Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effect of maternal dietary deprivation in rats on growth and development of progeny Toews, Judith Gay 1974

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A6_7 T63.pdf [ 30.52MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099885.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099885-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099885-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099885-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099885-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099885-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099885-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099885-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099885.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL DIETARY DEPRIVATION IN RATS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGENY by JUDITH GAY TOEWS B . H . E . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n of HUMAN NUTRITION SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Human Nutrition, School o f Home Economics" The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada October 9, 197^ Date - 1 -ABSTRACT Reports in the l i t e r a t u r e indicate that maternal dietary deprivation during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n can influence the growth and development of progeny. While the offspring often suffer permanent growth impairment, i t i s sometimes possible for r e s t r i c t e d progeny to catch-up in size to normal age-mates following a period of accelerated growth. In 1964, Chow and Lee reported growth hormone-induced catch-up growth i n weight of o f f s p r i n g of r e s t r i c t e d r a t s . An animal experiment was designed in order to study the effects of maternal undernutrition on s k e l e t a l growth and de-velopment of of f s p r i n g . A secondary purpose of the study was to ascertain whether catch-up i n s k e l e t a l dimensions could be stimulated by the administration of growth hormone. Sprague Dawley rats w e r e maintained on Purina Laboratory Chow throughout pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n with r e s t r i c t e d ani-mals receiving approximately 50 percent of the amount consumed by ad l i b i t u m fed controls. Male of f s p r i n g comprised 6 treat-ment groups: progeny of r e s t r i c t e d mothers which were given growth hormone injections early in postnatal l i f e , l a t e r i n postnatal l i f e , or not at a l l ; and progeny of controls which were given early i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone, l a t e r growth hormone i n j e c t i o n s , or no growth hormone. Offspring were weaned at 49 days post-copulation and fed ad l i b i t u m for one year. At regular inte r v a l s they were weighed, measured for body, and t a i l length, and X-rayed to permit assessment of skel e t a l growth and maturation. Results indicate that the progeny of r e s t r i c t e d dams suf-fered growth retardation and a temporary delay i n s k e l e t a l maturation. Restricted offspring had normal proportions but were permanently stunted i n s i z e . No differences among groups were found for either the r e s t r i c t e d or control offspring i n d i -cating that exogenous growth hormone was i n e f f e c t i v e in permit-ting r e s t r i c t e d progeny to catch-up to controls with respect to weight, length, or s k e l e t a l dimensions. Therefore, i f there i s a connection between the growth impairment of r e s t r i c t e d progeny and p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y , the re l a t i o n s h i p must be complex. A model i s proposed in order to suggest possible i n t e r relationships between growth hormone status and growth impair-ment of offspring of dams r e s t r i c t e d in diet during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n . i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank my a d v i s o r , Dr . Melvin Lee, for his d i r e c t i o n and encouragement throughout the p r o j e c t ; Dr . Joseph Leichter and Dr . W.J. Tze for t h e i r advice during the preparat ion of the t h e s i s ; and Dr . Braxton A l f r e d for h i s assistance in the s t a t i s t i c a l analys is of r e s u l t s . I am also g r a t e f u l to Miss U s e Borgen for her i n s t r u c -t i o n i n the experimental procedures and Miss S h i r l e y Jackson for the computer programming. This study was supported by Grant No. A4692 from the National Research Counci l of Canada and by the Committee on Research, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES Chapter I INTRODUCTION II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The E f f e c t s of U n d e r n u t r i t i o n on Growth and Development The Influence of Undernutr i t ion During Pregnancy and Lacta t ion on Growth and Development of O f f s p r i n g N u t r i t i o n as a Factor Inf luencing Growth and Development Placed i n Perspective Types of Manipulat ion of Maternal Diet In-f l u e n c i n g Development of O f f s p r i n g Timing of Maternal Dietary D e f i c i e n c i e s Reported E f f e c t s on Rat O f f s p r i n g Re-s t r i c t e d During Gestat ion and Lacta t ion T h e o r e t i c a l Explanations for Growth Impair ment Due to Maternal Undernutr i t ion The Phenomenon of "Catch-up" Growth The Influence of Growth Hormone on Catch-up Growth III MATERIALS AND METHODS IV RESULTS E f f e c t s of Maternal M a l n u t r i t i o n on Growth of Progeny - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page E f f e c t s of Maternal M a l n u t r i t i o n on S k e l e t a l Development -of Progeny 55 V DISCUSSION 60 E f f e c t s of Maternal M a l n u t r i t i o n on Growth of Progeny 60 E f f e c t s of Maternal M a l n u t r i t i o n on S k e l e t a l Development of Progeny 69 General Discuss ion 73 LITERATURE CITED 77 APPENDICES A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I . Means and Standard Deviations for Weight-length Measurements 89 Means and Standard Deviat ions for Weight-length V e l o c i t i e s 93 Means and Standard Deviat ions for S k e l e t a l Measurements 97 Means and Standard Deviations for S k e l e t a l V e l o c i t i e s Means and Standard Deviat ions for S k e l e t a l Scores 131 Means and Standard Deviations for Score V e l o c i t i e s 135 Weight-length Measurements of I n d i v i d u a l Animals 139 S k e l e t a l Measurements of I n d i v i d u a l Animals 166 S k e l e t a l Scores of I n d i v i d u a l Animals 193 v i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page I D i s t r i b u t i o n of Animals 37 II Effect of Growth Hormone on Hypophysectomized Rats 39 III Birth Weights of Restricted and Control Progeny 46 - v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Assessment of S k e l e t a l Growth 41 2. Assessment of S k e l e t a l Development 42 3. Body Weight and Weight V e l o c i t y 45 4. Nose-rump Length and Nose-rump Length V e l o c i t y 48 5. T a i l Length and T a i l Length V e l o c i t y 49 6. Forelimb Length and Forelimb Length V e l o c i t y 50 7. Hindlimb Length and Hindlimb Length V e l o c i t y 52 8. Pe lv is Length and P e l v i s Length V e l o c i t y 53 9. Body Weight P lo t ted Against Nose-rump Length 54 10. Pe lv is Length Plot ted Against P e l v i s Width 54 11. Forelimb Bone Matur i ty Score and Forelimb BMS V e l o c i t y 56 12. Hindlimb Bone Maturi ty Score and Hindlimb BMS V e l o c i t y 57 13. T o t a l Bone Maturi ty Score and T o t a l BMS V e l o c i t y 59 14. Speculated Mechanism for Growth Impairment of R e s t r i c t e d Progeny According to Chow and Lee (1964) 60 15. Expanded Explanation f o r Growth Impairment of R e s t r i c t e d Progeny Offered by Stephan et a l . (1971) 64 16. Proposed M o d i f i c a t i o n of the Theory of Stephan et al. (1971) 65 17. Model Constructed from Speculat ion of Shrader and Zeman (1973b) 72 18. Proposed I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Growth Hor-mone Status and Growth Impairment of R e s t r i c t e d Progeny 75 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Undernutr i t ion during growth and development can r e s u l t i n growth r e t a r d a t i o n . Depending on the time, d u r a t i o n , and sever i ty of the u n d e r n u t r i t i o n , the r e s u l t may be permanent reduction i n s i z e , and p o s s i b l y impaired f u n c t i o n , of an a n i -mal or some of i t s p a r t s . However, subsequent real imentat ion of the undernourished animal is e f f e c t i v e under some circum-stances i n accelera t ing growth so that the animal catches up i n s i z e to his normal age-mates. There are many reports i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the e f f e c t of maternal dietary d e p r i v a t i o n during pregnancy and l a c t a -t i o n on the subsequent growth and development of progeny. Depending on the nature and the extent of the d i e t a r y r e s t r i c -t i o n , the effects include permanent growth s t u n t i n g , c e l l u l a r changes i n soft and s k e l e t a l t i s s u e , metabolic a l t e r a t i o n s , and behavioral disturbances among o f f s p r i n g (Clarke and Smith, 1938; Prat t and McCance, 1960, 1964; Chow and Lee, 1964; Ze-man, 1967; Winick, 1971; Dobbing and Sands, 1971; Roeder, 1972, 1973; Muzzo, 1973; Hsueh et a l . , 1974). Animals malnourished during gestation and l a c t a t i o n are unable to compensate f o r t h e i r growth re tardat ion even when allowed to feed ad l i b i t u m a f t e r weaning (Chow and Lee, 1964; Cheek and Cooke, 1964). The mechanism underlying th is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c growth impairment has yet to be explained adequately. Several reports i n the l i t e r a -ture implicate p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t i n g in inadequate production of growth hormone as the causal factor (Chow and Lee, 1964; Stephan et al., 1971; Shrader and Zeman, 1973a). In 1964, Chow and Lee reported growth hormone induced catch-up growth i n progeny of rats fed 50 percent of a normal diet. The catch-up growth resulted from a period of accelerated weight gain which permitted animals to s h i f t t h e i r growth curve so that i t coincided with that of controls. It appeared that there might be a connection between growth impairment and i n -s u f f i c i e n t growth hormone production i n the progeny. However, Chow and Lee were unable to explain the l i n k between inadequate maternal di e t and p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y i n the o f f s p r i n g . There was no indication of vitamin or mineral d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the dams or their o f f s p r i n g . Perhaps the o f f s p r i n g suffered from some degree of p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e malnutrition as a r e s u l t of t h e i r dams' inadequate d i e t . According to Beas and Muzzo (1973), marasmic infants have low concentrations of plasma growth hormone and respond to human growth hormone therapy with p o s i t i v e nitrogen balance and weight gain. However, c i r -c ulating levels of growth hormone are elevated i n kwashiorkor according to most reports (Pimstone et a l . , 1973a; Kerpel-Fronius et al., 1973). Under conditions of extreme protein deficiency i n children, growth hormone does not appear to be the l i m i t i n g factor in growth retardation although much of the growth hormone being secreted i s i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t i m u l a t i n g somatomedin for c a r t i l a g i n o u s growth (Pimstone et a l . , 1973a). Subsequent to the ear ly work of Chow and Lee (1964) , c o n f l i c t -ing r e s u l t s have been obtained using growth hormone i n the re -h a b i l i t a t i o n of malnourished c h i l d r e n and laboratory animals (Hadden and Rutishauser, 1967; Kwong et a l . , 1972; Barnes et a l . , 1973; Beas and Muzzo, 1973; Parra et a l . , 1973; Shrader and Zeman, 1973b). An animal experiment was designed i n order to fur ther ex-plore the phenomenon of growth s tunting of progeny from dams r e s t r i c t e d i n diet during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n . The primary purpose of the project was to study the e f f e c t s of maternal u n d e r n u t r i t i o n on s k e l e t a l growth and development of o f f s p r i n g . Growth was assessed using measurements of weight g a i n , i n -crease i n body length, and l i n e a r increments of several bones as i n d i c a t e d by whole body radiographs. The progress of skele -t a l development was determined with the use of a bone maturity scoring system developed by Hughes and Tanner (1970b). The second purpose of the study was to a s c e r t a i n whether catch^-up i n s k e l e t a l dimensions could be s t imulated by the ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n of growth hormone which permitted the compensatory weight gain reported by Chow and Lee (1964). Exogenous growth hormone was administered e a r l y or la te i n postnatal l i f e to o f f s p r i n g of rats malnourished during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n . Whole body radiographs were used to determine the existence and nature of compensatory s k e l e t a l growth. - 4 -CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The E f f e c t s of U n d e r n u t r i t i o n on Growth and Development In order to approach the study of such complicated phenom-ena as growth impairment and catch-up growth, i t i s necessary to examine the complexities of normal growth and development. Development i s a continuous process comprised of changes which occur i n an order ly sequence, s t a r t i n g at conception and ending i n death (Moore, 1973). Growth i s one aspect of development i n -v o l v i n g , at the c e l l u l a r l e v e l , increases i n t o t a l protoplasm and sometimes increases i n number of c e l l n u c l e i (Kerr, . 1967). Growth of a given t i ssue may be d i v i d e d i n t o three phases: hyperplas ia or c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n occurs f i r s t ; hyperplas ia is then accompanied by hypertrophy or c e l l enlargement; f i n -a l l y , growth i s only p o s s i b l e through hypertrophy. Growth of a whole organism i s observable by increments i n length and weight. The processes of growth and development proceed at d i f f e r -ent rates i n various parts of the animal body reaching peak v e l o c i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t times. Allometry i s the term Huxley (1972) uses to describe the concept of d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates of body parts r e l a t i v e to the growth rate of the body as a whole. 5 The concepts of growth and development are fur ther compli -cated by the manner i n which i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s exert forces up-on one another as t issues enlarge and become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d (Thompson, 1959). One c e l l or one t i s s u e may stimu-la te or i n h i b i t the development of another by the exchange of appropriate chemical agents. C e l l i n t e r a c t i o n s can be c l a s s i -f i e d as fo l lows : populat ion density e f f e c t s enable many c e l l s to i n t e r a c t c o - o p e r a t i v e l y ; induct ive i n t e r a c t i o n s occur when one type of c e l l inf luences the a c t i v i t y of another; s y n e r g i s t i c inductions are those i n which two d i f f e r e n t t i s s u e s i n t e r a c t so that each causes the other to develop i n a way that i t would not develop alone; and i n h i b i t o r y i n t e r a c t i o n s occur when there i s competition for nut r ients or where product ion of m a t e r i a l by one c e l l i n h i b i t s growth of the other c e l l type (Sussman, 1965). Attempts have been made to expla in the e f f e c t s of undernu-t r i t i o n on growth and development i n terms of the mechanisms r e g u l a t i n g these processes (Winick and Noble, 1966; Dobbing, 1972). According to the theory of Winick and Noble (1966) , where growth involves phases of c e l l d i v i s i o n and c e l l enlarge-ment, the consequences of growth i n t e r r u p t i o n w i l l vary accord-ing to the nature of the causal f a c t o r , i t s t iming and d u r a t i o n . I f the animal is subjected to u n d e r n u t r i t i o n while c e l l m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n i s s t i l l occurr ing i n some body p a r t s , and i f the period of c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n i s age-dependent rather than weight-dependent, only c e l l enlargement may occur during subsequent - 6 -r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Assuming that there i s a l i m i t to hypertrophy, the animal w i l l be permanently stunted i n s i z e i f the i n t e r f e r -ing factor p e r s i s t s long enough. Growth inter ference during the per iod when c e l l s are enlarging but no longer increas ing in number w i l l u s u a l l y have less permanent consequences pro-vided the animal i s returned to an environment conducive to normal growth. However, s tudies of the e f f e c t of X - i r r a d i a -t i o n of heads of newborn rats i n d i c a t e that reduced cerebellum weight may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to permanent reduct ion i n c e l l s i z e rather than reduct ion i n c e l l number (Dobbing, 1972). Another hypothesis i s required i n order to expla in t h i s permanent ef -fect of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n on c e l l s i z e . The e f f e c t of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n on growth and development may be subject to d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates of body p a r t s . This idea i s consistent with Dobbing's (1972) theory that the b r a i n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable to n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t during i t s growth spurt . Non-mitot ic processes may be suscept ible to u n d e r n u t r i t i o n when they are occurr ing r a p i d l y during the growth s p u r t . I f growth rates i n various parts of the animal "'"According to Sussman (1965) , the r a t i o of surface area to volume decreases as a c e l l grows, thus l i m i t i n g space for exchange of nutr ients and waste products for fur ther growth. This theory helps to expla in the loss of impetus to grow re -ported by others (McCance and Widdowson, 1962). Tanner (1963) has presented an hypothesis to explain r e g u l a t i o n of growth i n s ize i n mammals. He suggests that there might ex is t a t a l l y i n the b r a i n which l i m i t s growth i n propor t ion to the concentra-t i o n of c i r c u l a t i n g i n h i b i t o r . According to Weiss (1955) and Wolanski (1971) , growth i s regulated by a feedback e q u i l i b r i u m between an organ and i t s own s p e c i f i c discharges which i n h i b i t the growth of homologous types of c e l l s . body reach peak v e l o c i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t times, a c o n d i t i o n detrimental to growth, such as u n d e r n u t r i t i o n , w i l l have un-equal e f f e c t s on various body structures and funct ions at any one time. According to Thompson (1959), unequal growth of organs i s indica ted by t h e i r unequal loss of weight during s t a r v a t i o n . Such a disturbance would r e s u l t i n abnormalit ies i n r a t i o s between body parts with p o s s i b i l i t i e s for metabolic a l t e r a t i o n s . Huxley's (1972) fundamental f a c t s about growth include the observation that growth is a f f e c t e d by the external environment which a f f e c t s a l l parts of the body p r o p o r t i o n a l l y . i However, consistent with his theory of a l l o m e t r i c growth i s his acknowledgement that m a l n u t r i t i o n i s one environmental fac -tor which can exert unequal e f f e c t s on various t i s s u e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of allometry i n terms of compensatory growth of the animal as a whole w i l l be discussed l a t e r . Hammond described an inherent system of p r i o r i t i e s which could protect development i n mammals to some extent (Hammond, 1944; Huggett, 1946). His theory of p a r t i t i o n of nut r ients states that t issues having the highest metabolic rates are nourished i n preference to those t issues having lower metabolic r a t e s . The b r a i n and c e n t r a l nervous system have the f i r s t p r i o r i t y , followed by bone, then muscle, and f i n a l l y f a t . Experimental r e s u l t s indica te that the b r a i n does enjoy some immunity to n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t and that bones do continue to grow even when condit ions are not adequate for muscle growth and - 8 -fat storage (Pratt and McCance, 1964; Stephan, 1971). How-ever, Hammond's theory may be of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t only since i t c o n f l i c t s with the newer hypotheses discussed which are substantiated by experimental f i n d i n g s . In seeking r e l i a b l e instruments for the measurement of growth, the s e l e c t i o n of v a l i d indices of growth may be over-looked, Weight gain i s commonly used as the only c r i t e r i o n of growth. While weight gain is simple to measure and i n d i c a -t ive of increase in body mass, i n i t s e l f i t gives no i n d i c a t i o n of changes i n body composition and i t cannot be assumed that weight gain i s p r o p o r t i o n a l among a l l the t i ssues of the body i n c l u d i n g the skele ton . Linear measurements are u s e f u l since body length i s norm-a l l y c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d with age. However, changes i n t o t a l body length do not provide information on s k e l e t a l proport ions or body composit ion. Measurements of several bones made on whole body radiographs of experimental animals permit c a l c u l a -t i o n of body proportions on a continuing basis (Acheson et a l . , 1959). Assessment of s k e l e t a l maturity permits determination of developmental stages. A l l animals u s u a l l y end up at the same point i n development with respect to bone age while there i s i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n f i n a l weight and length (Hughes and Tanner, 1970b). Hence bone age provides reference points f o r comparing experimental and c o n t r o l animals . - 9 -In addi t ion to p h y s i c a l measurements, chemical analyses of bones are u s e f u l i n a s c e r t a i n i n g patterns of growth and de-velopment. Dickerson and McCance (1961) advise against a n a l -yzing bones as a whole since changes i n composition of parts of bones w i l l be masked. For example, t h e i r studies of under-nourished animals i n d i c a t e d di f ferences between the bone cor-tex and whole bones i n the r a t i o of calcium to c o l l a g e n . The Influence of U n d e r n u t r i t i o n During Pregnancy and Lac ta t ion  on Growth and Development of O f f s p r i n g N u t r i t i o n as a Factor Inf luencing Growth and Development  Placed i n Perspect ive . Numerous experiments have demonstrated detrimental e f f e c t s of n u t r i t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n on the growth and development of animals. However, n u t r i t i o n i s only one en-vironmental fac tor and i t i s always modified i n i t s e f f e c t i v e -ness by the animal 's genetic endowment. Inadequate feeding of suckl ing rats r e s u l t s i n obvious i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . This v a r i a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d to i n h e r i t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s (Park and Nowesielski-Slepowron, 1971). The importance of genetic f u n c t i o n i s emphasized by the r es ul t s of Mickelsen et a l . (1971) who studied s k e l e t a l s i z e i n seven s t r a i n s of r a t s . They concluded that the s t r a i n of rat had more inf luence on body ash, body l e n g t h , and t a i l length than d i d the type of r a t i o n consumed. As pointed out by Zucker and Zucker (1946), even well nourished animals of the same age can be of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s . - 10 -They also noted that sex d i f f e r e n c e s ex is t i n bone c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s with females having heavier , be t ter c a l c i f i e d bones at a given body weight than males. Hence v a r i a t i o n i n form appar-ent ly r e s u l t i n g from u n d e r n u t r i t i o n must be appraised i n l i g h t of inherent d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s , sexes, s t r a i n s , and, of course, species . Interspecies v a r i a t i o n i n the stage of de-velopment at which o f f s p r i n g are. born introduces a fur ther com-p l i c a t i o n i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between e f f e c t s of maternal malnu-t r i t i o n during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n . N u t r i t i o n is an i n f l u e n t i a l environmental f a c t o r during gestat ion and l a c t a t i o n but p r o t e c t i v e mechanisms e x i s t , appar-ent ly to c u r t a i l production of poorly formed o f f s p r i n g . If u n d e r n u t r i t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y severe, reproduction i s thwarted by s t e r i l i t y , f a i l u r e to mate, and high rates of f e t a l resorp-t i o n . To a c e r t a i n extent, the fetus has a p a r a s i t i c r e l a t i o n -ship with i t s mother (Pond et a l . , 1 9 6 8 ; Naismith , 1 9 7 3 ) . This notion i s i n agreement with Hammond's p a r t i t i o n of nutr ients theory since the metabolic rates of f e t a l t i ssues are higher than the metabolic rates of maternal t i s s u e s . However, even t h i s advan-tage w i l l not completely compensate i f the maternal plane of n u t r i t i o n i s very low, so that progeny of undernourished mothers w i l l often suffer from the e f f e c t s of t h e i r mothers' u n d e r n u t r i -t i o n (Chow and Lee, 1 9 6 4 ; Stewart, 1 9 7 0 ) . Types of Manipulation of Maternal Diet Inf luencing Develop-ment of O f f s p r i n g . There are several procedures whereby d i e t s - 11 -have been manipulated experimentally i n attempts to simulate for animals d e f i c i e n t die ts consumed by c e r t a i n groups of human beings . Experimental die ts have been fed to pregnant and l a c -t a t i n g animals i n order to induce s p e c i f i c v i tamin and mineral d e f i c i e n c i e s and excesses (Warkany, 1960), as wel l as p r o t e i n -c a l o r i e m a l n u t r i t i o n of varying degrees of s e v e r i t y (Nelson and Evans, 1953; Chow and Lee, 1964; Hsueh et a l . , 1967; Ste-wart and Sheppard, 1971). Feeding a l i m i t e d quanti ty of a normal d i e t , for example, 50 percent of the amount consumed by ad l i b i t u m fed animals, r e s u l t s i n a type of p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e m a l n u t r i t i o n i n which o f f -spring are s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller and more suscept ib le to neona-t a l death than are adequately nourished o f f s p r i n g (Chow and Lee, 1964; Chow et a l . , 1968, 1969; Stephan e t a l - , 1971; Stew-art and Sheppard, 1971; Roeder and Chow, 1972). The nature of the d e f i c i e n c y designated as " p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e " m a l n u t r i t i o n var ies from one experiment to another. Hsueh et a l . (1967) restored various nutr ients to the normal d i e t re-s t r i c t e d i n quanti ty and found that added vitamins and miner-als did not a l l e v i a t e e f f e c t s of the r e s t r i c t i o n . Adding suc-rose to br ing the c a l o r i c intake up to normal improved the growth of rat progeny but s i g n i f i c a n t s tunting s t i l l occurred. Hsueh's conclusion that p r o t e i n i s the c r i t i c a l d i e t a r y component nec-essary for normal growth is substantiated by several other s t u -dies i n which quanti ty ahd/or q u a l i t y of p r o t e i n i s r e s t r i c t e d 12 -i n t h e diets of pregnant and l a c t a t i n g animals (Nelson and Evans, 1953; Cowley and G r i e s e l , 1966; Zeman, 1967, 1970; Chow et a l . , 1969; Shaw, 1970; Seier et al. , 1971; Dickerson et a l . , 1972). McCay et a l . (1939) supplemented d i e t s r e s t r i c t e d i n c a l -ories with p r o t e i n , as wel l as minerals and v i t a m i n s , and s t i l l obtained growth r e t a r d a t i o n i n rats seemingly i n d i c a t i n g that p r o t e i n was not the l i m i t i n g growth f a c t o r . However, since p r o t e i n i s c a l o r i g e n i c and since the energy needs of the body are met i n preference to synthesis of t i s s u e , the p r o t e i n that McCay's group added to the d e f i c i e n t d i e t was l i k e l y u t i l i z e d for energy at the expense of t i ssue s y n t h e s i s . Experimental p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n c y i s u s u a l l y p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e d e f i c i e n c y since p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n t animals decrease t h e i r food intake . The consequences of p r o t e i n - f r e e d i e t s are even more severe than with p r o t e i n - r e s t r i c t e d d i e t s , with high m o r t a l i t y among fetuses and neonates whose dams are subjected to such a die t (Nelson and Evans, 1953; Zeman, 1967). Berg (1965, 1967) reports that rats on a p r o t e i n - f r e e d i e t consumed less food throughout gestation than rats on a 20 percent p r o t e i n d i e t . The reduction in food consumption was greater i n rats car ry ing young than i n those who f a i l e d to l i t t e r . Venkatachalam and Ramanathan (1964, 1966) lowered p r o t e i n q u a l i t y and quantity to study the e f f e c t on rats of the average Indian d i e t . Using a seven percent wheat p r o t e i n d i e t during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n 100 percent m o r t a l i t y of - 13 -rat progeny. They a t t r i b u t e d t h i s r e s u l t mainly to the e f f e c t of poor l a c t a t i o n . Some work has been done on the e f f e c t s on subsequent gen-erations of prenatal and ear ly postnatal u n d e r n u t r i t i o n . Cow-ley and G r i e s e l (1966), Chow et a l . (1969), and Stewart et a l . (1972) found that females whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n had s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller o f f s p r i n g of t h e i r own; the reduced s ize of the o f f s p r i n g was not merely a r e s u l t of smaller body s ize of the mother since controls of the same body weight gave b i r t h to s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger o f f -spring . Chow (1964) showed that rats r e s t r i c t e d during one preg-nancy and then permitted ad l i b i t u m feeding during subsequent pregnancies gave b i r t h to o f f s p r i n g of normal s i z e i n the sub-sequent pregnancies . Timing of Maternal Dietary D e f i c i e n c i e s . Timing of d e p r i -v a t i o n during gestat ion i s c r u c i a l s ince growth i s almost en-t i r e l y by hyperplas ia and the rate of c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n i s more age-dependent, than size-dependent (Zeman and Stanbrough, 1969). Nelson and Evans (1953) demonstrated v a r i a t i o n i n p r o t e i n requirements during gestat ion by imposing t r a n s i t o r y p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n c i e s on maternal animals. If the p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n c y began on the day of mating, the r e s o r p t i o n rate was 86 percent . 14 -S t a r t i n g the p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n c y f i v e days a f te r mating caused a dramatic drop i n the r e s o r p t i o n rate from 86 percent to 20 percent . M i l l e r et a l . (1962) report that the c r i t i c a l per-iod for rat embryo d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s approximately day 7 through day 16 i n pregnancy. Berg (1967) reports a c r i t i c a l need for p r o t e i n af ter implantat ion of the b l a s t o c y s t on day 5 of pregnancy through to day 9. V a r i a t i o n among studies i n the time at which there i s a c r i t i c a l need for d ie tary p r o t e i n may be due to v a r i a b i l i t y i n d e p l e t i o n of body s t o r e s . Injec -t i o n of hormones such as estrone and progesterone, adrenocor-t i c o i d s , gonadotrophins, or ACTH for several days a f t e r implant-a t ion has the same e f f e c t as t r a n s i t o r y feeding of p r o t e i n at t h i s t ime, which suggests an i n t e r a c t i o n between p r o t e i n meta-bolism and endocrine metabolism (Berg, 1967) . Since a great deal of c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n i s going on dur-ing gesta t ion and l a c t a t i o n , one might expect permanent reduc-t i o n i n c e l l u l a r number, and hence s i z e , of some t issues to accrue from maternal d ie tary r e s t r i c t i o n . Controversy has ar isen over whether d e p r i v a t i o n during l a c t a t i o n i s mainly to blame for growth impairment i n animals r e s t r i c t e d during both gestat ion and l a c t a t i o n . Proponents of the theory that the fetus i s a paras i te suggest that the r e s t r i c t e d mother nourishes her o f f s p r i n g adequately p r e n a t a l l y but i s unable to provide enough milk for the o f f s p r i n g i n postnatal l i f e . The r e s t r i c t e d dam's milk is u s u a l l y adequate i n q u a l i t y but not produced i n - 15 -s u f f i c i e n t amounts (Venkatachalam and Ramanathan, 1964). This i s complicated by the r e s t r i c t e d progeny's lack of vigour which may impair s u c k l i n g . However, Zeman (1970) found that reduc-ing l i t t e r s i z e , and thereby providing more milk per animal, d id not improve on the d e f i c i t i n c e l l populat ion of major or-gans i n p r e n a t a l l y r e s t r i c t e d animals . Venkatachalam and Ramanathan (1964) s tudied the e f f e c t s of depr iva t ion during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n separately by switch-ing some r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g to c o n t r o l mothers during l a c t a -t i o n , and some c o n t r o l o f f s p r i n g to r e s t r i c t e d mothers. They found that d e p r i v a t i o n during l a c t a t i o n alone impaired growth more than d e p r i v a t i o n during ges ta t ion alone. However, low pro-t e i n d i e t s during ges ta t ion aggravated growth s tunt ing caused by u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l a c t a t i o n (Venkatachalam and Ramanathan, 1964; Lee and Chow, 1965, 1968; Stewart, 1968). Reported E f f e c t s on Rat O f f s p r i n g R e s t r i c t e d During Gesta-t i o n and L a c t a t i o n . The primary e f f e c t of d i e t a r y d e p r i v a t i o n of maternal organisms has already been mentioned and that i s decreased p o t e n t i a l for s u r v i v a l of o f f s p r i n g at a l l stages of prenatal and neonatal l i f e (Stewart, 1973; Stewart and Sheppard, 1971). Impairment i n s k e l e t a l and sof t t i ssue development of sur-v i v i n g o f f s p r i n g has also been reported (Chow e i a l . , 1968; Enwonwu and Glover , 1973). T e r a t o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s do not seem - 16 -to be as s p e c i f i c as those r e s u l t i n g from c e r t a i n vi tamin and mineral imbalances (Warkany, 1960) . Often the p r e n a t a l l y mal-nourished animal appears to have normal body proportions des-p i t e i t s smaller s i z e . But evidence for d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates during prenatal development suggests that prenata l d e p r i -v a t i o n of c a l o r i e s and/or p r o t e i n r e s u l t s i n a l t e r a t i o n s i n form as w e l l as o v e r a l l s i z e . Evidence for d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates of organs during prenatal development i s provided by Zeman's (1967) f i n d i n g s that p r o t e i n r e s t r i c t i o n during pregnancy had a more detrimental e f f e c t on the l i v e r and kidney and less ef -fec t on the heart , b r a i n , and thymus than on the body as a whole. '"'Clarke and Smith (19 38) found that kidneys , t e s t e s , and spleen of undernourished then realimented ra ts were large for body weight causing a d i s t o r t i o n of normal form. The d i s t o r -t i o n r e s u l t s from more complete "catch-up" growth of these organs i n r e l a t i o n to s k e l e t a l growth. The f indings of McCay's group (1939) support Hammond's (1944) hypothesis of p r e f e r e n t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of l i m i t e d n u t r i e n t s to bone development as compared to mater ia l for s o f t t i s s u e growth. When animals were r e s t r i c t e d p o s t n a t a l l y so that weight was kept constant, there was a slow but regular increase i n bone length . According to Schemmel et a l . (1969) , s k e l e t a l s i z e , even i n malnourished animals, i s more c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d with age of the animal than with the r a t i o n consumed. 17 -In studies on s k e l e t a l growth i n pigs, Pratt and McCance (1960, 1964) showed that c a r t i l a g e growth i s never completely-arrested even during prolonged periods of undernutrition. In i n d i v i d u a l bones there are attempts to elongate which do not produce appreciable bone growth but i n combination are respon-s i b l e for the s l i g h t increase in height observed i n undernour-ished animals as well as a l t e r a t i o n s i n the shape of growth c a r t i l a g e . Bone growth i s an extremely complicated process involving continuous reorganization of whole bones so that undernutrition interferes with d i f f e r e n t aspects of the process to varying extents. When the n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t i s not very severe, competition between parts of bones i s less intense and the bones may develop with an almost normal form. However, with severe undernutrition, d i f f e r e n t i a l changes within the bone become s t r i k i n g . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of protein d e f i c i e n t ani-mals can r e s u l t in bending and twisting of bones and i r r e g u l a r premature closure of epiphyses. This may be the r e s u l t of greater increase i n weight i n proportion to increase i n bone strength (Adams, 1969). Species differences must again be emphasized (McFie and Welbourn, 1962) . Fusion of the epiphyses puts a stop to growth in length i n most animals but i n adult rats some epiphyses appear to remain open (McCance and Widdowson, 1962). McCance and Widdowson*s (1962) extensive studies on n u t r i -tion and growth included assessment of growth defects i n under-nourished p i g l e t s . Abnormalities i n teeth persisted even when 18 bone abnormalities were corrected by realimentation of d e f i c -ient animals. They suggest t h a t the extensive remodelling which takes place with bones during r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s not possible with teeth due to their shorter period of development. Shaw and G r i f f i t h s (1963) report t h a t protein deficiency during pregnancy can r e s u l t i n dental abnormalities i n o f f s p r i n g . Shaw (1970) reports reduction i n s k u l l size of rats suffer-ing marginal protein deficiency during gestation and l a c t a t i o n . The deficiency was mild enough so that by 115 days of age, re-s t r i c t e d offspring caught up to t h e i r age-mates i n weight but s t i l l had smaller s k u l l s . McCance et al. (1961) report that undernutrition affects the upper jaw more than the under jaw i n . growing pigs. Walker et al. (1950) report s k u l l deformities i n rats hypo-physectomized at an early age. D i s p a r i t y i n growth between the brain and the more severely retarded cranium resulted i n death for many animals. This finding suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that, milder p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y may r e s u l t i n more subtle changes in s k u l l form. The c o r r e l a t i o n between p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y and malnutrition w i l l be discussed l a t e r . In addition to i t s e f f e c t s on s k e l e t a l growth, prenatal and early postnatal malnutrition has been shown to influence the pro-gress of bone maturation. Shrader and Zeman (1972, 1973b) found that prenatal protein deficiency i n rats resulted i n delayed d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of bones and the e f f e c t was not corrected by 19 -increased food consumption during the s u c k l i n g p e r i o d . The lag i n formation of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres was corrected with i n j e c -t ions of thyroxine (Shrader and Zeman, 1973b). S i m i l a r l y , W i l -liams et a l . (1974a) report that animals r e s t r i c t e d i n d i e t during l a c t a t i o n s u f f e r a delay i n s k e l e t a l development as i n -dicated by bone maturity scores derived from radiographs (Hughes and Tanner, 1970b). E a r l y i n l i f e the delay r e s u l t e d i n r e s t r i c t e d rats having normal body weights and lengths for t h e i r bone ma-t u r i t y scores . But by the end of the growth p e r i o d , the e x p e r i -mental group were markedly smaller for t h e i r bone maturity score as compared to c o n t r o l s . However, i t would appear that the de-lay i n s k e l e t a l development d i d permit p r e v i o u s l y undernourished rats to catch-up to controls with respect to body length (Wil-liams et a l . , 1974a). In the past , the appearance of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres of bones was considered a purely age-dependent process (Outhouse and Mendel, 1933). Based on t h i s assumption, epiphyseal develop-ment of the knee has been used as an i n d i c a t o r of g e s t a t i o n a l age of newborns. However, consis tent with the f i n d i n g s i n a n i -mal experiments, Scott and Usher (1964) provide evidence that f e t a l m a l n u t r i t i o n i n humans may r e s u l t i n delayed appearance of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres at the knee. Therefore epiphyseal de-velopment i s only u s e f u l as an index of g e s t a t i o n a l age i f growth i s normal during g e s t a t i o n , and cannot be r e l i e d on to d i f f e r -entiate premature infants from those who have s u f f e r e d i n t r a u -ter ine growth r e t a r d a t i o n . 20 -An important area of research involves the e f f e c t s of pre-nata l u n d e r n u t r i t i o n on b r a i n development since s t r u c t u r a l a l -tera t ions may cause f u n c t i o n a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s . Evidence for th is might suggest that u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during human pregnancy is one c o n d i t i o n associated with mental r e t a r d a t i o n of o f f s p r i n g (Cra- -v i o t o , 1963; Barker, 1966). Research by Dobbing and Sands (1971) supports t h e i r hypo-thesis that the b r a i n undergoes a growth spurt e a r l y i n l i f e , during which time i t i s vulnerable to n u t r i t i o n a l i n s u l t and may be i r r e v o c a b l y damaged. The growth spurt occurs during the f i r s t three weeks of postnatal l i f e i n the rat but includes the l a s t t r imester of ges ta t ion i n humans and continues for at leas t one year . E a r l y i n the postnatal l i f e of r a t s , the b r a i n i s less a f f e c t e d by u n d e r n u t r i t i o n than i s the body as a whole. This sparing of the b r a i n does not occur i n the l a t t e r part of the three week growth spurt as r e f l e c t e d i n the decreased r a t i o of b r a i n to body s i z e r e s u l t i n g from n u t r i t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n during t h i s time p e r i o d . In view of these f i n d i n g s , Hammond's p a r t i t i o n of nutr ients theory, which explains d i f f e r e n t i a l ef-fects of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n on various t i ssues i n terms of d i f f e r e n c e s i n metabolic ra tes , appears to be inadequate. I f Dobbing's hypothesis concerning the vulnerable per iod of bra in development is c o r r e c t , u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during ges ta t ion would be expected to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on bra in development as compared to u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during l a c t a t i o n . Guthrie and Brown 21 -(1968) obtained o f f s p r i n g with decreased b r a i n s i z e and de-creased b r a i n DNA by r e s t r i c t i n g only during the s u c k l i n g per-i o d . Their study and others i n d i c a t e that the f i r s t three weeks of l i f e i s a c r i t i c a l per iod of b r a i n c e l l d i v i s i o n i n the rat (Guthrie and Brown, 1968; Badger et a l . , 1972). How-ever, other studies indica te that b r a i n s i z e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased by u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during ges ta t ion as w e l l as l a c t a -t i o n (Winick and Rosso, 1969; Winick, 1971; Stephan, 1971). Brasel and Winick (1972) report a 15 percent reduct ion i n t o t a l b r a i n c e l l number at b i r t h i n p r e n a t a l l y malnourished r a t s . Animals subjected to m a l n u t r i t i o n p e r i n a t a l l y show a s i m i l a r reduction in bra in c e l l number at weaning. The ef-fects of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n are more than a d d i t i v e ; 60 percent reduct ion i n b r a i n c e l l number was obtained with the doubly-deprived progeny. The fo l lowing mechanism i s suggested by Brasel and Winick (1972) to expla in the above e f f e c t : u n d e r n u t r i t i o n decreases the l e v e l of DNA polymerase a c t i v i t y i n the p l a c e n t a , which sub-sequently r e s u l t s i n less b iosynthes is of DNA and, hence, de-creased c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . Rat DNA polymerase i s reduced i n the placenta one to two days p r i o r to reduction of DNA l e v e l s . Brasel and Winick (1972) also comment on d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates for various parts of the b r a i n . They suggest that while r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of p r e n a t a l l y malnourished animals might r e s u l t i n fur ther c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n so that t o t a l c e l l number might 22 -approach normal l i m i t s , the d e f i c i t at b i r t h may be compensated for by increase i n c e l l number i n areas d i f f e r e n t from those af-fected in u t e r o . Thus i t might appear that c e l l u l a r e f f e c t s of u n d e r n u t r i t i o n have been reversed while there may s t i l l be a de-f i c i t i n s p e c i f i c b r a i n areas. Stephan (1971) found that maternal die ts r e s t r i c t e d during gestat ion to 50 percent of c o n t r o l s ' diet r e s u l t e d i n smaller progeny whose brains were s i m i l a r to c o n t r o l s ' with regard to t o t a l p r o t e i n , DNA, and RNA. Brains of r e s t r i c t e d progeny were l i g h t e r than normal but s l i g h t l y more concentrated i n p r o t e i n . However, Stephan's measurements were made on const i tuents of whole b r a i n s . His f i n d i n g that cortexes were smaller than nor-mal suggest that t h i s part of the b r a i n may have suffered perm-anent reduction i n c e l l number which was balanced by over-com-pensation i n c e l l d i v i s i o n i n other areas of the b r a i n . Zamenof et a l . (1971) r e s t r i c t e d pregnant rats to o n e - t h i r d normal c a l o r i c l e v e l s with p r o t e i n and vitamin intakes adjusted to normal l e v e l s . The r e s t r i c t i o n was i n e f f e c t between day 10 and 20 of prenancy. Their progeny showed decreased neonatal cerebral weight, c e l l number, and p r o t e i n . Dickerson's group (1972) claims that p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n t d ie ts during pregnancy r e s u l t i n o f f s p r i n g with decreased c a p a b i l i t y to synthesize c h o l e s t e r o l i n the fore bra in and b r a i n stem. Further evidence for impairment i n b r a i n development a f t e r prenatal m a l n u t r i t i o n comes from Hawrylewicz et a l . (1971) who 23 -studied function of b r a i n mitochondria with respect to oxygen consumption. Mitochondria are responsible f o r the majori ty of ATP s y n t h e s i s , and i n the b r a i n cont inual synthesis of ATP i s necessary for c e l l growth. This group's data demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n b r a i n mitochondria funct ion i n 14 day old malnourished r a t s . Behavioral experiments suggest that b r a i n f u n c t i o n as w e l l as b r a i n structure i s impaired by prenatal and p e r i n a t a l under-n u t r i t i o n (Smart and Dobbing, 1971). Caldwell and C h u r c h i l l (1967) studied learning a b i l i t y of rats r e s t r i c t e d i n p r o t e i n during the l a t t e r h a l f of g e s t a t i o n . The r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g were less successful at t r a v e r s i n g a water maze and l e a r n i n g to avoid e l e c t r i c shocks. It i s noteworthy that the cerebrums of experimental progeny showed no gross s t r u c t u r a l defec ts . Hanson and Simohson (1971) attempted to assess the e f f e c t s of 50 percent dietary r e s t r i c t i o n during gesta t ion on the emo-t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y of progeny. They report behavioral changes i n undernourished rats i n d i c a t i n g i n a b i l i t y to cope with e l e c t r i c shock as compared to normal c o n t r o l s . Simonson et a l . (1973) found that administrat ion of p i t u i t a r y e x t r a c t . a n d , to a l e s s e r extent, growth hormone improved the behavior of rats r e s t r i c t e d p r e n a t a l l y . Recently Hsueh's group (1974) has studied the separate be-h a v i o r a l ef fec ts on progeny of maternal d e p r i v a t i o n , f i r s t dur-ing pregnancy and then during l a c t a t i o n . R e s t r i c t i o n of food 24 -intake of dams during pregnancy resul ted i n s l i g h t permanent growth stunting and d i s t i n c t impairment of learning a b i l i t y i n o f f s p r i n g . Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n during l a c t a t i o n alone re -sul ted i n more severe growth s tunting of progeny without im-p a i r e d learning a b i l i t y . They conclude that there i s a d i s -s o c i a t i o n between growth s tunt ing and behavioral aberrations i n the o f f s p r i n g of r e s t r i c t e d dams. Hence, behavioral ab-normal i t ies cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to d e f i c i t s i n s ize of the animals. This is i n agreement with the f i n d i n g s of Rider and Simonson (1973) that o f f s p r i n g of rats r e s t r i c t e d i n c a l o r i e s but not p r o t e i n are severely stunted i n s ize but free of be-h a v i o r a l abnormal i t ies . T h e o r e t i c a l Explanations for Growth Impairment due to  Maternal U n d e r n u t r i t i o n . Many attempts have been made to ex-p l a i n why u n d e r n u t r i t i o n during gestat ion and l a c t a t i o n causes permanent detrimental e f f e c t s on o f f s p r i n g . Studies have shown that p r e n a t a l l y malnourished o f f s p r i n g require more food per increment of growth than do normal controls (Lee and Chow, 1965; Chow et a l . , 1969; Cabeza et a l . , 1973). One explanation for decreased e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n i s that absorption i n the p r e v i o u s l y undernourished animal i s impaired due to 'under-development of the alimentary canal or to a d e f i c i t of d i g e s t i v e enzymes (Younoszai and Ranshaw, 1973). - 25 -Meyer and Clawson (1964) found that rats and sheep r e a l i -mented afte r a period of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n , had larger pro-^ portions of body fat and larger quantities of body fat than normal controls. This would seem to indicate high e f f i c i e n c y of u t i l i z a t i o n of fats and carbohydrates which i n turn suggests adequate alimentary t r a c t function. Meyer and Clawson suggest that development of the alimentary t r a c t i s only s l i g h t l y retarded by undernutrition and i s c l o s e l y related to chronological age. Meyer et a l . (1962) report that the weight loss i n r e s t r i c t e d sheep i s composed of protein and fat so that the r e l a t i v e pro-portions of protein and fat are maintained i n the p a r t i a l l y starved animal; this indicates that large gains of body fat dur-ing realimentation disturb the normal proportions of fat and protein. These workers and others report lower body protein i n realimented animals suggesting that a disturbance of protein metabolism may account for permanent growth stunting when i t occurs. Lee and Chow (1965, 1968) found alt e r a t i o n s i n protein meta-^ holism i n progeny of underfed mothers. Prenatally undernourished animals showed abnormal nitrogen excretion including aminoacid-uri a . This condition may be due to defective enzyme system(s) involved i n amino acid metabolism, or i t may be a secondary mani-fe s t a t i o n of some abnormality in the l i v e r or kidney. The ex-perimental animals were able to u t i l i z e high q u a l i t y protein as well as control animals, whereas feeding poor quality protein 26 -resul ted i n much more ni t rogen wastage than with c o n t r o l s . Such f indings led Lee and Chow to b e l i e v e that o f f s p r i n g of r e s t r i c t e d mothers were able to digest p r o t e i n normally but could not use the r e s u l t i n g amino acids for adequate p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s . However, fur ther s tudies showed that undernourished animals showed high urinary l e v e l s of amino acids even when fed a p r o t e i n - f r e e d i e t . This f i n d i n g suggests that the p r i -mary a l t e r a t i o n i n p r o t e i n metabolism i s an increased rate of catabolism which would r e s u l t i n an excess of blood amino acids (Hsu, 1973). Apart from such a metabolic disturbance r e s u l t i n g i n less p r o t e i n a v a i l a b l e for t i s s u e growth, there i s less pro-t e i n for the synthesis of hormones to st imulate growth. Further d i s c u s s i o n of th is concept f o l l o w s . A l l experiments i n v o l v i n g food r e s t r i c t i o n of animals should be appraised i n l i g h t of the f i n d i n g of Rider and Chow (1971) that r a t i o n i n g i n i t s e l f has a detrimental e f f e c t on growth. Eight month o l d male rats s u f f e r e d a s l i g h t weight loss when offered an amount of food equal to the amount they had p r e v i -ously consumed ad l i b i t u m . Therefore , some of the e f f e c t s at-t r i b u t e d to die tary r e s t r i c t i o n may be exaggerated by the manner i n which food i s presented. Rider and Chow suggest that ra t ioned rats might increase t h e i r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and/or food s p i l -lage i n comparison to ad l i b i t u m fed c o n t r o l s . - 27 -The Phenomenon of "Catch-Up" Growth Emphasis has been placed on the permanence of growth stunt-ing caused by prenatal and early postnatal u n d e r n u t r i t i o n (Wid-dowson and Kennedy, 1962; Cheek and Cook, 1964; Winick and Noble, 1966; and Zeman, 1970). But most periods of u n d e r n u t r i -t i o n are fol lowed by periods of accelerated growth, an apparent attempt to compensate for growth impairment during u n d e r n u t r i -t i o n (Tanner, 1963). The growth rate may be accelera ted , the growth per iod may be prolonged, and/or the e f f i c i e n c y of food u t i l i z a t i o n may be increased during n u t r i t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n with the r e s u l t that r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g may "catch-up" i n s ize to t h e i r age mates (Wilson and Osbourn, 1960; McCance and Widdowson, 1962; Meyer and Clawson, 1964; Will iams et a l . , 1974a). Intermittent r e s t r i c t e d feeding i s a common p r a c t i c e i n the commercial r a i s i n g of animals . Bohman and T o r e l l (1956) report compensatory growth i n beef c a t t l e which showed a c c e l e r -ated growth rates i n the summer f o l l o w i n g winters with r e s t r i c t e d p r o t e i n intake . This capaci ty f o r compensatory growth may be a natural p r o t e c t i v e mechanism important to animals i n the w i l d state which sometimes have to endure periods of s t a r v a t i o n (Wil -son and Osbourn, 1960) . According to Wilson and Osbourn (1960) , r e s t r i c t e d animals which are realimented are not less e f f i c i e n t i n u t i l i z i n g food than continuously grown animals provided they do not lose weight - 28 -during the period of undernutrition and are allowed to feed ad l i b i t u m during realimentation. Wilson and Osbourn (1960) suggest several factors which influence an animal's a b i l i t y to recover from a period of under-n u t r i t i o n . The nature of the undernutrition i s one factor; some dietary d e f i c i e n c i e s have more serious consequences than do others.. The severity of the undernutrition w i l l determine the extent of damage including impairment i n reproductive a b i l i t y . The duration of the period of undernutrition w i l l determine which body parts are affected and to what extent. The stage of development reached by the animal at the time that undernu-t r i t i o n commences w i l l determine the permanence of e f f e c t ; undernutrition during hypertrophy phases w i l l generally be less harmful than undernutrition during c e l l hyperplasia. Particu-l a r l y important i n the evaluation of animal studies i s knowledge of the rate of maturity of d i f f e r e n t species. For example, animals of some species are born i n a more underdeveloped state than are others; prenatal malnutrition could not be expected to have equal effects i n a l l cases. F i n a l l y , a factor to consider is the pattern of realimentation of experimental animals; food must be s u f f i c i e n t f or optimal growth. Of c r u c i a l importance i n the evaluation of compensatory growth i s the nature of the extra growth. If the increase i s in the form of weight gain with no concomitant increase i n length, the - 29 animal may become obese. Compensatory growth in the form of disproportionately large fat depots may provide useful energy stores and hence be advantageous to the animal, or they may predispose the animal to disorders associated with obesity such as heart disease and diabetes m e l l i t u s . Compensatory growth i n the form of increased weight accom-panied by proportionate increase i n s k e l e t a l development seems to be desirable i n that i t permits the r e s t r i c t e d animal to main-t a i n normal proportions. There are homeostatic mechanisms which seem to maintain body proportions in animals whenever possible (Clarke and Smith, 1 9 3 8 ; Mosier, 1 9 7 1 ) . There should be an attempt to measure catch-up growth pre-c i s e l y using a l l the techniques available including weighing, measuring body and t a i l length, using radiography to measure length and width of bones, studying development of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres, and analyzing chemical composition of i n d i v i d u a l struc-tures. Since growth i s a complex phenomenon, many parameters must be studied i n order to make comparisons among animals and draw conclusions with respect to the occurrence of catch-up growth. Catch-up growth as i t i s usually defined r e s u l t s from a period of accelerated growth during realimentation (Tanner, 1 9 6 3 ) . A longitudinal study permitting continual measurement of animals enables one to calculate growth v e l o c i t i e s i n order to determine the existence of catch-up growth. Since growth 30 -and development are continuous processes , i t seems des i rable to assess them i n a continuous manner (Thompson, 1959) . The Influence of Growth Hormone on Catch-Up Growth Chow and others (Chow and Lee, 1964, 1968; Stephan et a l . , 1971) were able to induce compensatory weight gain i n animals undernourished during gestat ion and l a c t a t i o n by administer ing bovine growth hormone. Growth hormone i s one of a group of p i t u i t a r y hormones which, even i n the absence of other p i t u i t a r y hormones, pro-motes o v e r a l l body growth. However, not a l l growth phenomena are under s t r i c t p i t u i t a r y c o n t r o l . In some s p e c i e s , such as the r a t , growth and development of newborns continues for sev-e r a l weeks even i n the absence of the p i t u i t a r y gland, with the d e f i c i e n c y i n growth hormone being manifested as la te as the fourth week of l i k e (Walker et a l . 3 1950; U r i s t , 1972). Soma-tomedin, which mediates the e f f e c t of growth hormone on bone growth, has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the metabolism of f e t a l c a r t i l a g e (Daughaday, 1971). There i s no explanation for t h i s phenomenon a v a i l a b l e at the present time. There are species d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth hormone with chem-i c a l v a r i a t i o n a f f e c t i n g immunological f u n c t i o n . That beef, sheep, horse, and p i g hormone are a l l ac t ive i n the r a t , despite chemical d i f f e r e n c e s , suggests that growth hormone from a l l species may have a common nucleus ( U r i s t , 1972). 31 -Growth hormone is p a r t i c u l a r l y e s s e n t i a l for normal bone growth. During s k e l e t a l growth, the epiphyseal plate has a constant thickness, and equilibrium is maintained among p r o l i f -erating parts of the bone. A drop i n the l e v e l of plasma growth hormone causes a decrease i n the thickness of epiphyseal plates with a concomitant sealing with lamellar bone. With exogenous growth hormone treatment in d e f i c i e n t r a t s , there i s restora-t i o n of p r o l i f e r a t i o n of c a r t i l a g e , increasing thickness of epiphyseal plates, resorption of the lamellar bone-seal, and continuation of the growth i n length of the diaphyses ( U r i s t , 1972). The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of growth hormone on rats previously malnourished prenatally led to speculation that undernutrition with decreased dietary protein causes a d e f i c i t i n growth hor-mone production (Chow and Lee, 1964). Mulinos and Pomerantz (1940) found that the tissues of underfed adult rats resembled i n form and function those of hypophysectomized ra t s . They con-cluded that the primary e f f e c t of undernutrition i s to diminish the secretion of growth hormone. Several workers suggest that underfed rats are p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to hypophysectomized rats (Stephans, 1941; Hruza and Fabry, 1957; Shrader and Zeman, 1973a). Further evidence for the "pseudohypophysectomy" effects of malnutrition is provided by the discovery that offspring of underfed dams have smaller than normal p i t u i t a r i e s containing 32 lower than normal c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of growth hormone. M e t a b o l i c a b n o r m a l i t i e s i n m a l n o u r i s h e d o f f s p r i n g s u c h as i n e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n , abnormal g l u c o s e t o l e r a n c e , and p o l y p e p -t i d e s i n the u r i n e i n d i c a t e d i s t u r b a n c e s i n p r o c e s s e s which are r e g u l a t e d by p i t u i t a r y hormones (Stephan et al. , 1971). I f growth hormone d e f i c i e n c y i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the l a t e r e f f e c t s o f p r e n a t a l u n d e r n u t r i t i o n , the q u e s t i o n w h i c h remains to be answered i s whether d e c r e a s e d p i t u i t a r y s i z e i s a d i r e c t consequence o f u n d e r n u t r i t i o n o r a se c o n d a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f impairment o f the c e n t r a l nervous system. D e s t r u c t i o n o f the hypothalamus i n w e a n l i n g r a t s has r e s u l t e d i n d e c r e a s e d p i t u i -t a r y s i z e and growth hormone c o n t e n t ( S t e p h a n , 1971). Growth hormone r e l e a s i n g f a c t o r a ppears t o be under h y p o t h a l a m i c con-t r o l : e i t h e r i t i s s e c r e t e d by the hypothalamus, o r i t s p r o -d u c t i o n i n the p i t u i t a r y i s s t i m u l a t e d by nerv o u s i m p u l s e s from the hypothalamus (Frohman et al., 1968, P e c i l e et a l . , 1971; S c h a l l y and A r i m u r a , 1971). Chow and Lee (1964) found t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f growth hormone f o r c o r r e c t i o n o f p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y i n d u c e d by m a l n u t r i t i o n must take p l a c e e a r l y i n o r d e r t o p e r m i t compen-s a t o r y growth. T h e i r p i t u i t a r y e x t r a c t , whose a c t i v e component appeared t o be growth hormone, was e f f e c t i v e i n p e r m i t t i n g com-p e n s a t o r y growth i n r a t s i f t h e r a p y was s t a r t e d a t t h r e e weeks of age but i n e f f e c t i v e a t t h r e e months o f age. T h e r e f o r e , i t would seem t h a t the p o t e n t i a l f o r c a t c h - u p growth i s l i m i t e d 33 -by age with body components eventually l o s i n g t h e i r impetus to grow. However, the c l a s s i c a l studies of McCay et a l . (1939) indica te that rats can maintain t h e i r growth p o t e n t i a l even a f t e r 700 days, and i n some cases 1000 days, of die tary r e s t r i c t i o n . Contrary to the f indings of Chow and Lee was the discovery of Barnes and co-workers (1973) that growth hormone was i n e f -f e c t i v e i n improving the growth rate or i n c r e a s i n g ult imate body s ize i n o f f s p r i n g of dams subjected to d i e t a r y d e p r i v a t i o n dur-ing pregnancy and/or l a c t a t i o n . Growth hormone apparently im-proved food u t i l i z a t i o n i n the o f f s p r i n g of the doubly-deprived dams as w e l l as i n the progeny of dams deprived during l a c t a t i o n alone. This suggests that the r e s t r i c t e d progeny who received growth hormone i n j e c t i o n s must have a l t e r e d t h e i r food intake i n order not to surpass n o n - i n j e c t e d o f f s p r i n g i n s i z e . It i s evident that an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p ex is t s between growth hormone and die tary s u f f i c i e n c y of p r o t e i n and c a l o r i e s . There are suggestions i n the l i t e r a t u r e that i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among several hormones are important i n c o n t r o l l i n g growth. In h y p o p i t u i t a r i s m , there i s a poor secre t ion of i n s u l i n so that rats s u f f e r i n g from this c o n d i t i o n require i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone plus i n s u l i n for optimal growth (Cheek, 1968). Since i n s u l i n and carbohydrates are necessary for the ac t ion of growth hormone (Guyton, 1966) , i t would appear that i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone to previously malnourished animals would be i n e f f e c t i v e unless adequate food was provided simultaneously. The food would 34 -not only provide raw materials for body growth but would i n -clude carbohydrates to stimulate i n s u l i n secretion. Another hormonal i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s suggested by Hsu (1973) who found that progeny of r e s t r i c t e d mothers had i n -creased thyroid weights. Such o f f s p r i n g had higher than normal collagen turnover as indicated by t h e i r hydroxyproline excretion. Increased hydroxyproline excretion has also been observed i n hyperthyroidism. This' finding o f f e r s an explanation for the notion that one defect i n pre n a t a l l y malnourished animals i s an increased rate of protein catabolism (Hsu, 1973) . It i s noteworthy that where thyroid i n s u f f i c i e n c y occurs in the r a t , there i s degeneration of the acidophil c e l l s of the hypophysis which are the s i t e s of growth hormone production (Cheek, 1968; Graystone and Cheek, 1969) . According to U r i s t (1972) , work-induced muscle growth re-sults from a combination of increased protein synthesis and decreased rate of protein catabolism. Hypophysectomized rats treated with growth hormone show an increased rate of protein synthesis but no decrease i n the rate of protein catabolism. This suggests that i t may not be possible to correct p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y with growth hormone i n j e c t i o n s alone. If indeed the growth retardation of prenatally undernourished rats can be attributed to p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y , treatment with ad l i b i t u m feeding plus early growth hormone i n j e c t i o n s may only permit catch-up growth at the expense of i n e f f i c i e n t feed u t i l i z a t i o n . 35 -CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHODS Sprague Dawley female r a t s ^ weighing 200 to 250 g. were mated overnight with males of the same s t r a i n . I f sperm were detected i n the vaginal smear taken on the subsequent morning, this was considered day 0 of prenancy. The age of the progeny was reckoned from th i s day (post-copulation) i n order to cor-rect for va r i a t i o n among l i t t e r s i n the length of the gestation period (Hughes and Tanner, 1970a). Pregnant rats were housed i n d i v i d u a l l y i n p l a s t i c cages and assigned to either the re-s t r i c t e d group or a control group. Restricted animals were fed an average of 12 g. of diet during pregnancy and 24 g. d a i l y during l a c t a t i o n , which was equivalent to approximately 50 per-cent of the amount consumed by ad l i b i t u m fed controls. Ani" mals were offered a diet of Purina Laboratory Chow once d a i l y in the morning; r e s t r i c t e d animals consumed a l l of the i r food each day usually within the f i r s t two hours. When the offspring were born, l i t t e r s were reduced to 8 pups retaining as many males as possible and including enough females to standardize l i t t e r s i z e . Two r e s t r i c t e d dams bore l i t t e r s of 5; these animals were not included i n the study. Male o f f s p r i n g of r e s t r i c t e d dams were randomly assigned to one of three groups: progeny who were to receive early ^Biobreeding Laboratories, Ottawa, Canada. 2 Ralston Purina Company, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 36 -i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone, administered from 42 to 63 days p o s t - c o p u l a t i o n (RE); progeny who were to r e c e i v e l a t e i n j e c -t i o n s of growth hormone, given from 112 to 133 days post-cop-u l a t i o n (RL) ; and progeny who were not to r e c e i v e growth hormone (RO). S i m i l a r l y , male c o n t r o l o f f s p r i n g were randomly assigned to three groups: those to be given e a r l y i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone (CE); those to be given i n j e c t i o n s of growth hormone l a t e r i n l i f e (CL); and those not to be given any growth hormone (CO). Progeny were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h ink markings at 28 days post-c o p u l a t i o n . When they developed f u r at 35 days P.C, d i l u t e p i c r i c a c i d (1.2 percent) was used f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , they were numbered by ear punching at. 49 days P.C. Animals were weaned at 49 days p o s t - c o p u l a t i o n . The l a c -t a t i o n p e r i o d was extended by 7 days s i n c e r e s t r i c t e d progeny r e p o r t e d l y b e n e f i t from a more gradual weaning (Stephan et al., 1971). During the f i n a l week of s u c k l i n g , animals n i b b l e d at t h e i r dams' d i e t . A f t e r weaning, a l l o f f s p r i n g were given Pur-ina Laboratory Chow ad libitum. Table I i n d i c a t e s the number of o f f s p r i n g assigned to a l l groups and the number of progeny s u r v i v i n g throughout the exper-imental p e r i o d . There were s e v e r a l a c c i d e n t a l deaths during anaesthesia f o r radiography, and one unexplained cage death. Several animals were removed from the study due to eye or foot i n f e c t i o n s which n e c e s s i t a t e d s p e c i a l treatment and absence from one or more measurement p e r i o d s . At 196 days P.C, c o n t r o l groups were reduced to 5 animals i n each. TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS Number Number at Number at at birth 84 days P.C. . 252 days P.C. Restricted progeny -early Growth Hormone (RE) 19 15 14 Restricted progeny -late Growth Hormone (RL) 18 15 15 Restricted progeny -no Growth Hormone (RO) 20 19 19 Control progeny -early Growth Hormone (CE) 12 12 5 Control progeny -late Growth Hormone (CL) 14 13 5 Control progeny -no. Growth Hormone (CO) 12 11 5 - 38 -P u r i f i e d bovine growth hormone"'" with an a c t i v i t y of 1.5 USP units per milligram was dissolved i n normal saline so that each.injection contained 0.2 mg. of growth hormone (0.3 USP units) in 0.5 ml. of sa l i n e . Animals were injected subcutan-eously 3 times weekly for 3 consecutive weeks according to the schedule of Chow and Lee (1964). B i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y of the growth hormone used was confirmed by i n j e c t i n g hypophysectom-ized rats on the same schedule as that used for experimental animals (see Table I I ) . At 35 days post-copulation a l l animals were weighed and, 2 under anaesthesia by ether, X-rayed and measured for body and t a i l length according to the methods of Hughes and Tanner (1970a) . Thereafter, animals were measured on a regular basis, f i r s t weekly, then biweekly, and f i n a l l y monthly, u n t i l 252 days post-copulation. At 400 days P.C, animals were weighed before s a c r i -f i c e i n order to ascertain differences among groups since 252 days P.C. Anaesthetized animals were taped to Kodak No-Screen Medi-3 cal X-ray f i l m i n the p o s i t i o n described by Hughes and Tanner (1970a,b). Animals were then X-rayed with a Picker Portable X-ray machine at a distance of 69.5 cm. using 2 second exposures at 50 k i l o v o l t s and 10 milliamperes. S t i l l under anaesthesia, animals were measured for nose-rump length and t a i l length on a measuring board equipped with a rump piece through which the t a i l i s placed, and s l i d i n g riders to indicate lengths. ^Courtesy of Dr. CH. L i , Univ. C a l i f . , Berkeley, C a l i f . , U.S.A. -Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 39 -TABLE II EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONE ON HYPOPHYSECTOMIZED RATS Animal Numb e r Treatment I n i t i a l Weight (g. F i n a l ) Weight (g.) Weight Change (g.) 1 Sal ine 94.1 93.8 - 0.3 3 89.6 91.0 + 1.4 9 91.0 90.2 - 0.8 14 94.5 93.0 - 1.5 15 86.0 89. 2 + 3.2 4 5 8 Growth 86.8 Hormone as administered 79.5 to expt '1 animals 86.0 106.0 107.7 107.5 +19.2 + 28.2 + 21. 5 10 77.0 102.5 + 25.0 12 83.5 102.5 + 19.0 16 88.2 116.0 + 27.8 2 6 7 Double Dosage of Growth Hormone 84.0 85.0 91.5 114.6 112. 8 119.4 + 30.6 + 27.8 + 27.9 11 88.5 111.5 + 23.0 17 86.5 116.5 + 30.0 18 82 . 5 108.5 + 26.0 - 40 -Radiographs were used to assess s k e l e t a l growth and devel -opment. As indica ted by f i g . 1, 17 measurements were made on the radiographs using a c a l i p e r reading to 0.1 mm., f o l l o w i n g the procedure developed by Hughes and Tanner (1970a). S k e l e t a l maturity was assessed on radiographs using a scor-ing system based on sequences of r e l i a b l e maturity i n d i c a t o r s which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of bone development (Hughes and Tanner, 1970b). Numerical rat ings were assigned to several bones i n the f o r e l i m b , h indl imb, and t a i l ( f i g . 2) on the b a s i s of wri t ten descr ip t ions of stages with accompanying diagrams. The rat ings for f o r e l i m b , h i n d l i m b , and t a i l were added to give 3 regional bone maturity scores with the sum of these 3 scores being the t o t a l bone maturi ty score. Since t a i l bone maturity scores were incomplete, only caudal vertebrae 8-11 were used to c a l c u l a t e a x i a l BMS. A l l measuring and scor ing was performed by one person so as to reduce v a r i a b i l i t y i n judgment. This i s e s p e c i a l l y important in assessing s k e l e t a l maturity since the stages were created by making somewhat a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n s i n what i s a continuous process . Growth v e l o c i t i e s throughout the experimental per iod were determined for body weight, nose-rump length , t a i l length , t o t a l body length , and the 17 s k e l e t a l measurements. Rates of develop-ment were determined using the bone maturity scores . Growth rates from one measurement per iod to another were c a l c u l a t e d for i n d i v i d u a l animals, then mean v e l o c i t i e s and standard 41 -1. V 12 10. i s : 16 14, 1. S k u l l length 1 2. S k u l l length 2 3. S k u l l width 1 4. S k u l l width 2 5. Forelimb length 6. Humerus length 7. Radius length 8. Lumbar vertebra length 9. P e l v i s length 10. P e l v i s width 11. I l i a c length 12. B i i l i a c width 13. C a l f muscle width 14. Hindlimb length 15. Femur length 16. T i b i a length 17. Caudal ver tebra length 17 F i g . 1. S k e l e t a l Measurements - 42 -Forelimb BMS Right humerus Left humerus Left radius Left ulna Left metacarpal II Left metacarpal III Left metacarpal IV Proximal phalange II Proximal phalange III Proximal phalange IV Hindlimb BMS Right femur Left femur 13. Right tibia Left t ibia Left calceneum Right metatarsal II Right metatarsal III 18. Right metatarsal IV 19. Proximal phalange II Proximal phalange III Proximal phalange IV .^-13. Axial BMS 22. Caudal 23. Caudal 24. Caudal 25. Caudal 26. Caudal 27. Caudal vertebrae 8+9 vertebrae 10+11 vertebrae 12+13 vertebrae 14+15 vertebrae 16+17 vertebrae 18 F i g . 2. S k e l e t a l Scoring - 43 -deviations for each group were determined. Results were graphed to ascertain differences in peak growth v e l o c i t i e s among groups. Tests of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences among groups were performed on the IBM 360/67 computer using Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Test with p = . 0 5 . An-a l y s i s of Variance provides a test of hypothesis of equal means when several independent samples are used. The samples may be compared with regards to i n d i v i d u a l c r i t e r i a i n order to determine whether the various populations d i f f e r with respect to these c r i t e r i a . When using Analysis of Variance with more than two groups, there i s a question as to which sample means are equiva-lent and which are d i f f e r e n t (Roscoe, 1969) . There i s no com-pl e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y solution to t h i s problem but information can be obtained with the use of a multiple range test such as Duncan's Multiple Range Test. This test groups sample means which are homogeneous. One disadvantage of the multiple range test i s that i t sometimes gives ambiguous r e s u l t s ; for example, there i s often some degree of overlap among homogeneous groups (Woolf, 1968) . Significance of differences among RE, RL, RO, CE, CL, and CO groups was tested with respect to body weight, nose-rump length, t a i l length, t o t a l body length, and a l l 17 s k e l e t a l measurements at 16 d i f f e r e n t ages from 35 to 252 days P.C. For forelimb, hindlimb, t a i l , and t o t a l bone maturity scores, comparisons were made among RE, RO, CE, and CO groups at 16 d i f f e r e n t ages. 44 -CHAPTER IV RESULTS Effects of Maternal Malnutrition on Growth Progeny Results indicate that there were no differences i n size or in rate of growth among the 3 r e s t r i c t e d groups (RE, RL, RO) or among the 3 control groups (CE, CL, CO).^ The growth hor-mone, whether administered early or late i n postnatal l i f e , had no e f f e c t on any of the dimensions measured at any age. Since the 3 r e s t r i c t e d groups appeared to be homogeneous as did the 3 control groups, results are reported only for the RO and CO groups in order to simplify the presentation. The growth and v e l o c i t y curves for RE, RL, and RO coincided, as did those of CEi CL, and CO. Figure 3 indicates that RO o f f s p r i n g weighed less than controls at a l l ages. S i m i l a r l y , throughout the study the RE group were smaller than normal animals. This f i n d i n g i s not con-sistent with the results of Chow and Lee (1964) or Stephan and co-workers (1971) who reported that the r e s t r i c t e d group given early growth hormone injections caught up to controls i n body weight. As shown by Table I I I , r e s t r i c t e d progeny were only s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r in weight at b i r t h than controls. L i t t e r sizes appear to be s i m i l a r for both r e s t r i c t e d and control animals; however, two r e s t r i c t e d l i t t e r s were excluded from the study due to their small s i z e . See Appendices A-F for tables of r e s u l t s . - 45 -35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 >< T3 01 C o o i 35 T 1 1 1 1 r 63 77 98 112 126 140 Age in days post - copulation 224 252 F i g . 3 Body Weight (above) and Weight Velocity (below) Restricted Control-- 46 -TABLE III BIRTH WEIGHTS OF RESTRICTED AND CONTROL PROGENY Mean b i r t h weight Mean no. a n i m a l s / l i t t e r of pups i n g. at b i r t h Restricted progeny 5.8910.791 12.00+2.16 Control progeny 6.60±0.86 11.67±2.50 Mean ± standard deviation. 47 -The v e l o c i t y of weight gain ( f i g . 3) was lower for r e s t r i c t e d progeny compared to controls in early l i f e although peaks i n v e l -o c i t y occurred at the same ages for both RO and CO animals. The double peak i n v e l o c i t y i s i n agreement with the findings of Hughes and Tanner (1970a) who recorded this phenomenon for male rats i n the same time period. The peak seen between 126 and 140 days P.C. for control animals cannot be explained. Restricted progeny were also s i g n f i c a n t l y shorter than controls at a l l ages. RO animals were s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter with respect to nose-rump length ( f i g . 4). Peak growth rates of nose-rump length d i f f e r e d for r e s t r i c t e d and control progeny ( f i g . 4). Although peak v e l o c i t i e s appeared to occur at the same time, nose-rump length v e l o c i t y increased e a r l i e r and decreased sooner i n CO animals than i n RO animals i n d i c a t i n g a s l i g h t delay i n the rapid growth period for RO o f f s p r i n g . RO animals had shorter t a i l s than CO animals at a l l ages and experienced a lag i n achieving maximum v e l o c i t y of t a i l growth ( f i g . 5). The forelimb lengths taken from radiographs indicate con-s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t differences between control and r e s t r i c t e d progeny ( f i g . 6). As was the case with t a i l lengths, animals reached t h e i r maximum growth v e l o c i t y for forelimb length a f t e r CO rats reached th e i r peak v e l o c i t i e s ( f i g . 6). Hindlimb growth patterns were very s i m i l a r to those for forelimb growth i n both groups of animals with r e s t r i c t e d 48 -uuu-id]s« -i 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 hi 1 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 A g e in d a y s p o s t - c o p u l a t i o n Fig.4. Nose - rump Length (above) and Nose- rump Length Velocity (below) R e s t r i c t e d C o n t r o l 49 -240 T H I — H I — 200 H 160 H £ E // i i I I I S 120 80 H • / / / — i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1—Ij—i 35 49 6 3 7 7 98 112 126 140 168 196 2 24 252 Fig. 5. Tail Length (above) and Tail Length Velocity (below) restricted Control 50 -75 65 55 H O) 1 45 .o | p 35 224 252 "I 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 Age in days post - copulation r 168 196 224 252 Fig. 6 Forelimb Length (above) and Forelimb Length Velocity (below) Restricted Control 51 offspring remaining s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter than controls at 252 days P.C. ( f i g . 7). Compared to controls, r e s t r i c t e d animals experienced a lag in reaching maximum growth rates with respect to hindlimb length ( f i g . 7). Hughes and Tanner (1970a) have des-cribed a second growth spurt i n hindlimb length around 80 days P.C. A s l i g h t i nterruption i n the deceleration of the growth rate i s seen around this time for both groups of animals i n t h i s study. The peak for controls between 112 and 126 days post-copu-l a t i o n appears to be an a r t i f a c t . As indicated by f i g . 8, p e l v i s length was s i g n i f i c a n t l y less i n r e s t r i c t e d animals than i n controls. As was the case with a l l other length measurements, peak growth rate with respect to pelvis length was delayed i n r e s t r i c t e d animals as compared to controls ( f i g . 8). P l o t t i n g the means of one dimension against the means of another at each age permits comparison between r e s t r i c t e d and control progeny with respect to shape (Hughes and Tanner, 1970a). As shown in figures 9 and 10, r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g were s i m i l a r to controls i n r a t i o s of body weight to nose-rump length and p e l -vis length to pelvis width. Therefore, differences between re-s t r i c t e d and control progeny were of size rather than shape. These results indicate that r e s t r i c t e d progeny have normal pro-portions despite t h e i r stunted s i z e . 52 110 n 90' E E •- 70-c 01 c <0 A E =5 50 c I / / / 30 J 1— 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 — i — 168 i r-l | — i 196 224 252 Age in days post - copulation Fig. 7. Hindlimb Length (above) and Hindlimb Length Velocity (below) Restricted Control 0.8 n 0.6 H > ra •o E E _ 0.4 > 01 c o .2 0.2' _> <u a. —i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1— 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 Age in days post - copulation r ——i 196 224 252 Fig. 8 Pelvis Length (above) and Pelvis Length Velocity (below) Restricted Control 54 -300 -i E E 200 H c .c at a in o z ioo H — i 1— 100 200 Body weight in g. 300 400 500 600 Fig. 9. Body Weight Plotted Against Nose - rump Length Restricted Control 20 n a. 0 H 1— 1 1 1 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 Pelvis length in mm. Fig. 10. Pelvis Length Plotted Against Pelvis Width Restricted Control 5 5 -E f f e c t s of Maternal M a l n u t r i t i o n on S k e l e t a l Development of Progeny There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s with respect to skele ta l maturation between the 2 groups of r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g i n which bone maturity scores were determined (RO and RE) or between their 2 c o n t r o l groups (CO and CE) . Therefore , exogenous growth hormone administered ear ly i n postnatal l i f e had no e f f e c t on the s k e l e t a l development of e i ther r e s t r i c t e d or contro l o f f s p r i n g . As indicated by f i g . 11, RO o f f s p r i n g experienced a lag i n forel imb maturity during e a r l y postnatal l i f e as compared to CO animals. By 49 days p o s t - c o p u l a t i o n , r e s t r i c t e d animals had caught up to controls with respect to forelimb bone maturity score (BMS). Therefore, between days 35 and 49 P . C , r e s t r i c t e d progeny experienced an a c c e l e r a t i o n of the maturational process with respect to forelimb bone maturi ty . The peak rate of forelimb maturation was higher i n r e s t r i c t e d progeny than i n c o n t r o l s , permit t ing rapid catch-up i n forel imb BMS ( f i g . 1 1 ) . Figure 12 indica tes that the developmental lag was also experienced with respect to hindlimb maturation. As with the f o r e l i m b , the developmental lag e a r l y i n postnatal l i f e was f o l -lowed by a period of accelerated bone maturation r e s u l t i n g i n catch-up to controls. The peak v e l o c i t y of development of r e s t r i c t e d progeny with respect to the hindlimb d i d not exceed the peak v e l -o c i t y of c o n t r o l progeny, as was the the case for the forel imb c ( f i g . 1 2 ) . However, the rate of development of r e s t r i c t e d progeny - 56 -140 n 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 Age in days post - copulation F i g . 11. Forelimb Bone Maturity Score (above) and Forelimb BMS Velocity (below) Restricted Control 57 -140 n 100 -6 0 -20 -0 i i i i ~i 1 1 1 1 r 4 - i 3H H 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 —i 1 1 1 1 1 1 - i ^ • 1 35 49 63 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 Age in days post - copulation Fig. 12. Hindlimb Bone Maturity (above) and Hindlimb BMS Velocity (below) Restricted Control 5 8 -remained high for a longer period of time as compared to con-t r o l s . The r e s u l t was that r e s t r i c t e d progeny caught up to controls with respect to hindlimb BMS s l i g h t l y l a t e r as com-pared to catch-up i n forelimb BMS. Figure 1 3 indicates the same developmental lag for t o t a l maturation as seen for forelimb and hindlimb maturation. By ap-proximately 5 9 days post-copulation, r e s t r i c t e d progeny had caught up to controls with respect to t o t a l BMS. Differences seen a f t e r this point were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The v e l o c i t y of bone maturation was greater for RO animals as compared to CO ani-mals between 3 8 and 5 9 days post-copulation ( f i g . 1 3 ) in order to permit catch-up i n bone maturation. With respect to bone maturation, r e s t r i c t e d progeny con-s i s t e n t l y experienced a developmental lag early i n postnatal l i f e as compared to controls. However, after a b r i e f period of ac-celerated development , r e s t r i c t e d progeny caught up to controls with respect to a l l bone maturity scores, while s t i l l remaining s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller i n s i z e . 59 300 i 35 49 63 —I : 1 1 1 1 1— 77 98 112 126 140 168 196 224 252 T 1 1 r 98 112 126 140 Age in days post - copulation 224 252 Fig.13. Total Bone Maturity Score (above) and Total BMS Velocity (below) Restricted C o n t r o l -60 -CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Effe c t s of Maternal Malnutrition on Growth of Progeny The dietary r e s t r i c t i o n imposed on maternal animals through-out pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n resulted in progeny who were, smaller at a l l ages with respect to weight, body length, and s k e l e t a l d i -mensions when compared to normal o f f s p r i n g . As w e l l , r e s t r i c t e d progeny appeared to suffer from growth retardation, reaching th e i r maximum s k e l e t a l growth v e l o c i t i e s at l a t e r ages as com-pared to controls. Growth hormone was i n e f f e c t i v e as a growth-accelerating agent for a l l groups of animals studied, so that r e s t r i c t e d animals did not experience catch-up growth i n any of the dimensions measured. In 1964, the studies of Chow and Lee linked growth impair-ment with i n s u f f i c i e n t growth hormone i n the progeny . ( f i g . 14). The i n s u f f i c i e n c y of growth hormone was at t r i b u t e d to protein-c a l o r i e malnutrition i n the dams. Deficiency of protein, c a l o r i e s i n maternal di e t I n s u f f i c i e n t growth hormone in progeny Growth impairment of progeny Figure 14. Speculated Mechanism for Growth Impairment of Re-s t r i c t e d Progeny According to Chow and Lee (1964) . 61 -The theory was supported by t h e i r finding that exogenous growth hormone permitted catch-up growth in the progeny of r e s t r i c t e d dams. However, evidence to the contrary has been presented i n this study and others (Kwong et a l . , 1972; Barnes et a l . , 1973). According to Barnes' group (1973), who f a i l e d to f i n d e v i -dence supporting the existence of growth hormone induced catch-up growth, discrepant r e s u l t s among laboratories may be a t t r i -buted to the adequacy of the post-weaning d i e t . They suggest that, r e s t r i c t e d progeny may benefit from growth hormone therapy only when the post-weaning diet alone i s not optimal for growth. It i s assumed that Chow and Lee (1964) fed t h e i r weanling rats the same stock given to the dams. Since this diet permitted the same growth pattern in offspring as that obtained with commer-^  c i a l chow, i t would seem that t h e i r post-weaning diet was equi^ valent to the one used i n th i s study. There are no apparent d i f -ferences i n experimental procedures between the present study and Chow's and Lee's which could account for the differences i n results obtained with growth hormone. Sprague Dawley rats are sim i l a r to rats of the McCollum s t r a i n used by Chow and Lee (Chow et a l . , 1969). There was s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n between studies i n the period of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n : Chow's and Lee's rats were re-s t r i c t e d in diet during the mating period while our r e s t r i c t e d rats were fed ad l i b i t u m u n t i l day 0 of pregnancy. Chow and Lee do not report the age at which t h e i r animals were weaned so i t i s possible that t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d o f fspring were fed ad l i b i t u m 62 at an e a r l i e r age. The rats i n the present study were subjected to anaesthesia and X - i r r a d i a t i o n ; i t i s not known whether these procedures affected t h e i r growth. However, rad i a t i o n levels used were lower than those used to impair growth i n other studies. Zeman and co-workers (1973) were able to e l i c i t increased growth response in epiphyseal width, t i b i a l length, and body weight with administration of growth hormone to progeny of pro-t e i n - d e f i c i e n t females. Perhaps t h e i r results c o n f l i c t with the findings i n this laboratory because of differences i n the severity of the protein r e s t r i c t i o n of dams. The experimental design i n the present study does not per-mit separation of the influence of maternal deprivation during the periods of gestation and l a c t a t i o n . Barnes e i a l . (1973) studied the e f f e c t of exogenous growth hormone on progeny of dams subjected to dietary deprivation during pregnancy and/or la c t a -tion. Growth hormone did not influence growth rate or f i n a l body size of r e s t r i c t e d progeny but i t did improve e f f i c i e n c y of food u t i l i z a t i o n i n the o f f s p r i n g of doubly-deprived dams and o f f s p r i n g of dams deprived during l a c t a t i o n alone. The progeny who received growth hormone must have altered t h e i r food intake i n order to remain as small as the non-injected progeny. It is tempting to speculate that the r e s t r i c t e d progeny are somehow programmed early i n l i f e to reach a s p e c i f i c f i n a l size with this f i n a l size f a l l i n g short of that expected i n unrestricted animals. If the growth poten t i a l of c e r t a i n tissues i s limited by reduced c e l l number due - 63 -to f e t a l malnutrition, i t might be advantageous for the growing fetus or neonate to suffer growth impairment of other body parts i n order to preserve normal body proportions. Evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that such a homeostatic mechanism may exi s t (Huxley, 1972; Mosier, 1973). Restricted progeny i n t h i s study . appear to have normal proportions as indicated by plots of d i -mensions such as body weight against t o t a l length, or p e l v i s length against p e l v i s width where r a t i o s of dimensions of re-s t r i c t e d animals are s i m i l a r to those of controls. Therefore, despite evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Thompson, 1959; Huxley, 1972) for d i f f e r e n t i a l growth rates of various body parts and, hence, unequal ef f e c t s of undernutrition on various body parts, normal body shape was not alt e r e d i n th i s study. Since r e s t r i c t e d pro-geny are permanently stunted i n s i z e , perhaps t o t a l body growth i s limited by the mechanism c o n t r o l l i n g normal body proportions superimposed on the impaired growth of a part or parts of the body. According to Tanner (1963), the shape of an animal i s not influenced by changes i n the rate of growth, suggesting that the regulation of shape d i f f e r s from the regulation of si z e . Accord-ing to Mosier (1971), f a i l u r e of catch-up growth by one part of an organism after growth impairment may r e s u l t from e i t h e r : damage to growth mechanisms of the part; or r e s t r i c t i o n of growth of the part by a control operating to maintain normal proportions in the organism. Since the period of n u t r i t i o n a l deprivation i n the present study extended throughout the phases of maximum growth - 64 -v e l o c i t y for a l l parts of the body, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine which part or parts might be l i m i t i n g . Research aimed at study-ing the e f f e c t s of t ransient periods of m a l n u t r i t i o n during ges-t a t i o n and l a c t a t i o n might help to c l a r i f y th is i s s u e . The hypothesis presented by Chow and Lee (1964) was expanded somewhat by Stephan et a l . (1971) who found that r e s t r i c t e d pro-geny had smaller than normal p i t u i t a r i e s ( f i g . 15). D e f i c i e n c y of p r o t e i n , c a l o r i e s i n maternal d i e t Decreased p i t u i t a r y s i z e i n progeny I n s u f f i c i e n t growth hormone i n progeny Growth impairment of progeny Figure 15. Expanded Explanation for Growth Impairment of R e s t r i c t e d Progeny Offered by Stephan et al. (1971). According to U r i s t (1972), p i t u i t a r y growth hormone does not c o n t r o l a l l growth phenomena. In some s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g humans and r a t s , growth and development during prenatal and ear ly postnatal l i f e can proceed i n the absence of growth hor-mone s e c r e t i o n . P i t u i t a r y dwarfs u s u a l l y have normal b i r t h weights and do not show a dec l ine i n growth rate u n t i l severa l weeks a f t e r b i r t h (Catt , 1971). Since the experimental progeny i n the present study were subjected to the e f f e c t s of t h e i r dams' d ie tary d e p r i v a t i o n during gestat ion as w e l l as l a c t a t i o n , i t would seem that disturbance i n growth was being i n i t i a t e d at a stage when growth hormone was not e s s e n t i a l . 65 -In view of the uncertain role of growth hormone i n pre-natal l i f e , i t appears that the d e f i c i e n c i e s in p i t u i t a r i e s of r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g may be primarily the consequence rather than the cause of permanent growth stunting ( f i g . 16). So l i t t l e i s understood about the action of growth hormone, that even i f the Deficiency of protein, calories in maternal diet Failure of local growth mechanisms causing proportional decrease in size of a l l body parts Decreased pituitary size (progeny) Insufficient growth hormone in progeny Further growth impairment of progeny Figure 16. Proposed Modification of the Theory of Stephan et a l . (1971). animals i n question have lower than normal l e v e l s of c i r c u l a t i n g growth hormone, this condition cannot be considered an i n d i c a t i o n that growth hormone levels are the l i m i t i n g factor for normal growth. C i r c u l a t i n g l e v e l s of growth hormone as measured by radioimmunoassay give no i n d i c a t i o n of growth hormone a c t i v i t y , s t a b i l i t y , or normalcy with regards to hormone-tissue interac-tion (Laron et a l . , 1971; Muller et a l . , 1971; Moshang et a l . , 1974). Growth hormone le v e l s i n the plasma give no i n d i c a t i o n of production rates. Growth hormone synthesis may be decreased while growth hormone release may be increased (Akikusa, 1971). • 66 -Ci r c u l a t i n g growth hormone i s probably not a single e n t i t y . According to Stuart (1971) , human growth hormone can be separated into three fractions which d i f f e r i n molecular weight, b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , and r e l a t i o n to t o t a l human growth hormone. Stachura and Frohman (1973) d i f f e r e n t i a t e the large growth hormone mole-cule found in the p i t u i t a r y from small growth hormone which c i r -culates i n the blood. Large growth hormone does not appear to be a simple aggregate of small growth hormone molecules but rather a combination of small growth hormone and another simultaneously synthesized protein. According to Shrader and Zeman (1973b), increased postnatal food intake resulted in increased p i t u i t a r y weight and, to a lesser extent, increased biosynthetic c a p a b i l i t y of p i t u i t a r i e s in progeny of p r o t e i n - r e s t r i c t e d dams. However, regardless of the postnatal d i e t , incubated p i t u i t a r i e s from r e s t r i c t e d o f f -spring released twice as much growth hormone as did control p i -t u i t a r i e s . This finding suggests that p i t u i t a r i e s of r e s t r i c t e d progeny may have a reduced capacity to produce substances to s t a b i l i z e newly synthesized growth hormone. Turner (1973) suggests that there may be an impairment i n hormone-tissue i n t e r a c t i o n i n malnutrition so that a l t e r a t i o n s in levels of c i r c u l a t i n g growth hormone may be inconsequential to growth hormone a c t i v i t y . According to Catt (1971), the short stature of pygmies is due to tissue unresponsiveness to human growth hormone rather than to secretion of f u n c t i o n a l l y inactive growth hormone. 67 -Elevated growth hormone levels i n diabetes have been at-tributed to a decrease i n the clearance rate rather than an i n -crease i n secretion (Godard, 1973). Therefore, altered growth hormone levels i n other conditions such as malnutrition are not necessarily the consequence of an endocrine abnormality. In agreement with Pimstone et al. (1973a), Raghuramulu and Jaya Rao (1974) suggest that l i v e r abnormalities r e s u l t i n g i n impaired degradation of growth hormone may be responsible for high levels of c i r c u l a t i n g human growth hormone i n kwashiorkor. They also suggest that hepatic dysfunction may re s u l t i n decreased syn-thesis of somatomedin; the lower than normal levels of somatome-din may stimulate the p i t u i t a r y to secrete more growth hormone. Robinson (1973) believes that the "true" growth-promoting factor may be something other than growth hormone i t s e l f , perhaps soma-tomedin. In the presence of high concentrations ofradioimmuno-assayable growth hormone, concentration of th i s intermediary may be too low to promote growth. According to Beas and Muzzo (1973), there appear to be high levels of growth hormone secreted i n mal-n u t r i t i o n which are inactive i n stimulating somatomedin for c a r t i -laginous growth. Catt (1971) suggests that renal uptake and metabolism of growth hormone may be an es s e n t i a l step i n i t s a c t i v a t i o n . There-fore, i f renal function of progeny i s impaired by malnutrition of dams, ac t i v a t i o n of growth hormone may be altered as a con-sequence. According to Al l e n and Zeman (1973), there i s some 68 components: prolongation of the growth period; and acceleration of the growtli rate during realimentation. It would seem that the mechanism which delayed the peak growth rate of r e s t r i c t e d animals i n this study provided some opportunity for compensatory growth to take place. However, peak v e l o c i t i e s for s k e l e t a l growth occurred p r i o r to the time that ad l i b i t u m feeding of the progeny was i n i t i a t e d . It i s f e a s i b l e that r e s t r i c t e d pro-geny might have experienced a larger growth spurt i f t h e i r diet had been optimal at the time that they reached t h e i r peak growth rate. According to Wilson and Osbourn (1960), undernutrition disturbs the normal re l a t i o n s h i p between chronological and physio-l o g i c a l age; when an animal i s realimented, i t tends to grow at a rate appropriate for i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l age. However, the l i k e -lihood^, of recovering from undernutrition i s diminished with i n -creasing severity and duration of the r e s t r i c t i o n . It would ap-pear that animals can extend or delay the growth period to a certain extent but there are temporal l i m i t s to the delay (Mc-Cance and Widdowson, 1962). Perhaps growth rate i s a size-de-pendent phenomenon up to a c e r t a i n point i n time but thereafter i s limited by the chronological age of the animal. Recent reports from Williams, Tanner, and Hughes (1974a) indicate that rats malnourished during early postnatal l i f e are able to experience catch-up growth i n s k e l e t a l dimensions while remaining below t h e i r normal weight throughout t h e i r l i v e s . The authors conclude from t h e i r findings that t h e i r experimental - 69 -animals experienced what could be described as "pure growth de-lay" with respect to s k e l e t a l growth while p o t e n t i a l for weight gain was permanently impaired, possibly due to reduction i n adi-pocyte number as a consequence of early postnatal malnutrition. Results of the present study suggest that "pure growth delay" of the skeleton did not occur, possibly because r e s t r i c t e d pro-geny were malnourished prenatally as well as postnatally. Since the extent of the growth delay was l i m i t e d , the p o t e n t i a l for catch-up growth was also l i m i t e d . There appear to be several types of growth impairment and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for mechanisms could be l i m i t l e s s . Growth stunting of X-irradiated rats i s not corrected by growth hormone or thyroxine, suggesting that growth impairment i n that s i t u a t i o n i s not a consequence of p i t u i t a r y i n s u f f i c i e n c y (Mosier, 1 9 7 3 ; Mosier and Jansons, 1970). According to Stephan et a l . ( 1 9 7 1 ) , the progeny of underfed dams w i l l respond to growth hormone which is i n e f f e c t i v e i n rats stunted due to some vitamin d e f i c i e n c i e s . However, as indicated by results of this study and others, growth hormone cannot be depended upon to correct growth impairment due to maternal malnutrition. Effects of Maternal Malnutrition on Ske l e t a l Development of Progeny In addition to i t s e f f e c t on s k e l e t a l growth, prenatal and early postnatal malnutrition has been shown i n th i s study and others to influence the progress of bone maturation i n d i c a t i n g 70 -that development of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres in bones i s not purely an age-dependent process (Shrader and Zeman, 1973a,b; Williams et al. , 1974a,b). Prenatal protein deficiency i n rats i s known to delay d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of bones regardless of the diet during suckling (Shrader and Zeman, 1973a). As well, f e t a l malnutri-tion i n humans can r e s u l t i n delayed appearance of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres at the knee (Scott and Usher, 1964). According to Wil-liams et a l . (1974a), rats r e s t r i c t e d during l a c t a t i o n have nor-mal body weights and lengths for t h e i r bone maturity score early in l i f e due to delayed bone maturation, but by the end of the growth period they are markedly underweight for bone maturity score as compared to controls. In the present study s k e l e t a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was delayed i n early postnatal l i f e as indicated by radiographs of r e s t r i c t e d progeny taken from 35 to 56 days post-copulation. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to study s k e l e t a l ma-turation at e a r l i e r time periods, including the prenatal phase, in order to determine the point at which the developmental lag begins for r e s t r i c t e d progeny. It would appear that the developmental lag experienced by r e s t r i c t e d progeny makes provision for some degree of compensa-tory growth. In early postnatal l i f e , the delay in maturity coincides with the growth retardation discussed i n the previous section. However, the mechanism which triggers the acceleration of the rate of maturation, which results i n r e s t r i c t e d progeny catching up to controls with respect to BMS, l i m i t s the oppor-tunity for catch-up in s i z e . According to Williams et a l . (1974a), 71 when maturation of a tissue proceeds while growth i n size i s s arrested, catch-up may be incomplete. In the study of Shrader and Zeman (1973b), the lag in for -mation of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres was corrected with i n j e c t i o n s of thyroxine. According to Catt (1971), normal osteogenesis re-quires both growth hormone and thyroxine. Thyroid hormone ap-pears to be important for growth hormone synthesis and storage, with thyroid i n s u f f i c i e n c y in the rat leading to degeneration of the acidophil c e l l s of the p i t u i t a r y and secondary growth hormone deficiency (Cheek, 1968). Thyroid hormone has been shown to stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete growth hormone releas-ing factor (Catt, 1971). In addition to i t s synergism with growth hormone, thyroxine has a d i r e c t e f f e c t on growth. How-ever..,.- exogenous thyroxine i s not suitable for correction of growth impairment i n children since i t can hasten s k e l e t a l maturity, thus l i m i t i n g the po t e n t i a l for catch-up growth i n siz e (Tanner et al. , 1971) . Shrader and Zeman (1973b) suggest that both the growth re-tardation of their r e s t r i c t e d animals and the delay in s k e l e t a l maturation are due to prenatal suppression of hypothalamic-hypo-physeal development ( f i g . 17). It seems u n l i k e l y that the delay in development of o s s i f i c a t i o n centres can be attr i b u t e d to the same factor which caused growth impairment. When exogenous thy-roxine corrected the delay i n s k e l e t a l development, there was no concomitant correction of growth impairment. If the action of 72 Deficiency of protein, c a l o r i e s in maternal diet Impairment in hypothalamic-hypophyseal development I n s u f f i c i e n t growth hormone in progeny I n s u f f i c i e n t thyroxine production Growth impairment of progeny Figure 17. Model Constructed from Speculation of Shrader and Zeman (1973b). thyroxine on bone maturation was mediated by stimulation of growth hormone, the growth hormone produced did not improve growth of the r e s t r i c t e d progeny. Malnutrition and hypothyroidism have several common char-a c t e r i s t i c s including reduced nutrient intake, low basal meta-b o l i c rate and serum thyroxine, and perhaps low le v e l s of growth hormone. However, i t i s not known whether the changes r e s u l t i n g from malnutrition can be attributed to hypothyroidism, or whether alterations accompanying hypothyroidism are secondary to anorexia (Muzzo et a l . , 1973). According to Krieger and Woolley (1974), the permanent growth impairment of malnourished rats and children who have low basal metabolic rates may be due to d e f i c i t s i n organ size and, hence, decrease i n metabolically active t i s s u e . A low basal metabolic rate appears to be a common feature of infants who have suffered intrauterine growth retardation. 73 However, Hsu (1973) found that r e s t r i c t e d progeny had thy-roids which were heavier than thyroids of controls. Offspring from underfed mothers had an increased rate of turnover of s o l -uble collagen as indicated by high rates of hydroxyproline ex-c r e t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , increased rates of hydroxyproline excretion have been observed i n hyperthyroidism and i n patients adminis-tered thyroxine. Therefore, there i s no r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n that progeny of malnourished mothers require a d d i t i o n a l thyroxine. General Discussion I f growth hormone status i s involved i n the growth impair-ment of r e s t r i c t e d progeny, the r e l a t i o n s h i p must be complex i n view of the c o n f l i c t i n g r esults among groups attempting to e l i c i t catch-up growth with growth hormone therapy. Some workers have used growth hormone therapy i n the successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of previously malnourished children (Muzzo et a l . , 1973b). Others suggest that hormonal substances may i n fact be contraindicated i n such children since the decrease i n endocrine a c t i v i t y may be an adaptive mechanism for conserving energy ( P e r l o f f , 1954; Pim-stone et a l . , 1966, 1971; Hadden et a l . , 1967). Since growth hormone is not d i r e c t l y involved i n stimulating s k e l e t a l growth i t may be important i n future research to focus attention on soma-tomedin levels in p e r i n a t a l malnutrition. Based on findings of various studies discussed i n the pre-vious section, the following model ( f i g . 18) i s proposed i n order 74 -to indicate some relationships between growth hormone status and growth impairment of r e s t r i c t e d o f f s p r i n g . Perhaps under various experimental conditions c e r t a i n defects predominate influencing the' p o t e n t i a l for correction of the growth impair-ment. Animal studies indicate that a maternal diet d e f i c i e n t i n protein and calories during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n permanently stunted'progeny. Due to problems i n extrapolating results from one species to another, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ascer-t a i n what implications our findings have fo r human beings. For example, there are differences among species i n the stage of development reached in u t e r o , and i n the r e l a t i o n between the amount of new protein to be synthesized and the mother's body s i z e . According to Naismith (1968), rats fed a low protein diet met almost one-half O f the protein requirements of pregnancy by reducing nitrogen excretion. Since the amount of new protein to be synthesized i s smaller i n r e l a t i o n to the mother's size in humans than i n rats, maternal adaptations might be expected to protect the human fetus from d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the mother's d i e t . In one of the few studies of the effects of supplementing a mar-g i n a l l y inadequate human diet during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n (Blackwell et a l . , 1973), preliminary results do not indicate that supplements of protein and c a l o r i e s provide an unqualified advantage i n terms of growth of the o f f s p r i n g . Supplemented male progeny were s i g n i f i c a n t l y heavier and longer than t h e i r 7 5 -Deficiency of protein and c a l o r i e s in the maternal diet Impaired l i v e r development Low plasma protein Impaired renal function Impaired [development of] hypothalamus I n s u f f i c i e n t synthesis growth hormone Inactivation of [growth hormone \ Defect i n peripheral! growth mechanism 'Growth Impairment of progeny Defective enzyme systems for protein metabolism Defect in catabol-ism of growth hor-mone Inadequate production somatomedin Figure 18. Proposed Interrelationships Between Growth Hormone Status and Growth Impairment of Restricted Progeny. 76 -non-supplemented brothers but the magnitude of the differences between groups was small. However, the mothers i n this study-were only marginally malnourished. No differences i n size were found between female o f f s p r i n g of supplemented and non-supple-mented mothers. This may be due to sex differences i n effects of malnutrition; animal studies indicate that males are more susceptible than females to perinatal.growth impairment re-sulting.from maternal undernutrition (Chow et a l . , 1969). A l -though studies of the influence of maternal malnutrition i n hu-mans are inconclusive with regard to growth impairment of o f f -spring, i t would seem that subtle effects may be exerted. I f p e r i n a t a l malnutrition in the rat can be considered an exag-gerated model of human f e t a l and neonatal malnutrition, the im-portance of good n u t r i t i o n a l practices during pregnancy and lac-t a t i o n should not be overlooked i n planning feeding programmes to combat world n u t r i t i o n problems. 77 -LITERATURE CITED Acheson, R.M., M.N. Maclntrye, and E. Oldham. Techniques i n longitudinal studies of the s k e l e t a l development of the rat. Br. J. Nutr. 13:283-292, 1959. Adams, P. The eff e c t of experimental malnutrition on the devel-opment of long bones. B i b l . Nutr. Dieta 13:69-73, 1969. Akikusa, Y. Effect of starvation on synthesis and release of growth hormone and p r o l a c t i n in the rat anterior p i t u i t a r y . Endocrinol. Jap. 18:411-416, 1971. A l l e n , L.H., and F.J. Zeman. Kidney function i n the progeny of protein-deficient r a t s . J. Nutr. 103:1467-1478, 1973. Badger, T.M., M.E. Tumbleson, and D.P. Hutcheson. Protein c a l -o r ie malnutrition in young S i n c l a i r (S-l) miniature swine. Growth 36:235-245, 1972. Barker, D.J.P. Low i n t e l l i g e n c e - i t s r e l a t i o n to length of gesta-t i o n and rate of f o e t a l growth. Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 20: 58-66, 1966. Barnes, R.H., E. Kwong, L. Morrissey, L. V i l h j a l m s d o t t i r , and D.A. Levitsky. Maternal protein deprivation during preg-nancy or la c t a t i o n i n rats and the e f f i c i e n c y of food and nitrogen u t i l i z a t i o n of the progeny. J. Nutr. 103:273-284, Beas, F., and S. Muzzo. Growth hormone and malnutrition: the Chilean experience. In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutr i t i o n , Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 1-18, 1973. Berg, B.N. Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n and reproduction i n the rat. J. Nutr. 87:344-348, 1965. Berg, B.N. Maintenance of pregnancy in protein-deprived rats by transitory protein supplements during early gestation. J. Nutr. 92:66-70, 1967. Blackwell, R.Q., B.F. Chow, K.S.K. Chinn, B.N. Blackwell, and S.C. Hsu. Prospective maternal n u t r i t i o n study i n Taiwan: ra t i o n a l e , study design, f e a s i b i l i t y , and preliminary f i n d -ings. Nutr. Reports International 7:517-532, 1973. Bohman, V.R., and C. T o r e l l . Compensatory growth of beef c a t t l e : the e f f e c t of protein supplements. J. Anim. Sc. 15:1089-1096, 1956. 78 -Brasel, J.A., and M. Winick. Maternal n u t r i t i o n and prenatal growth. Arch. Dis. Child. 47:479-485, 1972. Brazeau, P., J. R i v i e r , W. Vale, and R. Guillemin. I n h i b i t i o n of growth hormone secretion in the rat by synthetic soma-t o s t a t i n . Endocrinology 94:184-187, 1974. Cabeza, A., Y.N. Sinha, and W.P. Vanderlaan. Endocrine aspects of compensatory growth after undernutrition: studies with a rat model. In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i -f o r n i a , pp. 459-466, 1973. Caldwell, D.F. and J.A.. C h u r c h i l l . Learning a b i l i t y i n the pro-geny of rats administered a pr o t e i n - d e f i c i e n t diet during the second half of gestation. Neurology 17:95-99, 1967. Catt, K.J. An ABC of Endocrinology. L i t t l e , Brown and Co., Boston, 1971. Cheek, D.B. C e l l u l a r growth hormone, n u t r i t i o n , and time. Ped-i a t r i c s 41:30-46, 1968. Cheek, D.B., and R.E. Cooke. Growth and growth retardation. Annu. Rev. Med. 15:357-382, 1964. Chow, B.F. Growth of rats from normal dams r e s t r i c t e d i n diet i n previous pregnancies. J. Nutr. 83:289-292, 1964. Chow, B.F., and C.J. Lee. E f f e c t of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n of preg-nant rats on body weight gain of the of f s p r i n g . J. Nutr. 82:10-18, 1964. Chow, B.F., R.Q. Blackwell, B.N. Blackwell, T.Y. Hou, J.K. Ani-lane, and R.W. Sherwin. Maternal n u t r i t i o n and metabolism of the offspring: studies i n rats and man. Am. J . Public Health 58:668-677, 1968. Chow, B.F., R. Sherwin, A.M. Hsueh, B.N. Blackwell, and R.Q. Blackwell. Growth and development of rats i n r e l a t i o n to the maternal d i e t : a review. B i b l . Nutr. Dieta 11:45-56, 1969. Clarke, M.F., and A.H. Smith. Recovery following suppression of growth i n the rat. J. Nutr. 15:245-255, 1938. Cowley, J . J . , and R.D. G r i e s e l . The e f f e c t on growth and behavior of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g f i r s t and second generation low protein ra t s . Anim. Behav. 14:506-517, 1966. 79 -Cravioto, J. Application of new knowledge of n u t r i t i o n on physi-cal and mental growth and development. Am. J. Public Health 53:1803-1809, 1963. Daughaday, W.H. The s u l f a t i o n factor hypothesis of growth hor-mone action on c a r t i l a g e . Excerpta Medica 236:7, 1971. Dickerson, J.W.T., and R.A. McCance. Severe undernutrition i n growing and adult animals. 8. The dimensions and chemistry of the long bones. Br. J. Nutr. 15:567-576, 1961. Dickerson, J.W.T., P.C.R. Hughes, and P.A. McAnulty. The growth and development of rats given a low protein d i e t . Br. J. Nutr. 27:527-536, 1972. Dobbing, J . Undernutrition and the developing brain- the r e l e -vance of animal models to the human problem. B i b l . Nutr. Dieta 17:36-45, 1972. Dobbing, J . , and J . Sands. V u l n e r a b i l i t y of developing brain. IX. The e f f e c t of n u t r i t i o n a l growth retardation on the tim-ing of the brain growth spurt. B i o l . Neonate 19:363-378, 1971. Enwonwu, CO., and V. Glover. E f f e c t of maternal malnutrition during pregnancy and l a c t a t i o n on hepatic protein metabolism i n the infant r a t : biochemical and u l t r a s t r u c t u r a l studies. Am. J. C l i n . Nutr. 23:3-16, 1973. Frohman, L.A., L.L. Bernardis, and K.J. Kant. Hypothalamic stimu-l a t i o n of growth hormone secretion. Science 162:580-582, 1968. Godard, C. Plasma growth hormone levels i n severe i n f a n t i l e mal-n u t r i t i o n i n B o l i v i a . In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 19-30, 1973. Graystone, J . C , and D.B. Cheek. The effects of reduced c a l o r i c intake and increased insulin-induced c a l o r i c intake on the c e l l growth of muscle, l i v e r , and cerebrum and on skel e t a l collagen i n the postweanling r a t . Pediatr. Res. 3:66-76, 1969. Guthrie, H.A.,and M.L. Brown. E f f e c t of severe undernutrition i n early l i f e on growth, brain s i z e and composition i n adult r a t s . J. Nutr. 94:419-426, 1968. Guyton, A.C Textbook of Medical Physiology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London, pp. 1038-1044, 1966. 80 Hadden, D.R., and I.H.E. Ratishauser. E f f e c t of human growth hormone i n kwashiorkor and marasmus. Arch. Dis. Ch i l d . 42:29-33, 1967. Hammond, J. Physiological factors a f f e c t i n g b i r t h weight. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2:8-12, 1944. Hanson, H.M., and M. Simonson. Effects of f e t a l undernourish-ment on experimental anxiety. Nutr. Reports International 4:307-314, 1971. Hawrylewicz, E.J., J.Q. Kissane, and CA. Heppner. E f f e c t of maternal protein malnutrition on p e r i n a t a l brain mitochon-d r i a function. Nutr. Reports International 4:279-289, 1971. Hruza, Z., and P. Fabry. Some metabolic and endocrine changes due to long l a s t i n g c a l o r i c undernutrition. Gerontologia 1:279-287, 1957. Hsu, J.M. Effects of maternal dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on hydroxy-proline l e v e l s i n urine and tissues of the young. Proc. Soc. Exp. B i o l . Med. 143:171-175, 1973. Hsueh, A.M., C E . Agustin, and B.F. Chow. Growth of young rats a f t e r d i f f e r e n t i a l manipulation of maternal d i e t . J. Nutr. 91:195-200, 1967. Hsueh, A.M., M. Simonson, M.J. Kellum, and B.F. Chow. Perinatal undernutrition and the metabolic and behavioral development of the off s p r i n g . Nutr. Reports International 7:437-445, 1973. Hsueh, A.M., M. Simonson, B.F. Chow, and H.M. Hanson. The impor-tance of the period of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n of the dam on be-havior and growth i n the r a t . J. Nutr. 104:37-46, 1974. Huggett, A.St.G. Some ap p l i c a t i o n of prenatal n u t r i t i o n to infant development. Br. Med. B u l l . 4:196-206, 1946. Hughes, P.C.R.,' and J.M. Tanner. A longitudinal study of the growth of the black-hooded r a t : methods of measurement and rates of growth for s k u l l , limbs, p e l v i s , nose-rump and t a i l lengths. J. Anat. 106:349-370, 1970a. Hughes, P.C.R., and J.M. Tanner. The assessment of s k e l e t a l ma-t u r i t y i n the growing rat. J. Anat. 106:371-402, 1970b. Huxley, J.S. Problems of Relative Growth. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1972. 81 -Kerpel-Fronius, E., G. Gacs, and C. Hervei. Growth hormone i n marasmus due to cerebral disease. Am. J . Dis. C h i l d . 126: 303-309, 1974. Kerr, N.S. Pri n c i p l e s of Development. Wm. C. Brown Co., Pub-l i s h e r s , Iowa, 1967. Krieger, I., and P.V. Woolley. The basal metabolic rate i n growth f a i l u r e of prenatal onset. Am. J. Dis. Chi l d . 127:340-344, ' 1974. Krulic h , L., P. I l l n e r , C.P. Fawcett, M. Quyada, and S.M. McCann. Dual hypothalamic regulation of growth hormone secretion. ExcerptaMedica 236:73, 1971. Kwong, E., L. Morrissey, and R.H. Barnes. E f f e c t s of growth hormone on rats malnourished during gestational development or postnatal suckling. Fed. Proc. 31:679, 1972. Laron, Z., A. Pertzelan, M. Karp, A. Kowadlo-Silbergeld, and W.H. Daughaday. Administration of growth hormone to patients with f a m i l i a l dwarfism with high plasma immunoreactive growth hormone: measurement of s u l f a t i o n f a c t o r , metabolic and lin e a r growth responses. J. C l i n . Endocrinol. Metab. 33: 332-343, 1971. Lee, C.J., and B.F. Chow. Protein metabolism i n the off s p r i n g of underfed mother rats . J. Nutr. 87:439-443, 1965. Lee, C.J., and B.F. Chow. Metabolism of proteins by progeny of underfed mother rats. J. Nutr. 94:20-26, 1968. McCance, R.A., E.H.R. Ford, and W.A.B. Brown. Severe undernutri-t i o n i n growing and adult animals. 7. Development of the s k u l l , jaws, and teeth i n pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 15:213-224, 1961. McCance, R.A., and E.M. Widdowson. N u t r i t i o n and growth. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (Biol.) 156:326-334, 1962. McCay, CM., L.A. Maynard, G. Sperling, and L.L. Barnes. Retarded growth, l i f e span, ultimate body size and age changes in the Albino rat af t e r feeding diets r e s t r i c t e d i n c a l o r i e s . J . Nutr. 18:1-13, 1939. McFie, J., and H.F. Welbourn. E f f e c t of malnutrition i n infancy on the development of bone, muscle, and f a t . J. Nutr. 76: 97-105, 1962. - 82 -Meyer, J.H., W.C. Weir, and D.T. T o r e l l . Response of immature sheep to p a r t i a l starvation. J. Anim. S c i . 21:916-923, 1962. Meyer, J.H., and W.F.Clawson. Undernutrition and subsequent realimentation i n rats and sheep. J. Anim. S c i . 23:214-224, 1964. Mickelsen, 0., R. Schemmel, and J.L. G i l l . Influence of d i e t , sex, and age on s k e l e t a l size i n seven strains of ra t s . Growth 35:11-22, 1971. M i l l e r , Z., I. Poncet, and E. Takacs. Biochemical studies on experimental congenital malformations: f l a v i n nucleotides and f o l i c acid i n fetuses and l i v e r s from normal and ribo-f l a v i n - d e f i c i e n t r a t s . J. B i o l . Chem. 237:968-973, 1962. Moore, K.L. The Developing Human. W.B. Saunders Co., Toronto, 1973. Moshang, T., and V. Vaidya. Recovery from probable, acquired growth hormone deficiency. Am. J . Dis. Chi l d . 127:397-399, 1974. Mosier, H.D. Failure of compensatory (catch-up) growth i n the rat . Pediatr. Res. 5:59-63, 1971. Mosier, H.D. The control of catch-up i n unidimensional propor-tionate growth: experimental studies and a hypothesis. In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 425-457, 1973. Mosier, H.D., and R.A. Jansons. E f f e c t of x - i r r a d i a t i o n of s e l -ected areas of the head of the newborn rat on growth. Radiat. Res. 43:92-104, 1970. Mulinos, M.G., and L. Pomerantz. Pseudo-hypophysectomy. A con-d i t i o n resembling hypophysectomy produced by malnutrition. J. Nutr. 19:493-504, 1940. Muller, E.E., G. Guistina, D. Miedico, D. Cocchi, and A. P e c i l e . Analagous pattern of bioassayable and radioimmunoassayable growth hormone in some experimental conditions of rat and mouse. Excerpta Medica 236:13, 1971. Munro, H,N. N u t r i t i o n a l factors i n pe r i n a t a l l i f e : introduc-t i o n . Nutr. Reports International 7:353-359, 1973. Muzzo, S., and T. Gregory, and L.I. Gardner. Oxygen consumption by brain mitochondria of rats malnourished i n utero. J . Nutr. 103:314-317, 1973a. 83 -Muzzo, S., F. Beas, J.A. Brasel, and L.I. Gardner. The eff e c t s of hormones and malnutrition on mitochondrial oxygen con-sumption and DNA synthesis i n rat brain. In Endocrine As-pects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 191-204, 1973. Naismith, D.J. Adaptations i n the metabolism of protein during pregnancy and their n u t r i t i o n a l implications. Nutr. Reports International 7:383-390, 1973. Nelson, M.M., and H.M. Evans. Relation of dietary protein l e v e l s to reproduction in the r a t . J. Nutr. 51:71-84, 1953. Outhouse, J., and L.B. Mendel. The rate of growth. I. Its i n -fluence on the sk e l e t a l development of the Albino r a t . J. Exp. Zool. 64:257-282, 1933. Park, A.W., and B.A.J. Nowesielski-Slepowron. The effects of l i t t e r size on rat body growth. Acta Anat. 79:15-26, 1971. Pec i l e , A., E.E. Muller, M. F e l e c i , and C. Nett. Nervous system p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n growth hormone release from anterior p i -t u i t a r y gland. Excerpta Medica 236:11, 1971. Pe r l o f f , W.H., E.M. Lasche, J.H. Nadine, N.G. Schneeberg, and C.B. V i e i l l a r d . The starvation state and functional hypopi-tui t a r i s m . J.A.M.A. 155:1307-1313, 1954. Pimstone, B.L., W. Wittmann, J.D.L. Hansen, and P. Murray. Growth hormone and kwashiorkor. Lancet 2:779-780, 1966. Pimstone, B.L., D.J. Becker, and J.D.L. Hansen. The e f f e c t of malnutrition on human growth hormone secretion. Excerpta Medica 236:17, 1971. Pimstone, B.L., D.J. Becker, and J.D.L. Hansen. Human growth hormone and s u l f a t i o n factor i n pr o t e i n - c a l o r i e malnutrition. In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 73-90, 1973a. Pond, W.G., W.C. Wagner, J.A. Dunn, and E.F. Walker. Reproduction and early postnatal growth of progeny i n swine fed a protein-free diet during gestation. J . Nutr. 94:309-316, 1968. Pratt, C.W.M., and R.A. McCance. Severe undernutrition i n growing and adult animals. 2. Changes i n the long bones of growing cockerels held at fix e d weights by undernutrition. Br. J . Nutr. 14:75-84, 1960. 84 Pratt, C.W.M., and R.A. McCance. Severe undernutrition i n grow-ing and adult animals. 12. The extremeties of the long bones in pigs. Br. J . Nutr. 18:393-406, 1964.. Raghuramulu, N., and K.S. Jaya Rao. Growth hormone secretion in p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e malnutrition. J. C l i n . Endocrinol. Metab. 38:176, 1974. Rider, A.A., and B.F. Chow. Body weight changes i n rats rationed^ to t h e i r ad libitum feed intake. Nutr. Reports International 3:21-29, 1971. Rider, A.A., and M. Simonson. E f f e c t on rat o f f s p r i n g of maternal diet d e f i c i e n t i n ca l o r i e s but not i n protein. Nutr. Re-ports International 7:361-370, 1973. Robinson, H., T. Cocks, D. Kerr, and D. Picou. Fasting and post-prandial levels of plasma i n s u l i n and growth hormone i n mal-nourished Jamaican children, during catch-up growth and af t e r complete recovery. In Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition, Edited by L.I. Gardner and P. Amacher, The Kroc Foundation, C a l i f o r n i a , pp. 45-71, 1973. Roeder, L.M. E f f e c t of p e r i n a t a l undernourishment on c e l l pro-l i f e r a t i o n and enzyme synthesis. Fed. Proc. 31:679, 1972. Roeder, L.M. E f f e c t of the l e v e l of n u t r i t i o n on rates of c e l l p r o l i f e r a t i o n and of RNA and protein synthesis in the r a t . Nutr. Reports International 7:271-288, 1973. Roeder, L.M., and B.F. Chow. Maternal undernutrition and i t s long-term effects on the o f f s p r i n g . Am. J. C l i n . Nutr. 25: 812-821, 1972. Roscoe, J.T. Fundamental Research S t a t i s t i c s for the Behavioral  Sciences. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1969. Schally, A.V., and.A. Arimura. Growth hormone releasing hormone (G.H.R.H.) of the hypothalamus: i t s chemistry and i n vivo and in v i t r o e f f e c t s . Excerpta Medica 236:10, 1971. Schemmel, R., 0. Mickelsen, and U. Mostosky. Skeletal size i n obese and normal-weight littermate r a t s . C l i n . Orthop. 65:89-96, 1969. Scott, K.E., and R. Usher. Epiphyseal development i n f e t a l mal-n u t r i t i o n syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 270:822-824, 1964. Seier, L .C, T,J. Devlin, and R.J. Parker. E f f e c t of qu a l i t y and quantity of protein on body growth and hair growth of the rat. J. Nutr. 101:947-951, 1971. 85 Shaw, J.H. Marginal protein deficiency during the reproductive cycle in rats : influence on body weight and development of skul l s and teeth of of f s p r i n g . J . Dent, Res. 49:350-358, 1970. Shaw, J.H., and D. G r i f f i t h s . Dental abnormalities i n rats at-tributable to protein deficiency during reproduction. J . Nutr. 80:123-141, 1963. Shrader, R.E., and F.J. Zeman. E f f e c t of maternal protein re-s t r i c t i o n on postnatal growth hormone production and bone development i n the r a t . Fed. Proc. 31:679, 1972. Shrader, R.E., and F.J. Zeman. Skeletal development i n rats as affected by maternal protein deprivation and postnatal food . supply. J. Nutr. 103:792-801, 1973a. Shrader, R.E., and F.J. Zeman. In v i t r o synthesis of anterior p i t u i t a r y growth hormone as affected by maternal protein de-pr i v a t i o n and postnatal food supply. J . Nutr. 103:1012-1017, 1973b. Simonson, M., H.M. Hanson, L.M. Roeder, and B.F. Chow. E f f e c t s of growth hormone and p i t u i t a r y extract on behavioral ab-normalities i n offspring of undernourished r a t s . Nutr. Reports International 7:321-332, 1973. Sinha, Y.M., J.N. Wilkins, and W.P. Vanderlaan. P i t u i t a r y and serum growth hormone during undernutrition and catch-up growth i n young r a t s . Endocrinology 92:1768-1771, 1973. Smart, J.L., and J . Dobbing. V u l n e r a b i l i t y of developing brain. VI. Relative effects of f o e t a l and early postnatal under-n u t r i t i o n on r e f l e x ontogeny and development of behavior i n the r a t . Brain Res. 33:303-314, 1971. Stachura, M.E., and L.A. Frohman. Large growth hormone: evidence for the association of growth hormone with another protein moiety i n the rat p i t u i t a r y . Endocrinology 92:1708-1713, 1973. Stephan, J.K. The permanent ef f e c t of prenatal dietary r e s t r i c -t ion on the brain of the progeny. Nutr. Reports International 4:257-268, 1971. Stephan, J.K., B. Chow, L.A. Frohman, and B.F. Chow. Relation-ship of growth hormone to the growth retardation associated with maternal dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . J. Nutr. 101:1453-1458, 1971. 86 -Stephans, D.J. Endocrine factors i n undernutrition. J . C l i n . Endocrinol. Metab. 1:257-268, 1941. Stewart, R.J.C. The influence of p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e deficiency on the central nervous system. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 27:95-101, 1968. Stewart, R.J.C. Experimental p r o t e i n - c a l o r i e deficiency. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 29:206-213, 1970. Stewart, R.J.C. A marginally malnourished rat colony. Nutr. Reports International 7:487-493, 1973. Stewart, R.J.C, and H.C. Sheppard. Pro t e i n - c a l o r i e deficiency in rats-growth and reproduction. Br. J. Nutr. 25:175-180, 19 71. Stewart, R.J.C, R.F. Preece, and H.G. Sheppard. Seven genera-tions of pr o t e i n - c a l o r i e deficiency in ra t s . Proc. Nutr. Soc. 31:77A, 1972. Stuart, M.C, L. Lazarus, and K.A. Ferguson. The c i r c u l a t i n g forms of growth hormone. Excerpta Medica 236:23, 1971. Sussman, M. Growth and Development. Pre n t i c e - H a l l , Inc. New Jersey, 196 5. fanner, J.M. Regulation of growth i n siz e i n mammals. Nature 199:845-850, 1963. Tanner, J.M., R.H. Whitehouse, P.CR. Hughes, and F.P. Vince. Effe c t of human growth hormone treatment for 1 to 7 years on growth of 100 children, with growth hormone deficiency, low b i r t h weight, inherited smallness, Turner's syndrome, and other complaints. Arch. Dis. C h i l d . 46:745-782, 1971 Thomspon, D.W. On Growth and Form. Cambridge University Press, London, 1959~T Turner, M.R. Protein deficiency, reporduction, and hormonal factors in growth. Nutr. Reports International 7:289-296, 1973. U r i s t , M.R. Growth hormone and sk e l e t a l tissue metabolism. In The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, Edited by G.H. Bourne, Academic Books Ltd., London, pp. 155-191, 1972. Venkatachalam, P.S., and K.S. Ramanathan. E f f e c t of protein de-fi c i e n c y during gestation and l a c t a t i o n on body weight and composition of of f s p r i n g . J. Nutr. 84:38-42, 1964. 87 Venkatachalam, P.S., and K.S. Ramanathan. Eff e c t s of severe portein deficiency during gestation i n rats on b i r t h weight and growth of o f f s p r i n g . Indian J . Med. Res. 54:402-409, 1966. Walker, D.G., M.E. Simpson, CW. Asli n g , and H.M. Evans. Growth and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the rat following hypophysectomy at 6 days of age. Anat. Rec. 106:539-554, 1950. Warkany, J. N u t r i t i o n a l experiments as an instrument of tera-t o l o g i c research i n mammals. Bordens Rev. Nutr. Res. 21: 1-12, 1960. Weiss, P. What is growth? In The Hypophyseal Growth Hormone, Nature and Actions, Edited by R.W. Smith, O.H. Gaebler, and C.N.H. Long, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, pp. 3-16, 1955. Widdowson, E.M., and G.C. Kennedy. Rate of growth, mature weight and l i f e span. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (Biol.) 156:96-108, 1962. Williams, J.P.G., J.M. Tanner, and P.C.R. Hughes. Catch-up growth i n male rats a f t e r growth retardation during the suckling period. Pediatr. Res. 8:149-156, 1974a. Williams, J.P.G., J.M. Tanner, and P.C.R. Hughes. Catch-up growth in female rats after growth retardation during the suckling period: comparison with males. Rediatr. Res. 8:157-162, 1974b. Wilson, P.N., and D.F. Osbourn. Compensatory growth aft e r un-dernutr i t i o n i n mammals and birds. B i o l . Rev. 35:324-363, 1960. Winick, M. Malnutrition and intrauterine growth. Nutr. Reports International 4:239-244, 1971. Winick, M., and A. Noble. C e l l u l a r response i n rats during mal-n u t r i t i o n at various ages. J. Nutr. 89:300-306, 1966. Winick, M., and P. Rosso. The e f f e c t of severe early malnutri-t i o n on c e l l u l a r growth of human brain. Pediatr. Res. 3: 181-184, 1969. Wolanski, N. About the theory of the limited d i r e c t i o n of de-velopment. Acta. Med. Auxol. 111-3:201-215, 1971. Woolf, CM. P r i n c i p l e s of Biometry. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., Toronto, 1968. 88 -Younoszai, M.K., and J. Ranshaw. Ga s t r o i n t e s t i n a l growth i n the fetus and suckling rat pups: e f f e c t s of maternal dietary protein. J . Nutr. 103:454-461, 1973. Zamenhof, S., E. van Marthens, and L. Gravel. DNA ( c e l l num-ber) in neonatal brain: a l t e r a t i o n by maternal dietary c a l o r i c r e s t r i c t i o n . Nutr. Reports International 4:269-274, 1971. Zeman, F.J. E f f e c t on the young rat of maternal protein re-s t r i c t i o n . J. Nutr. 93:167-173, 1967. Zeman, F.J. E f f e c t of protein deficiency during gestation on postnatal c e l l u l a r development i n the young r a t . J . Nutr. 100:530-538, 1970. Zeman, F.J., and E.C. Stanbrough. E f f e c t of maternal protein deficiency on c e l l u l a r development i n the f e t a l r a t . J . Nutr. 99:274-282, 1969. Zeman, F.J., R.E. Shrader, and L.H. A l l e n . Persistent effects of maternal protein deficiency i n postnatal r a t s . Nutr. Reports International 7:421-436, 1973. Zucker, T.F., and L.M. Zucker. Bone growth i n the rat as re-lated to age and body weight. Am. J . Physiol. 146:585-59 2, 1946. APPENDIX A WT-LEN - 89 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: NOSE-RUMP LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 98.9 98.8 97.9 80.3 81.1 81.2 3.9 4.0 4.3 6.1 6.1 5.4 42 119.4 120'. 4 120.8 90.7 92.8 92.8 4.4 4.7 4.8 7.7 7.6 7.3 49 141.2 143.4 142.8 108.8 109.6 110.3 3.0 3. 1 2. 8 6.0 7.9 6.2 56 163.6 165.4 164.1 136.7 137.9 137. 1 3.4 3. 5 3.7 7.2 7.8 7.1 63 182.0 184.3 184.7 160.9 161.1 161.9 5.4 3.9 3.1 6.0 5.4 5.7 70 197.3 201.6 199.6 180.1 181.0 182.4 4.7 3.9 3.8 6.3 5.1 5.8 77 207.1 210.7 208.3 194.1 193.9 194.0 4.0 4. 3 4.0 6. 1 6.3 5.7 84 218.2 219.7 220.8 20 3.4 203.9 203.9 5.6 5. 4 4.2 6.2 6.3 7.0 98 230.4 233.9 234.7 219.7 218.8 221.3 6.2 6. 1 4.4 6.3 5.6 4.9 1 12 239.3 246.1 243.1 225.8 226.5 227.8 5.9 9. 4 4.3 6.1 5.2 6.4 126 244.5 250.3 248.6 231.0 232.7 234.3 6.3 7.5 3.7 5.5 5.0 5.4 140 247.8 251.9 251 .0 235.7 236.4 238.4 7.3 7.8 3.4 5.2 6.2 6.1 168 255.0 261.2 261 .2 242.6 244.4 246.5 4.9 11.7 5.8 6.2 5.0 7. 1 196 260.8 265.8 262.4 248.1 250.7 249.5 6.9 12.0 4.7 7.4 5. 1 6.2 224 263.8 267.2 267.8 250.6 251.9 255.0 7.7 14. 4 4.6 8.6 7. 1 6.5 252 265.8 270.8 268.6 252.2 254.4 254.7 10.6 11.6 5.9 7.0 4.9 6.2 WT-LEN - 9 0 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEV IAT IONS : F O R : T A I L LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 5 8 . 6 5 8 . 3 5 7 . 2 4 8 . 6 4 9 . 5 5 0 . 3 4 . 0 3 . 1 3 . 6 6 . 0 5 . 2 4 . 9 42 8 7 . 4 8 6 . 3 8 5 . 7 6 4 . 2 6 6 . 0 6 6 . 5 6 . 5 5 . 8 5 . 8 7 . 3 9 . 0 6 . 7 49 1 1 9 . 5 1 1 8 . 9 1 1 8 . 4 8 1 . 6 8 4 . 4 8 4 . 7 5 . 5 5 . 6 5 . 3 8 . 7 9 . 9 8 . 0 56 1 4 4 . 3 1 4 2 . 9 1 4 2 . 3 1 0 9 . 5 1 1 0 . 6 1 1 1 . 9 7 . 7 6 . 9 6 . 2 8 . 4 8 . 8 7 . 6 63 1 6 6 . 5 1 6 2 . 2 1 6 2 . 7 1 3 8 . 3 1 3 9 . 4 1 4 1 . 0 8 . 5 7 . 3 6 . 4 8 . 9 9 . 3 7 . 0 70 1 8 3 . 3 1 8 1 . 8 1 8 1 . 0 1 6 4 . 2 1 6 3 . 9 1 6 4 . 9 8 . 3 8 . 4 6 . 3 1 0 . 6 1 0 . 4 6 . 9 77 1 9 7 . 4 1 9 6 . 7 1 9 5 . 4 1 8 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 8 2 . 0 8 . 7 9 . 8 8 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 0 . 9 7 . 7 84 2 0 3 . 2 2 0 5 . 7 2 0 3 . 0 1 9 3 . 4 1 9 2 . 3 1 9 5 . 2 7 . 3 8 . 4 7 . 3 7 . 1 6 . 9 4 . 8 98 2 1 3 . 9 2 1 3 . 7 2 1 1 . 8 2 0 5 . 3 2 0 3 . 9 2 0 7 . 0 7 . 0 8 . 9 7 . 2 8 . 0 6 . 3 6 . 3 1 12 2 1 7 . 3 2 1 9 . 7 2 1 6 . 0 2 1 2 . 6 2 1 1 . 9 2 1 4 . 3 9 . 8 1 0 . 0 7 . 1 6 . 7 6 . 4 5 . 3 126 2 2 1 . 3 2 2 1 . 1 2 2 0 . 3 2 1 7 . 2 2 1 6 . 8 2 1 8 . 8 8 . 8 1 0 . 0 8 . 1 7 . 5 6 . 4 5 . 2 140 2 2 4 . 0 2 2 4 . 4 2 2 0 . 9 2 1 9 . 4 2 1 9 . 5 2 1 9 . 8 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 6 7 . 7 7 . 3 6 . 3 6 . 0 168 2 2 6 . 6 2 2 8 . 9 2 2 6 . 0 2 2 1 . 1 2 2 1 . 1 2 2 2 . 4 11 . 2 9 . 7 6 . 7 6 . 5 7 . 7 6 . 5 196 2 3 1 . 8 2 2 8 . 2 2 2 2 . 6 2 2 2 . 4 2 2 1 . 9 2 2 3 . 7 1 0 . 9 7 . 2 1 0 . 3 9 . 1 7 . 0 6 . 0 224 2 3 2 . 4 2 2 9 . 2 2 2 3 . 8 2 2 4 . 2 2 2 4 . 5 2 2 4 . 5 1 2 . 6 6 . 6 11 . 1 7 . 7 6 . 4 6 . 2 252 2 3 1 . 5 2 2 9 . 6 2 2 5 . 4 2 2 3 . 7 2 2 5 . 6 2 2 5 . 3 1 2 . 4 7 . 0 1 0 . 1 6 . 8 7 . 8 6 . 8 WT-LEN - 91 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS ; FOR: TOTAL LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (BO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 157.5 157.1 155.2 128.8 130.6 131.5 7.5 6.7 7.5 11.6 10.7 9.9 42 206.7 206^7 206.5 154.9 158.8 159.3 10.2 9.2 9.6 14.5 16.3 13.8 49 260.7 262.3 261 .2 190.4 194.0 195.0 8.2 8.0 7.5 14.0 17.2 13.5 56 307.9 308.3 306.4 246.2 248.5 249. 1 10.5 9.8 8.8 14.9 15.9 14.3 63 348.5 346.4 347.4 299.2 300.5 302.9 11.5 10. 2 8.0 14.0 14.0 11.9 70 380.5 383.4 380.6 344.3 344.9 347.3 12.0 11.2 6.7 14.6 13.4 11.9 77 404.5 407.3 403.8 374.1 373.9 376.0 11.6 12.9 9.4 15.0 14.8 12.6 84 421 .4 425.4 423.8 396.7 396. 1 399. 1 11.9 12.6 9.7 11.9 11.8 10.0 98 444.3 447.6 446.4 425.0 422.7 428.3 12.4 13.8 9.6 13. 1 10.7 10.5 112 456.6 465.8 459.1 438.4 438.5 442. 1 12.9 16.7 9.2 10.3 10. 1 10.3 126 465.8 471.5 468.8 448.2 449.5 453. 1 14.6 15.9 9.6 11.7 9.6 5.2 140 471.8 476.3 471 .9 455.2 455.9 458. 2 16.8 17. 4 9.4 10.7 11.0 10.9 168 481 .6 490.1 487.2 463.7 465.6 468.9 14.9 19. 4 9.0 11.3 11.5 11.5 196 492.6 494.0 485.0 470.5 472.6 473.2 17.2 18.7 13.8 13.7 10.2 10.4 224 496.2 496.4 491 .6 474.8 476.4 479.5 18.9 20.9 13.2 13.6 12.3 10.9 2 52 497.3 500.4 494.0 475.9 480. 1 480.0 22.2 18. 1 15.4 12.2 10. 1 11.0 WT-LEN - 92 -H BAN S AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: BODY WEIGHT (G) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 34.8 35.3 35.0 16.6 17.5 18.0 3.8 3.8 4.9 3.8 3.4 3. 3 42 51.6 53.0 54.2 22.6 23.8 23.9 3.1 4.2 4.7 5.0 5.0 4.6 49 83.5 90. 4 87.9 41.6 42.7 43.0 5.6 6.0 5.9 7.3 7.0 6.7 56 132.6 141.0 138.4 81.0 83.5 82.7 8.9 10.0 9.4 11.7 10.2 9.9 63 189.5 198.8 195. 1 128.0 127.9 130.0 12.4 11.9 11.4 15.8 13.5 15.8 70 239.2 254.8 250. 2 170.6 171.0 174.2 16.8 13.3 13.2 18.0 16.4 15.6 77 292.3 307.7 303.3 216.1 213.7 220.2 19.7 17.4 13.7 21.8 18. 1 20.4 84 332.5 348.2 345.9 254.6 254.0 259.1 23.9 20.2 16.8 21.8 17.7 19.2 98 386.4 406. 2 403. 1 307.7 303. 1 315.8 24.0 27.4 24.2 27.4 19.7 21.5 112 420.6 451. 4 440. 5 338.7 337.7 348.0 22.3 31.6 36.4 28.6 22.2 24.6 126 442.8 471.6 462.8 365.8 365. 3 374.0 27.4 30.7 41 .6 33.4 22. 1 26. 1 140 480.2 501.7 499. 3 391.9 385. 1 403.2 23.1 48.4 43.6 34.3 25.5 31. 2 168 519.2 559. 1 555. 1 424. 1 424.4 436.0 32.3 49.0 40.7 37.5 31.6 36. 1 196 540.6 582. 3 560.4 453.5 454.2 462.7 52.8 71.5 62.3 42.6 30.6 27.3 2 24 562.4 602.7 599.9 470.0 473.6 482.7 60.2 75.6 66.9 42.6 30.8 34.4 252 577.2 626. 2 624. 4 487.0 482.2 497.2 77.2 75.2 75.3 43.3 34.5 33.8 APPENDIX B WT-LEN VELOCITIES - 93 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TAIL LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 4.1 4.0 4.1 2.2 2. 4 2.3 0.5 0. 5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 42- 49 4.6 4.7 4.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 0.5 0. 4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 49- 56 3.5 3.4 3.4 4.0 3.7 3.9 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 56- 63 3.2 2.7 2.9 4.1 4. 1 4. 1 0.5 0. 5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 63- 70 2.4 2.8 2.6 3.7 3.5 3.4 0.7 0. 4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 70- 77 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.2 2. 3 2. 4 0.3 0. 6 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5 77- 84 0.8 1.3 1 .1 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 84- 98 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.3 0. 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 98-112 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0. 3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 112-126 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 . 0. 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 126-140 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0. 1 0.2 0. 1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 140-168 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0. 1 0.~1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 168-196 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 196-224 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 224-252 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 WT-LEN VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: NOSE-RUMP LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2(CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 2.9 3. 1 3.3 1.5 1.7 1.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 42- 49 3. 1 3. 3 3. 1 2.6 2.4 2.5 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 49- 56 3.2 3. 1 3.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 56- 63 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.5 3.3 3.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 63- 70 2.2 2.5 2. 1 2.7 2.8 2.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0 .5 70- 77 1.4 1. 2 1.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 77- 84 1.6 1. 3 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 84- 98 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 98-112 0.7 0. 8 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 112-126 0.5 0. 3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0. 3 0.2 126-140 0.2 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 140-168 0.3 0. 3 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0. 1 0. 1 168-196 0.2 0. 2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 196-224 0.1 0. 1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0. 1 224-252 0. 1 0. 2 0. 1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 WT-LEN VELOCITIES - 95 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TOTAL LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 7.0 7. 1 7.3 3.7 4.0 4.0 0.5 , 0.6 0.5 1.0 1. 1 1.0 42- 49 7.7 8. 0 7.8 5. 1 5.0 5.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 49- 56 6.7 6. 6 6.5 8.0 7.8 7.7 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 56- 63 5.8 5. 4 5.9 7.6 7.4 7.7 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.7 63- 70 4.6 5. 3 4.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 70- 77 3.4 3.4 3.2 4.3 4.1 4.1 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.6 77- 84 2.4 2. 6 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.3 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 84- 98 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.9 2.1 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 98-112 0.9 1. 2 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 112-126 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 126-140 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 140-168 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0. 1 0.2 168-196 0.2 0. 1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0. 2 0.3 196-224 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0.2 0. 1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 224-252 0.2 0. 1 0. 1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 WT-LEN VELOCITIES - 96. -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: BODY WEIGHT (G/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 2.4 2.5 2.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.2 0. 3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 42- 49 4.6 5.3 4.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 49- 56 7.0 7.2 7.2 5.6 5. 8 5.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 56- 63 8.1 8.3 8.1 6.7 6.3 6.7 1.0 0. 6 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0 63- 70 7.1 8.0 7.9 6.1 6. 1 6.3 1.7 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.7 70- 77 7.6 7.5 7.3 6.5 6. 1 6.6 2.3 0. 8 0.7 0.8 1.2 0.8 77- 84 5.7 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.5 0.9 0. 8 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 84- 98 3.8 4.1 4.1 3.8 3. 5 4.0 0.6 0. 8 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.6 98-112 2.4 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.3 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.3 112-126 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.2 0. 8 0. 6 0.6 0.6 1.5 126- 140 2.3 2.6 2.6 1.9 1.4 2. 1 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.5 140-168 1.4 1.7 2.0 1.1 1.3 1.2 0.4 0. 5 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.4 168-196 0.8 1.2 0.4 1.0 1. 1 0.9 0.4 0. 3 1.5 0.5 0.4 0.7 196-224 0.8 0.7 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 0. 4 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.4 224-252 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0. 1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 APPENDIX C - 97 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR : TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) AGE 35 34.9 35. 1 34.9 1 .3 1.0 1.1 42 42.0 42. 2 42.4 0.8 1.1 0.8 49 47.5 47. 3 47.4 0.7 0.8 0.9 56 51. 1 51.7 51.6 1.0 1.2 1.0 63 55.7 56.0 55.8 1.3 0.8 0.9 70 59.0 59. 5 59.2 1.2 0.9 1.0 77 61.6 62. 2 61.6 1.0 0.9 0.9 84 63.7 64. 5 64. 1 1.4 1.0 1.0 98 66.4 67. 4 66.6 1.4 1.4 1.0 112 68.5 69. 5 68.8 1.2 1.5 0.8 126 69.7 70. 1 69.7 1.1 1.2 1.2 140 70.3 71.5 70.7 1.1 1.5 1.3 168 71.7 72. 0 72. 1 1.2 2.0 1.0 196 72.4 73. 2 72. 1 1 .6 1.5 1. 1 2 24 72.9 73. 5 72.2 1.6 1.8 0.8 252 73.6 73. 6 72.8 2.2 2.1 1.9 ARM LENGTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 29.8 29.8 30.2 2. 1 1.8 1.6 34.7 35.3 35.4 2.4 2. 0 2. 1 39.2 39.6 39.7 2.2 1.7 1.8 44.9 45.9 45.2 2.0 1.4 2.2 49.9 50.1 50.2 1.7 1.5 1.4 54.4 54.7 54.3 1.7 1. 7 1.4 57.4 57. 3 57.8 1-7 1.7 1.3 60.1 59. 8 60.1 1.7 1.6 1.9 64.0 64. 1 64.2 1.7 1.5 1.7 65.7 65. 8 66.0 1.7 1.4 1.4 66.9 67. 1 66.9 1.6 1.3 1.4 68. 1 67. 8 68.0 1.5 1.4 1.5 68.7 69.3 69.4 1.7 1.5 1.4 69.8 69.6 70.3 1.7 1.6 1.7 70.5 70.6 70.7 1.7 1.3 1.6 70.7 71.3 71.1 1.7 1.3 1.8 - 98 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEV I AT IONS FOR: TREATMENTS : 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 12.7 12.7 12.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 42 15.8 15.9 16.1 0.3 0. 4 0.3 49 18.0 18.1 18.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 56 19.9 20.1 20.2 0.5 0. 6 0.6 63 22.1 22.1 22.3 0.6 0.4 0.4 70 23.7 23.9 24. 1 0.6 0.4 0.3 77 24.9 25.1 25.0 0.6 0. 4 0.4 84 26.1 26.2 26.3 0.6 0. 5 0.4 98 27.5 27.8 27.9 0.7 0.4 0.4 112 28.8 29.0 29.1 0.7 0. 6 0.5 126 29.3 29.6 29.5 0.6 0.7 0.3 140 29.8 30.2 30.0 0.5 0. 5 0.5 168 30.7 31.1 31.0 0.6 0.9 0.6 196 31.2 31.6 31 .4 0.5 0 .7 0.6 224 31 .7 31.9 31.5 0.5 0.9 0.7 252 32.0 32.2 32.0 0.7 0.9 0.5 HUMERUS LENGTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 10.6 1.0 10. 6 0.9 10.8 0.7 12.8 0.9 13. 1 0.7 13.2 0.9 14.7 0.9 15.0 0. 8 14.9 0.7 17.0 0.8 17. 3 0.7 17.2 0.8 19.4 0.8 19. 4 0.6 19.6 0.6 21.5 0.8 21.6 0.6 21.6 0.7 23.1 0.7 23. 1 0.6 23.3 0.5 24.4 0.6 24. 4 0.5 24.4 0.6 26.0 0.7 26.0 0.6 26. 1 0.6 27.2 0.7 27. 1 0.6 27.3 0.5 28.0 0.7 27.9 0.6 28. 1 0.6 28.7 0.8 28. 5 0.6 28.9 0.6 29.4 0.8 29.6 0.5 29. 5 0.8 30.0 0.8 30. 1 0.6 30.3 0.8 30.5 0.8 30. 6 0.6 30.6 0.8 30.7 0.9 30.9 0.9 31.0 0.9 - 99 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS M EAN S AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 11.7 1 1. 9 11.8 0.7 0.3 0.5 42 14.6 14. 9 14.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 49 16.5 16. 6 16.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 56 18.0 17. 9 17.9 0.5 0.6 0.6 63 19.5 19. 8 19.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 70 20.9 21. 2 21.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 77 22. 1 22. 1 22.0 0.6 0.5 0.5 84 23.0 2 3. 1 23.1 0.5 0.6 0.6 98 24. 1 24. 7 24.4 0.8 0.8 0.4 112 25.3 25. 5 25. 3 0.5 0.9 0.5 126 25.8 25. 8 25^9 0.5 0.8 0.5 140 26.4 26. 6 26.3 0.4 0.8 0.7 168 27.0 27. 3 27.0 0.6 1.1 0.5 196 27.2 27. 3 27.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 224 27.2 27. 1 26.7 0.7 1.0 0.6 252 27.4 27. 6 27.0 0.7 1 .1 0.5 RADIUS LENGTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 9.9 9.8 10.0 1.0 0.8 0.5 11.9 12.3 12.4 0.9 0.9 0.9 13.7 13.9 14.1 0.8 0.8 0.7 16.1 16.2 16.1 0.6 0. 5 0.8 17.8 17.9 18.0 0.6 q.7 0.5 19.6 19.5 19.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 21.1 20. 9 20.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 21.9 21.6 21.8 0.7 0. 8 0.8 23.4 23.1 23.3 0.6 0.7 0.7 24.4 24.2 24.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 24.9 24.9 25.0 0.8 0.6 0.7 25.6 25.2 25.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 26.1 25.9 26.1 0.7 0. 5 0.6 26.4 26. 1 26.4 0.7 0.6 0.8 26.6 26.2 26.5 0.6 0.8 0.8 26.8 26.5 26.6 0.5 0.9 1.0 - 100 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TOTAL LEG LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 46.9 47.6 47.1 39. 1 39. 1 39.8 2.2 1. 4 2. 1 3.9 3.1 2.9 U2 60.7 61.4 61 .8 48.0 49. 4 49.7 2.0 2. 2 1. 8 4.6 3.8 4.3 49 71.9 71 .8 72.3 56.5 58.0 58. 1 1.7 1.7 1.1 3.8 4.1 3.6 56 79.9 80.3 80.2 68.5 69. 2 69. 1 1.7 2. 5 1.9 3.2 3.4 3.5 63 87.0 88.1 88.0 78. 1 78. 1 78.8 1.9 1.8 1.3 2.9 2.7 2.5 70 92.3 93.3 92.7 85.7 85. 9 86.0 1.9 1. 3 1.2 2.3 2.0 2.0 77 95.8 97.1 96.4 90.1 90. 4 90.8 1.6 1. 4 1.3 2.3 2.6 2.0 84 99.1 99.5 99.5 93.9 94. 4 94.5 1.9 1.5 1.3 2.4 2.1 2.2 98 102.1 102.7 103.2 99. 1 99. 1 99.2 1.7 1. 8 1.4 2.3 2.1 1.6 112 103.4 106.1 105.2 101.8 101. 4 102.0 1.3 1. 6 1.0 2.2 2. 1 1.5 126 106.7 108.1 107.2 103.1 103. 1 103.7 1.6 1. 8 1.3 2.1 2.2 1.5 140 108.3 109.0 109.0 104.3 104.0 104.3 2.0 1. 5 1.6 2.0 2.1 1.8 168 108.9 110.0 109.8 105.8 106. 5 106.4 1.9 2. 0 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.8 196 109.8 111.2 110.2 106.7 106.9 107.4 1.2 2.5 1.7 2. 1 2.3 2.4 224 109.1 111.4 110.6 107.3 107. 8 107.2 1.9 2. 6 0.7 2.3 1.8 2.4 252 110.6 111.5 111.7 107.7 108. 2 108. 1 0.9 3. 4 2. 2 2.0 1.3 2.3 - 101 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEAN S AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR : FEMUR LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 11.4 11.5 11.4 9.4 9.1 9.4 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.2 0.9 0.9 42 15.4 15. 5 15.7 11.8 12.1 12.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.3 1.0 1.2 49 19.6 19. 3 19.6 14.3 14.9 14.9 0.8 0.5 0.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 56 22.8 22. 7 22.8 18.6 18.8 18.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.6 63 25.4 25. 6 25.7 22.3 22.6 22.8 0.8 0.6 0.5 1.1 1. 1 0.9 70 27. 1 27. 3 27.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.9 77 28.4 28. 7 28.8 27.0 27.0 27.3 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.8 84 29.7 29. 8 29.8 28.3 28.5 28.4 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.0 98 31.2 31. 3 31.6 30.8 30.6 30.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 112 31.8 32. 5 32. 1 32.2 31.8 32.2 0.8 1.4 1.2 1. 1 0.8 0.6 126 33.0 33. 6 33.4 32.5 32.4 32.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.7 140 34.0 34.0 34.3 33.1 33.0 32.8 0.9 0.6 1 .0 0.7 0.9 1.0 168 34.4 34. 6 34.6 33.8 33.9 34.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.8 19.6 34.5 35.0 35.0 34.2 34.1 34.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.9 1. 1 1.0 224 34.2 35. 2 35.5 34.5 34.4 34.4 1.0 1.1 0.5 0.9 1. 2 1.1 252 34.8 35. 3 35. 1 34.7 34.6 34.8 0.9 1.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 1. 1 - 102 -S K E L E T A L M E A S U R E M E N T S M E A N S A N D S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S F O R : T R E A T M E N T S : 1 ( C O ) 2 ( C E ) 3 ( C L ) A G E 3 5 1 6 . 0 1 6 . 2 1 6 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 8 4 2 2 1 . 5 2 1 . 9 2 1 . 9 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 8 4 9 2 5 . 6 2 5 . 9 2 5 . 9 0 . 4 0 . 4 0 . 4 5 6 2 8 . 9 2 9 . 1 2 9 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 9 0 . 7 6 3 3 2 . 1 3 2 . 3 3 2 . 3 0 . 7 0 . 6 0 . 7 7 0 3 4 . 3 3 5 . 1 3 4 . 8 1 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 5 7 7 3 6 . 4 3 6 . 8 3 6 . 7 0 . 7 0 . 7 0 . 6 8 4 3 7 . 9 3 8 . 6 3 8 . 2 0 . 7 0 . 6 0 . 5 9 8 4 0 . 3 4 0 . 8 4 0 . 3 1 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 7 1 1 2 4 1 . 1 4 2 . 0 4 1 . 4 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 6 1 2 6 4 2 . 0 4 2 . 5 4 2 . 3 0 . 7 0 . 9 0 . 7 1 4 0 4 2 . 7 4 3 . 3 4 2 . 9 0 . 7 1 . 0 0 . 7 1 6 8 4 3 . 7 4 4 . 3 4 4 . 1 0 . 9 1 . 2 0 . 8 1 9 6 4 4 . 5 4 5 . 2 4 4 . 7 1 . 0 1 . 3 1 . 1 2 2 4 4 5 . 1 4 5 . 8 4 4 . 9 1 . 1 1 . 5 1 « 1 2 5 2 4 5 . 3 4 6 . 0 4 5 . 3 1 . 2 1 . 5 1 . 1 T I B I A L E N G T H ( M M ) 4 ( R O ) 5 ( R E ) 6 ( R L ) 1 3 . 2 1 3 . 6 1 3 . 7 1 . 6 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 6 . 8 1 7 . 4 1 7 . 5 1 . 5 1 . 3 1 . 6 2 0 . 4 2 0 . 9 2 1 . 0 1 . 3 1 . 3 1 . 2 2 4 . 9 2 5 . 2 2 5 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 0 1 . 0 2 8 . 4 2 8 . 5 2 8 . 8 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 9 3 1 . 6 3 1 . 8 3 1 . 8 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 9 3 4 . 0 3 4 . 1 3 4 . 0 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 8 3 5 . 5 3 5 . 6 3 5 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 7 0 . 8 3 8 . 0 3 8 . 0 3 8 . 1 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 7 3 9 . 3 3 9 . 4 3 9 . 4 0 . 9 0 . 6 0 . 6 4 0 . 2 4 0 . 3 4 0 . 3 0 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 7 4 1 . 1 4 1 . 0 4 1 . 2 0 . 8 0 . 7 0 . 8 4 2 . 2 4 2 . 3 4 2 . 5 0 . 9 0 . 7 0 . 9 4 2 . 9 4 3 . 0 • 4 3 . 1 1 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 9 4 3 . 4 4 3 . 5 4 3 . 7 1 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 9 4 3 . 6 4 3 . 8 4 3 . 8 1 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 9 - 103 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: CALF MUSCLE WIDTH (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 7.9 7. 9 7.9 6.2 6.2 6.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0. 7 0.6 42 10.3 10. 4 10. 1 7.4 7.7 7.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.7 49 12.5 12.9 12.7 8.5 8.9 8.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 56 14.5 14. 8 14.6 11.7 11.9 12.0 0.5 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 63 16.3 16. 5 16.6 14.0 13.8 14. 1 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.7 70 17.9 17. 8 17.8 15. 1 15.0 15.2 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 77 18.7 18. 8 18.7 16.7 16.5 16.8 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.8 84 18.9 19. 3 19. 5 18.0 17.5 18.1 0.7 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.5 0.8 98 20.6 20. 8 21. 3 19.4 18.7 19.4 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.7 112 21.8 22. 1 21.9 19.8 20.0 20.2 0.5 1.2 0.6 0.9 1.0 1. 1 126 21.2 21.9 21. 5 20.3 20.1 20.6 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.8 140 21.5 22. 3 21.9 21.3 21.0 21.3 0.8 1.8 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.9 168 22.2 22. 6 22.6 21.5 21.4 21.5 0.4 1.5 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.9 196 22.0 22. 1 22.9 21.3 21.3 21.6 0.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 224 22.5 23. 5 22.6 21.7 21.5 22.0 0.9 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 252 22.2 23.5 23.2 21.5 21.6 21.8 0.7 1.7 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.7 - 10+ -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIAT IONS FOR: PELVIS LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS : 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 14.6 14.7 14.6 12.0 11.9 12. 3 0.8 0. 6 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.8 42 19.4 19.7 19.8 14.5 15.0 15.0 0.8 0. 8 0.7 1.5 1.3 1.6 49 24.5 24.5 24.7 17.8 18.5 18.4 0.8 0. 6 0.6 1.5 1.8 1.5 56 28.6 2 8.9 28.7 23.3 23. 6 23. 3 0.7 1. 2 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.6 63 33.0 33.6 33.5 28.0 28. 4 28. 5 0.9 0. 6 0.9 1.5 1.4 1.4 70 36.5 36.9 36.5 32.3 32. 5 32.8 0.8 0. 6 0.8 1.5 1.3 1.3 77 38.9 39.4 39.4 35.5 35.6 35.8 0.9 0. 7 0.7 1.3 1.3 1.0 84 41.3 41.5 41.3 37.5 37.8 37.6 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 2.0 98 43.9 44.0 44.1 41.3 41.4 41.7 1.0 1. 2 0 .9 1.0 0.9 1.0 112 45.6 46.9 45.8 43.7 43. 6 43.9 0.9 0. 8 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.0 126 47.3 47.9 47.5 44.7 44.9 45. 1 0.8 1. 4 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.1 140 48.0 48.7 48.5 45.8 46.0 > 46.0 0.9 . 1. 1 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.5 168 48.9 49.7 49.9 47.3 47. 7 47.6 0.9 1.7 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.1 196 4 9.7 51.3 50.8 48.3 48. 7 48.8 1.5 2. 2 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.2 224 50.1 52.0 51 .3 49.0 49. 3 49.2 0.7 2. 4 0.7 1.4 1.1 0.9 252 51.3 52.4 52.1 49.4 49. 5 49.5 0.9 2. 5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 - 105 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) AGE 35 10.4 10. 5 10. 3 0.6 0.4 , 0.5 42 13.6 13. 8 13.9 0.8 0.5 0.6 49 16.8 16. 8 16.8 0.6 0 . 5 0.6 56 19.2 19. 6 19.5 0.5 0.8 0.9 63 21.6 21. 7 21.9 0.5 0.4 0.7 70 23.4 24. 1 24.1 0.8 0.7 0.7 77 25.0 25. 3 25. 3 0.6 0.5 0.4 84 26.2 26. 6 26.7 1.0 0.7 0.7 98 28.9 28. 7 28.8 1.0 0.8 1.3 112 30.0 30. 5 30.3 0.8 1.0 0.9 126 30.7 31. 3 31. 1 0.8 1.1 0.8 140 31.1 31.8 31.2 0.6 1.1 1.5 168 31.8 32. 4 32.5 0.6 1.3 1.1 196 31.8 33. 1 32.9 1.1 1.6 0.9 224 32.4 33.9 33. 1 0.8 1.7 0.8 252 33.0 33.9 34. 1 0.5 1.3 1.0 ILIAC LENGTH (MB) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 8.7 8. 8 8.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 10.3 10.6 10.5 1.0 0.9 1.2 12.3 12. 8 12.8 1.1 1. 2 1. 1 15.8 16.0 15.9 1.0 1. 2 1.0 18.6 18. 8 19.1 1.1 1. 1 1.0 21.0 21.1 21.5 0.9 0.9 1.0 22.9 23.3 23.3 1.0 0.8 0.8 24.1 24.3 24.7 1.0 1. 1 0.9 27. 1 27.0 27.4 1.3 1.5 1.0 28.8 28.8 28.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 29.5 29.6 29.6 1.0 0. 6 0.9 29.9 29.9 30.0 0.8 0. 5 0.9 30.9 31.1 30.7 1.0 0.6 0.8 31.3 31.6 31.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 31.9 32.1 32.1 0.9 0.9 0.9 32.3 32.2 32.3 0.9 0.9 1. 1 - 106 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIAT IONS FOR: TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 9.5 9.6 9.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 42 11.3 11.5 11 .7 0.4 0. 5 0.5 49 14.2 14.3 14.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 56 16.4 16.6 16.5 0.7 0. 8 1.0 63 18.9 19.2 19.1 0.8 0. 5 0.8 70 20.7 21.0 21.1 0.9 0. 6 0.8 77 22.3 22.7 22.5 0.8 0. 7 0.9 84 23.9 23.9 24.0 0.8 0.4 0.8 98 26.0 26.0 25.9 0.9 0. 6 1.0 112 27.5 28.1 27.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 126 28.9 29.0 29.0 0.6 1.0 1. 1 140 29.6 29.9 29.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 168 30.5 31.0 31.0 0.6 1.0 1.1 196 31.2 31.7 31 .0 0.4 1. 5 1.4 224 31.4 32.7 30.9 0.4 1. 5 1.6 252 31.7 32.8 31 .9 0.4 1. 4 1.6 BIILIAC HIDTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (Ri) 6 (RL) 7.6 7. 7 7.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 8.6 8. 8 8.9 0.7 0.6 0.7 10.4 10.8 10.6 0.8 0.8 0.7 13.7 13. 9 13.8 0.9 1.0 0.9 16.4 16. 4 16.2 0.9 0.8 0.8 18.2 18. 4 18.3 0.9 0 . 7 0.9 19.9 20. 3 20.0 1.0 0.7 1.0 21.4 21.5 21.5 0.8 0.8 1.0 23.5 23. 8 23.7 1.0 0.7 0.9 26.0 25. 5 25.2 2.5 0.8 1.1 26.4 26.9 26.8 1.2 0.9 1.2 27.9 27. 9 27.9 1.2 0.8 1.3 28.7 29. 1 28.9 1.1 0.7 1.3 29.3 29. 8 29.7 1.1 0.7 1.1 29.9 30. 3 30. 1 1.1 0.8 1.2 30.2 30. 7 30.6 1.1 0.7 1.1 - 107 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) AGE 35 5.4 5.3 5.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 42 6.3 6. 4 6.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 49 7.7 7.7 7.7 0.5 0.3 0.4 56 8.9 8.8 8.8 0.4 0.5 0.6 63 10.3 10. 1 10. 3 0.6 0.3 0.5 70 11.6 11. 5 11.5 0.7 0.5 0.7 77 12.6 12. 6 12. 5 0.6 0.6 0.6 84 13. 1 13. 1 13. 1 0.7 0.5 - 0.6 98 13.5 13. 8 13.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 112 14.5 14.9 14.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 126 14.8 15. 2 14.8 0.6 0.5 0.6 140 15.0 15. 5 15.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 168 15.5 15.9 15.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 196 15.8 16. 3 15.9 0.5 0.7 0.9 224 16.0 16. 5 16.1 0.6 0.7 0.9 252 16.0 16. 8 16.3 0.7 0.5 0.8 PELVIS WIDTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 4.4 4.5 4.6 0.4 0.3 0.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 5.9 6.1 6.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 7.1 7.3 7.3 0.6 0. 6 0.5 8.5 8.6 8.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 9.9 9.8 9.9 0.6 0.4 0.5 10.7 10.9 11.1 0.6 0.4 0.5 11.5 11.7 11.9 0.5 0.4 0.6 12.4 12.5 12.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 13.6 - 13.5 13.7 0.7 0. 5 0.5 13.8 13.8 14.2 0.6 0.5 0.5 14.2 14.2 14.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 14.6 14.8 15.0 0.5 0. 5 0.5 14.9 15.2 15.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 15.2 15.4 15.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 15.3 15.6 15.8 0.4 0.5 0.4 - 108 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIAT IONS FOR: LUMBAR VERTEBRA LENGTH (MM) TREATMENTS : 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.1 0. 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 42 2.8 2.9 2.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 0.2 0. 2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 49 3.9 3.9 3.9 2.6 2. 8 2.7 0.2 0. 1 0.2 0.3 0.3 •0.2 56 4.6 4.6 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.9 0. 1 0. 4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 63 5.5 5.3 5.5 4.7 4.8 4.7 0.2 0. 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 70 5.8 6. 1 6.0 5.3 5.6 5.6 0.3 0. 3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 77 6.5 6.6 6.6 5.9 5. 9 6.0 0.3 0. 2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 84 7.3 7.3 7.2 6.4 6.5 6.5 0.2 0. 2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 98 8.0 8.0 8.2 7.4 7. 3 7.5 0.3 0. 4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 112 8.1 8.2 8.1 7.5 7.4 7.4 0.4 0. 3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 126 8.1 8.3 8.1 7.6 7. 7 7.7 0.3 0. 3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 140 8.4 8.5 8.3 7.9 7. 9 7.9 0.3 0. 3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 168 8.7 8.9 8.8 8.1 8. 2 8.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 196 9.1 9.2 8.6 8.2 8. 3 8.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 224 9.1 9. 1 9.0 8.4 8. 5 8.5 0.5 0.4 0. 1 0.3 0.3 0.4 252 9.3 9.4 9.1 8.6 8. 6 8.6 0.5 0. 3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 - 109 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 2. 1 2. 1 2.0 0.2 0.1 0.2 42 3.2 3.4 3.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 49 5.6 5. 7 5.6 0.2 0.3 0.2 56 6.9 6.9 6.8 0.2 0.4 0.4 63 7.9 7.9 7.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 70 8.8 8. 8 8.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 77 9.5 9.6 9.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 84 10.0 10. 2 10.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 98 10.6 10.7 10.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 112 11.0 11. 3 11.2 0.4 0.4 0.3 126 11.0 11.2 11.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 140 11.2 11. 3 11.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 168 11.3 11.6 11.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 196 11.4 11. 5 11.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 224 11.4 11.6 11.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 252 11.5 11.6 11.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 CAUDAL VERTEERA LENGTH (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 1.5 1.6 1.7 0.2 0. 1 0.2 2.2 2.4 2.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.9 3.1 3.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 5.5 5.6 5.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 6.8 6.8 6.9 0.4 0. 5 0.4 8. 1 8.1 8.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 9.0 8.9 9.1 0.4 0.4 0.3 9.6 9.4 9.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 10.3 10.4 10.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 10.7 10.8 10.9 0.4 0.3 0.4 10.8 10.8 11.0 0.4 0. 3 0.3 11.1 11.1 11.1 0.4 0.3 0.4 11.2 11.2 11.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 11.2 11.2 11.4 0.3 0 . 3 0.3 11.3 11.3 11.4 0.3 0. 3 0.3 11.3 11.3 11.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 - 110 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TREATMENTS : 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 26.5 26.9 27.0 0.9 0. 8 0.7 42 30.1 29. 8 30.6 1.0 0. 8 0.5 49 31 .3 32. 1 31 .6 1.0 1.0 1.0 56 33.3 33.7 33 .5 1.1 0.9 1.3 63 35.9 36.2 35.8 1.4 1.5 1.0 70 38.1 38.5 38.3 1.2 1.4 1.6 77 39.5 38.7 39.3 1.4 1. 6 1. 6 84 39.9 40.4 40.2 1.3 1. 8 1.6 98 42.8 42.7 41 .9 1.6 2. 0 2.0 112 43.1 44.0 43.6 1.2 1. 8 1.2 126 44.2 44.8 45.1 1.1 1. 2 1.3 140 45.8 46.5 46.2 0.8 1. 1 1.5 168 47.2 47.7 47.6 1.1 1.3 1.3 196 47.8 49.0 49.9 1.2 1. 4 1.3 224 47.9 49.3 49.0 1.5 1.9 0.6 252 49.4 49.8 50.3 0.5 0.4 1.3 SKULL LENGTH 1 (MM) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 24.6 25. 2 25.2 1.3 1.2 0.8 26.8 27. 0 27.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 28.9 29.3 29. 1 1.1 0.7 1.0 31.3 31.3 31. 1 1.3 1.4 0.9 33.5 33. 7 33.9 1.7 1.3 1.1 35.3 35. 1 35.6 1.2 1.3 1.9 37.1 36. 9 37.2 1.6 0.9 1.6 37.7 37.0 38.3 1.6 1.6 1.3 40.9 39. 8 40.4 1.3 1.6 1.9 41.7 40.9 42.4 1.1 2.0 1.6 42.7 42. 8 43.2 1.5 1.7 1.6 44.3 44. 2 44.5 1.2 1.6 1.7 45.6 45. 7 45.9 1.3 1.1 1.3 46.3 46. 5 47.0 1.3 1.4 1.1 47.2 47. 1 47.7 1.3 1.6 1.3 47.3 47. 6 47.8 1.1 1.0 0.8 - I l l -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: SKULL LENGTH 2 (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 17.5 17. 6 17.8 16.3 16.3 16.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 42 19.3 18.9 19. 1 17.2 17.2 17.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 49 19.5 19. 3 19.4 18.1 18.2 18.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 56 20.3 20. 3 20.2 19.0 19.0 19.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 63 21.2 21. 1 21.1 20.0 19.9 20.1 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 70 22. 1 21. 9 22. 1 20.6 20.6 20.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 77 22.5 22. 4 22.5 21.4 21.2 21.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 84 22.9 22. 8 22.9 22.2 21.9 22.0 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.7 98 23.4 23. 6 23.5 22.8 22.7 22.9 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 112 23.4 23. 6 23.8 22.6 22.3 22.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.5 126 23.5 24.0 24.0 23. 1 23.2 23.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 140 24.5 24.7 24.6 23.6 23.3 23.9 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.6 168 24.9 25. 1 25. 1 23.8 24.0 24.1 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.5 196 25. 2 25. 2 26.4 24.5 24.2 24.7 0.5 1.5 0.8 0.7 . 0.6 0.8 224 25.4 25. 6 26. 1 25.0 24.6 25.3 0.5 1.0 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.0 2 52 26. 1 26. 6 25.9 25. 1 24.7 25.0 0.6 0.4 1.4 0.7 0. 5 0.7 - 112 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIAT IONS FOR: TREATMENTS : 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) AGE 35 16.5 16.6 16.6 0.3 0. 4 0.4 42 18.2 18.4 18.4 0.3 0. 5 0.3 49 19.7 19. 8 19.9 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 56 20.8 20.9 20.9 0.3 0. 4 0.3 63 22.1 22.3 22.3 0.3 0. 3 0.3 70 23.0 23.3 23.4 0.3 0. 4 0.3 77 23.7 23.9 24.0 0.4 0. 4 0.3 84 24.3 24.3 24.6 0.3 0. 4 0.5 98 24.8 25.3 25.2 0.4 0. 5 0.5 112 25.7 25.9 25.8 0.6 0. 7 0.4 126 25.9 26.3 26.3 0.4 0. 6 0.5 140 26.3 26.6 26.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 168 26.6 27.4 27.2 0.4 0.9 0.6 196 27.1 27.6 27.9 0.6 1.0 0.7 224 27.4 28.2 28.2 0.5 0.9 0.7 252 27.4 28.4 28.4 0.6 1.0 0.6 SKOLL WIDTH 1 (MM) 4 (RC) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 14.9 15.0 15.2 0.7 0.6 0.5 16.1 16.3 16.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 17.2 17. 3 17. 5 0.5 0.7 0.6 19.2 19. 4 19.4 0,5 0.5 0.4 20.5 20. 8 20.7 0.5 0.4 0.5 21.7 21.6 21.7 0.5 0.6 0.5 22.5 22. 4 22.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 23.2 23.0 23.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 23.8 23. 8 24.0 0.6 0.6 0.5 24.5 24. 4 24.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 24.9 24. 8 24.9 0.6 0.6 0.7 25.3 25. 0 25.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 25.9 25. 8 25.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 26.2 26. 1 26.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 26.6 26. 4 26.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 26.8 26. 6 27.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 - 113 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS M EAN S AND STANDARD DEVATIONS FOR: SKULL WIDTH 2 (MM) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35 14.0 14. 1 14.2 12.9 13.0 13.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 42 14.9 15.0 14.8 13.7 13.8 13.8 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 49 15.3 15. 5 15.4 13.9 14.0 14.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 56 15.8 15. 8 15.9 14.8 14.9 14.9 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0. 3 0.4 63 16.3 16. 3 16.2 15.4 15.2 15.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 70 16.6 16. 6 16.5 15.8 15.8 15.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0. 4 0.5 77 16.9 16. 8 16.9 16. 1 16. 1 16.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 84 17.0 17. 2 17. 3 16.5 16.6 16.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 98 17.8 17. 9 17.9 17.0 17.0 17.0 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.3 112 18.9 18. 8 18.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 126 19.0 19. 1 19. 3 18.6 18.6 18.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.5 140 19.3 19. 4 19. 1 18.5 18.4 18.5 0.4 0,6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 168 19.2 19. 9 19. 4 19.0 19.0 19.0 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 196 19.7 20.0 20.0 19.0 19.2 19.0 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3 0. 5 0.4 224 19.8 20. 3 19.8 19.2 19.2 19.3 0.2 ' 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 252 19.9 20. 1 20.0 19.2 19.4 19.3 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 APPENDIX D - I l k -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: ARM LENGTH (MM/EAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3(CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 1.01 1.0 1 1.07 0.70 0.78 0.74 0.21 0.16 0. 10 0. 17 0.21 0. 19 42- 49 0.79 0.74 0.72 0.64 0.62 0.62 0.14 0.12 0.13 0. 19 0. 18 0.15 49- 56 0.51 0.63 0.59 0.82 0.90 0.78 0.12 0.17 0.18 0. 15 0. 18 0. 15 56- 63 0. 66 0.61 0. 60 0.72 0.61 0.72 0.12 0.14 0.17 0. 13 0. 15 0.14 63- 70 0.46 0.50 0.49 0.64 0.65 0.58 0.05 0.04 0. 12 0. 10 0.07 0. 14 70- 77 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.43 0.37 0.50 0.08 0.05 0. 10 0.13 0. 10 0.15 77- 84 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.37 0.33 0.12 0.08 0.09 0. 15 0. 18 0.15 84- 98 0. 20 0.21 0. 17 0.28 0.30 . 0.29 0.06 0.07 0.07 0. 10 0.08 0.06 98-112 0. 15 0.16 0. 16 0. 13 0.13 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.07 0. 10 0.06 0.05 112-126 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.03 126-140 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.04 0. 04 0.07 0.07 0.04 140-168 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 168-196 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.04 196-224 0.02 0.01 0. 00 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.05 224-252 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.02 - 115 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) AGE 35- 42 0.44 0.46 0.04 0.09 42- 49 0.32 0.31 0.04 0.04 49- 56 0.28 0.29 0.05 0.07 56- 63 0.32 0.28 0.05 0.08 63- 70 0.22 0.27 0.04 0.03 70- 77 0.17 0.17 0.05 0.02 77- 84 0.17 0.16 0.04 0.04 84- 98 0.10 0.11 0.03 0.03 98- 112 0.09 0.08 0.03 0.03 112- 126 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.02 126- 140 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 140- 168 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 168- 196 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 196- 224 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 224- 252 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 FOR: HUMERUS LENGTH (MM/DAY) (CI) 4 (BC) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 0.49 0.05 0.32 0.08 0. 36 0. 12 0.33 0.09 0.29 0.07 0. 27 0.08 0.27 0.08 0.24 0.05 0.30 0. 08 0.34 0.04 0.33 0.06 0.33 0.04 0.30 0. 11 0.33 0.04 0.31 0.05 0.34 0.05 0.25 0.03 0.30 0.03 0. 32 0.02 0.28 0.05 0.14 0.07 0.23 0.05 0.22 0.07 0.24 0.07 0.18 0.09 0. 19 0.06 0. 18 0.05 0. 17 0.06 0. 1 1 0. 02 0.12 0.05 0. 11 0.03 0.12 0.04 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 0. 00 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 - 116 -S K E L E T A L M E A S U R E M E N T S V E L O C I T I E S M E A N S A N D S T A N D A R D D E V I A T I O N S F O R : R A D I U S L E N G T H ( M M / D A Y ) T R E A T M E N T S : 1 ( C O ) 2 ( C E ) 3 ( C L ) 4 (RO) 5 ( R E ) 6 ( R L ) A G E 3 5 - 4 2 0 . 4 1 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 2 9 0 . 3 6 0 . 3 4 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 0 4 2 - 4 9 0 . 2 7 0 . 2 5 0. 2 3 0 . 2 6 0 . 2 4 0 . 2 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 9 0. 1 2 0 . 0 9 4 9 - 5 6 0. 2 0 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 0 0 . 3 3 0 . 3 2 0 . 2 9 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 5 6 - 6 3 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 6 0 . 2 4 0 . 2 5 0 . 2 5 0 . 2 7 0 . 0 7 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 6 6 3 - 7 0 0. 1 9 0 . 2 0 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 5 0 . 2 3 0 . 2 3 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 5 7 0 - 7 7 0 . 1 7 0 . 1 3 0. 1 1 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 0 0 . 1 9 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 7 7 - 8 4 0. 1 3 0. 1 4 0. 1 7 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 0. 1 0 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 8 8 4 - 9 8 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 1 0. 0 9 0. 1 0 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 1 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 9 8 - 1 1 2 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 7 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 1 1 2 - 1 2 6 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 1 2 6 - 1 4 0 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0. 0 3 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 1 4 0 - 1 6 8 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 1 6 8 - 1 9 6 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 1 9 6 - 2 2 4 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 2 2 4 - 2 5 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 - 117 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TOTAL LEG LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CI) 4 (RO) 5(RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 1.96 1.98 2.10 1.26 1.47 1.42 0. 19 0.29 0.25 0.26 0.36 0.34 42- 49 1.59 1.49 1.49 1.23 1. 23 1.20 0. 16 0.18 0. 30 0.28 0.32 0.16 49- 56 1.15 1.21 1.13 1.71 1.62 1.58 0. 14 0.26 0.30 0.17 0.20 0.15 56- 63 1 .01 1.12 1.11 1.37 1.30 1.37 0.09 0.27 0.34 0.13 0.19 0.17 63- 70 0.76 0.73 0.68 1.08 1.08 1.03 0. 14 0. 10 0. 16 0.14 0.17 0. 14 70- 77 0.50 0.54 0.52 0.63 0.64 0.70 0. 16 0. 10 0. 11 0.15 0.16 0.17 77- 84 0.47 0.35 0.44 0.55 0.57 0.52 0. 19 0.16 0. 16 0.19 0.21 0.23 84- 98 0.21 0.23 0.27 0.37 0. 34 0.34 .0. 12 0.14 0.07 0.12 0.06 0. 10 98-112 0.10 0.24 0. 14 0.19 0.17 0.20 0/10 0. 16 0. 12 0.19 0.09 0.06 112-126 0.23 0.14 0.15 0.10 0. 12 0. 13 0.06 0. 12 0. 12 0.17 0.11 0.06 126-140 0.11 0.06 0.13 0.09 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.10 0.08 140-168 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 168-196 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.06 196-224 - 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.00 224-252 0.05 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 0,08 0.00 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.06 - 118 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) AGE 35- 42 0.58 0.58 0.08 0.08 42- 49 0. 59 0.54 0.08 0.07 49- 56 0.45 0.49 0.06 0.10 56- 63 0. 38 0.42 0.07 0.11 63- 70 0. 24 0.24 0.08 0.05 70- 77 0. 19 0.20 0.15 0.09 77- 84 0. 19 0. 16 0.16 0.12 84- 98 0. 11 0. 11 0.07 0.08 98-112 0.04 0.09 0.08 0.09 112-126 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.09 126-140 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.03 140-168 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 168-196 -0.01 0.01 0.03 0.05 196-224 -0.01 0.01 0.05 0.03 224-252 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00 FOR: FEMUR LENGTH (MM/DAY) (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 0.61 0.34 0.43 0.41 0.06 0.09 0. 10 0.11 0. 56 0.36 0.39 0.37 0.09 0. 10 0. 11 0.08 0.46 0.61 0.57 0.54 0. 11 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.42 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.14 0.14 0. 08 0.09 0.21 0.43 0.39 0.38 0.07 0. 14 0.07 0.07 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.26 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.09 0. 15 0. 18 0.23 0.16 0.09 0. 14 0.08 0.14 0. 13 0.18 0.15 0.17 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.03 0. 09 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0. 01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.04 0. 02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.00 0. 01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 - 119 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TIBIA LENGTH (MM/DAY.) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (FO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0.78 0.82 0.83 0.51 0.55 0.55 0.07 0.11 0. 13 0.13 0.13 0. 14 42- 49 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.07 0.08 0. 12 0.09 0.13 0.09 49- 56 0.47 0.46 0.44 0.63 0.62 0.58 0.07 0.11 0. 10 0.05 0.08 0.07 56- 63 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.51 0.47 0.52 0.05 0. 12 0. 14 0.06 0.07 0.06 63- 70 0.32 0.39 0.36 0.46 0.46 0.44 0. 15 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.06 70- 77 0.31 0.25 0.27 0.34 0.33 0.31 0. 14 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.08 77- 84 0.21 0.25 0.21 0.22 0. 21 0.25 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.09 84- 98 0.17 0.16 0.15 0. 18 0. 18 0. 17 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 98-112 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.09 0. 10 0.10 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.02 112-126 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.03 126- 140 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 140-168 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 168-196 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 196-224 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 224-252 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0. 02 0.01 0.01 0.00 - 120 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: CALF MUSCLE WIDTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0. 34 0.35 0.32 0. 17 0.22 0.17 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.06 0. 10 0.07 42- 49 ' 0. 31 0.36 0.36 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.07 49- 56 0. 29 0.27 0.28 0.45 0.43 0.46 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.10 0.09 0.06 56- 63 0.25 0.24 0.28 0.33 0.27 0.30 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.09 0. 10 0.08 63- 70 0.23 0.20 0. 17 0.15 0.17 0.16 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.05 70- 77 0. 12 0. 13 0. 14 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.10 0.18 0. 10 0.09 0.08 0.12 77- 84 0.04 0.08 0.11 0. 19 0.15 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.10 0. 12 0. 10 0. 11 84- 98 0. 12 0.11 0. 13 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 98-112 , 0.08 0.09 0.05 0.02 0.09 • 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.04 0.09 0.06 112-126 -0.04 -0.01 -0.03 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 126-140 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.03 0.05 140-168 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 168-196 0.00 - 0.02 - 0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 196-224 0.02 0.05 - 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 224-252 - 0.01 0.00 0.02 - 0.08 0.00 - 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.00 0.02 - 121 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS TREATMENTS: AGE 35- 42 1 (CO)0.70 0.09 2 (CE) 0.72 0. 1 1 42- 49 0.72 0.07 0.68 0.07 49- 56 0.58 0. 10 0.64 0. 14 56- 63 0.63 0.06 0.66 0.13 63- 70 0.50 0.06 0.47 0.05 70- 77 0.35 0. 13 0.36 0.09 77- 84 0.34 0. 12 0.30 0. 10 84- 98 0.19 0.06 0.18 0.09 98- 112 0.12 0.06 0.20 0.08 112- 126 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.08 126- 140 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.05 140- 168 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 168- 196 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.04 196- 224 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 224- 252 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.02 FOR: PELVIS LENGTH (MM/DAY) (CI) 4 (EC) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) 0.74 0. 08 0.36 0.09 0.44 0.14 0.40 0. 14 0.71 0.09 0.48 0.10 0. 50 0.14 0.49 0.07 0.57 0. 14 0.79 0.07 0.73 0.12 0.69 0.09 0.68 0. 16 0.67 0.07 0.69 0.08 0.74 0.08 0.43 0.09 0.61 0.08 0.59 0.06 0.62 0.07 0.41 0.07 0.46 0.08 0.45 0.07 0.43 0.12 0.27 0.08 0. 28 0. 14 0.31 0.08 0.25 0.24 0.21 0.06 0.28 0.07 0. 26 0.07 0.29 0.09 0.12 0.07 0. 17 0.08 0. 16 0.03 0.16 0.03 0. 12 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0. 02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03 - 122 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: ILIAC LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: AGE 35- 42 1 (CO) 0.46 0.06 2 (CE) 0.47 0.09 3{CL) 0. 50 0.06 4 (RO) 0.23 0.06 5 (RE) 0.26 0.12 6 (RL) 0.23 0.11 42- 49 0.47 0.08 0.43 0.05 0.43 0. 10 0.29 0.09 0.32 0. 10 0.32 0.09 49- 56 0. 34 0.07 0.40 0.10 0.38 0.10 0.49 0.08 0.45 0.07 0.44^ 0.10 56- 63 0. 34 0.06 0.30 0.10 0.35 0. 15 0.40 0.07 0.39 0. 11 0.45 0.07 63- 70 0. 26 0.07 0.34 0.07 0.31 0.10 0.35 0.09 0.34 0. 10 0.34 0.09 70- 77 0.33 0.11 0. 18 0.09 0. 16 0.08 0.26 0.07 0.31 0.09 0.27 0. 12 77- 84 0. 17 0.14 0. 18 0.08 0. 20 0.08 0.17 0.09 0.15 0. 10 0.20 0. 13 84- 98 0. 19 0.08 0. 15 0.05 0.16 0.07 0.21 0.07 0.19 0.08 0.19 0.05 98-112 0.08 0.07 0.13 0.06 0. 11 0.09 0. 13 0.07 0. 13 0.07 0.11 0.05 112-126 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.04 126-140 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.05 140-168 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0. 05 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 168-196 - 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.00 o.oo 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 196-224 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0. 01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 224-252 0.02 0.03 - 0.01 0.03 0. 03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 - 123 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: BIILIAC WIDTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CI) 4 (BO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0.26 0.27 0.30 0. 14 0. 16 0.16 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 42- 49 0.41 0.40 0.36 0.25 0. 28 0.24 0.05 0.05 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.05 49- 56 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.06 0.09 0. 12 0.07 0.05 0.04 56- 63 0.36 0.37 0.36 0.39 0.35 0.35 0.04 0.08 0. 11 0.04 0.07 0.06 63- 70 0.25 0.25 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.33 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 70- 77 0.23 0.24 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.24 0.05 0.07 0. 07 0.05 0.05 0.10 77- 84 0.23 0.18 0.20 0.21 . 0. 17 0.22 0.04 0. 10 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.09 84- 98 0.15 0.15 0. 14 0.15 0. 16 0.16 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.03 98-112 0.11 0.15 0. 14 0.18 0. 13 0.11 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.16 0.04 0.05 112-126 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.03 0.08 0. 12 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.05 0.08 126- 140 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.11 0.09 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.05 140- 168 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 168-196 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 196-224 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 224-252 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.04 0. 03 0.01 0.01 0.01 - 124- -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR : PELVIS WIDTH (MM/CAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2(CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0. 14 0. 15 0. 16 0. 10 0.09 0.09 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 42- 49 0. 19 0. 19 0. 17 0.11 0.14 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.04 49- 56 0. 17 0. 16 0. 15 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 56- 63 0. 19 0.18 0.21 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.04 63- 70 0. 19 0.21 0. 18 0.20 0.16 0..18 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.03 70- 77 0. 15 0. 15 0. 14 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.06 77- 84 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.04 0.05 0. 03 0.05 0.05 0.05 84- 98 0.03 0.05 0. 04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 98-112 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 112-126 0.02 0.02 0. 01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 126-140 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 - 0.03 140-168 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 168-196 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 196-224 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 224-252 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 - 125 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: LUMBAR VERTEBRA LENGTH (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (BC) 5(BI) 6 (RL) AGE 3 5 - 42 0.13 0 .13 0 . 15 0.06 0 .07 0 .07 0 .02 0 .04 0 .02 0.04 0 .03 0 .03 42- 49 0 .15 0 .15 0 . 16 0 . 10 0 . 12 0 .09 0 .03 0 .03 0. 03 0.04 0 .02 0 .02 49 - 56 0 .09 0 .10 0 . 10 0 . 17 0 . 1 5 0 . 18 0 .03 0 .04 0 .05 0 .05 0 .03 0 .03 56- 63 0.13 0 .10 0 . 13 0 . 1 3 0 . 13 0.11 0 .03 0 . 0 5 0 .05 0 .03 0.04 0.04 63 - 70 0.06 0.11 0 .07 0 .08 0 . 11 0 .12 0 .03 0 .03 0. 05 0 .03 0 .04 0.06 70- 77 0.10 0 .08 0 .08 0 .09 0 .04 0 .07 0 .07 0 . 0 5 0 .05 0.04 0.04 0 .05 77 - 84 0.10 0 .09 0 .08 0 .07 0 .09 0 .07 0 . 0 5 0 .04 0. 05 0 .05 0 .05 0.06 84- 98 0.06 0 .05 0 .07 0 .07 0 .06 0 .07 0 .02 0 .03 0. 02 0 .03 0 .02 0 .03 98-112 0 .00 0.01 0 .00 0 .00 0 .01 0 .00 0 .00 0.01 0 .00 0.00 0 .02 o .oo 112-126 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 - 0 . 0 1 0 .01 0 .02 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .03 0.01 0 .02 126- 140 0.02 0 .02 0 .02 0 .02 0 .01 0 .02 0.01 0.01 0. 01 0.02 0.01 0.01 140- 168 i 0.01 0.01 0 .02 0.01 0 .01 0.01 0.01 0 .01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 168-196 0.01 0.01 0 .00 0.01 0 .00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0. 00 0.01 0 .00 0.01 196-224 0.02 - 0 . 0 3 0 .02 0.01 0 .01 0.01 0.01 0 .01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 224-252 0.01 0.01 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.01 0 .01 0. 00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 - 126 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: CAUDAL VERTEER A LENGTH (MM/BAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0. 15 0. 18 0. 17 0.10 0. 12 0.12 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 42- 49 0.34 0.33 0. 35 0.10 0. 10 0.11 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 49- 56 0. 19 0.18 0.16 0.37 0.36 0.33 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 56- 63 0.15 0. 14 0. 16 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.03 63- 70 0. 13 0.12 0. 13 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 70- 77 0. 10 0. 13 0. 1 1 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.05 77- 84 0.07 0.08 0. 10 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 84- 98 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 98-112 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 112-126 0.00 0.00 0. 00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 126-140 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 140-168 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.00 0.01 168-196 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 . 0.01 196-224 -0.03 0.00 0. 00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 224-252 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - 127 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: SKULL LENGTH 1 (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (BO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0.51 0.42 0.50 0. 32 0.26 0.28 0. 18 0.14 0. 15 0.11 0. 13 0.10 42- 49 0.17 0.33 0. 16 0. 30 0.31 0.27 0. 18 0. 17 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.09 49- 56 0.29 0.24 0.27 0.33 0.31 0.29 0. 21 0.09 0. 16 0.18 0.19 0. 16 56- 63 0.37 0.36 0.33 0.32 0.34 0.40 0. 16 0.25 0. 13 0.22 0.17 0.15 63- 70 0.32 0.32 0.36 0.25 0.20 0.23 0. 22 0.21 0.33 0.29 0.16 0.17 70- 77 0.20 0.02 0.15 0.27 0. 25 0.24 0.20 0.30 0.03 0.27 0.14 0.30 77- 84 0.06 0.26 0.13 0.08 0.01 0.16 0. 26 0.27 0.30 0.27 0.28 0.25 84- 98 0.20 0.16 0. 12 0.23 0.20 0.14 0. 10 0. 15 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.12 98-112 0.02 0.10 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.14 0.09 0. 17 0. 15 0.08 0.16 0.14 112-126 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.07 0. 12 0.07 0.05 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.12 0.12 126- 140 0.12 0.12 0.08 0. 12 0. 10 0.08 0.08 0.04 0. 11 0.10 0.09 0.09 140-168 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 O.05 168-196 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 196-224 0.04 0.01 -0.06 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0. 02 0.03 0.04 0.04 224-252 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.00 0.03 0.00 - 128 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES \ MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR : SKOLL LENGTH 2 (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 3 (CL) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0. 25 0. 19 0. 19 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.06 42- 49 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.07 49- 56 0.11 0.14 0. 1 1 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.09 56- 63 0. 13 0.12 0. 13 0. 14 0.13 0.14 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.09 63- 70 0. 14 0.12 0. 15 0.09 0. 10 0.08 0.09 0.05 0. 10 0.07 0.06 0.07 70- 77 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.07 0. 12 0.07 0.10 77- 84 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.12 0. 1 1 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.06 0.09 0. 10 0.09 84- 98 0.04 0.05 0. 05 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.06 98-112 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.06 112-126 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.06 126-140 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 140-168 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 168-196 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.03 196-224 0.05 0.01 -0.06 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.02 224-252 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 • 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 - 129 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: SKULL WIDTH 1 (MM/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) ^ 3 (CL) 4 (BO) 5 (RE) 6 (RL) AGE 35- 42 0.25 0.25 0.26 0. 17 0. 18 0.18. 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.06 42- 49 0.21 0.21 0.21 0. 16 0. 15 0.15 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.04 49- 56 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.29 0. 29 0.27 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.07 56- 63 0.19 0.20 0.20 0. 19 0. 20 0.19 0.03 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.04 63- 70 0.13 0.15 0. 15 0. 17 0. 12 0.14 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.06 0.05 70- 77 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.11 0. 12 0.04 0.05 0. 03 0.04 0.06 0.06 77- 84 0.08 0.07 0.08 0. 10 0.09 0.09 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06 84- 98 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 98-112 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 112-126 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0. 02 0.02 0.01 0.02 126-140 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 140-168 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 168^196 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.02 196-224 0.01 0.02 - 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.03 224-252 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 - 130 -SKELETAL MEASUREMENTS VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: 2(CE) 3(CL) TREATMENTS: 1 ( C 0 ) AGE 35-42 42-49 49-56 56-63 63-70 70-77 77-84 84-98 98-112 112-126 126-140 140-168 168-196 196-224 224-252 SKULL WIDTH 2 (MM/DAY) 4(RO) 5(RE) 6(RL) 0.13 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.05 0 .05 0.02 0.05 0 .06 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.02 0 .01 0.00 0. 00 0.00 0. 00 0.12 0.05 0.07 0.05 0 .04 0 .05 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.05 0 .06 0 . 05 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0 .04 0.02 0. 01 0 .01 0.01 0.01 0. 09 0 . 03 0 .08 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.05 0 .06 0 .06 0 . 05 0 . 06 0.05 0 .04 0.07 0 .06 0.03 0 .05 •0.01 0.03 0 .01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.10 0 . 05 0 .04 0.03 0.13 0.04 0. 08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.05 0 .00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0 . 00 0.01 0.01 0. 00 0. 00 0.12 0 .04 0.04 0.06 0 .12 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.06 0.05 •0.01 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 •0.04 0 .02 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.06 0.09 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.09 0. 05 0.05 0.07 0.02 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.03 0 . 03 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0 .00 APPENDIX E SCORES - 131 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: FORELIMB TOTAL (UNITS) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35 67.0 69.6 53.4 55.0 1.9 2. 6 9.6 3.3 42 87.4 85.2 77.0 80.2 0.5 3. 3 2.3 3.6 49 92.8 93.2 92.8 94.2 1.3 0. 4 1.8 1.6 56 96.0 100.6 96.2 97.2 3.2 2.9 0.8 0.4 63 102.4 105.6 102.2 104.8 1.1 0.5 3.5 2.8 70 105.6 108*6 106.6 107.8 2.7 1.3 2. 1 0.4 77 112.6 115.0 114.4 116.0 1.1 3.0 1.3 0.0 84 119.8 120.4 119.8 119.0 2.9 0.5 0.8 0.0 98 124.6 125.4 125.2 125.4 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.5 112 125.8 129.0 129.0 128.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.2 126 126.6 129.0 129.0 129.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 140 126.8 129.0 129.0 129.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 168 128.6 129.0 129.0 129.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 196 129.0 129.0 129.0 129.0 -0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 224 129.0 129.0 129.0 129.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 252 129.0 129.0 129.0 129.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 SCORES - 132 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: HINDLIMB TOTAL (UNITS) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35 63.4 65.4 50.4 54.2 2.2 1.8 6.1 2.3 42 86.4 89. 4 70.8 80.2 2.2 3.3 4.7 5.6 49 97.8 96. 8 89.8 89.4 1.6 2.3 1.9 2.7 56 102.2 104.8 100.4 100.6 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.8 63 108.8 112.6 108.8 110.8 1.3 1.3 3.7 1.1 70 113.0 116. 8 114.2 115.4 1.2 1.3 2.4 1.3 77 122.4 121.4 121.2 120.8 2.7 0.9 1.3 2.6 84 130.0 129. 2 126.4 123.2 2.0 1.3 2.7 1.3 98 135.0 136.4 136.6 131.8 1.2 0.5 0.5 1.3 112 135.8 137. 4 137.8 137.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.7 126 136.8 137. 4 138.0 138.0 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.0 140 136.8 138.0 138.0 138.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 168 137.0 138.0 138.0 138.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 196 137.0 138.0 138.0 138.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 224 137.0 138.0 138.0 138.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 252 137.4 138.0 138.0 138.0 0.5 O.O 0.0 0.0 - 133 -SCORES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: AXIAL TOTAL (UNITS) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35 8.2 8.0 7.6 8.0 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.0 15.4 14.6 10.0 10.0 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 49 18.2 18.0 13.2 14.4 0.4 0.0 1.8 0.9 56 18.4 19.2 18.2 18.2 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 63 19.8 19.6 19.0 18.6 0.4 0.5 - 0.0 0.5 70 20.2 21.0 19.6 20.0 0.4 1.0 0.5 0.0 77 23.4 22.2 20.0 20.8 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.8 84 23.6 22.8 20.6 21.2 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.8 98 23.6 22.8 22.8 22.8 0.5 0. 4 0.4 0.4 112 23.6 23.4 23.0 23.0 0.5 0. 5 0.0 0.0 126 24.0 25.0 25.0 25.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 140 23.6 24.6 23.4 23.2 0.5 0. 5 0.5 0.4 168 23.6 25.0 23.8 23.6 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.5 196 23.6 25.0 24.0 24.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.8 224 23.8 25.0 24.0 24.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 252 23.8 25.0 25.0 25.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 SCORES - 13»f -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TOTAL SCORE (UNITS) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2(CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35 138.6 143.0 111.4 117.2 3.5 4.0 16.0 4.4 42 189.2 189. 2 157.8 170.4 1.9 6.7 6.1 8.7 49 208.8 208.0 195.8 198.0 2.6 22.3 5.0 4.9 56 216.6 224. 6 214.8 216.0 2.6 3.6 2.2 2.5 63 231.0 237.8 230.0 234.2 2.1 1.9 7.2 3.3 70 238.8 246. 4 240.4 243.2 3.4 1.7 4.8 1.3 77 258.4 258. 6 255.6 257.6 4.2 3.2 2.6 3.3 84 273.4 272. 4 266.8 263.4 4.8 0.9 2.4 2.1 98 283.2 284. 6 284.6 280.0 1.6 0.9 1.5 1.4 1 12 285.2 289. 8 289.8 288.0 1.1 0.8 0.4 1.0 126 290.4 292.0 292.0 292.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 140 287.0 291.0 290.4 290.2 1.4 1.0 0.5 0.4 168 287.2 292.0 290.8 290.6 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.5 196 289.2 292.0 291.0 291.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.8 2 24 289.8 292.0 291.0 291.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 252 289.8 292.0 292.0 292.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 APPENDIX F SCORES VELOCITIES - 135 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: FORELIMB TOTAL (UN ITS/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35- 42 2.9 2.2 3.4 3.6 0.3 0.5 1.1 0.7 42- 49 0.8 1. 1 2.3 2.0 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.4 49- 56 0.5 1. 1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 56- 63 0.9 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 63- 70 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4 70- 77 1.0 0.9 1. 1 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.1 77- 84 1.0 0. 8 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.0 84- 98 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.1 o . i 0.0 98-112 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0. 1 0.1 0.1 112-126 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 o.o 0.0 0. 1 126-140 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0" 140-168 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 168-196 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 196-224 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 224-252 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0.0 0.0 - 136 -SCORES VELOCITIES MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: HINDLIMB TOTAL (UNITS/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2(CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 3 5 - 42 3.3 3.4 2 .9 3.7 0.4 0 .6 0.4 0.8 4 2 - 49 1.6 1.1 2 .7 1.3 0.2 0 . 5 0 . 5 0.6 49- 56 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.6 0.2 0 .4 0 .2 0.2 56- 63 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.5 • 0.3 0 .3 0 . 5 0.1 63 - 70 0.6 0 .6 0 . 8 0.7 0 .2 0. 3 0 . 5 0.2 70- 77 1.3 0 .7 1.0 0.8 0.4 0 .2 0.4 0.3 77- 84 1.1 1.1 0 .7 0 .3 0.4 0 .2 0 . 3 0.3 84- 98 0.4 0 . 5 0 .7 0.6 0.2 0. 1 0 .2 0.1 98-112 0.1 0 .1 0 .1 0.4 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 .0 0.1 112-126 0.1 0 .0 0 .0 0. 1 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 126- 140 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0,0 140-168 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 168-196 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 0 .0 0.0 196-224 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0.0 o.o 0 . 0 0.0 224-252 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 0.0 SCORES VELOCITIES - 137 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: AXIAL TOTAL (UNITS/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35- 42 1.0 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 42- 49 0.4 0. 5 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 49- 56 0.2 0. 2 0.7 0.5 0.1 o . i 0.2 0.1 56- 63 0.2 0. 1 0. 1 0.1 0.1 0. 1 0.1 0.1 63- 70 0. 1 0.2 0. 1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 70- 77 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 77- 84 0.0 0. 1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 84- 98 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0. 1 98-112 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 112-126 0.0 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 126-140 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 140-168 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 168-196 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 196-224 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.o 224-252 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 SCORES VELOCITIES - 138 -MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR: TOTAL SCORE (UNITS/DAY) TREATMENTS: 1 (CO) 2 (CE) 4 (RO) 5 (RE) AGE 35- 42 7.2 6.6 6.6 7.6 0.6 1. 1 1.5 1.4 42- 49 2.8 2.7 5.4 3.9 0.4 1.0 0.5 0.7 49- 56 1.1 2.4 2.7 2.6 0.6 0. 6 0.5 0.4 56- 63 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.3 63- 70 1.1 1;2 1.5 1.3 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.5 70- 77 2.8 1.7 2.2 2.1 0.6 0. 3 0.8 0.4 77- 84 2.1 2.0 1.6 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.3 84- 98 0.7 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.3 0. 1 0.2 0.1 98-112 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.6 0. 1 0. 1 0.1 0. 1 112-126 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 126-140 0.0 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 1 0.0 0.0 140-168 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 168-196 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 196-224 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 224-252 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 A P P E N D I X G SAME OF EXPERIMENT: - 139 -EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 1 ANIMAL NUMBER SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP LENGTH T A I L LENGTH TOTAL LENGTH BODY WEIGHT TREAT MENT 2 0 3 5 9 7 5 6 1 5 3 3 7 2 1 7 0 3 5 9 9 6 0 1 5 9 3 6 9 1 1 2 0 3 5 1 0 2 6 2 1 6 4 3 7 0 1 1 3 0 3 5 9 7 6 0 1 5 7 3 3 8 1 2 4 0 3 5 9 9 5 7 1 5 6 3 3 9 1 2 7 0 3 5 1 0 0 5 9 1 5 9 3 5 4 1 2 9 0 3 5 1 0 0 5 5 1 5 5 3 5 0 1 3 1 0 3 5 9 9 5 7 1 5 6 3 3 5 1 4 4 0 3 5 1 0 3 6 5 1 6 8 3 8 2 1 4 6 0 3 5 1 0 3 6 3 1 6 6 3 7 2 1 9 2 0 3 5 8 9 5 1 1 4 0 2 4 3 1 1 0 3 5 9 6 5 6 1 5 2 3 6 0 2 4 0 3 5 1 0 0 5 6 1 5 6 3 7 0 2 9 0 3 5 1 0 0 6 0 1 6 0 3 8 3 2 1 0 0 3 5 1 0 2 6 0 1 6 2 3 8 3 2 1 4 0 3 5 9 6 5 8 1 5 4 3 3 4 2 1 6 0 3 5 9 4 5 5 1 4 9 3 1 6 2 2 3 0 3 5 1 0 3 6 0 1 6 3 3 8 9 2 2 6 0 3 5 9 7 5 6 1 5 3 3 4 1 2 2 8 0 3 5 1 0 0 5 7 1 5 7 3 4 1 2 4 2 0 3 5 1 0 2 6 4 1 6 6 3 7 0 2 4 3 0 3 5 1 0 4 6 3 1 6 7 3 8 7 2 9 1 0 3 5 9 1 5 5 1 4 6 2 6 0 2 3 0 3 5 9 5 5 5 1 5 0 3 3 0 3 5 0 3 5 9 7 5 4 1 5 1 3 6 5 3 8 0 3 5 9 6 5 4 1 5 0 3 5 9 3 1 1 0 3 5 1 0 1 6 2 1 6 3 3 9 9 3 1 5 0 3 5 9 7 6 0 1 5 7 3 7 5 3 2 1 0 3 5 1 0 2 6 0 1 6 2 3 8 5 3 2 2 0 3 5 9 9 6 0 1 5 9 3 8 5 3 2 5 0 3 5 1 0 2 5 8 1 6 0 3 5 0 3 3 0 0 3 5 1 0 1 5 6 1 5 7 3 5 0 3 4 1 0 3 5 1 0 0 6 0 1 6 0 3 6 3 3 4 5 0 3 5 1 0 3 6 1 1 6 4 3 8 7 3 9 0 0 3 5 9 0 5 1 1 4 1 2 5 4 3 9 3 0 3 5 9 0 5 3 1 4 3 2 4 4 3 1 8 0 3 5 7 5 5 3 1 2 8 1 4 3 4 1 9 0 3 5 7 9 5 1 1 3 0 1 5 4 4 3 8 0 3 5 8 5 5 4 1 3 9 2 0 0 4 4 9 0 3 5 8 5 5 6 1 4 1 2 2 0 4 5 4 0 3 5 8 8 5 6 1 4 4 2 2 1 4 5 7 0 3 5 9 0 5 5 1 4 5 2 2 0 4 6 0 0 3 5 8 8 5 5 1 4 3 2 2 1 4 6 1 0 3 5 9 0 5 5 1 4 5 2 1 7 4 6 9 0 3 5 7 8 4 4 1 2 2 1 4 6 4 7 1 0 3 5 8 0 4 1 1 2 1 1 7 0 4 7 3 0 3 5 7 5 4 4 1 1 9 1 3 4 4 7 7 0 3 5 8 0 5 0 1 3 0 1 5 9 4 - lhO -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 2 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 80 0 35 80 49 129 155 4 83 0 35 80 48 128 155 4 87 0 35 79 4 5 124 150 4 89 0 35 79 48 127 151 4 95 0 35 74 40 114 124 4 97 0 35 68 39 107 103 4 100 0 35 72 40 112 121 4 20 0 35 78 55 133 164 5 35 0 35 83 56 139 204 5 39 0 35 88 53 141 208 5 48 0 35 79 50 129 175 5 50 0 35 87 56 143 217 5 56 0 35 85 52 137 193 5 59 0 35 88 54 142 222 5 62 0 35 89 51 140 213 5 70 0 35 84 49 133 173 5 76 0 35 80 47 127 165 5 82 0 35 80 48 128 157 5 86 0 35 78 45 123 149 5 88 0 35 79 46 125 153 5 96 0 35 70 41 111 126 5 99 0 35 69 3 9 108 112 5 17 0 35 77 50 127 152 6 36 0 35 84 53 137 199 6 37 0 35 85 52 137 203 6 47 0 35 87 57 144 216 6 51 0 35 85 58 143 210 6 55 0 35 84 51 135 205 6 58 0 35 87 52 139 212 6 63 0 35 85 52 137 200 6 65 0 35 85 52 137 210 6 72 0 35 82 47 129 156 6 75 0 35 78 47 125 154 6 78 0 35 79 49 128 164 6 84 0 35 74 47 121 139 6 85 0 35 78 50 128 160 6 98 0 35 68 37 105 113 6 2 0 42 123 84 207 535 ! 7 0 42 121 89 210 522 1 12 0 42 124 90 214 531 1 13 0 42 119 85 204 485 1 24 0 42 117 88 205 505 1 27 0 42 115 88 203 515 1 29 0 42 120 85 205 520 1 31 0 42 117 88 205 526 1 44 0 42 125 97 222 565 1 46 0 42 122 95 217 525 1 92 0 42 110 72 182 445 1 1 0 42 120 85 205 511 2 - lk-1 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 3 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL EODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 4 0 42 127 86 213 540 2 9 0 42 120 88 208 562 2 10 0 42 121 86 207 555 2 14 0 42 119 82 201 493 2 16 0 42 117 75 192 459 2 23 0 42 125 85 210 605 2 26 0 42 118 85 203 515 2 28 0 42 118 86 204 513 2 42 0 42 124 96 220 560 2 43 0 42 126 97 223 561 2 91 0 42 110 84 194 480 2 3 0 42 119 81 200 481 3 5 0 42 124 81 20 5 520 3 8 0 42 122 80 202 536 3 1 1 0 42 124 89 213 591 3 15 0 42 122 86 208 562 3 21 0 42 126 88 214 610 3 22 0 42 125 91 216 592 3 25 0 42 120 87 207 565 3 30 0 42 121 85 206 563 3 41 0 42 122 92 214 528 3 45 0 42 124 97 221 560 3 90 0 42 111 77 188 475 3 93 0 42 111 80 191 460 3 18 0 42 90 75 165 216 4 19 0 42 95 72 167 250 4 38 0 42 100 75 175 287 4 49 0 42 104 74 178 305 4 54 0 42 97 71 168 280 4 57 0 42 98 71 169 295 4 60 0 42 102 70 172 295 4 61 0 42 101 67 168 285 4 69 0 42 86 60 146 189 4 71 0 42 90 62 152 210 4 73 0 42 85 59 144 173 4 77 0 42 87 57 144 183 4 80 0 42 84 59 143 184 4 83 0 42 86 63 149 206 4 87 0 42 87 59 146 192 4 89 0 42 90 60 150 201 4 95 0 42 82 57 139 187 4 97 0 42 78 52 130 155 4 00 0 42 82 56 138 196 4 20 0 42 95 75 170 261 5 35 0 42 104 81 185 332 5 39 0 42 103 75 178 301 5 48 0 42 91 67 158 220 5 50 0 42 100 76 176 300 5 56 0 42 94 68 162 235 5 - 14-2 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 4 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 59 0 42 102 70 • 172 282 5 62 0 42 99 71 170 2 70 5 70 0 42 92 67 159 224 5 76 0 42 90 62 152 213 5 82 0 42 87 57 144 181 5 86 0 42 86 59 145 195 5 88 0 42 85 58 143 197 5 96 0 42 85 52 137 192 5 99 0 42 79 52 . 131 165 5 17 0 42 96 74 170 235 6 36 0 42 101 75 176 295 6 37 0 42 100 74 174 305 6 47 0 42 102 72 174 275 6 51 0 42 98 73 171 277 6 55 0 42 97 67 164 265 6 58 0 42 95 68 163 265 6 6 3 0 . 42 97 69 166 264 6 65 0 42 97 67 164 270 6 72 0 42 90 62 152 199 6 75 0 42 87 61 148 195 6 78 0 42 85 62 147 182 6 84 0 42 82 55 137 178 6 85 0 42 86 65 151 208 6 98 0 42 79 54 133 170 6 2 0 49 142 120 262 772 7 0 49 140 121 261 815 1 12 0 49 145 127 272 887 1 13 0 49 140 111 251 770 1 24 0 49 139 119 258 820 1 27 0 49 141 118 259 805 1 29 0 49 142 120 262 850 1 31 0 49 142 118 260 835 1 44 0 49 144 127 271 935 1 46 0 49 144 124 268 915 1 92 0 49 134 110 244 785 1 1 0 49 137 117 254 821 2 4 0 49 143 121 264 900 2 9 0 49 145 122 267 965 2 10 0 49 144 121 265 945 2 14 0 49 142 116 258 900 2 16 0 49 140 108 248 839 2 23 0 49 149 121 270 990 2 26 0 49 144 113 257 850 2 28 0 49 144 120 264 835 2 42 0 49 146 127 273 935 2 43 0 49 146 127 273 980 2 91 0 49 141 114 255 890 2 3 0 49 138 119 257 750 3 - 1^ 3 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 5 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 5 0 49 142 116 258 818 3 8 0 49 143 113 256 875 3 11 0 49 144 124 268 942 3 15 0 49 146 118 264 905 3 21 0 49 146 121 267 930 3 22 0 49 141 120 261 830 3 25 0 49 142 118 260 875 3 30 0 49 144 119 263 910 3 41 0 49 145 122 267 890 3 45 0 49 147 129 276 975 3 90 0 49 140 110 250 885 3 93 0 49 139 110 249 840 3 18 0 49 108 93 201 355 4 19 0 49 1 12 93 205 465 4 38 0 49 117 95 212 485 4 49 0 49 1 15 92 207 500 4 54 0 49 120 88 208 535 4 57 0 49 118 90 208 530 4 60 0 49 114 87 201 495 4 61 0 49 111 87 198 475 4 69 0 49 1 04 76 180 345 4 71 0 49 110 79 189 405 4 73 0 49 , 101 75 176 305 4 77 0 49 100 72 172 370 4 80 0 49 100 71 171 340 4 83 0 49 108 82 190 415 4 87 0 49 107 77 184 400 4 89 0 49 107 79 186 430 4 95 0 49 104 76 180 380 4 97 0 49 105 67 172 305 4 100 0 49 106 72 178 365 4 20 0 49 110 95 205 410 5 35 0 49 122 101 223 540 . 5 39 0 49 121 95 216 524 5 48 0 49 102 81 183 335 5 50 0 49 116 90 206 490 5 56 0 49 110 82 192 380 5 59 0 49 115 92 207 525 5 62 0 49 117 95 212 465 5 70 0 49 110 87 197 435 5 76 0 49 111 80 191 420 5 82 0 49 104 73 177 375 5 86 0 49 107 75 182 410 5 88 0 49 106 75 181 . 400 5 96 0 49 98 76 174 390 5 99 0 49 95 69 164 305 5 17 0 49 110 95 205 405 6 36 0 49 120 96 216 510 6 37 0 49 119 94 213 500 6 - l¥+ -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 6 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 47 0 49 115 89 204 515 6 51 0 49 111 91 202 470 6 55 0 49 1 15 86 201 490 6 58 0 49 114 85 199 495 6 6 3 0 ' 49 110 86 196 455 6 65 0 49 111 85 196 440 6 72 0 49 105 85 190 3 70 6 75 0 49 110 82 192 375 6 78 0 49 102 74 176 345 6 84 0 49 97 73 170 345 6 85 0 49 111 81 192 415 6 98 0 49 104 69 173 320 6 2 0 56 164 140 304 1305 7 0 56 161 142 303 1265 1 12 0 56 165 154 319 1400 1 13 0 56 160 136 296 1215 1 24 0 56 164 145 309 1310 1 27 0 56 160 145 305 1225 29 0 56 166 138 304 1355 1 31 0 56 164 143 307 1320 1 44 0 56 170 159 329 1475 1 46 0 56 167 151 318 1460 1 92 0 56 159 134 293 1255 1 0 56 163 137 300 1245 2 4 0 56 166 141 307 1434 2 9 0 56 167 148 315 1480 2 10 0 56 165 144 309 1410 2 14 0 56 161 142 303 1400 2 16 0 56 161 131 292 1290 2 23 0 56 168 144 312 1440 2 26 0 56 164 137 301 1350 2 28 0 56 170 143 313 1320 2 42 0 56 168 155 323 1520 2 43 0 56 171 154 325 1605 2 91 0 56 161 139 300 1435 2 3 0 56 162 142 304 1205 3 5 0 56 161 137 298 1305 3 8 0 56 169 134 303 1360 3 11 0 56 166 148 314 1430 3 15 0 56 164 142 306 1395 3 21 0 56 165 139 304 1365 3 22 0 56 160 141 301 1257 3 25 0 56 165 142 307 1395 3 30 0 56 165 142 307 1445 3 41 0 56 166 150 316 1440 3 45 0 56 171 157 328 1580 3 90 0 56 162 139 301 1435 3 93 0 56 157 137 294 1375 3 18 0 56 135 120 255 710 4 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 7 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER . LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 19 0 56 142 116 258 880 4 38 0 56 149 116 265 985 4 49 0 56 147 126 273 905 4 54 0 56 142 118 260 990 4 57 0 56 148 117 265 1005 4 60 0 56 145 114 259 935 4 61 0 56 140 112 252 870 4 69 0 56 130 108 238 705 4 71 0 56 135 110 245 785 4 73 0 56 128 104 232 665 4 77 0 56 128 94 222 705 4 80 0 56 127 96 223 665 4 83 0 56 134 110 244 840 4 87 0 56 135 104 239 765 4 89 0 56 136 108 244 815 4 95 0 56 134 105 239 770 4 97 0 56 127 100 227 628 4 100 0 56 136 102 238 770 4 20 0 56 137 116 253 785 5 35 0 56 148 124 272 955 5 39 0 56 151 123 274 1035 5 48 0 56 131 111 242 680 5 50 0 56 145 121 266 895 5 56 0 56 138 105 243 785 5 59 0 56 148 115 263 960 5 62 0 56 144 114 258 900 5 70 0 56 135 117 252 855 5 76 0 56 139 108 247 850 5 82 0 56 131 102 233 755 5 86 0 56 134 102 236 785 5 88 0 56 130 104 234 780 5 96 0 56 132 102 234 825 5 99 0 56 125 95 220 675 5 17 0 56 140 111 251 750 6 36 0 56 144 124 268 1005 6 37 0 56 145 118 263 960 6 47 0 56 144 120 264 890 6 51 0 56 142 121 263 890 6 55 0 56 141 114 255 885 6 58 0 56 145 114 259 905 6 63 0 56 139 111 250 855 6 65 0 56 139 111 250 855 6 72 0 56 133 112 245 755 6 75 0 56 135 114 249 775 6 78 0 . 56 126 101 227 690 6 84 0 56 126 97 223 710 6 85 0 56 133 110 243 805 6 98 0 56 125 10 1 226 680 6 2 0 63 187 162 349 1945 1 « l k 6 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 8 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 7 0 63 181 160 341 1775 12 0 63 190 173 363 1995 13 0 63 181 152 333 1695 24 0 63 180 169 349 1950 27 0 63 176 169 345 1840 29 0 63 185 160 345 1980 31 0 63 178 169 347 1935 44 0 63 187 182 369 1980 46 0 63 185 175 360 2055 92 0 63 172 161 333 1695 1 0 63 180 158 338 1790 4 0 63 189 161 350 2085 9 0 63 187 165 352 2080 10 0 63 182 157 339 1925 14 0 63 183 155 338 1950 16 0 63 182 150 332 1860 23 0 63 185 163 348 2045 26 0 63 180 159 339 1945 28 0 63 180 164 344 1920 4 2 0 63 187 174 361 2110 43 0 63 192 175 367 2210 91 0 63 184 165 349 1935 3 0 63 179 162 341 1750 3 5 0 63 184 159 343 1915 3 8 0 63 186 154 340 1930 3 11 0 63 187 160 347 1995 3 15 0 63 185 157 342 1965 3 21 0 63 184 165 349 1975 3 22 0 63 180 162 342 1860 3 25 0 63 188 165 353 1970 3 30 0 63 187 164 351 2045 3 41 0 63 182 170 352 2000 3 4 5 0 63 190 179 369 2215 3 90 0 63 186 161 347 1940 3 93 0 63 183 157 340 1805 3 18 0 63 157 145 302 1 145 4 19 0 63 165 140 305 1345 4 38 0 63 172 150 322 1560 4 49 0 63 168 159 327 1400 4 54 0 63 167 145 312 1495 4 57 0 63 172 146 318 1585 4 60 0 63 162 144 306 1430 4 61 0 63 161 141 302 1315 4 69 0 63 155 135 290 1135 4 71 0 63 163 140 30 3 1245 4 73 0 63 155 132 287 1100 4 77 0 63 155 122 277 1210 4 80 0 63 155 125 280 1150 4 83 0 63 161 137 298 1320 4 - 1^7 -NABE OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 9 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 87 0 63 159 136 295 1200 4 89 0 63 165 136 301 1280 4 95 0 63 155 132 287 1165 4 97 0 63 152 130 282 1020 4 100 0 63 159 132 291 1225 4 20 0 63 160 145 305 1275 5 35 0 63 165 151 316 14 15 5 39 0 63 170 159 329 1570 5 48 0 63 157 136 293 1080 5 50 0 63 168 146 314 1350 5 56 0 63 160 138 298 1280 5 59 0 63 165 145 310 1400 5 62 0 63 161 135 296 1335 5 70 0 63 164 145 309 1305 5 76 0 63 161 139 300 1320 5 82 0 63 158 137 295 1155 5 86 0 63 162 130 292 1210 5 88 0 63 155 133 288 1220 5 96 0 63 162 130 292 1240 5 99 0 63 148 122 270 1030 5 17 0 63 160 145 305 1210 6 36 0 63 170 144 314 1570 6 37 0 63 165 153 318 1500 6 47 0 63 169 142 311 1360 6 51 0 63 168 150 318 1435 6 55 0 63 165 142 307 1410 6 58 0 63 166 140 306 1410 6 63 0 63 162 142 304 1385 6 65 0 63 157 140 297 1327 6 72 0 63 162 142 304 1220 6 75 0 63 165 146 311 1180 6 78 0 63 156 131 287 1145 6 84 0 63 153 126 279 1005 6 85 0 63 158 140 298 1225 6 98 0 63 152 132 284 1 110 6 2 0 70 197 189 386 2450 <| 7 0 70 195 180 375 2320 1 12 0 70 204 193 397 2590 1 13 0 70 195 172 367 2220 1 24 0 70 196 182 378 2530 1 27 0 70 190 182 372 2380 1 29 0 70 199 179 378 2570 1 31 0 70 200 177 377 2110 1 44 0 70 202 197 399 2450 1 46 0 70 202 192 394 2530 1 92 0 70 190 173 363 2165 1 1 0 70 199 180 379 2375 2 4 0 70 207 182 389 2692 2 - 14-8 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 10 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 9 0 70 203 184 387 2704 2 10 0 70 200 180 380 2460 2 14 0 70 197 174 371 2440 2 16 0 70 197 167 364 2355 2 23 0 70 2 03 182 385 2650 2 26 0 70 200 173 373 2555 2 28 0 70 200 • 187 387 2510 2 42 0 70 200 195 395 2660 2 43 0 70 210 196 406 2720 2 91 0 70 204 181 3 85 2460 2 3 0 70 192 189 381 2330 3 5 0 70 201 180 381 2480 3 8 0 70 205 170 375 2440 3 11 0 70 197 181 378 2640 3 15 0 70 201 175 376 2660 3 21 0 70 200 184 384 2500 3 22 0 70 195 180 375 2385 3 25 0 70 200 181 381 2565 3 30 0 70 202 177 379 2640 3 4 1 0 70 200 187 387 2455 3 45 0 70 205 194 399 2685 3 90 0 70 201 178 379 2485 3 93 0 70 196 177 373 2260 3 18 0 , 70 168 174 342 1515 4 19 0 70 175 176 351 1825 4 38 0 70 189 174 363 2050 4 49 0 70 185 186 371 1810 4 54 0 70 185 172 357 1920 4 57 0 70 193 176 369 2060 4 60 0 70 181 170 351 1825 4 61 0 70 183 164 347 1725 4 69 0 70 176 162 338 1560 4 71 0 70 187 165 352 1700 4 73 0 70 177 164 341 1545 4 77 0 70 177 145 322 1620 4 80 0 70 174 150 324 1535 4 83 0 70 182 160 ' 342 1755 4 87 0 70 180 159 339 1640 4 89 0 70 183 162 345 1715 4 95 0 70 177 155 332 1590 4 97 0 70 170 150 320 1365 4 100 0 70 179 156 335 1665 4 20 0 70 174 174 348 1800 5 35 0 70 181 175 356 1840 5 39 0 70 189 180 369 2085 5 48 0 70 175 160 335 1465 5 50 0 70 183 173 356 1775 5 56 0 70 181 162 343 1650 5 59 0 70 184 170 354 1820 5 - 14-9 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 11 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-ROMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH . WEIGHT MENT 62 0 70 182 170 352 1745 5 70 0 70 188 16 6 354 1740 5 76 0 70 187 161 348 1790 5 82 0 70 178 166 344 1610 5 86 0 70 180 155 335 1610 5 88 0 70 177 155 332 1690 5 96 0 70 184 150 334 1620 5 99 0 70 172 142 314 1405 5 17 0 70 176 168 344 1610 6 36 0 70 187 171 358 2060 6 37 0 70 185 172 357 1985 6 47 0 70 186 168 354 1780 6 51 0 70 194 175 369 1895 6 55 0 70 187 166 353 1805 6 58 0 70 183 168 351 1780 6 63 0 70 182 169 351 1845 6 65 0 70 180 164 344 1745 6 72 0 70 184 165 349 1650 6 75 0 70 184 167 351 1590 6 78 0 70 177 157 334 1580 6 84 0 70 170 152 322 1555 6 85 0 70 184 160 34 4 1650 6 98 0 70 177 152 329 1605 6 2 0 77 211 200 411 2905 1 7 0 77 207 195 402 2800 1 12 0 77 204 205 409 3140 1 13 0 77 2 05 187 392 2705 1 24 0 77 203 195 398 3020 1 27 0 77 205 194 399 2850 1 29 0 77 209 193 402 3120 1 31 0 77 211 195 406 3095 1 44 0 77 211 214 425 2900 1 46 0 77 212 208 420 3100 1 92 0 77 200 185 385 2520 1 1 0 77 206 197 403 2895 2 4 0 77 214 192 406 3145 2 9 0 77 216 197 413 3250 2 10 0 77 207 195 402 2935 2 14 0 77 205 186 391 2940 2 16 0 77 210 180 390 2830 2 23 ~ 0 77 217 210 427 3280 2 26 0 77 205 188 393 3100 2 28 0 77 210 200 410 3030 2 42 0 77 213 208 421 3260 2 43 0 77 215 212 427 3330 2 91 0 77 210 195 405 2925 2 3 0 77 201 200 401 2870 3 5 0 77 205 194 399 2910 3 - 150 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 12 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 8 0 77 209 180 389 2925 3 11 0 77 209 190 399 3125 3 15 0 77 211 191 402 3200 3 21 0 77 205 196 401 2960 3 22 0 77 210 195 405 2900 3 25 0 77 204 192 396 3115 3 3 0 0 77 212 190 402 3160 3 4 1 0 77 212 202 414 3015 3 45 0 77 215 210 425 3280 3 90 0 77 207 205 412 2930 3 18 0 77 180 191 371 1925 4 19 0 77 194 190 384 2300 4 38 0 77 202 190 392 2555 4 49 0 77 202 203 405 2275 4 54 0 77 200 190 390 2435 4 57 0 77 203 194 397 2590 4 60 0 77 197 182 379 2305 4 61 0 77 190 181 371 2165 4 69 0 77 192 176 368 2050 4 71 0 77 200 180 380 2145 4 73 0 77 197 174 371 1990 4 77 0 77 191 165 356 2130 4 80 0 77 190 165 355 2015 4 83 0 77 195 185 380 2150 4 87 0 77 192 174 366 2115 4 89 0 77 196 175 371 2205 4 95 0 77 188 169 357 1945 4 97 0 77 185 165 350 1705 4 100 0 77 194 170 364 2055 4 20 0 77 186 185 371 1975 5 35 0 77 185 190 375 2230 5 39 0 77 204 199 403 2520 5 48 0 77 188 180 368 1885 5 50 0 77 195 192 387 2255 5 56 0 77 194 183 377 2105 5 59 0 77 203 185 388 2325 5 62 0 77 199 184 383 2215 5 70 0 77 202 184 386 2155 5 76 0 77 198 175 373 2240 5 82 0 77 195 181 376 2095 5 86 0 77 192 171 363 2115 5 88 0 77 190 170 360 2170 5 96 0 77 192 162 354 1975 5 99 0 77 186 159 345 1795 5 17 0 77 186 183 369 2065 6 3 6 0 77 200 187 387 2620 6 37 0 77 193 191 384 2500 6 47 0 77 195 187 382 2245 6 51 0 77 206 197 403 2395 6 - 151 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 13 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 55 0 77 196 187 383 2350 6 58 0 77 197 182 379 2245 6 63 0 77 197 185 38 2 2315 6 65 0 77 195 180 375 2205 6 72 0 77 199 180 379 2045 6 75 0 77 194 180 374 2020 6 78 0 77 186 167 353 2005 6 84 0 77 186 170 356 1955 6 85 0 77 190 180 370 21 15 6 98 0 77 190 174 364 1953 6 2 0 84 222 204 426 3350 1 7 0 84 215 200 415 3205 1 12 0 84 224 214 438 3685 1 13 0 84 214 196 410 3035 1 24 0 84 218 201 419 3360 1 27 0 84 208 204 412 3240 1 29 0 84 220 200 420 3560 1 31 0 84 219 205 424 3505 1 44 0 84 225 205 430 3250 1 46 0 84 224 216 440 3510 1 92 0 84 211 190 401 2870 1 1 0 84 212 209 421 3265 2 4 0 84 218 202 420 3525 2 9 0 84 222 209 431 3680 2 10 0 84 218 20 5 423 3380 2 14 0 84 214 198 412 3285 2 16 0 84 217 192 409 3160 2 23 0 84 217 210 427 3750 2 26 0 84 217 194 411 3480 2 28 0 84 220 208 428 3390 2 42 0 84 227 218 445 3650 2 43 0 84 231 219 450 3790 2 91 0 84 224 204 428 3430 2 3 0 84 215 210 425 3340 3 5 0 84 214 195 409 3440 3 8 0 84 221 190 411 3295 3 1 1 0 84 223 200 423 3575 3 15 0 84 222 201 423 3710 3 21 0 84 218 205 423 3250 3 22 0 84 226 210 436 3250 3 25 0 84 220 204 424 3460 3 30 0 84 220 196 416 3570 3 41 0 84 220 209 429 3360 3 45 0 84 229 215 444 3740 3 90 0 84 221 201 422 3520 3 18 0 84 192 197 389 2270 4 19 0 84 203 201 404 2700 4 38 0 84 215 202 417 2965 4 - 152 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 14 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL EODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 49 0 84 217 210 427 2660 4 54 0 84 2 03 197 400 2800 4 57 0 84 210 200 410 2930 4 60 0 84 200 192 392 2620 4 61 0 84 205 184 389 2500 4 69 0 84 203 192 395 2430 4 71 0 84 207 195 402 2540 4 73 0 84 204 193 397 2300 4 77 0 84 202 183 385 2520 4 80 0 84 199 190 389 2380 4 83 0 84 206 190 396 2510 4 87 0 84 201 191 392 2570 4 89 0 84 202 198 400 2660 4 95 0 84 197 187 384 2445 4 97 0 84 194 182 376 2075 4 100 0 84 204 190 394 2505 4 20 0 84 197 198 395 2480 5 35 0 84 200 197 397 2580 5 39 0 84 214 207 421 2925 5 48 0 84 200 186 386 2220 5 50 0 84 212 194 406 2635 5 56 0 84 202 187 389 2410 5 59 0 84 210 195 405 2700 5 62 0 84 205 195 400 2545 5 70 0 84 211 198 409 2580 5 76 0 84 206 193 399 2670 5 82 0 84 201 195 396 2500 5 86 0 84 205 186 391 2550 5 88 0 84 201 189 390 2650 5 96 0 84 204 184 388 2405 5 99 0 84 190 180 370 2255 5 17 0 84 198 197 395 2395 6 36 0 84 212 198 410 2985 6 37 0 84 210 204 414 2925 6 47 0 84 211 192 403 2620 6 51 0 84 218 200 418 2802 6 55 0 84 207 193 400 2740 6 58 0 84 203 195 398 2580 6 63 0 84 207 194 401 2590 6 65 0 84 193 197 390 2560 6 72 0 84 203 192 395 2460 6 75 0 84 205 196 401 2440 6 78 0 84 199 195 394 2440 6 84 0 84 196 185 381 2420 6 85 0 84 200 201 401 2530 6 98 0 84 196 189 385 2375 6 2 0 98 229 220 449 3875 1 7 0 98 225 215 440 3795 1 12 0 98 242 221 463 4290 1 - 153 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 15 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 13 0 98 227 207 434 3415 24 0 98 225 210 435 3910 27 0 98 225 210 435 3830 29 0 98 231 211 442 4090 31 0 98 229 213 442 4010 44 0 98 237 223 460 3790 46 0 98 239 222 461 3950 92 0 98 225 201 426 3545 1 0 98 227 219 446 3850 2 4 0 98 234 210 444 4070 2 9 0 98 236 217 453 4250 2 10 0 98 227 212 439 3785 2 14 0 98 228 205 433 3795 2 16 0 98 227 204 431 3645 2 23 0 98 242 221 463 4595 2 26 0 98 2 30 199, 429 4050 2 28 0 98 240 212 452 4025 2 42 0 98 237 224 461 4250 2 43 0 98 244 230 474 4380 2 91 0 98 235 211 446 4050 2 3 0 98 232 218 450 3910 3 5 0 98 231 215 446 3955 3 8 0 98 232 196 428 3695 3 1 1 0 98 233 212 445 4025 3 15 0 98 234 212 446 4320 3 21 0 98 229 214 443 3720 3 22 0 98 235 217 452 3810 3 25 0 98 233 208 441 4055 3 30 0 98 236 201 437 4300 3 41 0 98 238 214 452 3925 3 45 0 98 246 222 468 4420 3 90 0 98 237 212 449 4240 3 18 0 98 204 201 405 2630 4 19 0 98 218 214 432 3135 4 38 0 98 225 214 439 3430 4 49 0 98 229 225 454 3120 4 54 0 98 228 210 438 3525 4 57 0 98 232 215 447 3655 4 60 0 98 222 207 429 3175 4 61 0 98 214 202 416 3085 4 69 0 98 220 210 430 2910 4 71 0 98 224 206 430 2985 4 73 0 98 219 200 419 2700 4 77 0 98 216 198 414 3015 4 80 0 98 217 200 417 2970 4 83 0 98 216 205 421 3040 4 87 0 98 219 201 420 3130 4 89 0 98 218 205 423 3265 4 95 0 98 219 198 417 3020 4 - 15^ -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 16 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 97 0 98 214 190 404 2590 4 I00 0 98 221 199 420 3090 4 20 0 98 210 206 416 2925 5 35 0 98 214 200 414 3145 5 39 0 98 2 30 215 445 3400 5 48 0 98 219 200 419 2620 5 50 0 98 224 214 438 3100 5 56 0 98 220 207 427 2880 5 59 0 98 221 201 422 3230 5 62 0 98 222 206 428 3110 5 70 0 98 222 207 429 3005 5 76 0 98 224 203 427 3165 5 82 0 98 220 209 429 2910 5 86 0 98 218 201 419 3080 5 88 0 98 210 202 412 3200 5 96 - 0 98 214 195 409 2925 5 99 0 98 214 192 406 2775 5 17 0 98 214 207 421 2845 6 36 0 98 224 210 434 34 85 6 37 0 98 224 215 439 3450 6 47 0 98 222 207 429 3160 6 51 0 98 232 220 452 3310 6 55 0 98 226 206 432 3530 6 58 0 98 221 209 430 3130 6 63 0 98 223 210 433 3120 6 65 0 98 218 205 423 3285 6 72 0 98 221 207 428 3050 6 75 0 98 224 207 431 3025 6 78 0 98 220 205 425 2950 6 84 0 98 211 196 407 3035 6 85 0 98 220 207 427 3135 6 98 0 98 219 194 413 2865 6 2 0 112 246 220 466 4230 7 0 112 236 216 452 4215 1 12 0 112 252 225 477 4725 1 13 0 112 393 217 610 4206 1 24 0 112 238 210 448 4120 1 27 0 1 12 233 210 443 4075 1 29 0 112 237 215 452 4060 1 31 0 112 236 215 451 4320 1 44 0 112 234 231 465 4135 1 46 0 112 242 231 473 4295 1 92 0 112 239 200 439 3880 1 1 0 112 238 220 458 4200 2 4 0 112 246 212 458 4355 2 9 0 1 12 248 222 „ 470 4705 2 10 0 112 237 216 453 4090 2 14 0 112 246 220 466 4514 2 SAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 17 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-ROMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 23 0 112 269 226 495 5100 2 26 0 112 240 200 440 4350 2 28 0 112 240 216 456 4300 2 42 0 112 245 230 475 4615 2 43 0 112 252 236 488 4880 2 91 0 112 246 219 465 4540 2 3 0 112 242 221 463 4320 3 5 0 112 247 215 462 4370 3 8 0 112 240 199 439 3900 3 11 0 1 12 242 215 457 4490 3 15 0 112 245 215 460 4805 3 21 0 112 238 220 458 3890 3 22 0 112 245 222 467 3970 3 25 0 112 236 217 453 4450 3 30 0 1 12 244 207 451 4850 3 41 0 112 241 220 461 4230 3 45 0 112 252 225 477 4935 3 90 0 ' 112 245 216 461 4645 3 18 0 112 220 217 437 3000 4 19 0 112 210 218 428 3380 4 38 0 112 235 217 452 3740 4 49 0 112 232 225 457 3305 4 54 0 1 12 230 220 450 3730 4 57 0 112 234 225 459 4010 4 60 0 112 230 215 445 3615 4 61 0 112 226 206 432 3420 4 69 0 112 228 209 437 3215 4 71 0 112 231 211 442 3125 4 73 0 112 219 209 428 2920 4 77 0 112 227 202 429 3325 4 80 0 112 224 210 434 3265 4 83 0 112 222 210 432 3325 4 87 0 112 224 213 437 3530 4 89 0 1 12 225 214 439 3665 4 95 0 112 225 210 435 3380 4 97 0 112 219 201 420 2950 4 100 0 112 229 207 436 3450 4 20 0 112 220 215 435 3330 5 35 0 112 226 209 435 3585 5 39 0 112 231 221 452 3735 5 48 0 112 227 212 439 3015 5 50 0 1 12 233 222 455 3665 5 56 0 112 227 217 444 3205 5 59 0 112 231 217 448 3525 5 62 0 112 230 215 445 3337 5 70 0 112 230 213 443 3200 5 76 0 112 233 205 438 3500 5 82 0 112 223 215 438 3105 5 86 0 112 224 209 433 3460 5 - 1 % -N A M E O F E X P E R I M E N T : E X P E R I M E N T 5 P A G E : 18 A N I M A L S E X A G E N O S E - R U M P T A I L T O T A L BO EY T R E A T N U M B E R • L E N G T H L E N G T H L E N G T H W E I G H T M E N T 88 0 112 225 204 429 3605 5 96 0 112 224 203 427 3225 5 99 0 112 214 202 416 3155 5 17 0 112 222 215 437 3175 6 36 0 112 234 211 445 3860 6 37 0 112 235 21 7 452 3870 6 47 0 112 231 219 450 3520 6 51 0 112 239 225 464 3625 6 55 0 112 236 216 452 3425 6 58 0 112 228 214 442 3915 6 63 0 112 230 213 443 3410 6 65 0 1 12 227 210 437 3440 6 72 0 112 227 215 442 3350 6 75 0 112 227 215 442 3220 6 78 0 112 218 215 433 3270 6 84 0 112 218 204 422 3410 6 85 0 1 12 223 220 443 3545 6 98 0 112 222 206 428 3170 6 2 0 126 251 223 474 4460 7 0 126 245 220 465 4450 12 0 126 254 233 487 5060 13 0 126 241 215 456 3980 1 24 0 126 242 215 457 4305 1 27 0 126 239 213 452 4270 1 29 0 126 240 219 459 4470 -j 31 0 126 245 219 464 4645 1 44 0 126 247 236 483 4305 1 46 0 126 252 232 484 4525 1 92 0 126 233 209 442 4240 1 1 0 126 245 226 471 4470 2 4 0 126 248 215 463 4635 2 9 0 126 258 221 479 4925 2 10 0 126 240 219 459 4300 2 14 0 126 242 211 453 4470 2 23 0 126 264 232 496 5410 2 26 0 126 247 204 451 4530 2 28 0 126 250 217 467 4605 2 42 0 126 250 228 478 4795 2 43 0 126 260 240 500 4950 2 91 0 126 249 220 469 4790 2 3 0 126 248 229 477 4660 3 5 0 126 251 220 471 4655 3 8 0 126 244 204 448 3980 3 1 1 0 126 252 215 467 4670 3 15 0 126 251 220 471 5075 3 21 0 126 242 225 467 4095 3 22 0 126 246 227 473 4075 3 25 0 126 247 220 467 4680 3 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH 30 0 126 . 249 207 41 0 126 248 225 45 0 126 256 230 90 0 126 249 221 18 0 126 222 221 19 0 126 235 217 38 0 126 238 225 49 0 126 238 237 54 0 126 235 224 57 0 126 241 227 60 0 126 236 221 61 0 126 228 210 69 0 126 228 212 71 0 126 229 218 73 0 126 223 217 77 0 126 229 206 80 0 126 230 214 83 0 126 224 215 87 0 126 233 217 89 0 126 233 212 95 0 126 232 215 97 0 126 223 207 100 0 126 232 212 20 0 126 229 219 35 0 126 234 212 39 0 126 245 225 48 0 126 232 220 50 0 126 239 225 56 0 126 231 224 59 0 126 235 220 62 0 126 235 221 70 0 126 230 218 76 0 126 236 212 82 0 126 225 220 86 0 126 231 213 88 0 126 227 212 96 0 126 232 206 99 0 126 229 205 17 0 126 228 215 36 0 126 235 219 37 0 126 242 225 47 0 126 238 220 51 0 126 245 228 55 0 126 242 221 58 . 0 126 233 220 63 0 126 236 220 65 0 126 232 212 72 0 126 232 219 75 0 126 234 217 PAGE: 19 TOTAL BODY TREAT LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 456 5155 3 473 4395 3 486 5100 3 470 4990 3 443 3115 4 452 3660 4 463 3820 4 475 3575 4 459 4165 4 468 4480 4 457 3855 4 438 3640 4 440 3515 4 447 3415 4 440 3135 4 435 3655 4 444 3542 4 439 3585 4 450 3820 4 445 4010 4 447 3580 4 430 3240 4 444 3692 4 448 3595 5 446 3910 5 470 4080 5 452 3395 5 464 3645 5 455 3460 5 455 3795 5 456 3630 5 448 3445 5 448 3785 5 445 3335 5 444 3795 5 439 3930 5 438 3520 5 434 3470 ^ 5 443 3390 6 454 4105 6 467 4065 6 458 3765 6 473 3975 6 463 4200 6 453 3605 6 456 3620 6 444 3830 6 451 3595 6 451 3540 6 - 158 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 20 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 78 0 126 229 220 449 3475 6 84 0 126 227 21 1 438 3695 6 85 0 126 229 225 454 3865 6 98 0 126 233 210 443 3370 6 2 0 140 255 225 480 4785 <, 7 0 140 245 224 469 4725 1 12 0 140 258 234 492 5370 1 24 0 140 240 215 455 4630 1 27 0 140 240 217 457 4625 29 0 140 248 216 464 4905 1 31 0 140 247 222 469 4950 1 44 0 140 254 240 494 4700 1 46 0 140 254 237 491 4725 1 92 0 140 237 210 447 4600 1 1 0 140 245 228 473 4770 2 4 0 140 251 219 470 4915 2 9 0 140 257 226 483 5170 2 10 0 140 245 223 468 4595 2 16 0 140 241 207 448 4125 2 23 0 140 266 234 500 6025 2 26 0 140 245 209 454 4860 2 28 0 140 250 222 472 4940 . 2 42 0 140 254 232 486 5280 2 43 0 140 262 244 506 5405 2 91 0 140 255 224 479 5105 2 3 0 140 253 223 476 4860 3 5 0 140 251 223 474 4890 3 8 0 140 245 206 451 4195 3 1 1 0 140 249 225 474 4970 3 15 0 140 253 220 473 5410 3 21 0 140 249 226 475 4605 3 22 0 140 249 225 474 4520 3 25 0 140 253 221 474 5075 3 30 0 140 252 206 458 5560 3 41 0 140 247 226 473 4 830 3 45 0 140 258 231 489 5575 3 90 0 140 253 219 472 5425 3 18 0 140 226 225 451 3455 4 19 0 140 240 222 462 3910 4 38 0 140 239 227 466 4065 4 49 0 140 240 23 9 479 3850 4 54 0 140 241 226 467 4380 4 57 0 140 246 23 0 476 4765 4 60 0 140 238 211 449 4190 4 61 0 140 238 214 452 3920 4 69 0 140 237 215 452 3735 4 71 0 140 237 220 457 3615 4 73 0 140 225 217 442 3330 4 K I59 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 21 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 77 0 140 234 211 445 3 885 4 80 0 140 233 220 453 3725 4 83 0 140 236 216 452 3810 4 87 0 140 236 219 455 4130 4 89 0 140 236 218 454 4265 4 95 0 140 234 215 449 3925 4 97 0 140 227 " 210 437 3495 4 100 0 140 235 215 450 4010 4 20 0 140 228 222 450 3420 5 35 0 140 234 215 449 4060 5 39 0 140 249 229 478 4385 5 48 0 140 2 37 223 460 3595 5 50 0 140 249 226 475 3805 5 56 0 140 235 226 461 3755 5 59 0 140 238 226 464 3985 5 62 0 140 239 225 464 3885 5 70 0 140 235 218 453 3675 5 76 0 140 237 216 453 3995 5 82 0 140 229 218 447 3495 5 86 0 140 240 213 453 4035 5 88 0 140 231 216 447 4115 5 96 0 140 232 210 442 3720 5 99 0 140 233 209 442 3837 5 17 0 140 235 214 449 3640 6 36 0 140 239 220 459 4490 6 37 0 140 248 227 475 4520 6 47 0 140 243 223 466 4065 6 51 0 140 248 232 480 4270 6 55 0 140 245 211 456 4490 6 58 0 140 241 218 459 3835 6 63 0 140 238 224 462 3930 6 65 0 140 234 219 453 4135 6 72 0 140 235 220 455 3812 6 75 0 140 238 221 459 3690 6 78 0 140 232 217 449 3740 6 84 0 140 227 213 440 3975 6 85 0 140 241 226 467 4225 6 98 0 140 232 212 • 444 3655 6 2 0 168 259 227 486 5120 1 7 0 168 250 226 476 5065 1 12 0 168 262 238 500 5895 1 24 0 168 248 220 468 4840 1 27 0 168 250 219 469 4970 1 29 0 168 255 220 475 5470 1 31 0 168 258 220 478 5465 1 44 0 168 257 244 501 5020 1 46 0 168 260 242 502 5130 1 92 0 168 251 210 461 4940 1 1 0 168 255 231 486 5080 2 - 160 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 22 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL EO EY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 4 0 168 258 220 478 5515 2 9 0 168 262 23 0 492 5710 2 10 0 168 250 226 476 5015 2 23 0 168 290 239 529 6605 2 26 0 168 253 212 465 5270 2 28 0 168 252 225 477 5215 2 42 0 168 261 235 496 5930 2 43 0 168 270 246 516 5990 2 91 0 168 261 225 486 5580 2 3 0 168 257 234 491 5425 3 5 0 168 257 225 482 5405 3 8 0 168 261 226 487 5551 3 11 0 168 268 226 494 5385 3 15 0 168 265 221 486 6065 3 21 0 168 254 231 485 5020 3 22 0 168 265 23 0 495 5040 3 25 0 168 258 225 483 5585 3 30 0 168 260 21 0 470 6090 3 41 0 168 258 231 489 5180 3 45 0 168 273 231 504 6110 3 90 0 168 258 222 480 5750 3 18 0' 168 233 226 459 3730 4 19 0 168 243 226 469 4160 4 3 8 0 168 255 230 485 4525 4 49 0 168 247 222 469 4050 4 54 0 168 248 23 0 478 4620 4 57 0 168 258 233 491 5200 4 60 0 168 244 228 472 4570 4 61 0 168 238 215 453 4295 4 69 0 168 241 216 457 3950 4 71 0 168 247 220 467 3905 4 73 0 168 238 216 454 3700 4 77 0 168 242 210 452 4230 4 80 0 168 237 222 459 3927 4 83 0 168 237 221 458 4070 4 87 0 168 241 218 459 4446 4 89 0 168 241 221 462 4544 4 95 0 168 240 218 458 4270 4 97 0 168 240 210 450 3865 4 100 0 168 239 219 458 4520 4 35 0 168 240 220 460 4695 5 39 0 168 258 23 0 488 4890 5 48 0 168 246 227 473 4003 5 50 0 168 249 231 480 4130 5 56 0 168 245 227 472 4135 5 59 0 168 242 229 471 4445 5 62 0 168 246 225 471 4225 5 70 0 168 245 221 466 3940 5 76 0 168 243 219 462 4190 5 - 161 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 23 ANIMAL SEX AGE. NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 82 0 168 238 220 458 3706 5 86 0 168 246 217 463 4305 5 88 0 168 244 216 460 4570 5 96 0 168 242 208 450 4020 5 99 0 168 238 206 444 4160 5 17 0 168 240 219 459 4000 6 3 6 0 168 253 217 470 5000 6 37 0 168 256 230 486 5015 6 47 0 168 248 222 470 4440 6 51 0 168 257 232 489 4587 6 55 0 168 258 225 483 4850 6 58 0 168 241 225 466 4110 6 63 0 168 242 230 472 4225 6 65 0 168 238 222 460 4210 6 72 0 168 243 221 464 4 140 6 75 0 168 251 219 470 4025 6 78 0 168 244 222 466 4030 6 84 0 168 236 212 448 4205 6 85 0 168 247 230 477 4560 6 98 0 168 244 210 454 4010 6 12 0 196 269 237 506 6315 -j 24 0 196 257 220 477 5045 1 27 0 196 251 220 471 5045 1 44 0 196 264 242 506 5240 1 46 0 196 263 240 503 5385 1 1 0 196 258 230 488 5375 2 10 0 196 260 223 483 5385 2 23 0 196 287 240 527 7065 2 28 0 196 260 222 482 5495 2 91 0 196 264 226 490 5795 2 3 0 196 265 231 496 5885 3 5 0 196 264 224 488 5710 3 8 0 196 255 206 461 4950 3 15 0 196 267 221 488 6445 3 21 0 196 261 231 492 5030 3 18 0 196 237 231 468 3820 4 19 0 196 244 227 471 4270 4 38 0 196 253 232 485 4660 4 49 0 196 252 244 496 4200 4 54 0 196 252 229 481 4980 4 57 0 196 264 235 499 5490 4 60 0 196 258 225 483 4930 4 61 0 196 248 215 463 4835 4 69 0 196 252 216 468 4400 4 71 0 196 253 220 473 4008 4 73 0 196 233 21 1 444 3925 4 77 0 196 243 210 453 4510 4 - 162 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 24 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BO BY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 80 0 196 242 222 464 4215 4 83 0 196 240 220 460 4450 4 87 0 196 250 219 469 4735 4 89 0 196 254 215 469 4907 4 95 0 196 245 225 470 4735 4 97 0 196 248 210 458 4230 4 100 0 196 246 219 465 4871 4 35 0 196 246 218 464 5005 5 39 0 196 261 230 491 5075 5 48 0 196 250 227 477 4285 5 50 0 196 251 231 482 4245 5 56 0 196 257 230 487 4310 5 59 0 196 252 228 480 4745 5 62 0 196 251 226 477 4670 5 70 0 196 249 225 474 4275 5 76 0 196 250 218 468 4411 5 82 0 196 240 218 458 4040 5 86 0 196 254 216 470 46 15 5 88 0 196 245 215 460 4840 5 96 0 196 250 214 464 4440 5 99 0 196 254 210 464 4630 5 17 0 196 243 219 462 4280 6 36 0 196 260 231 49 1 4970 6 37 0 196 250 220 470 4970 6 47 0 196 257 225 482 4590 6 51 0 196 256 235 491 4760 6 55 0 196 257 226 483 5153 6 58 0 196 245 227 472 4325 6 63 0 196 255 224 479 4505 6 65 0 196 245 225 470 4725 6 72 0 196 250 220 470 4400 6 75 0 196 245 224 469 4285 6 78 0 196 244 226 470 4365 6 84 0 196 240 214 454 4585 6 85 0 196 246 227 473 4795 6 98 0 196 250 212 462 4700 6 12 0 224 274 237 51 1 6630 ! 24 0 224 256 219 475 5120 27 0 224 257 219 476 5230 1 44 0 224 269 242 511 5672 1 46 0 224 263 245 508 5470 1 1 0 224 252 225 477 5620 2 10 0 224 263 226 489 5595 2 23 0 224 290 240 530 7370 2 28 0 224 260 224 484 5744 2 91 0 224 271 231 502 5805 2 3 0 224 268 234 502 6230 3 - 163 -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 25 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 5 0 224 270 222 492 6120 3 8 0 224 262 207 469 5117 3 15 0 224 274 222 496 6897 3 21 0 ^ 224 265 234 499 5630 3 18 0 224 246 229 • 475 3935 4 19 0 224 254 226 480 4464 4 38 0 224 257 232 489 4995 4 49 0 224 250 246 496 4415 4 54 0 224 252 227 479 5105 4 57 0 224 280 235 515 5635 4 60 0 224 255 225 480 5125 4 61 0 224 251 215 466 4995 4 69 0 224 251 216 467 4662 4 71 0 224 253 220 473 4225 4 73 0 224 235 222 457 4045 4 77 0 224 247 215 462 4735 4 80 0 224 245 223 468 4315 4 83 0 224 245 224 469 4592 4 87 0 224 246 221 467 4745 4 89 0 224 248 225 473 5035 4 95 0 224 250 225 475 4890 4 97 0 224 245 215 460 4386 4 100 0 224 252 219 471 4995 4 35 0 224 244 220 464 5250 5 39 0 224 268 231 499 5165 5 48 0 224 254 232 486 4512 5 50 0 224 262 232 494 4492 5 56 0 224 252 230 482 4395 5 59 0 224 252 227 479 4830 5 62 0 224 256 230 486 4810 5 70 0 224 250 223 473 4525 5 76 0 224 250 230 480 4607 5 82 0 224 242 220 462 4210 5 86 0 224 253 219 472 4842 5 88 0 224 243 215 458 5130 5 96 0 224 247 217 464 4640 5 99 0 224 254 217 471 4900 5 17 0 224 250 220 470 4485 6 36 0 224 262 216 478 5383 6 37 0 224 263 235 498 5304 6 47 0 224 256 228 484 4800 6 51 0 224 264 235 499 4955 6 55 0 224 265 225 490 5295 6 58 0 224 254 225 479 4470 6 63 0 224 255 226 481 4647 6 65 0 224 250 222 472 4975 6 72 0 224 255 220 475 4495 6 75 0 224 255 221 476 4265 6 78 0 224 253 226 -479 4525 6 - 164- -NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 PAGE: 26 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-RUMP TAIL TOTAL BODY TREAT NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 84 0 224 240 217 457 4778 6 85 0 224 251 233 484 4995 6 98 0 224 252 218 470 5027 6 12 0 252 278 239 517 6870 1 24 0 252 255 222 477 5171 1 27 0 2 52 259 220 479 5305 1 46 0 252 271 245 516 5742 1 1 0 252 263 230 493 5820 2 10 0 252 264 225 489 5838 2 23 0 252 291 241 532 7595 2 28 0 252 266 223 489 5990 2 91 0 252 270 229 499 6067 2 3 0 252 271 235 506 6514 3 5 0 252 272 223 495 6337 3 8 0 252 258 210 468 5211 3 15 0 252 271 225 496 7247 3 21 0 252 271 234 505 5910 3 18 0 252 240 225 465 4025 4 19 0 252 252 228 480 4652 4 38 0 252 260 238 498 4986 4 49 0 252 260 232 492 4535 4 54 0 252 253 233 486 5305 4 57 0 252 270 235 505 5755 4 60 0 2 52 256 226 482 5278 4 61 0 252 252 218 470 5136 4 69 0 252 250 218 468 4907 4 71 0 252 254 223 477 4426 4 73 0 252 245 224 469 4235 4 77 0 252 245 215 460 4863 4 80 0 252 243 222 465 4375 4 83 0 252 250 220 470 4883 4 87 0 252 253 222 475 4895 4 89 0 252 250 221 471 5180 4 95 0 252 257 220 477 5260 4 97 0 252 246 215 461 4615 4 100 0 252 255 216 471 5220 4 35 0 252 252 223 475 5446 5 39 0 252 267 235 502 5245 5 48 0 252 260 231 491 4435 5 50 0 252 255 234 489 4590 5 56 0 252 251 224 475 4630 5 59 0 252 256 232 488 4767 5 62 0 252 252 230 482 4942 5 70 0 252 250 229 479 4604 5 76 0 252 251 220 471 4776 5 82 0 252 247 230 477 4370 5 86 0 252 255 230 485 5098 5 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: EXPERIMENT 5 ANIMAL SEX AGE NOSE-ROMP TAIL NUMBER LENGTH LENGTH 88 0 2 52 256 216 96 0 252 257 215 99 0 252 253 210 17 0 252 248 222 36 0 252 258 218 37 0 252 265 237 47 0 2 52 260 23 0 51 0 252 262 237 55 0 252 263 227 58 0 252 252 226 63 0 252 250 228 65 0 252 252 227 72 0 252 248 22 2 75 0 252 248 225 78 0 252 250 219 84 0 252 249 216 85 0 252 253 231 98 0 252 262 215 PAGE: 27 TOTAL BODY TREAT LENGTH WEIGHT MENT 472 5296 5 472 4863 5 463 5288 5 470 4522 6 476 5630 6 502 5217 6 490 4915 6 499 5025 6 490 5468 6 478 4676 6 478 4770 6 479 5095 6 470 4686 6 473 4540 6 469 4632 6 465 4982 6 484 5133 6 477 5281 6 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 1 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEH TIB — PELVIS— ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE CALF TRE A' LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUHB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MEttT 1 0 35 352 128 120 466 114 158 139 53 101 97 18 19 287 178 160 139 70 2 1 0 119 473 183 164 720 195 258 242 77 168 14 1 40 55 321 196 196 152 121 2 1 0 56 516 202 176 79 3 226 286 287 87 198 163 45 67 337 200 209 156 145 2 1 0 63 559 221 196 873 257 316 331 100 215 189 53 75 352 208 219 158 160 2 1 0 70 590 24 1 208 918 268 344 363 1 17 239 206 61 88 381 217 232 161 167 2 1 0 84 637 258 228 981 290 381 402 135 256 238 71 101 414 229 242 169 190 2 1 0 42 424 161 148 620 158 218 195 65 138 115 30 33 303 194 180 148 104 2 1 0 77 622 253 214 961 237 360 390 131 254 224 65 98 367 228 241 165 178 2 1 0 98 671 277 251 1035 317 410 447 142 292 256 80 108 452 237 252 177 208 2 1 0 112 704 287 253 104 8 336 414 470 158 314 278 80 1 15 448 240 261 190 . 216 2 1 0 126 697 294 256 1073 339 4 16 470 161 310 290 83 1 15 455 235 264 190 218 2 1 0 140 715 302 267 1089 350 422 487 164 322 300 84 1 16 472 248 267 195 217 2 1 0 168 713 313 266 1090 355 4 26 489 168 317 310 88 1 16 485 250 274 194 220 2 1 0 196 721 313 269 1078 343 441 495 172 319 312 87 1 15 485 247 270 195 218 2 1 0 224 722 314 260 1 104 357 444 505 175 328 318 89 .1 16 497 252 280 198 222 2 1 0 252 713 315 266 1080 348 445 510 175 336 323 91 120 504 269 280 203 226 2 2 0 35 361 128 124 486 117 167 152 57 111 95 21 23 279 178 164 143 85 1 2 0 42 421 161 149 610 152 217 196 67 142 113 29 34 314 198 182 150 105 1 2 0 49 475 181 165 71 1 191 256 252 80 172 141 41 56 322 199 196 154 120 2 0 56 499 194 178 790 224 285 279 87 191 162 47 69 330 199 207 155 151 2 0 63 563 221 191 861 247 320 329 99 220 183 56 81 367 216 222 167 160 2 0 70 588 234 203 918 267 345 366 109 241 202 59 89 390 221 231 165 185 1 2 0 77 619 249 220 953 279 364 401 122 258 219 67 100 412 229 242 170 195 •j 2 0 84 641 261 235 99 5 301 376 425 129 282 236 73 102 408 229 248 171 197 1 2 0 98 659 270 249 1027 313 400 4 54 130 29 4 257 81 1C9 442 239 254 177 211 1 2 0 112 691 290 255 10 32 325 412 470 144 315 278 82 1 15 453 243 264 194 218 2 0 126 696 293 253 1071 334 419 487 149 321 286 81 1 15 453 239 264 .1 95 219 2 0 140 704 302 264 1088 341 426 492 147 317 300 83 1 16 469 . 245 270 195 214 1 2 0 168 717 309 270 1093 345 435 497 151 322 30 1 87 1 18 483 249 274 194 223 1 3 0 35 326 122 109 445 106 150 138 52 .98 91 17 19 253 170 160 139 77 3 3 0 42 418 160 148 630 158 226 199 67 141 121 27 33 307 185 186 145 105 3 3 0 49 456 175 150 706 188 254 240 77 165 • 131 . 39 55 333 195 195 150 127 3 3 0 63 539 214 183 869 255 315 322 101 217 182 52 77 368 211 224 159 163 3 3 0 70 571 235 208 916 271 344 355 107 238 206 61 89 399 2 24 236 160 175 3 3 0 84 626 256 216 1001 102 379 412 133 26 5 237 71 103 402 226 249 171 194 3 3 0 98 662 272 246 1048 331 399 445 143 29 4 254 .82 1C7 453 246 262 173 215 3 3 0 56 520 202 180 804 225 285 207 91 198 161 47 70 343 206 208 160 145 3 3 0 77 603 245 220 955 293 360 392 126 256 214 69 97 398 223 244 167 188 3 3 0 112 684 288 244 1064 335 4 13. 465 148 310 280 82 1 13 454 248 270 200 222 3 3 0 126 691 295 258 1075 334 429 468 153 30 4 297 83 1 15 467 243 275 200 224 3 3 0 140 695 298 256 1097 345 4 27 488 156 318 298 85 112 495 265 279 195 231 3 3 0 168 711 307 263 1098 350 441 496 165 318 310 86 116 491 253 285 195 235 3 3 0 196 709 313 267 1088 348 450 510 165 330 313 87 114 512 273 290 208 239 3 3 0 224 723 318 271 1113 356 455 511 168 33 1 314 90 1 16 498 258 293 203 230 3 3 0 252 721 318 267 1128 362 4 57 521 169 343 321 92 1 17 512 279 293 20 3 233 3 It 0 35 364 134 125 505 124 172 156 53 .115 100 22 23 271 1 e 1 169 144 84 2 as HIRE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 2 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAO TLEG FEB TIB — P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAt LEN LED LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WICTH LEN HIET 4 0 12 430 161 149 617 160 223 201 60 140 114 4 0 19 474 184 165 719 196 259 246 76 172 140 <t 0 56 517 203 175 810 231 291 294 90 198 160 4 0 63 557 221 187 882 260 321 339 101 221 190 4 0 70 589 238 207 936 28 1 347 374 116 245 209 4 o 77 616 249 216 962 281 368 395 127 255 225 4 0 81 640 26 1 233 980 300 378 422 129 274 237 I) 0 98 662 278 238 1018 310 401 4 48 132 289 253 4 0 112 673 287 241 1063 302 4 12 460 148 302 268 4 0 126 689 293 250 1059 333 415 475 153 31 1 275 4 0 140 700 300 253 1066 335 421 497 153 32 5 295 4 0 168 701 305 260 1086 35 0 426 494 157 324 300 5 0 35 350 131 121 473 110 164 149 53 102 94 5 0 12 425 162 146 606 151 2 04 194 66 136 111 5 0 149 474 178 166 729 196 260 245 78 163 142 5 0 56 510 198 171 800 227 290 286 84 196 153 5 0 63 551 220 189 H69 258 316 329 97 217 178 5 0 70 589 241 210 921 273 342 370 105 240 201 5 0 77 615 249 218 962 291 364 399 114 255 218 5 0 80 642 263 230 1000 303 376 422 122 273 224 5 0 98 665 284 244 1030 334 413 451 121 289 240 5 0 112 687 287 249 1050 333 416 472 141 310 274 5 0 126 703 295 259 1076 342 422 487 137 325 280 5 0 140 709 300 260 1092 346 431 497 142 325 290 5 0 168 725 311 270 1105 355 440 503 145 336 297 5 0 196 726 314 271 1102 353 445 513 148 335 300 5 0 221 732 320 269 1112 357 449 522 150 341 305 5 0 252 739 324 27 3 1111 355 451 522 150 345 308 7 0 35 349 126 113 468 119 160 147 52 108 93 7 0 42 414 158 144 620 158 218 200 64 140 112 7 0 49 479 181 160 736 199 259 250 76 171 142 7 0 56 505 195 171 791 221 284 278 89 188 157 7 0 63 54 4 219 183 871 254 317 322 . 95 219 ' 181 7 0 70 579 230 207 905 263 343 357 104 228 198 7 0 77 605 244 210 950 284 358 386 116 249 213 7 0 84 625 255 228 990 300 376 409 120 265 231 7 0 98 661 267 244 1028 318 410 433 128 278 253 7 0 112 671 282 248 1028 318 409 460 135 299 261 7 0 126 687 288 258 1067 333 4 20 470 138 302 287 7 0 140 698 294 260 1085 344 427 486 142 321 29 2 7 0 16B 716 302 267 1091 349 4 35 485 148 314 301 8 0 35 34 4 124 119 462 113 .156 148 52 104 93 8 0 42 419 157 148 616 155 214 200 63 140 112 8 0 49 481 187 170 " 738 198 262 257 81 181 142 8 0 56 517 20 1 182 807 230 290 292 91 199 158 8 0 63 559 221 196 874 257 321 337 102 229 184 8 0 70 587 239 202 925 274 343 372 120 250 200 VERTEBRAE CALF TRE Al LOMB CAOD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 HIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 31 36 288 187 181 153 109 2 37 59 333 192 200 154 135 2 45 70 335 206 20 3 161 145 2 52 . eo 380 217 229 163 171 2 56 89 384 224 239 167 174 2 67 99 416 231 242 167 189 2 70 102 420 238 247 173 198 2 76 106 422 236 255 174 210 2 80 109 444 237 262 191 219 2 81 110 446 236 265 195 223 2 83 112 471 244 269 195 236 2 87 1 14 490 257 278 200 232 2 17 23 275 180 162 138 79 3 26 30 301 185 181 147 101 3 37 . 51 303 185 202 148 124 3 47 68 329 20 1 207 157 148 3 54 77 360 211 219 159 155 3 61 88 378 219 231 165 170 3 64 97 399 228 235 170 183 3 70 103 420 229 241 169 191 3 84 106 431 239 250 183 207 3 80 113 446 245 259 191 213 3 79 113 455 247 264 191 217 3 82 1 14 469 242 269 191 218 3 87 1 15 478 239 271 195 236 3 88 117 503 270 275 202 225 3 89 1 16 483 255 278 197 222 3 89 117 515 268 278 196 223 3 21 22 269 180 166 139 79 ! 29 32 285 191 183 151 104 39 58 317 193 198 154 126 1 44 66 318 200 205 156 148 52 78 363 211 215 154 167 1 54 87 365 216 225 166 165 69 95 390 221 234 169 188 1 72 101 385 223 240 170 186 82 104 430 237 244 176 212 77 113 431 233 249 177 223 77 113 438 235 258 187 221 1 82 1 14 466 247 261 1 87 231 ! 83 1 15 455 246 265 192 226 1 18 19 265 177 162 142 75 3 30 35 309 194 181 150 100 3 38 56 323 195 200 153 133 3 47 69 342 204 205 158 151 3 56 81 363 212 221 166 170 3 57 ee 393 226 232 165 186 3 OA HAHB OF EXPEBIMENT: SKELETAL HEASUHEBENT PAGE: 3 AN s AGE ARM HUH BAD TLEG PEH TIB — P E L V I S — LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH 8 0 77 615 250 220 943 279 361 396 131 8 0 84 634 260 231 99 3 297 375 414 137 8 0 98 659 277 244 1015 317 395 442 142 8 0 112 679 288 248 1043 325 405 465 143 8 0 126 680 290 253 1054 333 4 10 467 149 8 0 110 690 293 256 1072 341 415 483 155 8 0 168 710 302 260 1080 345 428 496 158 8 0 196 712 306 260 1084 342 429 492 158 8 0 224 712 305 258 1 100 360 433 506 157 8 0 252 698 312 265 1081 345 435 502 161 9 0 35 355 122 117 480 114 163 148 56 9 0 42 443 166 156 655 164 235 211 70 9 0 49 475 180 171 728 193 265 251 81 9 0 56 528 205 185 824 229 297 300 92 9 0 63 569 220 198 897 264 332 341 105 9 0 70 606 240 218 945 277 355 369 124 9 0 77 631 255 224 990 293 376 396 137 9 0 84 660 268 245 1017 307 390 418 141 9 0 98 678 275 262 1066 325 412 447 152 9 0 112 712 298 265 1077 .339 4 29 470 160 9 0 126 721 303 275 1098 33 7 435 490 160 9 0 110 734 309 276 1098 343 445 492 167 9 0 168 747 318 289 1129 358 455 504 169 10 0 35 343 124 115 475 111 163 146 52 10 0 42 418 157 150 620 152 220 198 60 10 0 49 473 180 165 732 193 262 246 78 10 0 56 517 199 182 815 233 293 287 92 10 0 63 559 222 197 888 263 326 334 102 10 0 70 594 236 211 940 277 350 371 116 10 0 77 615 248 225 978 290 366 391 129 10 0 84 640 262 223 1006 304 382 415 134 10 0 98 663 279 242 1028 313 402 419 138 10 0 112 695 289 255 1061 325 4 20 469 149 10 0 126 692 296 252 1090 345 423 468 147 10 0 110 701 299 262 1095 343 426 478 153 10 0 168 713 312 271 1110 353 436 488 158 10 0 196 726 314 271 1113 349 445 501 156 10 0 224 726 316 269 1107 346 448 504 160 10 0 252 731 320 270 1100 340 455 500 164 11 0 35 365 133 125 503 123 175 156 55 1 1 0 42 437 165 156 658 168 233 208 68 11 0 49 473 180 167 723 195 261 251 76 11 0 56 514 200 177 804 233 294 291 89 11 0 63 573 226 199 907 267 335 353 109 11 0 70 591 240 212 92 8 276 353 369 119 11 0 77 615 251 216 978 293 367 397 126 11 0 84 644 264 233 1006 305 384 420 134 [LIAC BIILIAC VEBTEBBAE CALF TREA1 LEN WIDTH LUHB CAUC LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE BENT 257 210 66 94 420 230 240 166 185 3 266 226 71 103 411 232 246 171 197 3 28 6 247 83 103 432 235 245 178 213 3 30 3 259 78 114 439 236 258 186 221 3 300 266 75 110 446 235 265 192 215 3 311 277 81 109 472 250 261 188 210 3 319 288 82 112 485 250 272 193 224 3 313 29 1 81 112 502 263 271 196 214 3 322 290 89 112 491 266 278 195 216 3 32 3 297 90 113 487 253 277 198 227 3 107 98 20 21 269 176 168 142 81 2 145 123 31 37 291 190 192 155 116 2 172 151 40 60 328 198 200 162 132 2 192 169 50 71 342 204 208 160 162 2 216 195 55 80 355 209 223 171 168 2 24 6 216 60 89 389 221 238 168 179 2 257 232 67 100 375 221 247 171 200 2 277 240 75 104 382 225 249 174 199 2 29 7 271 81 110 438 237 257 178 212 2 314 296 82 113 452 231 266 190 231 2 316 299 81 1 15 458 243 270 197 238 2 32 5 313 86 113 463 258 275 197 254 2 336 320 90 115 481 251 284 205 248 2. 103 97 20 22 259 173 166 147 82 2 139 115 30 36 302 198 187 152 107 2 167 147 39 55 326 195 200 152 133 2 195 171 47 71 333 201 212 .157 148 2 215 194 54 78 364 215 224 160 164 2 238 213 63 85 385 226 233 166 181 2 255 231 69 94 366 216 239 166 186 2 265 241 69 100 421 231 242 168 189 2 278 26 2 81 103 399 230 260 182 201 2 305 • 281 .82 1 13 440 236 259 188 221 2 309 289 82 109 457 238 261 190 212 2 30 5 296 84 108 471 241 260 190 206 2 318 308 89 115 468 250 268 196 214 2 317 310 89 113 486 243 269 194 206 2 327 316 89 112 482 265 275 200 222 2 32 3 323 93 112 497 258 276 197 217 2 110 98 20 22 273 180 171 147 82 3 150 124 29 37 308 197 190 155 111 3 167 143 40 56 313 199 200 159 134 3 200 170 46 67 349 206 214 163 153 3 236 198 58 77 359 213 230 167 175 3 243 212 63 86 390 223 239 172 184 3 251 230 65 93 391 226 244 179 192 3 264 240 69 100 419 230 249 175 200 3 BABE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 4 AN S AGE ARM HON RAD TLEG FEM TIB — P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE CALF TREA1 LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN W IDT H LOMB CAUE LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 1 i 6 98 666 278 241 1041 319 407 444 139 286 257 78 102 418 233 255 179 213 3 11 0 112 696 298 257 1035 311 417 450 149 296 284 85 108 423 240 263 187 229 1 1 0 126 705 299 260 1081 337 423 480 150 315 297 84 109 456 241 267 192 210 3 11 0 140 717 305 267 1106 353 433 493 153 313 298 86 110 449 247 270 1 95 232 1 1 0 168 726 316 271 1126 366 444 504 157 335 303 90 115 474 257 277 197 223 3 12 0 35 351 130 119 480 116 159 147 54 104 94 20 21 253 170 165 140 77 1 12 0 42 418 157 149 614 154 213 195 65 138 113 29 32 29 7 192 183 148 100 12 0 49 479 179 169 722 197 255 249 78 174 141 39 57 313 196 198 152 128 12 0 56 515 201 186 803 226 296 288 92 190 162 47 72 334 202 209 157 150 12 0 63 565 224 200 877 257 323 338 110 220 188 56 82 356 211 221 165 . 166 12 0 70 597 241 213 941 275 347 368 122 234 20 5 60 91 385 219 232 171 186 1 12 0 77 614 248 224 978 29 3 367 398 134 257 219 63 98 394 223 240 170 192 1 12 0 84 650 260 231 1001 295 3 84 412 140 260 235 72 103 412 228 244 169 190 1 12 0 98 6B5 278 251 1052 324 409 455 149 289 258 82 111 454 242 253 184 214 1 12 0 112 691 286 257 1046 319 413 462 150 308 276 88 . 112 438 225 264 1 94 221 1 12 0 126 704 294 268 1078 33 2 429 482 155 308 288 88 115 453 227 266 192 219 1 12 0 140 712 300 271 1 105 34 8 4 33 489 158 313 290 90 117 445 236 271 1 93 221 1 12 0 168 730 309 279 1 108 350 445 498 164 325 305 92 118 484 250 271 193 223 1 12 0 196 735 316 279 1117 355 452 509 165 327 310 95 118 486 257 279 197 233 12 0 224 736 322 282 1080 330 456 498 166 320 314 96 117 484 255 280 199 234 12 0 252 755 327 284 1117 351 462 526 170 330 315 100 120 494 262 282 202 230 1 13 0 35 358 127 123 48 3 117 165 155 55 107 98 20 22 275 182 162 141 80 13 0 42 410 155 142 598 155 213 197 60 138 112 28 30 298 189 180 146 102 13 0 49 468 176 160 703 190 254 242 71 167 138 37 52 323 193 197 150 120 1 13 0 56 506 196 174 787 225 287 284 85 193 161 44 65 333 200 205 156 14 1 1 13 0 63 549 214 196 850 249 315 330 103 214 184 55 73 367 212 220 160 153 ^ 13 0 70 582 232 204 913 263 345 361 116 232 200 58 82 396 232 225 . 159 168 1 13 0 77 607 245 220 94 3 276 370 387 129 251 213 63 91 397 224 228 167 178 1 13 0 84 631 256 228 989 294 379 411 134 262 231 74 96 421 231 239 164 183 ^ 13 0 98 667 276 245 1018 318 415 440 141 290 255 79 103 445 236 250 1 82 188 1 13 0 112 685 288 253 1035 318 411 456 145 300 275 81 1 10 431 235 257 189 218 1 13 0 126 699 293 256 1067 316 420 465 154 30 7 287 83 104 448 230 254 181 209 1 14 0 35 359 131 120 483 118 168 153 53 109 98 21 22 265 173 164 140 82 2 14 0 42 410 152 146 590 149 213 186 62 130 110 26 30 292 182 177 147 102 2 14 0 49 462 174 166 696 186 258 239 75 165 139 36 54 311 188 199 156 135 2 14 0 56 513 198 176 791 223 292 290 90 197 161 43 71 331 199 209 159 147 2 14 0 63 548 215 194 852 247 312 328 100 218 188 53 75 330 200 219 162 163 2 14 0 70 583 232 206 914 268 345 360 118 235 205 63 86 365 210 229 164 183 2 14 0 77 606 243 215 962 290 352 378 117 239 210 63 94 367 220 229 169 171 2 14 0 98 656 273 241 1019 305 396 435 132 272 257 78 101 387 220 245 181 195 2 14 0 84 631 255 224 964 281 375 403 131 ' 255 239 74 100 362 208 238 167 1 85 2 14 0 112 695 290 255 1061 325 4 20 469 149 305 281 82 1 13 440 236 259 188 221 2 14 0 126 688 290 253 1057 326 417 469 151 .29 8 294 60 1 10 430 233 257 185 218 2 15 0 35 351 122 120 477 115 161 140 55 100 97 18 18 266 172 166 140 78 3 15 0 42 417 159 146 614 152 217 190 66 131 114 29 34 300 186 182 145 100 3 15 0 49 465 177 165 713 193 253 248 74 173 138 38 57 320 190 196 152 123 3 \-> ON vO NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 5 AN S AGE ARM HUB RAD TLEG FEM . TIB — P E L V I S - - ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL— CALF TREA^ LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUHB CAUD LEN 1 LEN 2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE KENT 15 0 56 515 202 173 817 233 294 285 88 19!2 168 45 67 340 202 212 158 150 3 15 0 63 560 223 196 881 255 322 335 106 219 196 53 79 362 208 224 158 166 3 15 0 70 588 240 213 939 270 349 360 122 240 215 57 87 387 217 236 162 184 3 15 0 77 622 252 220 970 287 373 391 132 256 237 68 93 383 218 245 171 200 3 15 0 8U 643 261 228 10.10 307 386 411 138 272 242 73 101 399 229 250 170 198 3 15 0 98 666 278 252 1045 315 409 441 144 292 270 82 107 390 220 259 174 219 3 15 0 112 682 289 253 1048 322 417 455 149 299 ' 278 82 110 443 226 253 178 217 3 15 0 126 704 297 258 1092 346 4 29 484 157 324 293 83 1 14 448 231 266 200 212 3 15 0 mo 710 299 264 1110 357 434 492 163 327 302 85 1 14 458 2 42 269 190 224 3 15 0 168 725 307 272 1 115 354 445 505 169 336 313 88 1 16 4 80 250 274 196 234 3 15 0 196 723 312 276 1126 358 4 53 514 170 332 320 90 1 16 515 313 318 195 230 3 15 0 224 722 316 270 1101 348 4 59 512 170 332 327 92 1 15 489 257 280 197 235 3 15 0 252 741 323 277 1129 360 459 523 172 345 332 93 115 490 249 285 199 240 3 16 0 35 347 121 118 449 109 152 141 56 ioo .93 21 20 262 173 162 143 75 2 '16 0 42 410 154 147 582 149 207 189 63 135 113 28 33 294 186 176 148 96 2 16 0 49 467 176 161 685 183 250 237 74 164 146 40 54 326 189 191 153 127 2 16 0 56 520 196 183 782 222 284 286 88 194 167 48 65 341 204 205 157 144 2 16 0 63 558 215 195 863 253 318 331 100 214 189 52 76 357 210 219 164 158 2 16 0 70 596 237 217 920 270 345 366 115 237 205 56 82 384 216 225 169 180 2 16 0 77 624 248 222 94 6 278 367 386 126 251 223 66 93 375 216 236 172 182 2 16 0 84 646 260 233 992 295 384 412 128 259 233 72 101 397 229 239 167 186 2 16 0 98 684 278 251 1035 322 4 05 441 137 287 256 75 104 445 234 249 174 202 2 17 0 35 294 105 97 390 86 133 123 46 85 74 13 15 252 161 151 131 62 6 17 0 42 345 133 127 518 122 182 155 53 107 88 19 25 270 171 162 135 7a 6 17 0 49 403 150 143 59 5 152 214 188 65 126 107 26 34 288 175 170 141 88 6 17 0 56 470 176 163 711 192 257 237 76 161 139 39 53 320 199 197 154 127 6 17 0 63 500 193 174 778 230 283 285 86 190 168 49 66 331 188 201 153 144 6 17 0 70 538 215 192 844 247 316 322 101 209 188 50 79 351 203 212 155 150 6 17 0 77 567 227 201 890 265 334 350 110 231 210 52 90 350 208 218 156 170 6 17 0 84 599 242 211 932 283 355 377 114 .24 5 217 64 95 386 217 225 161 ' 192 6 17 0 98 636 260 236 980 304 3 76 411 125 274 247 71 105 400 220 234 173 195 6 17 0 112 656 270 245 997 317 393 434 134 290 258 71 107 424 230 243 177 204 6 17 0 126 663 282 248 1013 318 400 442 133 287 272 71 108 434 227 248 182 205 6 17 0 140 676 282 262 1032 332 405 455 136 299 285 74 108 450 230 253 184 215 6 17 0 168 691 296 269 1053 341 418 473 144 312 296 82 111 467 249 262 189 210 6 17 0 196 700 300 270 1057 339 4 27 479 149 312 301 82 111 474 241 269 192 214 6 17 0 224 694 304 264 1070 347 432 488 150 315 305 83 111 477 256 273 193 220 6 17 0 252 707 313 274 1080 348 438 500 152 327 312 82 113 477 245 280 195 223 6 18 0 35 306 107 103 418 101 143 124 45 87 77 16 17 241 162 147 131 63 4 18 0 42 353 128 126 513 128 178 150 54 105 93 20 24 252 168 160 134 79 4 18 0 49 390 144 140 582 151 207 180 62 126 107 26 34 270 169 171 135 88 4 18 0 56 444 171 154 693 194 248 232 76 157 140 34 58 287 180 185 143 120 4 18 0 63 492 191 169 774 227 278 277 86 190 171 43 67 323 198 20 2 146 137 4 18 0 98 640 265 230 964 298 369 405 1 16 268 236 70 98 402 225 236 160 191 4 18 0 70 537 211 192 833 240 310 307 101 198 191 51 80 343 205 209 152 151 4 18 0 77 566 223 203 884 260 332 343 109 224 209 56 87 341 202 220 153 174 4 18 0 84 59 1 242 210 919 275 349 371 113 239 219 61 93 364 205 224 161 175 4 SAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT EXP AN S AGE ARM LEN HUM LEN RAD LEN TLBG LEN FEM LEN PAGE: TIB LEN — P E L V I S — LEN WIDTH ILIAC LEN BIILIAC WIDTH VERTEBRAE LUMB CAUD LEN 1 SKULL— LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 CALF MUSCIE TREAT BENT 18 0 112 668 279 249 1045 333 405 446 143 299 263 78 108 432 223 251 172 206 4 18 0 126 665 278 247 1016 325 395 440 134 290 268 70 107 426 230 249 186 202 4 18 0 140 675 282 257 1026 330 400 450 137 296 278 76 110 443 229 251 180 202 4 18 0 168 675 287 260 1040 340 409 470 142 314 286 77 112 437 233 263 188 217 4 18 0 196 685 295 262 1053 34 0 4 19 478 142 313 29 1 77 110 465 244 266 183 213 4 18 0 224 695 299 259 1055 337 422 486 146 317 300 78 1 10 457 241 269 186 216 4 18 0 252 686 295 266 1064 346 426 492 148 322 300 79 112 472 249 269 187 212 4 19 0 35 307 111 102 417 98 142 122 45 88 75 15 15 263 167 145 130 63 4 19 0 42 360 135 123 525 130 181 156 52 110 95 19 25 274 175 160 132 80 4 19 0 49 418 155 142 609 154 216 189 60 133 110 25 31 297 les 170 135 . 92 4 19 0 56 467 178 163 720 203 257 240 77 159 151 39 57 313 191 189 146 124 4 19 0 63 510 204 179 800 235 292 288 92 190 177 48 68 337 200 204 150 150 4 19 0 70 553 226 188 875 254 324 331 105 210 199 55 81 360 208 219 153 161 4 19 0 77 590 240 211 923 268 350 356 112 230 219 59 90 368 214 225 158 170 4 19 0 84 612 250 222 975 296 368 389 121 248 225 65 . 94 375 218 233 164 183 4 19 0 98 661 266 241 1021 317 392 423 128 27 3 247 78 103 415 235 242 168 197 4 19 0 112 650 262 239 967 310 381 415 130 287 260 77 102 420 230 244 177 204 4 19 0 126 680 287 253 1060 332 414 452 135 285 273 76 108 428 228 254 181 216 4 19 0 140 684 291 256 1048 324 422 449 143 291 292 80 111 447 237 257 190 210 4 19 0 168 686 305 268 1078 343 431 480 147 338 294 83 1 14 460 239 260 189 222 4 19 0 196 712 306 272 1 108 355 445 492 149 318 301 85 112 463 246 273 1 8 8 217 4 19 0 224 712 307 271 1 108 355 446 499 150 325 304 83 111 472 250 273 192 212 4 19 0 252 718 314 271 1107 356 449 502 152 324 305 87 1 13 475 251 270 182 210 4 20 0 35 294 104 104 398 91 137 118 45 84 75 16 14 241 163 150 127 62 5 20 0 42 353 131 127 515 128 177 155 52 108 91 21 24 262 173 163 135 80 5 20 0 49 397 151 138 599 157 212 191 65 130 113 30 32 300 182 170 137 90 5 21 0 35 367 135 126 510 125 175 159 58 113 100 18 22 278 188 174 146 86 3 21 0 42 434 163 153 628 166 225 207 67 145 119 30 30 29 3 195 187 152 101 3 21 0 49 488 185 172 74 0 203 268 253 77 173 146 37 56 306 192 203 155 128 3 21 0 56 516 204 190 809 231 295 296 89 200 170 43 66 341 202 213 159 143 3 21 0 63 568 226 195 881 256 327 340 98 216 190 53 74 349 204 227 161 168 3 21 0 70 598 24 1 216 929 279 351 372 114 245 ' 216 . 59 .84 409 225 239 167 183 3 21 0 77 625 254 225 970 290 373 396 118 250 228 66 94 395 227 242 164 195 3 21 0 98 686 278 245 1051 320 402 443 133 290 262 74 103 435 234 252 178 200 3 21 0 84 650 263 238 991 302 382 420 122 272 243 70 101 391 227 248 174 191 3 21 0 112 691 290 254 1061 329 413 467 142 315 278 75 111 444 233 257 183 220 3 21 0 126 696 296 264 1069 334 426 482 142 312 287 75 1C7 458 236 260 193 210 3 21 0 140 709 302 267 1100 358 432 487 149 317 297 78 116 465 246 264 194 223 3 21 0 168 729 313 279 1105 346 449 510 153 331 320 83 1 17 491 257 217 197 235 3 21 0 196 735 323 278 1111 350 4 57 511 153 333 324 83 120 499 262 280 199 237 3 21 0 224 722 315 267 1107 355 449 513 161 332 309 90 115 490 262 282 198 226 3 21 0 252 742 325 270 1134 363 464 539 162 350 335 91 1 17 511 245 286 203 236 3 22 0 35 353 126 120 470 115 157 150 57 107 100 17 20 274 183 169 144 85 3 22 0 42 434 161 148 610 155 218 199 67 141 117 29 31 301 189 184 149 100 3 22 0 49 481 182 172 714 197 258 248 75 167 141 40 57 315 196 198 156 121 3 22 0 56 530 203 186 803 227 2 87 289 86 195 165 49 64 340 203 210 157 139 3 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASOREMENT PAGE: 7 EXP AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB —PI LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN 22 0 63 559 221 200 864 254 316 332 22 0 70 595 239 219 925 273 347 368 22 0 77 623 251 217 956 284 363 392 22 0 814 6U8 264 235 990 301 380 415 22 0 98 673 280 2140 1029 315 404 447 22 0 112 685 293 2514 1052 297 415 439 22 0 126 706 296 2614 1083 339 421 479 22 0 1<40 7114 299 2711 1082 337 430 482 22 0 168 732 31U 275 1 107 353 444 506 23 0 35 3 514 129 121 479 114 161 154 23 0 142 U314 162 155 626 157 223 203 23 0 119 1489 187 172 74 1 200 265 258 23 0 56 520 208 181 816 225 297 299 23 0 63 567 224 198 894 253 328 343 23 0 70 602 2U0 207 936 267 356 377 23 0 814 657 266 229 1014 305 395 434 23 0 98 701 282 252 1005 323 4 18 466 23 0 77 628 2514 223 981 286 377 407 23 0 112 705 296 262 1069 324 4 29 485 23 0 126 719 307 253 1113 345 444 514 23 0 mo 7142 313 276 1113 345 452 514 23 0 168 750 330 288 1138 363 463 539 23 0 196 758 329 284 1147 359 475 550 23 0 22U 766 335 286 1159 368 481 562 23 0 252 768 337 29 3 1168 374 486 566 24 0 35 3141 126 118 454 107 154 140 214 0 142 1417 157 1146 582 146 209 186 24 0 119 466 178 167 712 193 250 237 2« 0 56 50 0 199 176 783 220 288 280 214 0 63 5149 219 191 851 245 317 323 24 0 70 583 238 205 903 261 342 360 2"4 0 77 611 2145 212 938 277 358 387 2<4 0 8U 62U 260 222 960 271 3 75 403 214 0 98 65« 275 235 998 296 393 440 24 0 112 679 283 248 1015 311 4 04 457 2 « 0 126 686 288 254 1042 319 4 10 468 214 0 mo 691 293 258 1057 325 416 475 214 0 168 699 298 265 1059 333 425 479 24 0 196 703 304 265 1056 325 431 474 2U 0 221 710 310 269 1071 332 435 492 214 0 252 709 310 267 1066 335 437 507 25 0 35 31414 128 117 469 116 159 145 25 0 U2 1418 158 150 605 153 212 191 25 0 119 1477 186 166 719 199 259 245 25 0 56 521 206 180 804 237 29 2 290 25 0 63 5614 226 199 883 260 327 337 25 0 70 597 2«5 214 927 266 353 364 99 107 120 125 128 135 140 142 150 53 68 77 86 95 105 125 140 115 147 153 155 163 167 170 171 53 61 76 90 105 120 125 134 136 149 147 148 153 157 159 157 52 63 77 87 106 120 ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE CALF TREAT LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUE LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE ' MENT 214 184 54 76 366 216 218 160 164 3 242 208 57 86 369 215 228 166 178 3 250 221 63 94 379 221 236 168 180 3 273 234 .76 100 410 230 240 172 190 3 320 251 85 109 431 238 248 176 207 3 300 26 3 82 1 10 430 235 257 183 2 14 3 30 8 275 78 109 422 2 32 259 1 89 208 3 310 296 78 112 453 246 258 191 205 3 340 311 89 1 16 468 249 272 196 221 3 110 95 20 22 270 183 175 144 83 2 145 120 28 32 311 192 190 151 104 2 177 146 39 60 331 194 204 154 136 . 2 199 169 47 68 353 205 215 159 151 2 221 190 53 79 380 221 225 165 167 2 246 212 62 90 407 223 238 168 175 2 272 239 73 105 421 232 253 174 210 2 300 266 79 1 10 450 247 262 185 225 2 260 225 67 98 391 224 240 170 215 2 317 292 82 123 453 242 271 199 244 2 336 311 87 116 467 246 276 205 227 2 338 312 88 122 487 255 278 207 239 2 351 33 3 92 125 502 251 290 212 248 2 357 343 97 122 513 273 292 206 242 2 368 347 97 123 515 268 294 214 262 2 360 354 99 122 500 269 299 210 255 2 101 90 19 19 257 169 162 139 78 , 125 112 30 30 283 188 180 147 102 1 157 141 42 53 304 191 197 152 123 1 187 170 44 71 310 198 208 155 145 1 211 195 59 80 323 200 221 166 165 1 227 216 64 88 372 219 235 168 183 , 245 229 63 95 388 222 2 37 168 189 1 255 249 76 100 392 228 243 163 193 1 292 271 82 108 404 230 246 173 205 1 298 277 81 109 420 230 256 191 222 1 298 286 80 109 417 230 257 187 215 1 307 29 2 82 110 448 243 257 1 89 211 1 313 303 85 111 456 245 264 188 227 300 305 90 112 459 243 271 197 219 1 312 308 90 1 13 454 250 273 196 229 329 310 89 1 13 486 253 270 2C0 224 1 102 97 16 19 271 178 163 144 81 3 133 115 28 28 307 193 181 150 97 3 167 143 43 57 300 193 198 155 128 3 200 165 45 67 310 196 210 162 151 3 217 193 59 79 339 205 223 168 171 3 236 219 59 88 365 217 232 163 178 3 ro NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PACE: 8 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG F2M TIB LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN 25 0 77 622 253 227 963 282 371 25 0 98 668 284 244 102 8 305 4 04 25 0 84 645 265 235 981 286 383 25 0 112 699 295 262 1064 330 4 19 25 0 126 704 297 261 1069 328 427 25 0 mo 712 304 271 1078 334 433 25 0 168 730 315 275 1078 331 443 26 0 35 347 125 116 462 113 160 26 0 42 417 159 149 601 149 213 26 0 49 464 180 166 709 19 1 253 26 0 56 515 203 179 80 7 233 292 26 0 63 552 216 193 863 249 323 26 0 77 610 ' 249 215 955 280 367 26 0 98 655 273 233 1007 309 402 26 0 70 583 237 205 915 264 348 26 0 84 637 262 227 990 301 3 83 26 0 112 674 282 242 1032 319 4 13 26 0 126 684 290 250 1060 330 420 26 0 140 693 297 256 1073 337 4 26 26 0 168 688 300 258 1072 336 4 33 27 0 35 345 128 114 460 118 159 27 0 42 419 156 149 599 151 213 27 0 49 463 178 162 707 195 252 27 0 56 508 197 182 790 230 204 27 0 63 551 223 190 854 250 315 27 0 70 580 234 207 913 274 342 27 0 77 608 248 217 948 289 359 27 0 84 630 262 230 983 304 374 27 0 98 651 273 225 1001 312 394 27 0 112 680 282 249 1014 318 403 27 0 126 691 292 252 104 8 330 413 27 0 140 691 293 259 1058 331 421 27 0 168 705 304 267 1083 350 431 27 0 196 710 310 265 1067 342 437 27 0 224 712 314 264 1087 350 444 27 0 252 716 317 269 1078 346 443 28 0 35 358 130 120 480 117 164 28 0 42 415 156 148 60 1 153 212 28 0 49 469 178 167 721 190 259 28 0 56 517 201 185 812 228 293 28 0 63 550 220 20 2 882 254 322 28 0 70 589 239 211 935 271 355 28 0 77 621 249 223 969 288 371 28 0 84 642 255 234 995 293 389 28 0 98 676 277 247 1031 317 4 13 28 0 112 692 283 261 1058 326 418 28 0 126 702 29 1 258 1078 333 428 - - P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD 388 129 246 225 66 97 438 139 280 261 80 1 08 39 2 135 257 246 68 100 465 150 308 289 80 1 17 471 150 306 300 83 1 12 489 155 • 319 304 84 111 490 161 319 325 92 1 15 142 53 103 95 17 20 190 65 131 112 29 33 240 76 163 138 39 54 288 87 195 168 43 68 331 99 212 190 51 76 400 120 251 226 63 94 43b 136 282 250 75 100 360 1 14 226 209 60 85 405 122 268 234 70 96 473 139 30 3 276 79 108 468 148 30 5 284 79 106 478 150 305 292 85 105 488 155 316 30 1 85 110 140 52 96 95 20 20 195 63 132 117 28 30 240 73 165 138 41 58 284 84 193 160 46 68 323 97 21 1 188 53 77 365 113 22 9 206 60 86 391 123 246 221 62 92 413 123 256 240 71 98 429 124 299 26 1 75 101 456 140 296 276 80 104 4 62 138 298 293 80 104 477 142 310 294 81 103 483 148 315 308 84 104 493 151 322 314 84 108 503 150 328 316 82 1C7 504 152 327 320 86 107 148 54 106 97 19 2C 192 60 133 111 26 29 239 77 163 143 40 55 288 87 196 166 47 73 331 100 212 187 51 80 364 111 24 0 20 6 57 89 395 124 255 229 67 93 410 127 266 234 76 101 442 140 292 260 77 106 470 145 30 4 27 1 80 1 13 476 145 312 280 81 111 SKULL CALF TREAT LEN1 LEN 2 WID1H1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE RENT 368 219 239 173 187 3 418 231 249 185 209 3 377 223 243 174 210 3 425 238 259 189 229 3 437 245 259 191 229 3 460 245 258 187 215 3 475. 255 270 198 231 3 265 178 165 142 76 2 287 183 186 155 101 2 305 193 200 156 121 2 321 201 214 160 151 2 376 214 226 161 165 2 396 226 2 39 168 190 2 427 238 248 176 195 2 360 217 236 167 182 2 404 228 244 1 75 194 2 428 238 258 186 218 2 433 239 260 1 89 211 2 453 244 261 193 206 2 467 249 266 194 214 2 254 174 165 141 79 , 311 192 184 150 100 1 315 198 194 153 120 1 336 203 206 153 138 1 358 214 220 162 164 1 388 223 2 30 161 179 .1 400 232 235 169 182 1 371 222 240 169 191 1 420 240 241 172 199 1 432 250 252 190 219 1 444 242 252 195 210 1 457 251 257 188 212 1 467 253 263 192 220 1 473 253 265 194 208 1 480 260 269 1 98 220 1 497 267 273 199 224 1 270 172 163 139 81 2 290 ie2 180 143 101 2 312 191 195 155 131 2 338 200 211 151 150 2 362 207 221 160 170 2 378 216 229 164 184 2 399 221 235 166 190 2 397 226 239 172 200 2 417 230 247 175 212 2 440 226 252 181 226 2 435 235 256 188 22 3 2 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 9 EXP AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB --PELVIS — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE SKULL CALF TREAT LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH1 WIDTH2 MUSCIE SENT 28 0 mo 703 295 265 1082 332 431 484 151 312 296 86 1 10 455 241 258 190 217 2 28 0 168 707 300 266 1090 337 442 496 148 319 303 89 1 10 461 232 263 193 222 2 28 0 196 726 311 268 1 100 343 447 508 157 333 310 91 111 475 237 269 199 219 2 28 0 221 72H 315 267 1093 338 451 509 159 330 314 92 1 14 467 246 271 200 231 2 28 0 252 726 315 270 1099 34 0 455 521 162 337 319 93 1 13 493 267 276 196 224 2 29 0 35 35« 130 118 474 115 162 150 54 103 95 19 20 270 176 168 143 83 , 29 0 U2 Ul 1 158 142 600 156 210 188 62 130 113 29 30 301 192 182 152 107 1 29 0 149 U81 1814 167 720 20 1 258 246 83 170 145 40 57 307 195 198 151 131 1 29 0 56 515 199 184 800 232 286 290 95 196 163 48 68 352 208 209 163 147 1 29 0 63 556 220 201 870 261 315 328 108 215 195 55 81 360 212 224 163 171 1 29 0 70 587 238 213 924 274 343 362 124 230 214 59 88 395 226 234 166 184 1 29 0 77 6 T 4 250 224 957 285 3 64 391 135 253 232 69 98 382 223 241 166 191 1 29 0 8U 635 265 230 994 300 376 412 138 255 247 70 103 400 227 247 172 191 1 29 0 98 665 283 240 1040 322 395 438 144 284 268 83 106 424 227 251 182 203 1 29 0 1 12 682 298 250 1033 313 407 443 151 288 277 86 1 10 415 233 262 188 214 1 29 0 126 692 296 253 1060 331 418 466 151 300 293 83 1 10 437 233 262 193 198 1 29 0 m o 700 300 263 1085 345 423 474 157 301 300 89 113 456 244 263 191 203 1 29 0 168 7 m 309 263 1068 325 428 482 164 310 314 90 1 12 477 248 267 194 219 1 30 0 35 3U3 125 113 457 110 155 136 53 97 96 17 21 267 175 164 140 71 30 0 142 4214 163 147 620 158 218 198 64 135 119 28 31 312 200 185 145 104 3 30 0 149 U71 18 1 162 708 190 25.3 243 76 161 144 41 60 305 196 196 154 123 3 30 0 56 516 201 177 79 3 228 29 1 285 89 187 169 49 71 315 197 209 168 149 3 30 0 63 54 8 219 197 863 248 316 327 103 210 196 58 e i 337 204 222 161 .169 3 30 0 70 584 238 209 901 260 34 1 352 120 22 6 21 1 62 89 364 227 232 166 181 30 0 77 602 248 207 942 282 358 384 126 24 6 231 64 98 368 220 236 169 184 30 0 814 620 260 230 965 28 2 375 400 135 256 247 75 102 40 1 228 241 174 195 3 30 0 98 658 272 241 1001 304 390 416 140 26 4 268 84 1C7 393 228 250 174 212 3 30 0 112 676 282 252 1052 313 40 1 434 147 280 276 85 115 415 238 256 191 220 3 30 0 126 673 290 247 1042 323 409 467 149 301 299 85 111 442 243 259 192 195 3 30 0 m o 680 291 250 1057 325 4 16 470 153 270 307 87 110 433 237 261 190 208 3 30 0 168 703 304 266 1053 328 426 476 157 302 316 90 1 16 4 53 244 263 191 221 31 0 35 355 126 115 470 113 160 145 52 102 97 18 20 263 176 166 140 79 1 31 0 142 1120 158 148 612 153 219 193 62 134 114 28 31 309 196 181 150 107 1 31 0 H 9 1483 183 169 735 205 260 248 76 171 148 38 58 302 194 196 155 129 1 31 0 56 511 2 07 187 822 240 295 291 88 194 169 45 70 334 204 209 159 140 1 31 0 63 562 229 204 884 259 325 333 102 217 194 53 78 368 215 220 166 165 1 31 0 70 600 243 215 925. 267 351 364 118 238 217 62 90 366 215 231 167 182 1 31 0 77 626 260 229 970 292 369 394 125 252 233 64 94 389 225 239 172 198 1 31 0 98 676 285 244 1021 304 406 440 131 305 266 80 102 417 237 252 184 202 1 31 0 84 652 268 236 990 294 3 86 409 133 261 247 73 101 403 233 245 177 197 1 31 0 112 70 1 298 260 1053 332 4 15 467 145 310 280 80 106 423 238 261 198 224 1 31 0 126 709 303 262 1075 339 425 475 150 314 300 82 108 435 240 261 195 205 1 31 0 m o 712 308 266 1071 327 433 473 153 309 305 87 111 454 239 265 193 218 1 31 0 168 731 317 275 1090 342 443 497 156 324 316 89 113 469 249 266 194 224 1 35 0 35 308 110 103 421 10 1 141 124 47 93 82 18 18 255 167 152 132 67 5 35 0 142 3714 142 131 550 135 195 171 57 118 100 20 28 286 179 170 139 8 6 5 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 10 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — PELVIS- -LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH 35 0 49 412 157 144 637 165 228 209 69 35 0 56 459 178 166 726 204 267 256 85 35 0 63 503 196 178 808 235 294 305 96 35 0 70 54 5 216 190 862 255 320 339 106 35 0 77 566 232 200 902 265 344 362 1 16 35 0 81 583 240 207 936 282 355 3 87 122 35 0 98 632 252 226 968 300 374 410 125 35 0 112 648 265 237 970 301 390 431 138 35 0 126 671 279 249 1031 324 403 449 139 35 0 110 658 280 246 1010 323 402 458 144 35 0 168 678 294 254 1028 324 4 13 474 149 35 0 196 691 299 259 103 8 331 4 16 491 155 35 0 221 699 302 263 1052 334 428 497 154 35 0 252 702 310 265 1055 339 428 502 158 36 0 35 305 108 100 415 96 143 127 46 36 0 12 370 137 127 54 8 136 194 168 54 36 0 19 413 153 140 625 162 223 200 66 36 0 56 464 178 164 724 206 260 251 83 36 0 63 501 200 178 819 238 301 305 93 36 0 70 559 222 196 872 260 331 347 109 36 0 77 578 233 210 908 273 340 358 111 36 0 81 612 246 220 963 286 369 400 129 36 0 98 650 261 232 995 303 382 431 135 36 0 112 661 274 246 1020 323 393 446 145 36 0 126 673 278 243 1040 326 407 458 142 36 0 110 677 282 250 1040 325 4 12 476 147 36 0 168 692 292 257 1059 334 422 483 151 36 0 196 733 312 269 1113 358 445 500 159 36 0 221 699 300 261 1065 340 443 500 155 36 0 252 700 299 248 1043 331 432 502 160 37 0 35 304 103 97 392 91 133 120 48 37 0 12 380 140 137 541 135 189 164 53 37 0 19 428 160 149 633 167 228 203 65 37 0 56 488 184 173 740 206 265 251 79 37 0 63 531 207 187 826 24 1 298 298 90 37 0 70 572 225 207 898 268 332 337 104 37 0 77 599 24 1 215 938 277 351 372 115 37 0 81 630 251 225 978 272 371 395 125 37 0 98 670 266 238 1018 313 390 430 129 37 0 1 12 684 280 252 1035 322 399 448 141 37 0 126 693 292 260 1065 329 412 459 149 37 0 110 707 295 262 1066 333 425 477 150 37 0 168 714 303 268 1079 345 4 37 478 155 37 0 196 699 298 260 1075 343 430 499 153 37 0 224 732 319 278 1 122 363 448 510 159 37 0 252 731 319 275 1122 369 449 515 162 38 0 35 321 111 111 421 100 145 132 45 ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE CALF TREA1 LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 145 119 30 34 293 182 182 142 103 5 176 153 40 63 328 194 199 153 136 5 204 178 49 73 342 200 210 150 141 5 221 192 58 82 354 204 208 159 149 5 236 214 62 89 366 214 226 161 167 5 246 230 65 94 380 218 228 162 171 5 264 245 75 102 398 224 238 171 185 5 288 259 75 1C7 425 238 248 178 204 5 296 26 9 77 108 428 232 248 186 201 5 297 278 78 107 437 232 255 1 86 208 5 309 303 81 111 456 240 265 190 209 5 317 311 84 111 462 238 268 193 208 5 321 315 88 1 12 470 250 270 194 213 i 5 320 321 87 111 478 256 273 195 215 5 93 81 15 17 253 168 156 131 71 6 123 95 23 29 276 176 171 142 86 6 141 116 26 36 305 186 184 143 99 6 169 150 43 60 307 186 191 150 129 6 207 171 44 73 342 2C0 208 159 150 6 227 199 58 86 368 209 227 165 165 6 233 200 60 91 372 215 226 160 169 6 263 224 68 98 386 219 242 170 178 6 279 248 79 105 411 220 250 171 200 6 295 262 79 1 10 419 222 250 185 . 212 6 308 271 76 1 10 435 225 258 195 210 6 309 283 78 114 445 232 261 191 214 6 30 7 288 80 110 465 239 265 193 215 6 322 301 91 1 18 490 257 288 196 234 6 328 300 81 116 478 265 272 199 216 6 324 308 84 114 475 255 272 195 215 6 90 75 14 13 259 172 151 131 67 6 114 . 9 6 22 27 293 183 171 145 83 6 147 116 29 35 309 199 186 148 100 6 170 146 42 58 329 198 203 156 131 6 196 169 52 73 368 216 219 157 149 6 223 186 55 84 399 223 225 165 160 6 24 4 203 56 93 394 227 236 166 185 6 252 220 69 ICO 405 230 240 169 195 6 282 233 77 109 404 241 248 170 199 6 29 2 251 79 1 15 460 235 262 180 221 6 300 264 79 112 455 242 265 189 217 6 30 2 280 85 115 476 250 267 189 229 6 310 298 90 122 490 254 280 196 235 6 330 294 84 114 475 259 269 194 215 6 329 305 91 120 500 270 290 198 235 6 334 303 92 1 19 496 262 292 197 225 6 98 84 16 16 261 171 153 134 72 4 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 11 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB —PELV IS— ILIAC LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN 38 0 42 387 142 135 555 138 192 168 55 120 38 0 49 434 16 1 150 638 172 2 27 203 64 144 38 0 56 485 184 169 74 9 212 269 263 75 174 38 0 63 528 208 188 636 24 5 297 306 92 201 38 0 70 578 228 211 900 268 3 36 .347 108 222 38 0 77 605 24 3 217 930 278 357 376 1 17 • 245 38 0 84 645 256 230 988 298 374 398 126 250 38 0 98 640 260 234 991 308 380 414 124 271 38 0 112 699 282 260 1055 336 407 456 147 300 38 0 126 700 289 258 1056 329 4 14 4 59 144 304 38 0 140 . 706 297 263 1087 347 423 475 146 313 38 0 168 713 306 270 1088 353 433 490 152 320 38 0 196 730 311 271 1096 355 439 499 155 324 38 0 224 739 3 16 272 1119 357 447 514 156 32 8 38 0 252 741 320 276 1 122 360 449 517 159 340 39 0 35 312 109 102 413 98 138 130 47 95 39 0 42 384 139 133 549 13 8 187 170 56 120 39 0 49 423 158 153 635 165 225 209 64 142 39 0 56 496 1 87 168 759 211 269 266 80 179 39 0 63 540 207 191 846 244 301 313 92 212 39 0 70 582 229 212 900 267 334 351 101 233 39. 0 77 610 245 217 951 280 360 385 108 24 8 39 0 84 635 255 227 998 306 373 415 118 269 39 0 98 667 272 242 1035 318 392 432 128 298 39 0 112 688 285 244 1040 320 409 455 133 300 39 0 126 699 289 259 1076 339 418 471 138 298 39 0 140 710 300 259 1078 337 425 485 145 313 39 0 168 731 305 266 1098 348 439 500 154 319 39 0 196 736 314 269 1115 356 444 517 154 342 39 0 224 739 318 276 1 109 352 449 522 157 34 2 39 0 252 745 324 27 3 1104 346 453 521 160 336 41 0 35 346 123 122 473 117 159 142 58 103 U 1 0 42 424 163 153 632 161 224 200 64 142 41 0 49 469 181 168 727 202 262 24 1 83 168 41 0 56 517 203 179 810 231 295 291 91 199 41 0 63 557 222 199 884 262 323 330 107 214 41 0 70 591 239 208 933 276 349 363 119 240 4 1 0 77 611 250 220 968 29 3 368 400 128 255 41 0 84 641 263 228 996 302 381 413 131 27 2 41 0 98 645 277 240 1033 319 398 442 136 287 4 1 0 112 684 286 251 1060 334 414 457 150 30 5 41 0 126 687 290 258 1073 335 421 464 150 307 41 0 140 702 296 257 1086 335 428 476 153 308 41 0 168 713 300 270 1098 347 439 488 154 314 42 0 35 355 129 122 480 115 163 148 55 105 42 0 42 418 158 150 621 154 222 201 65 141 42 0 49 482 182 173 730 199 260 251 8 1 174 BIILIAC VERTEBRAE — SKULL CALF TREAT * IDT H LUHB CAUC LEN 1 LEN 2 WIDTH 1 HIDTH2 MUSCLE KENT 98 23 26 289 187 163 143 84 4 119 30 33 304 187 181 145 100 4 151 40 56 3.31 198 200 152 141 4 181 48 70 359 208 214 164 149 4 193 57 83 343 207 224 162 162 4 212 59 94 406 225 235 162 187 4 226 64 98 391 226 239 165 193 4 235 74 103 409 228 239 170 194 4 267 79 1 15 425 228 258 1 80 207 4 267 79 1 13 448 232 257 181 219 4 279 80 115 435 237 260 1 86 209 4 293 84 117 480 238 269 184 220 4 294 88 1 16 481 258 269 190 227 4 297 89 119 488 256 272 190 218 4 299 92 117 487 251 273 190 220 4 85 15 16 268 172 157 137 65 5 98 22 25 289 180 168 147 83 5 114 31 33 296 190 179 142 101 5 152 40 61 340 202 200 152 137 5 174 47 76 366 213 216 158 150 5 191 60 86 363 214 224 167 162 5 209 60 95 363 211 235 167 187 5 219 67 98 400 229 2 39 170 188 5 231 77 1 10 429 242 243 173 197 5 250 78 1 13 444 230 255 182 • 220 5 268 76 110 449 241 258 185 218 .5 278 80 112 471 243 263 195 225 5 291 86 1 15 479 241 271 193 231 5 296 90 115 492 249 277 197 226 5 303 90 115 494 247 278 198 228 5 304 92 116 497 251 280 200 226 5 94 19 21 268 181 167 142 80 3 119 28 33 311 194 185 145 102 3 143 38 54 325 195 197 150 131 3 172 47 70 331 201 211 160 148 3 188 53 78 360 210 220 157 167 3 205 61 90 381 220 231 165 175 3 220 65 95 398 225 238 166 178 3 238 71 104 390 222 242 171 188 3 258 82 106 407 241 249 190 221 3 281 81 109 431 235 255 187 210 3 287 78 111 454 234 257 188 211 3 292 82 112 458 239 262 186 220 3 299 89 111 457 243 264 189 207 3 98 18 22 262 172 166 138 77 2 115 31 34 302 187 183 150 99 2 146 41 58 325 196 199 155 125 2 NAME O F EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 12 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — PELVIS — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL— CALF TRE AO LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 42 0 56 535 203 187 823 233 300 301 92 205 173 49 71 346 206 204 160 147 2 12 0 63 572 226 204 901 257 328 344 107 222 20 1 56 83 348 205 223 167 163 2 42 0 70 611 243 225 944 273 357 372 117 247 215 67 92 379 219 231 169 180 2 42 0 77 633 256 229 979 238 372 397 130 258 237 70 99 404 225 238 1 66 183 2 42 0 64 656 265 235 1007 300 392 423 133 268 243 75 105 420 227 244 173 184 2 12 0 98 688 280 250 1039 306 410 437 135 289 26 5 88 114 432 249 250 1 79 204 2 12 0 1 12 692 288 255 1045 307 422 458 148 295 281 86 111 398 224 251 182 204 2 12 0 126 708 295 263 1087 338 427 475 154 314 288 82 112 446 250 - 257 1 86 200 2 1*2 0 140 718 303 270 1 106 344 434 486 155 321 297 87 1 15 454 250 263 193 203 2 42 0 168 724 306 272 1093 333 450 498 158 332 309 93 1 16 473 249 266 196 204 2 U3 0 35 355 128 121 482 118 163 149 54 103 100 21 21 277 180 170 142 82 2 43 0 42 430 165 145 643 166 229 209 66 146 123 30 37 309 198 188 153 107 2 43 0 49 480 184 165 735 199 258 248 78 170 145 40 61 329 195 196 157 130 2 43 0 56 526 205 173 827 237 298 298 91 209 180 52 74 347 213 215 163 150 2 43 0 63 573 227 204 912 267 331 345 104 223 203 56 84 372 216 223 166 169 2 43 0 70 608 247 216 956 285 356 378 120 252 221 63 89 406 228 232 170 178 2 43 0 77 635 257 226 988 290 377 398 131 254 236 64 100 382 224 240 169 1 85 2 43 0 84 660 270 233 999 302 390 422 134 272 24 4 7.3 106 412 232 245 177 192 2 43 0 98 677 286 247 1001 291 416 428 134 286 26 6 85 1 12 418 237 252 190 210 2 43 0 112 715 299 261 1080 331 423 472 148 31 1 291 86 1 14 444 245 253 191 220 2 43 0 126 710 308 263 1088 333 430 485 149 327 297 86 1 15 447 250 265 1 96 213 2 43 0 140 722 306 27 3 1099 335 440 488 153 330 308 88 120 460 248 261 194 222 2 43 0 168 737 319 276 1 100 335 450 500 159 328. 316 91 120 461 258 270 202 223 2 44 0 35 360 131 123 492 120 168 150 56 109 102 20 25 273 180 169 142 81 1 44 0 42 429 161 151 635 163 223 201 70 14 1 119 30 35 306 198 184 153 102 1 44 0 49 484 187 174 746 207 264 253 85 176 149 38 56 331 198 199 158 133 44 0 56 533 207 182 832 242 298 297 95 200 176 47 72 343 206 212 166 149 44 0 63 581 230 207 914 271 336 345 1 1 1 224 204 . 55 65 372 215 227 167 1 64 1 44 0 70 609 246 216 962 292 356 377 120 243 218 56 92 394 229 231 169 187 1 44 0 77 630 255 225 967 276 372 377 130 240 231 70 98 427 227 2 36 171 1 87 1 44 0 84 652 266 236 1024 312 387 420 133 273 24 5 75 102 400 233 238 172 192 1 44 0 98 664 275 241 1021 312 4 03 439 135 289 260 80 106 428 234 248 178 206 1 44 0 112 692 290 254 1046 306 420 448 148 293 • 283 78 109 445 231 249 180 213 1 44 0 126 710 297 265 1093 338 426 473 153 310 29 2 83 1 14 455 246 256 186 204 , 44 0 140 721 299 270 1106 351 435 478 157 312 299 84 1 15 467 249 255 199 210 1 44 0 168 715 306 275 1102 345 448 493 156 321 306 89 1 15 480 247 260 192 214 1 44 0 196 736 313 275 1120 354 451 494 159 316 316 93 1 18 486 254 266 199 216 1 44 0 224 742 323 271 1100 348 464 510 162 332 318 94 116 495 255 277 197 229 1 44 0 252 754 325 277 1 139 359 458 508 160 32 5 321 95 116 498 256 268 199 212 1 45 0 35 350 128 120 479 113 163 151 55 108 10 1 19 22 271 180 166 14 1 84 3 45 0 42 423 162 154 615 156 220 202 69 143 126 30 33 306 186 180 147 100 •j 45 0 49 484 184 163 72 9 202 263 255 82 177 154 42 60 324 197 199 158 135 45 0 56 526 217 187 823 234 297 303 97 20 5 188 50 75 351 206 210 161 151 •j 45 0 63 565 227 201 890 259 328 347 1 10 223 205 59 87 364 219 224 167 168 45 0 70 613 243 226 950 277 352 380 125 255 227 62 93 398 224 235 168 165 45 0 77 632 257 225 984 286 379 407 132 256 240 70 100 403 228 242 170 188 45 0 84 652 262 237 1012 299 388 432 137 271 252 72 105 427 234 243 178 191 3 HA HE OF E XPEBIHEN T: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 13 AN S AGE ARM HUB RAD TLEG FEH TIB LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN 45 0 98 664 282 243 1040 302 4 08 45 0 112 697 295 256 1038 308 420 15 0 126 710 300 263 1075 322 428 45 0 140 719 304 271 1098 331 438 45 0 168 719 313 27 3 1093 331 447 46 0 35 356 126 123 485 116 164 46 0 42 438 162 147 637 166 228 46 0 49 475 181 165 726 198 258 46 0 56 522 203 177 815 228 296 46 0 63 573 226 196 882 253 331 46 0 70 608 243 215 94 9 280 355 46 0 77 635 254 223 988 29 1 374 46 0 84 655 270 233 1018 302 389 46 0 98 681 281 240 1020 306 4 17 46 0 112 700 291 261 1044 311 425 46 0 126 712 299 258 1086 330 432 46 0 140 711 304 265 1111 350 437 46 0 168 734 314 276 1 122 355 4 50 46 0 196 735 316 274 1 128 34 9 454 46 0 224 743 318 276 1119 348 456 46 0 252 744 323 272 1132 351 464 47 0 35 328 122 108 443 109 150 47 0 42 357 144 134 544 139 193 47 0 49 412 156 149 617 167 223 .4 7 0 56 469 180 169 722 205 260 47 0 63 521 204 187 821 24 0 301 47 0 70 551 221 200 879 265 326 47 0 77 588 233 212 929 282 341 47 0 84 620 252 225 962 296 365 47 0 98 655 270 241 1015 32 0 396 47 0 112 680 280 260 1045 335 403 47 0 126 689 287 262 1051 331 414 47 0 140 699 297 264 1072 345 422 47 0 168 716 306 269 1094 357 436 47 0 196 727 312 279 1113 363 444 47 0 224 731 316 278 1 106 360 447 47 0 252 744 321 282 1117 365 452 48 0 35 308 108 99 398 87 140 48 0 42 357 131 130 495 119 177 48 0 49 390 144 140 565 148 195 48 0 56 450 165 161 669 181 248 48 0 63 496 189 176 761 216 283 48 0 70 541 209 198 845 249 313 48 0 77 565 232 218 901 272 340 48 0 84 596 241 216 937 289 352 48 0 98 658 259 241 996 312 380 4 8 0 112 662 274 244 1022 329 395 — PELVIS- - ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUC 447 143 284 277 88 1 16 465 155 306 295 86 1 13 4 76 156 315 302 87 113 482 162 320 314 88 1 17 510 163 330 323 94 1 18 150 57 110 10 1 20 21 208 69 149 118 29 34 250 80 169 146 38 55 296 93 198 171 46 68 341 106 221 196 56 80 381 122 251 210 60 93 400 133 257 230 67 97 430 135 26 7 243 73 105 443 141 289 269 85 1 13 457 153 296 284 79 1 14 486 152 314 292 80 1 15 491 155 319 302 85 1 15 500 158 325 307 89 115 513 160 325 315 91 1 16 504 162 330 315 93 1 15 520 163 339 319 95 1 18 133 50 94 85 17 20 164 59 114 95 23 28 199 64 139 113 28 30 250 78 171 150 39 58 3 05 89 210 171 47 71 337 100 218 191 57 86 362 113 232 200 60 93 387 120 248 224 69 99 426 132 280 248 73 106 447 138 289 277 73 1 13 460 140 297 280 77 110 465 147 301 • 294 80 116 486 153 312 305 84 1 14 497 152 323 310 86 115 499 154 322 315 90 117 504 157 329 317 90 1 15 121 45 84 79 13 17 147 52 105 89 22 26 17 1 61 120 98 28 30 220 78 150 133 41 55 268 89 180 156 46 72 317 95 207 173 56 85 344 111 228 188 60 92 370 1 14 234 20 4 66 96 402 124 257 228 76 107 423 128 278 247 75 112 - S K U L L - CALF TREA1 LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE . MENT 390 241 252 187 225 3 451 239 255 193 222 3 453 248 263 197 223 3 473 253 264 198 218 3 497 262 269 197 219 3 256 173 168 141 81 ! 30 7 195 188 152 108 1 303 191 198 151 135 1 334 204 212 159 148 1 350 211 223 170 164 1 373 219 231 168 180 1 378 229 238 167 168 1 399 232 244 172 189 ; 1 408 229 243 182 220 1 419 238 256 191 217 1 432 232 257 188 208 1 455 248 262 200 207 1 467 253 266 191 219 1 485 254 275 1 97 222 1 481 248 270 200 212 1 496 267 278 196 220 1 252 167 158 132 71 6 275 171 170 141 84 6 299 185 178 145 94 6 316 190 196 150 133 6 343 201 212 158 141 6 363 204 218 161 155 6 374 214 225 159 172 6 396 225 232 166 187 6 393 235 242 175 197 6 441 236 247 180 222 6 435 238 252 190 215 6 455 238 255 188 226 6 460 244 259 192 225 6 475 251 264 192 220 6 482 255 271 191 223 6 478 253 273 193 222 6 251 163 148 129 65 5 263 169 159 136 77 5 285 175 164 138 76 5 288 186 185 146 103 5 333 198 201 149 134 5 344 200 205 158 141 5 356 207 217 158 151 5 372 212 224 166 170 5 409 227 227 170 178 5 426 228 236 175 198 5 SAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT EXP AN S AGE ARM HO M RAD TLEG FEM TIB LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN 18 0 126 684 280 258 1035 329 4 07 48 0 140 692 290 260 1044 334 4 15 48 0 168 707 300 265 1079 351 429 48 0 196 715 304 270 1081 355 436 48 0 224 722 312 275 1084 358 445 48 0 252 731 316 281 1089 355 448 49 0 35 334 118 112 465 111 152 49 0 42 334 143 131 54 3 136 188 49 0 49 423 161 151 616 161 224 49 0 56 481 1 81 169 721 196 267 49 0 63 525 205 185 827 238 298 49 0 70 570 225 204 898 267 331 49 0 77 600 240 225 955 287 354 49 0 84 630 254 225 986 295 368 49 0 98 683 270 250 1038 329 393 49 0 112 690 282 257 1075 353 408 49 0 126 706 289 265 1076 343 411 49 0 140 710 296 269 1090 341 426 49 0 168 729 307 279 1100 360 437 49 0 196 730 310 282 1 105 359 442 49 0 224 741 319 282 1111 362 448 49 0 252 734 316 277 1097 362 446 50 0 35 326 120 107 431 103 152 50 0 42 376 139 130 540 134 186 50 0 49 430 165 155 646 177 233 50 0 56 474 180 169 730 210 263 50 0 63 523 205 190 816 245 294 50 0 70 571 226 207 885 269 324 50 0 77 598 240 221 941 285 352 50 0 84 625 254 229 960 298 359 50 0 98 662 265 233 999 310 383 50 0 112 680 285 258 103 9 32 7 402 50 0 126 677 290 251 1036 321 410 50 0 140 694 296 266 1063 342 416 50 0 168 706 304 268 1087 350 433 50 0 196 706 308 268 1075 343 433 50 0 224 722 314 270 1097 355 440 50 0 252 723 319 273 1070 341 4 43 51 0 35 328 119 108 439 110 151 51 0 42 376 139 136 533 133 188 51 0 49 398 156 146 607 160 216 51 0 56 473 180 170 725 205 259 51 0 70 541 226 208 878 263 328 51 0 77 605 24 1 223 948 286 349 51 0 84 631 255 228 973 293 364 51 0 98 681 273 243 1016 320 388 51 0 63 520 200 190 810 237 298 PAGE: 14 — P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUE 441 140 289 268 77 1 15 452 140 298 268 80 1 15 472 1»7 312 282 83 120 477 152 30 4 290 82 1 19 491 152 323 289 88 120 483 156 •30 7 30 0 87 1 19 134 52 96 85 17 19 165 59 116 96 22 26 198 69 133 112 25 36 253 78 171 143 42 60 300 94 199 170 51 77 348 105 220 181 56 90 375 1 16 239 20 2 58 S6 394 119 249 215 67 106 420 132 28 3 240 81 1 14 4 59 145 292 265 80 1 14 467 148 30 7 277 78 1 19 472 153 302 283 79 1 18 492 153 318 287 82 1 19 495 155 319 295 83 1 18 505 158 325 30 1 82 1 18 497 155 325 300 83 121 130 45 92 80 16 18 163 55 114 93 22 25 215 66 148 122 33 35 247 75 171 149 41 56 297 91 202 170 52 69 336 100 217 193 56 83 374 110 248 208 61 90 388 123 251 219 68 98 422 130 271 253 77 108 443 145 29 4 267 79 108 448 145 301 282 79 1 10 471 146 306 293 81 1 14 487 150 316 297 85 112 485 155 315 305 85 113 499 155 333 311 86 1 15 465 159 30 2 320 89 112 135 50 98 86 17 21 166 59 117. 98 23 23 195 65 130 110 29 33 252 78 171 145 45 59 348 107 229 193 62 91 374 119 243 212 65 96 389 131 253 237 70 106 423 1 38 272 253 81 1 13 299 91 19 8 171 49 75 -SKULL — CALF TREA" LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 436 231 239 180 203 5 448 240 241 185 216 5 459 232 249 188 223 5 464 232 255 186 215 5 468 243 259 189 217 5 472 242 262 186 217 5 257 174 155 135 71 4 280 175 171 142 83 4 298 1 eo 178 144 96 4 313 187 195 151 125 4 348 199 209 157 153 4 357 210 221 163 163 4 375 213 230 159 171 4 382 223 232 164 192 4 436 239 247 176 199 4 423 235 248 181 210 4 443 235 250 199 210 4 448 232 249 180 221 4 463 235 255 187 230 4 473 247 259 192 223 4 480 245 264 195 222 4 483 249 262 187 221 4 263 169 158 133 67 5 272 168 169 138 89 5 301 183 185 143 100 5 302 188 196 150 122 5 336 200 207 156 144 5 336 202 224 163 159 5 367 208 227 164 172 5 371 215 233 171 172 5 395 225 242 171 201 5 400 223 250 177 206 5 405 229 251 186 209 5 424 229 253 188 215 5 453 233 262 193 213 5 467 238 261 192 216 5 470 243 266 197 220 5 470 242 271 198 230 5 257 172 156 133 70 6 285 176 165 142 77 6 293 182 177 147 93 6 305 191 193 151 128 6 367 212 221 163 162 6 356 217 228 161 169 6 379 223 233 167 192 6 413 237 246 174 201 6 347 205 205 159 148 6 MA HE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 15 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — PELVIS— ILIAC LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN 51 0 112 683 283 257 1013 328 105 150 110 291 51 0 126 693 288 263 1050 327 111 111 150 300 51 0 110 705 299 261 1065 331 123 168 152 30 5 51 0 168 721 . 309 271 1095 353 135 187 155 319 51 0 196 725 318 275 1095 319 139 195 157 325 51 0 221 732 321 277 1091 350 115 500 162 330 51 0 252 711 326 280 1 101 355 117 506 161 335 51 0 35 317 117 103 133 112 119 131 50 99 51 0 12 363 138 123 517 132 180 161 51 112 51 0 19 392 115 135 567 150 205 181 60 121 51 0 56 167 175 165 716 198 259 218 78 167 51 0 63 516 200 181 799 231 295 281 91 189 51 0 70 552 222 201 876 262 325 339 105 219 51 0 81 606 215 205 910 282 355 383 119 252 51 0 98 638 269 227 989 303 381 130 127 299 51 0 77 590 238 218 917 275 315 362 116 213 51 0 1 12 661 278 212 1005 315 393 118 137 288 51 0 126 677 281 253 1011 33 1 106 158 113 293 51 0 110 678 290 256 1012 333 111 156 119 29 1 51 0 168 693 300 260 1015 330 125 171 151 301 51 0 196 699 306 262 1079 351 133 195 153 313 51 0 221 713 311 267 1073 316 137 500 157 327 51 0 252 705 310 263 1078 352 111 501 155 329 55 0 35 316 118 105 128 99 119 129 50 95 55 0 12 366 139 121 516 127 180 159 53 107 55 0 19 109 151 117 60 7 160 219 199 65 112 55 0 56 152 172 16 1 692 187 251 233 73 159 55 0 77 583 236 212 908 277 317 367 107 236 55 0 81 609 215 220 962 295 359 396 1 15 258 55 0 98 612 269 232 982 295 385 135 123 296 55 0 63 199 202 182 789 22 3 290 296 88 199 55 0 70 553 219 198 871 262 321 310 98 226 55 0 112 667 278 211 1025 318 100 161 133 296 55 0 126 668 290 219 1010 329 110 177 139 30 5 55 0 110 686 296 255 1051 327 121 188 111 319 55 0 168 703 305 263 1066 336 132 500 119 323 55 0 196 709 308 261 1092 356 136 509 151 326 55 0 221 718 313 267 1018 327 111 198 158 320 55 0 252 723 317 270 110 2; 357 118 521 157 310 56 0 35 300 115 103 111 100 112 125 19 92 56 0 12 363 132 121 198 125 179 151 53 109 56 0 19 100 159 112 601 160 219 198 63 133 56 0 56 162 171 165 703 187 255 238 76 .163 56 0 63 19 1 193 177 776 229 282 283 85 188 56 0 70 538 215 188 850 258 315 327 99 223 56 0 77 561 229 210 901 266 333 350 112 233 56 0 81 599 211 211 923 283 350 368 117 230 BIILIAC VERTEBRAE SKULL — CALF TREAT WIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE MENT 266 79 1 15 115 233 216 175 213 6 280 83 1 15 138 230 253 187 215 6 290 85 108 156 219 251 182 219 6 30 1 90 1 15 162 211 260 197 226 6 312 89 119 169 217 266 195 230 6 316 93 1 16 196 263 271 192 228 6 318 92 1 19 182 252 272 199 225 6 87 17 19 250 166 159 135 7 1 1 91 23 25 278 173 168 138 65 1 101 29 31 278 179 175 136 81 1 118 39 59 322 191 198 151 127 1 171 19 72 351 202 212 155 118 1 188 51 68 366 212 226 165 159 1 219 61 100 370 216 212 165 19 1 1 233 78 111 115 221 250 171 212 1 210 65 91 371 203 231 166 175 1 255 76 1 12 126 217 251 179 212 1 267 80 1 10 136 232 262 195 210 1 288 80 1 13 153 233 265 192 223 1 293 82 113 160 231 267 191 233 1 295 81 1 15 173 216 271 199 221 1 302 85 115 175 215 278 195 229 1 301 86 116 180 250 278 206 220 1. 83 19 19 267 171 151 130 67 6 95 21 25 275 170 167 137 79 6 111 28 31 298 183 180 119 89 6 138 39 56 311 191 191 119 120 6 218 65 95 381 213 226 158 166 6 221 61 97 397 225 236 167 180 6 218 78 109 128 250 236 169 212 6 172 18 69 339 201 208 150 113 6 192 60 82 358 205 216 163 157 6 250 76 112 133 226 250 181 207 6 291 79 116 151 253 253 188 202 6 305 81 1 18 163 210 251 183 220 6 312 83 117 173 213 260 189 223 6 316 81 116 187 261 263 189 222 6 325 90 1 19 197 269 268 191 230 6 327 88 120 190 261 269 192 228 6 79 15 11 217 166 153 129 61 5 89 20 22 270 170 165 110 75 5 111 30 30 299 186 180 117 90 5 113 11 59 308 190 1.96 151 121 5 162 52 63 339 199 210 153 135 5 182 57 76 319 202 221 160 118 5 205 59 86 371 207 225 161 156 5 213 62 90 369 211 232 160 173 5 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 16 > AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG F2M TIB --PELVIS— LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH 56 0 98 632 251 222 971 301 370 117 120 56 0 112 615 270 233 1000 32 3 386 139 135 56 0 126 660 281 238 1017 327 396 157 138 56 0 mo 666 283 213 1020 323 103 157 111 56 0 168 677 291 252 1050 339 117 183 116 56 0 196 691 303 262 1071 351 126 188 153 56 0 22<4 691 305 218 1062 313 133 192 156 56 0 252 712 310 266 1076 352 131 501 156 57 0 35 321 118 111 137 110 119 136 50 57 0 12 3 76 111 129 521 133 183 166 55 57 0 19 120 162 150 616 161 221 201 67 57 0 56 177 182 167 721 20 2 263 257 82 57 0 70 576 227 206 888 263 332 352 110 57 0 77 588 237 215 918 280 351 380 118 57 0 81 617 218 221 967 298 363 395 123 57 0 98 663 27 1 239 1022 311 391 135 137 57 0 63 520 201 181 815 201 299 312 95 57 0 1 12 671 281 250 1032 321 100 161 150 57 0 126 683 290 250 1029 315 113 177 116 57 0 110 697 298 256 1018 325 120 188 152 57 0 168 712 308 268 1060 335 131 508 158 57 0 196 723 315 267 1082 312 111 516 160 57 0 221 727 318 273 1075 317 116 527 161 57 0 252 735 321 275 1098 355 119 533 165 58 0 35 308 113 105 121 101 113 130 50 '58 0 12 367 137 126 510 129 178 151 51 58 0 19 110 155 111 593 157 220 193 62 58 0 56 155 173 167 697 185 253 230 75 58 0 63 508 203 181 792 230 291 291 90 58 0 70 551 225 202 861 259 320 3 31 101 58 0 77 582 235 208 898 275 311 363 110 58 0 81 603 219 206 938 292 3 56 388 117 58 0 98 650 267 236 1000 318 380 122 121 58 0 112 661 277 250 1021 33 0 391 111 110 58 0 126 678 285 253 1010 338 101 159 113 58 0 110 687 288 258 1015 337 111 172 110 58 0 168 701 297 258 1052 338 120 178 111 58 0 196 706 302 259 1068 319 123 186 118 58 0 221 712 308 261 1051 311 129 192 151 58 0 252 711 313 269 1072 353 133 198 153 59 0 35 310 107 102 120 96 117 128 17 59 0 12 362 136 127 517 125 185 155 51 59 0 56 163 175 169 710 193 256 216 80 59 0 63 516 196 187 798 229 292 290 91 59 0 70 563 221 199 877 261 321 328 102 59 0 77 587 233 219 923 277 315 361 111 59 0 98 652 263 231 1019 320 3 87 115 131 [LIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE CALF TRS Al LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE . MENT 268 212 73 101 108 229 236 169 181 5 290 252 71 107 125 230 215 183 212 5 299 261 76 108 131 232 252 192 197 5 29 8 270 79 111 126 236 250 186 209 5 316 289 80 1 12 165 253 261 186 223 5 319 295 82 1 12 155 218 265 196 220 5 323 301 83 111 182 210 267 191 212 5 330 301 85 1 13 172 25 5 270 199 220 5 98 83 18 19 259 165 157 1 31 72 1 121 95 20 21 288 175 170 112 8 1 1 111 118 30 33 301 186 180 111 92 1 172 119 11 59 323 192 198 152 126 . 1 231 199 58 88 373 215 222 160 157 '"' . * 211 215 61 92 368 210 229 163 171 1 255 232 61 99 110 225 237 161 185 1 300 262 81 109 129 210 211 170 208 1 20 5 178 51 70 353 206 212 151 151 1 308 278 77 1 13 125 220 250 178 213 1 316 297 80 111 119 233 255 197 227 1 317 312 81 1 19 157 215 260 186 232 1 337 318 85 119 179 250 270 198 237 1 339 321 90 118 177 250 272 189 229 1 310 327 91 1 19 191 275 276 193 213 1 319 333 90 1 19 192 268 278 197 231 1 93 80 18 15 258 167 153 133 68 6 112 91 21 26 276 171 167 139 78 6 133 105 26 33 286 179 179 111 90 6 158 112 39 57 300 185 196 151 120 6 192 168 16 67 310 198 209 155 117 6 220 188 59 82 357 206 221 159 158 6 211 200 65 88 358 201 229 162 172 6 252 217 67 93 391 211 229 161 177 6 287 • 236 78 103 120 231 239 169 191 6 293 251 75 108 138 221 215 175 203 6 301 275 79 108 118 221 211 179 205 6 30 6 282 78 1C7 159 231 211 177 212 6 306 293 79 109 156 212 219 191 211 6 317 300 81 1 10 172 218 257 182 209 6 325 305 81 112 176 238 260 185 219 6 328 309 82 1C7 175 253 261 1 e8 210 6 92 81 ' 11 16 268 166 155 133 71 5 112 91 23 27 277 178 167 111 82 5 167 151 11 59 303 191 196 151 122 5 191 173 17 73 311 203 208 155 115 5 20 1 192 55 ei 360 211 219 160 151 5 232 207 60 92 379 220 227 162 170 5 280 238 73 103 101 228 239 180 180 5 NAHE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 17 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB - - P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL — CALF TREA1 LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAOD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE MENT 59 0 49 396 153 142 597 153 216 199 64 138 113 31 32 300 188 177 140 91 5 59 0 84 608 245 222 958 292 356 380 125 245 218 63 100 368 223 235 168 175 5 59 0 112 667 274 247 1028 325 3 98 431 137 28 3 257 77 1 10 407 213 245 178 214 5 59 0 126 680 285 255 1050 33 3 407 455 146 30 2 269 78 109 435 242 251 182 199 5 59 0 140 685 287 252 1062 343 4 11 462 149 297 283 81 1 14 450 243 252 183 207 5 59 0 16,8 700 298 263 1076 346 426 475 155 • 312 299 83 1 15 . 448 244 265 198 209 5 59 0 196 700 303 263 1094 354 4 30 486 159 315 •' 300 83 1 13 483 248 266 196 207 5 59 0 224 709 305 264 1 104 36 0 435 490 160 321 305 88 1 14 481 260 269 195 205 5 59 0 252 717 311 270 1 100 36 1 436 492 162 32 3 307 86 1 15 487 248 270 193 209 5 60 0 35 300 112 102 421 101 141 133 45 92 8 1 14 14 264 172 160 131 70 4 60 0 42 366 135 122 513 121 180 155 51 106 87 23 27 272 177 168 140 85 4 60 0 49 407 151 143 600 156 216 188 62 133 109 31 29 311 196 179 141 87 4 60 0 56 457 175 170 710 193 258 240 76 171 141 39 58 : 326 196 198 152 116 4 60 0 63 52 3 20 1 182 801 227 29 1 284 86 195 164 50 69 i 340 20 1 211 157 141 4 60 0 70 560 218 203 871 255 320 324 100 216 , , 185 53 84 367 208 217 157 151 4 60 0 77 591 236 225 919 27 3 344 354 110 234 198 62 91 369 216 228 163 165 4 60 0 84 605 243 227 947 288 357 368 114 24 1 209 66 95 374 223 233 166 170 4 60 0 98 647 265 236 1017 315 388 413 119 272 225 75 102 407 233 240 175 195 4 60 0 112 670 273 255 1040 328 401 435 139 29 1 263 76 1C7 430 231 247 182 200 4 60 0 126 680 285 260 1057 330 411 449 139 298 - 269 80 108 432 233 246 185 200 4 60 0 140 697 289 267 1066 34 0 417 458 147 310 284 80 1 10 468 250 250 184 222 4 60 0 168 707 299 266 1092 353 431 475 148 322 288 82 1 12 472 245 257 190 2 10 4 60 0 196 709 302 273 1083 342 437 478 152 314 . 2 9 4 81 1 12 ' 477 250 263 190 210 4 60 0 224 718 306 268 1 104 355 444 495 *56 32 2 300 90 1 15 488 258 265 194 212 4 60 0 252 719 309 273 1099 351 446 494 157 328 303 91 113 485 256 268 192 212 4 61 0 35 316 115 101 419 100 143 124 45 93 81 17 17 250 167 157 133 66 4 6 1 0 42 371 133 131 518 129 183 152 53 107 91 22 26 278 177 170 143 79 4 61 0 49 409 153 146 59 2 152 211 190 6 1 130 107 30 32 289 182 179 143 89 4 61 0 56 458 171 167 696 189 253 238 75 162 134 37 58 305 190 198 152 123 4 61 0 63 507 190 183 798 231 289 279 83 187 158 5'l 69 338 204 210 153 139 4 61 0 70 536 212 191 860 24 8 321 320 98 210 180 55 87 358 211 221 160 156 4 61 0 77 565 232 210 902 274 345 356 109 230 . 195 59 93 362 217 229 162 172 4 61 0 84 598 24 1 215 935 275 358 366 117 238 213 65 98 382 232 235 170 186 4 61 0 98 636 268 233 1004 306 382 399 128 256 232 78 1C7 414 235 242 170 198 4 61 0 1 12 656 272 244 1023 319 395 430 133 278 251 76 107 412 229 251 178 199 4 61 0 126 671 278 251 1053 340 405 442 138 300 26 6 76 109 436 229 254 181 201 4 61- 0 140 677 288 249 1045 324 4 13 445 140 289 278 76 1 10 438 225 259 181 214 4 61 0 168 683 294 259 1067 340 425 472 144 312 290 82 114 469 230 267 195 216 4 61 0 196 702 300 264 1084 349 432 479 152 312 295 79 1 12 473 247 269 186 • 213 4 61 0 224 698 306 266 1076 342 441 481 153 316 30 1 86 114 480 253 277 196 210 4 61 0 252 708 312 270 1078 ' 346 440 487 153 320 304 83 113 480 260 280 195 219 4 62 0 35 314 115 101 411 93 142 129 49 95 84 15 17 263 170 155 130 64 5 62 0 42 369 136 129 506 121 180 155 54 111 89 20 26 284 174 168 136 77 5 62 0 49 409 156 141 592 147 214 189 63 133 108 30 31 293 185 177 138 86 5 62 0 56 462 182 163 704 193 259 24 6 73 168 145 42 59 313 184 197 149 124 5 62 0 63 495 194 174 768 225 282 283 90 185 166 49 62 343 198 209 151 145 5 62 0 70 552 218 198 868 253 332 329 96 207 182 54 62 360 209 219 158 150 5 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 18 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — PELVIS— ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL— CALF TREA1 LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUC L EN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH 2 MUSCLE MENT 62 0 77 57U 231 204 896 275 339 362 107 233 204 63 e4 373 209 226 155 159 5 62 0 84 600 24 3 218 938 282 359 383 1 14 243 223 65 98 364 214 231 167 180 5 62 0 98 618 265 233 988 300 384 417 122 29 5 235 73 103 396 224 245 173 195 5 62 0 112 665 272 247 1031 320 398 440 140 29 6 265 76 107 421 226 247 176 200 5 62 0 126 684 277 250 1053 323 409 454 144 294 277 78 1 10 439 228 249 196 199 5 62 0 mo 686 287 253 1051 330 413 467 143 30 3 281 78 1 16 444 237 253 187 206 5 62 0 168 698 296 260 1075 337 425 478 147 311 294 83 111 464 238 258 191 214 5 62 0 196 699 300 260 1083 34 0 435 486 150 318 299 82 112 458 243 262 1 92 201 5 62 0 221 704 301 257 1077 3 3 9 436 494 152 321 302 87 1 14 473 245 267 194 201 5 62 0 252 703 307 264 1092 345 441 499 152 329 307 88 1 18 478 248 269 195 201 5 63 0 35 308 1 1 1 104 408 98 142 126 47 89 81 15 18 259 172 155 134 69 6 63 0 42 355 135 123 498 122 178 155 54 105 89 19 26 271 173 165 135 79 6 63 0 49 U02 149 142 579 149 213 184 60 125 105 28 34 282 165 177 145 90 6 63 0 56 452 172 161 692 187 251 233 73 159 138 39 56 311 191 194 149 120 6 63 0 63 510 198 181 800 229 289 285 90 193 164 48 '70 343 202 209 156 143 6 63 0 70 543 216 196 860 255 3 18 328 99 215 183 56 82 356 207 217 159 152 6 63 0 77 577 235 216 905 280 345 362 1 16 222 20 3 63 93 360 210 230 163 176 6 63 0 84 616 246 228 965 289 361 379 125 243 218 65 98 392 224 238 169 172 6 63 0 98 641 258 240 1006 314 385 412 132 271 239 72 106 421 230 243 170 192 6 63 0 112 659 273 243 1031 323 400 440 139 294 257 75 109 420 231 247 176 204 6 63 0 126 670 281 252 1050 326 410 455 147 303 27 2 77 1 13 433 224 252 1 81 206 6 63 0 mo 690 289 261 1055 327 4 16 447 154 299 284 84 1 15 448 235 255 186 210 6 63 0 168 690 294 263 1080 34 2 431 475 157 30 5 29 1 80 1 16 463 240 260 194 216 6 63 0 196 706 302 264 1092 345 435 484 156 315 292 83 1 17 476 246 267 191 213 6 63 0 224 712 306 261 1098 352 4 39 492 161 329 298 84 1 16 477 252 269 1 92 214 6 63 0 252 712 308 269 1090 346 440 491 165 328 302 83 1 16 482 246 272 192 206 6 65 0 35 295 107 101 405 91 139 125 48 90 81 16 19 254 170 158 137 64 6 65 0 42 364 133 120 505 120 178 152 53 104 90 19 29 278 178 169 139 82 6 65 0 149 400 150 148 586 148 213 189 59 132 105 26 32 303 189 177 148 88 6 65 0 56 452 172 161 692 187 251 233 73 159 138 39 56 311 191 194 149 120 6 65 0 63 509 195 184 786 224 287 278 89 183 159 46 69 336 203 210 160 144 6 65 0 70 540 209 201 863 253 308 326 100 212 , 182 58 81 331 202 220 164 153 6 65 0 77 573 228. 210 913 273 342 356 1 14 227 200 58 91 388 223 2 30 158 167 6 65 0 84 594 236 212 938 279 352 377 120 244 210 65 96 389 218 233 168 179 6 65 0 98 646 257 220 990 305 384 418 130 278 232 74 102 421 235 245 173 190 6 65 0 1 12 656 267 248 1026 317 397 439 146 29 5 250 75 109 435 239 251 184 201 6 65 0 126 664 276 257 1047 327 407 449 148 298 257 77 109 434 240 254 184 20 1 6 65 0 mo 673 286 254 1047 321 415 462 152 301 263 79 112 430 242 258 191 208 6 65 0 168 685 286 262 1071 341 431 475 156 305 276 81 113 446 24 1 260 188 215 6 65 0 196 684 292 258 1064 327 434 482 156 314 284 80 116 475 243 265 192 215 6 65 0 224 700 300 260 ' 1065 334 449 485 164 312 287 83 1 16 472 251 268 196 215 6 65 0 252 703 303 267 1080 336 439 492 162 318 289 84 1 14 483 256 270 193 212 6 69 0 '12 326 123 110 440 108 155 134 50 98 83 18 20 263 170 156 138 68 4 69 0 « 9 364 139 130 535 133 198 168 54 116 98 26 29 282 179 169 140 82 4 69 0 56 428 161 153 654 174 242 220 66 149 129 34 52 324 194 191 146 108 4 69 0 63 477 183 170 753 213 278 273 78 180 155 46 68 322 197 20 3 160 136 4 69 0 70 523 209 193 837 248 311 308 91 20 2 174 52 83 342 204 215 162 137 4 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 19 AN S AGE ARM HUH RAD TLEG FEM TIB — P E L V I S - - ILIAC LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN 69 0 77 558 221 202 890 267 339 348 98 221 69 0 84 582 235 218 927 280 350 370 113 241 69 0 98 640 260 234 991 308 380 414 124 271 69 0 35 282 100 93 366 79 125 112 45 80 69 0 112 641 261 242 1005 315 389 433 131 288 69 0 126 647 268 241 1020 321 399 442 129 29 2 69 0 140 652 272 255 1040 337 408 461 140 304 69 0 168 671 281 257 1056 338 421 470 142 30 8 69 0 196 683 288 256 1058 336 424 480 144 313 69 0 224 688 293 260 1066. 343 431 491 151 328 69 0 252 692 295 259 1073 349 432 494 154 329 70 0 35 301 107 98 389 93 137 122 46 93 70 0 12 342 129 113 481 120 169 147 50 105 70 0 49 398 149 144 575 148 208 185 61 128 70 0 56 459 170 161 695 190 252 243 69 160 70 0 63 499 194 180 782 225 289 288 84 188 70 0 70 549 215 195 863 258 315 330 99 216 70 0 77 570 233 209 919 277 338 367 107 235 70 0 81 596 243 212 947 287 356 379 1 15 24 2 70 0 98 630 255 230 990 309 378 415 122 282 70 0 112 652 264 236 1015 321 393 438 130 29 2 70 0 126 669 270 246 1029 327 399 438 135 288 70 0 140 663 280 245 1040 325 404 459 131 297 70 0 168 684 283 255 1062 341 4 16 470 137 311 70 0 196 681 290 255 1069 341 425 480 141 320 70 0 221 700 299 262 1069 343 432 489 144 320 70 0 252 700 302 263 1085 351 432 494 147 323 71 0 35 300 107 104 385 99 133 124 43 87 71 0 42 371 133 131 498 128 176 152 53 110 71 0 49 387 145 136 558 140 203 177 58 124 71 0 56 448 169 163 680 188 245 233 71 160 71 0 6 3 496 190 179 778 228 279 279 84 185 71 0 70 540 211 196 845 253 312 324 97 210 71 0 77 572 233 207 893 269 339 356 105 235 71 0 84 578 240 221 951 294 353 386 114 248 71 0 98 623 256 232 975 306 375 417 125 272 71 0 1 12 644 268 245 1008 328 387 442 1.36 283 71 0 126 654 273 249 1026 330 397 450 140 30 1 71 0 140 681 287 256 1043 331 411 458 142 299 71 0 168 677 286 256 1043 337 415 472 145 30 6 71 0 196 679 289 267 1056 342 421 478 147 306 71 0 224 686 298 263 1071 354 422 486 150 315 71 0 252 695 299 266 1078 353 428 491 153 319 72 0 35 303 108 96 378 92 132 120 46 86 72 0 49 397 147 138 566 140 200 176 60 125 72 0 56 443 169 147 677 181 248 227 69 152 72 0 63 496 194 173 782 228 282 279 87 186 BIILIAC VERTEBHAE SKULL CALF TREAT WIDTH LUMB CAUE LEN 1 LEN2 HIDTH1 HIDTH2 MUSCLE HENT 195 59 92 356 209 224 164 164 4 213 64 99 37 7 226 231 166 190 4 235 74 103 409 228 2 39 170 194 4 72 16 14 243 164 147 131 57 4 241 73 107 406 215 243 178 189 4 25 2 73 108 421 221 243 184 197 4 268 79 110 443 236 248 184 204 4 277 78 109 444 241 254 191 200 4 283 77 1 12 457 241 258 190 197 4 295 82 111 478 262 265 190 211 4 296 82 111 465 252 264 197 205 4 76 16 15 260 165 152 132 63 5 84 21 27 265 170 163 141 75 5 106 31 33 295 179 177 141 86 5 140 42 57 321 189 197 152 125 5 160 52 71 350 198 213 153 137 5 185 59 83 364 207 221 156 147 5 205 60 90 365 205 231 166 165 5 212 70 97 403 226 234 170 175 5 236 77 104 387 221 245 175 175 5 245 76 106 428 225 248 175 193 5 250 79 109 444 235 253 187 195 5 265 81 1 10 441 235 253 184 209 5 280 81 1 10 462 244 262 189 207 5 286 86 111 478 245 267 190 212 5 290 85 110 487 263 271 197 216 5 299 90 114 484 248 273 195 211 5 73 18 17 249 162 151 127 62 4 89 23 26 271 182 166 137 76 4 100 25 27 292 ie6 173 142 86 4 133 39 60 301 187 194 150 113 4 157 46 70 343 200 208 157 135 4 175 55 82 342 205 220 158 152 4 190 59 94 383 221 228 169 170 4 210 70 98 394 237 235 168 185 4 230 71 103 418 230 238 170 195 4 244 74 106 425 233 248 180 198 4 249 78 110 432 237 250 186 212 4 279 79 111 443 236 253 185 213 4 269 83 110 4 58 240 258 1 88 212 4 279 86 111 459 261 261 187 206 4 284 88 113 476 252 263 193 229 4 290 88 115 479 253 267 190 205 4 75 17 16 25 5 165 151 130 59 6 101 27 34 289 178 173 142 79 6 133 40 56 309 191 196 146 113 6 155 46 67 339 201 208 150 136 6 HA HE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL HEASUREHENT PAGE: 20 AH S AGE ARM HUH RAD TLEG FEH TIB —PELV IS— ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL— CALF TREA1 LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUHB CAUE LEH 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 72 0 70 544 211 193 852 255 311 323 100 210 178 58 83 378 214 218 159 152 6 72 0 77 568 227 205 909 273 332 354 110 226 192 61 88 373 215 227 151 165 6 72 0 98 630 259 233 993 315 375 413 129 270 231 72 105 427 231 240 166 189 6 72 0 42 371 133 131 498 128 176 152 53 110 89 23 26 271 182 166 137 76 6 72 0 84 582 244 215 929 291 356 358 117 247 204 63 97 381 216 230 166 181 6 72 0 112 653 270 232 1020 325 388 432 135 281 245 75 108 414 227 246 175 190 6 72 0 126 669 278 242 1041 340 401 443 143 29 3 259 76 109 436 229 247 1 87 200 6 72 0 140 670 288 245 1044 33 4 406 452 139 291 263 76 1 10 440 236 251 180 196 6 72 0 168 686 293 254 1065 347 417 465 147 300 27 1 78 110 454 240 257 185 204 6 72 0 196 693 295 252 1048 328 4 20 459 151 296 285 82 1 14 466 244 257 183 218 6 72 0 224 700 302 256 1083 353 427 480 154 310 289 80 113 477 249 263 190 228 6 72 0 252 696 304 260 1080 355 426 483 154 314 290 . 83 1 13 469 248 267 186 213 6 73 0 35 288 102 101 353 84 124 111 40 75 67 14 13 244 157 144 128 56 4 73 0 42 326 121 118 444 107 153 131 47 95 78 17 21 276 161 154 135 68 4 73 0 49 373 140 129 531 130 196 17 1 52 120 91 25 27 287 178 163 139 80 4 73 0 56 426 163 154 649 172 241 221 60 152 122 35 54 324 192 183 151 100 4 73 0 63 480 184 ;174 755 216 272 270 79 169 152 47 64 340 199 197 149 135 4 73 0 70 536 204 190 848 247 308 316 91 20 5 175 54 7e 364 2C7 210 159 144 4 73 0 77 575 220 210 90 1 277 340 351 100 220 187 64 90 39 3 220 219 161 159 4 73 0 98 632 252 233 980 3 05 379 410 1 15 268 226 73 101 418 226 234 169 183 4 73 0 84 598 236 213 918 274 357 368 106 234 201 66 100 349 220 229 164 181 4 73 0 112 643 262 235 998 316 388 428 123 284 239 69 105 435 233 238 171 190 4 73 0 126 648 269 237 1006 313 396 441 123 289 244 74 107 438 237 244 191 175 4 73 0 140 669 274 252 103 3 331 404 447 131 290 260 78 108 459 240 250 184 204 4 73 0 168 674 283 > 257 1040 328 414 460 138 304 264 75 112 468 241 253 187 210 4 73 0 196 681 286 ;*259 1054 335 417 470 139 30 3 274 79 1 11 481 246 259 191 212 4 73 0 224 692 293 ^257 1064 348 4 25 486 140 322 , 277 81 1 11 488 268 263 191 212 4 73 0 252 684 293 264 1065 343 425 489 145 320 280 82 1 13 487 253 267 194 210 4 75 0 35 290 101 95 374 94 128 118 40 90 69 17 17 240 164 150 131 55 6 75 0 42 337 126 121 460 117 159 140 48 99 82 20 22 262 169 160 136 67 6 75 0 49 372 143 130 555 143 198 174 56 120 98 26 35 276 183 173 148 80 6 75 0 56 445 169 157 676 180 245 227 71 155 129 37 59 307 190 192 151 114 6 75 0 63 492 192 174 765 223 280 276 84 185 153 47 73 322 194 205 160 138 6 75 0 70 529 205 180 852 249 310 324 96 211 174 50 84 328 205 214 151 141 6 75 0 77 565 228 206 900 278 334 352 109 242 186 59 94 354 212 224 166 173 6 75 0 84 573 240 211 925 277 349 380 110 249 205 68 99 359 204 229 160 187 6 75 0 98 616 250 223 972 299 374 412 128 272 , 223 78 104 385 218 240 169 191 6 75 0 112 635 268 233 1013 318 390 433 141 297 237 76 111 397 224 240 176 190 6 75 0 126 652 269 243 1027 331 396 4 53 142 29 4 246 78 113 444 231 242 180 209 6 75 0 140 661 278 252 1044 338 404 453 148 298 259 81 112 448 243 255 188 209 6 75 0 168 668 283 251 104 5 335 418 460 149 29 7 270 84 113 455 239 256 186 213 6 75 0 196 675 289 252 1055 340 421 476 149 313 275 85 1 14 455 239 257 187 215 6 75 0 224 675 291 253 1061 338 426 483 154 318 28 1 87 113 470 242 258 190 221 6 75 0 252 673 292 250 1080 338 425 462 157 295 289 89 118 466 240 263 192 226 6 76 0 35 297 108 95 380 90 134 108 46 88 74 14 15 255 160 151 130 63 5 76 0 42 339 125 124 468 114 163 145 50 100 84 18 24 275 171 160 136 77 5 76 0 49 392 147 139 564 141 205 175 6 1 121 105 26 32 297 184 171 145 87 5 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 21 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN 76 0 56 159 172 160 692 186 252 76 0 63 198 195 176 782 228 285 76 0 70 518 216 193 865 252 317 76 0 77 579 235 203 925 276 344 76 0 98 635 26 1 231 1000 310 384 76 0 84 599 219 210 951 290 350 76 0 112 663 269 211 1038 330 397 76 0 126 661 286 215 1019 328 403 76 0 110 677 286 255 1053 337 416 76 0 168 695 298 258 1083 350 423 76 0 196 699 300 261 1089 354 430 76 0 221 698 301 262 1092 356 435 76 0 252 705 309 266 1095 354 439 77 0 35 301 106 105 387 96 133 77 0 12 335 121 113 117 109 153 77 0 19 372 135 127 514 125 186 77 0 56 130 159 151 613 172 232 77 0 63 179 188 172 736 208 267 77 0 70 526 201 186 825 249 302 77 0 77 567 223 211 871 264 319 77 0 81 581 242 228 918 270 342 77 0 98 620 250 222 969 310 369 77 0 112 613 261 237 1000 322 378 77 0 126 617 277 236 993 310 391 77 0 110 672 279 253 1026 335 401 77 0 168 676 288 255 1010 337 410 77 0 196 - 686 290 260 1052 343 418 77 0 221 691 299 260 1045 334 423 77 0 252 691 300 259 1052 337 424 78 0 35 301 109 100 385 94 137 78 0 42 333 120 116 448 113 154 78 0 19 370 131 131 522 131 191 78 0 56 125 159 155 653 176 236 78 0 63 187 186 176 758 217 275 78 0 70 532 210 190 833 246 312 78 0 77 578 233 210 908 273 340 78 0 61 583 215 229 908 267 348 78 0 98 631 251 232 985 313 375 78 0 1 12 615 268 213 1005 321 389 78 0 126 662 275 219 1020 325 388 78 0 110 665 283 253 1021 318 402 78 0 168 680 287 257 1057 342 415 78 0 196 692 295 261 1065 347 422 78 0 221 695 298 268 1069 346 428 78 0 252 700 300 263 1070 348 428 80 0 35 301 109 97 378 92 132 80 0 12 332 122 118 432 107 155 — PELVIS— ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD 238 70 160 136 37 58 285 82 180 166 48 68 321 96 205 186 56 84 356 112 230 210 56 94 418 125 255 240 72 104 372 120 243 222 64 99 436 139 287 268 73 1 10 448 137 29 2 272 74 1 10 463 147 29 8 288 79 1 15 478 148 308 294 82 1 14 485 154 312 299 82 1 15 492 155 317 305 87 1 17 495 159 325 308 85 1 15 117 44 87 77 16 16 132 47 96 77 16 •20 153 57 109 94 25 26 211 66 140 129 34 5C 258 77 166 152 42 60 303 95 19 3 175 50 70 342 104 212 195 55 85 352 113 231 218 64 91 402 118 253 228 74 100 427 131 27 4 255 75 101 420 130 273 264 74 105 452 141 299 275 77 106 461 142 296 288 80 107 470 146 301 292 85 109 476 151 306 301 83 107 480 149 317 303 84 1 10 1 19 43 82 73 14 16 122 48 82 78 18 19 156 55 110 95 26 29 211 68 146 127 37 51 263 80 174 149 47 64 306 92 200 169 49 74 358 111 233 200 60 91 325 118 224 204 60 94 402 121 261 227 69 102 420 128 273 231 71 105 428 132 279 257 74 108 439 133 289 266 77 109 457 141 295 277 81 111 472 145 306 287 78 112 480 149 313 292 81 112 480 151 311 299 84 111 121 41 85 73 17 15 135 48 95 80 13 21 SKULL .- CALF TREAT LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 328 195 198 145 114 5 335 201 210 153 134 5 375 211 220 155 150 5 391 225 231 165 165 5 376 220 244 176 200 5 359 223 237 169 175 5 425 221 245 184 193 5 447 231 251 186 202 5 466 237 254 186 215 5 466 241 257 190 216 5 47 3 250 261 193 . 219 5 482 245 265 189 232 5 484 249 266 190 225 5 245 160 150 129 63 4 258 166 157 134 67 4 280 174 170 140 77 4 310 ie6 191 147 109 4 305 184 201 153 134 4 346 203 216 155 146 4 358 205 224 163 154 4 350 214 232 162 182 4 396 218 238 174 191 4 400 221 244 180 190 4 400 230 245 185 195 4 436 233 251 186 203 4 439 230 254 189 202 4 440 236 257 190 204 4 456 239 260 189 209 4 456 236 259 190 200 4 249 164 150 134 64 6 267 169 155 133 67 6 280 177 168 140 78 6 318 192 190 145 103 6 324 205 202 155 129 6 342 202 208 154 140 6 372 215 226 160 169 6 364 212 228 160 171 6 400 222 234 161 185 6 4 18 227 240 178 185 6 390 231 240 178 190 6 433 239 244 186 197 6 441 234 251 186 200 6 457 238 251 183 195 6 451 243 256 190 203 6 471 246 258 189 211 6 253 163 154 132 58 4 270 167 157 133 65 4 MA RE OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 22 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB LEN LEN LEN LEN LSN LEN 80 0 49 366 134 130 516 126 184 80 0 56 420 160 156 638 170 233 80 0 63 186 187 170 7M1* 211 278 80 0 70 530 209 200 837 247 311 80 0 7 7 553 22U 21U 869 265 337 80 0 98 635 256 236 977 301 381 80 0 84 598 244 223 915 273 353 80 0 112 653 27K 246 1008 318 395 80 0 126 663 27H 2<*9 1021* 321 1*05 80 0 140 67U 290 253 1036 331 1*08 80 0 168 675 291 257 101*9 329 1*25 80 0 196 696 300 26U 1069 31*5 1 29 80 0 224 705 303 270 1079 350 432 80 0 252 693 303 266 1066 315 l*3« 82 0 35 298 107 96 381 90 135 82 0 U2 339 121 118 U56 112 160 82 0 U9 383 m i 132 52U 129 191* 82 0 56 U37 16U 158 650 173 244 82 0 63 494 191 181 765 219 280 82 0 70 537 212 193 8<*6 250 318 82 0 7 7 578 233 210 89 3 259 3U1 82 0 98 635 261 229 993 307 385 82 0 84 578 2U1 227 91*0 275 360 82 0 112 659 269 244 1013 311* 397 82 0 126 665 277 2U9 1026 321* 404 82 0 mo 678 280 255 1045 3 3 0 410 82 0 168 685 291 258 1059 336 i* 19 82 0 196 693 298 263 1062 3 3 3 1*25 82 0 221 701 301 265 106D 33U 427 82 0 252 702 302 267 1073 3 « 3 432 83 0 35 302 110 102 387 95 135 83 0 112 336 127 116 1*69 113 162 83 0 U9 393 11*8 133 566 1 « 9 205 83 0 56 453 173 163 682 183 248 83 0 63 504 196 185 791* 233 288 83 0 70 540 215 199 869 261* 315 83 0 7 7 582 23U 210 910 278 336 83 0 81 597 2U3 224 929 292 347 83 0 98 635 258 235 986 311* 371 83 0 112 650 272 21*1 1017 331 385 83 0 126 672 283 21*9 1029 3U3 392 83 0 140 674 288 21*7 1020 325 401 83 0 168 685 296 259 1052 3U6 412 83 0 196 702 300 262 1060 350 4 19 83 0 221 705 307 260 10U6 310 423 83 0 252 713 309 269 1076 352 426 84 0 35 278 101 9i» 352 7H 127 - - P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUMB CAUD 159 53 108 96 27 24 212 62 140 130 33 45 259 79 173 160 45 61 308 91 204 176 49 74 346 100 219 189 56 86 40 4 124 260 234 69 100 356 116 230 206 63 92 423 138 277 255 70 106 440 143 29 2 259 74 105 449 139 294 275 75 109 462 146 300 285 78 109 476 148 303 286 82 111 477 154 30 5 290 82 1 10 482 150 313 297 82 111 121 45 86 71 17 17 133 51 95 80 18 21 158 58 10 9 100 27 29 207 67 134 128 34 54 266 80 184 158 48 70 311 93 208 179 51 81 345 105 225 202 57 94 408 120 258 237 71 104 360 119 235 215 65 100 429 128 28 3 •250 77 108 442 132 285 254 77 106 445 144 299 280 78 112 461 143 298 280 79 112 469- 148 30 6 288 81 1 14 474 152 304 294 82 1 15 482 151 315 297 83 112 117 44 90 77 15 16 142 50 100 87 19 21 185 57 125 106 22 28 233 68 161 140 40 58 288 84 194 164 48 70 333 96 217 187 55 83 358 105 233 20 1 61 88 361 113 242 215 63 96 415 125 259 233 73 104 436 133 290 246 76 108 445 140 301 263 75 108 450 136 296 273 79 110 462 140 30 4 282 76 112 475 143 310 286 78 112 473 149 30 8 296 82 112 479 150 313 295 85 111 110 41 79 73 13 14 SKULL '• CALF TREAT LEN 1 LEN 2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE RENT 283 180 168 138 75 4 291 182 190 146 1 10 4 322 198 206 155 140 4 366 206 217 159 14 1 4 378 214 228 164 165 4 391 224 240 171 187 4 370 224 232 170 181 4 4 16 231 245 177 185 4 432 232 250 1 86 201 4 423 243 253 188 214 4 457 237 260 197 215 4 455 247 260 190 200 4 455 248 264 193 205 4 465 246 267 195 209 -. 4 247 164 149 128 60 5 268 170 161 136 67 5 282 180 169 143 81 5 313 181 191 144 112 5 331 195 208 152 133 5 355 207 217 154 146 5 373 213 222 160 158 5 406 225 236 164 185 5 363 225 231 167 178 5 401 227 239 169 194 5 400 226 243 189 187 5 442 231 242 178 204 5 457 239 247 185 198 5 449 236 251 190 208 5 460 243 254 185 203 5 469 245 255 191 205 5 236 163 148 129 61 4 267 170 159 137 72 4 277 179 172 142 84 4 325 194 189 145 124 4 332 200 204 150 151 4 343 204 216 158 151 4 365 214 217 156 162 4 353 215 232 171 170 4 410 222 227 169 198 4 407 229 236 173 193 4 412 224 236 176 186 4 438 242 241 179 215 4 453 237 245 184 203 4 457 238 248 187 205 4 461 243 253 184 218 4 469 245 254 188 217 4 243 158 143 123 59 6 H A B E OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT P A G E : 23 AN S AGE ARB HUB RAD TLEG FEB T IB — P E L V I S — IL IAC B I I L I A C VERTEBRAE - S K U L L — CALF T RE Al LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUHB CAUD LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 HUSCLE BENT 84 0 112 322 117 107 a33 102 158 131 47 94 79 16 24 253 168 155 134 70 6 84 0 19 376 1a 1 1 3 a 533 131 198 161 59 117 102 23 33 281 179 165 141 82 6 81 0 56 429 161 156 638 167 240 218 67 149 130 37 50 301 188 191 143 115 6 84 0 63 484 186 178 755 213 276 266 77 182 156 45 62 327 199 204 151 135 6 8H 0 70 519 205 193 835 2ao 311 309 92 198 175 52 77 340 204 212 152 142 6 84 0 77 561 231 200 882 259 333 338 100 225 192 60 87 376 213 220 161 158 6 84 0 98 62a 258 232 967 298 373 402 1 19 259 235 68 100 368 219 233 173 185 6 84 0 8 « 571 231 211 912 26a 346 354 109 238 211 66 92 372 225 231 164 172 6 84 0 112 6aa 270 2a 1 1000 310 389 430 130 278 249 69 102 415 225 238 176 192 6 84 0 126 653 279 2a5 1017 319 399 443 135 285 26 1 71 107 419 229 245 177 191 6 84 0 iao 665 288 2a5 1010 313 408 444 140 293 284 74 106 417 244 249 181 212 6 8tt 0 168 68a 292 260 10a 8 337 4 18 465 145 298 286 77 108 437 236 255 186 209 6 84 0 196 686 297 259 1039 332 421 469 148 305 298 77 108 453 236 259 186 214 6 8 « 0 22a 700 300 263 103 7 335 427 478 152 30 5 304 80 109 460 244 264 195 217 6 8 « 0 252 697 30a 262 10a5 339 428 480 154 314 309 81 1 10 469 243 263 189 2 12 6 85 0 35 300 105 102 399 98 135 120 47 90 73 15 16 247 164 149 131 59 6 85 0 a2 3 5a 132 12a a97 123 175 150 53 105 89 20 25 272 174 165 138 76 6 85 0 a9 aoi i a 7 las 58a 147 211 186 59 121 105 25 34 292 184 174 142 86 6 85 0 56 a.a6 172 158 698 18a 252 233 70 163 136 38 54 305 193 194 146 119 6 85 0 63 a9a 192 18a 79a 229 288 284 81 188 153 46 71 340 202 205 154 130 6 85 0 70 5a3 213 196 86a 258 323 325 93 212 . 174 55 79 352 203 217 158 145 6 85 0 77 578 231 210 910 263 344 360 108 239 193 61 89 399 220 223 162 160 6 85 0 98 635 260 238 992 30a 386 409 125 272 234 76 102 394 223 235 168 192 6 85 0 sa 595 2ao 210 955 289 360 368 1 17 255 212 61 98 370 223 227 165 183 6 85 0 1 12 663 272 246 1021 320 394 436 134 290 254 69 1 10 426 224 240 182 197 6 85 0 126 675 281 255 1037 327 403 4 50 138 302 268 72 111 429 227 242 183 213 6 85 0 iao 675 291 260 1003 330 412 466 145 30 6 281 75 1 13 439 233 250 1 87 217 6 85 0 168 696 296 262 1063 335 433 482 149 313 293 78 114 455 235 256 193 216 6 85 0 196 706 30a 270 1066 3a 1 439 492 148 318 300 80 117 462 241 262 189 223 6 85 0 22a 712 309 267 1075 347 440 499 152 339 303 80 114 467 245 267 198 219 6 85 0 252 715 313 268 1071 3aa 443 496 158 32 2 310 83 1 15 475 243 270 198 222 6 86 0 35 292 102 99 376 87 130 1 17 45 83 76 15 15 250 162 146 128 60 5 86 0 a2 332 12a 111 46a 113 163 140 48 102 80 17 22 258 169 156 132 71 5 86 0 a9 382 103 133 561 1a 1 202 173 58 124 103 25 29 294 177 169 139 90 5 86 0 56 aa3 169 158 678 180 249 224 72 153 133 38 53 321 192 194 148 113 5 86 0 63 a95 190 171 781 229 283 280 79 183 154 47 £6 328 194 205 145 135 5 86 0 70 535 213 189 855 259 312 326 97 207 178 56 77 337 203 215 159 151 5 86 0 77 570 227 20a 895 271 337 350 111 223 20 3 58 87 356 217 223 159 169 5 86 0 98 633 258 231 99a 31a 381 417 134 271 240 71 103 403 223 237 168 197 5 86 0 8a 579 2ao 209 905 282 357 374 114 24 3 209 71 90 349 220 227 166 175 5 86 0 112 652 269 202 1012 321 395 434 139 287 255 73 105 384 230 241 182 201 5 86 0 126 651 277 239 1013 314 392 441 140 280 251 77 108 420 232 243 176 209 5 86 0 iao 677 285 25a 1051 342 413 464 149 300 285 79 110 440 230 250 186 217 5 86 0 168 685 296 256 1070 . 346 425 4 83 152 318 292 82 112 453 243 253 190 220 5 86 0 196 676 293 252 1059 338 438 490 157 317 301 84 1 13 469 248 256 193 233 5 86 0 22a 708 311 260 1077 350 439 492 159 319 309 84 1 12 445 242 263 187 229 5 86 0 252 715 315 259 1079 348 446 506 162 33 3 310 85 1 15 470 246 264 195 231 5 87 0 35 293 106 98 378 90 133 115 43 87 75 13 15 236 161 147 128 58 4 NAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 24 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — P E L V I S - - ILIAC LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN HIDTH LEN 87 0 42 330 124 113 459 113 165 137 50 99 87 0 49 382 146 140 555 137 204 176 60 124 87 0 56 429 169 160 681 186 244 231 69 152 87 0 63 490 193 177 785 229 287 282 83 187 87 0 70 545 214 197 858 252 317 327 97 210 87 0 77 566 230 208 877 263 343 358 102 230 87 0 81 603 24 3 220 939 281 355 375 108 244 87 0 98 637 259 232 998 315 380 418 122 27 2 87 0 1 12 664 273 24 7. 1025 328 397 444 134 299 87 0 126 665 285 248 1032 324 403 446 136 299 87 0 110 688 290 259 1044 328 4 15 467 139 298 87 0 168 681 297 258 1053 331 428 466 147 30 2 87 0 196 701 305 264 1058 334 436 486 150 313 87 0 221 707 309 269 1081 351 441 496 155 323 87 0 252 716 3 13 262 1082 344 445 493 154 316 88 0 35 291 103 92 384 88 134 120 42 91 88 0 42 338 127 117 461 113 165 141 44 96 88 0 49 384 146 129 549 142 202 179 56 125 88 0 56 459 170 158 677 180 247 236 66 161 88 0 6 3 496 190 18 1 775 22 3 283 284 86 183 88 0 70 538 213 196 854 246 31.3 323 99 20 8 88 0 77 560 230 206 878 262 338 355 108 237 88 0 84 590 247 210 947 285 356 378 115 259 88 0 98 635 260 229 993 305 380 423 132 269 88 0 112 651 272 240 1014 315 394 448 140 29 2 88 0 126 666 276 250 1023 325 403 461 143 304 88 0 110 678 283 247 1041 327 411 465 142 296 88 0 168 689 295 257 1054 329 424 4 84 153 312 88 0 196 680 299 255 1057 330 430 493 151 320 88 0 224 700 302 252 1057 .329 435 501 155 326 88 0 252 714 284 241 1075 335 441 503 159 326 89 0 35 290 107 96 377 96 133 114 41 85 89 0 12 338 122 106 468 117 162 142 51 100 89 0 49 380 145 130 54 3 139 202 177 59 108 89 0 56 432 168 158 682 185 246 237 70 159 89 0 63 493 192 178 783 228 284 278 85 183 89 0 70 537 212 192 855 255 310 322 96 20 8 89 0 77 560 231 208 890 268 342 368 106 230 89 0 84 588 247 212 921 26 3 360 374 113 250 89 0 98 641 257 235 997 310 383 420 119 270 89 0 112 647 269 242 1007 311 395 434 134 287 89 0 126 664 286 243 1036 323 404 452 135 29 8 89 0 140 693 285 258 1043 329 4 17 460 142 305 89 0 168 688 293 259 1059 333 427 4 76 143 312 89 0 196 700 299 257 1058 333 435 481 147 315 89 0 224 704 302 260 1053 330 440 4 87 150 318 89 0 252 712 3 12 268 1073 335 443 49 3 152 325 90 0 35 346 121 110 435 103 150 133 51 98 BIILIAC VERTEBRAE . SKULL CALF TREAT HIDTH LUMB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 HIDTH1 HIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 82 17 20 255 170 156 134 67 4 102 26 28 296 182 169 140 85 4 133 40 55 308 187 190 148 113 4 161 46 68 329 198 200 155 130 4 178 51 78 359 205 219 153 150 4 196 58 86 379 218 222 156 172 4 210 67 94 399 224 225 166 182 4 24 1 68 101 408 226 237 171 187 4 354 71 107 426 223 247 179 196 4 267 79 1C7 432 242 247 1 82 215 4 272 78 108 441 235 250 185 219 4 296 82 1 10 451 236 259 190 216 4 304 80 111 456 238 262 190 219 4 310 85 111 465 243 264 192 223 4 313 85 110 457 245 266 193 232 4 77 14 15 253 158 146 130 64 5 85 18 18 265 170 157 136 72 5 102 25 30 287 176 172 140 es 5 133 37 52 309 188 192 146 118 5 164 46 66 • 330 197 20 4 153 142 5 183 54 75 353 204 209 159 147 5 205 53 86 374 210 217 158 165 5 219 62 87 368 231 227 171 175 5 243 69 101 376 226 235 164 190 5 265 73 102 408 219 238 184 190 5 275 76 102 410 229 243 190 194 5 284 76 107 420 227 241 178 203 5 295 81 109 438 231 247 189 210 5 30 2 81 107 455 235 249 1 82 205 • 5 308 79 108 469 246 255 194 205 5 313 84 108 472 249 255 194 205 5 74 13 14 244 163 143 127 65 4 80 20 22 263 169 155 133 69 4 100 25 31 287 175 172 137 83 4 134 40 57 302 189 192 146 127 4 160 48 70 354 205 203 148 146 4 177 55 78 344 205 212 153 148 4 193 60 92 389 230 224 162 165 4 212 58 95 390 229 226 169 190 4 236 74 103 410 227 238 171 196 4 253 79 110 413 231 242 175 200 4 263 78 110 424 241 248 174 200 4 273 77 112 453 238 250 180 218 4 289 80 111 459 240 259 187 210 4 295 78 1 15 463 243 259 189 219 4 30 1 85 1 14 473 253 265 191 219 4 307 86 115 476 257 268 187 222 4 89 18 18 275 171 165 136 73 3 NAME OF EXPERIflENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 25 AN S AGE ARM HO M RAD TLEG FEM TIB — P E L V I S — ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE - SKULL— CAIF TREA1 LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN WIDTH LUHB CAOD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 90 0 42 413 157 145 587 147 212 182 60 127 109 26 30 305 189 184 146 97 3 90 0 49 474 181 166 725 190 258 241 70 160 14 1 39 57 324 199 202 155 115 3 90 0 56 488 191 172 747 20 1 271 252 73 170 147 37 58 326 198 204 147 128 3 90 0 63 551 231 198 891 258 331 329 95 221 193 52 e2 364 214 226 162 156 3 90 0 70 599 247 208 933 267 356 356 105 238 213 63 92 360 216 237 162 172 3 90 0 77 608 243 221 975 290 371 384 1 17 252 232 63 97 414 230 242 171 185 3 90 0 84 650 273 235 99 1 290 393 401 128 258 246 73 109 380 238 256 176 192 3 90 0 98 676 282 249 1027 308 408 441 14 1 289 267 80 1 12 434 238 256 175 213 3 90 0 112 699 296 258 1058 319 424 465 146 308 284 80 113 430 239 260 193 217 3 90 0 126 702 298 262 1080 332 433 481 147 312 299 80 116 471 245 265 190 224 3 90 0 140 725 310 261 1103 348 437 483 152 308 305 84 114 454 244 269 191 220 3 90 0 168 733 318 272 1120 352 450 498 155 318 317 88 1 18 469 249 274 190 227 3 91 0 35 324 119 112 467 109 152 136 50 100 85 19 21 266 177 162 138 78 2 9 1 0 42 410 156 148 593 152 210 191 60 136 109 25 33 305 194 183 142 99 2 91 0 49 473 179 162 704 188 257 239 72 162 138 37 56 303 191 199 150 122 2 91 0 56 485 1 86 168 737 205 267 255 75 174 14 7 38 59 324 198 204 150 135 2 91 0 63 556 220 203 870 254 323 330 98 216 188 55 82 372 212 223 158 158 2 91 0 70 593 240 210 935 275 350 369 1 11 236 201 62 86 401 217 234 164 179 2 9 1 0 77 625 251 219 977 290 369 392 123 253 223 68 94 399 230 240 170 184 2 91 0 84 634 261 226 1000 300 390 409 130 259 247 73 106 404 234 240 175 191 2 91 0 98 679 275 245 103 9 320 4 07 437 141 28 3 259 84 108 437 235 253 1 80 225 2 91 0 112 691 287 255 1076 341 4 18 463 146 288 276 84 110 453 238 261 180 209 2 91 0 126 698 293 264 1087 33 8 425 477 151 30 5 285 85 1 14 453 238 261 1 84 226 2 91 0 140 710 301 267 1098 346 435 480 154 315 290 89 1 14 474 252 270 195 242 2 91 0 168 720 311 279 1088 337 445 476 159 30 4 305 90 115 482 260 277 197 235 2 91 0 196 729 3 13 275 1121 358 453 509 162 327 308 95 1 16 491 262 281 204 221 2 9 1 0 224 737 313 275 1 106 351 466 520 162 341 338 88 1 17 504 250 288 204 237 2 91 0 252 742 322 282 1127 363 457 522 170 337 322 96 115 497 266 287 201 252 2 92 0 35 313 118 101 413 93 146 127 48 90 85 17 19 265 170 158 134 73 1 92 0 42 420 154 143 571 145 203 180 56 124 105 23 31 299 190 177 143 98 1 92 0 49 475 172 161 688 180 250 228 71 161 133 37 53 302 194 197 150 107 1 92 0 56 507 195 179 779 214 282 276 84 183 152 44 69 340 204 206 158 138 1 92 0 63 540 211 192 852 249 313 316 95 20 5 176 51 77 367 214 221 156 150 1 92 0 70 574 226 204 905 267 304 352 108 223 191 52 86 373 217 228 165 167 1 92 0 77 612 240 228 949 285 353 373 120 245 214 63 91 394 225 2 38 172 168 1 92 0 98 641 265 236 1006 308 390 420 128 269 24 1 74 102 437 226 248 170 209 1 92 0 84 615 248 221 962 297 366 400 120 246 227 69 95 404 229 242 175 174 1 92 0 1 12 666 278 252 103 4 328 401 444 138 29 4 261 78 107 430 224 258 191 207 1 92 0 126 678 283 257 1053 333 411 472 143 301 275 76 107 448 233 263 192 221 1 92 0 140 686 292 264 1066 341 421 467 146 30 5 283 81 108 465 252 265 196 224 ' 1 92 0 168 707 303 265 1078 351 431 475 150 310 294 81 107 483 255 268 190 224 1 95 0 35 269 86 77 341 73 98 105 41 79 67 14 11 220 154 140 124 52 4 95 0 42 315 1 16 106 429 99 153 127 47 91 82 16 18 258 170 160 137 71 4 95 0 49 388 142 134 554 137 197 17 1 56 120 102 24 27 281 177 171 140 86 4 95 0 56 440 169 157 672 180 245 229 69 156 135 39 55 314 187 193 151 108 4 95 0 63 490 190 179 767 219 281 278 83 183 166 46 66 340 200 205 149 133 4 95 0 70 540 212 199 845 250 308 313 96 210 183 51 77 339 2C0 214 156 144 4 SAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 26 AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — P E L V I S - - ILIAC LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WIDTH LEN 95 0 77 559 230 210 893 267 330 346 105 217 95 0 81 599 247 212 926 273 353 374 113 236 95 0 98 635 255 233 985 303 377 407 125 267 95 0 112 653 273 240 1000 305 391 433 135 285 95 0 126 661 280 24 1 1017 310 400 432 139 284 95 0 mo 673 290 246 1029 320 406 460 144 . 299 95 0 168 681 296 258 1058 337 417 474 146 308 95 0 196 693 302 256 1045 330 422 483 151 315 95 0 224 698 310 264 1065 341 428 490 154 318 95 0 252 710 312 266 1064 342 430 497 157 326 96 0 35 265 89 90 332 76 112 100 42 80 96 0 U2 315 117 104 419 100 150 127 48 90 96 0 49 382 14 3 134 537 131 198 167 57 119 96 0 56 446 171 159 661 178 241 220 67 151 96 0 63 497 1 94 183 767 219 281 275 82 175 96 0 70 540 218 192 838 242 311 312 92 202 96 0 84 606 23 8 222 930 281 345 370 1 12 233 96 0 98 635 257 235 967 29 3 379 400 127 252 96 0 77 553 221 207 873 255 334 343 105 226 96 0 112 648 267 243 986 306 388 432 132 275 96 0 126 667 274 251 1003 316 395 435 141 29 3 96 0 140 679 282 256 1025 328 404 454 143 298 96 0 168 678 293 260 1034 323 4 18 461 149 297 96 0 196 699 302 267 1033 328 424 485 150 308 96 0 224 689 302 256 1078 320 428 483 156 312 96 0 252 700 305 263 1082 327 432 494 156 316 97 0 35 254 85 80 320 77 101 100 38 69 97 0 42 305 110 106 395 94 143 1 17 43 83 97 0 49 358 134 124 510 119 186 15 1 51 107 97 0 56 448 159 152 64 3 170 232 210 65 142 97 0 63 473 182 170 738 20 9 267 259 78 173 97 0 70 521 205 189 824 245 305 301 96 209 97 0 77 543 223 200 870 258 324 334 99 216 97 0 84 579 236 220 916 288 344 367 107 210 97 0 98 614 248 227 957 290 375 398 121 263 97 0 112 633 263 232 1000 310 381 425 128 285 97 0 126 660 270 250 1007 317 392 430 137 288 97 0 140 660 276 249 1025 328 402 452 140 298 97 0 168 667 285 248 1043 329 412 461 145 303 97 0 196 671 290 257 1042 330 418 475 151 310 97 0 224 683 296 260 1045 332 425 480 150 310 97 0 252 687 295 262 1044 333 424 482 153 312 98 0 35 268 98 90 344 82 109 103 40 78 98 0 42 313 113 109 410 100 142 122 47 84 98 0 49 369 138 126 517 125 188 1 62 55 110 98 0 56 415 164 153 637 161 233 206 67 143 98 0 63 485 191 173 742 215 273 264 84 179 BIILIAC VERTEBRAE SKULL CALF TREAT JICTH LUMB CAUD LEN 1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE MENT 20 3 58 83 352 214 220 160 158 4 209 68 93 38 1 221 230 157 168 4 240 73 101 40 1 220 235 165 198 4 260 78 101 406 221 241 179 194 4 273 77 104 401 219 244 195 196 4 294 80 1 13 423 234 254 185 213 4 290 . 83 107 437 235 259 194 209 4 30 3 83 111 443 240 263 194 213 4 311 85 111 472 248 268 193 218 4 313 89 1 10 466 255 268 194 215 4 68 13 14 230 157 145 126 52 5 79 17 20 253 165 156 135 70 5 106 26 27 291 181 165 135 91 5 136 34 50 314 192 190 150 111 5 160 47 67 336 201 206 156 134 5 181 54 76 338 205 217 157 148 5 20 3 64 89 355 215 229 159 175 5 231 70 101 413 245 243 167 194 5 196 60 85 370 211 219 158 171 5 249 72 104 375 221 246 175 187 5 26 3 77 104 433 240 249 191 200 5 275 79 108 458 237 250 186 204 5 286 81 108 461 250 258 193 218 5 292 82 112 4 59 243 262 200 204 5 300 83 109 480 248 264 1 90 221 5 302 83 110 472 243 267 194 219 5 67 13 12 219 148 133 117 52 4 74 14 14 240 162 149 129 61 4 97 22 25 286 176 162 130 74 4 122 35 49 298 i eu 185 138 102 4 152 47 61 292 191 195 154 127 4 169 49 75 356 203 211 153 137 4 180 55 84 356 208 215 154 155 4 200 59 92 365 212 224 160 157 4 222 71 98 385 218 229 166 183 4 243 68 1C0 399 215 234 176 184 4 253 73 104 403 229 242 183 207 4 267 76 106 438 229 250 185 201 4 279 80 108 440 231 256 188 214 4 286 80 1C9 446 233 257 1 92 216 4 292 80 108 449 236 263 192 215 4 298 85 112 456 241 265 193 • 215 4 67 13 13 237 158 142 126 55 6 76 18 20 255 169 161 133 60 6 96 26 29 278 179 165 139 83 6 125 37 51 316 193 188 144 109 . 6 151 44 67 349 201 202 149 137 6 SAME OF EXPERIMENT: SKELETAL MEASUREMENT PAGE: 27 P AN S AGE ARM HUM RAD TLEG FEM TIB — PELVIS— ILIAC BIILIAC VERTEBRAE -SKULL — CALF T RE Al LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN LEN WI ET H LEN WICTH LUMB CAUD LEN1 LEN2 WIDTH 1 WIDTH2 MUSCLE NEST 98 0 70 528 212 189 826 240 305 314 99 209 176 55 75 344 203 212 155 149 6 98 0 77 566 232 206 878 264 324 349 110 224 187 58 88 371 223 221 157 158 6 98 0 84 598 244 217 934 288 353 367 120 239 204 61 90 380 227 227 169 173 6 98 0 98 627 257 222 969 298 371 405 124 260 223 77 ICO 369 232 233 170 191 6 98 0 112 655 271 242 999 317 384 436 136 283 242 74 102 401 224 241 174 191 6 98 0 126 657 278 248 1036 332 402 453 145 300 277 80 1C8 418 234 244 1 90 203 6 98 0 140 661 287 251 1014 308 401 438 140 283 265 83 103 413 237 248 185 208 6 98 0 168 686 292 252 1032 327 413 477 149 305 280 80 108 468 245 252 183 212 6 98 0 196 691 306 259 1039 331 422 486 155 315 292 85 1 10 459 243 260 190 210 6 98 0 224 698 310 260 1037 329 428 494 158 319 298 87 1 1C 477 247 265 191 220 6 98 0 252 710 314 263 1055 335 435 499 16 1 320 304 89 1 10 477 247 268 196 . 219 6 99 0 35 255 83 74 325 72 114 100 40 69 65 13 13 229 151 134 121 43 5 99 0 42 353 13 1 123 494 121 174 150 52 106 88 20 24 271 172 163 138 77 5 99 0 49 366 135 123 515 127 187 16 1 53 111 92 25 24 275 177 165 134 77 5 99 0 56 4 59 160 149 63 3 167 232 217 66 147 121 34 . 45 299 ie5 183 145 103 5 99 0 63 478 182 167 738 204 267 261 82 171 154 42 59 307 188 199 149 121 5 99 0 70 515 204 187 821 232 3 02 302 91 20 4 174 53 74 331 198 207 151 143 5 99 0 77 544 220 20 1 859 254 327 337 100 226 191 54 80 360 205 212 154 151 5 99 0 84 584 240 209 906 264 350 366 1 10 234 209 62 86 354 209 220 158 167 5 99 0 98 613 251 218 964 29 2 370 4 10 1 16 262 231 73 101 373 213 225 160 172 5 99 0 1 12 650 268 238 1004 308 386 435 131 29 3 251 71 1C3 387 211 235 174 186 5 99 0 126 651 274 239 1006 306 399 447 129 306 273 73 104 410 221 239 185 192 5 99 0 140 662 280 245 1020 313 407 460 135 298 276 73 110 413 204 240 1 81 202 5 99 0 168 685 292 258 1051 330 4 19 472 140 314 293 81 109 440 225 2 50 185 202 5 99 0 196 682 295 256 1040 323 424 482 • 143 313 304 79 106 440 238 250 1 88 203 5 99 0 224 701 307 262 1069 338 426 492 143 316 307 85 111 435 230 254 186 204 5 99 0 252 707 306 266 1075 343 430 498 148 325 310 85 109 453 24 1 255 187 210 5 100 0 35 260 86 83 334 75 99 102 39 75 68 12 12 233 159 143 126 53 4 100 0 42 324 118 110 426 102 149 130 49 91 80 20 18 260 172 156 135 65 4 100 0 49 389 147 138 54 3 134 195 170 55 120 10 1 25 26 294 191 170 140 85 4 100 0 56 447 171 160 663 175 243 227 69 152 134 39 53 324 198 193 153 110 4 100 0 63 500 193 181 760 213 28Q 275 85 182 . 16 1 46 68 345 204 206 154 129 4 100 0 70 537 214 189 839 248 313 315 97 205 177 50 73 333 20 1 216 161 152 4 100 0 77 582 225 209 901 266 332 343 107 222 190 60 ee 385 216 223 163 159 4 100 0 84 604 242 217 933 280 347 377 1 17 238 212 67 93 381 234 230 167 162 4 100 0 98 633 260 230 967 295 374 414 121 266 224 77 103 400 226 238 170 186 4 100 0 1 12 649 269 239 1015 314 388 433 132 287 241 73 102 403 228 243 178 188 4 100 0 126 661 278 256 1014 320 392 445 137 302 253 77 105 414 231 248 181 197 4 100 0 140 682 287 26 1 1031 326 405 447 142 297 276 80 109 435 233 251 195 202 4 100 0 168 690 294 258 1032 321 415 465 146 302 286 82 1C9 447 242 254 1 87 203 4 100 0 196 690 299 262 1039 328 4 19 475 149 310 290 86 110 453 239 255 187 196 4 100 0 224 699 308 265 1051 334 421 471 147 311 29 3 85 1 10 467 242 257 194 205 4 100 0 252 696 310 272 1052 332 425 4 87 152 318 301 87 1 12 460 245 260 188 208 4 SCORES INI S IR T RH LH LR LO flET I I I IV PRO III IV FTOT RF LF RT LT CAL HET III IV PRO III IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 12 0 35 1 7 7 7 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 66 8 7 7 7 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 63 4 4 * 8 137 2D 0 35 1 7 7 7 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 69 8 7 7 7 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 63 4' 4 * 8 140 27 0 35 1 7 7 7 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 69 8 7 7 7 1 5 5 5 6 6 7 67 4 4 * 8 144 11 0 35 1 7 6 7 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 65 8 7 7 7 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 63 5 4 * 9 137 16 0 35 1 7 7 7 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 66 8 7 7 7 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 61 4 4 * 8 135 1 0 35 2 7 7 8 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 67 8 8 7 7 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 66 4 4 * 8 141 10 0 35 2 7 6 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 71 8 8 7 7 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 67 4 4 * 8 146 23 0 35 2 7 7 8 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 7.0 8 7 8 8 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 64 4 4 * 8 142 28 0 35 2 7 7 8 9 7 7 7 " 7 7 7 73 8 8 7 7 4 6 6 6 5 5 5 67 4 4 * 8 148 91 0 35 2 7 7 8 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 67 8 8 7 7 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 63 4 4 * 8 138 38 0 35 1 6 6 8 9 7 7 7 5 5 5 65 8 8 8 7 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 58 4 4 • 8 131 83 0 35 1 6 6 8 7 6 6 6 5 1 4 58 7 6 7 6 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 53 4 4 8 119 87 0 35 1 6 6 8 7 6 6 6 1 4 1 57 6 6 7 6 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 52 4 4 8 117 95 0 35 1 1 5 _6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 5 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 47 4 3 * 7 98 97 0 35 1 1 1 7 7 1 1 1 3 3 3 13 5 5 1 1 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 42 4 3 * 7 92 39 0 35 5 1 1 7 8 5 5 5 1 1 1 50 7 7 7 7 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 55 4 4 * 8 113 is 0 35 5 7 7 7 8 5 5 5 1 1 1 56 6 6 6 6 3 4 4 4 4 1 4 51 4 4 * 8 115 59 0 35 5 6 6 7 9 6 6 6 5 1 1 59 8 8 7 7 3 4 4 4 4 1 4 57 4 4 * 8 124 62 0 35 5 6 6 7 7 6 6 6 1 1 1 56 7 7 7 7 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 55 4 4 * 8 119 86 0 35 5 6 6 7 8 5 5 5 1 1 1 51 6 6 7 7 3 4 4 4 4 1 4 53 4 4 8 115 12 0 12 1 8 8 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 88 9 9 9 8 6 8 7 7 8 8 8 87 7 7 * 14 189 2tt 0 12 1 8 8 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 88 9 9 9 8 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 83 8 8 * 16 187 27 0 12 1 a 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 87 9 9 9 8 6 8 7 7 8 8 8 87 8 8 * 16 190 10 .0 12 1 8 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 87 9 9 9 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 89 8 8 • 16 192 16 0 12 1 8 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 ' 8 8 87 9 9 9 8 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 86 8 7 * 15 188 1 0 12 2 8 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 . 87 9 9 9 9 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 8 7 * 15 195 10 0 12 2 8 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 87 9 9 9 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 87 7 7 * 14 188 23 0 12 2 8 8 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 88 9 9 9 9 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 8 8 * 16 197 28 0 12 2 8 8 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 84 9 9 9 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 87 7 7 * 14 185 91 0 12 2 8 8 9 10 8 8 ' 8 7 7 7 80 9 9 9 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 87 7 7 * 14 181 38 0 12 1 8 8 10 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 78 9 8 8 8 5 7 7 7 6 6 6 77 5 5 * 10 165 83 0 12 1 8 8 9 9 7 7 7 8 8 8 79 9 9 8 8 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 72 5 5 * 10 161 87 0 12 1 8 8 9 9 7 - 7 7 8 8 8 79 9 8 8 8 4 6 6 6 5 5 5 70 5 5 * - 10 159 95 0 12 1 8 7 8 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 74 9 9 8 8 4 6 6 6 5 5 5 71 5 5 10 155 97 0 12 1 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 75 9 8 8 8 4 5 5 5 4 1 4 64 5 5 10 119 39 0 12 5 9 9 10 10 8 8 8 7 7 7 83 9 9 9 9 5 8 8 8 7 ' 7 7 86 5 5 * 10 179 18 0 12 5 9 9 9 10 8 8 8 7 7 7 82 9 9 9 8 5 7 7 7 6 6 6 79 5 5 * 10 171 59 0 12 5 9 9 9 10 8 8 8 7 7 7 82 9 9 9 8 5 7 7 7 6 6 6 79 5 5 * 10 171 62 0 12 5 8 8 9 10 8 8 8 7 7 7 80 9 9 9 8 5 8 8 8 7 7 7 85 5 5 * 10 175 86 0 12 5 7 7 9 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 71 9 9 9 8 4 6 6 6 5 5 5 72 5 5 * 10 156 12 0 19 1 10 10 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 92 10 10 11 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 98 10 9 * 19 209 21 0 19 1 9 10 11 1 1 9 9 9 8 8 8 92 10 10 10 9 6 9 9 8 8 8 8 95 9 9 * 18 205 27 0 19 1 9 10 11 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 95 11 10 10 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 9 9 * 18 212 11 0 19 1 10 10 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 92 10 11 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 98 9 9 * 18 208 16 0 19 1 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 11 11 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 •8 8 99 9 9 * 18 210 > t—I X H \0 LO SCORES INI S YR T RH LH LR LU BET III 17 PRO III IV FTOT RF LF RT 1 0 D9 2 11 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 91) 10 10 10 10 0 119 2 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 10 10 10 23 0 09 2 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 10 10 10 28 0 U9 2 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 10 10 10 91 0 «9 2 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 11 11 10 38 0 «9 i) 11 10 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 95 11 11 10 83 0 i)9 D 11 11 11 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 9« 10 10 9 87 0 D9 I) 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 93 10 9 9 95 0 1)9 D 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 91 11 10 9 97 0 1)9 1) 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 91 11 10 9 39 0 D9 5 11 11 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 96 11 11 10 U8 0 <)9 5 10 10 11 11 9 ' 9 9 8 8 8 93 10 10 9 59 0 1)9 5 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 95 11 10 10 62 0 1)9 5 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 95 10 10 9 86 0 «9 5 10 10 11 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 92 9 9 9 12 0 56 1 10 10 10 11 9 9 9 8 8 8 92 12 11 11 2U 0 56 1 12 11 11 12 10 9 9 9 9 8 100 11 11 11 27 0 55 1 10 10 11 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 96 11 11 11 UD 0 56 1 10 10 10 11 9 9 9 8 9 9 9D 11 12 10 16 0 56 1 11 11 11 11 9 9 9 9 9 <f 98 11 11 10 1 0 56 2 1 1 10 12 12 9 9 9 9 9 4 99 11 11 12 10 0 56 2 10 10 12 11 9 9 9 9 9 4 97 11 11 11 23 0 56 2 12 11 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 4 10D 11 11 12 28 0 56 2 10 10 12 11 10 10 10 9 9 ,9 100 11 11 12 91 0 56 2 12 11 12 11 10 10 10 9 9 9 103 11 11 11 38 0 55 D 12 11 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 12 12 10 83 0 56 i) 1 1 11 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 96 11 11 11 87 0 56 i) 11 11' 11 11 10 10 9 8 8 8 97 11 11 1 1 95 0 56 i) 11 11 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 96 11 11 10 97 0 56 D 10 11 11 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 95 11 11 10 39 0 56 5 12 11 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 98 12 12 11 1)8 0 56 5 11 11 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 11 11 10 59 0 56 5 11 11 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 12 12 10 62 0 56 5 11 11 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 11 11 10 86 o- 56 5 11 11 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 11 11 10 12 0 63 1 11 11 11 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 102 12 12 12 2<i 0 63 1 12 11 11 12 10 9 9 9 9 9 101 11 12 12 27 0 63 1 11 11 11 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 102 11 11 12 1)4 0 63 1 12 11 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 10D 12 12 12 D6 0 63 1 11 11 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 103 11 1 1 12 1 0 63 2 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 105 12 12 12 10 0 63 2 12 11 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 105 12 12 12 23 0 63 2 12 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 106 12 12 12 28 0 63 2 12 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 106 12 12 12 91 0 63 2 12 12 12 13 10 10 1 0 9 9 9 106 12 12 13 LT CAL BET III IV PRO III IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 9 9 * 18 209 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 98 9 9 * 18 209 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 97 9 9 * 18 208 9 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 93 9 9 * 18 200 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 .9 9 * 18 210 10 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 93 8 8 » 16 20U 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 89 7 7 * 10 197 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 88 6 6 * 12 193 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 90 6 6 12 193 8 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 89 6 6 12 192 10 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 93 8 8 * 16 205 9 5 8 8 8 7 7 7 88 7 7 * 11) 195 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 91 7 7 * 11) 200 9 6 8 8 8 7 7 7 89 7 7 * 1D 198 9 5 8 8 8 7 7 7 86 7 7 + ID 192 10 7 9 . 9 9 8 8 8 102 10 9 * 19 213 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 101 9 9 * 18 219 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 101 • 9 9 * 18 215 10 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 10D 10 9 * 19 217 10 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 103 9 9 * 18 219 11 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 103 10 9 * 19 221 10 7 10 10 10 8 8 8 10D 10 10 * 20 221 11 7 10 10 10 8 8 8 106 10 9 * 19 229 11 7 10 10 10 8 8 8 106 10 9 • 19 225 11 7 10 10 10 8 8 8 105 10 9 19. 227 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 102 10 9 * 19 218 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 101 9 9 * 18 215 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 100 9 9 * 18 215 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 100 9 9 4 18 21U 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 9 9 * 18 212 10 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 103 10 9 * 19 220 10 7 9 9 9 8 • 8 8 100 9 9 * 18 215 10 7 9 9 9 . 8 8 8 102 9 9 » 18 217 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 9 9 * 18 21« 10 6 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 9 9 * 18 211 12 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 109 10 10 * 20 231 12 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 108 10 10 * 20 229 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 110 10 10 20 232 12 7 10 9 9 9 9 9 110 10 10 * 20 23U 12 7 9 . 9 9 9 9 9 107 10 9 * 19 229 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 112 10 9 * 19 236 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 112 10 10 * 20 237 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 112 10 9 * 19 237 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 112 10 10 * 20 238 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 115 10 10 20 2D1 SCORES i N I S IR T RH LH LR LO MET I I I IV PRO I I I IV FTOT RF LF RT LT CAL MET I I I IV PRO I I I IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 38 0 63 4 13 12 12 13 10 9 9 9 9 9 105 13 13 12 12 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 111 10 9 * 19 235 83 0 63 4 12 1 1 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 98 12 12 11 11 7 9 9 9 8 8 8 104 10 9 * 19 221 87 0 63 4 13 12 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 106 13 12 . 12 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 113 10 9 * 19 238 95 0 63 4 12 12 12 12 10 9 9 9 9 9 103 12 12 11 11 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 110 10 9 * 19 232 97 0 63 4 12 12 12 12 9 9 9 8 8 8 99 12 12 11 11 6 10 10 10 8 8 8 106 10 9 * 19 224 39 0 63 5 12 12 13 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 107 12 12 12 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 g 112 10 9 * 19 238 18 0 63 5 12 12 13 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 106 12 12 11 11 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 110 9 o * 18 234 59 0 63 5 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 105 12 12 12 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 112 9 9 18 235 62 0 63 5 12 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 106 12 12 11 11 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 110 10 9 19 235 86 0 63 5 12 12 12 13 9 9 9 8 8 8 100 12 12 1 1 11 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 110 10 9 * 19 229 12 0. 70 1 12 11 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 104 12 12 13 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 113 10 10 20 237 21 0 70 1 12 1 1 12 13 11 10 10 10 10 10 109 13 13 12 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 114 10 10 * 20 24 3 27 0 70 1 12 11 11 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 103 12 12 12 12 7 10 10 10 10 9 9 113 10 10 * 20 236 14 0 70 1 12 12 12 12 10 1 0 10 10 10 1 0 108 13 12 13 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 111 10 10 * 20 242 16 0 70 1 12 11 12 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 104 11 12 12 12 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 111 11 10 * 21 236 1 0 70 2 13 13 12 13 11 10 10 9 10 9 110 13 13 13 13 7 10 . 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 i o * 20 246 10 0 70 2 13 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 107 13 13 13 13 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 119 11 11 « 22 248 23 0 70 2 13 13 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 13 13 13 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 * 20 244 28 0 70 2 13 12 12 13 10 10 10 10 10 10 110 13 13 13 13 7 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 11 11 * 22 248 91 0 70 2 13 13 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 13 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 117 11 10 21 246 38 0 70 4 13 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 107 13 13 12 12 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 115 10 10 * 20 242 83 0 70 4 13 12 13 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 8 115 10 10 20 243 87 0 70 4 13 12 13 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 20 244 95 0 70 4 12 12 13 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 107 13 12 13 12 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 115 10 9 * 19 24 1 97 0 70 4 12 12 12 13 9 9 9 9 9 9 103 12 12 12 12 8 10 10 10 8 8 8 110 10 9 * 19 232 39 0 70 5 13 12 13 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 * 20 241 48 0 70 5 13 13 13 12 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 12 12 12 12 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 113 10 10 * 20 24 1 59 0 70 5 13 13 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 20 211 62 0 70 5 13 12 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 107 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 * 20 243 86 0 70 5 13 13 12 13 10 10 10 9 9 9 108 13 12 13 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 116 10 10 * 20 241 12 0 77 1 13 13 12 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 112 13 13 13 13 8 10 10 10 10 10 11 121 12 11 23 256 24 0 77 1 13 12 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 114 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 11 11 11 127 12 12 24 265 27 0 77 1 13 13 13 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 113 13 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 12 12 24 259 44 0 77 1 12 13 12 13 11 10 10 10 10 10 111 14 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 120 12 11 23 254 46 0 77 1 13 12 12 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 113 14 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 9 10 .122 12 11 23 258 1 0 77 2 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 115 13 13 13 14 7 10 i o 10 10 10 10 120 11 11 22 257 10 0 77 2 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 11 1 1 11 118 14 13 14 14 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 11 11 22 262 23 0 77 2 13 13 13 13 10 10 10' 10 10 10 112 14 13 14 14 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 12 11 23 257 28 0 77 2 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 1 1 11 11 118 14 13 14 14 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 11 11 22 262 91 0 77 2 13 13 13 13 10 10 10 10 10 10 112 14 13 13 13 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 121 11 11 * 22 255 38 0 77 4 13 13 13 13 10 10 10 10 10 10 112 13 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 119 10 10 20 251 83 0 77 1 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 115 13 12 14 14 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 10 10 * 20 257 87 0 77 1 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 115 13 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 10 10 20 257 95 0 77 1 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 115 13 13 14 13 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 121 10 10 * 20 256 97 0 77 4 13 13 13 13 11 11 11 10 10 10 1 15 14 13 14 13 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 122 10 10 * 20 257 SCORES ANI S YR T RH LH LR LU BET II I IV PRO I I I . IV FTCT RF LF RT LT CAL BET III IV PRO III IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 39 0 77 5 13 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 10 10 10 116 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 124 11 11 22 262 18 0 77 5 13 13 13 14 11 11 11 10 10 10 116 13 13 14 13 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 118 10 10 * 20 254 59 0 77 5 13 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 10 10 10 1 16 13 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 119 11 10 21 256 62 0 77 5 13 13 13 14 1 1 11 1 1 10 10 10 1 16 14 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 123 11 10 » 21 260 86 0 77 5 13 13 13 14 11 11 1 1 10 10 10 116 14 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 9 9 9 120 10 10 20 256 12 0 84 1 13 13 12 14 11 10 10 n n 11 116 15 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 11 1 1 11 127 12 11 23 266 24 0 84 1 13 14 13 14 11 11 11 11 11 11 120 14 14 14 14 9 • 11 11 11 11 11 11 131 12 12 24 275 27 0 84 1 13 13 13 14 11 11 11 11 11 11 119 15 13 14 14 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 129 12 12 24 272 Utt 0 84 1 13 13 13 15 1 1 11 1 1 11 11 11 120 14 14 14 14 9 11 11 11 11 11 11 131 12 12 24 275 «6 0 84 1 14 1 3 13 14 13 12 12 1 1 124 15 14 14 14 9 11 11 11 1 1 1 1 11 132 12 11 23 279 1 0 8'4 2 14 13 13 14 11 11 11 11 11 1 1 120 14 14 14 14 8 11 11 11 11 1 1 11 130 12 11 23 273 10 0 84 2 14 13 13 14 11 11 11 11 11 11 120 14 14 14 14 8 11 11 11 11 11 11 130 12 11 23 273 23 0 84 2 14 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 11 11 11 120 14 14 14 14 8 11 11 11 11 11 11 1 30 12 11 23 273 28 0 84 2 14 14 13 14 1 1 11 1 1 11 11 1 1 121 14 14 14 14 8 10 11 11 11 11 11 129 11 11 22 272 91 0 84 2 14 14 13 14 11 11 1 1 1 1 121 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 1 1 11 11 127 12 11 * 23 271 38 0 84 4 13 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 n n 11 1 19 13 13 14 14 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 123 11 11 22 264 83 0 84 4 13 13 13 14 11 11 11 11 11 1 1 1 19 14 14 14 14 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 125 11 10 * 21 265 87 0 84 4 14 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 11 11 11 120 15 14 15 14 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 127 10 10 * 20 267 95 0 84 4 14 13 13 14 1 1 11 11 11 11 11 120 15 14 15 14 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 130 10 10 * 20 270 97 0 84 4 14 13 14 14 11 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 121 15 14 15 14 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 127 10 10 * 20 268 39 0 84 5 13 13 13 14 1 1 11 1 1 11 11 11 1 19 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 124 11 11 22 265 48 0 84 5 13 13 13 14 12 12 12 1 0 10 10 119 13 13 14 13 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 121 10 10 * 20 260 59 0 84 5 13 13 13 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 1 19 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 124 11 10 * 21 264 62 0 84 5 13 13 13 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 119 14 14 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 124 11 11 22 265 86 0 84 5 13 13 13 14 11 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 1 19 14 13 14 14 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 123 11 10 * 21 263 12 0 98 1 14 14 13 14 12 12 12 1 1 11 11 124 15 14 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 135 12 11 23 282 24 0 98 1 14 14 13 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 124 15 14 15 14 9 11 11 11 11 11 11 133 12 12 24 281 27 0 98 1 14 14 13 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 12 24 285 44 0 98 1 14 14 13 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 15 14 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 135 12 12 24 284 46 0 98 1 14 14 13 14 13 12 12 1 1 125 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 136 12 1 1 23 284 1 0 98 2 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 285 10 0 98 2 14 14 13 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 124 15 .14 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 1 1 11 137 12 11 23 284 23 0 98 2 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 286 28 0 98 2 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 11 11 22 284 91 0 98 2 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 1 1 1 1 125 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 136 12 11 23 234 38 0 98 4 13 13 14 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 123 15 14 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 11 11 22 282 83 0 98 4 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 14 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 286 87 0 98 4 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 1 1 11 125 15 14 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 285 95 0 98 4 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 285 97 0 98 4 14 14 14 15 12 12 12  1 1 126 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 136 12 11 23 285 39 0 98 5 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 14 14 14 14 9 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 11 131 12 11 23 279 48 0 98 5 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 14 14 14 14 9 11 1 1 11 11 11 11 131 12 11 23 279 59 0 98 5 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 14 14 15 14 9 1 1 1 1 11 11 11 11 132 12 11 23 28 1 62 0 98 5 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 14 14 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 134 11 11 22 282 86 0 98 5 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 14 14 14 14 9 11 11 11 11 11 11 131 12 11 23 279 SCORES ANI S IR T RH LH LR LU MET I I I IV PRC I I I IV FTOT RF LF RT LT CAL MET I I I IV PRO I I I IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 12 0 112 1 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 11 11 „ 125 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 284 24 0 112 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 12 24 286 27 0 112 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 14 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 12 24 286 44 0 112 1 14 14 13 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 15 14 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 135 12 12 24 284 46 0 112 1 14 14 13 14 13 13 13 11 11 127 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 286 1 0 112 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 n 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 291 10 0 112 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29C 23 0 112 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 29C 28 0 112 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 28S 91 0 112 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 28< 38 0 112 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 n 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29C 83 0 112 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29C 87 0 112 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29C 95 0 112 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29( 97 0 112 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 28! 39 0 112 5 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 287 48 0 112 5 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 1 1 23 28E 59 0 112 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 1 29 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 28'' 62 0 112 5 14 14 14 15 12 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 287 86 0 112 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 1 1 1 1 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 1 1 137 12 11 23 28:! 12 0 126 1 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 28" 24 0 126 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 287 27 0 126 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 j l ' 126 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 • 24 287 44 0 126 1 14 14 13 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 12 24 28: 4 6 0 126 1 14 14 13 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 . 287 1 0 126 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 n 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 291 10 0 126 2 14 14 14 15. 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 29 :•_ 23 .0 126 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 13 12 25 29 1 28 0 126 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 290 91 0 126. 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 1.1 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 29? 38 0 126 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 n 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 1 1 138 12 12 24 29 1 83 0 126 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29 0 87 0 12S 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 290 95 0 126 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 1 97 0 125 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 1 1 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29f' 39 0 126 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 n 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 1 48 0 126 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29;' 59 0 126 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29 •> 62 0 126 5 14 14 14 15 1 3 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29-. 86 0 126 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 29: 12 0 140 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 •n 129 15 15 14 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 136 12 11 23 28 24 0 140 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 287 27 0 140 1 14 14 14 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 126 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 * 24 287 44 0 140 1 14 14 13 15 12 12 12 11 11 11 125 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 28., 46 0 140 1 14 14 13 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 1 1 137 12 11 23 28." SCORES ANI S YR T RH LH LR LO H ET I I I IV PRO I I I IV FTOT RF LF RT LT CAL n ET I I I IV PRO I I I IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 1 0 1140 2 1U 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 29 2 10 0 110 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 29 2 23 0 1140 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 292 28 0 1140 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 29 2 91 0 1«0 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 n s - 13 12 * 25 29 2 38 0 1140 U 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 i i 138 12 12 24 29 1 83 0 mo 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 1 87 0 1140 14 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 ! 95 0 m o 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 t 97 0 m o 11 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 290 39 0 m o 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 1 48 0 m o 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 ! 59 0 m o 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 29 I 62 0 m o 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 2S0 86 0 mo 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 2 SO 12 0 168 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 1 5 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 26'"' 24 0 168 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 2C A 27 0 168 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 * 24 29 0 44 0 168 1 1 4 14 13 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 2E-' 16 0 168 1 14 14 13 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 128 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 2 81. 1 0 168 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 29 2 10 0 168 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 292 23 0 168 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 292 28 0 168 2 1 4 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 292 91 0 168 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 29 2 38 0 168 14 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 29 ! 83 0 168 14 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 2S 1 87 0 168 11 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 25 1 95 0 168 1* 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 2S l 97 0 168 « 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 25 1 39 0 168 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2S 2 148 0 168 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 . 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 2S 1 59 0 168 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 2S2 62 0 168 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 11 23 2< 0 86 0 168 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 • 24 2< l 12 0 195 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 2E° 21 0 196 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 25 0 27 0 195 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 2C r 1414 0 196 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 25 0 116 0 196 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 29 0 1 0 195 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15. 15 15- 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2S2 10 0 196 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2S2 23 0 195 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 133 13 12 25 2S2 28 0 196 2 1 4 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 91 0 196 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2S 2 SCORES ASI S TR T RH LH LR LO HET II I IV PRO III IV FTOT R T LF RT LT CAL MET II I IV PRO III IV HTOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 38 0 196 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 25 1 83 0 196 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 29 1 87 0 196 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 25 1 95 0 196 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 25 l 97 0 195 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 25 1 39 0 196 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 48 0 196 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 • 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 25 ' 59 0 196 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 : 62 0 196 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 2S^ 86 0 195 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 12 0 224 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 21 21 0 224 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 25 0 27 0 224 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 2! ~l 44 0 224 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 25 0 « 6 0 224 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 24 2! 0 1 0 22U 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 1 10 0 224 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2! 2 23 0 224 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2'2 2 28 0 224 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 2". 2 91 0 224 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2<:7 38 0 224 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2\ 2 83 0 224 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 87 0 224 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 95 0 224 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 97 0 224 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 » 25 25 2 39 0 224 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 1 1 1 1 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 252 "8 0 224 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 59 0 224 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 13 26 25 ', 62 0 224 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 86 0 224 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 12 0 252 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 11 23 2t o 24 0 252 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 12 12 * 24 25 0 27 0 252 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 * 24 2« l 44 0 252 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 12 12 24 25 1 16 0 252 1 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 14 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 137 13 12 25 25 1 1 0 252 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2! 2 10 0 252 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 1 1 1 1 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 23 0 252 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 28 0 252 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 91 0 252 2 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 38 0 252 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 83 0 252 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 87 0 252 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 25 2 95 0 252 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 97 0 252 4 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 * 25 25 2 SCORES l MI S YR T RH LH LR LU HET II I IV PRO III IV FTCT RF LF RT 39 0 252 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 .15 15 15 48 0 252 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 59 0 25 2 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 62 0 252 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 11 129 15 15 15 86 0 252 5 14 14 14 15 13 13 13 11 11 1 1 129 15 15 15 LT CAL HET II I IV PRO III IV HIOT CAUDAL CENTRAL 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2S: 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2? 2 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 13 * 26 2S •  15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2<: 15 9 12 12 12 11 11 11 138 13 12 25 2? 1 ro o o 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099885/manifest

Comment

Related Items