Table 2 - 1 , c e r t a i n t rends can be i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t of a l l , the number of people i n the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses d e c l i n e d , between 1941 and 1951, f rom 56.5 to 51.7 per cent o f the t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . The major f a c t o r i n t h i s t r e n d was the tendency toward e a r l i e r r e t i r e m e n t : f o r every th ree people l i s t e d as " r e t i r e d or permanent ly d i s a b l e d " i n 1941 the re were almost e i g h t i n 1951. A less impor tan t f a c t o r was the re-emergence, a f t e r the war and the depress ion , of the nuc lear f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t , v i s i b l e i n the s l i g h t percentage increase i n the number of "homemakers", as w e l l as the huge jump i n the number of chi ldren."*" 29. TABLE 2-1 Class s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n , 1941-1951. Source: Census of Canada 1941 v o l . I t . 57, v o l . V I t . 6, v o l . V I I t . 5. 1951 v o l . IV t . 3, t . 1 1 . Class 1941 % of % of 1951 % of % of t o t a l p r o d . t o t a l p r o d , pop. c lasses P°P- c lasses over 14 over 14 Employers 1 9,708 1.5 2.6 17,729 2 .1 4.0 P e t i t e bourgeo is ie? - - . . Managers 5,434 0.8- 1.5 17 ,653 3 2 . 1 4.0 Finance & Law 1,573 0.2 0.4 3,131 0.4 0.7 Other p r o f e s s i o n a l 3,400 0.5 0.9 2,970 0.4 0.7 Sel f -employed(non- 33,163 5 . 1 9.0 30,658 3.6 6.9 p r o f e s s i o n a l ) Farmers 20,507 3 . 1 5.5 16,818 2.0 3.8 T o t a l 64,077 9.7 17.3 71,230 8.3 1 6 . 0 1 0 P r o l e t a r i a t Paid I n d u s t r i a l 206,353 31.5 55.7 308,403 35.9 69.4 A g r i c u l t u r a l 12,124 1.9 3.3 8,371 1.0 1.9 M i l i t a r y 29,3043 4.5 7.9 6,804 0.8 1.5 P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 13,656 2 . 1 3.7 28,969 3.4 6.5 Unpaid^ I n d u s t r i a l & p r o f e s s i o n a l 3,226 0.5 0.9 1,706 0.2 0.4 A g r i c u l t u r a l 4,710 0 : 7 1.3 1,140 0 . 1 0.3 Unemployed 27,057 4 . 1 7.3 (6) T o t a l 296,430 45.3 80 .1 355,393 41.3 80.0 T o t a l p r o d u c t i o n c lasses 370,215 56.5 100.0 444,352 51.7 100.0 Others Students 45,969 7.0 48,281 5.6 I n i n s t i t u t i o n s Ret i red /permanent ly d i sab led "Homemakers" T o t a l T o t a l over 14 y r s . Under 14 years T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 6,533 33,453 198,770 30.4  284,725 43.5 654,940 100.0 162,921 817,861 10,696 1.2 86 ,040 7 10.0 270,609 8 31.5  415,626 48.3 859,978 100.0 290,051 1,165,210 9 30. Notes to t a b l e 2-1 •""Includes a g r i c u l t u r a l employers and those i n p r o f e s s i o n s . ^The vex ing category of p e t i t e bou rgeo is ie was determined as f o l l o w s : Managers l i s t e d i n the census as "wage-earners" were i n c l u d e d . Real es ta te and insurance agents as w e l l as s t o c k b r o k e r s , judges and magis-t r a t e s and lawyers and n o t a r i e s who were l i s t e d as wage-earners are grouped i n the " f i n a n c e and law" ca tegory . These two ca tegor ies = ("managers" and " f i n a n c e and l aw" ) are the on ly two ca tegor ies l i s t e d i n the census as "wage-earners" which do not appear under " p r o l e t a r i a t " . "Other p r o f e s s i o a n l " i nc ludes a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s l i s t e d i n the census as se l f -employed ("own a c c o u n t " ) . ^ Inc ludes m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s . ^ " P r o f e s s i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a t " i nc ludes a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , such as p h y s i c i a n s , s o c i a l workers , eng ineers , e t c . , who are l i s t e d as "wage-earners" i n the census, w i t h the excep t ion o f judges and mag is t ra tes and s a l a r i e d lawyers and n o t a r i e s . -*While l i s t e d as unpa id , many o f these a c t u a l l y rece ived some c o n s i d e r a t i o n , such as board , f o r t h e i r labour and thus were i n e f f e c t i n v o l v e d i n a wage r e l a t i o n s h i p . ^Unemployed were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom the r e s t o f the " l abour f o r c e " i n the 1951 census. ^ Inc ludes " v o l u n t a r i l y i d l e " and " o t h e r " c a t e g o r i e s . ^ Inc ludes 266 males. •^Includes 751 "who have never worked and were seeking work" and 14,430 Ind ians l i v i n g on rese rves . S l i g h t d isc repanc ies occur due to rounding o f f . 31. Other t rends may be noted when the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses are considered sepa-r a t e l y . The number of p r o l e t a r i a n s dec l i ned f rom 45 to 41 per cent o f the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , bu t when i t i s considered as a percentage of the p r o d u c t i o n c l a s s e s , the re i s no corresponding d rop . The p r o l e t a r i a t remained a constant 80 per cent o f those who produced or admin is te red p r o d u c t i o n . There appears to have been a net r i s e i n the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t expressed as a percentage of bo th the t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n and the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses . This i s . no t as s i g n i f i c a n t as i t appears, however, because most o f the "unemployed" l i s t e d separa te l y i n 1941 would l i k e l y have f a l l e n i n t o the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t had the 1951 c r i -t e r i a been used. I t i s wor th n o t i n g , however, t h a t the ranks of the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t were swel led not on ly by t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l foo twork but a lso by p o s t -war d e m o b i l i z a t i o n . The " m i l i t a r y p r o l e t a r i a t " dropped f rom 7.9 to 1.5 per cent of the " p r o d u c t i o n c l a s s e s " and helped boost the i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t by a l -most 14 percentage p o i n t s . The net movement i n the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses i s a seemingly i n s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t o f s l i g h t l y more than one per cent f rom the p e t i t e bourgeo is ie to the bourgeo is ie p roper . This movement can be rendered more meaningfu l i f we exa-mine movements w i t h i n the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e . Th is c l a s s , compr is ing s e l f -employed people and s a l a r i e d managers, has r e a l l y two w ings : f i r s t , the mana-g e r i a l , f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l s who ac t as f a c i l i t a t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the p r o d u c t i o n process and second, the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s e l f -employed and the farmers who are more or l ess independent agents of p roduc t i on and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f i r s t o f these wings increased bo th n u m e r i c a l l y and i n percentage between 1941 and 1951, w i t h the inc rease i n the number o f managers be ing the most pronounced. The number of independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s dropped as many o f them s l i p p e d i n t o the s a l a r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s . The second wing of the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , the independent producers and d i s t r i b u t o r s , exper ienced a profound d e c l i n e and o f f s e t the inc rease i n the f i r s t wing to the ex ten t t h a t 32. the c lass as a percentage o f the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses d e c l i n e d . ^ The c o r r e -sponding ga in by the bourgeo is ie was enough t o move i t f rom 2.6 to 4 per cent of the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses , or s l i g h t l y more than two per cent of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . The net e f f e c t of the movements i n the bourgeois and p e t i t e -bourgeois c lasses , t hen , was to inc rease the number of people i n v o l v e d i n ownership, management and f a c i l i t a t i o n o f co rpora te p r o d u c t i o n and to de-crease the number i n v o l v e d i n independent p r o d u c t i o n . I have noted t h a t the people i n the " o t h e r s " and "under 14 yea rs " c a t e -gory were dependent f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d e i t h e r on members o f the th ree p roduc t i on c lasses or on the s t a t e . A t r u e r p i c t u r e of the p r o v i n c e ' s c lass s t r u c t u r e might be obta ined i f those dependent on o ther i n d i v i d u a l s could be a l l o c a t e d among the c lasses which prov ided t h e i r means o f suppor t . I n the absence of data which would enable t h i s to be done w i t h any th ing approaching accuracy, we may assume t h a t those people not dependent on the s t a t e were d i s t r i b u t e d among the th ree p roduc t i on c l a s s . I n o ther words, rough ly 80 per cent depended f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d on wage-earners, 16 per cent oh the se l f -employed and manager ia l c lasses and fou r per cent on the b o u r g e o i s i e . Thus the r i g h t - h a n d percentage columns i n Table 2-1 correspond most n e a r l y to the numer ica l s t r e n g t h of each c lass i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1941 and 1951, w i t h the impor tan t q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t an unknown percentage depended on the s t a t e f o r suppor t . There i s no reason to suppose t h a t any o f the p r o d u c t i o n c lasses claimed a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of most of B r i t i s h Columbia's de-3 pendent groups. I f these assumptions are v a l i d , the conc lus ion f o l l o w s t h a t i n post -war B r i t i s h Columbia a l i t t l e more than 40 per cent of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n so ld i t s l a b o u r i n g power e i t h e r to the s t a t e or to a smal l group of employers and used the proceeds to support not on ly i t s e l f but a f u r t h e r 40 per cent ( l ess 33. the unknown number supported by the s t a t e ) . Whi le the wage- labour ing c lass was l o s i n g members to r e t i r e m e n t and the home, i t was g a i n i n g f rom the r e t u r n -i n g armed fo rces and f rom the ranks o f one wing of the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e . Re f lec ted i n these t rends i s the dominance o f the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o -d u c t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by wage- labour . The d e c l i n i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n engaged i n independent commodity p r o d u c t i o n shows t h a t the c a p i -t a l i s t mode was becoming even more dominant than i t had been. Given t h a t so many worked f o r so few, the importance of the s o c i a l and economic i n s t i t u -t i o n s sur rounding the wage r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c l e a r . The sway he ld by i n d u s -t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m over the means of l i v e l i h o o d o f the people of the prov ince was bound to generate p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . B. Class r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the 1947 l e g i s l a t u r e . At the t ime when the founda t i on f o r the modern i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s system of B r i t i s h Columbia was l a i d , the c lass composi t ion o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e bore l i t t l e resemblance to the c lass s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e d above. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the p r o l e t a r i a t was s e r i o u s l y under - rep resen ted . More than h a l f the members of the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly came f rom the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , which accounted f o r l ess than 10 per cent of the t o t a l - a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . O v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the bou rgeo is ie i n the l e g i s l a t u r e was not as pronounced, a l though s t i l l p resen t . A b r i e f p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y w i l l he lp the reader understand the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . B .C . ' s p o l i t i c a l system cons is ted main ly o f two p a r t i e s , the L i b e r a l s and the Conservat ives f rom 1903 u n t ' i l 1933. I n t h a t year the Conservat ive government of Simon Fraser To lmie , having proved unable to cope w i t h the p r o v i n c e ' s economic problems, was rep laced by Duf f P a t t u l l o ' s L i b -e r a l s . An unsuccess fu l Tory a t tempt to coax the L i b e r a l s i n t o a " n o n - p a r t i -34. san" c o a l i t i o n f a i l e d and the Conserva t ives , many of whom ran under a " n o n - p a r t i s a n " banner, were a n n i h i l a t e d . The mant le of o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n f e l l to the Co-opera t ive Commonwealth Federa t ion (CCF), the " f a r m e r - l a b o u r -s o c i a l i s t " p a r t y which rece ived 10 seats and 31.5 per cent of the popular vo te i n i t s f i r s t e l e c t i o n . P a t t u l l o su rv i ved a 1937 e l e c t i o n but f a i l e d to w in a m a j o r i t y i n 1941. Rather than depend on the CCF f o r support the L i b -e r a l s entered i n t o a c o a l i t i o n government w i t h the Conserva t ives . P a t t u l l o thereupon res igned and was succeeded as premier b y . h i s f inance m i n i s t e r , John H a r t . Cabinet p o s i t i o n s i n the c o a l i t i o n government were d i v i d e d rough-l y accord ing to the p r o p o r t i o n of seats he ld by the two p a r t i e s , but f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons (d iscussed i n chapter 5) i t was no t an easy a l l i a n c e . While the c o a l i t i o n candidates i n the 1945 and 1949 e l e c t i o n s d i d not run as L i b e r a l s and Conservat ives , i n a l l bu t a few cases t h e i r p a r t y a f f i l i a -t i o n s l u r k e d c lose to the s u r f a c e . The c o a l i t i o n r e g i s t e r e d a net ga in of f o u r seats f rom the CCF i n the 1945 e l e c t i o n . Table 2-2 a t tempts t o c l a s s i f y the MLAs i n the 1947 l e g i s l a t u r e accord ing to the d i v i s i o n s i n Table 2 - 1 . While there are probably some d i s -crepancies owing to the l ack or i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a , the two t a b l e s are reasonably comparable. Table 2-2 shows the o v e r a l l ove r -and u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o u t l i n e d a t the beg inn ing of t h i s s e c t i o n . One-s i x t h of the l e g i s l a t u r e , as opposed to two per cent of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , was composed o f bourgeois elements. Twenty-nine out o f 48, or 60 per c e n t , of the MLAs came from the two wings o f the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , which c la imed about n ine per cent o f the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . The 10 MLAs c lassed as " p r o -l e t a r i a n " c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a c lass which c o n s t i t u t e d more than 40 per cent of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . Examining the c lass r e p r e s e n t a t i o n among the MLAs grouped by p a r t i e s , Table 2-2 Occupat ional and Class Composit ion of B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e , 1947 Bourgeois P e t i t - b o u r g e o i s P r o f e s s i o n a l Indus. Other To ta l s Business Mgr.ofc" Finance Lawyer Other I n d . Rancher Journa-- A c c t . P r o f . S k i l l e d Ret. Man Sec. ( Ins .&R.E. p ro fess ions R e t a i l or l i s t or Manual A g t . A c c t . ) ( A l l doc- Merchant Farmer TeacherWorker Par ty t o r s ) C o a l i t i o n ( L i b e r a l ) 4 3 4 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 21 C o a l i t i o n ( C o n s e r v a t i v e ) 4 1 • 1 2 4 2 1 1+ 16 CCF/Labour 2 1 * 2 1 1 4 11 To ta ls 8 2 5 5 3 8 6 1 1 2- 6 1 48 *Tom U p h i l l ( F e r n i e ) , the "independent l abour " cand ida te . 4 - T i l l i e Ro ls ton (Po in t Grey ) , who had been a teacher 30 years be fo re her f i r s t e l e c t i o n , and who l i s t e d h e r s e l f as "widow" on the b a l l o t . Source: B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n Canadian  Par l iamentary Guide, checked aga ins t occupat ion g iven i n the Chief E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r ' s Statement  of Votes (1945) . Supplementary sources: Daisy Webster, Growth of  the NDP i n B.C. , 1900-1970: 81 P o l i t i c a l B i o - graphies , and Vancouver Prov ince . 36. we f i n d t h a t the bou rgeo is ie and p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s i e are concent ra ted i n the c o a l i t i o n p a r t i e s and t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l wo rk ing -c lass MLAs are concent ra ted i n the CCF. Of the 37 c o a l i t i o n MLAs, 17 were businessmen, f i n a n c i a l or insurance agents , se l f -employed accountants or l awyers . Twelve were i n d e -pendent r e t a i l merchants, farmers or ranchers and there were f i v e w o r k i n g -c lass c o a l i t i o n MLAs, on ly two o f which came from the i n d u s t r i a l work ing c l a s s . The CCF cla imed f i v e work ing -c lass MLAs, i n c l u d i n g f o u r of the s i x i n the " i n d u s t r i a l " ca tegory . But the re was a lso s i g n i f i c a n t p e t i t - b o u r -geois r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the CCF. We s h a l l see t h a t under the c o a l i t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the government caucus played a more impor tan t r o l e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f government p o l i c y than i t u s u a l l y does and thus the predominance of p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s elements among the government MLAs must be kept i n mind. Even so i t i s noteworthy that a l though there was work ing -c lass r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the government caucus there was e s s e n t i a l l y none i n the c a b i n e t . Table 2-3 shows t h a t o f the 10 m i n i s t e r s i n the Har t government, f o u r were independent r e t a i l merchants, one a fa rmer , one a lawyer , one a f i n a n c i a l agent , one an accountant , one a businessman and one a p r o f e s s o r . The cab ine t was thus almost evenly s p l i t between bourgeois and p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s e lements. The d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n , which proved impor tan t i n the development of post -war labour p o l i c y , are l ess s u s c e p t i b l e to s u p e r f i c i a l examinat ion but come to l i g h t when the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of support i s taken i n t o account . F igure 2-1 and the accompanying legend, which a lso serves as a guide to Table 2-2 i l l u s t r a t e some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c lass r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and support i n the L i b e r a l and Conservat ive p a r t i e s . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f MLAs i s i n f l u e n c e d somewhat by the L i b e r a l -Conservat ive e l e c t o r a l agreement, which r e s u l t e d i n equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each p a r t y i n the Vancouver- V i c t o r i a m e t r o p o l i s . Three L i b e r a l s ran 37. Table 2-3 : Occupations of B r i t i s h Columbia Cabinet , 1947 M i n i s t e r & m i n i s t r y Occupation) Business F i n . o r A c c t . Lawyer I n d . Farmer P r o -Man I n s . A g t . ( S - E ) - R e t a i l fessor Merchant Const i tuency L i b e r a l s John H a r t , premier George Pearson, labour&prov sec Gordon Wismer, a t t . - g e n e r a l E. T. Kenney, lands&fo res ts Frank Putman, a g r i c u l t u r e George Weir , educat ion x x x V i c t o r i a Nanaimo & the i s l a n d s Van-Centre Skeena Nelson-Creston Van-Burrard Conservat ives Herber t Anscomb, f i nance Roder ick MacDonald, mines&municipal a f f a i r s Ernest Carson, p u b l i c works L e s l i e Eyres, r a i l w a y s , t r a d e & i n d . , f i s h e r i e s x Oak Bay Dewdney L i l l o o e t C h i l l i w a c k Source: Statement of Votes 1945 Can. Par l iamentary Guide 1946 38. unopposed as C o a l i t i o n i s t s i n V i c t o r i a and th ree Conservat ives d i d the same i n Vancouver-Point Grey, w h i l e the two-member c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of Vancouver-Centre and Vancouver-Burrard were each contested s u c c e s s f u l l y by one L i b e r a l and one Tory C o a l i t i o n i s t . Of the 16 h e a v i l y urban seats seven were won by L i b e r a l s and s i x by T o r i e s , a l l runn ing under the c o a l i t i o n banner, w h i l e the remain ing th ree — i n the h e a v i l y work ing -c lass areas of Vancouver-East and Burnaby — f e l l to the CCF. Outs ide the m e t r o p o l i t a n a rea , a few MLAs were nominated by j o i n t L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n meet ings. Most , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who sought r e - e l e c t i o n f rom the 1941-45 l e g i s l a t u r e , were nominated by t h e i r own p a r t i e s , w i t h the c o a l i t i o n p a r t n e r e i t h e r a b s t a i n i n g f rom a c t i o n a l t o -gether o r , r a r e l y , p i t c h i n g i n to he lp once the campaign got go ing . The 1945 e l e c t i o n thus tended to perpetuate e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of support and rep resen -t a t i o n . The non-urban Conservat ive c o a l i t i o n i s t s almost e x c l u s i v e l y r e p r e -sented areas w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l economic bases which were s e t t l e d be fo re 1900. I n t h i s category f e l l D e l t a , Dewdney, C h i l l i w a c k , Similkameen, South Okana-gan, Salmon Arm, Grand Forks-Greenwood and p o s s i b l y , L i l l o o e t . Exc lud ing the urban r i d i n g s , the on ly o thers he ld by Tor ies a f t e r 1945 were Revelstoke and Cranbfook, a cons t i t uency w i t h some farming but l ogg ing and min ing as w e l l . The Tor ies were o f t e n represented i n these areas by farmers such as A r t h u r R i t c h i e (Salmon Arm) and Alexander Hope ( D e l t a ) , or s torekeepers such as Roder ick MacDonald (Dewdney), L e s l i e Eyres ( C h i l l i w a c k ) and'W.A.C. Bennett (South Okanagan). The s t rong r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n these areas f rom these c lasses i n d i c a t e s t h a t one wing of the Conservat ive p a r t y spoke f o r the r u r a l l y - b a s e d p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e . The second s i g n i f i c a n t area of Conservat ive r e p r e s e n t a -39. 40. LEGEND FOR FIGURE 2-1 L i b e r a l s : Const i tuency Member Occupat ion /c lass 25. Comox Herber t Welch 2 *Businessman (B) George Pearson'*"-'-( l ogger ) 30. Nanaimo & i s l a n d s *Businessman (B) ( labour m i n i s t e r ) 33 Nor th Vancouver John Cates^ ^Businessman (B) (manager) 39. New Westminster Byron Johnson + l Businessman (B) 8. Cariboo Louis L s B o u r d a i s + l Insurance A g t . (PB) 9. Kamloops Robert Carson"1"--- Insurance A g t . (PB) 3 1 . V i c t o r i a John H a r t + 1 * F i n a n c i a l A g t . (PB) (premier ) 18. Nor th Okanagan Charles Morrow 2 Lawyer(PB) 29. Saanich Norman W h i t t a k e r + 1 Lawyer (PB) 3 1 . V i c t o r i a W i l l i a m S t ra i t h " 1 " 1 Lawyer (PB) 35. Vancouver-Centre Gordon Wismerl Lawyer (PB) 14. Yale J . J . G i l l i s + 1 Doctor (PB) 4 . Skeena E. T. Kenney"*"1 Merchant (PB) 26. A l b e r n i James Mowat + l *Merchant (PB) (shoe r e p a i r e r ) 13. Columbia Thomas King"'"-'- Merchant Frank Putnam +1 * ( rancher) (PB) 2 1 . Nelson-Creston Farmer (PB) 28. Esquimalt Charles Beard-*- M i l i t a r y * ( f a r m e r ) (PB) 3 1 . V i c t o r i a Nancy Hodges + l J o u r n a l i s t (P) 20. R o s s l a n d - T r a i l J . L. Webster 3 Accountant (P) 36. Vancouver-Burrard George Weir"'- Pro fessor (P) i ; A t l i n W i l l i a m Smi th 2 E l e c t r i c i a n (P) 4 1 . LEGEND FOR FIGURES 2 - 1 , cont. i Conservat ives : Const i tuency Member Occupat ion /c lass 19. Grand Forks-Green- Thomas Love + ^ *Businessman (B) wood ( p u b l i s h e r ) 34. Vancouver-Pt . Grey Le igh Stevenson- 5 Businessman (B) 35. Vancouver-Centre .A l l an MacDonell^ Businessman (B) 36. Vancouver-Burrard Donald Brownl Businessman (B) 32. Oak Bay Herber t Anscomb"1"! Accountant (PB) 34. Vancouver-Pt . Grey A l b e r t MacDougall^ Lawyer (PB) 16. Similkameen Reginald L a i r d 3 Doctor (PB) 22. Cranbrook Frank Green + ^ Doctor (PB) 10. L i l l o o e t Ernest Carson"'"-'- *Merchant (PB) Roder ick MacDonald"1"! (mines m i n i s t e r ) 15. Dewdney Merchant (PB) 4 1 . C h i l l i w a c k L e s l i e Eyres"1"-^ Merchant (PB) 17. South Okanagan W.A.C. Bennett" 1" 1 Merchant (PB) 1 1 . Salmon Arm A r t h u r R i t c h i e ^ Farmer (PB) 40. D e l t a Alexander Hope-*- Farmer (PB) 12. Revelstoke 2 W i l l i a m Johnson Loc. engineer (P) 34. Vancouver-Pt . Grey T i l l i e Rolston" 1 " 1 * R e t i r e d (0) (widow) CCF/Labour: Const i tuency Member Occupat ion /c lass 7. Mackenzie Herber t Gargrave"1" Secretary (PB) 5. Pr ince Rupert 23. Fern ie 6. F o r t George W i l l i a m B r e t t Tom Uphi l l " 1 " John McInnis *Manager (PB) ( f isherman) Miner * ( I nsu rance a g t . ) (PB) Carpenter * (merchant) (PB) 42. LEGEND FOR FIGURE 2 - 1 , con t . CCF/Labour, c o n t . Const i tuency Member Occupat ion /c lass 37. Vancouver-East A r t h u r Turner"1" ^Metalworker * (Merchant) (PB) 27. Cowichan-Newcastle Sam Guthr ie 4 " *Farmer (PB) (miner) 24. Kas lo-Slocan Ran Harding Teacher (P) 2. Omineca Edward Rowland M i l l - w o r k e r (P) 3. Peace River Joseph Corsbie *Bookkeeper (P) Harold Winch + (salesman) 37. Vancouver-East E l e c t r i c i a n (P) 38. Burnaby Ern ie Winch B r i c k l a y e r (P) Sources f o r p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n o f c o a l i t i o n MLAs: iThese MLAs ran under t h e i r p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n i n 1941. 2 These MLAs ran under t h e i r p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n i n 1952. ^Par ty a f f i l i a t i o n as per Canadian Par l iamentary Guide, 1946, 1950. 4par ty a f f i l i a t i o n g iven i n Vancouver Prov ince , Oct . 26/45, p. 5. "^These MLAs were r e - e l e c t e d f rom the 1941-45 l e g i s l a t u r e . Sources f o r occupat ion and c l a s s : The main source i s the Canadian Par l iamentary Guide f o r 1946 and f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . Where there i s a c o n f l i c t between the CPG and the c h i e f e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r ' s Statement o f Vo tes , I have used my d i s c r e t i o n . I n these cases the occupat ion l i s t e d on the b a l l o t i s i nc luded i n b racke ts a f t e r the CPG occupa-t i o n and the one used i n Table 2-2 i s s t a r r e d . For two CCL MLAs (Ar thur Turner and John M c l n n i s ) , the occupat ion i n b racke ts and used i n Table 2-2 i s the one g iven i n Daisy Webster, The Growth of the NDP i n B.C. , 1900-1970: 81 P o l i t i c a l  B iograph ies . (Vancouver 1970) . 43. t i o n was among urban businessmen. A l l t h ree Tor ies i n t h i s category were engaged i n secondary manufactur ing and one was to p l a y a prominent r o l e i n flie passage o f the r e s t r i c t i v e ' l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s l e g i s l a t i o n of 1947. The L i b e r a l s , by c o n t r a s t , drew much of t h e i r support f rom areas and i n d i v i d u a l s dependent on or i n v o l v e d i n p r imary resource e x t r a c t i o n or p r o -cess ing . Of t h e i r f o u r businessman MLAs, Herber t Welch was p res iden t of a l ogg ing company and John Cates was p res iden t of a towing company. George Pearson and Byron Johnson, bo th of whom had i n t e r e s t s i n f i r m s engaged i n service and d i s t r i b u t i o n , appear to c o n t r a d i c t t h i s assessment, but as we s h a l l see they represented a " p r o g r e s s i v e " wing of secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y , opposed to the i n t e r e s t s o f the Tory manufac tu re rs . The L i b e r a l s a lso claimed the support of much of the p r o f e s s i o n a l wing of the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , f rom which they had double the Conserva t ives ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Regional ly speak ing, the L i b e r a l s represented r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e areas such as A l b e r n i , Comox, Skeena and R o s s l a n d - T r a i l , where they undoubtedly r e -ce ived s i g n i f i c a n t w o r k i n g - c l a s s suppor t , as w e l l as a few p a r t l y a g r i c u l -t u r a l r i d i n g s . Where the labour f o r c e was o rgan ized , however, support was more l i k e l y to go to the CCF, as i n Pr ince Ruper t , Mackenzie or Cowichan-Newcastle. I n both h i n t e r l a n d and m e t r o p o l i s the CCF was most popular among the o r g a n i -zed work ing c l a s s , bu t i t must be noted t h a t h a l f i t s e lec ted MLAs were p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p r o l e t a r i a n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . The many lab our de lega t ions which a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a i n the post -war yea rs , then , found few of t h e i r own k i n d . The Conserva t ives , r e p r e s e n t i n g a g r a r i a n and urban secondary business i n t e r e s t s , g e n e r a l l y took the hardest l i n e aga ins t labour p roposa ls . The L i b e r a l s , o f t e n t o r n between t h e i r p a r t l y w o r k i n g - c l a s s e l e c t o r a l base and t h e i r bourgeois a f f i l i a t i o n s were o f t e n fo rced to compromise w i t h the r i g h t - w i n g Tory i n f l u e n c e i n the C o a l i t i o n . 44. The CCF was the most c o n s i s t e n t suppor ter o f the labour movement. We should bear i n mind the c lass i n t e r e s t s represented by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as we con-s ide r the development of post -war labour p o l i c y . C. Pre-war and wart ime labour r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia At every stage i n the development o f s t a t e labour p o l i c y i n Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia has been e i t h e r the f i r s t or the second j u r i s d i c t i o n to a c t . Most of the s t a t u t e s , i n c l u d i n g the Trades Disputes Act (1893) , the Trade-unions Act (1902) and the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n (ICA) Act (1937) have been passed i n response to c r i s e s of i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t . The last-named was r e a l l y an ex tens ion o f the Rooseve l t ian "Work and Wages" p r o -gram of L i b e r a l premier Duff P a t t u l l o , which was developed to dea l w i t h widespread unemployment and a succession o f i n d u s t r i a l c r i s e s . ^ The Work and Wages Act had prov ided f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l 48-hour week and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a i s e d the minimum wage. But the r i s e of i n d u s t r i a l unionism i n B r i t i s h Columbia, b r i n g i n g thousands o f u n s k i l l e d workers w i t h i n the ranks of the un ion movement, demanded o f the s t a t e a r e v i s i o n i n labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c y . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f Amer ica, descendent of a s y n d i c a l i s t lumber u i i on which was not ab le to s u r v i v e the p r o s p e r i t y of the t w e n t i e s , was o r -gan iz ing f e v e r i s h l y i n the lumber camps and sawmi l l s . " ' The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of Mine, M i l l and Smelter Workers ( M i n e - M i l l ) t raced i t s l i neage back to the r a d i c a l Western Federa t ion o f Miners which f l o u r i s h e d i n western CGanada and the U.S. i n the e a r l y 1890s and 1900s. I t s B.C. o r g a n i z e r , the ene rge t i c Harvey Murphy, soon commanded a s i zeab le f o l l o w i n g . 6 Both Murphy and the IWA's f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t , Haro ld P r i t c h e t t , were prominent members of the Communist Par ty of Canada and i t s successor , the Labour-Progressive P a r t y , and many o f the best g rgan ize rs i n these and o ther unions were p a r t y members. 45. Employer r e a c t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l un ion ism was ha rsh . Owners and managers i n the p r o v i n c e ' s bas ic i n d u s t r i e s were p roud ly independent and f i e r c e l y c o m p e t i t i v e , v a c i l l a t i n g i n t h e i r labour r e l a t i o n s p o l i c i e s between autocracy and p a t e r n a l i s m . I n the lumber i n d u s t r y , the processes of combina-t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n had not begun i n earnest and many opera t ions remained s m a l l , h i g h l y seasonal and m a r g i n a l l y p r o f i t a b l e . 7 To l ogg ing bosses, unions were p o t e n t i a l l y d i s a s t r o u s to p r o f i t s . A measure of t h e i r h o s t i l i t y i s the 12-year span between 1931, when the communist workers began to r e - o r g a n -i z e the un ion i n the lumber i n d u s t r y and 1943, when the f i r s t coast r e g i o n Q i ndus t ry -w ide c o n t r a c t was s igned . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d i n the meta l mines, most o f which were c o n t r o l l e d by Eastern Canadian, American or B r i -t i s h i n t e r e s t s . I n the mines the dependence on wor ld markets f o r meta l aid i n the case of go ld on f i x e d sales t o the government, prec luded the ^passing on of wage increases to buyers , a f a c t o r which f u r t h e r hardened employer h o s i t l i t y . 9 Company un ion ism, i n t i m i d a t i o n and harassment o f un ion workers were a l l p a r t of the a rsena l of these and o ther employers i n the b a t t l e aga ins t i n d u s t r i a l un ion ism. The most r a d i c a l c u r r e n t s i n the Canadian labour movement had a l -ways sprung f rom B r i t i s h Columbia and t h i s may be p a r t of the reason f o r the lack of governmental h o s t i l i t y i n t h i s p rov ince to the i n d u s t r i a l unionism of the t h i r t i e s . P a t t u l l o was no p a r t i c u l a r f r i e n d of the i n d u s t r i a l unions or t h e i r communist l e a d e r s , bu t the re were no open c o n f r o n t a t i o n s such as the M i t c h e l l Hepburn-United Automobi le Workers b a t t l e i n O n t a r i o . P a t t u l l o ' s labour m i n i s t e r , the weal thy Nanaimo manufacturer George Pearson, had seen t h a t the onslaught o f i n d u s t r i a l unionism i n the lumber and min ing camps f o r e c a s t the ex tens ion i n t o B.C. o f the campaigns being waged i n the U.S. s t e e l and packinghouse i n d u s t r i e s by the Committee f o r I n d u s t r i a l Organ iza-t i o n (CIO). Pearson saw t h a t the r e f u s a l of B.C. employers to pe rmi t un ion 46. o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e i r p l a n t s could not l a s t and t h a t the way to meet the i n e v i t a b l e pressures f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n was not by r e p r e s s i o n but by a s s i m i l a t i n g them i n t o the e x i s t i n g network of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s : Every sens ib le .person w i l l admit the j u s t i c e o f the c l a i m o f men to organ ize themselves f o r the purpose o f d i scuss ing t h e i r problems w i t h t h e i r employers and n e g o t i a t i n g terms o f employment. This be ing the case I am convinced t h a t as labour c o n d i t i o n s s e t t l e themselves i n the Un i ted States a d e f i n i t e a t t a c k w i l l be made.upon B r i t i s h Columbia to com-p l e t e l y organ ize i t . . . Dur ing t h i s at tempt i n d u s t r y w i l l s u f f e r tremendously i n t h i s P rov ince , through s t r i k e s , unless we are prepared to meet i t . 1 0 The ins t rument f o r a t t a i n i n g t h i s goa l was to be the ICA Act of 1 9 3 7 . H The ac t was indeed "an at tempt . . . to p rov ide f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n f o r the r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e " - ^ bu t i t f e l l shor t i n a number of a reas . V a r i -ous types of p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t harassment of employees f o r un ion a c t i v i t y and o ther a n t i - u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s were p rov ided (ss . 6, 7) and employers were compelled to ba rga in w i t h t h e i r employees ( s . 5 ) . But the re was no p r o v i -s i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n or f o r any form of s t a t e ass is tance to un ion recog -n i t i o n . I n f a c t , the 1937 ac t d i d no t even recognize the ex is tence o f un ions , except i n s o f a r as they might be a p a r t y to the c o n c i l i a t i o n process . Bar-g a i n i n g had on ly to take palce w i t h " e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " of employees, a de fec t which encouraged company un ion ism. There i s thus no ques t ion of a change to the Wagner Act system through the 1937 ac t or i t s 1938 amendment, since the s t a t e had no r o l e i n de termin ing the p a r t i e s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n -ing . - ' - 4 Moreover, w h i l e the ICA Act c a r r i e d over f rom the dominion I D I Act the compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure, the process was lengthened. Before appointment of a c o n c i l i a t i o n board , e i t h e r p a r t y could apply f o r the a p p o i n t -ment of a c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r f rom the s t a f f of the labour department, (s 10) I f he f a i l e d to r e c o n c i l e the p a r t i e s , a board was appo in ted , ( s . 17) and votes f o r acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of i t s r e p o r t he ld by the p a r t i e s , which the m i n i s t e r a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n might supe rv i se . The freedom t o s t r i k e 47. or l ock out was suspended f o r the e n t i r e pe r i od f rom the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r appointment o f a c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r t o 14 days a f t e r the complet ion of the v o t e . £s. 4 5 ) . I n p r a c t i c e t h i s n o - s t r i k e p e r i o d o f t e n extended f o r two to th ree months, du r i ng which employers could i n t i m i d a t e workers away f rom t h e i r i n i t i a l l y m i l i t a n t s tands. I n t h i s way the ac t was a " d e t e r r r e n t t o m i l i t a n t unionism and s t r i k e act ion."" ' "" ' Despi te these d e f i c i e n c i e s , the ICA Act of 1937 earned the P a t t u l l o 16 government a r e p u t a t i o n as the most p r o - l a b o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada. The ac t was supported i n the l e g i s l a t u r e by a l l p a r t i e s i n c l u d i n g the CCF, which had proposed s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y ! 7 a l though o f course , the ] 8 CCF d i d not f a i l to p o i n t out the a c t ' s weaknesses. The p r o v i n c e ' s businessmen, a t any r a t e , were alarmed enough to l e t P a t t u l l o know they thought h i s government was "go ing too f a s t " i n i t s labour and s o c i a l w e l -f a r e p o l i c y and " s e t t i n g a bad example to the r e s t of the c o u n t r y . W i t h the l i m i t e d p r o t e c t i o n of the ICA A c t , and the tremendous impetus t o o r g a n i -20 z a t i o n g iven by the demand f o r wart ime p r o d u c t i o n , the i n d u s t r i a l unions cont inued t h e i r d r i v e . I n the f i v e years f rom 1936 to 1941 t o t a l un ion mem-bersh ip i n the p rov ince doubled to n e a r l y 50,000 and by 1944 i t had r i s e n to 90,000. The percentage of the labour f o r c e organized rose f rom 10 per cent i n 1936 to 29 per cent i n 1944. The i n d u s t r i a l unions i n B.C. were w e l l represented a t the 1940 foud ing convent ion of the Canadian Congress o f Labour, the Canadian coun te rpar t of the CIO, composed main ly o f unions expe l l ed f rom the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada (TLC) f o l l o w i n g a d i r e c t i v e f rom the American Federa t ion of L a b o u r . 2 2 The B.C. government once aga in pioneered i n the f i e l d of labour p o l i c y w i t h amendments to the ICA Act i n 1943. This step was the r e a l fo re runner of the Wagner Act system i n Canada. Sec t ion 5 o f the ac t was 48. amended to f o r c e employers to ba rga in w i t h any un ion which had the suppor t of the m a j o r i t y o f workers i n the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t concerned and the m i n i s t e r of labour was a u t h o r i z e d to i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n , take such steps as he t h i n k s proper to s a t i s f y h i m s e l f , i n the case of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d by the employees, t h a t the e l e c t i o n was : r e g u l a r l y and p r o p e r l y conducted and, i n the case o f a t r a d e - u n i o n c l a i m i n g the r i g h t to conduct the b a r g a i n i n g , t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f the employees a f f e c t e d are members of the t r a d e - u n i o n . (24) Th is was a k i n d o f nega t i ve p r o v i s i o n f o r s t a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f . t h e c o l -l e c t i v e .barga in ing agent , f o r i f the m i n i s t e r d i d no t i n t e r v e n e , the employer was r e q u i r e d to ba rga in w i t h the un ion which claimed the r i g h t s f o r the m a j o r i t y of employees. The ac t was h i g h l y regarded by spokesmen f o r organized l a b o u r , and i t had a " c r e a t i v e i n f l u e n c e " on the development of the p o l i c y conta ined i n the dominion order P.C. 1003, which f o l l o w e d less than a year l a t e r . 2 5 P.C. 1003 put p r o v i n c i a l labour p o l i c y i n l i m b o . The>work of un ion o r g a n i z a t i o n went on, but employer h o s t i l i t y increased sharp ly w i t h un ion m i l i t a n c e a f t e r the war . There was no c e r t a i n t y as to what would f o l l o w when the dominion r e l i n q u i s h e d i t s wart ime j u r i s d i c t i o n over labour r e l a t i o n s . 49. Notes to Chapter 2 1 I do not want to imp ly t h a t the people l i s t e d as "homemakers" i n the Census of Canada are not engaged i n v i t a l p r o d u c t i o n . For the purposes of t h i s broad a n a l y s i s , however, g iven the u b i q u i t o u s nature of the nuc lear f a m i l y as a u n i t o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the "homemakers" of B r i t i s h Columbia are assumed to have the same c lass p o s i t i o n as the members o f the " p r o d u c t i o n c l a s s e s " on whom they depend. The 1951 census came too soon a f t e r the war to show the beg inn ing o f the r i s i n g labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of women, or the e f f e c t of the tendency toward a longer schoo l ing p e r i o d . 2 On the n a t i o n a l s c a l e , the d e c l i n e o f t h i s wing of the p e t i t e bourgeo is ie i s one of the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f the development of s o c i o -economic c lasses i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . See Leo Johnson, "The development o f c lass i n Canada i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " , i n Gary Teeple, e d . , C a p i t a l i s m and the n a t i o n a l ques t ion i n Canada, Toron to : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1972, 141-179. I n B.C. , the genera l n a t i o n a l d e c l i n e was exacerbated by the h i s t o r i c a l weakness of the independent mode of commodity p r o d u c t i o n , owing to the l ack of a rab le l a n d . ( I n d e -pendent r e t a i l i n g , o f course, p layed an impor tan t r o l e i n the e a r l y f r o n t i e r days . ) 3 Fur ther e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s procedure may be d e s i r a b l e . I am not aware of any i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t f e r t i l i t y or marr iage r a t e s va ry i n B r i t i s h Columbia among c lasses as de f i ned by r e l a t i o n s h i p to the means of p r o d u c t i o n . ( F e r t i l i t y i s g e n e r a l l y considered to vary i n v e r s e l y w i t h f a m i l y income, which i s not the c r i t e r i o n used i n Table 2 -1 . ) There-f o r e I can see no o b j e c t i o n to a p p o r t i o n i n g the "homemakers" and "under -14s" among the " p r o d u c t i o n " c lasses on a s t r a i g h t percentage b a s i s . The same would , I t h i n k , apply to the " r e t i r e d or permanent ly d i s a b l e d " ca tegory , a l though i t might be argued t h a t permanent d isablement i s u n l i k e l y to occur among the b o u r g e o i s i e . The procedure becomes more dubious w i t h " s t u d e n t s " , among whom there would probably be g rea te r bourgeois and p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and w i t h those " i n i n s t i t u t i o n s " , where a h e a l t h y p r o l e t a r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n might be expected. Since these two are the smal les t of the ca tegor ies i n q u e s t i o n , I have f o l l o w e d a u n i f o r m procedure f o r the sake o f s i m p l i c i t y . The reader should bear i n mind t h a t Table 2-1 does not p u r p o r t to i n s e r t every i n d i v i d u a l i n the prov ince i n t o a r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e c lass s t r u c t u r e . 4 Margaret Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a h i s t o r y , Vancouver: Macmi l lan , 1971, 457, 459; see a lso Margaret Ormsby, "T . D u f f e r i n P a t t u l l o and the L i t t l e New D e a l " , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, 43 (1962) : 277-297. 5 H. A. Logan, Trade Unions i n Canada, Toronto : Macmi l lan , 1948, 283. 6 I b i d . , 162-4. 7 A l f r e d C. K i l b a n k , The economic bas is o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the  lumber i n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, BA essay (economics and p o l i t i c a l sc ience , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. , 1947, c h . 4 . 50. 8 Logan, op_. c i t . , 284. 9 Dean R. MacKay, A study of labour r e l a t i o n s i n the meta l -m in ing i n d u s t r y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, MA t h e s i s (economics), U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. , 1948, ch . 2. 10 Pearson to P a t t u l l o , September 30, 1937, p_p_, 1937-38, L-3-G. 11 S. B. C. 1937, 1 Geo. V I , c h . 3 1 . 12 S. M idan ik , "Problems o f l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " , CJEPS, 9 (1943) : 349. 13 S tuar t Jamieson, Times of t r o u b l e : labour un res t and i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t  i n Canada, 1900-1966, Ottawa: P r i v y Counc i l o f f i c e , 1968, 265. This de fec t was o n l y p a r t l y c o r r e c t e d through a 1938 amendment t o s e c t i o n 5 (S.B.C. 1938, 2 Geo, V I , c h . 23) i n which unions were recognized as p o s s i b l e l a w f u l p a r t i e s to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . But on ly unions i n ex is tence a t the t ime the ac t was passed were recognized i n t h i s way. Employees not un ion ized on December 7, 1938, cou ld not f o r c e an employer to recognize t h e i r u n i o n , but could f o r c e b a r g a i n i n g on ly w i t h "employee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " , i n l i n e w i t h the King system p r i n c i p l e . Since new i n d u s t r i a l unions were s p r i n g i n g up r a p i d l y , t h i s p r o v i s i o n was d i s -c r i m i n a t o r y and tended to encourage company unions i n the same way as the I D I A c t . 14 H. A. Logan, S ta te i n t e r v e n t i o n and ass is tance i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g :  the Canadian exper ience , 1943-1954, Toron to : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press 1956 (Canadian Studies i n Economics, no. 6 ) , 10. 15 Jamieson, l o c . c i t . I r o n i c a l l y , one reason the p r o v i n c i a l labour d e p a r t -ment had been anxious to pass i t s own l e g i s l a t i o n was sa id to be t h a t " the Dominion boards (under the I D I Ac t ) took too long to b r i n g i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s . " A. E. Grauer, Labour l e g i s l a t i o n : a s tudy prepared f o r the  Royal Commission on Domin ion -Prov inc ia l R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa: King' is P r i n t e r , 1939, 128. 16 F. R. Anton, The r o l e o f government i n the se t t lement o f i n d u s t r i a l  d i spu tes i n Canada, Toronto : CCH Canadian, 1962, 103. See a lso r a d i o speech by Harvey Murphy, October 2 , 1947, MMP, 54-7 . 17 Douglas P. C l a r k , Some aspects o f the development of the Co-opera t i ye -Commonwealth Federa t ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia, undergraduate essay ( h i s t o r y ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. , 1945, 40-2 , discusses some o f the labour and CCF pressure preceding the passage o f the ICA A c t . 18 See Harold Winch, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Labor A c t " , Canadian Forum, 18 (1938-9=) : 330-331. 19 T. D. P a t t u l l o , " D o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s " , The Empire Club  Addresses, 1946-7, Toronto : Empire Club o f Canada, 1947, 105. I n the 1945 speech from which these quo ta t i ons are taken , P a t t u l l o revea led the l i m i t s of h i s " f r i e n d l i n e s s " toward labour by t a k i n g the 5 1 . Hepburnish p o s i t i o n t h a t s t r i k e s , and^p icket ing . should,, be out lawed and a l l i n d u s t r i a l d i spu tes s e t t l e d by compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n . 20 The economic demands o f wart ime r a t h e r than the p r o t e c t i o n of l e g i s l a -t i o n were p r i m a r i l y respons ib le f o r the gains made by labour du r i ng the war. See J . C. Cameron and F. J . L. Young, The s t a t u s of t rade unions  i n Canada, K i n g s t o n : Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Deparment o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a -t i o n s , 1960, 143. 21 Paul P h i l l i p s , No Power Grea te r : a cen tu ry o f labour, i n B. C , Vancouver, B. C. Federa t ion of Labour/Boag Foundat ion , 1967, 169. 22 Logan, Trade unions i n Canada, c h . 16; I r v i n g A b e l l a , N a t i o n a l i s m , com- munism and Canadian l a b o u r , Toron to ; U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1973, chs. 1-3. 23 I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Amendment A c t , S.B.C. 1943, 7 Geo. V I , ch . 28. 24 I b i d . , s . 4 . 25 Logan, S ta te i n t e r v e n t i o n , p. 26. See a lso H. D. Woods, Labour p o l i c y  i n Canada second e d i t i o n , Toron to : Macmi l lan , 1973, 83-4 . CHAPTER I I I THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: SKIRMISHES I n t r o d u c t i o n The preceding chapter o u t l i n e d some of the growth of the un ion movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia du r i ng the 1930s and the war yea rs . This chapter i n t roduces the b a t t l e s fought by the newly -power fu l unions f rom 1944 on f o r "a secure s t a t u s and a u t h o r i t y comparable to those o f management, i n i n d u s -t r y and i n the a f f a i r s o f the community."-'- This was the s t r u g g l e t o i n s t i -t u t e , e i t h e r through c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g or through l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o v i s i o n s such as the check -o f f of un ion dues and the un ion shop, i n an a l l -encompass ing system of " i n d u s t r i a l government". The o r i g i n s o f the d r i v e f o r un ion secur -i t y are discussed f i r s t of a l l , w i t h emphasis on some of the c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements i n the campaign. Then I t u r n to the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the labour movement between s o c i a l democrats and communists over the ques t i on of p o l i t i -c a l s t r a t e g y . F i n a l l y the lobby ing o f the government by un ion and employer groups i s d iscussed, and there i s some a n a l y s i s of the government 's response. A. The demand f o r un ion s e c u r i t y To the average work ing man or woman, " s e c u r i t y " i n the immediate post -war years l i k e l y meant a secure home, a secure job and a secure f a m i l y . This would be an obvious r e a c t i o n to the s o c i a l upheaval of the depress ion and the war. The d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n of the h i g h wart ime wage standards was one of the sources of s t r e n g t h i n the un ion movement. But t h a t movement had of necess i t y thrown up un ion l e a d e r s , f o r whom the word " s e c u r i t y " meant something more than j u s t a house and a j o b . For a un ion l e a d e r ' s j o b to be secure, the un ion i t s e l f must be secure. To the un ion l e a d e r , " s e c u r i t y " meant en t rench ing the union i n an unassa i l ab le p o s i t i o n . The o l d c r a f t 53. unions h a d n ' t had to worry too. much about p o s s i b l e a n n i h i l a t i o n , s ince they had managed to c o n t r o l e n t r y to the t r a d e s , or a t l e a s t to a s s i m i l a t e unor -ganized groups encroaching on them. But the newer unions of u n s k i l l e d i n d u s -t r i a l workers , i n p l a n t s w i t h h i g h tu rnover r a t e s , faced the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d w i n d l i n g support e i t h e r through the i n e p t i t u d e o f t h e i r leaders or th rough a n t i - u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s by employers. The leaders of these un ions , i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the war and the post-war yea rs , fought to get widespread s e c u r i t y p r o -v i s i o n s both i n b a r g a i n i n g w i t h employers and through l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . The f i r s t method proved more success fu l than the second. The u n i o n s ' f i g h t f o r s t a t u s i n the economic arena was d e c e p t i v e , f o r on the sur face most of the post-war s t r i k e s i t engendered "were c a r r i e d out f o r s p e c i f i c and t a n g i b l e o b j e c t i v e s " and " few of them cou ld be viewed as desperate s t r u g g l e s f o r s u r v i v a l . " But a l though economic readjustment a f t e r the Second World War was not marked by severe unemployment, as had been the case f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t g rea t war the re was a concer ted campaign on the p a r t of employers to d i v e s t the unions of some of the l e g a l and economic power they had acqu i red s ince 1939. B. C. c a p i t a l i s t s c la imed t h a t wages could not cont inue to r i s e i f p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r y was to compete w i t h Eastern Canada, whose " g e n e r a l l y lower standard of wages", l a r g e r manpower poo l and eas ie r 4 a c c e s s i b i l i t y to m a t e r i a l s and equipment gave i t the advantage. There fore the wage demands of 1945 and 1946 were not the o r d i n a r y demands f o r annual i nc reases , but were o f t e n designed to "ma in ta in take-home p a y " . 5 Such econo-mic demands, of course, went hand i n hand w i t h demands f o r s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s , but i t i s impor tan t to r e a l i z e t h a t the " s e c u r i t y " component was present i n b o t h . The importance a t tached by the BCFL unions t o un ion s e c u r i t y p r o v i -. s ions i s ev ident f rom the un ion newspapers o f the p e r i o d . Most v o c i f e r o u s 54. of a l l was the Un i ted Steelworkers of America, whose h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d b u r -eaucracy stood to ga in a g rea t deal f rom the f i n a n c i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y assured by the check -o f f and un ion shop.^ Each issue of the Canadian e d i t i o n of S tee l Labor c a r r i e d a r t i c l e s on the ph i losophy and p r a c -t i c a l aspects of un ion s e c u r i t y and a box score o f the u n i o n ' s a t tempts a t w inn ing the v a r i o u s types o f p r o v i s i o n s . As Table 3-1 shows, the h i g h p r i -o r i t y p laced on s e c u r i t y c lauses i n b a r g a i n i n g pa id o f f w i t h an increase i n the number and q u a l i t y of these p r o v i s i o n s . The Steelworkers were f i r m l y i n the CCF camp, and p a r t of the CCF's program c a l l e d f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system of i n d u s t r i a l government. So i t i s no t s u r p r i s i n g to see them place such emphasis on ach iev ing an equal f o o t i n g w i t h management through i n s t i t u t i o n a l means. We might expect the unions whose leadersh ip was communist to a t tempt to exerc i se t h e i r power through f l e x i n g t h e i r economic muscles, r a t h e r than by seeking c o n t r a c t s w i t h such s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s . For a long w i t h s e c u r i t y goes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The un ion agrees to keep i t s members i n l i n e between b a r g a i n i n g sessions i n exchange f o r the assurance of cont inued s t r e n g t h and r e c o g n i t i o n . Why should communists, whose aim was to organize work ing -c lass m i l i t a n c e and develop c lass consciousness through the un ions , accept such r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? But the communist t rade un ion leaders appeared content to develop " t r a d e - u n i o n consc iousness" . The IWA's newspaper main ta ined i n 1944 t h a t i t was " t he duty o f every member to t a l k , eat and sleep 'Union Shop' f rom now u n t i l i t becomes a p a r t of our i n d u s t r y - w i d e agreement". The IWA leaders b e l i e v e d un ion s e c u r i t y "opens the door to complete o r g a n i z i n g of the i n d u s -t r y , which must be accomplished i n order to guarantee steady employment, maintenance of decent l i v i n g standards and sho r te r hours of w o r k . " 7 They made a d i r e c t p lea f o r es tab l ishment o f the un ion as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u i o n , 55. Table 3-1 UNION SECURITY PROVISIONS IN UNITED STEELWORKERS OF AMERICA CONTRACTS, 1945-48 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) Type of S e c u r i t y 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 Dec May Dec May Dec May Dec May Dec Check-of f 1 1 3 5 3 3 3 1 I r r e v o c a b l e 2 7 6 5 5 check-o f f Compulsory 2 5 check-o f f Membership 5 6 7 3 maintenance Union shop 1 2 2 2 3 Membership main. 1 8 10 4 3 3 check-o f f M.M.; i r r e v o c a b l e 1 1 1 check -o f f M.M.; compulsory 6 5 6 check -o f f Mod i f i ed Rand fo rm. 1 1 Union shop, 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 check -o f f Union shop, 2 compulsory c - o . Not s p e c i f i e d 1 1 1 3 3 6 None * * * 2 To ta l s 8 10 17 22 23 26 29 32 Source: S tee l Labor (Canadian e d i t i o n ) , 1945-48. * T o t a l s f o r these months do not i n c l u d e "no t s p e c i f i e d " . 56. Notes to Table 3-1 Check-o f f : employer deducts un ion dues f rom wages of un ion members on r e c e i p t o f w r i t t e n a s s i g n a t i o n of dues signed by member and r e m i t s dues to u n i o n . I r r e v o c a b l e c h e c k - o f f : un ion member cannot revoke check-o f f assignment du r i ng l i f e of c o n t r a c t . Compulsory c h e c k - o f f : a l l un ion members i n p l a n t must ass ign dues deduc t ion to u n i o n , which then becomes i r r e v o c a b l e . Membership maintenance: a l l employees who j o i n un ion du r ing l i f e t i m e of a c o n t r a c t must remain members u n t i l c o n t r a c t e x p i r e s . Union shop: a l l employees must j o i n un ion w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d t ime f rom date of t h e i r f i r s t employment. Rand fo rmu la : a l l employees must pay dues to un ion a l though a l l do not have to become members. the b e t t e r to ensure the maintenance o f p r o d u c t i o n and the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n under c a p i t a l i s m : An i n d u s t r y tho rough ly organized w i t h a un ion f u l l y recognized by the employers means harmony and c o - o p e r a t i o n between employer and employee. I t means a s t a b i l i z e d i n d u s t r y w i t h a t r a i n e d capable and respons ib le l abo r f o r c e . The p r o d u c t i v e demands upon the lumber i n d u s t r y i n the post -war era w i l l r e q u i r e t h a t t h i s s p i r i t o f g o o d w i l l and c o - o p e r a t i o n between management and labour be f u r t h e r improved. (8) As we s h a l l see, however, the communist- led unions were less prone to empha-s i z i n g un ion s e c u r i t y i n the demands they made o f the government than were the Steelworkers and o ther CCF-led un ions . The c a p i t a l i s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia were alarmed a t the demand f o r more un ion s e c u r i t y . The aim o f the un ions , s a i d the t rade j o u r n a l of the min ing and sme l t ing i n d u s t r y , was e s s e n t i a l l y to t r a n s f e r to the s t a t u t e s f o r post -war advantage the f i x a t i o n of concessions gained by the unions under the s t r e s s of wart ime c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s another i ns tance of the o p p o r t u n i s t i c maneouvring o f the labour i n t e r e s t s to f o r c e c lass l e g i s l a t i o n as an insurance f o r tomorrow. (9) 57. The B.C. F i n a n c i a l Times p r e d i c t e d t h a t " increased employer r e s i s t a n c e " would lead to "a long s e r i e s of post -war labor t r o u b l e , i n which labor w i l l be c a l l e d upon to f i g h t f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e ex is tence as i t never has before.""*"^ The employers these p u b l i c a t i o n s spoke f o r f ea red the power of the unions on t h e i r own m e r i t s , but they were a lso aware t h a t the labour movement had a s t r a t e g i c a l l y i n George Pearson, the m i n i s t e r of l a b o u r . I n Chapter 2 I showed t h a t the L i b e r a l p a r t y enjoyed the support of a cons iderab le number of workers and appeared t o represen t c a p i t a l i s t s i n pr imary i n d u s t r y , the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e t i t e bourgeo is ie and a smal l number o f " p r o g r e s s i v e " secondary and t e r t i a r y c a p i t a l i s t s . Pearson was one o f the l a t t e r , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r e f o r m i s t c a p i t a l i s t s who found i t eas ie r to recognize unions and dea l w i t h them than to a t tempt t o c a r r y on business i n the midst of c o n t i n u a l s t r i f e . Because secondary i n d u s t r y i s g e n e r a l l y less s u s c e p t i b l e to the f l u c t u a t i o n s t h a t made the l ogg ing and min ing bosses h o s t i l e to un ion ism, i t was eas ie r t o be a r e f o r m i s t i n t h i s s e c t o r , a l though i n 1945 the r e f o r m i s t s were s t i l l ve ry much i n the m i n o r i t y . Pearson kept the s p i r i t of P a t t u l l o ' s " L i t t l e New Dea l " a l i v e through the war years not on ly as labour m i n i s t e r but a lso as p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r y , where he he ld r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e programs. I n h i s v iew, u n i o n i z a t i o n and un ion s e c u r i t y were compat ib le w i t h the ph i losophy of " i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e " t h a t was a bas ic tenet of Canadian L i b e r a l i s m . I f a man "cannot make h i s way under reasonable o p p o r t u n i t y , then he has no r i g h t to the best t h i n g s of t h i s world."" ' '" ' ' But s t a t e ass is tance to u n i o n i z a t i o n was merely a way of p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y , a secure founda t ion on which the worker cou ld b u i l d h i s l i f e and achievements. L i ke Mackenzie K i n g , Pearson saw t h a t the s a l v a t i o n of the L i b e r a l p a r t y would l i e i n bea t ing s o c i a l i s m a t i t s own game and he c o n s t a n t l y urged t h i s t a c t i c on h i s p a r t y and h i s cab ine t co l l eagues . 58. An example of the methods Pearson used to achieve some of these o b j e c t i v e s i s the u n i o n i z a t i o n of the g i a n t Consol idated Min ing and Smel t ing Co. smel ter a t T r a i l . Harvey Murphy's M i n e - M i l l un ion t r i e d to organize the p l a n t du r ing the f i r s t years of the war but was thwar ted by the ex is tence of a company un ion dominated by the company's genera l manager, Selwyn G. B l a y l o c k . The p l a n t was c r u c i a l to M i n e - M i l l s ince i t would p rov ide a f i n a n c i a l base f o r the r e s t of the u n i o n ' s o r g a n i z i n g . The 1943 amendments to the ICA Act p r o -v ided the means f o r Pearson to i n v o l v e h imse l f i n the b a t t l e . B lay lock had i n s i s t e d on " b a r g a i n i n g " on ly w i t h the company union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , f o r he claimed they spoke f o r the m a j o r i t y of workers . Pearson t o l d Murphy t o make double sure t h a t M i n e - M i l l ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were p r o p e r l y e lec ted and chosen by the l o c a l workers . He warned: I need not say to you t h a t t he re are spots i n which we must f o l l o w the Act t o the l e t t e r or we s h a l l f i n d o u r -se lves i n t r o u b l e w i t h the o ther s i d e . ! 2 Blay lock mainta ined h i s p o s i t i o n and Pearson, a month l a t e r , t o l d Murphy he planned to order B lay lock to show t h a t the company union represented a ma jo r -i t y of the smel ter workers and emphasizing t h a t he p r e f e r r e d the issue to be s e t t l e d out of p u b l i c v iew and would r a t h e r Murphy not ment ion i t t o the p ress . On June 2, 1944 the company was n o t i f i e d t h a t Pearson was s a t i s f i e d t h a t M i n e - M i l l represented a m a j o r i t y o f the men, whereupon B lay lock r e a l i z e d the game was up and r e l u c t a n t l y began n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the u n i o n . A c o n t r a c t was signed June 1 7 . ^ Pearson was l a t e r t o term the T r a i l u n i o n i z a t i o n "one of the g rea tes t accomplishments of B.C. unions i n recent y e a r s . T h u s the unions had reason t o expect some l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i n the d i r e c t i o n of g rea te r un ion s e c u r i t y , f rom a labour m i n i s t e r who had proven h i s p a r t i a l i t y to t h e i r p o i n t of v i ew . B. P o l i t i c a l a c t i o n : to co-operate or not to co-operate? Most of the l a r g e CCL unions i n B.C. had pledged not t o s t r i k e f o r 59. the d u r a t i o n o f the war, so the campaign f o r s e c u r i t y i n i t i a l l y took the form of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . But labour leaders were f a r f rom agreed on what proper p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d and the r e s u l t was a l a c k of u n i t y t h a t unques-t i o n a b l y made i t e a s i e r , a f t e r the end of the war, f o r the government t o p lay one f a c t i o n o f f aga ins t the o ther and e v e n t u a l l y to pass the g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s -s i ve I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act of 1947. The founding convent ion of the B r i t i s h Columbia Federa t ion o f Labour-^ (BCFL) was he ld i n Vancouver September 30, 1944 w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f rom the IWA (which accounted f o r more than h a l f the d e l e g a t e s ) , M i n e - M i l l and mine, o i l , s t e e l and sh ipyard workers , as w e l l as miscel laneous smal l un ions . The delegates were t o l d by CCL West Coast o rgan ize r A lex McAuslane t h a t they must press f o r amendments to the ICA Act " t o p rov ide f o r the c losed shop, c h e c k - o f f , i n f a c t , complete un ion r e c o g n i t i o n . " " ^ The p r o v i n c i a l government was urged to amend the Master and Servant Act to p rov ide f o r the mandatory g r a n t i n g of dues check-o f f where a m a j o r i t y of the employees i n 18 the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t requested i t . Covering a l l bases i n the u n c e r t a i n t y which surrounded the f e d e r a l government 's temporary assumption of j u r i s d i c t i o n over labour m a t t e r s , the delegates a lso c a l l e d on Ottawa t o t r a n s f o r m the bas ic p r i n c i p l e s o f P.C. 1003 i n t o permanent l e g i s l a t i o n , n o t i n g t h a t i t " rep resen ts a g rea t advance over prev ious c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . " ' ' " ' A f u r t h e r r e s o l u t i o n complimented the B.C. government f o r i t s "earnest endea-vour t o improve c o n d i t i o n s of the common p e o p l e " , f o r the ICA Act and the 20 1943 amendments and f o r Pearson's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P.C. 1003. Th is c o n c i l i a t o r y a t t i t u d e toward the c o a l i t i o n government might seem s u r p r i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n v iew of the CCL's endorsa t ion the prev ious year of the CCF — the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia — as " t he 21 p o l i t i c a l arm o f labour i n Canada". I t i s exp la ined by the predominance of Labour-Progress ive Par ty members i n B .C . ' s un ion l e a d e r s h i p . The LPP 60. and CCF f a c t i o n s fought t o o t h and n a i l b e f o r e , du r i ng and a f t e r the war f o r 23 c o n t r o l of CCL p o s i t i o n s and p o l i c i e s . The communist p o s i t i o n , a f t e r the e n t r y of Russia i n t o the war i n 1941, was t h a t the de feat of fasc ism cla imed p r i o r i t y over eve ry th ing e lse on l a b o u r ' s agenda. A " u n i t e d f r o n t " p o l i c y of a l l i a n c e w i t h the CCF and " l e f t - w i n g " L i b e r a l p a r t y elements was h e l d to be the c o r r e c t s t r a t e g y f o r c lass-consc ious workers . I n the U .S . , t h i s s t r a t e g y had l ed to support of F r a n k l i n D. Rooseve l t , but i n Gad H o r o w i t z ' s words, Canadian communists m is taken ly " looked around f o r a Canadian v e r s i o n o f Roosevelt and found Mackenzie K i n g " , who was a much less r e l i a b l e " f r i e n d of l a b o u r " . 2 ^ The " u n i t e d - f r o n t " . p o l i c y was designed to f o r e s t a l l the onset of " t o r y r e a c t i o n " i n the form of a Conservat ive e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y . The American arid Canadian communist- led u n i o n s ' support of the war e f f o r t , and n o - s t r i k e pledges earned them, i r o n i c a l l y , a r e p u t a t i o n as " the s t a b i l i z i n g 25 f o r c e i n the American labor movement t o d a y . " I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the p o l i c y of a l l i a n c e w i t h l i b e r a l s d i c t a t e d c r i t i c a l support f o r the Har t govern-ment . But t h a t government i nc luded the ve ry " r e a c t i o n a r y " elements the p o l i c y was designed to a t t a c k , i n the form of the Conservat ive c o a l i t i o n i s t s . Despi te t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y , the LPP leaders and u n i o n i s t s cont inued to p l a y up t o the L i b e r a l wing o f the c o a l i t i o n . Th is endeared them t o Pearson and H a r t , who n a t u r a l l y enough welcomed any o p p o r t u n i t y to lessen the power and p r e s t i g e of the CCF. Pearson g l e e f u l l y sent Hart a copy o f the l auda to ry r e s o l u t i o n f rom the f i r s t BCFL conven t ion , remark ing : "Th is i s a l l the more 26 i n t e r e s t i n g as the CCL accepts the CCF as t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a r m . " This was one of a number of occasions on which the BCFL "proved an embarrassment to the C C L . " 2 7 Had the LPP ever been ab le to e l e c t any candidates t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , of course, i t might have been a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y , as the p a r t y ' s 6 1 . members would have found themselves w i t h e l e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t s to p r o t e c t . Th is was the p o s i t i o n of the CCF, which could have no t r u c k w i t h any p o l i c i e s of even p a r t i a l support f o r the C o a l i t i o n ( o r , on the f e d e r a l l e v e l , f o r K i n g ) . 28 As i t s p o l i t i c i a n s had b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i z e d P.C. 1003, they denounced a l l the C o a l i t i o n labour l e g i s l a t i o n and concent ra ted on p a r l i a m e n t a r y maneouvring designed to put t h e i r p o l i c i e s be fo re the p u b l i c . But CCF s t r e n g t h i n the B.C. un ion movement was r e s t r i c t e d b a s i c a l l y to the s t e e l and coa l min ing unions u n t i l a f t e r the war. This was due p a r t l y ; t o the s k i l l and p o p u l a r i -t y of the communist leaders and p a r t l y to the h i s t o r i c a l l y " d o c t r i n a i r e i n t e l l e c t u a l approach" o f the West Coast CCF. As a r e s u l t the LPP p o l i c y p r e v a i l e d , f o r the t ime b e i n g . The i d e o l o g i c a l bas is of the s t r u g g l e be -tween the two f a c t i o n s , however, was not always c l e a r , f o r bo th s ides appear-ed to accept the c h a n n e l l i n g of the labour movement i n t o the r i g i d Wagner Act system of c e r t i f i c a t i o n and compulsory b a r g a i n i n g . Thus i n the BCFL's f i r s t b r i e f to the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t , they noted t h a t the unions had " w e l l and f a i t h f u l l y p layed t h e i r p a r t " i n the war e f f o r t , and wished to see the wart ime management-labour-government " c o - o p e r a t i o n " "con t inued and extended 29 i n t o the peace. " Few employers, 'however , were persuaded by t h i s . . k i n d of reason ing . That f i r s t b r i e f to the c a b i n e t , presented i n December 1944, had repeated the 30 conven t ion ' s demands f o r l e g i s l a t e d un ion s e c u r i t y , and t h i s was a s i g n a l f o r the employer lobby to swing i n t o a c t i o n . The " inc reased employer r e s i s -tance" p r e d i c t e d by the B.C. F i n a n c i a l Times became a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d cam-pa ign aimed p r i n c i p a l l y aga ins t a l l forms of un ion s e c u r i t y , bu t a l so a t h igher minimum wages, sho r te r hours and improved l e g i s l a t i o n regard ing work-men's compensation and annual v a c a t i o n s . The Canadian Manu fac tu re rs ' A s s o c i a -t i o n had a l ready adopted the p o l i c y t h a t no member should s ign a c o l l e c t i v e 62. agreement p r o v i d i n g f o r any form of un ion s e c u r i t y . 31 While a l l employers could not toe t h i s l i n e , l e t t e r s began to d r i f t i n t o H a r t ' s o f f i c e f rom h i s f r i e n d s i n i n d u s t r y , opposing the BCFL amendment p roposa ls . B l a y l o c k of Consol idated Min ing and Smelt ing sent a long a copy o f the dominion House o f Commons Debates, s t a r r i n g and u n d e r l i n i n g the a n t i - u n i o n shop p o s i t i o n o f f e d e r a l labour m i n i s t e r Humphrey M i t c h e l l , as a reminder to Hart t h a t good 32 L i b e r a l s abhorred t h i s k i n d of " compu ls ion" . Haro ld S. Foley of the Powel l R iver (pulp and paper) Co. penned a paean to h i s company's s t a b l e labour r e l a t i o n s record and warned t h a t the check -o f f would prove "a ser ious h a n d i -cap to the cont inuance and p o s s i b l e improvement o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 33 our Company and the Union and between the men and the U n i o n . " These sent iments became organized when a d e l e g a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g 20 employer a s -s o c i a t i o n s , l e d by the CMA's B.C. d i v i s i o n , met the cab ine t i n January, 1945. Thei r p r e s e n t a t i o n contended t h a t the un ion shop and check -o f f v i o l a t e d the r i g h t of the i n d i v i d u a l to work and h i s freedom "not to a s s o c i a t e " . I t was claimed t h a t these measures r e s u l t e d i n the ty ranny of the m a j o r i t y and t h a t i f they were to be i n s t i t u t e d a t a l l , i t should be through the medium of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r a t h e r than through l e g i s l a t i o n . The employers a l so looked askance a t the p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of the BCFL, saying the check-o f f f o rces the maintenance of f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a un ion i n wh ich , f o r good reason an employee may have e n t i r e l y l o s t conf idence and thus c o n t r i b u t e ( s i c ) to the c r e a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n of power fu l and dangerous monopolies a t the hands o f unscrupulous and dangerous The employers ' concern f o r human r i g h t s was not too conv inc ing s ince they had been l o a t h to e x h i b i t the same sent iments d u r i n g the i n i t i a l stages o f i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , when workers were harassed, i n t i m i d a t e d and f i r e d f o r un ion membership or a c t i v i t y . 35 The apparent concern about 63. i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s was r e a l l y an i d e o l o g i c a l veneer slapped over the funda -mental d e c i s i o n to r e s i s t the impending entrenchment of unions as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of employers were not ready to f o l l o w Pearson's lead and accept u n i o n i z a t i o n as the p r i c e of i n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i t y and the maintenance of p r o d u c t i o n . C. The f i r s t labour lobby The BCFL!'s b r i e f to the government f a i l e d to generate, much p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , so the f e d e r a t i o n decided t o go beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l c l o s e d -door labour-government d i s c u s s i o n s . So the f i r s t o f the post-war " labour l o b b i e s " , a "monster conference" of de legates p lann ing to "comple te ly cover the House" i n V i c t o r i a , con f ron t each MLA w i t h the labour program and r e p o r t 36 h i s p o s i t i o n back to the c o n s t i t u e n c y , was o rgan ized . The l obb ies were designed f o r maximum media impace and were always preceded by a barrage of telegrams from u n i o n i s t s (and CCF and LPP members and c lubs) throughout the p r o v i n c e . Pearson had t o l d Hart he planned no: major labour l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the 1945 sess ion , but l e f t the door open f o r a change o f hea r t a f t e r the 37 cab ine t had heard f rom a l l p a r t i e s concerned. As i t tu rned o u t , he was ab le to s t i c k t o h i s o r i g i n a l p l a n , s a t i s f y the labour leaders and s ides tep the CCF a l l a t once, a l though i n doing so he managed to i n c u r the wra th of the employers. 38 When the 181 BCFL l o b b y i s t s a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a on February 25, they c a r r i e d a l i s t of seven demands: 1) P.C. 1003 w i t h ant i-company un ion and o ther amendments as the bas is of permanent p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , 2) mandatory check-o f f where a c e r t i f i e d un ion requested i t , 3) amendments to the Workmen's Compensation A c t , 4) a g i t a t i o n by the p rov ince f o r a n a t i o n a l h e a l t h insurance scheme, 5) s t r i c t e r s a f e t y requirements f o r B.C. I n d u s t r y , 6) n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the B.C. E l e c t r i c Rai lway Co. , 7) a broad government-sponsored housing program. Murphy complained a t the f i r s t lobby meet ing t h a t a wis " t h r m i l dost issue you can imagia .a ; , b'j _ 64. the un ion shop issue was " t he m i l d e s t issue you can imag ine" , but had been blown out of p r o p o r t i o n by the CMA-led a n t i - u n i o n s e c u r i t y campaign, and t h e r e f o r e he urged the delegates not to "antagonize or v i l i f y " the MLAs to 39 whom they spoke, but to use respons ib le arguments. F r i c t i o n between the communist and CCF elements i n the lobby was ev ident on t h a t f i r s t day. The CCF wing was l ed to George Wi lk inson o f the V i c t o r i a TLC and James Robertson of the S tee lworkers , the l a t t e r having been sent to B.C. by the n a t i o n a l S tee l l e a d e r , Charles M i l l a r d , w i t h the s p e c i f i c purpose of maximizing the CCF i n f l u e n c e i n the West Coast labour 40 movement. Par t o f t h i s j o b , of course, e n t a i l e d d o v e t a i l i n g labour a c t i o n w i t h CCF caucus l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . A CCF l o b b y i s t moved t h a t the lobby de-mand the l e g i s l a t u r e s i t u n t i l the labour demands were considered and t h a t the proposals should be r e f e r r e d to the l e g i s l a t u r e ' s s tand ing committee on l abour . This wou ld , of course, have enabled the CCF caucus to shoulder i t s way i n t o the l i m e l i g h t through the medium of p u b l i c committee s i t t i n g s and debate i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . Murphy, s m e l l i n g a r a t , h i n t e d to the lobby meet ing t h a t the CCF mot ion smacked of " p l a y i n g p o l i t i c s " , but the meaning 41 was not s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r and the mot ion passed. The next day the execu t i ve committee of the lobby met the cab ine t and was t o l d by Har t t h a t the s tand ing committee on labour would not s i t and t h a t the government planned no labour l e g i s l a t i o n . The committee got a b e t t e r r e c e p t i o n f rom the c o a l i t i o n caucus t h a t even ing, where the l o b b y i s t s 42 apparen t l y rece ived the support o f severa l L i b e r a l members. Faced w i t h a 43 caucus s p l i t , Pearson met again w i t h the execu t i ve committee on the t h i r d and f i n a l day of the lobby and found a way t o cash i n on the LPP-CCF a n t a -gonism. He emerged f rom t h a t meeting and s c r i b b l e d the f o l l o w i n g memo to H a r t : 65. I f you w i l l a l l o w me to make a Press statement t h i s a f t e r -noon agreeing to set up a Committee o f Labor to consu l t w i t h us a f t e r the sess ion upon a l l Labour Mat te rs r e p r e -sented to us by the v a r i o u s unions the labour d e l e g a t i o n w i l l accept t h i s and wi thdraw t h e i r request f o r check -o f f l e g i s l a t i o n t h i s sess ion . (44) Pearson's press statement was summarized as f o l l o w s : Immediately upon the r i s i n g of the house he would ask the v a r i o u s Labor groups to nominate members to a j o i n t Labor Union and Department of Labour committee f o r the purpose of c o n s i d e r i n g a l l mat te rs t h a t have been submit ted to the Government through Labor Union b r i e f s f o r the purpose of 1 d e a l i n g as f a r as p o s s i b l e w i t h those mat te rs which do not r e q u i r e l e g i s l a t i o n , and f u r t h e r , to make recommendations to the Govern-ment f o r changes i n Labor l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the nex t Session of the House; a lso to cons ider recommendations to the Federa l Government re changes i n e x i s t i n g Fed-e r a l Labor Orders. (45) The lobby leaders h a i l e d the es tab l ishment o f t h i s "government- labour com-m i t t e e " as a "tremendous advancement i n t h a t a l l organized labour i n g e n e r a l , s ince the commencement o f the war, have been demanding f rom P r o v i n c i a l and Federa l Governments, t h a t they be t r e a t e d as a f u l l war p a r t n e r and taken i n t o the Government's con f idence . But the CCF f a c t i o n was ou t raged . "Labour asked f o r b r e a d " , 47 s p l u t t e r e d Angus Mac lnn is , the CCF MP. "The i r leaders accepted a s t o n e . " Robertson and the Steelworkers d e l e g a t i o n had p u l l e d out of the lobby on the second day when i t became apparent no support would be g iven by the lobby t o 4. a CCF caucus mot ion t h a t the s tand ing committee cons ider the labour demands. Danny O 'B r ien , p r e s i d e n t of the BCFL, countered t h a t the l o b b y i s t s had not wanted the CCF to r e f r a i n f rom b r i n g i n g i n labour l e g i s l a t i o n , but t h a t the best way they cou ld he lp the labour movement was to support the es tab l ishment of the government- labour committee. "Had they done so, the CCF would have gained p r e s t i g e by f o r c i n g the Government's h a n d , " O 'Br ien s a i d . "Un fo r -t u n a t e l y t h i s was not done and the lobby d i d not remain i n t a c t f o r t h a t rea-> 49 s o n . " The BCFL issued a statement which read i n p a r t : 66. We d i d not go to V i c t o r i a w i t h a p o l i t i c a l axe to g r i n d . We, as a t rade union o r g a n i z a t i o n are not now, nor have we any i n t e n t i o n of b e i n g , t i e d to one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y nor to p l a y p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . We were concerned on ly w i t h o b t a i n i n g f o r our membership, needed l e g i s l a t i o n and w i t h remedying e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . . . . The es tab l ishment of t h i s Labour-Government committee was not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r any of the l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t we are seek ing . Nor do we t r e a t i t as such. We consider the Labour-Government Committee as the best "ways and means" of e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r labour i t s proper r e c o g n i t i o n by the Government and a g rea t s tep forward i n b r i n g i n g about b e t t e r l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n on a l l mat te rs t h a t e f f e c t ( s i c ) l a b o u r . (50; The BCFL leaders had at tempted to keep the 1945 lobby i n c l u s i v e of many work ing -c lass g r ievances . Harvey Murphy i n s i s t e d t h a t the check -o f f and un ion shop were " m i l d i s s u e s " which the CMA was t r y i n g to use f o r r e a c t i o n a r y purposes. But f r e s h i n the minds of the CCF suppor ters was the passage i n 1944 by a CCF government of the Saskatchewan Trade Union Act which conta ined the un ion s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s the BCFL was demanding. This purpor ted to show t h a t e l e c t i o n o f a CCF government was the qu ickes t way to 51 52 t o t a l u n i o n i z a t i o n . The CCF's emphasis on s e c u r i t y , accord ing to the lobby l e a d e r s , p layed i n t o the hands of the employers and " r e s u l t e d i n l a b o u r ' s l e g i s l a t i v e proposals , becomings a p o l i t i c a l f o o t b a l l around the check -o f f ..53 q u e s t i o n . The communist un ion l e a d e r s , of course , were anxious t h a t the CCF get no c r e d i t f o r any reforms won by the labour movement, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n w i d e l y be l i eved to be imminent. The CCF had always spurned LPP o f f e r s o f e l e c t o r a l agreements (under which n e i t h e r p a r t y would 54 run candidates aga ins t the o t h e r ) and t h e r e f o r e , any p r e s t i g e gained by the CCF could not f a i l to come a t the expense o f the communists. But the re were o ther f a c t o r s i n the BCFL's d e c i s i o n to p lay b a l l w i t h the government. The war was not ye t over and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the war e f f o r t was the p o l i c y no t on ly o f the LPP o f f i c i a l l y of the CCL as w e l l . Consistency demanded t h a t the p o l i c y of c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the war e f f o r t be cont inued u n t i l i t s comp le t i on . Second, the r e a l i t i e s of pa r l i amen ta ry government rendered the p o s s i b i l i t y of improved l e g i s l a t i o n a t the 1945 s i t t i n g improbable , s ince the government could s i d e t r a c k or de feat any CCF mot ion w i t h ease. Th is of course was a c t u a l l y what happened. The BCFL leaders considered t h a t they might go away f rom V i c t o r i a empty-handed, w i t h o u t even the " s t o n e " a t which Angus Maclnnis sneered, had they cast t h e i r l o t i n w i t h the CCF caucus. At any r a t e , Pearson soon rewarded them f o r t h e i r suppor t . F i r s t he wi thdrew an o f f e r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the government- labour committee which he had made to the CMA the day a f t e r the l o b b y i s t s l e f t V i c t o r i a . Apparen t l y r e a l i z i n g t h a t employer r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the committee would not f i n d favour w i t h the BCFL l e a d e r s , Pearson suggested to Hugh D a l t o n , sec re ta ry o f the CMA's B.C. d i v i s i o n , t h a t he would get the labour committee together and then 56 ask f o r employer r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . At t h i s the employers became apprehensive, f e a r i n g t h a t Pearson would c a p i t u l a t e comple te ly to the labour demand. The i r susp ic ions were p a r t l y conf i rmed i n the l e g i s l a t u r e on March 2 1 . Dur ing a speech on labour m a t t e r s , Pearson began to c r i t i c i z e the a n t i - u n i o n a c t i o n s of some employers, then turned to Har t and asked: "May I go as f a r as I l i k e , Mr. Premier?" On r e c e i v i n g H a r t ' s okay, he t o l d the as ton ished MLAs t h a t ve ry few employers r e a l l y opposed the c h e c k - o f f , t h a t those who d i d were c a t e g o r i c a l l y " s imp ly s t u p i d " and t h a t those who opposed the un ion shop were " e q u a l l y s t u p i d " . Not ing t h a t most of the 15 s t r i k e s i n 1944 were prompted by the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of employers to recogn ize un ions , he sa id he had been "hear tb roken a t t imes , the way some employers take an o b s t i n a t e and s t u p i d a t t i t u d e i n opposing the r i g h t o f every employee to stand up f o r h i m s e l f . " Never the less , Pearson con t i nued , many f i r m s were coming to see the advantage of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g unions by g i v i n g them s e c u r i t y . " I n the l a s t y e a r " , he s a i d , "a l a r g e paper company wrote to me and asked f o r a c losed shop. 68. A f t e r a y e a r ' s exper ience w i t h a un ion agreement they f e l t i t was i n the best i n t e r e s t to have a c losed s h o p " . " ^ He concluded by say ing t h a t "had i t not been f o r the recen t show of f o r c e by some groups of employers the labour unions 58 would not have taken the stand they d i d i n t h e i r recen t l o b b y . " The employers c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e i r eyes when they read t h i s i n the newspapers. Ralph Campney, the chairman of the CMA's i n d u s t r i a l r e l a -t i o n s committee, a lawyer and former f e d e r a l L i b e r a l cab ine t m i n i s t e r , took Har t to task f o r p e r m i t t i n g the ou t rage , which he sa id c o n s t i t u t e d an e n t i r e l y unwarranted and u n j u s t i f i a b l e a t t a c k on employers of the p r o v i n c e . I cannot r e c o l l e c t any s i m i l a r c i rcumstances where such remarks have been made by a respons ib le M i n i s t e r of the Crown i n r e -l a t i o n to i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and businessmen of a community. . . . they ( the remarks) apparen t l y would i n d i c a t e t h a t any e f f o r t s on the p a r t o f employers to work i n co -o p e r a t i o n w i t h him (Pearson) i n the mat te rs of i n d u s -t r i a l r e l a t i o n s are hopeless and foredoomed to f a i l u r e . ( 5 9 ) The Western Miner added i t s vo ice to the clamour: . . . i t would be d i f f i c u l t to s e l e c t a more oppo-s i t e a d j e c t i v e than " s t u p i d " to c h a r a c t e r i z e such an e x h i b i t i o n of bad t a s t e , arrogance and b i a s by a respons ib le M i n i s t e r of the Crown. . . . M r . Pearson cons iders i t f o o l i s h of employers to d e s i r e to p r o t e c t the r i g h t s not on ly of t h e i r men absent on a c t i v e s e r v i c e , bu t o f a l l t h e i r employees who under the check -o f f system are com-p e l l e d to comply w i t h un ion requi rements i n t h i s mat te r of the d i s p o s i t i o n of p a r t of t h e i r e a r n -ings or s u f f e r the consequence i n the l oss of employment. . . . M r . Pearson appears to r e j o i c e i n the accom-pl ishments of the C . I . O . m i n e r s ' u n i o n , an o r -g a n i z a t i o n p r o f e s s i n g communistic d o c t r i n e s , con-t r o l l e d f rom Denver, Colorado and whose past r e -cord f o r h igh-handed, not to say v i o l e n t , a c t i o n i n the Un i ted States i s not e n v i a b l e . ( 6 0 ) Pearson's speech marked the beg inn ing of a d e f i n i t e coolness between him and the organized fo rces of c a p i t a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As we s h a l l see, the a n t i - l a b o u r fo rces found i t eas ie r to bypass Pearson i n t h e i r quest f o r 69. r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n (or the lack of progressive l e g i s l a t i o n ) and to win an o v e r a l l aggregation of C o a l i t i o n power to t h e i r cause. Given the cla s s composition of the l e g i s l a t u r e outlined i n Chapter 2, the odds were on t h e i r side from the s t a r t . 70. Notes to Chapter 3 1 S tua r t Jamieson, " I n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and government p o l i c y " , CJEPS, 17 (1951) : 28. 2 S tu a r t Jamieson, Times of t r o u b l e : labour unres t and i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t  i n Canada, 1900-66, Task f o r c e on labour r e l a t i o n s , s tudy no. 22, Ottawa: P r i v y Counc i l O f f i c e , 1968, 297. 3 I b i d . , 296. 4 B.C. F i n a n c i a l Times, May 19, 1945, 1 . 5 Labour Gazet te , 47 (1947): 421 . My emphasis. 6 See L loyd Ulman, The government of the s t e e l worke rs ' u n i o n , New York : John Wi ley and Sons, 1962. 7 B.C. Lumber Worker, August 7, 1944, 2. 8 I b i d . , October 17, 1944, 2. 9 Western Miner , March 1945, 30. 10 B.C. F i n a n c i a l Times, August 4, 1945, 1 . 11 Report of p roceed ings, execut ive commit tee, B.C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, A p r i l 1 1 , 1944, BCLAP, box 1 , 22-3 . 12 Pearson to Murphy, January 1 1 , 1944, MMP, 36-8 . 13 Pearson to Murphy, February 17, 1944, i b i d . 14 Western Miner , A p r i l 1945, 94. The i n t imacy which e x i s t e d between Pearson and Murphy i s shown i n a subsequent l e t t e r d e a l i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n t ques-t i o n . This was addressed "Dear Harvey" and concluded: " I am going t o be away f rom the o f f i c e f o r about two weeks so see i f you can keep t h i n g s q u i e t f o r me w h i l e I am away." Pearson to Murphy, September 12, 1946, MMP, 36-8 . 15 Western Miner , A p r i l 1945, 39. 16 The f i r s t B.C. Federa t ion of Labour disbanded i n 1920 when the s y n d i c a l i s t One Big Union was formed. See Paul P h i l l i p s , No power g r e a t e r : a cen tu ry  of labour i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 85. 17 BCFL Convention Proceedings, 1 (1944) , 1 0 - 1 1 . 18 I b i d . , 22. A s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n a l ready e x i s t e d i n the. coa l mines, which were under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . 19 Loc. c i t . 20 I b i d . , 24. I t w i l l be remembered t h a t Pearson decided t o admin i s te r P.C. 1003 h imse l f r a t h e r than set up, as the o ther p rov inces d i d , a r e g i o n a l wart ime labour r e l a t i o n s board . 7 1 . 21 Gad Horow i tz , Canadian Labour i n p o l i t i c s , Toron to : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1968, 78. 22 :"The BCFL's p res iden t was Dan ie l O ' B r i e n , a t h e o r e t i c a l l y n e u t r a l CCL West Coast r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who i n p r a c t i c e agreed w i t h the r e s t of h i s e x e c u t i v e . F i r s t and second v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s were Murphy and A lex McKenzie of the Uni ted O i l Workers and the s e c r e t a r y — t r e a s u r e r was Harold P r i t c h e t t . A l l were communists and the LPP claimed the l o y a l t y of most of the f i v e o ther execut ive members. The key members o f t h i s group remained i n o f f i c e u n t i l 1948. 23 D e t a i l s of t h i s h o s t i l i t y i n B.C. are conta ined i n I r v i n g A b e l l a , N a t i o n a - l i s m , communism and Canadian l a b o u r , Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1973, chs. 5 and 7. 24 Horow i tz , op_. c i t . , 90. H o r o w i t z ' s sneer ing a t t i t u d e toward the communists mars h i s t reatment of t h i s s t r u g g l e . 25 B l a i r F raser , "The commies muscle i n " , Mac lean 's , January 15, 1947, 13. 26 Pearson to H a r t , December 1 1 , 1944, PP, 1944-45, L-3-G. 27 A b e l l a , op_. c i t . , 116. 28 See George M. A. Grube, "P .C. 1003 - j u s t another o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l " , Canadian Forum, 24 (1944-5) : 6 -8 . 29 BCFL, Submission to Premier John Hart and c a b i n e t , December 19, 1944, MMP, 31-6 . 30 Whereas the convent ion r e s o l u t i o n asked f o r s e c u r i t y where a m a j o r i t y of the employees wanted i t , the f e d e r a t i o n o f f i c e r s asked the cab ine t f o r l e g i s l a t i o n enab l ing t h i s to happen on ly a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n had taken p l a c e . This suggests the f e d e r a t i o n leaders were more preoccupied w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n a l aspects of un ion s e c u r i t y than was the rank -and-f i l e . 31 I n d u s t r i a l Canada, November 1945, 87. 32 B lay lock to H a r t , PP, 1944-45, C - l l - G . 33 Foley t o H a r t , PP,- 1944-45, L-3-G. 34 I n d u s t r i a l Canada, February 1945, 80. 35 See, e . g . , M y r t l e Bergren, Tough Timber, Toronto : Progress Books, 1967. 36 BCFL execut ive meeting minu tes , January 27, 1945. MMP, 31-10; BCFL l e g i s l a t i v e b u l l e t i n , February 2, 1945, i b i d . , 31-7 . 37 Pearson to H a r t , January 8, 1945, PP, 1944-5, L-3-G. 38 The Trades and Labour Congress' p r o v i n c i a l execu t i ve was i n v i t e d t o p a r -t i c i p a t e i n the lobby , but dec l i ned to accompany the BCFL to V i c t o r i a and ins tead met the cab ine t two days be fo re the BCFL a r r i v e d . The TLC's b r i e f to the cab ine t a c t u a l l y proposed b e t t e r maximum hours and v a c a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n than d i d t h a t of the BCFL, but i t was s i l e n t on the s e c u r i t y 72. q u e s t i o n . Some TLC u n i o n i s t s , i n c l u d i n g those i n the CCF-dominated V i c t o r i a Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the BCFL lobby . See TLC submission to c a b i n e t , January 12, 1945, PP, 1944-5, L-3-G; Rai lway b ro the rhoods ' submission, January 1945, i b i d . 39 Labour lobby minu tes , February 25, 1945, MMP, 31-10. 40 For the antagonism which t h i s move by the n a t i o n a l S tee l l e a d e r , Charles M i l l a r d , engendered w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l CCL, see Horow i t z , op_. c i t . , 118-22. 41 Labour lobby minu tes , February 25, 1945, MMP, 31-10; Vancouver News-Herald, February 26, 1945, 2 . 42 Labour lobby minu tes , February 25, 1945, MMP, 31-10; V i c t o r i a Times, February 28, 1945, 1 1 . Almost t o a man the Conservat ive c o a l i t i o n i s t s , a long w i t h H a r t , opposed the check -o f f demand. Vancouver Sun, February 28, 1945, 1 . 43 One newspaper descr ibed the s i t u a t i o n as " a d m i t t e d l y t e n s e " . Vancouver  News-Herald, February 28, 1945, 1 . 44 Undated l e g i s l a t i v e memorandum, Pearson to H a r t , PP, 1944-5, L-3-G. 45 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, March 10, 1945, 6. 46 Labour lobby execu t i ve committee minu tes , February 27, 1945, MMP, 31-10. 47 Quoted i n Horow i t z , op_. c i t . , 126. 48 Horowi tz , op_. e x t . , 125. Another group of CCFers l e d by George Wi lk inson at tempted to organ ize a "rump lobby" to press f o r implementat ion of the o r i g i n a l demands a t the 1945 s e s s i o n . 49 Labour lobby execu t i ve committee minu tes , March 25, 1945, MMP, 31-10. 50 BCFL s ta tement , March 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D. 51 S tee l Labor, September 1945, 4 . 52 Herber t Gargrave (CCF-Mackenzie) had in t roduced i n t o the l e g i s l a t u r e a r e s o l u t i o n i n support of the check -o f f — but on ly the check -o f f — proposals conta ined i n the BCFL b r i e f . 53 BCFL statement , March 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D. 54 The LPP a c t u a l l y supported the L i b e r a l s over the CCF i n the 1945 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . See Walter Young, The anatomy of a p a r t y : the n a t i o n a l CCF, 1932-61. Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969, 280. 55 The CCL leaders i n Eastern Canada supported the BCFL's s t a n d . See Horow i tz , op_. c i t . , 127. 73. 56 Da l ton to Pearson, March 7, 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D; Pearson to D a l t o n , March 10, 1945, i b i d . 57 Vancouver Sun, March 21, 1945, 1. 58 Vancouver News-Herald, March 21, 1945, 1. 59 Campney to H a r t , March 24, 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D; see a lso James H. Eckman t o Pearson, March 22, 1945, i b i d . 60 Western Miner , A p r i l 1945, p. 39. This e d i t o r i a l was r e p r i n t e d i n Mine-M i l l ' s newspaper under the h e a d l i n e : "He Must Be Good I f They A t t a c k H im" . B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, September 29, 1945, 3. CHAPTER IV THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: BATTLES - I I n t r o d u c t i o n A n a t i o n a l endeavour such as the p r o s e c u t i o n of a war enables a facade of c lass u n i t y to deve lop. Such was the case i n B r i t i s h Columbia du r ing the war yea rs , when the c lass i n t e r e s t s of workers , farmers and even businessmen were t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned i n de ter rence to the "war e f f o r t " . A f t e r v i c t o r y i n Europe, t h i s facade began to f a l l a p a r t . Employers began to t a l k about the s a c r i f i c e s t h a t would have to be made d u r i n g r e c o n s t r u c -t i o n . Workers, f o r t h e i r p a r t , "had a s t rong i n c e n t i v e t o ' ge t what they could w h i l e the g e t t i n g i s g o o d ' " . l Even be fo re the A l l i e d v i c t o r y i n the P a c i f i c , the f i r s t b i t t e r s t r i k e w i t h i t s r o o t s i n the i ssue o f un ion s t a t u s and s e c u r i t y had broken o u t . Th is c o n f l i c t set a p a t t e r n of employer i n t r a n s -igence, a g r a r i a n support f o r the company and government i n t e r v e n t i o n aimed a t m a i n t a i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n t h a t was to be repeated seve ra l t imes i n the f o l -lowing year and formed the s o c i a l bas is f o r the ICA Act of 1947. A. American Can: the maintenance of p r o d u c t i o n I n the l a s t chapter we saw t h a t un ion s e c u r i t y formed the c o r n e r -stone of the post-war b a r g a i n i n g p o l i c y of the Un i ted Steelworkers o f Amer ica. The f i r s t s t rong stand on the issue was taken a t the American Can Co. L t d . , a f t e r f o u r years of ba rga in ing and s i g n i n g c o n t r a c t s . The p l a n t was the on ly manufacturer of meta l cans i n the p rov ince and thus enjoyed a monopoly on the p r o d u c t i o n of a commodity on which the food-produc ing i n d u s t r i e s were u t t e r l y dependent. The f i s h e r i e s and the f r u i t and vegetab le process ing p l a n t s on the Fraser and Okanagan V a l l e y s had to have a cont inuous supply o f meta l con ta ine rs du r i ng the harves t season, as the pe r i shab les they p r o -75. duced could not be s to red f o r long p e r i o d s . P roduc t ion had been runn ing a t a peak du r ing the war and the l e v e l was kept up by the demand f o r food supp l i es i n the l i b e r a t e d c o u n t r i e s and i n the P a c i f i c . Record crops and f i s h runs i n 1945 heightened the p o t e n t i a l impact of a shutdown a t American Can. Peach and pear crops i n B.C. were the l a r g e s t ever . A p r i c o t , r a s p b e r r y , s t rawber ry and grape y i e l d s were up over 1944, and B.C. producers were expect ing to cash i n on eas te rn marke ts , s ince crops 2 had been poor t h e r e . B.C. f ishermen had landed the f o u r t h l a r g e s t ca tch i n h i s t o r y and the showpiece of the p r o v i n c i a l f i s h e r y , the salmon pack, was 3 up, des t ined to r i s e 62 per cent over the p rev ious y e a r . T o t a l va lue of the B.C. f i s h catch turned out t o be by f a r the h ighes t ever : up to $44.5 m i l l i o n f rom $34.9 m i l l i o n i n 1944. Canned salmon alone accounted f o r $18.4 4 m i l l i o n of the 1945 t o t a l . I t i s p o s s i b l e the Steelworkers d i d no t decide t o take a f i r m stand on un ion s e c u r i t y a t American Can u n t i l i t became c l e a r the w a r ' s end was on ly a mat te r of t i m e . The u n i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on a c o n c i l i a t i o n board t h a t began hear ings May 11 i n i t i a l l y concurred w i t h the o ther board members"* i n recommending t h a t the new c o n t r a c t c o n t a i n a v o l u n t a r y check -o f f caluse but no t the un ion shop. Then the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , George Wi l k inson of the V i c t o r i a Trades and Labour C o u n c i l , changed h i s mind (undoubtedly a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Stee lworkers) and wro te a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t i n which he favoured i n c l u s i o n of a un ion shop c lause " t o secure harmonious r e a l t i o n s f rom year to y e a r " . 7 The company accepted the m a j o r i t y r e p o r t bu t the un ion h e ld out f o r the un ion shop and on J u l y 27 the 446 employees s t r u c k . 8 P r o v i n c i a l c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r s at tempted w i t h o u t success t o at tempt a s e t t l e m e n t . Wires began to pour i n to V i c t o r i a and to H a r t , who 76. was i n Ottawa a t t e n d i n g the d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l conference on r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f rom employer and producer groups u r g i n g government i n t e r v e n t i o n t o s e t t l e the s t r i k e . The Salmon Canners Operat ing Committee po in ted to the reco rd salmon r u n , sa id thousands of d o l l a r s had been inves ted i n new equipment t o process the f i s h and warned t h a t a p rov ince-w ide cannery shutdown would occur 9 August 3 i f p r o d u c t i o n was not resumed. S i m i l a r appeals came f rom the B.C. Wholesale Grocers ' A s s o c i a t i o n , the Canned Foods A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. , and the Fraser V a l l e y M i l k Producers ' A s s o c i a t i o n . The BCFL a lso urged the govern-ment to i n t e r v e n e , imposing a se t t lement favourab le to the s t r i k e r s . ^ The government could not i n te rvene under P.C. 1003, however, because the USWA had complied w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g a 14-day h i a t u s between the r e p o r t of a c o n c i l i a t i o n board and a s t r i k e . " ^ The s i t u a t i o n was compounded by the absence of Pearson, who was i n h o s p i t a l undergoing an eye o p e r a t i o n . The a c t i n g labour m i n i s t e r was the Tory mines m i n s t e r , Ernest Carson. On August 4 , when the s t r i k e was i n i t s n i n t h day, Carson apparen t l y decided t h a t the c o n c i l i a t i o n e f f o r t s were not going t o succeed and w i red H a r t : "Our l e g a l department have ( s i c ) reviewed 12 l e g a l aspects o f s t r i k e and are of o p i n i o n t h a t s t r i k e i l l e g a l . " T h i s , accord ing to the S tee lworkers , was i n ' d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h statements made to them by the deputy labour m i n i s t e r , who had a l l e g e d l y advised them t h a t 13 no laws were being broken. E i t h e r the re was con fus ion i n the bureaucracy about the l e g a l i t y of the s t r i k e , or Carson and h i s Tory cab ine t co l leagues took advantage o f the s i t u a t i o n to throw the depar tment 's p o l i c y of c o n c i l i a -14 t i o n out the window. I n any event , Carson asked the f e d e r a l government on August 6 to f o l l o w the salmon canners ' suggest ion t h a t the American Can p l a n t be taken over by the dominion under the War Measures Act."'""' Three days l a t e r the f e d e r a l government d i d e x a c t l y t h a t , a p p o i n t i n g a c o n t r o l l e r 77. 16 to oversee opera t ions and o r d e r i n g the men back t o work. The same day, August 9, the " w i n - t h e ' w a r " r a t i o n a l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n vanished a b r u p t l y w i t h the bombing of Nagasaki and the surrender of the Japanese. A f e d e r a l I n d u s t r i a l I n q u i r y Commissioner was appointed and e v e n t u a l l y a c o n t r a c t was signed corresponding rough ly to the c o n c i l i a t i o n b o a r d ' s ma jo r -i t y r e p o r t . " ^ B. The second labour lobby ; the employers get a n g r i e r While the American Can c o n c i l i a t i o n dragged on , a four-week c o a l m i n e r ' s s t r i k e i n the f a l l o f 1945, c a l l e d to p r o t e s t the r a t i o n i n g of meat by the f e d e r a l government, kept labour un res t i n the p u b l i c eye. Meanwhile the c o n t r o v e r s i a l government- labour committee e s t a b l i s h e d a t the 1945 sess ion was t r y i n g t o deal w i t h the many proposals f o r changes i n labour l e g i s l a t i o n . No employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had been appointed t o the commit tee. At i t s t h i r d and f i n a l meet ing January 3, 1946, the committee passed a s e r i e s o f r e s o l u t i o n s to be forwarded to the c a b i n e t . Of the 30 quest ions i n t o which the labour demands o f 1945 were c o n s o l i d a t e d , s i x were considered to have been d e a l t w i t h by l e g i s l a t i o n enacted s ince the committee was formed, ten were considered t o r e q u i r e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , no a c t i o n a t a l l was taken on n ine and f i v e were recommended f o r l e g i s l a t i o n or government i n v e s t i g a -18 t i o n . The proposals f o r l e g i s l a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n were a c t u a l l y de -partment p o l i c y i r r e s p e c t i v e of the commit tee, s ince they had been d r a f t e d by department s t a f f . That they were moved and seconded by members of the government- labour committee — most be ing sponsored by one BCFL and one TLC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e — was l a r g e l y a mat te r of w indow-dress ing. The demand f o r a new p r o v i n c i a l labour code was s t a l l e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : 78. The Chairman (Pearson) s t a t e d t h a t i t was apparent the Federa l Government was t a k i n g steps to cons ider amendment to P.C. 1003 and i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Labour M i n i s t e r s would be brought toge ther to cons ider recommendations t h a t Had been made by Labour Organ iza t ions and counter-recommendations made by employer groups. I n v iew of t h i s the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s no t prepared to dea l w i t h t h i s mat te r a t t h i s t i m e , nor i s the P r o v i n -c i a l Government prepared to amend the Masters and Servants Act to p rov ide f o r p a y r o l l c h e c k - o f f s , t h i s be ing considered to be w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Federa l Government under P.C. 1003. (19) Pearson might have considered i t p o s s i b l e t h a t the prov inces would come to some agreement w i t h the dominion on the ques t ion of j u r i s d i c t i o n over labour m a t t e r s . More l i k e l y he used the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l ques t ion as an excuse to s t a l l the mat te r as long as p o s s i b l e , desp i te h i s persona l p u b l i c p o s i t i o n i n favour of un ion s e c u r i t y . Ins tead o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l change, the labour leaders were g iven s h o r t - t e r m p a l l i a t i v e s . Of the f i v e recommenda-t i o n s f o r government a c t i o n , t h ree were of l i t t l e importance and two were des t ined t o widen the gap between the LPP and CCF f a c t i o n s i n the labour movement. One, moved by B i r t Showier of the TLC and seconded by Murphy, proposed lower ing the maximum work week f rom 48 to 44 hours . The second, moved by the TLC's Roly Gerv in and seconded by Danny O ' B r i e n , p rov ided f o r 20 a s t a t u t o r y week's v a c a t i o n w i t h pay. This was obv ious ly as f a r as the government was prepared to go, bu t the labour members of the committee had to keep i n mind the pressure on them f rom below. Both un ion c e n t r a l s , a t convent ions the p rev ious f a l l , had favoured the 40-hour week and a two-week s t a t u t o r y v a c a t i o n and agree-ment had been reached to mount a j o i n t lobby to V i c t o r i a a t the 1946 sess ion . A c c o r d i n g l y , a t a p r e l i m i n a r y meet ing w i t h the cab ine t January 18, the same leaders who two weeks p r e v i o u s l y had agreed t o a 44-hour week and one week's v a c a t i o n pressed f o r 40 hours and two weeks, as w e l l as r e p e a t i n g the p r o -79. posals of 1945 regarding the labour code, union s e c u r i t y and company unions. When the 340 delegates (including a sizeable veterans' contingent) descended on V i c t o r i a February 24, the anti-LPP unionists suspected some-thing was up. At the f i r s t mass r a l l y , one of them asked whether the com-mittee members would be so kind as to inform the delegates of the progress the committee had made. The committee members were "not i n a p o s i t i o n to report to t h i s delegation", stammered Gervin, because "they have dealt with matters submitted a year ago" and "did not come here with the i n t e n t i o n of making a report". Not s a t i s f i e d , the CCF supporter pressed further: "Does i t mean that t h i s Committee i s not prepared to support every item i n t h i s (the lobby's) b r i e f ? " Replied Gervin, somewhat evasively: "Every item i n t h i s (the lobby's) agenda w i l l be supported by t h i s lobby." Murphy jumped i n h u r r i e d l y to add that the lobby's agenda was made up of BCFL and TLC con-vention decisions which had to be supported. Another CCF sympathizer pro-posed that the lobby adopt the strategy t r i e d i n 1945 by the CCF, requesting the convening of the standing l e g i s l a t i v e committee on labour and demanding that the house remain s i t t i n g u n t i l the labour proposals were considered. This was ruled out of order by Gervin on the dubious ground that "we don't 22 know what the reply w i l l be." The c l a s s d i v i s i o n s i n the c o a l i t i o n began to show on the second day, when the lo b b y i s t s t r i e d to buttonhole MLAs i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . A few apparently wished to avoid the issue altogether: one c o l o u r f u l account had the MLAs "scurrying around corners and up corridors t r y i n g to avoid the 23 determined l o b b y i s t s . " The Conservatives were almost uniformly h o s t i l e , and i n t e r i o r Tories p a r t i c u l a r l y so. Some, such as Thomas Love (Grand Forks-24 Greenwood) refused to speak to the delegation. Anscomb, MacDonald and Eyres, the l a t t e r two soon to j o i n the cabinet, declared themselves i n basic 80. o p p o s i t i o n , w i t h Eyres r e p o r t e d l y s t a t i n g t h a t he was "opposed to e v e r y t h i n g 25 labour stands f o r . " The two L i b e r a l cab ine t m i n i s t e r s the l o b b y i s t s were ab le to reach i n d i c a t e d a bas ic sympathy and L i b e r a l MLAs f rom urban or i n d u s t r i a l areas such as James Mowat ( A l b e r n i ) or Byron Johnson (New West-m i n s t e r ) added t h e i r encouragement. On the whole 13 of the 37 C o a l i t i o n 26 MLAs were r e p o r t e d rough ly i n agreement w i t h the labour demands. The apparent presence o f support f o r the lobby w i t h i n the ranks of the C o a l i t i o n alarmed the employer groups, which had grown i n c r e a s i n g l y apprehensive about the government 's p lans s ince be ing f r o z e n out of the government- labour commit tee. The way to the good l i f e f o r the work ing c lass of B.C. , they t o l d the government the f o l l o w i n g week, was through increased p r o d u c t i v i t y and " p r i c e s our customers w i l l p a y . " Only i n d u s t r i e s s h e l t e r e d f rom f o r e i g n compet i t i on could a f f o r d the r e d u c t i o n i n the maximum work week and the increased minimum wage the unions were ask ing f o r , they argued. The employers ' b r i e f to the government, s igned by the CMA and 18 o ther o rgan-i z a t i o n s , showed t h a t the p a t e r n a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i z i n g much of t h e i r i n i t i a l o p p o s i t i o n to u n i o n i z a t i o n was not ye t dead. I n the pr imary i n d u s t r i e s , they s a i d , The f i v e - d a y week would be even more d i s r u p t i v e , of course, s i n c e , i n remote areas w i t h o u t the c i t y ' s f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , i t would leave employees w i t h two i d l e days a week on t h e i r hands. The human i n c l i n a t i o n under those c i rcumstances i s to leave the camp i n search of amusement. Any exper ienced super-in tenden t would expect , on the bas is of exper ience, t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e absenteeism would e n s u e t a f f e c t i n g p r o d u c t i o n i n the remaining f i v e days of the week. (27) The employer 's b r i e f alwso prov ided a nove l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of seasonal u n -employment. I t c la imed t h a t the p roposa l f o r s t a t u t o r y pa id vaca t ions was i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n an economy where employment f l u c t u a t i o n s ' gave many workers extended " v a c a t i o n s " anyway. These aspects o f employer o p p o s i t i o n t o improve-ments i n labour l e g i s l a t i o n show how bo th the gr ievances o f the work ing c lass 8 1 . and the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r employers were shaped by the needs o f resource -based c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . This t r e n d i s f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e d by the barrage o f l e t t e r s f rom B r i t i s h Columbia c a p i t a l i s t s to the government which f o l l o w e d the submission to the c a b i n e t . Mines M i n i s t e r Carson forwarded to Hart a l e t t e r f rom Howard T. M i t c h e l l , p u b l i s h e r of Western Business and I n d u s t r y , which warned t h a t i n the min ing i n d u s t r y the r e s u l t of improved labour s tandards would be " h i g h - g r a d i n g " , or u t i l i z a t i o n o f on ly ore w i t h the h ighes t m i n e r a l content and consequent ly the r a p i d d e p l e t i o n o f m i n e r a l resources . Ne i ther Carson, M i t c h e l l , nor H a r t , of course, e n t e r t a i n e d the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s might ho t be the case i f s o c i a l u t i l i t y r a t h e r than the p r o f i t mot ive governed the p r i o r -28 i t i e s of the min ing i n d u s t r y . H. J . Macking, p res iden t of the Canadian Western Limber Co. and of the I n d u s t r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. , mainta ined t h a t the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t o f the s h o r t e r work week would be lower produc-t i v i t y . He added, perhaps w i t h tongue i n cheek: " I am not a t tempt ing t o employ any pressure methods . . . bu t am j u s t t r y i n g to impress you w i t h the 29 g r a v i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . " The chairman o f the B.C. Logger 's A s s o c i a t i o n , H. J . I r v i n e , c la imed t h a t the s h o r t e r work week would mean, 25,000 fewer 30 urgent ly -needed housing s t a r t s i n 1946. Since the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y was one of the few capable of passing increased costs d i r e c t l y to the consumer, and there was no reason f o r any d e c l i n e i n the t o t a l number of man'hours -worked, t h i s p r e d i c t i o n can on ly be i n t e r p r e t e d as a t h r e a t to cut back l o g p r o d u c t i o n . F i n a l l y , the genera l manager o f the Sorg Pulp Co. wrote CCF MLA Herber t Gargrave and s t a t e d t h a t the a n t i q u a t e d Por t Me l lon pu lp m i l l i n Gargrave's r i d i n g would be shut down, th row ing soem 300 men out o f work i f the maximum work week was lowered. These employer ou tbu rs t s were backed by telegrams f rom beef c a t t l e and f r u i t growers and, of course, the government a lso got the usua l mass of w i res f rom u n i o n i s t s and l a d i e s ' a u x i -82. l i a r i e s i n favour of the labour demands. The l a c k of unan imi ty among the c o a l i t i o n MLAs l e d to a genera l acceptance by them of the compromise proposals o f the government- labour com-m i t t e e . I n March 1946 Pearson in t roduced l e g i s l a t i o n to enact the 44-hour week and the s t a t u t o r y one-week pa id v a c a t i o n as proposed by the committee. Hugh Da l ton of the CMA immediate ly c r i e d f o u l . I n a . l l e t t e r to Hart he c la imed Pearson had promised the employers r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the government- labour 32 committee and he enclosed as proof h i s 1945 correspondence w i t h Pearson. "We accepted the M i n i s t e r ' s repeated promises i n good; f a i t h and r e f r a i n e d f rom lobby p r e s s u r e , " Da l ton complained. "Th is apparen t l y was a mistake 33 on our p a r t . " Har t r e p l i e d t h a t the views o f the employers were made c l e a r i n t h e i r meet ing w i t h the c a b i n e t , and added t h a t CMA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had met MLAs a t a d inner i n the Empress Ho te l i n February , where the sub jec t o f 34 labour l e g i s l a t i o n had been discussed t h o r o u g h l y . Yes, Da l ton shot back, these meetings had indeed taken p l a c e , but the employers had been g iven no i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on what the'-government planned to do, hav ing i n s t e a d to r e l y on "rumour and newspaper r e p o r t . " Da l ton con t inued , ominously : There i s a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t between the t rea tment a f f o r d e d i n d u s t r y i n t h i s whole mat te r and the very c lose c o l l a b o r a -t i o n which has e x i s t e d between the Government and organized Labour . . . I t on ly remains to express the hope t h a t t h i s p o l i c y w i l l not c o n s t i t u t e s tandard p r a c t i c e on the p a r t of the Government i n the f u t u r e . (35) This was the v o i c e of a man used t o g e t t i n g h i s own way, or a t the ve ry l e a s t to be ing in formed i n advance of planned government a c t i o n . The grudge borne by the m a j o r i t y of B.C. employers toward the l e f t wing o f the c o a l i t i o n was becoming more acu te , and H a r t ' s apparent r e l u c t a n c e to oppose h i s labour m i n i s t e r ' s hand l ing of the s i t u a t i o n more i rksome. The CMA's o u t b u r s t s a t the new l e g i s l a t i o n were r i v a l l e d on ly by those of the CCF and i t s un ion s u p p o r t e r s . When the minutes o f the govern-83. ment- labour commit tee 's January 3 meeting were t a b l e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , the o p p o s i t i o n screamed t h a t the lobby leaders had bet rayed t h e i r f o l l o w e r s and mainta ined t h a t the s i t u a t i o n had a r i s e n through LPP c o l l u s i o n w i t h the govern -ment. "Haro ld Winch, .wanted to know what l a b o u r ' s demands were — those of 36 January 3 or those of February 2 5 . " A V i c t o r i a Trades and Labour Counc i l pamplet branded the whole exe rc i se an " e l a b o r a t e pantomime" on the p a r t o f the BCFL and TLC l e a d e r s , and the Vancouver Labour Counc i l (CCL) nar rowly 37 defeated a Steelworkers mot ion " r e g r e t t i n g " the a c t i o n s of the BCFL l e a d e r s . The debate between the BCFL leaders and the CCF cont inued a f t e r the l e g i s l a t i o n was passed i n e a r l y A p r i l . O 'Br ien po in ted out t h a t the CCF caucus had supported the government- labour committee proposals when they came t o a vo te i n the house; P r i t c h e t t acknowledged t h a t the committee mem-bers had been " c o n f r o n t e d . . , w i t h a problem" but sa id they had made i t c l e a r t h a t they "would not r e l i n q u i s h any r i g h t to press and lobby i f necessary f o r a 40-hour week. . . . I t was the government 's b i l l and we are no t a r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and were making g a i n s . " He added t h a t no o ther p rov ince i n Canada boasted such advanced s t a t u t o r y work ing c o n d i t i o n s . O 'Br ien charged t h a t the CCF had embarked on a "planned program and p o l i c y . . . to b e l i t t l e the e f f o r t s of the Federa t ion o f Labour. . . They are a f r a i d , " he con t inued , " t h a t the Federa t ion w i l l get advanced l e g i s l a t i o n , t h a t we 38 can get i t and the CCF are unable to e l e c t more members." Desp i te these p r o t e s t a t i o n s , the government- labour committee e p i -sode was d i s a s t r o u s f o r the dominant LPP f a c t i o n i n the BCFL. The dec is ions made by the f e d e r a t i o n execut ive were pragmat ic and r e a l i s t i c ones which d i d r e s u l t i n s h o r t - t e r m gains f r o the work ing c l a s s . But they s imply looked bad. Fuzzy as the CCF's n o t i o n of " c l a s s " was, i t was a s imple task f o r the s o c i a l -democrat ic MLAs and suppor ters to make the charge of " c l a s s c o l l a b o r a t i o n " s t i c k . The c lass base of the p a r t y system had been r e i n f o r c e d and h i g h l i g h t e d 84. by the c o a l i t i o n o f - the two " o l d - l i n e " p a r t i e s . Any form of c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the government — even w i t h i t s l e f t wing — was bound to be q u i t e obv ious ly a d i s t a s t e f u l backroom d e a l . The i m p l i c a t i o n of a peacetime s e l l - o u t was added to the communists' reco rd o f wart ime c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Had the BCFL been ab le to e x t r i c a t e i t s e l f f rom the government- labour committee arrangement a f t e r the v i c t o r y i n the P a c i f i c , i t would not have been as v u l -nerab le t o the CCF charges and might have begun to develop g r a s s - r o o t s i n i t i a t i v e s f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , perhaps even i n c r e a s i n g the LPP's e l e c t o r a l chances. As i t was, the BCFL had l i t t l e o f t h i s k i n d of resource to f a l l back on i n 1947 when the government abandoned Pearson and h i s f r i e n d s i n the labour movement. But to c r i t i c i z e the BCFL leaders i s not to endorse the a c t i o n s of the CCF, whose p o l i c y of v i t u p e r a t i o n toward anyone a t t e m p t i n g independent p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n was the essence o f s e c t a r i a n i s m . The communist un ion l e a d -ers could l a y more c l a i m , as f a r as t rade un ion o b j e c t i v e s went , t o the sympathies of the work ing c lass than could the CCF MLAs, d e s p i t e the p r o -l e t a r i a n e l e c t o r a l support which the l a t t e r en joyed. The i n s i s t e n c e of CCFers i n the labour movement t h a t labour p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n be keyed t o the l e g i s l a t i v e e f f o r t s of the CCF probably a l i e n a t e d as many workers as i t won over to the cause of s o c i a l i s m . To be u s r e , the CCF i n B.C. had been s l i g h t l y l ess s e c t a r i a n than elsewhere, a t one p o i n t ( i n 1943) propos ing t h a t the n a t i o n a l CCF study the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e l e c t o r a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the LPP. But these r a d i c a l , - a l b e i t somewhat i n t e l l e c t u a l , tendencies were crushed by the n a t i o n a l CCF, p a r t l y through the i n f l u e n c e of Steelworker emissar ies 39 such as James Robertson and E i l e e n Ta l lman. This a s s i s t e d the growth of the CCF on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , bu t i t k i l l e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of any c o - o p e r a t i o n between the labour and s o c i a l i s t movements on the West Coast u n t i l the LPP i n f l u e n c e was v i r t u a l l y wiped out i n 1948-51. 85. Notes t o Chapter 4 1 S tuar t Jamieson, Times o f t r o u b l e : labour unres t and i n d u s t r i a l con- f l i c t i n Canada, 1900-1966, Task f o r c e on labour r e l a t i o n s , s tudy no. 22, Ottawa, 1966, p. 301 . 2 Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Q u a r t e r l y b u l l e t i n of a g r i c u l - t u r a l s t a t i s t i c s , 38: 3 (July-September, 1945) p. 153. 3 Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , F i s h e r i e s s t a t i s t i c s of Canada, 1945, Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1947, 22, 47. 4 I b i d . , 22, 26. 5 The employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was R. H. Pooley, a former Conservat ive house leader i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . 6 The union shop was not recommended f o r the cur ious reason t h a t i t "would no t be acdepted by the Company, and such recommendation might endanger t h i s sp lend id s p i r i t o f c o - o p e r a t i o n " wh ich , the board had been t o l d , had e x i s t e d s ince the f i r s t agreement was signed w i t h the Com-pany i n August , 1941. See Labour Gazet te , (1945): 975-9. 7 I b i d . 8 Under P.C. 1003 the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f e d e r a l labour department f o r i n d u s t r i a l d isputes ended as soon as the c o n c i l i a t i o n board r e p o r t was made p u b l i c . 9 Salmon Canners' Operat ing Committee to H a r t , August 1 , 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D. 10 McAuslane and P r i t c h e t t t o H a r t , J u l y 3 1 , 1945, i b i d . 11 The c o n c i l i a t i o n board had r e p o r t e d June 15, more than a month p r e v i o u s l y . Labour Gazet te , (1945): 975. 12 Carson to H a r t , August 4, 1945, 45 EE, 1944-45, L-20-D. 13 BCFL, Convention Proceedings, 2 (1945) , 2. 14 This was what the unions c la imed. See l o c . c i t . 15 Salmon Canners. ' -Operat ing Committee to H a r t , August 2, 1945, PP, 1944-45, L-20-D; Labour Gazet te , 45 (1945) : 1505. 16 Labour Gazet te , 45 (1945): 1505. 17 Stee l Labor, June 1946, 9. 18 Government-labour committee minu tes , January 3, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D. 19 I b i d . 20 I b i d . 86. 21 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, January 2 1 , 1946, 1-2. 22 Labour lobby minu tes , February 24, 1946, Miff, 53 -5 . 23 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, March 4 , 1946, 1 . 24 I b i d . 25 I b i d , ; Labour lobby minu tes , February 25, 1946, MMP, 53-5 . 26 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, March 4 , 1946, 1 . 27 Canadian Manu fac tu re rs ' A s s o c i a t i o n submission to c a b i n e t , March 4 , 1946, PP, 1946-47, D-3-G. 28 M i t c h e l l t o Carson, February 2 1 , 1946, PP, 1946-47, L-20-D. 29 Mackin to H a r t , March 6, 1946, PP, 1946-47, L-3-G. 30 I r v i n e t o H a r t , March 8, 1946, i b i d . 31 H. M. Lewis t o Gargrave, March 13, 1946, I b i d . The m i l l d i d not c l o s e . 32 See above, c h . 3. 33 ' D a l t o n 1 t o H a r t , A p r i l . 1 , 1946, PP,' 1946.-47, L-3-G. 34 Har t to D a l t o n , A p r i l 4 , 1946, i b i d . 35 Da l ton to H a r t , A p r i l 9 , 1946, PP, 1946-47, L-20-D. 36 Gad Horow i tz , Canadian Labour i n P o l i t i c s , Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1968, 128. 37 Loc. c i t . 38 At the BCFL execu t i ve meet ing where these statements were made. O 'Br ien produced a l e t t e r f rom n a t i o n a l CCL s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r Pat Conroy sup-p o r t i n g the BCFL s tand . The l e t t e r read i n p a r t : "The main issue I t h i n k i s to. m a i n t a i n good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the C a b i n e t . " O 'Br ien a lso charged t h a t the CCF was r e c e i v i n g money under the t a b l e f rom the CCL's p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committee. BCFL execu t i ve c o u n c i l m inu tes , A p r i l 22, 1946, MMP, 31-10. 39 See Walter Young, The anatomy of a p a r t y : the n a t i o n a l CCF 1932-61, Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press , 1969, 275-76; I r v i n g A b e l l a , N a t i o n a l i s m , communism and Canadian l a b o u r , Toron to : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1973, 116; Horowi tz , op_. c i t . , 120-2. CHAPTER V THE UNIONS FIGHT FOR STATUS: BATTLES - I I I n t r o d u c t i o n Even as the labour standards l e g i s l a t i o n of 1946 was being debated, events on the c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing scene were b u i l d i n g up to an a l l - t i m e h igh i n labour u n r e s t . Before the year was out f o u r b i g s t r i k e s , i n c l u d i n g two i n the c r u c i a l lumber and min ing i n d u s t r i e s , produced a t ime loss of more than 1% m i l l i o n person-days"*" i n B.C. i n d u s t r y and con f ron ted the govern-ment square ly w i t h the urgency of m o d i f i c a t i o n s to i t s labour p o l i c y . These s t r i k e s were matched i n Eastern Canada by o thers i n the c o a l , au tomobi le , rubber , e l e c t r i c a l , s t e e l and sh ipp ing i n d u s t r i e s . The B.C. s t r i k e s posed problems to the government i n the area of the r o l e of t rade unions and t h e i r l e g a l s t a t u s , which were addressed, a l though i m p e r f e c t l y , by the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act of 1947. The major areas of con t roversy were un ion s t r i k e v o t e s , i n d u s t r y - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s t r i f e and the use of the cour ts i n labour d i s p u t e s . B r i t i s h Columbia's manufactur ing i n d u s t r y underwent a p e r i o d of c o n s o l i d a t i o n and reconvers ion a f t e r the war, as some f i r m s managed t o con-v e r t to peacetime p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e o thers were fo rced out of bus iness . But i n the pr imary i n d u s t r i e s , s ince the demand f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n lumber and f o r most metals was h i g h , the ou t look f o r p r o f i t s and employment was superb. These i n d u s t r i e s were thus r i p e t a r g e t s f o r the newly -acqu i red s t r e n g t h of the i n d u s t r i a l un ions . But years of f l u c t u a t i n g demand t o l d the employers t h a t the s i t u a t i o n would not l a s t and warned them t o ho ld f a s t aga ins t un ion e n -croachment on t h e i r p r o f i t s and powers. Thus w h i l e the i n d u s t r i e s could — and d i d — a f f o r d o u t s i z e d wage i n c r e a s e s , they fought them as hard as they c o u l d , and encouraged the government t o make sure the 1946 s i t u a t i o n was never repeated . 88. We have seen t h a t un ion leaders i n the post-war years feared no t on ly t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of the b e n e f i t s of the post-war boom would wind up i n the bank accounts of employers, but a lso t h a t a concerted at tempt would be made t o wrest f rom the labour movement the s t a t u s i t had gained dur ing the war . The groundwork f o r a concer ted wage and s e c u r i t y d r i v e by the CCL had been l a i d by s t r i k e s such as the one a t American Can and the Campaign had g o t t e n under way i n earnest w i t h the s t r i k e i n l a t e 1945 a t the Ford Motor Co. i n Windsor, O n t a r i o . The genera l demand was f o r a 15-cent h o u r l y wage i n c r e a s e , i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to p u b l i c statements by Wartime Pr i ces and Trade Board chairman Donald Gordon t o the e f f e c t t h a t employers 2 could on ly pay 10-cent i nc reases . The 15-cent p a t t e r n was e v e n t u a l l y se t 3 a f t e r an unprecedented show of un ion s t r e n g t h . The impact of t h i s crescendo o f labour unres t can be bes t under-stood i n g raph ic f o r m . F igure 5-1 shows the loss of person-days i n r e l a t i o n to the p e r i o d 1938-48. F igu re 5 - 2 , f o r a l l o f Canada, shows the r a p i d suc-cess ion i n which the l a r g e s t s t r i k e s o f 1946 were c a l l e d . I n the two months f o l l o w i n g the s t a r t of the B.C. lumber s t r i k e , 17 of the most impor tan t ( i n terms of t ime l o s t ) s t r i k e s began. For f o u r weeks du r ing J u l y and August , a s i m i l a r number were i n p rog ress . The s t r i k e s shown i n F igu re 5-2 i n v o l v e d 4 some 45,000 worke rs . F igure 5-3 adds t o the data used i n F igure 5 -2 , f o r the e i g h t s t r i k e s r e s u l t i n g i n a loss of more than 100,000 person-days, the dimension of the number of workers i n v o l v e d . Of these e i g h t s t r i k e s , the lumber and meta l -m in ing s t r i k e s i n B.C. were the on ly ones t o , o c c u r i n r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e or l o w - l e v e l p rocess ing i n d u s t r i e s , and of the 25 i n F igure 5-2 on ly two occurred i n these i n d u s t r i e s o u t s i d e B.C. T h i s , of course, r e f l e c t s the predominance i n the B.C. economy of resource e x t r a c t i o n and process ing and the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of secondary manu fac tu r ing . The cha r t s a lso show the p a c e - s e t t i n g r o l e o f the B.C. lumber s t r i k e . F i n a l l y , 89. Figure 5-4 shows t h a t besides the lumber and meta l -m in ing s t r i k e s , two o thers r a t e s p e c i a l ment ion . These were the p r i n t e r s ' s t r i k e a t the Vancouver D a i l y  Prov ince ( i n c l u d i n g a sympathy s t r i k e of pressmen) i n v o l v i n g a t o t a l of 400 workers and a s t r i k e of some 500 foundry workers i n Vancouver and New West-m i n s t e r , members of M i n e - M i l l . " * I w i l l dea l i n some d e t a i l w i t h the f o u r impor tan t s t r i k e s i n the order i n which they began. A. The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y Thanks t o government c o - o p e r a t i o n , aggress ive salesmanship and a s t a b l e labour f o r c e , B.C. edged ahead o f the U.S. P a c i f i c Coast i n the race f o r wor ld lumber markets i n the p e r i o d between the F i r s t and Second World Wars. The i n t e g r a t i o n process which was to produce t o d a y ' s f o r e s t cong lo -merates got under way i n the l a t e 1930s, w i t h lumber m i l l s buy ing out l o g g i n g companies to ensure a steady supply o f l o g s . 7 I n t e g r a t i o n , or " r a t i o n a l i z a -t i o n " got under way i n earnest a f t e r the war and cont inued u n t i l 1951, by which t ime most of the p roduc t i on of lumber i n B r i t i s h Columbia was c o n t r o l l e d by f i v e c o r p o r a t i o n s . B r i t i s h markets had been l o s t when the Soviet Union entered the war and lumber f rom B a l t i c f o r e s t s became a v a i l a b l e , bu t t h i s was g more than o f f s e t by the increases i n demand i n bo th Canada and the U.S. At the end of the war , B.C. lumber opera to rs prepared t o take advantage of a c r i t i c a l housing shortage i n Canada, an unprecedented demand f o r lumber i n the U.S. , an adequate labour supply owing t o the slowdown i n manufac tur ing and an e i g h t per cent inc rease i n the p r i c e o f lumber and plywood scheduled 9 to take e f f e c t May 1 , 1946. There was good reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t the IWA was capable of s e t t i n g a h igh s tandard which eas te rn manufac tur ing i n d u s t r i e s would be compelled t o f o l l o w . S t imu la ted by the 1943 ICA Act amendments, by P.C. 1003 and by the wart ime s e l l e r s ' labour market , the IWA by 1946 had a t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l 90. loo mm-« - O S T (,00 Pea SOAJ-DAYS LOST /w STklHES, BRITISH COLUMBIA SOU£C£: LABOUR. &*2.eTT£ AND 8>L. bEf>r. OFLABOU*. REPORT; /*S*-V9. Sbo Hoo 3oo 400 100 t — I 1 — I YEAR 195? ml l<W0 Mi M</ MS" Ml W> 92. 5 S 2 35 £ <* o 5 « 3 3 3. : -UJ IA ^ 3 ^ 3 ^ iA iT * u. w o > o t a O © * 8 ~ * P i o 2 a & s t a » X 2 o — ro e> 93. A-/©• Zo—» f-lo zo tor 4 10 a 10 Id Jk f O -10-ZO Au (0« 2 D -£ o ZdH At (0-20-1 I>-N .u>6sr 'ft PuftAr/ow O F sr&k.£ AA/D NUMBS& OF t0OMLE*S Dl&eCTLy IKjObLVBD. SouQ.ce- t-ABouQ. ifizerrB. MAfi.cn (9*/7 COAL MMVli, 'xcouveex-(deduced -fo e*>«/M) D f e V ttJMS, ctovttttesr ! / V J A / C M - tfoo pt&ecrt,!/ /A/uoiueo a>6ft.g.gftS jJwcffP at. peurkroH TRAMSfTt VICTOMPl. 94. membership of 18,000 or s l i g h t l y less than h a l f the number employed i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . While the un ion had signed i t s f i r s t c o n t r a c t w i t h a Vancouver sash and door manufacturer i n 1937,"'"''" i t was not u n t i l 1943 t h a t a master agreement was signed w i t h management n e g o t i a t o r R. V. S tua r t Research L t d . , a c t i n g on beha l f of more than 100 employers. Union s e c u r i t y was r a r e , a l though a un ion shop had been won a t a Vancouver I s l a n d l ogg ing camp i n 12 1941 and the 1943 master agreement had been supplemented w i t h s e c u r i t y 13 p r o v i s i o n s i n a few camps. But s e c u r i t y was an impor tan t i ssue among the p r o v i n c e ' s lumber workers . As one s tudent of the IWA put i t , the a t t e n t i o n o f the logger and m i l l worker toward the end o f the war "was be ing focussed 14 once aga in upon h i s own s e c u r i t y r a t h e r than t h a t of the c o u n t r y . " "Woods w o r k e r s , " says another account , "were s t i l l poor i n the mat te r o f incomes. I n Lake Cowichan most of the workers l i v e d i n smal l shacks or homes. There was never enough t o get on p r o p e r l y f rom pay-day to pay-day, w i t h o u t a s t r u g -g l e . I t seemed i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the contes t must come, t h a t year.""' '" ' The IWA's d i s t r i c t convent ion e a r l y i n 1946 agreed on a t h r e e - p o i n t program f o r t h a t y e a r ' s coast n e g o t i a t i o n s : a 25-cent h o u r l y r a i s e , the 16 40-hour week and the un ion shop and dues c h e c k - o f f . The submission to the employers emphasized the need f o r a wage inc rease i n the face of a soar ing cost of l i v i n g and a housing shor tage: . . . increased p r o d u c t i v i t y of i n d u s t r y i s devoid o f b e n e f i t to workers unless i t i s accompanied by increases i n r e a l wages and s h o r t e r hours o f work. Indeed, increased p r o d u c t i v i t y , i n s t e a d o f b e n e f i t t i n g workers , plagues them w i t h unemployment, unless purchasing power i s r a i s e d to p rov ide expanding markets , and hours of work shortened t o spead the employment. (17) The employers countered w i t h an o f f e r of a 5-cent i n c r e a s e , r e j e c t i n g a l l the o ther un ion p roposa ls . The wage o f f e r was increased t o 12*s cents e a r l y i n May, bu t the employers re fused to budge on hours of work or s e c u r i t y . A 18 s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was f o l l o w e d i n the i n t e r i o r f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . On May 7 the un ion leaders c a l l e d an i n d u s t r y - w i d e s t r i k e f o r May 15 f a i l i n g employer 95. acceptance of t h e i r demands. They c i t e d a 9 0 - p e r - c e n t - f a v o u r a b l e s t r i k e 19 vo te taken be fo re n e g o t i a t i o n s began March 2 1 . Now the i n e v i t a b l e l e t t e r s f rom apprehensive employers began t o reach the government. The CMA's r e t i r i n g B.C. d i v i s i o n head, James Eckman, d e l i v e r e d up to Hart the o p i n i o n t h a t the s t r i k e should be outlawed because the s t r i k e v o t e had been taken be fo re the s t a r t of n e g o t i a t i o n s , adding t h a t 20 he was " c o n f i d e n t " the government would a v e r t a shutdown. (This argument, 21 not s t r i c t l y accurate accord ing to law, was to be echoed the f o l l o w i n g year i n the employers ' clamour f o r government s u p e r v i s i o n of s t r i k e v o t e s . ) But the Dominion government moved f i r s t . The c h i e f j u s t i c e of the p r o v i n c e , 22 23 Gordon Sloan was appointed May 11 as an i n d u s t r i a l i n q u i r y commissioner to at tempt to r e c o n c i l e the p a r t i e s . The employers, m a i n t a i n i n g they would not n e g o t i a t e w i t h a gun to t h e i r heads, re fused t o ba rga in u n t i l the un ion c a l l e d o f f the s t r i k e , which the un ion re fused to do — a l though i t lowered the wage demand t o 18 cen ts . Sloan repo r ted th ree days l a t e r t h a t he had f a i l e d . At 11 a.m. May 15, most of the p r o v i n c e ' s 37,000 loggers and lumber m i l l workers — b a r e l y h a l f of them IWA members — downed t o o l s . By 12 noon on May 1 5 t h , a l l the vas t opera t ions of the t imber count ry were s i l e n t , except f o r a few unorgan i -^ zed areas l i k e Pr ince George and there i n a few days the loggers walked out t o o . Even i n the i s o l a t e d Blue R iver count ry behind Kam-loops where no union o rgan ize r had ever set f o o t , the smal l t i e camps and logg ing opera t ions came o u t , i n the wave of s o l i d a r i t y t h a t swept the p r o v i n c e . (24) 25 Some 8,000 workers r e p o r t e d l y j o i n e d the IWA a f t e r the s t r i k e began. The f o r e s t wa lkou t , accord ing to the Labour Gazet te , q u i c k l y made i t s e l f f e l t f a r beyond the bounds of the f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y , Cons t ruc t i on came to a h a l t on p u b l i c works and on housing p r o j e c t s . Many box p l a n t s soon used up reserve supp l ies of raw m a t e r i a l s f o r making c ra tes f o r f r u i t growers and f i s h canner ies . 96. Ships in tended to c a r r y t imber to Great B r i t a i n and UNRRA (Uni ted Nat ions R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n ) areas were tu rned away. Work stopped on a m i l l i o n r a i l r o a d t i e s f o r China ordered by UNRRA. Even sh ips to c a r r y g r a i n t o famine s t r i c k e n areas were hampered by the l ack of lumber to l i n e t h e i r h o l d s . Newspapers i n bo th Canada and the Un i ted States were compelled to cut down i n s i z e . (26) Eckman's successor a t the CMA, H. A. Renwick, c la imed the lumber s t r i k e and M i n e - M i l l ' s foundry s t r i k e represented a communist a t tempt t o des t roy p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e by p l a c i n g i n d u s t r y under f o r e i g n un ion c o n t r o l and 27 i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n costs i n Canada to the l e v e l of those i n the U.S. The CMA recommended a f o u r - p o i n t program t o wipe out s t r i k e s : the i m p o s i -t i o n of f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the un ions , government-supervised accep-tance votes on a l l employer o f f e r s , government s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t r i k e vo tes and a ban on s t r i k e vo tes be fo re n e g o t i a t i o n s and the removal of the r i g h t of employees w i t h l ess than s i x months' s e n i o r i t y t o vo te i n un ion e l e c t i o n s . The un ion accused the CMA of be ing "a group of f a s c i s t - m i n d e d r e a c t i o n a r i e s , whose o b j e c t i v e f o r the day i s to smash a l l t rade un ion o r g a n i z a t i o n l ead ing to the f i n a l sub juga t ion of the Canadian p e o p l e . " No longer was the LPP's 29 wart ime " u n i t e d - f r o n t " p o l i c y shack l ing the IWA r h e t o r i c i a n s . Perhaps the most v o c i f e r o u s p r o t e s t s to the B.C. government came f rom the a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , which complained t h a t the shutdown of box-making p l a n t s i n the 30 i n t e r i o r would endanger the f r u i t c rop . As u s u a l , the prosperous farmers o f B.C. i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r c lass i n t e r e s t w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t s r a t h e r than w i t h the work ing c l a s s . Both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments co-operated i n an at tempt to s e t t l e the d i s p u t e . On Pearson's recommendation, S loan 's appointment as i n q u i r y commissioner was extended and he was asked to n e g o t i a t e a wage r a t e and a r b i t r a t e the i ssue o f un ion s e c u r i t y . On June 1 , he recommended a 15-cent ac ross - the -board i nc rease , a 44-hour week ( t o be achieved through a 97. 40-hour week i n the s lack summer months and a 48-hour week du r ing the w i n t e r ) and the v o l u n t a r y revocable c h e c k - o f f . An employer p roposa l t h a t the c o n t r a c t con ta in a p r o v i s i o n making i t v o i d i n the event of a s t r i k e was r e j e c t e d , as was the un ion demand f o r the un ion shop. Sloan claimed he was "unable t o reach the conc lus ion t h a t the u n i o n , du r i ng the l i f e o f the agreement, would 32 stand i n any need of any form o f a d d i t i o n a l " s e c u r i t y . " The IWA was faced w i t h a dilemma. The 15-cent inc rease was a l l t h a t could r e a l i s t i c a l l y be hoped f o r and was s u f f i c i e n t to break the 10-cent p a t t e r n the Eastern i n d u s t r i a l i s t s wanted t o impose. The award on hours o f work, w h i l e not much of a ga in s ince the 44-hour week law was due to come i n t o e f f e c t i n J u l y , o f f e r e e d i n the seasonal d i f f e r e n t i a l a s o l i d bas is . - fo r f u t u r e n e g o t i a t i o n s . But the IWA leaders f e l t so s t r o n g l y about the s e c u r i t y i ssue t h a t they termed the award "unacceptable to the membership". The 33 employers accepted the Sloan award June 3. But S loan 's appointment had covered on ly the coast f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , and the shor tage of boxes i n the i n t e r i o r was becoming c r i t i c a l . I n t e r i o r employers urged Pearson ( i n h i s r o l e as the Regional War Labour Board) t o a u t h o r i z e a 10-cent increase i n t h e i r r e g i o n so t h a t boxes f o r f r u i t , vege-tab les and f i s h could be produced. Pearson r e f u s e d , c l a i m i n g he had no 34 a u t h o r i t y to do so . The un ion then decided to t r y a l i t t l e p ressu r ing o f i t s own. On June 14, 3,000 s t r i k e r s and suppor ters converged on V i c t o r i a , sur rounding the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s and chan t ing slogans w h i l e t h e i r leaders 35 con fe r red i n s i d e w i t h the c a b i n e t . But the government gave them no cause f o r hope. The IWA then met aga in w i t h Sloan, who suggested t h a t h i s revocable check -o f f award cou ld e a s i l y be made i r r e v o c a b l e i f the union r e q u i r e d i t s members to s i g n an agreement promis ing not to revoke t h e i r assignment of 98. 36 dues f o r the l i f e of the c o n t r a c t . This scheme became known as the Sloan formula and was a precedent w i d e l y f o l l o w e d i n post-war b a r g a i n i n g . The IWA leaders r e a l i z e d t h i s would be a v i c t o r y of s o r t s , bu t s t i l l they re fused to 37 c a l l o f f the s t r i k e . The government i n V i c t o r i a had l o s t a l l pa t ience by t h i s t ime and on Pearson's request the f e d e r a l government appointed a con-t r o l l e r June 18 to oversee o p e r a t i o n of the box and shook (s tave) m i l l s i n the i n t e r i o r and the lumber camps supp ly ing them. The o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l which au tho r i zed t h i s step a lso r e q u i r e d the employees of these m i l l s to r e t u r n to work and a t the same t ime S loan 's appointment was extended to cover 38 the i n t e r i o r o p e r a t i o n s . I t was obvious t h a t t h i s government i n t e r v e n t i o n would soon be extended to a l l the lumber and logg ing opera t ions i n the p r o v i n c e . Some 39 d issens ion was a lso repo r ted among the rank and f i l e i n the Okanagan. Faced w i t h these prospects the IWA d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l decided t o c a l l o f f the s t r i k e and on June 20 the camps and m i l l s resumed p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h the excep-t i o n of a few smal l n o r t h e r n opera t ions which were q u i c k l y coaxed back to work by the IWA l e a d e r s . By J u l y 5 agreements had been signed i n c o r p o r a t i n g the Sloan award i n the coast i n d u s t r y and a 10-cent inc rease i n the i n t e r i o r . B. The foundr ies The meta l t rades i n d u s t r y i n Greater Vancouver had i t s t r o u b l e s f o l l o w i n g the end of the war w i t h the s lacken ing of demand f o r cas t i ngs and machinery. But those f i r m s i n business i n mid-1946 g e n e r a l l y had amassed enough c a p i t a l by f i l l i n g war c o n t r a c t s to conver t r e l a t i v e l y p a i n l e s s l y to peacetime p r o d u c t i o n . For these employers, prospects were b r i g h t owing to government and business p lans f o r development of the p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r i o r . Or ganized i n t o one o f the most v o c i f e r o u s sec t ions of the CMA, the Meta l Trades S e c t i o n , the owners o f f oundr ies and pa t te rn -mak ing shops had learned to co -99. operate i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s . Their negotiations with a l l unions were handled through the CMA's f u l l - t i m e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t o r . The metal manufacturers were also represented p o l i t i c a l l y : the chairman of the Metal Trades Section, A l l a n McDonell, won a Vancouver Centre seat i n 1945. McDonell 41 was a Conservativ e ' C o a l i t i o n i s t and a h y s t e r i c a l a n t i - u n i o n i s t . If the degree of employer s o l i d a r i t y was high, the state of union representation i n the foundries was chaotic, i n v o l v i n g three unions. The TLC's International Moulders' and Foundry Workers' Union, a c r a f t organization, generally represented the most s k i l l e d machine operators. The United S t e e l -workers of America attempted plant-wide organization, but often represented only the semi- or u n s k i l l e d workers i n shops where the Moulders represented the craftsmen. Mine-Mill attempted to pursue an industry-wide organizing s t y l e , but represented only pattern-makers at many of the foundries f o r which 42 i t was c e r t i f i e d . Intense r i v a l r y existed among the three unions and attempts to a r r i v e at working agreements which would enable them to l i v e side 43 by side had f a i l e d . The foundry s t r i k e of 1946 i n i t i a l l y involved only Mine-Mill. I t did not involve a large number of workers or l a s t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l y long time, but was important i n i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the CCL wage drive and i n i n t e n s i f y i n g the employers' desire for r e s t r i c t i v e labour l e g i s l a t i o n . The 500-man s t r i k e began a f t e r two months of negotiations on May 17, j u s t two days a f t e r the IWA walkout. The main union demands were for the 15-cent increase and the 40-hour week, union s e c u r i t y being l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the small metal shops than i n the mass-production i n d u s t r i e s . As the s t r i k e developed f r i c t i o n between Mine-Mill and the Moulders increased. Pickets were thrown up around shops where Mine-Mill was not c e r t i f i e d , but t h i s t a c t i c was dropped i n the i n t e r e s t 44 of preventing "dissension and chaos." Nevertheless the Moulders not only 100. crossed M i n e - M i l l p i c k e t l i n e s where bo th unions were c e r t i f i e d , bu t a lso at tempted to undercut the s t r i k e by s i g n i n g agreements w i t h some f i r m s f o r 45 a 10-cent i n c r e a s e . The CMA n e g o t i a t o r s were d e l i g h t e d a t t h i s d i ssens ion and threatened to sue M i n e - M i l l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g p i c k e t s a t the shops which 46 had signed w i t h the Moulders. 47 When the Regional War Labour Board (RWLB) approved the Moulders ' 10-cent i nc rease , t h ings looked bad f o r M i n e - M i l l . L u c k i l y the f o u n d r i e s ' i n i t i a l s o l i d a r i t y cou ld not be ma in ta ined . On. J u l y 3 two of them, dec id ing t h a t the l o s t p r o d u c t i o n was wor th more than the wage increase M i n e - M i l l was ask ing f o r , broke ranks and announced they would s i g n c o n t r a c t s p r o v i d i n g f o r 48 the c h e c k - o f f , a 15-cent inc rease and the 40-hour week. Th is was the t u r n i n g p o i n t . But t o the out rage of M i n e - M i l l ' s Harvey Murphy, the RWLB re fused to approve the 15-cent se t t lement because i t had a l ready approved a 49 10-cent c o n t r a c t between the foundr ies and the Moulders. Here Murphy's i n f l u e n c e w i t h Pearson apparen t l y came i n t o ' p l a y , f o r a f t e r the RWLB was bombarded w i t h un ion submissions, the approva l o f the 10-cent se t t lement was revoked and d e c i s i o n reserved on the M i n e - M i l l a p p l i c a t i o n . On the assumption t h a t the 15-cent increase would e v e n t u a l l y be approved and f o l l o w i n g a govern -ment pledge t o appo in t an i n q u i r y commissioner f o r the 30 foundr ies which remained w i t h o u t a s e t t l e m e n t , the workers vo ted to go back to work August 6 . " ^ Sure enough, the f o l l o w i n g week the 15-cent inc rease was approved. The r e a c t i o n of McDonell and h i s Meta l Trades Sect ion i s not recorded , bu t we may assume t h a t i t was not f a v o u r a b l e . Another employers ' group, i n a r a d i o broadcast c la imed t h a t Pearson's a c t i o n opened the door to i n f l a t i o n and an outrageous d i s p l a y of un ion p o w e r . A l l the foundry workers were e v e n t u a l l y awarded the 15-cent increase and the 40-hour week, c o n f i r m i n g the wage p a t -52 t e r n set by the IWA and improv ing the maximum work week. But the un ions , and indeed the r e s t of the p r o v i n c e , h a d n ' t heard the l a s t of McDonel l , who 101 . tu rned w i t h renewed v i g o u r to the task of f i n d i n g l e g i s l a t i v e ways to curb the power of the un ions . C. The Prov ince The most v i o l e n t and the l e a s t success fu l of the 1946 s t r i k e s i n B.C. had i t s o r i g i n s ou ts ide the p r o v i n c e . An at tempt by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Typographica l Union to develop mu l t i -emp loyer b a r g a i n i n g i n the newspaper i n d u s t r y , through the p u b l i s h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s of Nor th Amer ica, proved u n -s u c c e s s f u l . As a s u b s t i t u t e , the un ion i nco rpo ra ted c e r t a i n standards r e l a -t i n g to wages and work ing c o n d i t i o n s i n i t s own by- laws and sought t o have p r o v i s i o n s inc luded i n agreements d e c l a r i n g the by- laws to be i n t e g r a l p a r t s 53 of c o n t r a c t s , no t sub jec t to a r b i t r a t i o n . Th is amounted to a devious at tempt to c i rcumvent wart ime wage c o n t r o l s and increase take-home pay and i t was opposed by Canadian p u b l i s h e r s , who c la imed the un ion sought t o remove " f rom the realm of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g mat te rs t h a t belonged t h e r e . " ^ ^ Never the less , the th ree Vancouver d a i l i e s , which bargained j o i n t l y w i t h the ITU through a p u b l i s h e r ' s committee of which Prov ince p u b l i s h e r Leigh Spencer was chairman, s igned a c o n t r a c t c o n t a i n i n g the n o n - a r b i t r a b i l i t y c lause i n 1945. The r e f u s a l of o ther Canadian p u b l i s h e r s to do l i k e w i s e l e d t o a s t r i k e aga ins t the two Winnipeg d a i l i e s beg inn ing i n November 1945. Soon a f t e r w a r d the Southam-owned Tr ibune and the Si f ton-owned Free Press began t o p u b l i s h a j o i n t e d i t i o n and s h o r t l y they swi tched to an open-shop o p e r a t i o n , f o r m a l l y d i sm iss ing the ITU men. L i t t l e cou ld be done about the Free Press , bu t to put pressure on the Southam o r g a n i z a t i o n the un ion expanded the s t r i k e t o i t s papers i n Hami l ton , Ottawa, Edmonton and V a n c o u v e r . ^ T h e Prov ince s t r i k e began June 5. I t was c l e a r l y i l l e g a l , s ince a l though the ITU had g iven the r e q u i r e d n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n to te rm ina te the 1945 c o n t r a c t , the men had walked out w i t h o u t w a i t i n g f o r a c o n c i l i a t i o n s r e p o r t . B u t 102. Spencer could take l i t t l e solace i n t h i s knowledge, f o r more ominous deve lop-ments were i n the works . He thought the p u b l i s h e r s of the Sun and Prov ince had an agreement to the e f f e c t t h a t a s t r i k e aga ins t e i t h e r would r e s u l t i n pub-l i c a t i o n o f a j o i n t paper. But Sun p u b l i s h e r Don Cromie re fused t o do t h i s , c i t i n g as h i s reasons a d e s i r e t o preserve r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Vancouver News-paper G u i l d , ^ 7 the lack of a f i r m agreement and apprehension about the Southam 58 Co . ' s degree of dominat ion over the Prov ince . The Prov ince was c r i p p l e d by the s t r i k e , as the competing a f te rnoon Sun gained s t e a d i l y i n c i r c u l a t i o n . Spencer t r i e d despera te ly to put out a paper, but The b a r r i e r s were f o r m i d a b l e . Vancouver labor was i n fe rment . A woods-workers t r i k e and o ther walkouts were under way. Unions set up a c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee to f o r c e complete stoppage i n a l l s t r i k e - b o u n d i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The c i t y ' s labour c o u n c i l q u i c k l y put the Prov ince on i t s "do not p a t r o n i z e " l i s t . A c o u n c i l o f a l l i e d p r i n t i n g t rades r e p r e s e n t i n g f o u r newspaper un ions , i n c l u d i n g the pressmen, d i d the same t h i n g . (59) On J u l y 12 the Prov ince impor ted f o u r s t r i k e b r e a k e r s , but ITU p i c k e t s and o ther sympathet ic u n i o n i s t s f o l l o w e d the men i n t o the b u i l d i n g and threw them o u t . This was the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f v i o l e n t i n c i d e n t s f o r which the ITU and i t s suppor ters were l a t e r brought to t r i a l . Pressmen who were persuaded by t h e i r un ion to end t h e i r sympathy s t r i k e managed t o make i t through the 60 p i c k e t l i n e on J u l y 18, but got co ld f e e t and walked out the same day. P u b l i c a t i o n resumed on J u l y 22, but the labour movement was not about to g i ve up i t s a n t i - P r o v i n c e campaign. Non-union d e l i v e r y t r u c k s were besieged and the second issue o f the non-union Prov ince was burned i n the 61 s t r e e t . Over-zealous u n i o n i s t s "persuaded" news vendors not to handle the 62 paper — on some occasions by o v e r t u r n i n g t h e i r news-stands. An i n j u n c t i o n aga ins t p i c k e t i n g was ob ta ined by the company i n the B.C. Supreme Court on J u l y 15 i n " the f i r s t major post-war labour i n j u n c t i o n case" , one which "formed 103. a precedent f o r many labour i n j u n c t i o n s subsequent ly a p p l i e d f o r and o b t a i n e d . " The i n j u n c t i o n was ignored by ITU p i c k e t s and suppor ters f rom the IWA, the Canadian Seamen's Union and M i n e - M i l l , bu t f rom t h i s p o i n t the Prov ince was ab le to p u b l i s h c o n t i n u o u s l y , w i t h the except ion of a p e r i o d i n September when the pressmen aga in walked out under t h r e a t o f expu ls ion f rom the Vancouver Trades and Labour C o u n c i l . For v a r i o u s p i c k e t l i n e o f fences a t o t a l of 12 persons were c o n v i c t e d . Eighteen months l a t e r s i x l o c a l ITU leaders were assessed nominal c i v i l damages of $10,000 f o r the i n t e r r u p t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n . When the Prov ince f i n a l l y s igned a c o n t r a c t w i t h the ITU l a t e i n 1949, i t had 65 l o s t f o r e v e r i t s l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the a f t e r n o o n newspaper f i e l d . While no one was charged w i t h contempt i n the breach of the Prov ince i n j u n c t i o n , the precedent set by t h i s c o u r t a c t i o n was used i n l a t e r years to send u n i o n i s t s to j a i l f o r s i m i l a r v i o l a t i o n s . The lawlessness i n v o l v e d i n • the Prov ince s t r i k e added f u e l t o the clamour f o r l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to be imposed on un ions . For businessmen robbed of an a d v e r t i s i n g o u t l e t , the s t r i k e increased the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to press f o r l e g i s l a t i o n which would guar -antee the s e c u r i t y of p r o d u c t i o n . The h i g h v i s i b i l i t y of the newspaper s t r i k e meant t h a t o p p o s i t i o n to r e s t r i c t i v e labour l e g i s l a t i o n would be t h a t much harder f o r the labour movement to muster . D. The meta l mines While the demand dec l i ned a f t e r 1945 f o r some i n d u s t r i a l meta ls such as copper which were e s s e n t i a l t o wart ime p r o d u c t i o n , o ther f a c t o r s made the f u t u r e of meta l min ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia b r i g h t . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i c e of go ld had been r a i s e d through the post-war i n t e r n a t i o n a l monetary agreement and some go ld mines which had been out of p r o d u c t i o n began opera -t i n g a g a i n . About t w o - t h i r d s of the meta l mines i n B.C. a t t h i s t ime were 66 go ld producers . Almost a l l the mines produced s i l v e r , which was a lso i n 104. h igh demand. Not on ly producing mines were l o o k i n g forward to a prosperous p e r i o d : e x p l o r a t i o n f o r new d e p o s i t s , i n c l u d i n g minera ls no t p r e v i o u s l y known t o e x i s t i n B.C. such as tungs ten , was a lso spurred by the g e n e r a l l y buoyant economy. But success, perhaps more than i n any o ther i n d u s t r y , depended on c a p t u r i n g expor t markets and the problem of p r o f i t a b i l i t y which t h a t dependence always poses was compounded by the wor ld -w ide u n i f o r m i t y o f the p roduc t : B.C. copper had no i n h e r e n t advantages over U.S. or Rhodesian copper. P r o f i t s depended on the o p e r a t o r ' s a b i l i t y to.:keep overhead and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs 68 down. These were some o f the reasons B.C. meta l mine owners and opera tors used to oppose i n d u s t r y - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g . They claimed c o n d i t i o n s were so d i f f e r e n t a t each mine t h a t on ly b a r g a i n i n g on a l o c a l bas is was p r a c t i c a l . The Western M i n e r ' s f e a t u r e d co lumnis t i n toned e a r l y i n 1946: No man w i t h any sense and no company w i t h any sense, i s aga ins t un ions . '. . . A l l t h a t the companies p r o t e s t i s t h a t b a r g a i n i n g a t any th ing h igher than the company or p l a n t l e v e l i s not on ly death t o compe t i t i ve business but death to the worke rs ' own g r e a t e s t p r o f i t s . (69) The man on the o ther end of the wage r e l a t i o n s h i p saw the i ssue d i f f e r e n t l y . To h im, a miner was a miner whether he worked i n Bra lo rne or i n S tewar t . He d i d the same work and. he and h i s f a m i l y had the same needs. The d e s i r e f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s had helped the wart ime o r g a n i z i n g d r i v e of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of Mine, M i l l and Smelter Workers, whose B.C. d i s t r i c t , w i t h Harvey Murphy as d i r e c t o r , was se t up i n 1944. Between 1942 and 1946 the number of M i n e - M i l l l o c a l s i n the p rov ince increased s i x f o l d t o 18. The 7,000 M i n e - M i l l members comprised n e a r l y 100 per cent of the meta l mine and smel ter workers i n the p r o v i n c e . 7 ^ M i n e - M i l l ' s memberhip could be broken down i n t o th ree c a t e g o r i e s . One was the meta l and chemical w o r k e r s ' l o c a l i n Vancouver, which c a r r i e d o f f the 1946 foundry s t r i k e . The second inc luded the workers a t the Consol idated 105. M i n i n g and Smel t ing Co. complex, which i n c l u d e d mines i n T r a i l and K i m b e r l e y and the T r a i l s m e l t e r . F i n a l l y t h e r e were s l i g h t l y more than 2,000 workers i n 12 o ther p r o d u c i n g m e t a l mines , who s t r u c k f o r f i v e months b e g i n n i n g i n J u l y , 1946. C o n s o l i d a t e d would have been a n a t u r a l t a r g e t had the u n i o n been, as the CMA charged, a t t e m p t i n g to shut down B . C . i n d u s t r y i n concer t w i t h o ther communist- led u n i o n s . But c e r t a i n f a c t o r s m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t a s t r i k e a t C o n s o l i d a t e d . The company produced s i l v e r , l e a d and z i n c , as w e l l as o ther b y - p r o d u c t s and thus was not as s u s c e p t i b l e to p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s or r i g i d i t y as s ingle-commodity p r o d u c e r s . Therefore i n the i n t e r e s t of c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c -t i o n i t was more i n c l i n e d to grant s u b s t a n t i a l wage i n c r e a s e s . Second, the presence of o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n moderated M i n e - M i l l ' s approach i n T r a i l . A l -though B l a y l o c k had r e t i r e d , the company u n i o n he d e a l t w i t h c o n t i n u e d to a t -t r a c t some support even though M i n e - M i l l was c e r t i f i e d . Whi le M i n e - M i l l ' s p o s i t i o n under normal c o n d i t i o n s was s e c u r e , a prolonged s t r i k e might l e a v e the way open f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n and the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the company u n i o n . F o r these reasons M i n e - M i l l was content to s i g n an agreement f o r a h e a l t h y 15%-cent h o u r l y i n c r e a s e and a 40-hour week.7"'" w i t h C o n s o l i d a t e d and l e t i t 72 set the p a t t e r n f o r the o t h e r mines . I n t h i s way the dues and s t r i k e a s s e s s -ments from the T r a i l and Kimber ley workers s w e l l e d the u n i o n ' s t e a s u r y and helped support the miners who d i d go on s t r i k e . M i n e - M i l l c la imed i n the 1946 n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t d i s t r i c t - w i d e nego-t i a t i o n , not a b i n d i n g d i s t r i c t - w i d e agreement was the i s s u e , a l t h o u g h i n f a c t the u n i o n was a f t e r a s tandard e i g h t - p o i n t program a p p l i c a b l e to a l l mines i n the p r o v i n c e , w i t h other i tems to be n e g o t i a t e d l o c a l l y . The program i n c l u d e d a demand f o r a $ l - p e r - s h i f t wage i n c r e a s e , the 40-hour week, o v e r t i m e , h o l i d a y , v a c a t i o n , severance and s i c k pay, a minimum annual wage and the c h e c k - o f f . The wage demand was backed up by s t a t i s t i c s showing p r i c e s had r i s e n 35.2 per cent 106. 73 but wages on ly 24 per cent s ince 1939. I n d u s t r y - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g was anathema to the mine o p e r a t o r s , bu t they managed to make t h e i r p o s i t i o n about as i m p l a u s i b l e as p o s s i b l e . As n e g o t i a t i o n s reached a c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n May, the un ion uncovered a l e t t e r f rom the Min ing A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. which showed a concerted e f f o r t was be ing made t o m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m l y low labour s tandards . Sent to a l l mine o p e r a t o r s , the l e t t e r advised ;'them to re fuse to d iscuss any of the M i n e - M i l l demands e x r cept the wage i n c r e a s e . Grounds f o r t h i s admoni t ion were sa id to be t h a t ;, miners were h i r e d by the day or hour and were not " s a l a r i e d s e r v a n t s " e n -74 t i t l e d to, any form o f company b e n e f i t s . The M i n e - M i l l leaders were qu ick to p o i n t out the i ncons is tency o f the o p e r a t o r s ' p o s i t i o n . Loca l b a r g a i n i n g could h a r d l y be c a r r i e d out i n good f a i t h when opera to rs were be ing pressured. i n t o conforming w i t h t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s . The opera tors made t h e i r stance even more l u d i c r o u s by choosing the same lawyer t o represent them a l l , ye t r e f u s i n g t o n e g o t i a t e as a body . 7 " ' I n these circumstances n e g o t i a t i o n q u i c k l y reached an impasse. The un ion began to order s t r i k e supp l ies and l o c a l s were urged t o s t reng then t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n wherever they could i n the s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y and company towns by s i g n i n g up " f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n purposes w a i t r e s s e s , s t o r e c l e r k s 76 e t c . , and becom(ing) t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t . " An e d i t o r i a l c o n t a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g excerpt appeared i n M i n e - M i l l ' s B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News: Jus t as the loggers of B.C. w i l l g i ve t h e i r answer ( t o employer i n t r a n s i g e n c e ) , so a l l of us w i l l g ive our answer. We want some of the f r u i t s f rom the g rea t 0 v i c t o r y we have won a t such h o r r i b l e c o s t . We want a s h o r t e r work ing week, we want the p o s i t i o n of our un ion secured so the gains we make w i l l no t be taken away f rom us and Canada plunged i n t o the depths of a c r i s i s worse than we've ever known. (77) Workers a t 12 o p e r a t i o n s , a l l the producing meta l mines i n the p r o -78 v i n c e except those i n the Consol idated complex, walked out on J u l y 3. A bad break f o r a l l concerned came two days l a t e r when the Canadian d o l l a r was r a i s e d to p a r i t y w i t h the U.S. d o l l a r . The e f f e c t was t o lower the va lue t o 107. Canadian opera t ions o f go ld so ld i n the U.S. , g i v i n g some credence t o the go ld 79 mine o p e r a t o r s ' c la ims of i n a b i l i t y to pay l a r g e wage i n c r e a s e s . Chief J u s t i c e Sloan, f r e s h f rom the lumber s t r i k e , was appointed as an i n q u i r y com-miss ioner by the f e d e r a l government hours a f t e r the s t r i k e began and f o l l o w i n g the r e - v a l u a t i o n of the d o l l a r he separated the gold mines f rom the copper mines 80 i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . But Sloan res igned on J u l y 13 , say ing " t h e min ing com-panies have no i n t e n t i o n of e n t e r i n g i n t o a master c o n t r a c t w i t h the un ion on an i n d u s t r y - w i d e basisV and t h a t he c o u l d n ' t c o n c i l i a t e i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h a 81 m u l t i t u d e o f employers. " I f 147 lumber opera to rs can s i g n an agreement," he 82 t o l d the companies, "so c a n / y o u . " Sloan cont inued as adv ise r to a f e d e r a l c o n c i l i a t o r but h i s w i t hd rawa l robbed the proceedings of a c e r t a i n urgency, and they dragged on i n t o September. At l e a s t one mine threatened to shut down, c la im ing t h a t i t would "never n e g o t i a t e w i t h a Communist or be d i c t a t e d t o by 83 Moscow or Ch icago. " But the s o l i d a r i t y of the 12 union l o c a l s remained i n t a c t . The meta l mine opera tors used the s t r i k e t o beg in a v igo rous campaign aimed a t r e s t r i c t i v e labour l e g i s l a t i o n . Almost d a i l y broadcasts d u r i n g the summer and f a l l o f 1946, sponsored by the B.C. Me ta l Mine Opera to rs ' A s s o c i a -t i o n , r a i l e d a t the u n i o n , i t s communist l eadersh ip and the government 's f a i l -ure i n the f i e l d of labour l e g i s l a t i o n . ^ More thorough was the Western Miner , which be fo re the s t r i k e began p r i n t i n g the f o l l o w i n g e d i t o r i a l on " E f f e c t i v e Labour L e g i s l a t i o n " : . . . i n Canada we cont inue sheep - l i ke to f o l l o w the path of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e i n labour mat te rs . . . We countenance prolonged s t r i k e s i n our own bas ic i n d u s t r i e s d u r i n g t h i s d i f f i c u l t reconvers ion pe r iod and, seemingly , we are power-less to take any e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . Whether or no t Canadian leaders are Communists f i r s t and Canadians on ly as an a f t e r t h o u g h t (and most c e r t a i n l y many of them are) i s a ques t ion of secondary importance a t t h i s t i m e . The Labor -Progress ive (Communist) Par ty i s recognized t e m p o r a r i l y a t l e a s t as l e g a l and accep tab le . . . . The f a u l t , and the r o o t cause o f the present d i s r u p t i o n , l i e s 108. i n the ex is tence of a s i t u a t i o n which the Communists are on ly too ab le and w i l l i n g to e x p l o i t f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h e i r own p e c u l i a r ends. Organised labour i s no t e f f e c t i v e -l y respons ib le i n law f o r i t s a c t i o n s and u n t i l t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s remedied we w i l l con t inue t o have aggravated i n d u s t r i a l d i s r u p t i o n organized and fomented by members o f the Labour-Progress ive Par ty or succeeding p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s t s . . . . There has been no p r o v i s i o n made i n our laws to cope w i t h the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g power concent ra ted i n the hands of un ion l e a d e r s . . . . Once t rade unions are made respons ib le i n law f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s t o the same ex ten t as co rpo ra t i ons and i n d i v i d u a l s there w i l l be an end t o the i n d u s t r i a l chaos we now w i t n e s s ; the unions w i l l a l l the more e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n as b a r -ga in ing agents f o r t h e i r members; and the Communists, no longer ab le t o make p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l of d i f f e r e n c e s between employers and employees, w i l l be depr ived o f t h e i r most po tent weapon. (The workers) would have l i t t l e reason t o oppose such l e g i s l a t i o n . (85) I n August the Western Miner took the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments to task f o r t h e i r a l l e g e d f a i l u r e t o p rov ide proper c o n c i l i a t i o n mach i -86 n e r y . Whi le r e p e a t i n g the demand f o r l e g i s l a t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g communist l eadersh ip and imposing l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the t rade j o u r n a l c la imed the f e d e r a l government was " reap ing the w h i r l w i n d , a good p a r t o f which was sown severa l years ago when the C . I . O . was accorded more encouragement than c u r r e n t events can j u s t i f y . " Pearson too was slammed f o r h i s a t t a c k on employers who re fused to g ran t un ion s e c u r i t y and i t was noted t h a t i n B.C. " l i t t l e has been accomplished i n the l i n e of med ia t ion and less i n the p r o t e c t i o n of non-un ion ized c i t i z e n s . " ^ When the break i n the meta l mine s t r i k e came, i n mid-October , i t was the s o l i d a r i t y of the employers which broke down. Unable to s tand the shutdown any l onger , the copper mine opera to rs accepted se t t lement recommenda-t i o n s handed down by S loan. These p rov ided f o r bas ic wage increases of e i g h t cents f o r miners and s i x f o r o ther workers and a bonus system t i e d t o copper p r i c e s which e f f e c t i v e l y brought the increases t o 14 and 12 cen ts , p lus the 109. 88 44-hour week. Somewhat r e l u c t a n t l y , and over the o b j e c t i o n o f a t l e a s t one member, the u n i o n ' s d i s t r i c t p o l i c y committee accepted the recommendations and 89 90 on October 16 the men a t the two copper mines voted to go back to work. Soon a f t e r t h i s se t t l ement the two s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c mines owned by the Base Metals Min ing Co. i n the Revelstoke area resumed p r o d u c t i o n , s i g n i n g a con-91 t r a c t which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l l e d the se t t l ement reached a t Conso l ida ted . The ranks of the go ld mine employers s p l i t i n mid-November, when the Hedley Mascot mine signed an agreement p r o v i d i n g f o r a 12-cent h o u r l y inc rease f o r miners and 10 cents f o r o t h e r s , w i t h a v o l u n t a r y revocable check-o f f . The o ther opera to rs stood t h e i r ground, bu t when Sloan recommended a 10^-cent ac ross - the -board increase f o r these mines and the un ion accepted, they changed t h e i r minds and the go ld miners went back to work December 5. The un ion leaders acknowledged t h a t the wage gains were "no t a complete v i c -t o r y " bu t main ta ined they had " e s t a b l i s h e d something which the g rea te r number o f opera to rs never wanted to happen" — i n d u s t r y - w i d e b a r g a i n i n g and p roo f 92 of the s o l i d a r i t y of the p r o v i n c e ' s meta l m ine rs . Despi te the f i ve -mon th shutdown, the va lue of m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n 93 i n B.C. rose by an est imated $7 m i l l i o n t o $70 m i l l i o n i n 1946. Never the-l e s s , the Western Miner wept f o r the mine owners whose "courage" l e d them t o s tay i n business d e s p i t e "unprecedented c o s t s " and " inadequate numbers o f 94 w o r k e r s . " And the omnibus employer p u b l i c a t i o n , Western Business and I n - d u s t r y , was so incensed by the 1946 s t r i k e s as t o c a l l f o r Pearson's r e p l a c e -ment as m i n i s t e r of labour w i t h a " s t r o n g e r " , "more b r o a d - v i s i o n e d " i n d i v i d u a l Before the year 1947 was over , t h i s w ish was g ran ted . 110. Notes to Chapter 5 1 The term used i n the sources on which my d i s c u s s i o n of s t r i k e s i s based i s "man-days". I have taken the l i b e r t y o f c o r r e c t i n g t h i s i naccuracy . 2 Canadian U n i o n i s t , March 1946, p. 58. 3 Some TLC un ions , n o t a b l y the Un i ted T e x t i l e Workers o f Amer ica, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Typographica l Union and the Canadian Seamen's Un ion, were i n v o l v e d i n the 1946 s t r i k e s . 4 Labour Gazet te , 47 (1947) : 435-50. 5 A s t r i k e among Vancouver and d i s t r i c t f i s h n e t makers occurred e a r l y i n 1946, bu t i t was of min imal importance bo th to the labour movement gen-e r a l l y and t o the development o f unionism i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , which by t h i s t ime was s u b s t a n t i a l l y complete. See Percy Gladstone, Indus- t r i a l d i spu tes i n the commercial f i s h e r i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. (economics), 1959. 6 Joseph C. Lawrence, Markets and c a p i t a l : a h i s t o r y of the lumber i n d u s -' t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1778-1952, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. ( h i s t o r y ) 1957, 143-4. 7 A l f r e d C. K i l b a n k , The economic bas is o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n the lum- ber i n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, BA essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. (economics and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , 1947, 68 -9 . 8 Lawrence, op_. c i t . , 156-7. 9 F i n a n c i a l Post , May 25, 1946, 15. 10 K i l b a n k , op. c i t . , 1 0 0 - 1 . This o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the war years was conf ined p r i m a r i l y to the c o a s t a l r e g i o n , bu t a w h i r l w i n d campaign dur ing 1945 set up most of the i n t e r i o r l o c a l s . 11 D. E. Anderson, The growth of organized labour i n the lumber ing i n d u s t r y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, BA essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. (economics and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , 1944, 131 . 12 I b i d . , 134. 13 I b i d . , 140. 14 K i l b a n k , op_. c i t . , 99. 15 M y r t l e Bergren, Tough t imber : the loggers of B r i t i s h Columbia — t h e i r  s t o r y , Toronto : Progress Books, 1967, 231 . 16 I b i d . , 230. 17 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers of Amer ica, D i s t r i c t 1 , Submission to S tua r t  Research re i n d u s t r y - w i d e n e g o t i a t i o n s , Vancouver, 1946, 3. 111. 18 Labour Gazet te , June 1946, 775. 19 Bergren, op_. c i t . , 232. 20 Eckman to H a r t , May 9, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D. 21 P.C. 1003 was s i l e n t on the sub jec t o f s t r i k e v o t e s , a l though the IWA s t r i k e was c l e a r l y i l l e g a l s ince the proper c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure was not f o l l o w e d . 22 Sloan was the son of a former B.C. mines m i n i s t e r and had been a t t o r n e y -genera l f rom 1933 to 1937 i n the P a t t u l l o c a b i n e t . 23 The appointment was made under P.C. 4020 of June, 1941. 24 Bergren, op_. c i t . , 233. 25 K i l b a n k , op_. c i t . , 1 0 0 - 1 . 26 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946) : 776. 27 Renwick to H a r t , May 28, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D. 28 F i n a n c i a l Pos t , June 22, 1946. 10. 29 The f o l l o w i n g passage f rom the LPP's Trade Union C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee s i g n i f i e d the end o f the wart ime p o l i c y : "The a t t i t u d e of ( the CMA) demonstrates f u l l y t h a t our f i g h t aga ins t these d o l l a r p a t r i o t s , who came out of the war w i t h new m i l l i o n s and expanded p l a n t s d i s t i l l e d f rom the b lood of Canadian dead, i s the f i g h t of the Canadian people as a whole aga ins t the most v i c i o u s element i n our m i d s t . Since the War ended these manufacturers have been on the b igges t s i t -down s t r i k e t h i s count ry has ever known, i n an endeavour t o r a i s e p r i c e s and f o r c e down wages . " , B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, June 10, 1946, 2. 30 P. E. French to H a r t , May 20, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-2-D... 31 I have i d e n t i f i e d ( ch . 2) the independent producers and smal l r e t a i l mer-chants i n the i n t e r i o r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s as p a r t of the Conservat ive p a r t y ' s c lass base, so i t i s wor th quo t ing a t l e n g t h one example of t h i s a g r a r i a n a n t i - l a b o u r ph i losophy : "Farmers are men of w o r t h , owning t h e i r own p r o p e r t y , taxed to the l i m i t on the v a l u e of t h e i r p r o p e r t y . . . "What investment have the i n d u s t r i a l worker ( s i c ) got? What have they a t stake o ther than the labour they do w i t h t h e i r hands? "Go down i n t o the p i c k e t l i n e s you w i l l f i n d teen ( s i c ) aged boys on duty w i t h an o lde r man of some undertermined n a t i o n a l i t y who can b a r e l y make h imse l f understood i n our language, and there are q u i t e a few em-ployees of t imber and m i l l you got t o l i s t e n very c l o s e l y to f o l l o w what they are say ing . They cannot t e l l you i n t e l l i g e n t l y why they are on s t r i k e . " I s i t f a i r t h a t the farmer should be p e n i l i z e d ( s i c ) by i r r e s p o n s i b l e people w i t h no stake i n the count ry o ther than t h e i r l a b o u r ? " (George Tr iggs to H a r t , June 7, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D.) 112. I r o n i c a l l y , desp i te the r a d i c a l tendencies of some union l e a d e r s , i t was p r e c i s e l y a "s take i n the c o u n t r y " t h a t the post -war s t r i k e s sought t o achieve f o r the work ing c lass — t h a t r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , the l ack o f which prec luded the p o s s i b i l i t y of farmer support i n the labour s t r u g g l e s . 32 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946) : 776. S loan 's award was based more on p r a c -t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s than was the j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l e f f o r t o f I van Rand i n O n t a r i o . See Appendix A. 33 Loc. c i t . P r i t c h e t t l a t e r admi t ted the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s award was a "major e r r o r " which " tended to improve the p o s i t i o n of the employers i n the eyes o f the p u b l i c . " Cor rec t s t r a t e g y , he sa id would have been t o do then what was done a few days l a t e r — propose t h a t the award be made the bas is f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s . Haro ld P r i t c h e t t , "The B.C. woodworkers' s t r i k e , " N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 3 (1946) : 237. 34 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946) : 776. 35 Bergren, op_. c i t . , 234-5. The d e l g a t i o n c i t e d the IWA's wart ime n o - s t r i k e record and the inc rease i n the cost o f l i v i n g to back up i t s demands f o r wages and s e c u r i t y . To counter the employers ' c la ims t h a t the h igher wages would mean lower p r o d u c t i v i t y , the un ion po in ted out t h a t r e t u r n i n g veterans could be employed on second and t h i r d s h i f t s i n the m i l l s , to reduce the unemployment problem and ease the housing shor tage . IWA, b r i e f t o c a b i n e t , June 14, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D. 36 Vancouver Sun, June 17, 1946, 1 . 37 The un ion proposed a r e t u r n t o work on cond i ton the f e d e r a l government ho ld a referendum ask ing un ion members whether they favoured the i n c l u s i o n of a maintenance of membership c lause i n the master c o n t r a c t . Th is was r e f u s e d . See Labour Gazet te , J u l y 1946, 918-9. 38 Loc. c i t . 39 Some of these members apparen t l y b o l t e d the IWA f o r a TLC u n i o n , b u t a l l were back i n the f o l d by the end of the y e a r . There i s no evidence of d i ssens ion i n the coast r e g i o n . See K i l b a n k , op_. c i t . . , 114. 40 Labour Gazet te , J u l y 1946, pp. 918-9. The 15-cent goa l had a c t u a l l y been reached on May 23 when pulp workers i n a T L C - a f f i l i a t e d un ion s e t t l e d w i t h employers f o r t h a t amount w i t h o u t a s t r i k e . Labor Statesman, Sept-ember 1946, 1 . 41 When M i n e - M i l l was c e r t i f i e d a t the McDonell Meta l Manufac tur ing Co. i n December 1945, McDonell immediately c a l l e d a meet ing of h i s employees a t which he "stormed and cursed a t the un ion u n t i l c a l l e d to order by an o u t b u r s t of resentment f rom the w o r k e r s . " (B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, De-cember 15, 1945, 8 . ) McDonel l ' s p o l i c y on union s e c u r i t y was s imp le . His son, the shop manager, posted a n o t i c e say ing no employee would ever have t o j o i n a un ion as a c o n d i t i o n of employment " w i t h i n the l i f e t i m e o f the present owner . " (Loc. c i t . ) 42 This anomaly was due p a r t l y t o M i n e - M i l l ' s r i v a l r y w i t h the S tee lworkers , bu t a l so t o the pa t te rn -make rs ' d e s i r e t o be represented as a c r a f t and t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t M i n e - M i l l cou ld do a b e t t e r j o b than the Moulders. 113. John Stanton t o B. H. E. Gou l t , A p r l 23, 1946, MMP, 55-17. 43 An agreement signed between M i n e - M i l l and l o c a l USWA leaders p r o v i d i n g t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d ispu tes should be s e t t l e d by a b a l l o t among the a f f e c t e d workers had been repud ia ted by the n a t i o n a l USWA l e a d e r s h i p . B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, March 10, 1945, 1 . 44 B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Conference m inu tes , May 26, 1946, MMP, 31-4 . 45 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, June 10, 1946, 1-2. 46 Walter Owen t o J . Frame, June 1 1 , 1946, MMP, 55-17. 47 Under the wart ime labour law which was s t i l l i n e f f e c t , a un ion and an employer had t o apply j o i n t l y to the Regional War Labour Board f o r r a t i -f i c a t i o n of an agreement. These boards were designed t o ensure u n i f o r m labour standards and func t i oned s ince 1941 under P.C. 8253 and subsequent amendments. See H. A. Logan, Trade Unions i n Canada, Toron to : Macmi l lan 1948, 16. The RWLB should not be confused w i t h the Regional Wartime Labour Re la t i ons Board set up to admin is te r P.C. 1003. The l a t t e r s ' f u n c -t i o n s i n B.C. were d ischarged by the m i n i s t e r of l a b o u r . See above, ch . 1 . 48 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, J u l y 9, 1946, 1 ; Vancouver Sun, J u l y 5, 1946, 9. 49 One o f the board members v o t i n g aga ins t the 15-cent inc rease was B i r t Showier, a prominent p r o v i n c i a l TLC l e a d e r . BCFL, Convent ion Proceedings, 3 (1946) , 12. 50 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, August 3, 1946, 1 . The r e t u r n t o work i nc luded Steelworker members a t two shops who had s t r u c k J u l y 20 f o r the 15-cent r a i s e and who re tu rned t o work under the c o n d i t i o n they would be g iven the inc rease granted by the commissioner t o the M i n e - M i l l members. Two o ther S t e e l w o r k e r - c e r t i f i e d foundr ies had a l ready agreed t o the 15-cent i n c r e a s e , one a f t e r a week-long s t r i k e . S tee l Labor, September 1946, 2 . 51 Broadcast by Bob Mor r i son f o r B.C. Meta l Mine Opera to rs ' A s s o c i a t i o n , August ,22 , 1946, MMP, 54-13. 52 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946) : 1434. 53 S tua r t Jamieson, Times o f t r o u b l e : labour unres t and i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t  i n Canada, 1900-1966, Task f o r c e on labour r e l a t i o n s , study no. 22, Ottawa: P r i v y Counc i l O f f i c e , 1968, 308. 54 Charles Bruce, News and the Southams, Toron to : Macmi l lan , 1968, 209. 55 Bruce, op_. c i t . , 213; Jamieson, op. c i t . , 311-12. This a c t i o n f o l l o w e d a long and f r u i t l e s s s e r i e s of appearances be fo re bo th f e d e r a l and p r o -v i n c i a l labour boards , i n which the union unsuccess fu l l y argued t h a t Southam as a newspaper cha in should be r e q u i r e d t o ba rga in on a na t i on -w ide b a s i s . 56 Bruce, op_. c i t . , 353. 57 The g u i l d was c e r t i f i e d a t the Sun but not a t the P rov ince . 58 Bruce, op_. c i t . , 353-4. 114. 59 I b i d . , 355. 60 I b i d . , 356-7. 61 I b i d . , 358. 62 Jamieson, op_. c i t . , 315. 63 A. W. R. Ca r ro the rs , The labour i n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Toron to : CCH Canadian L t d . , 1956, 110. A v a r i a t i o n o f the i n j u n c t i o n J u l y 30 a l lowed peace fu l p i c k e t i n g as de f i ned i n the Trade-unions A c t , so long as no at tempt was made to i n c i t e v i o l e n c e or gather l a r g e crowds. I b i d . , 108-9. 64 Bruce, op_. c i t . , 359-60. 65 By 1949 the Prov ince had dropped i n c i r c u l a t i o n f rom 127,000 t o 97,000 w h i l e the Sun had grown from s l i g h t l y less than 100,000 t o 160,000. (Bruce, op_. c i t . , 361.) The Prov ince was e v e n t u a l l y fo rced to enter i n t o an agreement w i t h the Sun t o share mechanical f a c i l i t i e s , and t o s w i t c h to morning p u b l i c a t i o n , l e a v i n g the l u c r a t i v e a f t e r n o o n f i e l d t o the Sun. 66 Dean R. MacKay, A study of labour r e l a t i o n s i n the meta l -m in ing i n d u s t r y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. (economics) , 1948, 18. 67 See W. T. Easterbrook and Hugh G. J . A i t k e n , Canadian Economic H i s t o r y , Toronto : Macmi l lan , 1961, 535-7. 68 The mines a l so s u f f e r e d f rom more or less chron ic labour shortages p a r t l y induced, as the un ion men never t i r e d of p o i n t i n g o u t , by the danger i n -vo lved i n underground work. 69 Western Miner , January 1946, 33. See a lso MacKay, op_. c i t . , 101 . 70 MacKay, o p . c i t . , 49. Despi te the favourab le wart ime c o n d i t i o n s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n had to be fought f o r every i n c h of the way, Mine managers and super in tendents whose f o r e i g n p r i n c i p a l s demanded a steady p r o f i t r a t e used a l l the s t a l l i n g t a c t i c s a v a i l a b l e t o them to thwar t the b u i l d -i n g of the u n i o n . Employer harassment was so bad t h a t i n the g i a n t Consol idated smel ter a t T r a i l some workers were signed up f o u r t imes be -f o r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was f i n a l l y g r a n t e d . This was a good example, Murphy commented, " o f the need f o r un ion s e c u r i t y and why the bosses. . . are f i g h t i n g check -o f f and o ther un ion s e c u r i t y demands." B.C. D i s t r i c t Execut ive Board minu tes , December 6, 1945, MMP, 31-3 . 71 To be reached by a p rogress ive r e d u c t i o n du r ing the l i f e of the agreement. 72 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, May 20, 1946, 1 . 73 MacKay, op_. c i t . , 102-3; B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Committee m inu tes , May 26, 1946, MMPy 31-4 . 74 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, May 6, 1946, 1 . 75 Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s present a t n e g o t i a t i o n s i n s i s t e d they had power 115. not t o s i g n agreements but on ly to l i s t e n and r e p o r t back to t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Committee minu tes , June 22, 1946, MMP, 31-4 . 76 I b i d . , June 4 - 5 , 1946, MMP, 31-4 . 77 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, June 10, 1946, 4 . The un ion s e c u r i t y demand was not as impor tan t i n the metal -mine s t r i k e as i t was i n the f o r e s t ( i n d u s t r y . Murphy exp la ined l a t e r : "The ques t ion o f un ion s e c u r i t y does not b u l k ve ry l a r g e l y here i n go ld and copper mines where a t l e a s t h a l f of our membership are a l ready covered by check -o f f or s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s . " (B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Committee minu tes , September 5, 1946, MMP, 31-4 ; see a lso MacKay, pp_. c i t . , 126) By e a r l y September the un ion s e c u r i t y demands had been dropped. 78 "To enable development", un ion members kept work ing a t the h a n d f u l o f min ing p r o p e r t i e s not ye t i n p r o d u c t i o n . B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, J u l y 9, 1946, 1 . 79 MacKay, op_. c i t . , 103. 80 I b i d . , 104. 81 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, J u l y 22, 1946, 1 . 82 P. W. Luce, "B.C. workers lose m i l l i o n s i n wages because of s t r i k e s " , Saturday N i g h t , August 10, 1946, 13. 83 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, August 26, 1946, 1 . 84 One of these broadcasts was the one i n which Pearson was c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s hand l ing of the foundry s t r i k e . See above, 18, esp. n . 5 1 . 85 Western Miner , June 1946, 39. 86 Th is argument cou ld be g iven l i t t l e credence. The most moderate observer would have t o agree t h a t the mine o p e r a t o r s 1 performance i n n e g o t i a t i o n and be fo re Sloan was e s s e n t i a l l y designed t o s t a l l and o b s t r u c t as much as p o s s i b l e . 87 Western M iner , August 1946, 36. The mine opera to rs were put out w i t h Pearson a t t h i s t ime f o r another reason. The 44-hour-week p r o v i s i o n s passed the p rev ious s p r i n g were in tended to app ly t o a l l i n d u s t r i e s except a g r i c u l t u r a l and oh te r seasonal l a b o u r . But a c lause i n the M e t a l l i f e r o u s Mines Regu la t ion Act p rov ided f o r a maximum 48-hour-week and some companies claimed t h i s ac t should take precedence. I n t h i s they had the support o f the mines department and i t s Tory m i n i s t e r , Roder ick Macdonald. But Pearson i n s i s t e d on e n f o r c i n g the 44-hour l e g -i s l a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t e v e n t u a l l y reached the B.C. Supreme Cour t , where i t was reso lved i n favour of Pearson. The i n c i d e n t d i d n o t h i n g f o r Pearson's r e l a t i o n s w i t h the o p e r a t o r s , or f o r the c o a l i t i o n ' s cohes ion. (Western Miner , October 1946, 33; MMP, 5 5 - 1 1 ) . Macdonald was e v i d e n t l y no f a n , e i t h e r , o f Pearson's hand l i ng o f the s t r i k e . " I t seems a g rea t p i t y , " he t o l d the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Min ing and M e t a l l u r g y , " t h a t when meta l p r i c e s are f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , we can-116. not take f u l l advantage o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n . " Vancouver Sun, November 13, 1946, 23. 88 Labour Gazet te , 46 (1946): 1575-6. 89 At B r i t a n n i a Beach (Howe Sound Min ing Co.) and Copper Mountain (Granby C o n s o l i d a t e d ) . 90 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, October 23, 1946, 1 ; B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Com-m i t t e e minu tes , October 14, 1946, MMP, 31-3 . 91 MacKay, op_. c i t . , 104. 92 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, November 15, 1946, 1 ; B.C. D i s t r i c t P o l i c y Com-m i t t e e minu tes , November 2 1 , 1946, MMP, 31 -4 . 93 Vancouver Sun, November 13, 1946, 23. 94 Western Miner , January 1947, 30. 95 Western Business and I n d u s t r y , J u l y 1946, 33. CHAPTER V I THE GOVERNMENT REACTS: THE PASSAGE OF BILL 39 I n t r o d u c t i o n The fo rego ing accounts of i n d u s t r i a l unres t i n post -war B r i t i s h Columbia have demonstrated, I t h i n k , the concer ted and c o - o r d i n a t e d at tempt made by the employers of the p rov ince to m a i n t a i n the condi tons o f p r o d u c t i o n and weaken the s t a t u s of wo rk ing -c lass o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n the face of t h i s c a p i t a l i s t s o l i d a r i t y , wo rk ing -c lass m i l i t a n c e and a degree o f u n i t y managed to w in impor tan t t rade un ion b a t t l e s on the l e g i s l a t i v e and economic f r o n t s . Unable to w in economic v i c t o r i e s , the employers i n the CMA and r e l a t e d a s s o c i a -t i o n s stepped up t h e i r campaign f o r l e g i s l a t i o n which would r e s t r i c t the r o l e o f the un ion to t h a t o f pa r tne r i n the maintenance of p r o d u c t i o n , by means o f a s e r i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g government-supervised s t r i k e v o t e s , a leng thy c o n c i l a i t i o n procedure and the expansion of the r o l e of the c o u r t s i n labour d i s p u t e s . The p o l i t i c s of the 1947 l e g i s l a t i v e sess ion were d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h c lass c o n f l i c t , as the d i f f e r e n t c lass i n t e r e s t s i n the l e g i s -l a t u r e b a t t l e d over the k i n d of l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t was t o rep lace P.C. 1003. The government 's task was made somewhat eas ie r i n t h a t the unions themselves, or a t any r a t e t h e i r l e a d e r s , sought i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s i n p o s t -war s o c i e t y — a l though w i t h o u t the r e s t r i c t i o n s which were e v e n t u a l l y p laced on them. But by the t ime the 1947 session was over , the employer i n t e r e s t s had c l e a r l y done t h e i r l obby ing w e l l , Pearson's c r e d i b i l i t y as a " f r i e n d of l a b o u r " was e f f e c t i v e l y des t royed , and a new era of rep ress ion i n labour r e l a t i o n s had been ushered i n . To understand the passage of the l e g i s l a t i o n , we must b r i e f l y d iscuss developments w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n s ince the end of the war which had t h e i r e f f e c t on, and i n t u r n were a f f e c t e d by , the pressure f o r a new I n d u s -t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n A c t . 118. A. Tension i n the c o a l i t i o n The c o a l i t i o n he ld toge ther as long as the war e f f o r t d i v e r t e d the a t t e n t i o n of p o l i t i c i a n s f rom the d i f f e r e n c e s which separated them i n peacet ime. A f t e r 1945, however, the c o a l i t i o n and i t s two c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t i e s began a slow and p a i n f u l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . The arrangement was s t r a i n e d , as i n t r u t h i t had always been, by i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . These were man i fes t a t t imes i n c o n f l i c t s over p o l i c y a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and a t t imes i n d i s a p p r o v a l o f the c o a l i t i o n on the p a r t of the f e d e r a l wings of the p a r t i e s . The f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s had f o r the most p a r t favoured the f o r m a t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n as a wart ime exped ien t , but they began to f e a r the e ros ion o f " l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s " and the g r a s s - r o o t s p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n which kept the ph i losophy of the p a r t y a l i v e . As p a r t of t h e i r p r i c e f o r the support of the c o a l i t i o n dea l i n 1941, the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n s i s t e d t h a t the at tempt be made to keep the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n tac t . ' ' " Never the less , many L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s f unc t i oned as c o a l i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s much of the t ime and the re were even i n -stances when L i b e r a l and Conservat ive r i d i n g o r g a n i z a -t i o n s he ld j o i n t meetings f o r purposes o ther than the nominat ion of c o a l i t i o n cand ida tes . (2) The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the p a r t y , i r o n i c i n v iew of the L i b e r a l s ' unquest ioned predominance i n the c o a l i t i o n i t s e l f , f i r s t became apparent i n the f ede ra l - . 3 e l e c t i o n of 1945, when the p a r t y l o s t h a l f of i t s 10 sea ts . The f a c t t h a t c o a l i t i o n premier John Hart bent over backwards to avo id appear ing as a L i b e r a l p a r t i s a n c o n t r i b u t e d no th ing to the p a r t y ' s a t tempt t o m a i n t a i n a vital p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The T o r i e s , bo th f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l , were more sympathet ic to the c o a l i t i o n , e v i d e n t l y t h i n k i n g themselves ab le to " b u i l d the p a r t y i n t o a s t rong f o r c e which cou ld then s t r i k e out on i t s own aga ins t the L i b e r a l s " by 4 us ing "advantages de r i ved f rom p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n government." E x a c t l y how the Conservat ives planned to do t h i s i s u n c l e a r , bu t the p a r t y d i d r e c e i v e 119. a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of cab ine t p o s i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the a t t o r n e y - gen-e r a l s h i p and the m i n i s t r y o f p u b l i c works. These p o s i t i o n s o f f e r e d patronage o p p o r t u n i t i e s and patronage i s one way to b u i l d a p a r t y . The Conservat ives were e n t h u s i a s t i c c o a l i t i o n i s t s , bu t they knew the arrangement had a f i n i t e l i f e - s p a n . As M a r t i n Robin put i t , " t he j u n i o r pa r tne r was p r u d e n t l y p repar ing f o r the f i r m ' s demise."" ' The Tor ies began t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s i n earnest on the death i n March 1946 of t h e i r l e a d e r , Royal M a i t l a n d . Since no Conservat ive MLA was q u a l i f i e d to take M a i t l a n d ' s p lace as a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l i n the c a b i n e t , the p a r t y gave up i t s c l a i m to t h a t p o s i t i o n i n exchange f o r the f i n a n c e p o r t f o l i o , h i t h e r t o he ld by H a r t , which went to Pub l i c Works M i n i s t e r Herber t Anscomb. The l a t t e r prompt ly proceeded to h i s p a r t y ' s June l eade rsh ip convent ion and was e lec ted M a i t l a n d ' s successor a f t e r p ledg ing to "uphold the d i g n i t y and i n t e g r i t y of the p a r t y a t a l l t i m e s . " The defeated cand ida te , W. A. C. Bennet t , had p u b l i c l y proposed f o r m a t i o n of a c o a l i t i o n p a r t y . P l a c i n g Anscomb i n the power fu l f i nance p o r t f o l i o had been a dangerous move f o r the L i b e r a l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f h i s not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e persona l a m b i t i o n . The two Conservat ive Fraser V a l l e y merchants, L e s l i e Eyres (Tirade and I n d u s t r y and Rai lways) and Roder ick Macdonald (Mines and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) a lso entered the cab ine t a t t h i s t i m e . ^ These changes i n the cab ine t marked a d e f i n i t e s h i f t to the r i g h t . Anscomb was an a r c h - c o n s e r v a t i v e accountant w i t h f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the l i q u o r i n d u s t r y , an almost paranoid a n t i -g communist who had a l l e d g e d l y , d u r i n g the depress ion , proposed t h a t P a t t u l l o 9 " c u t w e l f a r e expend i tu res to the bone, and then "scrape the bone . " Less than two years a f t e r h i s accession to the f i nance p o r t f o l i o he was t o impose the f i r s t sa les tax i n the p r o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y . Here was no f r i e n d of the work ing man and woman. Eyres and Macdonald represented conserva t i ve r u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s to the economies of wh ich , as p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s merchants, they 120. were c l o s e l y l i n k e d . ^ * The man who d i d rep lace M a i t l a n d as a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , Gordon Wismer, was the acknowledged leader of the r i g h t - w i n g Vancouver-based L i b e r a l p a r t y "machine" , w i t h t i e s to pr imary business and l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s 12 His re-appearance i n the cab ine t s i g n i f i e d the emergence of o p p o s i t i o n t o the w e l f a r e - s t a t i s t i n f l u e n c e o f George Pearson and Educat ion M i n i s t e r George „14 T T • 13 Wexr. As long as H a r t , "a f i g u r e of d i g n i t y , p r o b i t y and conf idence ' and a master of brokerage p o l i t i c s , was i n c o n t r o l these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n were he ld i n check. A f t e r he r e -signed l a t e i n 1947 the s p l i t between the r i g h t and l e f t i n the L i b e r a l p a r t y came i n t o the open and the Conservat ives at tempted to press p r o g r e s s i v e l y more r e p r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s on the government. The exper ience of the 1947 labour l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d a g rea t dea l to these i n t e r - and i n t r a - p a r t y a n t a -gonisms . B. A- government pressured The f e d e r a l government had announced t h a t war t ime emergency l e g i s l a -t i o n , i n c l u d i n g P.C. 1003, would lapse on A p r i l 1 , 1947. The p o s s i b i l i t y of dominion-wide labour r e l a t i o n s l e g i s l a t i o n cover ing a l l j u r i s d i c t i o n s was wiped out w i t h the co l l apse o f the d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l labour m i n i n s t e r s ' conference i n November 1946. "^ Since P.C. 1003 had put the ICA Act sadly out of da te , i t needed amendment i f not a t o t a l r e w r i t i n g . As Pearson put i t , the 16 ac t " i n i t s present s t a t e . . . w i l l not be s a t i s f a c t o r y to anyone." On h i s r e t u r n f rom the d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l conference, labour department s t a f f mem-bers began t o d r a f t a new a c t . Meanwhile the cab ine t heard submissions f rom the unions and employer o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A major un ion o b j e c t i v e was to get " t he p r i n c i p l e o f un ion s e c u r i t y . . . e s t a b l i s h e d by law and t h i s ques t ion thus removed as a s t r i k e 1 2 1 . i s s u e . " 1 7 A j o i n t TLC-BCFL d e l e g a t i o n met the cab ine t on January 14, 1947 t o press f o r t h i s and o ther amendments, i n c l u d i n g p r o h i b i t i o n of a wide range of " u n f a i r labor . . .p rac t ices" such as i n d u s t r i a l espionage, company unionism and i d s c r i m i n a t i o n f o r un ion a c t i v i t y . The unions a lso asked f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between a company un ion and a l e g i t i m a t e one, es tab l ishment of a labour r e l a t i o n s board and a r e d u c t i o n f rom 21 to 10 i n the number of days ' n o t i c e r e q u i r e d be fo re an employer had t o commence b a r g a i n i n g . "Labor " , the d e l e g a t i o n s a i d , "has no i n t e r e s t s separate and apar t f rom the community as a whole. Based upon the improved l i v i n g s t a n -18 dards of the work ing people depends the p r o s p e r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. " As the unions l a i d the groundwork f o r the 1947 e d i t i o n of the labour lobby , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y pressed f o r r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . Remembering the t h r e a t of hardship i n the IWA s t r i k e the p r e - ' v i ous s p r i n g , the B.C. F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n urged the government t o r e v i s e the ICA Act "so t h a t i t can ac t more e f f e c t i v e l y i n the event o f a 19 threatened s t r i k e . F i f t e e n employer a s s o c i a t i o n s , represented by B r i g . -Gen. Sherwood L e t t , presented a common submission to the cab ine t on February 28. Inc luded were employer o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n lumber, m i n i n g , pulp and paper and f i s h i n g , assor ted boards of t r a d e , the CMA and the Canadian Restaurant A s s o c i a t i o n . The employers couched t h e i r demands f o r curbs on the power of the unions i n terms of concern f o r a nebulous and undef ined " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . "Exper ience w i t h th ree d i sas t rous i l l e g a l s t r i k e s i n B.C. i n 1946, " they op ined, " c l e a r l y shows t h a t c e r t a i n amendments should be made t o ( s i c ) bo th i n the T.;C.A. Act and i n the Trades Union Act to b r i n g about needed reforms i n the i n t e r e s t of everyone concerned. " The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , they s a i d , would be best p r o t e c t e d i f unions were sub jec ted to " f o r m a l r u l e s o f p roce -dure and s u p e r v i s i o n . " Government-supervised s t r i k e v o t e s , they argued, 122. would " p r o t e c t " the p u b l i c f rom unscrupulous un ion leaders who c a l l e d men out on s t r i k e f o r p o l i t i c a l ends. They a lso demanded t h a t the government r e q u i r e a superv ised vo te on any "bona f i d e proposa l f o r s e t t l e m e n t " made by an employer when a s t r i k e was i n p rogress . The b r i e f exp la ined : We make t h i s recommendation i n the l i g h t of exper ience, i n p a r t i c u l a r du r ing 1946, where such bona f i d e o f f e r s have been made and where such o f f e r s have been r e j e c t e d out of hand by a union s t r i k e committee. . . The r e s u l t of t h i s has been the p ro long ing of s t r i k e s u n n e c e s s a r i l y , w i t h g r e a t l y increased loss of earn ings by employees and loss of p r o d u c t i o n . . . We do no t t h i n k t h a t the t a k i n g of such a secre t b a l l o t presents any insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s . . . . un ion o f f i c i a l s can assemble mass meetings o f members t o l i s t e n to the union v e r s i o n of s t r i k e progress and we b e l i e v e t h a t by adequate p u b l i c i t y employees can be a s -sembled f o r the t a k i n g of such a v o t e . . . The employers a lso repeated the growing demands of the p rev ious year f o r the l e g a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and they made i t c l e a r t h a t they sought to d i v e r t i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l channels in t h i s way. The l a c k o f l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t tached to p o s i t i o n s of un ion o f f i c e was, they s a i d , "no t i n the i n t e r e s t s of peace, order and good govern-ment, as ide a l t o g e t h e r f rom the aspects o f i n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i t y and maximum 20 p r o d u c t i o n . 1 1 They asked t h a t c o l l e c t i v e agreements be g iven l e g a l s t a t u s , t h a t unions be corpora te e n t i t i e s sub jec t t o c i v i l damage s u i t s and t h a t employees on i l l e g a l s t r i k e cease t o be employees under the ICA Act and. thus be removed f rom the scope of i t s p r o t e c t i v e c lauses . I n the area o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , they proposed t h a t the v o t e to determine employees' wishes be mandatory, whereas the ICA Act and P.C. 1003 had l e f t the v o t e up to the d i s -21 c r e t i o n o f l a b o u r . F i n a l l y , the employers added t h e i r thoughts on un ion s e c u r i t y . Invok ing " t h e i n h e r e n t r i g h t of the i n d i v i d u a l to work " , t h e y / n o t on ly opposed the i n c l u s i o n i n the ac t o f any re fe rence to s e c u r i t y , bu t sug-22 gested t h a t the union shop and check -o f f should be out lawed. To be sure , the employers by t h i s t ime had accepted the p r i n c i p l e 123. of the r i g h t t o organ ize ( w i t h the excep t ion o f d ie -ha rds such as McDone l l ) , bu t when i t came t o a choice between a u n i o n ' s r i g h t t o conduct i t s own a f -f a i r s and the maintenance of i n d u s t r i a l s t a b i l i t y , they came down u n e q u i -v o c a l l y on the s ide o f the l a t t e r y Many of the employer proposals were n o t h i n g shor t of o b s t r u c t i o n i s t . For i n s t a n c e , the re i s no evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t the s t r i k e s of 1946 were begun or cont inued aga ins t the wishes of un ion members. Indeed, a l l s igns p o i n t to the c o n t r a r y : the r a p i d inc rease i n IWA membership f o l l o w i n g the s t a r t of the lumber i n d u s t r y s t r i k e and the long d u r a t i o n of the metal -mine s t r i k e w i t h o u t a break i n un ion ranks , are two.which come to mind. To be sure , t he re were cases o f i n t i m i d a t i o n i n the s t r i k e a t the P rov ince , but i t must be remembered t h a t these were d i r e c t e d by s t r i k i n g u n i o n i s t s toward o ther workers or members of n o n - s t r i k i n g un ions , and no t toward t h e i r c o l -leagues. The government-super ivsed v o t e , t h e r e f o r e , would be a s t a l l i n g de-v i c e r a t h e r than a means of ensur ing e f f e c t i v e i n t e r n a l un ion democracy. The c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t a superv ised vo te could have on a s t r i k e i n an i n d u s t r y as w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d as the lumber i n d u s t r y i s obv ious . tin a similar vein were the proposals f o r mandatory vo tes on "bona f i d e " employer o f f e r s and on c e r t i f i c a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y the re was no l i m i t to the number of t imes an employer cou ld make an " o f f e r " — s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same o f f e r — and i n v o l v e bo th un ion and membership i n a demora l i z ing s e r i e s of v o t e s . The demand f o r a v o t e on i n d i -v i d u a l b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was o s t e n s i b l y based on a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t members would spurn r a d i c a l d i s t r i c t and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e r s i f they had the chance, but probably more t r u t h f u l l y i n the employers ' s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t inexper ienced l o c a l o f f i c e r s would not d r i v e as hard a b a r g a i n . S i m i l a r l y , a l though the employers proposed sadd l ing the unions w i t h a g rea te r degree o f l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , they a lso wanted to remove the power needed t o exe r -c i s e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , by ou t law ing un ion s e c u r i t y . 124. C. B i l l 39: a l i b e r a l ' s de fea t By the beg inn ing of March the l e g i s l a t i v e . c o u n s e l had n e a r l y f i n i s h e d d r a f t i n g B i l l 39, "An Act r e s p e c t i n g the R igh t of Employees to o r g a n i z e , and p r o v i d i n g f o r M e d i a t i o n , C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n of I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e s . " I n d i v i d u a l employers meanwhile cont inued to bombard the government w i t h t h e i r v iews . R. W. Diamond, B l a y l o c k ' s successor a t Consol idated Min ing and Smel t ing expressed the hope t h a t no check -o f f l e g i s l a t i o n was contemplated, as i t "would be the means of c r e a t i n g a: f r a n k e n s t e i n i n the form of a r a d i c a l , w e l l - f i n a n c e d p o l i t i c a l b loc w i t h tremendous power. " Diamond a lso reminded Har t t h a t the l a t t e r had promised to show him the l e g i s l a t i o n i n d r a f t form "and of e x p r e s -s ing our o p i n i o n i n regard to any measures we thought undes i rab le be fo re they 23 were f i n a l l y passed by caucus . " Har t r e p l i e d s o l i c i t o u s l y on March 7 t h a t the ac t was almost ready and would be forwarded to Diamond i n a day or so , 2 A adding t h a t he would d iscuss i t w i t h Conso l ida ted 's lawyer i n V i c t o r i a . I n c o n t r a s t to t h i s t rea tmen t , Pearson in formed Danny O 'Br ien of the BCFL t h a t labour leaders w o u l d n ' t get a chance to see the b i l l u n t i l i t was i n t roduced 25 i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . B i l l 39, the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act (1947) was p r i n t e d on March 8. On March 10 the Vancouver Sun r e p o r t e d t h a t i t had passed the c o a l i t i o n caucus s u b s t a n t i a l l y as d r a f t e d , i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r govern-ment-superv ised votes on c o n c i l i a t i o n board r e p o r t s — a s l i g h t l y watered-down v e r s i o n of the government-supervised s t r i k e v o t e . "Employers have been p r e s s -i n g s t r o n g l y f o r the secre t s t r i k e v o t e , " the Sun r e p o r t e d , "and have gained enough support i n the caucus to ensure i t , " f rom MLAs who f e l t unions had ac -26 q u i r e d " too much power du r ing the war y e a r s . " But i t soon became ev ident t h a t the superv ised vo te c lause had been inc luded over Pearson's o b j e c t i o n and t h a t the caucus b a t t l e over the act was not over . The b i l l was f o r m a l l y i n t roduced i n t o the l e g i s l a t u r e on March 1 1 . 125. Three months e a r l i e r , a research o f f i c e r i n the labour department had sug-gested the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s as the bas is f o r a new labour code: 1 . The r i g h t of workmen to ba rga in c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e i r employer should be guaranteed: 2 . the r i g h t o f the employer to operate h i s business i n an economic and e f f i c i e n t manner should be p reserved : 3. the c e r t i f i c a t i o n f rom t ime t o t ime of b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the workman should be e f f e c t e d by democrat ic process, i n such a way t h a t i t i s apparent to a l l , t h a t those r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c t u a l l y represent a m a j o r i t y of the employees a f f e c t e d : 4 . s t r i k e s and lockouts should not be r e s o r t e d to du r ing the l i f e of a c o l l e c t i v e agreement, o r , where agreement has not been reached, u n t i l a c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure has been exhausted: 5. harmonious r e l a t i o n s between employer and employee can on ly be achieved by n e g o t i a t i o n i n an atmosphere f r e e f rom compuls ion. (27) The f i f t h p r i n c i p l e , the research o f f i c e r argued, would be preserved i f a r -b i t r a t i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n dec is ions were not made b i n d i n g by s t a t u t e and i f the government r e f r a i n e d f rom i n t r o d u c i n g l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r un ion s e c u r i t y on demand. But he suggested s e v e r a l amendments t o the ICA Act which would enshr ine the o ther f o u r p r i n c i p l e s i n law. Foremost among these was the suggest ion f o r mandatory government-supervised s t r i k e v o t e s : The h i s t o r y of s t r i k e s i n t h i s count ry and i n the Un i ted States d u r i n g the past two y e a r s , shows t h a t i n many cases the m a j o r i t y of the employees i n v o l v e d had no r e a l w ish to s t r i k e , and were not g iven a r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y o f making a d e c i s i o n i n t h a t regard themselves. S t r i k e a c t i o n , which should always be the l a s t r e s o r t , should be fo rb idden by s t a t u t e , unless supported by a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y (say a t w o - t h i r d s or t h r e e - f o u r t h s m a j o r i t y ) of the workmen i n -vo lved and a f t e r the t a k i n g of a vo te by secre t b a l l o t . (28) As i n t r o d u c e d , B i l l 39 d i d not go t h i s f a r , p r o v i d i n g f o r vo tes on ly on c o n c i l i a t i o n r e p o r t s , r e q u i r i n g on ly a s imple m a j o r i t y . But the ph i losophy behind the employers ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t unions were not competent t o run t h e i r own a f f a i r s unsupervised was present i n the mind of Pearson's research o f f i c e r and found i t s way i n t o the a c t . The b i l l a lso p rov ided s t i f f p e n a l t i e s f o r o f f e n c e s . For un ion a c t i v i t y du r i ng work ing hours , r e s t r i c t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , 126. N re fused to supply i n f o r m a t i o n or co-opera te w i t h a Labour Re la t i ons Board o rder , or an i l l e g a l lockou t or s t r i k e , i n d i v i d u a l s were l i a b l e to a $100 f i n e and c o r p o r a t i o n s or unions to a $250 f i n e . For r e f u s a l to ba rga in c o l l e c t i v e l y or r e f u s a l to comply w i t h any o ther p r o v i s i o n s of the ac t the c o r p o r a t i o n / u n i o n 29 f i n e was to remain the same and the i n d i v i d u a l f i n e a maximum of $50. S i m i -l a r f i n e s had been prov ided under P.C. 1003, bu t were considered a f u n c t i o n o f 30 the wart ime emergency and — more impor tan t — were r a r e l y en fo rced . Assess-ment of these p e n a l t i e s aga ins t the unions and workers i n v o l v e d i n the i l l e g a l 1946 s t r i k e s wou ld , of course, have d e a l t them a c r i p p l i n g b low. More impor-t a n t , f o r the f i r s t t ime an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e was present f o r unions and t h e i r leaders to curb spontaneous unres t on the p a r t of t h e i r members, s ince f a i l u r e t o do so could endanger the f i n a n c i a l base of the un ion and thus the l e a d e r s ' p o s i t i o n . These sec t ions of B i l l 39 were des t ined t o cause the most c o n t r o v e r s y . Not a l l the employers ' requests f o r r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n were g ran ted . The b i l l p rov ided t h a t a l l p a r t i e s " s h a l l do e v e r y t h i n g they are r e q u i r e d to do and s h a l l r e f r a i n f rom doing any th ing t h a t they are r e q u i r e d 31 to r e f r a i n f rom d o i n g , by the p r o v i s i o n s of the c o l l e c t i v e agreement." But i t appeared to deny the employers ' requests t h a t c o l l e c t i v e agreements have the l e g a l s t a t u s o f o ther c o n t r a c t s : Unless o therwise prov ided t h e r e i n , no a c t i o n may be brought under or by reason of any c o l l e c t i v e agree-ment, un less i t may be brought i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t . (32) Also not i nc luded were the proposals f o r mandatory c e r t i f i c a t i o n vo tes and a ban on un ion s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s , a l though the ambiguous s e c t i o n 8 appeared to ho ld t h a t on ly a v o l u n t a r y assignment o f dues was l e g a l . The un ion request f o r a r e d u c t i o n t o 10 days i n the r e q u i r e d n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n to ba rga in was i n c l u d e d . But the drawn-out two-s tage c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure was c a r r i e d over 33 f rom P.C. 1003, w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the superv ised v o t e . The b i l l a l so 127. perpetuated the con fus ion found i n b o t h the o l d ICA Act and P.C. 1003 on the sub jec t of company un ions , i n c l u d i n g i n the category of o r g a n i z a t i o n s e l i g i b l e 34 f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n "an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f employees o ther than a t rade u n i o n . ' F i n a l l y , a Labour Re la t i ons Board was to be set up to c e r t i f y unions as b a r -ga in ing agents and t o decide numerous quest ions of d e f i n i t i o n i n the course 35 of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a c t . P r e d i c t a b l y , B i l l 39 met w i t h p r a i s e f rom employers and e d i t o r i a -36 l i s t s . But un ion leaders p r e d i c t e d more i l l e g a l s t r i k e s than ever would occur i f i t were passed. "Where i t puts one t o o t h i n , " s a i d the BCFL's O ' B r i e n , 37 i t puts i n a p a i r of p l i e r s to yank i t o u t . " The BCFL l e a d e r s , f u r i o u s a t the government 's f a i l u r e ; t o i n f o r m them of i t s i n t e n t i o n s , stepped up p r e p a r -a t i o n s f o r the labour lobby which had been scheduled f o r March 16. Two days be fo re the delegates a r r i v e d i n the c a p i t a l , the f i r s t se r ious s p l i t i n the c o a l i t i o n caucus occur red . The occasion was a CCF p rocedura l maneouvre, the p a r t y ' s t r a d i -t i o n a l response to c o a l i t i o n labour l e g i s l a t i o n : a mot ion t h a t the b i l l , a long w i t h submissions from the labour movement, be r e f e r r e d to the l e g i s l a t u r e ' s s tand ing committee on l a b o u r . This was the demand, designed to s p o t l i g h t the CCF's l e g i s l a t i v e e f f o r t s as opposed t o the lobby ing of the BCFL, which had 38 s p l i t the 1945 labour lobby . The CCF had the same purpose i n mind i n 1947: p a r t y whip Herber t Gargrave t o l d the l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t r e f e r r a l t o the committee would remove the need f o r a labour lobby . Pearson r e p l i e d : A l l l abor bodies have been g iven a chance t o t e l l the cab ine t t h e i r views on the l abo r l e g i s l a t i o n . We have a l ready g iven them the f u l l e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n and reached our d e c i s i o n s . . . . The M i n i s t e r of Labour i s no t a f r a i d of a n y t h i n g , bu t I d o n ' t r e q u i r e the adv ice of a House committee on t h i s s u b j e c t . (39) Charged CCF leader Haro ld Winch: C You've made up your mind and you d i s r e g a r d what thousands of organized labour people t h i n k . (40) 128. When the i ssue came to a d i v i s i o n , the CCF was supported by the Labour member, Tom U p h i l l (Fern ie ) and f i v e c o a l i t i o n MLAs: Dr . J . J . G i l l i s ( L - Y a l e ) , the labour committee chairman; W i l l i a m Smith ( L - A t l i n ) ; W i l l i a m Johnson (C-Revel -s t o k e ) ; T i l l i e Ro ls ton (C-Vancouver-Point Grey) and W. A. C. Bennett (C-South 41 Okanagan). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Johnson and Smith were the on ly two i n d u s t r i a l workers i n the c o a l i t i o n caucus. A l though a major f a c t o r i n the f i v e MLA's d i s s e n t was the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the cab ine t had "usurped the r o l e of the l e g -42 i s l a t u r e " , they e v i d e n t l y considered the issue o f labour l e g i s l a t i o n impor-43 t a n t enough to be the p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e p lace to take such a s t a n d . Organized labour a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a cons iderab ly less u n i t e d than i t had been the prev ious yea r . The p r o v i n c i a l execu t i ve o f the TLC had ap -peared be fo re the cab ine t w i t h the BCFL i n January and had been the f i r s t to 44 propose the s e t t i n g of a date f o r the 1947 labour lobby . But on March 5 the TLC leadersh ip had suddenly denounced the lobby p l a n s . Roly Gerv in of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Counc i l (TLC) charged t h a t the 1946 lobby had "accomplished n o t h i n g " : The lobby l a s t year l e f t a somewhat sour t a s t e i n the mouths of some of the members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e and they are not i n c l i n e d to look f a v o r a b l y on l a b o u r ' s rep resen ta t i ons a t t h i s t i m e . (45) The TLC leaders were runn ing scared, d r i v e n by a f r a n t i c d e s i r e to d i s s o c i a t e themselves f rom the communist i n f l u e n c e i n the un ion movement, the a l l e g e d e v i l s of which were beg inn ing to be "exposed" as the decade of w i t c h - h u n t i n g 46 we know today as McCarthyism got under way. Hard on the heels o f the TLC r e p u d i a t i o n came a second blow to the BCFL's image. The day be fo re the d e l e -gates were due to a r r i v e i n V i c t o r i a , f r o n t - p a g e head l ines across the n a t i o n screamed t h a t n a t i o n a l TLC s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r Pat S u l l i v a n had renounced h i s LPP membership and embarked on a campaign t o d r i v e communist o rgan ize rs out 47 of the labour movement. 129. Despi te these setbacks the 300-s t rong BCFL lobby a r r i v e d on schedule on the 1 6 t h , accompanied by 24 TLC delegates i n r e p u d i a t i o n of t h e i r execu-48 t i v e . The lobby emphasized what the BCFL leaders considered to be the f i v e most o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s i n B i l l 39: 1) the government-supervised vo te on c o n c i l a i t i o n board r e p o r t s , 2) the p e n a l t i e s f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k e r s , 3) the l ack o f assurance t h a t labour would be represented on the Labour Re la t i ons Board, 4) the a l l e g e d f a v o u r i t i s m toward company un ions , 5) the c o n t i n u a -t i o n of p r o v i s i o n s i n the o l d ICA Act and P.C. 1003 a l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n of separate unions f o r craf tsmen work ing i n l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . P lacards c a r r i e d by the delegates emphasized the government-supervised vo te i ssue above the o t h e r s . A l e a f l e t c laimed the unions would f i n d themselves " o v e r -49 whelmed i n a maze of government-delayed v o t e - t a k i n g and red t a p e . " The l o b b y i s t s compared t h e . a c t un favourab ly w i t h the Saskatchewan Trade Union Act of 1944, which had sharper t e e t h i n i i t s u n f a i r labour p r a c -t i c e s s e c t i o n . Quoting the preamble t o the U.S. Wagner Act to the e f f e c t t h a t b a r g a i n i n g i n e q u a l i t y between c a p i t a l and labour encourages depressions by decreasing purchasing power, they demanded, i n a d d i t i o n to the f i v e p o i n t s l i s t e d above, l e g i s l a t e d un ion s e c u r i t y , a d e f i n i t i o n of u n f a i r labour p r a c -t i c e s w i t h compensation f o r i n j u s t i c e s and p r o v i s i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i t h -out de lay . The ambiguous check -o f f p r o v i s i o n i n B i l l 39, they po in ted o u t , "p rov ides encouragement f o r a n t i - l a b o u r employers to provoke d i s u n i t y and engage i n a campaign of u n i o n - b u s t i n g and might even be used to break e x i s t -i n g un ion shop check -o f f agreements . " "^ Some of the more l u r i d a n t i - B i l l 39 propaganda p roc la imed: " F a s c i s t Governments wiped o u t : Trade unions f i r s t , R e l i g i o u s groups n e x t , Freedom of Speech, then Forced L a b o u r . " ^ 1 Indeed, Harvey Murphy saw the dark hand of Tory r e a c t i o n behind the l e g i s l a t i o n . He c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e i t had come f rom h i s o l d f r i e n d George Pearson. Murphy p r e d i c t e d to the l o b b y i s t s 130. t h a t Pearson would soon be rep laced by A l l a n McDonel l , the Tory meta l manu-f a c t u r e r who had locked horns w i t h Murphy's un ion du r ing the 1946 foundry s t r i k e . " * 2 To some ex ten t Murphy was r i g h t . The mandatory government-super-v i s e d vo te s e c t i o n , a l though i t was proposed by the labour department s t a f f , d i d not have Pearson's suppor t . His 14 y e a r s ' exper ience as labour m i n i s t e r t o l d him the procedure would prove unworkable, as indeed i t d i d . He would have p r e f e r r e d to leave government s u p e r v i s i o n to the m i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n and the BCFL leaders l i k e l y would no t have ob jec ted to t h i s — a l though the 53 o ther f e a t u r e s o f the b i l l remained repugnant to them. E i t h e r Pearson in t roduced the b i l l to the caucus as d r a f t e d by h i s department, i n c l u d i n g the government-superv is ion c lause , or the c lause was suggested the re by an employer spokesman such as McDonel l . At any r a t e , the Tory and r i g h t - w i n g L i b e r a l elements i n the caucus c a r r i e d the day. The Sun r e p o r t e d on March 27: The s t rong element i n the caucus who have fo rced the superv ised b a l l o t are adamant t h a t labour should be curbed. Some un ions , they c l a i m , abused the power they achieved d u r i n g the war years and t i e d up i n -d u s t r y u n n e c e s s a r i l y . At l e a s t the superv ised vo te would show d e f i n i t e l y t h a t l a b o r ' s rank and f i l e are dec id ing an issue and not j u s t a few leaders who brow beat members i n t o f o l l o w i n g them. (54) Rumours t h a t Pearson planned t o r e s i g n f l e w around the. c a p i t a l . E m p l o y e r s bombarded the government w i t h te legrams i n support of the superv ised v o t e , c la im ing i t s d e l e t i o n would be "a d i s a s t r o u s se t -back to the economic progress o f the P r o v i n c e . " " ^ The labour lobby hav ing obv ious ly been f r u i t l e s s , a w o r r i e d d e l e g a t i o n of un ion leaders v i s i t e d Har t and begged him to amend the l e g i s l a t i o n i n order t o keep Pearson i n the c a b i n e t . But oh''.March 28 the Sun quoted an " a u t h o r i t a t i v e " Vancouver MLA (almost c e r t a i n l y McDonell as saying Pearson w o u l d n ' t r e s i g n , but t h a t the caucus would not back down. " I f nece-131. ssary," the source said, "we are prepared tb:>meet Mr. Pearson again and explain how a supervised b a l l o t can be run." The Sun forecast that Pearson would introduce the b i l l f o r second reading as the "studied p o l i c y of the C o a l i t i o n government: but that i n so doing he would o u t l i n e h i s objections. He would not, the Sun story continued, "embarrass the government by r e s i g n -ing the labor p o r t f o l i o during the session, but may ask to be r e l i e v e d of i t l a t e r t h i s year.""' 7 The months of employer pressure had paid o f f , and Pearson's "welfare l i b e r a l i s m " or "progressive c a p i t a l i s m " had suffered a grave defeat. Thus i t was that on March 31 i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i -t i s h Columbia a minister of the crown moved second reading of a measure with 58 parts of which he was i n p u b l i c disagreement. Pearson had managed to get the caucus to attempt a measure of appeasement by cutt i n g the f i n e s f or i l l e -59 gal s t r i k e s and other actions i n h a l f . But the supervised vote section had been made even stronger, brought i n l i n e with the o r i g i n a l employer demands. The compulsory vote was now to be a s t r i k e vote rather than a vote on accep-tance of a c o n c i l i a t i o n board report. Yet Pearson t o l d the house that h i s objection to the supervised vote was not s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r him to resign h i s p o r t f o l i o . He explained: 1 f e e l I have been misunderstood on the whole question and an apparent c r i s i s has been b u i l t up out of nothing. I have always been i n favour of the secret b a l l o t i n labour matters. But I don't think the supervised b a l -l o t i s necessary as a general thing. The majority of our unions, e s p e c i a l l y the older ones, have always respected the secret b a l l o t . My own view i s that the old ICA formula, where super-v i s i o n was up to the M i n i s t e r , i s the extent to which we should go. We can depend on the honor of our unions to take proper b a l l o t s . However, there i s a great deal of alarm among the pub-l i c about what i s done i n union votes. There have been many s t o r i e s , some of them no doubt r i d i c u l o u s , about 132. methods t h a t are used. I d o n ' t know i f they are t r u e . I ' v e never watched a s t r i k e v o t e . But I am convinced t h e r e i s a l o t o f p u b l i c f e e l i n g about carelessness i n conduct ing the b a l l o t i n some cases. And i f d i s a s t r o u s s t r i k e s are c a l l e d by such methods they f e e l i t should be s topped. My o ther o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t the superv ised b a l l o t i s cumbersome and i n some cases almost imposs ib le to a p p l y . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n l a s t y e a r ' s IWA s t r i k e i t had been r e q u i r e d the re would have been weeks and weeks of delay and I d o n ' t t h i n k we could have got a t r u e v o t e . I may be p l a c i n g mysel f i n a f o o l i s h p o s i t i o n by say-ing t h a t I b r i n g i n a b i l l c o n t a i n i n g a c lause to which I o b j e c t . I re fuse to b e l i e v e t h a t because I d isagree on t h i s c lause I should sever my connect ion w i t h the government, n o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h the Department o f Labor . I t i s an awkward p o s i t i o n . I t may look queer. And some people may say, ' Le t him go anyway, we've had enough of h im. Why doesn ' t he get o u t ? ' But I f e e l I have something to g i ve f rom the exper ience I have had. And I r e a l i z e people are alarmed a t what happened l a s t yea r . The b a l l o t s e c t i o n w i l l be amended to p r o -v i d e t h a t no s t r i k e can be c a l l e d u n t i l a superv ised v o t e has been taken . (60) The CCF members se ized the o p p o r t u n i t y to taun t Pearson. "You are mar r ing a good r e c o r d , " c r i e d Gargrave. "(How can) theJ labo rAmin i s te r re fuse respon-s i b i l i t y f o r the superv ised s t r i k e v o t e when he has brought i t down?" Added Winch: The Tory i n f l u e n c e i n the cab ine t has reached the p o i n t o f r o t t i n g L i b e r a l i s m and the former p rog ress ive thought we had. The premier and the labor m i n i s t e r have l o s t c o n t r o l . This b i l l i s conc lus i ve evidence the Tor ies r u l e the c a b i n e t . (61) 62 The f o l l o w i n g day, on a s t r a i g h t Coal i t ion-CCF d i v i s i o n , the b i l l passed t h i r d r e a d i n g . Dur ing the c lause-by -c lause debate, Winch had manoeuvred a recorded v o t e on the s t r i k e b a l l o t c lause . The Sun observed t h a t Pearson " rose ve ry s low ly f rom h i s c h a i r t o stand beside the C o a l i t i o n 63 members." The CCF had won a moral v i c t o r y , exposing the d e c l i n e o f l i b e r a l 133. p r i n c i p l e s under the pressures of c o a l i t i o n . Through, a dubious procedure, i n terms of pa r l i amen ta ry t r a d i t i o n , Pearson had a l lowed the government t o save f a c e . But he e v i d e n t l y cou ld not stomach the r e p r e s s i v e f e a t u r e s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r as i t tu rned out he was never to admin i s te r i t . 134. Notes to chapter 6 1 J u d i t h Ward, F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Par ty o f  B r i t i s h Columbia, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. ( p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , 1966, 62. •2 I b i d . , 64. 3 I b i d . , 67. 4 E. R. B lack, The Progress ive Conservat ive Par ty i n B r i t i s h Columbia: some aspects o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , MA t h e s i s (economics and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C. , 1960, 37. 5 M a r t i n Robin , P i l l a r s of p r o f i t : the company p rov ince 1934-1972, Toronto : McCle l land and Stewar t , 1973, 93. 6 Quoted i n i b i d . , 92. 7 I b i d . , 90. At the same t i m e , Ernest Carson was s h i f t e d f rom Mines to Pub l i c Works. 8 "There i s no one who b e l i e v e s l ess i n s o c i a l i s m than Mr. H a r t . Mr. M a i t -l and i s a conserva t i ve t o the marrow o f h i s bones and Mr. Anscomb c a r e -f u l l y looks under the bed every n i g h t , q u i t e sure t h a t a communist i s h i d i n g the re w i t h a bomb." Bruce Hutch ison , Vancouver Sun, January 8, 1942, 4 . 9 Quoted i n Robin, op_. c i t . , 93. 10 As the me,tal-ii i ine s t r i k e o f 1946 was drawing t o a c l o s e , MacDonald i n a v e i l e d re fe rence t o Pearson blamed " l e g i s l a t o r s as w e l l as un ion l e a d e r s " f o r "no t r e a l i z i n g t h a t t he re i s a l i m i t t o the wages an employer can pay and s t i l l s tay i n b u s i n e s s . " Vancouver Sun, November 13, 1946, 23. 11 Robin, op. c i t . , 90; Ward, op_. c i t . , 69. 12 Wismer had been a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l f rom 1937 to 1941. 13 Weir , a former dean of educat ion a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B .C. , l e f t one i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h the impress ion t h a t he "s tood on the l i n e which d i v i d e d the r i g h t wing of the CCF f rom the l e f t wing of the L i b e r a l P a r t y , " and indeed the CCF cla imed t h a t he " r i g h t f u l l y belonged to them." Weir h i m -s e l f s a i d h i s d e c i s i o n t o run f o r the L i b e r a l s i n 1933 was.?purely p r a g -m a t i c , d i c t a t e d by a bu rn ing d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l re fo rm and the knowledge t h a t the L i b e r a l s were the p a r t y most l i k e l y t o be i n a p o s i t i o n t o e f -f e c t i t . See Douglas C l a r k . Some aspects o f t h e development of the  Co-opera t ive Commonwealth Federa t ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Undergraduate essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. ( h i s t o r y ) , 1945, 38. 14 S. W. Jackman, P o r t r a i t s o f the p remie rs , Sidney: Gray 's P u b l i s h i n g , 1969, 241 . 15 See above, ch . 1 . 135. 16 Pearson t o H a r t , January 13, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-3-G. 17 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, December 3, 1946, 2. 18 L e g i s l a t i v e proposals submi t ted to the honorable the premier of B.C. arid members .of the c a b i n e t , January 14, 1947, MMP, 31-6 . The unions a lso demanded a 75-cent minimum wage, the 40-hour week and two weeks' s t a t u -t o r y v a c a t i o n , as w e l l as improved workmen's compensation b e n e f i t s . 19 C. A. Hayden to H a r t , February 17, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-3-G. 20 My emphasis. 21 The employers a l so asked t h a t the c e r t i f i c a t i o n vo te be he ld not on ly on the employees' d e s i r e f o r the un ion but a l so on t h e i r p re fe rence as to i n d i v i d u a l b a r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 22 I n d u s t r i a l Canada, A p r i l 1947, 85-88. 23 Diamond to H a r t , March 5, 1947, PP, 1946-7, C - l l - G . 24 Har t to Diamond, March 7, 1947, i b i d . 25 Vancouver Sun, March 8, 1947, 2. 26 I b i d . , March 10, 1947, 1 . 27 Michael McGeough to Pearson, Memorandum on the I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, December 13, 1946, PP, 1946-7, L-3-G. 28 I b i d . 29 I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act ( b i l l ) , 1947, ss . 34-37. These f i n e s were l a t e r a l t e r e d . 30 Wartime Labour Re la t i ons Regu la t ions , P.C. 1003, ss . 38-44. 31 ICA A c t , S. B. C. 1947, 11 Geo. V I , ch . 44, s . 44. 32 I b i d . , s . 47. 33 Added to the c o n c i l i a t i o n process was machinery f o r " i n d u s t r i a l i n q u i r y commissions", t o i n v e s t i g a t e d ispu tes w i t h broader terms of re fe rence than c o n c i l i a t i o n boards , but w i t h o u t the element of compulsion i n v o l v e d i n c o n c i l i a t i o n . See H. D. Woods, Labour P o l i c y i n Canada, second e d i t i o n , Toronto : Macmi l lan , 1973, ch . 10. 34 ICA A c t , 1947, s . 2. 35 I b i d . , ss . 9-12, 55-58. 36 While d isappo in ted t h a t the b i l l d i d not i n t r o d u c e a system of " l abour c o u r t s " , the Sun commented t h a t labour leaders "have ye t to produce 136. reasons as s t rong as t h e i r v i l i f i c a t i o n o f those who w ish to p lace a fundamental democrat ic safeguard on the use o f a weapon ( the s t r i k e ) so ha rmfu l to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " , f i n i s h i n g w i t h an admoni t ion t o Pearson to apply the law more v i g o r o u s l y than he had i n the p a s t . Vancouver Sun, March 13, 1947, 4 . 37 B.C. D i s t r i c t Execut ive Board minu tes , March 15-19, 1947, MMP, 31 -3 ; 38 See above, c h . 3. ) 39 Vancouver Sun, March 14, 1947, 12. 40 Loc. c i t . 41 Loc. c i t . 42 Paddy Sherman, Bennet t , Toronto : McCle l land and Stewar t , 1966, 57. 43 Bennett had decided a f t e r h i s l oss t o Anscomb i n the Tory l eadersh ip race the prev ious year t h a t i t was t ime to beg in a i r i n g h i s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the c o a l i t i o n . 44 BCFL t a b l e o f f i c e r s minu tes , March 1 , 1947, MMP, 31-7 . 45 Vancouver Sun, March 5, 1947, 9. 46 "We are n o t . . . go ing to be l e d i n t o a chaos -c rea t i ng campaign j u s t to s a t i s f y the p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f a group of leaders whose a c t i o n s have a d i s t i n c t i v e red t i n g e . " I f economic c o n d i t i o n s are not s a t i s f a c t o r y to the worke rs , t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y every few years to he lp change those c o n d i t i o n s , bu t i f the workers expect to take a sho r t c u t , then there w i l l be a l o t o f b lood s p i l l e d l i k e the re has been i n many ins tances s ince the P a r i s Commune." E d i t o r i a l , Labor Statesman, A p r i l 1947, 4 . 47 Vancouver Sun, March 15, 1947, 1 . 48 Some o f these TLC de lega tes , such as W i l l i a m Rigby of the Un i ted Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers ' Un ion, represented communist- led o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Gerv in and Showier of the TLC met w i t h Pearson on March 14 bu t were unable to secure s u b s t a n t i a l amendments to B i l l 39. Vancouver Sun, March 14, 1947, 2 . 49 GFL l e a f l e t s , MMP, 31-7 . Dave Jantzen o f the Un i ted Brotherhood of Car-penters and Jo ine rs po in ted out t h a t an employer who d i d n ' t want to b a r -ga in i n good f a i t h cou ld s t a l l f o r 79 days be fo re h i s employees would l e g a l l y be f r e e t o s t r i k e : 10 days ' r e q u i r e d n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n to b a r g a i n , 15 days of b a r g a i n i n g , 14 be fo re a c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r , seven to appo in t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to a c o n c i l i a t i o n board , f i v e to "argue about a cha i rman" , 14 f o r the board to s i t and r e p o r t and a 14-day " c o o l i n g - o f f " p e r i o d du r ing which the superv ised vo te would be taken . Jantzen po in ted o u t : "You cou ld f i n i s h a b u i l d i n g i n 79 days so where would we be?" Vancouver Sun, March 17, 1947, 2, 3. 50 L e a f l e t s , MMP, 31-7 . 51 I b i d . 137. 52 Vancouver Sun, March 17, 1947,. 20. 53 Pearson was e v i d e n t l y opposed a lso to the s t i f f n e s s o f the f i n e s f o r i l -l e g a l s t r i k e s , f o r he l a t e r persuaded the caucus t o agree to lower them. I have not been ab le to determine to what ex ten t Pearson supported the o ther f e a t u r e s of the b i l l . 54 Vancouver Sun, March 27, 1947, 2. 55 Some years l a t e r , on the occasion of Pearson's dea th , a newspaper s t o r y claimed t h a t he a c t u a l l y submi t ted h i s r e s i g n a t i o n but was persuaded by Hart to s tay on . V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, August 25, 1966, 3. 56 Western Lumber Manu fac tu re rs ' A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, Weekly L e t t e r , March 29, 1947. 57 Vancouver Sun, March 28, 1947, 1 . 58 For the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Pearson's a c t i o n , see below, ch . 8. 59 The f i n e s i n most o f the c lauses i n the b i l l were cut by t h i s amendment i n h a l f , to a $25 maximum f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and a $125 maximum f o r c o r -p o r a t i o n s or un ions . The f i n e s conta ined i n s e c t i o n 37, however, stayed a t $50 and $350. To these f i n e s anyone was l i a b l e "who does any th ing p r o h i b i t e d by t h i s A c t , or who re fuses or neg lec ts t o do any th ing r e -qu i red by t h i s Act to be done by him . . . except where some o ther pen-a l t y i s by t h i s Act p rov ided . . . " 60 Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 1 , 1947, 1 . 61 Loc. c i t . 62 Tom U p h i l l , the Labour member f rom F e r n i e , supported the CCF. 63 Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 1 , 1947, 1 . CHAPTER V I I REPRESSION REFINED: THE AFTERMATH OF BILL 39 I n t r o d u c t i o n B i l l 39 was a h a s t i l y - c o n c e i v e d p iece of l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n response t o a c r i s i s of c lass c o n f l i c t . To note t h i s p o i n t i s not to deny i t s importance to post-war c a p i t a l i s m . But the ac t as o r i g i n a l l y passed soon proved unworkable, as government a t tempts to enforce i t ran i n t o l e g a l snags which th reatened t o d i s c r e d i t the government 's approach to labour l e g i s l a t i o n . While t h i s was going on the ques t ion o f the government 's ap-proach to c lass c o n f l i c t cont inued to p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n the p o l i t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia. For a t ime i t seemed as i f the r e f o r m i s t l i b e r a l s p i r i t o f Pearson was once again going to ga in ascendancy, w i t h the e l e c t i o n of Byron Johnson to succeed Har t as L i b e r a l leader and premier i n December 1947. But by the t ime amendments to the ICA Act were passed e a r l y i n 1948, i t was c lea r t h i s was not to be the case, and r e p r e s s i o n had been conf i rmed as the response of government as w e l l as business to i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t . A. The f i r s t cha l lenge 1 . P r e l i m i n a r i e s Employer spokesmen h a i l e d the passage o f B i l l 39 as a " long step fo rward i n the f i e l d of labour l e g i s l a t i o n . " 1 The Western Miner termed i t a " s t a b i l i z i n g and modera t ing" i n f l u e n c e and c la imed "most groups of employers arid employees recognize i t as p r o v i d i n g reasonable d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r mutual 2 and r e s p e c t i v e r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . B.C. manufacturers were de-l i g h t e d a t the CMA's r o l e i n g e t t i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n passed. One t o l d the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s annual convent ion : We c e r t a i n l y were pleased indeed when we f e l t we had made some gains i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n respect to the C o n c i l i a -139. t i o n A c t . . . . I do f e e l we have made a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n through the good o f f i c e o f those t h a t l e d the f i g h t i n the C. M. A. (3) Another added: . . . our M i n i s t e r of Labour, i n years gone by , has ve ry much favoured the u n i o n ' s v i e w p o i n t and p o s s i b l y has drawn most of h i s p o l i t i c a l support f rom t h a t body. He was one o f the men we had t o use the s t ronges t persuas ion to get the l e g i s l a t i o n th rough . The amount of bombarding by l e t t e r s and telegrams t h a t we d i d to the L e g i s l a t u r e we know had some e f f e c t on p u t t i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n over . (4) Not content to r e s t on t h e i r l a u r e l s , some of the west c o a s t ' s more r a b i d c a p i t a l i s t s added t h e i r vo ices to the groundswel l o f anti-communism which was sweeping the e n t i r e Western w o r l d . They were fond of u r g i n g t h a t the ant i -communist p r o v i s i o n s o f the U.S. T a f t - H a r t l e y A c t , which made the ICA Act look l i k e the Regina M a n i f e s t o , be adopted i n Canada."* I n the summer and f a l l o f 1947 prominent B.C. businessmen and lawyers , p a i n t i n g a p i c t u r e of the communist menace which must have been f l a t t e r i n g to the LPP, c a l l e d f o r ye t more curbs on organized l a b o u r . Walter Owen, then a prominent employ-er n e g o t i a t o r and member o f the L i b e r a l law f i r m of Campney, Owen and Murphy, and now l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r of the p r o v i n c e , t o l d a convent ion of wholesale g roce rs : Communists bore i n and get c o n t r o l of unions by t i r i n g the b e t t e r people o u t , and once they ga in c o n t r o l the decent f e l l o w s won ' t go to un ion meet ings. . . . We've reached the stage i n B.C. where i t seems t o me we need some curbs on the power ves ted i n the few by our present l e g i s l a t i o n . Thomas Braidwood, p res iden t of the Vancouver Board of Trade, t o l d a r a d i o audience t h a t labour leaders who advocated break ing laws f o r "pe rsona l am-b i t i o n s or l o y a l t y to a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y ' s a ims" were no f r i e n d s of organized l a b o u r . 7 And B.C. E l e c t r i c Railway Co. chairman A. E. " D a l " Grauer, f o n d l y g remembered as a human i ta r ian i n personnnel mat te rs and f r i e n d o f educa t ion , was of the p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h a t labour and o ther s o c i a l unres t were caused by mental i n s t a b i l i t y . He t o l d the CMA convent ion i n Vancouver: 140. . . . p e r h a p s 10 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n ( s u f f e r s ) f rom neuros is and anyone s u f f e r i n g f rom a sense o f i n f e r i o r i t y i s e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l f o r an aggress ive movement t h a t g ives him a m i s s i o n , however wrong t h a t m iss ion may be. . . . (Many s u f f e r f rom) psycho-neu-r o s i s , such as nervous breakdowns, neuras then ia and sever emot iona l imbalance. . . . They d o n ' t know what t h e i r t r o u b l e i s . What should be more n a t u r a l than t h a t many o f them should f a l l f o r h igh -p ressure slogans of e x p l o i t a t i o n and c l a s s - s t r u g g l e and a t t r i -bute t h e i r t r o u b l e s to the na tu re o f the economic system under which they are l i v i n g ? (9) I w i l l ^ n o t specu la te on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s which might have f u e l l e d the p roud ly aggress ive na tu re and miss ionary zea l o f these post -war boosters of c a p i t a l i s m . I t on ly remains to note t h a t t h e i r co l leagues i n government added t h e i r vo ices to the hue and c r y . Herber t Anscomb t o l d a g a t h e r i n g of p r o v i n c i a l Conservat ives the c o a l i t i o n would " s t a y toge ther because o f t h i s t h r e a t o f Communism. There i s no f e a r of a b r e a k , " he con t inued , " w h i l e t h i s t h r e a t e x i s t s . " 1 ^ As f o r the un ions , they l a y low f o r two months f o l l o w i n g the end of the 1947 sess ion . I t was on ly a mat te r of t ime u n t i l , somewhere or o t h e r , B i l l 39 would be d i r e c t l y cha l lenged by an i l l e g a l s t r i k e . Acco rd ing l y the BCFL execu t i ve vo ted to support " t o the f u l l e s t e x t e n t , f i n a n c i a l l y and m o r a l -l y , a l l unions engaging i n necessary economic or s t r i k e a c t i o n " aga ins t the a c t . 1 1 The f e d e r a t i o n ' s annual convent ion was moved ahead;:from September to June. The convent ion c a l l read i n p a r t : The B r i t i s h Columbia Government has d e l i b e r a t e l y broken f a i t h w i t h the work ing men and women of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . Business and money, represented by wea l thy c o r -p o r a t i o n s , have compelled the surrender o f , and have taken over , the r e i n s of government. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , nec^ essary t h a t the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o l l o w the example of B ig Business i n t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i -c a l a f f a i r s and become a s t r i k i n g f o r c e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government and r e t u r n i n g the power of government to the people . (12) Any thoughts o f f u r t h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the dominant L i b e r a l element i n the c o a l i t i o n had been l a i d to r e s t . The L i b e r a l s "had comple te ly c a p i t u l a t e d 141 . be fo re the pressure of B ig Business and should now be c lassed along w i t h the Conservat ives as complete ly r e a c t i o n a r y . " The BCFL leaders,.went so f a r as to applaud the " s p l e n d i d f i g h t " pu t up by the CCF and Tom U p h i l l aga ins t the b i l l . For a t ime i t looked as i f the .major c o n f o n t a t i o n over B i l l 39 would come i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . The one-year c o n t r a c t s igned a f t e r the 1946 s t r i k e was due t o e x p i r e i n l a t e June. The smug employers a t f i r s t 14 o f f e r e d no wage i n c r e a s e , then came up to 10 cents an hour w i t h no o ther c o n t r a c t changes. They c o n f i d e n t l y assumed t h a t the p roc lamat ion o f the a c t , which occurred May 15, would keep the IWA i n i t s p l a c e . S h r e w d l y , i n v iew of the recen t debate on the superv ised b a l l o t , the IWA l e a d e r s . d i d not r e j e c t the employers ' proposals bu t sa id they would need 30 days to p o l l t h e i r members on the o f f e r . Pearson had once more been conf ined to h o s p i t a l f o r a c a t a r a c t o p e r a t i o n and deputy m i n i s t e r James Thomson at tempted to p r e v a i l upon him to order c o n c i l i a t i o n proceedings and thwar t the u n i o n ' s s t a l l i n g t a c t i c s . Thomson c i t e d employer arguments t h a t the un ion was p l a y i n g a p o l i t i c a l game governed by "some o ther source the i d e n t i t y of which they take i t f o r granted most people are aware and they ( the employers) cons ider i t r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s of t h a t ou ts ide body are t o a r r i v e i n Vancouver some-16 t ime around the 15th of June . " This was a v e i l e d re fe rence to the scheduled a r r i v a l June 14 of Tim Buck, the n a t i o n a l LPP l e a d e r , f o r a f ou r -day speaking t o u r i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and Por t A lbern i . ' ' " ' ' From h i s h o s p i t a l bed Pearson, no t taken i n by t h i s a t tempt to impute s i n i s t e r mot ives to the IWA and the LPP, t o l d h i s deputy there could be l i t t l e q u a r r e l w i t h the u n i o n ' s p o s i t i o n on the l e n g t h of t ime i t would take to p o l l the^membership. "Th is i s one of the ob-j e c t i o n s I r a i s e d to the compulsory secre t b a l l o t , " he s a i d p o i n t e d l y . As 142. long as the un ion agreed t o n e g o t i a t e , he added, the re was n o t h i n g i n B i l l 18 39 to i n d i c a t e t h a t a c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f i c e r should be appo in ted . Th is " I - t o l d - y o u - s o " r o u t i n e was the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Pearson might r e f u s e to admin is te r the ac t rammed through the l e g i s l a t u r e over h i s o b j e c t i o n . 2. The Nanaimo laundry s t r i k e The f i r s t f u l l - s c a l e chal lenge to B i l l 39 was d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the BCFL conven t ion , he ld June 6 through 8 i n Vancouver. An employee o f Nanaimo's I m p e r i a l Laundry Co. , one V i o l e t Dewhurst, announced toe the com-pany her i n t e n t i o n o f a t t e n d i n g the convent ion as a de legate f rom the Nanaimo 19 Laundry Workers ' Un ion , a d i r e c t l y char te red CCL a f f i l i a t e . The company threatened to f i r e her i f she missed a s h i f t as a r e s u l t of a t t e n d i n g the three-day convent ion and made good the t h r e a t on her r e t u r n June 9. A second employee, who had stayed away f rom work to a t te j i d to her s i c k mother, was a lso f i r e d . Twenty-e ight employees walked out i n sympathy w i t h the two d i s -missed workers , i n open def iance of the s t r i k e - d e l a y i n g p r o v i s i o n s of the 20 ICA A c t . The convent ion i t s e l f saw no r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r -ence among the p r o v i n c e ' s u n i o n i s t s . The execu t i ve denounced the d e s e r t i o n of the TLC unions and took a sideswipe a t the CCF MLAs f o r " r e l y i n g too much on pa r l i amen ta ry manoeuvre" and f o r no t g i v i n g " f u l l and u n q u a l i f i e d support 21 to the 1947 labour l o b b y . " A .16-member " f i g h t B i l l 39" committee was es -t a b l i s h e d to "de fea t the government by a t t a c k i n g them on bo th the economic and p o l i t i c a l f r o n t s , " work ing toward u n i t y of labour and l e f t - w i n g f o r c e s i n 22 order to de feat the c o a l i t i o n a t the next genera l e l e c t i o n . How such a committee might " u n i f y " the " d i v i s i o n s i n labor and l e f t - w i n g p o l i t i c a l groups" wasnot s p e c i f i e d , bu t presumably the m a j o r i t y of de legates had i n mind the k i n d of e l e c t o r a l arrangement which the LPP had sought f rom the CCF 143. f o r yea rs , whereby the two p a r t i e s would agree not t o con tes t the same con-23 s t i t u e n c i e s . Harvey Murphy made the s a l i e n t p o i n t t h a t the b i l l would j a i l 24 CCF u n i o n i s t s as w e l l as communists. But the CCF f a c t i o n was lukewarm t o the i d e a . "The committee w i l l have t o go some," s a i d the S tee lworkers ' Pen Bask in , " t o u n i t e not on ly the t rade unions but the candidates . . . when the 25 Federa t ion meets a year f rom now we w i l l see whether i t i s w o r k a b l e . " Never-t h e l e s s , the convent ion promised " f u l l ass is tance to any un ion de fy ing the 26 obnoxious clauses of the b i l l " and assessed member unions a s p e c i a l per c a p i t a l e v y which e v e n t u a l l y brought the " F i g h t B i l l 39" committee a war chest 27 o f more than $16,000. The BCFL execut ive immediate ly prepared t o do b a t t l e on b e h a l f o f the Nanaimo s t r i k e r s . Plans we're l a i d f o r demonstrat ions and o ther 28 i n d i c a t i o n s o f mass suppor t . The government d i d no t ac t immediate ly be -cause Hart and h i s co l leagues wanted to take s p e c i a l pains t o ensure any charges l a i d under B i l l 39 were w a t e r t i g h t . The a c t i n g labour m i n i s t e r , Lands and Fores ts M i n i s t e r E. T. Kenney, wa i ted a week b e f o r e ask ing Har t f o r permiss ion to l a y charges aga ins t the s t r i k e r s . F i n a l l y on June 20 charges were l a i d aga ins t the 28 worke rs , the u n i o n , r e g i o n a l CCL o rgan ize r Dan Radford and Percy Lawson of the Un i ted Mine Workers. Radford and Lawson had acted as ba rga in ing agents f o r the laundry workers . The charges were not l a i d under the compulsory s t r i k e vo te s e c t i o n s , 31A and 31B. The lawyer r e t a i n e d by the government apparen t l y feared a c o n v i c t i o n would not be ob-t a i n e d under these sec t i ons because i n the sequence of events p r e s c r i b e d by the a c t , the s t r i k e vo te was to f o l l o w c o n c i l i a t i o n proceed ings , and there had been no c o n c i l i a t i o n . Ins tead the government proceeded under s e c t i o n 27, which forbade s t r i k e s be fo re a c o n c i l i a t i o n board had been appointed and r e -por ted and s e c t i o n 37, the c a t c h - a l l s e c t i o n which p rov ided f i n e s f o r o f fences 144. f o r which p e n a l t i e s wer not s p e c i f i e d elsewhere. The s t r i k e r s and un ion o f f i c i a l s were l i a b l e f o r $50 maximum f i n e s and the un ion f o r a maximum $250. I n a d d i t i o n , the un ion and the o f f i c i a l s might have t h e i r f i n e s m u l t i p l i e d 29 by the number of days the s t r i k e l a s t e d . On the day the charges were l a i d , the p i c k e t l i n e s around the I m p e r i a l Laundry were swel led w i t h the presence o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f rom 69 30 un ions . The f o l l o w i n g weekend, B i l l 39 was hung i n e f f i g y i n a parade 31 through Nanaimo. The case dragged on through a s e r i e s of remands u n t i l August 2, when M a g i s t r a t e L i o n e l Beevor Po t ts i n announcing h i s d e c i s i o n b l a s t e d t h e procedure set out i n the ac t as "cumbersome and long drawn o u t " and added: We can o n l y hope something w i l l be done t o s i m p l i f y and c l a r i f y many o f i i t s s e c t i o n s . One cannot t h i n k the l e g i s l a t u r e contemplated p u t t i n g anyone to a l l t h i s t ime and expense. Beevor Po t ts c a l l e d #or amendments to cover s i t u a t i o n s such as t h a t of the laundry workers , where the walkout had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the normal process of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . " I t ' s a g rea t p i t y t h i s t h i n g ever a r o s e , " he 32 concluded. He had no choice but to f i n d 22 o f the s t r i k e r s g u i l t y , bu t he assessed them each on ly nominal $1 f i n e s and $1 c o s t s . The charges aga ins t the un ion leaders were d ismissed, on the ground t h a t the Crown had f a i l e d to prove they au tho r i zed the s t r i k e , but the charge aga ins t the un ion was upheld 33 i n f u r t h e r cou r t a c t i o n . 34 "We've got them beaten now," c r i e d CCL o rgan ize r A lex McAuslane. His enthusiasm was h a r d l y j u s t i f i e d . The v e r d i c t was a d i s a p p o i n t i n g one f o r the government, but the upho ld ing of the charge aga ins t the un ion conf i rmed one of the major i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g f e a t u r e s of B i l l 39. B e l a t e d l y , the r a d i c a l un ion leaders r e a l i z e d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . Before the ac t was passed they had thought the superv ised b a l l o t s e c t i o n the most i n v i d i o u s . They had 145. proclaimed t h e i r l o y a l t y to the maintenance of production and emphasized how much they wanted unions to have a secure place i n the economy so they could work toward i n d u s t r i a l harmony. Now, r e a l i z i n g the organizational and f i n a n -c i a l i m plications a rash of prosecutions and c i v i l actions against unions would have, Murphy wrote that the sections of the act making l e g a l e n t i t i e s of unions were the most " v i c i o u s " . He w i s t f u l l y continued: This law i s not being administered now by the department of labor, but rather by the attorney-general's department. The employers have the green l i g h t to smash unions while the government lays the prosecutions. (35) B. The second challenge 1. The government t r i e s again The magistrate's comments i n the laundry workers' case exposed the inadequacies of the act to public view. The contention gained currency that i t was a hastily-thrown-together piece of l e g i s l a t i o n designed to f r u s -t r a t e unionism rather than ensure a workable system of i n d u s t r i a l government. 36 Other unions began to defy B i l l 39, although f o r short periods of time. The government had hoped to f i n d an a l l y i n the u s u a l l y conservative TLC unions and indeed p r o v i n c i a l vice-president B i r t Showier attacked a n t i - B i l l 39 a g i t a t i o n by comparing i t ot "a mother when her f i r s t - b o r n gets chicken-37 38 pox" . and saying that "most labor men" opposed the defiance of the law. But many TLC unions saw that B i l l 39 could be used against them as e a s i l y as i t was against others and several gave moral andr.financial support to the s t r i k i n g laundry workers. The p r o v i n c i a l TLC executive eventually c a l l e d f or 39 a s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e session to amend the act. While the laundry workers b a t t l e d i n court, the coast f o r e s t indus-tr y , which many feared would be the scene of a major, confrontation, had averted a s t r i k e with a 12%-cent across-the-board hourly increase and the granting 40 of the 40-hbur week. The second major b a t t l e against B i l l 39 began on 146. August 2 1 , when the Un i ted Steelworkers of America s t r u c k f i v e Vancouver--area i r o n and machinery companies w i t h o u t w a i t i n g f o r a government-supervised s t r i k e v o t e . The s tee lworkers wanted the same 12^ cents the IWA had won b u t 41 the companies o f f e r e d on ly 10. A government p roposa l f o r b i n d i n g a r i b t r a -t i o n had been accepted by the employers but r e j e c t e d by the S tee lworkers . The CMA's J . H. Ruddock, n e g o t i a t i n g f o r the s t e e l f i r m s , demonstrated a s i n g -u l a r ignorance o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the s t a t e and business when he t r i e d t o get Har t t o r u n i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r him by n o t i f y i n g the un ions t h a t p r o -42 secut ions would f o l l o w i f a s t r i k e were c a l l e d . (Har t , o f course , r e f u s e d . ) A f t e r the s t r i k e began the companies a p p l i e d f o r and were re fused a Supreme 43 Court i n j u n c t i o n aga ins t i t . The labour department, determined t o improve on i t s showing a t Nanaimo, got the names of s t r i k e r s and un ion leaders f rom the companies and sought m i n i s t e r i a l approva l t o proceed w i t h p r o s e c u t i o n s . 44 Har t , as a c t i n g labour m i n i s t e r , d iscussed the mat te r i n cab ine t and a u -45 t h o r i z e d the p rosecu t ions September 2. I n a l l 114 workers , two un ion o f f i c i a l s and two un ion l o c a l s were charged w i t h s t r i k i n g i l l e g a l l y under 46 Sect ion 31A, the superv ised b a l l o t s e c t i o n of the ICA A c t . 2. Pearson goes on s t r i k e While they awaited t h e i r t r i a l s , the s tee lworkers — no t to ment ion the employers, the newspapers and everyone e lse — began t o wonder what the labour m i n i s t e r o f the p rov ince was up t o . I t was now th ree months s ince Pearson's c a t a r a c t o p e r a t i o n and he had been s t a l k i n g the h a l l s of the l e g -i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s , wear ing dark g lasses , s ince m i d - J u l y . He was a t t e n d i n g to h i s d u t i e s as h e a l t h m i n i s t e r and p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r y (a l though he was not s i g n i n g o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l ) and the deputy labour m i n i s t e r was o p e r a t i n g 47 under the assumption t h a t h i s r e t u r n to t h a t o f f i c e was imminent. But Pearson was c l e a r l y s t a l l i n g , as the Vancouver News-Herald's James K. N e s b i t t r e p o r t e d : 147. Mr. Pearson a t tends cab ine t meet ings , s tee rs c l e a r of labor:. There i s a s t rong susp i c ion s i c i n some qua r te rs he has t o l d the government he won ' t admin i s te r the ac t u n t i l i t i s r e v i s e d . (48) For the same reason t h a t Hart had been r e l u c t a n t to accept Pearson's r e s -i g n a t i o n when the ICA Act was i n t r o d u c e d , he was not eager to see i t now: The Government, of course, could not take the chance of l o s i n g Mr. Pearson a t t h i s j u n c t u r e . Should he r e s i g n the labor p o r t f o l i o the whole labor s i t u a t i o n would blow up — and the government, n a t u r a l l y , doesn ' t want t h a t . (49) As rumours of not on ly Pearson's but a lso H a r t ' s r e s i g n a t i o n began to c i r -c u l a t e , some " p o l i t i c a l w iseacres" were prompted t o surmise t h a t " t h e m i n i -s t e r of labour has gone on s t r i k e w i t h o u t ask ing the government f o r c o n c i l i a -t i o n and superv ised s t r i k e v o t e . " The m i n i s t e r r e p l i e d , no t too c o n v i n c i n g l y : I am r e c u p e r a t i n g f rom a ser ious i l l n e s s ; j u s t as soon as I get s t rong enough I s h a l l decide what I s h a l l do. I have not res igned the labor p o r t f o l i o ; t h a t i s a mat te r f o r the premier to dec ide . (50) I t was the t i r e d H a r t , who hoped f o r an appointment t o the Dominion S e n a t e , w h o announced h i s i n t e n t i o n s f i r s t . He would r e s i g n , he t o l d the B.C. L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s convent ion October 2, a t the end of the year . I n h i s r e s i g n a t i o n speech he p r a i s e d Pearson's c o n t r i b u t i o n but gave no i n d i c a -t i o n t h a t the government expected the labour m i n i s t e r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n . "We t r u s t t h a t the t ime i s no t f a r d i s t a n t , " Har t s a i d , "when h i s h e a l t h w i l l enable him once aga in t o d ischarge a l l those r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which were h i s 52 p r i o r to h i s o p e r a t i o n . " The BCLA execu t i ve e v i d e n t l y hoped so t o o . A p o l i c y statement on B i l l 39 asser ted t h a t the ac t needed d r a s t i c r e v i s i o n : ( i t ) has not been accepted g e n e r a l l y by management and l a b o r , and we are s e r i o u s l y concerned w i t h the probable r e s u l t s on  our economy. The genera l p u b l i c i s c a l c u l a t e d to be more and more severe ly embarrassed and adverse ly a f f e c t e d t h e r e -by . (53) C l e a r l y having the maintenance of c a p i t a l i s t economic r e l a t i o n s i n mind, the L i b e r a l execut ive demanded amendments to make the ac t "more c o n s i s t e n t 148. w i t h l i b e r a l , democrat ic and e q u i t a b l e p r i n c i p l e s " — apparen t l y an a t t a c k on the superv ised b a l l o t . The statement a lso asked f o r a "more p r a c t i c a l , speedy and e f f i c i e n t method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to b r i n g the ac t i n t o g r e a t e r sympathy w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n . " I t was a p o l i c y "cons idered by l ead ing L i b -e r a l s an execut ive endorsement" of P e a r s o n ' s . d i s a p p r o v a l of the superv ised b a l l o t . " ' 4 Th is r e f o r m i s t sent iment was to re-emerge when H a r t ' s successor , Byron Johnson, was e l e c t e d . 3. The s t e e l w o r k e r s ' case The two weeks f o l l o w i n g the announcement of h i s i n t e n t i o n to r e s i g n were d i f f i c u l t ones f o r H a r t . His businessmen suppor ters s tuck together and gave him a l l the support they c o u l d . Diamond of Consol idated wro te of h i s outrage a t the BCLA r e s o l u t i o n and asked Har t t o c o r r e c t the press accounts i f they were u n t r u e , "because i t c e r t a i n l y d i s c r e d i t s B i l l 39 i n an u n j u s t -i f i a b l e way.""'" ' James Eckman of the Canadian F i s h i n g Co. and f o r m e r l y CMA r e g i o n a l v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , reached i n t o h i s bag of i d e o l o g i c a l t r i c k s and p u l l e d out the t h r e a t of a f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y shutdown " i f something i s n ' t done t o curb the present un ion leaders and keep t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n 56 reasonable bounds. " He gave the h a r r i e d premier t h i s w r i t t e n pat on the back: . . . we want you to know t h a t those o f us i n the i n d u s t r y are r i g h t behind you and hope you w i l l d e f i n i t e l y f o r c e a l l the s t r i k i n g unions t o s u f f e r the consequences i n f i g h t i n g B i l l 39 and your Government. (57) But as the hear ings aga ins t the s t r i k i n g s tee lworkers got under way, the i l l - s t a r r e d B i l l 39 sank deeper i n t o the mire of i t s own p r o v i s i o n s . To the d i s s e n t i n g vo ices of the p r o v i n c e ' s c h i e f L i b e r a l s and t h a t of the Nanaimo m a g i s t r a t e was added the d i sapp rova l of one of the p r o v i n c e ' s top j u r i s t s . Some of the s t e e l s t r i k e r s had been charged i n Vancouver p o l i c e cour t and some i n Burnaby. The l a t t e r became a t e s t case. The defence con-149. tended t h a t Kenney, the a c t i n g labour m i n i s t e r should not be e n t i t l e d to s i t as a " labour r e l a t i o n s board " under sec t ions 58 and 73 of the ICA A c t , f o r the purpose o f dec id ing quest ions o f f a c t .such as whether a c o n t r a c t e x i s t e d , 58 whether c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g had taken p l a c e , and so on. The argument was based on two p o i n t s : f i r s t , Kenney should n o t . h b l d the hear ing when the labour m i n i s t e r , Pearson, was i n good h e a l t h and ab le t o per form h i s d u t i e s ; second, t h a t i n empowering the labour m i n i s t e r t o ho ld such a hea r -i ng the l e g i s l a t u r e had r e a l l y appoin ted a j u d g e , which under s e c t i o n 96 of the B r i t i s h Nor th America Act was the exc lus i ve p r e r o g a t i v e of the f e d e r a l government. The defence a l so contended t h a t the a n t i - s t r i k e p r o v i s i o n s i n B i l l 39 c o n s t i t u t e d c r i m i n a l law, which was a lso i n the e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c -t i o n of the domin ion. The s t r i k e r s sought and rece ived a Supreme Court i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g the t r i a l or Kenney's hear ing f rom going ahead pend-59 i n g a hear ing on the defence submissions. The c h i e f j u s t i c e of the B.C. Supreme Cour t , Wendell B. F a r r i s , r e j e c t e d a l l t h ree of the defence con ten t ions and he ld t h a t the ac t was i n t r a v i r e s the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e as f a r as the s t e e l w o r k e r s ' case was c o n c e r n e d . ^ But i n the hear ing on the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the a c t , F a r r i s termed i t "a ve ry dangerous encroachment on the powers of the laws of our land by g i v i n g to boards r i g h t s which belong t o the c o u r t s . " B i l l 39, he s a i d , was "apparen t l y unknown i n any o ther B r i t i s h c o u n t r y " and the r e s u l t of the t rend i t i n d i c a t e d could be the " d e s t r u c t i o n of the power and freedom of the c o u r t s " and " t o t a l i t a r i a n government." I t would have been a " g r e a t p leasu re " f o r him t o quash the sec t ions r e l a t i n g t o the labour r e l a t i o n s board and m i n i s t e r i a l powers. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the judge lamented, " t he on ly 61 t h i n g t h a t i s going t o change i t i s the weight of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . " Another blow had been s t r u c k a t the mechanics of the a c t . 150. 4. A new m i n i s t e r : back t o square one The labour department breathed a s i g h of r e l i e f on hear ing of Chief J u s t i c e F a r r i s ' d e c i s i o n . Deputy m i n i s t e r Thomson announced t h a t p rosecu t ions would proceed aga ins t no t on ly the s tee lworkers bu t a lso pack-inghouse and f u r n i t u r e workers who had s t r u c k i l l e g a l l y s ince the s t e e l 62 charges were l a i d . But be fo re Kenney could ho ld h i s hear ing on the mat-t e r s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the s t e e l case, the long-awa i ted r e s i g n a t i o n o f 63 Pearson f rom the labour p o r t f o l i o was announced. On October 16 the s h o r t , pudgy, somewhat f r o g - f a c e d a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , Gordon Wismer, was sworn i n as labour m i n i s t e r . Har t hoped Wismer's sharp l e g a l mind cou ld f i n d a way out 64 of the B i l l 39 mess. He gave perhaps u n w i t t i n g test imony t o the change i n labour r e l a t i o n s wrought by the ICA A c t : The choice of Mr. Wismer f o r the l abo r p o r t f o l i o was made i n v iew of the f a c t t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l abor a f f a i r s i s ve ry c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l e g a l m a t t e r s . (65) The l i b e r a l - m i n d e d Pearson, who r e l i e d on h i s s k i l l as a d ip lomat r a t h e r than r i g i d r e g u l a t i o n s , had been rep laced by a man of the oppos i te tempera-- 6 6 ment. Wismer announced h i s i n t e n t i o n t o enforce the ICA Act "as any o ther p o s i t i o n would not be i n accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s o f democrat ic govern-67 ment . " But he announced f o r the f i r s t t ime t h a t the government planned to amend B i l l 39. He promised t o e s t a b l i s h the Labour Re la t i ons Board as soon as p o s s i b l e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e delays i n c o n c i l i a t i o n proceedings and to hear rep resen ta t i ons f rom employer and labour spokesmen be fo re amending the a c t . He asked f o r a " s p i r i t of genuine c o - o p e r a t i o n " to put an end t o " t he s t r i f e which i s t h r e a t e n i n g inconvenience and s u f f e r i n g t o the p u b l i c and ser ious 68 d i s r u p t i o n of the economy." Wismer then proceeded to . .hb ld , as a one-man " labour r e l a t i o n s b o a r d " , the hear ing t o determine the quest ions of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the 69 s t e e l w o r k e r s ' cases. Since Wismer remained a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , the hear ing 151 . was i n r a t h e r shaky accordance w i t h the " p r i n c i p l e s of democrat ic govern-ment" he professed to ho ld so dear . A Steelworker press re lease issued a f t e r the hear ing descr ibed the s i t u a t i o n : The procedure a t the Court House today under B i l l 39 cou ld not be d u p l i c a t e d i n any B r i t i s h count ry on the face of the g lobe . The p rosecu to r , a c t i n g under the d i r e c t i o n of the a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l f o r B .C. , Gordon Wismer, en -deavored to prove--mater ia l f a c t s i n i l l e g a l s t r i k e charges aga ins t 116 B.C. c i t i z e n s . S i t t i n g i n judgment of h i s own p r o s e c u t i o n e f -f o r t was the same Gordon Wismer, i n h i s capac i t y as m i n i s t e r of labor,:.-Such procedure makes a f a r c e of j u s t i c e under such c i rcumstances and i t i s v i r t u a l l y imposs ib le t o ga in a f a i r v e r d i c t . (70) As i t happened, however, the v e r d i c t favoured the u n i o n . Wismer's l e g a l mind p icked out a d iscrepancy between the f a c t s of the case and the i n f o r m a t i o n s sworn out aga ins tu the s t r i k e r s . The l a t t e r sa id the c o n t r a c t s between the Steelworkers and the companies had e x p i r e d , bu t Wismer r u l e d t h a t t h i s was not so. The charges l a i d aga ins t the un ion leaders and s t r i k e r s i n Vancouver as w e l l as Burnaby, were a c c o r d i n g l y d ismissed when they came t o c o u r t , and the charges aga ins t the un ion l o c a l s were w i t h d r a w n . 7 1 L e g a l l y the i n f o r m a t i o n s could have been r e w r i t t e n and the men charged a g a i n , but the government i n doing so would have appeared unspeakably p e t t y . The exasperated Wismer pledged w i t h renewed c o n v i c t i o n to amend B i l l 39, removing the "pon-derous and unnecessary machinery which was g i v i n g the labour department so much t r o u b l e . He a lso announced t h a t u n t i l the ac t was amended the department 72 -would prosecute no i n d i v i d u a l s t r i k e r s but on ly unions and l e a d e r s . I n f a c t , no more charges were l a i d aga ins t anyone u n t i l a f t e r the 1948 amendments became law, a l though the o p p o r t u n i t y presented i t s e l f on seve ra l occas ions . Among these were the packinghouse and f u r n i t u r e worke rs ' 73 s t r i k e s a l ready r e f e r r e d t o . Employers and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n these and o ther d ispu tes repea ted ly pressured the government to invoke the super-152. 74 v i s e d b a l l o t sec t ions of the thorough ly d i s c r e d i t e d a c t , bu t to no a v a i l . A c r i p p l i n g month- long t r a n s i t s t r i k e i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo and New Westminster du r ing October and November was s e t t l e d through persona l med ia t ion by Wismer, and was f o l l o w e d by a walkout of coa l miners on Van-couver I s l a n d i n January, 1948. 7"* But Wismer e v i d e n t l y had decided to l e t t h i n g s r i d e u n t i l he cou ld work out amendments t o the a c t . The unions at tempted t o take advantage o f the government 's p r e d i c a -ment. Murphy b l a s t e d the c o a l i t i o n f o r "do ing no th ing to he lp b r i n g l a b o r -management toge ther t o s e t t l e the s t r i k e s , bu t i n s t e a d , . . . embark£ing) upon a course of i n t i m i d a t i o n and mass a r r e s t s . . . . Thus the prov ince of B r i t i s h Columbia, " he con t inued , "which had the best l abor r e l a t i o n s i n a l l of Canada throughout the war and u n t i l the adopt ion of B i l l 39 . . . . i s 76 today i n an i n d u s t r i a l c r i s i s . " A BCFL d e l e g a t i o n v i s i t e d the cab ine t i n mid-October to urge t h a t the p e n a l t i e s f o r i l l e g a l s t r i k i n g , which "serve to mulc t ( s i c ) the un ion t r e a s u r i e s d ry thereby g i v i n g comfor t and a b e t t i n g the employers i n the break ing of a t rade u n i o n " , be e l i m i n a t e d a long w i t h the superv ised b a l l o t . 7 7 When the BCFL was asked by Wismer t o nominate labour r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the Labour Re la t i ons Board, a t f i r s t i t r e f u s e d , 78 c la im ing t h a t to do so would be an i m p l i e d endorsa t ion of B i l l 39. A f t e r be ing t o l d the LRB would recommend changes i iusthe a c t , however, the BCFL changed i t s mind and nominated P r i t c h e t t , Murphy and Mackenzie, on the ground t h a t " p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the Board i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n i n the most e f f e c t i v e way 79 of . . . o p p o s i t i o n . " Some of t h i s labour pressure appeared to be p a y i n -o f f when Wismer t o l d the annual M i n e - M i l l d i s t r i c t convent ion t h a t he favoured shor ten ing the c o n c i l i a t i o n pe r i od and l e a v i n g the d e c i s i o n on the superv ised 80 b a l l o t a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the LRB. But any e l a t i o n on the p a r t of labour leaders was s h o r t - l i v e d , f o r the amendments proved to make the ac t even more r e s t r i c t i v e . 153. C. Labour and the L i b e r a l s Once again the p r e - s e s s i o n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of the labour movement f e l l i n t o the doldrums and a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d t o the stage o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s , where H a r t ' s r e s i g n a t i o n had brought i n t o the open the d i s c o n t e n t i n bo th the L i b e r a l p a r t y and the c o a l i t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r the premier announced h i s impending r e s i g n a t i o n , a Conservat ive convent ion "served n o t i c e 81 on Har t t h a t i t expected Anscomb to become p r e m i e r . " Har t would e n t e r t a i n no such n o t i o n , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the L i b e r a l leader e lec ted to succeed him should a lso succeed as p remier . Labour i s s u e s , as might be expected, p layed a prominent r o l e i n the succession c o n t e s t . The " f a v o u r i t e and f r o n t runner " was Wismer, who counted on L i b -82 e r a l "machine" support cent red i n Vancouver. But Wismer was not accep-t a b l e to a s i zeab le number o f L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g many i n the s o - c a l l e d " f e d e r a l w i n g " of the p a r t y and the reform-minded Young L i b e r a l s who de-p lo red the p a r t y ' s d e v i a t i o n f rom the l e f t - w i n g path of P a t t u l l o and Pear-83 son. Th is group put fo rward backbencher Byron Johnson, genera l manager o f a b u i l d i n g supply company i n New Westminster , who appeared acceptab le t o 84 the business community but was " f r e e f rom the t a i n t o f machine p o l i t i c s " 85 which marred the Wismer candidacy. Har t remained p u b l i c l y a l o o f f rom the 86 con tes t but was p r i v a t e l y known to support Johnson. The L i b e r a l de legates assembled i n the H o t e l Vancouver on December 9 to choose the next premier of the p r o v i n c e . The i r e x e c u t i v e ' s p o l i c y statement on B i l l 39 was f r e s h i n t h e i r minds and they were to hear a good deal on the sub jec t of government labour p o l i c y be fo re v o t i n g . Johnson, m i n d f u l o f the e x e c u t i v e ' s s ta tement , began h i s campaign speech by t a l k i n g about l a b o u r , i n v o k i n g the s p i r i t o f George Pearson. " I employ a l o t of labour m y s e l f , " he s a i d , no t i n the l e a s t f a c e t i o u s l y , and he con t inued : I have n e a r l y 1,000 men under my d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n and I can say i n a l l my l i f e I have never had a s t r i k e , 1 have never had a se r ious disagreement w i t h men who have 154. been employed by the companies which I ope ra te . I say t o you t h a t I understand labour because I come f rom a l a b o u r i n g home. . . . . . we have on t h i s p l a t f o r m today the o u t -s tand ing man, whether i t i s i n Canada or i n any p a r t of the Empire, who has p layed the g r e a t e s t r o l e and has made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l a b o u r i n g c lasses of our p r o v i n c e . I r e f e r to the Honourable George Pearson. . . . I remember the days when . . . we were e l e c t e d t o power i n the depths o f the depress ion i n 1933, and I r e c a l l the c o n s t r u c t i v e l e g i s l a -t i o n which George Pearson brought be fo re t h a t l e g i s l a t u r e . . . I remember the tremendous op-p o s i t i o n which there was to i t a t t h a t t i m e . -By the f i x e d de te rm ina t i on of purpose w i t h which Mr. Pearson approached t h a t problem, B r i t i s h Columbia was saved many, many s t r i k e s which would have been had i t no t been f o r the courage o f Mr. Pearson t o go through w i t h i t . . . we as L i b e r a l s can f e e l proud of L i b e r a l labour l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s p rov ince . . . the Honourable George Pearson has rendered the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n any L i b e r a l has ever rendered our cause i n connect ion w i t h the sp lend id labour l e g i s l a t i o n which he has placed on our books. (87) Notab le , o f course, was the re fe rence t o " L i b e r a l labour l e g i s l a t i o n , " w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t s C o a l i t i o n coun te rpa r t was not wor thy o f such h i g h p r a i s e . Indeed, Johnson's suppor ters appeared to s e l l him as the candidate who could r e b u i l d the degenerate L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r an 88 imminent s p l i t i n the c o a l i t i o n . Wismer at tempted t o s tand on h i s own r e c o r d . H is seconder, an I n t e r i o r de lega te , po in ted to the labour m i n i s t e r ' s persona l med ia t ion i n the recen t l y - conc luded t r a n s i t s t r i k e as evidence t h a t he possessed the q u a l i t i e s necessary to dea l w i t h labour u n r e s t , the g r e a t e s t obs tac le to post-war p r o s p e r i t y . The L i b e r a l s needed "a man of i n t e g r i t y , w i t h a keen sense of f a i r p l a y , ou ts tand ing a b i l i t y and u n l i m i t e d courage , " the seconder sa id and the man who stepped i n t o the breach and brought about se t t lement of a s t r i k e t h a t was c o s t i n g labour many, many thousands of d o l l a r s i n l o s t wages, t h a t s e r i o u s -l y a f f e c t e d the business l i f e of Canada's t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y as w e l l as V i c t o r i a and New Westminster , to say 155. no th ing of the inconvenience and i n many cases the hardsh ip caused, i s such a man. (89) I n a speech somewhat more s e l f - i n f l a t i n g than Johnson 's , Wismer t o l d the delegates yes , he was sure h i s r i v a l t r e a t e d h i s employees f a i r l y , bu t never -the less he was best s u i t e d f o r the d r i v e r ' s seat i n a t ime o f labour un res t because " f o r months" , as labour m i n i s t e r , he had been i n " c o n s u l t a t i o n " w i t h labour leaders and employers: . . . i f you g ive me a mandate to c a r r y , I am going t o b r i n g i n a labour code t h a t w i l l make f o r i n -d u s t r i a l peace and which w i l l be acceptab le to l a b o u r , t h a t w i l l not be a t tacked as i t has i n r e -cent months, causing s t r i k e a f t e r s t r i k e and foment-i n g d i s c o r d a f t e r d i s c o r d . (90) Wismer f i n i s h e d by t o s s i n g o f f a b e l a t e d t r i b u t e to Pearson — "one o f the g r e a t e s t humani tar ians there has ever been i n t h i s p r o v i n c e " — and t r y i n g to cash i n on the moral currency of the former labour m i n i s t e r by say ing t h a t 91 the two had been i n " c l o s e c o n t a c t . " Each candidate e v i d e n t l y knew t h a t a major f a c t o r i n the d e l e g a t e s ' d e c i s i o n would be h i s a b i l i t y to dea l w i t h the labour s i t u a t i o n , so t h a t i n d u s t r y might move unimpeded i n t o an era of post -war expansion. While Wis-mer so ld h imse l f as the man who would b r i n g i n l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t worked and downplayed the p h i l o s o p h i c a l aspects o f government labour p o l i c y , Johnson appealed to the r e f o r m i s t t r a d i t i o n of Pearson and P a t t u l l o , which was ob -v i o u s l y f a r f rom dead. This s t r a i n i n the L i b e r a l p a r t y was a l s o , as we have seen, more p a r t i s a n and less enamoured of the c o a l i t i o n t h a t the one which Wismer represen ted . The p a r t y was evenly s p l i t between the two w ings , i f 92 the l eadersh ip v o t i n g i s any i n d i c a t i o n , bu t Johnson won 475-467. The s l i g h t predominance of the r e f o r m i s t sent iment was conf i rmed when A r t h u r 93 L a i n g , who promised to "do a l l I can t o put L i b e r a l i s m f i r s t " , was e l e c -ted p res iden t o f the p a r t y . The m a j o r i t y of L i b e r a l de legates c l e a r l y ex-pected the amendments to B i l l 39 to show t h a t Pearson's o p p o s i t i o n and r e s -156. ignation had not been i n vain. But the placing of t h e i r confidence i n John-son soon proved to have been i l l - a d i v s e d . D. The amendment of B i l l 39 Johnson wasted l i t t l e time i n showing that he planned to maintain the c o a l i t i o n . Anscomb apparently attempted to wheedle more concessions out of the new premier but was unable to do so and on Boxing Day 1947 the two announced that the e x i s t i n g arrangement, inc l u d i n g the composition of 94 the cabinet, would continue as before. In r e t a i n i n g Wismer and Anscomb, Johnson ensured the presence of a strong right-wing influence on government p o l i c y which e f f e c t i v e l y betrayed the reformist i d e a l s which had put him i n power. One of the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s that t h i s was to be the case came i n January 1948, when Anscomb stated p u b l i c l y , i n response to a barrage of telegrams and l e t t e r s from employers, that the supervised b a l l o t section 95 would remain i n the ICA Act. Wismer had said the previous f a l l that he favoured leaving the question of supervision up to the Labour Relations Board and he was furious at Anscomb's obvious attempt to head o f f any change. But Wismer did not f e e l strongly enough on the question to.'.make an issue of i t . As the 1948 l e g i s l a t i v e session got under way i n February, he intimated that the section would be retained i n t a c t . Incredibly, he claimed there had 97 been " l i t t l e or no" opposition to i t from labour leaders. Indeed, i t began to look as i f the Johnson government planned to add yet more r e s t r i c t i v e provisions to the labour r e l a t i o n s system ushered i n by the passage of B i l l 39. Yet any p o s s i b i l i t y of united labour opposi-t i o n was precluded by developments i n the union c e n t r a l s . I have given b r i e f glimpses of the barrage of employer propaganda which attempted to l i n k 98 unions and communists together as d i s l o y a l threats to the democratic order. The national CCL had decided to meet t h i s onslaught not by attacking the dubious claims to l o y a l t y and democracy made on behalf of c a p i t a l i s m , but 96 157. by d e c l a r i n g war on the communists i n the un ion movement. The 1947 CCL convent ion had s i g n a l l e d the s t a r t of the d r i v e by passing a number o f r e s o -l u t i o n s condemning wor ld communism, suppor t i ng the M a r s h a l l Plan and so on, 99 drawing charges of " r e d - h a i t i n g " f rom the communist- led un ions . One o f the f i r s t t a r g e t s was the BCFL. A young Steelworker o r g a n i z e r , B i l l Mahoney, was sent to the west coast to at tempt to w in c o n t r o l of the B.C. labour move-ment f o r the CCF f a c t i o n . Mahoney was .to work w i t h the CCF unions such as the USWA and packinghouse workers , and w i t h ant i -communist b locs i n the communist- led u n i o n s . A s k i l l e d and r u t h l e s s un ion p o l i t i c i a n , Mahoney l o s t no t ime i n drawing together the h e r e t o f o r e d iso rgan ized ant i -communist groups. By the end o f January 1948 he had scored h i s f i r s t v i c t o r y , unsea t -i n g the communist execut ive of the CCL's Vancouver Labour Counci l . 1 ^" ' " The second CCL coup, which d i d not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e Mahoney, con-cerned the appointment of i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the B.C. Labour R e l a t i o n s Board. Accord ing t o CCL p r a c t i c e t h i s was the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the BCFL, 102 and P r i t c h e t t , Murphy and McKenzie had been nominated f o r the p o s t . But the n a t i o n a l CCL took the unprecedented step of going over the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s head and ask ing member un ions^ to make " independent nomina-103 t i o n s " i f they were not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the BCFL cho ices . When one of these " independent" nominees, Harry Strange of the Canadian Brotherhood of Rai lway Employees, was appo in ted , and proceeded to accede to what the BCFL considered unacceptable amendments to B i l l 39, the BCFL leaders were o u t -104 raged — but the re was l i t t l e they could do. I n t h i s l ess than u n i t e d s t a t e 1 ^ the B.C. labour movement p r e -pared to press f o r p r o - l a b o u r amendments to the ICA A c t . The BCFL execu-t i v e met the cab ine t February 27 and repeated s u b s t a n t i a l l y the demands of the prev ious f a l l , bu t accord ing to Murphy " t he d e l e g a t i o n f e l t the g e n t l e 106 whisk o f a b r u s h - o f f . " Some sec t ions of the TLC were p l a y i n g i n t o the 158. government's hands by c a l l i n g f o r r e t e n t i o n of the superv ised b a l l o t sec t ion . i n order to he lp un ion leaders prevent w i l d c a t s t r i k e s . " ^ 7 The employer o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n a b r i e f presented by the wel l -known Tory T. G. N o r r i s , urged a p r o v i s i o n model led on the U.S. T a f t - H a r t l e y Act r e q u i r i n g un ion o f f i c e r s to s i g n d e c l a r a t i o n s t h a t they were not members of the Communist or Labour-Progress ive P a r t y : Jus t as the l a w - a b i d i n g element i n organized l abo r has accepted the sec re t government-supervised b a l l o t , we b e l i e v e t h a t they would a lso accept t h i s requirement t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g agents should comprise men and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which stand f o r the upho ld ing of the law of the land and the maintenance o f present governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s . (108) At the 1948 labour lobby the s p l i t w i t h i n the BCFL.burst i n t o the open. A somewhat i n e b r i a t e d Murphy, du r ing the lobby banquet on the evening of A p r i l 8, launched i n t o a persona l a t t a c k on CCL o f f i c e r s f o r t h e i r co -o p e r a t i o n w i t h the government i n the d e p o r t a t i o n of M i n e - M i l l ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l 109 p r e s i d e n t on the ground t h a t he was a f o r e i g n communist a g i t a t o r . L a b e l -l i n g CCL leaders " r e d - b a i t i n g f l o o z i e s " and i m p l y i n g t h a t they engaged i n b i z a r r e sexual ac ts w i t h employers j"*""*"^ Murphy sparked a walkout by Mahoney and 16 o ther d e l e g a t e s , who f o r the remainder o f the sess ion l o b b i e d the 111 government as "CCL" r a t h e r than BCFL r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the labour lobby was s e r i o u s l y i m p a i r e d , and the upshot of the a t t a c k was Murphy's suspension f rom a l l CCL and BCFL a c t i v i t i e s f o r two yea rs . When the amendments to B i l l 39 were i n t roduced by Wismer, they conta ined some p r o v i s i o n s the labour spokesmen had been ask ing f o r . These inc luded a) removal o f the term "employee o r g a n i z a t i o n " and s u b s t i t u t i o n o f " l abour o r g a n i z a t i o n " , c l e a r i n g up the ambigu i ty on the sub jec t o f company 112 un ions , b) mandatory compensation by employers i n cases o f i l l e g a l d i s -113 charge, c) shor ten ing of the minimum t ime between i n i t i a t i o n o f b a r g a i n i n g 114 and a s t r i k e f rom 79 to 57 days, d) removal of p e n a l t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l 159. employees , 1 1 " ' e) b i n d i n g o f successor employers by c o n t r a c t s , 1 1 ^ and f ) a requirement t h a t companies w i t h headquarters ou ts ide the p rov ince appo in t a B.C. r e s i d e n t to conclude and s ign a g r e e m e n t s . 1 1 7 As w e l l , the Labour R e l a -t i o n s Board was g iven power t o i ssue "cease and d e s i s t " orders a f t e r h o l d i n g hear ings to determine whether any th ing f o r b i d d e n by the ac t was being done 118 by an employer and/or employees. F i n a l l y , Wismer heeded the warn ing of the c h i e f j u s t i c e of the Supreme Cour t , r e p e a l i n g s e c t i o n 58 (3) and amend-i n g s e c t i o n 58 (1) to remove the LRB's a u t h o r i t y to decide quest ions o f f a c t xn cases be fo re the c o u r t s . Many o f these co r rec ted o v e r s i g h t s i n the o r i g i n a l d r a f t i n g of 120 B i l l 39, w h i l e o thers grew out o f the exper ience of the summer and f a l l of 1947 when they proved unsu i ted t o the task f o r wh ich / the : ac t was des igned. Far outweighing them were f o u r a n t i - l a b o u r amendments. Not on ly was the mandatory superv ised s t r i k e b a l l o t r e t a i n e d , bu t a s e c t i o n was added p r o -v i d i n g t h a t du r i ng a s t r i k e or l o c k - o u t the LRB could order a vo te of em-121 ployees on any "bona f i d e " se t t l ement o f f e r f rom an employer. Th is was 122 a l ong -s tand ing employer demand and g r e a t l y increased the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the o b s t r u c t i o n of m i l i t a n t un ion a c t i o n . Second, the amendments r e -pealed s e c t i o n 47 o f the a c t , which had prov ided t h a t c o l l e c t i v e agreements 123 were not a c t i o n a b l e i n law. This opened the way to f u r t h e r employer 124 harassment through c i v i l l i t i g a t i o n . T h i r d , the amendments enabled the board to cancel the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of any un ion s t r i k i n g i l l e g a l l y . This was one of the most impor tan t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g fea tu res of the Rand d e c i s i o n 125 i n O n t a r i o . F i n a l l y , f o r the purpose of dea l i ng w i t h the f e d e r a l govern-ment i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l y nebulous c o a l and meat-packing i n d u s t r i e s , the cab ine t was empowered to make r e g u l a t i o n s superseding any of the p r o v i s i o n s of the amended a c t . 1 ^ 160. These amendments locked the unions i n t o a system of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s more r i g i d than ever. "They've taken B i l l 39, which was an abor-t i o n i n the f i r s t place and made i t even worse," said the CCL's Alex McAus-127 lane. A maze of regulations had been placed i n .the way of the one t r u l y e f f e c t i v e working-class weapon — the s t r i k e . The ways i n which a s t r i k e might now be i l l e g a l were legio n . Most important, the breach of any part of the complicated c o n c i l i a t i o n procedure might r e s u l t i n the los s by the union of the only status i t now had: the c e r t i f i c a t i o n accorded i t by the state. Any i l l e g a l i t y also l e f t the unions open to c o s t l y c i v i l a ctions. And the objective of l e g i s l a t e d union s e c u r i t y on request, the d r i v i n g force behind the unions' p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y since the end offthe war, s t i l l eluded t h e i r grasp. At i t s f a l l convention, the BCFL passed the .usual " p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n " r e s o l u t i o n , endorsing neither the CCF nor the LPP, protesting the govern-ment's "removing established r i g h t s from Trade Unions and placing them i n the hands of Government agencies." The communist leaders denounced the CCL 128 for "beheading" the protests against B i l l 39, and unions were urged to set up "defence committees" and "defence funds" to oppose the act through 129 economic a c t i o n . But the f i g h t against B i l l 39 was e f f e c t i v e l y over. The unions were forced to turn from the p o l i t i c a l f ront and concentrate on com-batting the c i v i l actions and injunctions launched by employers to hamper militance during the 1950s. The LPP leadership was e f f e c t i v e l y removed when Mahoney and h i s CCF friends managed to overthrow the BCFL executive at the 130 1948 convention. While there was s t i l l occasional t a l k of "independent labour p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n " , i n p r a c t i c e t h i s merely meant sections of the BCFL 131 t r i e d to influence the s e l e c t i o n of CCF e l e c t i o n candidates. As for the ICA Act i t s e l f , even with the 1948 amendments i t proved generally u n s a t i s -132 fa c t o r y and was replaced i n 1954 by the S o c i a l Credit government of W. A. C. 161 . y Bennet t . But the s t a t u t e which rep laced i t , the Labour Re la t i ons A c t , d i d not a l t e r the system of c e r t i f i c a t i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n which B i l l 39 and the 1948 amendments i naugura ted . Meanwhile George Pearson contemplated the demise of the L i b e r a l r e f o r m i s t impulse which had o r i g i n a t e d under Duf f P a t t u l l o i n the depress ion yea rs . He cont inued u n t i l 1950 i n the f i e l d of h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , t r y i n g to admin is te r a h o s p i t a l insurance scheme t h a t was sabotaged a t every t u r n 133 by the t i g h t - f i s t e d Anscomb. To the l e g i s l a t u r e Pearson conceded t h a t 134 he had been a " v e r y d isappo in ted man" when he l e f t the labour department. He had genu ine ly t r i e d t o improve labour r e l a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . "At one t i m e , " he s a i d , " I was conce i ted enough ;to b e l i e v e I had made some p r o g r e s s . " But , a l a s , a t the end I found so many obs tac les i n the way t h a t i t would be imposs ib le to make any apprec iab le progress i n one man's l i f e t i m e . (135) The e f f o r t s o f t h i s lone l i b e r a l re former had succeeded f o r a w h i l e . He had been p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n secur ing the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f wo rk ing -c lass leaders du r i ng the depress ion and the war, when a less a s t u t e man might have been unable to prevent widespread labour unres t or v i o l e n c e , perhaps the e l e c t i o n of a CCF government or t h development of e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o l i -t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n . But Pearson's concern f o r the w o r k e r ' s a b i l i t y to "s tand up f o r h i s r i g h t s " d i d n ' t f i t i n w i t h the expansion p lans of post -war c a p i -t a l i s m . So h i s i n f l u e n c e waned as t h a t o f the McDonel ls , the Anscombs and the Wismers waxed. The l i f e work and ph i losophy of one re former proved no match f o r the organized f o r c e s of a dominant c l a s s . 162. Notes to chapter 7 1 I n d u s t r i a l Canada, May 1947, 102. 2 Western M iner , June 1947, 35. 3 I n d u s t r i a l Canada, J u l y 1947, 204. 4 I b i d . , 209. 5 Vancouver Sun, October 7, 1947, 9. 6 I b i d . , June 3, 1947, 2. 7 I b i d . , September 4 , 1947, 13. 8 See B. K. Sandwel l , "B .C. p r i v a t e c a p i t a l se ts about some community b u i l d i n g " , Saturday N i g h t , May 18, 1946, 18. 9 Vancouver Sun, June 10, 1947, 3. 10 I b i d . , J u l y 26, 1947, 22. 11 BCFL execut ive c o u n c i l m inu tes , A p r i l 27, 1947, MMP, 31-10. 12 Convention c a l l , 1947, MMP, 31-7 . 13 BCFL t a b l e o f f i c e r s m inu tes , A p r i l 3, 1947, MMP, 31-7 . 14 C l i f f o r d Anderson, C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g under a compulsory c o n c i l i a t i o n  system i n the B.C. coast f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , 1947-1968, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. (economics), 1971, 5 1 . 15 Western Lumber Manu fac tu re rs ' A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Weekly L e t t e r , May 3, 1947. 16 Thomson to L. P i t k e t h l e y , May 30, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-21-D. 17 P a c i f i c T r ibune , June 13, 1947, 3. 18 Pearson to Thomson, June 3, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-21-D; Thomson to H a r t , June 2, 1947, i b i d . ; Har t to Thomson, June 3, 1947, i b i d . 19 " D i r e c t l y c h a r t e r e d " l o c a l s were admited t o the CCL w i t h o u t be ing r e -qu i red to a f f i l i a t e t o a n a t i o n a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n . 20 BCFL l e a f l e t , June 17, 1947, MMP, 31-7 ; BCFL Convention proceedings, 4 (1947) , 30. The laundry w o r k e r s ' un ion had been going through c o n c i l i a t i o n proceedings w i t h the company s ince March 23 i n an at tempt to s i g n a c o n t r a c t . 21 BCFL, Convention proceedings, 4 (1947) , 6 1 . 163. 22 I b i d . , 17-18. The membership o f the committee g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d the a l ignment of p o l i t i c a l fo rces i n the BCFL, w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f members f rom the communist- led unions and a m i n o r i t y f rom those l e d by CCFers of independent u n i o n i s t s . 23 The Sun commented t h a t the proposa l "sounds l i k e the ' u n i t e d f r o n t ' which the Labor -Progress ive Par ty wanted i n 1945. " June 10, 1947, p. 4 . 24 BCFL, Convention proceedings, 4 (1947) , 24-. 25 I b i d . , p. 26. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Haro ld Winch r e j e c t e d any suggest ion of an LPP-CCF c o a l i t i o n , p o i n t i n g out t h a t 176,000 B r i t i s h Columbians voted f o r the CCF i n 1945 w h i l e on ly 16,500 voted f o r the LPP. 26 Vancouver Sun, June 9, 1947, p. 9. 27 BCFL, Convention proceed ings, 5 (1948) e x h i b i t C. Th is t o t a l was con-s i d e r a b l y shor t o f the $50,000 g o a l . BCFL pamphlet, August 1947, MMP, 31=7. 28 "We couldn:J.t spare Mrs. Dewhurst , " the management c laimed i n n o c e n t l y . "Last week we asked the un ion to appo in t another de legate i n her p l a c e . But they d i d n ' t . They thought we were t r y i n g t o d i c t a t e to them." About o n e - t h i r d o f the workers d i d no t j o i n the s t r i k e and the laundry cont inued o p e r a t i o n w i t h the ass is tance of s t r i k e b r e a k e r s . Vancouver  Sun, June 9, 1947, 1 . 29 Vancouver Sun, June 20, 1947, 1 . See a lso above, c h . 6, n . 59. Deputy labour m i n i s t e r Thomson, i n d e s c r i b i n g the r e t a i n i n g o f a Nanaimo lawyer to draw up the charges, t o l d Kenney: " I impressed him w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of e x e r c i s i n g every care to i n s u r e a success fu l case be ing presented to the cou r t . . . " Thomson to Kenney, June 18, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D. 30 Vancouver Sun, June 20, 1947, 1 . 31 A c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the de lay was the n e c e s s i t y o f r e f e r r i n g seve ra l quest ions o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (such as : was the un ion a c t u a l l y a u n i o n ; had c o l l e c t i v e ba rga in ing a c t u a l l y taken p lace) to Kenney f o r a d e c i s i o n under s e c t i o n 58 (3) of the ICA A c t . Th is s e c t i o n gave power t o the Labour Re la t i ons Board to decide t h i s k i n d of q u e s t i o n , bu t under s e c t i o n 73 Kenney he ld the power s ince a board had no t y e t been appo in ted . See above, ch . 6. 32 The Crown wi thdrew charges aga ins t f i v e o f the s t r i k e r s on d i s c o v e r i n g they were j u v e n i l e s . 33 Vancouver Sun, August 2, 1947, 1 . The u n i o n ' s lawyer sought a r u l i n g f rom the h igher cour ts as to whether the u n i o n , which he c la imed had no l e g a l p e r s o n a l i t y , cou ld be charged. Chief J u s t i c e Sloan r u l e d t h a t i t cou ld be and h i s r u l i n g was upheld when the Supreme Court of Canada re fused to hear an appea l . The government never d i d prosecute the u n i o n , however, because by the t ime the Supreme Court r u l i n g was handed down i n February 1948, the i n t e n t i o n to amend the ICA Act had..already been announced. An appeal aga ins t the c o n v i c t i o n of the s t r i k e r s and un ion 164. o f f i c i a l s was i n i t i a t e d but l a t e r dropped. Vancouver P rov ince , November 15, 1947, 3; Vancouver Sun, February 4 , 1948, 1 . 34 Vancouver Sun, August 2, 1947, 1 . 35 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, August 28, 1947, 1 . 36 Coal miners and sawmi l l workers i n the Nanaimo r e g i o n h e l d one-day s t r i k e s i n sympathy w i t h the laundry workers . Labour Gazet te , A p r i l 1948. 37 Vancouver Sun, June 1 1 , 1947, 3. 38 I b i d . , September 5, 1947, 4 . 39 I b i d . , J u l y 24, 1947, 24. Showler 's l a c k of i n f l u e n c e among h i s f o l -lowers became ev ident when i n the annual TLC e l e c t i o n s he was defeated as p r o v i n c i a l v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and rep laced w i t h a member of the l e f t - w i n g Un i ted Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers ' Un ion . I b i d . , September 30, 1947. 40 I b i d . , June 23, 1947, 1 . Any s t r i k e p lans were snu f fed out when on ly 68 per cent of the IWA members vo ted i n favour of a s t r i k e , and the l a r g e New Westminster l o c a l , which by t h i s t ime had f a l l e n i n t o a n t i -communist hands, r e j e c t e d any p o s s i b i l i t y of a s t r i k e . Th is l a c k of m i l i t a n c e was understandable i n the wake of the 1946 c o n f l i c t . See C. H. Anderson, op_. c i t . , 51 -2 . R e c a l l i n g the f o r e s t o p e r a t o r s ' g lee upon the p roc lamat ion of the ICA Act when n e g o t i a t i o n s were under way i n May (see above, p. 5 ) , we may add the f o l l o w i n g passage f rom the Western Lumber Manu fac tu re rs ' A s s o c i a t i o n of' Canada's June 21 Weekly L e t t e r ; "The r e s u l t o f the Union B a l l o t i s not d e f i n i t e l y known, but the a c t i o n of the Government i n s t a r t i n g proceedings aga ins t the s t r i k e r s i n the Nanaimo Laundry d i s p u t e i s , no doubt , having some i n f l u e n c e on Union p o l i c y . " 41 The o f f e r i nc luded an a d d i t i o n a l f i v e cents f o r an i n s i g n i f i c a n t number o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y l ow-pa id workers . Vancouver Sun, August 20, 1947, 1 . 42 Ruddock to Har t , August 19, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-20-D; Thomson to Hart August 22, 1947, i b i d . , L-21-D. 43 Vancouver Prov ince , September 23, 1947, p. 2; A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s , The  labour i n j u n c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Toron to : CCH Canadian, 1956, 111-12. 44 Kenney had been a c t i n g labour m i n i s t e r b u t was ou t o f t he p rov ince a t the t i m e . 45 Thomson t o H a r t , August 26, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-21-D; Thomson t o H a r t , September 2, 1947, i b i d . , Richards t o Thomson, September 2, 1947, i b i d . 46 Vancouver Sun, September 2, 1947, 1 . 47 Thomson to H a r t , August 26, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-21-D. 48 Vancouver News-Herald, September 2, 1947, 13. 165. \ 49 • Loc. c i t . 50 I b i d . , September 17, 1947, 1 . ; September 18, 1947, 1 . 51 Paddy Sherman, Bennet t , Toron to : McCle l land and Stewar t , 1966, 57; J u d i t h Ward, F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l p a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. ( p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) , 1966, 67; S. W. Jackman, P o r t r a i t s of the p remie rs , Sidney: Gray 's . P u b l i s h i n g 1969, 239. Th is l a s t account says Mackenzie King hoped Hart might accept an appointment as ambassador to I r e l a n d . 52 Vancouver Sun, October 2, 1947, 1 . 53 I b i d . , October 3, 1947, 1 . 54 Loc. c i t . 55 Diamond to H a r t , October 3, 1947, PP_, 1946-7, C - l l - G . Har t r e p l i e d t h a t the government in tended to enforce the act regard less o f any p a r t y pronouncements. 56 Eckman to H a r t , September 17, 1947, PP, 1946-7, L-21-D. 57 I b i d . . . To t h i s the Western Miner added: " . . . theopresent ext remely v o c a l o b j e c t o r s to B i l l 39 demonstrate beyond ques t ion t h a t they sub-s c r i b e to a d o c t r i n e o f s t r i k e s f o r the sake o f d i s r u p t i o n . . . A l l t h a t remains i s f o r the government to enforce the Act i n every i n s t a n c e . Unless and u n t i l t h a t i s done, d i s r u p t i v e elements w i l l se ize on any p r e t e x t to s t r i k e i n f u r t h e r a n c e of p o l i t i c a l a i m s . " October 1947, 38. 58 See above, n . 31 and ch . 6. 59 Vancouver Prov ince , September 23, 1947, 2; Vancouver Sun, September 30 1947, 2. 60 Sect ion 58 (3) read : "Where a ques t i on set out i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r i s e s i n any l e g a l .proceedings under t h i s A c t , i f the ques t ion has not been decided by the (Labour R e l a t i o n s ) Board, the J u s t i c e or J u s t i c e s o f the Peace, M a g i s t r a t e , Judge or Court be fo re whom i t a r i s e s s h a l l r e f e r the ques t ion to the Board and s tay f u r t h e r proceedings u n t i l the Board 's d e c i s i o n i s r e c e i v e d . " The c h i e f j u s t i c e r u l e d d t h a t the use of the words " j udge" and " c o u r t " i n t h i s s e c t i o n were u l t r a v i r e s the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , because he cou ld no t conceive of any k i n d of a c t i o n i n which anyone o ther than a j u s t i c e of the peace or m a g i s t r a t e would have occasion to r e f e r a ques-t i o n to the board , s ince the c r i m i n a l cases would i n v a r i a b l y be d e a l t w i t h i n i t i a l l y i n m a g i s t r a t e ' s c o u r t . Th is be ing so, the words " j u d g e " and " c o u r t " might pu rpo r t to g ive the board j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s and i n -so fa r as they d i d , they would be beyond the competence of the l e g i s l a -t u r e . Vancouver P rov ince , October 1 1 , 1947, 1 . 61 Vancouver Sun, October 7, 1947, 2 . 6 2 , I b i d . , October 14, 1947, 3. 166. 63 He remained i n the cab inet as h e a l t h m i n i s t e r and p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r y . 64 The;prev ious week the chairman of a c o n c i l i a t i o n board had warned t h a t u n i o n i s t s were becoming " d i s h e a r t e n e d " by the slowness o f proceedings under B i l l 39. The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t u n i o n i s t s c o u l d n ' t be blamed f o r s t r i k i n g i l l e g a l l y when the process set out i n the ac t took so l o n g . Th is warning f o l l o w e d an at tempt by Walter Owen, n e g o t i a t i n g f o r an employers ' a s s o c i a t i o n i n a bakery worke rs ' d i s p u t e , to s t a l l the p r o -ceedings by hav ing the case o f each employer heard s e p a r a t e l y . Van- couver News-Herald, October 10, 1947, 3. 65 Vancouver Sun, October 16, 1947, 1 . 66 None was s o r r i e r to see Pearson go than Harvey Murphy, who cou ld not f a i l to remember the m i n i s t e r ' s ass is tance i n the e a r l y days of Mine-M i l l o r g a n i z i n g . A eulogy i n Murphy's newspaper never the less noted t h a t Pearson " d i d n ' t s tep o u t s i d e o f h i s p o s i t i o n as m i n i s t e r o f l abor to g ive labor any b reaks . A l l Mr. Pearson d id was to ac t f a i r l y and i n t e r p r e t the law, bu t the employers d o n ' t l i k e t h a t . Did they ever?" B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, October 27, 1947, s. 67 Vancouver Sun, October 16, 1947, 1 . 68 Loc. c i t . 69 The s t r i k e had ended a t f o u r o f the f i v e s t e e l p l a n t s the day be fo re the October 24 h e a r i n g , the s t r i k e r s s e t t l i n g f o r the 10-cent inc rease o f f e r e d e a r l i e r by the companies. Wismer re fused a USWA request t h a t the charges be dropped i n l i g h t of t h i s development. The f i f t h p l a n t s e t t l e d f o r the same increase i n January 1948. Vancouver Sun, October 23, 1947, 1 ; Vancouver News-Herald, January 29, 1948, 1 . 70 Vancouver P rov ince , October 24, 1947, 1 . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f quest ions of f a c t , of course, might have a s i g n i f i c a n t bear ing on the outcome of the case. Wismer e i t h e r d i d not see or chose not t o recogn ize the con-f l i c t of i n t e r e s t , terming the S tee l charges "absurb . . . too s i l l y f o r comment." L o c . c i t . 71 Vancouver Sun, November 5, 1947, 1 ; November 7, 1947, 34; November 8, 1947, 34. 72 I b i d . , November 5, 1947, 1 . 73 The former was p a r t of a n a t i o n - w i d e s t r i k e by the Un i ted Packinghouse Workers of Amer ica. The B.C. government was h e s i t a n t to move even be fo re the S tee l charges were thrown o u t , because i t was unc lear whether the i n d u s t r y was i n the f e d e r a l or the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . 74 See, e . g . , Thomson t o H a r t , August 27, 1947, PP_, 1946-7, L-21-D; 0 . Pearson to Kenney, October 3, 1947, i b i d . ; Da l ton to Kenney, October 2, 1947, i b i d . ; J . C. Rankin to Kenney, October 4 , 1947, i b i d . , H. R. Plommer to Wismer, January 16, 1948, i b i d . , J . L. Lawrence to Pearson and Wismer, October 6, 1947, i b i d . , L-20-D. 167. 75 B.C. Department of Labour, Report, 1948, 133; i b i d . , 1947, 125. 76 Text of radio broadcast, October 2, 1947, MMP, 54-10. Credit was due the BCFL protests, Murphy claimed, f o r the p o l i c y statement of the L i b e r a l executive. B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, October 10, 1947, 4. 77 The union leaders also pressed f o r union s e c u r i t y on request, strength-ening of the u n f a i r labour practices sections of the ICA Act and elimination of the ambiguity on the subject of company unions. I b i d . , October 27, 1947, 2. 78 Vancouver Sun, October 22, 1947, 32. 79 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, November 21, 1947, 4. 80 Ibid., December 22, 1947, 2. 81 Sherman, op_. c i t . , 57. 82 Martin Robin, P i l l a r s of p r o f i t : the company province 1934-1972, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 94. 83 Ward, op_. c i t . , 69. 84 Robin, op_. c i t . , 95. 85 Contrary to the ass e r t i o n that Johnson was "dredged up" " a f t e r exten-sive searching" (Robin, op_. c i t . , 94), the Sun l i s t e d Wismer, Kenney and Johnson as the three l i k e l y candidates f o r the leadership on the day Hart resigned. Two days l a t e r , anonymous "leading supporter of 'Boss' Johnson conceded p r i v a t e l y that Gordon Wismer i s on top of the p i l e at the moment." Kenney soon announced he would not run for the leadership. Vancouver Sun, October 1, 1947, 2; October 3, 1947, 1. 86 Sherman, op. c i t . , 58. Hart's appointment of Wismer to the labour.port-f o l i o scarcely two weeks a f t e r announcing h i s own resignation and l e s s than two months before the handicap the attorney-general i n h i s lead-ership b i d . 87 BCLA Convention proceedings, December 9-10, 1947, 80-1, BCLAP, box 1. 88 Robin, £p_. c i t . , 95. 89 BCLA Convention proceedings, 79. The seconder was Tip O'Neil of Kamloops. 90 Ibid., 92-3. 91 Ibid., 93. 92 Robin, op. c i t . , 96. 93 Quoted i n Robin, ap_. c i t . , 96. 94 Ibid., 96-7. " I t was often observed that Wismer's powers i n party matters were greater than those of Johnson," Ward, op_. c i t . , 70. 168. 95 Vancouver News-Herald, January 2 1 , 1948, 1 . 96 I b i d . , January 23, 1948, 1 . See above, 20. 97 Vancouver Sun, February 10, 1948, 3. 98 See above, 22-4 . 99 I r v i n g A b e l l a , N a t i o n a l i s m , communism and Canadian l a b o u r , Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press , 1973. 117-18. 100 I b i d . , 117. 101 I b i d . , 118. 102 See above, 20. 103 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, November 2 1 , 1947, 4 - 5 . 104 BCFL, Convention proceedings, 5 (1948) : 100-101. The chairman of the board was the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e counse l , J . P i t c a i r n Hogg. The TLC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was George Wi l k inson o f V i c t o r i a and the em-p loye r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Co l . Macgregor Macintosh and F. W. Smelts. The board was appointed January 13, 1948. Labour Re la t ions Board, Repor t , 1948, 7. 105 I n : a h a l f - h e a r t e d at tempt t o m o l l i f y the CCFers, the BCFL execu t i ve endorsed CCF candidates i n two p r o v i n c i a l b y - e l e c t i o n s and sent them token c o n t r i b u t i o n s of $100 each. BCFL execut ive c o u n c i l m inu tes , February 7, 1948, MMP, 31-10. 106 B.C. D i s t r i c t Union News, March 12, 1948, 4 . 107 Richards to Johnson, January 2, 1948, PP, 1948-9, L-3-G. 108 Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 14, 1948, 1 . At the same t ime an i ssue o f the Western Miner c a l l e d on mine opera to rs to re fuse to ba rga in w i t h communist un ion l e a d e r s . This a c t i o n was j u s t i f i e d on the ground t h a t i t "would compel the government to move aga ins t i n d u s t r i a l dominat ion by a f o r e i g n power." (Western Miner , A p r i l 1948, 182) This was c l e a r l y an e x h o r t a -t i o n to disobey the law, s ince i t was compulsory to ba rga in w i t h c e r t i f i e d un ion l e a d e r s , communist or n o t . I t should be con t ras ted to the maga-z i n e ' s e d i t o r i a l of October 1947 (see above, n . 5 7 ) , which admonished unions and t h e i r leaders t o obey the law regard less o f t h e i r d i s a g r e e -ments w i t h i t . E v i d e n t l y , f o r some employers and t h e i r spokesmen, the p r i n c i p l e o f adherence to the law which they so l o u d l y urged on o thers had o n l y l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n when they themselves wished to f o r c e a change i n government p o l i c y . 109 See A b e l l a , op_. c i t . , 96-100. 110 I b i d . , 1 2 1 ; Mahoney charges aga ins t Murphy, MMP, 31-10. 169, 111 Mahoney and Alex McAuslane, i n thexname of the CCL, a c t u a l l y issued a j o i n t statement on the amendments w i t h the TLC l e a d e r s . Labor  Statesman, A p r i l 1948, 1 . 112 I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Amendment A c t , S.B.C. 1948, 12 Geo. V I , ch i 3 1 , e . g . s . 3. 113 I b i d . , s . 14. 114 I b i d . , ss • 42, 43, 48, 63. 115 I b i d . , ss . 53, 55. 116 I b i d . , s . 36. 117 I b i d . , s . 72\ 118 I b i d . , s . 17. 119 I b i d . , ss . 69, 70. 120 For i n s t a n c e , s t a t e p o l i c y s ince P.C. 1003 had frowned on company unions but s loppy l e g i s l a t i v e draf tsmanship had l e f t employers a number o f loopho les i n t h i s a r e a . 121 I b i d . , s . 50. The board could a lso order a vo te o f employers on a s e t t l e -ment o f f e r f rom employees, a l though t h i s was l i k e l y to be a r a r e occur -rence . 122 See above, ch . 6. 123 ICA Amendment A c t , s . 62. See a lso above, c h . 6. 124 See C a r r o t h e r s , op_. c i t . , 60. 125 ICA Amendment A c t , s . 72. See a lso Appendix A. 126 ICA Amendment A c t , s . 8 1 . 127 Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 16, 1948, 1 . The u n i o n s ' p r o t e s t s were ab le to wr ing on ly one concession out of the government: a p r o v i s i o n t h a t a u n i o n ' s c e r t i f i c a t i o n cou ld n o t be c a n c e l l e d u n t i l i t had been i n f o r c e f o r 10 months (except i n case o f i l l e g a l s t r i k e ) . ICA Amendment  A c t , s . 35. 128 BCFL Convention proceed ings, (1948): 102. 129 I b i d . , 160. 130 Mahoney was a ided i n t h i s task by the suspension o f M i n e - M i l l f rom the CCL f o r an ant i -Congress a r t i c l e which had appeared i n the u n i o n ' s news-paper, s ince the suspension meant M i n e - M i l l de legates could not v o t e . One month l a t e r the communist leaders of the IWA, though a s e r i e s of t a c t i c a l b l u n d e r s , l o s t c o n t r o l of t h e i r un ion to the "wh i te b l o c " or ant i -communist f o r c e s . For a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of these events see A b e l l a , 170. op. c i t . , chs. 6 and 7. M i n e - M i l l was thrown out of the CCL f o r good i n 1949. 131 Gad Horowi tz , Canadian Labour i n P o l i t i c s (Toronto : U n i v e r s i t y o f To r -onto Press, 1968) , 1 6 0 - 1 . 132 The Labour Re la t i ons Board l a i d no prosecut ions under the ac t a f t e r c h a l k i n g up