UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Barbara Pentland : a biography Eastman, Sheila Jane 1974

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A6_5 E28.pdf [ 9.67MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099882.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099882-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099882-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099882-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099882-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099882-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099882-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099882-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099882.ris

Full Text

BARBARA PENTLANDj A BIOGRAPHY by S h e i l a Jane Eastman Mus. Bac. McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of Music We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 197^ In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date W n v p m F i P r 1 9 7 4 ABSTRACT i The f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y a biography of the Canadian composer Barbara Pentland, and w i t h i n three chapters deals w i t h three main periods of her l i f e . At the end of each chapter i s a short d i s c u s s i o n of musical development and s t y l e . Chapter I , 1912-^1, concerns her childhood, s c h o o l i n g , and l i f e a t home, where she was always faced w i t h o p p o s i t i o n t o her I n t e r e s t i n composition by r a t h e r dominating parents. Her musical s t u d i e s included a year i n P a r i s w i t h C e c i l e Gauthiez, and l a t e r , three years at the J u i l l i a r d Graduate School of Music where she s t u d i e d w i t h F r e d e r i c k J a c o b i and Bernaard Wagenar. During t h i s p eriod there was a gradual development of compositional s k i l l s , and e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e d Beethoven, Franck and Hinde-mith. Her music revealed a tendency towards the French-Romantic s t y l e . Chapter I I , 19^2-55» includes two summers of study w i t h Aaron Copland at Tanglewood, f o l l o w e d by seven years i n Toronto d u r i n g which she taught theory and composition at the Toronto Conservatory, and enjoyed increased r e c o g n i t i o n . I n 19^9 came a move to Vancouver f o r a teaching p o s i t i o n i n the music depart-ment at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. W i t h i n the two trends evident i n her music at t h i s time, the French-Romantic and the n e o - c l a s s i c , there was a gradual development of i n t e r e s t i n a s e r i a l approach, which was f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d by Pentland*s exposure to many of the works of Schoenberg a t the MacDowell Colony i n 19^7-^8. i i i iv Chapter I I I , 1955-7^, deals w i t h her musical a c t i v i t i e s to the present. During her two t r i p s to Europe Pentland was exposed t o many new works, and was deeply impressed w i t h the music of Webern. This l e d to an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the s e r i a l approach and to a new concern f o r economy of means, two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which dominate her mature s t y l e . Chapter IV attempts t o give a more personal view of the composer, i n c l u d i n g problems she has encountered as a woman working i n a f i e l d dominated by men, her way of l i f e , p e r s o n a l i t y , and comments from performers and composers about her works. The f o u r appendices include a l i s t of works, a l i s t of f i r s t performances, an index of reviews of Pent land's works found i n newspaper a r t i c l e s , and a short o u t l i n e of the biography. INTRODUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 CHAPTER ONE 1912 to 1941 8 CHAPTER TWO 19^1 t o 1955 i + 0 CHAPTER THREE R 1955 to 197^ '° CHAPTER POUR BARBARA PENTLAND - BELIEFS, THOUGHTS, PERSONALITY . . 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY 137 APPENDIX A LIST OF WORKS 1^3 APPENDIX B ih-8 LIST OF FIRST PERFORMANCES APPENDIX C INDEX OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 1 5 5 APPENDIX D fl, OUTLINE OF THE BIOGRAPHY 1 0 5 INTRODUCTION 1 2 The main i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study i s to give a com-prehensive biography of Barbara Pentland, as w e l l as t o i n d i c a t e the musical developments which have occurred through-out her l i f e and to give some impression of her p e r s o n a l i t y and p h i l o s o p h i e s . At one point the emphasis was completely on the musical s t y l e alone, but when i t became apparent that a biography was p o s s i b l e i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s would be a more val u a b l e p u r s u i t , since the i n f o r m a t i o n which was made a v a i l -able to t h i s w r i t e r by the composer i s not r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . I t i s hoped that s e v e r a l trends i n Pentland*s l i f e and i n her music w i l l be made c l e a r . I n her music the trends moved from the e a r l y i n f l u e n c e of Beethoven to the French-Homantic and the n e o - c l a s s i c , and f i n a l l y t o the s e r i a l . I n her e a r l y l i f e she was dominated by her parents while developing inwardly and p r i v a t e l y , i n s p i t e of a l l o p p o s i t i o n . This was fol l o w e d by a tendency t o r e b e l a g a i n s t aspects of her l i f e other than music, such as a r e f u s a l to dress as a t t r a c t i v e l y as her mother would have l i k e d , or an involvement i n r a t h e r l e f t i s t aspects of p o l i t i c s . Throughout her l i f e some c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s have remained constant; a sense of i s o l a t i o n , a d e d i c a t i o n to music and to educating h e r s e l f , and a demand f o r high stand-ards . This study i s organized i n t o f o u r chapters, the f i r s t three of which concern three main periods of Pentland*s l i f e . A d i s c u s s i o n of the musical developments which occurred w i t h i n 3 each period i s included at the end of each chapter. The s t y l e s which are evident i n her music remarkably r e f l e c t the events i n her l i f e , so that each of the three periods seems t o be a cohesive u n i t . A great number of Pentland's works have been analyzed but i t i s f e l t t h a t only a few are needed w i t h i n each chapter t o i l l u s t r a t e the predominant f e a t u r e s of her s t y l e , and since the main purpose of t h i s study i s b i o g r a p h i c a l , the d i s c u s s i o n of musical i n f l u e n c e s and developments w i l l be kept at a minimum. The f o u r t h chapter deals w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n that i s n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y b i o g r a p h i c a l nor s t r i c t l y m u sical, but r a t h e r i s intended to give a p i c t u r e of Pentland as she i s today, and to give an idea of the p e r s o n a l i t y which has r e s u l t e d from the k i n d of l i f e she has l e d . Since l i t t l e p e r i o d i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s area i s a v a i l a b l e , the sources have been mainly primary. Pentland's co-operation has been i n v a l u a b l e . She has made a v a i l a b l e her d i a r i e s , her correspondence, her scrapbooks, and has spent many hours i n i n t e r v i e w . The d i a r i e s span 1929-1930 and 1936-1939, and provided many d e t a i l s the composer had f o r -g otten about these e a r l i e r years of her l i f e . The scrapbooks c o n t a i n mainly programs and newspaper a r t i c l e s from the various centres i n which Pentland has l i v e d , i n c l u d i n g Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver, as w e l l as those from c i t i e s where performances were heard, such as New York, Ottawa, and Montreal on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . Since i t i s f e l t t hat an index of the articles that have been made available would be a valuable aid to anyone interested i n further research i n this area, an appendix to that effect is included. The news-papers have provided many reviews of performances, and comments on the acti v i t i e s of the composer. Though few reach a valuable level of c r i t i c a l writing, the articles are indeed a useful source. In Pentland's case, with articles spanning over 30 years of her musical career, they have been found helpful i n providing details, giving a clear chronology, and i n giving an over a l l picture of reactions produced by her works. Her correspondence has been equally helpful. Pentland has given freely of her time i n interviews which have dealt mainly with biographical details, but have also included some discussion regarding the analyses of her works. On occasions when this writer*s analysis differed from that of the oomposer, Pentland proved to be most flexible and agreeable, even i n a n instance i n which the disparity occurred about the order of the notes of the row i n a s e r i a l work. This may be an accurate indication of the degree of freedom which i s involved i n Pentland's approach to composi-tion. Interviews were not confined to Pentland. During a t r i p to Ontario several Canadian musicians were interviewed, and i t was found that, though this activity did not yield much biographical data, i t did lead to personal observations of Pentland and of her musical environment at various stages 5 of her career. Composers Harry Somers and Godfrey Ridout contributed much to a picture of l i f e i n Toronto i n the 19*1-01 s, how Pentland reacted to i t , and her place i n the musical l i f e there. Victor F e l d b r i l l gave a conductors point of view, while Ronald Napier of B.M.I, was able to give the observations of one who dealt with the composer in the publication of her music. Robert Turner, who was seen i n Winnipeg, had been a producer for the C.B.C. i n Vancouver, and had arranged performances and tapings of many of Pentland*s works, and so was able to discuss such aspects as how the works are received by performers, and the d i f f i c u l t y of performing and producing them. Rachel Cavalho, piano teacher i n Toronto, and champion of Canadian teaching pieces who encouraged Pentland to write Music of Now, gave many details about the consultations between them about these works, and discussed at length her experiences with Music of Now as well as with other teaching materials, though most of this Information i s not included i n the present study. Robert Rogers* experiences with Pentland include three areas? as a performer of her piano works, as a student while she was teaching at the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, and as a piano teacher. Others who both perform and teach her works and who were consulted are Carol Jutte and Larry Thiessen. Harry and Frances Adaskin were Informative i n several areas} as performers of her works from the early 19*10's, 6 as personal friends and, on Mr. Adaskin's part, as f i r s t Head of the U.B.C, music department, where Pentland taught 19^9-1963. Among those this writer would like to thank are the Canadian M^slc Centre for making various scores available, and Robert Rogers for many hours spent i n the analysis of Pentland's works. Deepest gratitude goes to Barbara Pentland, the determined and gracious lady without whose help this kind of study would not have been possible. CHAPTER ONE 7 8 Born January 2, 1912 i n Winnipeg, Manitoba, Barbara Pentland had an unusual childhood which affected her personality and intellect considerably. The beliefs and values of her parents, Charles Frederick and Constance Lally Pentland, had great bearing on her upbringing and develop-ment, though this was certainly not a supportive or encouraging influence, and Pentland was eventually to rebel against the imposition of a way of l i f e which was not her own. She was always closer to her father, manager of the head office of the Royal Bank i n Winnipeg, a man who was ruled at home by his wife. He would have been a different type of person with another wife. He was very, conscientious, reliable, and honest - a simple person who could get'along with simple people. My mother was ambitious, yet she would have held him back professionally by her reluctance to leave Winnipeg. I feel the same way as my father did; I don't want power or a high position. I have no ambitions to be top dog. 1 Pentland's mother came from a family which was rather well-off financially and a household i n which the ' l i t e r a t i ' were frequently entertained. Constance apparently Barbara Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 2Her maternal grandfather was Chief Justice of Manitoba . 9 found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept l i v i n g within smaller means. She wouldn't allow friends to v i s i t me i f she didn't approve of them. And I envied g i r l s who went to public schools and had friends of their own. Mother always had maids i n the house and never did any work. She must have been so bored. 3 Another problem which pursued her i n early youth was a serious heart condition which caused her to spend many months in bed at the age of four, and which slowed her down considerably for several years. As a result of this she was rarely allowed outside to play, and had l i t t l e contact with other children, so that she was separated from her own age group throughout much of her youth. Her brother Charles, who was two years older, had been sent to a boarding school i n Montreal when he was ten, so that she saw very l i t t l e of him. Her sister Christine, being eight years younger, and somewhat spoiled by her mother and the nanny of the Pentland household, also provided l i t t l e companionship. During her illness she studied various school subjects at home, Including mathematics and reading, under the direction of her mother, and she did so well i n her private studies that when she went to school at the age of six, she was placed i n grade three. Being so much younger than her classmates did not make her communication with other children 3pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 10 any easier. "It was some years before I got along with other children."4 Rupert's Land College was an Anglican school for g i r l s , and Pentland recalls t The archbishop, who visited us once a year, had a long, grey beard, and we thought he was either God or Santa Claus* 5 Music at the school was limited to singing songs, but Pentland was so anemic she could not sing without becoming dizzy. Her school day usually ended at noon, when she had to return home to rest for each afternoon. Pentland believes that this isolation and the long hours i n bed tended to encourage the development of her mind and imagina-tion beyond that of normal children. She remembers waiting for years to take piano lessons, and her parents f i n a l l y agreed she could start when she became nine years oldi The lessons were taught at Rupert's Land College by Miss Lockhart, a young teacher there. She was a good soul but she couldn't cope with a child out of the ordinary, 6 Soon after starting the lessons Pentland began composing small pieces. I remember waking up one morning with an idea for a piece of music which I tried to write down i n a notebook that I drew manuscript lines on. I was terribly anxious to try i t out on the piano, but had to wait a l l day u n t i l school was over. I was quite disappointed when I played the piece, and i t made me realize i t was not easy to write down music. 7 ^Ibid. 5pentland i n conversation, June 5, 1974. ^Pentland i n Interview, January 22, 1972. 7 I b l d. 11 She remembers that her f i r s t work was named "The Blue Grotto", because this t i t l e sounded good to the nine year old. Her earliest pieces, including Twilight and Dawn. Berceuse. That  Darling Dad O'Mlne. and The Blue Grotto reveal considerable notational confusion. Concerned even then with copyright, Pentland would have her mother or father sign each composi-tion to prove that she had written i t herself. Her piano teacher so discouraged these f i r s t efforts that Pentland recalls vividly the last time she ever showed her a composition. The piece, i n E minor, stimulated a severe reprimand for her because i t was written i n a key she had not yet,studied. Her parents, even less co-operative about these unusual a c t i v i t i e s , were to prove to be a great obstacle for her to overcome i n her pursuit of music. They wanted a g i r l who would play pretty pieces, a child who would behave normally, but they were beginning to think I would be queer. They led me to believe that composition was morally wrong. 8 Because of their pressure she tried to stop composing, but after a few months she gave i n to her need to write music. I had to overcome a great deal of family oposltion to my spending so much time at the piano and at composing, however, I persisted because music provided me with an escape into a fantasy world which seemed more meaningful to me than the real one. 9 ^Pentland i n the Ubyssey. December 2 , p.6, 1 9 5 ^ . ^Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Thirty-Four Biographies, TorontoJ C.B.C., p . 2 3 . 12 The e a r l i e s t influence on her music that she r e c a l l s was Beethoven whose piano sonatas she was playing i n her early teens, and which inspired her to attempt to compose a sonata. Her i n t e r e s t i n the music of Beethoven was further stimulated by a youthful f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the French Revolution. For help with the form of her compositions she would con- : s u i t a r t i c l e s i n the Encyclopaedia Brltannlca . She had just started harmony lessons at the age of thirteen, when i t was discovered, while attending her f i r s t movie, that she had very bad eyesight. The harmony lessons were stopped, but Pentland, s t i l l armed with a harmony book, continued on her own. As soon as I learned a l i t t l e about harmony I f e l t very badly because I had been breaking the r u l e s . My Impressions of harmony then produced s t e r i l e works as I t r i e d to follow the r u l e s . This happened every time I studied a l i t t l e and1 not enough, 10 The reading she had access to was li m i t e d to the books her parents had around the home. This included a l l of Dickens and as much V i c t o r Hugo as she could f i n d u n t i l her parents decided Hugo was too morbid f o r a young g i r l . Fascinated with European history, she r e c a l l s reading many h i s t o r i c a l novels and bel i e v i n g them to be the t r u t h i I didn't f i n d the r e a l world i n t e r e s t i n g at a l l . I didn't want to lead the kind of l i f e my parents l e d , 11 1 0 P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7. 1973. 1 1 P e n t l a n d i n interview, January 22, 1972. 13 Further musical influences were limited i n Winnipeg. There were few radios or record players then, and the only music she heard was performed by touring artists who played the usual repertoire of the day; mainly works of Bach, Beethoven,.Chopin, and some Debussy, There was an orchestra of sorts which collapsed during the Depression, some standard recitals by touring artists but absolutely no contemporary music. &2 She recalls that there were a lot of showy pieces performed then, and comments "They'd have better taste today," 13 As with most Canadian c i t i e s i n the nineteen-twenties, Winnipeg was largely dominated by English music and musicians, Robert Turner has given the following description; Musical interest centered i n the amateur choral societies, musical competition festivals, bands and orchestras, as well as on v i s i t i n g virtuosi of a l l types; musical standards were mainly In the hands of •'imported English organists" and choir directors brought over to conduct, adjudicate and train these various groups? and a large proportion of the repertoire was drawn from the choral works of composers such as Handel, Mendelssohn, Parry, Stanford and Elgar, But Winnipeg, at least, was unique i n one respect, and that was i n having at the doorstep a r i c h body of folk music indigenous to the French and Slavic groups that had settled i n i t s environs, and, of course, the music of the Prairie Indians, Although Pentland has made l i t t l e or no use of folk material i n her music, this ethnic background, rather than the European, may have provided a v i t a l , i f unconscious stimulus i n her later work, I** •"•"Pentland i n a letter to student Karln Doerksen, Apr i l 19, 1972. •^Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972, 1^ Robert Turner, i n the Canadian Music Journal, Vol, 2, No. p. 12, 14 Pentland, however, plays down the Influence of Winnipeg's musical l i f e on herself. I was involved with composing years before I participated i n any way i n the city's musical a c t i v i t i e s , or even know that any existed. 15 At fi f t e e n Pentland was sent for two years to a s t r i c t boarding school, Miss Edgar's and Miss Cramp's, i n Montreal, She s t i l l resents the way her parents controlled her l i f e with their plans, and recalls how helpless she f e l t i n their graspj My parents had everything mapped out for me before I was born. I had no choice but to follow their plans. 16 Asked whether her family was wealthy, since the children were a l l sent to private schools, and boarding schools, Pentland replied» It never occurred to my family to consider themselves wealthy. A good middle class family saved for rainy days, never bought anything on time, even a radio, which I didn't have u n t i l I was grown up. They had to get a good one that would last. My father f e l t that he had to have enough money to support his wife i n the manner to which she was accustomed. This meant there was someone to cook, a housemaid and a nanny. There were no f r i l l s because a l l this had to be paid for. 17 Going to boarding school was also part of the family image. Her parents f e l t that this was Important, and gave their daughter no choice i n the matter. ^Pentland i n a letter to Helmut Blume,. August 10, 1962. ^Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1973. 1 7 I b i d . 15 She recalls also that they hoped her desire to compose would be s t i f l e d therej "Someone saidi 'If she goes to this Edgar School i n Montreal, this w i l l be the end of her music.• I remember thinking I wasn't going to l e t i t be . " l 8 If Miss Edgar's and Miss Cramp's School provided l i t t l e food or heat for the students, i t did provide, with permission from Pentland*s parents, piano and harmony lessons from Frederick B l a i r A n English organist, Blair turned out to be only a mediocre teacher, Pentland recalls, but he did give encouragement to go on stpdying music. Among the subjects each student studied at the school were Medieval History, French literature, Scripture, dancing and elocution. The school had a leaving certificate which was equivalent to Matriculation I, a further year of study being necessary for university entrance. After a:;.short return t r i p to Winnipeg in the spring of 1929 Pentland was sent to Paris to complete her education at a finishing school. It was hoped that there she would learn to speak French well, study literature, art, and a l l the pursuits which help refine a lady. However, her own interests took her much further than her parents had intended. Her parents and sister accompanied her on the ship going over. During the summer of 1929 Pentland and her parents toured England, Scotland and France, learing Christine i n England. Pentland's diaries, begun just before the t r i p , are f u l l of details of her impressions of the museums and 16 historical sights. "I had read the lives of the kings i n Europe and was very interested i n seeing a l l this history before me. I was especially fascinated with their mistresses. I was impressed by everything, and took many pictures .•* 19 When her parents returned to Winnipeg i n September, Pentland, far from saddened, was eager to escape their Influence and was looking forward to the new experiences which awaited her i n Paris. Before beginning the f a l l term at the Bertaux school, Pentland went with Jeanne Bertaux, one of the two sisters who ran the school, to Fontainebleau for a few weeks. Pentland remembers standing under the windows of the Fontainebleau School of Music, listening to rehearsals and performances within. While there she worked on her harmony, practised piano, and toured the countryside. On her return to Pa^is she began a school program which included History, French, History of Art, Diction, and tennis lessons. The students were given a well-rounded cultural education, frequenting art galleries, museums and concert halls. When her parents gave their permission for her to study composition i n Paris, the Bertaux School selected as her teacher Cecile Gauthiez, professor in theory and composition at the Schola Cantorum, Gauthiez, ^ i b l d . 17 who had been a pupil of Vincent d*Indy, and who was a staunch follower of the Franckian school, wrote mainly church and choir music, being channeled i n that direction by her profession as organist, Pentland remembers Gauthiez as a warm-hearted, full-figured motherly sort who emphasized old-fashioned training for her students. Very s t r i c t l n an academic way, Gauthiez set Pentland to analyzing works of Vincent d'Indy, Cesar Franek, Beethoven, and others. In addition, she began basic counterpoint, wrote melodies i n binary and ternary form, worked on cadence formulas, and harmonized given melodies, "She gave me everything i n harmony, the way i t was taught i n France," 2 0 Pentland had her composition and harmony lessons at the home of Gauthiez after school, the walk there being one of the few occasions on which she was allowed to leave the grounds of the school alone. Until e l e c t r i c i t y was installed i n Gauthiez• home during the f a l l of 1929, every night, when, daylight began to fade, a maid would bring l n gas lamps to the teaching studio, so that.the lessons could be continued, Pentland thinks of Gauthiez with great affection, remembering the words the teacher used when encouraging her to continue with the study of music« "You have the flame, you must go on."* 2 0Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 2 1 I b l d , 18 Gauthiez considered Pentland's largest work of this period, the four movement Senate, to be worthy of performance, and found a pianist to learn the work and perform i t i n r e c i t a l . Pentland considers this composition to be part of her learning process, not acknowledging i t as a serious work. However, she does comment that i t was influenced formally by Beethoven, and i n other respects by Pranck. Entries i n her diaries reveal,how impressed she was with the works of Pranck which she was,analyzing at the time. During the year i n Paris Pentland studied piano with Maurice Amour, as did several other g i r l s from the school. He was a very nervous man who continually banged on the piano i n time to whatever was being played, was demanding and sarcastic, often making Pentland cry. Already nervous about performing, Pentland probably became worse i n this respect under Amour's tutelage. The works that she was playing at this time were generally Romantic, including d'Indy, Faure, Chopin, Beethoven, and some Bach. Works she was hearing i n concert were also mainly Romantic, with the most recent work being Honneger's Le Rol David. By frequent attendance at concerts and recitals, Pentland found her musical experience considerably-widened. Long before her projected departure from Paris Pentland became reluctant to return home. She realized that Paris held a great deal more for her than Winnipeg, both i n concerts and i n composition teachers. Gauthiez was making 19 suggestions that she return to study with d'Indy, and also that she go to the Eastman School of Music to study organ. Her parents were not to be persuaded, however, and, a l i t t l e comforted by plans to continue her lessons with Gauthiez by correspondence, she l e f t Paris for a rather bleak Winnipeg in July, 1930. One consolation of her return was a new Steinway piano which her parents bought after her a r r i v a l . Unhappy as she was at home, Pentland decided i t would be best i f she remained there u n t i l she could support herself elsewhere. "I realized I had a lot of advantages i n sticking i t out," 2 2 She was f u l l of enthusiasm and drive to go on writing music. During the f i r s t eighteen months after her return home, she continued her study with Gauthiez by correspondence, paying for her lessons with the dress allowance given to her by her parents. However, this arrangement proved to be unsatisfactory, since i t took at least a month for the lessons to be returned, i f they arrived at a l l through the unpredictable mails. Furthermore, she found that she was growing away from what she regarded as the narrow confines of the French style, and was no longer interested i n the "accompaniment-plus-melody" manner of composition which she f e l t was advocated by Gauthiez, She remembers that i n one work she was doing under Gauthiez* supervision, Aveu Fleurl (1930), the melody ; 2 2Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1973, 20 was quite atonal u n t i l the teacher changed i t . As a result of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , she decided to terminate her lessons. One indication of how her parents 1 plans continued to interfere with her own was the 'coming out' party they planned for her i n November 1930, Now that she had completed her year at a French finishing sohool, they believed her education to be totally completed, and f e l t i t was time for her to marry and settle down., The purpose of the b a l l was, as Pentland puts i t , "to launch me as a social butterfly." A rather reluctant butterfly,.she turned down the few invita-tions that did result. Her mother, thinking Barbara would be more attractive without her glasses, would not allow her to wear them, and, as a result, she could barely see any of the 300 guests. They invited people they thought I should meet and that I couldn't,care less about. 23 Her diary includes a description of the early 19th century French gown she wore, and even the dance card with a few names (mostly "Dad") scribbled i n i t , but the debut had such an adverse effect on her,that the entries i n her diary, which she had s t i l l , been,writing i n French, suddenly ceased, not to start again u n t i l her l i f e began to improve i n 1936. If Pentland's social l i f e was limited, her musical l i f e in Winnipeg began to expand. At Gauthiez' suggestion she 2 3 I b l d . 21 Joined a chamber group which performed occasionally. Though not of the highest quality, the t r i o , which consisted of v i o l i n , cello, and piano, at least gave her some experience playing with others, and a chance to observe the string instruments at close range. Having decided to write for ir i o l i n , Pentland f e l t she should know more about the instrument, so bought one at a pawn shop for #3.50, and began teaching herself how to play i t . Since her parents would hot allow her to play the v i o l i n i n the house, she practised i n the basement si t t i n g on an apple box, or upstairs i f the family was out. In 1931, Eva Clare, a well-known and influential piano teacher i n Winnipeg, noticed Pentland's name i n a newspaper art i c l e about a r e c i t a l i n which she had performed. Miss Clare then called to ask Pentland to study with her. Once again Pentland used her dress allowance money for her b i -monthly lessons, but this time her mother became aware of the situation and arranged to pay for the lessons. Pentland's attitude to clothing, unlike that of most young g i r l s , was total indifference, though earlier her diaries had been f u l l of descriptions of new clothing. In the 1930*s I refused to buy any new clothes, identifying myself with the l e f t wing. I wanted to look like what I was« a musician unable to make a l i v i n g . I wanted to be as drab as possible. The. only thing that mattered was my mind and the pursuit of music. 2k 2 * I b i d . 22 In addition to her piano study with Eva Glare, she began organ lessons with Hugh Bancroft, a local teacher, following Gauthiez' advice that she should plan to make herself financially independent by becoming an organist. After three years of organ lessons, she heeded Eva Clare's suggestion that she concentrate her efforts on the piano, and terminated her lessons with Bancroft. Eva Clare was a strong-willed and dominating teacher who demanded a great deal of her students, including frequent performances. I was t e r r i f i e d of Eva Clare - everyone was. She used to s i t there like a big fat frog and look at you with those beady eyes. I don't think she played very well. Even then I used to be appalled at some of her playing. 25 While studying with her, Pentland took part i n several joint recitals with other students, and received her L.A.B.2^ in piano i n 1933. Quite isolated from the rest of the musical world i n Winnipeg, Pentland was at the mercy of her environment. She was f i r s t Introduced to the music of Vaughan Williams when an acquaintance brought some of his music from England, and found i t to be interesting and very different from the 2 5 l b l d . ^ L i c e n t i a t e of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London. 23 French music to which she had been exposed. The lighter texture and the parallel, f i f t h s found here may have Influenced some of her earlier works, but the influence of Vaughan Williams on her style has been overestimated,2'' and the composer herself, points out that his influence was neither very important nor very l a s t i n g , 2 ^ During the early 1930*s Pentland was continually com-? posing. After the correspondence lessons with Gauthiez ceased, her only judgment was the yearly competition of the Manitoba Music Festival, and she found this expert criticism of her work generally constructive. She usually won the composition class, but confesses there were very few entries. More important than the rather small prizes she won i n the competition was the attention she received i n the press, as a result. As 1935 approached Pentland*s relationship with her family continued to deteriorate. The parents were unhappy about having an unemployed, unmarried musician around the house? and their daughter was unhappy about being there, "It was the Depression. No one could get jobs. I wanted to leave but I couldn't. , , 29 Owing to this unpleasant situation, Pentland became emotionally depressed, and physically run down. Perhaps partly because of this she became very i l l 2?Robert Turner i n the Canadian Music Journal, Vol. 2, No. ^, and Peter Huse i n the Music Scene. July-August 1968, P. 9. 2^Barbara Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 2 9 I b l d . 24 i n January 1935* After three weeks i n the hospital she had a mastoid operation, and during her recuperation caught erysipilas, a highly contagious febrile disease which l e f t her even more i l l and isolated In quarantine. This was followed by thrombosis. : She recalls that the doctors had given up hope for her l i f e , but she did survive to leave the hospital i n March. It was a f u l l year later that she f i n a l l y f e l t healthy again. One good outcome of this illness was that i t gave her a new outlook on l i f e and on the people around her. I realized there were some nice people i n the world and i t gave me more courage. I f e l t freer, though I had l i t t l e strength, and I started writing things that were more advanced. 30 In an effort to help her get away to a music school somewhere, Eva Clare suggested that she send compositions ,to Vaughan Williams and to Walter Cramer, editor of Musical America. Vaughan Williams sent some suggestions about her compositions, but no recommendations regarding further study. When Cramer advised her to apply to J u l l l i a r d , she sent her Sonate and Concert Overture for Symphony Orchestra to New York for their scrutiny, having written the orchestral work without knowing what a l l the instruments looked l i k e . In the spring of 1936 she was told that she had been accepted for the J u l l l i a r d entrance examinations i n September. 3 0Pentland i n interview, May 20, 1973. 25 As one of the requirements for studying there, Pentland became an American immigrant and maintained her f i r s t citizenship papers u n t i l the early l ^ ' s , Upon trying the entrance examinations at Juilllard» which consisted of ear tests (in which she was aided by her perfect pitch), sight reading, piano performance, and composition, she was awarded a tuition fellowship which was renewed each of the three years she was at the school. Delighted to be continuing her education at last, Pentland was an eager pupili I would have done anything. I was so pleased to be able to study. I would have scrubbed floors down every morning. 31 She rented a room i n an apartment at King's College Club, which was run by a southern woman of dubious character who would sweep through the dining room saying i n a loud voice "Feed my chickens well," i f she had won at the races, but offered l i t t l e i n the way of sustenance when she l o s t . ^ 2 Pentland occupied the dining room of the apartment, while three other students shared the l i v i n g room. The place was jam-packed with students and prostitutes, probably. I was so ignorant of these things i t didn't bother me. 33 Supported mainly by her father, who sent money to help out with l i v i n g expenses, Pentland struggled along financially, and spent most of her money on concerts. 31pentland i n interview, July ?, 1973. 3 2Ibid. 33ibid. 26 Among the classes she had at J u l l l i a r d were piano performance, score-reading, conducting, v i o l i n , orchestra-tion, and German. Most important to her were the composition classes. Frederick Jacob! (1891-1952) taught her composition during the f i r s t two of her three years at J u l l l i a r d , He introduced her to many Renaissance works and gave her a good contrapuntal training. Jacobi got me looking up early music. I copied out Binehols, Palestrina, Weelkes, Gesualdo and Orlando di Lasso. I did a com-parison study of chromaticism i n pre-harmonic and post-harmonic music. The idea of more moving parts gave me a new way of looking at texture and I became more and more interested i n horizontal line, 34 Though; Jacobi helped expand her musical experience, she found that he hindered her freedom /by imposing conventional harmony, I used outrageous harmony i n the eyes of Jacobi, He thought perhaps I didn't under-stand traditional harmony, 35 Pentland feels now that she should have fought Jacobi more, but was too eager to please because she had been denied so much previously. She found that she usually wrote her more adventuresome works i n the summer, once she was away from the constraining influence of school, "Teaching shouldn't be like that but with Jacobi i t was." 36 3^lbld. 35rbid. 36ibid. 27 Jacobi's style did not have much effect on the works she wrote while studying with him, or on later works. His main interest was researching the l i f e and music of the Pueblo Indians, whose themes he often used i n his own compositions. He was held to be an important composer of Jewish sacred music, and often used Jewish themes i n his non-llturgieal music. Pentland•s compositions, of course, reflect none of the Jewish influence, and though Indian music plays a minor role, the l i t t l e that does appear i s more li k e l y a result of the proximity of the, composer to the Indians near Winnipeg rather than being a reflection of Jacobi's Pueblan Indians. Unusual as i t was for composition students at J u i l l i a r d to change teachers, after two years' study with Jacob!, i t was decided she would, benefit from a new teacher. He was big enotigh to know he wasn't doing the right thing for me, but by then two years had gone by. 37 Bernard Wagenaar, (189^- ), was a teacher who encouraged her to develop her own style,, and to write i n a more contemporary idiom than Jacob! had advocated. He advised his students to "Take off your musical corsets and write what you feel .*'38 pentland recalls« In my case the main thing was encouraging me to speak out. When I got with Wagenaar the f i n a l year the whole approach liberated me, though he could be just as c r i t i c a l as Jacobi. 39 3 7 I b l d . 38rbid. 39ibid. 28 Pentland*s musical experience was widened considerably while she was i n New York by her frequent attendance at concerts. While the works she heard s t i l l reflected an emphasis on Romantic music, contemporary works were generously Interspersed, Among these were works such as Alban Berg's Lyric Suite, Hlndemith's Flute Sonata and Quintet for Woodwinds, and Copland's E l Salon Mexico. . Partly as a result of hearing these works Pentland experienced a slow evolution of style, moving out of the more established harmonic system towards some interest i n modality. She recalls that hearing and playing the works of Hlndemith influenced her at this time. She was playing his f i r s t and second piano sonatas, and observed quite closely how the works were put together. Hlndemith enticed me for a while. He's so logical. He was a way of freeing myself from the traditional because he freed the interval from the chordal system. However, he was not a lasting influence. 4o One aspect of Hlndemith's music that Pentland believes has remained is the impersonal, which she found to be a refresh-ing contrast to the thicker, heavier French style. She was also intrigued for a while with the exciting rhythms she heard i n the music of Stravinsky, as well as with his sense of humour. Among the works of Stravinsky she ^Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 29 heard while i n New York were Les Npces, Saore du Prlntemps. and F i r e b l":r"d ... Bartok, a later and lesser influence, attracted Pentland i n his easier works for piano students, and she later composed children's works extensively herself. Though Robert Turner has saidj As a result of her study i n New York more modern tendencies are absorbed into her work and we can note some of the s t y l i s t i c earmarks of such composers as Bloch, Prokofiev, and Stravinsky. 4 1 Pentland heard very l i t t l e Bloch, i f any, and heard only a few works by Prokofiev. Her work did become more contemporary, but this may be because of her increased s k i l l as a composer, new awareness of what other composers were doing, her studies at J u l l l i a r d , as well as the works she was playing at the time. In May of 1939, to her surprise, she„was notified that her studies at J u l l l i a r d were terminated and she was to graduate that year. This came as quite a shock for her since she was expecting to continue her studies there for at least one more year. Owing to financial d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, the school was asking a l l students who had been 4 2 there for three years or more to leave. In June and July of that year Pentland and a few other students went to Edgartown, Massachusetts, to continue xRobert Turner, op,cit., p, 18. ko • The teachers were losing one third of their salaries as a result of the financial problems. 30 studying with Wagenaar at his summer home. There for five weeks, and financed by her Aunt Bessie, she completed her Quartet for Piano -and Strings under Wagenaar*s tutelage. Unsuccessful i n attempts to find work i n New York before leaving, and equally fruitless i n Montreal, Pentland returned to Winnipeg once again after her studies were completed at Edgar Town, Though her Aunt Bessie offered to finance her return to New York, Pentland's father would not allow this. Work i n Winnipeg was equally as scarce as i t had been in other c i t i e s . Eva Glare used her influence to have Pentland appointed a theory examiner on the Western Board for the University of Manitoba,though this position did not bring i n much Income, Another friend, Agnes Kelsey, began sharing her downtown teaching studio with Pentland in exchange for theory lessons for some of her own students. However, Pentland had few students, and earned l i t t l e money. Her diary, once f u l l of musical a c t i v i t i e s at J u l l l i a r d , was then f u l l of war news, or often completely blank, and once again ceased during the f a l l of 194-0. She began her piano lessons with Eva Clare again, and worked on such pieces as the Schubert Fantasia A highlight of this year was a t r i p to Minneapolis, i n January, 19^0, where she met John Verrall, a .composition teacher at the University of St, Paul, with whom she became good friends. As a coincidence, VermH had been on the same ship as Pentland on her voyage to France i n 1929, and 31 though they did not meet at that time, Pentland had heard him perform i n a concert on board. Verrall was most interested i n her work and tried to promote her compositions. Spent the whole afternoon with Verrall going over my work, orchestral piece Rhapsody. Admires quartet, gives me his.rhapsody for orchestra. He is an excellent modern composer. Wonderful to find understanding again. 43 Verrall later showed her Lament to Mitropoulos, then conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony, who, after looking over the work, sent Pentland a letter with suggestions for improvements. Verrall later arranged for the W.P.A. Orchestra ^ there to play over the Lament so that she could hear the work. She f e l t she benefited by discussing the work with the conductor! Learnt a lot! Notice lack of single strong lines - too many obscure ones. 45 Verrall made efforts to find her a job i n St. Paul but had no success. Another important development came i n August 1940, when the Winnipeg Summer Symphony performed her Lament, which was written as a reaction against p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Europe at the time. Pentland was not pleased with the performance, but realized that the orchestra was not accustomed to playing- con-temporary works. The work caused a l i t t l e furor, however, and ^3pentland, diary entry, January 14, 1940. ^Works Progress Administration. ^Pentland, diary entry, May 24, 1940. 32 there were letters written to the editor of a local paper complaining about the feeling of hopelessness i n the face of war which is expressed there. In July of that year she was approached to write the music for a radio drama written by Anne Marriott;, poet from Victoria, Pentland was pleased to be working on Payload. and f e l t that the script was excellent. The work occupied her throughout the summer and early f a l l ; she then met Anne Mariott to discuss the work, orchestrated i t , and heard i t performed on the radio i n November. She was also working on a children's ballet called The Beauty and the  Beast i n conjunction with a local ballet teacher, and this work was choreographed and performed i n December 1940. Though musically she was enjoying increased recognition, her efforts to find work continued to go unrewarded. Typically, she was rather selective, and did turn down the occasional job which she f e l t would not be suitable: Berenice King offers me a job at the Academy of A l l i e d Arts. Much work, l i t t l e pay, and very low standard. 47 Her letters to various agencies turned up nothing. Pentland, determined to be a musician and composer, would not consider "Says Music Should Fan Sp i r i t of Hope," Winnipeg Free  Press, August 30 (?), 1940. This letter drew a response from Chester Duncan, who expressed support for Pentland's freedom to react to what she observedi "Barbara Pentland's Lament Sincere," Winnipeg Free Press, September 8, 1940. 47pentland, diary entry, May 14, 1940. 33 any other form of work and continued to remain at home, looking for a dignified escape from her l i f e there. During the spring of 1940 she had applied to the Berkshire Music Centre to study composition during the summer, and the following spring she was accepted as the f i r s t female composition student there. With this develop-ment her l i f e took a turn for the "better, and a new direc-tion for her style would be found. MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT Since Pentland has retained most of her works from early youth, i t is possible to look at some of her f i r s t compositions and observe how her style evolved from the beginning. As may be seen i n the l i s t of works i n Appendix A, Pentland has divided her works into several categories, classifying those written up to 1929 as childhood pieces, while the student works f a l l within two separate periods j 1929-1932, and 1936-1939. The divisions made i n the l i s t seemed to me the only way to c l a r i f y these early works because I didn't go through a "normal" educational process 1 8 years early struggle on my own, 1 year intensive study in Paris plus 18 months correspond-ence, many years again on my own, followed at 24 . by 3 years at J u i l l i a r d . The f i r s t group of student works were written i n France at school (Fall '29 to July '30) and i n Winnipeg while continuing lessons by mail (to Spring '32), The. only large scale work worth l i s t i n g is the Sonate i n c# minor, which was my f i r s t "performed" piece, played by a Belgian pianist for a few listeners i n Paris. 34 During the next period ( '32 to *36) there was no composition study, but work i n piano and organ, and a movement away from the French influence . . . The J u i l l i a r d period, coming so late, played havoc with my developing personal style while providing formal discipline. The works of any interest during this time are those which I did during the holidays,trying to make more meaningful use of a more conventional idiom. I can't feel that they are much more mature (except perhaps in formal control) than the works i n the second group, except the last two. The regular l i s t starts during the last year of the J u i l l i a r d period mainly due to the more than one performance accorded these works, and because they are also on transparencies. 48 The works from childhood to 1939 reveal several in-fluences, including Beethoven, Franck, and Hindemith, as a result of her exposure to various teachers and to works she was hearing and playing i n her youth. Several character-i s t i c s are common throughout the early works, including the use of simple triadic harmonies, running scale-like passages, and ornaments such as turns, t r i l l s and appoggiaturas. Melodic lines are generally diatonic, the harmony quite traditional, and the texture f u l l . There are also excursions into more extensive chromaticism. The f i r s t influence f e l t was that of Beethoven, and Pentland feels that her Revolutionary Sonata (1925-28) was a direct result of her exposure to his piano sonatas, which she was playing i n her early teens. Certainly i n i t s sonata form the work may be seen to reflect Beethoven's Pentland i n a letter to Keith MacMillan, January 21 , 1974. 35 Influence, The work also illustrates the simple harmonie and the tendencies towards ornamentation found i n the student works. Example 1, Revolutionary Sonata, b, 1-9. \ — j j \ —i T ah , — ' r *> -y J ^—t Y 9 e f ~ T — ^7 > 36 The strong influence of the Franckian movement is evident mainly i n Pentland's works of the early 1930*s, and later i n the works written at J u l l l i a r d . Ruins (1932), written after the correspondence lessons with Gauthiez had stopped, reflects more adventuresome writing than any previous work i n i t s increased chromaticism and harmonic freedom. Example 2, Ruins, b, 10-14. Teachers such as Jacobi and Wagenaar do not appear to have had any direct influence on her style, though a few isolated details from Wagenaar*s own idiom may be found in works written by Pentland during her studies with him. The extensive chromaticism found i n the works of the late 1930's may be a result both of the Franckian tradition 37 and Wagenaar's influence as her teacher. It is interesting to note this comment about his style» Considered harmonically, Wagenaar, with his free chromaticism over a solid diatonic bass, should be classified as of French derivation. 49 Hindemith's influence may be seen both i n the shorter forms found i n works of the later 1930*s, such as i n Five Preludes (1938), and i n the Increased rhythmic v i t a l i t y found i n such pieces as "Jest" from the above work. Pentland herself has commented that "Jest" was directly influenced by Hlndemith i n i t s rhythm, as well as i n i t s more impersonal approach. Example 3, "Jest" from Five Preludes, b, 1-4,-^ •F1-—* =4 --* pi 0 3= 0 ' 0 * rr W r rt m -rtfl r $>•• M This new impersonal approach would prove to be a character-i s t i c which would develop further In the 1940s. It is d i f f i c u l t to isolate and illustrate a l l the influences which must have appeared i n Pentland's early works, since,. like any student, she was exposed to the works ^Donald. Fuller, "Bernard Wagenaar," Modern Music XXI (1944), p. 228. 3 8 of many composers over the years. Some of the main influences at times overwhelmed the young composer, leaving her l i t t l e of her own s t y l e , and she did not assert herself more strongly i n her compositions u n t i l a f t e r her summers at Tanglewood, CHAPTER TWO 39 40 The 1940*s brought positive developments in Pentland's l i f e , as well as changes i n her musical style. Early Influences now began to be supplanted by others which had a more lasting effect ph her mature style, and, at this time she managed to leave what was for her a rather stagnant l i f e in Winnipeg for more progressive surroundings. During the summers of 1941 and 1942 she attended the Berkshire Music Centre at Tanglewood, Massachusetts, where she studied composition with Aaron Copland.* One of six chosen to study with Copland, 2 Pentland had submitted two works i n advance for perusal; Beauty and the Beast (1940 ), and two movements from L i t t l e Symphony for F u l l Orchestra (1940). 3 Pentland's musical knowledge was broadened considerably during these six-week summer sessions through her exposure to various teachers and lecturers, participation l n choirs, and hearing her own works rehearsed by student orchestras. In addition to the private composition lessons with Copland, she had classes with him i n analysis and orchestration in which the group analyzed and heard various orchestral works, including some by Copland himself. The class discussed topics *Much of the information on Pentland's summers at Tanglewood has been provided by the articles she wrote for the Winnipeg newspapers! "Six Weeks of Work at the Berkshire Music Centre," Winnipeg  Free Press, September 6, 194l, p. 14, "Barbara Pentland Shares Experience at Berkshire," Winnipeg  Tribune, September 131 1 9 4 l . "Festival i n Berkshire Inspires Local Musician," Winnipeg  Tribune, October 3. 1942. 2Among the other students in attendance that year were Leonard Bernstein and Lucas Foss, 3When completed this work was renamed Arioso and Hondo. 41 which would concern a young composer, such as performance rights, writing for high school music programs, and how to approach and influence a conductor with a score. In 1941 the Boston Symphony was at Tanglewood, and, as well as rehearsing their winter programs and giving weekly concerts, members of the orchestra supervised chamber music groups and student orchestra. The principals of each section spent time with the composition class, demonstrating the possibilities of their instruments. This was a most valuable experience for Pentland, who had s t i l l a limited exposure to some orchestral instruments, Paul Hlndemith, who was also teaching composition at Tanglewood, organized and advised a chorus, conducted by Hugh Ross, which consisted of the composition students, and Pentland, the only female composer there, sang f i r s t tenor in the other-wise male chorus. Haying brought a great deal of music from Berlin which was not generally available i n North America, Hlndemith exposed the students both to Medieval and Renaissance works, as well as to the more contemporary. Pentland recalls singing works ranging from Perotinus to Milhaud. The purpose of this chorus was not performance but rather to make available to the students music of various periods, and to try out works they had written themselves. Hlndemith also taught a survey course of instrumental and choral music from the 12th to the 17th centuries, which Pentland attended. In addition to the composers' chorus there was a large 42 choir in which she participated, conducted by Serge Koussevitsky, then conductor of the Boston Symphony. With the orchestra this group performed such works as the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven, and the Bach- Magnificat. Student orchestras and the Boston Symphony performed frequently, and the students were encouraged to attend rehearsals of the groups, though Pentland found that the programs consisted of too much Brahms and Wagner to suit her."* Certainly the most important influence on Pentland's style which resulted from the summers at Tanglewood was Copland, who, at that time was writing i n what has been called his "Third period".5 This, his most popular style, is one in which he uses specific American folk songs, simple triadic or slightly polytonal harmonies, and melodies derived from ascending and descending scale patterns. Copland led her towards a lighter style, and the clear, open texture found i n his works is evidenced most strikingly in Pentland's works i n a small group of pieces which have a definite folk atmosphere; From Long Ago (1946), Another area in which this same influence is f e l t is in film score, one of Copland's consuming interests, and, in fact, Pentland's sound track for a National Film Board movie The Living Gallery (1947) is very derivative of the Copland style.6 4"Barbara Pentland Shares Experience at Berkshire," Winnipeg Tribune, September 13, 194l. ^Julia s m i t h , Aaron Copland (New Yorkj Dutton, 1955), P. 101. ^Pentland, who is aware of the similarity to Copland's style, has expressed some feelings of embarrassment with regard to this work. 43 However, the earlier ?Abstract Period" 7 ©f Copland's style had a more lasting effect on her than the folk element. This i s most apparent i n her Variations (1942), which seems to have been modelled after the teacher's Variations (1930). The formal similarities alone would lead one to believe that Pentland had thoroughly investigated his music, though she has denied analyzing his works i n great de t a i l . She does feel that he helped her develop her own style. He was a great help at that period. He c l a r i f i e d my direction, my thinking, and gave me confidence. He also told me I didn't need to study any more - just go ahead. 8 Like Wagenaar, Pentland*s teacher i n New York, Copland did not encourage his students to write i n his own style of compo-sition, but corrected and commented on the work as i t was submitted. It would seem obvious that i n these sessions he suggested that she lighten,the texture and work more carefully within specific forms. Speaking about Copland she has statedt He uses form i n a clas s i c a l way, and his works depend on rhythmic drive. He was a very nonchalant teacher, affable but impersonal. 9 On her return to Winnipeg from Tanglewood i n 1941 Pentland visited Toronto, where she met Canadian composers and performers such as Harry Adaskin, John Weinzwelg and Godfrey Rldout. Ridout, recalling meeting her then commented* 7Julia Smith, op.cit., p. l6o. 8peter Huse, "Barbara Pentland," Music Scene, July-August, 1968, p. 9. ^pentland i n interview, July 7» 1972. 4-4-I was enchanted with her because she was alive and enthusiastic. The only women composers that I knew before that were nice but they didn't have that kind of f i r e . She s t i l l has i t . 10 Harry Adaskin, at that time president of the Vogt Society, an organization which was devoted to new Canadian music, had arranged for her Piano Quartet (1939) to be performed i n Toronto In May 194l, and earlier that year her Five Preludes and Rhapsody (1939) were played at a Junior Vogt Society concert. It was during this v i s i t that Pentland met John Weinzwelg, who, since 1939, had been using twelve-tone technique i n his 11 compositions, x At that time Weinzwelg expressed a belief that he and Pentland were the only ones writing contemporary music in Canada, and suggested that she move to Toronto, The two began corresponding and became good friends i n the decade to follow. He kept her informed of developments i n music i n the larger centre, and about concerts such as a special presentation of Canadian music i n New York i n January 1942, which was sponsored by the. League of Composers, Among works by Ridout, Louis Applebaum, Hector Gratton, and Andre Mathleu were Pentland's Studies in Line (1941), which, along with Weinzwelg's works, were said to "reveal unmistakably the 1 2 Impregnation of the more extreme modernistic school," 1 0Godfrey Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. lljohn Weinzwelg in "Canadian Composition," by Andree DesauteIs In Aspects of Music i n Canada, edited by Arnold Walter (Torontoi University of Toronto Press, 1969), P. 110. l 2"League of Composers Presents Young Canadian Composers," Musical America, January 25, 1942. 45 Both Adaskin and Welnzweig encouraged her to move to Toronto, where they f e l t she would benefit from contact with other composers, where her works would have a better chance for performance, and where there was a far more dynamic musical l i f e than was found at that time i n Winnipeg. Financed by her Aunt Bessie as well as by her father, she made the move to Toronto i n September 1942, after her second summer at Tanglewood. This change i n location came at a time when, owing to wartime d i f f i c u l t i e s , housing was at a minimum and students were few. She set up a studio in a second floor f l a t of an old house, living i n the same quarters. It was so cold there that, s t i l l weak from earlier illnesses, she caught pneumonia that year. On a later move in Toronto she 13 met Marguerite Boggs and her family, y becoming such good friends that when Mrs, Boggs purchased a house in 1942, she arranged for Pentland,to move in with them. She had a studio in a second floor verandah, slept there an a folding cot, and lived comfortably with them for the following five years. In 1943 she joined the staff of the Royal Conservatory of Toronto where she taught theory and composition, sharing a studio with John Weinzweig. Teaching at the Conservatory was on a commission basis, and there were not many students u n t i l the end of the war. Pentland, always an individual who l^Her daughter, Jean Boggs, is now director of the National Gallery. 46 pursued her own ways very seriously, did not find most of those teaching at the Conservatory very stimulating. As Ridout observed: "The average teacher at the Conservatory rubbed her the wrong way and she rubbed them the wrong way".^ Toronto was alive with musical activity ln the 194o's. As Pentland recallst For the f i r s t time there was some interest i n Canadian music. Culture becomes more intensified i n a way during a war c r i s i s and we had probably more newspaper publicity, more audiences and per-formances than at any other time, 15 Pentland soon became part of the group of musicians who were at the centre of activity, Harry Somers, who joined the group a few years later, just at the beginning of his composi-tion career, has this recollectioni When I came into the scene i n 1945 or '46 there were just a few composers pioneering their way herei Barbara Pentland, John Weinzweig, Godfrey Ridout, then Murray Adaskin, but i n the more contemporary vein, i t was really Barbara Pentland and John Weinzweig. When I came into contact with Barbara's music of course I was impressed as a young person at that time, because there simply wasn't any other writing like this being done i n the country. I was impressed with both things, the music and the person. She's always been a person of great integrity, and very clear and strong about her ideas, as her music has always been. But they formed a kind of group in a way - as much as a group" can be. They were a l l fiercely independent really when i t comes down to i t . 16 l^Godfrey Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. 15pentland in Interview, July 7, 1972. 16 •"•"Harry Somers i n interview, September 27, 1972. 47 Though the composers were progressive, i t seems that the audiences of the day were not, English church musicians and English music in general dominating. The general audience simply was not aware at a l l of what was going on i n the wider world, and the concert repertoire was very restricted. 17 Toronto, as any other city in Canada, had audiences which, up to 1950, would not tolerate anything more recent than Sibelius, Debussy, and Ravel - a l l tonal composers. The most con-temporary thing that was done around that time was Copland's E l Salon Mexico. 18 One interesting aspect of the p o l i t i c a l developments during these years was the stress on cultural exchange with the Soviet Union. As a gesture of goodwill, music scores by composers of each country were exchanged i n 1943, and among them were Pentland's Arioso and Rondo, Rhapsody, and Studies  in Line. Pentland participated actively both as composer and performer i n concerts sponsored by the National Council For Canadian-Soviet Friendship. She also arranged and orchestrated Russian works such as The Birth of Russia by Yuri Shaporln for performance by the Jewish Folk Choir which, with orchestra, appeared in Massey Ha l l . 1 9 Though friendly with the members of the Communist Party Pentland maintained her independence and f e l t she was never completely trusted by them. She was often asked by them why she did not write !7somers in Interview, September 27, 1972. l 8Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. ^February 12, 1944. 48 music that was more accessible to the 'people', but f e l t then, as she does now, that i t was more important to write music i n a way which pleased herself. Publicity for Canadian music and performance was considerable i n the 1940's, and Pentland appeared frequently in the newspapers, often joining Weinzweig, Somers, and Adaskin l n speaking out for more performances of contemporary works as well as for a more sympathetic audience. She was especially concerned with these problems and voiced her opinions i n several a r t i c l e s . Canadian music needs an audience. Until the feeling is mutual, there can be no healthy state of music in our land. Composers are naturally i n the vanguard. They are the leaders of thought i n music. As a creative force they break new t r a i l s . But i f the chasm between what they write and what the public listens to i s so great that there is no spanning of i t , then they are working i n a vacuum and are severed from their servicaHe role in the community. 20 ^Barbara Pentland, "Wanted, An Audience," Printed i n a program for a performance by the Jewish Folk Choir, March 2 5 , 19^7. Similar ideas were expressed by Pentland i n such news-paper articles as: ' "Audience Wanted: Canadian Music Needs Listeners, says Composer," Toronto Telegram, A p r i l 15, 1947. "Audiences Wanted," Globe and Mall. April 19, 1947. "Modern Composer Has Poor Opinion of Music Patrons," Globe  and Mall, March 2 , 1949. "Music is an Opiate, Women's Club Told," Toronto Star, March 2 , 1949. k 9 Her opinions of audiences and their reactions to new music undoubtedly did not endear her to the publicJ The music lover who screams like a wounded eagle at the f i r s t phrase of a modern classic gets scant sympathy from Miss Pentland. He is circumscribed in his musical appreciation by his pre-conditioning to standard familiar works. He listens and responds in terms of only one idiom. The alien corn to him is musically indigestible. Through wider diffusion of modern music and i t s frequent repetition, tastes, beliefs and the scope of appreciation could be trans-formed. The., unad venture some fa i t h f u l could come to recognize some of today's experimental com-posers as variants from the known musical language ;. and not orphans. The onus would appear to rest with the public. Miss Pentland, as one outstanding Canadian composer is very obviously not one to compromise her musical ideal and, for the sake of the public's musical peace of mind, subdue her personal variant, 21 However, over the years she has learned to accept poor audience reception and unflattering reviews such as the followingi Barbara Pentland's Studies in Line were textbook things - musical anatomy and physiology and dissection of harmonic and rhythmic and physiologically disposed. 22 In fact, some have noticed that such reviews were not at a l l upsetting to hert Barbara had a reputation as a leader of the avant-garde in the 19*K)'s. She got sting-ing reviews but she thrived on i t i n a way, 23 2 1"Musical Musings," Winnipeg Free Press. Saturday July 2, 1949. 22 Edward W. Wodson, "Golden Touch Brings Power to Piano Works," Toronto Telegram, March 23, 19^5. 23Ronald Napier i n interview, September 26, 1972. 50 Ridout has another view of thisi Barbara's music very often appeared on ears that were not accustomed to i t , and she took offense very easily. If a work was a failure she didn't try to take these things into consideration. She just said "Clods", They were clods. They s t i l l are. She was quick to take offense, which was unfortunate because i t didn't endear her to a lot of people who didn't want to know her. For a lot of us, who liked her, we put up with that. We could see her point of view, although sometimes we wished she wouldn't be quite so vehement about i t . A lot of people would say "Bah! Barbara Pentland, i f she's going to be like that, yechl" 24 Although she had a teaching position at the Conservatory i t provided few students u n t i l the end of the war when those in the armed forces returned and augmented enrollment. The break came at the end of the was when the Re-Hab program started and a l l the boys from the army, navy and a i r force had a chance to study. Some of them were the best students I ever had, as they were happy to have such an opportunity? some had gone straight from high school to six years' service. 25 . Her attitudes to her students were further expanded at the time in a newspaper a r t i c l e i She waves away any notion that increasing returns i n satisfaction to the instructor mean diminishing returns to the composer. Because the.students, particularly those studying under D.V.A. credits are promising, she is stimulated in her own creative work and supported i n her belief In the future of composition in Canada. Particularly encouraging 2^Ridout in interview, September 27, 1972. 25 Pentland in a letter to student Alan Shanoff, February 3 , 1969. 51 i n this context was the quality of the students' compositions programmed on the f i n a l Conservatory concert, she claims. 26 Victor F e l d b r i l l has the following recollection of meeting Pentland at this timei I met Barbara for the f i r s t time Just after the war i n early 1946, when I was In the process of seeking a teacher i n harmony and things I wanted to catch up in after three years i n the service but she couldn't take me on because she was so booked. I found her very forthright. This was the f i r s t Impression I got of her - as someone who was very honest and forthright. Not the type of person who held out the faint promise of something. She simply said,"Look there isn't a chance, I'm booked solid. " And sh§ made a very good suggestion of who to go to and that's what I did. It was rather a refreshing experience because this i s not the kind of thing you usually find with teachers, they try to hang on somehow i f they can. 27 In 1943 she began participating i n a music course set up for children from families of lower incomes, in which she taught oreatlve music to children who ranged in age from 5 to 8 at the University Settlement School, every Saturday morning. The classes did not consist of formal lessons but, rather, the children were encouraged to write their own songs in their own way, to be more aware of the sounds around them, and to respond to music and sounds with their bodies. Pentland found that they associated music with words, and would describe something that had happened to them, or t e l l a story. 26"Musical Musings," Winnipeg Free Press. July 2, 1949. 2?Victor F e l d b r i l l i n interview, September 27, 1972. 52 At the end of the course each child conducted his own song in a closing program. She found this to be a rewarding and stimulating experience, and believes i t was one of the f i r s t efforts i n Canada to teach children composition. 2 8 Interest i n Canadian music flourished i n Toronto at this time, and was reflected i n the press coverage as well as radio shows. The C.B.C. International Service presented "Canadian Composers", a,series of broadcasts about Canadian composers and their music, i n the f a l l of 1946. In a show based on Pentland, she presented her Studies in Line, Song  Cycle, and Sonata for Cello and Piano. Harry Adaskin, who has been an industrious promotor of Canadian music, frequently included works of Pentland in his recitals and concert tours. Accompanied by his wife, Prances Marr, 2^ he premiered her Concerto for V i o l i n and Small Orchestra January 20, 1945, at the Toronto Conservatory Hall. He performed her V i o l i n Concerto i n New York at Times Hall, February 15» 1948, and included Vista on the program of a tour i n 1949. Adaskin recently commentedt I've seen to i t that she had performances, and could be considered a champion of her music. 30 In 1947 and 1948 Pentland spent the summers at the MacDowell Colony i n New Hampshire, where, for the f i r s t time, 2 8Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1972. 29she later more commonly used Frances Adaskin as her professional name. 3°Harry Adaskin in interview, July 6, 1974. 5 3 she became seriously interested in an organized use of s e r i a l technique. A retreat for artists and writers, the colony consisted of acres of woodland where each participant could work alone a l l day undisturbed. It was a great help to me then, as I was l i v i n g in Toronto where the summers are usually very hot and humid, I was teaching at the Conservatory (on commission in those days), which did not enable me to have a place in the country, so the Colony provided an ideal spot to work in during the summer. In addition i t gave me contacts with com-posers who were more aware of the world outside, whereas the war had isolated me from the mainstream, 31 It was at the Colony that she met Dika Newlin, once a pupil of Schoenberg, who was translating Schoenberg et Son Eoole by Rene Leibowitz. Absorbed i n learning the basic concepts of the twelve-tone method, Pentland took one month to read the book, whereas Newlin had translated i t i n two weeks. I got a lot out of the book. I was already using some of these techniques but 31 Pentland i n a letter to Dr. Arnold Schwab, June 1, 1972. 54 "became, more aware of this approach. It was Dika Newlin that really started me using the se r i a l technique. 32 In addition to the Leibowitz book, Newlin had with her at the Colony a l l the available works of Schoenberg, as well as some of Webern. We spent quite a l o t of time on these works, playing things four hands and so on. This put the seal of the s e r i a l technique on my work. I had veered continually towards J , &Pentland in interview, July 7» 1972. She reacts rather strongly against.statements that she derived her use of the seria l method from John Weinzweig, and feels that this is not at a l l accurate. Widely read articles such as Robert Turner's "Barbara Pentland," Canadian Music  Journal, Vol, 2, #4, do not help correct this misconception* The seven years she spent i n the East saw the production of at least ten major works. It was i n these that her mature style evolved and absorbed yet another trend, atonality. This new interest was undoubtedly a result of her association with John Weinzweig, professor of composition at the Royal Conservatory and one of the f i r s t practitioners of Schoeribergian precepts i n Canada. Pentland, however, was not interested in the Schoenberg style, finding his melodic lines tortured and the effect overly romantic, but rather i n the technique i t s e l f . She deplores the frequent comments i n various articles that she actually studied with Weinzweig and was influenced by him» "It did not occur to me to write i n his style; I was not at a l l attracted by his use of the method." (Pentland i n Interview, July 7, 1972.) 55 more and more contrapuntal writing, and this is a direction I have continued. The melodic impulse is the kind of harmonic impulse I*m interested i n . The last work to be written prior to my more conscious adoption of the se r i a l technique was the Sonata Fantasy, and you can trace a l l the material to the opening intro-duction - and this was quite a long work. So i t seemed necessary for me to find a complex of material that would provide the generating power for the whole work. And so I came to the use of the technique by this need to be horizontal in the sense of going forward from an i n i t i a l source. 33 Though she heard and played the works of Webern at this time, his works did not make much of an impression on her u n t i l her t r i p to Germany i n 1955• While at the MacDowell Colony i n 1947 she wrote Colony Music, a work for chamber orchestra which had been commissioned by the Forest H i l l Community (in Toronto), for the New World Orchestra, and i t was premiered in February 1948. I had written a rather happy work there, a suite for string orchestra with piano, which I called Colony Music - the t i t l e of which needed some explanation to colonially conscious compatriots, 34 The following summer while there she wrote Wind Octet, her f i r s t s e r i a l l y organized work. During the rest of the year her activities in Toronto con-tinued. In March of 1948, Harry Somers played a r e c i t a l of Pentland's piano works, written from 1938 to 1947, which followed a r e c i t a l of his own piano works. Pentland i n Music Scene, op.olt. Pentland i n a letter to Dr. Arnold Schwab, June 1, 1972. 56 He hopes through these two recitals to win a wider interest i n Toronto, particularly for the Pentland piano music, which he believes to be distinctly Canadian, as well as being original and non-derivative l n conception. 35 In 19^8 one of her compositions, "Cities" from the Song Cycle, was sent along with several other Canadian works to the XIV Olympiad i n London, England, and she was awarded a bronze medal for the work. Pentland was represented i n a special concert entitled "Chamber Music by Women of Five Countries" i n Philadelphia, A p r i l 1949. Her String Quartet No. 1 was performed, and was 3 6 received very well. Holiday Suite received several per-3 7 formances by various orchestras from 1947 to 1949, including a performance of the f i n a l movement by the Winnipeg Symphony, March 1949. It also appeared that year at the World Festival of Youth and Students i n Budapest, Hungary, in an all-Canadian concert which was under the auspices of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. In the summer of 19^9, Harry Adaskin, who had recently become the head of the music department at the University ^"Somers to Play His Compositions and Pentland's," Globe and Mail, February 2 8 , 1948. Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, A p r i l 21 , 1949. The other four composers represented were L i l i Boulanger, Graznya Bacewicz, Louis Talma, and Peggy Glanville-hicks. 37Among the performances werej Harold Sumberg's Symphony for Strings, June 16, 19^7, radio broadcast, and Members of the Musicians* Union of Budapest, September 18 , 1 9 4 9 . 57 of Br i t i s h Columbia, offered her a position on the faculty, teaching theory and composition. During the 1940's she had refused several university positions for several reasons} she did not want to go to an American school, nor would she accept a position which was for only one year, and, i n addition, she was reluctant to leave Toronto, where she was making a name for herself, and where her works were being heard. However, later i n the decade, when the Re-Habilitation programs were drawing to a close, Pentland began looking for a more secure position, and decided to accept Adaskin*s offer. She moved to Vancouver i n August, settling i n a war-time army hut on the campus. Now i n her f i r s t university position, Pentland was given a free hand i n forming her theory courses, and based i t on a study of the developments which lead up to 16th century counter-point, followed by an investigation into more advanced harmony, referring to the music of the period, and making studies of how techniques were used and developed. The composition students began with simple melodic lines and were expected to complete at least one movement of a sonata by the end of their second year of composition study. In the early years of the music department at U.B.C. there was not a Bachelor of Music program, so that students taking music courses were specializing in other f i e l d s . Pentland was not impressed with their level of musical knowledge» 58 I was horrified at how l i t t l e they had learned. Unless they had studied privately they had no background. Students should know a l l the basics by the end of high school. This makes them more sensitive to sound, 38 Her interest in the problems of music education prior to university levels led her to working on a program i n creative music for use i n B.C. schools. Developed partly from her experience with the children at the Settlement School i n Toronto, the course was intended to be started in the earliest grades, giving training of the whole person, and working towards a completely involved response, Pentland f e l t that this total response would help the child develop and make him a better student. Unfortunately, the course, which she prepared i n the early 1950's, was met with indifference, and was never applied. I n i t i a l l y , l i f e i n Vancouver was considerably quieter than i t had been in Toronto for Pentland, and, though she enjoyed the pioneer s p i r i t f e l t In Vancouver at the time, she f e l t the loss of others with the same Interests as herself. Composer Jean Coulthard was on the staff at the university, and i t was because he f e l t that Coulthard was rather traditional in approach that Adaskin had asked Pentland to come to U.B.C, "I f e l t the students ought to have a look at 39 someone more contemporary i n style," ' The very difference 3 8Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1972. •^Harry Adaskin in interview, July 6, 1974. 59 in the two composers' styles seemed to hinder the development of a close relationship. When I came out here I didn't know anyone. I didn't know how conventional people were and I thought there would be more people of my type. Here I f e l t quite alone. 40 The upheaval of moving was further complicated that year by an ear infection - a problem which has often plagued Pentland in recent years - and, having neither a phone nor an auto-mobile, her sense of isolation was increased. She did find some companionship with Harry and Prances Adaskin, and found that their Interest in her music continued. Adaskin arranged a program of her music which was performed in January 1950 by soprano Frances James, the Steinberg String Quartet, and the composer. The works included on the program were String Quartet No. 1, Song Cycle, Sonata Fantasy, and Studies i n Line.. Sponsored by the Fine Arts Committee and the Department of Music, the concert was well received. There is no doubt that Barbara Pentland has considerable creative genius. Her works portrayed a s k i l l i n composition, particularly i n the fusing of one melody with another i n true contrapuntal form, 41 Apparently pleased with the reaction to the concert, Pentland commented shortly afterwards about Vancouver: ^Pentland in interview, July 7, 1972. 41 A" Works.of Winnipeg Composer Well Received at U.B.C. Concert," Vancouver News Herald, January 28, 1950. 60 Here they take It for granted you're a composer. They open their ears and listen! This i s a l l we Canadian composers ask - that our music be given a chance to be heard. 42 As more of her works were performed, and, as she began to adjust to the new location, by 1952 she was able to be more optimistic. Miss Pentland stated that the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Music Department has shown in i t i a t i v e i n producing works unknown to the public. "We have established a small centre for chamber music," she said, "and presented the whole cycle of six Bartok quartets, for the f i r s t Canadian and what is believed only the sixth performance in the world. The J u i l l i a r d Quartet played the works. Last season we did the Lyric Suite of Alban Berg, and this year we also performed i n an all-student venture, Stravinsky's Les Nooes."43 In March 1950 she participated i n a four day symposium of Contemporary Canadian Music which was sponsored by the Community Arts Council and the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Society. Composers from across Canada attended, as did about 1500 listeners, and Pentland appeared as a speaker, composer, and performer. Compositions by 3^ Canadian composers were heard, including two works of Pentland, the String Quartet No. 1, and the Sonata for Violoncello and Piano. Her String Quartet No. 1 was later performed in July 1953 at Brock Hall, U.B.C, by the J u i l l i a r d String Quartet, ^"Noted U.B.C. Composer 'Can't Help Writing Music'," Vancouver Sun. February 15, 1950. J"Raps Lack of Initiative i n Use of Canadian Talent," Winnipeg Tribune, July 12, 1952. 61 in a concert arranged by Harry Adaskin. I asked the J u i l l i a r d Quartet to play her string quartet, and they liked the work, finding i t clear and concise. When she'd finished what she had to say she stopped, k k In 1950 she was commissioned by the "Youth Music League" of Vancouver to write an orchestral work for the Junior Symphony Orchestra, At i t s premiere November 8, 1952, only the f i r s t movement of the resulting work, Symphony No. 2 , was performed, though i t was heard i n i t s entirety i n February 1953 on C.B.C. radio. Written with the amateur youth group in mind, the symphony is not d i f f i c u l t technically, and con-structed simply, on a smaller scale than a more advanced work. In November 1950 she was flown to Toronto to participate in a C.B.C. broadcast entitled "An Investigation of Modernism in the Arts," a symposium designed to investigate the reasons for the s p l i t between the modern a r t i s t and his audience, and to outline some of the principles upon which artists base their work. Among other participants were Robertson Davies, Abraham Klein, and Jacques de Tonnancour. Her Interest i n Canadiana was reflected In the chamber . opera which she wrote i n 1953* The work was based on an incident i n the l i f e of Susan Allison, the f i r s t white woman., to pioneer i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Similkameen county, and on the legend of Ogopogo at Lake Okanagan. Pentland and Dorothy "^Harry Adaskin i n interview, July 6, 1 9 7 k . 62 Livesay, who wrote the text, v i s i t e d the A l l i s o n cabin and surrounding d i s t r i c t , and interviewed people who had known the family, as well as descendents. The work was written f o r radio, and was premiered on the C.B.C. i n February 1954. A p r o l i f i c writer throughout her career, Pentland was able to hear premieres of several of her works i n the early 1950's i n Vancouver, including Ave Atque Vale, performed by the Vancouver Symphony. Her Octet f o r Wind Instruments (1948) had i t s concert premiere i n December 195^ by the Cassenti Players. I t had been heard on the C.B.C. i n January 1949. Foreign performances included a broadcast of her Second Symphony on the B.B.C. i n June 1954. The Sonatina f o r Solo  Flute was performed by f l a u t i s t Jean Murphy at the Vancouver Art Gallery i n February, 1955. on a program that was otherwise mainly romantic. In January 1955» Pentland performed her piano works i n a r e c i t a l presented by the Community Arts Council at the Vancouver A rt Gallery, which was received with some reserva-. tions by the l o c a l papers. Miss Pentland's music contains many o r i g i n a l ideas but there was a seeming lack of development and continuity. However, there i s much i n her scores which reveal remarkable t a l e n t , and one has the greatest admiration of the musical agressive-ness of this, enthusiastic musician. 45 -'"Modern Music i s S t i l l Experimental," Vancouver Sun, February 12, 1955. 63 Further acti v i t i e s included an appearance on a series of radio programs i n which works of Canadian composers were presented. Pentland performed her Sonatinas I and II. While concluding her acti v i t i e s and courses at the university that year, Pentland was preparing for a summer i n Europe, her f i r s t t r i p abroad i n 25 years. She was saddened that her plans could not include taking along her dog Dart, which she had acquired i n 1951 and raised from a puppy. Dart remained with friends, while Pentland l e f t the relative isolation of Vancouver for exciting developments in Europe. MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT Pentland's new interest i n a more detached, slightly thinner style which followed her summers at Tanglewood can be largely attributed,to Copland's influence, but i t was also a result of the neoclassic trend which was evident i n her music from the mid Igl^O's to the mid 1950' s. Along with the neoclassic, there continued a tendency to romanticism i n Pentland's works which was apparent u n t i l the late 1950's. The neoclassic aspect was manifested by the use of such devices as ostinatos, dotted rhythms, more simplified texture, and more concise forms, and Pentland feels that her interest i n these characteristics was probably a result of several influences, including Stravinsky and Copland! 64 As I tended to escape the harmonic implications of the nineteenth century by my melodic or horizontal approach, so I escaped rhythmically through perhaps two main influences i the syncope v i a Copland (jazz?), Stravinsky, etc., and the non-metric rhythm of plain-song and other medieval music. Today I f i n d myself being influenced also by new sounds and complex rhythms possible In elec t r o n i c music. 46 Also of s i g n i f i c a n c e to Pentland's development was the music of Hindemlth, e s p e c i a l l y i n his use of smaller forms, as well as i n his treatment of i n t e r v a l s . Though she f e e l s that t h i s was not a l a s t i n g influence (Copland had warned her against leaning on what he termed the Hindemlth •German* t r a d i t i o n ) , his more impersonal approach interested her so much that t h i s aspect has been maintained throughout her mature s t y l e . Now consciously tr y i n g to simplify the texture of her music, Pentland found that writing the String Quartet i n 1944 helped her achieve t h i s by fo r c i n g her to think c a r e f u l l y of how each part was used, and by making her more aware of e s s e n t i a l notes. She r e c a l l s that a c o n f l i c t between the neoclassic and the French-Romantic Style was f e l t as early as her student days i n New York. Her new concern f o r cl e a r and concise formal outlines i s evident i n Studies i n Line (194l), one of her best known Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Karin Doerksen, A p r i l 19. 1972. 65 and most f r e q u e n t l y performed works, published i n 1949 4? and recorded i n 1950. By t h e i r t i t l e s alone, the s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e Pentland's i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r l i n e a r aspects. They were w r i t t e n i n one week, and only a f t e r they were f i n i s h e d Pentland discovered that each formed a d i f f e r e n t type of l i n e . She then assigned a sketch to each as a t i t l e , d e s c r i b i n g the type of contour which f o l l o w e d . Ronald Napier, of B.M.I.t who was i n v o l v e d w i t h the r e c o r d i n g of the works, r e c a l l s t h a t the r e c o r d i n g company was unable t o p r i n t the sketches t h a t Pentland had g i v e n each study, and t h a t a problem was encountered when she refused to have any v e r b a l t i t l e s assigned to the works. I n the end, the s t u d i e s were simply numbered f o r the r e c o r d i n g . I n these f o u r short works i s found an emphasis on c l e a r e r t o n a l i t y which i s i l l u s t r a t e d most e v i d e n t l y i n the cadences throughout. The opening movement 'Largo', f o r example, both begins and ends i n c# minor, w h i l e i n the body of the work, other t o n a l i t i e s are explored. 47 'The p o p u l a r i t y of the s t u d i e s i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e i r i n c l u s i o n on the Royal Conservatory of Toronto Piano examination l i s t f o r Grade X, and by a choreography i n 1949 which was presented by seven members of the Winnipeg b a l l e t . 6 6 Example 1, "Largo" from Studies i n Line, (a) b. 1-4} (b) b. 28-29. The texture throughout t h i s work i s generally less f u l l , though there are s t i l l strong leanings toward the chordal, e s p e c i a l l y i n the opening "Largo", where the block chords i n the l e f t hand give a f u l l texture, (see example 1 ) . The melodic l i n e i s straightforward, with some octave displacement, and frequent octave doublings i n the middle section. 67 Example 2, "Largo" from Studies In Line, b. 11-14. The study consists of three phrases which are simple repetitions, with variations i n range and dynamics, and some tonal exploration. These characteristics presage what w i l l ensue In the remaining three studies, and i n some of the other works of the 1940 *s. It i s interesting to note how Pentland's s k i l l as a composer developed i n this period. The repeated four-note accompaniment pattern in "Presto" of Studies i n Line creates a flurry, but i s relatively simple. 68 Example 3, "Presto" from Studies In Line, b. 1-2, , 9 n mF& '-'-70-* 0 0 G\Z 1 pi -0 f b 4 0 > 0 i • y hi 10 1' 4 -—h * 0 Sirr » J0* • 1 k ) 0 * 4 r / 'J ' 1 In " F l i g h t " of From Long Ago (19k6) a s i m i l a r figure i s made more in t e r e s t i n g by rhythmic displacement. 3-wp mm 0 3=-0 i -d 4-m-1  9 • r i —0— _ ^ f tip The cadences of these two works also serve to i l l u s t r a t e some development. In "Presto" the f i n a l cadence i s quite d i a t o n i c . 69 Example 5, "Presto" from Studies l n Line, b. 41-42. And that of "Plight" is less obviously so. Example 6, "Flight" from From Long Ago, b. 19-20) 9- • -| • V • * f / c \~6 • 1 -8 -.. / The Sonata Fantasy (1947) illustrates Pentland's interest in the longer forms and thick textures of the more romantic, and in an increasingly contrapuntal approach which was gradually developing as the 194o's progressed. As my idiom evolved i n a contrapuntal direction, the material seemed to stem from a source presented ln the opening, as sort of generating impulse, This is f a i r l y clear i n a piano work Sonata Fantasy, written early i n 1947. I got acquainted with some of the music of Schoenberg and Webern during the summers of 1947 and 1948, but i t was the technical ideas Imparted by Rene Leibowitz i n his book Schoenberg et Son Ecole which interested me, 70 not the actual Schoenberg idiom, which I found too Teutonic and tortured i n a f i n - d e - s i e c l e manner. My Wind Octet was the f i r s t work where I conschious-l y made use of the s e r i a l technique, but there was no abrupt change (as i n a "conversion")} I simply used these methods of control which my music had reached almost on i t s own, and so I could apply them to c l a r i f y and unify the material and to give more freedom to the structure. 48 The Sonata Fantasy i s regarded by Pendland as both a summing up of what preceded, and a looking ahead to what w i l l come i n i t s thematic derivations and i n t e r v a l l i c development. The 12 bar introduction, which i t s e l f appears throughout e i t h e r i n fragments or i n i t s entirety, provides material which i s used i n the rest of the work, though i t i s altered considerably i n i t s l a t e r appearances. Example 7, Sonata Fantasy, b. 1-6. 9 =3= rjf £3t f i y a : zz: 8 ^ 8 L e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17, 1973. 71 The second theme at bar 13 i s derived from bar 3» here inverted and with more emphasis on quartal harmonies. Example 8, Sonata Fantasy, b.l 13 -16 . A subsidiary theme which enters at bar 36 i s a combination of material from bar 6 and bar 3 . Example 9, Sonata Fantasy, b. 36-37 . r i g h t hand. r4 T-V „ n M— r - f - i 1. — — 6 —(SH I The opening melodic l i n e , which outlines an A minor t r i a d , anticipates the predominance of the minor t r i a d which appears frequently i n t h i s l i n e a r manner. 72 49 It is obvious from the outset that the treatment of intervals is an important element of this work, those i n the upper voice of measures 1-3 playing a central role. Pentland feels that i t was her exposure to the music of Hindemith which led her to a more logical use of intervals," and this more conscious approach was evident i n works throughout the 19 k0's. The influence of Copland may be seen i n a subsidiary theme i n the Sonata Fantasy, i n which the use of open f i f t h s in the bass, and the more l i l t i n g rhythm results i n a folk-type s p i r i t which is quite reminiscent of the former teacher. Example 10, Sonata Fantasy, b. 167-169. * =& & -V- <r This work illustrates common textural aspects such as decora-tive scale passages and running note patterns which are found in Example 7. Themes are occasionally obscured by a heavy texture, or by interweaving inner parts. There are few rests, and total silence is rare. 49 Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1972. 73 Formally, the Sonata Fantasy i s a combination of fugal and sonata elements, with the fugue appearing as a develop-ment section i n which contrapuntal techniques, such as augmentation, diminution, s t r e t t o , and inversions are used. These are a l l techniques which w i l l remain a part of Pentland*s mature s t y l e i n her use of s e r i a l i s m . In contrast to this kind of writing are other works of the same period that are more concise and cle a r formally, and have a more transparent texture, such as the three short pieces l n From Long Ago (1946). Example 11, "Obstinate Tune" from From Long Ago, b. 1-4, i: : '• 'Jl \ ^ 6 H 1 • q \/—^ Here i n t e r e s t i n g developments on a lim i t e d amount of material, as well as Pentland's inte r e s t i n rhythm, may be seen. A f t e r her exposure to Schoenberg's music l n 1947 and 1948, Pentland's leanings became increasingly more contrapuntal and more concise. The neo-classic trend continued into the 1950's, and Pentland developed more control over the texture and material i n her works. 74 I was more consciously working towards a l o g i c a l s e l e c t i o n of tones. There has to be a reason behind the use of c e r t a i n notes. And I was not c l u t t e r i n g the texture as much as e a r l i e r , i n such works as the Sonata, or the Sonata Fantasy. I was t r y i n g then to l e t In the l i g h t . 50 These aspects may be seen i n Sonatina I (1951)» i n which a l l three short movements are based e n t i r e l y on the material presented i n the cadenza-like opening. Though a 12-tone row i s not c l e a r l y evident, ten notes of a row appear i n bar 1 , and there follows a rather free s e r i a l use of t h i s material. Example 1 2 , Sonatina I, b. 1 . The work i s very t i g h t l y constructed, as i s indicated by the d e r i v a t i o n of the theme of the third movement, which i s a retrograde of the opening bar I l l u s t r a t e d above. Pentland i n interview, December 1 3 , 1973. 75 Example 13, Sonatina I. third movement, b. 1 - 3 . ~>0 _ . 0- ^ _ .. f L.H. f i % — (&7U30. 9+2 — / 7^->7--Y — —52- k, 0- - 7 ^ - J L The neoclassic aspect of the work, and of others at this time, is stressed by the kinds of intervals which predominate. Minor thirds are important throughout, both harmonically and melodically, as in the secondary section of the f i r s t movement, measures 13 -30, which i s derived from bar 2 material. Example l k , Sonatina I, f i r s t movement, b. 19-22. 76 In the second movement of t h i s work are found several v a r i a t i o n techniques, such as theme inversion, retrograde, s t r e t t o , and diminution, once again, common both to neoclassic and to s e r i a l music. The above trends continued u n t i l the mid 1950's, when a new stimulus would i n t e n s i f y and accelerate the di r e c t i o n s Pentland's music was taking. CHAPTER THREE 77 78 Pentland's t r i p to Europe i n the summer of 1955 proved to be an important factor i n the evolution of her mature s t y l e . Upon landing, she went d i r e c t l y to the new music f e s t i v a l i n Darmstadt (International Perienkurse fur Neue Musik), which was taking place from May 29 to June 6, and i n which s p e c i a l emphasis was given to experimental music. It was there that she had a more prolonged exposure to the works of Webern, and to what had resulted from his influence. I t consolidated the d i r e c t i o n i n which she had gradually been moving - toward a more simple and transparent texture. "I r e a l i z e d you can say as much with two notes as with twenty i f you use the r i g h t two i n the r i g h t place." 1 In addition, during that summer she heard a great deal of con-temporary music, including works by Boulez, Stockhausen, Nono, and Berio, and she was e s p e c i a l l y interested i n the ele c t r o n i c works. Having been confined to the more t r a d i t i o n a l music that was available i n Canada at that point, Pentland found these new developments e x c i t i n g and stimulating. Following the f e s t i v a l at Darmstadt, she t r a v e l l e d to Brussels f o r a concert of her music on June 14, which was sponsored by the Business and Professional Women's Clubs of Brussels. Pentland, always having c a l l e d f o r more support for the a r t i s t s and musicians of Canada, was impressed with what she witnessed i n European countries. 1 P e t e r Huse, Music Scene, July - August, 1968, p. 9 . 79 Miss Pentland was 'amazed' to learn that a non-musical organization had undertaken sponsorship of her performance i n the Belgian c a p i t a l . She f e e l s that s i m i l a r business and professional s o c i e t i e s could do much to further the work of t h i s country's composers. 2 This concert included a premiere of her Solo v i o l i n Sonata (1950), played by Louis Thienpont, and a performance of her C e l l o Sonata (19k3) by Antoinette Dethoor, as well as several piano works, including Variations. Sonatinas I and I I , Sonata-Fantasy,.and A r i a which were performed by the composer. From Brussels she went to Baden-Baden to the I.S.C.M. conference, which was held that year from June 17 to 21. Having joined the Canadian League of Composers i n 195k, and, having informed the League that she was planning oh going to the f e s t i v a l at Baden-Baden, Pentland was asked to act as the Canadian delegate. As part of her duty as a delegate she sent a report on the f e s t i v a l to John Beckwith, then secretary of the Canadian League of Composers. Germany impressed her with i t s i n t e r e s t i n new music, the support given to i t s musicians, and with i t s highly developed modern radio stations, which she toured, which provided ample f a c i l i t i e s as well as opportunities f o r new music to be performed and heard. Pentland f e e l s that the f i r s t r e a l r e s u l t of the European t r i p was Interlude, begun i n Konstanz, and written as she was t r a v e l l i n g that summer. 2Martha Robinson, "Barbara Pentland on ^ European Tour," Vancouver Sun, May 18,1955. 80 It i s the f i r s t piano piece where d i r e c t use of octaves i s avoided. The texture i s more opened up than i n the Dirge (1948) where I depart from the more neo-classic attitudes of Sonatinas I and I I . 3 She has also stated that this work was influenced by electronic music as well as by the music of Webern. From Baden-Baden, and a f t e r some t r a v e l l i n g to other centres where she continued to hear new works, Pentland went to London, England, where she spent an active summer. In June she was approached by the B.B.C. to record some of her piano works f o r radio broadcast, and she presented a program of her piano music on July 5 at the I n s t i t u t e of Contemporary Arts. When Pentland returned to Vancouver i n the f a l l of 1955, she could not help comparing Canadian musical resources with what was available i n Europe j "I r e a l i z e d I was completely cut off from everything and made plans to get a year of absence 4 so I could return f o r a longer period." She departed f o r Europe the following spring, t h i s time with a n t i c i p a t i o n of playing a more prominant r o l e at the I.S.C.M. f e s t i v a l , which was being held l n Stockholm June 3 > 10 that year. She had been informed i n February of 1956 -^Pentland l n interview, July 7, 1973. ^ I b i d . 81 that her Second St r i n g Quartet ( 1 9 5 3 ) had been one of 2 7 works selected f o r performance i n Stockholm by an International Jury which had considered l K 0 d i f f e r e n t works. I t was a c t u a l l y i n the f a l l of 1 9 5 K that the Canadian League of Composers had asked her to submit her F i r s t S t ring Quartet for considera-t i o n f o r the 1955 I.S.C.M. I t was among s i x other Canadian works which were sent to the International Jury f o r s e l e c t i o n . Pentland, however, surprised the League by sending them her Second S t r i n g Quartet instead, f e e l i n g i t was more in d i c a t i v e of her present s t y l e . That year the scores f a i l e d to a r r i v e i n time f o r the Jury meetings, but the following year proved to be more f r u i t f u l f o r Pentland, since her quartet was the only Canadian work selected f o r performance. This was a highly prestigious and e x c i t i n g development f o r her, but there were d i f f i c u l t i e s to come which led to Canada's resignation from the I.S.C.M. i n 1 9 5 6 . I t was i n the f a l l of 1 9 5 5 that the Canadian League of Composers began questioning the v a l i d i t y of i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with I.S.C.M., Canada then going into only i t s t h i r d year of membership. The annual fee of $ 1 2 5 was more than i t f e l t able •^ The S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 was written i n 1 9 5 3 i n memory of Pentland's brother, a Jet p i l o t , who was k i l l e d that year i n an a i r crash i n Pakistan. The f i r s t of i t s f i v e movements contains a b r i e f quotation from the "Requiem Aeternam." 82 to afford, and there had not been any performances of Canadian music at the f e s t i v a l to that point.^ The League was not pleased to have missed what i t f e l t was an early deadline f o r submission of works the previous year. The Canadian.League of Composers was informed i n February of 1956 that the Pentland work had been chosen, and, not having read the I.S.C.M. con s t i t u t i o n was astonished to learn that i t was responsible for paying f o r the performance of the Quartet, a further fee of $>l6o. I t then decided to withdraw from the international organization rather than be obligated f o r past fees as well as the performance. Now i t was Pentland*s turn to be astonished, but she was supported by the president of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,,who had found out about the s i t u a t i o n and soon arranged f o r s u f f i c i e n t funds to finance the performance. At the same time, Karl-Birger Blomdahl, then secretary of I.S.C.M., i n -formed the Canadians that since the work was sent, and selected i n good f a i t h , unless i t was withdrawn by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Jury i t would be performed, no matter what the Canadians decided. Blomdahl then arranged f o r Swedish Radio to finance the performance of the Quartet by a Swedish group. However, Canada withdrew from I.S.C.M. anyway, fearing ^In f a c t , the Canadian delegation had not yet paid any of i t s 1955 fees, and so owed the I.S.C.M. f o r two years of membership as w e l l . 83 future f i n a n c i a l obligations, and f e e l i n g quite conscious of the f a c t that another country was sponsoring the performance. Pentland was deeply hurt by the actions of her fellow Canadian composers, and f e e l s that there was some professional jealousy involved i n the decision to withdraw. Because of t h i s , a permanent r i f t developed between her and John Weinzwelg, then the president of the Canadian League of Composers and who, she f e l t , had led the league to i t s decision. She r e c a l l s that Canada's announcement of withdrawal came in a cable just a f t e r the delegates had been assigned rooms and meal t i c k e t s , and that she was then asked to return her meal t i c k e t since she was no longer a delegate. She f e l t l e t down now only by her fellow composers, but also by the Canadian government, having witnessed at the f e s t i v a l other delegates from smaller poorer countries who were given more support. In 1956 she also returned to the f e s t i v a l at Darmstadt, where she began the Symphony f o r Ten Parts. She also went to Venice f o r the F e s t i v a l Internazlonale d l Muslca Contemporanea, and to the Unesco conference i n Salzburg. She s e t t l e d that year i n Munich, from October of 1956 to May of 1957. My main objective was to l i v e f o r a;while i n an active musical centre, and to hear con-temporary music and performances of high c a l i b r e , and orchestral and operatic performances that could not be heard at home. 7 7 'Letter to Helmut Kallman, January 25, 196l. 84 While i n Munich she l i v e d with a German family, i n what o had been the d r a f t i n g room i n t h e i r large house. She became good friends with the eldest daughter of the family, Amsel Bembe, as well as with Marion, who became a very well-known a r t i s t i n Germany, She r e c a l l s playing two piano works with Amsell, each at a piano i n opposite rooms, with the h a l l doors open so that they could hear one another. She ate her meals with the family, and, though there was l i t t l e meat available i n post-war Europe, Pentland remembers pleasant meals of good bread, yoghurt, and l o t s of eggs. She s t i l l corresponds with the family and, on another t r i p to Europe l n 1963, introduced them to her husband. While i n Europe, Pentland went to many centres and heard a great deal of new music, each of her three summers there being f u l l of new music f e s t i v a l s . Among her a c t i v i t i e s i n 1957 was the I.S.C.M. F e s t i v a l which was i n Zurich that year. Her Organ Concerto was performed at the International Congress of Organists at a concert presented i n Westminster Abbey by the Canadian College of Organists. Conducting the work was the C.B.C.'s d i r e c t o r of music Geoffrey Waddington, with organist Gordon Je f f r e y , who had commissioned the work, and had performed i t i n Ontario i n 1951. Only a few weeks a f t e r she returned from Europe to resume her teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the university she met John o Herr Bembe, at that point deceased, had been an a r c h i t e c t . 8 5 Huberman at a Sunday afternoon tea. This meeting was quite by chance since neither of them generally attended events of this type. They were married a year l a t e r i n Vancouver, October 10, 1958. Pentland r e c a l l s j Previous to t h i s time I had always been too busy to get involved with others, and I think that most men sensed th i s - that I just wasn't interested. And I didn't meet anybody, c e r t a i n l y not i n Toronto. It had never occurred to me that I would ever marry. E a r l y i n my l i f e t his was the only thing that my parents meant me to do, so I had an Innate guard against t h i s happening. The idea that you could get married and s t i l l have a career was completely out of my mind. I had a concept of being f i r s t a composer and l a s t l y a woman. Rall y had wanted an independent s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t wife. I had never met anyone who wanted a professional wife. R a l l y i s delighted with my successes. 9 An i n d u s t r i a l psychologist who was the f i r s t r e c i p i e n t of a Ph.D i n psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Huberman i s from a musical family. His father was Bronislaw Huberman, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known v i o l i n i s t , and his step-father, the p i a n i s t and composer Ernst von Dohnanyi. His mother, E l z a Galafres, a well-known actress on the B e r l i n and Vienna stages, had l i v e d i n Vancouver since the end of World War I I . Huberman i s c e r t a i n l y of a more romantic i n c l i n a t i o n i n his musical taste than Pentland, one of his favourite Pentland i n interview, June 8, 197 k. 86 composers being C a r l Maria von Weber, and there are those who have f e l t that marriage has lent a more romantic touch to her music, though Pentland has reservations about t h i s : A l o t of people think my music has warmed up and i s more romantic since my marriage, but I think i t i s just a more natural, f r e e r expression, 10 While Pentland was i n Europe, Harry Adaskin decided to step down as the head of the music department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia so that he would have more time f o r teaching and performance. He remained on the teaching s t a f f there and was replaced by an American, G, Welton Marquis, i n June 1958. Devoted to Canadian i n t e r e s t s , Pentland was d i s -mayed to f i n d that someone from another country was now head of the music department. She f e l t that Marquis brought i n a whole s t a f f of Americans who were immediately ranked above the Canadian instructors, and was quite conscious of how the •outsiders* were put i n positions of power over the Canadians, In addition, she f e l t that lower standards were now being accepted f o r the music degree. She had begun her program f o r creative music i n the B r i t i s h Columbia school system i n the early 1950*s because she was not s a t i s f i e d with the background of the students she taught at the un i v e r s i t y . Always s t r i v i n g f o r higher standards, she found anything less i n t o l e r a b l e . 1 0 I b i d . 87 I had students who weren't g e t t i n g any counterpoint and were g e t t i n g a Bachelor of Music in composition. I resigned - I wasn't going t o put up w i t h that k i n d of standard. A l l the b a s i c fundamentals were mis s i n g . 11 Her r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1963 ended her connections w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y and her teaching. Those who knew her as a teacher r e c a l l t hat she was demanding, expecting as much work and enthusiasm from the students as she put i n t o the subject h e r s e l f , and she responded e s p e c i a l l y w e l l to those who showed i n t e r e s t and were w i l l i n g t o work. Harry Adaskin r e c a l l s from d e a l i n g w i t h her as a s t a f f member» "She was i n f l e x i b l y of the highest standard."12 Robert Rogers, who studied harmony, counterpoint, composition and a n a l y s i s w i t h her during the school year of 195 k to 55» recalls» She was p a r t i c u l a r l y strong a n a l y t i c a l l y . We d i d a great d e a l of a n a l y s i s of Beethoven Sonatas. I n the composition c l a s s she was more concerned w i t h how we were o r g a n i z i n g the m a t e r i a l than w i t h whether or not we were using a contemporary idiom. 13 Adaskin a l s o commented on her r o l e as a teacher i She was a s u c c e s s f u l teacher i f the p u p i l s were motivated. She i s a very dedicated musician and expected the students to be dedicated as w e l l . l k A f t e r her r e s i g n a t i o n she went on a t r i p t o Europe w i t h her husband before devoting her f u l l a t t e n t i o n to composition. I b i d . Harry Adaskin i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6, 197 k. Robert Rogers I n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 197 k. Harry Adaskin i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6, 197 k. 88 I was l u c k y that at t h a t time of my l i f e I was able to r e s i g n without f i n a n c i a l hardship and continue my own career. 15 Pentland's musical a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the l a t e 1950*s had continued to expand and f l o u r i s h i n s p i t e of her unhappiness at the u n i v e r s i t y . Her Concerto f o r Piano and S t r i n g s (1955-56) , which was premiered i n March 1958 a t a concert presented by the Canadian Music A s s o c i a t e s i n Toronto, w i t h Mario Bernardi as s o l o i s t , and V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l conducting, drew considerable comment from the press. Hugh Thomson of the Toronto S t a r s a i d he would r a t h e r "take the gas-pipe and end i t a l l " r a t h e r than hear the work 1 c again. Pentland f i n d s t h i s k i n d of r e a c t i o n to her music humorous, and was d e l i g h t e d when her husband threatened to send Thomson a g a s - p i p e . 1 7 The comment of L e s l i e B e l l t h a t the work 1 8 was "extremely bad," prompted John Beckwith to w r i t e him a l e t t e r q u e s t i o n i n g t h i s judgement, and e x p l a i n i n g why he thought i t was a good work. One of the most obvious features of her Concerto i s I t s constant v a r i a t i o n a l i n v e n t i o n -the v a r i e t i e s of texture and melody w i t h i n i t s idiom amount to an admirable demonstration of c r e a t i v e s k i l l . 19 •^Pentland i n i n t e r v i e w , January 22 , 1972. 1^Hugh Thomson, "Pentland Concerto Most Disagreeable, I r r i t a t i n g to Hear," Toronto S t a r . March 13, 1958. ^ R e c e n t l y , when r e f e r r e d to by C h r i s t o p h e r Dafoe as a ^decadent running dog", Vancouver Province, February 18, 1 9 7 K , P. 3 3 , Pentland exclaimed " I j u s t love tb be c a l l e d a decadent running dog." l 8 L e s l i e B e l l , Globe and M a i l . March 13, 1958. 1^John Beckwith, i n a l e t t e r t o L e s l i e B e l l , March 15, 1958. 89 This led to a second review by B e l l which could hardly be said to have demonstrated any tempering of his opinions In the f i r s t movement the s o l o i s t ' s part consists of tortuous leaps from one end of the keyboard to the other, or handfuls of notes clutched from the piano l n a v i c i o u s , b r u t a l manner. Behind th i s unpleasant demonstration the strings wander about i n a bewildered fashion, f i n a l l y bringing the movement to an end with a vulgar crunch. 20 Pentland is undaunted by such condemnations, and has become, i n f a c t , rather used to them, r e f e r r i n g to the clippings she has gathered over the years as her " c o l l e c t i o n of Invective." When V i s t a (19^5) was performed i n November 1958 i n Vancouver by Jeanette Lundquist, a pup i l of Harry Adaskin, i t was more generously received. Other a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s period included a chamber music r e c i t a l of her works i n London, England during Canada Week i n May 1959. This was a week set aside by the B.B.C. fo r a " s e l e c t i o n of music, drama, l i g h t 21 entertainment and t a l k s " A from a Commonwealth country. In November 1959 her Two Piano Sonata was performed at a Canadian Composers F e s t i v a l at the "I n s t i t u t e of Contemporary American Music" at the Hartt College of Music at the Univer-s i t y of Hartford. 2 0 L e s l i e B e l l , "Okay, Here's Why I t ' s Extremely Bad." Toronto Globe and Mail, March 30, 1958. • M. Mclntyre Hood, "Canada Week Being Observed," Kamloops  Dal l y Sentinel, May 19, 1959. 90 E a r l y I n 1959 she was commissioned to w r i t e a work f o r the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, which was conducted at t h a t time by V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l . This was part of a program sponsored by the Canada C o u n c i l , i n which s e v e r a l orchestras were i n v i t e d to s e l e c t composers and to commission works. V i c t o r F e l b r i l l r e c a l l s : We commissioned her t o w r i t e her Symphony No. 4 . She has an uncompromising k i n d of approach t o her music making; she's very honest. When she wrote f o r our o r c h e s t r a , she knew what the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the o r c h e s t r a were, si n c e I had w r i t t e n her. And she came up w i t h a very f i n e work. 22 When she a r r i v e d i n Winnipeg i n February of i 9 6 0 f o r the premiere performance, she had already r e c e i v e d considerable a t t e n t i o n i n the press, having already s u p p l i e d program notes f o r the work which were p r i n t e d i n both l o c a l papers. She was f i n a l l y being r e c e i v e d w i t h some no t i c e i n her home town, though a t l e a s t one of the l o c a l r e p o r t e r s seemed t o be more concerned w i t h her personal grooming h a b i t s and the s i z e of her f e e t than w i t h her music: Barbara's strong Immaculate hands, unadorned n a i l s c l i p p e d short, moved i n an eager wave . . . . She wore a d a f f o d i l t a i l o r e d blouse, f u l l s k i r t of b l a c k and white checked wool, b l a c k suede walking shoes on s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l f e e t . 23 As F e l d b r i l l observed: I t h i n k i t was a very strange occasion f o r her. I t was her na t i v e c i t y and I don't t h i n k V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 20 , 1972. 2 3 M a r g a r e t Hood, "Joyous Challenge of L i v i n g , " Winnipeg  Tribune, February 25, i 9 6 0 . 91 she had been back there except f o r occasional v i s i t s , but never i n a s p e c i a l capacity. The l o c a l natives were a strange bunch, I think they always wondered about Barbara - she was a r e a l renegade In her own community. Anything new i n Winnipeg was approached with suspicion. Many people wondered about the symphony, but nevertheless we performed i t , I remember we received some very interesting notices about i t - outside the c i t y of a l l things, from people who had heard the radio broadcast. They were very taken with i t , 2 k In May i960 her Sonata for- Solo V i o l i n (1950) was per-formed at the Vancouver Art Gallery by Jeanette Lundquist i n a Concert of Canadian Music which was presented by the Alumni and Associates of the Royal Conservatory of Music Of Toronto, The work was performed again by Lundquist at the Canadian Music F e s t i v a l at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n July i960 i n one of three concerts of contemporary Canadian music, Harry Adaskin continued to give Pentland's works exposure, basing one lecture i n a series of ten i n the f a l l of i960 on her Duo fo r V i o l a and Piano (i960). During the series, "A way of l i s t e n i n g to Music - European, Canadian, and American Music between 1920 and 1960|" Adaskin, who i l l u s t r a t e d his lectures with musical examples, was accompanied at the piano by his wife Frances. At the week-long F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary Arts i n February 1961 Pentland performed with Robert Rogers i n a duo Vic t o r F e l d b r i l l i n interview, September 30, 1972. 92 r e c i t a l of contemporary works. It included Stravinsky's Sonata f o r Two Pianos ( 1 9 4 4) 2^ and two works by Pentland» Duets a f t e r Pictures by Paul Klee (1958-9) , a premiere, and Sonata f o r Two Pianos (1953), a Canadian premiere. Rogers, who i s now teaching on the fa c u l t y of the Department of Music at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, subsequently became very interested l n Pentland's piano works, which he frequently performs i n r e c i t a l , and has recorded f o r the C.B.C. t r a n s c r i p t i o n services. In May 1961 she took part i n the Canadian Conference of the Arts i n Toronto, appearing on a music panel, f o r which the topics f o r discussion were "The Composer and the Public" and "The Composer and the Performer." Beckwith commented on the success of the discussions 1 I t seemed everyone at the conference was more interested i n when the bar would be open than i n where the t a l k was heading, 26 Pentland's Symphony No. 4 was heard at a concert of "recent works by Canadian composers" which highlighted the conference, thi s being the f i r s t program held i n Toronto which was wholly 27 made up of Canadian works f o r f u l l orchestra since 1955. and the f i r s t concert l n the new O'Keefe Centre. The work received a thoughtful review from John Beckwith, and a boo from one member of the audience, 2 ^ T h i s was probably the l a s t performance Pentland gave of a work other than her own, 2 6 j 0 h n Beckwith, "Beards Wag Hours but Music Panels Flop," Toronto D a l l y Star, Monday, May 8, 1961. 2?John Beckwith, "Symphony Highlights Canadian Works," Toronto D a l l y Star, May 6, 1961. 93 Her Fantasy (1962) wasppremiered i n Vancouver by p i a n i s t Leonard" S t e i n i n February 1963 at the F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary A r t s , and i n a C.B.C. Wednesday Night Concert on r a d i o . I n v i t e d by composer V i o l e t Archer to take part i n Canada Music Week i n November 1964 a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n Calgary, A l b e r t a , Pentland performed her Fantasy, Toccata, and D i r g e . Robert Rogers, who r e c a l l s f i r s t p l a y i n g Pentland's Studies i n Line as a student i n 1953» 2^ performed the work a t the C.B.C. Spring Music F e s t i v a l i n A p r i l , 1965. At the 1966 F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary A r t s i n Vancouver, she performed her works on an a l l - P e n t l a n d program which included Fantasy. Shadows, Ca p r i c e , and Duo f o r V i o l a and Piano, w i t h v i o l l s t Smyth Humphreys. This r e c i t a l was w e l l r e c e i v e d : I n Miss Pentland's hands, her music f a i r l y dances with l i f e ; i t has rhythmic v i t a l i t y , a sense of purpose, and a very d i r e c t power to communicate. 29 Pentland's connections w i t h the I.S.C.M. since her t r i p s to Europe i n the 1950's had been confined t o her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a concert i n December, 1963, when she performed her Toccata and Fantasy f o r the P a c i f i c North-West Chapter i n S e a t t l e . I n I 9 6 5 , when she was i n v i t e d t o be v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the North-West Chapter, she refused, never having been i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g at the executive l e v e l i n such o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Robert Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1974. 2 ^ W i l l i a m L i t t l e r , "Barbara Pentland Scores," Vancouver  Sun, February 3 , 1966. 94 With the Canadian Centennial i n 1967 came renewed interest i n Canadian music and musicians, and there was a rather sudden demand f o r new works. Pentland received three Centennial commissions,, and was f u l l y occupied i n 1966 and 1967 f u l f i l l i n g these obligations. T r i o con Alea. a work commissioned by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia with the collaboration of the Canadian Music Centre under a grant from the Centennial Commission i n Ottawa, was the f i r s t composition l n which Pentland made use of the a l e a t o r i c sections which have become a part of her mature s t y l e . I t was Eugene Wilson, f a c u l t y member i n the Music Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and c e l l i s t i n the U.B.C. Faculty String T r i o , who had requested some aleatory freedoms i n the work. Wilson had been a performer l n the Lukas Foss Improvising Ensemble i n Los Angeles before coming to B r i t i s h Columbia. The U.B.C. Faculty S t r i n g T r i o premiered the T r i o during the F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary Arts, February 8, 1967, and, awarded a grant by the Centennial Commission to give a series of concerts i n Ontario, featured the work i n 30 several centres i n that province. 3 0When T r i o con Alea received i t s radio premiere with the U.B.C. T r i o , the C.B.C, producer cut eight bars from a statement of the main theme of the f i r s t movement. Pentland wrote l e t t e r s of complaint, but received l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n , and no reassurance that t h i s would not happen again. 95 Septet was commissioned by the Centennial Committee fo r the Hugh McLean Consort, although th i s work was not premiered u n t i l February 1968. One of the largest piano works of her mature output, Suite Borealls, was commissioned by Vancouver's A.H.T.C. Association and premiered at the annual spring r e c i t a l l n March 1967. Pentland's s l i g h t l y programmatic approach i n thi s work i s the closest she has ever come to an expression of nationalism i n her musicJ The f i v e pieces of the Suite Borealis rose as an imaginative journey across Canada as our forefathers might have experienced i t : the approach to an unknown land on the East Coast i n the Maritimes, moving westward through Quebec, Ontario, and the P r a i r i e s to the Mountains and the P a c i f i c . It i s a b r i e f "A Mare Usque ad Mare" Panorama, a sort of "Pioneers Progress". I t does not intend to convey any p i c t o r i a l Impression of Nature, but rather expresses various fe e l i n g s , c o l l e c t e d sensations, which the changing regions symbolize both i n a past and present sense. 31 The work was performed by four members of the A.H.T.C. Associa-t i o n . Also i n honour of the Centennial year, Murray Adaskin organized a f e s t i v a l i n Saskatoon, which was a series of s i x concerts spanning several months given by Canadian composers. Pentland performed some of her piano works, Shadows, Caprice, and Fantasy, and played her Sonata. Fantasy i n Adaskin's class of 250, analyzing and discussing the work f o r the group. The From the program notes. 96 T r i o con Alea was performed by the U.B.C. Faculty S t r i n g T r i o , and the String Quartet No. 1 was presented by the U.B.C. Faculty String Quartet. In addition to the r e c i t a l , there were exhibitions of materials which concerned the composers, and included i n Pentland's e x h i b i t i o n were some paintings, tapes of her work, as well as scores which showed the development of her present st y l e and works she had written as a c h i l d . In January of 1968, to her delight and surprise, she received a Centennial Medal from the State Department of the Canadian Govemament. In her l e t t e r of thanks she saldt At f i r s t I f e l t I should at lea s t have been under f i r e on the front l i n e f o r such an honour, and then i t occurred to me that perhaps as a contemporary composer I have been i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . 32 To t h i s writer she commented» It's absolutely huge. I haven't got the chest f o r I t . 33 The P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet, performed her S t r i n g Quartet  No. 2 i n May of 1969 at the Vancouver Art Gallery, and i n December of the same year at the Unitarian Church of Vancouver. In the summer of 1969 the group commissioned her S t r i n g Quartet  No. 3 and premiered i t i n June 1970. This quartet also con-tains a l e a t o r i c zones, though here they are not used as extensively as i n the Tr i o con. Alea. The P u r c e l l Quartet have performed her music frequently i n recent years, and Pentland 32 Letter from Pentland to Judy LaMarsh, then Secretary of State, January 28, 1968. 3 3 P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7, 1973. 97 i s always very pleased with t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of her works. The String Quartet No. 3 has been performed by them at the National Arts Centre i n Ottawa, at Wigmore H a l l i n London, England, at Mount Orford, and they recorded i t f o r the C.B.C. International Service. I t was one of 11 works selected from the 92 which were submitted f o r performance at the Canadian League of Composers Conference i n V i c t o r i a i n February 1971. Pentland refers to this work as the Lunar Quartet since "midway through the f i r s t movement the astronauts made t h e i r h i s t o r i c landing on the moon and the sounds of t h e i r f i r s t steps seem 3 4 to have crept i n ! " ^ This work has been quite well received, and has stimulated such comments as the following» Her compositional style i s stark and i n t e l l e c t -u a l l y demanding - she acknowledges a large debt to many of the modern composers from Webern on, and i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see these Influences i n her writi n g . But, as with Webern, a l l the surface harsh-ness and angularity of the s t y l e cannot cloak the romanticism of the things she expresses . . . I t i s a compound - s l i g h t , sad resignation; a f r a g i l e sense of humour; an undercurrent of sorrow, and warmth fo r the world. Miss Pentland builds the work according to c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s , and these are s t r i c t l y adhered to - there i s evidence of much formal thought and l o g i c a l development of pure musical ideas. But there i s also t h i s rare exquisiteness and delicacy - the signs of emotions at work, J From the program notes of the June 25 , 1970 performance. 98 as well as I n t e l l e c t - that quite beguiles and disarms. 35 In 1971 she was commissioned to write Variations  Concertantes. f o r piano and orchestra, a concert work for the International Piano Competition i n Montreal, which was given to the contestants for preparation only one week before the f i n a l competition. A s p e c i a l $500 prize was awarded to the p i a n i s t who gave the best performance of the work. Received very poorly by the press, the major complaint against the work was that it was not i n t e r e s t i n g p i a n i s t i c a l l y , and held few challenges f o r the concert p i a n i s t . In December 1969 she was approached by John Roberts, Radio Network Supervisor of the C.B.C, who wanted her to write an orchestral work of dramatic character, related to the "human condition," As a coincidence, she had begun a work i n 1968 e n t i t l e d News, f o r virtuoso voice and orchestra, which originated as a protest against Vietnam, and became, more generally, "a protest against man's endless violence to himself and his environment." 3^ Based on reports and headlines from various newspapers and newscasts, with the New York Times' motto " A l l the news that's f i t to print" as a chorus, i t was meant to be treated with s a t i r e , scorn and flippancy, but Pentland, always deeply affected by world events, had become so involved with the horrors portrayed i n the work that 3^Max Wyman, "Romantic Composer Has Warmth for the World," Vancouver Sun, June 26, 1970. 3^From the composer's program notes. 99 she had to set the work aside and turn to more cheerful writing.37 The Russian invasioncf Czechoslovakia was a development which led her to abandon the work when i t was about one t h i r d done. Roberts f e l t i t was just what he was looking f o r , and so, a f t e r some hesitancy, Pentland completed News. I t was premiered at the C.B.C. Summer f e s t i v a l i n Ottawa on July 16, 1971. with Mario Bernardl conducting the National Arts Centre Orchestra, and P h y l l i s Mailing, mezzo-soprano, as s o l o i s t . Though i t has had limited exposure, the work was received very favourably i n Ottawa, and subsequently when heard on a radio broadcast. As a resultsPentland received O Q some correspondence from others interested i n world peace. Performances i n the early 1970*s included the Symphony  fo r Ten Parts by the National Arts Centre Orchestra i n Ottawa i n January 1972. This work had also appeared on the winter program of the Vancouver Symphony i n November of 1970. P h y l l i s Mailing included three of her works on a C.B.C. radio broadcast on November 13. 1972i Ruins (Ypres 1917) (1932), Midnight Among the H i l l s , Sung Songs #4 (1971), The Tune of  the Stream. Sung Songs #5 (1971). 37 This d i v e r s i o n was writing the piano music f o r young p i a n i s t s . 3®In 19k9 she had been a sponsor of the Peace P e t i t i o n which was launched i n Massey H a l l . Following the performance of News Pentland received a l e t t e r of support from Mrs.Edith Holtom, who had been involved i n the same event. 100 At the request of Eugene Wilson and Robert Rogers, Pentland wrote Mutations (1972), which was subsequently commissioned by the C.B.C. Premiered i n February 1973, the work includes aleatory passages, and one section which was inspired by the s t a r l i n g s which were squabbling outside her studio window when she was composing. In this work Pentland has attempted to evoke various moods of mystery and drama, humour and caprice. Approached by Joseph Macerollo*accordionist from Toronto, i n 1970 to write a work fo r accordion and s t r i n g quartet, Pentland was unable to turn her attentions to the work u n t i l 1971, owing to i l l n e s s and to previous commitments. The work was l a t e r commissioned by the C.B.C. fo r Macerollo. To gain a better understanding of the accordion she spent an afternoon with Macerollo, who demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the instrument.39 S h e completed Interplay i n 1972, but 39<rhis brings to mind comments of Godfrey Ridout i n an interview i n Toronto, September 27, 1972: An English organist had arrived i n town about 19^5 to perform a work of mine. At the reception he came over to speak to me, and Barbara was there. And he sai d "And when are you going to write a work f o r organ f o r me, Miss Pentland?" She said "I don't know, I haven't developed any theories about writing f o r organ yet." Presumably she f e l t she had to work out the medium completely and develop some kind of theory. I think that was quite revealing of her method of workmanship. That sounds l i k e a Hindemlthian approach. 101 considerable delay ensued before the work was performed. The o r i g i n a l intention had been f o r Macerollo to premiere the work with the Orford String Quartet; however, th i s group subsequently decided i t preferred to expand i t s repertoire with more established and romantic works. The Pentland work went unperformed u n t i l the Vancouver New Music Society requested to include i t i n i t s spring program, and, with t h i s new impetus, Interplay was f i n a l l y premiered i n May 197 k by Macerollo and the P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet. MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT Pentland attributes the development of her mature s t y l e to both Hindemlth and Webernt Hindemlth gave me c l a r i t y . He preferred the c l a s s i c to the romantic. Webern was a clear summing up of what Hindemlth was s t r i v i n g f o r . Webern put i t into a n u t s h e l l . k 0 She also feels that electronic music has had considerable e f f e c t on her music« I think electronic music has had an influence on the colour and texture of my l a t e r music. k l In i t s compact form and transparent texture, the Symphony for Ten Parts (1957) c l e a r l y demonstrates the influence of Webern on her s t y l e . The three t i g h t l y k n i t movements are b u i l t on melodic shapes and rhythms which are presented i n the short Introduction. Pentland i n interview, January 22 , 1972. 2 4 , 1 Ibid. 102 My philosophy i s the expression of my ideas through the c l e a r e s t and most economical means, w i t h l i t t l e redundancy. This lends towards transparency of texture and g e n e r a l l y h o r i z o n t a l w r i t i n g w i t h c l e a r l i n e s , 42 A new i n t e r e s t i n s o n o r i t y , a l s o s t i m u l a t e d by Webern, may be seen i n Pentland's instr u m e n t a l combinations i n the above work, which include such combinations as f l u t e , xylophone and c e l l o . Pentland i n a l e t t e r t o student K a r i n Doerksen, A p r i l 19, 1972. 104 Example 1 also i l l u s t r a t e s the imitative entries which are found frequently i n Pentland's work. She often alternates dry, percussive sections with those that are more l y r i c . Example 2, Symphony f o r Ten Parts, second movement, b, 9-12. ? Oboe m tt lorn Trump<rf m r - : — mf v-. OI3 5 Cello <3rco r-^—i drco n , rfl 105 Now much more conscious of texture, she substitutes silence for the scale passages and arpeggios which previously appeared more frequently. The twelve note system i s not applied r i g i d l y by Pentland, but rather as a means of c o n t r o l . The rows are treated quite f r e e l y a f t e r the i n i t i a l statement, which i s i t s e l f often characterized by a delay i n the presentation of the f i n a l notes. Almost invariably the Importance of the f i r s t part of the row i s stressed, while the remainder of i t i s obscured or omitted e n t i r e l y . I s t a r t with a melodic impulse from which the material unfolds, sometimes quite gradually, and forms the series with which the work evolves. The melodic impulse contains as well the harmonic material: melody i s harmony"lying down," as I frequently sayI I am not r i g i d i n my use of the system; any system which becomes a s t r a i t jacket k i l l s i t s contents. I f the thematic material i s strong i t often forms i t s own (largely unconscious) relationships which can turn out to be f a r more l o g i c a l than anything the conscious mind could dream up. 43 She uses various polyphonic devices such as inversion, augmentation and canon, and her interests i n the e f f e c t s of retrograde on material i s evident i n her frequent use of the technique, whether i t i s with short motives, or with longer sections. An entire work, or a segment of i t , i s often con-cluded with an exact retrograde of the i n i t i a l statement of the row, thus providing material f o r a coda, or even a ^ P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to student Alan Shanoff, February 3 , 1969. 106 r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . In News she even retrogrades the words used i n the v o c a l l i n e , here w i t h the purpose of expressing d i s g u s t . The notes are retrograded ( f r e e l y ) at the same time. A l s o observe here the use of sprechstlmme. Example 3. News, b. 10-14, v o c a l l i n e only. fill ihe ne^ -ihel-h fit -to prw4/ TV f\fA Y7 TTf sidh sw&n Eh-f ru)7/^ =rf/)J^  Another d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e i s a touch of humour which occurs i n the form of syncopation or jazz rhythms. As Harry Somers commented» She had a very hard edged l y r i c i s m i n her w r i t i n g , and somewhere there always appeared a buoyancy, a rhythmic t h i n g t h a t i s c l o s e r t o a m e t r i c a l conception. This e x i s t e d i n the Symphony  f o r Ten Parts and, i f I'm not mistaken, had always e x i s t e d i n her e a r l i e r work. 44 Frances Adaskin, who has performed many of Pentland's works, remarked* There i s a strong rhythmic d r i v e i n her works, and her rhythm i s t r i c k y because she uses unevenly metered bars, and the rhythm doesn't f a l l i n the bars. Rhythmically she has a r e a l sense of fun. 45 44 Harry Somers i n i n t e r v i e w i n Toronto, September 27, 1972. ^-'Frances Adaskin i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6, 1974. 107 This rhythmic element was used to emphasize the s a t i r i c a l aspect of News. Here syncopated j a z z - l i k e rhythms accompany words of war. Example k , News, b, 23-25, strings and vocal li n e only. ^ If 1 1 V y ci mb f]i K 1 iv i H ? >•! - ^  y • #^  = = f t S4 ^ Lf \ • p = ^ ^ - c- r i - J -7 £ Iftj 7 J-A— ! f 7 ^ \. ~ — * — Z - v, 11 ^4 Several d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have appeared i n Pentland's works i n recent years, including the use of ale a t o r i c zones, quarter tones, harmonics, and rapping on the body of the instrument. A l e a t o r i c zones f i r s t appeared i n T r i o con Alea where there were as many as nine zones, and have since been employed In such works as News and Str i n g Quartet No. 3 . 108 I have made use of t h i s a d d i t i o n a l means to heighten the dramatic e f f e c t s and f o r other expressive purposes, to give f l e x i b i l i t y to the performance and give more opportunity to the player to be more personally involved. The pi t c h material i s provided and the d i r e c t i o n con-t r o l l e d , but there are areas of freedom i n rhythmic choice, tone production, r e p e t i t i o n and combination, dynamics and colour . . . so that the chance element i s used without s t y l e , idiom and structure being a l t e r e d . k 6 I never allow performers to invent material -I'm not a chance composer. I have to control the directions the music takes. But t h i s s i t u a t i o n allows f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n tension and tempo - i t ' s stretchy music. This intrigues me a great deal -to combine the features of measured sound with the f l e x i b i l i t y of unmeasured portions. I t gives the instruments a chance to come to the fore rather than just the music - I l i k e to treat instruments as p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 4-7 In the a l e a t o r i c sections one instrument may maintain the rhythm while the others react f r e e l y , within the l i m i t s set by the composer. L A , r\ Pentland i n a l e t t e r to student Marie Vachon, February 17, 1973. Pentland i n "Composer's T r i c k i s to Know Just Where One i s Going," by Max Wyman, Vancouver Sun, Weekend Section, p. 10A, June 19, 1970. 109 I I n other cases, a l l Instruments move f r e e l y a t once. 110 Example 6, T r i o con Alea, zone 5, b. 132 . As i n the f i n a l movement of the Tr i o , the zone may function as a cadenza. Quarter tones are found c h i e f l y i n the s t r i n g parts of recent works and are used here e f f e c t i v e l y as decorative device. I l l Example 7, S t r i n g Quartet No, 3 . F i r s t Movement, b. 79-83 , (9 temps '* 0^0 ' -4 PP (ty sharp) f t (3/1M) 0^mf0^0f I n the v o c a l l i n e of News, quarter tones are used f o r c o l o u r i n g and expression. 112 Example 8 , News, b. 4 5 - 4 6 . —V 3<y > / senza misurg C^f -pne ascllla-ficr 9 f^<* f f ? - i ' r •> (joder *— \ <5>c/ /£> • f L m >. T ; c h v± i t ^ 1 1 I f r 1 F 1 . N j ; b * 6— £•/ ^ -/if/-r<? psx ho-nn] - n'r bus ho-nae i/o/-un-4<5~ / / j -Harmonics are found e x t e n s i v e l y throughout her l a t e r works, e s p e c i a l l y i n those f o r s t r i n g s . 113 114 Performers f e e l that her use of these s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i s e f f e c t i v e . She has adopted some of the devices -a l e a t o r i c sections, rapping on the instrument, but she won't use a device unless she's com-fortable with i t . Her music i s constantly changing. She's very aware of what's going on. 48 She's always up to date. She's aware of the sounds of the jazz type of influence on the brass players and used that i n her Symphony No. 4. She wasn't a f r a i d to use i t i n the context of her composition - wah-wah mutes and a l l kinds of things, i t ' s a l l incorporated into her writing. Her ears are open, she hears the sounds, she's always l i s t e n i n g . She's always working on new techniques. 49 Pentland r a r e l y writes f o r large groups, News and Variations Concertantes being exceptions that were commissioned. She has found i t to be d i f f i c u l t to get works requiring large resources performed. The largest part of her output has been piano works, and this was, at one time, partly because i t was easier to get these works performed, even i f i t was the composer herself l n r e c i t a l . Since one way of getting performances i s to "do i t yourself", I write frequently f o r the piano for that purpose, 50 She has found i t d i f f i c u l t to get good performances from large numbers of instruments: The more instruments, the less s e n s i t i v i t y there i s . Great bodies of instruments cannot be s e n s i t i v e . 51 Harry Adaskin, i n interview, July 6, 19?4. i V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n interview, September 20, 1972. Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Kathy C h i n e l l , February 15, 1969. Pentland i n Interview, July 28, 1973. 115 However, her increasing use of smaller groups i s perhaps indi c a t i v e of more than just her desire f o r s e n s i t i v i t y . Recently, upon entering aconcert h a l l i n which the stage was overflowing with instruments she grumbled» You can always t e l l a composer who hasn't l i v e d throu&h the depression - there are so many instruments used. No economy of means, 52 She enjoys writing f o r small s t r i n g groups such as the s t r i n g quartet, and has b u i l t up considerable rapport with the P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet, I t ' s a very personal way of writing. The strings are so much a part of each other. Writing for piano and strings i s a problem -but an i n t e r e s t i n g problem. I try to integrate i t . You want to avoid getting i n the way of the s t r i n g sound. 53 Pentland no longer writes within the s t r i c t neo-classic forms that were e a r l i e r a part of her s t y l e . She has developed a very l i b e r a l approach to form, and f e e l s that Webern helped d i r e c t her away from a more lim i t e d neo-classicism to a more open s t y l e . For her i t i s important, that the material he allowed to dictate i t s own formal implications. Old forms hamper us. The music must develop i t s own form. You must allow f o r expansion on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l , and follow the logic, of the music. 5^ Pentland f e e l s that, i n addition to the use of devices discussed e a r l i e r , some change i n her music has occurred since 52 In conversation with the author, June 1, 197*+. -^Pentland i n interview, June 8 , 197^. ^ I b l d . 1 1 6 the 1950's. She observed t h a t her works were more a b s t r a c t then, her d e f i n i t i o n of a b s t r a c t being "A sound d i s a s s o c i a t e d from something more t a n g i b l e or v i s i b l e , independent of any a r t form. She has a l s o noted a change i n her treatment of range: The spectrum has con s i d e r a b l y widened since the 1950 's - so t h a t melodies may soar and d i v e to a g r e a t e r degree, making the textu r e even more transparent a t times. 56 Pedagogical works f o r piano represent a s i g n i f i c a n t part of Pentland's output since the e a r l y 196o*s. This new emphasis on contemporary student m a t e r i a l was p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the encouragement given by Ronald Napier of the Toronto d i v i s i o n of B.M.I. Most of the teaching pieces are published, and more copies of these are s o l d than of her other works. A f t e r she had w r i t t e n s e v e r a l short pieces f o r young p i a n i s t s , she was approached i n 1966 by Rachel Gavalho, a piano teacher i n Toronto who i s w e l l versed i n Canadian teaching works i n a contemporary idiom. Cavalho wanted her to w r i t e a graduated s e r i e s f o r the beginner. I n the three books of Music of Now (1969-70) which grew out §>t Pentland's communication w i t h Cavalho, the student i s g r a d u a l l y introduced to such d i f f i c u l t i e s as a c c i d e n t a l s , tone c l u s t e r s , harmonics, and changing rhythms and meters, while canons i n retrograde and i n v e r s i o n encourage an independent use of the hands. 5 5 jbid. 5 6Pentland l n a l e t t e r t o K a r i n Doerksen, A p r i l 19, 1972. 117 Example 10, Music of Now, Book 1, page 4, #1. ny P * P JL—_ 3 p p V V — 7 A) * d &  —e L 5 1 ; I Pentland f e e i s that except f o r i t s t e x t u r e , Music of Now i s her present s t y l e i n a n u t s h e l l , and her approach here i s s t r i c t l y l i n e a r and has few cho r d a l i m p l o c a t i o n s . At times there i s a suggestion of the modal and b i t o n a l . Example 11, Book I I , page 3 #2, b. 1-4. Lento, 10 T»~ 118 The tone row Is applied much more simply here than i n her more advanced works, and the emphasis tends to be on i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . She often uses a series of only f i v e notes i n each hand, and these are always stated at the outset of each piece. The rhythmic aspects, as well as the contrapuntal represent the greatest challenge f o r the student. Example 12, Book I I I , page 6„#1, b. 1-4. Teachers agree that the~works are extremely successful. Larry Thiessen, piano and accordion teacher observed: The works i n Music of Now, and her other teaching pieces are short, cohesive and e f f e c t i v e . The t i t l e s are very well thought out, and have immediate appeal to the student. 5? Robert Rogers points out: Kids are fascinated with things l i k e tone clusters played with the f i s t s i n Music of Now, just as they are with the quasi-harmonics i n Echoes, and Larry Thiessen, i n interview, July 10, 1974. 119 they r e a l l y enjoy the rhythmic v i t a l i t y which i s so prevalent i n Barbara's, music. The rhythmic c l a p p i n g that she advocates, and the way she presents s i n g l e melodic l i n e s before combining them c o n t r a p u n t a l l y r e a l l y pay o f f , I t h i n k . 58 C a r o l J u t t e , piano teacher on the s t a f f at U.B.C. who has used Music of Now e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h a d u l t beginners remarked! . A l l my .beginners at U.B.C. have f i n i s h e d jflusic of Now, and have worked hard t o master i t . No complaints about the j u v e n i l e q u a l i t y of i t ! I know i t worked out wonderfully w e l l f o r me - having such b e a u t i f u l l y simple m a t e r i a l that o f f e r e d so much r i c h i n s t r u c t i o n i n the composition of the music as w e l l as i n the teaching of rhythmic and l i n e a r f e e l i n g , 59 The s t y l e found i n Pentland's mature works can be summed up by the composer h e r s e l f * The ' S t i l l , s m a l l v o i c e " means more to me than the pompous and f u l l - b l o w n , 6o The " r i g h t note i n the r i g h t place" simply concerns my a t t e n t i o n to the inner l o g i c of the music i t s e l f , which i s more a u r a l judgement than an i n t e l l e c t u a l one. What I compose has to s a t i s f y my judgement i n both aspects or I wouldn't be i n t e r e s t e d i n committing i t to paper. This a p p l i e s as w e l l to pieces f o r c h i l d r e n : I don't w r i t e anything f o r them that I don't enjoy p l a y i n g myself. 61 Though reviewers are s t i l l g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r unsympathetic towards her works, performers have more r e c e p t i v e views: 5 8Robert Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 197k. 59carol J u t t e i n a l e t t e r to Pentland, November 13» 1969. 6 o P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8, 197k. ^ P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17. 1973. 120 I think her present s t y l e i s c e r t a i n l y a l o t more economical than i n her works of the 19 k0s, but I don't think she has had to s a c r i f i c e any of the l y r i c a l or rhythmic features. She i s s t i l l getting great variety i n her music, and using fewer notes to get i t . 62 They say her music i s angular and hard, but nothing could be further from the truth. It's very simple and romantic. People don't l i k e her music because they only hear a work once. The slow movements are always charming, and e s p e c i a l l y romantic. But her s t y l e has a kind of l y r i c a l romanticism which i s not sensuous because i t ' s too lean. 63 Robert Rogers, op.cit. Frances Adaskin, op.cit. CHAPTER FO UR 121 122 Pentland's r o l e i n Canada as one of i t s f i r s t female composers, and c e r t a i n l y the f i r s t of any stature, i s an int e r e s t i n g one which was fraught with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e a r l i e r years. Time and time again she found that being a woman interfered with the success of her composing career. When I was struggling to be a composer, the fa c t that I happened to be also a female didn't at f i r s t concern me, because just to get the education I needed occupied a l l my attention. About the age of 19 I was signing my compositions using my i n i t i a l s with the surname (and was referred to as "Mr." u n t i l someone advised me to use my f i r s t name), so I must have been aware, but the r e a l impact came l a t e r . I was naive enough to believe that i f I wrote good music that was what mattered, and I was so absorbed i n putting music f i r s t i n my l i f e , I thought others would too. I t only came to me poco a poco that others thought d i f f e r e n t l y , and the discrimination was very r e a l . I t i s much more subtle, less obvious than r a c i a l discrimination, and therefore more l e t h a l i n i t s e f f e c t . I keep hoping that nowadays a l l t h i s i s dying out, and that your generation w i l l be treated more f a i r l y . 1 Those who knew her i n the 19 k0's r e c a l l i t as a time of struggle fo r her and, i n retrospect^ are quite sympathetic to the 2 problems she encountered. Mrs. Naomi Adaskin remembers: We would have tea together and tal k about the problem of women i n the ar t s , I t was doubly hard f o r her. I t was her struggle to be accepted as a female composer i n a male world. She f e l t she was not taken seriously because she was a woman. None of them was taken seriously, 3 1 L e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17. 1973. 2The women seemed to be much more sensitive to t h i s aspect of Pentland than the men. Perhaps a natural response. 3Mrs. Naomi Adaskin i n conversation, September 28, 1972. 123 Helen Weinzweig, wife of John Weinzweig, and once a good f r i e n d of Pentland, stated: Her warmth, and her s p i r i t , and her friendship were very deep. She had a rough time as a woman i n a man's world. Her music was never received objectively, 4 Godfrey Ridout puts i t t h i s way: Let's face i t - Barbara's unique, I don't intend to sound l i k e a male chauvinist or whatever the h e l l i t i s , but some of the women composers may have been composers because they were women at a time when there wasn't an e n t i r e l y equal r i g h t , A woman composer was something of a phenomenon, consequently she got attention. And that accounts f o r some pretty bloody awful music. Barbara was d i f f e r e n t . Barbara could meet any-body on anybody's ground. She was d i f f e r e n t s t u f f , and a f i g h t e r as well, but she didn't f i g h t as a feminist, she fought as a person. 5 Pentland went to Europe i n 1955 with hopes of fin d i n g a more enlightened s i t u a t i o n , but was soon to be disappointed. I f e l t the discrimination i n Europe, but I had t h i s delusion that women there were f r e e r . I hadn't counted on the influence of H i t l e r , which had changed things considerably, I was not prepared f o r the change i n attitude that being a woman brought about. I thought only of myself as a composer, not as a woman. I was a professional, I would have breakfast with the Yugoslav composers, eager to discuss what they were doing musically, and then get a f r i g i d reception from the B r i t i s h . I was h o r r i f i e d to f i n d my in t e r e s t i n the music was e n t i r e l y misinterpreted, so a f t e r that I kept more to myself. 6 F i n a l l y establishing herself i n the f i e l d of composition, Pentland f e e l s that at thi s point i n her career she has over-come thi s problem, and that i t no longer a f f e c t s the number ^Helen Weinzweig i n conversation, September 28, 1972. ^Godfrey Ridout, i n interview, September 27, 1972. ^Barbara Pentland i n Interview, June 8, 1974. 124 of commissions or performances she r e c e i v e s . She does not place t h a t blame f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s women encounter e n t i r e l y on the males: There are not enough women i n p o l i t i c s , but they p r e f e r to stay at home r a t h e r than face the rough and tumble of the world. 7 However, she does f e e l t h a t some Improvement i s s t i l l needed. I n Canada I hope things are g e t t i n g b e t t e r . I always f e l t the States were 'way ahead of us i n t h a t r e s p e c t . A woman s t i l l has t o be very much b e t t e r than a man to achieve a t t e n t i o n . 8 Though Pentland i s very proud of being a Canadian, t h i s has only r a r e l y been expressed i n the form of n a t i o n a l i s m i n her works. How t h i s was seen i n S u i t e B p r e a l i s was I l l u s t r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . A much e a r l i e r work, V i o l i n Sonata (1946), i s b u i l t on three French-Canadian f o l k songs; however, Pentland s t a t e s t h a t t h i s was done mainly because a performer requested such a work. Commenting on the V i o l i n Sonata she saysj There are c e r t a i n b a s i c sounds i n a l l very o l d f o l k songs from almost any land which transcend race, c o l o r , or creed, and make i t the common herita g e of a l l peoples. My share of French ancestry may make me r a t h e r p a r t i a l to these p a r t i c u l a r songs of our e a r l y s e t t l e r s and voyageurs, but i t was t h e i r p u rely musical q u a l i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s which made my choice , , , I f there i s a l s o a suggestion here of Ind i a n c o l o u r , i t i s perhaps due t o the f a c t t h a t the e a r l i e s t and c l o s e s t exposure I had to the express i o n of a people's c u l t u r e I n f o l k - s o n g was a t the occa-s i o n a l I ndian pow-wow during my childhood i n the 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 1 2 5 mid-west. I n r e t r o s p e c t the f l a v o r of these occasions i s made up of monotonous but e x c i t i n g shouting and the pounding of many f e e t c i r c l i n g the camp-fire i n the dark. These e a r l y impressions were probably aroused by the more p r i m i t i v e and u n i v e r s a l elements contained i n the tunes, and create a s o r t of f u s i o n of our Canadian background. 9 Pentland has more r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t the I n d i a n music heard i n her youth contained nothing memorable f o r her, though she r e c a l l s s The pow-wows were held i n a f i e l d near our summer cottage. I can remember hundreds of grasshoppers hopping up my bare legs under my f u l l s k i r t . 10 N a t i o n a l i s m , then, has l i t t l e place i n Pentland's music, and she f e e l s i t has l i t t l e place i n Canadian music as a whole. A composer may s t i l l make good use of f o l k -song i n appropriate? pla c e s , but to found any v a l i d musical expression on i t today seems to me impossible at the stage we have reached i n the development of our music. For emerging n a t i o n s , who may be able to f i n d t h e i r own techniques Independent of the mainstream of European c u l t u r e , i t may s t i l l be v i a b l e , but extremely d o u b t f u l , as we are a l l too c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d . 11 As t o the f u t u r e of music i n Canada she feels« The near f u t u r e of music i n Canada w i l l probably be dominated as much as the present w i t h the works of the past, which w i l l g r a d u a l l y include a l i t t l e more of the XX century. I t i s hard to b e l i e v e t h a t the concert form as such w i l l d i e out, as symphony, opera and b a l l e t here are continuously s o l d out - at high p r i c e s . There may be more e l e c t r o n i c a l l y produced ^Pentland i n Robert Turner's "Barbara Pentland," Canadian  Music J o u r n a l , V o l . 1, No. 4 , p. 16. 1 0 P e n t l a n d , i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8, 1974. l l L e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17. 1973. 126 music i n the home, but the future of the human race i t s e l f appears so dim to me that I can't foresee what w i l l happen to serious music. 12 Pentland i s very aware of the support given to Canadian composers and performers by the C.B.C, and f e e l s that it has been necessary f o r the s u r v i v a l of serious music. The p l i g h t of the Canadian composer would be vastly more precarious - i f not impossible -were i t not f o r the C.B.C, whose home service and overseas network broadcast programs afford most of the opportunities f o r the music of Canadian composers to be heard. 13 As a composer who no longer performs her own works, Pentland i s now at the mercy of those who choose to play them; however, she f e e l s that her works get better readings than they once d i d . I think the whole c a l i b r e of performance has r i s e n considerably and we get very good performers i n Canada. Players are w i l l i n g to try d i f f e r e n t things, they are more experimental, and they are better trained. I couldn't get a Canadian group to even read my F i r s t Quartet and now i t ' s been recorded. l k She has found that i t i s very important f o r a composer to hear his own works j If you write something and i t i s n ' t well per-formed you are never sure i f i t ' s the work or the bad performance. But you can learn so much from hearing a work performed. 15 In the performance of her works she stresses the importance of the rhythm, which she f e e l s must always be precise, even i n the more romantic sections. "Precision i s so often lacking i n l 2 L e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17, 1973. •^Vancouver Province, Friday, January 6, 1967. l kPentland i n interview, June 8, 1 9 7 k . ^ r b i d . 127 performances of my work." 1 0 I n 1971, when she was sent a tape of a performance of her V a r i a t i o n s f o r V i o l a which was about t o be Included on a C.B.C. I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e r e c o r d i n g , she was so d i s p l e a s e d w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t she decided the work should not appear on the r e c o r d i n g a t a l l . "His la c k of rhythm destroys the meaning of the work."''"'' Because she f e l t the rhythm lacked p r e c i s i o n i n a performance of her Fantasy, she changed the n o t a t i o n , adding rests to the o r i g i n a l , i n an attempt t o make her wishes more c l e a r . " I t i s important 1 ft that the exact q u a n t i t a t i v e rhythm should be observed." I t h i n k rhythmic phrasing i s even more import-ant than the melodic and, when p i a n i s t s play my music without t h i s rhythmic q u a l i t y , i t s c h a r a c t e r i s missing. 19 I n a d d i t i o n to a prec i s e rhythmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Pentland hopes f o r some s e n s i t i v i t y : S e n s i t i v i t y i s so o f t e n l a c k i n g t h a t I've gi v e n up expecting i t : when i t does happen i t ' s a rare and treasured experience. With la r g e ensembles, such as an o r c h e s t r a , i t seems to occur i n inverse propor-t i o n to the number of p l a y e r s . 20 Pentland no longer performs her works, f i n d i n g that p r a c t i s i n g the piano takes too much of the time she would r a t h e r use to compose, and she a l s o f i n d s her energy more l i m i t e d now than i t used to be. When she was performing, she discovered that she l 6 I b i d . ^ L e t t e r to Monique Gren i e r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e , Radio Canada, January 12, 1972. l 8 I b i d . 19Letter to Ronald Napier, J u l y 9, 1965. 2 0 L e t t e r to Douglas Walker, March 13, 1972. 128 could not prepare a program and compose at the same time. " I t seems to use d i f f e r e n t parts of the b r a i n . " 2 l The r o l e of performer and composer are not completely compatible. The composer wants to i s o l a t e himself and get at t h i n g s from the i n s i d e , whereas the performer then takes t h i s inward searching and examination and b r i n g s i t a l i v e f o r others. The performer i s an e x t e r n a l i z e r . 22 Performers g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t Pentland's works are very d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l l y to play, but w e l l worth the e f f o r t r e -q u i r e d i n l e a r n i n g them. I t doesn't y i e l d i t s e l f r i g h t away but i t i s very rewarding to work a t . I t gets more b e a u t i f u l as you play i t more, 23 They a l s o agree t h a t the rhythm increases the d i f f i c u l t y of her works. I'm f a s c i n a t e d by the rhythmic c o m p l e x i t i e s i n her music, e s p e c i a l l y when s t r i c t adherence to the notated rhythm gives the music a wonderful sense of rubato. I don't t h i n k the l i s t e n e r i s r e a l l y aware th a t two tempi are combined i n t h a t one s e c t i o n of the Fantasy - i f i t ' s played p r o p e r l y , he should j u s t get a s h o r t - l i v e d sense of rhythmic freedom. I t ' s a l l very simple - once you can do i t I 24 V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l r e c a l l s working w i t h an o r c h e s t r a on one of her workst Her music i s very d i f f i c u l t t o play. Barbara's music i n p a r t i c u l a r i s very c l e a n ; there's very l i t t l e waste i n i t and e v e r y t h i n g has to sound. I recorded her Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s and every p l a y e r had to l e a r n h i s part a s . i f 'he." were l e a r n i n g a concerto. I t was d i f f i c u l t , but anything that's worth-while i s d i f f i c u l t , and has to be mastered. 25 ^ P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , May 20, 1973. 2 2 The Sheaf, Tuesday, November 28, 1967. 2 3 F r a n c e s Adaskin, i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6, 1974. 2 i fRobert Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 1974. 2 5 v i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 2o, 1972. 129 The economic style of Pentland 's music i s r e f l e c t e d i n her approach to l i f e . As F e l d b r i l l remarked: I think the music that she writes i s r e a l l y an extension of herself, the type of person she i s - very d i r e c t . She doesn't use f i f t y thousand words where ten words w i l l s u f f i c e , and the music doesn't use f i f t y thousand notes where ten w i l l s u f f i c e . It's a complete carry-through of her complete character. Uncompromising, d i r e c t and honest. 26 Pentland agrees with t h i s assessment; In my whole l i f e I was st r i p p i n g out the unessentials that weren't me. I was caught up i n a way of l i f e and society that I didn't f e e l part of. This i s why i t took me so long i n a way. Giving up things that were not a part of my l i f e , s t r i p p i n g the unessentials and the things that were not true f o r me was very hard. I t takes a while to break out of the mold on your own. My philosophy i s one of st r i p p i n g i n music, to keep away from unpleasant situations as much as possible, to create as few as possible, and to create a pleasant atmosphere i n the home. I'm e s s e n t i a l l y a p a s s i v i s t i n every respect. 27 Though Pentland has long been recognized on the international l e v e l at such f e s t i v a l s as the I.S.C.M. i n 1956, and with frequent performance of her works abroad, i t i s undoubtedly recognition l n Canada which she cherishes the most. For example, she was .delighted when, i n 1972, she was informed that Pentland Place, an area i n Kanata, a town near Ottawa, Ontario, had been named a f t e r her. The town was then s e t t i n g up a museum to honour the various famous Canadians a f t e r whom i t was naming "Pentland i n interview, June 8 , 1 9 7 4 . 130 i t s streets and area, and requesting a manuscript from her to put on permanent display there, received a short duet f o r young p i a n i s t s . However, th i s rapport with Eastern Canada i s rare, and one soon senses i n Pentland a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n and loneliness. In Vancouver she i s cut off from the musical a c t i v i t i e s i n Ontario, where the Canadian Music Centre (which houses most of her scores on transparencies), B.M.I., and C.B.C., as well as many composers are located. She i s aware that Vancouver does not aid her i n keeping up with developments i n music: It takes a l l my time and energy to keep myself a f l o a t i n the vacuum of Vancouver . . . . and go on composing. 28 However, she does not appear to f e e l any desire to return to Ontario, and seems to f i n d t r a v e l l i n g there a chore: I do hope you had a more pleasant time here than I have i n Toronto. 29 Those who know and care f o r her i n Toronto f e e l that the sheer vastness of Canada int e r f e r e s with t h e i r communication with her, and with her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the music scene. Harry Somers stated: She tended to f e e l a l i t t l e i s o l a t e d from the main musical a c t i v i t i e s i n the country but was s t i l l very a l e r t and perky. 30 And F e l d b r i l l commented: 2 8 P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to Leonard Isaacs, October 30 , 1969. 2 9 p e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to Bruce Mather, October 19, 1969. ^°Harry Somers i n interview i n Toronto, September 2 ? , 1972. 131 I found her a woman w i t h a tremendous sense of hmour and a sense of humanity too. She's a f i n e person. I only f e e l s o r r y i n a sense th a t she/s locked up behind the Rocky Mountains. There's a t e r r i b l e f e e l i n g f o r me that the Rockies do cut o f f the r e s t of the country, whether one i s l i v i n g on that side l o o k i n g east-ward, or t h i s side l o o k i n g westward. But p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , from the standpoint of keeping i n the stream of what's going on, I'd love to see her here. I t h i n k she could make a tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n to the hub of a c t i v i t y where so many of the composers are centred - i n Toronto and Montreal, 31 The theme of l o n e l i n e s s prevails« There's a touch of sadness somewhere i n Barbara. I t ' s j u s t something I sense sometimes, but t h a t ' s perhaps another word f o r s e n s i t i v i t y . 32 I f e e l there's a k i n d of l o n e l i n e s s - maybe I'm reading i n t o i t , but none l i k e to be f o r g o t t e n by her c o l l e a g u e s . I don't t h i n k she's r e a l l y been f o r g o t t e n but I t h i n k she f e e l s she has been f o r g o t t e n . Barbara challenges people, she confronts them. People don't l i k e to be confronted, they have to answer questions they don't want to answer. But I'm g l a d she's the way she i s . I hope she never changes, i t ' s important to have tha t k i n d of s t r e n g t h . I'm j u s t s o r r y she's been cut o f f from so many of the a c t i v i t i e s that are going on. 33 Though a very s e r i o u s musician, Pentland i s very a c c e s s i b l e to those who approach her. An i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Barbara as I r e c a l l her (and she may never f o r g i v e me f o r making t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comment), i s t h a t very o f t e n she would appear as tough as n a i l s , and perhaps even a l i t t l e c r u s t y to the p u b l i c and sometimes to her colleagues when she was h o l d i n g f o r t h on a p r i n c i p l e , or an i d e a , or was under at t a c k , but to anyone who evidenced any r e a l 3 l V l c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 27, 1972. 32 J Somers, op. c i t . ^ F e l d b r i l l , op. c i t . 132 i n t e r e s t ; o r response she melted as f a s t as the s p r i n g snows, and revealed a tremendously warm and responsive person. And t h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t she r e a l l y had a p r e t t y strong defensive c r u s t which was very q u i c k l y melted w i t h any kin d of warmth or enthusiasm, 34 That she i s c e r t a i n l y responsive to i n t e r e s t i n her and her music i s evident i n the care she has given to answering the many l e t t e r s she has r e c e i v e d , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g C e n t e n n i a l year, from students e n q u i r i n g about her l i f e or music. Each one was gi v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and an i n d i v i d u a l r e p l y . As w e l l , i n 1974 she spent considerable time preparing and d e l i v e r i n g l e c t u r e s f o r a group of piano teachers i n P a r k s v i l l e , B r i t i s h Columbia. The l e c t u r e s , i n which she discussed piano teaching music of the past hundred years, culminated i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n of one of her own teaching works. Though the attendance was s m a l l , Pentland was w i l l i n g to t r y to help those i n more i s o l a t e d areas keep up w i t h developments i n music. The economy of means found i n her music and philosophy of l i f e i s c a r r i e d out i n the more p r a c t i c a l aspects of her l i f e . Both she and Huberman show considerable concern f o r the en-vironment by r e c y c l i n g b o t t l e s , cans and papers, and they never buy anything new when something o l d can be mended and used again. Huberman, both i n v e n t i v e and p r a c t i c a l , has designed f u r n i t u r e i n t h e i r home which i s modern and f u n c t i o n a l . I n Pentland's s t u d i o , one f i n d s s t r a i g h t l i n e s and b r i g h t c o l o u r s , 3^Somers, crop, c i t . 133 w i t h such contemporary a r t works as an a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g by Marion Bembe, a work by Bert B i n n i n g , and a p r i n t of Paul Klee's P i s h Magic on the walls.35 ger f u l l bookshelves, scores, manuscripts, l e t t e r s , tapes and records are a l l organized i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e cabinets w i t h p r e c i s i o n . The house, completely s h e l t e r e d on a l l s ides by high t r e e s , i s surrounded w i t h b i r d feeders, and s m a l l t a b l e s spread w i t h such d e l i c a c i e s as nuts and sunflower seeds. Conversations are p e r i o d i c a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d by the appearance of a s m a l l feathered f r i e n d who i s then viewed w i t h d e l i g h t . Pentland has doctored s e v e r a l i n j u r e d b i r d s back to h e a l t h a f t e r they have flown i n t o the large g l a s s windows which face the garden. Her f r e e time i s a l s o spent i n tending the many fl o w e r beds which surround the house, and she u s u a l l y sends a v i s i t o r away w i t h a bouquet. Between works she l i k e s to keep her mind a c t i v e by doing problems i n algebra and geometry; another i n d i c a t i o n of her i n t e r e s t i n a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g . When on h o l i d a y s , Pentland and her husband set out t o do s e r i o u s b i r d watching, and r e c e n t l y have become i n t e r e s t e d i n t r o p i c a l f i s h . I n the f a l l of 1965 they went to Hawaii f o r f i v e weeks, and i t was there Pentland began to study t r o p i c a l f i s h , becoming f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e i r changing designs. I n 1967, when they went to Grand Cayman, an i s l a n d south of Cuba, 3^0ne of the Klee Duets was based on t h i s p r i n t . 134 she f i r s t started snorkeling, and was astonished to see beneath her "a whole world of f i s h e s . " 3 ^ At f i r s t she had her glasses taped on her face beneath the mast, and l a t e r , Huberman had a mast e s p e c i a l l y made f o r her with the lenses b u i l t into i t . Her doctor always sends her to a warm climate f o r her health, and the t r i p i s generally taken i n the winter to escape Vancouver's r a i n . The main part of Pentland's time and attention continues to be occupied by composition. When I am working on something, I work on i t almost every moment. I l i k e to hear i t i n my mind away from anything concrete. Itte a very good way to assess the work and c l a r i f y i t i n my mind. It's a kind of abstract thinking that I've always indulged i n , even as a c h i l d . Though I f i n d copying a s t r a i n on my eyes, I l i k e writing notes on f i v e l i n e s - the f e e l and look of musical notes. 37 Because she finds the time and energy required by commissions has become too demanding she does not plan to accept many of them i n the future. Commissions don't mean that much to me any more. They require a deadline and only give one performance. Commissions would have meant a l o t more to me when I was young. Now, I may have to stop something I'm working on to s t a r t a commission, yet, I r e a l l y need the time now to "do my own thing" so to speak. I would much rather they commissioned a younger person - or used the money for more performances. 38 36pentland i n interview, June 8, 1974. 3 7Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1972. 3 8 P e n t l a n d i n interview, June 8, 1974. 135 Her future plans Include a revision of The Lake, and she has some other works in mind she hopes to have time to compose. Undoubtedly she w i l l continue writing to please only herself. You have to write because you love i t and you need i t , not because you areawriting for someone else. A l l those people who are so ambitious are so pompous and d u l l . It makes me want to do something wicked. 39 Pentland in interview, September 13. 1973 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 136 137 S p e c i f i c References: Books; A r t i c l e s ; Theses A p e l , P a u l Hermann. Music of the Americas, North and South. New York* Vantage Press, 1958. "Barbara Pentland: a P o r t r a i t . " Muslcanada. XXI (July-August, 1969), 8 - 9 . L i s t of works and opinions of the composers. Basham, Leonard. "Canadian Symphonic Composers: The Music of Barbara Pentland." The Composer, (August, 1944). Short biography, l i s t of works. Beckwith, John. "Music." The A r t s l n Canada: A St o c k t a k i n g  at Mid-Century. E d i t e d by Malcolm Ross, Toronto: MacMillan, 1958. . "The Performing A r t s . " Canadian Annual Review f o r 1958. E d i t e d by John T. Saywell. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1968. . "What Every U.S. Musician Should Know About Canadian Music." Muslcanada.XXIX ( F i n a l I s s u e ) , 7, 13. Berry, Wallace. "Review." Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Notes, (September, 1962), 701. Review of the recording of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . Cadzow, Dorothy. "Music by Canadians." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician, (March, 1950), 12. Canadian Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Annual. Toronto: C.B.C, 1950, P. 207. Cavalho, Rachel. "Canadian Piano Music f o r Teaching." Muslcanada, (June-July and August-September, 1968). D i s c u s s i o n of s e v e r a l of Pentland's teaching pieces, i n c l u d i n g Three P a i r s , Echoes 1 and 2, Space S t u d i e s , Hands Across the C, Studies i n L i n e . Composers of the Americas. Washington, D.C: Union Panamericana, VI ( I 9 6 0 ) , 8 8 - 9 4 . Short biography. L i s t of works. Contemporary Canadian Music f o r Young P i a n i s t s . " The Canada  Music Book, (Spring-Summer, 1970), 175. DesauteIs, Andree. "Canadian Composition." Aspects of Music  i n Canada. E d i t e d by Arnold Walter. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1969. 138 Duncan, C h e s t e r . "New Music." Canadian Music J o u r n a l , VI No. k (Summer, 1962). ,47" " Review of Toccata and D i r g e . F u l l e r , Donald. "League of Composers' Concert." Modern Music. (Winter t o S p r i n g , 19 k 2 ) , 177. ; G i l l e s p i e , John. F i v e C e n t u r i e s of Keyboard Music. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a * Wadsworth, 1965. Grobin, M i c h a e l . "Our Composers on Microgroove." Performing  A r t s I n Canada. (Sp r i n g , 1973), 38-39. Howell, Gordon P. "The Development of Music i n Canada." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Rochester, 1959. D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o her s t y l e . Huse, P e t e r . "Barbara Pentland." Music Scene, (July-August, 1968), 9. Some good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e of the C.B.C. T h i r t y - f o u r B i o g r a p h i e s  of Canadian Composers. Montreal: C.B.C, 1964. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s . Johnston, R i c h a r d . "Review." Music Across Canada, (February, 1963), 17. Review of Pentland's S t r i n g Quartet No. 1. Kallmann, Helmut. A H i s t o r y of Music i n Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , i960. . " M u s i c a l Composition i n Canada from I 8 6 7 . " Muslcanada, (June, 1969), 9. Kasamets, Udo. "New Music." Canadian Music J o u r n a l , VI No. 3 ( S p r i n g , 1962), 4 3 . Review of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . L o o s l e y , S h e i l a Eastman. "Barbara Pentland." Canadian Music  Centre Handbook: Canadian Composers. Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , i n p r e s s . MacMillan, S i r E r n e s t . Music i n Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1955. M i t c h e l l , Donald. "Instrumental." M u s i c a l Times, XCVI (September, 1955). K 8 5 . 139 Owen, Stephanie O l i v e . "The Piano Concerto i n Canada Since 1955." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of her Piano Concerto, and good background d e t a i l s . Park, J u l i a n , ed. The Culture of Contemporary Canada. Ithaca: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. "Piano Music of the Americas." Music J o u r n a l Anthology Annual, (1963), 81. Reference D i v i s i o n , McPherson L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a . C r e a tive Canada1 A B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of 20th  Century C r e a t i v e and Performing A r t i s t s . V o l . 1 . Toronto 1 U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1971. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s , l i s t of works. Turner, Robert. "Barbara Pentland." Canadian Music J o u r n a l , I I No.4 (Summer, 1958), 15-26. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l , background m a t e r i a l and a n a l y s i s of s t y l e . Walter, A r n o l d . "Canadian Composition." Music ..Teachers'. N a t i o n a l  Association. Proceedings. XL (1946), 87-105. Wheeler, T.J., ed. Canadian Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Annual. Toronto: C.B.C, 1950. D i c t i o n a r i e s and Encyclopedias C a r l s o n , E f f i e B. A B l o - B i b l l o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of 12  Tone and S e r i a l Composers. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1970. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and comments on the s t y l e . G a t t i , Guido M., ed. E n c l c l o p e d l a D e l i a Muslca. M i l a n : G. R i c o r d i , 1964. Loosley, S h e i l a Eastman. "Barbara Pentland." Grove's D i c t i o n a r y  of Music and Musicians. E d i t e d by Stanley Sadie. London: MacMillan, 6th ed.: i n press. Kallman, Helmut. "Barbara Pentland." Die Musik i n Geschichte und Gegenwart. E d i t e d by F r i e d r i c h Blume. K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r , 1958. Rlemann Musik Lexikon. Mainz, West Germany: B. Schott. Second supplement volume i n press. 140 Slonimsky, N i c h o l a s . Baker's B i o s r a p h l c a l D i c t i o n a r y of  Musicians. New York: G. Schirmer, 5 th ed. w i t h 1965 supplement, and 1971 supplement. Tonkunstler-Lexikon. Wilhelmshaven, West Germany: Hein-richshofen's V e r l a g , i n press. Catalogues B.M.I. Symphonic. Catalogue. New York: Broadcast Music, Inc., 1971. Canadian Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . A B l o - B l b l l o g r a p h i c a l  F i n d i n g L i s t of Canadian Musicians and Those Who Have  Contributed t o Music i n Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967. Catalogue of Canadian Chamber Music. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1967. Catalogue of Canadian Choral Music. Toronto: Canadian Music _ c e n t r e , 1966. Catalogue of Canadian Composers. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1947. Very short biography. Catalogue of Canadian Keyboard Music. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1972. Catalogue of M i c r o f i l m s of Unpublished Canadian Music. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1970. Catalogue of O r c h e s t r a l Music. Toronto: Canadian League of Composers, 1957. Catalogue of O r c h e s t r a l Music a t the Canadian Music Centre. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1963. L i s t of Canadian O r c h e s t r a l Music. Toronto: Canadian Music Centre, 1968, supplement t o the 1963 catalogue. Kallmann, Helmut, ed. Catalogue of Canadian Composers. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1951. Napier, Ronald. A Guide t o Canada's Composers. Willowdale: Avondale Press, 1973. 1 4 1 L e t t e r s and A r t i c l e s by Pentland Pentland, Barbara. "Canadian Music." Northern Review, I I I February-March, 1950), 4 3 - 4 6 . . " L e t t e r s : Comment From a Composer." M u s i c a l America. LXXXIII : 4 (November, 1963), 4 . L e t t e r to the e d i t o r . . "Dear S i r . " C.B.C. Times, (August 2 4 - 3 0 , 1963), 2 . L e t t e r to the e d i t o r . . Canadian Music J o u r n a l , VI No.2 (Winter, 1962). 8 0 . _. "Music P u b l i s h i n g i n Canada: a D i s c u s s i o n , " Royal Conservatory of Music of Toronto Monthly B u l l e t i n . (October, 1948), 2 . ~~ . "On Experiment i n Music." Canadian Review of Music and A r t , (August-September, 1943), 25-27. . "Wanted, An Audience." P r i n t e d i n a program f o r a performance by the Jewish F o l k Choir i n Toronto, March 25. 1?47. APPENDIX A LIST OF WORKS 142 143 Childhood P i e c e s ; The Blue Grotto (1921) ( l o s t ) T w i l i g h t (December 1922) Dawn (February 1923) Berceuse ( A p r i l 1923) That D a r l i n g Old Dad o'Mine (1922? 3?) Book of e a r l y pieces destroyed "Revolutionary" Sonata ( F a n t a s i a ) , w r i t t e n , r e w r i t t e n and u n f i n i s h e d i n e a r l y teens (1924-9?) The Cottager t o Her I n f a n t , voice and piano (Spring 1929) Student works: From "French period"s Bergers et vous, Berge'res, f o r a c a p e l l a chorus, a l s o voice and piano ('29) Sonate, c# minor, 4 movements, f o r piano (1930) T r i o f o r F l u t e , C e l l o and Piano, 4 movements, (1930) Aveu F l e u r i , voice and piano (1930) Numerous motets ( L a t i n ) w i t h and without organ accompaniment -pieces f o r organ, and chamber music (1930-1) Reverie, f o r piano (1931) Sonatine, piano, 3 movements, (February 1932) Piece i n B minor, piano (March 1932) A Lavender Lady, voi c e and piano (1932) Ruins, voice and piano (1932) P a s t o r a l e , piano (1933) Lament, f o r voice and s t r i n g quartet (December 1934) Invo c a t i o n , f o r v i o l i n and piano (1935) Two Preludes, piano (1935) They Are Not Long, voi c e and piano (1935) Concert-Overture, f o r symphony o r c h e s t r a (November 1935 -January 193 6) Sonata, piano, 2 movements, (1936) From " J u i l l i a r d p e r i o d " ! 1936-9 Academic A l l e g r o , v i o l i n and piano (Spring 1937) Mazurka, piano (Summer 1937) S t a r l e s s Night, voice and piano (Summer 1937) L i t t l e Scherzo f o r C l a v i c h o r d (Summer 1937) B a l l a d of Trees and the Master (chorus) (Summer 1937) Prelude, Chorale and Toccata f o r Organ ( F a l l 1937) Two Pieces f o r S t r i n g s ( e a r l y 1938) L e i s u r e , A P i c t u r e , Cradle Song, A P i p e r , f o r a c a p e l l a chorus (Spring 1938) Ostinato f o r Organ (summer 1938) Sonata A l l e g r o , piano (summer 1938) The Mask, voic e and piano (1938?) Elegy, f o r piano ( J u l y 1938) 144 6 Pieces f o r C h i l d r e n ( F a l l 1938-1939) F i v e Preludes, f o r piano (1938) Quartet f o r Piano and S t r i n g s (1939) Mature Works Lament, symphony o r c h e s t r a (summer 1939) Dirge f o r a V i o l e t , a c a p e l l a chorus (1939) Rhapsody 1939. f o r piano ( F a l l 1939) The D e v i l Dances, f o r c l a r i n e t and piano (December 1939) Unvanquished, f o r tenor and piano (February 1 9 k 0 ) Promenade ( i n Mauve), f o r piano ( 1 9 k 0 ) Fantasy, f o r piano and o r c h e s t r a - u n f i n i s h e d ( 1 9 k 0 ? ) Payload, score f o r radio-drama (19 k0) Beauty and the Beast, ballet-pantomime f o r 2 pianos ( 1 9 k 0 ) The Wind Our Enemy, score f o r radio-drama (Anne M a r r i o t t ) ( l 9 k l ) S i n f o n i e t t a , 1 s t movement dropped, became* A r i o s o & Rondo (1941) Studies i n L i n e , f o r piano (1941) Holiday S u i t e (summer 1941), v e r s i o n f o r s t r i n g s (1947) V a r i a t i o n s , f o r piano (1942) Concerto f o r V i o l i n and Small Orchestra (1942) Payload, s u i t e f o r o r c h e s t r a (1943) M a r r i o t t Song Cycle (1942-4) completed w i t h C i t i e s (1945) Sonata f o r C e l l o and Piano (1943) A i r - B r i d g e t o A s i a , f o r CBC radio-drama (November 1944) S t r i n g Quartet No. 1 (1944-5) At E a r l y Dawn, f o r tenor, f l u t e , c e l l o (January 1945) Piano Sonata (1945) V i s t a , f o r v i o l i n and piano (May 8 t h , 1945) Symphony No. 1, ( 1 s t movement December 1945, 2nd and 3 r d movements F a l l 1946, 4 t h movement F a l l 1947-1948) Sonata f o r V i o l i n and Piano (1946) From Long Ago (Lone T r a v e l e r , Obstinate Tune, F l i g h t ) f o r piano (1946) Sonata Fantasy, f o r piano (1947) Colony Music, (Overture, Chorale, Burlesque), s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , piano (1947) The L i v i n g G a l l e r y , score f o r f i l m (NFB) (September 1947) V a r i a t i o n s on a B o c c h e r i n i Tune.orchestra ( f l u t e , oboe, horn, -s t r i n g s ) '(June 1948) Octet f o r Winds (1948) D i r g e , f o r piano (1948) Sad Clown - Song of Sleep, 2 pieces f o r piano ( e a r l y 1949) Weekend Overture, f o r r e s o r t '!combo" ( c l a r i n e t , trumpet, piano, percussion) (summer 1949) Concerto f o r Organ and S t r i n g s (1949) Solo V i o l i n Sonata (1950) Cadenzas f o r Mozart V i o l i n Concerto K.207 (1950) Symphony No. 2 (1950) Ave atque Va l e , f o r symphony o r c h e s t r a (1951) Sonatina 1, f o r piano (June 1951) 145 Sonatina 2, f o r piano ( J u l y 1951) Epigrams and Epitaphs, f o r 2, 3, 4 voic e s ( J u l y 1952) M i r r o r Study, f o r piano (1952) The Lake, one-act chamber opera, 4 v o i c e s , f l u t e , oboe, trumpet, s t r i n g s (1952) S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 (April-November 1953) Two-Piano Sonata (August 1953) A r i a , f o r piano (summer 1954) What i s Man? - S a l u t a t i o n of the Dawn, 2 c h o r a l pieces, a c a p e l l a (1954) Sonatina f o r Solo F l u t e (1954) R l c e r c a r f o r S t r i n g s (1955) I n t e r l u d e , f o r piano (summer 1955) Concerto f o r Piano and S t r i n g s (1955-6) Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s (No. 3) (1957) Toccata, f o r piano (1958) Three Duets a f t e r P i c t u r e s by Paul Klee (1958-9) Symphony No. 4 (1959) Duo f o r V i o l a and Piano (i960) Canzona f o r F l u t e , Oboe and Harpsichord (1961) Cavazzoni f o r Brass, 3 organ hymns t r a n s c r i b e d f o r q u i n t e t (1961) Ostinato and Dance f o r Harpsichord (1961 and 1962) Fantasy, f o r piano (1962) T r i o f o r V i o l i n , C e l l o and Piano (1963) Freedom March, f o r young p i a n i s t s , 4 hands and piano (1963) 2 Canadian Folk-Songs f o r piano duet (1963) Signs (Angles, Curves, Dashes, Dots) f o r young p i a n i s t s (1964) Three P a i r s , f o r young p i a n i s t s (... 1964) Puppet-Show, 1 piano, 4 hands (1964). Shadows - Ombres, f o r piano (1964) Echoes 1 and 2 (1964) f o r young p i a n i s t s Puzzle (1964) (see Maze) 3 Sung Songs, voi c e and piano (1964) 3 Sung Songs f o r a c a p e l l a chorus ( A p r i l , August 1964, January 1965) S t r a t a , f o r s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a (1964) C a p r i c e , f o r piano (1965) Hands Across the C, f o r young p i a n i s t s (1965) V a r i a t i o n s f o r V i o l a (1965) T r i o con A l e a (1966), v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o . S u i t e B o r e a l i s , 5 pieces f o r piano (1966) Septet f o r Brass, Organ and S t r i n g s (1967) Ten f o r Ten, f o r young p i a n i s t s (1967) (pub. i n Music of Now, book 3) Space S t u d i e s , f o r young p i a n i s t s (1967) Songs of Peace and P r o t e s t , f o r young p i a n i s t s (1968) Maze, f o r young p i a n i s t s , to p a i r w i t h Puzzle above (1968) Cinescene, f o r o r c h e s t r a , 3 sol o s (1968) (News - 1st t h i r d only - 1968) 146 Music of Now, Book 1 and Book 2, Stages X-XIV (1969) S t r i n g Quartet No. 3 (1969) Music of Now, Book 2 and Book" 3 completed (1970) News ( f i n a l 2/3), f o r v i r t u o s o voice and o r c h e s t r a (1970) V a r i a t i o n s Concertantes, f o r piano and o r c h e s t r a (1970) R e f l e c t i o n s - R e f l e t s , f o r free-bass accordion (1971) Midnight among the H i l l s - The Tune of the Stream, Sung Songs 4 and 5» f o r medium v o i c e and piano (1971) A r c t i c a f o r young p i a n i s t s : 1) Ice F l o e , 2) Thaw (1971-2) I n t e r p l a y , f o r free-bass a c c o r d i o n and s t r i n g quartet (1972) Mutations f o r c e l l o and piano (1972) A r c t i c a f o r young p i a n i s t s : 3) Snowy Owl (1972); 4) Tuktu 1972-January 1973) V i t a B r e v i s f o r piano (1973) Occasions f o r brass q u i n t e t (1974) APPENDIX B LIST OF FIRST PERFORMANCES 147 148 L i s t e d i n order of performance THEY ARE NOT LONG A T r n A LAVENDER LADY A S n e s Kelsey, soprano UUINS Anna Hovey, piano TWO PRELUDES _ , SONATA P 3 6 ) , f i r s t movt. Barbara Pentland, piano R e c i t a l by Barbara Pentland, Royal Alexandra H o t e l , Winnipeg, September 21st 1936. PRELUDE, CHORALE AND TOCCATA FOR ORGAN - Ashley M i l l e r , organ. J u i l l i a r d Concert H a l l , New York, May 9th, 1938. LITTLE SCHERZO FOR CLAVICHORD Q . _ MAZURKA ( i n mem. George Gershwin) S n J ° l a * S Sigurdson, piano BALLAD OF TREES AND THE MASTER - chorus, F i l m e r Hubble, conductor. Wednesday Morning Musicale, F o r t Garry H o t e l , Winnipeg, October 12th, 1938. A PICTURE - LEISURE, two pieces f o r a c a p e l l a chorus - v o c a l t r i o . SUITE OF 4 PIECES ( l a t e r "FIVE PRELUDES") - Snjolaug Sigurdson, piano. Wednesday Morning Musicale, F o r t Garry H o t e l , Winnipeg, March 28th, 1939. FIVE PRELUDES FOR PIANO - E a r l e Voorhies, piano. WPA Composers* Forum-Laboratory, Carnegie Chamber Music H a l l , New York, A p r i l 12th, 1939. LAMENT, FOR SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA - Winnipeg Summer Symphony, Geoffrey Waddington, conductor, Walker Theatre, Winnipeg, August 21st, 1940. PAYLOAD, ORCHESTRAL SCORE TO RADIO DRAMA - CBC from Montreal, Jean Marie Beaudet, conductor, November 8th, 1940. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST - ballet-pantomime f o r 2 pianos, Barbara Pentland and M a r j o r i e D i l l a b o u g h , Winnipeg B a l l e t Club, Auditorium Concert H a l l , Winnipeg, January 3 r d , 1941. QUARTET FOR PIANO AND STRINGS - B. Pentland with Mary Gussin, Mary Graham, Bruno Schmidt, Wednesday Morning Musicale, F o r t Garry H o t e l , March 12th, 1941s - Eugene Kash, v i o l i n ; C e c i l F i g e l s k i , v i o l a ; P h i l i p Splvak, c e l l o ; Reginald Godden, pianoi Vogt S o c i e t y , Toronto, May 2nd 1941. 149 RHAPSODY 1939 - Barbara Pentland, piano, Wednesday Morning Musicale, Winnipeg, March 12th, 1941. STUDIES IN LINE - M a r j o r i e D i l l a b o u g h , piano, Winnipeg, December 3rd , 1941. VARIATIONS (AND FUGUE) - Barbara Pentland, piano, Women's Mu s i c a l Club, Auditorium Concert H a l l , Winnipeg, March l 6 t h , 1942. CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND SMALL ORCHESTRA - Harry Adaskin, v i o l i n ; Frances Marr, pianos Toronto Conservatory Concert H a l l , Toronto, January 20th, 1945. TRACKS (FROM SONG CYCLE) - Frances James, soprano, and composer, piano, Toronto, December 3 rd , 1944, (Conservatory Concert H a l l ) . RONDO (FROM "ARIOSO & RONDO") - (BBC Orchestra, S i r A d r i a n B o u l t , conductor, BBC London, March 19th, 1942) CBC Orchestra, conductor Hersenhoren, from Toronto, January 1 s t , 1942. ARIOSO & RONDO - BBC Orchestra, S i r A d r i a n B o u l t , conductor, London, short-wave and CBC network, J u l y 1 s t , 1945. SONATA FOR CELLO AND PIANO - F i n a l e o n l y i L o t t a B r o t t , c e l l o ; N e i l Chotem, pianos CBC from Montreal, September 5th, 1946. - complete works Barton Frank, c e l l o , composer, piano, Symposium of Canadian Music, H o t e l Vancouver, Vancouver, March 13th , 1950. SONG CYCLE (Wheat, F o r e s t , Tracks, Mountains, C i t i e s ) , Frances James, soprano, w i t h composer, Harbord C o l l e g i a t e Auditorium, Toronto, A p r i l 17th, 1947. PIANO SONATA - Marie Knotkova, piano, Prague, Czechoslovakia, J u l y 26th, 1947. HOLIDAY SUITE - arranged f o r s t r i n g s - CBC Symphony f o r S t r i n g s , Harold Sumberg, conductor, from Toronto, June 18th, 1947. - f o r chamber o r c h e s t r a ( o r i g i n a l ) s CBC Chamber Orchestra, John Avison, conductor, from Vancouver, J u l y 2 7 t h , 1948. ADAGIO from Symphony No. 1 - CBC Dominion Concert Hour, Alexander B r o t t , conductor, from Montreal, October l 4 t h , 1947 THE LIVING GALLERY, o r c h e s t r a l score to f i l m (NFB) - UNESCO conference, Mexico C i t y , November 1947. 1 5 0 COLONY MUSIC - New World Orchestra, Samuel Hersenhoren, conductor, Bessborough H a l l , F o r est H i l l , Toronto, February 9 t h , 1948. SONATA FOR VIOLIN & PIANO - Irene Thorolfson, v i o l i n , Chester Duncan, piano, S t . John's C o l l e g e , Winnipeg, May 15th , 1948. SONATA FANTASY - Harry Somers, piano, Conservatory Concert H a l l , Toronto, March 20th, 1948. VARIATIONS ON A BOCCHERINI TUNE - CBC Orchestra, Hersenhoren, conductor, Toronto, June 3 0 t h , 1948. VISTA - Harry Adaskin, v i o l i n , Frances Marr, piano, Brock Lounge, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, August 10th, 1948. OCTET FOR WINDS - TSO wind p l a y e r s , Pentland program, (Harold Sumberg, conductor), CBC Wednesday Night from Toronto, January 12th, 1949. STRING QUARTET NO. 1 - Diana S t e i n e r , Nancy Heaton, v i o l i n s ; Sarah Cossum, v i o l a ; Jaqueline E p p i n o f f , c e l l o ; A r t A l l i a n c e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , A p r i l 20th, 1949. CONCERTO FOR ORGAN & STRINGS - Gordon J e f f e r y , organ, w i t h London Chamber Orchestra, Ernest White, conductor, A e o l i a n H a l l , London, Ont., A p r i l 7 t h , 1951. SYMPHONY NO. 2, (1st movement only - Vancouver J u n i o r Symphony, C o l i n S l i m , conductor, West Vancouver Senior High School, November 28th 1952.) - (complete) CBC Symphony Orchestra, E t t o r e Mazzoleni, conductor, CBC from Toronto, February 9 t h , 1953. DIRGE, SONATINA 2 - composer, piano, S o c i e t y of P a c i f i c North-west Composers, Cornish Theatre, S e a t t l e , Wash., January 15th, 1953. AVE ATQUE VALE - Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, I r w i n Hoffman, conductor, Orpheum Theatre, Vancouver, November 15th , 1953. SONATINA 1 - composer, piano, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., Vancouver, A p r i l 5 t h , 1954. THE LAKE - Minunzie, Nowell, Cole, F y f e , s o l o s i n g e r s , CBC Chamber Orchestra, John Avison, conductor, CBC from Vancouver, March 3rd, 1954. 151 TWO-PIANO SONATA - E l l e n Arrow, C o l i n S l i m , Paine H a l l , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Cambridge, Mass., May 2nd, 195 k. SONATINA FOR SOLO FLUTE - Jean Murphy, Women's M u s i c a l Club, A r t G a l l e r y , Vancouver, February 2nd, 1955. ARIA - Pentland R e c i t a l , composer, piano, A r t G a l l e r y , Vancouver, February 7th, 1955. SOLO VIOLIN SONATA - Louis Thienpont, v i o l i n , Pentland Concert, l ' A t e l i e r , B r u s s e l s , June l 4 t h , 1955. INTERLUDE - composer, piano, CBU Vancouver, P a c i f i c r e g i o n , February 13th, 1956. STRING QUARTET No. 2 - Grtinfarb Quartet, I.S.C.M. World F e s t i v a l , Konserthuset, Stockholm, June 8th, 1956. CONCERTO FOR PIANO & STRINGS - Mario Bernard!, piano, w i t h CBC Orchestra, V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l , conductor, Toronto, March 12th, 1958. TOCCATA - composer, piano, CBU Vancouver, J u l y 15th , 1958. RICERCAR FOR STRINGS - CBC Chamber Orchestra, cond. Goldschmidt, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l , Brock H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and CBC, August 14th, 1958. SYMPHONY FOR TEN PARTS - CBC o r c h e s t r a ( s o l o s t r i n g s ) , Hugh McLean, conductor, CBU Vancouver, September 18th, 1959. SYMPHONY NO. 4 - Winnipeg.Symphony Orchestra, V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l , conductor, C i v i c Auditorium, Winnipeg, February 2 5 t h , i 9 6 0 . DUO FOR VIOLA & PIANO - Harry and Frances Adaskin, A r t s Club, Vancouver, November 2 9 t h , i 9 6 0 . DUETS AFTER PICTURES BY PAUL KLEE - composer w i t h Robert Rogers, piano, Fine A r t s F e s t i v a l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, February 8th, 1961. CANZONA FOR FLUTE, OBOE, HARPSICHORD - Baroque T r i o , CBC from Montreal, October 15th, 1962. FANTASY - Leonard S t e i n , piano, F e s t i v a l of Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and CBC C e l e b r i t y Concert, February 13th, 1963. TRIO FOR VIOLIN, CELLO & PIANO - H a l i f a x T r i o , CBC, February 9 t h , 1964. 152 SHADOWS - OMBRESj composer, piano, CBC from Vancouver, June 5 t h , 1965. CAPRICE - composer, piano, F e s t i v a l of Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, February 2nd, 1966. CAVAZZONI ORGAN HYMNS FOR BRASS QUINTET - Vancouver Brass Ensemble, West P o i n t Grey B a p t i s t Church, Vancouver, February 2 7 t h , 1966. TRIO CON ALEA - John Loban, v i o l i n , Hans-Karl P i l t z , v i o l a , Eugene Wilson, c e l l o , F e s t i v a l of Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., Vancouver, February 8 t h , 1967. SUITE BOREALIS - p i a n i s t s C a r o l J u t t e (Unknown Shores, Rapids), Genevieve Carey (Settlements), W i l f r e d Renard (Wide Ho r i z o n s ) , Richard K i t s o n (Mountains), Queen E l i z a b e t h Playhouse, March 5 t h , 1967. SPRING DAYS COME SUDDENLY - l e P e t i t Ensemble V o c a l , George L i t t l e , conductor, P a v i l i o n de Canada, Expo, Montreal, September 2 6 t h , 1967. SEPTET FOR BRASS, ORGAN & STRINGS - Hugh McLean, organ: Kenneth Hopkins, trumpet; Robert Creech, horn; Ian McDougall, trombone; Campbell Trowsdale, v i o l i n ; Smyth Humphreys, v i o l a ; Ian Hampton, c e l l o : Ryerson United Church, February 2 0 t h , 1968. THREE SUNG SONGS ( D i v i n i n g , L i f e , Let the Harp Speak), Winona Denyes, soprano, Harold Brown, piano, CBC from Vancouver, A p r i l 16th , 1968. STRATA FOR STRINGS - CBC Chamber Orchestra, John Avison, conductor, CBC from Vancouver, September 15th , 1968. STRING QUARTET NO. 3 - P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet (Norman Nelson, Raymond Ovens, v i o l i n s ; P h i l i p p e E t t e r , v i o l a ; Ian Hampton, c e l l o ) , A r t G a l l e r y , Vancouver, June 2 5 t h , 1970. VARIATIONS CONCERTANTES - (9 f i n a l i s t s i n Concours I n t e r n a t i o n a l de Montreal, piano, June l l t h - 1 3 t h ) - Zola S h a u l i s , piano, w i t h Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Franz-Paul Decker, conductor, Gala Concert, S a l l e W i l f r e d P e l l e t i e r , Place des A r t s , Montreal, June 15th, 1971. NEWS - P h y l l i s M a i l i n g , mezzo-soprano, w i t h N a t i o n a l A r t s Centre Orchestra, Mario Bernard!, conductor, Opera House, J u l y 15th, 197-1. 153 MIDNIGHT AMONG THE HILLS, THE TUNE OF THE STREAM, from SUNG SONGS 4 and 5 - P h y l l i s M a i l i n g and Derek Bampton, "Vancouver R e c i t a l " CBC FM Monday Night, November 13th, MUTATIONS FOR CELLO AND PIANO - Eugene Wilson, Robert Rogers, UBC R e c i t a l H a l l , February 22nd, 1973. INTERPLAY FOR FREE-BASS ACCORDION AND STRING QUARTET - Joseph Macerollo, P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet, Vancouver New Music S o c i e t y , Vancouver East C u l t u r a l Centre, May 22 , 1 9 7 k . APPENDIX C INDEX OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 154 155 The a r t i c l e s l i s t e d here include such weekly r e p o r t s as the C.B.C. Times, and Saturday Nig h t . Except f o r a s e c t i o n which i s devoted to references to the composer, the a r t i c l e s are arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y w i t h i n an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of works. E s p e c i a l l y informative a r t i c l e s are marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k , and are followed by short annotations. ARIA "A L ' A t e l i e r . " Le S o l r . June 6, 1955. AIR BRIDGE TO ASIA " H i g h l i g h t s . " Winnipeg Tribune. November 21 , 1944. ARIOSO AND RONDO "Miss Pentland t o Study i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. June 28, 1941. "Thursday Home S e r v i c e . " BBC Radio Times. March 19, 1942. "Beaudet to Conduct the BBC Symphony." Radio V i s i o n . June 29, 1946. AVE ATQUE VALE "Premiere." Vancouver News-Herald. November 9, 1953. "New Music Premiere Sunday." Vancouver Province. November 9»1953. Vancouver Sun. November 13, 1953. "Music This Week." CBC Times. November 15, 1953. "Richard Strauss Work Featured by Symphony." Vancouver News-Herald. November 16, 1953. "Symphony Program E x c e l l e n t l y Played," Vancouver Province. November 16, 1953. "Symphony Gives I t s Best of the Season." Vancouver Sun. November 16, 1953. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST " B a l l e t Dancers Reveal G i f t of Expression." Winnipeg Free  Press. January 4 , 1941. " B a l l e t Club Scores w i t h R i c h Fantasy." Winnipeg Tribune. January 4 , 1941. 156 "An Album of Winnipeg Women." Winnipeg Tribune. A p r i l 5, 1 9 k l . "Miss Pentland to Study i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. June 28 , 1 9 k l . " G r a c e , . A r t i s t r y i n B a l l e t Show." Winnipeg Tribune. March 7, 1 9 k 2 . CAPRICE "Barbara Pentland Scores." Vancouver Sun. February 3 , 1966. "Old, New and ' Beetlehoverf S a t i s f y CBC Concert-Goers." Vancouver  Sun. September 29, 1967. "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music to Our C r i t i c ' s Ear." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18 , 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatoon). November 2 8 , 1967. "Barbara Pentland i n R e c i t a l and Interview." CBC Times. December 9 - 15, 1967. COLONY MUSIC "New World Orchestra O f f e r i n g Barbara Pentland's Colony Music." Globe and M a l l . February 7, 1 9 k 8 . "New World Orchestra Presents Miss Pentland's Colony Music." Globe and M a l l . February 10, 1 9 K 8 . "Young Canuck G i r l ' s Music i s Featured." Toronto Telegram. February 10, 1 9 K 8 . "No Committee to Please." Saturday N i g h t . February 21, 1 9 K 8 . "CBC Wednesday Night." CBC Times. Week of February 22, 1 9 K 8 . "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 9, 1 9 k 9 . "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 12, 1 9 k 9 . "Musical Musings." Winnipeg Free Press. J u l y 2, 1 9 k 9 . "Ideas on a Keyboard." Saturday N i g h t . January 9, 1950. "Pentland Music at G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Province. December k , 195 k» 157 CONCERTO FOR PIANO AND STRINGS "Pentland Concerto i n A l l - C a n a d i a n Concert." CBC Times. March 9 - 15. 1958, p.2. Composer's notes. "Pentland Piano Concerto Most Disagreeable, I r r i t a t i n g to Hear." Toronto S t a r . March 13, 1958. Review. " I t Was a Chore to L i s t e n . " Toronto Telegram. March 13, 1958. Review. "Young A r t i s t s Show Fine Form." Vancouver Prov i n c e. November 29, 1958. "Barbara Pentland i n Dual Radio Role." CBC Times. J u l y 27 -August 2, 1963. CONCERTO FOR ORGAN AND STRINGS "Concerto by Canadian Given World Premiere." London Free Press ( O n t a r i o ) . A p r i l 9, 1951. "Concerto Premiere i n London." Toronto Telegram. A p r i l 9, 1951. " F r i d a y May 11." CBC Times. May 11, 1951. " E n g l i s h Group Gives R e c i t a l a t Auditorium." Globe and M a l l . November 8, 1951. CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND SMALL ORCHESTRA "Adaskin P l a u d i t s Shared by Young Composer." Globe and M a i l . January 22 , 19^5. Review. "Canadian Work E x c i t e s P r a i s e From Audience." Toronto Telegram. January 22 , 19^5. Review. "Canadian Composers Provide V a r i e d Program," Toronto Globe  and;Mall. March 12, 19^5. "Adaskin, Marr i n Canadian Program." Vancouver News-Herald. January 4 , 19^7. "Harry Adaskin, V i o l i n i s t , Gives Times H a l l R e c i t a l . " New  York Herald Tribune. February 16, 19^8. 158 "Adaskin, Marr O f f e r V i o l i n , Piano R e c i t a l , " New York Times. February 16, 1948. "Laud Harry Adaskin A l s o F r a n c i s Marr." Toronto S t a r . February 16, 1948. "Harry Adaskin, V i o l i n i s t , Times H a l l , February 15." M u s i c a l  America. March 1948, "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g , " Vancouver Sun. February 21, 1953. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. DIRGE "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland," Vancouver Province. January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar. February 1955, V o l . 7 No. 5 . "Barbara Pentland Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her Creative Work." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . February 8, 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l • I n t e r e s t i n g ^ ' " Vancouver Herald. February 9.-1955. "Saturday Concert of Canadian Music." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 20, 1964. "Canada Music Week Observed Saturday." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 23 , 1964. DUO FOR VIOLA AND PIANO "Barbara Pentland Scores." Vancouver Sun. February 3 . 1966. FANTASY " C i t y Composer's Work Meets Test." Vancouver Sun. February 14, 1963. "UBC Gets New Type Music Hero." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . February 14, 1963, P. 19. "Pentland's Piano Fantasy." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . February 18, 1963. 159 "Saturday Concert of Canadian Music." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 20, 1964. "Canada Music Week Observed Saturday." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 23 , 1964. "Barbara Pentland Scores." Vancouver Sun. February 3 , 1966. "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music to Our C r i t i c ' s Ear." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatchewan). November 28, 1967. "Barbara Pentland i n R e c i t a l and Interview." CBC Times. December 9 - 1 5 , 1967. "Watson Shows Piano Form." Winnipeg Free Press. November 29, 1971, P. 27 . FIVE PRELUDES "Barbara Pentland Piano Works W i l l Be Heard Monday." Winnipeg Free Press. March 14, 1942, VWomen.'s Music Club Annual." Winnipeg Tribune. March 14, 1942. "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win Success." Winnipeg Free Press. March 17, 1942. HOLIDAY SUITE "Canadian Music Equal of Any i n Budapest Concert." Canadian  Tribune. September 19, 1949. "Ideas on a Keyboard." Saturday Night. January 9, 1950. "Pentland Music At G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Province. December 4 , 195*. INTERPLAY " E x c i t i n g , C o l o u r f u l , Absurd." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . May 23, 1974. "Taking a Chance on Music - and Winning." Vancouver Sun. May 23 , 1974. 160 KLEE DUETS "Grown Presents World Premiere." Ubyssey. February 3 , 1961, "Composer Pentland W e l l Received a t UBC." Vancouver Province. February 9, 1 9 6 l . "World Audience f o r Canadian Composers." CBC Times. February 27, 1965. THE LAKE "Raps Lack of I n i t i a t i v e i n Use of Canadian Talent." Winnipeg  Tribune. J u l y 12, 1952. *Dorothy MacNair. "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . " Vancouver Sun. February 21 , 1953. This lengthy a r t i c l e i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l o t of the opera. "B.C. Opera W r i t t e n by Two Women." Vancouver Sun. February 27, 1954. "The Lake." CBC Times. February 28 - March 6, 6, 1954. "This Week." CBC Times. P a c i f i c Region, February 28 -March 6, 1954. * M i l t o n Wilson. "Music Review." The Canadian Forum. A p r i l 1954. Lengthy review. "Woman's Music Gets Premiere." Vancouver Sun. November 30 , 1954. "Composer Pentland t o Attend Premiere." Ubyssey. November 30, 1954. "Pentland Music a t G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Prov i n c e. December 4 , 1954. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. LAMENT "Lo c a l Composer Wins Success." Winnipeg Tribune. June 22 , 1940. " L o c a l Musicians Given Ovations With Symphony." Winnipeg Tribune. August 22 , 1940. "Winnipeg Composers are Represented i n F i n a l Concert." Winnipeg Free Press. August 22 , 1940. 1 6 1 "Says Music Should Fan S p i r i t of Hope." Winnipeg Free Press. L e t t e r to the e d i t o r , August 30 ( ? ) , 1940. "Pentland's Lament Sincere." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . L e t t e r to the e d i t o r , September 8, 1940. "An Album of Winnipeg Women." Winnipeg Tribune. A p r i l 5, 1941. MUTATIONS "New C e l l o Work 'Successful'." Vancouver Sun. February 23, 1973. NEWS * S h e i l a McCook. " C r i t i c ' s S l i n g s Don't Daunt." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J u l y 15, 1971. Lengthy a r t i c l e c o n t a i n i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of News, Pentland's r e a c t i o n s t o music, her opinions on world i s s u e s . "Two World Premieres Earn High P r a i s e f o r B e r n a r d i . " Ottawa  J o u r n a l . J u l y 16, 1971. "World Premieres of Two Canadian Works on NAC Program." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J u l y 16, 1971. OCTET FOB WINDS "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 9, 1949, p. 3 . "Musical Musings." Winnipeg Free Press. J u l y 2, 1949. "Woman's Music Gets Premiere." Vancouver Sun. November 3 0 , 1954. "Composer Pentland to Attend Premiere." Ubyssey. November 30, 1954. "Pentland Music at G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Province. December 4 , 1954. PAYLOAD "An Album of Winnipeg Women." Winnipeg Tribune. A p r i l 5, 1941. "Three Winnipeg G i r l s to Present Radio Pl a y . " Montreal  Gazette. November 7, 1940. "C.B.C. W i l l Feature Canadian A i r Saga." Winnipeg Free Press. November 7, 1940. 162 "Payload." Winnipeg Free Press. E d i t o r i a l , November 13, 1940. " ' C a l l i n g Adventurers!' - The Voice of the Wind." Winnipeg  Tribune. E d i t o r i a l , March 29, 1 9 M . "Canadian Describes Berkshire A d d i t i o n s . " Montreal Gazette. September 12, 1 9 4 l . "Music f o r Radio." CBC Programme Schedule. Week of January 31, 1943. "Payload." Radio Times J o u r n a l of the B.B.C. August 22, 1943. "Asserts Young Composers Lack Proper Hearing." Winnipeg  Tribune. September 2, 1944. " H i g h l i g h t s . " Winnipeg Tribune. November 21 , 1944. PIANO QUARTET "Vogt Unit May Disband; ' F i n a l ' Concert Notable." Globe and  M a i l . May 3 , 1941. "Miss Pentland to Study w i t h Copland i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. June 28, 1941. "Two Winnipeg G i r l s Are Musicians Here." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . October 17, 1942. "Old Music S o c i e t y Changes i t s Name." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . February 22 , 1943. PIANO SONATA News-Herald. March 14, 1950. "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar (Vancouver). February 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." Vancouver  Prov i n c e. February 8, 1955. RHAPSODY "Barbara Pentland Piano Works W i l l be Heard Monday." Winnipeg  Free Press. March 14, 1942. 163 "Women's Music Club Annual." Winnipeg Tribune. March l k , 1 9 k 2 . "BBC Broadcasts A Programme of Canadian Works," Winnipeg  Tribune. May 2, 1 9 k 2 . "Two Winnipeg G i r l s are Musicians Here." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . October 17, 1 9 k 2 . Globe and M a i l . October 20, 1 9 k 2 . "Pentland R e c i t a l I n t e r e s t i n g . " Vancouver Herald. February 9, 1955. : "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland." Vancouver Province. January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar. "February 1955, v o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her Cre a t i v e Work." Vancouver  Provi n c e. February 8, 1955. SEPTET "Top Canadian Composer." Vancouver Prov i n c e. January 6, 1967. "McLean's R e c i t a l F a i l s to Please." Vancouver Sun. February 22, 1968. SHADOWS "Barbara Pentland Scores." Vancouver Sun. February 3 , 1966. "Old, New and 'Beethoven' S a t i s f y CBC Concert Goers." Vancouver Sun. September 29, 1967. "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s Ear." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatchewan). November 28, 1967. "Barbara Pentland i n R e c i t a l and Interview." CBC Times. December 9-15, 1967. SONATA FANTASY "Pentland Music Given By Somers." Globe and M a i l . March 22, 19k8. 164 " R e c i t a l Devotes Program to UBC Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. "Works of Wpg Composer Well-Received a t UBC Concert." Vancouver News-Herald. January 28, 1950. " C r i t i c on the Hearth." Ubyssey. January 31, 1950. "Northwest Composers' Works to be Heard." S e a t t l e Times. January 5, 1953. "Everett Boy, 15, Takes Concert Honors." S e a t t l e Times. January 16, 1953. "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland." Vancouver Prov i n c e. January 29, 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l ' I n t e r e s t i n g ' . " Vancouver Herald. February 9 t h , 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar. February 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "A L ' A t e l i e r . " Le S o i r . June 18, 1955. "Old, New and 'beetlehoven' S a t i s f y CBC Concert Goers." Vancouver Sun. September 29, 1967. "Barbara Pentland i n R e c i t a l and Interview." CBC Times. December 9-15, 1967. SONATA FOR TWO PIANOS "Woman's Music Gets Premiere." Vancouver Sun. November 3 0 , 1954. "Composer Pentland t o Attend Premiere." Ubyssey. November 30, 1954. "Pentland Music at G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Province. December 4 , 1954. H a r t f o r d Courant (Conn e c t i c u t ) . November 17, 1959. "Crown Presents World Premiere." Ubyssey. February 3 , 1 9 6 l . "Composer Pentland W e l l Received at UBC." Vancouver Prov i n c e. February 9, 1 9 6 l . 165 SONATA FOR CELLO "Asserts Young Composers Lack proper Hearing." Winnipeg  Tribune. September 2, 1944. "Composers i n Canada Are No Class Apart," Saturday Night. A p r i l 26, 1947, p. 29 . "Music by Canadians." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician. A p r i l 1950, p. 13. "Miss Barbara Pentland." U.B.C. Alumni C h r o n i c l e . Winter 1955. "Barbara Pentland." La L i b r e Belglque. June 1 7 , 1 9 5 5 . "A L ' A t e l i e r . " Le S o i r . June 18, 1955. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. SONATA FOR SOLO FLUTE "Composer's Views on Cr e a t i n g Music." Vancouver Sun. February 5, 1955. SONATA FOR SOLO VIOLIN "Miss Barbara Pentland." U.B.C. Alumni C h r o n i c l e . Winter, 1955. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. "Concert Audience Applauds Music of Canadian Composers." Vancouver Province. May 9 , i 9 6 0 . "Musical Rewards Few i n Studious C i t y Concert." Vaneouver  Sun. May 9, i 9 6 0 . SONATA FOR UNACCOMPANIED VIOLIN "Concerts Provide Weekend F e s t i v a l . " Vancouver Sun. J u l y 25, i 9 6 0 . SONATINAS NO. I AND I I "Pentland R e c i t a l By Pentland." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar. February 1955. V o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." Vancouver  Province. February 8, 1955* 166 "A L ' A t e l i e r . " Le S o i r . June 18, 1955. SONATINA I I "Northwest Composers' Works to be Heard." S e a t t l e Times. January 5» 1953. "Everett Boy, 15» Takes Concert Honors." S e a t t l e Times. January 16, 1953. "Music i n Toronto." Globe and M a i l . March 26, 1956. SONATINA FOR SOLO FLUTE " P i a n i s t , F l a u t i s t Presented by Club." Vancouver Sun. February 3 , 1955. "A Generous Helping of Canadian Music." Montreal S t a r . A p r i l 10, i 9 6 0 . SONG CYCLE "James A r t i s t r y has Subtle Drama." Toronto S t a r . December 4 , 1944. Toronto Telegram. December 4 t h , 1944. "Music i n Schools." Globe and M a i l . A p r i l 5, 1947. "Warm Reception Given Canadian Music S e r i e s . " Globe and M a l l . A p r i l 18, 1947. "Canadian Composers Featured at Harbord." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . A p r i l 18, 1947. "5 Canadians' Compositions on Program." Toronto Telegram. A p r i l 19, 1947. "Program P l a n Introduces Canadian Compositions t o Keen Audiences." Saturday N i g h t . May 10, 1947. " M u s i c a l Musings." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . J u l y 2, 1949. " R e c i t a l Devotes Program to UBC Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. "Frances James Gives D i s p l a y of High-Art." Winnipeg Tribune. January 10, 1950. "Works of Winnipeg Composer Well-Received at UBC Concert." Vancouver News-Heraid. January.28, 1950. 1 6 7 " C r i t i c on the Hearth." Ubyssey. January 31, 1950. "Competing w i t h Copland i s Tough." Vancouver Sun. January 15, 1970. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 16, 1970. STRING QUARTET NO. 1 "Chamber Music R e c i t a l , A p r i l 20." A r t A l l i a n c e B u l l e t i n . A p r i l 4-25, 1949. ; "Toronto Composer's Number i s P r a i s e d . " Toronto S t a r . A p r i l 20, 1949. "Rafters Ring at F i n a l 'Pops' Concert." The Evening B u l l e t i n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a ) . A p r i l 21, 1949. "Laud Quartet by Composer From Canada." Toronto Telegram. A p r i l 21, 1949. "Musical Musings." Winnipeg Free Press. J u l y 2, 1949. " R e c i t a l Devotes Program to UBC Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. "Works of Winnipeg Composer Well-Received at UBC Concert." Vancouver News Herald. January 28, 1950. " C r i t i c i n the Hearth." Ubyssey. January 31, 1950. "Music by Canadians." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician. A p r i l 1950. p. 13. "Sunday." CBC Times. March 15, 1953. "Pentland Composition Receives 'Tender' C a r e . " Vancouver  Province. J u l y 24, 1953. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. CBC Times. May 9 - 15, 1959. " S e r i e s by Quartet Continues Tonight." Montreal S t a r . October 23, 1959. "Program Tests L o c a l Quartet." Montreal S t a r . October 24, 1959. "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s Ear." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18, 1967. 168 " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatchewan). November 28, 1967. STRING QUARTET NO. 2 "Musikfestens S e m i f i n a l . " Svenska Dagbladet.. (Stockholm). June 9, 1956. "Sweden Cool to Music By BC G i r l . " Montreal Herald. June 11, 1956. Vancouver Province. June 11, 1956, p. 5» CBC Times. August 29, 1956. " M u s i c a l Schedule C u r t a i l e d At Pan-American F e s t i v a l . " M u s i c a l  America. October 1959, P. 27 . " I t ' s Music Here 'n Now." Vancouver Province. February 23, 1963. "Musical Package Small, Ideas B i g . " Vancouver Sun. March 2, 1963. "Stimulus of the Theatre Required Says P i a n i s t . " Vancouver  Province. March 4 , 1963. "Top Canadian Composer - at Home and Elsewhere." Vancouver  Province. January 6, 1967. "Quartet Adds to Sta t u r e . " Vancouver Sun. May 30, 1969. " U n i t a r i a n s Celebrate." Vancouver Sun. December 11, 1969. "Canadian Quartets on P u r c e l l Program." Vancouver Province. December 12, 1969. STRING QUARTET NO. 3 ^Vancouver Sun. June 19, 1970. Her notes on the qua r t e t . "New Quartet Takes Deep Hold." Vancouver Province. June 26, 1970. "Romantic Composer Has Warmth f o r the World." Vancouver Sun. June 26, 1970. " P u r c e l l Quartet Proves i t s P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . " The C o u r i e r (Vancouver, Dunbar area weekly). J u l y 2, 1970. "Quartet R e f l e c t s Bleak Moonscape." Ottawa C i t i z e n . August 15, 1970. 169 "New Works Conv i n c i n g l y Played by Vancouver's P u r c e l l Quartet." Ottawa J o u r n a l . August 15, 1970. p. 23 . "Quartet Performs." Montreal S t a r . August 22, 1970. "Max Reger's Reputation i s U n f a i r . " Vancouver Province. August 29, 1970. "Quartet Blends F o r m a l i t y , Romanticism." Vancouver Sun. January 26, 1971. "Canadian Music Shows Why Seldom Performed." D a i l y C o l o n i s t ( V i c t o r i a ) . February 20, 1971. " V i c t o r i a n s Hear Modern R e c i t a l . " V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. February 20 , 1971. "A B i t Ordinary By Any Standard." Vancouver Sun; February 22, 1971. " P u r c e l l Quartet i n Great Form." Vancouver Province. May 6, 1972. "Centuries Bridged by Two Composers." Vancouver Sun. May 6, 1972. "Quartet B e t t e r Second Time Around." Vancouver Province. May 17, 1972. " P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet Begins New VAG S e r i e s . " Vancouver Sun. May 17, 1972. " P u r c e l l Quartet." F i n a n c i a l Times (London, England). J u l y 3 , 1973. Musicanada. F i n a l Issue, 1970, No. 29, p. 3 . STUDIES IN LINE "Marjorie D i l l a b r o u g h Gives Pleasure i n Piano R e c i t a l . " Winnipeg Free Press. December 4 , 1941. " P i a n i s t Charms i n Brahms Work." Winnipeg Tribune. December 4 , 1941. "Program O f f e r s Modern Music By 6 Canadians." New York Herald  Tribune. January 12, 1942. "Canadian Concert at P u b l i c L i b r a r y . " New York Times. January 12, 1942. 170 " S i x Canadians' Music Played i n Manhattan," Winnipeg Tribune. January 12, 1942. "Sharps and F l a t s . " Winnipeg Free P r e s s . January 17, 1942. "The League of Composers Presents Young Canadian Composers." M u s i c a l America. January 25 , 1942. "Barbara Pentland Piano Works W i l l Be Heard Monday." Winnipeg  Free Press. March 14-, 1942, "Women's Music Club Annual." Winnipeg Tribune. March 14, 1942. VComposer and V i o l i n i s t Win Success." Winnipeg Free Press. March 17, 1942. " L o c a l Musicians Win Applause." Winnipeg Tribune. March 17, 1942. "B.B.C. Broadcast a Programme of Canadian Works," Winnipeg  Tribune. May 2, 1942. "Canadian Works Heard at Saskatoon Concert." Winnipeg Tribune. June 27, 1942. " F e s t i v a l i n Berkshires I n s p i r e s L o c a l Musician." Winnipeg  Tribune. October 3 , 1942. Globe and M a l l . October 20, 1942. "Canadian and S o v i e t Music Performed i n Toronto." The Composer. October, 1944. "Godden Pleases i n Old and New Numbers." Globe and M a l l . March 23 , 1945. "Godden at Keyboard i n D a z z l i n g R e c i t a l . " Toronto S t a r . March 23, 1945. "Godden Touch Brings Power to Piano Works." Toronto Telegram. March 23 , 1945. "Western P i a n i s t F u l f i l s Promise." Globe and M a i l . January 16, 1946. "Haddad Shows S k i l l i n Piano-Art R e c i t a l , " Toronto S t a r . January 16, 1946. "Music Notes." Toronto Telegram. January 16, 1946. 171 " D e t r o i t . " M u s i c a l America. February, 1946. "Music i n Schools." Globe and M a i l . Saturday, A p r i l 5, 1947. "Warm Reception Given Canadian Music S e r i e s . " Globe and M a i l . A p r i l 18, 1947. "Canadian Composers Featured at Harbord." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . A p r i l 18, 1947. "5 Canadians* Compositions on Program." Toronto Telegram. A p r i l 19, 1947. John H. Yocom. "Program P l a n Introduces Canadian Compositions t o Keen Audiences." Saturday N i g h t . May 10, 1947. " A l l Canada 5 O'clock." V a r s i t y . February 13, 1948. "Somers t o P l a y His Compositions and Pentland's." Globe and  M a i l . February 28, 1948. "Canadian." Saturday Night. February 28, 1948. "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 9, 1949, p. 3 . "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 12, 1949. " B a l l e t D e l i g h t s i n V a r i e d Program." Winnipeg Tribune. December 13, 1949. "Ideas on a Keyboard." Saturday N i g h t . January 9 , 1950. " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. " C r i t i c on the Hearth." Ubyssey. January 31 , 1950. New York Herald Tribune. March 13, 1950. " E n g l i s h Records To Carry Works of Two Canadians." Winnipeg Free Pr e s s . June 3 , 1950. "UBC Woman Composer Honored." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . June 5, 1950, p. 11. "Two Concerts P l e a s i n g to Audiences." S e a t t l e P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r . January 16, 1953, p. 26. "Everett B 0y, 15, Takes Concert Honors." S e a t t l e Times. January 16, 1953. 172 Saturday Night. January l 6 , 195 k. "Pentland Music at G a l l e r y . " Vancouver Prov i n c e. December 4 , 1 9 5 k . "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar XVancouver). February 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "Barbara Pentland Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her Cr e a t i v e Work." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . February 8 , 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l Interesting.'." Vancouver Herald. February 9, 1955. "Spring F e s t i v a l Most L i s t e n a b l e . " Vancouver Sun. A p r i l 5» 19^5. SYMPHONY FOR TEN PARTS "World Premiere X2." CBC Times. September 18, 1959. "Moods of Sheer Magic." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . November 2, 1970. "Mixed Musi c a l Marriage Quite Respectable." Vancouver Sun. November 2, 1970. "Symphony Concert Offers P l e a s i n g V a r i e t y . " Edmonton J o u r n a l . October 15, 1971. "Rampal i n F i n e Form." Ottawa C i t i z e n . January 27, 1972. "Rampal Bernardi Supremely S a t i s f y i n g . " Ottawa J o u r n a l . January 27, 1972. SUITE BOREALIS "Top Canadian Composer - a t Home and Elsewhere." Vancouver  Pr o v i n c e . January 6 t h , 1967. "The Annual Spr i n g R e c i t a l . " Vancouver Sun. March 3 , 1967. SYMPHONY NO. 1 "Manitoba Musicians Strong Toronto Group." Globe and M a i l . May 30, 1 9 k 7 . "As We Hope to Hear." Winnipeg Tribune. October 16, 1 9 k 7 . " B r i e f l y Noted." New L i b e r t y Magazine. November 29, 1 9 k 7 . 173 "Canadian Composer Known Abroad F i g h t s f o r Reco g n i t i o n i n Homeland." Globe and M a i l . March 18, 1948. " M u s i c a l Musings." Winnipeg Free Press. J u l y 2, 1949. "To Teach Music i n UBC." Globe and M a i l . September 10, 1949. SYMPHONY MO. 2 "Raps Lack of I n i t i a t i v e i n Use of Canadian Talent." Winnipeg  Tribune. J u l y 12, 1952. "Pentland Second Symphony Premiere." Winnipeg Tribune. November 22, 1952. "Talented ' J u n i o r s ' i n Concert." Vancouver He r a l d . December 6, 1952. "Sunday." CBC Times. March 15, 1953. "Triumph by J u n i o r Symphony." Vancouver Sun. December 6th, 1952. "Pentland Second Symphony on A i r . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 7, 1953. "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . " Vancouver Sun. February 21, 1953. "Music to Note." BBC Radio Times. June 6-12, 1954. "Woman's Music Gets Premiere." Vancouver Sun. November 30, 195^ . "Composer's Views on Cr e a t i n g Music." Vancouver Sun, February 5, 1955. SYMPHONY NO. 4 CBC Times. September 12 - 18, 1959, P. 4 and p. 16. " I t Couldn't be Done (But He Did I t ) . " CBC Times. May 1-7, I960, p. 35. " C i t y Symphony t o Perform New Work." Winnipeg Tribune. February 20, i960. "Major and Minor." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . February 20, i960. "Harmony i n Music and Marriage." Winnipeg Free Press. February 24, i960. 174 "Joyous Challenge of L i v i n g . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 25, I 9 6 0 . "Says New Symphony Tedious and Confusing." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . February 26, i 9 6 0 . "Audience Acclaims Pentland Symphony." Winnipeg Tribune. February 26, i 9 6 0 . "Musical Mountain Begat Wooly Mouse." Globe and M a l l . May 6, 1961. "Symphony H i g h l i g h t s Canadian Works." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . May 6, 1961. "There's P l e n t y of Room f o r Experiments." Toronto Telegram. May 6, 1961. " C e l l i s t s J o i n Applause f o r S o l o i s t . " Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 21, 1974. "VSO P o t - p o u r r i to E x e r c i s e the Mind," Vancouver Sun, January 21, 1 9 7 k . TOCCATA " C i t y Symphony to Perform New Work." Winnipeg Tribune. February 20, I960. "Musicians B e t t e r Than Much of T h e i r Music." Toronto Telegram. March 22, 1963. "Saturday Concert of Canadian Music." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 20, 1964. "Canada Music Week Observed Saturday." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 23 , 1964. TRIO CON ALEA "Top Canadian Composer - a t Home and Elsewhere." Vancouver  Prov i n c e. January 6, 1967. "UBC Concert Features T r i o . " Vancouver P r o v i n c e . February 9, 1967. "Concerts Give London Two ' F i r s t s ' . " London Free Press. February 15, 1967. "Pentland's T r i o Makes Hindemlth Sound Pale." K i t c h e n e r -Waterloo Record. February 16, 1967. 175 "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music to Our C r i t i c ' s Ear." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatchewan). November 28, I 9 6 7 . TRIO FOR VIOLIN. CELLO AND PIANO "World Audience f o r Canadian Composers." CBC Times. February 27, 1965. VARIATIONS "Barbara Pentland Piano Works W i l l be Heard Monday." Winnipeg  Free Press. March 14, 1942. "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win Success." Winnipeg Free Press. March 17, 1942. " L o c a l Musicians Win Applause." Winnipeg Tribune. March 17, 1942. "Canadian Works Heard at Saskatoon Concert." Winnipeg Tribune. June 27, 1942. " F e s t i v a l i n Berksh i r e s I n s p i r e s L o c a l Musician." Winnipeg  Tribune. October 3 , 1942. Globe and M a i l . October 20 , 1942. "Northwest Composers* Works to be Heard." S e a t t l e Times. January 5, 1953. "Everett Boy, 15, Takes Concert Honors." S e a t t l e Times. January 16, 1953. "Pentland R e c i t a l by Pentland." Vancouver Prov i n c e. January 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News Calendar. February 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP Piano R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." Vancouver  Provi n c e. February 8, 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l ' I n t e r e s t i n g ' . " Vancouver Herald. February 9, 1955. "Barbara Pentland." La L i b r e Belgique. June 17, 1955. "A L ' A t e l i e r . " L e S p i r . June 18, 1955. 176 VARIATIONS CONCERTANTES "Piano Competition F i n a l s S t a r t a t Place des A r t s . " Montreal  Gazette. June 11, 1971. "Des P i a n i s t e s et des Fausses Notes." La Presse,, Montreal. June 12, 1971. "Capacity Crowd Hears Piano Contest F i n a l i s t s . " Montreal Gazette. June 14, 1971. "No F i r s t P r i z e No S u r p r i s e . " Montreal S t a r . June 14, 1971. "Pianot l e Jury a Done Eu Rai son." La Presse., Montreal. June 16, 1971. "Gala Concert Ends Piano Competition." Montreal S t a r . June 16, 1971. VARIATIONS ON A BOCCHERINI TUNE "Mus i c a l Musings." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . J u l y 2, 1949.. VISTA "Adaskin-Marr Ably Handle Modern Music." Globe and M a i l . February 5, 1949. "Harry Adaskin Frances Marr B r i l l i a n t P a i r . " Toronto Telegram. February 5, 1949. "Adaskins on Tour." Saturday Night. February 15, 1949. "Ideas on a Keyboard." Saturday N i g h t . January 9, 1950. " R e c i t a l Devotes Program to UBC Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. " V i o l i n i s t ' s Program Courageous." Vancouver Sun. November 28, 1958. "Young A r t i s t s Show Fine Form." Vancouver Prov i n c e . November 29, 1958. "Very W e l l Done, Team." Vancouver Sun. October 11, 1973. 177 BARBARA PENTLAND "L o c a l Composer Wins Success." Winnipeg Tribune. June 22, 1940. * L i l l i a n Gibbons. "An Album of Winnipeg Women." Winnipeg  Tribune. Saturday, A p r i l 5th, 1941. An i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e of the young composer, some personal d e t a i l s , and comments on her a c t i v i t i e s at the time. "Miss Pentland t o Study i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. June 28, 194l. * " S i x Weeks of Work at the Berkshire Music Centre." Winnipeg. Free Press. Saturday, September 6,ul94l, p. 14, W r i t t e n mainly by the composer, t h i s i s a long a r t i c l e f u l l of d e t a i l s of her experiences at Tanglewood. ^"Barbara Pentland Shares Experience at B e r k s h i r e . " Winnipeg  Tribune. September 13, 1941. S i m i l a r to the above a r t i c l e . "Canadian Describes Berkshire Additions," Montreal Gazette. September 12, 1941. "A Conspicuous C o n t r i b u t i o n . " Winnipeg Tribune. December 20, 194l. " F i r s t Young Composer Concert Next Sunday." New York Herald Tribune. January 4, 1942. "Notes Here and A f i e l d . " New York Times. January 4, 1942. "Canadian Composers Get N.Y. Hearing." Winnipeg Tribune. January 8y 1942. "Composers O f f e r Canadian Program." New York World-Telegram. January 12, 1942. " S i x Canadians Music Played In Manhattan." Winnipeg Tribune. January 12, 1942. "Winnipeggers• Work Played i n New York." Winnipeg Free Press. January 13, 1942. "Sharps and F l a t s . " Winnipeg Free Press. January 17, 1942. "Women's Music Club Annual." Winnipeg Tribune. March 14, 1942. "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win Success." Winnipeg Free Press. March 17, 1942. 178 "Young Winnipeg Composer Mentioned i n U.S.A. Quarterly." Winnipeg Free Press. A p r i l 11, 194-2. "Canadian Works Heard at Saskatoon Concert." Winnipeg Tribune. June 27, 1942. "To Study i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. June 27, 1942. "Grace Notes." Globe and M a l l . October 3 , 1942. * " F e s t i v a l i n B e r k s h i r e I n s p i r e s L o c a l Musician." Winnipeg  Tribune. October 3 . 1942. D e t a i l s of Pentland's second summer of study w i t h Copland. "Two Wpg. G i r l s Are Musicians Here." Toronto D a i l y S t a r . October 17, 1942. CBC Times. January 3 1 , 1943. "Music World." C.B.C. Program Schedule. Week of January 31, 1943. "Russia Sends Canada Music." Winnipeg Tribune. January 11, 1944. "Music Links Russia, Canada." Globe and M a i l . J u l y 28, 1944. *Rby Maley. "Asserts Young Composers Lack Proper Hearing." Winnipeg Tribune. September 2, 1944. Lengthy a r t i c l e c o n t a i n i n g Pentland's comments on the r e c e p t i o n of contemporary music. " D e t r o i t . " M u s i c a l America. February 1946. "Symphony, S o l o i s t s i n F o l k Choir Event." Toronto S t a r . March 26, 1947. This concert included Pentland's o r c h e s t r a t i o n of Birododyaner  F r e i l e c h s , a humoresque on a theme by S h t r e i c h e r . " O r a t o r i o Educators P l a n to Boost Canadian Music." Toronto D a i l y  S t a r . A p r i l 12, 1947. "Audience Wanted." Toronto Telegram. A p r i l 15, 1947. Pentland's comments on the need f o r audiences f o r contemporary music. it On the Town. 11 Globe and M a l l . A p r i l 17, 1947. 11 Audiences Wanted." Globe and..Mail. A p r i l 19, 1947. 11 Manitoba Musicians Strong Toronto Group. May 30, 1947. it Globe and M a i l . 179 "200 Persons Attend C o l o n i s t s ' Concert." Keene Evening  S e n t i n e l (Keene, New Hampshire). August 20, 1947. " B r i e f l y Noted." New L i b e r t y Magazine. November 29, 1947. "Somers to Pl a y His Compositions and Pentland's." Globe and  M a i l . February 28, 1948. : *~ Betty Davidson. "Canadian Composer Known Abroad F i g h t s For Recognition i n Homeland." Globe and M a i l . March 18, 1948. Some b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l . "Canadian Music and Musicians From Toronto to Vancouver." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician. September 1948, p. 12 - 13. "Music by Pentland." CBC Times. Week of January 9, 1949. Short biography. "Modern Composer has Poor Opinion of Music Patrons." Globe and  M a i l . March 2, 1949. "Jewish Choir, Dancers Triumph i n Music That F i g h t s f o r Peace." Canadian Tribune. March 28, 1949. Pentland orchestrated the Yellow R i v e r Ganata by Hsu Hsing-hai which was performed i n t h i s concert. * " M u s i c a l Musings." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . J u l y 2, 1949. Pentland's opinions, d i s c u s s i o n of her music. "To Teach Music i n B.C." Globe and M a i l . September 10, 1949, p. 14. Some b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l . "Canada Passport Worthless i n U.S." Winnipeg Tribune. September 12, 1949. Pentland mentioned as a sponsor of the American C o n t i n e n t a l Congress f o r Peace. "Ideas on a Keyboard." Saturday N i g h t . January 9, 1950. " R e c i t a l Devotes Program to U.B.C. Teacher." Ubyssey. January 10, 1950. "Pentland Compositions Played at U.B.C." Vancouver D a l l y  P rovince. January 28, 1950. *"Noted UBC Composer 'Can't Help W r i t i n g Music'." Vancouver  Sun. February 15, 1950. Biography and opinions. 180 "Music by Canadians." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician. March 1950, P. 12. Vancouver Province. March 14, 1950. " F e s t i v a l of Music T h r i l l s Vancouver." Vancouver Sun. March 14, 1950. "Canadian Composers 'Need an Audience'." Vancouver D a i l y  P r o v i n c e . March 16, 1950, p. 8. D e a l i n g w i t h the 1950 Canadian Composers' Symposium. "No 'Cure' Seen f o r Composers' Unhappy Fate." News-Herald. March 16, 1950. D e a l i n g w i t h the 1950 Canadian Composers' Symposium. " W i l l Compose Symphony f o r J r . Orchestra." Vancouver Sun. March 25, 1950. "Music by Canadians." I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c i a n . A p r i l 1950, p. 13. "Music Symposium i n Vancouver Thronged." M u s i c a l C o u r i e r . A p r i l 15, 1950. Saturday Ni g h t . J u l y 18, 1950. "Pentland Off to Toronto." Ubyssey. November 23, 1950. "Raps Lack of I n i t i a t i v e i n Use of Canadian Talent." Winnipeg  Tribune. J u l y 12, 1952. *"Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . " Vancouver Sun. February 21, 1953. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and d e s c r i p t i o n of present l i f e . "Music Dogs and Ships." Ubyssey. December 2, 1954. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and opi n i o n s . "Composer to P l a y Own Piano Works." Vancouver Sun. January 29, 1955. "Canadian P i a n i s t . " Vancouver Province. February 5, 1955. Photograph. #"Composer's Views on Cre a t i n g Music." Vancouver Sun. February 5 t h , 1955. Some of her ideas on composition. "Modern Music i s S t i l l Experimental." Vancouver Sun. February 12, 1955. 181 "Miss Barbara Pentland." U.B.C. Alumni C h r o n i c l e . Winter 1955. Announcement of her r e t u r n from Europe. "Barbara Pentland on European Tour." Vancouver Sun. May 18, 1955. "Miss Pentland Europe-Bound." Winnipeg Tribune. Wednesday, May 18, 1955. CBC Times. Wednesday, August 29, 1956. Short biography. "A Catalogue of Canadian Music." CBC Times. October 6 - 1 2 , 1957, P. 3. * B e l l , L e s l i e . "Okay, Herei's Why I t s 'Extremely Bad';" Toronto  D a l l y S t a r . March 22, 1958. A long and very c r i t i c a l review of her Piano Concerto. "Barbara Pentland to Wed at Coast." Winnipeg Tribune. October 8, 1958. "Marriage Announced." Winnipeg Free Press. October 11, 1958. "World Premiere X 2." CBC Times. September 18, 1959, 1. 4. Some biography and opin i o n s , her notes about the music. "Symphony Plays Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg Tribune. February 28, 1959. Concerning the commission of Symphony No. 4. "Canada Week Being Observed." Kamloops D a i l y S e n t i n e l . May 19, 1959. * " C i t y Symphony to Perform New Work." Winnipeg Free Press. February 20, I960. Pre-performance announcements, some biography, her program notes. *Maley, S. Roy. "Major and Minor." Winnipeg Tribune. February 20, I960. Pre-performance announcements, some biography, her lengthy program notes. *"Harmony i n Music and Marriage." Winnipeg Free Press. February 24, I960. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and her o p i n i o n s . 182 Hood, Margaret. "Joyous Challenge of L i v i n g . " Winnipeg  Tribune. February 25, i960. Rather f r i v o l o u s and long women's page a r t i c l e . "Music by Canadians Should Receive Hearing." Vancouver Province. J u l y 26, i960. *Campbell, Francean. "She Has To Compose." Vancouver Province. November 12, i960, p. 19. Some biography and Pentland's o p i n i o n s , "Crown Presents World Premiere." Ubyssey. February 3, 196l. Beckwith, John. "Beards Wag Hours, But Music Panels Flop." Toronto D a l l y S t a r . May 8, 1961. "Barbara Pentland i n Dual Radio Role." CBC Times. J u l y 27 -August 2, 1963, P. 4. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l and o p i n i o n s . Gilmour, Clyde. "Canadian S t r i n g Quartet." MacLean's Magazine. May 4, 1963. Mentioned i n connection w i t h the r e c o r d i n g of Duets A f t e r  P i c t u r e s by Pau l Klee, T r i o f o r V i o l a . C e l l o and Piano, and s o l o piano works. "Saturday Concert of Canadian Music." Edmonton J o u r n a l . November 20, 1964. Some biography and d e s c r i p t i o n of her musical s t y l e . Muir, Doug. "Chamber Composer T e l l s A l l . " Ubyssey. January 28, 1966. Pentland's opinions of the music scene i n Vancouver, and her comments on her s t y l e . "U.B.C. F e s t i v a l Opens." Vancouver Province. February 3, 1966. Review of her s t y l e . "The Hugh MacLean Consort." Vancouver Sun. December 23, 1966. Mention of a commission f o r Hugh MacLean. "The A r t s . " Winnipeg Free Press. December 23, 1966. Cluderay, Lawrence. "Top Canadian Composer - At Home and E l s e -where." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 6th, 1967. Lengthy a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g works she i s w r i t i n g and g i v i n g some of her opin i o n s . #"In Canada." Globe and M a l l . March 16, 1967, women's s e c t i o n . Good Biography. 183 "Conference Features R e c i t a l s . " Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 16, 1967. "Pentland P r e c i s i o n Proves Music to Our C r i t i c ' s Ears." Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. November 18, 1967. Review of her s t y l e i n Shadows, Caprice, Fantasy, Quartet  No. 1, and T r i o con A l e a . *Egnatoff, B i l l . " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." The Sheaf (Saskatchewan). November 28, 1967. Good review and summary of her s t y l e . *Wyman, Max. Vancouver Sun. June 19, 1970. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l details,,and d e s c r i p t i o n of her musical development. " C r i t i c ' s S l i n g s Don't Daunt." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J u l y 15, 1971, P. 37. Good personal i n f o r m a t i o n . "Pentland's 'News' Premiered Tonight." Ottawa J o u r n a l . J u l y 15, 1971. Compositional methods, and her a t t i t u d e s to w r i t i n g . "Showcase to S t r e s s Modern Canadian Music." Globe and M a i l . November 18, 1970. . A mention of her teaching pieces and the support of Rachel Cavalho. "Two World Premieres Earn High P r a i s e f o r Bernard!." Ottawa  J o u r n a l . J u l y 16, 1971. "Watson Shows Piano Form." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . November 29, " F e s t i v a l Shows Teaching Troubles, Need f o r More Canadian Music." Globe and M a i l . November 30, 1970, p. 16. Mention of her teaching pieces f o r piano students. "Rampal i n Fine Form." Ottawa C i t i z e n . January 27, 1972. Short review of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . "Rampal, Bernardl Supremely S a t i s f y i n g . " Ottawa J o u r n a l . January 27, 1972. Short review of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . " P u r c e l l Quartet i n Great Form." Vancouver Province. May 6, 1972. 184 "Centuries Bridged by 2 Composers." Vancouver Sun. May 6, 1972. Review of S t r i n g Quartet No. 3 . "Quartet B e t t e r Second Time Around." Vancouver Province. May 17, 1972. " P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet Begins New VAC S e r i e s . " Vancouver Sun. May 17, 1972. "New C e l l o Work S u c c e s s f u l . " Vancouver Sun. February 23, 1973. Review of Mutations. " P u r c e l l Quartet." F i n a n c i a l Times (London, England). J u l y 3 , 1973. "Very W e l l Done, Team." Vancouver Sun. October 11, 1973. " C e l l i s t s J o i n Applause f o r S o l o i s t . " Vancouver Province. January 21 , 1974. "VSO P o t - p o u r r i to E x e r c i s e the Mind." Vancouver Sun. January 21, 1974. "Christopher Dafoe." Vancouver Sun. February 18, 1974. Reference to Pentland as a "decadent running dog." " E x c i t i n g , C o l o u r f u l , Absurd." Vancouver Province. May 23, 1974. "Taking a chance on Music - and Winning." Vancouver Sun. May 23 , 1974. Review of I n t e r p l a y . APPENDIX D OUTLINE OF THE BIOGRAPHY 185 186 Born January 2nd, 1912, i n Winnipeg, Manitoba, Barbara L a l l y Pentland, daughter of Charles F r e d e r i c k and Constance L a l l y (Howell) Pentland, 1918-27 Attended Rupert's Land College i n Winnipeg, 1927-29 Attended Miss Edgar and Miss Cramp's p r i v a t e school l n Montreal. 1929- 30 Attended a p r i v a t e school i n P a r i s . Studied theory and composition w i t h C e c i l e Gauthiez i n P a r i s . 1930- 36 Studied piano and organ i n Winnipeg. 18 months correspondence lessons w i t h Gauthiez. Serious i l l n e s s . 1931 Received A.T.C.M. ( A s s o c i a t i o n of the Toronto Conservatory of Music). 1933 Received L.A.B. (Licentiate©f the As s o c i a t e d Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London). Sept. 21, 1936 Formal debut as p i a n i s t . 1936-39 Attended J u i l l i a r d Graduate School of Music, New York. 1944-/4.2 Summer study w i t h Aaron Copland a t Ber k s h i r e Music Centre, Massachusetts. 19^2 Moved from Winnipeg t o Toronto. 194.3-4.9 Teacher of theory and composition a t the Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto. 19^7 Met Dika Newlin at the MacDowell Colony. 1949-63 I n s t r u c t o r i n harmony, counterpoint, and com-p o s i t i o n at U.B.C. 1955 Summer months i n Europe, 1956-57 Leave of absence from U.B.C. 18 months i n Europe. S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 s e l e c t e d f o r 1956 I.S.C.M. 187 1958 Marriage to John Huberman. 1963 Resignation from U.B.C. MEMBER B.M.I. Canada A f f i l i a t e Canadian League of Composers J u i l l i a r d Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n MacDowell A s s o c i a t i o n Fellow Musicians Mutual P r o t e c t i v e Union, Vancouver AWARDS Winnipeg l o c a l competitions, prizewinner, 1 9 3 1- kl. J u i l l i a r d Graduate School of Music. F e l l o w s h i p s 1936-39. XIV Olympiad, London, England, 1 9 k 8 . Bronze Medal. Canada Centennial Medal, 1967. J u l y 12th, 1977 Ms. Joan Selby S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s The L i b r a r y U. B. C. Dear Ms. Selby, As you suggested og. the telephone, I am e n c l o s i n g a copy of errata" i n the biography by SheilajfEastman Loosley. This might be h e l p f u l to anyone wishing to borrow i t . U nfortunately, i t i s impossible to l i s t a l l the mistakes i n the music examples; anyone i n t e r e s t e d would have to r e f e r to the music (which i s i n the l i b r a r y ) . S i n c e r e l y yours, / "Barbara Pentiana J J L . D . (hon.) ERRATA: Barbara Pentland; A Biography by Sheila ^ s t m a n Loosley (Thesis for MM degree - Department of Music, U.B.C., 1974) page 8, par.2 - not his position u n t i l many years l a t e r . " 9, " 3 - not"Montreal when he was ten" but "Port Hop*, Ont. when he was twelve". " 11, " 1 - The Blue Grotto i s l o s t . " footnote 8 - wrong source. " 18, par. 1 - not a r e c i t a l : a performance i n the "salon", f o r a few l i s t e n e r s . " 18, par. 2 - more Debussy (only one d'Indy) " 19, l i n e 1 - not d'Indy himself (who was near 80) but one of his group (Dukas or other). " 21, par. 2- not " r e c i t a l " but "Manitoba Competition F e s t i v a l " . " 22, l i n e 1 - e a r l i e r ("began organ...."). " 30, l i n e 7 - Edgartown. " 31, l i n e 5 - "orchestral piece" and "Rhapsody" (piano) - 2 works. " 35, Sx. 1, bar 4 - A - f l a t not B - f l a t - t i e s omitted i n bars 5,7. 37, Ex. 3 - t i e s omitted Remainder of examples contain too many errors to l i s t s p e c i f i c a l l y ; pages l i s t e d separately below. " 45, l i n e 15 - 1942 date for house i s incorrect. Mrs. Boggs actually bought i t in'1944 and we moved in in Jan./45. • " " footnote 13 - Dr. Jean Sutherland Boggs. " 49, no. 22 - l i n e omitted; should read;"dissection of harmonic and rhythmic cadavers. D e l i g h t f u l s t u f f for those anatom-i c a l l y and ph y s i o l o g i c a l l y disposed". M 50, no. 25 - "war" not "was". " 69, no. 48, l i n e 3 - "a" not "as". " 74, par. 2 - theme proper has a l l 12 tones (end of bar 1 to 5), followed by inversion. " 78, l a s t par.- Club. . " 84 - p a r . l - incorrect - eldest daughter i s Marlon Bembe, the a r t i s t ; Amsel was a piano student i n the master class at the Akademie. " 162, quote 42 -"leads" not "lends". Other type, errors p.52, 70, 117, 134 w 125, no. 10 - not "near our summer cottage" - many d i f f e r e n t places. In addition to above examples, errors occur in music copy on ps. 72, 103, 106, 109, H O , 111, 112, 113. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099882/manifest

Comment

Related Items