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Barbara Pentland : a biography Eastman, Sheila Jane 1974

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BARBARA PENTLANDj A BIOGRAPHY by Mus.  S h e i l a Jane Eastman  Bac. McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ,  1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC  i n t h e Department o f Music  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 197^  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y I further  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  available for  r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  It  i s understood that copying o r  thesis  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  WnvpmFiPr  1974  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  that  study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  ABSTRACT i The  f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y a biography  of t h e  C a n a d i a n composer B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , and w i t h i n t h r e e d e a l s w i t h t h r e e main p e r i o d s o f h e r l i f e .  chapters  A t t h e end o f each  c h a p t e r i s a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f m u s i c a l development and s t y l e . C h a p t e r I , 1912-^1, c o n c e r n s h e r c h i l d h o o d , s c h o o l i n g , and l i f e a t home, where she was always f a c e d w i t h o p p o s i t i o n t o h e r I n t e r e s t i n c o m p o s i t i o n by r a t h e r d o m i n a t i n g  parents.  Her  musical s t u d i e s included a year i n P a r i s w i t h C e c i l e Gauthiez, and l a t e r , t h r e e y e a r s a t the J u i l l i a r d Graduate S c h o o l o f Music where she s t u d i e d w i t h F r e d e r i c k J a c o b i and Bernaard  Wagenar.  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e was a g r a d u a l development o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l s k i l l s , and e a r l y i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e d Beethoven, F r a n c k and Hindemith.  Her music r e v e a l e d a tendency towards t h e French-Romantic  style. C h a p t e r I I , 19^2-55» i n c l u d e s two summers o f s t u d y w i t h A a r o n Copland a t Tanglewood, f o l l o w e d by seven y e a r s i n T o r o n t o d u r i n g w h i c h she t a u g h t t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n a t t h e T o r o n t o Conservatory,  and enjoyed  increased r e c o g n i t i o n .  I n 19^9 came  a move t o Vancouver f o r a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n t h e music d e p a r t ment a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  W i t h i n t h e two t r e n d s  e v i d e n t i n h e r music a t t h i s t i m e , t h e French-Romantic and t h e n e o - c l a s s i c , t h e r e was a g r a d u a l development of i n t e r e s t i n a s e r i a l a p p r o a c h , w h i c h was f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d by P e n t l a n d * s exposure t o many o f t h e works o f Schoenberg a t t h e MacDowell Colony i n 19^7-^8. iii  iv  C h a p t e r I I I , 1955-7^, d e a l s w i t h h e r m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to the present.  D u r i n g h e r two t r i p s t o Europe P e n t l a n d was  exposed t o many new works, and was d e e p l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e music of Webern.  T h i s l e d t o an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  of t h e s e r i a l  a p p r o a c h and t o a new c o n c e r n f o r economy o f means, two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which dominate  h e r mature  style.  C h a p t e r I V a t t e m p t s t o g i v e a more p e r s o n a l v i e w o f t h e composer, i n c l u d i n g problems she has e n c o u n t e r e d as a woman w o r k i n g i n a f i e l d dominated by men, h e r way o f l i f e ,  personality,  and comments from p e r f o r m e r s and composers about h e r works. The f o u r a p p e n d i c e s i n c l u d e a l i s t o f works, a l i s t o f f i r s t performances, a n i n d e x o f r e v i e w s o f Pent land's works found i n newspaper a r t i c l e s , and a s h o r t o u t l i n e o f the b i o g r a p h y .  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  4  CHAPTER ONE 1912 t o 1941  8  CHAPTER TWO 19^1 t o 1955  i + 0  CHAPTER THREE 1955 t o 197^  R  '°  CHAPTER POUR BARBARA PENTLAND - BELIEFS, THOUGHTS, PERSONALITY  . . 122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  137  APPENDIX LIST OFAWORKS  1^3  APPENDIX B LIST OF FIRST PERFORMANCES APPENDIX C INDEX OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES APPENDIX D OUTLINE OF THE BIOGRAPHY  ih-8  1  55 1  ,  fl 0 5  INTRODUCTION  1  2  The  main i n t e n t i o n of t h i s s t u d y i s t o g i v e a com-  p r e h e n s i v e b i o g r a p h y o f B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , as w e l l as t o i n d i c a t e the m u s i c a l developments w h i c h have o c c u r r e d  through-  out h e r l i f e and t o g i v e some i m p r e s s i o n o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y and p h i l o s o p h i e s .  A t one p o i n t t h e emphasis was c o m p l e t e l y  on t h e m u s i c a l s t y l e a l o n e , b u t when i t became apparent  that  a b i o g r a p h y was p o s s i b l e i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s would be a more v a l u a b l e p u r s u i t , s i n c e the i n f o r m a t i o n which was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s w r i t e r by the composer i s n o t r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . It  i s hoped t h a t s e v e r a l t r e n d s i n P e n t l a n d * s l i f e and  i n h e r music w i l l be made c l e a r .  I n h e r music t h e t r e n d s  moved f r o m the e a r l y i n f l u e n c e o f Beethoven t o t h e F r e n c h Homantic and t h e n e o - c l a s s i c , and f i n a l l y t o t h e s e r i a l .  In  her e a r l y l i f e she was dominated by h e r p a r e n t s w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g i n w a r d l y and p r i v a t e l y , i n s p i t e of a l l o p p o s i t i o n .  T h i s was  f o l l o w e d by a tendency t o r e b e l a g a i n s t a s p e c t s o f h e r l i f e o t h e r t h a n music, such as a r e f u s a l t o d r e s s as a t t r a c t i v e l y as h e r mother would have l i k e d , o r a n i n v o l v e m e n t  i n rather  l e f t i s t aspects of p o l i t i c s .  some c h a r a c t e r -  Throughout h e r l i f e  i s t i c s have remained c o n s t a n t ; a sense o f i s o l a t i o n , a d e d i c a t i o n to  music and t o e d u c a t i n g h e r s e l f , and a demand f o r h i g h s t a n d -  ards . This study i s organized i n t o f o u r chapters, the f i r s t t h r e e o f w h i c h c o n c e r n t h r e e main p e r i o d s o f P e n t l a n d * s l i f e . d i s c u s s i o n of t h e m u s i c a l developments w h i c h o c c u r r e d w i t h i n  A  3  each p e r i o d i s i n c l u d e d a t t h e end o f each c h a p t e r . which a r e e v i d e n t i n h e r music r e m a r k a b l y i n her l i f e ,  The s t y l e s  r e f l e c t the e v e n t s  so t h a t each o f t h e t h r e e p e r i o d s seems t o be a  cohesive u n i t .  A g r e a t number o f P e n t l a n d ' s works have been  a n a l y z e d b u t i t i s f e l t t h a t o n l y a few a r e needed w i t h i n each c h a p t e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e predominant f e a t u r e s o f h e r s t y l e , and s i n c e t h e main purpose of t h i s study i s b i o g r a p h i c a l , t h e d i s c u s s i o n of m u s i c a l i n f l u e n c e s and developments w i l l be k e p t a t a minimum. The f o u r t h c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y b i o g r a p h i c a l nor s t r i c t l y musical, but r a t h e r i s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e a p i c t u r e o f P e n t l a n d as she i s t o d a y , and t o g i v e an i d e a o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h has r e s u l t e d f r o m the k i n d of l i f e she has l e d . Since l i t t l e p e r i o d i c a l information i n t h i s area i s a v a i l a b l e , t h e sources have been m a i n l y p r i m a r y .  Pentland's  c o - o p e r a t i o n has been i n v a l u a b l e . She has made a v a i l a b l e h e r d i a r i e s , h e r correspondence, many hours i n i n t e r v i e w . 1936-1939,  h e r scrapbooks,  and has spent  The d i a r i e s span 1929-1930 and  and p r o v i d e d many d e t a i l s t h e composer had f o r -  g o t t e n about these e a r l i e r y e a r s o f h e r l i f e .  The  scrapbooks  c o n t a i n m a i n l y programs and newspaper a r t i c l e s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s c e n t r e s i n w h i c h P e n t l a n d has l i v e d , i n c l u d i n g  Toronto,  W i n n i p e g , and Vancouver, as w e l l as those f r o m c i t i e s where performances were heard, such as New York, Ottawa, and M o n t r e a l on t h i s c o n t i n e n t .  Since i t i s f e l t that an index  of the a r t i c l e s that have been made available would be a valuable a i d to anyone interested i n further research i n t h i s area, an appendix to that e f f e c t i s included.  The news-  papers have provided many reviews of performances,  and comments  on the a c t i v i t i e s of the composer.  Though few reach a  valuable l e v e l of c r i t i c a l writing, the a r t i c l e s are indeed a useful source.  In Pentland's case, with a r t i c l e s spanning  over 30 years of her musical career, they have been found h e l p f u l i n providing d e t a i l s , giving a c l e a r chronology, and i n giving an over a l l picture of reactions produced by her works.  Her correspondence  has been equally h e l p f u l .  Pentland has given f r e e l y of her time i n interviews which have dealt mainly with biographical d e t a i l s , but have also included some discussion regarding the analyses of her works.  On occasions when t h i s writer*s analysis d i f f e r e d from  that of the oomposer, Pentland proved to be most f l e x i b l e and agreeable, even i n a n instance  i n  which the d i s p a r i t y  occurred about the order of the notes of the row i n a s e r i a l work.  This may be an accurate i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of  freedom which i s involved i n Pentland's approach to composition. Interviews were not confined to Pentland.  During a t r i p  to Ontario several Canadian musicians were interviewed, and i t was found that, though t h i s a c t i v i t y d i d not y i e l d much biographical data, i t did lead to personal observations of Pentland and of her musical environment at various stages  5  of her career.  Composers Harry Somers and Godfrey Ridout  contributed much to a picture of l i f e i n Toronto i n the 19*1-0 s, how Pentland reacted to i t , and her place i n the 1  musical l i f e there.  V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l gave a conductors  point of view, while Ronald Napier of B.M.I, was able to give the observations of one who dealt with the composer i n the publication of her music.  Robert  Turner, who was  seen i n Winnipeg, had been a producer f o r the C.B.C. i n Vancouver, and had arranged performances and tapings of many of Pentland*s works, and so was able to discuss such aspects as how the works are received by performers, and the d i f f i c u l t y of performing and producing them. Rachel Cavalho, piano teacher i n Toronto, and champion of Canadian teaching pieces who encouraged Pentland to write Music of Now, gave many d e t a i l s about the consultations between them about these works, and discussed a t length her experiences with Music of Now as well as with other teaching materials, though most of t h i s Information i s not included i n the present study. Robert Rogers* experiences with Pentland include three areas? as a performer of her piano works, as a student while she was teaching at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and as a piano teacher.  Others who both perform and teach her  works and who were consulted are Carol Jutte and Larry Thiessen. Harry and Frances Adaskin were Informative i n several areas} as performers of her works from the early 19*10's,  6  as personal friends and, on Mr. Adaskin's part, as f i r s t Head of the U.B.C, music department, where Pentland taught 19^9-1963. Among those t h i s writer would l i k e to thank are the Canadian M^slc Centre f o r making various scores a v a i l a b l e , and Robert Rogers f o r many hours spent i n the analysis of Pentland's works.  Deepest gratitude goes to Barbara  Pentland, the determined and gracious lady without whose help t h i s kind of study would not have been possible.  CHAPTER ONE  7  8  Born January 2, 1912 i n Winnipeg, Manitoba, Barbara Pentland had an unusual childhood which affected her personality and i n t e l l e c t considerably.  The b e l i e f s and  values of her parents, Charles Frederick and Constance L a l l y Pentland, had great bearing on her upbringing and development, though t h i s was c e r t a i n l y not a supportive or encouraging influence, and Pentland was eventually to rebel against the imposition of a way of l i f e which was not her own. She was always closer to her father, manager of the head o f f i c e of the Royal Bank i n Winnipeg, a man who was ruled at home by his wife. He would have been a d i f f e r e n t type of person with another wife. He was very, conscientious, r e l i a b l e , and honest - a simple person who could get'along with simple people. My mother was ambitious, yet she would have held him back professionally by her reluctance to leave Winnipeg. I f e e l the same way as my father d i d ; I don't want power or a high p o s i t i o n . I have no ambitions to be top dog. 1 Pentland's mother came from a family which was rather w e l l off f i n a n c i a l l y and a household i n which the ' l i t e r a t i ' were frequently entertained.  Constance apparently  B a r b a r a Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972. 2  Her maternal grandfather was Chief Justice of Manitoba .  9  found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept l i v i n g within smaller means. She wouldn't allow friends to v i s i t me i f she didn't approve of them. And I envied g i r l s who went to public schools and had friends of t h e i r own. Mother always had maids i n the house and never d i d any work. She must have been so bored. 3 Another problem which pursued her i n early youth was  a  serious heart condition which caused her to spend many months i n bed at the age of four, and which slowed her down considerably f o r several years.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s  she was r a r e l y allowed outside to play, and had contact with other c h i l d r e n , so that she was  separated from  her own age group throughout much of her youth. Charles, who was  little  Her  two years older, had been sent to a boarding  school i n Montreal when he was ten, so that she saw l i t t l e of him.  brother  very  Her s i s t e r C h r i s t i n e , being eight years  younger, and somewhat spoiled by her mother and the nanny of the Pentland household, also provided l i t t l e  companionship.  During her i l l n e s s she studied various school subjects at home, Including mathematics and reading, under the d i r e c t i o n of her mother, and she d i d so well i n her private studies that when she went to school at the age of s i x , she was  placed i n grade three.  Being so much younger than her  classmates d i d not make her communication with other c h i l d r e n  3 p e n t l a n d i n interview, January 22, 1972.  10  any easier.  " I t was some years before I got along with  other c h i l d r e n . " 4  Rupert's Land College was an Anglican  school f o r g i r l s , and Pentland r e c a l l s t The archbishop, who v i s i t e d us once a year, had a long, grey beard, and we thought he was e i t h e r God or Santa Claus* 5 Music at the school was l i m i t e d to singing songs, but Pentland was so anemic she could not sing without becoming dizzy.  Her school day usually ended at noon, when she had  to return home to rest f o r each afternoon.  Pentland  believes that t h i s i s o l a t i o n and the long hours i n bed tended to encourage the development of her mind and imaginat i o n beyond that of normal c h i l d r e n . She remembers waiting f o r years to take piano lessons, and her parents f i n a l l y agreed she could s t a r t when she became nine years o l d i  The lessons were taught at Rupert's  Land College by Miss Lockhart, a young teacher there. She was a good soul but she couldn't cope with a c h i l d out of the ordinary, 6 Soon a f t e r s t a r t i n g the lessons Pentland began composing small pieces. I remember waking up one morning with an idea f o r a piece of music which I t r i e d to write down i n a notebook that I drew manuscript l i n e s on. I was t e r r i b l y anxious to t r y i t out on the piano, but had to wait a l l day u n t i l school was over. I was quite disappointed when I played the piece, and i t made me r e a l i z e i t was not easy to write down music. 7 ^Ibid. 5pentland i n conversation, June 5, 1974. ^Pentland i n Interview, January 22, 1972. 7  Ibld.  11  She remembers that her f i r s t work was named "The Blue Grotto", because t h i s t i t l e sounded good to the nine year o l d .  Her  e a r l i e s t pieces, including Twilight and Dawn. Berceuse. Darling Dad O'Mlne. and notational confusion.  That  The Blue Grotto reveal considerable Concerned even then with copyright,  Pentland would have her mother or father sign each composit i o n to prove that she had written i t h e r s e l f .  Her piano  teacher so discouraged these f i r s t e f f o r t s that Pentland r e c a l l s v i v i d l y the l a s t time she ever showed her a composition. The piece, i n E minor, stimulated a severe reprimand f o r her because i t was written i n a key she had not yet,studied. Her parents, even less co-operative about these  unusual  a c t i v i t i e s , were to prove to be a great obstacle f o r her to overcome i n her pursuit of music. They wanted a g i r l who would play pretty pieces, a c h i l d who would behave normally, but they were beginning to think I would be queer. They led me to believe that composition was morally wrong. 8 Because of t h e i r pressure she t r i e d to stop composing, but a f t e r a few months she gave i n to her need to write music. I had to overcome a great deal of family oposltion to my spending so much time at the piano and at composing, however, I persisted because music provided me with an escape into a fantasy world which seemed more meaningful to me than the r e a l one. 9 ^Pentland i n the Ubyssey. December 2 , p . 6 , 1 9 5 ^ . ^Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Thirty-Four Biographies, TorontoJ C.B.C., p . 2 3 .  12  The was  e a r l i e s t i n f l u e n c e on her music t h a t she  Beethoven whose piano sonatas she was  p l a y i n g i n her  e a r l y teens, and which i n s p i r e d her to attempt a sonata.  recalls  t o compose  Her i n t e r e s t i n the music of Beethoven was  further  s t i m u l a t e d by a y o u t h f u l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . F o r h e l p w i t h the form of her compositions  she would  s u i t a r t i c l e s i n the E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r l t a n n l c a .  She  con-  :  had  j u s t s t a r t e d harmony l e s s o n s a t the age of t h i r t e e n , when i t was  d i s c o v e r e d , w h i l e a t t e n d i n g her f i r s t  had v e r y bad e y e s i g h t .  The  movie, t h a t she  harmony l e s s o n s were stopped,  but  Pentland, s t i l l armed w i t h a harmony book, continued on her own. As soon as I l e a r n e d a l i t t l e about harmony I f e l t v e r y b a d l y because I had been b r e a k i n g the r u l e s . My Impressions of harmony then produced s t e r i l e works as I t r i e d t o f o l l o w the r u l e s . This happened every time I s t u d i e d a l i t t l e and not enough, 10 1  The r e a d i n g she had access to was her parents had around the home.  l i m i t e d t o the books  T h i s i n c l u d e d a l l of  Dickens and as much V i c t o r Hugo as she c o u l d f i n d u n t i l parents d e c i d e d Hugo was  too morbid f o r a young  her  girl.  F a s c i n a t e d w i t h European h i s t o r y , she r e c a l l s r e a d i n g many h i s t o r i c a l novels and b e l i e v i n g them t o be the  truthi  I d i d n ' t f i n d the r e a l world i n t e r e s t i n g at a l l . I d i d n ' t want t o l e a d the k i n d of l i f e my parents l e d , 11 1 0  Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 7.  1973.  1 1  Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , January 22,  1972.  13  Further musical influences were limited i n Winnipeg. There were few radios or record players then, and the only music she heard was  performed by touring a r t i s t s  who  played the usual repertoire of the day; mainly works of Bach, Beethoven,.Chopin, and some Debussy, There was an orchestra of sorts which collapsed during the Depression, some standard r e c i t a l s by touring a r t i s t s but absolutely no contemporary music. &2 She r e c a l l s that there were a l o t of showy pieces performed then, and comments "They'd have better taste today," 13 As with most Canadian c i t i e s i n the Winnipeg was musicians,  nineteen-twenties,  largely dominated by E n g l i s h music and Robert Turner has given the following  description; Musical interest centered i n the amateur choral s o c i e t i e s , musical competition f e s t i v a l s , bands and orchestras, as well as on v i s i t i n g v i r t u o s i of a l l types; musical standards were mainly In the hands of •'imported E n g l i s h organists" and choir d i r e c t o r s brought over to conduct, adjudicate and t r a i n these various groups? and a large proportion of the repertoire was drawn from the choral works of composers such as Handel, Mendelssohn, Parry, Stanford and E l g a r , But Winnipeg, at least, was unique i n one respect, and that was i n having at the doorstep a r i c h body of f o l k music indigenous to the French and S l a v i c groups that had s e t t l e d i n i t s environs, and, of course, the music of the P r a i r i e Indians, Although Pentland has made l i t t l e or no use of f o l k material i n her music, t h i s ethnic background, rather than the European, may have provided a v i t a l , i f unconscious stimulus i n her l a t e r work, I** •"•"Pentland i n a l e t t e r to student Karln Doerksen, A p r i l 19,  1972.  •^Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1^  No.  1972,  Robert Turner, i n the Canadian Music Journal, V o l , 2, p. 12,  14  Pentland, however, plays down the Influence of Winnipeg's musical l i f e on h e r s e l f . I was involved with composing years before I participated i n any way i n the c i t y ' s musical a c t i v i t i e s , or even know that any existed. 15 At f i f t e e n Pentland was sent f o r two years to a s t r i c t boarding school, Miss Edgar's and Miss Cramp's, i n Montreal, She s t i l l resents the way her parents controlled her l i f e with t h e i r plans, and r e c a l l s how helpless she f e l t i n t h e i r graspj My parents had everything mapped out f o r me before I was born. I had no choice but to follow t h e i r plans. 16 Asked whether her family was wealthy, since the c h i l d r e n were a l l sent to private schools, and boarding schools, Pentland replied» It never occurred to my family to consider themselves wealthy. A good middle class family saved f o r rainy days, never bought anything on time, even a radio, which I didn't have u n t i l I was grown up. They had to get a good one that would l a s t . My father f e l t that he had to have enough money to support his wife i n the manner to which she was accustomed. This meant there was someone to cook, a housemaid and a nanny. There were no f r i l l s because a l l t h i s had to be paid f o r . 17 Going to boarding school was also part of the family image. Her parents f e l t that this was  Important, and gave t h e i r  daughter no choice i n the matter. ^ P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to Helmut Blume,. August 10, ^ P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7, 1 7  Ibid.  1973.  1962.  15  She r e c a l l s also that they hoped her desire to compose would be s t i f l e d therej "Someone saidi  'If she goes to  t h i s Edgar School i n Montreal, this w i l l be the end of her music.• I remember thinking I wasn't going to l e t i t b e . " l 8 If Miss Edgar's and Miss Cramp's School provided l i t t l e food or heat f o r the students, i t d i d provide, with permission from Pentland*s parents, piano and harmony lessons from Frederick B l a i r A n English organist, B l a i r turned out to be only a mediocre teacher, Pentland r e c a l l s , but he d i d give encouragement to go on stpdying music.  Among the subjects  each student studied at the school were Medieval History, French l i t e r a t u r e , Scripture, dancing and elocution.  The  school had a leaving c e r t i f i c a t e which was equivalent to Matriculation I, a further year of study being necessary f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance. A f t e r a: .short return t r i p to Winnipeg i n the spring of ;  1929 Pentland was sent to Paris to complete her education at a f i n i s h i n g school.  I t was hoped that there she would learn  to speak French well, study l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , and a l l the pursuits which help refine a lady.  However, her  own  interests took her much further than her parents had intended. Her parents and s i s t e r accompanied her on the ship going over.  During the summer of 1929 Pentland and her parents  toured England, Scotland and France, learing Christine i n England.  Pentland's d i a r i e s , begun just before the t r i p ,  are f u l l of d e t a i l s of her impressions of the museums and  16  h i s t o r i c a l sights.  "I had read the l i v e s of the kings  i n Europe and was very interested i n seeing a l l t h i s history before me. mistresses.  I was e s p e c i a l l y fascinated with t h e i r  I was impressed by everything, and took many  pictures .•* 19 When her parents returned to Winnipeg i n September, Pentland, f a r from saddened, was eager t o escape t h e i r Influence and was looking forward to the new experiences which awaited her i n P a r i s . Before beginning the f a l l term a t the Bertaux school, Pentland went with Jeanne Bertaux, one of the two s i s t e r s who ran the school, to Fontainebleau f o r a few weeks. Pentland remembers standing under the windows of the Fontainebleau School of Music, l i s t e n i n g to rehearsals and performances within.  While there she worked on her harmony,  practised piano, and toured the countryside. On her return to Pa^is she began a school program which included History, French, History of A r t , D i c t i o n , and tennis lessons.  The students were given a well-rounded  c u l t u r a l education, frequenting a r t g a l l e r i e s , museums and concert h a l l s .  When her parents gave t h e i r permission f o r  her to study composition i n Paris, the Bertaux School selected as her teacher Cecile Gauthiez, professor i n theory and composition at the Schola Cantorum, ^ibld.  Gauthiez,  17  who had been a pupil of Vincent d*Indy, and who was a staunch follower of the Franckian school, wrote mainly church and choir music, being channeled i n that d i r e c t i o n by her profession as organist, Pentland remembers Gauthiez as a warm-hearted, f u l l - f i g u r e d motherly sort who emphasized o l d fashioned t r a i n i n g f o r her students.  Very s t r i c t l n an  academic way, Gauthiez set Pentland to analyzing works of Vincent d'Indy, Cesar Franek, Beethoven, and others. In addition, she began basic counterpoint, wrote melodies i n binary and ternary form, worked on cadence formulas, and harmonized given melodies,  "She gave me everything i n harmony,  the way i t was taught i n France,"  2  0  Pentland had her composition and harmony lessons at the home of Gauthiez a f t e r school, the walk there being one of the few occasions on which she was allowed to leave the grounds of the school alone.  U n t i l e l e c t r i c i t y was i n s t a l l e d i n  Gauthiez• home during the f a l l of 1929, every night, when, daylight began to fade, a maid would bring l n gas lamps to the teaching studio, so that.the lessons could be continued, Pentland thinks of Gauthiez with great a f f e c t i o n , remembering the words the teacher used when encouraging her to continue with the study of music« "You have the flame, you must go on."* 20  2 1  P e n t l a n d i n interview, January 22, 1972. Ibld,  18  Gauthiez considered Pentland's largest work of this period, the four movement Senate, to be worthy of performance, and found a p i a n i s t to learn the work and perform i t i n recital.  Pentland considers t h i s composition to be part  of her learning process, not acknowledging i t as a serious work.  However, she does comment that i t was influenced  formally by Beethoven, and i n other respects by Pranck. Entries i n her d i a r i e s reveal,how impressed she was with the works of Pranck which she was,analyzing at the time. During the year i n Paris Pentland studied piano with Maurice Amour, as d i d several other g i r l s from the school. He was a very nervous man who  continually banged on the piano  i n time to whatever was being played, was demanding and s a r c a s t i c , often making Pentland cry.  Already nervous  about performing, Pentland probably became worse i n t h i s respect under Amour's tutelage.  The works that she was playing  at t h i s time were generally Romantic, including d'Indy, Faure, Chopin, Beethoven, and some Bach.  Works she  was  hearing i n concert were also mainly Romantic, with the most recent work being Honneger's Le Rol David.  By frequent  attendance at concerts and r e c i t a l s , Pentland found her musical experience  considerably-widened.  Long before her projected departure from Paris Pentland became reluctant to return home. She r e a l i z e d that Paris held a great deal more f o r her than Winnipeg, both i n concerts and i n composition teachers.  Gauthiez was making  19  suggestions that she return to study with d'Indy, and also that she go to the Eastman School of Music to study organ. Her parents were not to be persuaded, however, and, a l i t t l e comforted by plans to continue her lessons with Gauthiez by correspondence, she l e f t Paris f o r a rather bleak Winnipeg i n July,  1930.  One consolation of her return was a new Steinway which her parents bought a f t e r her a r r i v a l .  piano  Unhappy as she  was at home, Pentland decided i t would be best i f she remained there u n t i l she could support herself elsewhere. "I r e a l i z e d I had a l o t of advantages i n s t i c k i n g i t o u t , "  2 2  She was f u l l of enthusiasm and drive to go on writing music. During the f i r s t eighteen months a f t e r her return home, she continued her study with Gauthiez by correspondence,  paying  for her lessons with the dress allowance given to her by her parents.  However, t h i s arrangement proved to be unsatisfactory,  since i t took at least a month f o r the lessons to be returned, i f they arrived at a l l through the unpredictable mails. Furthermore, she found that she was growing away from what she regarded as the narrow confines of the French s t y l e , and was no longer interested i n the "accompaniment-plus-melody" manner of composition which she f e l t was advocated by Gauthiez,  She remembers that i n one work she was doing under  Gauthiez* supervision, Aveu F l e u r l (1930), the melody 22  P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7,  1973,  ;  20  was quite atonal u n t i l the teacher changed i t . of  As a r e s u l t  these d i f f i c u l t i e s , she decided to terminate her lessons. One i n d i c a t i o n of how her parents  1  plans continued to  interfere with her own was the 'coming out' party they planned for  her i n November 1930,  Now  that she had completed  her  year at a French f i n i s h i n g sohool, they believed her education to be t o t a l l y completed,  and f e l t i t was time f o r  her to marry and s e t t l e down., The purpose of the b a l l  was,  as Pentland puts i t , "to launch me as a s o c i a l b u t t e r f l y . " A rather reluctant butterfly,.she turned down the few i n v i t a tions that d i d r e s u l t .  Her mother, thinking Barbara would  be more a t t r a c t i v e without her glasses, would not allow her to wear them, and, as a r e s u l t , she could barely see any of the 300 guests. They invited people they thought I should meet and that I couldn't,care less about. 23 Her diary includes a d e s c r i p t i o n of the early 19th century French gown she wore, and even the dance card with a few names (mostly "Dad") scribbled i n i t , but the debut had such an adverse e f f e c t on her,that the entries i n her diary, which she had s t i l l , been,writing i n French, suddenly  ceased,  not to s t a r t again u n t i l her l i f e began to improve i n 1936. If Pentland's s o c i a l l i f e was limited, her musical l i f e i n Winnipeg began to expand. 2 3  Ibld.  At Gauthiez' suggestion she  21 Joined a chamber group which performed  occasionally.  Though not of the highest quality, the t r i o , which consisted of v i o l i n , c e l l o , and piano, at least gave her some experience playing with others, and a chance to observe the s t r i n g instruments at close range.  Having decided to write  for i r i o l i n , Pentland f e l t she should know more about the instrument, so bought one at a pawn shop f o r #3.50, and began teaching herself how to play i t .  Since her parents  would hot allow her to play the v i o l i n i n the house, she practised i n the basement s i t t i n g on an apple box, or upstairs i f the family was  out.  In 1931, Eva Clare, a well-known and i n f l u e n t i a l  piano  teacher i n Winnipeg, noticed Pentland's name i n a newspaper a r t i c l e about a r e c i t a l i n which she had performed. Clare then c a l l e d to ask Pentland to study with her.  Miss Once  again Pentland used her dress allowance money f o r her b i monthly lessons, but this time her mother became aware of the s i t u a t i o n and arranged to pay f o r the lessons.  Pentland's  attitude to clothing, unlike that of most young g i r l s , was t o t a l indifference, though e a r l i e r her d i a r i e s had been f u l l of descriptions of new  clothing.  In the 1930*s I refused to buy any new clothes, i d e n t i f y i n g myself with the l e f t wing. I wanted to look l i k e what I was« a musician unable to make a l i v i n g . I wanted to be as drab as possible. The. only thing that mattered was my mind and the pursuit of music. 2k 2  *Ibid.  22  In addition to her piano study with Eva Glare, she began organ lessons with Hugh Bancroft, a l o c a l teacher, following Gauthiez' advice that she should plan to make herself f i n a n c i a l l y independent by becoming an organist. After three years of organ lessons, she heeded Eva Clare's suggestion that she concentrate her e f f o r t s on the piano, and terminated her lessons with Bancroft. Eva Clare was a strong-willed and dominating teacher who demanded a great deal of her students, including frequent  performances.  I was t e r r i f i e d of Eva Clare - everyone was. She used to s i t there l i k e a b i g f a t frog and look at you with those beady eyes. I don't think she played very w e l l . Even then I used to be appalled at some of her playing. 25 While studying with her, Pentland took part i n several joint r e c i t a l s with other students, and received her L.A.B. ^ 2  i n piano i n 1933. Quite isolated from the r e s t of the musical world i n Winnipeg, Pentland was at the mercy of her environment. She was f i r s t Introduced to the music of Vaughan Williams when an acquaintance brought some of his music from England, and found i t to be interesting and very d i f f e r e n t from the 2  5lbld.  ^ L i c e n t i a t e of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London.  23  French music to which she had been exposed.  The  lighter  texture and the parallel, f i f t h s found here may have Influenced some of her e a r l i e r works, but the influence of Vaughan Williams on her style has been overestimated, '' 2  and the composer herself, points out that h i s influence was neither very important nor very l a s t i n g , ^ 2  During the early 1930*s Pentland was continually com-? posing.  A f t e r the correspondence  ceased, her only judgment was  lessons with Gauthiez  the yearly competition of the  Manitoba Music F e s t i v a l , and she found t h i s expert c r i t i c i s m of her work generally constructive. She usually won the composition class, but confesses there were very few entries.  More important than the rather small prizes she  won i n the competition was the a t t e n t i o n she received i n the press, as a r e s u l t . As 1935 approached Pentland*s r e l a t i o n s h i p with her family continued to deteriorate.  The parents were unhappy  about having an unemployed, unmarried musician around the house? and t h e i r daughter was unhappy about being there, " I t was the Depression. leave but I couldn't. 9 ,,2  No one could get jobs.  I wanted to  Owing to t h i s unpleasant s i t u a t i o n ,  Pentland became emotionally depressed, and physically run down.  Perhaps partly because of t h i s she became very  ill  ?Robert Turner i n the Canadian Music Journal, V o l . 2, No. ^, and Peter Huse i n the Music Scene. July-August 1968, P. 9. 2  2  ^Barbara Pentland i n interview, January 22, 1972.  2 9  Ibld.  24  i n January 1935*  A f t e r three weeks i n the hospital she had  a mastoid operation, and during her recuperation caught e r y s i p i l a s , a highly contagious f e b r i l e disease which l e f t her even more i l l and isolated In quarantine. followed by thrombosis.  :  This was  She r e c a l l s that the doctors had  given up hope f o r her l i f e , but she did survive to leave the hospital i n March.  I t was a f u l l year l a t e r that she  f i n a l l y f e l t healthy again.  One good outcome of t h i s i l l n e s s  was that i t gave her a new outlook on l i f e and on the people around her. I r e a l i z e d there were some nice people i n the world and i t gave me more courage. I f e l t f r e e r , though I had l i t t l e strength, and I started writing things that were more advanced. 30 In an e f f o r t to help her get away to a music school somewhere, Eva Clare suggested that she send compositions ,to Vaughan Williams and to Walter Cramer, e d i t o r of Musical America.  Vaughan Williams sent some suggestions about her  compositions, but no recommendations regarding further study. When Cramer advised her to apply to J u l l l i a r d , she sent her Sonate and Concert Overture f o r Symphony Orchestra to New York f o r t h e i r scrutiny, having written the orchestral work without knowing what a l l the instruments looked l i k e .  In  the spring of 1936 she was t o l d that she had been accepted f o r the J u l l l i a r d entrance examinations 30  i n September.  P e n t l a n d i n interview, May 20, 1973.  25  As one of the requirements f o r studying there, Pentland became an American immigrant and maintained her f i r s t c i t i z e n s h i p papers u n t i l the early l ^ ' s ,  Upon trying  the entrance examinations at Juilllard» which consisted of ear tests ( i n which she was aided by her perfect p i t c h ) , sight reading, piano performance, and composition, she was awarded a t u i t i o n fellowship which was renewed each of the three years she was at the school.  Delighted to be continuing  her education at l a s t , Pentland was an eager pupili I would have done anything. I was so pleased to be able to study. I would have scrubbed f l o o r s down every morning. 31 She rented a room i n an apartment at King's College Club, which was run by a southern woman of dubious character who would sweep through the dining room saying i n a loud voice "Feed my chickens well," i f she had won at the races, but offered l i t t l e i n the way of sustenance when she l o s t . ^  2  Pentland occupied the dining room of the apartment, while three other students shared the l i v i n g room. The place was jam-packed with students and prostitutes, probably. I was so ignorant of these things i t didn't bother me. 33 Supported mainly by her father, who  sent money to help out  with l i v i n g expenses, Pentland struggled along f i n a n c i a l l y , and spent most of her money on concerts. 31pentland i n 3 Ibid. 2  33ibid.  interview,  July ?,  1973.  26  Among the classes she had at J u l l l i a r d were piano performance,  score-reading, conducting, v i o l i n , orchestra-  tion, and German. classes.  Most important to her were the composition  Frederick Jacob! (1891-1952) taught her composition  during the f i r s t two of her three years at J u l l l i a r d ,  He  introduced her to many Renaissance works and gave her a good contrapuntal t r a i n i n g . Jacobi got me looking up early music. I copied out Binehols, Palestrina, Weelkes, Gesualdo and Orlando d i Lasso. I d i d a comparison study of chromaticism i n pre-harmonic and post-harmonic music. The idea of more moving parts gave me a new way of looking at texture and I became more and more interested i n horizontal l i n e , 34 Though; Jacobi helped expand her musical experience, she found that he hindered her freedom /by imposing conventional harmony, I used outrageous harmony i n the eyes of Jacobi, He thought perhaps I didn't understand t r a d i t i o n a l harmony, 35 Pentland f e e l s now that she should have fought Jacobi more, but was too eager to please because she had been denied so much previously.  She found that she usually wrote her more  adventuresome works i n the summer, once she was away from the constraining influence of school,  "Teaching shouldn't be  l i k e that but with Jacobi i t was." 36 3^lbld. 35rbid. 36ibid.  27  Jacobi's style d i d not have much e f f e c t on the works she wrote while studying with him, or on l a t e r works.  His  main interest was researching the l i f e and music of the Pueblo Indians, whose themes he often used i n his own compositions.  He was held to be an important composer of  Jewish sacred music, and often used Jewish themes i n his n o n - l l t u r g i e a l music.  Pentland•s compositions, of course,  r e f l e c t none of the Jewish influence, and though Indian music plays a minor r o l e , the l i t t l e that does appear i s more l i k e l y a r e s u l t of the proximity of the, composer to the Indians near Winnipeg rather than being a r e f l e c t i o n of Jacobi's Pueblan Indians. Unusual as i t was f o r composition students at J u i l l i a r d to change teachers, a f t e r two years' study with Jacob!, i t was decided she would, benefit from a new  teacher.  He was b i g enotigh to know he wasn't doing the right thing f o r me, but by then two years had gone by. 37 Bernard Wagenaar, (189^- ), was a teacher who  encouraged  her to develop her own style,, and to write i n a more contemporary idiom than Jacob! had advocated.  He advised  his students to "Take o f f your musical corsets and write what you feel.*'38 pentland recalls« In my case the main thing was encouraging me to speak out. When I got with Wagenaar the f i n a l year the whole approach liberated me, though he could be just as c r i t i c a l as Jacobi. 39 3 7  Ibld.  38rbid. 39ibid.  28  Pentland*s musical experience was widened considerably while she was concerts.  i n New York by her frequent attendance at  While the works she heard s t i l l r e f l e c t e d an  emphasis on Romantic music, contemporary works were generously Interspersed,  Among these were works such as  Alban Berg's L y r i c Suite, Hlndemith's Flute Sonata and Quintet f o r Woodwinds, and Copland's E l Salon Mexico. . Partly as a r e s u l t of hearing these works Pentland experienced a slow evolution of s t y l e , moving out of the more established harmonic system towards some interest i n modality.  She  r e c a l l s that hearing and playing the works of Hlndemith influenced her at t h i s time.  She was playing his f i r s t and  second piano sonatas, and observed quite c l o s e l y how  the  works were put together. Hlndemith enticed me f o r a while. He's so l o g i c a l . He was a way of freeing myself from the t r a d i t i o n a l because he freed the i n t e r v a l from the chordal system. However, he was not a l a s t i n g influence. 4o One aspect of Hlndemith's music that Pentland believes has remained i s the impersonal, which she found to be a refreshing contrast to the thicker, heavier French s t y l e . She was also intrigued f o r a while with the exciting rhythms she heard i n the music of Stravinsky, as well as with his sense of humour.  Among the works of Stravinsky she  ^ P e n t l a n d i n interview, January 22,  1972.  29  heard while i n New  York were Les Npces, Saore du  and  Bartok, a l a t e r and lesser influence,  F i r e b l":r"d ...  Prlntemps.  attracted Pentland i n his easier works f o r piano students, and she l a t e r composed children's works extensively h e r s e l f . Though Robert Turner has saidj As a r e s u l t of her study i n New York more modern tendencies are absorbed into her work and we can note some of the s t y l i s t i c earmarks of such composers as Bloch, Prokofiev, and Stravinsky. 4 1 Pentland heard very l i t t l e Bloch, i f any, and heard only a few works by Prokofiev.  Her work did become more  contemporary, but t h i s may be because of her increased s k i l l as a composer, new awareness of what other composers were doing, her studies at J u l l l i a r d , as well as the works she was playing at the time. In May of 1939, to her surprise, she„was n o t i f i e d that her studies at J u l l l i a r d were terminated and she was to graduate that year.  This came as quite a shock f o r her  since she was expecting to continue her studies there f o r at least one more year.  Owing to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  however, the school was asking a l l students who had been 42  there f o r three years or more to leave. In June and July of that year Pentland and a few other students went to Edgartown, Massachusetts, x  to continue  Robert Turner, op,cit., p, 18.  ko  • T h e teachers were l o s i n g one t h i r d of t h e i r s a l a r i e s as a r e s u l t of the f i n a n c i a l problems.  30  studying with Wagenaar at his summer home.  There f o r f i v e  weeks, and financed by her Aunt Bessie, she completed  her  Quartet f o r Piano -and Strings under Wagenaar*s tutelage. Unsuccessful i n attempts to f i n d work i n New  York before  leaving, and equally f r u i t l e s s i n Montreal, Pentland returned to Winnipeg once again a f t e r her studies were completed Edgar Town, return to New  at  Though her Aunt Bessie offered to finance her York, Pentland's father would not allow t h i s .  Work i n Winnipeg was equally as scarce as i t had been i n other c i t i e s .  Eva Glare used her influence to have  Pentland appointed a theory examiner on the Western Board for  the University of Manitoba,though t h i s p o s i t i o n did not  bring i n much Income,  Another f r i e n d , Agnes Kelsey, began  sharing her downtown teaching studio with Pentland i n exchange f o r theory lessons f o r some of her own students. However, Pentland had few students, and earned money.  little  Her diary, once f u l l of musical a c t i v i t i e s at  J u l l l i a r d , was then f u l l of war news, or often completely blank, and once again ceased during the f a l l of 194-0.  She  began her piano lessons with Eva Clare again, and worked on such pieces as the Schubert Fantasia A highlight of t h i s year was a t r i p to Minneapolis, i n January, 19^0, where she met John V e r r a l l , a .composition teacher at the University of St, Paul, with whom she became good f r i e n d s .  As a coincidence, VermH had been on the  same ship as Pentland on her voyage to France i n 1929, and  31  though they did not meet at that time, Pentland had heard him perform i n a concert on board.  V e r r a l l was most interested  i n her work and t r i e d to promote her compositions. Spent the whole afternoon with V e r r a l l going over my work, orchestral piece Rhapsody. Admires quartet, gives me his.rhapsody f o r orchestra. He i s an excellent modern composer. Wonderful to f i n d understanding again. 43 V e r r a l l l a t e r showed her Lament to Mitropoulos, then conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony, who,  a f t e r looking over the work,  sent Pentland a l e t t e r with suggestions f o r improvements. V e r r a l l l a t e r arranged f o r the W.P.A. Orchestra ^ there to play over the Lament so that she could hear the work.  She  felt  she benefited by discussing the work with the conductor! Learnt a l o t ! Notice lack of single strong l i n e s - too many obscure ones. 45 V e r r a l l made e f f o r t s to f i n d her a job i n S t . Paul but had no success. Another important development came i n August 1940, when the Winnipeg Summer Symphony performed her Lament, which was written as a reaction against p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Europe at the time. Pentland was not pleased with the performance,  but  r e a l i z e d that the orchestra was not accustomed to playing- contemporary works.  The work caused a l i t t l e furor, however, and  ^3pentland, diary entry, January 14, 1940. ^Works Progress Administration. ^ P e n t l a n d , diary entry, May 24, 1940.  32  there were l e t t e r s written to the editor of a l o c a l paper complaining about the f e e l i n g of hopelessness i n the face of war which i s expressed there. In July of that year she was approached to write the music f o r a radio drama written by Anne Marriott;, poet from Victoria,  Pentland was pleased to be working on Payload.  and f e l t that the s c r i p t was excellent.  The work occupied  her throughout the summer and early f a l l ; she then met Anne Mariott to discuss the work, orchestrated i t , and heard i t performed on the radio i n November.  She was also  working on a children's b a l l e t c a l l e d The Beauty and the Beast i n conjunction with a l o c a l b a l l e t teacher, and t h i s work was choreographed  and performed i n December 1940.  Though musically she was enjoying increased recognition, her e f f o r t s to f i n d work continued to go unrewarded. T y p i c a l l y , she was rather s e l e c t i v e , and d i d turn down the occasional job which she f e l t would not be suitable: Berenice King offers me a job at the Academy of A l l i e d Arts. Much work, l i t t l e pay, and very low standard. 47 Her l e t t e r s to various agencies turned up nothing.  Pentland,  determined to be a musician and composer, would not consider  "Says Music Should Fan S p i r i t of Hope," Winnipeg Free Press, August 30 (?), 1940. This l e t t e r drew a response from Chester Duncan, who expressed support f o r Pentland's freedom to react to what she observedi "Barbara Pentland's Lament Sincere," Winnipeg Free Press, September 8, 1940. 47pentland, diary entry, May 14, 1940.  33  any other form of work and continued to remain at home, looking f o r a d i g n i f i e d escape from her l i f e there. During the spring of 1940 she had applied to the Berkshire Music Centre to study composition during the summer, and the following spring she was accepted as the f i r s t female composition student there.  With this develop-  ment her l i f e took a turn f o r the "better, and a new d i r e c t i o n f o r her style would be found. MUSICAL  DEVELOPMENT  Since Pentland has retained most of her works from early youth, i t i s possible to look a t some of her f i r s t compositions and observe how her style evolved from the beginning.  As may be seen i n the l i s t of works i n Appendix  A, Pentland has divided her works into several categories, c l a s s i f y i n g those written up to 1929 as childhood pieces, while the student works f a l l within two separate periods j 1929-1932, and 1936-1939.  The d i v i s i o n s made i n the l i s t seemed to me the only way to c l a r i f y these early works because I didn't go through a "normal" educational process 1 8 years early struggle on my own, 1 year intensive study i n Paris plus 18 months correspondence, many years again on my own, followed at 24 . by 3 years a t J u i l l i a r d . The f i r s t group of student works were written i n France at school ( F a l l '29 to July '30) and i n Winnipeg while continuing lessons by mail (to Spring '32), The. only large scale work worth l i s t i n g i s the Sonate i n c# minor, which was my f i r s t "performed" piece, played by a Belgian pianist for a few l i s t e n e r s i n P a r i s .  34  During the next period ( ' 3 2 to *36) there was no composition study, but work i n piano and organ, and a movement away from the French influence . . . The J u i l l i a r d period, coming so l a t e , played havoc with my developing personal s t y l e while providing formal d i s c i p l i n e . The works of any interest during this time are those which I d i d during the holidays,trying to make more meaningful use of a more conventional idiom. I can't f e e l that they are much more mature (except perhaps i n formal control) than the works i n the second group, except the l a s t two. The regular l i s t s t a r t s during the l a s t year of the J u i l l i a r d period mainly due to the more than one performance accorded these works, and because they are also on transparencies. 48 The works from childhood to 1939 reveal several i n fluences, including Beethoven, Franck, and Hindemith, as a r e s u l t of her exposure to various teachers and to works she was hearing and playing i n her youth.  Several character-  i s t i c s are common throughout the early works, including the use of simple t r i a d i c harmonies, running s c a l e - l i k e passages, and ornaments such as turns, t r i l l s and appoggiaturas.  Melodic l i n e s are generally d i a t o n i c , the  harmony quite t r a d i t i o n a l , and the texture f u l l .  There are  also excursions into more extensive chromaticism. The f i r s t influence f e l t was that of Beethoven, and Pentland f e e l s that her Revolutionary Sonata (1925-28) was a d i r e c t r e s u l t of her exposure to his piano sonatas, which she was playing i n her early teens.  Certainly i n i t s  sonata form the work may be seen to r e f l e c t Beethoven's Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Keith MacMillan, January 2 1 ,  1974.  35  Influence,  The work also i l l u s t r a t e s the simple harmonie  and the tendencies towards ornamentation found i n the student works. Example 1, Revolutionary Sonata, b,  \ —  T ah, — '  r  y  *> -  e  —i  j j \  J  Y ^—t  f ~ T —  1-9.  ^7  9 >  36  The strong influence of the Franckian movement i s evident mainly i n Pentland's works of the early 1930*s, and l a t e r i n the works written at J u l l l i a r d .  Ruins (1932),  written a f t e r the correspondence lessons with Gauthiez had stopped, r e f l e c t s more adventuresome writing than any previous work i n i t s increased chromaticism and harmonic freedom. Example 2, Ruins, b, 10-14.  Teachers such as Jacobi and Wagenaar do not appear to have had any d i r e c t influence on her s t y l e , though a few isolated d e t a i l s from Wagenaar*s own idiom may be found i n works written by Pentland during her studies with him. The extensive chromaticism found i n the works of the late 1930's may be a r e s u l t both of the Franckian t r a d i t i o n  37  and Wagenaar's influence as her teacher.  I t i s interesting  to note this comment about his style» Considered harmonically, Wagenaar, with his free chromaticism over a s o l i d diatonic bass, should be c l a s s i f i e d as of French d e r i v a t i o n . 49 Hindemith's influence may be seen both i n the shorter forms found i n works of the l a t e r 1930*s, such as i n Five Preludes (1938), and i n the Increased rhythmic v i t a l i t y found i n such pieces as "Jest" from the above work. Pentland herself has commented that "Jest" was d i r e c t l y influenced by Hlndemith i n i t s rhythm, as well as i n i t s more impersonal approach. Example 3, "Jest" from Five Preludes, b, 1-4,-  ^ --*  pi 0  3=  0  =4  •F r-—* 1  rr '  0 *W  r m -  rt  rtfl  $>••  M  This new impersonal approach would prove to be a characteri s t i c which would develop further In the 1940s. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to isolate and i l l u s t r a t e a l l the influences which must have appeared i n Pentland's early works, since,. l i k e any student, she was exposed to the works ^Donald. F u l l e r , "Bernard Wagenaar," Modern Music XXI (1944), p. 228.  38  of many composers over the y e a r s .  Some of the main  i n f l u e n c e s a t times overwhelmed the young composer, her l i t t l e  leaving  o f h e r own s t y l e , and she d i d not a s s e r t  h e r s e l f more s t r o n g l y i n her compositions u n t i l a f t e r her summers a t Tanglewood,  CHAPTER TWO  39  40  The 1940*s brought positive developments i n Pentland's l i f e , as w e l l as changes i n her musical s t y l e .  Early  Influences now began to be supplanted by others which had a more l a s t i n g e f f e c t ph her mature s t y l e , and, at this time she managed to leave what was f o r her a rather stagnant l i f e i n Winnipeg f o r more progressive surroundings. During the summers of 1941 and 1942 she attended the Berkshire Music Centre at Tanglewood, Massachusetts, where she studied composition with Aaron Copland.* to  study with Copland,  2  One of s i x chosen  Pentland had submitted two works i n  advance f o r perusal; Beauty and the Beast (1940), and  two  movements from L i t t l e Symphony f o r F u l l Orchestra ( 1 9 4 0 ) .  3  Pentland's musical knowledge was broadened considerably during these six-week summer sessions through her exposure to various teachers and lecturers, p a r t i c i p a t i o n l n choirs, and hearing her own works rehearsed by student orchestras. In addition to the private composition lessons with Copland, she had classes with him i n analysis and orchestration i n which the group analyzed and heard various orchestral works, including some by Copland himself.  The class discussed topics  *Much of the information on Pentland's summers at Tanglewood has been provided by the a r t i c l e s she wrote f o r the Winnipeg newspapers! "Six Weeks of Work at the Berkshire Music Centre," Winnipeg Free Press, September 6, 1 9 4 l , p. 14, "Barbara Pentland Shares Experience at Berkshire," Winnipeg Tribune, September 131 1 9 4 l . " F e s t i v a l i n Berkshire Inspires Local Musician," Winnipeg Tribune, October 3. 1942. 2Among the other students i n attendance that year were Leonard Bernstein and Lucas Foss, When completed t h i s work was renamed Arioso and Hondo. 3  41  which would concern a young composer, such as  performance  r i g h t s , writing f o r high school music programs, and how to approach and influence a conductor with a score. In 1941 the Boston Symphony was at Tanglewood, and, as well as rehearsing t h e i r winter programs and giving weekly concerts, members of the orchestra supervised chamber music groups and student orchestra. The principals of each section spent time with the composition class, demonstrating the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r instruments.  This was a most valuable  experience f o r Pentland, who had s t i l l a limited exposure to some orchestral instruments, Paul Hlndemith, who was also teaching composition at Tanglewood, organized and advised a chorus, conducted by Hugh Ross, which consisted of the composition students, and Pentland, the only female composer there, sang f i r s t tenor i n the otherwise male chorus.  Haying brought a great deal of music from  B e r l i n which was not generally available i n North America, Hlndemith exposed the students both to Medieval and works, as well as to the more contemporary.  Pentland r e c a l l s  singing works ranging from Perotinus to Milhaud. of this chorus was not performance  Renaissance  The  purpose  but rather to make available  to the students music of various periods, and to try out works they had written themselves.  Hlndemith also taught a survey  course of instrumental and choral music from the 12th to the 17th centuries, which Pentland attended. In addition to the composers' chorus there was a large  42  choir i n which she participated, conducted by Serge Koussevitsky, then conductor of the Boston Symphony.  With the orchestra this  group performed such works as the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven, and the Bach- Magnificat.  Student orchestras and the Boston  Symphony performed frequently, and the students were encouraged to attend rehearsals of the groups, though Pentland found that the programs consisted of too much Brahms and Wagner to s u i t her."* Certainly the most important influence on Pentland's s t y l e which resulted from the summers at Tanglewood was Copland, who, at that time was writing i n what has been c a l l e d his "Third period".5  This, his most popular s t y l e , i s one i n which  he uses s p e c i f i c American f o l k songs, simple t r i a d i c or s l i g h t l y polytonal harmonies, and melodies derived from ascending and descending scale patterns. Copland led her towards a l i g h t e r s t y l e , and the clear, open texture found i n h i s works i s evidenced most s t r i k i n g l y i n Pentland's works i n a small group of pieces which have a d e f i n i t e f o l k atmosphere; From Long Ago (1946),  Another area  i n which this same influence i s f e l t i s i n f i l m score, one of Copland's consuming interests, and, i n f a c t , Pentland's sound track f o r a National Film Board movie The L i v i n g Gallery (1947) i s very derivative of the Copland style.6 4"Barbara Pentland Shares Experience at Berkshire," Winnipeg Tribune, September 13, 194l. ^ J u l i a s i t h , Aaron Copland (New Yorkj Dutton, 1955), P. 101. m  ^Pentland, who i s aware of the s i m i l a r i t y to Copland's s t y l e , has expressed some feelings of embarrassment with regard to this work.  43  However, the e a r l i e r ?Abstract P e r i o d " ©f Copland's 7  s t y l e had a more l a s t i n g e f f e c t on her than the f o l k element. This i s most apparent i n her Variations (1942), which seems to have been modelled a f t e r the teacher's Variations (1930).  The  formal s i m i l a r i t i e s alone would lead one to believe that Pentland had thoroughly investigated his music, though she has denied analyzing his works i n great d e t a i l . that he helped her develop her own  She does f e e l  style.  He was a great help at that period. He c l a r i f i e d my d i r e c t i o n , my thinking, and gave me confidence. He also t o l d me I didn't need to study any more - just go ahead. 8 Like Wagenaar, Pentland*s teacher i n New  York, Copland d i d  not encourage his students to write i n his own style of compos i t i o n , but corrected and commented on the work as i t was submitted.  I t would seem obvious that i n these sessions he  suggested that she lighten,the texture and work more c a r e f u l l y within s p e c i f i c forms.  Speaking about Copland she has statedt  He uses form i n a c l a s s i c a l way, and his works depend on rhythmic d r i v e . He was a very nonchalant teacher, affable but impersonal. 9 On her return to Winnipeg from Tanglewood i n 1941 Pentland v i s i t e d Toronto, where she met Canadian composers and performers such as Harry Adaskin, John Weinzwelg and Godfrey Rldout. Ridout, r e c a l l i n g meeting her then commented* 7Julia Smith, op.cit., p.  l6o.  8peter Huse, "Barbara Pentland," Music Scene, July-August, 1968, p. 9. ^pentland i n interview, July 7»  1972.  4-4-  I was enchanted with her because she was a l i v e and enthusiastic. The only women composers that I knew before that were nice but they didn't have that kind of f i r e . She s t i l l has i t . 10 Harry Adaskin, at that time president of the Vogt Society, an organization which was devoted to new Canadian music, had arranged f o r her Piano Quartet (1939) to be performed i n Toronto In May 1 9 4 l , and e a r l i e r that year her Five Preludes and Rhapsody (1939) were played at a Junior Vogt Society concert. It was during t h i s v i s i t that Pentland met John Weinzwelg, who,  since 1939, had been using twelve-tone technique i n his 11  compositions,  x  At that time Weinzwelg expressed a b e l i e f  that he and Pentland were the only ones writing  contemporary  music i n Canada, and suggested that she move to Toronto,  The  two began corresponding and became good friends i n the decade to follow.  He kept her informed of developments i n  music i n the larger centre, and about concerts such as a s p e c i a l presentation of Canadian music i n New York i n January 1942, which was sponsored by the. League of Composers,  Among works  by Ridout, Louis Applebaum, Hector Gratton, and Andre Mathleu were Pentland's Studies i n Line (1941), which, along with Weinzwelg's works, were said to "reveal unmistakably the 12  Impregnation of the more extreme modernistic school," G o d f r e y Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. 10  l l j o h n Weinzwelg i n "Canadian Composition," by Andree DesauteIs In Aspects of Music i n Canada, edited by Arnold Walter (Torontoi University of Toronto Press, 1969), P. 110. "League of Composers Presents Young Canadian Composers," Musical America, January 25, 1942. l2  45  Both Adaskin and Welnzweig encouraged her to move to Toronto, where they f e l t she would benefit from contact with other composers, where her works would have a better chance f o r performance, and where there was a f a r more dynamic musical l i f e than was found at that time i n Winnipeg. Financed by her Aunt Bessie as well as by her father, she made the move to Toronto i n September 1942, a f t e r her second summer at Tanglewood.  This change i n l o c a t i o n came at a time  when, owing to wartime d i f f i c u l t i e s , housing was at a minimum and students were few.  She set up a studio i n a second f l o o r  f l a t of an old house, l i v i n g i n the same quarters.  I t was so  cold there that, s t i l l weak from e a r l i e r i l l n e s s e s , she caught pneumonia that year.  On a l a t e r move in Toronto she 13  met Marguerite Boggs and her family,  y  becoming such good  friends that when Mrs, Boggs purchased a house i n 1942, she arranged f o r Pentland,to move i n with them.  She had a studio  i n a second f l o o r verandah, slept there an a folding cot, and l i v e d comfortably with them f o r the following f i v e years. In 1943 she joined the s t a f f of the Royal Conservatory of Toronto where she taught theory and composition, sharing a studio with John Weinzweig.  Teaching at the Conservatory  was on a commission basis, and there were not many students u n t i l the end of the war. Pentland, always an i n d i v i d u a l who l^Her daughter, Jean Boggs, i s now d i r e c t o r of the National Gallery.  46  pursued her own ways very seriously, did not f i n d most of those teaching at the Conservatory very stimulating.  As  Ridout observed: "The average teacher at the Conservatory rubbed her the wrong way and she rubbed them the wrong way".^ Toronto was a l i v e with musical a c t i v i t y l n the 194o's. As Pentland r e c a l l s t For the f i r s t time there was some interest i n Canadian music. Culture becomes more i n t e n s i f i e d i n a way during a war c r i s i s and we had probably more newspaper p u b l i c i t y , more audiences and performances than at any other time, 15 Pentland soon became part of the group of musicians who were at the centre of a c t i v i t y ,  Harry Somers, who  joined the  group a few years l a t e r , just at the beginning of his composit i o n career, has t h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n i When I came into the scene i n 1945 or '46 there were just a few composers pioneering t h e i r way herei Barbara Pentland, John Weinzweig, Godfrey Ridout, then Murray Adaskin, but i n the more contemporary vein, i t was r e a l l y Barbara Pentland and John Weinzweig. When I came into contact with Barbara's music of course I was impressed as a young person at that time, because there simply wasn't any other writing l i k e t h i s being done i n the country. I was impressed with both things, the music and the person. She's always been a person of great i n t e g r i t y , and very c l e a r and strong about her ideas, as her music has always been. But they formed a kind of group i n a way - as much as a group" can be. They were a l l f i e r c e l y independent r e a l l y when i t comes down to i t . 16 l^Godfrey Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. 15pentland i n Interview, July 7, 1972. 16  •"•"Harry Somers i n interview, September 27, 1972.  47 Though the composers were progressive, i t seems that the audiences of the day were not, English church musicians and English music i n general dominating. The general audience simply was not aware at a l l of what was going on i n the wider world, and the concert repertoire was very r e s t r i c t e d . 17 Toronto, as any other c i t y i n Canada, had audiences which, up to 1950, would not tolerate anything more recent than S i b e l i u s , Debussy, and Ravel - a l l tonal composers. The most contemporary thing that was done around that time was Copland's E l Salon Mexico. 18 One interesting aspect of the p o l i t i c a l developments during these years was the stress on c u l t u r a l exchange with the Soviet Union.  As a gesture of goodwill, music scores  by composers of each country were exchanged i n 1943, and among them were Pentland's Arioso and Rondo, Rhapsody, and Studies i n Line.  Pentland participated a c t i v e l y both as composer  and performer i n concerts sponsored by the National Council For Canadian-Soviet Friendship. She also arranged and orchestrated Russian works such as The B i r t h of Russia by Yuri Shaporln f o r performance by the Jewish Folk Choir which, with orchestra, appeared i n Massey H a l l . 9 1  Though f r i e n d l y  with the members of the Communist Party Pentland maintained her independence and f e l t she was never completely trusted by them.  She was often asked by them why she d i d not write  !7somers i n Interview, September 27, 1972. l R i d o u t i n interview, September 27, 1972. 8  ^February 12, 1944.  48  music that was more accessible to the 'people', but f e l t then, as she does now,  that i t was more important to write  music i n a way which pleased h e r s e l f . P u b l i c i t y f o r Canadian music and performance was considerable i n the 1940's, and Pentland appeared frequently i n the newspapers, often joining Weinzweig, Somers, and Adaskin l n speaking out f o r more performances of contemporary works as well as f o r a more sympathetic audience.  She was  especially concerned with these problems and voiced her opinions i n several a r t i c l e s . Canadian music needs an audience. U n t i l the f e e l i n g i s mutual, there can be no healthy state of music i n our land. Composers are naturally i n the vanguard. They are the leaders of thought i n music. As a creative force they break new t r a i l s . But i f the chasm between what they write and what the public l i s t e n s to i s so great that there i s no spanning of i t , then they are working i n a vacuum and are severed from t h e i r s e r v i c a H e role i n the community. 20 ^ B a r b a r a Pentland, "Wanted, An Audience," Printed i n a program f o r a performance by the Jewish Folk Choir, March 25, 19^7. Similar ideas were expressed by Pentland i n such newspaper a r t i c l e s as: ' "Audience Wanted: Canadian Music Needs Listeners, says Composer," Toronto Telegram, A p r i l 15, 1947. "Audiences Wanted," Globe and Mall. A p r i l 19, 1947. "Modern Composer Has Poor Opinion of Music Patrons," Globe and Mall, March 2, 1949. "Music i s an Opiate, Women's Club Told," Toronto Star, March 2, 1949.  k  9  Her opinions of audiences and t h e i r reactions to new music undoubtedly did not endear her to the publicJ The music lover who screams l i k e a wounded eagle at the f i r s t phrase of a modern c l a s s i c gets scant sympathy from Miss Pentland. He i s circumscribed i n his musical appreciation by his pre-conditioning to standard f a m i l i a r works. He l i s t e n s and responds i n terms of only one idiom. The a l i e n corn t o him i s musically indigestible. Through wider d i f f u s i o n of modern music and i t s frequent r e p e t i t i o n , tastes, b e l i e f s and the scope of appreciation could be transformed. The., unad venture some f a i t h f u l could come to recognize some of today's experimental composers as variants from the known musical language . and not orphans.  ;  The onus would appear to rest with the public. Miss Pentland, as one outstanding Canadian composer i s very obviously not one to compromise her musical i d e a l and, f o r the sake of the public's musical peace of mind, subdue her personal variant, 21 However, over the years she has learned to accept poor audience reception and u n f l a t t e r i n g reviews such as the followingi Barbara Pentland's Studies i n Line were textbook things - musical anatomy and physiology and dissection of harmonic and rhythmic and physiologically disposed. 22 In f a c t , some have noticed that such reviews were not at a l l upsetting to hert Barbara had a reputation as a leader of the avant-garde i n the 19*K)'s. She got s t i n g ing reviews but she thrived on i t i n a way, 23 " M u s i c a l Musings," Winnipeg Free Press. Saturday July 2 , 1949. 22 Edward W. Wodson, "Golden Touch Brings Power to Piano Works," Toronto Telegram, March 2 3 , 19^5. 23Ronald Napier i n interview, September 2 6 , 1972. 21  50 Ridout has another view of t h i s i Barbara's music very often appeared on ears that were not accustomed to i t , and she took offense very e a s i l y . I f a work was a f a i l u r e she didn't t r y to take these things into consideration. She just said "Clods", They were clods. They s t i l l are. She was quick to take offense, which was unfortunate because i t didn't endear her to a l o t of people who didn't want to know her. For a l o t of us, who l i k e d her, we put up with that. We could see her point of view, although sometimes we wished she wouldn't be quite so vehement about i t . A l o t of people would say "Bah! Barbara Pentland, i f she's going to be l i k e that, yechl" 24 Although she had a teaching position at the Conservatory i t provided few students u n t i l the end of the war when those i n the armed forces returned and augmented enrollment. The break came at the end of the was when the Re-Hab program started and a l l the boys from the army, navy and a i r force had a chance to study. Some of them were the best students I ever had, as they were happy to have such an opportunity? some had gone straight from high school to s i x years' service. 25 . Her attitudes to her students were further expanded at the time i n a newspaper a r t i c l e i She waves away any notion that increasing returns i n s a t i s f a c t i o n to the instructor mean diminishing returns to the composer. Because the.students, p a r t i c u l a r l y those studying under D.V.A. credits are promising, she i s stimulated i n her own creative work and supported i n her b e l i e f In the future of composition i n Canada. P a r t i c u l a r l y encouraging ^Ridout i n interview, September 27, 1972. 25 Pentland i n a l e t t e r to student Alan Shanoff, February 3 , 1969. 2  51 i n t h i s context was the quality of the students' compositions programmed on the f i n a l Conservatory concert, she claims. 26 V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l has the following r e c o l l e c t i o n of meeting Pentland at t h i s timei I met Barbara f o r the f i r s t time Just a f t e r the war i n early 1946, when I was In the process of seeking a teacher i n harmony and things I wanted to catch up i n a f t e r three years i n the service but she couldn't take me on because she was so booked. I found her very f o r t h r i g h t . This was the f i r s t Impression I got of her - as someone who was very honest and f o r t h r i g h t . Not the type of person who held out the f a i n t promise of something. She simply said,"Look there isn't a chance, I'm booked s o l i d . " And sh§ made a very good suggestion of who to go to and that's what I d i d . I t was rather a refreshing experience because t h i s i s not the kind of thing you usually f i n d with teachers, they t r y to hang on somehow i f they can. 27 In  1943 she began p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a music course set  up f o r c h i l d r e n from families of lower incomes, i n which she taught oreatlve music to children who ranged i n age from 5 to 8 at the University Settlement School, every Saturday morning.  The classes did not consist of formal lessons but,  rather, the children were encouraged to write t h e i r own songs i n t h e i r own way,  to be more aware of the sounds around them,  and to respond to music and sounds with t h e i r bodies.  Pentland  found that they associated music with words, and would describe something that had happened to them, or t e l l a story. 26"Musical Musings," Winnipeg Free Press. July 2, 2  ? V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n interview, September 27,  1949.  1972.  52 At  the end of the course each c h i l d conducted his own  i n a closing program.  song  She found this to be a rewarding and  stimulating experience, and believes i t was one of the f i r s t e f f o r t s i n Canada to teach c h i l d r e n composition.  28  Interest i n Canadian music flourished i n Toronto at this time, and was r e f l e c t e d i n the press coverage as well as radio shows.  The C.B.C. International Service presented  "Canadian Composers", a,series of broadcasts about Canadian composers and t h e i r music, i n the f a l l of 1946.  In a show  based on Pentland, she presented her Studies i n Line, Song Cycle, and Sonata f o r C e l l o and Piano. Harry Adaskin, who has been an industrious promotor of Canadian music, frequently included works of Pentland i n his r e c i t a l s and concert tours.  Accompanied by his wife,  Prances Marr, ^ he premiered her Concerto f o r V i o l i n and 2  Small Orchestra January 20, 1945, at the Toronto Conservatory Hall.  He performed her V i o l i n Concerto i n New  York at Times  H a l l , February 15» 1948, and included V i s t a on the program of a tour i n 1949.  Adaskin recently commentedt  I've seen to i t that she had performances, and could be considered a champion of her music. 30 In 1947 and 1948 Pentland spent the summers at the MacDowell Colony i n New Hampshire, where, f o r the f i r s t time, 28  P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7, 1972.  29she l a t e r more commonly used Frances Adaskin as her professional name. 3°Harry Adaskin i n interview, July 6, 1974.  53  she became seriously interested i n an organized use of s e r i a l technique.  A retreat f o r a r t i s t s and writers, the  colony consisted of acres of woodland where each participant could work alone a l l day undisturbed. I t was a great help to me then, as I was l i v i n g i n Toronto where the summers are usually very hot and humid, I was teaching at the Conservatory (on commission i n those days), which d i d not enable me to have a place i n the country, so the Colony provided an i d e a l spot to work i n during the summer. In a d d i t i o n i t gave me contacts with composers who were more aware of the world outside, whereas the war had isolated me from the mainstream, 31 I t was at the Colony that she met Dika Newlin, once a pupil of Schoenberg, who was translating Schoenberg et Son Eoole by Rene Leibowitz.  Absorbed i n learning the basic concepts  of the twelve-tone method, Pentland took one month to read the book, whereas Newlin had translated i t i n two weeks. I got a l o t out of the book. I was already using some of these techniques but  31 Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Dr. Arnold Schwab, June 1, 1972.  54  "became, more aware of t h i s approach. I t was Dika Newlin that r e a l l y started me using the s e r i a l technique. 32 In addition to the Leibowitz book, Newlin had with her at the Colony a l l the available works of Schoenberg, as well as some of Webern. We spent quite a l o t of time on these works, playing things four hands and so on. This put the s e a l of the s e r i a l technique on my work. I had veered continually towards  Pentland i n interview, July 7» 1972. She reacts rather strongly against.statements that she derived her use of the s e r i a l method from John Weinzweig, and f e e l s that t h i s i s not at a l l accurate. Widely read a r t i c l e s such as Robert Turner's "Barbara Pentland," Canadian Music Journal, V o l , 2, #4, do not help correct t h i s misconception* J,&  The seven years she spent i n the East saw the production of at least ten major works. I t was i n these that her mature style evolved and absorbed yet another trend, a t o n a l i t y . This new interest was undoubtedly a r e s u l t of her association with John Weinzweig, professor of composition at the Royal Conservatory and one of the f i r s t practitioners of Schoeribergian precepts i n Canada. Pentland, however, was not interested i n the Schoenberg s t y l e , f i n d i n g his melodic l i n e s tortured and the e f f e c t overly romantic, but rather i n the technique i t s e l f . She deplores the frequent comments i n various a r t i c l e s that she a c t u a l l y studied with Weinzweig and was influenced by him» " I t d i d not occur to me to write i n his s t y l e ; I was not at a l l attracted by his use of the method." (Pentland i n Interview, July 7, 1972.)  55  more and more contrapuntal writing, and this i s a d i r e c t i o n I have continued. The melodic impulse i s the kind of harmonic impulse I*m interested i n . The l a s t work to be w r i t t e n prior to my more conscious adoption of the s e r i a l technique was the Sonata Fantasy, and you can trace a l l the material to the opening i n t r o duction - and t h i s was quite a long work. So i t seemed necessary f o r me to f i n d a complex of material that would provide the generating power f o r the whole work. And so I came to the use of the technique by t h i s need to be horizontal i n the sense of going forward from an i n i t i a l source. 33 Though she heard and played the works of Webern at this time, his works did not make much of an impression on her u n t i l her t r i p to Germany i n 1955• While at the MacDowell Colony i n 1947 she wrote  Colony  Music, a work f o r chamber orchestra which had been commissioned by the Forest H i l l Community ( i n Toronto), f o r the World Orchestra, and i t was  premiered i n February  New 1948.  I had written a rather happy work there, a suite f o r s t r i n g orchestra with piano, which I c a l l e d Colony Music - the t i t l e of which needed some explanation to c o l o n i a l l y conscious compatriots, 34 The following summer while there she wrote Wind Octet, her f i r s t s e r i a l l y organized work. During the rest of the year her a c t i v i t i e s i n Toronto continued.  In March of 1948, Harry Somers played a r e c i t a l of  Pentland's piano works, written from 1938 to 1947, which followed a r e c i t a l of his own piano works. Pentland i n Music Scene, op.olt. Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Dr. Arnold Schwab, June 1,  1972.  56 He hopes through these two r e c i t a l s to win a wider interest i n Toronto, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the Pentland piano music, which he believes to be d i s t i n c t l y Canadian, as well as being o r i g i n a l and non-derivative l n conception. 35 In 19^8 one of her compositions, " C i t i e s " from the Song Cycle, was sent along with several other Canadian works to the XIV Olympiad i n London, England, and she was awarded a bronze medal f o r the work. Pentland was represented i n a s p e c i a l concert e n t i t l e d "Chamber Music by Women of Five Countries" i n Philadelphia, A p r i l 1949.  Her String Quartet No. 1 was performed, and  was  36  received very w e l l .  Holiday Suite received several per37  formances by various orchestras from 1947  to 1949,  including  a performance of the f i n a l movement by the Winnipeg Symphony, March 1949.  I t also appeared that year at the  World F e s t i v a l of Youth and Students i n Budapest, Hungary, i n an all-Canadian concert which was under the auspices of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. In the summer of 19^9,  Harry Adaskin, who had recently  become the head of the music department at the University ^"Somers to Play His Compositions and Pentland's," Globe and Mail, February 2 8 , 1948. E v e n i n g B u l l e t i n , Philadelphia, A p r i l 21, 1949. The other four composers represented were L i l i Boulanger, Graznya Bacewicz, Louis Talma, and Peggy G l a n v i l l e - h i c k s . 37Among the performances werej Harold Sumberg's Symphony f o r Strings, June 16, 19^7, radio broadcast, and Members of the Musicians* Union of Budapest, September 1 8 , 1 9 4 9 .  57  of B r i t i s h Columbia, offered her a position on the f a c u l t y , teaching theory and composition.  During the 1940's she  had refused several university positions f o r several reasons} she d i d not want to go to an American school, nor would she accept a p o s i t i o n which was f o r only one year, and, i n addition, she was reluctant to leave Toronto, where she was making a name f o r herself, and where her works were being heard.  However, l a t e r i n the decade, when the Re-Habilitation  programs were drawing to a close, Pentland began looking f o r a more secure position, and decided to accept Adaskin*s  offer.  She moved to Vancouver i n August, s e t t l i n g i n a war-time army hut on the campus. Now i n her f i r s t university position, Pentland was given a free hand i n forming her theory courses, and based i t on a study of the developments which lead up to 1 6 t h century counterpoint, followed by an investigation into more advanced harmony, r e f e r r i n g to the music of the period, and making studies of how techniques were used and developed.  The composition  students began with simple melodic l i n e s and were expected to complete at least one movement of a sonata by the end of t h e i r second year of composition study.  In the early years of the  music department at U.B.C. there was not a Bachelor of Music program, so that students taking music courses were s p e c i a l i z i n g i n other f i e l d s .  Pentland was not impressed with t h e i r l e v e l  of musical knowledge»  58  I was h o r r i f i e d at how l i t t l e they had learned. Unless they had studied privately they had no background. Students should know a l l the basics by the end of high school. This makes them more sensitive to sound, 38 Her interest i n the problems of music education p r i o r to university levels led her to working on a program i n creative music f o r use i n B.C. schools.  Developed partly  from her experience with the children at the Settlement School i n Toronto, the course was  intended to be started  i n the e a r l i e s t grades, giving t r a i n i n g of the whole person, and working towards a completely involved response,  Pentland  f e l t that t h i s t o t a l response would help the c h i l d develop and make him a better student.  Unfortunately, the course,  which she prepared i n the early 1950's, was met with indifference, and was never applied. Initially,  l i f e i n Vancouver was considerably quieter  than i t had been i n Toronto f o r Pentland, and, though she enjoyed the pioneer s p i r i t f e l t In Vancouver at the time, she f e l t the loss of others with the same Interests as h e r s e l f . Composer Jean Coulthard was on the s t a f f at the university, and i t was because he f e l t that Coulthard was rather t r a d i t i o n a l i n approach that Adaskin had asked Pentland to come to U.B.C, "I f e l t the students ought to have a look at 39  someone more contemporary i n s t y l e , " ' 38  P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7,  The very difference 1972.  •^Harry Adaskin i n interview, July 6,  1974.  59  i n the two composers' styles seemed to hinder the development of a close r e l a t i o n s h i p . When I came out here I didn't know anyone. I didn't know how conventional people were and I thought there would be more people of my type. Here I f e l t quite alone. 40 The upheaval of moving was further complicated that year by an ear i n f e c t i o n - a problem which has often plagued Pentland i n recent years - and, having neither a phone nor an automobile, her sense of i s o l a t i o n was increased. She d i d f i n d some companionship with Harry and Prances Adaskin, and found that their Interest i n her music continued. Adaskin arranged a program of her music which was performed i n January 1950 by soprano Frances James, the Steinberg S t r i n g Quartet, and the composer.  The works included on the  program were S t r i n g Quartet No. 1, Song Cycle, Sonata Fantasy, and Studies i n Line.. Sponsored by the Fine Arts Committee and the Department of Music, the concert was well received. There i s no doubt that Barbara Pentland has considerable creative genius. Her works portrayed a s k i l l i n composition, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the fusing of one melody with another i n true contrapuntal form, 41 Apparently pleased with the reaction to the concert, Pentland commented shortly afterwards about Vancouver: ^ P e n t l a n d i n interview, July 7, 1972. 41  " Works.of Winnipeg Composer Well Received at U.B.C. Concert," Vancouver News Herald, January 28, 1950. A  60  Here they take I t f o r granted you're a composer. They open t h e i r ears and l i s t e n ! This i s a l l we Canadian composers ask - that our music be given a chance to be heard. 42 As more of her works were performed, and, as she began to adjust to the new location, by 1952 she was able to be more o p t i m i s t i c . Miss Pentland stated that the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Music Department has shown i n i t i a t i v e i n producing works unknown to the public. "We have established a small centre f o r chamber music," she said, "and presented the whole cycle of s i x Bartok quartets, f o r the f i r s t Canadian and what i s believed only the s i x t h performance i n the world. The J u i l l i a r d Quartet played the works. Last season we d i d the L y r i c Suite of Alban Berg, and t h i s year we also performed i n an all-student venture, Stravinsky's Les Nooes."43 In March 1950 she participated i n a four day symposium of Contemporary Canadian Music which was sponsored by the Community Arts Council and the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra Society.  Composers from across  Canada attended, as d i d about  1500 l i s t e n e r s , and Pentland appeared as a speaker, composer, and performer.  Compositions by 3^ Canadian composers were  heard, including two works of Pentland, the S t r i n g Quartet No. 1, and the Sonata f o r V i o l o n c e l l o and Piano. Her S t r i n g Quartet No. 1 was l a t e r performed i n July 1953 a t Brock H a l l , U.B.C, by the J u i l l i a r d S t r i n g Quartet, ^"Noted U.B.C. Composer 'Can't Help Writing Music'," Vancouver Sun. February 15, 1950. "Raps Lack of I n i t i a t i v e i n Use of Canadian Winnipeg Tribune, July 12, 1952. J  Talent,"  61  i n a concert arranged by Harry Adaskin. I asked the J u i l l i a r d Quartet to play her s t r i n g quartet, and they l i k e d the work, finding i t clear and concise. When she'd f i n i s h e d what she had to say she stopped, k  In 1950 she was commissioned  k  by the "Youth Music League"  of Vancouver to write an orchestral work f o r the Junior Symphony Orchestra,  At i t s premiere November 8 , 1952, only  the f i r s t movement of the r e s u l t i n g work, Symphony No. 2 , was performed, though i t was heard i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n February 1953 on C.B.C. radio.  Written with the amateur youth group  i n mind, the symphony i s not d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l l y , and constructed simply, on a smaller scale than a more advanced work. In November 1950 she was flown to Toronto to participate i n a C.B.C. broadcast e n t i t l e d "An Investigation of Modernism i n the Arts," a symposium designed to investigate the reasons for the s p l i t between the modern a r t i s t and his audience, and to outline some of the principles upon which a r t i s t s base t h e i r work.  Among other participants were Robertson  Davies, Abraham K l e i n , and Jacques de Tonnancour. Her Interest i n Canadiana was r e f l e c t e d In the chamber . opera which she wrote i n 1953*  The work was based on an  incident i n the l i f e of Susan A l l i s o n , the f i r s t white woman., to pioneer i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Similkameen county, and on the legend of Ogopogo at Lake Okanagan.  Pentland and Dorothy  "^Harry Adaskin i n interview, July 6, 1 9 7 . k  62  L i v e s a y , who wrote the t e x t , v i s i t e d the A l l i s o n  c a b i n and  surrounding d i s t r i c t , and i n t e r v i e w e d people who had known the  f a m i l y , as w e l l as descendents.  The work was w r i t t e n  f o r r a d i o , and was premiered on the C.B.C. i n February 1954. A p r o l i f i c w r i t e r throughout her c a r e e r , Pentland was able t o hear premieres of s e v e r a l of her works i n the e a r l y 1950's i n Vancouver, the  i n c l u d i n g Ave Atque V a l e , performed by  Vancouver Symphony.  Her Octet f o r Wind Instruments  (1948)  had i t s c o n c e r t premiere i n December 195^ by the C a s s e n t i Players.  I t had been heard on the C.B.C. i n January 1949.  F o r e i g n performances  i n c l u d e d a b r o a d c a s t of her Second  Symphony on the B.B.C. i n June 1954.  The S o n a t i n a f o r S o l o  F l u t e was performed by f l a u t i s t Jean Murphy a t the Vancouver Art  G a l l e r y i n February, 1955. on a program t h a t was otherwise  mainly romantic. In January 1955» P e n t l a n d performed her piano works i n a r e c i t a l presented by the Community A r t s C o u n c i l a t t h e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , which was r e c e i v e d w i t h some r e s e r v a - . t i o n s by the l o c a l  papers.  Miss Pentland's music c o n t a i n s many o r i g i n a l ideas but there was a seeming l a c k o f development and c o n t i n u i t y . However, there i s much i n her scores which r e v e a l remarkable t a l e n t , and one has the g r e a t e s t a d m i r a t i o n o f the m u s i c a l a g r e s s i v e ness of t h i s , e n t h u s i a s t i c m u s i c i a n . 45  -'"Modern Music i s S t i l l E x p e r i m e n t a l , " Vancouver Sun, February 12, 1955.  63  Further a c t i v i t i e s included an appearance on a series of radio programs i n which works of Canadian composers were presented.  Pentland performed her Sonatinas I and I I .  While concluding her a c t i v i t i e s and courses at the u n i v e r s i t y that year, Pentland was  preparing f o r a summer  i n Europe, her f i r s t t r i p abroad i n 25 years.  She  was  saddened that her plans could not include taking along her dog Dart, which she had acquired i n 1951 and raised from a puppy.  Dart remained with friends, while Pentland l e f t  the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n of Vancouver f o r e x c i t i n g developments i n Europe. MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT Pentland's new  interest i n a more detached,  slightly  thinner style which followed her summers at Tanglewood can be l a r g e l y attributed,to Copland's influence, but i t was  also  a r e s u l t of the neoclassic trend which was evident i n her music from the mid Igl^O's to the mid 1950' s.  Along with  the neoclassic, there continued a tendency to romanticism i n Pentland's works which was apparent u n t i l the late 1950's. The neoclassic aspect was manifested by the use of such devices as ostinatos, dotted rhythms, more s i m p l i f i e d texture, and more concise forms, and Pentland f e e l s that her i n t e r e s t i n these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was probably a r e s u l t of several influences, including Stravinsky and  Copland!  64  As I tended to escape the harmonic i m p l i c a t i o n s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by my melodic o r h o r i z o n t a l approach, so I escaped r h y t h m i c a l l y through perhaps two main i n f l u e n c e s i the syncope v i a Copland ( j a z z ? ) , S t r a v i n s k y , e t c . , and the non-metric rhythm of p l a i n - s o n g and o t h e r medieval music. Today I f i n d myself b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d a l s o by new sounds and complex rhythms p o s s i b l e I n e l e c t r o n i c music. 46 A l s o of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o Pentland's development was music of Hindemlth,  e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s use of s m a l l e r forms,  as w e l l as i n h i s treatment of i n t e r v a l s . t h a t t h i s was  the  not a l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e  a g a i n s t l e a n i n g on what he termed  Though she  feels  (Copland had warned her  the Hindemlth  •German*  t r a d i t i o n ) , h i s more impersonal approach i n t e r e s t e d her so much t h a t t h i s aspect has been maintained throughout  her  mature s t y l e . Now  c o n s c i o u s l y t r y i n g t o s i m p l i f y the t e x t u r e of her  music, P e n t l a n d found t h a t w r i t i n g the S t r i n g Quartet i n  1944  helped her achieve t h i s by f o r c i n g her t o t h i n k c a r e f u l l y of how  each part was  e s s e n t i a l notes.  used, and by making her more aware of She  r e c a l l s t h a t a c o n f l i c t between the  n e o c l a s s i c and the French-Romantic her student days i n New Her new  S t y l e was  f e l t as e a r l y as  York.  concern f o r c l e a r and c o n c i s e f o r m a l o u t l i n e s  i s e v i d e n t i n S t u d i e s i n L i n e (194l), one of her b e s t known  P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r t o K a r i n Doerksen,  A p r i l 19.  1972.  65  and most f r e q u e n t l y performed works, p u b l i s h e d i n 4? and r e c o r d e d i n 1950.  1949  By t h e i r t i t l e s a l o n e , t h e s t u d i e s  i l l u s t r a t e Pentland's i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r l i n e a r aspects. They were w r i t t e n i n one week, and o n l y a f t e r t h e y were f i n i s h e d P e n t l a n d d i s c o v e r e d t h a t each formed a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of l i n e .  She t h e n a s s i g n e d a s k e t c h t o each as a  d e s c r i b i n g the type of c o n t o u r w h i c h f o l l o w e d . of  B.M.I.  t  who was  title,  Ronald N a p i e r ,  i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e r e c o r d i n g o f the works,  r e c a l l s t h a t the r e c o r d i n g company was unable t o p r i n t the s k e t c h e s t h a t P e n t l a n d had g i v e n each s t u d y , and t h a t a problem was encountered when she r e f u s e d t o have any v e r b a l t i t l e s a s s i g n e d t o the works.  I n the end, the s t u d i e s were  s i m p l y numbered f o r t h e r e c o r d i n g . In  these f o u r s h o r t works i s found an emphasis on c l e a r e r  t o n a l i t y which i s i l l u s t r a t e d most e v i d e n t l y i n t h e cadences throughout.  The opening movement 'Largo', f o r example, b o t h  b e g i n s and ends i n c# minor, w h i l e i n the body of t h e work, o t h e r t o n a l i t i e s are e x p l o r e d . 47 'The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e i r i n c l u s i o n on t h e R o y a l C o n s e r v a t o r y of T o r o n t o P i a n o e x a m i n a t i o n l i s t f o r Grade X, and by a choreography i n 1949 w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d by seven members o f t h e Winnipeg ballet.  66  Example 1,  "Largo" from S t u d i e s i n L i n e , (a) b. 1-4}  The t e x t u r e throughout  (b) b. 28-29.  t h i s work i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s  though there are s t i l l s t r o n g l e a n i n g s toward  full,  the c h o r d a l ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the opening "Largo", where the b l o c k chords i n the l e f t hand g i v e a f u l l t e x t u r e , (see example 1 ) . melodic l i n e i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , w i t h some octave and f r e q u e n t octave doublings i n the middle  The displacement,  section.  67  Example 2, "Largo" from Studies In Line, b. 11-14.  The study consists of three phrases which are simple repetitions, with variations i n range and dynamics, and some tonal exploration.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s presage what w i l l  ensue In the remaining three studies, and i n some of the other works of the 1940 *s. I t i s interesting to note how Pentland's composer developed  i n this period.  The repeated  s k i l l as a four-note  accompaniment pattern i n "Presto" of Studies i n Line creates a f l u r r y , but i s r e l a t i v e l y simple.  68  Example 3, " P r e s t o " from S t u d i e s I n L i n e , b. 1-2,  ,9  n  G\Z / 'J  F&  m  1'  '-'-70-* pi -0  f  In " F l i g h t " of  4 > b 0  0  0i  •  1  y  10 1'  0  J0* 0•  * 4  Sirr  » hi -—h  0* 4  1  k )r  From Long Ago (19 6) a s i m i l a r f i g u r e i s k  made more i n t e r e s t i n g by rhythmic d i s p l a c e m e n t .  0  wp  The cadences development.  mm  0  -d m3=-  9•  i  3r  —0—  41  _  f  i  tip  ^  of these two works a l s o serve t o i l l u s t r a t e some I n " P r e s t o " the f i n a l cadence  i s quite d i a t o n i c .  69  Example 5, "Presto" from Studies l n Line, b. 41-42.  And that of "Plight" i s less obviously so. Example 6,  " F l i g h t " from From Long Ago, b. 19-20)  •  9- • -|  V  f  /  c  •  \~6  •  *  ..  1  /  -  8-  The Sonata Fantasy  (1947) i l l u s t r a t e s Pentland's  interest  i n the longer forms and thick textures of the more romantic, and i n an increasingly contrapuntal approach which was gradually developing as the 194o's progressed. As my idiom evolved i n a contrapuntal d i r e c t i o n , the material seemed to stem from a source presented l n the opening, as sort of generating impulse, This i s f a i r l y clear i n a piano work Sonata Fantasy, written early i n 1947. I got acquainted with some of the music of Schoenberg and Webern during the summers of 1947 and 1948, but i t was the technical ideas Imparted by Rene Leibowitz i n his book Schoenberg et Son Ecole which interested me,  70 not the a c t u a l Schoenberg idiom, which I found too T e u t o n i c and t o r t u r e d i n a f i n - d e - s i e c l e manner. My Wind Octet was the f i r s t work where I c o n s c h i o u s l y made use of the s e r i a l technique, but there was no abrupt change (as i n a "conversion")} I simply used these methods of c o n t r o l which my music had reached almost on i t s own, and so I c o u l d a p p l y them t o c l a r i f y and u n i f y the m a t e r i a l and t o g i v e more freedom t o the s t r u c t u r e . 48 The Sonata Fantasy i s regarded by Pendland as both a summing up of what preceded, and a l o o k i n g ahead t o what w i l l come i n i t s thematic d e r i v a t i o n s and i n t e r v a l l i c  development.  The 12 b a r i n t r o d u c t i o n , which i t s e l f appears throughout i n fragments  either  o r i n i t s e n t i r e t y , provides m a t e r i a l which i s  used i n the r e s t of the work, though i t i s a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in i t s later  appearances.  Example 7, Sonata Fantasy, b.  1-6.  rjf £3t  f  iya:  9 =3=  zz: 8  ^ L e t t e r t o Marie Vachon, February 17, 8  1973.  71  The second theme a t b a r 13 i s d e r i v e d and w i t h more emphasis  on q u a r t a l  from b a r 3» here  inverted  harmonies.  Example 8 , Sonata Fantasy, b.l 1 3 - 1 6 .  A s u b s i d i a r y theme which enters  a t b a r 36 i s a combination  of m a t e r i a l from b a r 6 and b a r 3 . Example 9, Sonata Fantasy, b. 3 6 - 3 7 . r i g h t hand.  r4  T-V  „n  1.  r-f-i  M—  —  —  6 —(SH  I The opening melodic l i n e , which o u t l i n e s an A minor a n t i c i p a t e s the predominance frequently  triad,  of the minor t r i a d which appears  i n t h i s l i n e a r manner.  72  I t i s obvious from the outset that the treatment of intervals i s an important element of t h i s work, those i n the upper voice of measures 1-3 playing a c e n t r a l r o l e . Pentland feels that i t was her exposure to the music of Hindemith which led her to a more l o g i c a l use of intervals,"49 and t h i s more conscious approach was evident i n works throughout the 19 0's. k  The influence of Copland may be seen i n a subsidiary theme i n the Sonata Fantasy, i n which the use of open f i f t h s i n the bass, and the more l i l t i n g rhythm results i n a folk-type s p i r i t which i s quite reminiscent of the former teacher. Example 10, Sonata Fantasy, b. 167-169.  *  =& &  -V- <r  This work i l l u s t r a t e s common textural aspects such as decorative scale passages and running note patterns which are found i n Example 7.  Themes are occasionally obscured by a heavy  texture, or by interweaving inner parts.  There are few rests,  and t o t a l silence i s rare. 49 Pentland i n interview, July 7, 1972.  73  Formally, and  the Sonata  Fantasy i s a combination of f u g a l  sonata elements, w i t h the fugue a p p e a r i n g as a develop-  ment s e c t i o n i n which c o n t r a p u n t a l augmentation, d i m i n u t i o n ,  techniques,  such as  s t r e t t o , and i n v e r s i o n s a r e used.  These a r e a l l techniques which w i l l remain a p a r t of Pentland*s mature s t y l e i n her use of s e r i a l i s m . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s k i n d of w r i t i n g are other works of the same p e r i o d t h a t are more c o n c i s e and c l e a r f o r m a l l y , and  have a more t r a n s p a r e n t  pieces  t e x t u r e , such as the three  short  l n From Long Ago (1946).  Example 11, "Obstinate  Tune" from From Long Ago, b . 1-4,  i:  6H  1  :  '•'Jl  \  ^  q  • \/—^  Here i n t e r e s t i n g developments on a l i m i t e d amount o f m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as Pentland's i n t e r e s t i n rhythm, may be seen. A f t e r her exposure t o Schoenberg's music l n 1947 and 1948, and  Pentland's l e a n i n g s became i n c r e a s i n g l y more  more c o n c i s e .  The n e o - c l a s s i c t r e n d continued  contrapuntal i n t o the  1950's, and Pentland developed more c o n t r o l over the t e x t u r e and m a t e r i a l i n her works.  74  I was more c o n s c i o u s l y working towards a l o g i c a l s e l e c t i o n of tones. There has to be a reason behind the use of c e r t a i n n o t e s . And I was not c l u t t e r i n g the t e x t u r e as much as e a r l i e r , i n such works as the Sonata, o r the Sonata Fantasy. I was t r y i n g then to l e t I n the l i g h t . 50 These aspects may  be seen i n S o n a t i n a I (1951)» i n which  a l l three s h o r t movements are based e n t i r e l y on the m a t e r i a l presented row  i n the c a d e n z a - l i k e opening.  Though a 12-tone  i s not c l e a r l y evident, t e n notes of a row  bar 1,  appear i n  and there f o l l o w s a r a t h e r f r e e s e r i a l use of t h i s  material. Example 12,  S o n a t i n a I, b.  1.  The work i s v e r y t i g h t l y c o n s t r u c t e d , as i s i n d i c a t e d by d e r i v a t i o n of the theme of the t h i r d movement, which i s a r e t r o g r a d e of the opening bar I l l u s t r a t e d above.  Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , December 13,  1973.  the  75  Example 13, Sonatina I. t h i r d movement, b. 1 - 3 .  9+2 —  f  L.H.  —52-  f  i%—  k,  (&7U30.  ~>0  _ .  0-  ^ _ ..  Y—  / ^7->7--  0-  - 7 ^ -  JL  The neoclassic aspect of the work, and of others at this time, i s stressed by the kinds of intervals which predominate.  Minor thirds are important throughout, both  harmonically and melodically, as i n the secondary  section  of the f i r s t movement, measures 13-30, which i s derived from bar 2 material. Example l  k  , Sonatina I, f i r s t movement, b. 19-22.  76  I n the second movement o f t h i s work a r e found s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n techniques, such as theme i n v e r s i o n , r e t r o g r a d e , s t r e t t o , and d i m i n u t i o n , once a g a i n , common both t o n e o c l a s s i c and t o s e r i a l music. The above trends continued u n t i l the mid 1950's, when a new stimulus would i n t e n s i f y and a c c e l e r a t e the d i r e c t i o n s Pentland's  music was t a k i n g .  CHAPTER THREE  77  78  Pentland's t r i p t o Europe i n the summer of 1955  proved  to be an important f a c t o r i n the e v o l u t i o n of her mature style.  Upon l a n d i n g , she went d i r e c t l y t o the new  music  f e s t i v a l i n Darmstadt ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e r i e n k u r s e f u r Neue Musik), which was  t a k i n g place from May  i n which s p e c i a l emphasis was I t was  29 to June 6,  and  g i v e n to experimental  music.  there t h a t she had a more prolonged exposure  t o the  works of Webern, and t o what had r e s u l t e d from h i s i n f l u e n c e . I t c o n s o l i d a t e d the d i r e c t i o n i n which she had g r a d u a l l y been moving - toward a more simple and t r a n s p a r e n t t e x t u r e . "I r e a l i z e d you can say as much w i t h two notes as w i t h twenty i f you use the r i g h t two i n the r i g h t p l a c e . " 1 I n a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g that summer she heard a g r e a t d e a l of contemporary  music,  i n c l u d i n g works by Boulez,  Nono, and B e r i o , and she was e l e c t r o n i c works. music t h a t was  Stockhausen,  e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the  Having been c o n f i n e d to the more t r a d i t i o n a l  a v a i l a b l e i n Canada a t t h a t p o i n t , Pentland  found these new  developments e x c i t i n g and  stimulating.  F o l l o w i n g the f e s t i v a l a t Darmstadt, she t r a v e l l e d to B r u s s e l s f o r a c o n c e r t of her music on June 14, which  was  sponsored by the Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Clubs of B r u s s e l s .  Pentland, always having c a l l e d f o r more support  f o r the a r t i s t s and musicians of Canada, was  impressed  with  what she witnessed i n European c o u n t r i e s . 1  P e t e r Huse, Music Scene, J u l y - August, 1968,  p.  9.  79  Miss P e n t l a n d was 'amazed' t o l e a r n t h a t a non-musical o r g a n i z a t i o n had undertaken s p o n s o r s h i p of her performance i n the B e l g i a n c a p i t a l . She f e e l s t h a t s i m i l a r b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s c o u l d do much t o f u r t h e r the work of t h i s country's composers. 2 T h i s c o n c e r t i n c l u d e d a premiere of her S o l o v i o l i n Sonata (1950), played by L o u i s Thienpont, and a performance of her C e l l o Sonata (19 3) by A n t o i n e t t e Dethoor, as w e l l as k  s e v e r a l piano works,  i n c l u d i n g V a r i a t i o n s . S o n a t i n a s I and I I ,  Sonata-Fantasy,.and A r i a which were performed by the composer. From B r u s s e l s she went t o Baden-Baden to the I.S.C.M. conference, which was h e l d t h a t y e a r from June 17 to 21. Having j o i n e d the Canadian League o f Composers i n and, having informed the League t h a t she was  195 , k  p l a n n i n g oh  going t o the f e s t i v a l a t Baden-Baden, P e n t l a n d was asked t o a c t as the Canadian d e l e g a t e .  As p a r t o f her duty as a  delegate she sent a r e p o r t on the f e s t i v a l to John Beckwith, then s e c r e t a r y of the Canadian League of Composers. impressed her w i t h i t s i n t e r e s t i n new  Germany  music, t h e support  g i v e n to i t s musicians, and w i t h i t s h i g h l y developed modern r a d i o s t a t i o n s , which she toured, which provided ample f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new music t o be performed and heard. P e n t l a n d f e e l s t h a t the f i r s t r e a l r e s u l t of the European t r i p was as she was  I n t e r l u d e , begun i n Konstanz, and w r i t t e n  t r a v e l l i n g t h a t summer.  M a r t h a Robinson, "Barbara P e n t l a n d on ^European Tour," Vancouver Sun, May 18,1955. 2  80  I t i s the f i r s t piano p i e c e where d i r e c t use of octaves i s a v o i d e d . The t e x t u r e i s more opened up than i n the D i r g e (1948) where I d e p a r t from the more n e o - c l a s s i c a t t i t u d e s of Sonatinas I and I I . 3 She has a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h i s work was i n f l u e n c e d by e l e c t r o n i c music as w e l l as by the music of Webern. From Baden-Baden, and a f t e r some t r a v e l l i n g t o other c e n t r e s where she continued t o hear new works, P e n t l a n d went to London, England, where she spent an a c t i v e summer.  In  June she was approached by the B.B.C. t o r e c o r d some of her piano works f o r r a d i o broadcast, and she presented a program of her piano music on J u l y 5 a t the I n s t i t u t e of Contemporary Arts. 1955,  When Pentland r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver i n the f a l l of she c o u l d n o t h e l p comparing Canadian what was a v a i l a b l e i n E u r o p e j  musical resources with  " I r e a l i z e d I was  completely  cut o f f from e v e r y t h i n g and made plans t o g e t a year of absence  4 so I c o u l d r e t u r n f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d . " She departed f o r Europe the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , t h i s  time  w i t h a n t i c i p a t i o n of p l a y i n g a more prominant r o l e a t the I.S.C.M. f e s t i v a l , which was b e i n g h e l d l n Stockholm  June 3  >  of 1956  10 t h a t y e a r .  She had been informed i n February  -^Pentland l n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 7, ^Ibid.  1973.  81  t h a t her Second S t r i n g Quartet  ( 1 9 5 3 )  had been one  of  2 7  works s e l e c t e d f o r performance i n Stockholm by an I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u r y which had in  considered l 0 d i f f e r e n t works. K  the f a l l of 1 9 5  K  actually  t h a t the Canadian League of Composers  had asked her to submit her F i r s t S t r i n g Quartet t i o n f o r the 1955  I t was  I.S.C.M.  I t was  for considera-  among s i x other Canadian  works which were sent to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Jury f o r s e l e c t i o n . Pentland,  however, s u r p r i s e d the League by sending  Second S t r i n g Quartet  i n s t e a d , f e e l i n g i t was  them her  more i n d i c a t i v e  of  her present s t y l e .  That year the scores f a i l e d to a r r i v e  in  time f o r the Jury meetings, but the f o l l o w i n g year  to  be more f r u i t f u l f o r Pentland,  proved  s i n c e her q u a r t e t was  only Canadian work s e l e c t e d f o r performance.  T h i s was  the a  h i g h l y p r e s t i g i o u s and e x c i t i n g development f o r her, but  there  were d i f f i c u l t i e s t o come which l e d to Canada's r e s i g n a t i o n from the I.S.C.M. i n 1 9 5 6 . I t was  i n the f a l l of 1 9 5 5 t h a t the Canadian League of  Composers began q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l i d i t y of i t s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h I.S.C.M., Canada then going i n t o only i t s t h i r d y e a r of membership.  The  annual fee of $ 1 2 5 was  more than i t f e l t  able  •^The S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 was w r i t t e n i n 1 9 5 3 i n memory of Pentland's b r o t h e r , a Jet p i l o t , who was k i l l e d t h a t year i n an a i r c r a s h i n P a k i s t a n . The f i r s t of i t s f i v e movements c o n t a i n s a b r i e f q u o t a t i o n from the "Requiem Aeternam."  82  to a f f o r d , and there had not been any performances o f Canadian music a t the f e s t i v a l to that p o i n t . ^  The League  was not pleased t o have missed what i t f e l t was  an e a r l y  d e a d l i n e f o r submission of works the p r e v i o u s y e a r . The Canadian.League of  1956  of Composers was  informed i n  February  t h a t the P e n t l a n d work had been chosen, and, not  having r e a d the I.S.C.M. c o n s t i t u t i o n was a s t o n i s h e d to l e a r n t h a t i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r paying f o r the performance of  the Quartet, a f u r t h e r f e e of $>l6o.  I t then d e c i d e d t o  withdraw from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than be o b l i g a t e d f o r past f e e s as w e l l as the performance.  Now i t  was Pentland*s t u r n to be a s t o n i s h e d , but she was supported by the p r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,,who had found out about the s i t u a t i o n and soon arranged f o r sufficient  funds t o f i n a n c e the performance.  A t the same  time, K a r l - B i r g e r Blomdahl, then s e c r e t a r y of I.S.C.M., i n formed the Canadians t h a t s i n c e the work was  sent, and  s e l e c t e d i n good f a i t h , u n l e s s i t was withdrawn by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u r y i t would be performed, no matter what the Canadians d e c i d e d .  Blomdahl then arranged f o r Swedish  Radio t o f i n a n c e the performance o f the Quartet by a Swedish group.  However, Canada withdrew from I.S.C.M. anyway, f e a r i n g  ^In f a c t , the Canadian d e l e g a t i o n had not y e t p a i d any of i t s 1955 f e e s , and so owed the I.S.C.M. f o r two years of membership as w e l l .  83  f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s , and  f e e l i n g q u i t e conscious of  the f a c t that another country was  sponsoring  Pentland was  d e e p l y hurt by  Canadian composers, and  the  performance.  the a c t i o n s of her  f e e l s that there was  fellow  some p r o f e s s i o n a l  j e a l o u s y i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n to withdraw.  Because of  t h i s , a permanent r i f t developed between her and  John  Weinzwelg, then the p r e s i d e n t of the Canadian League of Composers and who,  she f e l t , had  l e d the league t o i t s d e c i s i o n .  She  r e c a l l s t h a t Canada's announcement of withdrawal came in a cable  j u s t a f t e r the d e l e g a t e s  meal t i c k e t s , and  t h a t she was  t i c k e t s i n c e she was now  had been assigned  rooms and  t h e n asked t o r e t u r n her meal  no longer a d e l e g a t e .  She  f e l t l e t down  o n l y by her f e l l o w composers, but a l s o by the Canadian  government, having witnessed at the f e s t i v a l other from s m a l l e r poorer c o u n t r i e s who I n 1956  she a l s o r e t u r n e d  were g i v e n more support.  t o the f e s t i v a l a t Darmstadt,  where she began the Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . Venice f o r the F e s t i v a l I n t e r n a z l o n a l e and  She  a l s o went to  d l Muslca Contemporanea,  t o the Unesco conference i n S a l z b u r g . She  May  delegates  of  s e t t l e d that year i n Munich, from October of 1956 1957.  My main o b j e c t i v e was to l i v e f o r a;while i n an a c t i v e musical c e n t r e , and to hear contemporary music and performances of h i g h c a l i b r e , and o r c h e s t r a l and o p e r a t i c performances t h a t c o u l d not be heard a t home. 7  7  ' L e t t e r to Helmut Kallman, January 25,  196l.  to  84  While  i n Munich she l i v e d w i t h a German f a m i l y , i n what o  had been the d r a f t i n g room i n t h e i r l a r g e house. became good f r i e n d s with the e l d e s t daughter Amsel Bembe, as w e l l as w i t h Marion, who known a r t i s t i n Germany,  She  She  of the f a m i l y ,  became a very w e l l -  r e c a l l s p l a y i n g two  piano works  w i t h A m s e l l , each a t a piano i n opposite rooms, w i t h the h a l l doors open so t h a t they c o u l d hear one another. ate her meals w i t h the f a m i l y , and,  though there was  She little  meat a v a i l a b l e i n post-war Europe, Pentland remembers p l e a s a n t meals of good bread, yoghurt, and corresponds w i t h the f a m i l y and, 1963,  ln  being f u l l of new  on another t r i p t o Europe  heard  music, each of her three summers there  music f e s t i v a l s .  Among her a c t i v i t i e s i n  the I.S.C.M. F e s t i v a l which was  Her Organ Concerto was of  still  i n Europe, Pentland went t o many c e n t r e s and  a g r e a t d e a l of new  was  She  i n t r o d u c e d them t o her husband.  While  1957  l o t s of eggs.  performed  i n Z u r i c h that year.  a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress  O r g a n i s t s a t a c o n c e r t presented i n Westminster Abbey by  the Canadian C o l l e g e of O r g a n i s t s .  Conducting  the work  was  the C.B.C.'s d i r e c t o r of music G e o f f r e y Waddington, w i t h o r g a n i s t Gordon J e f f r e y , who it  i n Ontario i n  had commissioned the work, and had  performed  1951.  Only a few weeks a f t e r she r e t u r n e d from Europe t o resume her t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t the u n i v e r s i t y she met o  H e r r Bembe, a t t h a t p o i n t deceased,  had been an  John  architect.  8  5  Huberman a t a Sunday a f t e r n o o n  tea.  T h i s meeting was  quite  by chance s i n c e n e i t h e r of them g e n e r a l l y attended events of t h i s type. October 10,  They were married a y e a r l a t e r i n Vancouver,  1958.  recallsj  Pentland  Previous to t h i s time I had always been too busy to get i n v o l v e d w i t h others, and I t h i n k t h a t most men sensed t h i s - t h a t I j u s t wasn't i n t e r e s t e d . And I d i d n ' t meet anybody, c e r t a i n l y not i n Toronto. I t had never occurred t o me t h a t I would ever marry. E a r l y i n my l i f e t h i s was the only t h i n g t h a t my parents meant me to do, so I had an Innate guard a g a i n s t t h i s happening. The i d e a t h a t you c o u l d get married and s t i l l have a c a r e e r was completely out of my mind. I had a concept of being f i r s t a composer and l a s t l y a woman. R a l l y had wanted an independent s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t wife. I had never met anyone who wanted a professional wife. R a l l y i s d e l i g h t e d w i t h my successes. 9 An Ph.D  i n d u s t r i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t who  was  the f i r s t r e c i p i e n t of a  i n psychology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Huberman i s from a m u s i c a l His f a t h e r was known v i o l i n i s t ,  and  family.  Bronislaw Huberman, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y h i s s t e p - f a t h e r , the p i a n i s t and  composer E r n s t von Dohnanyi.  H i s mother, E l z a G a l a f r e s ,  well-known a c t r e s s on the B e r l i n and Vienna stages, l i v e d i n Vancouver s i n c e the end  of World War  Huberman i s c e r t a i n l y of a more romantic i n h i s musical Pentland  t a s t e t h a n Pentland, one i n interview,  June 8,  had  II. inclination  of h i s f a v o u r i t e  197 . k  a  86  composers  b e i n g C a r l M a r i a von Weber, and there are those  who have f e l t t h a t marriage has l e n t a more romantic touch to her music, though P e n t l a n d has r e s e r v a t i o n s about  this:  A l o t of people t h i n k my music has warmed up and i s more romantic s i n c e my marriage, but I t h i n k i t i s j u s t a more n a t u r a l , f r e e r e x p r e s s i o n , 10 While P e n t l a n d was i n Europe, Harry A d a s k i n d e c i d e d t o s t e p down as the head of the music department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia so t h a t he would have more time f o r t e a c h i n g and performance.  He remained on the t e a c h i n g  staff  there and was r e p l a c e d by an American, G, Welton Marquis, i n June 1958. Devoted t o Canadian i n t e r e s t s , P e n t l a n d was d i s mayed t o f i n d t h a t someone from another country was now head of the  music department.  She f e l t t h a t Marquis brought i n a  whole s t a f f of Americans who were immediately ranked above the  Canadian i n s t r u c t o r s , and was q u i t e conscious of how the  • o u t s i d e r s * were put i n p o s i t i o n s of power over the Canadians, In a d d i t i o n , she f e l t t h a t lower standards were now b e i n g accepted f o r the music degree.  She had begun her program f o r  c r e a t i v e music i n the B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system i n the e a r l y 1950*s because she was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the background of  the students she taught a t the u n i v e r s i t y .  for  h i g h e r standards, she found a n y t h i n g l e s s  1 0  Ibid.  Always  striving  intolerable.  87  I had s t u d e n t s who weren't g e t t i n g any c o u n t e r p o i n t and were g e t t i n g a B a c h e l o r o f Music i n c o m p o s i t i o n . I r e s i g n e d - I wasn't g o i n g t o put up w i t h t h a t k i n d o f s t a n d a r d . A l l t h e b a s i c fundamentals were m i s s i n g . 11 Her r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1963 ended h e r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y and h e r t e a c h i n g .  Those who knew h e r as a t e a c h e r  r e c a l l t h a t she was demanding, e x p e c t i n g as much work and e n t h u s i a s m from the s t u d e n t s as she put i n t o t h e s u b j e c t h e r s e l f , and she responded e s p e c i a l l y w e l l t o those showed i n t e r e s t and were w i l l i n g t o work.  who  Harry Adaskin  r e c a l l s from d e a l i n g w i t h h e r as a s t a f f member» "She was i n f l e x i b l y o f t h e h i g h e s t standard."12 Robert Rogers,  who  s t u d i e d harmony, c o u n t e r p o i n t , c o m p o s i t i o n and a n a l y s i s w i t h h e r d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r o f 195  k  t o 55» recalls»  She was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g a n a l y t i c a l l y . We d i d a g r e a t d e a l o f a n a l y s i s of Beethoven Sonatas. I n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n c l a s s she was more concerned w i t h how we were o r g a n i z i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t h a n w i t h whether o r n o t we were u s i n g a contemporary i d i o m . 13 A d a s k i n a l s o commented on h e r r o l e as a t e a c h e r i She was a s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r i f the p u p i l s were m o t i v a t e d . She i s a v e r y d e d i c a t e d m u s i c i a n and e x p e c t e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o be d e d i c a t e d as w e l l . l  k  A f t e r h e r r e s i g n a t i o n she went on a t r i p t o Europe w i t h h e r husband b e f o r e d e v o t i n g h e r f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o c o m p o s i t i o n . Ibid. H a r r y A d a s k i n i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6,  197 . k  Robert Rogers I n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 197 . k  H a r r y A d a s k i n i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6,  197 . k  88  I was l u c k y t h a t a t t h a t time of my l i f e I was a b l e t o r e s i g n w i t h o u t f i n a n c i a l h a r d s h i p and c o n t i n u e my own c a r e e r . 15 P e n t l a n d ' s m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the l a t e 1950*s had c o n t i n u e d t o expand and f l o u r i s h i n s p i t e o f h e r  unhappiness  a t the u n i v e r s i t y .  Her C o n c e r t o f o r P i a n o and S t r i n g s ( 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 ) ,  w h i c h was  i n March 1958  premiered  a t a c o n c e r t p r e s e n t e d by  the  C a n a d i a n Music A s s o c i a t e s i n T o r o n t o , w i t h M a r i o B e r n a r d i as s o l o i s t , and V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l c o n d u c t i n g , drew c o n s i d e r a b l e comment from the p r e s s .  Hugh Thomson of t h e T o r o n t o S t a r s a i d he would  r a t h e r "take the g a s - p i p e and end i t a l l "  r a t h e r t h a n hear the work  1 c  again.  P e n t l a n d f i n d s t h i s k i n d of r e a c t i o n t o h e r music  humorous, and was d e l i g h t e d when her husband t h r e a t e n e d t o send Thomson a g a s - p i p e .  1 7  The  comment of L e s l i e B e l l t h a t t h e work  1 8  was  " e x t r e m e l y bad,"  prompted J o h n B e c k w i t h t o w r i t e him a  l e t t e r q u e s t i o n i n g t h i s judgement, and e x p l a i n i n g why  he  thought  i t was  a good work. One of the most obvious f e a t u r e s of her Concerto i s I t s constant v a r i a t i o n a l i n v e n t i o n the v a r i e t i e s of t e x t u r e and melody w i t h i n i t s i d i o m amount t o an a d m i r a b l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n of c r e a t i v e s k i l l . 19 •^Pentland i  n  i n t e r v i e w , J a n u a r y 22,  1972.  ^Hugh Thomson, " P e n t l a n d C o n c e r t o Most D i s a g r e e a b l e , I r r i t a t i n g t o Hear," T o r o n t o S t a r . March 13, 1958. 1  ^ R e c e n t l y , when r e f e r r e d t o by C h r i s t o p h e r Dafoe as a ^decadent r u n n i n g dog", Vancouver P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 18, 1 9 7 , P. 3 3 , P e n t l a n d e x c l a i m e d " I j u s t l o v e t b be c a l l e d a decadent r u n n i n g dog." K  l 8  1  L e s l i e B e l l , Globe and M a i l . March 13,  1958.  ^ J o h n B e c k w i t h , i n a l e t t e r t o L e s l i e B e l l , March 15,  1958.  89  T h i s l e d t o a second review by B e l l which c o u l d h a r d l y be s a i d t o have demonstrated any tempering of h i s opinions I n the f i r s t movement the s o l o i s t ' s part c o n s i s t s of t o r t u o u s l e a p s from one end of the keyboard to the other, or h a n d f u l s of notes c l u t c h e d from the piano l n a v i c i o u s , b r u t a l manner. Behind t h i s unpleasant demonstration the s t r i n g s wander about i n a b e w i l d e r e d f a s h i o n , f i n a l l y b r i n g i n g the movement t o an end w i t h a v u l g a r crunch. 20 Pentland i s undaunted  by such condemnations,  and  has  become, i n f a c t , r a t h e r used t o them, r e f e r r i n g t o the c l i p p i n g s she has gathered over the years as her " c o l l e c t i o n of Invective." When V i s t a  (19^5) was  performed  i n November 1958  in  Vancouver by J e a n e t t e Lundquist, a p u p i l of Harry Adaskin, i t was  more generously r e c e i v e d .  Other a c t i v i t i e s  i n this  period  i n c l u d e d a chamber music r e c i t a l of her works i n London, England d u r i n g Canada Week i n May  1959.  T h i s was  a week s e t  a s i d e by the B.B.C. f o r a " s e l e c t i o n of music, drama, l i g h t 21 entertainment and t a l k s " November 1959  her Two  A  from a Commonwealth c o u n t r y .  Piano Sonata was  In  performed a t a  Canadian Composers F e s t i v a l a t the " I n s t i t u t e of Contemporary American  Music" a t the H a r t t C o l l e g e of Music a t the U n i v e r -  s i t y of H a r t f o r d . L e s l i e B e l l , "Okay, Here's Why Globe and M a i l , March 3 0 , 1958. 2 0  I t ' s Extremely Bad."  • M. Mclntyre Hood, "Canada Week Being Observed," D a l l y S e n t i n e l , May 19, 1959.  Toronto  Kamloops  90  E a r l y I n 1959 she was commissioned t o w r i t e a work f o r t h e Winnipeg  Symphony O r c h e s t r a , w h i c h was conducted  a t t h a t time by V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l .  T h i s was p a r t of a program  sponsored by t h e Canada C o u n c i l , i n w h i c h s e v e r a l o r c h e s t r a s were i n v i t e d t o s e l e c t composers and t o commission works. Victor F e l b r i l l  recalls:  We commissioned h e r t o w r i t e h e r Symphony No. 4 . She has a n uncompromising k i n d o f a p p r o a c h t o h e r music making; she's v e r y h o n e s t . When she wrote f o r o u r o r c h e s t r a , she knew what the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e o r c h e s t r a were, s i n c e I had w r i t t e n h e r . And she came up w i t h a v e r y f i n e work. 22 When she a r r i v e d i n Winnipeg i n F e b r u a r y o f i 9 6 0 f o r the premiere performance, she had a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e p r e s s , h a v i n g a l r e a d y s u p p l i e d program n o t e s f o r t h e work w h i c h were p r i n t e d i n b o t h l o c a l p a p e r s . She was f i n a l l y b e i n g r e c e i v e d w i t h some n o t i c e i n h e r home town, though a t l e a s t one o f the l o c a l r e p o r t e r s seemed t o be more concerned w i t h h e r p e r s o n a l grooming h a b i t s and t h e s i z e o f h e r f e e t t h a n w i t h h e r music: B a r b a r a ' s s t r o n g Immaculate hands, unadorned n a i l s c l i p p e d s h o r t , moved i n a n eager wave . . . . She wore a d a f f o d i l t a i l o r e d b l o u s e , f u l l s k i r t of b l a c k and w h i t e checked w o o l , b l a c k suede w a l k i n g shoes on s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l f e e t . 23 As F e l d b r i l l observed: her.  I t h i n k i t was a v e r y s t r a n g e o c c a s i o n f o r I t was h e r n a t i v e c i t y and I don't t h i n k  V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 2 0 , 1972. M a r g a r e t Hood, "Joyous C h a l l e n g e o f L i v i n g , " Winnipeg Tribune, February 25, i960. 2 3  91  she had been back there except f o r o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s , but never i n a s p e c i a l c a p a c i t y . The l o c a l n a t i v e s were a strange bunch, I t h i n k they always wondered about Barbara - she was a r e a l renegade I n her own community. Anything new i n Winnipeg was approached w i t h s u s p i c i o n . Many people wondered about the symphony, but n e v e r t h e l e s s we performed i t , I remember we r e c e i v e d some very i n t e r e s t i n g n o t i c e s about i t - o u t s i d e the c i t y of a l l t h i n g s , from people who had heard the r a d i o broadcast. They were very taken w i t h i t , 2 k  I n May i960 her Sonata for- S o l o V i o l i n formed  (1950) was per-  a t the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y by Jeanette Lundquist i n  a Concert of Canadian Music which was presented by the  Alumni  and A s s o c i a t e s of the Royal Conservatory of Music Of Toronto, The work was performed a g a i n by Lundquist a t the Canadian F e s t i v a l a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n one of three c o n c e r t s of contemporary  Music  i n J u l y i960  Canadian  music,  Harry A d a s k i n continued t o g i v e Pentland's works exposure, b a s i n g one l e c t u r e i n a s e r i e s of t e n i n the f a l l of i960 on her Duo f o r V i o l a and Piano  (i960).  s e r i e s , "A way of l i s t e n i n g t o Music - European, and American  D u r i n g the Canadian,  Music between 1920 and 1960|" Adaskin, who  i l l u s t r a t e d h i s l e c t u r e s w i t h m u s i c a l examples, was accompanied a t the piano by h i s wife F r a n c e s . At the week-long F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary A r t s i n February 1961 Pentland performed w i t h Robert Rogers i n a duo V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 30, 1972.  92  r e c i t a l of contemporary Sonata f o r Two  works.  I t included Stravinsky's  Pianos ( 1 9 4 4 ) ^ and two works by Pentland» 2  Duets a f t e r P i c t u r e s by P a u l K l e e ( 1 9 5 8 - 9 ) , a premiere, and Sonata f o r Two who  i s now  Pianos ( 1 9 5 3 ) , a Canadian premiere.  Rogers,  t e a c h i n g on the f a c u l t y of the Department of  Music a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  subsequently  became very i n t e r e s t e d l n Pentland's piano works, which he f r e q u e n t l y performs i n r e c i t a l , and has recorded f o r the C.B.C. t r a n s c r i p t i o n s e r v i c e s . In  May  1961  she took p a r t i n the Canadian Conference of  the  A r t s i n Toronto, appearing on a music p a n e l , f o r which  the  t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n were "The Composer and the P u b l i c "  and "The Composer and the Performer." the  Beckwith commented on  success of the d i s c u s s i o n s 1 I t seemed everyone a t the conference was more i n t e r e s t e d i n when the bar would be open than i n where the t a l k was heading, 26  Pentland's Symphony No. 4 was  heard a t a c o n c e r t of "recent  works by Canadian composers" which h i g h l i g h t e d the conference, t h i s b e i n g the f i r s t  program h e l d i n Toronto which was wholly  27 made up of Canadian works f o r f u l l o r c h e s t r a s i n c e and the f i r s t  c o n c e r t l n the new  O'Keefe C e n t r e .  1955. The work  r e c e i v e d a t h o u g h t f u l review from John Beckwith, and a boo from one member of the audience, ^ T h i s was probably the l a s t performance a work o t h e r than her own, 2  P e n t l a n d gave of  6 j h n Beckwith, "Beards Wag Hours but Music Panels F l o p , " Toronto D a l l y S t a r , Monday, May 8, 1961. 2  0  ? J o h n Beckwith, "Symphony H i g h l i g h t s Canadian Works," Toronto D a l l y S t a r , May 6, 1961. 2  93 Her F a n t a s y (1962) wasppremiered Leonard" S t e i n i n F e b r u a r y 1963  i n Vancouver  by  pianist  a t t h e F e s t i v a l of the  Contemporary A r t s , and i n a C.B.C. Wednesday N i g h t C o n c e r t  on  radio. I n v i t e d by composer V i o l e t A r c h e r t o take p a r t i n Canada Music Week i n November 1964  a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n C a l g a r y ,  A l b e r t a , P e n t l a n d performed h e r F a n t a s y , T o c c a t a , and D i r g e . Robert Rogers, who  r e c a l l s f i r s t playing Pentland's Studies i n  L i n e as a s t u d e n t i n 1953» ^ performed the work a t the C.B.C. 2  S p r i n g Music F e s t i v a l i n A p r i l ,  1965.  A t the 1966  Contemporary A r t s i n Vancouver,  she performed her works on an  F e s t i v a l of the  a l l - P e n t l a n d program w h i c h i n c l u d e d F a n t a s y . Shadows, C a p r i c e , and Duo f o r V i o l a and P i a n o , w i t h v i o l l s t Smyth Humphreys. recital  This  was w e l l r e c e i v e d :  I n M i s s P e n t l a n d ' s hands, her music f a i r l y dances w i t h l i f e ; i t has r h y t h m i c v i t a l i t y , a sense of purpose, and a v e r y d i r e c t power t o communicate. 29 P e n t l a n d ' s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the I.S.C.M. s i n c e h e r t r i p s to Europe i n the 1950's had been c o n f i n e d t o her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c o n c e r t i n December, 1963,  when she performed h e r T o c c a t a and  F a n t a s y f o r the P a c i f i c North-West C h a p t e r i n S e a t t l e . when she was  In I965,  i n v i t e d t o be v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the North-West  C h a p t e r , she r e f u s e d , never h a v i n g been i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g at  the e x e c u t i v e l e v e l i n such o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Robert Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12,  ^William Littler, Sun, F e b r u a r y 3 , 1966. 2  1974.  "Barbara Pentland Scores,"  Vancouver  94  With the Canadian C e n t e n n i a l i n 1967  came renewed  i n t e r e s t i n Canadian music and musicians, and there was r a t h e r sudden demand f o r new  works.  three C e n t e n n i a l commissions,, and was 1966  and 1967  fulfilling  a  Pentland r e c e i v e d f u l l y occupied i n  these o b l i g a t i o n s .  T r i o con A l e a .  a work commissioned by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the Canadian Music Centre under a g r a n t from the C e n t e n n i a l Commission i n Ottawa, was  the  first  composition l n which Pentland made use of the a l e a t o r i c s e c t i o n s which have become a p a r t of her mature s t y l e .  It  was Eugene Wilson, f a c u l t y member i n the Music Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and c e l l i s t F a c u l t y S t r i n g T r i o , who i n the work.  i n the U.B.C.  had requested some a l e a t o r y freedoms  Wilson had been a performer  l n the Lukas  Foss Improvising Ensemble i n Los Angeles before coming t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  The U.B.C. F a c u l t y S t r i n g T r i o  premiered  the T r i o d u r i n g the F e s t i v a l of the Contemporary A r t s ,  February  8,  1967, and,  to  g i v e a s e r i e s of c o n c e r t s i n O n t a r i o , f e a t u r e d the work i n  awarded a grant by the C e n t e n n i a l Commission  30 several centres i n that province. When T r i o con A l e a r e c e i v e d i t s r a d i o premiere w i t h the U.B.C. T r i o , the C.B.C, producer cut e i g h t bars from a statement of the main theme of the f i r s t movement. Pentland wrote l e t t e r s of complaint, but r e c e i v e d l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n , and no reassurance t h a t t h i s would not happen a g a i n . 30  95  Septet was  commissioned  by the C e n t e n n i a l Committee  f o r the Hugh McLean Consort, a l t h o u g h t h i s work was premiered u n t i l February One  not  1968.  of the l a r g e s t piano works of her mature output,  S u i t e B o r e a l l s , was  commissioned  by Vancouver's  A.H.T.C.  A s s o c i a t i o n and premiered a t the annual s p r i n g r e c i t a l l n March 1967.  Pentland's s l i g h t l y programmatic  approach i n  t h i s work i s the c l o s e s t she has ever come t o an e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m i n her musicJ The f i v e p i e c e s of the S u i t e B o r e a l i s rose as an i m a g i n a t i v e journey a c r o s s Canada as our f o r e f a t h e r s might have experienced i t : the approach to an unknown land on the E a s t Coast i n the Maritimes, moving westward through Quebec, O n t a r i o , and the P r a i r i e s t o the Mountains and the P a c i f i c . I t i s a b r i e f "A Mare Usque ad Mare" Panorama, a s o r t of "Pioneers P r o g r e s s " . I t does not i n t e n d t o convey any p i c t o r i a l Impression of Nature, but r a t h e r expresses v a r i o u s f e e l i n g s , c o l l e c t e d s e n s a t i o n s , which the changing r e g i o n s symbolize both i n a past and present sense. 31 The work was  performed by f o u r members of the A.H.T.C. A s s o c i a -  tion. A l s o i n honour of the C e n t e n n i a l year, Murray A d a s k i n organized a f e s t i v a l i n Saskatoon, which was a s e r i e s of s i x concerts spanning s e v e r a l months g i v e n by Canadian composers. Pentland performed some of her piano works, Shadows, C a p r i c e , and Fantasy, and played her Sonata. Fantasy i n Adaskin's c l a s s of 250,  a n a l y z i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the work f o r the group.  From t h e program n o t e s .  The  96  T r i o con A l e a was performed by the U.B.C. F a c u l t y S t r i n g T r i o , and the S t r i n g Quartet No. 1 was presented by the U.B.C. F a c u l t y S t r i n g Quartet.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the r e c i t a l , t h e r e were  e x h i b i t i o n s of m a t e r i a l s which concerned the composers, and i n c l u d e d i n Pentland's e x h i b i t i o n were some p a i n t i n g s , tapes of her work, as w e l l as scores which showed the development of her present s t y l e and works she had w r i t t e n as a c h i l d . In January of 1968, to her d e l i g h t and s u r p r i s e , she r e c e i v e d a C e n t e n n i a l Medal from the S t a t e Department of the Canadian Govemament.  I n her l e t t e r o f thanks she s a l d t  At f i r s t I f e l t I should a t l e a s t have been under f i r e on the f r o n t l i n e f o r such an honour, and then i t o c c u r r e d to me that perhaps as a contemporary composer I have been i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . 32 To t h i s w r i t e r she commented» I t ' s a b s o l u t e l y huge. chest f o r I t . 33  I haven't got the  The P u r c e l l S t r i n g Quartet, performed her S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 i n May of 1969 a t the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , and i n December of the same year a t the U n i t a r i a n Church o f Vancouver. I n the summer of 1969 the group commissioned No. 3 and premiered i t i n June 1970.  her S t r i n g Quartet  T h i s q u a r t e t a l s o con-  t a i n s a l e a t o r i c zones, though here they are not used as e x t e n s i v e l y as i n the T r i o con. A l e a .  The P u r c e l l Quartet have  performed her music f r e q u e n t l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and P e n t l a n d 32 L e t t e r from Pentland t o Judy LaMarsh, of S t a t e , January 28, 1968. 3 3  P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 7,  1973.  then S e c r e t a r y  97  i s always v e r y pleased w i t h t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of her works. 3 has been performed  The S t r i n g Quartet No.  by them a t the  N a t i o n a l A r t s Centre i n Ottawa, a t Wigmore H a l l i n London, England, a t Mount O r f o r d , and they recorded i t f o r the C.B.C. International Service.  I t was  one of 11  works s e l e c t e d  the 92 which were submitted f o r performance League of Composers Conference  a t the  from  Canadian  i n V i c t o r i a i n February  1971.  Pentland r e f e r s t o t h i s work as the Lunar Quartet s i n c e "midway through the f i r s t movement the a s t r o n a u t s made t h e i r  historic  l a n d i n g on the moon and the sounds of t h e i r f i r s t steps seem 34  to  have c r e p t i n ! " ^  T h i s work has been q u i t e w e l l r e c e i v e d ,  and has s t i m u l a t e d such comments as the following» Her c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e i s s t a r k and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding - she acknowledges a l a r g e debt t o many of the modern composers from Webern on, and i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o see these I n f l u e n c e s i n her writing. But, as w i t h Webern, a l l the s u r f a c e h a r s h ness and a n g u l a r i t y of the s t y l e cannot c l o a k the romanticism of the t h i n g s she expresses . . . It i s a compound - s l i g h t , sad r e s i g n a t i o n ; a f r a g i l e sense of humour; an u n d e r c u r r e n t of sorrow, and warmth f o r the world. Miss P e n t l a n d b u i l d s the work a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s , and these are s t r i c t l y adhered t o - there i s evidence of much f o r m a l thought and l o g i c a l development of pure musical i d e a s . But there i s a l s o t h i s r a r e e x q u i s i t e n e s s and d e l i c a c y - the signs of emotions a t work,  From the program notes of the June 2 5 , performance. J  1970  98  as w e l l as I n t e l l e c t - t h a t q u i t e b e g u i l e s and d i s a r m s . 35 In 1971  she was  Concertantes.  commissioned to w r i t e V a r i a t i o n s  f o r piano and  o r c h e s t r a , a c o n c e r t work f o r  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Piano Comp e t i t i o n g i v e n to the c o n t e s t a n t s  awarded t o the p i a n i s t who Received  A s p e c i a l $500 p r i z e  h e l d few  gave the best performance of the  t h a t it was  not i n t e r e s t i n g  c h a l l e n g e s f o r the c o n c e r t  In December 1969  she was  approached by John  w r i t e an o r c h e s t r a l work of dramatic  a work i n 1968  complaint  pianistically,  pianist.  Radio Network S u p e r v i s o r of the C.B.C, who  the "human c o n d i t i o n , "  was  was  very poorly by the press, the major  a g a i n s t the work was and  which  f o r p r e p a r a t i o n only one week  before the f i n a l c o m p e t i t i o n .  work.  i n Montreal,  Roberts,  wanted her to  character, r e l a t e d to  As a c o i n c i d e n c e , she  had begun  e n t i t l e d News, f o r v i r t u o s o v o i c e and  orchestra,  which o r i g i n a t e d as a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t Vietnam, and became, more g e n e r a l l y , "a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t man's endless v i o l e n c e t o h i m s e l f and  h i s environment." ^ 3  Based on r e p o r t s and  from v a r i o u s newspapers and newscasts, w i t h the New  York  Times' motto " A l l the news t h a t ' s f i t to p r i n t " as a i t was  headlines  chorus,  meant t o be t r e a t e d w i t h s a t i r e , s c o r n and f l i p p a n c y ,  but Pentland,  always deeply  a f f e c t e d by world events,  become so i n v o l v e d w i t h the h o r r o r s p o r t r a y e d ^Max Wyman, "Romantic Composer Has World," Vancouver Sun, June 26, 1970. 3  3  ^From the composer's program notes.  had  i n the work t h a t  Warmth f o r the  99  she had t o s e t the work a s i d e and t u r n t o more c h e e r f u l writing.37  The Russian i n v a s i o n c f  C z e c h o s l o v a k i a was  a development which l e d her to abandon the work when i t was about one t h i r d done.  Roberts f e l t  i t was  j u s t what he  l o o k i n g f o r , and so, a f t e r some h e s i t a n c y , Pentland News.  I t was  was  completed  premiered a t the C.B.C. Summer f e s t i v a l i n  Ottawa on J u l y 16,  1971.  w i t h Mario B e r n a r d l c o n d u c t i n g the  N a t i o n a l A r t s Centre O r c h e s t r a , and P h y l l i s M a i l i n g , mezzosoprano, as s o l o i s t . work was  Though i t has had l i m i t e d exposure,  r e c e i v e d v e r y f a v o u r a b l y i n Ottawa, and  when heard on a r a d i o b r o a d c a s t .  the  subsequently  As a r e s u l t s P e n t l a n d r e c e i v e d O  some correspondence Performances for  from others i n t e r e s t e d i n world  Q  peace.  i n the e a r l y 1970*s i n c l u d e d the Symphony  Ten P a r t s by the N a t i o n a l A r t s Centre O r c h e s t r a i n Ottawa  i n January 1972.  T h i s work had a l s o appeared  on the w i n t e r  program of the Vancouver Symphony i n November of  1970.  P h y l l i s M a i l i n g included three of her works on a C.B.C. r a d i o broadcast on November 13. 1972i Ruins Midnight Among the H i l l s , the Stream. Sung Songs #5  (Ypres 1917)  Sung Songs #4  (1932),  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , The Tune of  (1971).  37 T h i s d i v e r s i o n was pianists.  w r i t i n g the piano music f o r young  3®In 19 9 she had been a sponsor of the Peace P e t i t i o n which was launched i n Massey H a l l . F o l l o w i n g the performance of News Pentland r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r of support from M r s . E d i t h Holtom, who had been i n v o l v e d i n the same event. k  100  A t the r e q u e s t of Eugene W i l s o n and Robert Rogers, Pentland wrote Mutations ( 1 9 7 2 ) , which was subsequently commissioned  by the C.B.C.  Premiered i n February 1973,  work i n c l u d e s a l e a t o r y passages, and one s e c t i o n which  the was  i n s p i r e d by the s t a r l i n g s which were squabbling o u t s i d e her s t u d i o window when she was  composing.  I n t h i s work P e n t l a n d  has attempted t o evoke v a r i o u s moods of mystery and drama, humour and  caprice.  Approached i n 1970  by Joseph M a c e r o l l o * a c c o r d i o n i s t from Toronto,  t o w r i t e a work f o r a c c o r d i o n and s t r i n g  quartet,  Pentland was unable t o t u r n her a t t e n t i o n s t o the work u n t i l 1971,  owing t o i l l n e s s and t o p r e v i o u s commitments.  work was  l a t e r commissioned  The  by the C.B.C. f o r M a c e r o l l o .  To  g a i n a b e t t e r understanding of the a c c o r d i o n she spent an a f t e r n o o n w i t h M a c e r o l l o , who of the instrument.39  S  h  e  demonstrated  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  completed I n t e r p l a y i n 1972,  but  39<rhis b r i n g s t o mind comments of Godfrey Ridout i n an i n t e r v i e w i n Toronto, September 27, 1972: An E n g l i s h o r g a n i s t had a r r i v e d i n town about 19^5 to perform a work of mine. At the r e c e p t i o n he came over t o speak to me, and Barbara was t h e r e . And he s a i d "And when are you going t o w r i t e a work f o r organ f o r me, Miss Pentland?" She s a i d " I don't know, I haven't developed any t h e o r i e s about w r i t i n g f o r organ y e t . " Presumably she f e l t she had to work out the medium completely and d e v e l o p some k i n d o f t h e o r y . I t h i n k that was q u i t e r e v e a l i n g of her method of workmanship. That sounds l i k e a H i n d e m l t h i a n approach.  101  c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y ensued b e f o r e the work was The  performed.  o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n had been f o r M a c e r o l l o t o premiere  the work w i t h the O r f o r d S t r i n g Quartet; however, t h i s group subsequently decided i t p r e f e r r e d t o expand i t s r e p e r t o i r e w i t h more e s t a b l i s h e d and romantic works.  The  Pentland work went unperformed u n t i l the Vancouver New  Music  S o c i e t y requested t o i n c l u d e i t i n i t s s p r i n g program, and, w i t h t h i s new impetus, May 1 9 7  k  I n t e r p l a y was f i n a l l y premiered i n  by M a c e r o l l o and the P u r c e l l S t r i n g  Quartet.  MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT Pentland a t t r i b u t e s the development o f h e r mature s t y l e t o b o t h Hindemlth  and Webernt  Hindemlth gave me c l a r i t y . He p r e f e r r e d t h e c l a s s i c t o the romantic. Webern was a c l e a r summing up of what Hindemlth was s t r i v i n g f o r . Webern put i t i n t o a n u t s h e l l . 0 k  She a l s o f e e l s t h a t e l e c t r o n i c music has had c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on h e r music« I t h i n k e l e c t r o n i c music has had an i n f l u e n c e on the c o l o u r and t e x t u r e of my l a t e r music. l k  In i t s compact form and t r a n s p a r e n t t e x t u r e , the Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s (1957) c l e a r l y demonstrates the i n f l u e n c e of Webern on her s t y l e .  The three t i g h t l y k n i t movements are  b u i l t on melodic shapes and rhythms which are presented i n the s h o r t I n t r o d u c t i o n . P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , January 2 2 , 1972. 24,1  Ibid.  102  My p h i l o s o p h y i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n of my i d e a s t h r o u g h t h e c l e a r e s t and most e c o n o m i c a l means, w i t h l i t t l e redundancy. This lends towards t r a n s p a r e n c y o f t e x t u r e and g e n e r a l l y h o r i z o n t a l w r i t i n g w i t h c l e a r l i n e s , 42 A new i n t e r e s t i n s o n o r i t y , a l s o s t i m u l a t e d by Webern, may be seen i n P e n t l a n d ' s i n s t r u m e n t a l c o m b i n a t i o n s i n the above work, w h i c h i n c l u d e such c o m b i n a t i o n s as f l u t e , and  cello.  P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r t o s t u d e n t K a r i n Doerksen, A p r i l 19, 1972.  xylophone  104  Example 1 a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s  the i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s which are  found f r e q u e n t l y i n Pentland's work.  She o f t e n a l t e r n a t e s  dry, p e r c u s s i v e s e c t i o n s with those t h a t are more l y r i c . Example 2, Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s , second movement, b,  ?  Oboe  m  tt  lorn Trump<rf  mf  m r-:—  v-.O I 3  5  Cello  <3rco  drco  r-^—i  n,  rfl  9-12.  105  Now  much more conscious  of t e x t u r e , she  for  the s c a l e passages and  substitutes silence  arpeggios which p r e v i o u s l y  appeared more f r e q u e n t l y . The  twelve note system i s not a p p l i e d r i g i d l y by  but r a t h e r as a means of c o n t r o l . f r e e l y a f t e r the  The  rows are t r e a t e d  i n i t i a l statement, which i s i t s e l f  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a delay  Pentland,  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  quite  often final  notes.  Almost i n v a r i a b l y the Importance of the f i r s t  part  the row  i s s t r e s s e d , w h i l e the remainder of i t i s obscured  of  o r omitted e n t i r e l y . I s t a r t w i t h a melodic impulse from which the m a t e r i a l u n f o l d s , sometimes q u i t e g r a d u a l l y , and forms the s e r i e s w i t h which the work e v o l v e s . The melodic impulse contains as w e l l the harmonic m a t e r i a l : melody i s harmony"lying down," as I f r e q u e n t l y sayI I am not r i g i d i n my use of the system; any system which becomes a s t r a i t jacket k i l l s i t s contents. I f the thematic m a t e r i a l i s s t r o n g i t o f t e n forms i t s own ( l a r g e l y unconscious) r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can t u r n out t o be f a r more l o g i c a l than anything the conscious mind c o u l d dream up. 43 She  uses v a r i o u s  augmentation and retrograde  polyphonic  canon, and  her  devices  such as i n v e r s i o n ,  i n t e r e s t s i n the e f f e c t s of  on m a t e r i a l i s e v i d e n t  i n her f r e q u e n t  use  of  the technique, whether i t i s w i t h s h o r t motives, or with sections.  An e n t i r e work, or a segment of i t , i s o f t e n con-  cluded w i t h an exact the row,  3,  retrograde  of the i n i t i a l statement of  thus p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l f o r a coda, or even a  ^Pentland  1969.  longer  i n a l e t t e r to student A l a n Shanoff, February  106  recapitulation.  I n News she even r e t r o g r a d e s the words  used i n the v o c a l l i n e , here w i t h the purpose of e x p r e s s i n g disgust. time.  The notes a r e r e t r o g r a d e d ( f r e e l y )  a t the same  A l s o observe here the use of sprechstlmme.  Example 3. News, b. 10-14, v o c a l l i n e o n l y .  fill  ihe  ne^  TTf  -ihel-h  fit  TV  f\fA  sidh  sw&n  prw4/  -to  Y7 Eh-f  ru)7/^=rf/)J^  A n o t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e i s a t o u c h of humour w h i c h o c c u r s i n the form of s y n c o p a t i o n o r j a z z rhythms.  As H a r r y  Somers commented» She had a v e r y hard edged l y r i c i s m i n h e r w r i t i n g , and somewhere t h e r e always appeared a buoyancy, a r h y t h m i c t h i n g t h a t i s c l o s e r t o a m e t r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n . T h i s e x i s t e d i n the Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s and, i f I'm not m i s t a k e n , had always e x i s t e d i n h e r e a r l i e r work. 44 F r a n c e s A d a s k i n , who has performed many of P e n t l a n d ' s works, remarked* There i s a s t r o n g r h y t h m i c d r i v e i n h e r works, and h e r rhythm i s t r i c k y because she uses unevenly metered b a r s , and the rhythm doesn't f a l l i n the b a r s . R h y t h m i c a l l y she has a r e a l sense of f u n . 45  44  H a r r y Somers i n i n t e r v i e w i n T o r o n t o , September 27,  ^-'Frances A d a s k i n i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6,  1974.  1972.  107  T h i s rhythmic  element was used t o emphasize the s a t i r i c a l  aspect of News.  Here syncopated  j a z z - l i k e rhythms accompany  words of war. Example , News, b, 2 3 - 2 5 , s t r i n g s and v o c a l l i n e  only.  k  H ? >•!  i mb ^  If  1  1  V  y ci  f]i  #^ K 1 iv =  t  = p  Iftj 7  ^  -^ y • - c- r i  ^  J-A— !  — * — Zf -  =  f  S4 ^  Lf \ •  7£  -J-  7  ^  v,  \. ~  ^4  11  S e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have appeared i n Pentland's  works i n r e c e n t years, i n c l u d i n g  a l e a t o r i c zones, q u a r t e r tones, the body of the instrument.  the use of  harmonics, and rapping on  A l e a t o r i c zones f i r s t  appeared  i n T r i o con A l e a where there were as many as nine zones, and have since been employed I n such works as News and S t r i n g No.  3.  Quartet  108  I have made use of t h i s a d d i t i o n a l means to heighten the dramatic e f f e c t s and f o r other e x p r e s s i v e purposes, t o give f l e x i b i l i t y t o the performance and g i v e more o p p o r t u n i t y t o the p l a y e r t o be more p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d . The p i t c h m a t e r i a l i s provided and the d i r e c t i o n cont r o l l e d , but there are areas of freedom i n rhythmic c h o i c e , tone p r o d u c t i o n , r e p e t i t i o n and combination, dynamics and c o l o u r . . . so t h a t the chance element i s used without s t y l e , idiom and s t r u c t u r e being a l t e r e d . 6 k  I never a l l o w performers t o i n v e n t m a t e r i a l I'm not a chance composer. I have t o c o n t r o l the d i r e c t i o n s the music t a k e s . But t h i s s i t u a t i o n allows f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t e n s i o n and tempo - i t ' s s t r e t c h y music. T h i s i n t r i g u e s me a g r e a t d e a l to combine the f e a t u r e s of measured sound w i t h t h e f l e x i b i l i t y of unmeasured p o r t i o n s . I t g i v e s the instruments a chance t o come t o the f o r e r a t h e r than j u s t the music - I l i k e t o t r e a t instruments as p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 4-7 In the a l e a t o r i c s e c t i o n s one instrument may the rhythm while  maintain  the others r e a c t f r e e l y , w i t h i n the  l i m i t s s e t by the composer.  L A ,  r\  Pentland i n a l e t t e r t o student February 17, 1973.  Marie Vachon,  Pentland i n "Composer's T r i c k i s t o Know J u s t Where One i s Going," by Max Wyman, Vancouver Sun, Weekend S e c t i o n , p. 10A, June 19, 1970.  109  I  I n o t h e r c a s e s , a l l Instruments move f r e e l y a t once.  110  Example 6,  As i n the  T r i o con A l e a , zone 5,  b.  f i n a l movement of the T r i o ,  132.  the zone may  function  as a cadenza. Quarter tones are found c h i e f l y i n the s t r i n g p a r t s of recent works and are used here e f f e c t i v e l y as d e c o r a t i v e device.  Ill  Example 7, S t r i n g Quartet No, 3 . F i r s t Movement, b. 7 9 - 8 3 , (9 temps  4'* 0^0  (ty sharp)  ' -  PP  f t  (3/1M) 0^mf0^0f  I n t h e v o c a l l i n e o f News, q u a r t e r tones a r e used f o r c o l o u r i n g and  expression.  112  Example 8 , News, b. 4 5 - 4 6 .  3<y > —V  T  ; c  h v± £•/ ^  / it  9  senza C^f  -pne  f^<*  misurg ascllla-ficr (joder  f f ?  <5>c/ //£> • *—  \  f  L b  '  r  1  •>  -/if/-r<?  >.  ; * 6—  j ^psx 1 1 I f r ho-nn] F 1 . - n'rNbus ho-nae i/o/-un-4<5~ -i  m  //j-  Harmonics a r e found e x t e n s i v e l y throughout h e r l a t e r works, e s p e c i a l l y i n those f o r s t r i n g s .  113  114  Performers is  f e e l t h a t her use of these s p e c i a l e f f e c t s  effective. She has adopted some of the d e v i c e s a l e a t o r i c s e c t i o n s , rapping on the instrument, but she won't use a d e v i c e u n l e s s she's comf o r t a b l e with i t . Her music i s c o n s t a n t l y changing. She's v e r y aware of what's going on. 48 She's always up to date. She's aware of the sounds of the jazz type of i n f l u e n c e on the brass p l a y e r s and used t h a t i n her Symphony No. 4. She wasn't a f r a i d t o use i t i n the context of her composition - wah-wah mutes and a l l k i n d s of t h i n g s , i t ' s a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o her w r i t i n g . Her ears are open, she hears the sounds, she's always l i s t e n i n g . She's always working on new t e c h n i q u e s . 49 Pentland r a r e l y w r i t e s f o r l a r g e groups, News and  V a r i a t i o n s Concertantes b e i n g e x c e p t i o n s t h a t were commissioned. She  has found i t t o be d i f f i c u l t to get works r e q u i r i n g l a r g e  r e s o u r c e s performed.  The  been piano works, and  t h i s was,  i t was  l a r g e s t p a r t of her output a t one  has  time, p a r t l y because  e a s i e r to get these works performed,  even i f i t was  the composer h e r s e l f l n r e c i t a l . S i n c e one way of g e t t i n g performances i s t o "do i t y o u r s e l f " , I w r i t e f r e q u e n t l y f o r the piano f o r t h a t purpose, 50 She has found i t d i f f i c u l t t o get good performances from l a r g e numbers of  instruments:  The more instruments, the l e s s s e n s i t i v i t y there i s . Great bodies of instruments cannot be s e n s i t i v e . 51 Harry Adaskin,  i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6,  19?4.  i  V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 20,  1972.  Pentland i n a l e t t e r to Kathy C h i n e l l , February Pentland i n Interview, J u l y 28,  1973.  15,  1969.  115  However, her i n c r e a s i n g use of s m a l l e r groups i s perhaps i n d i c a t i v e of more than j u s t her d e s i r e f o r s e n s i t i v i t y . R e c e n t l y , upon e n t e r i n g a c o n c e r t h a l l i n which the was  o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h instruments  stage  she grumbled»  You can always t e l l a composer who hasn't l i v e d throu&h the d e p r e s s i o n - there are so many instruments used. No economy of means, 52 She  enjoys w r i t i n g f o r s m a l l s t r i n g groups such as the  q u a r t e t , and  has b u i l t up c o n s i d e r a b l e r a p p o r t w i t h  Purcell String  string  the  Quartet,  I t ' s a very p e r s o n a l way of w r i t i n g . s t r i n g s are so much a p a r t of each o t h e r .  The  W r i t i n g f o r piano and s t r i n g s i s a problem but an i n t e r e s t i n g problem. I t r y to i n t e g r a t e it. You want t o a v o i d g e t t i n g i n the way of the s t r i n g sound. 53 Pentland  no l o n g e r w r i t e s w i t h i n the s t r i c t n e o - c l a s s i c  forms t h a t were e a r l i e r a p a r t of her s t y l e . developed  She  has  a very l i b e r a l approach to form, and f e e l s t h a t  Webern helped d i r e c t her away from a more l i m i t e d n e o - c l a s s i c i s m t o a more open s t y l e . he allowed  F o r her i t i s important, t h a t the m a t e r i a l  to d i c t a t e i t s own  formal i m p l i c a t i o n s .  Old forms hamper us. The music must develop i t s own form. You must a l l o w f o r expansion on an i n t u i t i v e l e v e l , and f o l l o w the l o g i c , of the music. P e n t l a n d f e e l s t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o the use  5^  of d e v i c e s  d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , some change i n her music has o c c u r r e d s i n c e 52 I n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the author, June 1, 197*+. -^Pentland ^Ibld.  i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8 ,  197^.  116  the 1 9 5 0 ' s .  She observed t h a t h e r works were more a b s t r a c t  t h e n , h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f a b s t r a c t b e i n g "A sound  disassociated  from something more t a n g i b l e o r v i s i b l e , independent of any a r t form. She has a l s o noted a change i n h e r t r e a t m e n t o f range: The spectrum has c o n s i d e r a b l y widened s i n c e the 1 9 5 0 ' s - so t h a t m e l o d i e s may s o a r and d i v e t o a g r e a t e r degree, making t h e t e x t u r e even more t r a n s p a r e n t a t t i m e s . 56 P e d a g o g i c a l works f o r p i a n o r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of P e n t l a n d ' s o u t p u t s i n c e the e a r l y 196o*s.  T h i s new  emphasis on contemporary s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l was p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the encouragement g i v e n by Ronald N a p i e r o f t h e T o r o n t o d i v i s i o n o f B.M.I.  Most o f the t e a c h i n g p i e c e s a r e p u b l i s h e d ,  and more c o p i e s o f t h e s e a r e s o l d t h a n o f h e r o t h e r works. A f t e r she had w r i t t e n s e v e r a l s h o r t p i e c e s f o r young p i a n i s t s , she was approached i n 1966 by R a c h e l G a v a l h o , a p i a n o t e a c h e r i n T o r o n t o who i s w e l l v e r s e d i n Canadian t e a c h i n g works i n a contemporary i d i o m .  C a v a l h o wanted h e r t o w r i t e  a graduated s e r i e s f o r the beginner.  I n t h e t h r e e books of  Music o f Now (1969-70) w h i c h grew o u t §>t P e n t l a n d ' s communication w i t h C a v a l h o , t h e s t u d e n t i s g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o such d i f f i c u l t i e s as a c c i d e n t a l s , tone c l u s t e r s , harmonics, and changing rhythms and meters, w h i l e canons i n r e t r o g r a d e and i n v e r s i o n encourage an independent use o f t h e hands. 55jbid. 5 Pentland 6  l  n  a  l e t t e r t o K a r i n Doerksen, A p r i l 19,  1972.  117  Example 10, Music of Now, Book 1, page 4, #1.  ny JL—_ V  V  7  A) *  P  3  d  *  p  p  P  —  —e L  &  1  ;  I  5  P e n t l a n d f e e i s t h a t e x c e p t f o r i t s t e x t u r e , Music of Now i s h e r p r e s e n t s t y l e i n a n u t s h e l l , and h e r approach here i s s t r i c t l y l i n e a r and has few c h o r d a l i m p l o c a t i o n s . times t h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e modal and b i t o n a l . Example 11, Book I I , page 3 #2, b. 1-4.  Lento,  10  T»~  At  118  The tone row Is a p p l i e d much more simply here t h a n i n her more advanced  works, and the emphasis tends t o be  intervallic relationships.  on  She o f t e n uses a s e r i e s of  only f i v e notes i n each hand, and these are always at  the o u t s e t o f each p i e c e .  stated  The rhythmic a s p e c t s , as w e l l  as the c o n t r a p u n t a l r e p r e s e n t the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r the student. Example 12,  Book I I I , page 6„#1,  Teachers agree t h a t the~works  b.  1-4.  are extremely s u c c e s s f u l .  L a r r y T h i e s s e n , piano and a c c o r d i o n t e a c h e r observed: The works i n Music of Now, and her other t e a c h i n g p i e c e s are s h o r t , cohesive and e f f e c t i v e . The t i t l e s are v e r y w e l l thought out, and have immediate a p p e a l t o the s t u d e n t . 5? Robert Rogers  p o i n t s out:  K i d s are f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h i n g s l i k e tone c l u s t e r s played w i t h the f i s t s i n Music of Now, as they are w i t h the quasi-harmonics i n Echoes, L a r r y T h i e s s e n , i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 10,  1974.  just and  119  t h e y r e a l l y enjoy t h e r h y t h m i c v i t a l i t y w h i c h i s so p r e v a l e n t i n Barbara's, music. The r h y t h m i c c l a p p i n g t h a t she a d v o c a t e s , and t h e way she p r e s e n t s s i n g l e m e l o d i c l i n e s b e f o r e combining them c o n t r a p u n t a l l y r e a l l y pay o f f , I t h i n k . 58 C a r o l J u t t e , piano t e a c h e r on t h e s t a f f a t U.B.C. who has used Music o f Now e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h a d u l t b e g i n n e r s  remarked!  . A l l my .beginners a t U.B.C. have f i n i s h e d jflusic o f Now, and have worked hard t o master i t . No c o m p l a i n t s about the j u v e n i l e q u a l i t y of i t ! I know i t worked o u t w o n d e r f u l l y w e l l f o r me - h a v i n g such b e a u t i f u l l y s i m p l e m a t e r i a l t h a t o f f e r e d so much r i c h i n s t r u c t i o n i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e music as w e l l as i n the t e a c h i n g o f r h y t h m i c and l i n e a r f e e l i n g , 59 The s t y l e found i n P e n t l a n d ' s mature works c a n be summed up by t h e composer h e r s e l f * The ' S t i l l , s m a l l v o i c e " means more t o me t h a n t h e pompous and f u l l - b l o w n , 6o The " r i g h t note i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e " s i m p l y concerns my a t t e n t i o n t o the i n n e r l o g i c of the music i t s e l f , which i s more a u r a l judgement t h a n a n i n t e l l e c t u a l one. What I compose has t o s a t i s f y my judgement i n b o t h a s p e c t s o r I wouldn't be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m m i t t i n g i t t o paper. T h i s a p p l i e s as w e l l t o p i e c e s f o r c h i l d r e n : I don't w r i t e a n y t h i n g f o r them t h a t I don't e n j o y p l a y i n g m y s e l f . 61 Though r e v i e w e r s a r e s t i l l g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r  unsympathetic  towards h e r works, p e r f o r m e r s have more r e c e p t i v e v i e w s : 5 R o b e r t Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12, 197 . 8  k  59carol J u t t e i n a l e t t e r t o P e n t l a n d , November 13» 1969. 6 o  P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8, 197 . k  ^ P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r t o M a r i e Vachon, F e b r u a r y 17. 1973.  120  I t h i n k her present s t y l e i s c e r t a i n l y a l o t more economical than i n her works of the 19 0s, but I don't t h i n k she has had t o s a c r i f i c e any of the l y r i c a l o r rhythmic f e a t u r e s . She i s s t i l l g e t t i n g g r e a t v a r i e t y i n her music, and u s i n g fewer notes t o get i t . 62 k  They say her music i s a n g u l a r and hard, b u t nothing c o u l d be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . I t ' s v e r y simple and romantic. People don't l i k e her music because they only hear a work once. The slow movements are always charming, and e s p e c i a l l y romantic. But her s t y l e has a k i n d of l y r i c a l romanticism which i s not sensuous because i t ' s too l e a n . 63  Robert Rogers,  op.cit.  Frances Adaskin, o p . c i t .  CHAPTER  121  FO UR  122  Pentland's r o l e i n Canada as one of i t s f i r s t composers, and c e r t a i n l y the f i r s t  female  o f any s t a t u r e , i s a n  i n t e r e s t i n g one which was f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e a r l i e r years.  Time and time a g a i n she found t h a t being a  woman i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the success of her composing c a r e e r . When I was s t r u g g l i n g t o be a composer, the f a c t t h a t I happened t o be a l s o a female d i d n ' t at f i r s t concern me, because j u s t t o g e t the e d u c a t i o n I needed occupied a l l my a t t e n t i o n . About the age o f 19 I was s i g n i n g my compositions u s i n g my i n i t i a l s w i t h the surname (and was r e f e r r e d t o as "Mr." u n t i l someone a d v i s e d me t o use my f i r s t name), so I must have been aware, but the r e a l impact came l a t e r . I was naive enough to b e l i e v e t h a t i f I wrote good music t h a t was what mattered, and I was so absorbed i n p u t t i n g music f i r s t i n my l i f e , I thought others would t o o . I t only came t o me poco a poco t h a t others thought d i f f e r e n t l y , and the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was v e r y r e a l . I t i s much more s u b t l e , l e s s obvious than r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e more l e t h a l i n i t s effect. I keep hoping t h a t nowadays a l l t h i s i s d y i n g out, and t h a t your g e n e r a t i o n w i l l be t r e a t e d more f a i r l y . 1 Those who knew h e r i n the 1 9 0 ' s k  for  r e c a l l i t as a time of s t r u g g l e  her and, i n r e t r o s p e c t ^ a r e q u i t e sympathetic t o the  problems she encountered.  2  Mrs. Naomi A d a s k i n remembers:  We would have t e a t o g e t h e r and t a l k about the problem of women i n the a r t s , I t was doubly hard f o r her. I t was h e r s t r u g g l e t o be accepted as a female composer i n a male world. She f e l t she was not taken s e r i o u s l y because she was a woman. None of them was taken s e r i o u s l y , 3  1  L e t t e r t o Marie Vachon, February 17. 1973.  T h e women seemed t o be much more s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s aspect of Pentland than the men. Perhaps a n a t u r a l response. 2  3  M r s . Naomi A d a s k i n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , September 28, 1972.  123  Helen Weinzweig, wife of John Weinzweig, and once a good f r i e n d of Pentland, s t a t e d : Her warmth, and her s p i r i t , and her f r i e n d s h i p were v e r y deep. She had a rough time as a woman i n a man's world. Her music was never r e c e i v e d objectively, 4 Godfrey Ridout puts i t t h i s way: L e t ' s f a c e i t - Barbara's unique, I don't i n t e n d t o sound l i k e a male c h a u v i n i s t o r whatever the h e l l i t i s , but some of the women composers may have been composers because they were women at a time when there wasn't an e n t i r e l y e q u a l right, A woman composer was something of a phenomenon, consequently she g o t a t t e n t i o n . And t h a t accounts f o r some p r e t t y bloody awful music. Barbara was d i f f e r e n t . Barbara c o u l d meet anybody on anybody's ground. She was d i f f e r e n t s t u f f , and a f i g h t e r as w e l l , but she d i d n ' t f i g h t as a f e m i n i s t , she fought as a person. 5 Pentland went t o Europe i n 1955 w i t h hopes of f i n d i n g a more e n l i g h t e n e d s i t u a t i o n , b u t was soon t o be d i s a p p o i n t e d . I f e l t the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Europe, but I had t h i s d e l u s i o n t h a t women there were f r e e r . I hadn't counted on the i n f l u e n c e o f H i t l e r , which had changed t h i n g s c o n s i d e r a b l y , I was not prepared f o r the change i n a t t i t u d e t h a t b e i n g a woman brought about. I thought only o f myself as a composer, not as a woman. I was a p r o f e s s i o n a l , I would have b r e a k f a s t w i t h the Yugoslav composers, eager t o d i s c u s s what they were d o i n g m u s i c a l l y , and then get a f r i g i d r e c e p t i o n from the B r i t i s h . I was h o r r i f i e d t o f i n d my i n t e r e s t i n the music was e n t i r e l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , so a f t e r t h a t I kept more t o myself. 6 F i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g h e r s e l f i n the f i e l d  of composition,  Pentland f e e l s t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t i n h e r c a r e e r she has overcome t h i s problem,  and t h a t i t no l o n g e r a f f e c t s t h e number  ^Helen Weinzweig i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , September 28, 1972. ^Godfrey Ridout, i n i n t e r v i e w , September 2 7 , 1 9 7 2 . ^Barbara Pentland i n Interview, June 8, 1974.  124  of commissions o r performances she r e c e i v e s .  She does n o t  p l a c e t h a t blame f o r t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s women e n c o u n t e r e n t i r e l y on t h e males: There a r e n o t enough women i n p o l i t i c s , b u t they p r e f e r t o s t a y a t home r a t h e r t h a n f a c e t h e rough and tumble o f the w o r l d . 7 However, she does f e e l t h a t some Improvement i s s t i l l needed. I n Canada I hope t h i n g s a r e g e t t i n g b e t t e r . I always f e l t t h e S t a t e s were 'way ahead o f us i n t h a t r e s p e c t . A woman s t i l l has t o be v e r y much b e t t e r t h a n a man t o a c h i e v e a t t e n t i o n . 8 Though P e n t l a n d  i s v e r y proud of b e i n g a C a n a d i a n , t h i s  has o n l y r a r e l y been e x p r e s s e d her works. previously.  i n the form of n a t i o n a l i s m i n  How t h i s was seen i n S u i t e B p r e a l i s was I l l u s t r a t e d A much e a r l i e r work, V i o l i n S o n a t a ( 1 9 4 6 ) , i s  b u i l t on t h r e e F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n f o l k songs; however, P e n t l a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h i s was done m a i n l y because a p e r f o r m e r s u c h a work.  requested  Commenting on t h e V i o l i n S o n a t a she s a y s j  There a r e c e r t a i n b a s i c sounds i n a l l v e r y o l d f o l k songs f r o m a l m o s t any l a n d w h i c h t r a n s c e n d r a c e , c o l o r , o r c r e e d , and make i t t h e common h e r i t a g e of a l l p e o p l e s . My share of F r e n c h a n c e s t r y may make me r a t h e r p a r t i a l t o these p a r t i c u l a r songs of o u r e a r l y s e t t l e r s and v o y a g e u r s , b u t i t was t h e i r p u r e l y m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s which made my c h o i c e , , , I f t h e r e i s a l s o a s u g g e s t i o n here o f I n d i a n c o l o u r , i t i s perhaps due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t and c l o s e s t exposure I had t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n of a p e o p l e ' s c u l t u r e I n f o l k - s o n g was a t t h e o c c a s i o n a l I n d i a n pow-wow d u r i n g my c h i l d h o o d i n the 7  Ibid.  8  Ibid.  125  mid-west. I n r e t r o s p e c t the f l a v o r of t h e s e o c c a s i o n s i s made up of monotonous b u t e x c i t i n g s h o u t i n g and the pounding of many f e e t c i r c l i n g the c a m p - f i r e i n the d a r k . These e a r l y i m p r e s s i o n s were p r o b a b l y a r o u s e d by the more p r i m i t i v e and u n i v e r s a l elements c o n t a i n e d i n the t u n e s , and c r e a t e a s o r t of f u s i o n of our C a n a d i a n background. 9 P e n t l a n d has more r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t the I n d i a n music heard i n h e r y o u t h c o n t a i n e d n o t h i n g memorable f o r h e r , though she recalls s The pow-wows were h e l d i n a f i e l d near our summer c o t t a g e . I can remember hundreds of g r a s s h o p p e r s hopping up my bare l e g s under my f u l l s k i r t . 10 N a t i o n a l i s m , t h e n , has l i t t l e p l a c e i n P e n t l a n d ' s music, and she f e e l s i t has l i t t l e  p l a c e i n C a n a d i a n music as a whole.  A composer may s t i l l make good use of f o l k song i n appropriate? p l a c e s , b u t t o found any v a l i d m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n on i t today seems t o me i m p o s s i b l e a t the stage we have reached i n the development of our music. F o r emerging n a t i o n s , who may be a b l e t o f i n d t h e i r own t e c h n i q u e s Independent of the mainstream o f European c u l t u r e , i t may s t i l l be v i a b l e , but e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l , as we a r e a l l t o o c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d . 11 As t o the f u t u r e o f music i n Canada she feels« The near f u t u r e of music i n Canada w i l l p r o b a b l y be dominated as much as the p r e s e n t w i t h the works of t h e p a s t , w h i c h w i l l g r a d u a l l y i n c l u d e a l i t t l e more of the XX c e n t u r y . I t i s h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the c o n c e r t f o r m as s u c h w i l l d i e o u t , as symphony, o p e r a and b a l l e t here are c o n t i n u o u s l y s o l d out - a t h i g h p r i c e s . There may be more e l e c t r o n i c a l l y produced ^ P e n t l a n d i n R o b e r t T u r n e r ' s " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , " Canadian Music J o u r n a l , V o l . 1, No. 4 , p. 16. 1 0  P e n t l a n d , i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8,  1974.  l l L e t t e r t o M a r i e Vachon, F e b r u a r y 17.  1973.  126  music i n the home, but the f u t u r e of the human race i t s e l f appears so dim t o me t h a t I can't f o r e s e e what w i l l happen t o s e r i o u s music. 12 Pentland i s v e r y aware of the support g i v e n t o Canadian composers and performers by the C.B.C, and f e e l s t h a t it has been n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u r v i v a l of s e r i o u s  music.  The p l i g h t of the Canadian composer would be v a s t l y more p r e c a r i o u s - i f not i m p o s s i b l e were i t not f o r the C.B.C, whose home s e r v i c e and overseas network broadcast programs a f f o r d most of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the music of Canadian composers t o be heard. 13 As a composer who i s now  no l o n g e r performs her own works, Pentland  a t the mercy of those who  choose t o p l a y them; however,  she f e e l s t h a t her works get b e t t e r r e a d i n g s than they once d i d . I t h i n k the whole c a l i b r e of performance has r i s e n c o n s i d e r a b l y and we get v e r y good performers i n Canada. P l a y e r s are w i l l i n g t o t r y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , they are more experimental, and they are b e t t e r trained. I c o u l d n ' t get a Canadian group t o even read my F i r s t Quartet and now i t ' s been r e c o r d e d . l k  She has found t h a t i t i s v e r y important f o r a composer t o hear h i s own  worksj  I f you w r i t e something and i t i s n ' t w e l l performed you are never sure i f i t ' s the work o r the bad performance. But you can l e a r n so much from h e a r i n g a work performed. 15 I n the performance  of her works she s t r e s s e s the  importance  of the rhythm, which she f e e l s must always be p r e c i s e , even i n the more romantic s e c t i o n s . l 2  " P r e c i s i o n i s so o f t e n l a c k i n g i n  L e t t e r to Marie Vachon, February 17,  •^Vancouver P r o v i n c e , F r i d a y , January 6, l k  P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8,  ^rbid.  197 . k  1973. 1967.  127  performances o f my w o r k . "  1 0  I n 1971, when she was s e n t a  tape of a performance o f h e r V a r i a t i o n s f o r V i o l a w h i c h was about t o be I n c l u d e d  on a C.B.C. I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e  recording,  she was so d i s p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t she d e c i d e d the work s h o u l d n o t appear on t h e r e c o r d i n g a t a l l . l a c k o f rhythm d e s t r o y s  t h e meaning o f t h e work."''"''  "His Because  she f e l t t h e rhythm l a c k e d p r e c i s i o n i n a performance o f h e r F a n t a s y , she changed t h e n o t a t i o n , a d d i n g r e s t s t o the o r i g i n a l , i n a n a t t e m p t t o make h e r w i s h e s more c l e a r . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t 1 ft  t h a t the e x a c t q u a n t i t a t i v e rhythm s h o u l d be observed." I t h i n k r h y t h m i c p h r a s i n g i s even more i m p o r t ant t h a n t h e m e l o d i c and, when p i a n i s t s p l a y my music w i t h o u t t h i s r h y t h m i c q u a l i t y , i t s c h a r a c t e r i s m i s s i n g . 19 I n a d d i t i o n t o a precise rhythmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Pentland hopes f o r some s e n s i t i v i t y : S e n s i t i v i t y i s so o f t e n l a c k i n g t h a t I've g i v e n up e x p e c t i n g i t : when i t does happen i t ' s a r a r e and t r e a s u r e d e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h l a r g e ensembles, s u c h as a n o r c h e s t r a , i t seems t o o c c u r i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e number o f p l a y e r s . 20 Pentland  no l o n g e r performs h e r works, f i n d i n g t h a t p r a c t i s i n g  the p i a n o t a k e s t o o much of t h e time she would r a t h e r use t o compose, and she a l s o f i n d s h e r energy more l i m i t e d now t h a n i t used t o be. l 6  When she was p e r f o r m i n g , she d i s c o v e r e d  t h a t she  Ibid.  ^ L e t t e r t o Monique G r e n i e r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e , Radio Canada, J a n u a r y 12, 1972. l 8  Ibid.  1 9 L e t t e r t o Ronald N a p i e r , 2 0  J u l y 9,  1965.  L e t t e r t o Douglas Walker, March 13, 1972.  128  c o u l d not prepare a program and  compose a t the same t i m e . " I t  seems t o use d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the b r a i n . "  2 l  The r o l e of p e r f o r m e r and composer are not c o m p l e t e l y c o m p a t i b l e . The composer wants t o i s o l a t e h i m s e l f and get a t t h i n g s from the i n s i d e , whereas the p e r f o r m e r t h e n t a k e s t h i s i n w a r d s e a r c h i n g and e x a m i n a t i o n and b r i n g s i t a l i v e f o r others. The p e r f o r m e r i s an e x t e r n a l i z e r . 22 P e r f o r m e r s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t P e n t l a n d ' s works are  very  d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l l y t o p l a y , but w e l l w o r t h the e f f o r t r e q u i r e d i n l e a r n i n g them. I t d o e s n ' t y i e l d i t s e l f r i g h t away but i t i s v e r y r e w a r d i n g t o work a t . I t g e t s more b e a u t i f u l as you p l a y i t more, 23 They a l s o agree t h a t the rhythm i n c r e a s e s the d i f f i c u l t y  of  her works. I'm f a s c i n a t e d by the r h y t h m i c c o m p l e x i t i e s i n her music, e s p e c i a l l y when s t r i c t adherence t o the n o t a t e d rhythm g i v e s the music a w o n d e r f u l sense of r u b a t o . I don't t h i n k the l i s t e n e r i s r e a l l y aware t h a t two tempi a r e combined i n t h a t one s e c t i o n of the F a n t a s y - i f i t ' s p l a y e d p r o p e r l y , he s h o u l d j u s t get a s h o r t - l i v e d sense of r h y t h m i c freedom. I t ' s a l l v e r y s i m p l e - once you can do i t I 24 V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l r e c a l l s w o r k i n g w i t h an o r c h e s t r a on one  of  her workst Her music i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o p l a y . Barbara's music i n p a r t i c u l a r i s v e r y c l e a n ; t h e r e ' s v e r y l i t t l e waste i n i t and e v e r y t h i n g has t o sound. I r e c o r d e d her Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s and e v e r y p l a y e r had t o l e a r n h i s p a r t a s . i f 'he." were l e a r n i n g a concerto. I t was d i f f i c u l t , b u t a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s w o r t h w h i l e i s d i f f i c u l t , and has t o be mastered. 25 ^Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , May  20,  2 2  T h e Sheaf, Tuesday, November 28,  2 3  F r a n c e s Adaskin,  2 i f  2  1973. 1967.  i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 6,  R o b e r t Rogers i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 12,  1974. 1974.  5 v i c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 2o,  1972.  129  The  economic s t y l e of Pentland 's music i s r e f l e c t e d i n her  approach t o l i f e .  As F e l d b r i l l remarked:  I t h i n k the music t h a t she w r i t e s i s r e a l l y an e x t e n s i o n o f h e r s e l f , the type of person she i s - very d i r e c t . She doesn't use f i f t y thousand words where t e n words w i l l s u f f i c e , and the music doesn't use f i f t y thousand notes where t e n w i l l s u f f i c e . I t ' s a complete c a r r y - t h r o u g h of her complete c h a r a c t e r . Uncompromising, d i r e c t and honest. 26 Pentland  agrees with t h i s assessment;  In my whole l i f e I was s t r i p p i n g out the u n e s s e n t i a l s t h a t weren't me. I was caught up i n a way of l i f e and s o c i e t y t h a t I d i d n ' t f e e l part of. T h i s i s why i t took me so long i n a way. G i v i n g up t h i n g s that were not a p a r t of my l i f e , s t r i p p i n g the u n e s s e n t i a l s and the t h i n g s t h a t were not t r u e f o r me was very hard. I t takes a while to break out o f the mold on your own. My philosophy i s one of s t r i p p i n g i n music, t o keep away from unpleasant s i t u a t i o n s as much as p o s s i b l e , t o c r e a t e as few as p o s s i b l e , and t o c r e a t e a p l e a s a n t atmosphere i n the home. I'm e s s e n t i a l l y a p a s s i v i s t i n every r e s p e c t . 27 Though Pentland  has long been r e c o g n i z e d  on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  l e v e l a t such f e s t i v a l s as t h e I.S.C.M. i n 1956, and with frequent  performance of her works abroad, i t i s undoubtedly  r e c o g n i t i o n l n Canada which she c h e r i s h e s the most. she was .delighted when, i n 1972,  she was informed  F o r example,  that  Pentland  P l a c e , an a r e a i n Kanata, a town near Ottawa, O n t a r i o , had been named a f t e r her. to  The town was t h e n s e t t i n g up a museum  honour the v a r i o u s famous Canadians a f t e r whom i t was naming  "Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8 ,  1974.  130  i t s s t r e e t s and area, and r e q u e s t i n g a manuscript from her to put on permanent d i s p l a y t h e r e , r e c e i v e d a s h o r t duet f o r young p i a n i s t s . However, t h i s r a p p o r t w i t h E a s t e r n Canada i s r a r e , and soon senses i n P e n t l a n d a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n and I n Vancouver  one  loneliness.  she i s cut o f f from the m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n  O n t a r i o , where the Canadian Music Centre (which houses most of her s c o r e s on t r a n s p a r e n c i e s ) , B.M.I., and C.B.C., as w e l l as many composers are l o c a t e d .  She  i s aware t h a t Vancouver  not a i d her i n keeping up w i t h developments  does  i n music:  I t takes a l l my time and energy to keep myself a f l o a t i n the vacuum of Vancouver . . . . go on composing. 28  and  However, she does not appear to f e e l any d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o O n t a r i o , and seems to f i n d t r a v e l l i n g there a chore: I do hope you had a more p l e a s a n t time here than I have i n Toronto. 29 Those who  know and care f o r her i n Toronto f e e l t h a t the  sheer v a s t n e s s of Canada i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e i r  communication  w i t h her, and w i t h her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the music scene.  Harry  Somers s t a t e d : She tended t o f e e l a l i t t l e i s o l a t e d from the main m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the country but was s t i l l v e r y a l e r t and perky. 30 And F e l d b r i l l commented: 2 8  2  P e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r to Leonard I s a a c s , October 3 0 ,  9 p e n t l a n d i n a l e t t e r t o Bruce Mather, October 19,  ^°Harry Somers i n i n t e r v i e w i n Toronto, September 2 ? ,  1969. 1969. 1972.  131  I found her a woman w i t h a tremendous sense of hmour and a sense of humanity t o o . She's a f i n e p e r s o n . I o n l y f e e l s o r r y i n a sense t h a t she/s l o c k e d up b e h i n d the Rocky M o u n t a i n s . There's a t e r r i b l e f e e l i n g f o r me t h a t the R o c k i e s do c u t o f f the r e s t of the c o u n t r y , whether one i s l i v i n g on t h a t s i d e l o o k i n g e a s t ward, o r t h i s s i d e l o o k i n g westward. But p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , f r o m the s t a n d p o i n t of k e e p i n g i n the s t r e a m of what's g o i n g on, I'd l o v e t o see her h e r e . I t h i n k she c o u l d make a tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the hub of a c t i v i t y where so many of the composers are c e n t r e d - i n T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l , 31 The  theme of l o n e l i n e s s prevails«  There's a touch of sadness somewhere i n B a r b a r a . I t ' s j u s t something I sense sometimes, but t h a t ' s perhaps a n o t h e r word f o r s e n s i t i v i t y . 32 I f e e l t h e r e ' s a k i n d of l o n e l i n e s s - maybe I'm r e a d i n g i n t o i t , but none l i k e t o be f o r g o t t e n by her c o l l e a g u e s . I don't t h i n k she's r e a l l y been f o r g o t t e n but I t h i n k she f e e l s she has been f o r g o t t e n . B a r b a r a c h a l l e n g e s p e o p l e , she c o n f r o n t s them. People don't l i k e t o be c o n f r o n t e d , they have t o answer q u e s t i o n s they don't want t o answer. But I'm g l a d she's the way she i s . I hope she never changes, i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o have t h a t k i n d of s t r e n g t h . I'm j u s t s o r r y she's been c u t o f f f r o m so many of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are g o i n g on. 33 Though a v e r y s e r i o u s m u s i c i a n , t o those who  Pentland  i s very  accessible  approach h e r .  An i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of B a r b a r a as I r e c a l l her (and she may never f o r g i v e me f o r making t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comment), i s t h a t v e r y o f t e n she would appear as tough as n a i l s , and perhaps even a l i t t l e c r u s t y t o the p u b l i c and sometimes t o h e r c o l l e a g u e s when she was h o l d i n g f o r t h on a p r i n c i p l e , o r an i d e a , o r was under a t t a c k , but t o anyone who e v i d e n c e d any r e a l 3 l  V l c t o r F e l d b r i l l i n i n t e r v i e w , September 27,  32 J  Somers, op. c i t .  ^ F e l d b r i l l , op. c i t .  1972.  132  i n t e r e s t ; o r response she melted as f a s t as the s p r i n g snows, and r e v e a l e d a tremendously warm and r e s p o n s i v e person. And t h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t she r e a l l y had a p r e t t y s t r o n g d e f e n s i v e c r u s t w h i c h was v e r y q u i c k l y melted w i t h any k i n d o f warmth o r e n t h u s i a s m , 34 That she i s c e r t a i n l y r e s p o n s i v e t o i n t e r e s t i n h e r and her music i s e v i d e n t i n the care she has g i v e n t o a n s w e r i n g the many l e t t e r s she has r e c e i v e d , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g C e n t e n n i a l y e a r , from s t u d e n t s e n q u i r i n g about h e r l i f e  o r music.  Each  one was g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and an i n d i v i d u a l r e p l y .  As  w e l l , i n 1974 she spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time p r e p a r i n g and d e l i v e r i n g l e c t u r e s f o r a group o f piano t e a c h e r s i n P a r k s v i l l e , B r i t i s h Columbia.  The l e c t u r e s , i n w h i c h she d i s c u s s e d  piano t e a c h i n g music of the past hundred y e a r s , c u l m i n a t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f one of h e r own t e a c h i n g works. attendance  ina  Though t h e  was s m a l l , P e n t l a n d was w i l l i n g t o t r y t o h e l p  those  i n more i s o l a t e d a r e a s keep up w i t h developments i n music. The of l i f e  economy o f means found i n h e r music and p h i l o s o p h y i s c a r r i e d out i n t h e more p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f h e r l i f e .  B o t h she and Huberman show c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n f o r t h e environment by r e c y c l i n g b o t t l e s , cans and papers, and t h e y n e v e r buy a n y t h i n g new when something o l d c a n be mended and used again.  Huberman, b o t h i n v e n t i v e and p r a c t i c a l , has d e s i g n e d  f u r n i t u r e i n t h e i r home which i s modern and f u n c t i o n a l . Pentland's  In  s t u d i o , one f i n d s s t r a i g h t l i n e s and b r i g h t c o l o u r s ,  3^Somers, crop, c i t .  133  w i t h such contemporary a r t works as an a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g by M a r i o n Bembe, a work by B e r t B i n n i n g , and a p r i n t of P a u l K l e e ' s P i s h Magic on the w a l l s . 3 5  ger f u l l bookshelves, scores,  m a n u s c r i p t s , l e t t e r s , tapes and r e c o r d s are a l l o r g a n i z e d i n t h e i r respective cabinets with precision. The house, c o m p l e t e l y s h e l t e r e d on a l l s i d e s by h i g h t r e e s , i s surrounded w i t h b i r d f e e d e r s , and s m a l l t a b l e s s p r e a d w i t h such d e l i c a c i e s as nuts and s u n f l o w e r seeds. are p e r i o d i c a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d by the appearance of f e a t h e r e d f r i e n d who  i s t h e n viewed w i t h d e l i g h t .  Conversations a small Pentland  has d o c t o r e d s e v e r a l i n j u r e d b i r d s back t o h e a l t h a f t e r t h e y have f l o w n i n t o the l a r g e g l a s s windows which f a c e the  garden.  Her f r e e time i s a l s o spent i n t e n d i n g the many f l o w e r beds which s u r r o u n d the house, and she u s u a l l y sends a v i s i t o r away w i t h a bouquet. Between works she l i k e s t o keep h e r mind a c t i v e by d o i n g problems i n a l g e b r a and geometry; a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f her interest i n abstract thinking. When on h o l i d a y s , P e n t l a n d and h e r husband s e t out t o do s e r i o u s b i r d w a t c h i n g , and r e c e n t l y have become i n t e r e s t e d in tropical fish.  I n the f a l l of 1965  f i v e weeks, and i t was  t h e y went t o H a w a i i f o r  t h e r e P e n t l a n d began t o s t u d y  tropical  f i s h , becoming f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e i r c h a n g i n g d e s i g n s . 1967,  In  when they went t o Grand Cayman, an i s l a n d s o u t h of Cuba, 3^0ne of the K l e e Duets was based on t h i s  print.  134  she f i r s t  s t a r t e d s n o r k e l i n g , and was a s t o n i s h e d t o see  beneath her "a whole world of f i s h e s . " ^ 3  her  At f i r s t  she had  g l a s s e s taped on her f a c e beneath the mast, and  later,  Huberman had a mast e s p e c i a l l y made f o r her w i t h the l e n s e s b u i l t into i t . for to  Her d o c t o r always sends her to a warm c l i m a t e  her h e a l t h , and the t r i p i s g e n e r a l l y taken i n the w i n t e r escape Vancouver's  rain.  The main part of Pentland's time and a t t e n t i o n c o n t i n u e s to  be occupied by c o m p o s i t i o n . When I am working on something, I work on i t almost every moment. I l i k e t o hear i t i n my mind away from a n y t h i n g c o n c r e t e . Itte a v e r y good way to assess the work and c l a r i f y i t i n my mind. I t ' s a k i n d of a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g t h a t I've always indulged i n , even as a c h i l d . Though I f i n d copying a s t r a i n on my eyes, I l i k e w r i t i n g notes on f i v e l i n e s - the f e e l and l o o k of m u s i c a l notes. 37  Because  she f i n d s the time and energy r e q u i r e d by  commissions  has become too demanding she does not p l a n t o accept many of them i n the f u t u r e . Commissions don't mean that much to me any more. They r e q u i r e a d e a d l i n e and only g i v e one performance. Commissions would have meant a l o t more to me when I was young. Now, I may have to s t o p something I'm working on t o s t a r t a commission, yet, I r e a l l y need the time now t o "do my own t h i n g " so t o speak. I would much r a t h e r they commissioned a younger person - o r used the money f o r more performances. 38  36pentland i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8,  1974.  3 7  Pentland  i n i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 7,  1972.  3 8  P e n t l a n d i n i n t e r v i e w , June 8,  1974.  135  Her future plans Include a r e v i s i o n of The Lake, and she has some other works i n mind she hopes to have time to compose.  Undoubtedly she w i l l continue writing to please  only herself. You have to write because you love i t and you need i t , not because you areawriting f o r someone e l s e . A l l those people who are so ambitious are so pompous and d u l l . 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N a t i o n a l Association. P r o c e e d i n g s . XL ( 1 9 4 6 ) , 8 7 - 1 0 5 . Wheeler, T . J . , e d . Canadian R a d i o and T e l e v i s i o n A n n u a l . T o r o n t o : C.B.C, 1950. D i c t i o n a r i e s and E n c y c l o p e d i a s C a r l s o n , E f f i e B. A B l o - B i b l l o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f 12 Tone and S e r i a l Composers. Metuchen, New J e r s e y : Scarecrow P r e s s , I n c . , 1970. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and comments on t h e s t y l e . G a t t i , Guido M., e d . E n c l c l o p e d l a D e l i a M u s l c a . G. R i c o r d i , 1964.  Milan:  L o o s l e y , S h e i l a Eastman. " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d . " Grove's D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s . E d i t e d by S t a n l e y S a d i e . London: M a c M i l l a n , 6th ed.: i n p r e s s . K a l l m a n , Helmut. " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d . " D i e Musik i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart. E d i t e d by F r i e d r i c h Blume. K a s s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r , 1958. Rlemann Musik L e x i k o n . Mainz, West Germany: B. S c h o t t . supplement volume i n p r e s s .  Second  140  S l o n i m s k y , N i c h o l a s . Baker's B i o s r a p h l c a l D i c t i o n a r y of M u s i c i a n s . New York: G. S c h i r m e r , 5 t h ed. w i t h 1965 supplement, and 1971 supplement. T o n k u n s t l e r - L e x i k o n . Wilhelmshaven, West Germany: H e i n richshofen's Verlag, i n press. Catalogues B.M.I. Symphonic. C a t a l o g u e . New York: B r o a d c a s t M u s i c , I n c . , 1971. Canadian Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . A B l o - B l b l l o g r a p h i c a l F i n d i n g L i s t of Canadian M u s i c i a n s and Those Who Have C o n t r i b u t e d t o Music i n Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Music L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967. Catalogue of Canadian Chamber M u s i c . T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n C e n t r e , 1967. C a t a l o g u e of C a n a d i a n C h o r a l M u s i c . T o r o n t o : Canadian _ c e n t r e , 1966. C a t a l o g u e of Canadian Composers. C o r p o r a t i o n , 1947. Very s h o r t b i o g r a p h y .  Music Music  T o r o n t o : Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g  C a t a l o g u e of Canadian Keyboard M u s i c . T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n C e n t r e , 1972.  Music  C a t a l o g u e of M i c r o f i l m s of U n p u b l i s h e d C a n a d i a n M u s i c . T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n Music C e n t r e , 1970. C a t a l o g u e of O r c h e s t r a l M u s i c . Composers, 1957.  T o r o n t o : Canadian League of  C a t a l o g u e of O r c h e s t r a l Music a t the Canadian Music C e n t r e . T o r o n t o : Canadian Music C e n t r e , 1963. L i s t of Canadian O r c h e s t r a l M u s i c . T o r o n t o : Canadian Music C e n t r e , 1968, supplement t o t h e 1963 c a t a l o g u e . K a l l m a n n , Helmut, e d . Catalogue of Canadian Composers. Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1951. N a p i e r , R o n a l d . A Guide t o Canada's Composers. Avondale P r e s s , 1973.  Toronto:  Willowdale:  141  L e t t e r s and A r t i c l e s by P e n t l a n d P e n t l a n d , B a r b a r a . "Canadian M u s i c . " F e b r u a r y - M a r c h , 1950), 4 3 - 4 6 .  N o r t h e r n Review, I I I  . " L e t t e r s : Comment From a Composer." M u s i c a l A m e r i c a . L X X X I I I : 4 (November, 1963), 4 . L e t t e r t o t h e editor. . "Dear S i r . " C.B.C. Times, 2. L e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r . .  (August 2 4 - 3 0 ,  1963),  Canadian Music J o u r n a l , V I No.2 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) . 8 0 .  _. "Music P u b l i s h i n g i n Canada: a D i s c u s s i o n , " R o y a l C o n s e r v a t o r y o f Music o f T o r o n t o Monthly B u l l e t i n . (October, 1 9 4 8 ) , 2 . ~~ . "On Experiment i n M u s i c . " Canadian Review of Music and A r t , (August-September, 1 9 4 3 ) , 2 5 - 2 7 . . "Wanted, An A u d i e n c e . " P r i n t e d i n a program f o r a performance by t h e J e w i s h F o l k C h o i r i n T o r o n t o , March 25. 1?47.  APPENDIX  A  LIST OF WORKS  142  143  Childhood Pieces; The B l u e G r o t t o ( 1 9 2 1 ) ( l o s t ) T w i l i g h t (December 1 9 2 2 ) Dawn ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 2 3 ) Berceuse ( A p r i l 1923) That D a r l i n g O l d Dad o'Mine (1922? 3 ? ) Book of e a r l y p i e c e s d e s t r o y e d " R e v o l u t i o n a r y " Sonata ( F a n t a s i a ) , w r i t t e n , r e w r i t t e n and u n f i n i s h e d i n e a r l y teens ( 1 9 2 4 - 9 ? ) The C o t t a g e r t o Her I n f a n t , v o i c e and piano ( S p r i n g 1 9 2 9 ) S t u d e n t works: From "French p e r i o d " s B e r g e r s e t vous, Berge'res, f o r a c a p e l l a c h o r u s , a l s o v o i c e and p i a n o ('29) Sonate, c# minor, 4 movements, f o r p i a n o ( 1 9 3 0 ) T r i o f o r F l u t e , C e l l o and P i a n o , 4 movements, ( 1 9 3 0 ) Aveu F l e u r i , v o i c e and piano ( 1 9 3 0 ) Numerous motets ( L a t i n ) w i t h and w i t h o u t organ accompaniment p i e c e s f o r organ, and chamber music ( 1 9 3 0 - 1 ) R e v e r i e , f o r p i a n o (1931) S o n a t i n e , p i a n o , 3 movements, ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 3 2 ) P i e c e i n B minor, p i a n o (March 1932) A Lavender Lady, v o i c e and p i a n o ( 1 9 3 2 ) R u i n s , v o i c e and p i a n o (1932) P a s t o r a l e , p i a n o (1933) Lament, f o r v o i c e and s t r i n g q u a r t e t (December 1934) I n v o c a t i o n , f o r v i o l i n and p i a n o ( 1 9 3 5 ) Two P r e l u d e s , p i a n o (1935) They A r e Not Long, v o i c e and p i a n o (1935) C o n c e r t - O v e r t u r e , f o r symphony o r c h e s t r a (November 1935 J a n u a r y 193 6) S o n a t a , p i a n o , 2 movements, ( 1 9 3 6 ) From " J u i l l i a r d p e r i o d " ! 1936-9 Academic A l l e g r o , v i o l i n and p i a n o ( S p r i n g 1937) Mazurka, p i a n o (Summer 1 9 3 7 ) S t a r l e s s N i g h t , v o i c e and p i a n o (Summer 1 9 3 7 ) L i t t l e S c h e r z o f o r C l a v i c h o r d (Summer 1 9 3 7 ) B a l l a d of Trees and t h e Master (chorus) (Summer 1937) P r e l u d e , C h o r a l e and T o c c a t a f o r Organ ( F a l l 1 9 3 7 ) Two P i e c e s f o r S t r i n g s ( e a r l y 1 9 3 8 ) L e i s u r e , A P i c t u r e , C r a d l e Song, A P i p e r , f o r a c a p e l l a chorus ( S p r i n g 1 9 3 8 ) O s t i n a t o f o r Organ (summer 1 9 3 8 ) Sonata A l l e g r o , p i a n o (summer 1 9 3 8 ) The Mask, v o i c e and p i a n o ( 1 9 3 8 ? ) E l e g y , f o r p i a n o ( J u l y 1938)  144 6 P i e c e s f o r C h i l d r e n ( F a l l 1938-1939) F i v e Preludes, f o r piano (1938) Q u a r t e t f o r P i a n o and S t r i n g s (1939) Mature Works Lament, symphony o r c h e s t r a (summer 1939) D i r g e f o r a V i o l e t , a c a p e l l a chorus ( 1 9 3 9 ) Rhapsody 1939. f o r p i a n o ( F a l l 1939) The D e v i l Dances, f o r c l a r i n e t and p i a n o (December 1939) Unvanquished, f o r t e n o r and p i a n o ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 0 ) Promenade ( i n Mauve), f o r p i a n o ( 1 9 0 ) F a n t a s y , f o r p i a n o and o r c h e s t r a - u n f i n i s h e d ( 1 9 0 ? ) P a y l o a d , s c o r e f o r radio-drama ( 1 9 0 ) Beauty and the B e a s t , b a l l e t - p a n t o m i m e f o r 2 p i a n o s ( 1 9 0 ) The Wind Our Enemy, s c o r e f o r r a d i o - d r a m a (Anne M a r r i o t t ) ( l 9 l ) S i n f o n i e t t a , 1 s t movement d r o p p e d , became* A r i o s o & Rondo ( 1 9 4 1 ) S t u d i e s i n L i n e , f o r p i a n o (1941) H o l i d a y S u i t e (summer 1941), v e r s i o n f o r s t r i n g s ( 1 9 4 7 ) V a r i a t i o n s , f o r p i a n o (1942) k  k  k  k  k  k  C o n c e r t o f o r V i o l i n and S m a l l O r c h e s t r a ( 1 9 4 2 ) P a y l o a d , s u i t e f o r o r c h e s t r a (1943) M a r r i o t t Song C y c l e ( 1 9 4 2 - 4 ) completed w i t h C i t i e s (1945) S o n a t a f o r C e l l o and P i a n o ( 1 9 4 3 ) A i r - B r i d g e t o A s i a , f o r CBC r a d i o - d r a m a (November 1944) S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 1 (1944-5) A t E a r l y Dawn, f o r t e n o r , f l u t e , c e l l o (January 1945) Piano Sonata (1945) V i s t a , f o r v i o l i n and piano (May 8 t h , 1945) Symphony No. 1, ( 1 s t movement December 1945, 2nd and 3 r d movements F a l l 1946, 4 t h movement F a l l 1947-1948) Sonata f o r V i o l i n and P i a n o ( 1 9 4 6 ) From Long Ago (Lone T r a v e l e r , O b s t i n a t e Tune, F l i g h t ) f o r piano (1946) Sonata F a n t a s y , f o r p i a n o ( 1 9 4 7 ) Colony M u s i c , ( O v e r t u r e , C h o r a l e , B u r l e s q u e ) , s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a , p i a n o (1947) The L i v i n g G a l l e r y , s c o r e f o r f i l m (NFB) (September 1947) V a r i a t i o n s on a B o c c h e r i n i T u n e . o r c h e s t r a ( f l u t e , oboe, h o r n , s t r i n g s ) '(June 1948) O c t e t f o r Winds (1948) D i r g e , f o r p i a n o (1948) Sad Clown - Song of S l e e p , 2 p i e c e s f o r p i a n o ( e a r l y 1949) Weekend O v e r t u r e , f o r r e s o r t '!combo" ( c l a r i n e t , trumpet, p i a n o , p e r c u s s i o n ) (summer 1949) C o n c e r t o f o r Organ and S t r i n g s ( 1 9 4 9 ) S o l o V i o l i n Sonata ( 1 9 5 0 ) Cadenzas f o r Mozart V i o l i n C o n c e r t o K.207 (1950) Symphony No. 2 (1950) Ave atque V a l e , f o r symphony o r c h e s t r a ( 1 9 5 1 ) S o n a t i n a 1, f o r p i a n o (June 1951)  145  S o n a t i n a 2, f o r p i a n o ( J u l y 1951) Epigrams and E p i t a p h s , f o r 2, 3, 4 v o i c e s ( J u l y 1952) M i r r o r Study, f o r p i a n o (1952) The Lake, one-act chamber o p e r a , 4 v o i c e s , f l u t e , oboe, trumpet, s t r i n g s (1952) S t r i n g Quartet No. 2 (April-November 1953) Two-Piano S o n a t a (August 1953) A r i a , f o r p i a n o (summer 1954) What i s Man? - S a l u t a t i o n of the Dawn, 2 c h o r a l p i e c e s , a c a p e l l a (1954) S o n a t i n a f o r S o l o F l u t e (1954) R l c e r c a r f o r S t r i n g s (1955) I n t e r l u d e , f o r piano (summer 1955) Concerto f o r P i a n o and S t r i n g s (1955-6) Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s (No. 3 ) (1957) T o c c a t a , f o r p i a n o (1958) Three Duets a f t e r P i c t u r e s by P a u l K l e e (1958-9) Symphony No. 4 (1959) Duo f o r V i o l a and P i a n o ( i 9 6 0 ) Canzona f o r F l u t e , Oboe and H a r p s i c h o r d (1961) C a v a z z o n i f o r B r a s s , 3 o r g a n hymns t r a n s c r i b e d f o r q u i n t e t  (1961)  O s t i n a t o and Dance f o r H a r p s i c h o r d (1961 and 1962) F a n t a s y , f o r piano (1962) T r i o f o r V i o l i n , C e l l o and P i a n o (1963) Freedom March, f o r young p i a n i s t s , 4 hands and p i a n o (1963) 2 C a n a d i a n Folk-Songs f o r p i a n o duet (1963) S i g n s ( A n g l e s , Curves, Dashes, D o t s ) f o r young p i a n i s t s (1964) Three P a i r s , f o r young p i a n i s t s (... 1964) Puppet-Show, 1 p i a n o , 4 hands (1964). Shadows - Ombres, f o r piano (1964) Echoes 1 and 2 (1964) f o r young p i a n i s t s P u z z l e (1964) (see Maze) 3 Sung Songs, v o i c e and p i a n o (1964) 3 Sung Songs f o r a c a p e l l a chorus ( A p r i l , August 1964, January 1965) S t r a t a , f o r s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a (1964) C a p r i c e , f o r p i a n o (1965) Hands A c r o s s t h e C, f o r young p i a n i s t s (1965) V a r i a t i o n s f o r V i o l a (1965) T r i o con A l e a (1966), v i o l i n , v i o l a , c e l l o . S u i t e B o r e a l i s , 5 p i e c e s f o r p i a n o (1966) S e p t e t f o r B r a s s , Organ and S t r i n g s (1967) Ten f o r Ten, f o r young p i a n i s t s (1967) (pub. i n Music o f Now, book 3) Space S t u d i e s , f o r young p i a n i s t s (1967) Songs o f Peace and P r o t e s t , f o r young p i a n i s t s (1968) Maze, f o r young p i a n i s t s , t o p a i r w i t h P u z z l e above (1968) C i n e s c e n e , f o r o r c h e s t r a , 3 s o l o s (1968) (News - 1 s t t h i r d o n l y - 1968)  146  Music o f Now, Book 1 and Book 2, Stages X-XIV (1969) S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 3 (1969) Music o f Now, Book 2 and Book" 3 completed (1970) News ( f i n a l 2/3), f o r v i r t u o s o v o i c e and o r c h e s t r a (1970) V a r i a t i o n s C o n c e r t a n t e s , f o r piano and o r c h e s t r a (1970) R e f l e c t i o n s - R e f l e t s , f o r f r e e - b a s s a c c o r d i o n (1971) M i d n i g h t among t h e H i l l s - The Tune o f t h e Stream, Sung Songs 4 and 5» f o r medium v o i c e and p i a n o (1971) A r c t i c a f o r young p i a n i s t s : 1) I c e F l o e , 2) Thaw (1971-2) I n t e r p l a y , f o r f r e e - b a s s a c c o r d i o n and s t r i n g q u a r t e t (1972) M u t a t i o n s f o r c e l l o and piano (1972) A r c t i c a f o r young p i a n i s t s : 3) Snowy Owl (1972); 4) T u k t u 1972-January 1973) V i t a B r e v i s f o r p i a n o (1973) Occasions f o r b r a s s q u i n t e t (1974)  APPENDIX  B  LIST OF FIRST PERFORMANCES  147  148  L i s t e d i n o r d e r of performance THEY ARE NOT LONG A LAVENDER LADY UUINS TWO PRELUDES SONATA P 3 6 ) , f i r s t movt.  A A  Tr  n  S K e l s e y , soprano Anna Hovey, p i a n o n e s  _ , Barbara Pentland, piano  R e c i t a l by B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , R o y a l A l e x a n d r a H o t e l , Winnipeg, September 2 1 s t 1936. PRELUDE, CHORALE AND TOCCATA FOR ORGAN - A s h l e y M i l l e r , J u i l l i a r d C o n c e r t H a l l , New York, May 9th, 1938. LITTLE SCHERZO FOR CLAVICHORD MAZURKA ( i n mem. George Gershwin)  Q S n  organ.  . _ J ° * S S i g u r d s o n , piano l a  BALLAD OF TREES AND THE MASTER - c h o r u s , F i l m e r Hubble, c o n d u c t o r . Wednesday Morning M u s i c a l e , F o r t G a r r y H o t e l , Winnipeg, October 1 2 t h , 1938. A PICTURE - LEISURE, two p i e c e s f o r a c a p e l l a chorus - v o c a l trio. SUITE OF 4 PIECES ( l a t e r "FIVE PRELUDES") - S n j o l a u g S i g u r d s o n , p i a n o . Wednesday Morning M u s i c a l e , F o r t G a r r y H o t e l , Winnipeg, March 2 8 t h , 1939. FIVE PRELUDES FOR PIANO - E a r l e V o o r h i e s , p i a n o . WPA Composers* Forum-Laboratory, C a r n e g i e Chamber Music H a l l , New York, A p r i l 1 2 t h , 1939. LAMENT, FOR SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA - Winnipeg Summer Symphony, G e o f f r e y Waddington, c o n d u c t o r , Walker T h e a t r e , Winnipeg, August 2 1 s t , 1940. PAYLOAD, ORCHESTRAL SCORE TO RADIO DRAMA - CBC from M o n t r e a l , J e a n Marie Beaudet, c o n d u c t o r , November 8 t h , 1940. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST - b a l l e t - p a n t o m i m e f o r 2 p i a n o s , B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d and M a r j o r i e D i l l a b o u g h , Winnipeg B a l l e t C l u b , A u d i t o r i u m C o n c e r t H a l l , Winnipeg, January 3 r d , 1941. QUARTET FOR PIANO AND STRINGS - B. P e n t l a n d w i t h Mary G u s s i n , Mary Graham, Bruno Schmidt, Wednesday Morning M u s i c a l e , F o r t G a r r y H o t e l , March 1 2 t h , 1941s - Eugene Kash, v i o l i n ; C e c i l F i g e l s k i , v i o l a ; P h i l i p S p l v a k , c e l l o ; R e g i n a l d Godden, p i a n o i Vogt S o c i e t y , T o r o n t o , May 2nd 1941.  149  RHAPSODY 1939 - B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , p i a n o , Wednesday Morning M u s i c a l e , Winnipeg, March 1 2 t h , 1941. STUDIES IN LINE - M a r j o r i e D i l l a b o u g h , p i a n o , Winnipeg, December 3rd, 1941. VARIATIONS (AND FUGUE) - B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d , p i a n o , Women's M u s i c a l C l u b , A u d i t o r i u m C o n c e r t H a l l , Winnipeg, March l 6 t h , 1942. CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND SMALL ORCHESTRA - H a r r y A d a s k i n , v i o l i n ; F r a n c e s Marr, pianos T o r o n t o C o n s e r v a t o r y C o n c e r t H a l l , T o r o n t o , January 2 0 t h , 1945. TRACKS (FROM SONG CYCLE) - F r a n c e s James, soprano, and composer, p i a n o , T o r o n t o , December 3rd, 1944, ( C o n s e r v a t o r y C o n c e r t Hall). RONDO (FROM "ARIOSO & RONDO") - (BBC O r c h e s t r a , S i r A d r i a n B o u l t , c o n d u c t o r , BBC London, March 1 9 t h , 1942) CBC O r c h e s t r a , c o n d u c t o r Hersenhoren, f r o m T o r o n t o , J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1942. ARIOSO & RONDO - BBC O r c h e s t r a , S i r A d r i a n B o u l t , c o n d u c t o r , London, short-wave and CBC network, J u l y 1 s t , 1945. SONATA FOR CELLO AND PIANO - F i n a l e o n l y i L o t t a B r o t t , c e l l o ; N e i l Chotem, pianos CBC from M o n t r e a l , September 5th, 1946. - complete works B a r t o n F r a n k , c e l l o , composer, p i a n o , Symposium of Canadian M u s i c , H o t e l Vancouver, Vancouver, March 13th, 1950. SONG CYCLE (Wheat, F o r e s t , T r a c k s , Mountains, C i t i e s ) , F r a n c e s James, soprano, w i t h composer, Harbord C o l l e g i a t e A u d i t o r i u m , T o r o n t o , A p r i l 1 7 t h , 1947. PIANO SONATA - M a r i e Knotkova, p i a n o , Prague, C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , J u l y 2 6 t h , 1947. HOLIDAY SUITE - a r r a n g e d f o r s t r i n g s - CBC Symphony f o r S t r i n g s , H a r o l d Sumberg, c o n d u c t o r , from T o r o n t o , June 1 8 t h , 1947. - f o r chamber o r c h e s t r a ( o r i g i n a l ) s CBC Chamber O r c h e s t r a , John A v i s o n , c o n d u c t o r , from Vancouver, J u l y 2 7 t h , 1948. ADAGIO from Symphony No. 1 - CBC Dominion C o n c e r t Hour, A l e x a n d e r B r o t t , c o n d u c t o r , from M o n t r e a l , October  l4th,  1947  THE  LIVING GALLERY, o r c h e s t r a l s c o r e t o f i l m (NFB) - UNESCO c o n f e r e n c e , Mexico C i t y , November 1947.  1 5 0  COLONY MUSIC - New World O r c h e s t r a , Samuel Hersenhoren, c o n d u c t o r , Bessborough H a l l , F o r e s t H i l l , T o r o n t o , F e b r u a r y 9 t h , 1948. SONATA FOR VIOLIN & PIANO - I r e n e T h o r o l f s o n , v i o l i n , C h e s t e r Duncan, p i a n o , S t . John's C o l l e g e , Winnipeg, May 1 5 t h , 1948. SONATA FANTASY - H a r r y Somers, p i a n o , C o n s e r v a t o r y H a l l , T o r o n t o , March 2 0 t h , 1948. VARIATIONS ON A BOCCHERINI TUNE - CBC O r c h e s t r a , c o n d u c t o r , T o r o n t o , June 3 0 t h , 1948.  Concert Hersenhoren,  VISTA - H a r r y A d a s k i n , v i o l i n , F r a n c e s Marr, p i a n o , Brock Lounge, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, August 1 0 t h , 1948. OCTET FOR WINDS - TSO wind p l a y e r s , P e n t l a n d program, ( H a r o l d Sumberg, c o n d u c t o r ) , CBC Wednesday N i g h t from T o r o n t o , January 12th, 1949. STRING QUARTET NO. 1 - D i a n a S t e i n e r , Nancy Heaton, v i o l i n s ; Sarah Cossum, v i o l a ; J a q u e l i n e E p p i n o f f , c e l l o ; A r t A l l i a n c e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , A p r i l 2 0 t h , 1949. CONCERTO FOR ORGAN & STRINGS - Gordon J e f f e r y , organ, w i t h London Chamber O r c h e s t r a , E r n e s t White, c o n d u c t o r , A e o l i a n H a l l , London, Ont., A p r i l 7 t h , 1951. SYMPHONY NO. 2, ( 1 s t movement o n l y - Vancouver J u n i o r Symphony, C o l i n S l i m , c o n d u c t o r , West Vancouver S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , November 2 8 t h 1952.) - (complete) CBC Symphony O r c h e s t r a , E t t o r e M a z z o l e n i , c o n d u c t o r , CBC from T o r o n t o , F e b r u a r y 9 t h , 1953. DIRGE, SONATINA 2 - composer, p i a n o , S o c i e t y o f P a c i f i c N o r t h west Composers, C o r n i s h T h e a t r e , S e a t t l e , Wash., January 15th, 1953. AVE ATQUE VALE - Vancouver Symphony O r c h e s t r a , I r w i n Hoffman, c o n d u c t o r , Orpheum T h e a t r e , Vancouver, November 1 5 t h , 1953. SONATINA 1 - composer, p i a n o , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., Vancouver, A p r i l 5 t h , 1954. THE LAKE - M i n u n z i e , N o w e l l , C o l e , F y f e , s o l o s i n g e r s , CBC Chamber O r c h e s t r a , John A v i s o n , c o n d u c t o r , CBC from Vancouver, March 3rd, 1954.  151  TWO-PIANO SONATA - E l l e n Arrow, C o l i n S l i m , P a i n e H a l l , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , Cambridge, Mass., May 2nd, 1 9 5 . k  SONATINA FOR SOLO FLUTE - J e a n Murphy, Women's M u s i c a l C l u b , A r t G a l l e r y , Vancouver, F e b r u a r y 2nd, 1955. ARIA - P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l , composer, p i a n o , A r t G a l l e r y , F e b r u a r y 7 t h , 1955.  Vancouver,  SOLO VIOLIN SONATA - L o u i s T h i e n p o n t , v i o l i n , P e n t l a n d C o n c e r t , l ' A t e l i e r , B r u s s e l s , June l 4 t h , 1955. INTERLUDE - composer, p i a n o , CBU Vancouver, F e b r u a r y 1 3 t h , 1956.  P a c i f i c region,  STRING QUARTET No. 2 - Grtinfarb Q u a r t e t , I.S.C.M. World F e s t i v a l , K o n s e r t h u s e t , Stockholm, June 8 t h , 1956. CONCERTO FOR PIANO & STRINGS - M a r i o B e r n a r d ! , p i a n o , w i t h CBC O r c h e s t r a , V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l , c o n d u c t o r , T o r o n t o , March 1 2 t h , 1958. TOCCATA - composer, p i a n o , CBU Vancouver,  J u l y 1 5 t h , 1958.  RICERCAR FOR STRINGS - CBC Chamber O r c h e s t r a , cond. G o l d s c h m i d t , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l , Brock H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and CBC, August 1 4 t h , 1958. SYMPHONY FOR TEN PARTS - CBC o r c h e s t r a ( s o l o s t r i n g s ) , Hugh McLean, c o n d u c t o r , CBU Vancouver, September 1 8 t h , 1959. SYMPHONY NO. 4 - Winnipeg.Symphony O r c h e s t r a , V i c t o r F e l d b r i l l , c o n d u c t o r , C i v i c A u d i t o r i u m , Winnipeg, F e b r u a r y 2 5 t h , i 9 6 0 . DUO FOR VIOLA & PIANO - H a r r y and F r a n c e s A d a s k i n , A r t s C l u b , Vancouver, November 2 9 t h , i 9 6 0 . DUETS AFTER PICTURES BY PAUL KLEE - composer w i t h Robert Rogers, p i a n o , F i n e A r t s F e s t i v a l , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, F e b r u a r y 8 t h , 1961. CANZONA FOR FLUTE, OBOE, HARPSICHORD - Baroque T r i o , CBC from M o n t r e a l , October 1 5 t h , 1962. FANTASY - Leonard S t e i n , p i a n o , F e s t i v a l o f Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and CBC C e l e b r i t y C o n c e r t , F e b r u a r y 1 3 t h , 1963. TRIO FOR VIOLIN, CELLO & PIANO - H a l i f a x T r i o , CBC, F e b r u a r y 9 t h , 1964.  152  SHADOWS - OMBRESj composer, p i a n o , CBC 5th, 1965.  from Vancouver,  June  CAPRICE - composer, p i a n o , F e s t i v a l of Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, F e b r u a r y 1966.  2nd,  CAVAZZONI ORGAN HYMNS FOR BRASS QUINTET - Vancouver B r a s s Ensemble, West P o i n t Grey B a p t i s t Church, Vancouver, February 27th, 1966. TRIO CON ALEA - John Loban, v i o l i n , H a n s - K a r l P i l t z , v i o l a , Eugene W i l s o n , c e l l o , F e s t i v a l of Contemporary A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., Vancouver, F e b r u a r y 8 t h , 1967. SUITE BOREALIS - p i a n i s t s C a r o l J u t t e (Unknown S h o r e s , R a p i d s ) , Genevieve Carey ( S e t t l e m e n t s ) , W i l f r e d Renard (Wide H o r i z o n s ) , R i c h a r d K i t s o n ( M o u n t a i n s ) , Queen E l i z a b e t h P l a y h o u s e , March 5 t h , 1967. SPRING DAYS COME SUDDENLY - l e P e t i t Ensemble V o c a l , George L i t t l e , c o n d u c t o r , P a v i l i o n de Canada, Expo, M o n t r e a l , September 2 6 t h , 1967. SEPTET FOR BRASS, ORGAN & STRINGS - Hugh McLean, organ: Kenneth H o p k i n s , trumpet; Robert C r e e c h , h o r n ; I a n M c D o u g a l l , trombone; Campbell T r o w s d a l e , v i o l i n ; Smyth Humphreys, v i o l a ; I a n Hampton, c e l l o : R y e r s o n U n i t e d Church, F e b r u a r y 2 0 t h , 1968. THREE SUNG SONGS ( D i v i n i n g , L i f e , L e t the Harp S p e a k ) , Winona Denyes, soprano, H a r o l d Brown, p i a n o , CBC from Vancouver, A p r i l 16th, 1968. STRATA FOR STRINGS - CBC Chamber O r c h e s t r a , John A v i s o n , c o n d u c t o r , CBC from Vancouver, September 15th, 1968. STRING QUARTET NO. 3 - P u r c e l l S t r i n g Q u a r t e t (Norman N e l s o n , Raymond Ovens, v i o l i n s ; P h i l i p p e E t t e r , v i o l a ; I a n Hampton, c e l l o ) , A r t G a l l e r y , Vancouver, June 2 5 t h , 1970. VARIATIONS CONCERTANTES - (9 f i n a l i s t s i n Concours I n t e r n a t i o n a l de M o n t r e a l , p i a n o , June l l t h - 1 3 t h ) - Z o l a S h a u l i s , p i a n o , w i t h M o n t r e a l Symphony O r c h e s t r a , F r a n z - P a u l Decker, conductor, Gala Concert, S a l l e W i l f r e d P e l l e t i e r , Place des A r t s , M o n t r e a l , June 15th, 1971. NEWS - P h y l l i s M a i l i n g , mezzo-soprano, w i t h N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e O r c h e s t r a , M a r i o B e r n a r d ! , c o n d u c t o r , Opera House, J u l y 15th, 197-1.  153  MIDNIGHT AMONG THE HILLS, THE TUNE OF THE STREAM, from SUNG SONGS 4 and 5 - P h y l l i s M a i l i n g and Derek Bampton, "Vancouver R e c i t a l " CBC FM Monday N i g h t , November 1 3 t h , MUTATIONS FOR CELLO AND PIANO - Eugene W i l s o n , R o b e r t Rogers, UBC R e c i t a l H a l l , F e b r u a r y 22nd, 1973. INTERPLAY FOR FREE-BASS ACCORDION AND STRING QUARTET - J o s e p h M a c e r o l l o , P u r c e l l S t r i n g Q u a r t e t , Vancouver New Music S o c i e t y , Vancouver E a s t C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , May 2 2 , 1 9 7 . k  APPENDIX  C  INDEX OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES  154  155  The a r t i c l e s l i s t e d here i n c l u d e such weekly r e p o r t s as t h e C.B.C. Times, and S a t u r d a y N i g h t . E x c e p t f o r a s e c t i o n which i s devoted t o r e f e r e n c e s t o the composer, the a r t i c l e s are a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y w i t h i n an a l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t i n g of works. E s p e c i a l l y i n f o r m a t i v e a r t i c l e s a r e marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k , and a r e f o l l o w e d by s h o r t a n n o t a t i o n s . ARIA "A L ' A t e l i e r . "  Le S o l r .  June 6, 1955.  AIR BRIDGE TO ASIA "Highlights."  November 2 1 , 1944.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  ARIOSO AND RONDO June 28, 1941.  "Miss P e n t l a n d t o Study i n U.S." W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e . "Thursday Home S e r v i c e . "  BBC Radio Times.  "Beaudet t o Conduct the BBC Symphony." June 2 9 , 1946.  March 19, 1942.  Radio V i s i o n .  AVE ATQUE VALE "Premiere."  Vancouver News-Herald.  "New Music P r e m i e r e Sunday." Vancouver Sun.  November 9, 1953.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  November 9»1953.  November 13, 1953.  "Music T h i s Week."  CBC Times.  November 15, 1953.  " R i c h a r d S t r a u s s Work F e a t u r e d by Symphony." H e r a l d . November 16, 1953. "Symphony Program E x c e l l e n t l y P l a y e d , " November 16, 1953.  Vancouver News-  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "Symphony G i v e s I t s B e s t of t h e Season." Vancouver Sun. November 16, 1953. BEAUTY AND THE BEAST " B a l l e t Dancers R e v e a l G i f t o f E x p r e s s i o n . " P r e s s . J a n u a r y 4 , 1941. " B a l l e t Club Scores w i t h Rich Fantasy." J a n u a r y 4 , 1941.  Winnipeg F r e e  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  156  "An Album of Winnipeg Women."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Miss P e n t l a n d t o Study i n U.S." "Grace,.Artistry  A p r i l 5, 1 9 l . k  June 2 8 , 1 9 l .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  i n B a l l e t Show."  k  March 7, 1 9 2 .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  k  CAPRICE "Barbara Pentland Scores."  Vancouver Sun.  F e b r u a r y 3 , 1966.  "Old, New and ' Beetlehoverf S a t i s f y CBC C o n c e r t - G o e r s . " Sun. September 29, 1967.  Vancouver  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 1 8 , 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert."  The Sheaf  2 8 , 1967.  (Saskatoon).  " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d i n R e c i t a l and I n t e r v i e w . " December 9 - 15, 1967.  November  CBC Times.  COLONY MUSIC "New World O r c h e s t r a O f f e r i n g B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d ' s M u s i c . " Globe and M a l l . F e b r u a r y 7, 1 9 8 .  Colony  k  "New World O r c h e s t r a P r e s e n t s Miss P e n t l a n d ' s Colony Music." Globe and M a l l . F e b r u a r y 10, 1 9 8 . K  "Young Canuck G i r l ' s Music i s F e a t u r e d . " F e b r u a r y 10, 1 9 8 .  Toronto  Telegram.  K  "No Committee t o P l e a s e . " "CBC  Wednesday N i g h t . "  Saturday N i g h t .  CBC Times.  February 21, 19 8. K  Week of F e b r u a r y 22, 1 9 8 . K  "Music by P e n t l a n d . "  CBC Times.  Week o f J a n u a r y 9, 1 9 9 .  "Music by P e n t l a n d . "  CBC Times.  Week of J a n u a r y 12, 1 9 9 .  " M u s i c a l Musings."  k  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "Ideas on a Keyboard."  Saturday N i g h t .  " P e n t l a n d Music a t G a l l e r y . "  Vancouver  k  J u l y 2, 1 9 9 . k  January 9, 1950. Province.  December , k  195 » k  157  CONCERTO FOR PIANO AND  STRINGS  "Pentland Concerto i n A l l - C a n a d i a n Concert." March 9 - 15. 1958, p.2. Composer's n o t e s .  CBC  Times.  " P e n t l a n d P i a n o C o n c e r t o Most D i s a g r e e a b l e , I r r i t a t i n g t o Hear." T o r o n t o S t a r . March 13, 1958. Review. " I t Was a Chore t o L i s t e n . " Review.  "Young A r t i s t s Show F i n e Form." 29, 1958.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "Barbara Pentland i n Dual Radio Role." August 2, 1963. CONCERTO FOR ORGAN AND  CBC Times.  1958.  November J u l y 27  -  STRINGS  "Concerto by C a n a d i a n G i v e n World P r e m i e r e . " ( O n t a r i o ) . A p r i l 9, 1951. " C o n c e r t o P r e m i e r e i n London." " F r i d a y May 11."  March 13,  T o r o n t o Telegram.  CBC Times.  London F r e e P r e s s  T o r o n t o Telegram. May 11,  A p r i l 9,  1951.  1951.  " E n g l i s h Group G i v e s R e c i t a l a t A u d i t o r i u m . " Globe and M a l l . November 8, 1951. CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND SMALL ORCHESTRA " A d a s k i n P l a u d i t s Shared by Young Composer." J a n u a r y 22, 19^5. Review.  Globe and M a i l .  "Canadian Work E x c i t e s P r a i s e From A u d i e n c e . " J a n u a r y 22, 19^5. Review. "Canadian Composers P r o v i d e V a r i e d Program," a n d ; M a l l . March 12, 19^5. " A d a s k i n , Marr i n Canadian Program." January 4, 19^7.  T o r o n t o Telegram.  Toronto Globe  Vancouver  News-Herald.  "Harry A d a s k i n , V i o l i n i s t , G i v e s Times H a l l R e c i t a l . " York H e r a l d T r i b u n e . F e b r u a r y 16, 19^8.  New  158  " A d a s k i n , Marr O f f e r V i o l i n , P i a n o R e c i t a l , " F e b r u a r y 16, 1948. "Laud H a r r y A d a s k i n A l s o F r a n c i s Marr." 16, 1948.  New York Times.  Toronto S t a r .  February  "Harry A d a s k i n , V i o l i n i s t , Times H a l l , F e b r u a r y 1 5 . " A m e r i c a . March 1948,  Musical  "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g , " 21, 1953.  February  "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . "  Vancouver  Sun.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  February  28, 1959. DIRGE " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d , " Vancouver P r o v i n c e . 29, 1955. "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r . 1955, V o l . 7 No. 5 .  January February  " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y 8, 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l • I n t e r e s t i n g ^ ' " 9.-1955.  Vancouver H e r a l d . F e b r u a r y  "Saturday C o n c e r t of Canadian Music." November 2 0 , 1964. "Canada Music Week Observed S a t u r d a y . " November 2 3 , 1964.  Edmonton J o u r n a l . Edmonton J o u r n a l .  DUO FOR VIOLA AND PIANO "Barbara Pentland Scores."  Vancouver  Sun.  F e b r u a r y 3 . 1966.  FANTASY " C i t y Composer's Work Meets T e s t . " 1963. "UBC Gets New Type Music Hero." 14, 1963, P. 19. "Pentland's Piano Fantasy." 18, 1963.  Vancouver  Sun.  F e b r u a r y 14,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  Vancouver  Province.  February  February  159  " S a t u r d a y C o n c e r t o f Canadian Music." November 20, 1964.  Edmonton J o u r n a l .  "Canada Music Week Observed S a t u r d a y . " November 2 3 , 1964. "Barbara Pentland Scores."  Vancouver  Edmonton J o u r n a l . F e b r u a r y 3 , 1966.  Sun.  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." November 28, 1967.  The Sheaf  (Saskatchewan).  " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d i n R e c i t a l and I n t e r v i e w . " December 9 - 1 5 , 1967. "Watson Shows P i a n o Form." 2 9 , 1971, P. 2 7 .  CBC Times.  Winnipeg Free P r e s s .  November  FIVE PRELUDES " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o Works W i l l Be Heard Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . March 14, 1942, VWomen.'s M u s i c  Club Annual."  Monday."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win S u c c e s s . " March 17, 1942.  March 14, 1942.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  HOLIDAY SUITE "Canadian Music E q u a l o f Any i n Budapest C o n c e r t . " T r i b u n e . September 19, 1949. "Ideas on a Keyboard."  J a n u a r y 9, 1950.  Saturday Night.  " P e n t l a n d Music A t G a l l e r y . " 195*.  Vancouver  Canadian  Province.  December 4 ,  INTERPLAY " E x c i t i n g , C o l o u r f u l , Absurd."  Vancouver  " T a k i n g a Chance on Music - and Winning." May 2 3 , 1974.  Province.  May 2 3 , 1974.  Vancouver Sun.  160  KLEE DUETS "Grown P r e s e n t s World P r e m i e r e . "  Ubyssey.  "Composer P e n t l a n d W e l l R e c e i v e d a t UBC." F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 6 l . "World Audience f o r C a n a d i a n Composers." 27, 1965.  February 3,  1961,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e . CBC Times.  February  "Raps Lack o f I n i t i a t i v e i n Use o f C a n a d i a n T a l e n t . " T r i b u n e . J u l y 12, 1952.  Winnipeg  THE LAKE  *Dorothy MacNair. "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . " Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1953. T h i s l e n g t h y a r t i c l e i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l o t of t h e o p e r a . "B.C. Opera W r i t t e n by Two Women." 27, 1954. "The Lake."  CBC Times.  " T h i s Week." CBC Times. March 6, 1954.  Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y  F e b r u a r y 28 - March 6, 6, 1954. Pacific  * M i l t o n W i l s o n . "Music Review." Lengthy r e v i e w . "Woman's Music Gets P r e m i e r e . "  R e g i o n , F e b r u a r y 28 The C a n a d i a n Forum.  Vancouver Sun.  "Composer P e n t l a n d t o A t t e n d P r e m i e r e . " 1954. " P e n t l a n d Music a t G a l l e r y . " 1954.  1954.  November 3 0 , 1954.  Ubyssey.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . "  April  November 3 0 , December 4 ,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  February  28, 1959. LAMENT " L o c a l Composer Wins S u c c e s s . " Winnipeg T r i b u n e . June 2 2 , 1940. " L o c a l M u s i c i a n s G i v e n O v a t i o n s W i t h Symphony." Winnipeg Tribune. August 2 2 , 1940. "Winnipeg Composers a r e R e p r e s e n t e d i n F i n a l C o n c e r t . " Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . August 2 2 , 1940.  161  "Says Music S h o u l d F a n S p i r i t of Hope." Winnipeg Free P r e s s . L e t t e r t o the e d i t o r , August 30 ( ? ) , 1940. " P e n t l a n d ' s Lament S i n c e r e . " Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . t o t h e e d i t o r , September 8, 1940. "An Album o f Winnipeg Women."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Letter A p r i l 5, 1941.  MUTATIONS "New C e l l o Work ' S u c c e s s f u l ' . "  Vancouver Sun.  F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1973.  NEWS * S h e i l a McCook. " C r i t i c ' s S l i n g s Don't Daunt." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J u l y 15, 1971. Lengthy a r t i c l e c o n t a i n i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f News, P e n t l a n d ' s r e a c t i o n s t o music, h e r o p i n i o n s on w o r l d issues. "Two World P r e m i e r e s E a r n H i g h P r a i s e f o r B e r n a r d i . " J o u r n a l . J u l y 16, 1971.  Ottawa  "World P r e m i e r e s of Two Canadian Works on NAC Program." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J u l y 16, 1971. OCTET FOB WINDS "Music by P e n t l a n d . " CBC Times. " M u s i c a l Musings."  Week of J a n u a r y 9, 1949, p. 3 .  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "Woman's Music Gets P r e m i e r e . "  Vancouver Sun.  "Composer P e n t l a n d t o A t t e n d P r e m i e r e . " 30, 1954. " P e n t l a n d Music a t G a l l e r y . " 1954.  J u l y 2, 1949. November 3 0 , 1954.  Ubyssey.  November  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  December 4 ,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  A p r i l 5, 1941.  PAYLOAD "An Album of Winnipeg Women."  "Three Winnipeg G i r l s t o P r e s e n t R a d i o P l a y . " G a z e t t e . November 7, 1940. "C.B.C. W i l l F e a t u r e Canadian A i r Saga." November 7, 1940.  Montreal  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  162  "Payload."  E d i t o r i a l , November 13, 1940.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  " ' C a l l i n g A d v e n t u r e r s ! ' - The V o i c e o f the Wind." T r i b u n e . E d i t o r i a l , March 2 9 , 1 9 M . "Canadian D e s c r i b e s B e r k s h i r e A d d i t i o n s . " September 12, 1 9 4 l . "Music f o r R a d i o . " 31, 1943. "Payload."  Montreal Gazette.  CBC Programme S c h e d u l e .  Week of January  R a d i o Times J o u r n a l o f the B.B.C.  " A s s e r t s Young Composers Lack P r o p e r H e a r i n g . " Tribune. September 2, 1944. "Highlights."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Winnipeg  August 2 2 , 1943. Winnipeg  November 2 1 , 1944.  PIANO QUARTET "Vogt U n i t May D i s b a n d ; ' F i n a l ' C o n c e r t N o t a b l e . " M a i l . May 3 , 1941. "Miss P e n t l a n d t o Study w i t h Copland i n U.S." June 28, 1941. "Two Winnipeg G i r l s A r e M u s i c i a n s Here." October 17, 1942. "Old Music S o c i e t y Changes i t s Name." F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1943.  Globe and  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Toronto D a i l y S t a r .  Toronto D a i l y S t a r .  PIANO SONATA News-Herald.  March 14, 1950.  " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d . " 29, 1955.  Vancouver  Province.  January  "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r (Vancouver). F e b r u a r y 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y 8, 1955.  Vancouver  RHAPSODY " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o Works W i l l be Heard Monday." F r e e P r e s s . March 14, 1942.  Winnipeg  163  "Women's Music C l u b A n n u a l . " "BBC  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  B r o a d c a s t s A Programme of C a n a d i a n Works," T r i b u n e . May 2, 1 9 2 .  March l , 1 9 2 . k  k  Winnipeg  k  "Two Winnipeg G i r l s a r e M u s i c i a n s Here." October 17, 1 9 2 .  Toronto D a i l y  Star.  k  Globe and M a i l .  October 2 0 , 1 9 2 . k  "Pentland R e c i t a l I n t e r e s t i n g . " 1955. " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d . " 29, 1955.  Vancouver H e r a l d . :  F e b r u a r y 9,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "New M u s i c . " Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r . 1955, v o l . 7, No. 5 .  January "February  "BP P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y 8, 1955.  Vancouver  SEPTET "Top Canadian Composer."  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "McLean's R e c i t a l F a i l s t o P l e a s e . " 22, 1968.  J a n u a r y 6, 1967.  Vancouver Sun.  February  SHADOWS "Barbara Pentland Scores." "Old,  Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y 3 , 1966.  New and 'Beethoven' S a t i s f y CBC C o n c e r t Goers." Vancouver Sun. September 2 9 , 1967.  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." 28, 1967.  The Sheaf (Saskatchewan).  " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d i n R e c i t a l and I n t e r v i e w . " December 9-15, 1967.  November  CBC Times.  SONATA FANTASY " P e n t l a n d Music G i v e n By Somers." 19 8. k  Globe and M a i l .  March 2 2 ,  164  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC Teacher." 10, 1950.  Ubyssey.  January  "Works o f Wpg Composer W e l l - R e c e i v e d a t UBC C o n c e r t . " Vancouver News-Herald. J a n u a r y 28, 1950. " C r i t i c on t h e H e a r t h . "  Ubyssey.  J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1950.  "Northwest Composers' Works t o be Heard." J a n u a r y 5, 1953.  S e a t t l e Times.  " E v e r e t t Boy, 15, Takes C o n c e r t Honors." J a n u a r y 16, 1953.  S e a t t l e Times.  " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d . " 2 9 , 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l 'Interesting'." 9 t h , 1955.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e . Vancouver H e r a l d .  "New M u s i c . " Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r . 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . "A L ' A t e l i e r . " "Old,  Le S o i r .  January February February  June 18, 1955.  New and ' b e e t l e h o v e n ' S a t i s f y CBC C o n c e r t Goers." Vancouver Sun. September 2 9 , 1967.  " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d i n R e c i t a l and I n t e r v i e w . " December 9-15, 1967.  CBC Times.  SONATA FOR TWO PIANOS "Woman's Music Gets P r e m i e r e . " Vancouver Sun. 1954. "Composer P e n t l a n d t o A t t e n d P r e m i e r e . " 1954. " P e n t l a n d Music a t G a l l e r y . " 1954.  November 3 0 ,  Ubyssey.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  H a r t f o r d Courant ( C o n n e c t i c u t ) . "Crown P r e s e n t s W o r l d P r e m i e r e . "  November 30, December 4 ,  November 17, 1959. Ubyssey.  "Composer P e n t l a n d W e l l R e c e i v e d a t UBC." F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 6 l .  February 3, 1 9 6 l . Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  165  SONATA FOR CELLO " A s s e r t s Young Composers Lack p r o p e r H e a r i n g . " T r i b u n e . September 2, 1944. "Composers i n Canada A r e No C l a s s A p a r t , " A p r i l 26, 1947, p. 2 9 . "Music by Canadians."  International  "Miss B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d . " "Barbara Pentland." "A L ' A t e l i e r . "  Saturday Night.  Musician.  A p r i l 1950, p. 13. W i n t e r 1955.  U.B.C. A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e .  La Libre Belglque.  Le S o i r .  Winnipeg  June 1 7 , 1 9 5 5 .  June 18, 1955.  "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . 1959.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  F e b r u a r y 28,  SONATA FOR SOLO FLUTE "Composer's Views on C r e a t i n g M u s i c . " 5, 1955.  Vancouver  Sun.  February  SONATA FOR SOLO VIOLIN "Miss B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d . "  W i n t e r , 1955.  U.B.C. A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e .  "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . " 28, 1959.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  February  "Concert Audience Applauds Music of Canadian Composers." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . May 9 , i 9 6 0 . " M u s i c a l Rewards Few i n S t u d i o u s Sun. May 9, i 9 6 0 .  C i t y Concert."  Vaneouver  SONATA FOR UNACCOMPANIED VIOLIN " C o n c e r t s P r o v i d e Weekend F e s t i v a l . "  Vancouver  Sun.  J u l y 25, i 9 6 0 .  SONATINAS NO. I AND I I " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l By P e n t l a n d . " 29, 1955.  Vancouver  Province.  "New Music." Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r . 1955. V o l . 7, No. 5 . "BP P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." Province. F e b r u a r y 8, 1955*  January February Vancouver  166  "A L ' A t e l i e r . "  Le S o i r .  June 18, 1955.  SONATINA I I "Northwest Composers' Works t o be Heard." J a n u a r y 5» 1953. " E v e r e t t Boy, 15» Takes C o n c e r t Honors." January 16, 1953. "Music i n T o r o n t o . "  Seattle Seattle  Times. Times.  March 26, 1956.  Globe and M a i l .  SONATINA FOR SOLO FLUTE " P i a n i s t , F l a u t i s t P r e s e n t e d by C l u b . " F e b r u a r y 3 , 1955.  Vancouver Sun.  "A Generous H e l p i n g of Canadian M u s i c . " 10, i 9 6 0 .  Montreal Star.  April  SONG CYCLE "James A r t i s t r y has S u b t l e Drama." T o r o n t o Telegram.  December 4 , 1944.  Toronto S t a r .  December 4 t h , 1944.  "Music i n S c h o o l s . "  Globe and M a i l .  A p r i l 5 , 1947.  "Warm R e c e p t i o n G i v e n Canadian Music S e r i e s . " A p r i l 18, 1947. "Canadian Composers F e a t u r e d a t Harbord." A p r i l 18, 1947. "5 Canadians' C o m p o s i t i o n s on Program." A p r i l 19, 1947.  Globe and M a l l .  Toronto D a i l y S t a r . Toronto  Telegram.  "Program P l a n I n t r o d u c e s Canadian C o m p o s i t i o n s t o Keen A u d i e n c e s . " S a t u r d a y N i g h t . May 10, 1947. " M u s i c a l Musings."  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  J u l y 2, 1949.  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC Teacher." 10, 1950. "Frances James G i v e s D i s p l a y o f H i g h - A r t . " January 10, 1950.  Ubyssey.  January  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Works of Winnipeg Composer W e l l - R e c e i v e d a t UBC Vancouver News-Heraid. January.28, 1950.  Concert."  167  " C r i t i c on the H e a r t h . "  Ubyssey.  J a n u a r y 31,  "Competing w i t h Copland i s Tough." 15, 1970. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . STRING QUARTET NO.  January 16,  1950.  Vancouver Sun.  January  1970.  1  "Chamber Music R e c i t a l , A p r i l 20." A p r i l 4-25, 1949.  Art Alliance  Bulletin. ;  "Toronto Composer's Number i s P r a i s e d . " 20, 1949.  Toronto S t a r .  " R a f t e r s R i n g a t F i n a l 'Pops' C o n c e r t . " (Philadelphia). A p r i l 21, 1949.  The E v e n i n g B u l l e t i n  "Laud Q u a r t e t by Composer From Canada." A p r i l 21, 1949.  Toronto  " M u s i c a l Musings."  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  Telegram.  J u l y 2,  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC Teacher." 10, 1950.  April  1949.  Ubyssey.  January  "Works of Winnipeg Composer W e l l - R e c e i v e d a t UBC C o n c e r t . " Vancouver News H e r a l d . J a n u a r y 28, 1950. " C r i t i c i n the H e a r t h . "  Ubyssey.  January 31,  1950.  "Music by Canadians."  I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c i a n . A p r i l 1950.  "Sunday."  March 15,  CBC Times.  1953.  " P e n t l a n d C o m p o s i t i o n R e c e i v e s 'Tender' P r o v i n c e . J u l y 24, 1953. "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . " 28, 1959. CBC Times.  May  9 - 15,  p. 13.  Care."  Vancouver  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  February  1959.  " S e r i e s by Q u a r t e t C o n t i n u e s T o n i g h t . " 23, 1959. "Program T e s t s L o c a l Q u a r t e t . "  Montreal Star.  Montreal Star.  October  October 24,  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 18, 1967.  1959.  168  " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." November 28, 1967.  The Sheaf (Saskatchewan).  STRING QUARTET NO. 2 "Musikfestens Semifinal." June 9, 1956.  Svenska Dagbladet.. ( S t o c k h o l m ) .  "Sweden C o o l t o Music By BC G i r l . " 1956. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . CBC Times.  June 11,  Montreal Herald.  June  11,  1956, p. 5»  August 2 9 , 1956.  " M u s i c a l S c h e d u l e C u r t a i l e d A t Pan-American F e s t i v a l . " A m e r i c a . O c t o b e r 1959, P. 2 7 . " I t ' s Music Here 'n Now."  F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1963.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  March 2 , 1963.  " M u s i c a l Package S m a l l , Ideas B i g . " Vancouver Sun. " S t i m u l u s of t h e T h e a t r e R e q u i r e d Says P i a n i s t . " P r o v i n c e . March 4 , 1963.  Vancouver  "Top C a n a d i a n Composer - a t Home and E l s e w h e r e . " P r o v i n c e . J a n u a r y 6, 1967. " Q u a r t e t Adds t o S t a t u r e . " "Unitarians Celebrate."  Vancouver Sun.  Vancouver Sun.  "Canadian Q u a r t e t s on P u r c e l l Program." December 12, 1969.  Musical  Vancouver  May 3 0 , 1969.  December 11,  1969.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  STRING QUARTET NO. 3 ^Vancouver Sun.  June 19, 1970.  "New Q u a r t e t Takes Deep H o l d . "  Her n o t e s on the q u a r t e t . Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "Romantic Composer Has Warmth f o r t h e World." June 2 6 , 1970.  June 26, 1970.  Vancouver Sun.  " P u r c e l l Q u a r t e t P r o v e s i t s P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . " The C o u r i e r (Vancouver, Dunbar a r e a w e e k l y ) . J u l y 2 , 1970. " Q u a r t e t R e f l e c t s B l e a k Moonscape." 15, 1970.  Ottawa C i t i z e n .  August  169  "New  Works C o n v i n c i n g l y P l a y e d by Vancouver's P u r c e l l Q u a r t e t . " Ottawa J o u r n a l . August 15, 1970. p. 2 3 .  "Quartet Performs." "Max  August 22,  Montreal Star.  Reger's R e p u t a t i o n i s U n f a i r . " 29, 1970.  1970.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  " Q u a r t e t B l e n d s F o r m a l i t y , Romanticism." J a n u a r y 26, 1971.  Vancouver  "Canadian Music Shows Why Seldom Performed." ( V i c t o r i a ) . F e b r u a r y 20, 1971.  August  Sun.  Daily Colonist  " V i c t o r i a n s Hear Modern R e c i t a l . " February 20, 1971.  V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times.  "A B i t O r d i n a r y By Any S t a n d a r d . " 1971.  Vancouver Sun;  " P u r c e l l Q u a r t e t i n Great Form."  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  " C e n t u r i e s B r i d g e d by Two Composers." " Q u a r t e t B e t t e r Second Time Around." May 17, 1972.  Vancouver Sun. Vancouver  " P u r c e l l S t r i n g Q u a r t e t B e g i n s New VAG S e r i e s . " May 17, 1972. " P u r c e l l Quartet." 1973. Musicanada.  F e b r u a r y 22,  No. 29,  6,  1972.  May  6,  1972.  Province. Vancouver  F i n a n c i a l Times (London, E n g l a n d ) .  F i n a l I s s u e , 1970,  May  Sun.  July  3,  p. 3 .  STUDIES IN LINE "Marjorie D i l l a b r o u g h Gives Pleasure i n Piano R e c i t a l . " Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . December 4, 1941. " P i a n i s t Charms i n Brahms Work." 4, 1941.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Program O f f e r s Modern Music By 6 Canadians." T r i b u n e . J a n u a r y 12, 1942. "Canadian C o n c e r t a t P u b l i c L i b r a r y . " 12, 1942.  New  New  December  York H e r a l d  York Times.  January  170  " S i x Canadians' Music P l a y e d i n Manhattan," J a n u a r y 12, 1942. "Sharps and F l a t s . "  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e . J a n u a r y 17,  1942.  "The League of Composers P r e s e n t s Young C a n a d i a n Composers." M u s i c a l A m e r i c a . J a n u a r y 25, 1942. " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o Works W i l l Be Heard Monday." F r e e P r e s s . March 14-, 1942, "Women's M u s i c C l u b A n n u a l . "  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  VComposer and V i o l i n i s t Win S u c c e s s . " March 17, 1942. " L o c a l M u s i c i a n s Win A p p l a u s e . " 1942.  March 14,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Canadian Works Heard a t S a s k a t o o n C o n c e r t . " June 27, 1942.  Winnipeg  Winnipeg  1942.  "Canadian and S o v i e t Music Performed i n T o r o n t o . " O c t o b e r , 1944. "Godden P l e a s e s i n O l d and New Numbers." March 23, 1945.  "Godden Touch B r i n g s Power t o P i a n o Works." March 23, 1945. "Western P i a n i s t F u l f i l s Promise." 16, 1946.  Mall.  Toronto S t a r .  March  T o r o n t o Telegram.  Globe and M a i l .  "Haddad Shows S k i l l i n P i a n o - A r t R e c i t a l , " J a n u a r y 16, 1946. T o r o n t o Telegram.  The Composer.  Globe and  "Godden a t Keyboard i n D a z z l i n g R e c i t a l . " 23, 1945.  "Music N o t e s . "  March 17,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " F e s t i v a l i n Berkshires Inspires L o c a l Musician." T r i b u n e . O c t o b e r 3 , 1942. October 20,  1942.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "B.B.C. B r o a d c a s t a Programme of C a n a d i a n Works," T r i b u n e . May 2, 1942.  Globe and M a l l .  Winnipeg  January  Toronto S t a r .  J a n u a r y 16,  1946.  171  "Detroit."  M u s i c a l America.  "Music i n S c h o o l s . "  F e b r u a r y , 1946.  Globe and M a i l .  S a t u r d a y , A p r i l 5 , 1947.  "Warm R e c e p t i o n G i v e n Canadian Music S e r i e s . " A p r i l 18, 1947. "Canadian Composers F e a t u r e d a t Harbord." A p r i l 18, 1947. "5 Canadians* C o m p o s i t i o n s on Program." A p r i l 19, 1947.  Globe and M a i l .  Toronto D a i l y S t a r . Toronto  Telegram.  John H. Yocom. "Program P l a n I n t r o d u c e s Canadian C o m p o s i t i o n s t o Keen A u d i e n c e s . " S a t u r d a y N i g h t . May 10, 1947. " A l l Canada 5 O'clock."  Varsity.  F e b r u a r y 13, 1948.  "Somers t o P l a y H i s C o m p o s i t i o n s and P e n t l a n d ' s . " M a i l . F e b r u a r y 28, 1948. "Canadian."  Saturday Night.  Globe and  F e b r u a r y 28, 1948.  "Music by P e n t l a n d . "  CBC Times.  Week of J a n u a r y 9, 1949, p. 3 .  "Music by P e n t l a n d . "  CBC Times.  Week o f January 12, 1949.  " B a l l e t D e l i g h t s i n V a r i e d Program." December 13, 1949. "Ideas on a Keyboard."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Saturday N i g h t .  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC Teacher." 1950. " C r i t i c on t h e H e a r t h . " New York H e r a l d T r i b u n e .  Ubyssey.  J a n u a r y 9 , 1950. Ubyssey.  January 10,  January 3 1 , 1950.  March 13, 1950.  " E n g l i s h Records To C a r r y Works o f Two Canadians." P r e s s . June 3 , 1950.  Winnipeg F r e e  "UBC Woman Composer Honored." p. 11.  June 5 , 1950,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "Two C o n c e r t s P l e a s i n g t o A u d i e n c e s . " J a n u a r y 16, 1953, p. 26.  Seattle Post-Intelligencer.  " E v e r e t t B y , 15, Takes C o n c e r t Honors." 16, 1953. 0  S e a t t l e Times.  January  172  January l 6 , 1 9 5 .  Saturday Night.  k  " P e n t l a n d Music a t G a l l e r y . " 4, 1 9 5 .  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  December  k  " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d . " 1955.  January 29,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "New M u s i c . " Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r X V a n c o u v e r ) . F e b r u a r y 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 . " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n H e r C r e a t i v e Work." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y 8 , 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l 9, 1955.  Interesting.'."  " S p r i n g F e s t i v a l Most L i s t e n a b l e . "  Vancouver H e r a l d . Vancouver Sun.  February A p r i l 5» 19^5.  SYMPHONY FOR TEN PARTS "World P r e m i e r e X2." CBC Times. "Moods o f Sheer Magic."  September 18, 1959.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  November 2, 1970.  "Mixed M u s i c a l M a r r i a g e Quite R e s p e c t a b l e . " November 2 , 1970.  Vancouver Sun.  "Symphony C o n c e r t O f f e r s P l e a s i n g V a r i e t y . " O c t o b e r 15, 1971.  Edmonton J o u r n a l .  "Rampal i n F i n e Form."  Ottawa C i t i z e n .  "Rampal B e r n a r d i Supremely S a t i s f y i n g . " J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1972.  J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1972. Ottawa J o u r n a l .  SUITE BOREALIS "Top C a n a d i a n Composer - a t Home and E l s e w h e r e . " P r o v i n c e . J a n u a r y 6 t h , 1967. "The A n n u a l S p r i n g R e c i t a l . "  Vancouver Sun.  Vancouver  March 3 , 1967.  SYMPHONY NO. 1 "Manitoba M u s i c i a n s S t r o n g T o r o n t o Group." May 3 0 , 1 9 7 .  Globe and M a i l .  k  "As We Hope t o Hear." " B r i e f l y Noted."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  New L i b e r t y Magazine.  October 16,  19 7. k  November 2 9 , 1 9 7 . k  173  "Canadian Composer Known Abroad F i g h t s f o r R e c o g n i t i o n i n Homeland." Globe and M a i l . March 18, 1948. " M u s i c a l Musings."  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "To Teach Music i n UBC."  J u l y 2,  Globe and M a i l .  1949.  September  10,  1949.  SYMPHONY MO. 2 "Raps L a c k o f I n i t i a t i v e i n Use o f C a n a d i a n T a l e n t . " T r i b u n e . J u l y 12, 1952. " P e n t l a n d Second Symphony P r e m i e r e . "  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  22, 1952.  "Talented 'Juniors' i n Concert."  Winnipeg  Vancouver H e r a l d .  November  December  6, 1952. "Sunday."  CBC Times.  March 15,  "Triumph by J u n i o r Symphony."  1952.  1953.  Vancouver Sun.  " P e n t l a n d Second Symphony on A i r . "  December 6th,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  February  7, 1953. "Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . "  Vancouver Sun.  21, 1953.  "Music t o Note."  BBC R a d i o Times.  "Woman's Music Gets P r e m i e r e . "  June 6-12,  Vancouver Sun.  "Composer's Views on C r e a t i n g M u s i c . "  February  1954. November 30,  195^.  Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y  5, 1955.  SYMPHONY NO. 4 CBC Times.  September  12 - 18, 1959,  P. 4 and p. 16.  " I t C o u l d n ' t be Done (But He D i d I t ) . " I960,  p.  " C i t y Symphony t o P e r f o r m New Work." F e b r u a r y 20, i960. "Major and M i n o r . "  May  1-7,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "Harmony i n Music and M a r r i a g e . "  24, i960.  CBC Times.  35.  February  20, i960.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  February  174  "Joyous C h a l l e n g e o f L i v i n g . " I960.  February 25,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Says New Symphony Tedious and C o n f u s i n g . " F e b r u a r y 26, i 9 6 0 .  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "Audience A c c l a i m s P e n t l a n d Symphony." February 26, i 9 6 0 .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " M u s i c a l Mountain Begat Wooly Mouse." 1961.  Globe and M a l l .  "Symphony H i g h l i g h t s Canadian Works." May 6, 1961.  May 6,  Toronto D a i l y S t a r .  "There's P l e n t y of Room f o r E x p e r i m e n t s . " May 6, 1961.  Toronto  Telegram.  " C e l l i s t s J o i n Applause f o r S o l o i s t . " J a n u a r y 21, 1974.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  "VSO P o t - p o u r r i t o E x e r c i s e t h e Mind," 21, 197 .  Vancouver  Sun,  January  k  TOCCATA " C i t y Symphony t o P e r f o r m New Work." 20, I960.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " M u s i c i a n s B e t t e r Than Much o f T h e i r Music." March 2 2 , 1963. "Saturday C o n c e r t of Canadian M u s i c . " November 20, 1964. "Canada Music Week Observed November 2 3 , 1964.  Toronto  February  Telegram.  Edmonton J o u r n a l .  Saturday."  Edmonton J o u r n a l .  TRIO CON ALEA "Top C a n a d i a n Composer - a t Home and E l s e w h e r e . " P r o v i n c e . January 6, 1967. "UBC C o n c e r t F e a t u r e s T r i o . " 1967.  Vancouver  " C o n c e r t s G i v e London Two ' F i r s t s ' . " F e b r u a r y 15, 1967.  Province.  Vancouver F e b r u a r y 9,  London F r e e P r e s s .  " P e n t l a n d ' s T r i o Makes H i n d e m l t h Sound P a l e . " W a t e r l o o Record. F e b r u a r y 16, 1967.  Kitchener-  175  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n P r o v e s Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 18, 1967. " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." November 28, I 9 6 7 .  The Sheaf (Saskatchewan).  TRIO FOR VIOLIN. CELLO AND PIANO "World Audience f o r Canadian Composers." 27, 1965.  CBC Times.  February  VARIATIONS " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d P i a n o Works W i l l be Heard Monday." Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . March 14, 1942. "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win S u c c e s s . " March 17, 1942. " L o c a l M u s i c i a n s Win A p p l a u s e . " 1942.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Canadian Works Heard a t S a s k a t o o n C o n c e r t . " June 27, 1942.  October 20,  Winnipeg  1942.  "Northwest Composers* Works t o be Heard." J a n u a r y 5, 1953. " E v e r e t t Boy, 15, Takes C o n c e r t Honors." J a n u a r y 16, 1953.  Seattle Seattle  Times. Times.  " P e n t l a n d R e c i t a l by P e n t l a n d . " Vancouver P r o v i n c e . 29, 1955. "New M u s i c . " Community A r t s C o u n c i l News C a l e n d a r . 1955, V o l . 7, No. 5 .  January February  "BP P i a n o R e c i t a l Shows S k i l l i n Her C r e a t i v e Work." P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y 8, 1955. "Pentland R e c i t a l ' I n t e r e s t i n g ' . " 9, 1955.  Vancouver H e r a l d .  "Barbara Pentland." La L i b r e Belgique. "A L ' A t e l i e r . "  LeSpir.  17,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " F e s t i v a l i n Berkshires Inspires Local Musician." T r i b u n e . O c t o b e r 3 , 1942. Globe and M a i l .  March  June 18, 1955.  June 17,  Vancouver February  1955.  176  VARIATIONS CONCERTANTES " P i a n o C o m p e t i t i o n F i n a l s S t a r t a t P l a c e des A r t s . " G a z e t t e . June 11, 1971. "Des P i a n i s t e s e t des Fausses Notes." June 12, 1971.  L a Presse,, M o n t r e a l .  " C a p a c i t y Crowd Hears P i a n o C o n t e s t F i n a l i s t s . " June 14, 1971. "No F i r s t P r i z e No S u r p r i s e . "  Montreal Gazette. June 14,  1971.  L a Presse., M o n t r e a l .  June  Montreal Star.  "Pianot l e J u r y a Done Eu R a i son." 16, 1971.  Montreal  "Gala C o n c e r t Ends P i a n o C o m p e t i t i o n . " 1971.  Montreal S t a r .  June  16,  VARIATIONS ON A BOCCHERINI TUNE " M u s i c a l Musings."  J u l y 2,  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  1949..  VISTA "Adaskin-Marr A b l y Handle Modern Music." F e b r u a r y 5, 1949.  Globe and  "Harry A d a s k i n F r a n c e s Marr B r i l l i a n t P a i r . " F e b r u a r y 5, 1949. "Adaskins on Tour."  Saturday N i g h t .  "Ideas on a Keyboard."  Saturday N i g h t .  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o UBC 10, 1950. " V i o l i n i s t ' s Program Courageous." 1958. "Young A r t i s t s Show F i n e Form." 29, 1958. "Very W e l l Done, Team."  Mail.  Toronto  F e b r u a r y 15,  1949.  January 9,  1950.  Teacher."  Ubyssey.  Vancouver Sun.  O c t o b e r 11,  January  November 28,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  Vancouver Sun.  Telegram.  November 1973.  177  BARBARA PENTLAND  " L o c a l Composer Wins S u c c e s s . "  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  June 22, 1940.  * L i l l i a n Gibbons. "An Album o f Winnipeg Women." Winnipeg T r i b u n e . S a t u r d a y , A p r i l 5th, 1941. An i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e of t h e young composer, some p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s , and comments on h e r a c t i v i t i e s a t the t i m e . "Miss P e n t l a n d t o Study i n U.S."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  June 28, 194l.  * " S i x Weeks o f Work a t the B e r k s h i r e Music C e n t r e . " Winnipeg. F r e e P r e s s . S a t u r d a y , September 6,ul94l, p. 14, W r i t t e n m a i n l y by t h e composer, t h i s i s a l o n g a r t i c l e f u l l of d e t a i l s of h e r e x p e r i e n c e s a t Tanglewood. ^ " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d Shares E x p e r i e n c e a t B e r k s h i r e . " T r i b u n e . September 13, 1941. S i m i l a r t o t h e above a r t i c l e . "Canadian D e s c r i b e s B e r k s h i r e A d d i t i o n s , " September 12, 1941. "A Conspicuous C o n t r i b u t i o n . "  Montreal Gazette.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " F i r s t Young Composer C o n c e r t Next Sunday." T r i b u n e . J a n u a r y 4, 1942. "Notes Here and A f i e l d . "  New York Times.  "Canadian Composers Get N.Y. H e a r i n g . " J a n u a r y 8y 1942. "Composers O f f e r Canadian Program." J a n u a r y 12, 1942.  New York H e r a l d J a n u a r y 4, 1942.  New York World-Telegram.  "Winnipeggers• Work P l a y e d i n New York." J a n u a r y 13, 1942. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  "Women's Music C l u b A n n u a l . "  December 20, 194l.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  " S i x Canadians Music P l a y e d I n Manhattan." January 12, 1942.  "Sharps and F l a t s . "  Winnipeg  Winnipeg T r i b u n e . Winnipeg Free P r e s s . January 17, 1942.  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Composer and V i o l i n i s t Win S u c c e s s . " March 17, 1942.  March 14, 1942.  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  178  "Young Winnipeg Composer Mentioned i n U.S.A. Q u a r t e r l y . " Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . A p r i l 11, 194-2. "Canadian Works Heard a t S a s k a t o o n C o n c e r t . " June 27, 1942. "To S t u d y i n U.S." "Grace N o t e s . "  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Globe and M a l l .  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  June 27,  1942.  O c t o b e r 3 , 1942.  * " F e s t i v a l i n Berkshire Inspires Local Musician." Winnipeg T r i b u n e . October 3 . 1942. D e t a i l s o f P e n t l a n d ' s second summer of s t u d y w i t h C o p l a n d . "Two Wpg. G i r l s A r e M u s i c i a n s Here." O c t o b e r 17, 1942. CBC Times.  Toronto D a i l y S t a r .  J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1943.  "Music World."  C.B.C. Program S c h e d u l e .  Week of January 3 1 ,  " R u s s i a Sends Canada M u s i c . "  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  "Music L i n k s R u s s i a , Canada."  Globe and M a i l .  January 11,  1943. 1944.  J u l y 28, 1944.  *Rby Maley. " A s s e r t s Young Composers Lack P r o p e r H e a r i n g . " Winnipeg T r i b u n e . September 2 , 1944. Lengthy a r t i c l e c o n t a i n i n g P e n t l a n d ' s comments on t h e r e c e p t i o n o f contemporary music. "Detroit."  Musical America.  F e b r u a r y 1946.  "Symphony, S o l o i s t s i n F o l k C h o i r E v e n t . " T o r o n t o S t a r . March 26, 1947. T h i s c o n c e r t i n c l u d e d P e n t l a n d ' s o r c h e s t r a t i o n of B i r o d o d y a n e r F r e i l e c h s , a humoresque on a theme by S h t r e i c h e r . " O r a t o r i o E d u c a t o r s P l a n t o Boost C a n a d i a n M u s i c . " S t a r . A p r i l 12, 1947.  Toronto D a i l y  "Audience Wanted." T o r o n t o Telegram. A p r i l 15, 1947. P e n t l a n d ' s comments on t h e need f o r a u d i e n c e s f o r contemporary music. it  On t h e Town.11  Globe and M a l l .  11A u d i e n c e s Wanted."  A p r i l 17,  Globe and..Mail. A p r i l 19,  it 11Manitoba M u s i c i a n s S t r o n g T o r o n t o Group.  May 3 0 , 1947.  1947. 1947.  Globe and M a i l .  179  "200 Persons A t t e n d C o l o n i s t s ' C o n c e r t . " Keene E v e n i n g S e n t i n e l (Keene, New Hampshire). August 2 0 , 1947. " B r i e f l y Noted."  New L i b e r t y Magazine.  November 2 9 , 1947.  "Somers t o P l a y H i s C o m p o s i t i o n s and P e n t l a n d ' s . " Globe and M a i l . F e b r u a r y 28, 1948. *~ :  B e t t y D a v i d s o n . "Canadian Composer Known Abroad F i g h t s F o r R e c o g n i t i o n i n Homeland." Globe and M a i l . March 18, 1948. Some b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l . "Canadian Music and M u s i c i a n s From T o r o n t o t o Vancouver." I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c i a n . September 1948, p. 12 - 13. "Music by P e n t l a n d . " CBC Times. Short biography.  Week o f J a n u a r y 9, 1949.  "Modern Composer has Poor O p i n i o n o f Music P a t r o n s . " Globe and M a i l . March 2, 1949. " J e w i s h C h o i r , Dancers Triumph i n Music That F i g h t s f o r Peace." Canadian T r i b u n e . March 28, 1949. P e n t l a n d o r c h e s t r a t e d t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r Ganata by Hsu H s i n g - h a i w h i c h was performed i n t h i s c o n c e r t . * " M u s i c a l Musings." Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . J u l y 2, 1949. P e n t l a n d ' s o p i n i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r music. "To Teach Music i n B.C." Globe and M a i l . p. 14. Some b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l .  September 10, 1949,  "Canada P a s s p o r t W o r t h l e s s i n U.S." Winnipeg T r i b u n e . September 12, 1949. P e n t l a n d mentioned as a sponsor o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o n t i n e n t a l Congress f o r Peace. "Ideas on a Keyboard."  Saturday Night.  J a n u a r y 9, 1950.  " R e c i t a l Devotes Program t o U.B.C. Teacher." 10, 1950. " P e n t l a n d C o m p o s i t i o n s P l a y e d a t U.B.C." P r o v i n c e . J a n u a r y 28, 1950.  Ubyssey.  January  Vancouver D a l l y  *"Noted UBC Composer 'Can't H e l p W r i t i n g M u s i c ' . " Sun. F e b r u a r y 15, 1950. B i o g r a p h y and o p i n i o n s .  Vancouver  180  "Music by Canadians." P. 12. Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Musician.  March 14,  1950,  March  1950.  " F e s t i v a l o f M u s i c T h r i l l s Vancouver." 14, 1950.  Vancouver Sun.  March  "Canadian Composers 'Need an A u d i e n c e ' . " Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . March 16, 1950, p. 8. D e a l i n g w i t h t h e 1950 C a n a d i a n Composers' Symposium. "No  'Cure' Seen f o r Composers' Unhappy F a t e . " News-Herald. March 16, 1950. D e a l i n g w i t h the 1950 Canadian Composers' Symposium.  " W i l l Compose Symphony f o r J r . O r c h e s t r a . " March 25, 1950. "Music by Canadians."  International Musician.  "Music Symposium i n Vancouver Thronged." A p r i l 15, 1950. Saturday Night.  Vancouver Sun.  J u l y 18,  "Pentland Off t o Toronto."  A p r i l 1950,  p.  13.  Musical Courier.  1950. Ubyssey.  November 23,  1950.  "Raps Lack of I n i t i a t i v e i n Use of C a n a d i a n T a l e n t . " Tribune. J u l y 12, 1952.  Winnipeg  *"Chamber Opera i n Okanagan S e t t i n g . " Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y 21, 1953. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and d e s c r i p t i o n of p r e s e n t l i f e . "Music Dogs and S h i p s . " Ubyssey. December 2, B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and o p i n i o n s . "Composer t o P l a y Own P i a n o Works."  1954.  Vancouver Sun.  J a n u a r y 29,  1955.  "Canadian P i a n i s t . " Photograph.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  #"Composer's Views on C r e a t i n g M u s i c . " 5th, 1955. Some of h e r i d e a s on c o m p o s i t i o n . "Modern M u s i c i s S t i l l E x p e r i m e n t a l . " 12, 1955.  F e b r u a r y 5, Vancouver Sun.  Vancouver Sun.  1955. February  February  181  W i n t e r 1955.  "Miss B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d . " U.B.C. A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e . Announcement of h e r r e t u r n from Europe. " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d on European Tour." 1955. "Miss P e n t l a n d Europe-Bound." May 18, 1955.  Vancouver  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  CBC Times. Wednesday, August 29, Short biography.  1956.  "A Catalogue o f Canadian Music." 1957, P. 3.  CBC Times.  Sun.  May 18,  Wednesday,  6-12,  October  *Bell, Leslie. "Okay, Herei's Why I t s 'Extremely Bad';" Toronto D a l l y S t a r . March 22, 1958. A l o n g and v e r y c r i t i c a l r e v i e w of h e r P i a n o C o n c e r t o . " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d t o Wed a t C o a s t . " 8, 1958. " M a r r i a g e Announced."  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  October  October 11, 1958.  "World Premiere X 2." CBC Times. September 18, 1959, 1. 4. Some b i o g r a p h y and o p i n i o n s , h e r notes about the music. "Symphony P l a y s Work Next F a l l . " Winnipeg T r i b u n e . 1959. C o n c e r n i n g the commission of Symphony No. 4. "Canada Week B e i n g Observed." 1959.  F e b r u a r y 28,  Kamloops D a i l y S e n t i n e l .  May 19,  * " C i t y Symphony t o P e r f o r m New Work." Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s . F e b r u a r y 20, I960. Pre-performance announcements, some b i o g r a p h y , h e r program notes. *Maley, S. Roy. 20,  I960.  "Major and Minor."  Pre-performance program n o t e s . I960.  February  announcements, some b i o g r a p h y , h e r l e n g t h y  *"Harmony i n Music and M a r r i a g e . " 24,  Winnipeg T r i b u n e .  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s and h e r o p i n i o n s .  February  182  Hood, M a r g a r e t . "Joyous C h a l l e n g e o f L i v i n g . " Winnipeg T r i b u n e . F e b r u a r y 25, i 9 6 0 . R a t h e r f r i v o l o u s and l o n g women's page a r t i c l e . "Music by Canadians S h o u l d R e c e i v e H e a r i n g . "  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  J u l y 26, i 9 6 0 .  *Campbell, F r a n c e a n .  "She Has To Compose."  November 12, i 9 6 0 , p. 19.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  Some b i o g r a p h y and P e n t l a n d ' s o p i n i o n s ,  "Crown P r e s e n t s World P r e m i e r e . "  Ubyssey.  F e b r u a r y 3, 1 9 6 l .  B e c k w i t h , John. "Beards Wag Hours, B u t Music P a n e l s F l o p . " T o r o n t o D a l l y S t a r . May 8, 1961. " B a r b a r a P e n t l a n d i n D u a l Radio R o l e . " August 2, 1963, P. 4. B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l and o p i n i o n s .  CBC Times.  J u l y 27 -  G i l m o u r , C l y d e . "Canadian S t r i n g Q u a r t e t . " MacLean's Magazine. May 4, 1963. Mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r e c o r d i n g o f Duets A f t e r P i c t u r e s by P a u l K l e e , T r i o f o r V i o l a . C e l l o and P i a n o , and s o l o p i a n o works. "Saturday C o n c e r t o f Canadian Music." 20,  Edmonton J o u r n a l .  November  1964.  Some b i o g r a p h y and d e s c r i p t i o n of h e r m u s i c a l s t y l e . M u i r , Doug. "Chamber Composer T e l l s A l l . " Ubyssey. January 28, 1966. P e n t l a n d ' s o p i n i o n s o f the music scene i n Vancouver, and her comments on h e r s t y l e . "U.B.C. F e s t i v a l Opens." Vancouver Review o f h e r s t y l e .  Province.  F e b r u a r y 3, 1966.  "The Hugh MacLean C o n s o r t . " Vancouver Sun. December 23, 1966. M e n t i o n o f a commission f o r Hugh MacLean. "The A r t s . "  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s .  December 23, 1966.  C l u d e r a y , Lawrence. "Top Canadian Composer - A t Home and E l s e where." Vancouver P r o v i n c e . January 6 t h , 1967. Lengthy a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g works she i s w r i t i n g and g i v i n g some o f h e r o p i n i o n s . #"In Canada." Globe and M a l l . Good B i o g r a p h y .  March 16, 1967, women's s e c t i o n .  183  "Conference F e a t u r e s R e c i t a l s . " November 16, 1967.  Saskatoon Star-Phoenix.  " P e n t l a n d P r e c i s i o n Proves Music t o Our C r i t i c ' s E a r s . " S a s k a t o o n S t a r - P h o e n i x . November 18, 1967. Review of her s t y l e i n Shadows, C a p r i c e , F a n t a s y , Quartet No. 1, and T r i o con A l e a . *Egnatoff, B i l l . " F i f t h E x h i b i t i o n Concert." (Saskatchewan). November 28, 1967. Good r e v i e w and summary of her s t y l e .  The  Sheaf  *Wyman, Max. Vancouver Sun. June 19, 1970. Good b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s , , a n d d e s c r i p t i o n of h e r m u s i c a l development. " C r i t i c ' s S l i n g s Don't Daunt." Ottawa C i t i z e n . P. 37. Good p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  J u l y 15,  1971,  " P e n t l a n d ' s 'News' P r e m i e r e d T o n i g h t . " Ottawa J o u r n a l . July 15, 1971. C o m p o s i t i o n a l methods, and her a t t i t u d e s t o w r i t i n g . "Showcase t o S t r e s s Modern Canadian Music." Globe and M a i l . November 18, 1970. . A mention of her t e a c h i n g p i e c e s and the s u p p o r t of Rachel Cavalho. "Two  World P r e m i e r e s E a r n H i g h P r a i s e f o r B e r n a r d ! . " J o u r n a l . J u l y 16, 1971.  "Watson Shows P i a n o Form."  Winnipeg Free P r e s s .  Ottawa  November 29,  " F e s t i v a l Shows Teaching T r o u b l e s , Need f o r More Canadian Globe and M a i l . November 30, 1970, p. 16. M e n t i o n of her t e a c h i n g p i e c e s f o r p i a n o s t u d e n t s . "Rampal i n F i n e Form." Ottawa C i t i z e n . J a n u a r y 27, S h o r t r e v i e w of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . "Rampal, B e r n a r d l Supremely January 27, 1972.  Satisfying."  Music."  1972.  Ottawa J o u r n a l .  S h o r t r e v i e w of Symphony f o r Ten P a r t s . " P u r c e l l Q u a r t e t i n G r e a t Form."  Vancouver  Province.  May  6,  1972.  184  " C e n t u r i e s B r i d g e d by 2 Composers." Vancouver Sun. Review of S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 3 . " Q u a r t e t B e t t e r Second Time Around." May 17, 1972.  C e l l o Work S u c c e s s f u l . " Review o f M u t a t i o n s .  " P u r c e l l Quartet." 1973.  1972.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  " P u r c e l l S t r i n g Q u a r t e t B e g i n s New VAC S e r i e s . " May 17, 1972. "New  May 6,  Vancouver Sun.  Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y 23,  1973.  F i n a n c i a l Times (London, E n g l a n d ) . J u l y 3 ,  "Very W e l l Done, Team."  O c t o b e r 11,  Vancouver Sun.  " C e l l i s t s J o i n Applause f o r S o l o i s t . " J a n u a r y 21, 1974. "VSO P o t - p o u r r i t o E x e r c i s e the Mind." 21, 1974.  1973.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e . Vancouver Sun.  January  " C h r i s t o p h e r Dafoe." Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y 18, 1974. Reference t o P e n t l a n d as a "decadent r u n n i n g dog." " E x c i t i n g , C o l o u r f u l , Absurd."  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  " T a k i n g a chance on Music - and Winning." May 2 3 , 1974. Review of I n t e r p l a y .  May 23,  Vancouver Sun.  1974.  APPENDIX  D  OUTLINE OF THE BIOGRAPHY  185  186  Born J a n u a r y 2nd, 1912, i n Winnipeg, M a n i t o b a , B a r b a r a L a l l y P e n t l a n d , d a u g h t e r of C h a r l e s F r e d e r i c k and Constance L a l l y ( H o w e l l ) P e n t l a n d , 1918-27  A t t e n d e d Rupert's Land C o l l e g e i n W i n n i p e g ,  1927-29  A t t e n d e d M i s s Edgar and M i s s Cramp's p r i v a t e school l n Montreal.  1929- 30  Attended a p r i v a t e school i n P a r i s . Studied t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h C e c i l e G a u t h i e z in Paris.  1930- 36  S t u d i e d p i a n o and organ i n W i n n i p e g . 18 months correspondence l e s s o n s w i t h G a u t h i e z . Serious i l l n e s s .  1931  R e c e i v e d A.T.C.M. ( A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e T o r o n t o C o n s e r v a t o r y of M u s i c ) .  1933  R e c e i v e d L.A.B. (Licentiate©f t h e A s s o c i a t e d Board of t h e R o y a l S c h o o l s of M u s i c ,  London).  S e p t . 21, 1936  Formal debut as p i a n i s t .  1936-39  A t t e n d e d J u i l l i a r d Graduate S c h o o l of M u s i c , New York. Summer s t u d y w i t h A a r o n Copland a t B e r k s h i r e  1944-/4.2  Music C e n t r e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . 19^2  Moved from Winnipeg  194.3-4.9  Teacher o f t h e o r y and c o m p o s i t i o n a t t h e R o y a l Conservatory of Music, Toronto. Met D i k a N e w l i n a t t h e MacDowell C o l o n y . I n s t r u c t o r i n harmony, c o u n t e r p o i n t , and comp o s i t i o n a t U.B.C.  19^7 1949-63  t o Toronto.  1955  Summer months i n Europe,  1956-57  Leave of absence f r o m U.B.C. 18 months i n Europe. S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 2 s e l e c t e d f o r 1956 I.S.C.M.  187  1958  M a r r i a g e t o John Huberman.  1963  R e s i g n a t i o n from U.B.C.  MEMBER B.M.I. Canada A f f i l i a t e C a n a d i a n League of Composers J u i l l i a r d Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n MacDowell A s s o c i a t i o n F e l l o w M u s i c i a n s M u t u a l P r o t e c t i v e Union, Vancouver AWARDS Winnipeg l o c a l c o m p e t i t i o n s , p r i z e w i n n e r , 1 9 3 1 - l . J u i l l i a r d Graduate S c h o o l of M u s i c . F e l l o w s h i p s 1936-39. XIV Olympiad, London, E n g l a n d , 1 9 8 . Bronze Medal. Canada C e n t e n n i a l Medal, 1967. k  k  J u l y 1 2 t h , 1977 Ms. Joan S e l b y Special Collections The L i b r a r y U. B. C. Dear Ms.  Selby,  As you suggested og. the t e l e p h o n e , I am e n c l o s i n g a copy o f errata" i n the biography by SheilajfEastman L o o s l e y . T h i s might be h e l p f u l to anyone w i s h i n g t o borrow i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o l i s t a l l the m i s t a k e s i n t h e music examples; anyone i n t e r e s t e d would have to r e f e r to the music (which i s i n the l i b r a r y ) . Sincerely  yours,  / "Barbara P e n t i a n a  JJL.D.  (hon.)  ERRATA: Barbara Pentland; A Biography  by S h e i l a ^ s t m a n L o o s l e y  ( T h e s i s f o r MM degree - Department o f Music, U.B.C., 1974) page 8, par.2 - not h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l many y e a r s l a t e r . " 9, " 3 - not"Montreal when he was t e n " but "Port Hop*, Ont. when he was twelve". " 11, " 1 - The Blue Grotto i s l o s t . " f o o t n o t e 8 - wrong source. " 18, p a r . 1 - not a r e c i t a l : a performance i n the "salon", f o r a few l i s t e n e r s . " 18, p a r . 2 - more Debussy ( o n l y one d'Indy) " 19, l i n e 1 - not d'Indy h i m s e l f (who was near 80) but one o f h i s group (Dukas or o t h e r ) . " 21, p a r . 2- not " r e c i t a l " but "Manitoba Competition F e s t i v a l " . " 22, l i n e 1 - e a r l i e r ("began organ...."). " 30, l i n e 7 - Edgartown. " 31, l i n e 5 - " o r c h e s t r a l p i e c e " and "Rhapsody" (piano) - 2 works.  " 3 5 , Sx. 1, bar 4 - A - f l a t n o t B - f l a t - t i e s o m i t t e d i n b a r s 5,7. 37, Ex. 3  - t i e s omitted Remainder o f examples c o n t a i n too many e r r o r s t o l i s t s p e c i f i c a l l y ; pages l i s t e d separately below. " 45, l i n e 15 - 1942 date f o r house i s i n c o r r e c t . Mrs. Boggs a c t u a l l y bought i t in'1944 and we moved i n i n Jan./45. • " " f o o t n o t e 13 - Dr. Jean Sutherland Boggs. " 49, no. 22 - l i n e omitted; should r e a d ; " d i s s e c t i o n o f harmonic and rhythmic cadavers. D e l i g h t f u l s t u f f f o r those anatomi c a l l y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y d i s p o s e d " . 50, no. 25 - "war" not "was". " 69, no. 48, l i n e 3 - "a" not "as". " 74, p a r . 2 - theme proper has a l l 12 tones (end o f bar 1 to 5 ) , f o l l o w e d by i n v e r s i o n . " 78, l a s t par.- Club. . " 84 - p a r . l - i n c o r r e c t - e l d e s t daughter i s Marlon Bembe, the a r t i s t ; Amsel was a piano student i n the master c l a s s a t the Akademie. " 162, quote 42 - " l e a d s " not " l e n d s " . Other type, e r r o r s p.52, 70, 117, 134 125, no. 10 - not "near our summer c o t t a g e " - many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . In a d d i t i o n t o above examples, e r r o r s occur i n music copy on p s . 72, 103, 106, 109, H O , 111, 112, 113. M  w  

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