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A landscape approach to land classification and evaluation for regional land use planning, southern Okanagan… Hawes, Robert Alan 1974

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A LANDSCAPE APPROACH TO LAND CLASSIFICATION AND EVALUATION FOR REGIONAL LAND USE PLANNING - SOUTHERN OKANAGAN VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA • by ROBERT ALAN HAWES B.Sc. University of V i c t o r i a , 1969 A THESIS .SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of SOIL SCIENCE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1974 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that publication, in part or in whole, or the copying of th i s thesis for fin a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ROBERT ALAN HAWES Department of Soil Science The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver V6T1W5, Canada Date f ^ g 2 f c ^ u 4. /?y# i i ABSTRACT This study i s concerned with the problem of environmental data c o l l e c t i o n , interpretation and presentation for regional land use planning. A landscape c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was carried out for the watershed of the southern Okakagan Valley by c o l l e c t i n g and integrating data on s u r f i c i a l deposits, vegetation, s o i l and bedrock geology. Thirty nine land systems are described and mapped, and shown on a base map at a scale of 1:125,000. The land systems are r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous landscape units, characterized by a pa r t i c u l a r landform (or patterns of landforms) with associated vegetation and s o i l . Interpretive guidelines were developed for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of the land systems for selected engineering (urban development), recreation and w i l d l i f e interpretations. The interpre-tive guidelines with the derived s u i t a b i l i t y ratings provide planning information for the region, show how the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system can a s s i s t regional land use planning and form a framework for si m i l a r studies in other areas. Methods of data presentation were used to f a c i l i t a t e the understanding and application of this information by planners, technical experts,scientists and the concerned public. S p e c i f i c a l l y this was accomplished through the use of an expanded legend, stereo-pair and colour photographs, and by having separate sections f o r referencing information. i n The methods used in this study provide a rapid and r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive framework for c o l l e c t i n g , presenting and interpreting environmental baseline information. The information can be of valuable assistance to technical and non-technical people in the land use planning and decision making processes. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . • • • • • • 1 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . .. . . . . . . vi LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i LIST OF PLATES • . . • v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . 1 The Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Research Objectives 9 PART I . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction • • 10 Methods . 10 How to Use the Report 12 Information Contained i n Report '.. 13 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 14 Interpretations . . . . . . . . . 15 Description of the Study Area 18 Location and Size 18 Physiography and Drainage 18 Early H i s t o r i c a l Development . 20 Climate . . . . . . . . . 21 S u r f i c i a l Deposits and Geology . . 22 Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Soil s . , 32 V Page Land System Descriptions and General Suitabilities for Urban Development, Recreation and Wildlife 36 PART II ,. .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 116 Introduction 116 Interpretive Guidelines and Suitability Ratings for Engineering 116 Interpretive Guidelines and Suitability Ratings for Recreation 141 Interpretive Guidelines and Suitability Ratings for Wildlife . . . . . . . . . . . 163 DISCUSSION . . 184 REFERENCES 187 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Climatic Data for Shuttleworth and Penticton Creeks, Okanagan Valley 23 . 2. S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings and Limiting Factors for Selected Engineering A c t i v i t i e s . 136 3. S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings and Limiting Factors for Selected Recreation A c t i v i t i e s 158 4. S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings and Limiting Factors for Selected W i l d l i f e Species 179 . v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. A Simplified Model of a Possible Planning Process for Resolving Land Use Conflicts 4 2. Location of the Study Area . 19 3. Land systems of the South Okanagan . . . Pocket LIST OF PLATES Plate Page 1,2 Allendale Land System . 36,37 3,4 Anarchist Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39,40 5,6 Apex Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,42 7,8 Beaverdell Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,44 9,10 Bluff Land System 45,46 11 Carmi Land System . 48 12,13 Columns Land System 49,50 14,15 Culper Land System . . . . 51,52 16,17 Gregoire Land System . 53,54 18,19 Hestor Land System 5 5 ' 5 6 20,21 Inkaneep Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57,58 22,23 Keogan Land System . . . 59,60 24,25 K i l pool a Land System . . . 61,62 26,27 Kinney Land System 63,64 28,29 Kobau Land System . . 65,66 30,31 Kruger Land System 67,68 32,33 Lawless Land System 69,70 34,35 Louie Land System . . . . . . . 71,72 36 Manuel Land System 74 37,38 Marron Land System 75,76 39 McGregor Land System 78 40,41 Mclntyre Land System . 79,80 Plate Page 42,43 McKinney Land System . . 81,82 44,45 Munson Land System . . . . . . . . 83,84 46,47 Myers Land System . 85,86 48,49 Orofino Land System . . . . . . . . . • • - 87,88 50,51 Osoyoos Land System 89,91 52,53 Park R i l l Land System 92,93 54,55 Penticton Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . 94,95 56,57 Richter Land System . 96,97 58,59 Roy Land System 98,99 60,61 Sheep Rock Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . 100,101 62,63 Skaha Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102,103 64,65 Testa!inden Land System . . . . . . 104,105 66 Trout Lake Land System 106 67,68 Twin Lakes Land System 108,109 69,70 Vaseux Land System . 110,111 71,72 White Lake Land System . . . . . . . . . . . . 112,113 73,74 Wolfcub Land System . . ... . . . . . . . . . 114,115 75 Soi l Erosion on Penticton Land System . . . . 125 76 Soil Erosion on Penticton Land System . . . . 125 77 Ca l i f o r n i a Bighorn Sheep 166 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to Dr. D.S. Lacate of the Lands Directorate, Department of the Environment, and Dr. L.M. Lavkulich of the Department of Soil Science, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for assistance during the research project. Appreciation i s also extended to Mr. P.N. Sprout and his s t a f f at the Soils Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, for professional and fin a n c i a l support, and to my colleagues at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for t h e i r assistance. Staff of the Resource Analysis Unit of the B r i t i s h Columbia Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat assisted by producing the maps, supplying technical information and commenting on sections of the thesis. Thanks are also due to Dr. A. McLean for his advice during the study. Dr. R. Hudson assisted in making the w i l d l i f e interpre-tations. Mr. D.G. King reviewed the w i l d l i f e section and Mr. E. Wiken the engineering section. The author also expresses appreciation to Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation for f i n a n c i a l support through a Fellowship during 1973-74. 1 Among material resources, the greatest, unquestionably, is the land. Study how a society uses its land, and you can come to pretty reliable conclusions as to what its future will be. [Schumacher, 1973]. INTRODUCTION Land use has become a major problem confronting society. Throughout the world there i s increasing concern about how land resour-ces are u t i l i z e d . This concern i s reflected through the unprecedented public c r i t i c i s m , protests, confrontations and l i t i g a t i o n s brought against planners, decision makers and users of our natural resources. Attitudes towards the environment are changing as greater emphasis i s placed on the amenities of l i f e , or l i v e a b i l i t y of a region, rather than material goods. The results of these changing attitudes w i l l have profound effects not only on our p o l i t i c a l and economic i n s t i t u -tions, but also on our concepts of individual freedom and equality of opportunity [Bolle, 1973]. There are numerous reasons for these changing attitudes. The consequences of rapid population growth and of acceler-ating i n d u s t r i a l and technological development have contributed in large part to these new perspectives. Environmental p o l l u t i o n , noise, urbanization, social stress, increased affluence, leisure time and mobility, have contributed to the general awareness that the environmental, s o c i a l , aesthetic and psychic costs of resource exploitation are increas-ingly outweighing the benefits [MacNeil, 1971]. Also contributing to these changing attitudes i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that our environment i s an ecosystem, composed of connected and dependent parts. Society i s r e a l i z -ing that they cannot remain isolated from environmental problems or catastrophes which occur in other parts of the world (e.g. o i l s p i l l s , and accumulations of radio-active wastes). They are r e a l i z i n g that the present intensity and impacts of land use are placing a severe and un-sustainable stress on our ecosystem -- a stress that threatens the existence of mankind. New demands are being placed on our fixed land base. Greater and increasingly diverse benefits are expected from our land resources by a society which has changing values,but which maintains an increasing population growth with an accelerating, unregulated i n d u s t r i a l and technological appetite. As the demands for land increase, the number, inte n s i t y , and complexity of land use c o n f l i c t s also increase. D i f f i c u l t decisions w i l l have to be made in the future between resource development, environmental protection, and maintenance of environmental quality. To arrive at agreeable solutions to the d i f f i c u l t choices we must make the planning process has to be improved. The increasing frequency of c r i t i c i s m , abuse, and confrontations that resource agencies and developers face i s a clear indication of concern and unhappiness with the present system of evaluating our wants and needs [Bolle, 1973]. The next portion of the introduction attempts to provide a general under-standing of the functioning of the planning process. 3 The Planning Process This section discusses a simplified model of the planning process for resolving land use conf l ic ts . An understanding of this process is important for two reasons. F i r s t l y , to improve the methods of planning and decision making a general understanding of the processes involved is required. This includes an understanding of the processes that make up the system, how they function, their interactions, and their relative strengths and weaknesses, so that c r i t i c a l problem areas can be identi f ied. Secondly, a understanding of the planning process wi l l provide a better perspective for evaluating this project and wi l l help to c lar i fy the reasons for applying the methods used in data col lect ion, analysis, and presentation. Planning, as dist inct from the planning process, is defined as an act iv i ty concerned with the systematic col lect ion, analysis, organization and processing of technical information [Driver, 1970]. Planning can be thought of as an aid to better decision making. The planning process includes the act iv i ty of planning as well as a number of other ac t i v i t i es . The planning process includes the following sequence of events: problem def in i t ion ; planning (data col lect ion, analysis and formulating alternative courses of action); decision making; plan implementation and re-evaluation of the problemJ The planning process is shown in Figure I.. ^Although the planning process is primarily- a sequence of steps, i t also has constant loop-backs (for re-evaluation of objectives, data needs, e tc . ) . These are not discussed for purposes of s implicity . -p DATA COLLECTION i i \ ECONOMIC SOCIAL PROBLEM DEFINITION S ENVIRONMENTAL RE-EVALUATE PROBLEM IMPLEMENTATION DECISION DECISION MAKER Figure 1 DATA ANALYSIS 7 DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION INDIVIDUALS i i ELECTED REPRESEN-TATIVES A i i ORGANIZATIONS A simplified model of a possible planning process for resolving land use conflicts (A number of "feed-back" loops and short circuits exist but have not been included for clan ty). The model of the planning process presented is s i m p l i f i e d to show the sequence of processes that occur in th is very complex system. In the real world these sequence of events may not always occur. Short cuts often develop in the system, most notably by postponing the data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis un t i l a f te r decisions have been made (e.g. Canadian environmental impact studies such as the James Bay pro ject ) . ' As decision making becomes more d i f f i c u l t and better technical information and publ ic input i s required to ar r ive at agreeable so lu t ions , the planning process w i l l l i k e l y evolve increasingly towards the model presented. . Precise problem d e f i n i t i o n of the resource c o n f l i c t i s the s ta r t ing point in the planning process. Once resource c o n f l i c t s are c l e a r l y understood a framework i s provided for data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , and for rat ing the s u i t a b i l i t y of a l te rnat i ve courses of ac t ion . When the problem is not c l e a r l y understood (perhaps through a l im i ted perspective of the nature of the c o n f l i c t s ) , a sat i s fac tory outcome to the planning process can not be accomplished. Data c o l l e c t i o n provides the fuel for the planning process. The nature of the data co l lected and i t s presentation (type, amount, scale and q u a l i t y ) , w i l l a f f e c t the kinds of analys is that can be made and also the o b j e c t i v i t y and qua l i t y of a l te rnat i ve courses of act ion that are proposed [Bross,'1965]... Data c o l l e c t i o n u l t imately af fects 2 the qua l i t y or " r a t i o n a l i t y " of the decision making process. Data requirements include environmental, economic and s o c i a l . 2' For a discussion of ra t iona l decis ion making see Pressman, [1970]. . Data analysis i s the process of evaluation and refinement of information. Secondary and t e r t i a r y interpretations, such as c a p a b i l i t y , s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y ratings may be made at t h i s stage. To evaluate the analysis process i t i s important to consider how the analyses are made and who does the analysis. A l l analysts have t h e i r own value standards which almost invariably are reflected, to some extent, in the data collected and the. alternatives selected [Fox, 1970]. If a bias i s b u i l t into the analysis process, the range and quality of plans proposed and hence the choices presented to the decision maker, w i l l also be biased. Plans are developed to iden t i f y alternative courses of action, and t h e i r consequences, for consideration in the decision making process. The quality of the plans proposed depend in large part on the previous processes of problem d e f i n i t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis. The quality of the plans proposed also depends upon the existing p o l i t i c a l , economic, social and environmental constraints that the planner has to deal with. I t should be noted that the nature and quality of the alternatives provided and the manner - j n which they are provided, plays a s i g n i f i c a n t part in determining what decisions w i l l be made and how they w i l l be implemented [Driver, 1970]. The decision making process consists of choosing between altern-ative plans or means for accomplishing an objective [Driver, 1970]. The decision maker i s i d e a l l y trying to optimize public welfare by deciding on a course of action which confers the greatest mix of benefits 3 to society. However, there i s no standard value system in society for 3 Optimization i s used in the sense of Bolle [1973], as obtain-ing the best combination of benefits over time. 7 determining what the optimum mix of benefits w i l l be [Pressman, 1970]. The decision maker must determine the optimum mix of benefits by weighing the value preferences received from i n d i v i d u a l s , organizations, and elected representatives. The decision maker should also be aware of certain principles that exist in a democratic society -- in p a r t i c u l a r , the p r i n c i p l e that the individual or his elected representative, not a. technical expert, should be the f i n a l judge of what i s best for him [Fox, 1970]. To make good or " r a t i o n a l " decisions, the decision maker, elected representative, organizations and individuals depend upon planners presenting comprehensive, accurate, and unbiased alternative courses of action for consideration. The implementation process i s the one in which the plans decided upon are carried out. It i s unlikely however, that the same plans w i l l be interpreted and implemented s i m i l a r l y by different administration agencies. The way plans are implemented w i l l depend upon the j u r i s d i c -t i o n , organizational aims, and technical expertize of the administrative agency [Fox, 1973]. The l a s t step in the planning process i s to re-evaluate the problem or monitor the a c t i v i t i e s a f ter the plans have been implemented. This i s an important process for i t w i l l provide feedback to suggest plan adjustments that may be needed, and i t w i l l also help evaluate the success of the methods used in the planning process. From th i s b r i e f introduction to the planning process a number of points should be made. F i r s t l y , the model presented of the planning process i s greatly s i m p l i f i e d for purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n . As different perceptions, prejudices and interests become involved in 8 the system the planning process becomes, as might be expected, enormously complicated. Secondly, the planning process consists of a sequence of dependent steps or processes. The quality of each process depends upon the way i n which the previous processes were carried out (e.g. the decision making process depends on the alternatives presented to the decision maker, which in turn depends upon the data collected and analyzed). One weak step in the planning process can make the whole system appear inadequate. I t should be apparent that weak steps, or bottlenecks, do exist. A major bottleneck i s data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis [Runge and Kusler, 1972]. The data required to make good informed choices i s often lacking, incomplete, or not in a form that can be readily understood and used (e.g. many vegetation and s o i l survey reports). This i s a very serious problem because the kind and quality of data collected ultimately determines the kind.and quality of decisions that can be made [Bross, 1965]. This study w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y address this important problem by presenting a method that can be used as an environmental framework for data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis in regional land use planning. This study does not attempt to carry out the planning process, but only a part; namely information on the physical environment. The planning process i s discussed so that the reader i s aware that the study i s cognizant of the process and that the study was conducted so that i t could " f i t - i n " to the process d i r e c t l y , without reinterpretation. 9 Research Objectives This study addresses the problem of environmental information, i t s c o l l e c t i o n , interpretation and presentation to aid in regional land use planning. The research objectives are threefold: F i r s t l y , to make a land (biophysical) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the southern Okanagan Valley, by c o l l e c t i n g and integrating data on vege-t a t i o n , s o i l , s u r f i c i a l deposits and to a lesser extent bedrock geology. This integration i s thought to be necessary to understand, conceptualize and apply ecological information in regional land use planning. The landscape units provide a framework for data analysis and for c o l l e c t i o n of further environmental information. Secondly, to determine the general s u i t a b i l i t i e s of the land-scape units for recreation, w i l d l i f e and urban development. This w i l l show how the land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be a useful aid in regional planning, and also provide important planning information in the study area. Thirdly, to attempt dif f e r e n t methods of data presentation so that the data can be read, understood and used by planners, natural resource s p e c i a l i s t s and non-technical people. Emphasis i s placed on making the data as clear and "useable" as possible, to promote more informed decision making. 10 P A R T I Introduction The information provided in this report i s i n two parts. Part I describes the area, the problems, provides general descriptions of the resources and i l l u s t r a t e s the approach used in inventory and data presentation. Part II provides the interpretive guidelines and s u i t a b i l -i t y ratings developed for selected engineering (urban development), recreation and w i l d l i f e interpretations. The thesis i s designed so that inclusive sections can be referenced by the interested reader but the thesis forms an integrated whole. Methods Early i n the summer of 1973 preliminary mapping of land systems was started for the watershed of the southern Okanagan V a l l e y . 4 Mapping was done on aerial photographs at a scale of 1 mile = 1 inch. 4 Land systems are recurring patterns of landforms with associated vegetation and s o i l s . For further information the reader should refer to Christian [1958]. 11 The mapping procedure was similar to the guidelines developed for the Canadian Biophysical Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n [Lacate, 1969]. Land systems and boundaries were f i e l d checked at approximately 130 s i t e s , of which sixty were selected for detailed habitat descriptions. At these sit e s (usually homogeneous units about 1/.10 of an acre in s i z e ) , detailed notes were made on the plant species present and t h e i r percent cover in the tree, shrub and herb layers. A s o i l p i t was dug and the s o i l morphology described (materials, horizons, depths, textures and drainage). Other habitat features such as slope, elevation, aspect and history were noted and ground photographs were taken. Fourteen benchmark s o i l s were sampled for engineering inter-pretations. The s o i l s were analyzed for p a r t i c l e s i z e , l i q u i d l i m i t , p l a s t i c l i m i t and the percent s i l t and clay by the s o i l laboratory of the Soils Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C. In the f a l l and winter of 1973 f i n a l mapping and descriptions of the land systems were completed. A base map with an expanded legend was produced at a scale of 1:125,000. At this time,tables, maps and photographs were prepared (as in the following sections) and interpretive guidelines developed for recreation, w i l d l i f e and urban development (as in Part I I ) . Thirty nine land systems were established. They are r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous landscape units usually characterized by a particular land-form and one vegetation association and one s o i l association. 5 On very complex landscapes (e.g. Louie and Roy land systems) scale l i m i t a t i o n s (see c l a s s i f i c a t i o n section) resulted i n the inclusion of two or more landforms, vegetation or s o i l associations. 12 The plant nomenclature i s after Hitchcock, et al_. [1955, 1959, 1961, 1964 and 1969]. The s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n follows, "The System of Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Canada," 1970. The detailed plot descriptions and s o i l analyses are available through the Soils Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture. How to Use the Report This report i s designed for use by planners, s c i e n t i s t s , natural resource managers and by the concerned public. The information presented provides baseline environmental information f o r regional land use planning and policy formation. Numerous uses can be made of this report. Some are direct and r e l a t i v e l y simple such as information about vegetation zones, s u r f i c i a l deposits and s o i l s . Other uses are more ind i r e c t and require the user to interpret the basic information in l i g h t of his own needs. Examples of how the information can be used include planning f o r : recreation; w i l d l i f e ; urban development; commercial, industrial and transportation developments; timber management; environmental impact studies; green b e l t s ; erosion prevention; and for predicting areas of land use c o n f l i c t s . 13 Information Contained in the Report Information i s provided on s u r f i c i a l deposits, s o i l s , vegetation, geology and climate. Interpretations for urban development, recreation and w i l d l i f e have also been developed. The location and extent of the land systems are indicated on the base map (scale of 1:125,000). This map with i t s expanded legend, describes the elevation, s u r f i c i a l materials, vegetation, s o i l s , topo-graphy and drainage of each land system. The map (with the expanded legend) i s designed to provide readily available environmental information. A general description of the study area (e.g. climate, history, vegetation) i s given in the section e n t i t l e d , "Description of the Study Area." The section "Land System Descriptions and S u i t a b i l i t i e s for Urban Development, Recreation and W i l d l i f e , " provides more detailed information on each land system. Included are descriptions of the landforms, materials, s o i l s and vegetation and s u i t a b i l i t y ratings for urban development, recreation and w i l d l i f e . Also included are ground and stereopair photo-graphs (to provide information and to help conceptualize landscape units). Information of a more technical nature i s placed in Part I I . In Part II are the c r i t e r i a developed for determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings with the derived s u i t a b i l i t y ratings in tabular form. 14 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n To avoid confusion in interpreting the map units the user should be aware of certain basic principles of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems.^ Cl a s s i f i c a t i o n s are contrivances developed by man. They are mental devices used to arrange things into man's idea of order -- not . truths which can be discovered [Lavkulich, 1973]. I t should be recognized that, " a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are purposive, whether or not this i s realized by t h e i r creators" [Rowe, 1971]. Landscape units having similar properties of materials and associated vegetation and s o i l , were grouped into land systems. The land system i s a taxonomic category based on defined properties. It i s an abstraction of the landscape. There are limitations of any map due to scale. Preliminary land system mapping was done on a i r photographs at a scale of 1 mile = 1 inch. At this scale the smallest unit which can be shown i s about 40 acres and a l i n e on the photograph equals approximately 150 feet on the ground. Therefore the base map (approximately 2 miles = 1 inch) cannot show units smaller than about 150 acres. With these limi t a t i o n s of scale, i t should be evident that map units are not 100 percent pure taxonomic units. Land systems w i l l contain small inclusions of dif f e r e n t kinds of s o i l , or materials, vegetation, etc. Inclusions of 10 percent or less of the area were not considered An introduction to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n principles can be found in Cline, [1949]. 15 to be s i g n i f i c a n t at this level of survey. Interpretations Urban Development: Engineering interpretations were made to ass i s t planning for urban development. They w i l l f a c i l i t a t e planning a c t i v i t i e s involving the use or movement of s o i l materials such as in transportation corridor developments. • S u i t a b i l i t y ratings show the general s u i t a b i l i t y of a land system for an engineering a c t i v i t y . S u i t a b i l i t y ratings help predict the degree of l i m i t a t i o n (expense) expected for a land system for a parti c u l a r use. Ratings also help direct s i t e - s p e c i f i c investigations. Overlays can be used to separate the a c t i v i t y or a c t i v i t i e s being considered. Accompanying each s u i t a b i l i t y rating i s the factor or factors - considered l i m i t i n g for that particular use (e.g..slope, drainage, etc.). In the appendices the l i m i t i n g factor i s discussed. These factors help the user predict the kinds of problems to expect when certain a c t i v i t i e s are planned within a land system. As a result of the scale of mapping (see c l a s s i f i c a t i o n section) there may be large inclusions of materials with contrasting properties. The ratings should be used only to provide general s u i t a b i l i t i e s of an area for a particular use. They do not replace s p e c i f i c on-site engineering investigations. Recreation: Recreation ratings are based on landscape features of s u r f i c i a l materials, s o i l , potential (climax) vegetation, 16 topography and climate. Other considerations important to recreational planning, such as recreation features, location, user demand and economics were not considered. The s u i t a b i l i t y ratings are designed for regional planning. They indicate the general environmental s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for a particular recreation a c t i v i t y (and intensity of use). S u i t a b i l i t y ratings help predict the degree of l i m i t a t i o n (expense) expected for a land system for a particular use. They can be used to direct s i t e -s p e c i f i c investigations. The factor or factors considered l i m i t i n g for a particular use are l i s t e d with the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings. They predict the kinds of problems which can be expected with use of the land system for an a c t i v i t y . The c r i t e r i a developed for determining the l i m i t a t i o n ratings may provide a framework for recreational assessments in other areas. However, the c r i t e r i a w i l l l i k e l y require some modification i f applied to different environments (as w i l l the guidelines for engineering and w i l d l i f e ) . Limitations of the information are due mainly to the scale of the survey (see c l a s s i f i c a t i o n section) and because of the omission of aesthetic, social and economic factors in the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings. W i l d l i f e : Selected w i l d l i f e interpretations are developed to a s s i s t regional planning. The study does not attempt to assess the total w i l d l i f e resource in the area. W i l d l i f e s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consider four habitat elements --food (based on climax vegetation), cover, physiography and juxtaposition, 17 or interspersion of habitats. The habitat requirements of each species were determined largely through a l i t e r a t u r e review. Only limited local knowledged could be obtained. The s u i t a b i l i t y ratings assess the degree of e f f o r t and expense required to make the land system (in i t s present condition) provide the habitat elements of each species. The ratings help i d e n t i f y key w i l d l i f e areas of high s u i t a b i l i t y . They can also be used to predict areas of potential resource c o n f l i c t s . The factor or factors considered to l i m i t use for a pa r t i c u l a r species accompany the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings. These factors indicate the . kinds of habitat improvements required by each species. The impacts of development on w i l d l i f e can be assessed from this information. Knowing species habitat requirements should allow the planner to predict the effect that a land use practice w i l l have on that species (e.g. logging, recreation developments, etc.). When interpreting the information the user should be aware of limi t a t i o n s due to scale (see c l a s s i f i c a t i o n section) and due to the lack of local input in determining species habitat requirements. In addition, interpretations for cover and food were based on climax vegetation -- not serai vegetation which may presently exist. Basic environmental habitat information i s provided in this report. The user can develop different species s u i t a b i l i t y interpre-tations (birds, r e p t i l e s , bats, etc.) by determining s p e c i f i c species habitat requirements and assessing these requirements with the information provided herein. 18 Description of the Study Area Location and Size The study area i s located in the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia (Figure I I ) . It consists of the South Okanagan Watershed • from Penticton to the International Boundary. I t i s situated between 49 degrees and 49 degrees 30'N, and between 119 degrees 10'E and 119 degrees 56'W. The area i s approximately 36 miles from north to south, and from 28 miles (at Penticton) to about 10 miles (at Osoyoos) in width. It covers approximately 400,000 acres.-Physiography and Drainage The study area l i e s within two physiographic regions, the Interior Plateau mainly to the west of the Okanagan River, and the Columbia Highlands to the east [Douglas, 1970]. The Okanagan Valley consists of a north-south trench, joined by short tributary creeks with narrow valleys and steep gradients [Nasmith, 1962]. Above the valley bottom are steep slopes, bluffs and sloping terraces which give way to a rough plateau surface about 4,000 feet in elevation. The average water level i s about 1,121 feet for Okanagan Lake and 910 feet for Osoyoos Lake, with the valley bottom changing approximately 211 feet in elevation over 36 miles. 19 F i g u r e 2 L o c a t i o n o f the Study A r e a 20 Drainage i n the Okanagan Valley i s from north to south by the Okanagan River which flows from Okanagan Lake, through Skaha, Vaseux and Osoyoos Lakes into Washington. The major creeks are Penticton, E l l i s and Shingle in the north, Shuttleworth, Vaseux, Wolfcub and Park R i l l in the central region, and Testalinden and Inkaneep Creeks in the south. The flow of Okanagan River i s controlled by Okanagan Lake, Skaha Lake and S.O.L.l.D. dams as well as by a series of v e r t i c a l drop structures (Okanagan Study Committee, B u l l e t i n No. 1, 1972). Many of the upland creeks and lakes have been dammed to supply i r r i g a t i o n water.. Early H i s t o r i c a l Development Stuart and Montigny v i s i t e d the Okanagan Valley in 1811 search-ing for a fur trading route to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. With the building of Fort Kamloops the Okanagan Valley became a main trading route u n t i l the establishment of the International Boundary in 1848. In 1859 an inf l u x of miners moved into the area when placer gold was discovered at Rock Creek and along the Similkameen River. A gold commissioner was established and in 1861 a Customs Office was located in Osoyoos. The early 1860's saw the st a r t of the ranching era with a large demand for horses, mules and c a t t l e created by the gold miners. It i s estimated that by 1892, there were 20,000 head of c a t t l e in the Similkameen, Osoyoos and Boundary areas [Fraser, 1952]. 21 In 1887 gold was discovered at Fairview near the present town of Oliver. By the 18901s Fairview was one of the largest towns in the inland Northwest [Sismey, 1968]. Major gold mines were also located to the east (Camp McKinney) and west (Nickel Plate) of the study area. It was not u n t i l 1905 that intensive agriculture started. With the formation of the South Okanagan Land Company, storage dams and i r r i g a t i o n systems were constructed and orchards started in the Penticton area [Dawson, 1964]. In 1919 the Provincial Government purchased land from the South Okanagan Land Company for veterans of World War I. CIimate The Okanagan Valley i s largely protected from the eastward moving moist P a c i f i c maritime a i r by the Coast and Cascade Mountains. This results i n low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , about 30 inches in the uplands and 12 inches in. the valley bottom. Polar Continental (in winter) and Tropical Continental a i r i s frequent, the l a t t e r resulting in the highest temperatures in the Province [Chapman, 1952]. There i s a marked,vertical zonation of climate where pr e c i p i -tation and runoff increase and the mean temperature and f r o s t free period decrease with a l t i t u d e (Table 1). This effect occurs to a lesser extent in the valley bottom, with the climate becoming progress-ively moister and cooler moving south to north [Chapman and Brown, 1966]. The highest and lowest temperatures recorded f o r Oliver are 111 and -23 degrees fahrenheit, and for Penticton 105 and -17 degrees 22 [ B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, 1970]. The annual p r e c i p i -tation f a l l s in two peak periods, June, and November through January. As a res u l t df the hot summers and low r a i n f a l l , a high water d e f i c i t exists [Chapman and Brown, 1966]. Topography and aspect greatly affect the local climate as i s shown by the native vegetation [Tisdale, 1947]. Exposure modifies such factors as the amount and ef f i c i e n c y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , temperature, wind speed and d i r e c t i o n , a i r drainage and duration of snow cover. S u r f i c i a l Deposits and Geology Evidence indicates that the area has been glaciated four times [Armstrong et a]_., 1965]. The l a s t , or Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n , i s thought to have moved as far south as the 48th p a r a l l e l at. i t s maximum extent and then started to retreat about 10,000 years ago [Nasmith, 1962]. As the ice moved through the valley i t rounded off the surround-ing h i l l s and deposited a veneer of g l a c i a l t i l l over the landscape. With the melting of the glacier extensive kames, outwash terraces, kettled outwash terraces, raised a l l u v i a l fans and deltas, and g l a c i a l lacustrine deposits were formed, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the lowlands. Recent deposits (since g l a c i a t i o n ) , include a l l u v i a l fans, deltas, colluvium and the floodplain of the Okanagan River [Nasmith, 1962]. The unconsolidated materials transported by ice and water form the parent materials for most of the mineral s o i l s in the South Okanagan [Kelley and Spilsbury, 1949]. TABLE 1 CLIMATIC DATA FOR SHUTTLEWORTH AND PENTICTON CREEKS, OKANAGAN VALLEY Frost Free Period 2 (days) Growing Precipitation Potential ^  Evaporation (inches) Station Name Slope (0) Aspect Elevation (feet) Degree Days 2 (days) 2 May-Sept (inches) 3 Annual (inches) Runoff (inches) • 7 - rr : Vaseux 0 Valley Bottom 1112 163 4284 4.5 14.2 26.6 -12.4 Ir r i g a t i o n 2.5 S 2045 126 3242 5.1 16.5 23.0 -6.5 Dutton 25.0 N 3830 108 2179 6.2 24.6 20.4 4.2 Venner 4.0 NW 4735 54 1258 8.1 30.5 15.1 15.4 McLean-Clan 2.5 N 5050 40 611 9.3 32.9 12.0 20.9 Climatic information~ was provided by Climate and Data Services,' Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Estimates of 30 year normal values, based on long term data from Penticton airport. 'Annual prec i p i t a t i o n was derived from regression equations presented by Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement, Preliminary Report No. 38, 1973. Potential evaporation was determined by Thornthwaite 1s method (Thornthwaite and Mather, 1957). r o o o 24 Palaeozoic gneisses and s c h i s t s , Permo-Carboniferous quartz-i t e s , Middle and Upper Mesozoic granites, and Tertiary volcanics under-l i e the s u r f i c i a l deposits [ L i t t l e , 1961; Douglas, 1970]. Vegetation Vegetation in the Okanagan Valley has been described by Spilsbury and Tisdale [1944], Tisdale [1947], Tisdale and McLean [1957], Brayshaw [1965] and Brayshaw [1970]. Vegetation descriptions by McLean [1969] in the Similkameen Valley and Daubenmire [1952, 1968, 1970] in Washington and Idaho can also be applied to the study area. The vegetation was organized into four broad zones which tend to occur sequentially in elevation. They are the: big sagebrush {Artemisia tridentata); Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii)', Subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce (Abies lasiocarpa — Picea engelmannii); and alpine zones. These zones are areas of essen t i a l l y uniform macro-climate where one plant community i s c l i m a t i c a l l y dominant (climatic climax), [Daubenmire, 1968 a]. The zones are characterized in forest regions by the dominant tree in the tree layer, and i n the steppe region by the dominant shrub. Secondary subdivisions of the vegetation were made on the basis of local s o i l or topographic influences which modify the macro-climate. These units are called habitat types [Daubenmire, 1968].^ habitat type can be thought of as areas that support or potentially support the same climax vegetation. 25 Several phases or variations in habitat types are also recognized. The vegetation zones and habitat types defined in this report are s i m i l a r to those recognized by McLean [1969] and Daubenmire [1968, 1970]. One important exception i s that because of the discontinuous, nature of the ponderosa pine forest, i t i s treated as a subzone i n the big sagebrush zone. A more comprehensive description of the vegetation w i l l be completed by 1975 and made available through the Soils Branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture. Big Sagebrush Zone: This zone occurs between 900 and 2,000 feet in elevation. It consists of the bunchgrass and ponderosa pine subzones: (a) Bunchgrass subzone This subzone i s a treeless area of steppe vegetation character-ized by big sagebrush with greasewood {Purshia tridentata) on outwash sands. The char a c t e r i s t i c grass i s bluebunch wheatgrass {Agropyron Q spicatian). The s o i l s are Rego and Orthic Brown Chernozems. This subzone corresponds to Krajina's [1965] ponderosa pine-bunchgrass zone, bunchgrass subzone. Three habitat types and one phase are recognized. The big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type i s the climatic climax. It i s characterized by big sagebrush and bluebunch wheatgrass. Other species include Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii), phlox {Phlox longifolia),paintbrush {Castilleja oervina), yellow bell {Fritillaria pudica) and eriogonum species {Eriogonum niveum). ~ 8" The s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n follows "The System of Soil C l a s s i f i -cation for Canada" 1970. 26 The big sagebrush -- speargrass {Stipa comata) habitat type occurs on shallow and coarse textured s o i l s (edaphic climax). F l o r i s -t i c a l l y i t i s si m i l a r to the big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type, but speargrass i s the dominant grass. Sand dropseed {Sporobolus cryptandrus) and red three awn grass (Aristida longiseta) also occur. The greasewood-speargrass habitat type occurs around Osoyoos Lake on coarse outwash sands and gravels (edaphic or zootic climax). Greasewood i s the dominant shrub. Sand dropseed, red three awn and Sandberg's bluegrass are the dominant.grasses. A sumac [Rhus glabra) phase was i d e n t i f i e d . It occurs in seepage areas and at the base of slopes, probably indicating the presence of groundwater. Characteristic species are sumac, mock orange (Philadelphus lewisii), Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), wild cherry (Prunus emavginata) and on wetter sites hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and wild rose (Rosa sp.). (b) Ponderosa Pine Subzone This subzone i s tr a n s i t i o n a l between the steppe and the Douglas f i r forest. I t i s not continuously represented, but rather seems to obtain climax status on a l l u v i a l - c o l l u v i a l fans and outwash sands and gravels. The s o i l s are primarily Degraded Eutric Brunisols although some sites were c l a s s i f i e d as Brown Chernozems and Regosols. The subzone is characterized by ponderosa pine with only the occasional Douglas f i r present. Mature stands have an open canopy with a steppe-like herb cover. Two habitat types and one phase are recognized. 27 The ponderosa pine — Idaho fescue {Festuca idahoensis) habitat type i s characterized by ponderosa pine, Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass. Other species include umbrella plant {Eriogonum heracleoides), Saskatoon berry, junegrass {Koeleria cristata), spring sunflower {Balsa-morhiza sagittata), oyster plant (Tragopogon dubius), and lemonweed {Lithospermum ruderale). The ponderosa pine-greasewood habitat type occurs on sandy outwash (edaphic climax), between Oliver and Kaleden. It i s characterized by greasewood under a canopy of ponderosa pine. Other species include bluebunch Wheatgrass, Sandberg's bluegrass, junegrass, sand dropseed, bit t e r r o o t {Lewisia rediviva), phlox, oyster plant and peacock species {Dodecatheon pauciflorum). At higher elevations (1,800 - 2,300 f e e t ) , Idaho fescue, larkspur {Delphinium nuttallianum), and penstemon {Penstemon confertus) occur. The northern black cottonwood (Populus trichoearpa)--red-osier dogwood {Cornus stolonifera) phase occurs on the Okanagan River flood-plain. While no mature stands were found i t appears that the tree cover i s dominated by northern black cottonwood, ponderosa pine, trembling aspen {Populus tremuloides) and water birch {Betula oooidentalis). The shrub cover consists of wild rose {Rosa nutkana), red-osier dogwood, willow {Salix sp.), alder {Alnus tenuifolia), hawthorn, white clematis {Clematis ligusticifolia) and poison ivy {Rhus radioans). Carex {Carex spp.), northern bedstraw {Galium boreale), and osmorhiza {Osmorhiza chilensis) were found in the herb layer. 28 Douglas F i r Zone: This zone occurs from about 2,000 - 4,200 feet in elevation (but may extend above 5,500 feet on steep south facing slopes). It i s an extensive forest zone lying between the lower big sagebrush and the subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce zones. The s o i l s are primarily Degraded Eutric Brunisols but include Eutric Brunisols, Gray Luvisols and Dark Brown, Black and Dark Gray Chernozems. Douglas f i r i s the climax tree with ponderosa pine, western larch {Larix oocidentalis) and lodgepole pine {Pinus contorta) serai . species invading after logging or f i r e s . Two grassland habitat types are recognized as edaphic or topoedaphic climaxes on compact g l a c i a l t i l l and steep south facing slopes. This zone i s sim i l a r to Krajina's [1965] i n t e r i o r Douglas f i r zone. Four major habitat types are recognized. The Douglas fir-Idaho fescue habitat type occurs from about 2,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation. It i s r e l a t i v e l y open community characterized by Douglas f i r and ponderosa pine. The shrub layer i s not well developed but includes wild rose, mahonia and snow brush {Ceanothus velutinus). The characteristic grasses are bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. Other species include June grass, hawk's beard {Crepis atvabavba), long plumed purple avens (Geum- triflorum), wild strawberry [Fragaria- spp.) and white hawkweed {Hieracium albiflorum). The Douglas fir-pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubesoens) habitat type forms the climatic climax from about 2,500 to 4,200 feet in eleva-tio n . I t i s characterized by a cover of Douglas f i r and pinegrass. 29 Lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine and western larch are the principal serai trees. The shrub cover i s well developed and contains kinnikinnick {Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), spirea {Spiraea betulifolia) and waxberry {Symphoricarpos albus). The herb cover i s dominated by pinegrass with heart-leaf arnica {Arnica cordifolia), carex {Carex concinnoides), wild strawberry, showy aster {Aster conspicuus), and lupine {Lupinus sp.). Above 3,500 feet in elevation soopolallie {Sheperdia canadensis), f a l s e box {Pachistima myrsinites) and grouseberry {Vaccinium scopariwn) may occur. The threetip sagebrush {Artemisia tripartita) — bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type i s a topoedaphic climax between 2,000 and 3,000 feet in elevation. This steppe vegetation i s tra n s i t i o n a l between the big sagebrush and Douglas f i r zones. It i s characterized by the presence of threetip sagebrush. Other species include big sagebrush, bluebunch wheatgrass, junegrass, umbrella plant and fleabane {Erigeron filifolius). The Idaho fescue — umbrella plant habitat type i s a topo-edaphic climax between about 3,000 and 5,200 feet in elevation. It i s characterized by umbrella plant, Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass. Other species include lupine {Lupinus sericeus), erigeron {Erigeron corymbosus), sticky geranium {Geranium viscosissimum), arnica {Arnica sororus), phacelia {Phacelia linearis), and smooth agoseris {Agoseris glauca). Subalpine F i r - Enqelmann Spruce Zone: This zone i s the highest forest zone in the study area. It l i e s between the lower Douglas f i r and the upper alpine zones, between approximately 4,200 and 30 7,400 feet in elevation. The s o i l s are primarily Degraded Dystric and Dystric Brunisols, but include Brum"solic Gray Luvisols, Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols, Alpine Dystric Brunisols and Black Chernozems. This zone corresponds roughly with Krajina's [1965] Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r zone, in what he c a l l s the Canadian Cordilleran subalpine forest region. Four habitat types are recognized. The subalpine f i r - Engelmann spruce-pinegrass habitat type occurs on the lower and dr i e r slopes of the zone, from about 4,200 to 5,500 feet in elevation. The serai species lodgepole pine and Douglas, f i r often dominate the stands with Engelmann spruce and to a lesser extent subalpine f i r present as regeneration. Shrubs include grouseberry, false box, so o p o l a l l i e , spirea, and mountain labrador tea {Ledum glandu-losum). The herb layer i s dominated by pinegrass and includes carex, heart-leaf arnica, lupine (Lupinus latifolius), wild strawberry, twin flower {Linnaea borealis) and pyrola (Pyrola seounda). The subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce-grouseberry habitat type occurs at middle elevations in this zone, from about 5,500 to 6,600 feet in elevation (climatic climax). Subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce dominate the tree layer with lodgepole pine the most important serai tree. Characteristic shrubs include grouseberry, big whortleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum)I, black twinberry {Lonioera involucrata), red twinberry (Lonioera utahensis), labrador tea and white rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum). Grasses are poorly represented. Herbs include heart-leaf arnica, broad-leaf arnica (Arnica laiifolia), alpine lupine (Lupinus latifolius), t r a i l i n g rubus (Rubus pedatus), wood betony 31 {Pedicularis bracteosa), wild strawberry and pyrola. In seepage areas swamp gooseberry (Eibes laoustve), mountain valerian {Valeriana sitchensis), Indian hellebore (Veratrum viride), white marsh marigold {Caltha leptosepala), giant ragwort {Seneeio triangularis), and globe flower {Trollius laxus) may occur. The subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce-red heather {Phyllodoce empetriformis) habitat type occurs at the highest elevations in the zone from about 6,600 to 7,400 feet in elevation. This habitat type includes the krummholz formation where the tree cover i s somewhat open and the trees are stunted. Common species include subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine, grouseberry, red heather and to a lesser extent yellow heather {Phyllodoce glanduliflora). The herb layer includes broad-leaf arnica, alpine lupine, mountain valerian and wood betony. The high sagebrush {Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) — pine-grass habitat type occurs on steep south aspects (topoedaphic climax) from about 5,100 to 6,100 feet in elevation. It i s characterized by the presence of high sagebrush and pinegrass. Other species include June grass, Idaho fescue, lupine {Lupinus sp.), umbrella plant, wild straw-berry, sulphur eriogonum {Eriogonum umbellatum) and long plumed purple avens. Alpine Zone: This zone i s generally found above 7,400 feet in elevation but may occur at lower elevations on exposed slopes. The zone l i e s above the krummholz vegetation in the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. The s o i l s are primarily Alpine Dystric Brunisols. 32 This zone corresponds with Krajina's [1965] alpine zone. Trees are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y lacking although rare, windswept and very much dwarfed white-bark pine (Pinus albicaulis), lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce were found. The shrub layer includes dwarf juniper (Juniperus communis), shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruiticosa), red heather and dwarf willow (Salix nivalis). Other species include white pussytoes (Antennaria alpina), l i t t l e flower penstemon (Penstemon procerus), p o t e n t i l l a (Potentilla nivea) and numerous sedges and rushes. On dry exposed s o i l s white dryas (Dryas octopetale), mountain . sandworts (Arenaria spp.), and spring beauty (Claytonia lanceolata) increase. In moist site s arnica (Arnica mollis), ragwort species (Senecio eymbalarioid.es), buttercup (Ranunculus glaberrimus) and Indian paintbrush (Castilleja rhexifolia) increase. Soils Soils are natural dynamic bodies forming a continuum at the surface of the earth. Their properties result from the integrating effects of climate, parent material, biological a c t i v i t y and topography acting over a period of time. The parent materials in the study area are largely those produced by g l a c i a l deposition. They include g l a c i a l t i l l , g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash, gla c i o l a c u s t r i n e , colluvium, a l l u v i a l - c o l l u v i a l fans and a l l u v i a l deposits. 33 The s o i l s are generally coarse textured r e f l e c t i n g textures of both the parent materials and the underlying bedrocks. Most s o i l s have a capping of up to 2 feet of mixed loess and ash [Lewis, 1971]. This gives the surface a sandy loam to loam texture and tends to mask s o i l morphology [Louie, 1972]. Soil drainage i s dominantly rapid to moderately w e l l , but includes s i g n i f i c a n t areas of imperfect and poor drainage, such as the Okanagan River floodplain. The s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d into the following groups. For further information on these groups the reader should refer to, "The System of Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Canada," 1970. Brown Chernozemic s o i l s are low elevation grassland s o i l s , usually below 2,000 feet. They are associated with big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass vegetation (and to a lesser extent ponderosa pine), in a cool semi-rand climate. These s o i l s are characterized by a l i g h t brown Ah horizon resulting from the accumulation and decomposition of grasses and forbs. Leaching i s s l i g h t with the B and C horizons having a high base saturation. The two major subgroups found are the Orthic and Rego Browns. Dark Brown Chernozemic s o i l s are grassland s o i l s primarily on south facing slopes. They occur at mid-elevations,usually associated with the Douglas f i r forest. These s o i l s are characterized by a dark brown Ah horizon resulting from the accumulation and decomposition of grasses and forbs. Leaching i s s l i g h t with the B and C horizons having a high base saturation. The major subgroup i s the Orthic Dark Brown. Black Chernozemic s o i l s are high elevation grassland s o i l s usually on south facing slopes. They are developed on wetter and. cooler 34 grassland regions associated with the subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce forest. These s o i l s are characterized by a very dark gray to black Ah horizon, resulting from the accumulation and decomposition of grasses, forbs and shrubs. Leaching i s not intense and the surface horizon i s neutral to s l i g h t l y a c i d i c . The three major subgroups found are: Orthic Black, Rego Black and L i t h i c Black. Eutric Brum'sols are dry forest s o i l s found under a cover of ponderosa pine or Douglas f i r . They occur from lower to mid-elevations and are the dominant s o i l s in the study area. These s o i l s are charac-terized by a thin l i t t e r layer overlaying a neutral to s l i g h t l y acid . brownish B horizon. They have a weakly developed s o i l morphology indicating that the s o i l s are in an early stage of development. The parent materials are generally coarse textured. The two main subgroups found are Degraded Eutric Brum'sols and Orthic Eutric Brunisols. Dystric Brunisols are forest s o i l s forming under cool to cold climates at higher elevations. They are found under a cover of Engelmann spruce, subalpine f i r and lodgepole pine, and also under alpine vegetation. These s o i l s are characterized by a thin l i t t e r layer overlying a moderately acidic brownish B horizon. They are sim i l a r in appearance to podzols but f a i l to meet the podzolic require-ments of organic matter and sesquioxide accumulation. Parent materials are generally ac i d i c . The four main subgroups found are: Orthic Dystric, Degraded Dystric, Alpine Dystric and L i t h i c Dystric Brunisols. Gray LuvisoTs are moist to moderately dry forest s o i l s at mid to high elevations. They are not extensive in the area, being r e s t r i c t e d to medium textured parent materials where there i s enough 35 precipitation to cause leaching. The tree cover i s Douglas f i r or subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce. These s o i l s are characterized by a surface l i t t e r layer, an eluviated horizon and an underlying i l l u v i a l horizon of clay accumulation. These s o i l s are generally s l i g h t l y to moderately acidic with a high base saturation. The two main subgroups are Orthic Gray and Brunisolic Gray Luvisols. Podzolic s o i l s are forest s o i l s forming under cold climates at high elevations. They do not.occur extensively in the area. The tree cover i s subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine. These s o i l s are characterized by a l i t t e r layer, a l i g h t coloured eluvial horizon, and an underlying reddish brown B horizon in which organic matter and sesquioxides accumulate. Parent materials are generally acidic or have had free lime leached out. The major subgroup found is the Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol. Regosols are weakly developed s o i l s which f a i l to meet the requirements of other groups. They may have a non-chernozemic Ah horizon and a l i t t e r layer. They occur on recently deposited materials such as alluvium and colluvium. The two main subgroups found are Orthic and Gleyed Regosols. Humic Gleysols are poorly and very poorly drained s o i l s saturated with water and under reducing conditions continuously or during some period of the year. These s o i l s are characterized by an accumulation of organic matter (Ah horizon) over a gleyed,grayish mineral horizon which may be mottled. L i t h i c subgroups have bedrock within twenty inches of the surface. 36 Land System Descriptions and General S u i t a b i l i t i e s for Urban Development, Recreation and W i l d l i f e ALLENDALE LAND SYSTEM Landform and Mater ia ls . This land system consists of very gently to steeply sloping g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces or de l tas . Surfaces may be p i t ted and contain old channel scars . The materials are usually deep deposits of well sorted sands and gravels over a var iety of mostly ac id ic bedrocks. There are minor inclusions of shallow g lac ia l f l u v i a l 9 outwash over g l a c i a l t i l l and bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r - - Engelmann spruce zone. Lodgepole pine, and to a lesser extent subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce dominate the tree cover. Grouseberry and pinegrass dominate the shrub and herb cover respect ive ly . The vegetation was 37 c l a s s i f i e d as the subalpine f i r - - Engelmann spruce - - pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Dystr ic Brunisols and Orthic Dystr ic Brunisols . So i l s have a loamy sand, gravel ly loamy sand or sandy loam texture and are well to rapid ly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,200 to 6,000 feet . Slopes are usually between 3 and 15 percent. This land system is s imi la r in topography and materials to Beaverdell l . s . (at lower e levat ions) . Plate 2 Al lendale l . s . 38 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Poor s o i l cohesion on sandy materials (resulting in erosion and duning) generally provides moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The harsh climate w i l l r e s t r i c t residential use. An excellent source of sand and gravel. Recreation: Generally unsuited for intensive recreation because of dense, uniform vegetation (which may also be a f i r e hazard),poor s o i l cohesion (dustiness and erosion)and a cold climate. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s good and for blue grouse moderate. Inclusions of 10 - 20 percent are called minor and 20 - 40 percent s i g n i f i c a n t . Deep refers to materials greater than 5 feet in thickness, and shallow to materials less than 5 feet in thickness. Exposed bedrock refers to materials less than 20 inches in thickness over bedrock. 39 ANARCHIST LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a thin mantle of gl a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over h i l l y to strongly r o l l i n g mountain slopes. The surface form i s controlled by the underlying mostly acidic bedrock. The materials are dominantly shallow coarse textured t i l l and colluvium over bedrock with s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l or colluvium, and exposed bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce zone. Englemann spruce, subalpine f i r , Douglas f i r and lodgepole pine provide the tree cover. The shrub cover i s dominated by grouseberry and the herb cover by pinegrass. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the sub-alpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Dystric Brunisols. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of L i t h i c Dystric Brunisols and minor inclusions of Brunisolic Gray Luvisols. Soils have gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures and are rapidly to well drained. 40 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,200 to 5,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 20 and 60 percent. This land system i s similar in topography and materials to Keogan l . s . (at lower elevations) and Culper l . s . (at higher elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and a harsh climate provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: Usually un-suited for intensive recreation due to steep slopes, shallow depths of material over bedrock, a cold climate and r e l a t i v e l y dense vegetation. W i l d l i f e : The sui t a -b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s generally good and for blue grouse moderate. Plate 4 Anarchist l . s . APEX LAND SYSTEM 41 Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a mantle of extremely sloping c o l l u v i a l materials over high elevation mountain slopes. The materials are dominately deep gravelly and stony colluvium over bedrock. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow colluvium over a variety of bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. Subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine dominate the tree cover. White rhododendron, mountain labrador tea and grouse-berry characterize the shrub layer. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- grouseberry habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominately Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols with minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols. Soils have a gravelly to stony loamy sand texture and are rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 5,500 to 6,500 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 60 percent. This land system i s sim i l a r 42 in topography and materials to Manuel l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials, shallow depths of material over bedrock and stoniness provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: This land system i s not suitable for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes and unstable s o i l materials. Viewing and skiing provide the main recreation features. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce and blue grouse i s moderate. Plate 6 Apex l . s . (south aspect) 4 3 BEAVERDELL LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of gently to steeply sloping g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces and deltas. Surfaces may be pitted or contain old channel scars. The materials are usually deep deposits of well sorted sands and gravels. There are minor inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash over g l a c i a l t i l l or over a variety of bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. Lodge-pole pine ( p a r t i c u l a r l y following f i r e s ) , and Douglas f i r characterize the tree layer. Kinnikinnick dominates the shrub layer and Idaho fescue and pinegrass dominate the herb layer. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type with inclusions of the Douglas f i r -- Idaho fescue habitat type at lower elevations. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols with s i g n i f i -cant inclusions of Orthic Eutric Brunisols. Soil textures range from gravelly and stony loamy sand, loamy sand to sandy loam. Soils are rapidly drained. 44 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 3,000 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are usually between 3 and 15 percent. This land system is similar in topography and materials to Allendale l . s . (at higher elevations). , S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Poor s o i l cohesion (on sands), and steep slopes provide generally moderate engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . There are few lim i t a t i o n s for urban development. The land system pro-vides a good source of sand and gravel. Recreation: Generally moder-ately suitable for intensive recreation. Dense, usually unattrac-tive vegetation, and poor s o i l cohe-sion (dustiness) are the main 1 imitations. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse is moderate. There are inclusions of moderately suitable habitats for mule deer winter range (at lower elevations), and for white-t a i l e d deer, ruffed grouse and spruce grouse. Plate 8 Bl-Beaverdell l.s Kn-Keogan l . s . 45 BLUFF LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform i s moderately r o l l i n g to very h i l l y , k e t t l e d ice contact d r i f t over g l a c i a l t i l l . Materials are domin-antly shallow to deep deposits of s t r a t i f i e d sands and gravels over-lying g l a c i a l t i l l . There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of g l a c i a l t i l l . Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. It i s characterized by tree cover of ponderosa pine and a shrub cover of bitterbrush. Bluebunch wheatgrass dominates the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the ponderosa pine -- bitterbrush habitat type. So i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems. They have gravelly loamy sand and gravelly sandy loam textures and are well to rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Slopes are variable, but are usually between 9 and 60 percent. This land system occurs around the north end of Vaseux Lake. 46 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes and stoniness pro-vide moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y for urban development i s usually poor but there are inclusions of moderately suitable areas. A f a i r source of sand and gravel. Recreation: This land system i s moderately suitable for intensive recreation. Steep slopes, stoniness and vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance provide l i m i t a t i o n s . W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s good. The habitat s u i t a b l i i t y for white-tailed deer i s moderate. Plate 10 Bf - Bluff l . s . Sa - Skaha l . s . The location of plate 10 i s shown on plate 9 . 47 CARMI LAND SYSTEM See plates 54 and 58. Landform and Materials. This land system is dominately a gently to steeply sloping g l a c i a l f l u v i a l delta. To the west of Penticton are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces, kettled out-wash and meltwater channels (plate 54). The materials are dominately well sorted sands over gravels but include deep sands, gravels and stones. There are minor inclusions of deltaic materials over s i l t y glaciolacustrine deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine and bunchgrass subzones (depending on s o i l textures). There i s a scattered ponderosa pine cover which i s regenerating slowly. Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue characterize the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as dominantly the ponderosa pine -- Idaho fescue habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols with tree cover and Orthic Brown Chernozems with grassland vegetation. There ' are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems at higher elevations. Soil textures range from sandy loam to gravelly sandy loam at the surface to loamy sand and sands, gravels and stones. Soils are rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,100 to 1,800 feet. Slopes are usually between 3 and 15 percent. This land system is variable in materials. It occurs around Penticton. 48 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and poor s o i l cohesion (on sands) provide s l i g h t to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The land system i s generally well suited f o r urban development, but intensive use of septic tank absorption f i e l d s should be r e s t r i c t e d . A good source of gravel. Recreation: Generally moderately suitable for intensive recreation. Stoniness, s o i l cohesion ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on sands), lack of tree cover and the s e n s i t i v i t y of vegetation to disturbance are the main l i m i t a t i o n s . W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for mule deer winter and spring range, and for white-tailed deer is moderate. There are inclus-ions of moderately suitable C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep winter ranges. Plate 11 Carmi l . s . COLUMNS LAND SYSTEM 4 9 Plate 12 Columns l . s . Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a shallow mantle of glacial t i l l and colluvium on strongly ro l l ing to very h i l l y volcanic and sedimentary bedrocks. The materials are dominantly shallow, medium textured glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. There are signif icant inclusions of exposed bedrock and minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or col 1uvium. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r - - Engelmann spruce zone. Subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine dominate the tree cover. Grouseberry and pinegrass dominate the shrub and herb layers respectively. The vegetation was c lassi f ied as the subalpine f i r - - Engelmann spruce - - pinegrass habitat type. Soi ls . The soi ls are dominantly Orthic Dystric Brunisols. There are significant inclusions of L i thic Regosols and minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols. Soils have a gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam texture and are well to rapidly drained. 50 Landscape Features. Elevations are between 4,200 and 5,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system is similar in materials and topography to Orofino l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe lim i t a t i o n s for use. Recreation: Generally not suited for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes and shallow depths of material over bedrock. Wild!ife: The s u i t a b i l i t y for both blue and spruce grouse i s moderate. Plate 13 Cs - Columns l . s . Ma - Marron l . s . 51 CULPER LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a shallow mantle of gl a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over h i l l y to very h i l l y mountain slopes. The materials are dominately shallow, gravelly g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over mostly acidic bedrock. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of deep gl a c i a l t i l l or colluvium and minor inclusions of exposed bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. The tree cover i s r e l a t i v e l y open consisting of lodgepole pine, Engelmann spruce and subalpine f i r . The shrub layer i s dominated by grouseberry and white rhododendron and the herb layer by alpine lupine, arnica species and wild strawberry. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- grouseberry habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominately mini Humo-Ferric Podzols with s i g n i f i -cant inclusions of L i t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols. Soils have gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures and are well to moderately well drained. 52 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 5,500 to 6,600 feet. Slopes are usually between 30 and 60 percent. This land system i s simil a r in topography and materials to Anarchist l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and a harsh climate provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: Not suitable for intensive recreation due to steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and a harsh climate. It is attractive for extensive use. W i l d l i f e : Culper land systems has moderate s u i t a b i l i t i e s for both blue and spruce grouse. Plate 15 Culper l . s . GREGOIRE LAND SYSTEM Plate 16 Gregoire 1. Landform and Materials. This land system consists of a gently r o l l i n g to h i l l y t i l l plain over mid elevation mountain slopes. The materials are dominately deep, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l . There are s i g n i f i -cant inclusions of colluvium over g l a c i a l t i l l on steeper slopes and shallow g l a c i a l t i l l over a variety of mostly acidic bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. Douglas f i r dominates the tree cover. The shrub cover i s dominated by k i n n i -kinnick and the herb layer by pinegrass. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type, with some Douglas f i r --Idaho fescue habitat type at lower elevations.. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols. There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols on f i n e r textured g l a c i a l t i l l s . Soils have gravelly sandy loam and sandy loam textures and are well to moderately well drained. 54 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 3,000 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are usually from 9 to 30 percent. This land system is similar in topography and materials to McKinney l . s . (at higher elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and steep slopes provide moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y for residential development i s usually moderate. Recreation: The s u i t a b i l i t y for intensive recreation is usually moderate. Stoniness, steep slopes and vegetation attractiveness are lim i t a t i o n s . W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse i s good and for ruffed and spruce grouse moderate. The s u i t a b i l i t y for mule deer winter range is moderate and there are inclusions (at lower elevations) of moderately suitable C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer ranges. Plate 17 Gregoire l . s . HESTOR LAND SYSTEM 55 Landform and Materials. The landform i s a deep mantle of colluvium over very steeply to extremely sloping north facing valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep gravelly and stony colluvium. There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock and minor inclusions of ice contact deposits and exposed, mostly acidic bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. Douglas f i r and ponderosa pine (at lower elevations) dominate the tree cover. The herb cover i s dominated by pinegrass. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type with Douglas f i r -- Idaho fescue habitat type at lower elevations. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Eutric Brunisols. There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Regosols and minor inclusions of L i t h i c Eutric Brunisols. Soils usually have a gravelly to stony loamy sand texture and are rapidly drained. 56 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,800 to 4,000 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 60 percent. This land system i s similar in topography and materials to Mclntyre l . s . (on south aspects). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: , Very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: Very steep slopes and unstable s o i l materials make this land system unsuited for intensive recreation. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter range i s moder-ate to poor. The s u i t a b i l i t y INKANEEP LAND SYSTEM 5 7 1. Landform and Materials. A thin mantle of glacial t i l l and colluvium overlays very steeply and extremely sloping valley walls. The materials are dominantly shallow,coarse textured glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock, and exposed bedrock. There are minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l and colluvium over mostly acidic bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. There is a mixed big sagebrush and ponderosa pine cover with some bitterbrush. Bluebunch wheatgrass is the dominant herb. Gullies contain wild rose, sumac, red-osier dogwood and willow. The vegetation is generally similar to the big sagebrush - - speargrass habitat type. Soi ls . The soi ls are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems with s i g n i f i -cant inclusions of L i thic Brown Chernozems. Soils have gravelly loamy sand and gravelly sandy loam textures and are rapidly to well drained. 5 8 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 2,100 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 30 percent and often greater than 60 percent. This land system i s similar in materials and topography to Skaha l . s . S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: The steep, rugged topography, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and the large amount of exposed bedrock provides severe lim i t a t i o n s for use. Recreation: This land system i s unsuited for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and the vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. Indian paintings are a recreation feature. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range is generally good. The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer i s moderate. Plate 21 0s - Osoyoos l . s . Ky - Kinney l . s . Ip - Inkaneep l . s . 59 KEOGAN LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. A thin mantle of g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium overlays steeply to extremely sloping valley walls. The materials are dominately shallow,coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over usually acidic bedrocks. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of exposed bedrock and minor inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. Douglas f i r and ponderosa pine dominate the tree cover. The herb cover i s dominated by pinegrass and Idaho fescue. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type, with some Douglas f i r --Idaho fescue habitat type below about 3,000 feet in elevation. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols with minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols and L i t h i c Eutric Brunisols. Soils have gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand textures and are well to rapidly drained. 60 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,100 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 20 percent. This land system is similar in materials and topography to Anarchist l . s . (at higher elevations) and Skaha l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe limitations for use. Few areas are suitable for intensive residential development. Recreation: Generally unsuited for intensive recreation because of steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s moderate. The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-t a i l e d deer, blue grouse and ruffed grouse i s also moderate. Plate 23 Keogan l . s . 61 KILPOOLA LAND SYSTEM Plate 24 Kilpoola l . s . Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a mantle of moderately r o l l i n g to very h i l l y g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. The materials are dominately deep, gravelly g l a c i a l t i l l with inclusions of up to 50 percent shallow g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. There are minor inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. Big sagebrush dominates the shrub cover and bluebunch wheatgrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the big sagebrush -- bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems with minor inclusions of L i t h i c Brown Chernozems. S o i l s have gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand textures and are well drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 2,100 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system occurs in the southern part of the study area around (Mt. Kobau and Richter Pass). 62 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness, steep slopes and shallow depths of materials provide moderate to severe engineering li m i t a t i o n s . There are small areas having moderate to s l i g h t limitations for urban development. Recreation: Intensive recreation i s limited by steep slopes, shallow depths of materials, a lack of tree cover and vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. Hiking and horseback riding are generally moderately suitable, but surface s t a b i l i t y i s a l i m i t a t i o n . Wi1dlife: For the species considered the w i l d l i f e s u i t a b i l i t y i s generally poor due to limited available food and cover. Plate 25 Ka - Kilpoola l . s . Kr - Kruger l . s . 63 KINNEY LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a l l u v i a l floodplain deposits along the Okanagan River (now a controlled channel). The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured a l l u v i a l sands with f i n e r textured materials in the backswamp areas. There are minor inclusions of fan deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. The tree cover i s dominated by northern black cottonwood and water birch. The shrub and herb covers are dominated by water birch, wild rose, wild raspberry, poison ivy and rushes and sedges. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the northern black cottonwood -- red-osier dogwood phase. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Rego Humic Gleysols with s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Gleyed Regosols. Soils usually have a capping of about 2 feet of s i l t or clay loam over coarse textured sands. Deeper deposits of s i l t and clay loams are found i n the backswamp areas. S o i l s are poorly and imperfectly drained. 6 4 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 900 to 1,100 feet. Slopes are generally less than 5 percent. This land system occurs along the Okanagan River channel. Flooding i s a re s u l t of high water tables (plate 21). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Flooding, high water tables and poor s o i l permeabilities provide severe lim i t a t i o n s for use (plate 51). Urban development should not normally be considered on this land system. Recreation: Intensive recreation i s severely limited by flooding, s o i l wetness, and surface s o i l textures (plate 51). The proximity to water bodies and other recreation features make i t at t r a c t i v e for less intensive use. W i l d l i f e : Kinney land system has a good s u i t a b i l i t y for white-t a i l e d deer and ruffed grouse. Ky - Kinney l . s . Ka - Kilpoola l . s . Plate 27 KOBAU LAND SYSTEM 65 Plate 28 Kobau l . s . Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a gently r o l l i n g to very h i l l y mantle of g l a c i a l t i l l over steep, high elevation mountain slopes. The materials are dominantly shallow, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l and minor inclusions of exposed bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation i s high elevation grassland in the sub-alpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. High sagebrush and umbrella plant dominate the shrub layer and pinegrass the herb layer. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the high sagebrush -- pinegrass habitat type. Soi1s. The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Black Chernozems. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Rego Black Chernozems and minor inclusions of L i t h i c Black Chernozems. Soils have generally gravelly sandy loam textures and are well to moderately well drained. 66 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 5,300 to 6,200 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system occurs in the Mt. Kobau area. S u i t a b i l i t y for . Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and potential f r o s t action provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The harsh climate, location and physical limitations preclude residential development. Recreation: This land system is moderately suited for hiking, picnic areas and horseback r i d i n g . Vegetation d i v e r s i t y and viewing features are major attractions. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse i s moderate. Plate 29 Kobau l . s . 67 KRUGER LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a moderately r o l l i n g to very h i l l y mantle of g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. The materials are dominantly shallow, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over a variety of bedrocks. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium and exposed bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation i s grassland i n the Douglas f i r zone. Only scattered ponderosa pine and Douglas f i r occur (usually associated with rock outcrops and seepage areas). Threetip sagebrush and big sagebrush dominate the shrub layer and bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the threetip sagebrush --bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of L i t h i c Dark Brown Chermozems with minor 68 inclusions of Orthic Dark Gray Chernozems (associated with aspen cover in seepage areas). Soils are well to rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,100 to 4,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system occurs in the southern portion of the study area. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Recreation: Kruger land system i s severely limited for intensive recreation by steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock, stoniness and a lack of tree cover. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer and for California bighorn sheep and mule deer winter range i s moderate. 69 LAWLESS LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of moderately r o l l i n g to h i l l y deposits of deep g l a c i a l t i l l over mountain slopes. The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l or colluvium over g l a c i a l t i l l . There are minor inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over a variety of bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. Subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine dominate the tree cover with grouseberry, white rhododendron and mountain labrador tea dominating the shrub cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- grouseberry habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. There are minor inclusions of Brunisolic Gray Luvisols. Soils have gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand textures and are well to moderately well drained. 70 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 5,500 to 6,600 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system i s similar in materials and topography to McKinney l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and steep slopes usually provide moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The harsh climate w i l l r e s t r i c t residential developments. Recreation: Generally severe r e s t r i c t i o n s for intensive recreation because of a cold climate, dense vegetation, stoniness and steep slopes. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s good to moderate. There are inclusions of moderately suitable areas for blue grouse. Plate 33 Ls - Lawless l . s . Ax - Apex l . s . Ae - Allendale 1.s 71 LOUIE LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform i s dominantly a gently sloping g l a c i a l f l u v i a l delta but includes a large morainal ridge along the western boundary. The materials are dominantly coarse textured deltaic deposits with minor inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l f l u v i a l out-wash over g l a c i a l t i l l and bedrock, and a l l u v i a l - c o l l u v i a l fans. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. It i s characterized by big sagebrush and bluebunch wheatgrass with ponderosa pine on deep sands. The vegetation i s variable as a result of the d i f f e r e n t materials and land use a c t i v i t i e s S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems. Dark Brown Chernozems were found at higher elevations and Degraded Eutric Brunisols under a cover of ponderosa pine. Soil textures are variable from very stony and gravelly to deep coarse sands. Soils are rapidly drained. 72 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,200 to 1,600 feet. Slopes are usually between 2 and 15 percent. This land system i s a mixture of different materials but i s dominantly stony and gravelly deltaic deposits. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and steep slopes provide moderate to severe l i m i t a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y for urban development i s generally moderate. Septic tanks have a severe l i m i t a t i o n due to the potential f o r ground water pollution. An excellent source of gravel and sand. Recreation: Generally severe r e s t r i c t i o n s for intensive recreation because of stoniness, surface s o i l textures (dustiness on sands), lack of tree cover and vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. Hiking and horse-back riding are moderately suitable. WiId!ife: The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s good to moderate. White-tailed deer have a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y . 73 MANUEL LAND SYSTEM See plates 28 and 56. Landform and Materials. The landform i s an extremely sloping mantle of c o l l u v i a l materials on north aspects of steep valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep gravelly to stony colluvium. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock and minor inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. Subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce dominate the tree cover, grouseberry the shrub cover and pinegrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce — p i n e g r a s s habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dystric Brunisols and Degraded Dystric Brunisols. There are minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols. Soils usually have a gravelly or stony loamy sand texture and are rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,000 to 5,500 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 60 percent. This land system i s simil a r in topography and materials to Hestor l . s . (at lower elevations) and Richter l . s . (on south aspects). 74 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: Manuel land system i s generally unsuited for intensive (and extensive) recreation because of very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials, a cold climate and dense vegetation. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s good and for blue grouse moderate. Plate 36 Manuel l . s . 75 MARRON LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a mantle of moder-ately to extremely sloping g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. The materials are dominantly deep,moderately textured g l a c i a l t i l l . There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock,and deep colluvium. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. The tree layer i s dominated by Douglas f i r with ponderosa pine at lower elevations. The herb layer i s dominated by pinegrass with wild straw-berry, heart-leaf arnica and lupine. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . Soils were not well sampled due to general inaccessability. They are thought to be dominantly Orthic Gray Luvisols. They have a gravelly loam to loam texture and are well drained. 76 Landscape Features: Elevations are approximately 2,200 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are usually between 9 and 60 percent. This land system i s similar in materials and topography to Trout Lake l . s . (at higher elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide moderate to severe engineering lim i t a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y f o r urban development i s poor. Recreation: Generally unsuited for intensive recreation because of steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock. There are minor inclusions having a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y . W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse is moderate to good, and for winter mule deer range moderate. Plate 38 Ma - Marron l . s . Oo - Orofino l . s . Tn - Twin Lakes l . s . 77 MCGREGOR L A N D S Y S T E M See plate 71. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a thin mantle of gl a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over strongly r o l l i n g to very h i l l y t i l t e d sedimentary and volcanic bedrocks. The materials are dominantly coarse textured, shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions of exposed bedrock and minor inclusions of deep colluvium and g l a c i a l t i l l . Vegetation. The vegetation i s grassland in the Douglas f i r zone. The shrub cover i s dominated by threetip sagebrush and big sagebrush. Blue-bunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue dominate the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the threetip sagebrush -- bluebunch wheat-grass habitat type. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems with s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Regosols. Soils have gravelly loamy sand and gravelly sandy loam textures and are rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system occurs around White Lake. 78 S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: McGregor land system is not suitable for intensive recreation because of steep slopes, shallow depths of material over bedrock, vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance and a lack of tree cover. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for mule deer winter and spring range is moderate. Plate 39 Mg - McGregor l . s . Oo - Orofino l . s . Wl - White Lake l . s . 79 McINTYRE LAND SYSTEM Plate 40 Mclntyre 1 Landform and Materials. The landform consists of very steeply to extremely sloping c o l l u v i a l deposits along south aspects of valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep gravelly and stony colluvium. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow colluvium over a variety of bedrocks, and minor inclusions of ice contact deposits and exposed bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. The tree cover i s dominantly ponderosa pine with Douglas f i r , and the herb cover bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the Douglas f i r -- Idaho fescue habitat type with some Douglas f i r -- pinegrass habitat type at higher elevations. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly weakly developed Orthic Eutric Bruni-sols and minor inclusions of L i t h i c Eutric Brunisols. Soils have gravelly loamy sand and gravelly sand textures and are rapidly drained. 80 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,000 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 60 percent. This land system i s sim i l a r in topography and materials to Hestor l . s . (on north aspects). S u i t a b i l i t y f o r . Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and stoniness provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Recreation: Unsuitable for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials, surface s o i l textures (erosion) and the vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for California bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s good to moderate. The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer and bluegrouse i s also moderate. McKINNEY LAND SYSTEM 81 Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a deep mantle of gently r o l l i n g to h i l l y g l a c i a l t i l l over mountain slopes. The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l with colluvium over g l a c i a l t i l l on steeper slopes. There are minor i n -clusions of shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over mostly a c i d i c bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. The tree cover i s dominated by subalpine fir,Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine. Grouseberry and pinegrass dominate the shrub and herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the sub-alpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly weakly developed Brunisolic Gray Luvisols and Degraded Dystric Brunisols. Soils usually have a gravelly sandy loam texture and are well to moderately well drained. 82 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,200 to 5,500 feet. Slopes are generally between 9 and 45 percent. This land system i s similar in topography and materials to Gregoire l . s . (at lower elevations) and Lawless l . s . (at higher elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and steep slopes provide moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . This land system i s unsuited for residential development due to the harsh climate. Recreation: Generally moderate to severe limitations due to a cold climate, dense vegetation, stoniness and steep slopes. Wild!ife: The s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s good and for blue grouse moderate. 8 3 MUNSON LAND SYSTEM Plate 44 Munson 1. s. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a deep mantle of very steeply to extremely sloping g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium with minor inclusions of ice contact deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation i s tr a n s i t i o n a l between the Douglas f i r and big sagebrush zones. The tree cover consists of scattered ponderosa pine and Douglas f i r . Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue are the dominant herbs. The vegetation i s si m i l a r to the Douglas f i r — Idaho fescue habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems with Degraded Eutric Brunisols under tree cover. Soils have gravelly sandy loam textures and are well drained. 84 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,300 to 2,000 feet. Slopes are usually between 30 and 60 percent. This land system only occurs around Penticton and Shingle Creek. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes and stoniness provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Recreation: Munson land system i s unsuitable for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes and stoniness. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer, blue grouse and for Ca l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range is moderate. Plate 45 Mn - Munson l . s , Pn - Penticton l . s . 8 5 MYERS LAND SYSTEM Plate 46 Myers l . s . Landform and Materials, The landform consists of very gently to gently sloping recent a l l u v i a l fans, deltas and stream channels. These deposits are thought to overlay g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash. The materials are dominantly moderately fine textured alluvium with minor inclusions of a l l u v i a l -- c o l l u v i a l fan deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation i s transiti o n a l between the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone and the lower Douglas f i r zone. Ponderosa pine and water birch dominate the tree cover with wild rose, red-osier dogwood, hawthorn and water birch dominating the shrub cover. The vegetation i s similar to the northern black cottonwood -- red-osier dogwood phase. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Gleyed Humic Gleysols. Soils have a s i l t y loam to fine sandy loam texture and are usually poorly drained. 86 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,500 to 2,000 feet. Slopes are usually between 1 and 3 percent. This land system is well developed near Myers Flat. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: High seasonal water tables, poor s o i l drainage and potential f r o s t action provide severe engineering li m i t a t i o n s . Urban development should not be considered. Recreation: Intensive recreation i s severely limited by s o i l wetness and surface s o i l textures (muddiness and dustiness). W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer, ruffed grouse, blue grouse and mule deer i s generally moderate. Plate 47 My - Myers l . s . Kn - Keogan l . s . 87 OROFINO LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform i s a shallow mantle of strongly r o l l i n g to very h i l l y g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. The physiography i s controlled by the underlying volcanic bedrocks. The materials are dominantly shallow.coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of exposed bedrock and minor inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the Douglas f i r zone. Douglas f i r i s the dominant tree and Idaho fescue and pinegrass the dominant herbs. The vegetation i s usually the Douglas f i r — pinegrass habitat type. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of L i t h i c Regosols and minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols. Soils have a gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loam texture and are well and rapidly drained. 88 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,100 to 4,200 feet. Slopes are variable but are usually greater than 25 percent. This land system i s similar in materials and topography to Columns l . s . (at higher elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Recreation: Very steep slopes and shallow depths of materials over bedrock make this land system unsuitable for intensive recreation. W i l d l i f e : Orofino land system has a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y for mule deer winter range. These are inclusions of moderately suitable areas for white-tailed deer, ruffed grouse and blue grouse. Plate 49 Oo - Orofino l . s . Vx - Vaseux l . s . 8 9 OSOYOOS LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. This land system consists of gently sloping to gently r o l l i n g and h i l l y g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces. The terraces tend to be kettled to the west of Osoyoos Lake. They are underlaim by s i l t y glaciolacustrine deposits. The materials are dominantly sandy g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash. There are minor inclusions of a l l u v i a l -- c o l l u v i a l fans and shallow g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash over s i l t y glaciolacustrine deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. Bitterbrush and to a lesser extent big sagebrush dominate the shrub cover. The herb cover i s dominated by speargrass. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the greasewood -- speargrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Regosols and minor inclusions of Rego 90 Brown Chernozems. The s o i l s are mostly deep coarse sands over gravel with gravelly loamy sand, loamy sand and sandy loam textures. Soils are rapidly drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 900 to 1,200 feet. Slopes are usually between 3 and 15 percent. This land system i s simi l a r in materials and topography to Wolfcub l . s . S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: The high potential for erosion and duning of sands provides s l i g h t to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s (plate 20). There are no major limi t a t i o n s for urban development but intensive use of septic tanks may lead to ground water poll u t i o n . A good source of sand. Recreation: Generally unsuited for intensive recreation because of surface s o i l textures (dustiness and s o i l erosion), vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance and lack of tree cover. Areas adjacent to Osoyoos Lake often have good to moderate s u i t a b i l i t i e s but flooding i s a problem. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and early spring range i s moderate. 91 Plate 51 (Note the campsite under water) Os - Osoyoos l . s . Ky - Kinney l . s . Ip - Inkaneep l . s . (see plate 21). 92 PARK RILL LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform i s a gently sloping to moderately r o l l i n g g l a c i a l f l u v i a l delta. There are small inclusions of g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces. The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured sands and sands over gravel. There are minor inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l f l u v i a l materials over bedrock and g l a c i a l t i l l . Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. Ponderosa pine forms the tree cover. Bitterbrush dominates the shrub cover and bluebunch wheatgrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the ponderosa pine -- bitterbrush habitat type. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Brown Chernozems and minor inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems. The s o i l s have gravelly loamy sand and sandy loam textures and are rapidly drained. 93 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 1,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 2 and 15 percent. This land system i s si m i l a r to Carmi and Louie l . s . ' s , but i s dominantly deep sands. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Potential erosion and duning of sands, and steep slopes provide s l i g h t to moderate engineering l i m i -tations (plate 52). There are few l i m i t a t i o n s f o r residential use but intensive use of septic tanks may lead to ground water poll u t i o n . A good source of sand. Recreation: Generally poorly suited for intensive recreation because of surface s o i l textures (dustiness and erosion) and the vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for winter and early spring range for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer i s moderate. Plate 53 Pr - Park R i l l l . s . Ip - Inkaneep l . s . The location of plate 53 i s shown on plate 52. 94 PENTICTON LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of gently r o l l i n g to extremely sloping glaciolacustrine deposits. The materials are often highly dissected with v e r t i c a l g ully walls. The materials are domin-antly deep glaciolacustrine s i l t s and very fine sands with minor inclusions of shallow deposits over a variety of bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. Big sagebrush dominates the shrub cover and bluebunch wheatgrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the big sagebrush -- bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems and minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols. Soil textures are dominantly s i l t loam with inclusions of fine sandy loam. The s o i l s are well to moderately well drained. 95 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,100 to 1,400 feet. Slopes are usually between 5 and 20 percent (except for gully walls). This land system occurs around Skaha Lake and Penticton. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: There i s a high potential for mass s o i l movement (Plates 75 and 76). Steep slopes, shrink -- swell potentials and potential f r o s t action further r e s t r i c t use. Urban development should be re s t r i c t e d . Recreation: Usually severe limitations f o r intensive recreation because of the s o i l erosion hazard, s o i l textures (dustiness), steep slopes, lack of tree cover and vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance. There are inclusions having moderate s u i t a b i l i t i e s for selected a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. picnic areas). M i l d ! i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer i s moderate, and for California bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range moderate to poor. 96 RICHTER LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of very steeply to extremely sloping colluvium on south aspects of high elevation valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep stony and gravelly colluvium. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock and minor inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. The tree cover i s characterized by lodgepole pine, Douglas f i r , Engelmann spruce and subalpine f i r . Pinegrass i s the dominant herb. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d into the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Regosols and at higher elevations Orthic Dystric Brunisols. The s o i l s have a gravelly to stony loamy sand texture and are rapidly drained. 97 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,200 to 5,500 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 60 percent. This land system i s similar in topography and materials to Manuel l . s . (on north aspects). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Very steep slopes, unstable s o i l materials, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and stoniness provide severe limitations for use. Recreation: Unsuitable for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes and unstable s o i l materials. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse i s moderate with i n -clusions of moderately suitable areas for spruce grouse. ROY LAND SYSTEM 98 Landform and Materials. The landform consists of very gently to gently sloping a l l u v i a l fans and deltas. The materials are dominantly coarse textured sandy to stony a l l u v i a l fans and deltas with minor inclusions of a l l u v i a l floodplain deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. The vegetation i s dominated by northern black cottonwood, ponderosa pine, Saskatoon berry, wild rose, sumac and poison ivy. The vegetation i s similar to the northern black cottonwood -- red-osier dogwood phase. S o i l s . The s o i l s are variable, usually Orthic Regosols and Gleyed Regosols on lower parts of fans. There are minor inclusions of Rego Humic Gleysols. On upper parts of the fans, s o i l s have a gravelly to stony sand and loamy sand texture and are well to rapidly drained. On lower parts they have a capping of loam or sandy loam over sands and gravels and are imperfectly to poorly drained. 99 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,100 to 1,400 feet. Slopes are usually between 2 and 5 percent. This land system i s similar in materials to Testalinden l . s . S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness and poor s o i l drainage provide generally moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The s u i t -a b i l i t y f o r urban development i s generally moderate. Septic tank use should be re s t r i c t e d due to the high potential for ground water pollution Recreation: Usually a good to moderate s u i t a b i l i t y for intensive recreation. Stoniness, surface s o i l textures and wetness are the main limi t a t i o n s . WiId!ife: Present land use makes the s u i t a b i l i t y of TOO SHEEP ROCK LAND SYSTEM Plate 60 Sheep Rock 1. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a thin mantle of steeply to extremely sloping g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over high eleva-tion mountain peaks. The materials are dominantly shallow, coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks, and deep glacial t i l l and colluvium. Vegetation. The vegetation i s transiti o n a l between the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone and the alpine zone. Lodgepole pine, Engel-mann spruce and subalpine f i r are present but stunted and widely spaced. The shrub layer i s dominated by red and yellow heather. The vegetation is dominantly the subalpine f i r — Engelmann spruce -- red heather habitat type with some alpine vegetation. SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Alpine Dystric Brunisols with s i g n i f i -cant inclusions of L i t h i c Dystric Brunisols. Soils have a gravelly loamy sand to gravelly sand texture and are well to rapidly drained. 101 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 6,600 to 7,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 20 and 60 percent. This land system i s well developed on Brent, Apex and Baldy mountains. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock, stoniness, potential f r o s t action and the harsh climate provide severe l i m i t a t i o n s . Engineering a c t i v i t i e s should be avoided because of the f r a g i l e environment. Recreation: Unsuitable for intensive recreation because of steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock, a harsh climate and a • sensitive environment to disturbance. It i s attractive for extensive use. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed ptarmigan i s moderate to good. There are inclusions having a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y for blue grouse. Plate 61 Sheep Rock l . s . 102 SKAHA LAND SYSTEM Plate 62 Skaha l . s . Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a thin mantle of g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium overlying h i l l y and very h i l l y valley walls. The materials are dominantly shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks, and minor inclusions of deep g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. There i s a scattered cover of ponderosa pine and Douglas f i r ( in g u l l i e s ) . Bluebunch wheatgrass dominates the herb cover. In the g u l l i e s are found Saskatoon berry, red-osier dogwood and willow. The vegetation i s similar to the ponderosa pine -- Idaho fescue habitat type. Soi1s. The s o i l s are dominantly Degraded Eutric Brunisols. There are si g n i f i c a n t inclusions Of L i t h i c Eutric Brunisols and Orthic Brown Chernozems. Soils have gravelly sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand textures and are rapidly to moderately well drained. 103 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 2,100 feet. Slopes are usually greater than 30 percent. This land system is similar in topography and materials to Inkaneep l . s . (in the south). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: The very steep, rugged topography and shallow depths of material over bedrock provide severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Recreation: Unsuitable for intensive recreation because of very steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and sensitive vegetation to disturbance. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer, ruffed grouse 104 TESTALINDEN LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of gently to steeply sloping a l l u v i a l -- c o l l u v i a l fans and raised a l l u v i a l fans and deltas. The materials are dominantly coarse textured a l l u v i a l -- c o l l u v i a l fan and d e l t a i c deposits with minor inclusions of sandy and gravelly g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, bunch-grass subzone. There i s only a scattered ponderosa pine tree cover. Big sagebrush and bitterbrush dominate the shrub cover, and bluebunch wheatgrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the big sagebrush -- bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type with inclusions of the ponderosa pine -- bitterbrush habitat type (e.g. Vaseux Creek). SoiIs. The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems, with Orthic Brown Chernozems on f i n e r textured materials. There are minor inclusions of Gleyed Regosols on lower parts of fans. So i l textures are 105 variable, from gravelly and stony sand and loamy sands to sandy loams at lower parts of fans. Soils are generally rapid to well drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 1,700 feet. Slopes are usually between 5 and 30 percent. This land system i s s i m i l a r in topography and materials to Roy l . s . (to the north). S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Stoniness, s o i l drainage and steep slopes provide moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Generally the s u i t a b i l i t y for residential development i s moderate. Intensive use. of septic tanks w i l l l i k e l y lead to ground water poll u t i o n . Recreation: There are severe to moderate limitations for intensive recreation because of stoniness, surface s o i l textures, steep slopes and s o i l wetness and a general lack of tree cover. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s moderate. 106 TROUT LAKE LAND SYSTEM Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a mantle of undulating to very steeply sloping g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. The physiography is controlled by the underlying volcanic bedrock. The materials are dominantly deep, moderately coarse textured g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of shallow g l a c i a l t i l l and colluvium over bedrock. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce zone. The tree cover i s dominated by subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce. Grouseberry dominates the shrub cover and pinegrass the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce -- pinegrass habitat type. S o i l s . The s o i l s were not well sampled due to general inaccessability. They are thought to be dominantly Brunisolic Gray Luvisols with s i g n i f i c a n t 107 inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols. They have loam to gravelly sandy loam textures and are well to moderately well drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 4,200 to 5,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 5 and 45 percent. This land system i s simil a r in topography and materials to Marron l . s . (at lower elevations). S u i t a b i l i t y for. " Engineering and Urban Development: Steep slopes, potential f r o s t action and shallow depths of materials provide moderate engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The harsh climate and location w i l l l i k e l y preclude residential development. Recreation: Trout Lake land system i s generally severely limited for intensive recreation because of steep slopes, stoniness and dense vegetation. There are inclusions of moderately suitable areas, usually on gentle slopes and deep s o i l s . W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for spruce grouse i s good and for blue grouse moderate. 108 TWIN LAKES LAND SYSTEM Plate 67 Twin Lakes 1. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of gently sloping to extremely sloping g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash terraces and kettled outwash. The materials are dominantly sandy and gravelly g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash. There are minor inclusions of ice contact deposits, ponded s i l t s , a l l u v i a l and c o l l u v i a l fans and shallow g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash over gl a c i a l t i l l . Vegetation. The vegetation consists of mixed grassland and forest in the Douglas f i r zone. The tree cover (usually on deep sands) i s dominated by ponderosa pine and Douglas f i r . Threetip sagebrush dominates the shrub cover and bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue the herb cover. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d as the threetip sagebrush --bluebunch wheatgrass and the Douglas f i r -- Idaho fescue habitat types. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems with s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Degraded Eutric Brunisols. Soils have sandy 109 loam, gravelly sandy loam, gravelly loamy sand and s i l t loam textures. They are rapidly to well drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Slopes are highly variable from nearly level to over 60 percent. This land system occurs around Twin Lakes and in the Marron Valley. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: There i s a large v a r i a b i l i t y in topography and materials. Steep slopes, stoniness and s o i l textures provide s l i g h t to severe limitations for urban development. The use of septic tanks near water bodies should be r e s t r i c t e d . Recreation: The s u i t a b i l i t y i s variable, but there are large areas having few to moderate l i m i t a t i o n s . W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y f o r white-tailed deer i s moderate, and for mule deer winter and spring range generally moderate. n o VASEUX LAND SYSTEM Plate 69 Vaseux 1. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a mantle of glacial t i l l over steeply to extremely sloping south facing valley walls. The materials are dominantly deep, coarse textured glacial t i l l , and colluvium over t i l l . There are significant inclusions of shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock,and minor inclusions of a variety of exposed bedrocks. Vegetation. The vegetation is grassland in the Douglas f i r zone. It is dominated by threetip sagebrush (at lower elevations), umbrella plant and by big sagebrush. Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass dominate the herb cover. The vegetation belongs to the Idaho fescue --umbrella plant habitat type. Soils. The soils are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems with significant inclusions of Rego Dark Brown Chernozems. Soils usually have a gravelly sandy loam texture and are well drained. I l l Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,000 to over 5,000 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 60 percent. This land system occurs throughout the area on steep south facing slopes with deep gl a c i a l t i l l . S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Steep and very steep slopes, stoniness and shallow depths of materials over bedrock provide severe to moderate engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . Vaseux land system i s poorly suited for urban development. Recreation: Generally unsuitable for intensive recreation because of steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and a lack of tree cover. W i l d l i f e : The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for white-tailed deer, and f o r Cali f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s moderate to good. Plate 70 Vx - Vaseux 1. Oo - Orofino 1 WHITE LAKE LAND SYSTEM 112 1. Landform and Materials. The landform consists of a shallow mantle of glacial t i l l and colluvium over strongly to very steeply sloping valley walls. The materials are dominantly shallow,coarse textured glacial t i l l and colluvium over volcanic and sedimentary bedrocks. There are minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l and colluvium, and glacial f luv ia l outwash. Vegetation. The vegetation is grassland in the Douglas f i r zone. The shrub layer is dominated by threetip sagebrush and big sagebrush, and the herb cover by bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue. The vegetation is dominantly the threetip sagebrush - - bluebunch wheatgrass habitat type, with Idaho fescue - - umbrella plant habitat type at higher elevations. Soi ls . The soi ls are dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems with significant inclusions of Rego Dark Brown Chernozems. Soils have gravelly 113 sandy loam and gravelly loamy sand textures and are well drained. Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 2,000 to 4,500 feet. Slopes are usually between 15 and 45%. This land system occurs around White Lake. S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development. Steep and very steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and stoniness provide severe and moderate engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . The s u i t a b i l i t y for urban develop-ment i s generally severe except f o r the inclusions of g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash and gently sloping g l a c i a l t i l l . Recreation: Intensive recreation i s generally unsuitable because of steep slopes, shallow depths of materials over bedrock and a lack of tree cover. The gl a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash materials have a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y . Wild!ife: The habitat s u i t a b i l i t y for mule deer winter and spring range and for white-tailed deer and ruffed grouse i s moderate to good. Plate 72 Wl - White Lake l . s . Oo - Orofino l . s . The location of plate 72 i s shown on plate 71. WOLFCUB LAND SYSTEM 114 Landform and Materials. The landform consists of undulating to strongly r o l l i n g g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash. The outwash i s both terraced and kettled and is probably underlain by glaciolacustrine deposits. The materials are dominantly sandy and gravelly g l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash with minor inclusions of a l l u v i a l -- c o l l u v i a l fan deposits. Vegetation. The vegetation belongs to the big sagebrush zone, ponderosa pine subzone. Ponderosa pine and bitterbrush dominate the tree and shrub-cover respectively. The herb cover i s dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass and speargrass. S o i l s . The s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozems. There are s i g n i f i c a n t inclusions of Orthic Regosols and minor inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems. Soil textures vary from sandy loam and gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand and gravelly loamy sand. Soils are rapidly drained. 115 Landscape Features. Elevations are approximately 1,000 to 1,400 feet. Slopes are usually between 2 and 15 percent. This land system i s simi l a r in topography and materials to Osoyoos l . s . S u i t a b i l i t y for. Engineering and Urban Development: Erosion and duning of sands provide generally moderate to severe engineering l i m i t a t i o n s . There are generally no major limitations for urban development but the use of septic tanks may lead to ground water poll u t i o n . A good source of sand and gravel. Recreation: Generally severe and moderate limitations for intensive recreation because of surface s o i l textures (dustiness and erosion), vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance and a sparse tree cover. W i l d l i f e : The s u i t a b i l i t y for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring range i s moderate. 116 PART II Introduction Part I describes the study area, the problems, provides general descr ipt ions of the resources and i l l u s t r a t e s the approach used in inventory and data presentat ion. This section discusses the in terpret i ve guidel ines and s u i t a b i l i t y rat ings developed for selected engineering (urban development), recreation and w i l d l i f e in terpretat ions . Interpret ive Guidelines and S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings fo r Engineering Selected engineering interpretat ions, were developed to aid in planning res ident ia l developments in the Southern Okanagan Val ley . The engineering interpretat ions discussed inc lude: surface erosion and mass s o i l movement p o t e n t i a l s ; l im i ta t ions for sept ic tank absorption f i e l d s ; shallow excavations; dwellings without basements and area type sanitary l a n d f i l l s . General s u i t a b i l i t i e s as sources of road f i l l , sand and gravel and topsoi l material are also included. C r i t e r i a are estab l ished, and rat ings made, for the degree of l i m i t a t i o n or s u i t a b i l i t y each land system has for a s p e c i f i c engineering a c t i v i t y . Table II shows the general s u i t a b i l i t y rat ing or the l i m i t a t i o n rat ing (with l i m i t i n g factors) given to each engineer-ing a c t i v i t y . 117 Three s u i t a b i l i t y classes are used. They are defined as follows: None to s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n -- a rating of none to s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n (good s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that i f there are limit a t i o n s they w i l l be generally easy to overcome without special planning or management procedures. Moderate l i m i t a t i o n a rating of moderate l i m i t a t i o n (moderate s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates r e s t r i c t i o n s which generally can be overcome with good planning or management, at a moderate to moderately high expense. Severe l i m i t a t i o n -- a rating of severe l i m i t a t i o n (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that even with very good planning and management the r e s t r i c t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t and expensive to overcome. Areas having severe limitations generally require special and costly procedures to make the land suitable for a specified purpose. The interpretations provide a useful guide to people such as farmers, contractors, land developers, engineers and planners, regarding, the degree and types of r e s t r i c t i o n s and environmental hazards that can be expected from different engineering uses on each land system. However, to maximize the usefulness of this information the user should become fa m i l i a r with the section "How to Use the Report." 118 It i s emphasized that because the mapping was done at a reconnaisance level (a scale of 1 mile = 1 inch) inclusions of di s s i m i l a r units are to be expected and there may be large variations in s o i l and other properties within the same land system. The interpre-tations are not intended to and should not be used to replace s p e c i f i c , onsite engineering investigations. The main source used for establishing l i m i t a t i o n ratings was the publication by the Soil Conservation Service, 1971. Other references are provided in the text where appropriate. Surface Erosion P o t e n t i a l ^ So i l erosion i s the detachment and subsequent transport of s o i l p a r t icles by wind or flowing water. C r i t e r i a considered in . determining surface erosion potentials include: the potential water i n f i l t r a t i o n and transmission properties of s o i l s ; surface s o i l s t a b i l i t y ; slope; and s o i l compactability. Surface s o i l erosion potential i s an important consideration in the Okanagan Valley. The dry climate, steep dissected topography and shallow s u r f i c i a l deposits over bedrock make the s o i l s very suscept-i b l e to surface erosion when disturbed. Surface s o i l erosion w i l l decrease s i t e productivity, affect the quality of the fishery and water resources and i s aesthetically unattractive. The guidelines used are modified from work done by the author and G. Utzig (Graduate Student, Department of Soil Science) on s o i l erosion in the Chilliwack Valley for Planning 521, U.B.C. 119 Water I n f i l t r a t i o n and Transmission: Water i n f i l t r a t i o n and transmission properties of s o i l s are important considerations i n estimating the potential for surface erosion. Hydrologic s o i l groups were used to estimate the a b i l i t y of water to move into and through a s o i l , and hence the runoff potential [Soil Conservation Service, 1971]. Deep, rapidly drained sands and gravels with high i n f i l t r a t i o n rates have few r e s t r i c t i o n s for use. Soils having very slow i n f i l t r a -tion rates due to a high clay content, clay pans, high water tables, or shallow depths to an impermeable layer, have severe r e s t r i c t i o n s for use. . •'> Soi1 Surface Stabi1ity: Soil surface s t a b i l i t y i s the re l a t i v e resistance of s o i l p a r t i c l e s to detachment and transport. Surface s t a b i l i t y i s determined by inherent s o i l properties such as texture and structure (water stable aggregates), topography and by the protective vegetative cover. Soil surface s t a b i l i t y was interpreted largely from s o i l texture, assuming some vegetation disturbance. Well, graded gravels and moderately fine textured loams, because of th e i r coarseness and potential for structure formation respectively, were generally considered to have few l i m i t a t i o n s . Both coarse textured sands and loamy sands (which lack cohesive properties) and fine textured s i l t s and clays (which lose cohesion on saturation and are susceptible to fr o s t deformation) are considered to have a higher degree of l i m i t a t i o n . 120 Soil Compaction: Soil compaction (the breaking down of s o i l structure and decreasing s o i l pores) decreases the i n f i l t r a t i o n rates of water into s o i l s . Consequently surface runoff and erosion increase. Compaction can be caused by r a i n f a l l on bare s o i l or by trampling the s o i l surface by foot or machinery. The degree to which a s o i l i s susceptible to compaction depends upon s o i l texture, structure and the moisture content at the time of disturbance. Very wet or wery dry s o i l s are generally more easily compacted [Swanston and Dyrness, 1973]. Coarse textured gravels, sands and sandy loams generally provide few l i m i t a t i o n s , while moderately fine textured loams and s i l t s have an increased l i m i t a t i o n . Slope: Slope i s one of the most important determinants of surface erosion potential. With undisturbed vegetation most s o i l s w i l l be porous enough to have l i t t l e surface runoff, even on steep slopes. However, with s o i l compaction the i n f i l t r a t i o n capacity is decreased and the drainage pattern interrupted. As a r e s u l t , steeper slopes have an increased surface erosion potential. Slopes less than 5 percent are thought to have generally few slope limitations while slopes greater than 30 percent generally have a greater degree of l i m i t a t i o n . Table II shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for potential surface erosion. 121 Mass Soil Movement Potential Mass s o i l movement i s movement of s o i l material by the force of gravity. C r i t e r i a considered in determining mass s o i l movement potentials include: slope; shear strength; depth to impermeable layer; bedrock type; and potential f r o s t action. A special erosion feature in the study area, the Penticton s i l t s , are discussed. Mass s o i l movement potential ratings can be used as a guide for planning land use a c t i v i t i e s and identifying environmental hazards throughout the study area (e.g. buildings, roads, pipelines, timber . • harvesting and recreation developments). Where care i s not taken to prevent losses of s o i l material, erosion w i l l result in lower s i t e productivity, damage to roads, houses and other improvements, deterior-ate the quality of the fishery and water resources, and affect public safety. The potential for mass movement depends upon the balance between gravitational stress and s l i d i n g resistance. Gravitational stress i s the downs!ope force acting on the s o i l . It i s controlled by the weight of the s o i l mass and the gradient df the s l i d i n g surface. Sliding resistance refers to the sum of forces counteracting gravitational stress -- i.e. s o i l cohesion, and f r i c t i o n a l resistance between s o i l p a r t i c l e s , between the s o i l mass and the s l i d i n g surface The guidelines used are modified from work done by the author and G. Utzig (Graduate Student, Department of Soil Science) on s o i l erosion in the Chilliwack Valley, for Planning 521, U.B.C. 122 and by external support ( i . e . tree roots). F r i c t i o n a l resistance i s dependent upon the nature of the s o i l p a r t i c l e s and on the moisture content of the s o i l . (Saturated s o i l s have reduced f r i c t i o n a l resistance due to t h e i r tendency to " f l o a t " with high water pressure in s o i l pores and because cohesion i s reduced with high s o i l water content). Slope: The angle of slope plays a major role in determining s o i l s t a b i l i t y . Steep slopes combined with high s o i l moisture content are common to most mass movements of s o i l on forest land [Swanston and Dyrness, 1973].. As the angle of slope increases, the gravitational stress on the s o i l mass increases. At the same time the f r i c t i o n a l resistance between the s o i l mass and the s l i d i n g surface decreases giving the s o i l a higher potential for mass wasting. Slopes less than 30 percent generally have few slope limitations .for use while slopes greater than 60 percent have a greater degree of l i m i t a t i o n . Shear Strength: Shear strength i s the resistance of a s o i l to movement. It measures the components of f r i c t i o n a l resistance and strength due to cohesion. Relative shear strengths are estimated from s o i l textural groupings based on measurements of saturated s o i l s [Canada Department of Agriculture, 1958]. Coarse textured gravels, sands, loamy sands and sandy loams have high saturated shear strengths. Fine textured s i l t s and clays have low shear strengths. The l a t t e r provide greater lim i t a t i o n s at high moisture contents. 123 Depth to Impermeable Layer: Soils shallow to bedrock or with an impermeable layer become saturated more quickly than deeper s o i l s . When saturated these s o i l s tend to " f l o a t " above the s l i d i n g surface owing to the pressure of water in the pores [Swanston, 1970]. This decrease in the s o i l s effective weight lessens the f r i c t i o n a l resistance of the s o i l body and increases the potential for mass wasting. Soils greater than 5 feet in thickness generally have few (thickness) l i m i t a t i o n s . Soils less than 3 feet in thickness have a greater potential for saturation and therefore a higher degree of l i m i t a t i o n . Bedrock Type: Bedrock has both a direct and ind i r e c t influence on the potential s t a b i l i t y of an area. Bedrock d i r e c t l y affects s o i l s t a b i l i t y by offering zones of weakness which can act as f a i l u r e mechanisms (e.g. j o i n t or bedding planes p a r a l l e l to the slope). Large areas of exposed bedrock may increase s t a b i l i t y by acting as a stable block ( i . e . by breaking up the s o i l continuum and providing external support to the s o i l ) . The ind i r e c t influence exerted by bedrock i s through s o i l properties as well as by providing an impermeable layer. Some s o i l properties which r e f l e c t the bedrock from which they were derived include weatherability, texture and drainage. Coarse textured acidic bedrocks such as granites and.gneiss, which are very hard and resistant to weathering even when exposed, are thought to contribute l i t t l e to mass wasting potential. Units contain-ing greater than 50 percent exposed bedrock were also considered to have few lim i t a t i o n s due to external support. Finer textured and basic bedrocks, which generally weather more e a s i l y , and highly 124 jointed bedrock or bedrock with bedding planes p a r a l l e l to the slope are considered to have a higher l i m i t a t i o n . Frost Action: When s o i l s are exposed through vegetation disturbance the potential for s u r f i c i a l f r o s t action i s greatly increased. Frost action results from the formation of ice lenses at the s o i l surface. Ice lenses result from a slowly moving freezing front which i s supplied with moisture from the s o i l . With the formation of ice lenses s o i l p a r t icles are loosened and are then susceptible to erosion by wind, water or qravit.y. Fine textured loams and s i l t s are . rated as havinq a severe l i m i t a t i o n for f r o s t action, due to t h e i r capability to deliver water for ice lense formation. Coarse textured sands and gravels generally have few l i m i t a t i o n s . Special Erosion: A c r i t i c a l erosion problem occurs in the Penticton land system (Plates'75 and 76). This land system includes what are known as the Penticton s i l t s , a glaciolacustrine deposit which occurs around the southern end of Okanagan Lake to Skaha Lake. The s i l t s are highly erodable materials characterized by steep sided g u l l i e s and frequent sinkholes [Wright and Kell y , 1959]. Erosion appears to be the result of two processes: boring of water into the s i l t s when i t continually strikes the same point (resulting in tunneling and the consequent sinkholes as material f a l l s into the tunnel); and s o i l saturation, producing a sudden collapse of the s i l t structure (causing steep gully w a l l s ) , [Wright and Kell y , 1959]. 125 Plate 75 Penticton land system. Note the attempts to cover the sinkhole forming at the head of the gully. Plate 76 Penticton land system. This photograph shows s o i l erosion of lacustrine fine sands along a power l i n e access road. 126 Land use a c t i v i t i e s planned for this land system should include measures to protect the vegetation cover and prevent excess s o i l moisture, or runoff which w i l l greatly accelerate natural erosion processes. General erosion hazard ratings are available for these s i l t deposits [Runka, 1971]. Table II shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n for each land system due to potential mass s o i l movement. Septic Tank Absorption Fields A septic tank absorption f i e l d i s a sewage disposal system which distributes effluent through subsurface t i l e s into the s o i l . The effluent i s p u r i f i e d , under suitable s o i l conditions, by processes of absorption, f i l t r a t i o n and micro-biological decomposition. C r i t e r i a considered in determining the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of the land systems for septic tank absorption f i e l d s include: s o i l permeability; depth to water table; flooding; depth to impermeable layer; slope; stoniness; and phosphorus f i x a t i o n . Soil s u i t a b i l i t y for septic tank use is. an important considera-tion for two reasons. F i r s t l y , septic tanks w i l l probably continue to be used in rural areas having a small population. They are presently the most economical means of domestic sewage disposal. Secondly, septic tanks, p a r t i c u l a r l y near lakes and streams,are a s i g n i f i c a n t source of phosphorus to the main valley lakes. They contribute to the general water quality problem in the Okanagan Valley [Consultative Board, 1973]. 127 To maintain good water quality standards new septic tanks must be located on suitable s o i l s and constructed to standards that prevent 12 ground water pollution. Soil Permeability: Soil permeability i s the ease with which gases, liq u i d s or plant roots penetrate a mass or layer of s o i l . Slowly permeable to impermeable s o i l s , having slow s o i l absorption of sewage effl u e n t , w i l l be severely limited for septic tank use. Soils having rapid to moderately rapid permeabilities generally provide few limi t a t i o n s for effluent absorption. Important exceptions are coarse textured sands, gravels, stones and fractured bedrock where very rapid permeabilities can contribute to ground water poll u t i o n . Soil permeabilities and the i r l i m i t a t i o n s for septic tank absorption f i e l d s were interpreted from c r i t e r i a in Bouma et, al_. [1972], and Canada Department of Agriculture [1958]. Flooding: Flooding and seasonal high v/ater tables i n t e r -fere with the f i l t r a t i o n and absorption processes of sewage effluent. Soils with a seasonal water table within 4 feet of the surface* or areas subject to flooding, generally should not be considered for use of septic tanks owing to potential ground water pollution. Depth to Impermeable Layer: Shallow s o i l s over an impermeable layer (e.g. bedrock) afford d i f f i c u l t construction and • T2 The Consultative Board of the Canada-British Columbia Water Basin Agreement recommend, "That a l l new septic tank i n s t a l l a t i o n s be constructed to standards that ensure 80 percent phosphorus removal where s o i l conditions are such that special measures are required to control nutrients from this source." 128 maintenance problems for septic tank use. Soils with an impermeable layer within 5 feet of the s o i l surface were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Slope: Steep slopes increase construction costs and maintenance problems for septic tank f i l t e r f i e l d s . Lateral seepage of effluent can become a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t problem on steeper slopes. Slopes greater than 15 percent were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Stoniness: Stony s o i l s are generally unsuited for septic tank use. They impose high construction costs and also have a high potential for ground water pollution ( i . e . poor f i l t r a t i o n and absorption of effluent due to large pores, small total surface area, low cation exchange capacity, etc.). Phosphorus Fixation: Phosphorus f i x a t i o n i s the process whereby soluble phosphorus i s made insoluble by chemical or biological a ttraction to the s o i l p a r t i c l e s . Factors considered in estimating the r e l a t i v e limitations s o i l s have for phosphorus f i x a t i o n were: s o i l pH; organic matter content; the presence of calcium carbonate, i r o n , aluminum and manganese; and the proximity of the s o i l to a water source. In general a s o i l pH between 6 and 7 i s considered to have the greatest l i m i t a t i o n for phosphorus f i x a t i o n [Buckman and Brady, 1972]. An increasing content of calcium carbonate at hiqher pH's and i r o n , aluminum and manqanese at lower pH's, results in an increase in phosphorus f i x a t i o n . 129 Table II shows the deqree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for septic tank absorption f i e l d s . Shallow Excavations Shallow excavations refer to excavating; or trenching the s o i l to a depth of about 5 feet. C r i t e r i a considered, in determining the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of land systems for shallow excavations include: s o i l drainage; seasonal water table; flooding; s o i l texture; depth to bedrock; stoniness; degree of compaction; and slope. The interpretations developed provide a general guide to the degree of l i m i t a t i o n expected when excavating soiIs in the different land systems. When planning land uses such as cemeteries, u t i l i t y lines and pipelines, additional information should be collected, (e.g. shrink-swel1 potentials and c o r r o s i v i t y ) . The guidelines used in determining l i m i t a t i o n rating are discussed b r i e f l y . Those wishing more deta i l should consult the So i l Conservation Service [1971]. Drainage, Water Table, Flooding: Soils having poor drainage, a high seasonal water table (less than 30" from the surface) or subject to flooding, were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Texture: Organic s o i l s and loose, uncompacted sands and gravels which have l i t t l e resistance to sloughing were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . 130 Stoniness, Depth to Bedrock: Very stony and shallow s o i l s (less than 40 inches over bedrock) are d i f f i c u l t to excavate. They are considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Compaction: Very compact t i l l s (basal t i l l s ) which are d i f f i c u l t to excavate, were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Slope: Steep slopes not only make the use of excavation equipment d i f f i c u l t but also increase s o i l i n s t a b i l i t y and erosion. Slopes greater than 15 percent were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . Table II shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for shallow excavations. Dwelling Without Basements The degree of l i m i t a t i o n of land systems for dwellings with-out basements i s based on s o i l requirements for construction of single family dwellings or similar structures. The interpretations do not apply to buildings with a foundation load in excess of three s t o r i e s . In determining the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of land systems for dwellings without basements consideration was given to s o i l factors affecting: foundation support (bearing capacity and settlement under load); ease of excavation; and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of u t i l i t y l i n e s . 131 Foundation Support: Foundation support depends on s o i l features such as density, wetness, flooding, p l a s t i c i t y , texture, shrink-swell potentials, bearing capacity and settlement under load. With .the exception of flooding and wetness, these factors were not considered to be severely l i m i t i n g in the area due to the coarse textures of the s o i l s . Soil wetness and flooding are severely l i m i t -ing along the Okanagan River and along main valley lakes (e.g. Osoyoos Lake). Ease of Excavation: Factors affecting the ease of excavation include: s o i l wetness; slope; depth to bedrock; and stoniness. Soils having poor drainage, a seasonal water table within 20 inches of the surface, slopes greater than 15 percent, or which are very stony, were considered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n . U t i l i t y Lines: Soils less than twenty inches in,thickness over bedrock were considered to be severely l i m i t i n g for the i n s t a l l a t i o n of u t i l i t y l i n e s . Table II shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for dwellings without-basements. Area'Type Sanitary L a n d f i l l Area type sanitary l a n d f i l l refers to waste disposal by depositing successive layers of refuse over s o i l material. C r i t e r i a considered in determining the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of land systems for area type sanitary l a n d f i l l include: s o i l permeability; drainage; 132 depth to seasonal water table; flooding; texture; thickness of material; stoniness; and slope. The interpretations that have been made are based primarily on the top 5 feet of s o i l . For this reason.and because of the potential for pollution of ground water supplies due to leachates, onsite geologic investigations are required. Permeability, Drainage, Depth to Water Table, Flooding: Soil permeability, drainage, depth to seasonal water table and flooding are of primary concern because they affect potential contamination of ground water. Soils having very rapid permeabilities, poor drainage, a seasonal water table within 5 feet of the surface, or soi ls subject to flooding, were considered to have a severe l imitat ion. Texture, Thickness of Material, Stoniness, Slope: Soil properties of texture, thickness of material, stoniness and slope were considered because they affect soi l workability. Table II shows the degree of l imitation of each land system for area type sanitary l a n d f i l l . Road F i l l The general su i tab i l i t y of soi l materials in each land system to provide a source of road f i l l material is discussed. Sui tabi l i ty ratings are based on characteristics of the top 5 feet of s o i l . They reflect how well a soi l should perform after i t is placed in a shallow 133 road embankment (generally less than 6 feet high). The ratings are applicable only to local and secondary roads, not freeways. C r i t e r i a considered in determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of land systems for road f i l l material include: s o i l texture; shrink-swell po t e n t i a l ; s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to f r o s t action; drainage; stoniness; depth to bedrock; and slope. Texture, Shrink-Swell Potential, Frost: Soil texture, shrink-swell potential and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to f r o s t action are factors which affect s o i l performance when placed in road embankments. Due to . the coarse textures of the s o i l s in the study area (except for the s i l t loams and s i l t y clay loams of the Penticton land system) these factors were not considered to be severely l i m i t i n g . Depth to Bedrock, Drainage, Flooding, Stoniness, Slope: Depth to bedrock, drainage, flooding, stoniness and slope, primarily concern the ease with which s o i l material can be removed. Soils that are shallow to bedrock (less than 5 f e e t ) , poorly drained, subject to flooding, very stony, or have slopes greater than 15 percent were considered to have a poor s u i t a b i l i t y . Table II shows the s u i t a b i l i t y of each land system as a source of road f i l l material. Sand and Gravel The general s u i t a b i l i t y of s o i l s i n each land system to provide a potential source of sand and gravel for different types of construe-134 t i on work i s discussed. Ratings are based on the probability that s o i l s contain sizeable quantities of sand or gravel. Sand and gravel were grouped together because of t h e i r v a r i a b i l i t y in composition throughout the study area. To qualify as a good or f a i r probable source the deposit must be at .least 3 feet thick (although not entirely in the upper 5 feet of s o i l ) . Deep sands and gravels, either well or poorly graded, were considered to have a good s u i t a b i l i t y . Poorly suited sources include s o i l s having moderately f i n e ' textures and s o i l s that are dominantly shallow to bedrock. Unsuited sources include s o i l s having fine textures and coarse textured c o l l u v i a l deposits which would be highly erodable i f disturbed. Table II shows the s u i t a b i l i t y of each land system as a source of sand and gravel. Topsoil The general s u i t a b i l i t y of s o i l s in each land system to provide a quality source of topsoil for re-establishment or maintenance of vegetation i s discussed. S u i t a b i l i t y ratings are based on a topsoil depth of 8 inches. As a result of the shallow p r o f i l e develop-ment of s o i l s in the study area the term topsoil usually includes the surface s o i l (A horizon) and some of the subsoil (B horizon). In making s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consideration was given to the ease of excavation, the degree of expected damage resulting from top-s o i l removal, and to some biological and chemical properties of s o i l s . 135 Ease of Excavation: The ease of excavation i s affected by slope, texture, wetness, and thickness of the s o i l material. Soils with slopes greater than 15 percent, coarse textures (gravels or sands), poorly drained, and s o i l s shallow to bedrock, were considered to be poorly suited. Expected Damage: Where removal of topsoil i s expected to cause severe damage by resulting in revegetation or erosion problems , the land systems were rated as being poorly suited. The dry climate which characterizes lower elevations in the study area, results in: slow s o i l formation and slow revegetation following disturbances. Hence many lower elevation sit e s w i l l have a high potential for damage with topsoil removal. Chemical and Biological Properties: Chemical and bio-lo g i c a l properties of s o i l affect the quality of t o p s o i l . The amount of organic matter, soluble s a l t s , and s o i l pH were considered for topsoil quality. Table II shows the s u i t a b i l i t y of each land system as a source of t o p s o i l . 136 TABLE II S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings and L imi t ing Factors for Selected Engineering A c t i v i t i e s U n i f i e d r o i l L a n d S y s t e m C l a s i i f -and Map i c a t l o n Symhol S y s t e m D e n r e e and K i n<! n o f L i m i t a t i o n s T o r i S u i t a b i l i t y an a S o u r c e o f i f.urfACf> Mass T o i 1 F r o i l on f o v r p e n ' . P o t e n t i a l P o t e n t i a l pt. 1 c Tank A ' n o r p t ) on rie'lds S h a l l o w (I nf.ifi i vc :.:nf) F x c v a t Ions Dv»*l1 i n i s A r c f l T y pe K l tl-,OL't S a n i t a r y Poad DlllTi'lllH I.-1f.l ' 1 1 1 f i l l S a n d And C r a v e 1 T o p f i o i 1 r u r f acc atahilityj moderate to Sliqht o n g r a v e l s perm"ah 111 t y t e x t u r e S e v e r e : C o o d pfrmeahl1ity A n a r c h i s t SM a n d S o v f r e i H o l l e r a t A SevcrPi o l o p e f S e v e r e i S e v e r e t S e v e r e : P o o r P o o r P o o r A t CM VA f f a n d s h a l l o w t o s l o p c j s l o p e 5 l o p e ; t r a n s - Hpvcrfli bet) r o c k s h a l l o w t o t h i c k ne s s p i i s s i o n ; s l o p e j b e d r o c k o f m a t e r i a l s l o p e d e p t h t o i m p e r -m e a b l e St*.t SW S e v e r e , Se.verei ' r v c r c i S e v e r e , a n d CiW s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e i r . t i n 1 - a l o p e i n f l - n n h a l l o w s h a l l o w t o t o b e d r o c k b e d r n c k j D t o n l n e s a S e v f r e i s l o p e S e v e r e t s l o p e U n s u i t e d P o o r n e a v e r d e l l SW a n d V n d r r a t e i S l i n h t . S e v r r e i S l i n h t . * f e d e r a t e : i^ood Good P o o r D l C,H B U T f a c e perrr.eePi 1 i t y t e x t u r e p e r m e a b i 1 i t y i s t e b i l i t y j s t o n t n e s s s e v e r e w i t h c o a r s e . s a n d s t o (iur f s e n B l u f f Df M o d e r a t e M o d e r a t e i S e v e r e : S e v e r e and and s l o p e i s l o p e ; m o d c r a t e i Cfve rfi s l i n h t o n ur.'!er ly Ing s l o p " i s l o p e n t i 11 may n t o n i n e s s n t n b t l l t y i l f n a t h a n f o r m i m p e r -B l o p e i 30% V i o n * w a t e r ha rr i e r ; I n f i l t - s l o p e s l e s s r a t i o n a n d t h a n 9\ t r n n i - m o d e r a t e ml s s i o n S c v e r e i s l o p e M o d e r a t e a nd fir-ve r e t s l o p f t s t o n ! nofifi CarmL C l CP and SP S l i n h t i w i t h c o a r s e s a n d s t o s u r f a c e s e v e r e S l i g h t . Modera t e i p c m ^ a M 11 t y i s e v e r e nn g r a v e l l y and -irony i r a t - . - r i a l a and a t c e p c r s l o p e s S e v e r e i t e x t u r e j s t o n i n e s s S l i n h t t o S e v e r e n o c i e r i i t c i and Stortinenfj i r o ' J r r a t e i B l o p e n r e a t e r t h a n 9\ mo<!e r a t e t o s e v e r e pe r r . e a h i 1 1 t y s t o n ! n e s s C o l u m n s C B SH S e v e r e , w a t e r t r a n s -mi s i l o n i a l o p e Severf and mo.lor a to t s l o p e i d e p t h t o i m p e r -m e a b l e j b e d r o c k t y p e ! > V I T « 1 * lnpf J .shallow to be.irock > e x p o s e d b e d r o c k S e v r e t a 1opei aha 1 low t o b e d r o c k S.-VTf t o lope j d e p t h t o b e d r o c v -S e v e r " i fl lope, t h i c k -n e s s oT m a t e r i a l P o o r P o o r P o o r C u l p e r C r SM and cn S e v e r e t v a t e r t r n r . - -mi n*» l o n i n l o p u H o d e r a t e i n l o p e i d e p t h t o eal.l-, S loj.es S e v e r e : n l o p e | alia 1 low to bed roc'* i e x n o i e d I'fdtock S e v e r * t ttlOpCf aha 11ow t o h.-drock S e v e r e i * l o j f| d.-pth t o b e d r o c k S e v e r e i 5 lope| t h i c k n e s s o f m a t e r i a l P o o r P o o r P o o r g r e a t e r t h a n h0\ s e v e r e 137 Tabic II (continued) n r e e nnd K i n d s o f I.lmi t a t i o n s F o r t S u i t a b i l i t y na a S o u r c e o f t U n i f i e d S o i l .*'-"ptic Tank Land S y s t e m C l a s s ! f - S u r f a c e Mass S o i l jV'-.-.orpt i o n D w e l l i n g s A r e a Type S a n d and Map l c . i t Ion F r o s i on T i e ' l d s S h a l l o w w i t h o u t S.ini t a r y Poad and Symbol S y s t e m P o t e n t i a l r o t t - n t i t i l ( T n f n ? i vo Use) E x c a v a t i o n . i n.inrments L a n d f i l l F i l l G r a v e l T o p s o i l C r r r n o l r e sw-r.H toilirnti11 :• 1 i " h t . . . r-i- v r e i S e v e r e nnd I'nclTiitn r " o r l o r a t c F a i r P o o r P o o r Cc n o d e r a t e : and and st.1 1'! 1 i y j n r - ' . i t r r r.odora t e s l o p e . r.evere i s e v e r e : w a t e r t h a n JOS on s l o p e s 3 t o n i n c s s s l o p e s l o p e ; t r n i " . - nndorate l e i s t h a n & t o n i n e s s mi usionj 151 s l o p e s u r o . i t c r t h n n 30% s e v e r e lie B t o r SW and S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e : S e v e r e t S e v e r e i S e v e r e t P o o r U n s u i t e d P o o r ll r GW s l o p e nlo,.o •: l o n e . s l o p e i s l o p e s l o p e n t o : i i n e n s , s h a l l o w t o . i l i s l l o w t o b e d r o c k % b e d r o c k n t o n i n e s s I n k a n e e p SM and Severei S e v e r e anfj S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e i S e v e r e i P o o r P o o r P o o r IP GM w a t e r m o d e r a t e : s l o p e ; s l o p e j nlopr.j s l o p e j t r a n s - s l o p e . s h a l l o w t o nha1 low t o d e p t h t o t h i c k n e s s n i -"f.ioni d>-pth t o he:' r o c k j b e d r o c k b e d r o c k o f n l o p e 1 m n c r n c f l b l e c* po.sod m a t e r i a l s bed r o c k Kcoqan SH S c v r o : V o d e r a t e i S e v e r e t s l o p e , S e v e r e i S e v e r e : S e v e r e : P o o r P o o r P o o r r.n w.itcr n l n p e i nh.il low t o s l o p e ; n l o p e i s l o p e ; t r i i n s * d e p t h t o b e d r o c k ; s h a l l o w t o d e n t h t o t h i c k n e s s mi r.r- i o n , 1 p p c r - e x p o s e d b e d r o c k b e d r o c k o f s l o p e r*>e .1111 e i b e d r o c k m a t e r i a l s filopes n r e a t e r t h a n 60% r e v e r e M o d e r a t e and Bcvere i vnter m i i o n ; s l o p e M o d e r a t e and s l i o h t i s l o p e , d e p t h to i m p e r -m e a b l e S e v c r e i s l o p e ; 3ha 1low S e v e r e and m o d e r a t e : s l o p e j s h a 1 low t o b e d r o c k j a t o n i n e a a S e v e r e i s l o p e ; s l o p e s M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e i s t o n i n e s s ) n l o p e , t h i c k n e s s Of m a t e r i a l K i n n e y Ky S e v e r e and m o d e r a t e i w a t e r t r a n s -n i i o n j c o m p a c t ab i i i t y j B u r f a c e n t a h i 1 t t y M o d e r a t e i p u t o n t i a l f r m t a c t 1 on S e v e r e i f l o o d 1 n g , wnt.er t n b l e j p e r m e a b i l i t y S e v e r e : d r a i n a q e ) w a t e r t a b l e ) f l o o d i n g S o v e r e i S e v e r e t d r a i n a g e ) w a t e r water' t a b l e ) t a b l e i d r a I n n q e , f l o o d i n g f 1 o o d i n g U n s u i t e d P o o r Kobau SM S e v e n ; and M o d e r a t e j S e v e r e i S e v e r e t. S e v e r e t S e v e r e t P o o r P o o r F a i r Ku m o d e r a t e t s l o p e : s l o n e ; s l o p e ) s l o p e ) s 1 o n e ; w ^ t e r d e p t h t o s h a l l o w t o sha1 low d e p t h t o t h i c k n e s s t r i i n n - I n r c r - bed r o c k t o b e d r o c k j o f mi ::.iion; m e a b l e , b e d r o c k f r o s t m a t e r i a l a l o p e f r o s t a c t i o n a c t i o n K r u g c r SW-SM S e v e r e t S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e j S e v e r e i P o o r P o o r P o o r Kr t r a n s -r i ::s ion> s l o p e s l o p e i d e p t h t o i m i - r -n e . i h l e fi l o p e j s h a l l o w t o b e d r o c k s l o p e j s h a I l o w t o b e d r o c k s l o p e s l o p e j t h i c k n e s s o f m a t e r l a l L a w l e s s La t.rann-n i n *: 1 on , s l o p e , i d e r a t e t ( v n . t a b l e ) n l o p e , s e v e r e t s l o p e , n I o p e n l e s s t h a n 10% m o d e r a t e S e v e r e nnd m o d e r a t e i n1one, s t o n i n e a s S e v e r e t s l o p e , s J o p e s l e s s t h a n 151 m o d e r a t e S e v e r e and m o d e r a t e t Hlope, n t o n l n P H f l 138 Table II (continued) D e g r e e and K i n d s o f L i m i t a t i o n s T o r i S u i t a b i l i t y a s a S o u r c « o f t U n i f i e d S o i l S e p t i c Tank" Land S y s t e m C l a s s i f - S u r f a c e .vans S o i l Ah'sor p t i o n Dwe11i nqs A r e a T y p e s a n d and Map i c a t i o n F r o s i o n Movement F i e l d s Sha I low v;i t h o u t S a n i t a r y Poad and Symbol S y s t e m P o t e n t i a l T o t e n t i a l ( I n t e n s i v e Use) r . x c a v a t i o n s P a s o m o n t s L a n d f i l l F i l l G r a v e l T o p s o i l L o u i e GP a n d S l i n h t : S l i g h t : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : M o d e r a t e : S e v e r e Good Good P o o r Le SP d e e p s l o p e s s t o n i n e s s ; t e x t u r e j ( v a r i a h l d a n d c o a r s e q r e a t e r on d e " o s t o n i n e s s n t o n i n o s j j m o d e r a t e t s a n d s and t h a n 30% sa n d s s l o p e p e r m e a b i l i t y j s l o p e s m o d e r a t e m o d e r a t e s t o n i n e s s n r e a t e r t h a n 301 s e v e r e M a n u e l SM a n d S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : ' S e v e r e i S e v e r e : S e v e r e : P o o r U n s u i t e d P o o r M l CM s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e ; s l o p e j s l o p e s l o p e S h a l l o w t o s h a l l o w t o bi'drock j b e d r o c k ; s t o n i n c s s s t o n i n e s s M a r r o n SM S e v e r e M o d e r a t e S e v e r e and S e v e r n a n d S e v e r e S e v e r e a n d F a i r U n s u i t e d P o o r Ma a nd and jnoderii t e : m o d e r a t e : and m o d e r a t e : m o d e r a t e i s e v e r e . S l o p e ; s l o p e ; m o d e r a t e ) s l o p e ; s l o p e j s l o p e j d e p t h t o s h a l l o w t o s l o p e j t h i c k n e s s O f w a t e r s h e a r b e d r o c k b e d r o c k s h r i nk- m a t e r i a l t r a n s - s t r e n g t h ) s w e l l m i s s i o n b e d r o c k t y p e M c G r e g o r SW-SM S e v e r e : M o d e r a t e i S e v o r n : I f v c r e i S e v e r e t S e v e r e : P o o r P o o r P o o r Mg 3 l o p e ; s l o p e j s l o p e ; s l o p e j s l o p e j s l o p e ; w a t e r d e p t h t o s h a l l o w t o s h a l l o w t o d e p t h t o t h i c k n e s s o f t r a n s - i m p e r -1 'edrcck i b e d r o c k b e d r o c k ma t e r l a l mi s s i o n m e a b l e expo r.f>d b e d r o c k H c l n t y r e SW-SM S e v e r f l i S e v e r e a n d S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : P o o r U n s u i t e d P o o r r c a n d GW s l o p e i m o d e r a t e t s l o p e ; s l n p e ; s l o p e s l o p e s u r f a c o s l o p e s h a l l o w t o oha1 low t o s t a b i l i t y b e d r o c k ; b e d r o c k ; s t o n l n e s s s t o n i n e s s r c K i n n e y SW-SM M o d e r a t e , M o d e r a t e S e v e n - : S e v e r e a n d S e v e r e S e v e r e and F a i r P o o r P o o r My and SM w a t e r and s l o p e j m o d e r a t e : and m o d e r a t e j and t r a n s - s l i q h t i s l o p e s s l o p e J m o d e r a t e t s l o p e j P o o r m i s s l o n r s l o p e l e s s s t o n i n e s s s l o p e J s t o n i n e s u s l o p e ; t h a n l i t s t o n i n -s l o p e s m o d e r a t e e s s g r e a t e r t h a n 30* # s e v e r e Munson SM and S e v e r e i M o d e r a t e t S e v e r e i S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : P o o r P o o r P o o r Mn CM s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e M y e r s ML and S e v e r e : M o d e r a t e j S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e : P o o r U n s u i t e d r o o r Mn SM w a t e r f r o n t wa r e r d r a i n a n e ; w a t e r r . e a s o n a l t r a m - a c t i o n t a b l e , w a t ' T t a b l e ; w a t e r mi sr. l o n i p e r m e a- t a b l e f r o s t t a b l e j s u r f a c e b i l i t y a c t i o n d r a i n a g e s t a b i l i t y ! comnac-t a h ' i l i t y o r o f i n o SM S e v e r o t S e v e r e and S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : S e v e r e : P o o r P o o r P o o r Oo H A t e r . m o d e r a t e i s l o p e ; s l o n e j s l o p e ; s l o p e i t r a n s - s l o p e j s h a l l o w t o s h a l l o w t o d r n t h t o t h i c k n e n s O f i>.l c i o n r d e p t h t o b e d r o c k ; b e d r o c k b e d r o c k m a t e r i a l s l o p e * mner- ••xi mn'>l m e a b l e j b e d r o c k b e d r o c k t y p o Table II (continued) 139 Land S y s t e m and Map Symho 1 U n i f i e d S o i l C l a n s l f -i c a t i o n Syntem D e g r e e and K i n d s o f L i m i t a t i o n s P o r t S u r f a c e Mass S o i l F . r o s l o n Movement P o t e n t i a l P o t e n t i a l S e p t i c T a n * A b s o r p t i o n F i e l d s ( I n t e n s i v e Use) S h a l l o w E x c a v a t i o n s D w e l 1 i n g s w i t h o u t f l a s e m e n t s A r e a T y p o S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l S u i t a b i l i t y a s a S o u r c e o f t Road F i l l S and and G r a v e l T o p a o l l S e v e r e • s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e : p e r m e a b i l i t y ! p h o s p h o r u s f i y.a t i o n , s l o p e S l i e h t . , M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e i p e r m e a b i l i t y P a r k R i l l S e v e r e : S l i g h t . , M o d e r a t e , S e v e r e i s u r f a c e p e r m e a b i l i t y , t e x t u r e s t a b i l i t y p h o s p h o r u s f i x a t i o n M o d e r a t e i Good p e r m e a b i l i t y P e n t i c t o n ML S e v e r e : S e v e r e i M o d e r a t e : S l i g h t ) , M o d e r a t e t S l i q h t t P o o r U n s u i t e d Good and Pn s u r f a c e s h e a r p e r m e a b i l i t y ; s l o p e s s h r i nk- s l o p e s F a i r s t a b i l i t y . s t r e n g t h . s l o p e 3 g r e a t e r s w e l l g r e a t o r c o m n a c t a - f r o s t n r e a t e r _than t h a n 15% p o t e n - t h a n 8% b l l i t y a c t i o n i 15% s e v e r e s e v e r e t l a l , m o d e r a t o to s i n k h o l e s f r o s t s e v e r e a c t ! o n f s l o p e s g r e a t e r t h a n 15% s e v e r e R i c h t o r GW, SW S e v e r e t S e v e r e t S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e t P o o r U n s u l t e d P o o r Rr and SM s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e . s l o p e ) s l o p e s l o p e s h a l l o w t o s h a l l o w to b e d r o c k ; b e d r o c k ) s t o n i n e s s s t o n i n e s s S l i q h t to o e v e r e i w a t e r t r a n s -mi s s i o n i c o m o a c t -a b i l i t y S l i g h t . S e v e r e : B t o n 1 n e s s , w a t e r t a b l e , p e r -m e a b i 1 i t y , p h o s p h o r u s f* x a t i o n S e v e r e i M o d e r a t e t S e v e r e : Good t e x t u r e , d r a i n a g e , p e r m e a b i 1 1 t y i and d r a i n a g e , s t o n i n e s s s t o n i n e o s ; F a i r w a t e r d r a i n a g e t a b l e S heep Rock CP and S e v e r e : wa t e r t r a n s -mi n (i 1 on) n l o p e M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e t s l o p e , d e p t h t o i m p e r -m e a b l e ) f r o s t a c t i o n S e v e r e : s l o p e ) s t o n i n e s s , s h a l l o w t o b e d r o c k , e x p o u n d b e d -r o c k S e v e r e t S e v e r e t s l o p e , s l o p e .shallow to b e d r o c k S e v e r e i s l o p e , t h i c k n e s n of m a t e r 1 a l s S e v e r e i w a t e r t r a n s -mi ssion, s l o p e ' M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e t s l o p e , d e p t h t o i m p e r -m e a b l e S e v e r o i s l o p e ; s h a l l o w t o b e d r o c k ; e x p o s e d b e d r o c k S e v e r e t a l o p e , s h a l l o w to b e d r o c k S e v e r e t s l o p e , d e p t h t o b e d r o c k S e v e r e t S l o p e ) t h i c k n e s s of m a t e r i a l P o o r P o o r T e n t a l i n d e n GW and S l i g h t a n d m o d e r a t e ) n l o p e ) s u r f a c e s t a b i l i t y S l i g h t S e v e r e : s t o n l n e s s , a l o p e , w a t e r t a b l e , p e m e a b t 11 t y , phosplln;'u.1 f i x a t i.ni S e v e r e : t e x t u r e , d r a i n a g e , w a t e r t a b l e M o d e r a t e and s e v e r o t n t o n i ness* slone, d r a i n a g c S e v e r e i Good p e r m e a b i l i t y ) d r a i n a g e , s t o n i n e s a F a i r P o o r Table II (continued) 140 Land S y s t e m and Map Symbol U n i f i e d S o i l C l a s s i f -i c a t i o n S y s t e m D e g r e e and K i n d s o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i S u r f a c e Mass S o i 1 F r o s i o n Movement P o t e n t i a l P o t e n t i a l S e p t i c Tank A b s o r p t i o n F i e l d s ( I n t e n s i v e Use) S h a l l o w E x c a v a t i o n s D w e l l i n g s w i t h o u t Raaomenta A r e a T y p o S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l S u i t a b i l i t y a s a S o u r c e o f t Road F i l l S a n d and G r a v e l T o p s o i l T r o u t L a k e ML M o d e r a t e i M o d e r a t e M o d e r a t e and M o d e r a t e S e v e r e S e v e r o a n d F a i r H o t P o o r T l wa t e r and Severe: fl l o p e , a n d and m o d e r a t e i S u i t e d t r a n s - s e v e r e : p e r r c o a M 1 i t y j s e v e r e : m o d e r a t e * s l o p e , m i s s i o n ! s l o p e , s h a l l o w t o s l o p e . s l o p e , s t o n i n e s s s l o p e ; shea r bed r o c k s h a l l o w t o a h r i n k -s l o p e s s t r c n g t h , b e d r o c k . s w e l 1 g r e a t e r b e d r o c k s t o n i n e s s p o t e n t i a l ) t h a n 301 t i u v o r e t y p e , f r o n t a c t i o n f r o s t a c t i o n T w i n L a k e s SP, GP, S l i g h t t o S l i g h t t o M o d e r a t e t S e v e r e t S l i g h t M o d e r a t e t o Good Good F a i r Tn and SM s e v e r e t s e v e r e : perr.ertbi 1 I t y ; t e x t u r e * t o s e v e r e t a n d a n d s l o p e , r. l o p e p h o s p h o r u s a l o p e s e v e r e t s l o p e . F a i r P o o r s u r f a c e f i x a t i o n , s l o p e r p e r m e a b i l i t y s t a b i l i t y s l o p e s t o n i n -e s s V a s e u x GM, sw- S e v e r e and M o d e r a t e i S e v e r e i S e v e r e t S e v e r e t S e v e r e t P o o r P o o r P o o r , v x SM, SM and m o d e r a t e : s l o p e , w a t e r t r a n s -m i s s i o n s l o p e s l o p e , s h a l l o w t o b e d r o c k s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e a n d F a i r W h i t e L a k e GM, SW- S e v e r e and M o d e r a t e S e v e r e : S e v e r e a n d S e v e r e S e v e r e a n d P o o r F a i r P o o r Wl SM, and m o d e r a t e : and s l o p e , m o d e r a t e t and m o d e r a t e i t o SM s l o p e i s 1 i o h t i s h a l l o w t o s l o p e . m o d e r a t e i s l o p e . Good w a t e r l o p e i b e d r o c k , s h a l l o w t o s l o p e , t h i c k n e s s o f t r a n s - d e p t h t o mod c r a t e b e d r o c k j s t o n i n e s s m a t e r i a l s ) mi s.'ii on, i mpe r - on t e x t u r e p e r m e a b i l i t y s u r f a c e m e a b l e o u t w a s h s t a h i l i t y j S e v e r e t s u r f a c e e t a b i l l t y S l i g h t M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e : a b i l i t y | S e v e r e : t e x t u r e S l i g h t , M o d e r a t e and s e v e r e i p e r m e a b l 1 1 t y r i * •iph. 141 Interpretive Guidelines and S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings for Recreation Selected recreation interpretations are developed for land systems in the Southern Okanagan Valley. The recreation uses considered are: campgrounds; picnic areas; play areas; horseback r i d i n g ; and paths and t r a i l s . Canada Land Inventory capability 13 ratings for recreation are also discussed. Recreation i s a major component of the l i f e s t y l e and economy of the Southern Okanagan Valley. The number of tourists who annually v i s i t the Okanagan region i s around 700,000, and i s expected to increase to between 1.8 and 2.3 m i l l i o n within the next 50 years [Consultative Board, 1973]. The Southern Okanagan at present, "captures the largest share of the t o u r i s t trade . . . and perhaps experiences the biggest problems associated with over-use of municipal f a c i l i t i e s during the summer months," [0'Riordan, 1973]. To s a t i s f y present and future demands for recreational opportunities and to obtain a base for recreation planning, a land 14 assessment of recreational potentials should be undertaken. This assessment i s required to make f u l l use of, and to be compatable with, environmental .conditions. It should indicate how the natural environ-ment i s a major factor in development, maintenance, and improvement of The ratings were interpreted from the Land Capability for Recreation map, Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, 1968. 14 An inventory of natural attractions or recreational features should also be undertaken to complement studies on physical and bio-logical l i m i t a t i o n s for recreation use. 142 recreational f a c i l i t i e s . Without this type of assessment the total cost of construction and maintenance of f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be higher, potential environmental hazards may not be avoided (e.g. mass s o i l erosion, flooding, e t c . ) , and f u l l use w i l l not be made of the envir-onmental attributes. Environmental deterioration w i l l also increase as a result of the use of unsuited sit e s for a c t i v i t i e s which are not physically compatible. In this section an attempt i s made to assess the degree of li m i t a t i o n or s u i t a b i l i t y of each land system for selected recreational 15 a c t i v i t i e s . This provides a foundation on which to build recre-ational plans [Densmore and Dahlstrand, 1965]. C r i t e r i a are established, and ratings made, for the degree of l i m i t a t i o n or s u i t a b i l i t y each land system has for a recreation a c t i v i t y . Table III shows the general s u i t a b i l i t y or l i m i t a t i o n ratings(with the l i m i t i n g factors),given for each recreation a c t i v i t y . Three s u i t a b i l i t y classes are used. They are defined as follows: None to s l i g h t limitations -- a rating of hone to s l i g h t (good s u i t a b i l i t y ) i n d i c a t e s that i f there are limitations they w i l l be generally easy to overcome without special planning or management procedures. Moderate l i m i t a t i o n -- a rating of moderate (moderate s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that the limitations i d e n t i f i e d can generally be overcome with good planning, design or management at a moderate to moderately high cost. Water based recreation has been studied for the Canada-B r i t i s h Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement [ C o l l i n s , 1973]. 143 Severe l i m i t a t i o n -- a rating of severe (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that even with good planning and manage-ment the l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to overcome. Areas with severe limitations generally are un-. suitable, or require special and. costly procedures to make them suitable for a specified recreation use. The c r i t e r i a used for establishing s u i t a b i l i t y ratings have been developed from a number of sources. They include: Hawes and Briere, 1974; Brocke, 1970; Cressman and Hoffman, 1968; Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; and Wisconsin Bureau of Recreation, 1968. Specific references are also provided in the text where appropriate. Campgrounds The c r i t e r i a established for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of land systems for campgrounds are discussed. The c r i t e r i a were developed for intensive use ( i . e . at least 30 units) with improvements such as camping pads, picnic tables, water and sewage f a c i l i t i e s and access roads. In determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consideration was given to: wetness; flooding; permeability; slope; surface s o i l texture; coarse fragment content; stoniness; depth to bedrock; and vegetation. 144 Wetness: Wet s o i l s are usually r e s t r i c t e d in t h e i r length and season of use. They are unattractive due to muddiness and because of s o i l compaction and erosion problems. They w i l l also l i m i t the use of wells and on-site sewage disposal due to the potential for surface and ground water pollution. Soil wetness was inferred from s o i l drainage properties. Rapidly to moderately well drained s o i l s (which are not wet for long 16 periods of the year) have few l i m i t a t i o n s . Poorly drained and very poorly drained s o i l s (which have water at or near the surface for a large part of the year) have greater l i m i t a t i o n s . . Flooding: Flooding severely l i m i t s the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for campground use. Permanent structures such as buildings, tables, roads, and camp pads are damaged by flooding. The use of wells and on-site sewage disposal i s also limited due to potential ground and surface water poll u t i o n . Areas subject to frequent flooding (inferred from s o i l morphology and vegetation) were considered to be severely limited for campground use. Permeabi 1 i.ty: Permeability i s the a b i l i t y of s o i l to transmit water and a i r . Soils with a high clay content have slow permeabilities often resulting in wet and sticky s o i l s for prolonged For an explanation of these terms see, "The System of Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Canada," 1970. 145 periods. Sands and gravels have rapid permeabilities which provide few wetness li m i t a t i o n s . Slope: The angle of slope i s a major l i m i t i n g factor for campgrounds. As the angle of slope increases the costs for construction and maintenance of campsites also increases. Soil erosion problems associated with use w i l l also be greater on steeper slopes (e.g. paths and t r a i l s ) . Slopes less than 9 percent generally provide few slope l i m i -t a t i o n s , while slopes greater than 15 percent were considered to be severely l i m i t i n g . Surface Soil Texture: Surface s o i l texture can be used to i n f e r properties of s o i l permeability and cohesion. Permeability, the a b i l i t y of li q u i d s and gases to move through the s o i l , i s d i r e c t l y related to s o i l texture. Cohesion, or the a b i l i t y of s o i l to sti c k together, i s the primary factor affecting surface s t a b i l i t y . S oils high in clay have slow permeabilities, resulting in wet and sticky s o i l s . On the other hand sandy s o i l s are highly permeable, but lack cohesion when dry, making them very erodable and dusty. Gravels which are permeable, and loams which are permeable with good cohesive properties, generally provide few textural l i m i t a t i o n s . Sands, clays and s i l t y clays, have a greater degree of l i m i t a t i o n . 146 Coarse Fragment Content: As the coarse fragment content increases ( i . e . fragments between 3 mm and 10 inches in size) the costs f o r s i t e preparation and i n s t a l l a t i o n of camping f a c i l i t i e s also increase. In addition a high coarse fragment content makes the maintenance of paths and t r a i l s more d i f f i c u l t because fine p a r t i c l e s necessary to bind fragments are lacking. A coarse fragment content less than 15 percent generally provides few 1 imitations, for use. Soils with more than a 50 percent coarse fragment content have s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s . Stoniness: Stoniness refers to the r e l a t i v e proportion of stones over 10 inches in diameter in or on the s o i l . As the content of stones increase the costs for s i t e preparation and i n s t a l l a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s also increase. In addition, stony s o i l s are generally inconvenient to the user. Soils that were exceedingly or excessively stony were con-sidered to have a severe l i m i t a t i o n for use.^ Depth to Bedrock: Soils that are shallow to bedrock (less than 5 feet) require greater s i t e preparation for intensive campsite use. Soil drainage may be a problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f on-s i t e sewage disposal i s considered. Establishment and maintenance For the explanation of these terms see, "The System of Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Canada," 1970. 147 of vegetation i s also generally more d i f f i c u l t due to decreased water holding capacity of the s o i l . Vegetation Considerations: A review of the l i t e r a t u r e provides l i t t l e information about c r i t e r i a that might be used to evaluate the different types of vegetation i n the study area for recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make generaliz-ations owing to the lack of basic studies, three vegetative factors were considered. These were: the r e l a t i v e resistance of vegetation to disturbance; the a b i l i t y to recover following disturbances; and general attractiveness. (a) Resistance of vegetation to disturbance. Ground cover vegetation helps not only to maintain the aesthetic attractiveness of an area but i t also plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role in preventing s o i l erosion and dust problems. Ground cover provides the most important methods of erosion prevention and control [Stevens, 1966]. To prevent s o i l trampling and erosion a large per-centage of t a l l shrubs and grasses i s desirable. Tall shrubs, which are both d i f f i c u l t to trample and r e s t r i c t . wandering, tend to be r e l a t i v e l y tolerant to recreational • pressures.. Shrubs with a low stature are more suscep-t i b l e to trampling and breakage; A thick cover of perennial grasses (e.g. pinegrass Calamagrostis rubescens and Idaho fescue Festuea idahoensis) also protects the s o i l surface from disturbance. 148 A b i l i t y to recover from disturbances. Some vegetation associations are extremely slow to recover from disturbances caused by recreational a c t i v i t i e s . These associations are usually either in \/ery dry [Beardsley and Wagar, 1971] or cold climates. The big sagebrush {Artemisia tridentata), ponderosa pine and alpine zones generally have slow to very slow recovery rates following disturbances [McLean and Tisdale, 1972; Willard and Marr, 1971]. The Douglas f i r and subalpine f i r zones generally have moderate to good rates of recovery. Attractiveness. The considerations used in assessing the attractiveness of vegetation for recreational a c t i v i -t i e s were: the presence of tree cover; density of vegetation and the variety of species present. Tree cover i s an important requirement for many a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. camping and picnic s i t e s ) . I t provides both shade and a sense of "privacy." Density of vegetation also affects the general attractiveness of an area for use. Very dense vegetation (e.g. stagnant Lodgepole pine Pinus oontorta stands) tend to r e s t r i c t movement, the potential for viewing and the amount and.variety of ground cover. Areas having a large variety of species are more attr a c t i v e for aesthetic appreciation and nature studies. Another important consideration i s the period of flowering. 149 For example, areas having a large variety of species which flower over a short time period (alpine and upper timber-l i n e regions) are p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t ractive for.viewing (but are extremely sensitive to disturbance).. Table III shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for campground use. Picnic Areas The c r i t e r i a established for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of * land systems for picnic areas are discussed. The c r i t e r i a were developed for r e l a t i v e l y intensive picnic use ( i . e . at least 30 units) with improvements such as access roads, parking l o t s , tables and sewage f a c i l i t i e s . In determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consideration was given to: slope; flooding; surface s o i l texture; coarse fragment content; wetness; comparability; and vegetation. With the exception of compactability and vegetation, the c r i t e r i a used to assess s u i t a b i l -i t i e s for picnic areas have v i r t u a l l y the same limit a t i o n s as those 18 used to assess campgrounds. Those wishing more detailed information on the c r i t e r i a should consult the appropriate heading in the campground section. However for less intensive use,areas subject to flooding are often adaptable for picnic areas during the summer months. 150 Soil Compaction: When s o i l s are compacted there i s a break-19 down of s o i l structure and a decrease in s o i l porosity. As a conse-quence i n f i l t r a t i o n rates of s o i l s are decreased, thereby increasing the potential for surface runoff and erosion. . To estimate s o i l compact! b l l i t y , s o i l texture was used. Coarse textured gravels, sands and sandy loams, with the i r r e l a t i v e l y large sized p a r t i c l e s , provide few 1 imitations. Moderately fine textured loams and s i l t s , which have large amounts, of fine and coarse p a r t i c l e s , have greater l i m i t a t i o n s . Vegetation Considerations: Picnic areas w i l l probably be concentrated along water bodies ( i . e . lakes, r i v e r s and streams). The riparian vegetation found along these water bodies i s luxuriant compared.to the typical plant.associations occurring in the area. In general, riparian vegetation has a high rate of growth and well developed layers ( i . e . trees, shrubs and herbs). As a resul t of both the high growth rate and the vegetation composition (especially the shrubs), these sites are comparatively resistant to disturbance. Following disturbance by recreational a c t i v i t i e s these sites should be able to recover r e l a t i v e l y w e l l , providing severe s o i l erosion did not occur. Soil compaction i s discussed more f u l l y under "Surface Soil Erosion," in the section "Interpretive Guidelines and S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings for Engineering." 151 Consideration should be given to attractiveness of the vegetation. In p a r t i c u l a r , tree cover i s desirable to provide shade. The density of vegetation should also be considered. Very dense vegetation (e.g. some Engelmann spruce Picea engelmannii stands) w i l l be generally unattractive for use i f movement in the area i s r e s t r i c t e d (and can be unattractive because they provide shelter for insects such as mosquitoes). Table III shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for picnic areas. Playing Fields C r i t e r i a were established for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of land systems for playing f i e l d s . The c r i t e r i a are based on the assumptions that the sites are at least two acres in size and w i l l be used for organized a c t i v i t i e s such as playgrounds and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s . Special consideration was given to the valley bottoms, for playing f i e l d s w i l l probably be associated with either large campgrounds or urban areas. Playing f i e l d s are subject to heavy foot t r a f f i c . They require level surfaces which are well drained and free from any obstructions (such as stones). The surface s o i l texture should provide a firm surface. The s o i l should.also be able to support the growth of grasses. In determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consideration was given to: surface s o i l texture; permeability; wetness; flooding; depth to 152 bedrock; stoniness; slope and the a b i l i t y of s o i l to sustain a vegetative cover. Except for slope and vegetation,the c r i t e r i a used to assess s u i t a b i l i t i e s for playing f i e l d s are v i r t u a l l y the same as those used to assess campgrounds. Those wishing more information should refer to the appropriate heading in the campground section. Slope: Perhaps the most l i m i t i n g factor for playing f i e l d s is slope. Slopes less than 2 percent generally provide few limitations for use. Slopes greater than 9 percent are severely l i m i t i n g . Vegetation Considerations: Vegetation growth i s usually required on a l l areas not surfaced. Consideration was given to the s o i l conditions which w i l l a ffect the establishment or maintenance of grasses -- s p e c i f i c a l l y , soluble s a l t content, pH, and organic matter in the s o i l . Table I I I shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for playing f i e l d s . Horseback Riding C r i t e r i a were established for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of land systems for horseback r i d i n g . The c r i t e r i a are designed for use of areas as they occur in nature, i.e. without major cuts and f i l l s for t r a i l construction. Two assumptions were made: f i r s t l y , that natural vegetative cover i s present; and secondly that the t r a i l design f i t s the landscape (to minimize environmental impacts). 153 Horseback riding i s p a r t i c u l a r l y hard on s o i l and vegetation. The hoofs of horses compact the s o i l and break down i t s structure. They also dig up the s o i l surface, especially when galloping. This destroys the ground vegetation cover and loosens the surface s o i l , making i t highly susceptible to water and wind erosion. In determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings consideration was given to: the surface s o i l erosion pote n t i a l ; drainage; slope; stoniness; and vegetation. Surface Erosion Potential: The surface erosion potential ratings (engineering section) were used to determine the general t r a f f i c a b i l i t y of each land system. Consideration was given to the potential water i n f i l t r a t i o n and transmission properties of s o i l s , surface s o i l s t a b i l i t y , slope, and s o i l compactability. In general, s o i l s on gentle slopes with a sandy loam to loam texture were considered to have the most suitable characteristics for horseback r i d i n g . Drainage: Soil compaction and erosion i s potentially more serious on poorly drained s o i l s . Soil having poor and very poor drainage were considered to be severely limited for use in horseback 20 ri d i n g i f s i t e deterioration i s to be avoided. ^ uFor an explanation of the terms see, "The System of Soi l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Canada," 1970. 154 Slope: Slopes should be generally less than 15 percent for horseback riding [Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission Land Use - Transportation Study, 1966]. However, t r a i l s for horseback r i d i n g , as with hiking t r a i l s , can be designed to follow contours and other landscape features. For this reason slopes less than 30 percent were generally considered to provide few limitations for use. Slopes greater than 60 percent were considered to be severely l i m i t i n g . Stoniness: Stony and very stony s o i l s increase the costs . for t r a i l construction and maintenance. In addition, these s o i l s are generally inconvenient for horseback r i d i n g . The guidelines used for stoniness follow those developed in the section on campgrounds. Vegetation Considerations: Consideration should be given to the density of vegetation, i t s s e n s i t i v i t y to disturbance and a b i l i t y to recover from disturbances. Dense vegetation (as i s common in subalpine f i r , [Abies lasiocarpa'] and Engelmann spruce forests) requires a larger e f f o r t (expense) to clear a t r a i l wide and high enough for horseback ri d i n g . Dense vegetative i s also less desirable because i t tends to r e s t r i c t viewing. Due to the high potential for s o i l erosion by horseback r i d i n g , the r e l a t i v e resistance of vegetation to disturbance and i t s a b i l i t y to recover following disturbances should be considered. Alpine, dry sagebrush and ponderosa pine regions have a high potential to sustain 155 severe vegetation damage due to horseback riding ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on sand and loamy sand s o i l s ) . Table III shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for horseback r i d i n g . Paths and T r a i l s C r i t e r i a were established for determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of land systems for paths and t r a i l s . The c r i t e r i a are designed for areas to be used as they occur in nature. Two assumptions were made. • F i r s t l y , that natural vegetation cover i s present. Secondly, that the t r a i l design f i t s the landscape. This means that on steeper slopes dif f e r e n t t r a i l designs are required to minimize environmental impacts (e.g. make t r a i l s narrower, use switch backs, etc.). Selection of suitable si t e s or routes for paths and t r a i l s i s dependent on many factors, both physical and b i o l o g i c a l . In planning t r a i l s , "the location i s the most important feature in a park t r a i l . If i t i s made interesting by running through scenic areas and by points of i n t e r e s t s , the t r a i l w i l l be popular even though i t s construction i s poor. Conversely, a well constructed t r a i l is unsatisfactory i f i t does not give the hiker a feeling of being close to nature," [ B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Parks Branch, 1972]. In determining s u i t a b i l i t y ratings, consideration was given to: surface s o i l texture; permeability; wetness; flooding; slope; coarse fragment content; aspect; and vegetation. Except for slope, aspect and vegetation, the c r i t e r i a used to assess s u i t a b i l i t i e s for 156 paths and t r a i l s are v i r t u a l l y the same as those used for campgrounds. For more detail the user should consult the appropriate heading in the campground section. Slope: The angle of slope considered suitable for inten-sive use of paths and t r a i l s i s 15 percent or less. However, because paths and t r a i l s are narrow and can be designed to follow contours, slopes less than 30 percent were generally considered to provide few lim i t a t i o n s for use. Slopes greater than 70 percent were considered to be severely l i m i t i n g (but you can s t i l l cross these areas on the contour). Aspect: Aspect, or exposure to the sun, i s an important consideration in t r a i l location. South and west facing slopes are generally d r i e r , warmer, have more open vegetative cover and a better viewing opportunity than north and easterly aspects. In general, southerly aspects w i l l be important for use at mid and high elevations because of t h e i r warmer temperatures and longer season of use. ' Vegetation: Probably the most important consideration for vegetation i s i t s attractiveness. T r a i l s should be located so as to traverse a wide variety of plant communities. Variety in vegetation cover w i l l make the t r a i l more at t r a c t i v e than a t r a i l located in es s e n t i a l l y homogeneous vegetation. The r e l a t i v e resistance to and a b i l i t y to recover from disturbances should also be considered. Intensive t r a i l use in alpine and dry sagebrush areas creates a potential for severe vegetation 157 damage which may require a long period of time to recover to i t s previous condition. Table III shows the degree of l i m i t a t i o n of each land system for paths and t r a i l s . TABLE III S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings and Limiting Factors for Selected Recreation A c t i v i t i e s Degree and Kind o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r t Land System and Map Campgrounds Symbol ( I n t e n s i v e use) P i c n i c Areas ( I n t e n s i v e use) P l a y i n g F i e l d s Horseback R i d i n g Paths and T r a i l s C.L.I. R e c r e a t i o n Ratings and Other Comments Severe and mod-e r a t e : surface s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe and mod-e r a t e ! s u r f a c e s o i l t.exture; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l tex t u r e ; s lope S e v e r e i s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; veg-e t a t i o n d e n s i t y Severe and mod-e r a t e ! s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s C.L.I, c l a s s 6j to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s S e v e r e i s l o p e j depth to bedrock Severe: s l o p e Severe: Severe: Moderate: s l o p e ; s u r f a c e e r o s i o n s l o p e ; vegeta-donth to p o t e n t i a l j s l o p e t i o n bedrock a t t r a c t i v e n e s s C. I.. I. c l a s s e s 6 and 5; topo-g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s Apex Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe t S evere: C.L.I, c l a s s Ax sl o p e s l o p e s lope s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e s l o p e j a s p e c t ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e a e dominantly 6j i n c l u s i o n o f 2 and 3; v e q e t a t l o n , v i e w i n g , topogra-p h i c p a t t e r n s and s k i i n g f e a t u r e s B e a v e r d e l l Moderate and B l s e v e r e i s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Moderate and se v e r e : s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe and Moderate and moderate: severe: s u r f a c e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n poten-s o i l t i a l ; v e g e ta-t e x t u r e j t i o n d e n s i t y ; s l o p e and s u s c e p t i b -i l i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e Moderate and s e v e r e : s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e j veg-e t a t i o n a t t r a c -t i v e n e s s C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 5j topographic-p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and some upland w i l d -l i f e f e a t u r e s B l u f f Severe and mod Moderate and Bf e r a t e : s e v e r e : s l o p e j s t o n i n - s l o p e ; e s s j coarse s t o n i n e s s fragment content Carmi C i Severe: s lope j s t o n i n e s s Moderate t o s e v e r e i s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s t o n i n e s s ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e Moderate and severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; s l o p e j c o a r s e f r a g -ment content; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Moderate and seve r e : v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; s t o n -i n e s s j s l o p e j v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y Columns Severe t S e v e r e i Cs s l o p e ; depth s l o p e to bedrock Severe and Moderate and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; s.ope; ston i n e s s severe; s u r f a c e e r o s i o n poten-t i a l ; v e g e ta-t i o n s e n s i t i v -i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s S l i g h t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 3, 4,5; upland w i l d -l i f e , t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a -t i o n , v i e w i n g , wet-land w i l d l i f e , c u l -t u r a l landscape p a t -terms and o r g a n i z e d camping Moderate and se v e r e : s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e j s t o n -i n e s s ; v e g e t a -t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s 5j. to p o g r a p h i c and c u l t u r a l l a n d -scape p a t t e r n s , h i s t o r i c s i t e s , landforms and sm a l l s u r f a c e water f e a t u r e s Severe: s l o p e ; depth to bedrock Sev e r e i s u r f a c e e r o s i o n poten-t i a l ; v e g e ta-t i o n d e n s i t y ; r. lope Moderate: s l o p e j v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s C.L.I, c l a s s Sj to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s C u l p e r Cr Severe: alone; depth to bedrock Severe: s l o p e Severe; r. 3 one; >!epth to K . M ! rock Severe j s u r f a c e • i r o a i o n poten-t i a l ; s l o p e Moderate: s l o p e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s C.L.I, c l a s s 6; dominantly t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and vcgi'ta t i o n f on t.urrn T a b l e I I I ( c o n t i n u e d ) 159 Degree and Kind o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i Land System and Map Carr.pgrounds Symbol (Intensive, use) r i c n i c Areas ( I n t e n s i v e use) P l a y i n g F i e l d s Horseback R i d i n g Paths and T r a i l a C.L.I. R e c r e a t i o n R a t i n g s and Other Comments G r e g o i r e Moderate and severe: s l o p e ; coarse fragment con-t e n t ; (minor i n c l u s i o n s o f s l i q h t l i m i t a t i o n s ) Moderate and s e v e r e i fi lope j v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s n ; (rci nor i n c l u s -ions o f s l i g h t 1 imi t a t i o n s ) S e v e r e i s l o p e i s t o n i n e s s Moderatei s u r f a c e e r o s -i o n p o t e n t i a l ; v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y S l i g h t C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 5; to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s ties t o r Hr Severe : s l o p e Severe: slope S e v e r e i s l o p e Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s -i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e Severe: s l o p e C.L.I, c l a s s 5/ to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s Inkaneep IP Severe: r, lope; depth to bedrockj sens i 11vi ty of v e g e t a t i o n to , and a b i l i t y to recover from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s l o p e Severe: s l o p e ; depth t o bedrock Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e ; veqe t a t i o n sen-s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to re c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s l o p e j v e geta-t i o n s e n s i t i v -i t y to, and a b i l i t y to re c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 4; i n c l u s i o n s o f 3 and 5j t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and viewi n g f e a t u r e s Keogan Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe and C.L.I, c l a s s Kn s l o p e ; depth slope s l o p e j s u r f a c e e r o s i o n moderatei dominantly 5; to bedrock depth to p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e ; s l o p e i n c l u s i o n o f 3, bedrock v e q e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e upland w i l d l i f e , t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and v i e w i n g f e a t u r e s K i l p o o l a Ka Kinney Ky Kobau Ku Severe: s l o p e ; vege-t a t i on a t t r a c t i v e n e s s (lack o f t r e e cover) ; depth to bedrock Severe and moderate: sl o p e ; veg-e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i -ty to d i s t u r b a n c e Severe: s l o p e ; depth to bedrock j s t o n i n e s s Moderate and se v e r e : s u r f a c e e r o s i o n poten-t i a l ; v e g e ta-t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to and a b i l i t y t o r e c o v e r from • d i s t u r b a n c e Severe and moderate: wetness; f l o o d -in g ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e Severe and moderate: witness; f l o o d -ino; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e Severe and Severe and moderatei moderate: wetness; f l o o d i n g ; s u r f a c e so i 1 t e x t u r e ; p e r m e a b i l i t y s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; d r a i n a g e ; vegeta-t i o n d e n s i t y f o v c r c : s l o p e ; depth to bedrock; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Moderate and s e v e r e i s l o p e Severe t s l o p e ; depth to bedrock Moderate and seve r e : s u r f a c e e r o s i o n poten-t i a l ; s l o p e Moderate: v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 4; t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a -t i o n and view i n g f e a t u r e s Moderate and severe: wetness; f l o o d -i n g ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e S l i g h t and moderatei s l o p e C.L.I, c l a s s e s 4, 3,2, and S; wet-land w i l d l i f e , c u l t u r a l l a n d -scape p a t t e r n s , o r g a n i z e d camp-i n g , a n g l i n q and h i s t o r i c f e a t u r e s C.L.I, c l a s s e s 4 and 5j v e g e t a t i o n , t o p o a r a p h i c p a t t e r n s v i e w i n g and s p e c i a l man made f e a t u r e s Kruger Kr Severe: s l o p e j depth to bedrock Severe: slope S e v e r e i s l o p e ; depth to bedrockj s t o n i n e s s Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e ; v e q e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e Severe and moderatei s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s 4j t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and viewing f e a t u r e s Lawless Ls Sevnroi s 1 ope ; vr;<i» e t a t i o n a t t r a -c t iveness ( d e n s i t y of veg e t a t i o n ) Severe and moderate: alupe; veg-e t a t ion a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe: s l o p e i s t o n i n e s s Severet v e g e t a t i o n dens i ty j s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l Moderate: ve g e t a t I o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; s l o p e C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 6; to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and v e q e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s j i n c l u s i o n s of 3, w i t h viewing and s k i i n g f o n t u r e a Table III (continued) 160 Degrn« and Kind of L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i Land System C.L.I." R e c r e a t i o n and Map Camporounrln P i c n i c A r e aH P l a y i n q Ratings and Other Symbol ( I n t e n s i v e use) (Intonnivo uso) F i e l d s Horseback R i d i n g Paths and T r a i l s Comments Lou i e Le Severe: s u r f a c e 3 0 i l t e x t u r e ; ston-i n e s s ; veg-e t a t i o n sen-s i t i v i t y and g e n e r a l lack of t r e e cover Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; s t o n i n e s s ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y and q e n e r a l l a c k of* t r e e cover Severe and Moderate and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l tex t u r e ; s l o p e ; s t o n i n e s s severe; vegota t ion s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to recover from d i s t u r b a n c e s ; s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s t o n i n e s s Moderate and severe: s t o n i n e s s ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y C.L.I, c l a s s e s 3 and 4; v e g e t a t i o n , t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v i e w i n g and w i l d l i f e f e a t u r e s Manuel Severe: S e v e r e i Severe: Severe: Severe: C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5 and Ml s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n s l o p e ; 6; v e g e t a t i o n , p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e a s p e c t t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n f e a t u r e s Severe and moderate: s l o p e ; depth t o bedrock Severe and Severe: Severe and Moderate and moderate: s l o p e ; moderate: s l i g h t : s l o p e depth to s u r f a c e e r o s i o n s l o p e bedrock p o t e n t i a l C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 5; v e g e t a t i o n and to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n f e a t u r e s McGregor Mg Severe: s l o p e ; depth to bedrock Severe: s l o p e Severe: Severe: S e v e r e i s l o p e ; s u r f a c e e r o s i o n s l o p e ; depth t o p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e s t o n i n e s s ; bedrock v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e C.L.I, c l a s s 4 ; viewing, v e g e t a t i o n and rock f o r m a t i o n f e a t u r e s M c l n t y r e S e v e r e i Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe and C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5 Mc s l o p e s l o p e s l o p e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n moderate: and 6; v i e w i n g , p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e s l o p e ; s u r f a c e landforms, s m a l l s o i l t e x t u r e s u r f a c e waters, v e g e t a t i o n and to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n • f e a t u r e s McXinney Severe and My moderate: v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; s l o p e ; coarse fragment content Moderate and severe i s l o p e ; vege-t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s l o p e ; s t o n i n e s s Severe and moderate: v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y * s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l Moderate and s l i g h t -v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 6 and 5; v e g e t a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n f e a t u r e s Munson Mn Severe: s l o p e S e v e r e i s l o p e S e v e r e i Severe: s l o p e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e Severe and moderate: s l o p e C.L.I. c l a s s dominantly 5; to p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and . viewing f e a t u r e s Myers Ms Severe and moderate: wetness; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e Severe and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; wet-ness; c o m p a c t a b l l i t y Severe and Severe: moderate: wetness; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; dra inaqe Severe and modera t e : wetness; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e C.L.I, c l a s s t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n , v i e w i n g and h i s t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s Severe t s l o p e ; depth to bedrock Severe: s l o p e Severe: S e v e r e i s l o p e ; s u r f a c e depth to e r o s i o n bedrock p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e Severe and moderate: a lope; ston i n e s s C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 5; t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and viewi n g f e a t u r e s Table III (continued) Degree and Kind o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i Land System and Map Campgrounds Symbol ( I n t e n s i v e use) P i c n i c Areas ( I n t e n s i v e use) P l a y i n g F i e l d s Horseback R i d i n g Paths and T r a i l s C.L.I. R e c r e a t i o n Ratings and Other Comments Osoyoos 0 3 Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; vege-t a t i o n a t t r a c -t i v e n e s s ( l a c k of t r e e c o v e r s ) j v e g e t a t i o n sen-s i t i v i t y to and a b i l i t y to r e c -over from d i s -turbances Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to recover from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; s l o p e Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to, and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i t i -v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s e s 4, 3 and 2 j nng1ing, beach, o r g a n i z e d camping, v e g e t a t i o n , viewing, t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , c u l t u r a l landscape p a t t e r n s , and h i s t o r i c a l f e a t u r e s Park R i l l Pr Severe: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; vegeta t ion s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n -ces Severe and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe and Severe: moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe and mod-. c r a t e : s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n sen-s i t i v i t y to and a b i l i t y to r e c -over from d i s -turbances C.L.I, c l a s s e s 4 and 5; t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n and viewing f e a t u r e s P e n t i c t o n "Severe: v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s (lack o f t r e e cover) and sen-Severe and moderate: c o m p a r a b i l i t y ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; vege-s i t i v i t y to d i s - t a t i o n a t t r a c -turbance; s u r f a c e t i v e n e s s , and s o i l t e x t u r e s e n s i t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe to Severe: s l i g h t : s l o p e ; s u r f a c e s o i l tex-ture; (mod-e r a t e to s l i g h t on f i n e sandy loams) s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i t i -v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; s l o p e ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i t -i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e s Q.L.I, c l a s s e s 5, 3 and 4; c u l t u r a l landscape p a t t e r n s , t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , h i s t o r i c a l , v i e w i n g and beach f e a t u r e s R i c h t e r Rr Severe: s l o p e Severe i s l o p e Severe i s l o p e Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e Severe and moderate: sl o p e ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; c o a r s e f r a g -ment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5 and 6; t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s and vege-t a t i o n f e a t u r e s Roy S l i g h t to S l i n h t to Moderate Moderate Moderate and C.L.I, c l a s s Ry severe: s e v e r e i and and s l i g h t : dominantly 5; ( h i g h l y ( h i g h l y s e v e r e : severe: ston i n e s s ; c u l t u r a l l a n d -v a r i a b l e ) v a r i a b l e ) s u r f a c e s u r f a c e s u r f a c e s o i l scape p a t t e r n s . s t o n i n e s s ; s t o n i n e s s ; s o i l eros ion t e x t u r e ; t o p o g r a p h i c a l wetness; s u r f a c e t e x t u r e ; p o t e n t i a l ; wetness p a t t e r n s and s u r f a c e n o i l s t o n i n e s s ; dra inane; h i s t o r i c a l s o i l t e x t u r e ; wetness s t o n i n e s s f e a t u r e s t e x t u r e * wetness Sheep Rock Severe: Sr s l o p e ; depth to bedrock; s e n s i t i v i t y o f v e g e t a t -i o n t o , and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Moderate and s e v e r e i s l o p e ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and an a b i l i t y to rec o v e r f r o n d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s l o p e ; depth t o bedrock Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe and moderate: v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r -bances; s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5, 2 and 6; v i e w i n g , t o p o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , vege-t a t i o n and s k i i n g f e a t u r e s Skaha Sa Severe: • slope) depth to bedrock Severe: s l o p e S e v e r e i s l o p e Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n pot-e n t i a l ; s l o p e ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe: s l o p e j v e g e t a t -ion s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5, 4 and 3) topo-g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , viewing, v e g e t a t -i o n and w i l d l i f e f e a t u r e s Table III (continued) 162 Degree and Kind o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r t Land System and Map Campgrounds Symbol {Intensive use) P i c n i c Areas ( I n t e n s i v e use) P1ayi ng F i e l d s Horseback R i d i n g . L . I . R e c r e a t i o n Ratings and Other Paths and T r a i l s Comments T e s t a l i n d e n Severe and moderatei s t o n i n e s s ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t ; s u r f a c e s o i l tex-t u r e ; s l o p e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe and moderate: s t o n i n e s s ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; s l o p e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe Moderate and Moderate and and se v e r e : s l i g h t : mod <• r a t e : wetness ; s t o n i n e s s ; s t o n i n e s s ; s u r f a c e s u r f a c e e r o s i o n • s u r f a c e s o i l n o i l tex- p o t e n t i a l ; t e x t u r e ; t u r e ; v e q e t a t i o n * wetness s t o n i n e s s ; s e n s i t i v i t y to s l o p e ; d i s t u r b a n c e s wetness C.L.I, c l a s s At c u l t u r a l l a n d s -cape p a t t e r n s , viewing and o r g a n i z e d camp-in g f e a t u r e s T r o u t Lake Te Severe and moderate: s l o p e ; vege-t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe and moderate: s l o p e ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe: s l o p e ; B t o n i n e B R Severe and moderate: vegntat ion d e n s i t y ; s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l Moderate: C.L.I, c l a s s 5; v e g e t a t i o n t o p o g r a p h i c a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ; p a t t e r n s and slo p e v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s Twin Lakes Tn Moderate and seve r e : s l o p e ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; c o a r s e f r a g -ment con t e n t ; v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y S l i g h t to seve r e : ( v a r i a b l e land system} s l o p e ; s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i -t i v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e s Severo to Moderate and s l i qh t: s e v e r e : ( v a r i a b l e s u r f a c e l a n d r.ystem) e r o s i o n s l o p e ; s u r - p o t e n t i a l ; f a c e s o i l 3 l o p e ; vege-t e x t u r e ; t a t i o n s e n s i t i -s t o n i n e s s v i t y to d i s t u r b a n c e s S l i g h t to se v e r e : ( v a r i a b l e l a n d system) s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5 and 4; vegeta-t i o n , topogra-p h i c p a t t e r n s , rock f o r m a t i o n s , stna 11 sur face waters and h i s t o r i c a l s i t e f e a t u r e s Vaseux Vx Severe: Severe and s l o p e ; vege- moderate: t a t i o n a t t r a - s l o p e ; vege-c t i v e n e s s t a t i o n ( l a c k o f t r e e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s cover) Severe: Severe to s l o p e ; moderate: depth to s u r f a c e e r o s i o n bedrock p o t e n t i a l Moderate and s l i g h t : s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 5, 4 and 6; vege-t a t i o n , topo-g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v i e w i n g , rock f o r -mation and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s White Lake Wl Severe: v e g e t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ( l a c k o f t r e e c o v e r ) ; s l o p e Severe and moderate: s l o p e ; vege-• t a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s Severe and moderate: s l o n e ; depth to bedrock; s t o n i n e s s Moderate and seve r e : s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; s l o p e Moderate and s l i g h t : s l o p e ; c o a r s e fragment c o n t e n t C.L.I, c l a s s e s 4, 5 and 3; vege-t a t i o n , topo-g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , rock f o r m a t i o n s , s m a l l s u r f a c e waters, h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s and man-made fea t u r e s Wolfcub wb Severe and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e s ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y to, and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r f r o n d i s t u r b a n c e s Moderate and seve r e : s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe and moder.i t e : s u r f a c e s o i 1 t e x t u r e ; s l o p e Severe: s u r f a c e e r o s i o n p o t e n t i a l ; v e g e t a t i o n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , and a b i l i t y to r e c o v e r f rom d i s t u r b a n c e s Severe and moderate: s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e ; vege-t a t i o n s e n s i -t i v i t y to and a b i l i t y to rec o v e r from d i s t u r b a n c e s C.L.I, c l a s s dominantly 4; top o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , v e g e t a t i o n , c u l t u r a l l a n d -scape p a t t e r n s , arid v i e w i n g f e a t u r e s 1. C.L.I, r e c r e a t i o n r a t i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d from the Land C a p a b i l i t y f o r R e c r e a t i o n map f o r P e n t i c t o n 82E, (1968). 163 Interpretive Guidelines and S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings for W i l d l i f e Preservation of w i l d l i f e is important in the Southern Okanagan Valley. Variations in topography and climate, from semi-arid valley bottoms to alpine peaks, have provided habitats suitable for a wide variety of w i l d l i f e species [Brooks, 1973]. The local fauna i s both diverse and unique, with several species being rare or absent i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia; such as Ca l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep, several r e p t i l e s , horned toads and scorpions. Changing land use a c t i v i t i e s threaten the destruction of some c r i t i c a l habitats — p a r t i c u l a r l y the lower elevation winter feed-ing areas [Spalding and Bone, 1969]. To maintain the abundance and div e r s i t y of w i l d l i f e in the Southern Okanagan Valley more detailed information on sp e c i f i c habitat requirements of threated species must be acquired. If these habitat requirements cannot be maintained the capacity of the land for w i l d l i f e production w i l l be diminished. The most c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e habitats i n the Southern Okanagan Valley occur at low elevations. Lower elevation slopes and valley bottoms provide important winter and spring ranges. Cold temperatures and deep snow during the winter i n upland areas, make access to, and maintenance of winter ranges c r i t i c a l for the survival of species such as Ca l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and mule deer. Spring ranges, also limited in extent, provide for rapid recovery of animals following winter in preparation for reproduction and lact a t i o n . An attempt was made to develop and apply a technique for providing baseline w i l d l i f e information for regional land use planning. 164 Information on the habitat requirements of selected w i l d l i f e species was collected, interpreted and presented in manner to f a c i l i t a t e i t consideration in the planning process. It i s emphasized that information on s p e c i f i c habitat requirements i s based on limited local knowledge. Because habitat requirements for most species can vary considerably at the local level [Luckhurst, 1974], the user should be aware that this information does not replace more detailed w i l d l i f e investigations. Seven w i l d l i f e species were selected f o r study: C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep; mule deer; white-tailed deer; blue grouse; ruffed grouse; spruce grouse [Franklin's grouse]; and white-tailed ptarmigan. For each species base l i n e habitat information on food, cover physiography and juxtapostion of habitat elements (or habitat interspersion) was collected. S u i t a b i l i t y ratings were then made for the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t y of each land system (in th e i r present condition) to provide these habitat requirements. The s u i t a b i l i t y ratings are defined as the capacity of the land system in i t s present condition to respond to management techniques (including consideration of the degree of e f f o r t or expense) for a s p e c i f i c kind and intensity of use. The degree of e f f o r t i s , "the r e l a t i v e amount of time and energy required to provide optimum habitat . . . through habitat manipulation, for each w i l d l i f e species considered," [Thomasson, 1973]. Three s u i t a b i l i t y ratings were used: Good s u i t a b i l i t y -- a good s u i t a b i l i t y rating means that the land system in i t s present condition has a high capacity to provide the necessary habitat for the species. L i t t l e or no habitat manipulation i s required. 165 Moderate s u i t a b i l i t y -- a moderate s u i t a b i l i t y rating means that the land system does not, in i t s present condition, provide the necessary habitat for the species. A moderate to moderately high e f f o r t and expense i s required to improve the habitat. Poor s u i t a b i l i t y -- a poor s u i t a b i l i t y rating means that the land system is generally unsuited to meet the habitat needs of the species. The land may require a major e f f o r t and expense to improve the habitat; the land system may be v i r t u a l l y l o s t for w i l d l i f e use (e.g. in d u s t r i a l or urban developments); or, due to the physical and biological makeup of the land system i t i s unsuitable f o r use. C a l i f o r n i a Bighorn Sheep This section attempts to id e n t i f y land systems that might provide suitable C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep winter and early spring ranges, as shown in Table IV. It was assumed that abundant summer range is available for C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep and i t s protection i s not as c r i t i c a l as winter range. On the east side of Skaha and Vaseux Lakes i s a.small herd of C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep {Ovis canadensis califovniana) numbering around 300 animals [Spalding and Bone, 1969]. This herd is well known to many local residents and to u r i s t s who hunt, study, photograph and observe these animals. 166 For several months during the winter this herd congregates on lower slopes which are both warmer and essent i a l l y free of snow. These lower elevation slopes make up the C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep winter range and are c r i t i c a l to the survival of the herd [Spalding and Bone, 1969]. The behaviour of sheep is based on t r a d i t i o n and they do not normally pioneer into vacated habitats [Geist, 1971]. However, they might have the potential to expand with intensive management (for example by transplanting individuals into a new environment). The s u i t a b i l i t y ratings are based on the assumption that land systems which are not presently used by sheep, but which provide the necessary habitat requirements, may be used i n the future with intensive management. 167 Food: The winter and early spring range consists of open ponderosa pine {Pinus ponderosa) and grassland areas (with small amounts of Douglas f i r [Pseudotsuga menziesii] at higher e levat ions) . They, feed pr imar i ly on the 'hard' perennial grasses such as bluebunch wheat-grass (Agropyron spioatum) and Idaho fescue (Festuaa idahoensis) but 21 also on forbs and browse [Morrison, 1972]. Annuals such as cheat-grass (Bromus teatorum) are often green in la te winter and early spring and are grazed. Shrubs found on the range include Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), b i t terbrush (Purshia . tridentata), squaw currant (Eibes aereum), Oregon grape (Berberis aqui-folium), sumac (Rhus glabra), and wi ld rose (Rosa spp.) [Spalding and Bone, 1969]. Pasture sage (Artemisia frigida) i s important where i t occurs [Demarchiiand M i t c h e l l , 1973]. . Grass species include Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii), bluebunch wheatgrass, cheatgrass, speargrass (stipa oomata) and Idaho fescue (Festuaa idahoensis). Cover: Forest cover i s important where i t i s dense and forms an e f fec t i ve barr ier to movement, or where i t reduces the growth of important grasses and forbs. Winter cover consists of ponderosa pine and some Douglas f i r at higher elevations [Spalding and Bone, 1969]. In the ear ly spring the animals move to open grasslands. 21 Morrison found in the Ashnola River drainage that 91 percent of the spring d iet was grass. 168 Physiography: C a l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep prefer a rocky landscape within easy access [Capp, 1968]. In the winter they congre-gate on lower elevation grasslands and south facing, exposed, snow-free ridges where snow depth i s less than 1 foot. Since sheep feed very close to the ground searching for high quality forbs and grass shoots, crusting ( p a r t i c u l a r l y where i t 'locks' pasturage close to the ground surface) i s detrimental. An extremely heterogeneous microtopography helps to reduce crusting. Juxtaposition: Bighorn sheep require a nearby escape te r r a i n . This i s usually within several hundred yards of a feeding, area [Oldemeyer et al. , 1971]. The type of escape terrain required is a rocky inaccessible area to sheep's predators, not covered by heavy timber. Mule Deer This section is concerned with identifying land systems that provide suitable habitats for mule deer winter and early spring ranges, as shown in Table IV. The Southern Okanagan Valley provides a natural range for mule deer [Odoaoileus hemionus hemionus). Mule deer are important to the area as they are a major huntable and viewing species. They also respond well to management and are generally compatable with other land use a c t i v i t i e s . 169 Mule deer occur at high elevations during the summer [Scheffler, 1972; Spalding, 1968]. With snowfall accumulation in late autumn,mule deer move down to lower slopes for winter feeding [Spalding, 1968]. These lower elevation slopes, which have generally warmer temperatures and less snow, are important for survival of mule deer. Food: Mule deer eat primarily browse species throughout the year [Morrison, 1972]. The shrubs waxberry (Symphoricarpos albus), kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Saskatoon berry, snowbrush [Ceanothus velutinus), soopolallie {Sheperdia canadensis), squaw currant, sumac, mock orange {Philadelphus lewisii), willow (Salix spp.), and red-osier dogwood [Covnus stolonifera) are important food sources [Spalding, 1968]. Aspen {Populus tremuloides), bitterbrush, big sagebrush, and western choke cherry {Prunus virginiana) may be used l o c a l l y . Douglas f i r i s an important winter food, p a r t i c u l a r l y where shrubs are not abundant and during periods of deep snow.. During early spring greenup, grasses are used as a source bf food. Bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue and cheatgrass are important species [Hudson, 1974]. Sandberg's bluegrass may also be grazed heavily [McLean, 1974]. Cover: The preferred winter cover i s a mixture of trees (ponderosa pine, Douglas f i r ) with a variety of shrubs adjacent to forest openings. Tree cover provides an escape habitat, protection from the climate (e.g. wind) and provides food in times of heavy snow-f a l l . In early spring open grasslands are preferred but tree cover i s important during the day. 170 Physiography: Snow depth and cold temperatures appear to be important in determining the location of mule deer winter ranges [Capp, 1968; Spalding, 1968]. Mule deer migrate to lower elevation grasslands and forested areas in winter, p a r t i c u l a r l y with heavy snowfalls. In spring greenup they may move to even lower slopes and open grassland areas. Juxtaposition: Juxtaposition i s important primarily as i t affects heterogeneity of vegetation — a desirable cha r a c t e r i s t i c for mule deer. Human disturbance and dogs constitute a major problem [King, 1974]. However, mule deer may tolerate some human a c t i v i t y such as livestock and logging. They respond to patch logging of about 100 acres or less or where they can obtain cover within about 100 yards. White-Tailed Deer This portion of the study i s concerned with identifying the land systems suitable for use by white-tailed deer, as shown in Table IV. It i s based on the assumption that there i s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t elevational migration for most animals. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t w i l d l i f e species in the Southern Okanagan Valley. They recently spread into the valley from the Boundary region and appear to be increasing in numbers as a result of human a c t i v i t y [Spalding, 1968]. White-tailed deer are more adaptable to human a c t i v i t y than are mule deer. This gives them a competitive advantage. Compared 171 to mule deer they are d i f f i c u l t to hunt because of the i r skittishness; they respond better to human a c t i v i t y (e.g. farming) being more secretive animals; and they have a s i g n i f i c a n t reproductive advantage, with a large percentage of young does breeding a year e a r l i e r and adults producing twins more often [Kramer, n.d.]. White-tailed deer are animals of the valley bottoms and lower slopes [Spalding, 1968]. They do not migrate to the extent of mule deer but rather remain in and around valley thickets, floodplains and farmland. In the winter they prefer slopes having less snowfall and warmer temperatures. Food: White-tailed deer feed in seepage areas such as thickets along creeks and floodplains. They are less dependent on Douglas f i r for food than are mule deer. They feed primarily on browse. Important species include western choke cherry, red-osier dogwood, Saskatoon berry, trembling aspen, kirinikinnick, Oregon grape {Berberis aquifolium), wild rose [Rosa spp.) and waxberry. Bitterbrush may be l o c a l l y important (although i t does not readily show signs of being grazed). In addition, forage crops such as a l f a l f a are used as a food source. Cover: White-tailed deer prefer dense, low elevation ' thicket vegetation ( i . e . trembling aspen, water birch [Betula occi-dentalism ,hawthorn [Crataegus spp.], etc.). In summer some animals migrate to higher elevations but a sizeable population stays in the valleys around thickets and agricultural areas. 172 Physiography: The general physiographic requirements are riparian vegetation along water courses at lower elevations. The landscape i s usually f l a t t e r and less varied than that used by mule deer or Ca l i f o r n i a bighorn sheep. In the winter white-tailed deer move to warmer slopes with less snow cover. Juxtaposition: White-tailed deer respond well to changes in land use. They are generally adaptable and tolerant of human a c t i v i t y as long as large areas of food and cover are not removed. Clearing of the Okanagan River floodplain may have a l i m i t i n g effect on the population as year round food and cover w i l l be l o s t . Ruffed Grouse This portion of the study i s concerned with identifying land systems that provide suitable habitats for ruffed grouse, as shown in Table IV. Ruffed grouse [Bonasa umbellus) generally occur at lower elevations, often along stream bottoms. They have habitat requirements sim i l a r to those of white-tailed deer. Food: Ruffed grouse tend to rely on vegetative growth of deciduous trees and shrubs [Mussehl et al., 1971]. They are associated with species such as willows, alder {Alnus spp.) and aspen [Weeden, 1967]. Aspen appears to be the preferred species. 173 In winter, twig tips and buds are eaten and also f r u i t s of species such as Saskatoon berry and western choke cherry. Cover: Ruffed grouse prefer a heterogeneous cover of deciduous species. They respond well to habitat disturbances by f i r e , flooding, land clearing, f r o s t action and other a c t i v i t i e s which create a heterogeneous plant cover. They do not tolerate heavy snow crusting,such as with open aspen cover [Gullion and Marshall, 1968]. Physiography: The important physiographic consideration i s the effect on vegetation -- both species d i v e r s i t y and abundance, and also landscape susceptability to disturbance (e.g. flooding). Ruffed grouse occur mainly at lower elevations among deciduous vegetation. There i s no major migration pattern [Mussehl et al. 3 1971]. They are hardy enough to withstand cold winters. Juxtaposition: Ruffed grouse prefer wetter vegetation than what normally occurs throughout the area (e.g. aspen) for food and cover. Blue Grouse This section i s concerned with identifying land systems that provide suitable habitats for blue grouse, as shown in Table IV. 174 Blue grouse (Dendragapus obsurus) occur in the coniferous forests of the Southern Okanagan Valley. They are a migratory species without a clear pattern of movement [Zwickel et al. 3 1968]. In the winter they rely on a heavy Douglas f i r or Subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce cover. In the summer they migrate both v e r t i c a l l y and l a t e r a l l y seeking open cuts and clearings, etc. for breeding and raising t h e i r young. Food: Conifer needles make up 80 percent or more of the winter diet. Summer food i s variable due to the wide elevational range of the species. It includes green plants, berries, seeds and insects (e.g. wild rose,blueberry {Vaaainiwn spp.] and kinnikinnick). King [1973] concluded that food per se i s not important in determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of blue grouse. Cover: Blue grouse stay in dense Douglas f i r and subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce forests in winter and early spring. They spend most of th e i r time in trees for both food and shelter. They prefer a mature forest stand with some vegetation heterogeneity for food. In the summer, they seek open areas and forest fringes for rais i n g t h e i r young. They require some cover (not heavily grazed s i t e s ) to protect the young from ground and aer i a l predators [Zwickel, 1972]. Physiography: in vegetation. 175 Physiographic requirements are reflected Juxtaposition: Forest ecotones improve productivity, p a r t i c u l a r l y a Douglas f i r -- deciduous ecotone. However, juxta-position i s generally of lesser importance because blue grouse migrate over large areas. Some birds have been found to migrate as far as 10 miles [Zwickel et al., 1968]. Spruce Grouse This section i s concerned with identifying land systems that provide suitable habitats for spruce grouse as shown in Table IV. The habitats required by Franklin grouse are essent i a l l y the same as those of spruce grouse. Spruce grouse (Canaahites canadensis), [Mussehl et al., 1971] occur in the subalpine f i r -- Engelmann spruce forests of the Southern Okanagan Valley. They are essent i a l l y a wilderness species, preferring mature subalpine forests. Their habitat requirements are somewhat simil a r to blue grouse except that they are more adapted to Engelmann spruce {Picea engelmannii), subalpine f i r {Abies lasiocarpa) and lodgepole pine {Pinus contovta) than to Douglas f i r . Migration i s not a major consideration with spruce grouse. Food: Winter food i s dominantly spruce needles [Weeden, 1967]. Needles of lodgepole pine also provide a s i g n i f i c a n t food source. 176 Summer food consists of leaves and berries.- Important species include grouseberry {Vaccinium scoparium), kinnikinnick, alder and bunchberry {Comus canadensis), [Weeden, 1967]. Mountain labrador tea {Ledum glandulosum) may also be an important species. Cover: Spruce grouse depend on tree cover throughout the year. They prefer a dense tree cover of Engelmann spruce for both escape and winter roosting. Physiography: Physiography i s important in i t s affect on , vegetation. Juxtaposition: Spruce grouse prefer a mature spruce forest. However, extensive stands of pure spruce do not seem to be att r a c t i v e [Weeden, 1967]. Forest harvesting a c t i v i t i e s w i l l probably not benefit spruce grouse due to the removal of food and cover. White-Tailed Ptarmigan This section i s concerned with identifying land systems that provide suitable habitats for white-tailed ptarmigan as shown in Table IV. White-tailed ptarmigan {Lagopus leucurus) are adapted to the alpine and upper treeline regions [Weeden, 1967]. 177 Food: Snow conditions in winter (October to May) r e s t r i c t feeding primarily to shrubs. Winter food consists of buds, twigs and catkins of shrubs, p a r t i c u l a r l y dwarf birch {Betula glandulosa), [Weeden, 1967]. Other food species include blueberries [Vaccinium spp.), willows (Salix spp.), the seed heads of sedges (Carex spp.) and leaves of dryas {Dryas ootopetala). Summer food for white-tailed ptarmigan includes new plant growth and insects. Buds and catkins of dwarf birch and willow are p a r t i c u l a r l y important, and also blueberry flowers and f r u i t s , moss capsules, pedicularis and dryas leaves and c a t e r p i l l a r s . . Cover: Summer cover i s minimal. Open rocky areas are preferred. In winter white-tailed ptarmigan move lower to the fringes of timberline [Weeden, 1967]. Some females migrate to shrubby openings in the subalpine forest. Physiography: Alpine areas in general are the physio-graphic requirement. Within the alpine white-tailed ptarmigan prefer open areas with snow, precipitous slopes, rocky areas, rocky ledges, valleys and g l a c i a l cirques [Chrest, 1971]. Juxtaposition: Juxtaposition does not appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y important, possibly due to the diverse nature of the alpine and/or the fact that white-tailed ptarmigans habitat requirements are poorly understood [Luckhurst, 1974]. 178 Openings in the subalpine forest apparently provide important winter habitats for female ptarmigan [Weeden, 1967]. Ski developments and associated a c t i v i t i e s in the alpine and timberline areas w i l l l i k e l y have an adverse effect on the species. 179 TABLE IV S t a b i l i t y Ratings and Limiting Factors for Selected W i l d l i f e Species S u i t a b i l i t y and Kinds of L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i Canada Land Inventory Cap-a b i l i t y C l a s s Land System C a l i f o r n i a White- 2 White-and Map Bighorn 2 t a i l e d Ruffed Blue Spruce t a i l e d Ungulates Wa t e r f o w l Symbol Sheep 2 Mule deer Deer Grouse Grouse Grouse Ptarmigan A l l e n d a l e Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate: Good Poor: 4 7 (minor Ae p h y s i o - p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food; food; moderate: food; i n c l u s i o n s graphy; graphy; graphy; c o v e r ; cover food; cover; o f 5 and 6 ) food; food; . food; p h y s i o - cover phys-cover; cover; c o v e r graphy i o g r -j u x t a - j u x t a - aphy p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n A n a r c h i s t Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate: Good and Poor: 4 7 At p h y s i o - p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food; food; moder- food; graphy; graphy; graphy; cover; c o v e r a t e . cover; food; food; food; p h y s i o - food; phy-cover cover cover graphy; c o v e r s i o -j u x t a - g r a -p o s i t i o n Phy Apex Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate Moderate: Poor: 6 , 4 7 AX p h y s i o - p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food; to poor: food food; graphy; graphy; graphy; cover; food; c o v e r j food; food; food; p h y s i o - p h y s i o - p h y s i -cover; cover c o v e r graphy; graphy ography j u x t a - j u x t a -p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n B e a v e r d e l l Poor: Poor and Poor and Poor and Moderate: Poor: 4 7 (minor-B l food; moderate: modera t e : moderate: food; moder- food; i n c l u s i o n s -cover; p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food ; cover a t e : cover; o f 5 and 4) p h y s i o - graphy; graphy) c o v e r food; physi-graphyj food food; c o v e r o g r a -j u x t a - c o v e r phy p o s i t i o n B l u f f Good and Good and Moderate Poor: Poor and Poor: Poor: lw, 3 w 7 Bf moderatei moderate: and good: cover; moderate t food. food; j u x t a - food cover; food food; c o v e r ; cover; p o s i t i o n ; food cover p h y s i o - p h y s i -p h y s i o - graphy o g r a -graphy phy Carmi Poor and Moderate Moderate Poor: Poor: Poor i Poor: 3 w , 4 7 C i moderate: and poor: and poor: food; food; food; food; p h y s i o - cover; cover; cover cover; c o v e r ; c o v e r ; graphy; food; food; p h y s i o - p h y s i o - p h y s i -j u x t a - land use land use graphy graphy ogra-p o s i t i o n ; a c t i v i t i e s a c t i v i t i e s phy land use a c t i v i t i e s Columns Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate: Moderate Poor i 4 7 Cs food; p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food; food; and good t food; cover) graphy; graphy; cover; cover cover; cover; p h y s i o - food; food; p h y s i o - food p h y s i -graphy; cover c o v e r graphy; o g r a -j u x t a - j u x t a - phy p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n C u l p e r Poor: Poor: Poor i Poor: Moderate: Moderate Poor 4 7 Cr food; food; p h y s i o - food) cover poor: to cover; cover; graphy; co.ver; cover moder-p h y s i o - p h y s i o - food) p h y s i o - ate-graphy; graphy cover graphy; cover; j u x t a - j u x t a - p h y s i -p o s i t i o n pos i t i o n o g r a -phy Table IV (continued) 180 S u i t a b i l i t y and Kinds o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r t Land System and Map Symbol G r e g o i r e Ce Hestor Mr Inkaneep IP K l l p o o l a Ka Kinney Ky C a l i f o r n i a Bighorn Sheep 2 White-t a i l e d Peer 2 Ruffed Grouse Blue Grouse Spruce Grouse White-t a i l e d Ptarmigan Poor and moderate! food ; physio-graphy; cover; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Moderate and poor: food; p h y s i o -graphy Poor and moderate: p h y s i o -n ranhy; food; cover; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Modera t e i food [ cover and poor; food; c o v e r Poor t food; cover;! physt) o g r a -phy Moderate to poori p h y s i o -graphy; cover; food Moderate Poor: Poor and Good and Poor: and poor: p h y s i o - r o d c r a t e : moderatei food; p h y s i o - graphy; food; cover; c o v e r graphy; food; cover food food cover Poor: food; coveq p h y s i j o g r a -phy Good and moderate: food Good to poor: food; c o v e r Moderate Poor and Poor and Poor: to poor: p h y s l o -gr.inhy, food; cover; j u x t a -pes i t i o n moderate: moderatei food; f cod; c o v e r food; cover cover; p h y s i o -graphy . Poor food ; cover; phy sir ogra phy Keogan Moderatei Moderate Kn ( i n c l u s i o n s andgood: of good and food; poor) cover; food; phy3 i o -p h y s i o - graphy graphy Moderate Moderate: Moderate: Poor: and good: food; food; food; p h y s i o - cover c o v e r cover; granhy; p h y a i o -food graphy Poor: food; cover; physi-o g r a -phy Poor: physio-graphy; j u x t a -posi t i o n Poor and moderatei cover; food; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Poor and moder-a t e : c o v e r ; food p ° o r n n d mode r a t e : food; cover Poor and Poor: moder ate: food; food; cover cover; p h y s i o -graphy Poor: food; cover; physio' graphy Poor: food; physio-graphy; cover Poor: food; cover Good.... Good... Poor t food; c o v e r ; p h y s i o -graphy Poor: food; cover; p h y s i o -graphy Poor: food; c o v e r ; physio-] graphy Canada Land Inventory Cap-a b i l i t y C l a s s lUngulates Waterfowl 7 (minor i n c l u s i o n s of 5 ) 3w, 4, 3 3w, Iw, 4 7 (minor i n c l u s i o n s o f 3 , 4 and S) 7 ( I n c l u s -i ons o f 2 and 3) Kobau Ku Poor: food; physio-graphy Poor: phys i o -graphy Poor: p h y s l o -gr.inhy, food; cover; j uxta-Poor: food; cover; p h y s i o -graphy; j uxta-Moo"erate: Poor: cover; c o v e r ; food food Poor: f ood; c o v e r i physio-] graphy pos i t i o n po:i i t i o n Krugcr Moderate Moderate: Moderate Poor: Kr andpoor: p h y s i o - and poor: food, p h y s i o - granhy, f ood* cover granhy;' food p h y s i o -food graphy Poor and Poor: Poor: moderate: food; food; food; cover; cover; cover p h y s i o - physio-^ graohy graphy 7 ( i n c l u s -i ons o f 2 and 4) Lawless Ls Poor: physio-graphy; food; cover; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Poor: phynlo-qraphyi food; cover; juxt a-po;i i t. Ion Tnor: P o o r : phy;: l o - f ood ; nr.iphy, cov.-r; food; p h / s l o -cnv . T ; g ranhy| p i x t a - Juxta-• !.i i t ion por. i t.ion Poor and Good and Poor: moderate t moderatei food; food; j u x t a - c o v e r , cover p o s i t i o n ; physioj cover graphy 181 Table IV (continued) Canada Land S u i t a b i l i t y and Kinds o f L i m i t a t i o n s F o r i Inventory cap-a b i l i t y C l a s s Land Systen C a l i f o r n i a White- 2 White-and Map Bighorn 2 t a i l e d Ruffed Blue Spruce t a i l e d Ungulates Waterfovl Symbol Sheep 2 Mule deer Deer Grouse Grouse Grouse Ptamigan Louie Good and Good to Moderate Poori Poor: Poor: Poor: l v - 3 w , 7 Le moderate! moderate! poor: food; cover; food; food; 3 . * food; food; physio- cover food cover; cover; physio- cover graphy; physio- physio-graphy food; graphy graphy cover Manuel Poor: Poor: Poor i Poor i Moderate! Good and Poor: 4 7 Ml physio- physio- physio- p h y s i o - food moderate: food; graphy; graphy; graphy; graphy; food; cover; food; food; food; food; cover physio-cover; cover; cover cover graphy j u x t a - j u x t a -p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n Marron Poori Moderate Poor and Poor and Moderate Poor: P e o n « , 3w 7 Ma food) and poor: moderate: moderate: and good: food; food; cover; food; food; food; food; cover; cover; p h y s i o - physio- cover; cover cover physio- physio-graphy graphy physio- graphy graphy graphy McGregor Poor and Moderate: Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Poori 3w, 4 7 moderate! food; food; food; food; food; food; phys i o — cover cover; cover; cover; c o v e r f cover; graphy p h y s i o - j u x t a - p hysio- physio- physio-i graphy p o s i t i o n graphy graphy graphy Mclntyre Good and Good and Moderate: Poor: Moderate: Poor: Poor: 3w-lw 7 Mo moderate: moderate _ food; food; cover; food; food; food; food cover; cover physio- cover; cover; p h y s i o - physio- graphy; p h y s i o - physio-graphy graphy food graphy graphy McKinney Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate Good and Poor: 4 7 My physio- physio- physio- food; to poor: moder- food; graphy; graphy; graphy; cover; food; a t e : cover; food; food; food; . p h y s i o - cover j u x t a - physio-cover; cover; cover; graphy; p o s i t i o n ; graphy j u x t a - j u x t a - j uxta- j u x t a - cover p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n Munson Moderate Moderate Moderate: Poor: Moderate: Poor: Poor: 3V . 3 - 4 7 M n and poor: and good: food; food; food; food: food; physio- food; cover; cover cover cover: cover; graphy; cover p h y s i o - . _. physio- physio-food graphy graphy graphy Myers Poor: Moderate Moderate: Moderate Moderate: Poor: Poor: 3w.4 7 . 5 M s food; and poor: food; and good: food; food; food; cover; cover; cover food; cover cover; cover; physio- food cover p h y s i o - physio-graphy; graphy graphy j u x t a -p o s i t i o n • 182 Table IV (continued) Suitability and Kinds of Limitations Fori Canada Land Inventory Cap-a b i l i t y class Land System and Hap Symbol Orofino Oo Osoyoos Os California Bighorn Sheep 2 Mule deer White- 2 White-tailed Ruffed Blue Spruce tailed Deer Grouse Grouse Grouse Ptarmigan Poor and moderatei food; physio-graphy; cover Moderate and poor i food; physio-graphy Poor and moderate: food; cover; physio-graphy Poor nnd Poor and Poor: Poor: moderates moderate: food; food; food; food; cover; cover; cover cover p h y 3 i o - physio-graphy graphy Moderate and poor; food; physio-graphy! land use activ— ' i t i e s Moderatei cover; f o o d Poor and Poor: moderatei food; food; cover cover; physio-graphy Poor.t Poor: Poor: food; food; food; cover cover; cover; physio- physio-graphy graphy Ungulates Waterfowl 4, 3w 7 (minor inclusions o f 4) 3w, 3, 4 7 (Inclus-ions of 3) -Park R i l l Pr Moderate! food; physio-graphy! land use activ-i t i e s Moderate: cover; food Poor and Poori moderatei food; food; cover cover; physio-graphy Poor: Poor; Poori food; food; food; cover; cover; cover; phyaio- physio-graphy graphy 3v, 4 Penticton Pn Moderate and poor: (Inclu-sions of good) physio-graphy; land use activ-i t i e s Moderate and poor: land . use activ-i t i e s ; cover; food Moderate: Poor: food; food; cover cover Poor: Poor: Poor: food; food; food; cover cover; cover; phys io— phys io— graphy graphy 3v-2v, 3, 4 Kichter Rr Poor: food; cover; physio-graphy; juxta-position Poor and poort Poor: moderatei physio- food; physio- graphy; cover; graphy food; physio-cover graphy Moderatei Poor and Poor: food; moderate: food; cover cover; cover; food physio-graphy Roy Poor: land use a c t i v i t i e s ; physio-graphy; juxta-position Poor and Poor and Poor and r~or: Poor: moderate: moderatei moderate: food; food; land use cover; land use cover cover; activ- food activ- physio-i t i e s i t i e s graphy Poor: food; cover; physio-graphy 3, 3w S h e e p Rock Sr Poor: food; cover; physio-graphy; juxta-position Poort physio-graphy Poor: physio-graphy; food; cover; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Poor: food; cover; p h y s i o -graphy; j u x t a -p o s i t i o n Poor to Poori Moderate moderatei cover; good: food; food physioj cover; graphyj physio- cover graphy 6, 4 Skaha Ss Good and Good and Moderate Moderate moderatei moderatei andgoodi andpoori food food cover; food; food; cover physio-graphy Moderate! Poor: food; cover food i cover; physio, graphy Poor: food; cover; physio-] graphy 3w-lw, 4 ? (inclus-ions of 2, 3 and 4) 183 Table IV (continued) Canada Land S u i t a b i l i t y and Kinds o f L i m i t a t i o n s Fort Inventory cap-a b i l i t y C l a s s Land System C a l i f o r n i a White- 2 White-and Map Bighorn 2 t a i l e d Ruffed Blue Spruce t a i l e d Ongulates Waterfowl Symbol Sheep 2 Mule deer Deer Grouse Grouse Grouse Ptarmigan Teotalinden Moderate: Moderate Poor and Poor and Poor: Poor: Poor: 3, 3v, 7 • Te j u x t a - and poor: moderate j moderate: cover; food; . food; 4 p o s i t i o n ; land food; food; food cover; cover; p h y s i o - use cover cover; - physio- physio-graphy; a c t - l a n d graphy graphy land use i v i t i e s ; use a c t i v - cover; a c t i v -i t i e s food - ities Trout Lake Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: Moderate: Good and Poor: 4 7 (minor Tl p h y s i o - p h y s i o - physio- food; food; moder- food; i n c l u s i o n graphy; graphy; graphy; cover; cover; ate: cover; of 4) food; j u x t a - food; p h y s i o - j u x t a - cover; physio-cover; r p o s i t i o n ; cover; graphy; p o s i t i o n j u x t a - graphy j u x t a - food j u x t a - j u x t a - p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n • Twin Lakes Poor: Moderate Moderate Poor and Poor and Poor: Poor: 3v, 4 7 ( i n c l u s -Tn p h y s i o - and poor: and poor: moder- moder- food; food; ions of 3 graphyj food; food; a t e : a t e : cover; cover; and S) cover; cover; cover; food; food; physio- physio-j u x t a - p h y s i o - physio- cover cover graphy graphy p o s i t i o n graphy graphy Vaseux " Moderate Good and Moderate Poor and Poor: Poor: Poor: 3v- lw. 7 Vx and good: moder- and good: moder- food; food; food; 3, 4 p h y s i o - a t e : coverj a t e : cover; cover; cover; graphy j cover; physio- food; physio- physio- physio-food; p h y s i o - graphy; cover; graphy graphy graphy juxta- graphy food; p h y s i o -position j u x t a - graphy position White Lake Poor and Good and Moderate Moderate Poor: Poor: Poor: 3wf 4 7 ( i n c l u s -Wl moderate: moder- and good: and poor: food; food; food; ions of 3 ph y s i o - a t e : cover; food; cover; cover; cover; and S) graphy; cover; physio- cover; physio- physio- physio-- food; physio- graphy; p h y s i o - graphy graphy graphy juxta- graphy food; , graphy position j u x t a -position WoIfcub Moderate Moderate: Poor and Poor: Poor: Poor: Poor: 3, 3v, 4 7 ( i n c l u s -Wb and poor: cover; moder- food; food; food; food; ions of 2 # food; food ate: cover cover cover; cover; 3 and 5) • p h y s i o - cover; physio- physio-graphy! food; graphy graphy l a n d p h y s i o -use graphy activ-ities 1. The s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s are based on l i m i t e d l o c a l knowledge of the h a b i t a t requirements o f each s p e c i e s . 2 . When land use a c t i v i t i e s are i d e n t i f i e d as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the land system has been l o s t f o r t h i s w i l d l i f e use, u s u a l l y due to c u l t i v a t i o n o r r e s i d e n t i a l developments. 184 DISCUSSION Land systems integrate the physical and biological aspects of the environment ( i . e . climate, bedrock geology, s u r f i c i a l deposits, . s o i l and vegetation). They can be used to f a c i l i t a t e the under-standing and use of environmental information in ,land use planning and serve as a framework for future and more s i t e s p e c i f i c studies. The landscape approach was applied to environmental data co l l e c t i o n to f i t into the planning process d i r e c t l y , without re-interpretation. Stereo-pair and colour ground photographs were used to aid the user or reader in conceptualizing the landscape units. This i s especially • important for the non-technical user and for making decisions in planning without benefit of f i e l d observations. Interpretive guidelines were developed and applied at a broad level (1:125,000) for recreation, urban development and w i l d l i f e . For s p e c i f i c objectives further studies must be conducted, but the frame-work and general guidelines are provided. The interpretations have limitations due to scale and due to the lack of socio-economic considerations. The interpretations do, however, provide a comprehensive environmental overview s u f f i c i e n t for regional land use planning. The interpretations were based largely on l i t e r a t u r e references. Modifications were made to f i t the environmental conditions examined in the f i e l d and the s p e c i f i c research objectives of land use planning at the regional l e v e l . . 1 8 5 This study d i f f e r s from many studies carried out in B r i t i s h Columbia in that s u i t a b i l i t y ratings were developed and applied. Thus, the present level of resource development was incorporated into the interpretations. Although complex interpretations were made at the reconnaissance l e v e l , r e l a t i v e l y few parameters required detailed analysis. What was required were mainly landscape features such as s u r f i c i a l deposits, slope, vegetation, drainage and physical analysis of s o i l s . Chemical s o i l analysis i s of lesser importance except for indications of soluble s a l t s , pH and general levels of organic matter. More detailed analysis should be obtained for s i t e s p e c i f i c planning or development, and for taxonomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s . Vegetation i s important in regional and local land use planning. Present cover i s not necessarily the most important consideration be-cause i t i s ephemeral. What i s required i s a description of more stable vegetation (such as habitat types), which y i e l d basic environmental information for long term planning. For management of w i l d l i f e , and to a limited extent recreation, additional information on present cover should be collected. It i s estimated that a sim i l a r study could be applied to an area of the same size for approximately $30,000. This works out to a cost of about 7 cents an acre. If an experienced person were assigned the task, the costs would be decreased. ' .. In conclusion the following points can be made: 1. A landscape c l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the level of land systems appears to be satisfactory for regional land use planning. 2. A " h o l i s t i c " environmental approach i s more applicably to regional planning than single resource studies. 3. The inventory approach used provides an environmental framework for future studies and for studies under-taken in greater d e t a i l . 4. This " h o l i s t i c " environmental approach provides a base for broad interpretations for many resource f i e l d s (e.g. urban development, recreation, w i l d l i f e , forestry, etc.). 5. Due to the complexity of the t e r r a i n , these broad level interpretations do not negate the need for on-site investigations. 6. Expanded legends and photographs are useful methods of data presentation. 7. Presentation of information in sections allows for ready referencing of information by the reader. 8. The approach used in this study can be applied to other areas with s l i g h t modifications. 187 REFERENCES ARMSTRONG, J.E., R. CRANDELL, D.J. EASTERBROOK and J.B. NOBLE. 1965. Late pleistocene stratigraphy and chronology in southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and western Washington. Geological Society of America, B u l l e t i n 76. BEARDSLEY, W.G. and J.A. WAGAR. 1971. Vegetation management on a forested recreation s i t e . J. of Forestry 69: 728-731. BOLLE, A.W. 1972. The effect of forest management on the environment. In: The Earth Around Us. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting Soil Conservation Society of America. Soil Conserva-tion Society of America, Ankeny, Iowa, pp. 172-176. BOUMA, J . , W.A. ZIEBELL, W.G. WALKER, P.G. OLCOTT, E. McCOY and F.D. HOLE. 1972. Soil absorption of septic tank effluent, a f i e l d study of some major s o i l s in Wisconsin. Information Circular No. 20, Univ. Of Wisconsin - Extension, Madison. BRAYSHAW, T.C. 1965. 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LAND SYSTEMS OF THE SOUTH OKANAGAN PENTICTON M.lci 2 Scale 1:125,000 fichelle 2 4 6 Kilomctrei 2 1 10 Millet M Kilometres 82 E/SW i i LEGEND Map Symbol Ae At Land System ALLENDALE Elevation (feet) 4,200-5.500+ ANARCHIST 4,200-5,500 A x 5.500-6.600 Bl BEAVERDELL 3.000-4,200 BLUFF I .000-1,500 Ci CARMI 1,100-1 ,800 Cs COLUMNS 4,200-5,500 Cr CULPER 5.500-6,600 Ge GREG0IRE 3,000-4,200 Hr HEST0R 1,800-4,000 Ip INKANEEP 1,000-2,100 Kn KEOGAN 2,100-4,200 K ° KILP00LA 1,000-2.100 Ky KINNEY 900-1,100 Ku KOBAU 5,300-6.200 Kr KRUGER 2,100-4,500 Ls 5,500-6,600 Le 1,200-1,600 M l MANUEL 4,000-5,500 Mo MARRON 2,200-4,200 Materials Glacial fluvial outwash; minor inclusions of shallow glacial fluvial outwash over glacial t i l l or bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium, also exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep colluvium; significant inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Glacial fluvial outwash; minor inclusions of shallow glacial fluvial outwash over glacial t i l l or bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Kettled glacial moraine; shallow to deep deposits of glacial fluvial sands and gravels over glacial t i l l ; significant inclusions of kame terraces; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Glacial fluvial delta; significant inclusions of glacial fluvial outwash terraces; minor inclusions of deltaic material over silty lacustrine deposits Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; occurs mainly on volcanic bedrock Shallow glacial ti l 1 and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock, occurs on a variety of bedrocks Deep glacial t i l l ; significant inclusions of colluvium over glacial t i l l where steeper; minor inclusions of shallow glacial t i l l over bed-rock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep colluvium; significant inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Dominantly deep glacial t i l l , but up to 50T. inclusions of shallow glacial t i l l over bedrock; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep sandy al1uviaI floodplain deposits; finer materials in backswamp areas; minor inclusions of beach ridges and fan materials particularly near Penticton Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of deep glacial t i l l ; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of deep glacial t i l l and colluvium; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep glacial t i l l wi th colluvium over glacial t i l l on steeper slopes; minor inclusions of sha11ow glacial t i l l or colluvium over bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Glacial fluvial delta; significant inclusions of alluviaT and colluvial material; minor inclusions of shallow glacial fluvial outwash over glacial t i l l and bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep colluvium; signi f-icant inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep glacial t i l l ; significant inclusions of deep colluvium, also shallow glacial t i l l or colluvium over bedrock; occurs mainly on volcanic bedrock Vegetation-3 Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce. Lodgepole pine (particularly after fires), Grouseberry and Pinegrass Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir , Engelmann spruce, some Douglas fir , Grouseberry and Pinegrass Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, Lodgepole pine, Grouseberry, White rhododendron and Mountain labrador tea, few grasses Douglas fir zone: Douglas fir , Lodgepole pine (particularly after fires at higher elevations), Kinnikinnick, Heart leaf arnica, Idaho fescue and Pinegrass Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine, Bitterbrush, Blue-bunch wheatgrass and Phlox Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine, Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry and Pinegrass Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir , Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry, White rhododendron. Mountain labrador tea, few grasses Douglas fir zone: Douglas fir , some Western larch and Lodgepole pine above 3.500 feet in elevation, Pinegrass, Kinnikinnick, Heart leaf arnica and Wild strawberry Douglas fir zone: Douglas fir, some Ponderosa pine at lower elevations, Pinegrass, Lupines, Wild strawberry and Heart leaf arnica Big sagebrush zone: mixed Big sagebrush and Ponderosa pine, Bluebunch wheat-grass, and Bitter-brush Douglas fir zone: Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir and Idaho fescue at lower elevations; Douglas fir, Pinegrass, Heart leaf arnica, Lupine and Wild/strawberry at higher elevations Big sagebrush zone: Big sagebrush, Bluebunch wheatgrass and Phlox Big sagebrush zone: Northern black cottonwood, Water bi rch, WiId rose. Willow. Scouring rush. Wild rasp-berry, and Poison i vy Subalpine fir zone: High sagebrush, Pinegrass, Idaho fescue, Bluebunch wheatgrass, and Eriogonum species Douglas fir zone: Threetip sagebrush. Big sagebrush, Bluebunch wheatgrass, and Idaho fescue; widely scattered Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir , Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry, White rhododendron and Mountain labrador tea, few grasses Big sagebrush zone: Big sagebrush, Bhiebunch wheatgrass, some Ponderosa pine on deep sands Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir , Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry, and Pinegrass Douglas fir zone: Douglas fir , Pinegrass, Wild strawberry. Heart leaf arnica, and Lupine Soils Dominant Degraded Dystric Brunisols; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Dystric Brunisols Dominant Degraded Dystric Brunisols; signi ficant inclusions of Lithic Dystric Brunisols; minor inclusions of Brunisolic Gray Luvi sols Dominant Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols; minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; signi f icant inclusions of Orthic Eutric Brunisols Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols and Orthic Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems Dominant Orthic Dystric Brunisols; significant Lithic Regosols; minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols Dominant Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol; signi ficant inclusions of Lithic Humo-Femc Podzols Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols on finer textured ti l ls Dominant Orthic Eutric Brunisols; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Regosols; minor inclusions of Lithic Eutric Brunisols Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Lithic Brown Chernozems Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols, also Lithic Eutric Brunisols Dominant Orthic , Brown Chernozems; minor inclusions of Lithic Brown Chernozems Dominant Rego Humic Gleysols; s igni ficant inclusions of Gleyed Regosols Dominant Orthic Black Chernozems; significant inclusions of Rego Black Chernozems; minor inclusions of Lithic Black Chernozems Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; significant inclusions of Lithic Dark Brown Chernozems; minor inclusions of Orthic Dark Gray Chernozems Dominant Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols; minor inclusion of Brunisolic Gray Luvisols at lower elevations Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems; minor inclusions of Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems, and Degraded Eutric Brunisols with tree cover Dominant Orthic Dystric Brunisols to Degraded Dystric 8runisols; minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols Dominant Orthic Gray Luvisols Comments" Very gently sloping to steeply sloping topography, slopes mostly 3 to 15*; gravelly or stony loamy sand to sandy loam textures, mostly deep coarse sands or sands Over gravel, rapidly to well drained, similar to Beaverdell in topography and materials but found at higher elevations Hilly to Strongly rolling topography; slopes mostly 20 to 60?; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; well to rapidly drained; mapped with McKinney which occurs on deep glacial t i l l and colluvium; similar in materials and topography to Keogan. but found at higher elevations Extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly greater than 60'; gravelly to stony colluvium; rapidly drained; similar in topography and materials to Manuel but found at higher elevations; mapped with Lawless, but occurs on steeper slopes with mostly deep colluvial materials Gently to steeply sloping topography; slopes mostly 3 to 15 , gravelly or • stony loamy sand to sandy loam textures, mostly deep coarse sands or sands over gravel; rapidly drained; similar to Allendale in topography and materials, but found at lower elevations Moderately rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly 9 to 60*; gravelly loamy sand to gravelly sandy loam textures; well drained; occurs around Vaseux Lake Gently to steeply sloping topography but very steeply to extremely sloping or very hilly where kettled; slopes mostly 3 to 15t; deep coarse loamy sands, coarse sands, to sands over gravel, gravelly and very stony textures; rapidly drained; much of area has had Ponderosa pine removed, and regeneration is very slow, particularly on gravels and stones; similar to Louie, but mainly Degraded Eutric Brunisol and Orthic Oark Brown Chernozem soils Strongly rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly 15 to 60*.; gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam textures; well to rapidly drained; mapped with Trout Lake but occurs on shallow glacial t i l ! and colluvium over bedrock, similar in materials and topography to Orofino, but occurs at higher elevations Hilly to very hilly topography, slopes mostly 30 to 60"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; well to moderately well drained; similar in topography and materials to Anarchist, but occurs higher in elevation, mapped with Lawless which is deep glacial t i l l and colluvium Gently rolling to hilly topography; slopes mostly 9 to 301; gravelly sandy loam to sandy loam textures; well to moderately well drained; mapped with Keogan which is shallow glacial t i l l over bedrock; similar to McKinney but occurs lower in elevation Very steeply to extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly greater than 60"; gravelly to stony colluvium; rapidly drained; similar to Mclntyre but mapped on north aspects; usually occurs along north aspects of steep valley walls From steeply to extremely sloping, and hilly to very hilly topography; slopes usually greater than 30"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; rapidly to moderately well drained; mapped with Kilpoola which has deep deposits of glacial t i l l ; differs from Skaha by the presence of Bitter-brush and Big sagebrush, and by having dominantly Orthic Brown Chernozem soils From steeply sloping to extremely sloping, and strongly rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly greater than 20%; gravelly sandy loam texture; well to rapidly drained; mapped with Gregoire which is deep glacial t i l l ; similar in materials and topography to Skaha which occurs at lower elevations, and Anarchist which occurs at higher elevations Moderately rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly 15 to 60-; gravelly sandy loam texture, well drained, mapped with Inkaneep which is shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock Very gently sloping to undulating topography; slopes less than 5 ; about 2 feet of silt or clay loam over coarse textured sands, deeper loam capping in backswamp areas; poorly to imperfectly drained; occurs along Okanagan River which is now a controlled channel; flooding is by high water table Gently rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly between 15 to 60 ; gravelly sandy loam texture; well to moderately well drained; occurs as grassland in the Subalpine fir zone around Mt. Kobau Moderately rolling to very hilly topography; slopes mostly 15 to 60"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; well to rapidly drained; occurs as grassland in the Douglas fir zone around Mt. Kobau. often on south aspects, mapped with Keogan, but has more deep glacial t i l l and colluvium and fewer trees; similar to Vaseux but has less deep glacial t i l l and colluvium Moderately rolling to hilly topo-graphy; slopes rostly 15 to 60"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; well to moderately well drained; mapped with Culper which has shallower deposits of glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; similar to McKinney but occurs at higher elevations Gently to very steeply sloping topography; slopes mostly 2 to 15"; stony to gravelly with some sands over gravels and deep coarse sands; rapidly drained; the unit is a mixture of different materials but Is dominated by stony and gravelly deltaic deposits; similar to Carmi. but lacks kettle holes, has more inclusions and mostly Brown Chernozem soils Extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly greater than 60'; gravelly to stony colluvium; rapidly drained; mapped with McKinney, but occurs on steeper slopes with mostly deep colluvial materials; similar to Richter in topograshy and materials, but occurs on northerly aspects Moderately to extremely sloping topo-graphy; slopes mostly 9 to 60 ; gravelly loam to loam textures, well drained, marped with Orofino but occurs on deeper soils; similar to Trout Lake in topography and materials, but occurs at lower elevations Mg 2,000-3.000 Me 2.000-4,200 My Mn Ms Oo 4,200-5,500 1.300-2,000 1,500-2,000 2.100-4,200 Os 900-1,200 Pr 1.000-1.500 Pn Rr PENTICTON 1,100-1.400 4.200-5,500* Ry 1.100-1.400 Sr SHEEP ROCK 6.600-7.500* So SKAHA 1,000-2,100 Te TESTALINDEN 1,000-1,700 7 I Tn TROUT LAKE 4.200-5,500 TWIN LAKES 2,000-3,000 V x 2,000-5,000+ WI WHITE LAKE 2,000-4,500 Wb 1,000-1,400 Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep colluvium or glacial t i l l ; occurs on vertically tilted volcanics Deep colluvium; signif-icant inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock; minor inclusions of kame terraces and exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep glacial t i l l with colluvium over glacial t i l l on steeper slopes; minor inclusions of shallow glacial t i l l or colluviun over bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Deep glacial t i l l with colluviun over glacial t i l l on steeper slopes; minor inclusions of kane deposits, occurs over a variety of bedrocks Recent alluvium; mi inclusions of alluvial-colluvial fan deposits Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; occurs mainly on volcanic bedrock Glacial fluvial outwash; significant inclusions of kettled terraces particularly on the west side of Osoyoos Lake; minor inclusions of alluvial-colluvial fan deposits, also shallow outwash over silty lacustrine deposits which appear to underlie the out-wash at depth Glacial fluvial delta; minor inclusions of shallow glacial fluvial material over bedrock or glacial t i l l ; occurs over a variety Of bedrocks Deep glacial lacustrine silts and- very fine sands; minor inclusion of deep loess , also shallow si 1ts and very fine sands over a variety of bedrocks Deep colluvium; signif-icant inclusions of shallow colluvium over bedrock; minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Alluvial fans; minor inclusions of alluvial floodplain deposits Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of deep glacial t i l l and colluvium, also exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallow glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; significant inclusions of exposed bedrock; minor inclusions of deep glacial t i l l or colluvium; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Alluvial-colluvial fan deposits; minor inclusion of sandy glacial fluvial outwash Deep glacial t i l l ; significant inclusions of deep colluvium, also shallow glacial t i l l or colluvium over bedrock; occurs mainly on volcanic bedrock Glacial fluvial outwash; minor inclusions of kame materials, ponded silts, alluvial and colluvial fans, and shallow outwash over glacial t i l l Deep glacial t i l l and colluvium over t i l l ; significant inclusions of glacial t i l l and COllurium over bed-rock, minor inclusions of exposed bedrock; occurs over a variety of bedrocks Shallon glacial t i l l and colluvium over bedrock; minor inclusions-of deep glacial t i l l , colluvium, and glacial fluvial outwash; occurs mainly on volcanic bedrock Glacial fluvial outwash; minor inclusions of al luvial and colluvial fan deposits Douglas fir zone: Threetip sagebrush, Big sagebrush, Bluebunch wheat-grass and Idaho fescue Douglas fir zone: open forest of Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir and Bluebunch wheatgrass, at higher elevations Douglas fir , Ponderosa pine, Idaho fescue and some Pinegrass Subalpine f i r zone: Subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry and Pinegrass Douglas fir zone: lower elevation of Douglas fir zone with scattered Ponderosa pine, 2ouglas f ir , Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue Big sagebrush to lower Douglas fir zone: Ponderosa pine. Water birch, Wild rose, Red osier dogwood, and Hawthorn species Douglas fir zone: Douglas fir; Idaho fescue, Pinegrass, Wild strawberry. Lupine, and Heart leaf arnica Big sagebrush zone: Bitterbrush, Big sagebrush. Phlox and Bluebunch wheatgrass Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine, Bitterbrush, and Bluebunch wheat-grass Big sagebrush zone: Big sagebrush and Bluebunch wheatgrass Subalpine fir zone: open forest of Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, Subalpine fir and Pinegrass Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine. Sumac, Bluebunch wheatgrass and Saskatoon berry on wel1 drained sites; Northern black cottonwood. Wild rose. Red osier dogwood and Hawthorn on poorly drained sites Krummholz and Alpine zone: widely spaced and stunted Lodge-pole pine, Engelmann spruce, Subalpine fir and Whitebark pine. Red and Yellow heather, and Alpine lupine Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, and Bluebunch wheatgrass Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine. Big sagebrush, Bitterbrush, and Bluebunch wheatgrass Subalpine fir zone: Subalpine fir , Engelmann spruce, Grouseberry and Pinegrass Douglas fir zone: Ponderosa pine, Douglas f i r , ' Threetip sagebrush, Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue Douglas fir zone: Threetip sagebrush, Bluebunch wheat-grass, Idaho fescue, and Eriogonum species Douglas fir zone: Threetip sagebrush. Big sagebrush, Bluebunch wheat-grass, Idaho fescue, and Eriogonum species Big sagebrush zone: Ponderosa pine, Bitterbrush, Phlox and Bluebunch wheatgrass Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; s igni ficant inclusions of Orthic Regosols Dominant weakly developed Orthic Eutric Brunisols; significant inclusions of Orthic Regosols; minor inclusion of Lithic Eutric Brunisols Dominant Brunisolic Gray Luvisols; significant inclusions of Degraded Dystric Brunisols Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems, grading to Degraded Eutric Brunisols with tree cover Dominant Gleyed Humic Gleysols Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; significant inclusions of Lithic Regosols; minor inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Regosols; minor inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; Signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Brown Chernozem; minor inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems; minor inclusions of Orthic Regosols Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; significant inclusions of Orthic Regosols, also Orthic Dystric Brunisols at higher elevations Orthic Regosols on upper parts of fans, Gley Regosols on lower fans; minor inclusions of Rego Humic Gleysols Dominant Alpine Dystric Brunisols; significant inclusions of Lithic Dystric Brunisols Dominant Degraded Eutric Brunisols; significant inclusions of Lithic Eutric Brunisols and Orthic Brown Chernozems Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; minor inclusions of Gleyed Regosols on lower parts of fans Oominant Brunisolic Gray Luvisols; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Gray Luvisols Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Degraded Eutric Brunisols Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; significant inclusions of Rego Dark Brown Chernozems Dominant Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems; significant inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems Dominant Orthic Brown Chernozems; signi ficant inclusions of Orthic Regosols; minor inclusions of Rego Brown Chernozems Strongly rolling to very hilly topo-graphy; slopes mostly 15 to 60"; gravelly loamy sands to gravelly sandy loam textures, well to rapidly drained; occurs as grassland in the Douglas fir zone around White Lake; mapped with White Lake but occurs on vertically tilted volcanics with generally shallower soils Very steeply to extremely sloping topo-graphy; slopes mostly greater than 60"; gravelly to stony colluvium; rapidly drained; similar to Hestor but occurs on south aspects; usually occurs along south aspects of steep valley walls Gently rolling to hilly topography; slopes mostly 9 to 45*; gravelly sandy loam textures; well to moderately well drained; mapped with Anarchist which has shallow deposits of glacial t i l l ; similar to Gregoire but occurs higher in elevation Very steeply to extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly 30 to 601; gravelly sandy loam textures; well drained; occurs around Penticton and Shingle Creek Very gently to gently sloping topography; slopes mostly 1 to 3'; silty loam to fine sandy loam textures, poorly to imperfectly drained, best developed near Myers Flat Strongly rolling to very hilly topo-graphy; slopes mostly greater than 25"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loam textures; well to rapidly drained; mapped with Marron, but has shallow soils; similar in materials and topography to Columns but occurs at lower elevations Gently sloping to gently rolling and hilly topography; slopes mostly 3 to 15"; gravelly loamy sand, loamy sand to sandy loam textures, mostly deep sands over gravel; rapidly drained; similar to Wolfcub but lacks Ponderosa pine; significant inclusion of sand dunes along the east side of Osoyoos Lake, particularly on overgrazed sites; includes the area known as "Osoyoos Arid" Gently sloping to moderately rolling topography; slopes mostly 2 to 15 ; gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam textures; mostly deep coarse sands and sands over gravel, rapidly drained; some duning of sands; finer textured than Carmi and Louie with more uniform topography Dissected topography, particularly around Skaha Lake, from gently rolling to extremely sloping; slopes mostly 5 to 20"; silt loam to fine sandy loam textures; well to moderately well drained, occurs mostly around Penticton Very steeply to extremely sloping topo-graphy; slopes mostly over 60'; gravelly to stony colluvium; rapidly drained, mapped with McKinney which occurs on deep glacial t i l l and colluvium over glacial t i l l , similar to Manuel in topography and materials, but occurs on southerly aspects Very gently to gently sloping topography; slopes mostly 2 to 5 . gravelly to stony sand and loamy sand in upper part of fans, and a capping of loam or sandy loam over sands and gravels on lower part of fans, well to rapidly drained on upper part of fans; imperfectly to poorly drained on lower part of fans; occurs around Penticton; similar to Testalinden but soils dominantly Orthic Regosols and Gleyed Regosols Steeply to extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly 20 to 60", gravelly loamy sand to gravelly sand textures; well to rapidly drained, this unit occurs in the alpine-forest border and is the highest unit mapped; it is similar in materials and topography _ » to Culper, but occurs at higher elevations Hilly to very hilly topography; slopes mostly greater than 30"; gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; rapidly to moderately well drained; similar to Inkaneep but occurs further north with greater tree cover, and Degraded Eutric Brunisol soils; similar in topography and materials to Keogan which is found higher in elevation Gently to steeply sloping topography; slopes mostly 5 to 30"; gravelly to stony with finer materials on lower parts of fans; rapidly to well drained with some poorly drained soil adjacent to floodplain; similar to Roy, but soils dominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems rather than Regosols or Gleysols Undulating to very steeply sloping topography; slopes mostly 5 to 45%; loam to gravelly sandy loam textures; well to moderately well drained; mapped with Columns but occurs on deeper soils; similar to Marron in topography and materials, but occurs at higher elevations Gently sloping to extremely sloping topography, particularly around kettle holes and sides of terraces; slopes highly variable from 2 to greater than 60t; sandy loam, gravelly sandy loam to gravelly loamy sand textures; rapidly to well drained; differs from Beaverdell by being mixed forest and grassland, and by having Dark Brown Chernozem soils Steeply to extremely sloping topography; slopes mostly IS to 60*,; gravelly sandy loam textures; well drained; occurs mostly on steep south aspects as grassland in the Douglas fir zone; similar to Kruger but contains mostly deep glacial t i l l and colluvium over glacial t i l l Strongly to very steeply sloping topo-graphy except for inclusions of gently sloping glacial fluvial outwash; slopes mostly 15 to 455; gravelly sandy loam textures; well drained; occurs around White Lake as grassland in the Douglas fir zone; similar to Kruger except occurs on volcanic bedrock and also has a minor inclusion of glacial fluvial outwash; similar to Vaseux, but has shallower materials Undulating to strongly rolling topo-graphy; slopes mostly 2 to 15?; gravelV loamy sand, loamy sand to sandy loam textures, mostly deep sands over gravel; rapidly drained; similar to Osoyoos, but supports the growth of Ponderosa pine 'This is the common elevation range for the land system. Changes in aspect, soil moisture, and materials may result in variations of • or - 300 feet. * 2See appendix of thesis for an explanation of materials; inclusion of 20 to 40? are called significant, and 10 to 20T. minor; deep refers to a material greater than 5 feet in thickness, and shallow to materials less than 5 feet ia thickness. 3See the thesis for an explanation of the vegetation zones and for the scientific names of the plant species. 4See "The System of Soil Classification for Canada". 1970. 

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