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The island trust concept : a proposed institutional arrangement to implement a policy of controlled development.. Glover, Julia Mary 1974

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THE  ISLAND  TRUST  CONCEPT  proposed I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangement to Implement a Pol of C o n t r o l l e d Development f o r the Gulf Islands of B r i t i s h Columb i a  by J U L I A MARY GLOVER B.Sc,  University  of  Toronto, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE  FULFILMENT OF DEGREE  OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE  In  the  Schoo 1  of COMMUNITY  We a c c e p t  this  S REGIONAL  thesis  PLANNING  as c o n f o r m i n g  to  req u i red j f t ^ n d a f d  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1974  the  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  advanced degree a t Library  I further for  this thesis  shall  the  of  this thesis  written  University  of B r i t i s h  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  agree t h a t  by  in partial  representatives.  be  the  It i s understood  for f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  Columbia,  Head o f my  that  not  be  copying  of  (  \ <w> <f  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada  a iVv';';i-:^-;v-~  Columbia  T agree and  copying of  this  iV> . . . . . .  that  thesis  Department or  for  study.  or  publication  allowed without  permission.  Department  requirements  for reference  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  the  my  ABSTRACT  The recognized teristics  Gulf  Islands i n the S t r a i t  as h a v i n g  ratio  of the S t r a i t  n a t u r a l beauty.  the  charac-  The h i g h  shoreline  o f t h e i s l a n d s and t h e s h e l t e r e d w a t e r s  provide  considerable opportunity  of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . rural  are widely  u n i q u e e c o l o g i c a l and c l i m a t i c  and o u t s t a n d i n g  to l a n d a r e a  of Georgia  f o ra variety  However t h e s c e n i c and e s s e n t i a l l y  environment of the i s l a n d s i s c u r r e n t l y threatened  proliferation  of r e s i d e n t i a l  subdivisions.  Existing  development c o n t r o l s a v a i l a b l e t o the seven Regional having  jurisdiction  t o be i n a d e q u a t e . is  i n the Gulf The c e n t r a l  t o p r o p o s e an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  Islands study task of t h i s  area,  study  arrangement c a l l e d  the i s l a n d s .  the P r o v i n c i a l  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  terms o f r e f e r e n c e  f o r this  appear  the Gulf development  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f  L e g i s l a t u r e ' s C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  which s t u d i e d the i s l a n d s during  Baords  therefore,  I s l a n d s T r u s t , t o implement a p o l i c y o f c o n t r o l l e d for  Matters  1 9 7 3 , were a c c e p t e d  study.  The  methodology  i s as f o l l o w s :  I.  To document t h e b a c k g r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s .  i i  by  as t h e  2.  To a n a l y z e e x i s t i n g use l e g i s l a t i o n for Gulf Islands.  3.  To p r e p a r e a model b i l l s t r u c t u r e and powers of Trust.  Five pieces  of l e g i s l a t i o n  in detail:  1.  U . S . C o n g r e s s , N a n t u c k e t Sound T r u s t B i l l , I 97-3.  2.  Hawaii, 1970.  3.  V e r m o n t , E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law, 1970 ( A c t . No. 250 Vermont L a w s ) .  4.  O n t a r i o , Niagara Escarpment P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t A c t , 1 9 7 3 .  5.  Washington S t a t e , A c t o f 19 7 1.  analysis  ment a r e g i v e n  Land Use  Law of  Islands  1 9 6 1 , as amended  Shoreline  Management  on t h e b a s i s  of several  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  which  incorporate  thought necessary to c o n t r o l islands.  which d e f i n e s the the G u l f I s l a n d s  a r e examined  These laws a r e a n a l y z e d From t h i s  s i m i l a r purpose land i t s relevance to the  those s t r u c t u r e s  development a c t i v i t i e s  consistent  with  arrange-  and powers on t h e  A t t h e same t i m e t h e recommended p r o v i s i o n s  to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s  criteria.  attempt  the normative  a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . The the  Gulf  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e embodied i n a model b i l l f o r  Islands  which describes  the proposed  institutional  a r r a n g e m e n t i n t e r m s o f c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e s , p o w e r s , and f u n c t i o n s . The teristic  land  use l a w s a n a l y z e d  o f the trends  in this  study are charac-  towards i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e  i ii  control gation  over r e g i o n a l o f powers  legislation citizen proposed island the plan  to s p e c i a l  analyzed  input  land  use m a t t e r s and t h e i n c r e a s e d purpose b o d i e s .  seriously  attempts  to the decision-making  in this  study  includes  O n l y some o f t h e  t o accommodate  process.  mechanisms  dele-  local  The model  bill  to p r o t e c t the  e n v i r o n m e n t and a t t h e same t i m e makes p r o v i s i o n f o r  participation preparation,  planning  of individuals  i n the p o l i c y  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g  process.  iv  formulation, stages  of the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables:  ix  L i s t of Charts, Figures  arid .Maps  x  Acknowledgements  xi  PART I:  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY  Chapter 1  2  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  Defi ni t i o n s  2  1.2  Objectives  3  1.3  Methodology  4  BACKGROUND  9  2.1  Physical Description  9  2.2  Historical  2.3  Socio-political  Perspective  16  2.4  Recent Planning  Activities  21  2.5  Development  Perspective  of P r o v i n c i a l  v  11  Policy  28  Chapter 3  Page IDENTIFICATION OF THE  PROBLEM  36  3.1  O v e r v i e w o f t h e Need f o r C o n t r o l s  36  3.2  Central  46  Research Task  3.3. O u t l i n e o f M a t e r i a l f o r A n a l y s i s  PART II: 4  5  49  EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR-PURPOSE LAND USE CONTROLS EXAMINATION OF THE ISLAND TRUST CONCEPT IN PROPOSED LEGISLATION  55  4.1  Model I s l a n d T r u s t  55  4.2  N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t  Bill  59  4.3  Housatonic River V a l l e y Trust  Bill  72  Legislation  EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR-PURPOSE FOR  LEGISLATION  LAND USE CONTROL  75  5.1  Hawaii,  5.2  V e r m o n t , E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law (1970) O n t a r i o , Niagara Escarpment Planning and D e v e l o p m e n t A c t ( 1 9 7 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . .  5.3 5.4  Land Use Law  (1961)  Washington S t a t e , S h o r e l i n e Act (1971)  75  106  A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING TRUST LEGISLATION AND SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION  7  RELEVANCE OF EXISTING LAND USE GULF ISLANDS  96  Management  6  TO THE  84  ...  114  LEGISLATION  PROPOSAL  122  7.1  Normative Assumptions  123  7.2  Rules of Natural  123  7.3  Safeguards  Justice  i n Delegated L e g i s l a t i o n . vi  . . . .  123  Chapter  Page  PART III:  SUGGESTED ISLANDS TRUST STRUCTURE AND LEGISLATION  8  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SUGGESTED STRUCTURE OF THE TRUST 8.1  128  Conceptual  Framework  128  8.2  Suggested S t r u c t u r e of the I s l a n d s Trust RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ISLANDS TRUST LEGISLATION  9  9.1  138 146  I n t e n t and Scope o f P r o p o s e d Legislation.  9.2  Gulf  146  Islands Trust  Model B i l l  Content A n a l y s i s of Gulf Islands Trust B i l l IMPLICATIONS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GULF ISLANDS TRUST COMMISSION  147  9.3 10  10.1 10.2  Inadequacy of Local Controls  175 178  Development 178  Trend to Increased P r o v i n c i a l / S t a t e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n Local A f f a i r s  184  10.3  Trend  184  10.4  The R i g h t  10.5  Concluding  to S p e c i a l Purpose Bodies to P a r t i c i p a t e Comments  BIBLIOGRAPHY  188 191 194  APPENDICES A  "Report of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , " i n Votes and Proceedings of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia, Monday, S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 974  vii  207  Appendices B  G  D  E F  Page "National Island T r u s t s A c t " model b i l l Bureau of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Islands of America, 1 970 Nantucket  Sounds  Congressional  Record s.  Trust  212  Bill,  1929, Washington,  May 31 , 1 973 Hawaii, Land Use Law of 1961, Hawaii Rev. S t a t . c. 205 (1968) as amended (1 969,1 970) Vermont, Act No. 250 Vermont  Tenth Vermont S t a t . Ann. c.  O n t a r i o , Niagara Escarpment and Development Act, Ont. c.  II , 1973 . . . .  G  Islands  in  217 223  Laws, 1 51 , 1 970  227  Planning 22-, E l i z . 233  •  Washington, Shoreline  1971 , RCW 90.58  Management  Act of 252  viii  LIST OF TABLES  Tab! e 1  2  3  4  5  Page Land A r e a and P e r m a n e n t 1971 Gulf Islands  Population, .  C u r r e n t S t a t u s o f Community P l a n s B y l a w s , G u l f I s l a n d s , 1 974 Comparative A n a l y s i s of I s l a n d S i m i l a r Purpose L e g i s l a t i o n A n a l y s i s of Contents of Gulf T r u s t Model B i l l  12  and  Trust  29 and 116  Islands  Comparison of Features of the Proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t to E x i s t i n g Regional Boards .  176  182  LIST OF CHARTS, FIGURES AND MAPS  Chart  Page  1  Structure of the Vermont Environmental Protection System  2  Preparation of Shoreline Master Programs, Washington State  112  1  P o l i t i c a l and Planning Processes: Stage One  132  2  P o l i t i c a l and Planning Processes: Stage Two  1 34  3  Proposed P o l i t i c a l and Planning Framework, Gulf Islands  137  91  Figure  Map 1  Regional Setting:  2  Regional D i s t r i c t s :  Gulf Islands Gulf Islands  x  10 17  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e to  Bill  Rees and Brahm  to express  Wiesman f o r t h e i r  comments and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g  her g r a t i t u d e numerous  the p r e p a r a t i o n  helpful  of t h i s paper.  Thanks a l s o t o A l L u c a s o f t h e F a c u l t y o f Law and B i l l o f t h e B.C. the G u l f  Land C o m m i s s i o n who  Islands Trust  and who  xi  reviewed  t h e model  Lane  bill for  o f f e r e d many v a l u a b l e  suggesti  PART  I  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY  Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION  The  research  task,  c o n c e i v e d as an a n a l y s i s  as s u m m a r i z e d  in this  paper,  o f a p a r t i c u l a r mechanism t o  a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development  and c o n s e r v a t i o n  islands  The  i n the S t r a i t  of G e o r g i a .  d e s i g n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l decisions, would  and  structure  recommendations  implement  this  in  later  issues  These  chapters,  are stated  analysis  included  t o make and  carry  the  out  which  structure. the implementation a s p e c t ,  a number o f a s s u m p t i o n s were t r e a t e d the s t u d y .  implement  f o r the  for draft legislation  In o r d e r t o e m p h a s i z e  of  was  as u n d e r l y i n g  assumptions w i l l  however s e v e r a l  be f u r t h e r  premises elaborated  o f t h e more f u n d a m e n t a l  here:  I.  The i s l a n d s - a r e a u n i q u e s c e n i c , r e c r e a t i o n a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e and a r e c u r r e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by v a r i o u s f o r m s of o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t .  2.  The i s l a n d s c o n s t i t u t e a asset to the region, the and t h e c o u n t r y .  1  valuable province  2  3.  T h e r e i s a need t o t a k e m e a s u r e s t o p r e s e r v e the unique a t t r i b u t e s of the islands since existing institutional a r r a n g e m e n t s a p p e a r t o be i n a d e q u a t e in c o n t r o l l i n g development.  4.  Any p r o g r a m u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s on t h e i s l a n d s s h o u l d s t r i v e to enhance s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s by i n c r e a s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e u s e s t o as many i n d i v i d u a l s as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e m i n i m i z i n g environmental degradation.  The  purpose  of t h i s  exercise  i s therefore  p r e p a r e a c a s e as t o why t h e G u l f I s l a n d s but r a t h e r , g i v e n widespread s e r v a t i o n , to determine  1.1  s h o u l d be c o n s e r v e d ,  a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e need f o r c o n -  how t h i s  c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y  carried out.  O b j e c t i ves There  of  not to  a r e two m a j o r  objectives  to this  study:  1.  To e x a m i n e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and t h e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h have as t h e i r major o b j e c t i v e , p r e s e r v a t i o n of u n i q u e e n v i r o n m e n t s and c o n t r o l of d e v e l o p ment, and, wherever p o s s i b l e , t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s in c a r r y i n g o u t p o l i c y .  2.  To d e v e l o p a s u g g e s t e d s t r u c t u r e f o r a ' G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t ' to implement a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s e r v a t i o n on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s .  The  major  assumption  of this  study i s the acceptance  t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n made by t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e on  Municipal  Matters to the P r o v i n c i a l  legislature,  September 24,  3  1973.  This  C o m m i t t e e recommended t h e  'Islands Trust' t o be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and  island  The  observations  the r e p o r t of t h i s  accurate This  the f u t u r e of  each  and  included  recommendations  t h e r e f o r e accepted situation  terms of r e f e r e n c e  on  as  the  for this  greater  1.2  detail  (The  contents  in Part  of  the  an  islands.  study  which proceeds to develop a suggested s t r u c t u r e f o r a Islands Trust.  body  (see  Committee are  the  "an  terms of r e f e r e n c e "  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the present  report provides  of  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  to c o - o r d i n a t e  w i t h i n (the Province's)  Appendix A). in  ( o r c o m m i s s i o n ) as  establishment  Gulf  r e p o r t are d i s c u s s e d  I , Chapter 2 of t h i s  in  study.)  Methodology This  bibliographic policy  relevance research  The  l a n d use  and  two  legislation Islands.  w h i c h was The  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  w h i c h was  a brief  t o u r i n g the  and  islands in this  Island  be  the  included a considered of  began i n J u l y  to  b r i e f was  have  the Partici-  1973  when  Municipal  at t h a t time.  s e t up  search  observation.  C o m m i t t e e on  major recommendation c o n t a i n e d T r u s t Commission should  of  second aspect  process to the  m e t h o d s , namely  observation  research  i n v o l v e d both p a r t i c i p a t i o n  presented  research  participant  bibliographic  f o r the G u l f  the author Matters  incorporates  research  process.  of e x i s t i n g  pation  study  that  to implement  The "an provincial  4  policy the  on t h e i s l a n d s " (Bowen I s l a n d S t u d y , 1 9 7 3 ) .  Following  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made by t h e C o m m i t t e e t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e ,  September 1973, the author  met w i t h  representatives of the  g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s t r u c t u r e and r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y o f t h e T r u s t were d i s c u s s e d .  This  M i n i s t e r , Hon. J.G. L o r i m e r , and  with  Department o f M u n i c i p a l  Affairs  I t was t h r o u g h t h e s e  able t o c o n t r i b u t e her ideas the process  Jantzen,  progress  who were i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h to create  and k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d  of the d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n . study  suggestions  represents  from  The r e s e a r c h  was research  to f o l l o w docu-  own work and  a r e b a s e d on  perception  Islands  responsibilities  was a b l e  the author's  for draft legislation  and on t h e a u t h o r ' s  the 'Gulf  meetings that the author  A t t h e same t i m e t h e a u t h o r  mented i n t h i s  research,  s t a f f , members o f t h e  o f d e f i n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e and  of the T r u s t .  the  various  the d r a f t i n g of the l e g i s l a t i o n  Trust.'  the  a s s i s t a n t D.  and two m e e t i n g s on F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 7 4 , one w i t h t h e  M i n i s t e r and t h e o t h e r  to  his executive  t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e A. N u n w e i l e r on O c t o b e r 1 6 ,  1973  and  i n c l u d e d a meeting with the  this  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f  a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s .  1 .3  Defi ni t i o n s The  islands  study  area  i n the S t r a i t  i s defined  of Georgia  as t h e g r o u p o f f i f t e e n  between V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and  5  the M a i n l a n d , Matters ing  which the  toured  islands:  i n May Saturna,  Select Standing  and  J u l y 1973.  North  seven Regional  Thetis.  Districts:  Pender, South Pender, S a l t s p r i n g ,  The  Gulf  These i s l a n d s are  Islands  islands just The  and,  unless  Denman, H o r n b y , L a s q u e t i ,  i s l a n d s are  C a p i t a l , Greater  Coast, Comox-Strathcona, Powell Valley.  n:neluded i n Vancouver, Sunshine  R i v e r , Nanaimo and  r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s  otherwise  specified,  study  a Trust w i l l in  the  Spring The  dictionary  as  include  Gulf  Islands Trust s e t up  by  the  i s defined Provincial  as  the  Islands.  The  likely  introduced  be  or F a l l trust  those  enabling  Sessions,  legislation  to  conservation to c r e a t e  to the P r o v i n c i a l  of  'trust'  such  Legislature  1974.  concept r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n .  definitions  appropriate  to t h i s  include:  :  the  institutional  government  i m p l e m e n t a p o l i c y o f c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t and Gulf  Cowichan  named.  a r r a n g e m e n t t o be  f o r the  Municipal  These i n c l u d e the f o l l o w -  G a l i a n o , Mayne, Bowen, G a m b i e r , K e a t s , G a b r i o l a , Kuper and  C o m m i t t e e on  • a person or thing in whioh confidence is placed • a charge or duty imposed in f a i t h or confidence or as a condition of some relationship • something committed or entrusted to one to be used or cared for in the i n t e r e s t of another ". dependence on something future or contingent (G.C. M e r r i a m C., 1964)  The  concept  6  The  'trust concept'  ment w h e r e i n d e c i s i o n s field  of a c t i v i t y  t i v e of wider  therefore  s u g g e s t s an a r r a n g e -  p e r t i n e n t t o t h e f u t u r e o f an a r e a o r  are entrusted  interests.  t o a body w h i c h  Implicit  i n t h e term  is  the idea  be  p u r s u e d , p r e s u m a b l y f o r some common g o o d .  also  that o b j e c t i v e s expressed  implies that objectives w i l l  long-term  r a t h e r than short-term  interpreted as w e l l  t o mean c o n s i d e r a t i o n  as p r e s e n t  i s representa'confidence'  by w i d e i n t e r e s t s w i l l The t e r m  be d e f i n e d effects.  'trust'  i n terms o f  ' T r u s t ' may t h e n be  and p r o t e c t i o n o f f u t u r e  interests.  Land t r u s t s a r e most commonly e s t a b l i s h e d t o h o l d land  i n ' t r u s t e e s h i p ' f o r t h e p u b l i c good.  the T r u s t not  under s p e c i f i c ,  normally  Institute  allowed  legally  t o be s o l d .  (1972) d e f i n e s  defined  Land i s h e l d by c o n d i t i o n s and i s  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Independence  a community l a n d t r u s t a s :  a legal e n t i t y , a quasi-public body chartered to hold land in stewardship for a l l mankind present and future while protecting the legitimate use-rights of i t s residents. Examples o f t h i s are  relatively  rare  have been u t i l i z e d ,  community a p p r o a c h t t o  i n North America but s i m i l a r  The  ina  I n d i a , T a n z a n i a and M e x i c o  Independence I n s t i t u t e ,  1972).  more common f o r m o f l a n d o r p r o p e r t y  Western c o u n t r i e s  control  approaches  sometimes f o r hundreds o f y e a r s ,  number o f c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y (International  land  trust in  i s t h e p r i v a t e t r u s t w h i c h has been  developed  7  mainly  to protect  conservation  interests  known o f t h e s e i s t h e N a t i o n a l private, non-profit now p r o t e c t e d  organization  by t h e N a t i o n a l  (Nature Conservancy, 1964). "promoting  Act of  Trust Acts  i t s members.  1907 t o 1953  The p u r p o s e o f t h e T r u s t i s  and p l a n t  The T r u s t  and a b o u t f o u r  For  i n 1895 and i s  f o r the benefit of the  life"  (National  i s supported  interest,  hundred thousand acres  Wales and N o r t h e r n  the purposes of t h i s  Ireland  Trust  by s u b s c r i p t i o n s  I n 1969 i t owned o v e r two h u n d r e d  England, Scotland,  This  f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , o f 9 their*; "natural  and a n i m a l  1 907 , S. 4 ( I - ) ) .  buildings  was f o u n d e d  and t e n e m a n t s , o f b e a u t y o r h i s t o r i c  as r e g a r d s l a n d s ,  aspect features  The b e s t  of Great B r i t a i n .  t h e permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  n a t i o n , o f lands and,  Trust  i n land.  historic  of land i n  (Worskett,  study the t r u s t  1969).  concept  is5di©f;in.edaashhavningtthiseeeeiliements: 1.  Representation  2.  long  3.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u t u r e present interests  term  of wider  interests  objectives as w e l l as  A m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h i s work d e a l s an the  institutional provincial  with  the design  arrangement to implement a given  policy of  g o v e r n m e n t , as e x p r e s s e d  C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l is  defined  1971).  Matters.  as an i n t e r r e l a t e d  Rules are defined  i n the report  An i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of  of the  arrangement  s e t o f r u l e s and e n t i t i e s ( F o x ,  to include  laws,  regulations,  8  subsidies, customs. formal  organizations  this  given  charges, penalties  E n t i t i e s are  recipient in  taxes,  an  of a c t i o n  defined  which are by  to a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s .  p u r s u e d by  will  p o l i c y could  be  values for  as  The  considered  the  p o l i c y most o f t e n  Implicit that,  institutional  action  parties etc. and  central  deals  arrange-  regulations.  a c o u r s e of  formulation  t o be  the  with  to  implementation function  of  the a l l o c a t i o n  society. Ranney  f o l l o w i n g main • ' • • •  1971).  e n f o r c e r u l e s and broadly  being  pursue s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s  governments, r u l e r s , p o l i t i c a l  Austin the  a c t i o n or  and  arrangement i s  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  i s defined  government i n t h a t tOf  capable of  institution  achieve c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s . of  i n d i v i d u a l s , groups  institutional  ment must have some power t o Policy  well-established  another e n t i t y (Fox,  d e f i n i t i o n o f an o b j e c t i v e , the  as  and  ( 1 9 6 8 ) has  defined  p o l i c y as  having  components:  a p a r t i c u l a r object ov set of objects a desired course of events a selected l i n e of action a declaration of intent • •• an implementation of intent - the actions a c t u a l l y undertaken v i s - a - v i s the p a r t i c u l a r set of objects in pursuance of the choices and declaration.  Chapter 2  BACKGROUND  2.1  Physical Description The  Gulf  Islands  Georgia  which separates  British  Columbia  trough  are located i n the S t r a i t of  Vancouver I s l a n d from t h e m a i n l a n d o f  (Map 1 ) . The S t r a i t  which extends along  a northwesterly Alaska.  i s part of a s t r u c t u r a l  the west coast  d i r e c t i o n , from t h e G u l f  Thousands o f y e a r s  Strait  of Georgia  in particular,  typical  have  of the i s l a n d s  above f r e e z i n g .  Rainfall  i n the province.  between t h i r t y Verburg, 1973).  area  and t h e s o u t h e r n  have a m o d e r a t e c l i m a t e w i t h  summer t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e 6 0  areas  erosion  1973). The  Islands  America i n  of C a l i f o r n i a to  o f m a r i n e and r a i n  p r o d u c e d t h e r i d g e s , v a l l e y s and i n l e t s (Farley,  of North  and f o r t y  o ,  s  F and mean w i n t e r  i s low compared t o o t h e r  The s o u t h e r n inches  Gulf  of rain  In a d d i t i o n t o a m i l d  9  Islands  annually climate,  Gulf  mean temperatures coastal  receive (Rees and  MAP 1  REGIONAL  SETTING: GULF  ISLANDS  11  the waters of the S t r a i t for  small  craft The  270  71  i s l a n d s have a t o t a l or less  than  land area  of  1% o f t h e t o t a l  The l a r g e s t i s l a n d  square miles  ideal  boating.  square miles  province.  a r e w e l l p r o t e c t e d , m a k i n g them  approximately  area  of the  i s S a l t s p r i n g w i t h an a r e a o f  and t h e s m a l l e s t i s K e a t s w i t h  an a r e a  o f 2.5  square m i l e s . The 7,300.  p o p u l a t i o n o f the area  The t o t a l  population  i n 1971 was  i n c l u d i n g seasonal  probably  r a n g e s f r o m two t o t h r e e t i m e s  contains  a breakdown o f p o p u l a t i o n  2.2  Historical The  first  Cowichan, Saanich 1971).  fishing not  known v i s i t o r s  Indians  which  Table 1  by i s l a n d .  to the Gulf  I s l a n d s were  i n c l u d e d t h e Nanaimo, C h e m a i n u s , (B.C. H i s t o r i c a l  Associa-  The i n d i a n s used t h e i s l a n d s f o r h u n t i n g and to a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence d i d  permanent s e t t l e m e n t s  camps were l o c a t e d on s i t e s and  number.^  and l a n d a r e a  and Songhee t r i b e s  grounds but a c c o r d i n g  build  residents  Perspective  the Coast S a l i s h  tion,  this  approximately  there.  (afthei'rl  summer  on t h e i s l a n d s w h i c h were  fishing flat  near t h e s h o r e l i n e .  T h i s i s based on v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s o f s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s made by R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n e r s . For example, S a l t s p r i n g ' s s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d a t 1200 p e r s o n s w h i l e H o r n b y ' s i s e s t i m a t e d a t o v e r 500.  1 2  Table 1 Land A r e a and P e r m a n e n t 1971 P o p u l a t i o n , G u l f  Islands  Area (square miles)  P o p u l a t i on (1971 census)  S a l t s p r i ng  71 .0  3,600  North  Pender  10.5  South  Pender  3.6  Island  Mayne  8.9  1,700  G a l i ano  23.0  Bowen  19.5  330  Gambier  26.8  67  2.5  5  Denman  19.2  250  Hornby  11.7  175  Lasqueti  25*  1 50  Gabri o l a  27*  680  Keats  Kuper  3.8  200**  Thetis  5*  150**  270  * **  7,308  estimated  1973 e s t i m a t e s SOURCE: P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : C a p i t a l , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , S u n s h i n e C o a s t , ComoxS t r a t h c o n a , P o w e l l R i v e r , Nanaimo, C o w i c h a n V a l l e y , 1 974.  13  In  1792, C a p t a i n  Vancouver s a i l e d  I s l a n d , s e n t on a m i s s i o n by t h e B r i t i s h that area of the coast. off  During  around  Vancouver  Government t o s u r v e y  h i s e x p l o r a t i o n he  stopped  a t Mayne I s l a n d and no d o u b t many o t h e r o f t h e G u l f  (Hamilton, 1969). appeared Islands  The r e s u l t s  i n 1798 i n a c h a r t w h i c h (Capital  Regional  the G u l f of Georgia Earl  i n 1794, halfway The  1971).  Gulf  V a n c o u v e r named  K i n g G e o r g e I I , and Howe Sound  round t h e w o r l d  c o a s t was a l s o e x p l o r e d  same t i m e , and i t was J o s e  Saturna  I s l a n d ((Gorri g a l , During  after  Maria  (Howard, 1973).  by t h e S p a n i s h  1 969).  t h e 1800's t h e f i r s t  European  settlements  i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y on t h e m a i n l a n d .  followed  s o m e t i m e a f t e r on t h e G u l f  be s e t t l e d  were t h o s e  Vancouver I s l a n d :  around  N a r v a e z who named  appeared  to  survey  included the southern  District,  after  Vancouver's  Howe who d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f i n a b a t t l e w i t h t h e  French  this  of Captain  Islands  closest  Saltspring  Islands.  Settlement  The f i r s t  to the mainland,  islands  and t o  i n 1 8 5 8 , Mayne i n 1863 and  Hornby i n 1862 ( W a l t e r , 1 9 4 5 ; C o r r i g a l , 1 9 6 9 ) . The the f e r t i l e sheltered Typically, their  early  valleys  settlers  of the islands  bays where b o a t s these  p r e - e m p t e d l a n d f r o m t h e Crown i n  settlers  and n e a r t h e s h o r e s and  could e a s i l y  land  (Howard, 1973).  cleared the land, s e l l i n g  timber while using part of i t to b u i l d  Many h o m e s t e a d e r s w o r k e d a t l u m b e r i n g  their  most o f homes.  and c o n s i d e r a b l e  acreage  14  of  v i r g i n f o r e s t was  1800's. raise  l o g g e d on  Many s e t t l e r s c l e a r e d  l i v e s t o c k to f e e d  enlarged  particularly operations  on  an  considerable  the  a c r e a g e on  time, logging  on  the  f a m i l i e s ; some  hinterland  and  some i s l a n d s  containing  large by  transportation  were no  p a s s e n g e r s and  t r a c t s of  r o a d s and to the  a r o u n d each i s l a n d . over the  function  1950's c a r  With the  with  Gradually  the  of f e r r y s e r v i c e  ment p a t t e r n  was  the  i s l a n d s was the  quality  by  private  waters of  In t h e  the  e a r l y days  Strait,  there  the  points  P r o v i n c i a l government  took  to t h e  the  on  islands  f e r r y to  automobile orrthe  d r a s t i c a l l y altered  a r e a s were opened up  more  railways.  B.C.  e x c e p t i o n of  obtained In  higher  o p e r a t e s a l l f e r r i e s under the  of  an  Galiano.  the  arrival  t o be  companies  some o f  the  feasible  boats stopped o f f at various  f e r r i e s were i n t r o d u c e d  g o v e r n m e n t now Service  supplies.  i s l a n d r o a d s ; the  s u c h as  sale.  exploration,  commercially  logging  and  produce f o r  became l e s s p r o f i t a b l e as  s t e a m s h i p c o m p a n i e s whose b o a t s p l y e d carrying  late  eventually  Logging continued  islands  f o r e s t l a n d s were opened up Early  types of  S a l t s p r i n g , but  islands  the  t o grow c r o p s  e a r l y f l o u r i s h of mining  never m a t e r i a l i z e d . on  during  t h e i r land  t h e i r own  Bowen and  important industry  the  islands  t h e i r f a r m s t o grow v a r i o u s T h e r e was  of  the  and  and  runs.  Island. the  previously  to r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  s e t t l e m e n t s h i f t e d from permanent to s e a s o n a l  The  Ferry  Lasqueti islands  in  settleinaccessible  Residential  residents.  15  The  number o f new  the  1960  1  homes b u i l t  s when r i s i n g  rose  steadily, particularly  i n c o m e s and  increased  meant t h a t g r e a t e r numbers o f p e o p l e For  e x a m p l e , on  small  lots  t o 1970, island  than  subdivided  two  has  occurred  r e g i o n of the S t r a i t i m p o s e d a f r e e z e on i n O c t o b e r 1969,  and  Today t h e from i s l a n d  the p r o p e r t y  i n the  consequently  period that  Similar subdivision i s l a n d s i n the  The  Provincial  southern  government  this  type  acres  of development  population characteristics Some i s l a n d s s u p p o r t  differ^greatly  a s i z e a b l e perma-  owners a r e p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s on  the  island  District,  i s estimated  1971).  t o be  On  island  G a b r i o l a the  slightly  (Nanaimo R e g i o n a l  the  has  time.  cent  p e r m a n e n t l y on  1974).  subdivided  s u b d i v i s i o n s b e l o w a minimum o f t e n  Keats I s l a n d o n l y f o u r per  live  1971).  of G e o r g i a .  homes.  per  permanent p o p u l a t i o n on  second  S a l t s p r i n g f o r e x a m p l e , 50  Regional  population  t o 1960;  time  l o t s were c r e a t e d on  on most o f t h e  to i s l a n d .  n e n t p o p u l a t i o n ; on  prior  residential  been p r o h i b i t e d s i n c e t h a t  (Capital  acres  ( C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a R.D.,  activity  could afford  Hornby I s l a n d t h e r e were o n l y 44  of l e s s  400  leisure  in  cent  less  than  District,  of the  (Sunshine  of  seasonal  two  times  1974).  property  the And  owners  Coast Regional  District,  16  2.3  Socio-political  Perspective  In 1965 t h e p r o v i n c i a l providing  f o r the establishment  out the p r o v i n c e . the Regional  L e g i s l a t u r e passed of Regional  legislation  Districts  through-  S t a t u t o r y f u n c t i o n s were n o t a s s i g n e d t o  Districts,  but r a t h e r f u n c t i o n s could  be a c q u i r e d  incrementally according  t o t h e needs and r e s o u r c e s  of the  d i f f e r e n t areas. individually until  The R e g i o n a l  following  Districts  had been f o r m e d  This regional level Regional  Board comprised  non-municipal  areas.  incorporated  passage of the l e g i s l a t i o n ;  1968 t h a t a l l 28 R e g i o n a l  the p r o v i n c e  were  Districts  (Collier,  i t was n o t  c o v e r i n g most o f  1972).  o f g o v e r n m e n t i s d i r e c t e d by a  of municipal  Non-municipal  members and members f r o m  areas, which i n c l u d e a l l  the G u l f I s l a n d s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  by members e l e c t e d  directly  from  D i r e c t o r s , as t h e y  are c a l l e d ,  those  areas.  participate voting  These R e g i o n a l  i n the a c t i v i t i e s  o f t h e B o a r d and have t h e same  powers as t h e M u n i c i p a l D i r e c t o r s who r e p r e s e n t  porated  municipalities.  organized the G u l f  into  Electoral  The n o n - m u n i c i p a l Districts  f o r election  Islands t h e r e a r e e i g h t E l e c t o r a l  one o r more o f t h e f i f t e e n  islands;  w i t h i n seven d i f f e r e n t Regional  these  Districts  Because f u n c t i o n s a r e g r a n t e d Regional  Districts,  of Georgia  area  areas  the seven R e g i o n a l  provide v a r y i n g types  incor-  have been purposes.  Areas which Electoral  In  include  Areas  fall  ( s e e Map 2 ) .  individually Districts  and l e v e l s  to the  i n the S t r a i t of s e r v i c e s  MAP 2  REGIONAL  DISTRICTS: GULF  ISLANDS  18  to t h e i r  member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  and E l e c t o r a l  Areas.  Powell River provides some s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s  For example,  such as  ambulence s e r v i c e and garbage d i s p o s a l to i t s members which i n c l u d e Lasqueti  Island.  In many other Regional  Districts  this  type of s e r v i c e would be s u p p l i e d only by i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i palities.  Only some of the Regional  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for regional  Districts  have assumed  parks.  In the case of the i s l a n d s , as f o r a l l areas,  the Regional  handling l o c a l  District  acts  as the l o c a l  unorganized  government,  p l a n n i n g , issuance of b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , and  other l i m i t e d f u n c t i o n s .  Most of the Regional  D i s t r i c t s do  not handle sewage treatment or water supply f o r the the l a t t e r  is c a r r i e d out l o c a l l y  through the o p e r a t i o n of  Water Improvement D i s t r i c t s , administered by the (Municipal  Affairs,  Province  1973).  Each Regional vote of i t s  District  member a r e a s ,  can assume new f u n c t i o n s by a  at the suggestion of the  government or by order of the Lieutenant-Governor In  islands;  unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s  through an a d d i t i o n a l  designated s e r v i c e s  levy on the r e a l - p r o p e r t y  Provincial in  Council.  are paid f o r tax;  the  of Finance d i r e c t s t h a t the amount added be paid to the District  from the P r o v i n c i a l  1960 C. 255, S. services  775).  Electoral  through the Regional  incorporated.  Collector  (Municipal  Act,  Areas can thus r e c e i v e  D i s t r i c t without  becoming  Minister Regional  R.S.B.C. certain  19  The Regional D i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e  thus o f f e r s  advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s to the G u l f I s l a n d s .  both  Certain  b e n e f i t s are d e r i v e d from the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c  services.  On the o t h e r hand, communications w i t h Regional Board members and r e g i o n a l  s t a f f i s o f t e n made d i f f i c u l t by the remoteness  of some of the i s l a n d s .  In some cases r e g i o n a l g o a l s appear  to be d i f f e r e n t from those of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s ; f o r  example  p r o p e r t y owners on Bowen I s l a n d have had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y communicating t h e i r r u r a l  in  p o i n t of view on the matter of minimum  l o t s i z e s , to a p r e d o m i n a t e l y urban Board ( G l o v e r and Chataway, 1973).  And f i n a l l y ,  the f a c t t h a t seven Regional Boards have  j u r i s d i c t i o n over f i f t e e n G u l f I s l a n d s means t h a t each i s l a n d i s r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t  practically  types and l e v e l s of  services,  and t h a t good communication between i s l a n d s  in-different  Regional D i s t r i c t s  An a d d i t i o n a l  i s d i f f i c u l t to a c h i e v e .  problem i s c r e a t e d by the d e s i g n a t i o n of some i s l a n d s to t i c u l a r regional d i s t r i c t s .  par-  L a s q u e t i I s l a n d , f o r example, i s  a member of the Powell Riiver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and y e t i t s  only  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k i s by f e r r y to P a r k s v i l l e on Vancouver Island. Although the Regional D i s t r i c t s  have assumed c e r t a i n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the i s l a n d s , the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l Affairs  r e t a i n s many d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers i n these and o t h e r  unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s Act ( R . S . B . C .  i n the P r o v i n c e .  The L o c a l  Services  1960, C. 224) g i v e s the M i n i s t e r the a u t h o r i t y  to  20  a c t as m a y o r - i n - c o u n c i 1 and the power to impose land use plans i n these a r e a s .  T h i s power was e x e r c i s e d on October 3 1 ,  1969 when the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r  i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommen-  d a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r , d e c l a r e d the G u l f I s l a n d s a ' l o c a l area'  under t h i s a c t .  At t h i s time the M i n i s t e r i n t r o d u c e d a  r e g u l a t i o n which prohibited s u b d i v i s i o n of land below a minimum of ten a c r e s .  However the r e g u l a t i o n s a l l o w e d the s u b m i s s i o n  of s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s up u n t i l March 3 1 , 1970 so as to not i n f r i n g e upon the r i g h t s of d e v e l o p e r s who where i n the process of s u b d i v i d i n g l a n d .  The i n t e r i m p e r i o d from October  to March caused a g r e a t rush i n s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s ; the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a l o n e p r o c e s s e d p l a n s f o r 1900 l o t s during t h i s period  (The Province,  November 1 0 , 1 9 7 1 ) .  Hornby I s l a n d , over h a l f of the e x i s t i n g s u b d i v i d e d l o t s  On (396  of 736) were r e g i s t e r e d a f t e r the announcement of the 10 a c r e f r e e z e i n October 1969 (Comox-Strathcona Regional  District,  1971) . Under the L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t , the  Lieutenant-Governor  i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r , has a l l the powers of a c o u n c i l i n r e s p e c t to community p l a n s , the r e g u l a t i o n of z o n i n g , land u s e , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s or s t r u c t u r e s nated ' l o c a l a r e a . '  and c o n -  of any k i n d , i n a d e s i g -  T h i s power i s e x e r c i s e d c h i e f l y by the  M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , a l t h o u g h l e g a l l y the C a b i n e t has the f i n a l say on these m a t t e r s .  S i n c e the e f f e c t i v e date of  21  the  f r e e z e , March 3 1 , 1 9 7 0 , l o c a l  islands  by t h e R e g i o n a l  Districts  planning  c o n t r o l on t h e  has, i n e f f e c t ,  been  shifted  t o t h e M i n i s t e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t .  As a r e s u l t ,  d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e i s l a n d s has been c o n f i n e d  to l o t s  prior  to t h i s At  date,  or to l o t s  acre  Affairs,  concerned should  to give  a p l a n " and t h a t  be t h e l o c a l  i n area.  stated that "the  local authorities "the regional  district  agency through which t h e a d v i s o r y  planning  commissions i n these v a r i o u s  to t h e i r  ideas"  { V i c t o r i a Daily  P r o v i n c i a l government i s s u e d  Regional  than t e n acres  Dan C a m p b e l l  f r e e z e was i n s t i t u t e d  t i m e s t o come up w i t h  The  subdivided  t h e t i m e t h e r e g u l a t i o n came i n t o f o r c e , t h e  Minister of Municipal tend  greater  new  Boards t o prepare plans  Times.  i s l a n d s would g i v e e f f e c t J a n u a r y 6, 1 9 7 0 ) .  no o f f i c i a l  directive  f o r the i s l a n d s .  to the  However  the  M i n i s t e r made h i s i n t e n t i o n s p u b l i c t h r o u g h t h e media i n  the  hopes t h a t t h e R e g i o n a l  conform w i t h o u t  2.4  explicit  Recent P l a n n i n g Prior  of development o f t h e i r  the  would  regulation.  to the formation  Districts  representatives  Activities  r e s i d e n t s and p r o p e r t y  Regional  District  of Regional  owners had l i t t l e communities.  acquired  island  say i n the d i r e c t i o n  However, s i n c e t h e  the l o c a l  i s l a n d s , and s i n c e t h e t e n a c r e  Districts,  planning  f u n c t i o n on  f r e e z e was i m p o s e d by t h e  22  Province, efforts community p l a n s  have been made on some i s l a n d s ,  and b y l a w s w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n  t o draw up of island  residents. The has  initiative  f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f such  u s u a l l y come f r o m t h e R e g i o n a l  D i r e c t o r f o r the area, or  from the i s l a n d e r s themselves.  The R e g i o n a l  a f i v e member A d v i s o r y  Commission t o a s s i s t  matters  relating  islands. has  Planning  to local  p l a n n i n g on an i s l a n d  Board;  D i r e c t o r f o r t h a t area  'appointed'  Where i t i s a v a i l a b l e , v i d e d by t h e r e g i o n a l s t a f f , the Regional  River  Regional  have a s t a f f planning  Director.  District  Commission  and t h e  by t h e R e g i o n a l  technical  to the Advisory At t h e time  planner; Lasqueti  Planning  of this  Board f o r a p p r o v a l .  Powell  w h i c h does n o t  a s s i s t a n c e from the Department o f M u n i c i p a l  the Regional  Commission  writing  I s l a n d must t h e r e f o r e  and z o n i n g  Board.  a s s i s t a n c e i s pro-  i s the only d i s t r i c t  Communicty p l a n s  readings  o r group o f  t h e C o m m i s s i o n was e l e c t e d by a v o t e o f i s l a n d  p r o p e r t y owners and t h e n  and  him i n  T h i s was made p o s s i b l e by t h e i n f o r m a l  agreement o f t h e R e g i o n a l Regional  D i r e c t o r appoints  I n one c a s e , G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , a P l a n n i n g  been e l e c t e d .  plans  request Affairs.  bylaws a r e submitted to  Between f i r s t  and s e c o n d  o f a p l a n o r b y l a w , a p u b l i c h e a r i n g must be h e l d  according Part XXI).  t o s t a t u t e ( M u n i c i p a l A c t R.S.B.C. 1 9 6 0 , C. 2 5 5 , The R e g i o n a l  Board votes  to approve o r disapprove  23  a bylaw a f t e r  the t h i r d  reading.  In t h e c a s e  b y l a w s t h e r e must be an a f f i r m a t i v e D i r e c t o r s whose a r e a s p l u s an a f f i r m a t i v e the Board  vote of t w o - t h i r d s of  the  i n the r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n  v o t e o f t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e D i r e c t o r s on  ( M u n i c i p a l A c t R.S.B.C. 1960, Following  submitted  participate  of r e g u l a t o r y  regional  f o r approval  and  C.  255,  S.  778).  a p p r o v a l , the p l a n or bylaw i s  e n a c t m e n t by  the  Lieutenant-Governor  i n C o u n c i l , upon t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l Affai rs. A few f o r the i s l a n d s  Regional prior  Districts  a p p r o v e d by  produced  t o S e p t e m b e r 1972  P a r t y Government assumed power. and  had  when t h e New  Bylaws which  the P r o v i n c e i n c l u d e d those  Bowen I s l a n d s ( C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a R e g i o n a l  zoning  had  bylaws Democratic  been  f o r Denman  District,  1972,  Greater  District,  1972).  Government d e c i d e d  to r e v i e w  the problems o f the G u l f I s l a n d s  had  former  l e a d to the  islands  had  been  The activities  on  t h e N.D.P.  i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e n a c r e f r e e z e by  g o v e r n m e n t i n 1969.  to w i t h o l d approval  time  and  Vancouver Regional  which  At t h i s  prepared  I t became p o l i c y  o f p l a n s and  bylaws u n t i l  of the  the  government  a study of  the  completed.  following  is a brief  review of recent  t h e i s l a n d s , c a t e g o r i z e d by R e g i o n a l  planning District:  24  Capital  The in has  planning  Capital  been p r o c e e d i n g  the P l a n n i n g  people  Regional  Electoral  "Gulf  Gulf  I n December 1 9 7 1 ,  Regional  Islands Options"  (Capital  In a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r a b l e f a c t u a l three options which  blank  f o r the reader  r a t e f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , up t o A p r i l Using surveys  preparing  the r e s u l t s  of this  supplied  islands.  and o t h e r  Local  considerable  Commission t o prepare The P l a n n i n g  infordescribed  The r e s p o n s e  groups o f t e n worked a c t i v e l y w i t h t h e R e g i o n a l  individual  Regional  1 5 , 1972 was 8%.  survey  a regional plan f o r the area.  Planning  to the  A fourth  done on t h e i s l a n d s , t h e C.R.D. w o r k e d  the A d v i s o r y  cir-  t o s u b m i t h i s o r h e r own  i d e a s and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o i n c l u d e d .  and  District  d e v e l o p m e n t s c e n a r i o s on t h e i s l a n d s .  o p t i o n was l e f t  Islands)  t h a t t h e C.R.D. may shape a R e g i o n a l  the p u b l i c a t i o n presented  different  Island).  to the d e s i r e s of the people"  1971).  1971 work  T h e i r a i m was " t o c h a l l e n g e and t o s t i m u l a t e  d e b a t e and r e s p o n s e i n o r d e r  mation,  Area G (Outer  Department o f t h e C a p i t a l  Plan according  Since  part of the r e g i o n a l plan f o r  Area F ( S a l t s p r i n g  of the area.  has been v e r y a c t i v e  Gulf Islands.  a publication entitled  District,  (C.R.D.)  District  on t h e f i r s t  to cover  Electoral  culated  District  on t h e s o u t h e r n  the d i s t r i c t and  Regional  studies  towards  community D i r e c t o r and  plans  f o r the  D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e C.R.D. has  technical assistance for this  work.  25  At pleted  t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g community p l a n s  f o r South Pender, Galiano  f o r North  have been com-  and S a l t s p r i n g w h i l e  P e n d e r , Mayne and S a t u r n a  are s t i l l  those  i n preparation.  Z o n i n g b y l a w s f o r S a l t s p r i n g and t h e O u t e r G u l f  Islands  were  e n a c t e d J a n u a r y 1 3 , 1971 and J u n e 2 7 , 1972 r e s p e c t i v e l y b u t require updating  to conform w i t h  cabinet  the plans  1974,  approved  t h e new p l a n s .  The P r o v i n c i a l  f o r S o u t h P e n d e r and G a l i a n o  and S a l t s p r i n g , March 1 9 7 4 .  Greater  Vancouver  Regional  District  Bowen I s l a n d was i n c l u d e d regional  district  planning  on t h e i s l a n d  Provincial  d i d not acquire until  (G.V.R.D.)  i n t h e G.V.R.D. b u t t h e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  April,  1971.  g o v e r n m e n t had begun p r e p a r a t i o n  Prior  f o r local  to this the  of a zoning  w h i c h was n o t c o m p l e t e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e t a k e o v e r . c u r r e n t b y l a w was p r e p a r e d area  by t h e p l a n n i n g  Planning  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  consultant  Commission.  of the appointed  f o r the Director  Advisory  The b y l a w was p a s s e d by t h e R e g i o n a l  B o a r d and a p p r o v e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  g o v e r n m e n t on A u g u s t 1,  Work was n o t begun on a community p l a n u n t i l  o f 1973 when t h e l o c a l v o l u n t a r i l y without  bylaw  The  (who i s h i r e d by t h e G.V.R.D.) and t h e R e g i o n a l  f o r Bowen w i t h  1972.  January  the f a l l  r e s i d e n t s a s s o c i a t i o n t o o k on t h e j o b  formal  recognition.  A d r a f t of the  26  proposed culated  p l a n was r e a d y to i s l a n d  Sunshine  by F e b r u a r y  1974 and was b e i n g  residents f o r their  Coast  Regional  cir-  comments and r e c o m m e n d a t i  District  T h e r e has been no o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g on G a m b i e r and Keats is has  Islands to date.  currently  The S u n s h i n e  considering a special  Comox-Strathcona  proceeded  District  i s l a n d s but  f a r enough  bylaw f o r the i s l a n d s .  Regional  District  Comox-Strathcona Regional s i d e r a b l e t i m e and e f f o r t  Regional  s t u d y on t h e s e  n o t , a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g ,  to produce a d r a f t p l a n o r z o n i n g  and  Coast  District  has s p e n t  con-  i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f community  b y l a w s f o r Hornby and Denman I s l a n d s .  In t h i s  plans  regard, the  i s l a n d e r s were g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e in the p r e p a r a t i o n of plans f o r t h e i r t o community p l a n s , b o t h been p r e p a r e d Board.  communities.  z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n  f o r t h e two i s l a n d s  date, f i n a l been g i v e n .  approval  bylaws  have  and a p p r o v e d by t h e R e g i o n a l  On A u g u s t 2 1 , 1972 t h e P r o v i n c i a l  t h e z o n i n g b y l a w and s u b d i v i s i o n  In a d d i t i o n  government  approved  b y l a w f o r Denman I s l a n d .  o f t h e b y l a w s f o r Hornby I s l a n d  To  has n o t  27  Powell  River  Regional  Pistrict  At the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , is without  local  or r e g i o n a l  planners  o r b y l a w s have been p r e p a r e d including Board  on  Lasqueti Island. February  28,  for  extensive public  Regional is  District,  district,  Regional  one  Area  re-organized prior  elections  1974).  i t was  Electoral  region,  adopted on t h e  A b y l a w was  enacted  encourage-  (Powell R i v e r Island  not i n c l u d e d i n the hence i s n o t  A o f t h e Nanaimo R e g i o n a l  and  so e l e c t s  Board.  District  m u n i c i p a l and  that Gabriola Island  i s not y e t completed.  subsequently  the  work.)  now  i t s own  The  plan i s being  'appointed'  was  Regional  for Gabriola in  1971.  been i n this  prepared  e l e c t e d by  by t h e R e g i o n a l  local  comprises  A community p l a n has  an A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e w h i c h v o t e and  by  proposals  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a number o f months b u t a t t h e t i m e o f writing  plans  District  Area  D i r e c t o r to the R e g i o n a l  No  ( A l t h o u g h Texada  t o t h e November 1973  w i t h the r e s u l t  complete  statement  s t u d y o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and  Electoral was  p a r t of t h i s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning 28,  district  i t s staff.  g r o w t h i n t h e r e g i o n and  p a r t of the study area f o r t h i s  Nanaimo  on  regional  i n c l u d e d statements  February  a member o f t h i s  recent provincial  A policy  1974  ment o f s l o w , r a t i o n a l  f o r any  this  island Board.  by  28  Cowichan  Valley  Regional  District  Kuper and T h e s t i s I s l a n d s c o m p r i s e o n l y Electoral  Area G o f t h e Cowichan V a l l e y Regional  subdivision  bylaw i s being  at the time  of w r i t i n g .  being  discussed  i s important  Kuper I s l a n d a r e I n d i a n  the j u r i s d i c t i o n assistance and  there  C o m m i s s i o n and t h e  i s no o f f i c i a l  reserve  lands  plan or  government.  their  Administrative  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n  Affairs  2 summarizes t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u s o f community  and b y l a w s f o r t h e G u l f  directors  acres  and hence come u n d e r  Islands.  (The p r e c e e d i n g  c u s s i o n was drawn f r o m c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h  2.5  regulations are  Development.  Table  in  District  t o n o t e t h a t 2300 o f t h e 2400  of the Federal  i s provided  Northern  plans  Planning  A  b y l a w f o r Kuper o r T h e t i s I s l a n d s . It  on  To d a t e  District.  by t h e R e g i o n a l  In a d d i t i o n , zoning  by t h e A d v i s o r y  community a t l a r g e . zoning  processed  part of  o f t h e seven Regional  the regional  displanning  D i s t H c t s w h i c h have i s l a n d s  jurisdiction.)  Development o f P r o v i n c i a l Following  Policy  the e l e c t i o n  August 1972, a s e l e c t standing t h e C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  o f t h e N.D.P. g o v e r n m e n t i n  committee o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e ,  Matters  was f o r m e d .  This  committee,  29  Table 2 Current  S t a t u s o f Community P l a n s and B y l a w s Gulf  Regional  District  Capi t a l  Islands  Communi t y Plan  Z o n i ng By 1 aw  Saltspring  0**  c**  North  Pender  P  South  Pender  C  Island  **  Mayne  Greater  Vancouver  Sunshine  Coast  Comox-Strthcona  Powell  River  Nanaimo Cowichan  Valley  C  Saturna  p  Bowen  p  Gambi e r  -  Denman  c  /  /  /  c  **  *  c  *  ** *  Hornby  c  Lasqueti  -  -  Gabriola  p  c**  Kuper Theti s  KEY:  **  Galiano  \  \ * C  P  P  - i n preparation  C  - complete  >  >  p  p  •k  C  - complete, approved  by R e g i o n a l  C  - c o m p l e t e , a p p r o v e d by R e g i o n a l Lieutenant-Governor i n Council  c  Board Board,  30 chaired  by Mr. A l f N u n w e i l e r , was c o m p r i s e d o f e l e v e n M.L.A.'s  including of a l l  the M i n i s t e r of Municipal  four p o l i t i c a l  parties.  results  of this  following  study.  and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  The c o m m i t t e e was  to c a r r y o u t a study o f t h e i s l a n d s and t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  Affairs  i n the S t r a i t  to the L e g i s l a t u r e  instructed of Georgia  b a s e d on t h e  The t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o u t l i n e d t h e  f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Committee: To inquire into the question of the future development on the islands including the development of community plans and an examination of the existing sections of the Municipal Act and other acts affecting local governments and any orders under these acts with a view to recommending any changes considered appropriate which may have an effect on the future development of these islands. The Committee shall have the power to send for persons, papers, and records . and to hear representations from such organizations and individuals as may. in their discretion appear necessary visit and hold hearings on the islands, and shall report its findings and recommendations 'toi the House from time to time. 3  (Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , J u n e 1 3 , 1973) Initially  t h e Committee  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the various withinrtheir jurisdiction Following  heard p r e s e n t a t i o n s from  Regional  Districts  (The Province.  t h e s e h e a r i n g s t h e Committee  having  M a r c h 1, 1 9 7 3 ) . toured  the islands to  o b s e r v e t h e e x t e n t and q u a l i t y  o f development f i r s t h a n d  hear p r e s e n t a t i o n s from i s l a n d  residents  individuals.  islands  and i n t e r e s t e d  and t o  31  P u b l i c m e e t i n g s were h e l d on a l m o s t e v e r y visited. on  N o t i c e s were p l a c e d  the i s l a n d s p r i o r  to these  whole, well attended. with  local  i n local  island  n e w s p a p e r s and p o s t e d  m e e t i n g s and t h e y w e r e , on t h e  I n g e n e r a l , most p r e s e n t a t i o n s  c o n c e r n s on i n d i v i d u a l  islands.  H o w e v e r , a number  o f p r o b l e m s common t o a m a j o r i t y o f t h e i s l a n d s , were duirng  these  At t h i s to  C o m m i t t e e met i n S e p t e m b e r 1973 t o c o n s i d e r a l l  presented  time  to i t over  the preceding  t h e Committee propared  the l e g i s l a t u r e The  on  clarified  meetings.  The submissions  dealt  few m o n t h s .  a r e p o r t w h i c h was  presented  September 2 1 , 1973.  report contained  a list  of observations  based  t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s t o u r o f t h e i s l a n d s and t h e s u b m i s s i o n s  presented  t o them.  recommendations  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  were f o l l o w e d by f o u r  (see Appendix A f o r the f u l l  report of the  Gommi t t e e ) . The the  observations  unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  jurisdictional  o f the i s l a n d s t o t h e problem o f  a u t h o r i t y over  of t h e Committee having summari zed  ranged w i d e l y from a r e c o g n i t i o n o f  Indian lands.  important  policy  The o b s e r v a t i o n s  implications are  beiow: 1.  L a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n s and o v e r - d e v e l o p m e n t were i d e n t i f i e d as t h e p r i o r i t y c o n c e r n .  2.  A need f o r i n c r e a s e d , s u p e r v i s e d s p a c e was c i t e d .  public  32  . 3.  Water  transportation  to  the  islands  was  considered to be a k e y factor in determining the extent of future growth on the islands. The Committee noted that control and c o - o r d i na t-i o n o f this function was the responsibiI ity of the provincial rather than the regional government. Transportation on the islands was also considered to be i m p o r t a n t and in t h i s respect the Committee suggested emphasis should be p l a c e d on pedestrian transit.  • 4.  5. • -  A serious lack of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the various provincial departments and between the province and t h e regional d i s t r i c t s was noted.  The  existing  were  regional  considered  to  d i s t r i c t  be  cases and a s u g g e s t i o n the boundaries.  was  made  to  in  some  review  6.  Concerning l a n d use on t h e islands, it was suggested that emphasis be p l a c e d on recreation, moderate residential use and preservation of the rcural atmosphere.  7.  The s h o r t a g e of potable water was identified as a p r i o r i t y issue on most islands. Waste and garbage disposal were a l s o c i t e d as serious problems.  Following tions  b o u n d a r i e s - -  inappropriate  these o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  f o u r m a j o r recommenda-  were made i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e .  m e n d a t i o n s a r e as I.  The  T h e s e recom-  follows: Committee  D i s t r i c t adjusted islands Reg i o n a l -  recommends  boundaries to are  be  assure  that  in  most  the  D i s t r i c t .  that  the  reviewed the  Regional  and  respective  appropriate  33  2.  The C o m m i t t e e a l s o recommends t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government e s t a b l i s h an " I s l a n d s T r u s t " ( o r C o m m i s s i o n ) as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e body t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e f u t u r e of each I s l a n d w i t h i n o u r t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e . It must be e m p h a s i z e d most s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e T r u s t i s t o assume p r i m a r y responsibility f o r a l l G u l f i.-.s l a n d s ' a f f a i r s w i t h i n Government j u r i s d i c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g land u s e ; f u t u r e g r o w t h p a t t e r n s ; c o n t r o l of d e v e l o p m e n t ; i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y ; as w e l l as p a r k s and open s p a c e d e s i g n a t i o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e T r u s t be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s - not o n l y on t h e I s l a n d s - b u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e as a w h o l e . While r e c o g n i z i n g the r i g h t s of t h e I s l a n d e r s , t h e C o m m i t t e e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a c t i v i t y w h i c h does n o t have t h e same i m p a c t i n o t h e r p a r t s of t h e Province . . . . Because i t i s r e c o n g i z e d t h a t a v a r i e t y o f Government D e p a r t m e n t s and A g e n c i e s : H i g h w a y s , F e r r i e s , Lands and F o r e s t s , P a r k s e t c . , as w e l l as R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and c i t i z e n g r o u p s on t h e I s l a n d s , a l l have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , we e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d T r u s t o r C o m m i s s i o n must n o t be a s e p a r a t e a n d / o r remote a g e n c y , b u t rath er a f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i n g body whose t a s k i t i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r each g r o u p , a g e n c y o r D e p a r t m e n t of G o v e r n m e n t and t o a c t i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i s l a n d s and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s , w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e b r o a d e r and p r o v i n c e - w i d e i nterest. v  3.  The C o m m i t t e e a l s o recommends t h a t u n t i l the T r u s t or Commission is e s t a b l i s h e d , no s u b d i v i s i o n s be p e r m i t t e d on any I s l a n d s s o u t h of and i n c l u d i n g Denman, Hornby and L a s q u e t i I s l a n d s , i . e . on any of t h e G u l f I s l a n d s in the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a .  34  4.  The  The C o m m i t t e e recommends t h a t t h e 10 a c r e f r e e z e be c o n t i n u e d on t h e n o r t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s t h a t have not y e t been s t u d i e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e . possibility  encompass a l l t h e G u l f Committee  of forming  one R e g i o n a l  I s l a n d s was c o n s i d e r e d  on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s  formed to  under e x i s t i n g  legislation  c r e a t e an a d d i t i o n a l  quasi-judicial  District  tion,  i s l a n d s would  be no need  structure. increase.  a d v a n t a g e s w o u l d be as f o l l o w s : 1.  The a v a i l a b l e powers w o u l d s t i l l be l i m i t e d to t h o s e o u t l i n e d in the M u n i c i p a l A c t u n l e s s amendments were made t o i n c r e a s e t h e powers of a l l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " (which from the p r o v i n c i a l v i e w p o i n t i s l i k e l y t o be p o l i t i c a l l y undesirable).  2.  The R e g i o n a l t a x base would be i n a d e q u a t e i n p r o v i d i n g any f u n c t i o n s o v e r and above r u d i m e n t a r y s e r v i c e s . If a s u b s i d y was p r o v i d e d t o t h e G u l f Islands Regional D i s t r i c t the problem of e q u i t y would be r a i s e d by t h e other Regional D i s t r i c t s .  3.  The t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y w o u l d . b e l i m i t e d t o , r e g i o n a l s t a f f a n d the Technical Planning Committee. r  4.  c o u l d be  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body  government  between  by t h e  The a d v a n t a g e s  and t h e r e w o u l d  s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e R e g i o n a l communications  briefly  and t h e a u t h o r .  o f s u c h an a p p r o a c h a r e t h a t a new R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t to  C o - o r d i n a t i o n with p r o v i n c i a l departments would l i k e l y not i m p r o v e o v e r the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n .  In a d d i The  dis-  35  5.  P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s would directly represented.  6.  Some s e r v i c e s s u c h as h o s p i t a l s and a m b u l e n c e s e r v i c e s c o u l d not be e f f i c i e n t l y p r o v i d e d by a G u l f I s l a n d s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t due t o e x i s t i n g transportation routes.  7.  It a p p e a r s t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e would be r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a new Regional D i s t r i c t than to e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l purpose T r u s t Commission. Time i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r due t o t h e t e m p o r a r y n a t u r e of t h e 10 a c r e f r e e z e and t h e i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r l o t s on t h e islands.  As a r e s u l t , District to  to include a l l the Gulf  be e c o n o m i c a l l y  tional limited  the formation  to a special  be  of a s i n g l e  Regional  I s l a n d s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  v i a b l e or s o c i a l l y  arrangement c o n s i d e r e d  not  i n this  desirable. study  The  institu-  t h e r e f o r e , was  p u r p o s e body o r T r u s t C o m m i s s i o n as  recommended by t h e C o m m i t t e e  on M u n i c i p a l  Matters.  Chapter 3  IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  3.1  Overview The  U.S. N a t i o n a l  o f t h e Need f o r C o n t r o l s Strait  o f G e o r g i a a r e a has been d e s c r i b e d by t h e  P a r k S e r v i c e and P a r k s Canada i n a r e c e n t r e p o r t  (1973): (The S t r a i t of Georgia) 'inland sea' is considered one of the world's most beautiful diverse and e c o l o g i c a l l y . ' r i c h regions. I t s proximity to the larger populations of the P a c i f i c Northwest and southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia endow i t with outstanding recreational potentials. It is worth noting that this r i c h island* type environment with i t s sheltered waters and equable climate has considerable tourist appeal and can be considered a unique continental resource. 3  Such an e n v i r o n m e n t escape of  from  t h e more h a r r i e d  the i s l a n d s .  increased  leisure  has a t t r a c t e d city  life  many p e o p l e , s e e k i n g  t o t h e p e a c e and s o l i t u d e  D u r i n g t h e 60's and 70's r i s i n g  incomes  and  t i m e have c r e a t e d a demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  and  r e t i r e m e n t homes t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a  The  problem  of this  type of development  36  (Mosena,  i n rural  1973).  a r e a s , which  37  often  do  not  have a d e q u a t e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s , i s  particularly  acute. By i t s very nature, recreational land development is attracted to beautiful and often e c o l o g i c a l l y f r a g i l e natural settings.along lakeshores. streams, and seacoasts. and in mountains, deserts and wetlands. As national demands for outdoor recreation increase, these types of land resources w i l l become even more c r i t i c a l and scarce. Clearly there are some areas of the country in which no development of any type should occur. These areas should be preserved in t h e i r natural state for present and future generations. rather than divided up among those people with enough money to reserve them for t h e i r exclusive use. (Mosena, 1973) A similar Since on  the  the  visits  late  and  the  eventual  a second  retirement.  i n t o small  different islands.  lots  The  is occurring  i s l a n d s ; i t has  one-third  o f t h e s e have been b u i l t  G a m b i e r on  o f Mayne and  yet  the o t h e r  has  only  (Sunshine Coast Regional the  southern Gulf  tional centres  of  population.  Islands. property  subdividing  at varying  lots  upon { S c h o o l  h a n d , has  holiday  rates  o f t h e more h i g h l y  subdivided  three  and  less  than  of A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  times the  area  l o t s w h i c h have been b u i l t  District,  Islands  d e v e l o p m e n t due  86  Gulf  seeking  process of  Mayne i s one 1360  the  home f o r weekend and  developed  1972).  on  1 9 5 0 ' s , i n c r e a s i n g numbers a r e  i s l a n d s , to b u i l d  large holdings on  phenomenon i s o c c u r r i n g  1974).  I t appears  have been more a t t r a c t i v e  to t h e i r  greater  to  accessibility  on  that recreato  the  38  Family holdings  (e.g.  i s l a n d s , and The  holdings  Galiano  Island)  large portions  amount o f Crown l a n d  considerably, 4300 a c r e s  the  Bowen^ I s l a n d ) have r e m a i n e d  of  the  remaining  southern Gulf  land on  Islands  Bowen I s l a n d has  o f 12,500 a c r e s  o v e r one  or f o r e s t i n t a c t on  a r e , as y e t  the  o f p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d o u t  acres, while area  (e.g.  industry some  undeveloped.  islands varies  contain  approximately  of a t o t a l quarter  under p r o v i n c i a l t i t l e  of  of  83,700  i t s land  (Rees and  Verburg,  1 973). Increased  population  f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and pressure early  on  70's  the  island  Many e x p r e s s e d the  i s l a n d s was  Gavin,  the  vacation  environment.  concern over the  from u n c o n t r o l l e d  i n the  region  and  rising  homes have p l a c e d During  the  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the  demands  added  l a t e 60's  and  environment  d e v e l o p m e n t became i n c r e a s i n g l y common. f e a r t h a t the  being  a member o f t h e  e r o d e d by Gulf  the r e s i d e n t s of s e v e r a l  partially increased  Islands  secluded  nature  urbanization.  Committee which  s o u t h e r n i s l a n d s , commented  of  Elma  represents as  foilows: The present trend to f a c i l i t a t e automobile usage is r e s u l t i n g in the loss of more and more precious a g r i c u l t u r a l and recreational land for the b u i l d i n g of freeways bridges and tunnels. . . .Development of this kind on the islands w i l l result in the loss of a. rural way of l i f e which many people seek for permanent homes or for holiday recreation. . . . The ensuing rush for property within commuting distance of the c i t i e s could eventually lead to the destruction of the c l o s e l y linked Gulf Is lands. 3  (Vancouver  Sun,  J u n e 30,  1973)  39  Pleas^such  as t h e s e , t o l i m i t  the a m e n i t i e s  o f the i s l a n d s  The divisions  most p e o p l e ( C o m m i t t e e  before  the P r o v i n c i a l  1969.  On  North  on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s ,  o f 1300  government's  lots  l o t s were s o l d  could  increase five  and  were  of  sub-  E s t a t e s has an  (The Province.  May  existing  10, 1973).  b u i l t on, the i s l a n d ' s  times.  approved  f r e e z e on s u b d i v i s i o n s i n  If a l l  population  Mayne I s l a n d i s c u t up w i t h  and a g a i n , i f a l l l o t s were b u i l t  reach  frequent.  1973).  l a r g e developments  Pender, Magic Lake  these  t i o n would  increasingly  a p p e a r s t o be t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n o f  A number o f v e r y  subdivisions  a r e becoming  preserve  problem of the u n c o n t r o l l e d development  on t h e i s l a n d s  development  a c c e s s , s l o w g r o w t h and  on, the  upwards o f 6000 p e r s o n s ( S c h o o l  numerous popula-  of A r c h i t e c t u r e ,  1 972). Several  major  f e a t e d , i n the l a s t provincial  level.  s u b d i v i s i o n proposals  have been  de-  few y e a r s , e i t h e r a t t h e r e g i o n a l o r On  Galiano  Island, MacMillan  Bloedel  which  owns. 9000 a c r e s , p r o p o s e d a l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n i n 1 972 . ing  announcement o f t h e p r o p o s a l , l o c a l  a p r o t e s t and a f t e r District (Vancouver, the  May  s e v e r a l stormy h e a r i n g s , the C a p i t a l  1 5, 1 9 7 2 ) .  o f 1500  T h i s p r o t e s t however  G a b r i o l a Wildwood  subdivision f o r that island.  Regional  lots provided  impetus f o r t h e community t o p r e p a r e a p l a n f o r t h e In 1971  lot  residents organized  r e j e c t e d the plans f o r development Sun.  Follow-  E s t a t e s proposed a  In t h e s p r i n g o f 1971  island. 550 the  40  Nanaimo R e g i o n a l land  use  contract after  indicated appealed  District  negative  turned  down t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  p u b l i c hearings  public opinion.  r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e  The  d e v e l o p m e n t company  the d e c i s i o n to the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l  h e l d a second h e a r i n g J u l y  200  r e s i d e n t s spoke out a g a i n s t the development p r o p o s a l . the C a b i n e t  finally  David  e v i d e n t as w e l l .  Anderson, proposed  Georgia Sun,  area  Many l o c a l  people  jurisdiction  who  w o u l d be  over  islands Liberal  like  the area  attracted The  and  federal over  the  the  of i t being  December 6,  Member o f  of  (Vancouver were m i x e d . federal  lose  expropriation for parkland. i n c r e a s e d numbers o f and  the  boaters  need f o r s u p e r v i s i o n  d i d not r e c e i v e adequate r e a l i z e d , faded.  i n recent statements 1973).  the  Parliament,  i d e a o f even l i m i t e d  D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and  indicated  In  have become i n -  some f e a r e d t h e y w o u l d  to the area proposal  over  1972).  to the p r o p o s a l  Mi n i s t e C v - J a c k , D a v i s , s t i 11 . have d e s i g n s as  on  t h a t the G u l f I s l a n d s - S t r a i t  d i d not  the p o s s i b i l i t y  Federal  I n 1970  Reactions  expressed  of p u b l i c areas. and  A u g u s t 18,  the  1971).  property through  C o n c e r n was  hearing  be made i n t o a n a t i o n a l m a r i n e p a r k  December 19,  their  Sun,  R e c r e a t i o n a l demands on  creasingly  At t h i s  r e j e c t e d the proposal  a d v i c e o f t h e M i n i s t e r {Vancouver RF  1972.  Affairs  who  A u g u s t 1972  12,  for a  to the  support,  However,  the  in particular i t s on  the area  press  for  (Vancouver  park Sun,  41  International  Park  In O c t o b e r 1973, Board which  Proposal  the  International Point  i s a committee of the  published  a report  Residents  of P o i n t Roberts."  International  "On  P a r k be  Solutions  s e t up  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission, to the  This  (as f a r n o r t h  o b j e c t i v e of the  park would  as  Problems Facing  report  to i n c l u d e  Juan a r c h i p e l a g o  Roberts  the  recommended t h a t  the  Gabriola  Gulf  Islands  Island).  -  The  an San  major  be:  . . . to preserve the existing attractive eharaoteristios of the island archipelago astride the border including the preservation of marine and land-based wildlife, archaeological and historic resources, and the maintenance of water quality standards.  (International Point Roberts Board, 1973) The  proposal  envisaged  use  to i n c l u d e e x i s t i n g  the  surrounding  for  park purposes; these i n c l u d e d  s u c h as (U.S.  waters.  Prevost,  National  and  new  the  p a r k as  park a r e a s ,  O n l y some new  an  area  populated  lands  a number o f s m a l l e r  S i d n e y , J a m e s , Samuel and  Parker  Parks S e r v i c e , Parks Canada, 1973).  of the an  a g r e e m e n t on  park.  effort  respect  to  The  recommendations f o r the  multiple  areas  w o u l d be  R o b e r t s B o a r d p r o p o s e d t h a t a b i - n a t i o n a l f o r u m be to reach  of  and  acquired islands  Islands The  Point  established  administration  f o r u m w o u l d make p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n  " b r i n g about b i n a t i o n a l l y agreed p r i n c i p l e s w i t h  t o s u c h m a t t e r s as w a t e r q u a l i t y m a i n t e n a n c e ,  p r e s e r v a t i o n , land  use  wildlife  development, . . . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  42 facilities, recognized  sporting f a c i l i t i e s t h a t the  Roberts Board, The five  inclusion  on  the  t h e r e was  w o u l d be  a u t h o r i t i e s toward  Columbia during  of the  of the  considerable  emphasized  i n the  to the  I s l a n d s were b e i n g  Gulf  Islands  and  I t was  pointed  out  'conservation'  formation  of a park.  proposal  on  these  report  to which o b j e c t i v e Many  local  the grounds t h a t the  (Ther terms of r e f e r e n c e  Gulf  essentially of  problem's o f  the that  employment r e g u l a t i o n s , h e a l t h t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  solve  problems.) A number o f b r i e f s  the  voiced  interchangedly  used t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s w h i c h were  s e r v i c e s e t c . and  particu-  t h a t the  as  i n c l u d i n g customs l a w s ,  1973.  p a r k , were  confusion  to P o i n t Roberts.  medical  December,  i n the  P o i n t R o b e r t s B o a r d were t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e area,  the  in  p r o p o s e d p a r k s y s t e m and  ' r e c r e a t i o n ' and  people objected  confined  "work  i n t e r n a t i o n a l park proposal  British  Canadian hearings.  used t h e words and  local  have t o  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission h e l d a s e r i e s of  A number o f c r i t i c i s m s  at the  and  proposal  1973).  W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e and  the  The  ultimate objectives" (International Point  p u b l i c hearings  larly  so on."  b i - n a t i o n a l forum would  closely with state provincial achievement of the  and  l a c k of l o c a l  proposal  and  participation  t h e r e was  d e n t s w o u l d have l i t t l e stration  presented  o f s u c h an  an  i n the  at these  formulation  often expressed  o r no  extensive  say  hearings  i n the  park system  of  cited  the  fear that local direction (The  and  Province.  resi-  adminiVancouver  43  Sun,  December 5,  ings  the  6,  7,  area u n t i l  expected  the  by  place  preceeding  increasing the  useful  categories  during al.,  This  projects  the  groups  the  1  may  be  common f o r m s o f  were  problems  r e c r e a t i o n a l demands objectives  the  on  of d i f f e r e n t  a number o f g r o u p s  which  i s l a n d environment.  these users i n t o a d i f f e r e n t i s bound t o  i s b a s e d on  the  Bowen I s l a n d and  (Glover  et  al.,  be  very  r e s u l t s of  1973  two  Gabriola  and  With these l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind, the  i s l a n d s and  building  are  u n d e r t a k e n on  Tyhurst  Island et  following  identified:  Permanent r e s i d e n t s on  and  the  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t them,  1973  for  These s t u d i e s  such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  discussion  that  1975.  o f demands on  and  summer o f  1973).  client  there  to c l a s s i f y  somewhat a r t i f i c i a l  research  were made.  hear-  a statement  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Park  sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g  a l t h o u g h any  approximate,  issued  examples i l l u s t r a t e  I t i s clear that  be  an  residential  d i f f e r e n t kinds  I t may  F o l 1 o w i n g ~ t h e December  completed e a r l y i n  i s l a n d s and  users.  be made on  further studies  t o be The  created  1973).  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission  a d e c i s i o n w o u l d not this  8,  are  - These r e s i d e n t s  generally  employed t h e r e .  employment i n c l u d e  industry occupations;  f e r r i e s work, f a r m i n g , of A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1972).  logging,  live  permanently  The  service occupations  other  jobs  c r a f t s and  These p e o p l e are  include real  and  highways  estate  at l e a s t  more  and  (School  partially  44  d e p e n d e n t on c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h on t h e i s l a n d s usually  s u p p o r t some d e g r e e o f i n c r e a s e d  Seasonal  residents  who a r r i v e on t h e i s l a n d s  their  on weekends and f o r summer  economic development.  R e t i red group i n c l u d i n g seasonally  - This  i s also  and who, upon r e t i r e m e n t , has a h i g h  interests.  - This  a rapidly visited  growing  the i s l a n d s  t o o k up p e r m a n e n t  residence.  but they a l s o with  i s a large  favour larger  the  improved  services  populations.  and d i v e r s e  group  V i s i t o r s demand more r e c r e a t i o n a l  with services  t h e f o r m o f c a m p g r o u n d s , t o u r i s t l o d g i n g s and m a r i n e  facilities. generally  D e s p i t e t h e demand f o r some s e r v i c e s ,  come t o t h e i s l a n d s  e n j o y t h e s l o w e r pace o f l i f e ; walking, hiking 1971).  con-  concerns  i n t e r e s t i n preserving  which a r e sometimes f e a s i b l e o n l y  V i s i tors  stake i n  S i n c e t h i s g r o u p has grown  many c o u p l e s who f o r m e r l y  amenities of the islands  in  and l i t t l e  the  heard.  res i dents  T h i s group g e n e r a l l y  holidays.  stake i n preserving  i n numbers o v e r t h e p a s t few y e a r s t h e i r  have been i n c r e a s i n g l y  varying  development.  r u r a l environment of the i s l a n d s  siderably  therefore  - T h e s e a r e t h e 'second home p e o p l e '  T h e s e p e o p l e a p p e a r t o have a l a r g e existing  and  park  visitors  t o ' g e t away f r o m i t a l l ' and t o activities  and b e a c h c o m b i n g  (Capital  they p r e f e r Regional  include  District,  45 Potential is  an  extremely  values  are  t h a t they and  l a r g e and  difficult  t o use  conflicting  the d i f f e r e n t  The  the  based l a r g e l y individual  on  the  island  assumed  environment  of users  some-  and  past, provincial and  to  the c a p a b i l i t y  no means an  and  their  and  easy  policy  the  r e c r e a t i o n a l develop-  policy  has  s o m e t i m e s ad  of  task.  resident opinion explicit  balance  been  hoc  demonstrate for^the unclear,  decisions  on  need f o r c o n t r o l s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h e  these  controls.  The  p r e p a r a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t and This  be  and  are  hand i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e optimum way  plementing  This  them, w h e t h e r t h e y  for residential  sporadic  -  proposals. The  at  i s by  by a s t r o n g , v o c a l  In t h e  the  i t becomes i m p o r t a n t  need f o r a w e l l d e v e l o p e d  islands.  general  not.  islands with  uses, which  ment c o u n t e r e d  c h a n g e s on  interests,  pressures  in  I n g e n e r a l , i t can  the wide v a r i e t y  uses of the  land f o r these  public  in preserving  i s l a n d s or  Considering times  the  to d e f i n e .  irreversible the  and  amorphous g r o u p whose o b j e c t i v e s  p l a c e some v a l u e  preventing  likely  visitors  to c o n s e r v e  t o p i c i s developed  first  o f d e f i n i n g and  step of t h i s  t o s e t up  I I and  im-  process  is  a mechanism t o c o n t r o l  the environment of the  in Parts  task  I I I of t h i s  islands. study.  46  3.2  Central  Research  Task  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a w i d e l y the  n a t u r a l , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  Islands. priority in For  need t o p r o t e c t  environments of the Gulf  P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d s from overdevelopment i s t h e concern expressed  i t s report  by t h e C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  to the P r o v i n c i a l  the purposes of t h i s  study  of the P r o v i n c i a l  the observations Matters  government.  d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d  were a c c e p t e d  it The  simplified  as t h e  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d and have c r e a t e d  were n o t t h e s u b j e c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s this  and recommenda-  The need f o r c o n t r o l s on  hence t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e i s l a n d s w h i c h  Given  Matters  L e g i s l a t u r e , September, 1973.  t i o n s o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l policy  felt  this  research.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the basic  i s apparent that a d d i t i o n a l aspects  should  need  be  problem,  clarified.  c e n t r a l p r o b l e m , t h a t o f d e v i s i n g a mechanism t o c o n t r o l  d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e i s l a n d s , r a i s e s two q u e s t i o n s : 1.  To what e x t e n t s h o u l d t h e i s l a n d s be developed? T h i s would i n c l u d e both how much d e v e l o p m e n t and what k i n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o be a l l o w e d .  2.  How can a p o I i cy o f ment be e f f e c t i v e l y  The  first  refinement. provides report  question  r a i s e s t h e need f o r f u r t h e r  The r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  some g u i d e l i n e s i n t h i s  states  controlled developimplemented?  "there  respect.  policy  Matters  For example, the  i s a need f o r an i n c r e a s e  of supervised  47  public  space"  on  i s l a n d s i s important.  the  report  implying  discusses  transit  accordingly."  p o l i c y on  be and  placed the  on  use  pedestrian  of  the  One  alternative is for policies drawn up of  the  legislation the  of  This  by  could  the  f o r the  with  f o r the  the  t h e s e two  islands.  several  In l i g h t  deals  to t h i s  recommends " t h a t  of  the  question the  t h u s be  future  the  and  ways. categories  recommenda-  reflected in  of the  recommendations  that  some c o m b i n a t i o n  used. with  C o m m i t t e e on  implementation of Municipal  Matters  i n i t s recommendations.  . .to be  responsible  for a l l Gulf  Government j u r i s d i c t i o n . " s t r u c t u r e or s p e c i f i c  The  for  administrative  The  f o r and  o f each i s l a n d . . . (and)  responsibility  planned  refinements  C o m m i t t e e does not  responsibilities  and  speaks  to  Islands co-  t o assume  Islands' affairs  the  Committee  P r o v i n c i a l Government e s t a b l i s h an  (or Commission).  primary  than  a u t h o r i t y to a s p e c i a l  policy-making  second q u e s t i o n  directly  the  rather  A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d be  islands.  report  (on  A f f a i r s ) and  be  The  ordinate  the  to s p e c i f i c  P r o v i n c i a l government  space  that  in several  pertaining  alternatives will  policy.  Trust  states  transit  accomplished  Committee, i t appears l i k e l y  The  the  be  M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l  body e n t r u s t e d  made by  report  i s l a n d s should  P r o v i n c i a l government to d e l e g a t e  functions  public  I t i s c l e a r however t h a t f u r t h e r p o l i c y  necessary.  tion  amount o f  Another p o l i c y area which  are  t o be  the  i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; the  "emphasis s h o u l d vehicle  that  the  within  elaborate  functions  of  on  48  the  proposed T r u s t .  I t does n o t e h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e T r u s t  should  be  " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s . . . throughout the Province  as  a whole." It  tions  i s quite evident  islands.  proposal  The c e n t r a l t a s k , and t h e one t h a t t h i s itself  to s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  implementing  research  i s to develop a  arrangement with  the purpose o f  a p o l i c y o f c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t and  o f t h e G u l f s i s 1ands.  called  and i m -  p o l i c y i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e  p a p e r has a d d r e s s e d  the 'Gulf Before  task  t h e recommenda-  o f t h e C o m m i t t e e , t h a t a mechanism f o r r e f i n i n g  plementing  tion  after considering  Islands  This  arrangement i s  Trust.'  outlining  i ti s important  institutional  conserva-  the approach taken t o c a r r y out t h i s  that the author's  a s s u m p t i o n s on d e c i s i o n -  making p r o c e s s e s be made e x p l i c i t .  In t h i s  respect,  n o r m a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n s were f o l l o w e d  throughout t h i s  several work:  In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y , p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in decision-making from the l o c a l i s l a n d l e v e l t o t h e l e v e l of t h e Trust administration. I t i s considered that t h e most e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g involves t h o s e who a r e most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e r e s u l t s of d e c i s i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and s h o u l d be c o m m u n i c a t e d i n a manner w h i c h i s h o n e s t and e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d i n o r d e r t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s can e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the decision-making process.  49  D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d e c i s i o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of a p r o c e s s w h i c h is e v o l u t i o n a r y i n n a t u r e . For t h i s r e a s o n t h e r e i s a need f o r c o n t i n u o u s information flow, feed-back, reformulation and e v a l u a t i o n of any p u b l i c p r o g r a m .  3.3  Outline  of Material  f o r Analysis  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a t r e n d ment c o n t r o l and  over land  the United  zoning  States  has p r o v e d  particularly interests.  itself  Consequently  1971).  inadequate i n dealing  those i n v o l v i n g regional  and even  i n some a r e a s n e w i l a n d  with  govern-  i n Canada Local many  problems,  province-wide use c o n t r o l s  through the enactment o f l e g i s l a t i o n  development f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . In a n a l y z i n g  controls  t h e l a s t few y e a r s  ( B o s s e l m a n and C a l l i e s ,  have been e s t a b l i s h e d to c o n t r o l  use d u r i n g  towards i n c r e a s e d  t h e problem o f s u i t a b l e  f o r the Gulf  Islands, recent  development  legislation  i n l a n d use  c o n t r o l s , ranging  f r o m 1961 t o t h e p r e s e n t , was s t u d i e d f o r  its  applicability  to the s p e c i a l environment of the i s l a n d s ,  its  recognition  and  t h e need t o p r e s e r v e t h e u n i q u e e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the importance of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l  of t h e area being An included  legislated  initial  for.  survey of the l e g i s l a t i o n  the f o l l o w i n g  communities,  statutes  and  bills:  was made w h i c h  50  CANADA 1.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Land - (R.S.B.C. 1 9 7 3 , C.46)  2.  3.  UNITED  O n t a r i o , Niagara  Development  128),  Act, 1973  Escarpment•Planning  Act  (Bill  O n t a r i o , Planning  (Bill  Commission  and  1 2 9 ) , 1973.  and Development  Act  1973.  STATES 4.  California,  5.  C o l o r a d o , Land  6.  1972  Coastal  Zone  (S. 27000).  Florida,  Conservation  Act,  Use Act, 1 9 7 1 .  Environmental  Land  and  Management Act of 1972 ( F l o r i d a C. 370 t o 3 8 0 , 1 9 7 2 ) .  Water  S t a t . Ann.  7.  H a w a i i , Land Use Law of 1961 ( H a w a i i Rev. S t a t . , C. 205 ( 1 9 6 8 ) as amended ( s u p p . 1 969).  8.  M a i n e , Site  9.  O r e g o n , Land  Use Act  10.  V e r m o n t , Act  No.  1970  Location  of Development  ( r e v . 1971 , C. 571 , S. 2 ) .  (Tenth Ver. S t a t .  250,  (Bill  1 0 0 ) , 1973.  Vermont  A n n . C.  Act,  Laws,  1970  151).  111 . WWashiington ^Shor/eMneMManag-em'ent-tAety--1 971 (C. 2 8 6 ) .  51  PROPOSED B I L L S : 12.  W a s h i n g t o n , House B i l l 791 P l a n n i n g ) , 1973.  (Land  13.  U.S. S e n a t e , Housatonio River Trust Bill. S. 3 6 3 3 , 1972.  14.  U.S. S e n a t e , Nantucket Sound Trust Bill. S. 3 4 8 5 , 1 9 7 2 ; S.  15.  Denmark, Urban  and  Rural  Zones  Use  Valley  Islands 1929, 1973.  EUROPE  16.  1 9691.,.  Act.  A  Act,  Great B r i t a i n ,  Town and  Country  17.  Great B r i t a i n ,  National  Trust  18.  S w i t z e r l a n d , Loi Federale sur la de la Nature et du Pay sage, 1966.  This  legislation  were s e l e c t e d  1962 (10 & 1 1 , E l i z .  t o 1953.  was r e v i e w e d  Acts,  briefly  f o r a more d e t a i l e d r e v i e w .  b a s e d on s e v e r a l  Planning  2., Ch. 3 8 ) .  This  1907  Protection  and f i v e selection  criteria:  1.  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ; were t h e y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s e r v a t i o n for the islands?-  2.  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l (state) a u t h o r i t y ; d i d the l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t e a s p e c i a l body o r a g e n c y t o c a r r y out c e r t a i n s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ?  . 3.  f u n c t i o n s of t h e r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y ; d i d the f u n c t i o n s of the s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n c l u d e land use c o n t r o l  pieces was  52  t h r o u g h t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as z o n i n g development permits? 4.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; were p r o v i s i o n s included t o d e l e g a t e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o I o c a I a u t h o r i t i es?  5.  provision for public p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; were p r o v i s i o n s f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and procedures f o r appeals i n c l u d e d in the legislation?  On t h i s were s e l e c t e d  basis the following  1.  Nantucket  2.  Hawaiian  ( p ro posed  in  I 9.73 .  pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n  Trust  Control  5.  Niagara Escarpment Planning Development Act, 1 9 7 3 . pertaining  proposed  introduced  and  specifically  t o i s l a n d s has  i n t h e f o r m o f two  by S e n a t o r Henry  Jackson, February  t h a t t h e U.S. G o v e r n m e n t a d o p t a n a t i o n a l  t o p w o t e c t and c o n s e r v e t h e n a t i o n ' s  the l e g i s l a t i o n April  U.S. C o n g r e s s  Vineyard  Law, 1 9 7 0 .  Management Act, 197 1.  Shoreline  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress  The f i r s t ,  Act  Land Use Law, 1 9 6 1 .  Washington  In the  bill),  4.  been p r o p o s e d  policy  Sound Islands  Vermont Environmental  Legislation  1972,  five  f o r analysis:  , 3.  bills,  or  was a model  'National  islands.  proposing island  and t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound  trust  Included  Islands Trust'  1 9 7 3 , S e n a t o r Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d  island  bill.  a bill in  s t a t u s f o r Martha's  I s l a n d s which  are located o f f  53  Cape Cod  on  the  East  coast.  A c t , was  chosen f o r the  The  a n a l y s i s as  p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e most s i m i l a r The an  extent.  and  is  o f H a w a i i was with  with  a restricted  Vermont E n v i r o n m e n t a l  i n the  f a c i n g the  Gulf  Islands.  s e l e c t e d because i t i s  p r o v i s i o n s f o r land be  evaluated  amount o f  a n a l y s i s as  an  Control  use  t o some  l a n d and  increasing  also confronted  attempted  with  and  the  with  (1970)  this  was  protection.  second  through  homes, and the  land  use  Vermont  problem of a l a r g e i n f l u x  people seeking  to d e a l  Law  e x a m p l e of a more r e c e n t  the o b j e c t i v e of environmental  recreationists has  to those  with  recreational users. The  having  Trust  t h e s t a t e i s composed o f a g r o u p o f i s l a n d s ,  i s also faced  included  Islands  i t appeared to deal  hence i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s can  Since  demands by  law  Act  example of e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n  control  it  Land Use  N a n t u c k e t Sound  of  the  State  implementation  of  a number o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s . The  S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s S h o r e l i n e Management  was  examined, again  and  particularly  because of the  e m p h a s i s on  shoreline protection.  This  environmental  Act a f f e c t s the  P u g e t Sound-San J u a n . I s l a n d s . area., w h i c h s h a r e s physical  characteristics  Canadian Gulf And ment P l a n n i n g as  and  Act  many'of  development problems of  the  the  Islands. finally and  the  Province  of O n t a r i o ' s  D e v e l o p m e n t A c t was  a C a n a d i a n e x a m p l e o f iland use  included  legislation  Niagara  Escarp-  i n the a n a l y s i s for a  particular  54  r e g i o n w h i c h has been d e s i g n a t e d  as an a r e a  of unique  environ-  ment w o r t h y o f s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n . These p i e c e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n  have a number  i n common.  1.  They have as a m a j o r o b j e c t i v e , of d e v e l o p m e n t and p r e s e r v a t i o n env i r o n m e n t .  2.  They a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p r o b l e m s of l o c a l z o n i n g by e s t a b l i s h i n g a single regional authority.  3.  They make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n whose f u n c t i o n i s t o c o n t r o l d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e manner o u t l i n e d in t h e l e g i s l a t i o n .  These f i v e  pieces  of legislation  control of t h e  are described i n  P a r t I I and a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s made o f s e l e c t e d of these to  laws.  the Gulf  Islands  Using to  From t h i s  this  features  appropriate  are i d e n t i f i e d . a n a l y s i s as a b a s i s , P a r t I I I p r o c e e d s  develop suggestions  Is!ands.  analysis specific  features  f o r land  use l e g i s l a t i o n  f o r the Gulf  PART  II  EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR PURPOSE LAND USE LEGISLATION  Chapter 4  EXAMINATION  OF T H f I S L A N D PROPOSED  4.1  TRUST  CONCEPT  IN  LEGISLATION  Model I s l a n d T r u s t L e g i s l a t r i o n In 1970 t h e U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r  the  r e s u l t s of a comprehensive study e n t i t l e d  America  (Bureau o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ,  c l u d e d an e x t e n s i v e historic  The s t u d y i n -  islands.  Twommajor g o a l s  were recommended by t h e r e p o r t :  1.  p u b l i c c o n t r o l of representative i s l a n d a r e a s s u f f i c i e n t t o meet public recreation, scenic, wildern e s s , h i s t o r i c and s c i e n t i f i c n e e d s ;  2.  r e s t o r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of a l l A m e r i c a n islands.  The  study also  recommended a number o f a c t i o n s t o  these o b j e c t i v e s .  a national  of  o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l , s c e n i c and  values of America's c o a s t a l  or p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s  realize  inventory  1970).  Islands  published  The f i r s t  system of I s l a n d T r u s t s .  t i o n s o f such a ' T r u s t '  recommendation  proposed  The o b j e c t i v e s  and  a r r a n g e m e n t were d e s c r i b e d  55  func-  as f o l l o w s :  This (Trust) concept was developed for islands where t r a d i t i o n a l techniques for the protection and enhancement of t h e i r unique q u a l i t i e s are not p r a c t i c a b l e . An Island Trust is made up of an island or group of islands with outstanding scenic, h i s t o r i c or recreational values. The Congress would authorize the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r to e s t a b l i s h these Trusts through .appropriate agreements with the States involved. Such agreements would provide fortthe establishment of Island Trust Commissions. A Commission to be successful must provide for the broadest possible involvement. It would generally be composed of a Federal member appointed by the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r ; a member appointed by the Governor of each p a r t i c i p a t i n g state; and a member appointed by each local governing body involved, with zoning authority. The composition of the commissions would be f l e x i b l e to meet the special conditions of each Island Trust. The • commissions would develop and maint a i n comprehensive plans for the islands. The goals of such plans would be preservation of the unique island environment, establishment of s u f f i c i e n t public areas to provide for recreation use, and orderly and compatible development of islands by public and private interests. The commissions would encourage State and local governments to adopt and enforce adequate master plans and zoning ordinances to promote the use and development of p r i v a t e l y owned lands within the Island Trusts in a manner ^consistent with the comprehensive plans. They may also recommend a c q u i s i t i o n by such governments of p r i v a t e l y owned property. Land a c q u i s i t i o n would be l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to underdeveloped areas. Whenever less than fee a c q u i s i t i o n , such as scenic easements, can provide adequate protection or meet public needs, such a c q u i s i t i o n would be encouraged. A c q u i s i t i o n , development and management of areas within the Island Trusts would be coordinated A by the Commissions. If the State or local governments f a i l to take the  57  action recommended, the commissions would be empowered to assure that the comprehensive plans are carried out. In such cases the commissions would have the authority to adopt- and enforce adequate master plans or zoning ordinances, acquire land or f a c i l i t i e s , develop and administer the Island Trusts, and take a l l action necessary to f u l f i l l the purpose of the Island Trusts. The serve  as  the  study pilot  p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C a s c o Bay p r o j e c t f o r the  addition  to the  C a s c o Bay  of other  island  g r o u p s t o be  System of  Island Trusts.  of a N a t i o n a l to s e r v e  as  System of  a model  The  o f an  for legislation  was  Commission to  to e n c o u r a g e l o c a l and  have " d i r e c t and  On  and  (Appendix include  the  "develop  and  governments to zoning  i s l a n d s i n the on  B).  in  "adopt  ordinances."  adverse e f f e c t s "  report,  and In trust  the i s l a n d s '  forbidden.  F e b r u a r y 14,  the Senate a b i l l  i n the  islands included  a d d i t i o n , f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d p r o j e c t s on  environments are  area  o f t h i s model b i l l  Island Trust  National  establishment  included  in this  In  recommended a number  f o r the  Island Trusts  i n Maine  concept.  f u t u r e components o f t h e  adequate master plans  system, which  trust  report  a comprehensive p l a n " f o r the  t h e T r u s t , and enforce  the  A draft bill  major f e a t u r e s  establishment maintain  Islands  island  Islands  1972,  "to d e c l a r e  manage i s l a n d s o f t h e  Senator Jackson  introduced  a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y to  Nation  mental, r e c r e a t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l  protect  which possess unique and  cultural  to  values"  environ(U.S.  58 Congressional and  Record,  S. 1 5 7 5 , N a t i o n a l I s l a n d s  Recreation A c t , February Because t h e Nixon  on  t h e model  introduced action  14, 1972). a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had t a k e n  National Island Trusts  a new b i l l  bill,  to provide a wider  i n the preservation of i s l a n d s .  Islands Conservation the f o l l o w i n g  Conservation  Senator  national  Jackson  scope f o r f e d e r a l This  bill,  and R e c r e a t i o n A c t , i n t e n d e d  statementaas  no a c t i o n  the National to e s t a b l i s h  policy:  To strengthen the environmental, recreational and c u l t u r a l well-being of the •people of the United States, the Congress declares that i t -is the policy of the United States that islands or groups of islands of the Nation which possess unique environmental, recreational, historical or c u l t u r a l values which warrant preservation and enhancement should be protected and managed through the combined e f f o r t s of Federal, State and local governments and the private sector to insure that future generations shall have the opportunity to enjoy the Nation 's island heritage. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d , S. 1 575) The  bill  m e n d a t i o n s on t h o s e  provides islands  f o r a f u r t h e r study  t o make recom-  t o be i n c l u d e d i n N a t i o n a l  Wildlife  R e f u g e and F o r e s t S y s t e m s and i s l a n d s w h i c h  acquired  by t h e S t a t e s , w i t h  Federal ible  Federal  a s s i s t a n c e w o u l d be g i v e n  to take steps  should  be  Priority for  to i s l a n d s which are access-  t o u r b a n r e g i o n s ! a n d , a r e most t h r e a t e n e d  d e v e l o p m e n t ; and t o s t a t e s w h i c h city  assistance.  Park,  by i m m e d i a t e  have d e m o n s t r a t e d  the capa-  t o p r o t e c t t h e i s l a n d s and have  developed  59' land out  use  c o n t r o l s under S t a t e  r e q u i r i n g purchase of  R e c o r d , S.  proposals  a federal assistance are w i l l i n g use  and  of  lands  this  that have t h e  islands.  of implementing  bill  the  be  no  States  for planning  The  4.2  and  National  on  i s there  islands.  between t h e  Islands  environ-  any  Islands  t o what suggestion use  made a v a i l a b l e lands  planning  and no  programs  level.  Conservation Interior  and and  Recreation  Insular  Act  Affairs,  Congress.  Trust  Bill  Background On  April  11,  i n t o Congress  Sound I s l a n d s  1972  Senator  "to preserve  through the  Edward  and  establishment  Kennedy  conserve" the o f an  that  of  There i s however,  various  state  C o m m i t t e e on  N a n t u c k e t Sound  a bill  nor  Money w o u l d be  i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  4.2.1  physical  development of i s l a n d  developed a t the  r e f e r r e d to t h e  following  and  systems  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as  utilized  a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y  w h i c h m i g h t be  funds to t h o s e s t a t e s  i n n o v a t i v e approaches to s o l v i n g l a n d  mention of c o - o r d i n a t i o n  was  Congressional  t o s e t up  social  problems f o r unique environments.  for  islands with-  constitute, essentially  capacity  There are  of c o n t r o l s should  to the  (U.S.  program to p r o v i d e  c o n t r o l s to p r o t e c t  ments o f t h e kinds  island  the  1575). The  land  laws t o p r o t e c t  introduced Nantucket  Islands  Trust  60  (U.S.  C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d , S.  Trust Act, A p r i l This was at  introduced  1 1 , 1972) .  bill  was  3 4 8 5 , N a n t u c k e t Sound  2  amended i n J u l y  to Congress  Islands  May  1973,  1972,  a third  and a f o u r t h  version  version i s ,  the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , b e i n g prepared f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n  the  94th Congress.  this  bill  follows  A brief  bill  introduced April  11, 1972,  Commission  would  town g o v e r n m e n t s  a c t to e s t a b l i s h  standards, to c o n s i d e r T r u s t owned l a n d s .  to  and  in  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t  (U.S.  Island Trusts  of the I n t e r i o r . from  on t h e i s l a n d s  into  C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d , S. 1.  t h e model  The  development to  administer  r e s p e c t the proposed T r u s t  National  however d e p a r t e d m a r k e d l y a l l land  the c o u n t y .  land f o r a c q u i s i t i o n  t o t h e model  zone  ?  and  In t h i s  administer  b e composed o f  policies  similar 1970  and  Islands.  p r o v i d e d f o r the  Commission  T r u s t , t h e m a j o r i t y ,of t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' t o  members o f t h e l o c a l  of  those a s p e c t s of the  have r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e G u l f  establishment of a thirteen-member the  of the development  i n order to i l l u m i n a t e  process which might The  description  to  bill  was  recommended  Kennedy's  bill  in i t s proposition  t h r e e broad  to  categories  3485):  Lands Forever Wild - those areas whose seenio or ecological or other values are so great that no development should be permitted on them or should ever 3  Martha's  The N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s i n c l u d e N a n t u c k e t V i n e y a r d and t h e E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s .  Island,  61  take place on them (this is to include a l l beach  elassifioation lands),  2.  Scenic Preservation Lands - those areas in which the i n t e n s i t y of development r Ji.ausEoulid hot lberincr.eas.edrovertwhdt it currently is, 3.  In the l o c a l bylaws,  Town and County Lands - those areas to which future development activity should be confined, and in which the town or country governments, as appropriate, w i l l have the authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to plan for this development. the t h i r d  category  'town p l a n n e d  these With  the f i r s t  lands,' while  towns w o u l d have t h e a u t h o r i t y t o p r e p a r e  the Commission would r e t a i n  disapprove  p l a n s and  the  category  enactment of the  of the b i l l . involvement;  n o t p r o v i d e d f o r and  d e b a t e was  sparked  passage  and  the primary  by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  to the  hbeen p u b l i c a l l y  that federal  process  not  not  Many f e l t  i s l a n d s was  e n v i r o n m e n t was  a l l development i n  legislation.  i s l a n d e r s has  a r o u n d the b i l l s  and  power t o a p p r o v e o r  frozen,, pending  Island residents objected  of the  plans  bylaws.  o f l a n d was  p r e p a r a t i o n of the b i l l .  plementation;  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l  Considerable  affairs  of  that local  l a c k of  consulted interests  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the  not w a r r a n t e d .  The  o f p r e p a r a t i o n and  debate  during were  local centred  the^methods of  o b j e c t i v e of c o n s e r v i n g  in dispute (Finkler,  local  1972).  im-  the n a t u r a l  62  However, t h e b i l l islanders. along and  d i d have a p o l a r i z i n g e f f e c t on t h e  Summer r e s i d e n t s many o f them f r o m t h e l a r g e r  the Eastern  seaboard supported  s t r o n g l y both the i n t e n t  t h e means o f t h e p r o p o s e d T r u s t .  preserving  the e x i s t i n g  and  values  scenic  to t h e i s l a n d s .  Their  i n t e r e s t s were i n  environment; d e s t r u c t i o n of the natural  would Local  cities  destroy^.-  their  reasons f o r escaping  r e s i d e n t s on t h e o t h e r  to t h e 'no-growth' tone of t h e b i l l ;  their  hand  objected  livlihoods  i n many  c a s e s d e p e n d e d on f u r t h e r g r o w t h  i n t h e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and  expansion of the t o u r i s t  T h e i r major complaints  were t h a t l o c a l  people were completely  paration of the b i l l custodianship  bypassed  and t h a t f e d e r a l z o n i n g  however  i n the pre-  amounted  to a  of the i s l a n d .  Certain zoning  trade.  objections  were made on t h e l e g a l i t y  of federal  and t h e i m p o s i t i o n a o f • t h e f r e e z e on c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  " i m p r o v e m e n t s " commencing duced to t h e S e n a t e .  on t h e ' d a y t h e l e g i s l a t i o n  Further  was  c r i t i c i s m was made on t h e v a g u e -  ness o f c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e t e x t o f t h e b i l l and  intro-  (Beatty  Munson,1972). Following  committee held cussions  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l  several  hearings  the polar opinions  a  congressional  on t h e i s l a n d s .  f o r and a g a i n s t  During  the b i l l  dis-  were  very  much i n e v i d e n c e . Several  m a j o r p o i n t s were r a i s e d d u r i n g  the course  of these d i s c u s s i o n s  and some o f t h e s e were i n c o r p o r a t e d  amendments p r e s e n t e d  t o t h e S e n a t e , J u l y 27, 1972.  into  One o f t h e  63 more i m p o r t a n t w o u l d no  c h a n g e s i n t h e amended b i l l  l o n g e r have t h e r i g h t  t h e town p l a n n e d power was prior  inclusion The  to a p p r o v e p l a n s and  t o commenting on  adoption.  Another  such  limit  amendment, w o u l d  recommend " s p e c i f i c m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d m o t o r v e h i c l e s and carriers  Islands" 1372,  27,  Congressional  c h a n g e was  the  to the  to l i m i t  the  islands.  number o f  p r i v a t e , water  Record,  S.  3 4 8 5 , Amendment  and  No.  pay  i n c l u d e d the  t a x e s as  d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be a l l o w e d  forever wild  category  be  c o n s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than  T h e r e was t h e amended b i l l .  c o u l d be  still  c o n t i n u e d ; and  a bitter  A government sponsored  M a r t h a ' s V i n e y a r d , November 1972,  July  30,  1973).  the  islands.  i n r e a c t i o n s to  t h a t 60%  total  of  on  the  t o t h e new  have a v o t e , t h e i f the  the  referendum held  indicated  m i g h t have been m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t  in scenic  t h a t emphasis would  i s l a n d & s ' . 6500 p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s were o p p o s e d r e s i d e n t s d i d not  in  r e c r e a t i o n on  division  pro-  i f privately  l a n d s ; t h a t f a m i l y ownership of lands  [Time,  Commission's ordinances  preservation  voted  in  1972).  owned; t h a t some l i m i t e d  Since seasonal  zoning  t r a n s p o r t t o t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound  t h a t T r u s t owned l a n d s w o u l d  p l a c e d on  Commission  have t h e power t o  O t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h e amended b i l l vision  and  access  ( p u b l i c and  might o t h e r w i s e  (U.S.  July  passengers  plans  important  of a s e c t i o n which would  Commission i n t h i s  air)  t h a t the  l a n d s ; i n t h e amended v e r s i o n t h e  reduced  to t h e i r  was  bill.  outcome  population  had  64  Since  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l  c o m m i t t e e s have w o r k e d d i l i g e n t l y t h e S e n a t e S u b c o m m i t t e e on P a r k s authorized  to hold hearings  posed b i l l . on  submissions  and R e c r e a t i o n  w h i c h was  and a c c e p t  submissions  attended  t h e i s l a n d s and made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t  (U.S.  bill  interested local  a number o f m e e t i n g s to i n c l u d e the  Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d  bill. the t h i r d  o f t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t t o t h e S e n a t e  Congressional  revised  to  on t h e p r o -  of the i s l a n d e r s i n the r e v i s e d  On May 3 1 , 1 9 7 3 , S e n a t o r version  citizen's  i n preparing  Kennedy and h i s s t a f f  most p r e s s i n g c l a i m s  bill*  had been c i r c u l a t e d  citizens  newspapers  4.2.2  R e c o r d , S. 1 9 2 9 , May 3 1 , 1 9 7 3 ) .  during  to a l l i s l a n d  This  o f f i c i a l s and  March 1 9 7 3 , and was p r i n t e d i n t h e  (Appendix C ) .  Commission The  new b i l l  provides  f o r the establishment  of three  c o m m i s s i o n s , one each f o r N a n t u c k e t , M a r t h a ' s V i n e y a r d and the ship  Elizabeth Islands.  i s t o be c o m p r i s e d o f l o c a l  State Representative. develop  policies  implement these land  w i t h one F e d e r a l  and one  i s to  f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d s and t o policies  of Federal  provides  people  The p u r p o s e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n  through  use p l a n , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  ordination bill  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n s ' member-  policy  the enforcement of a general  o f some p r i v a t e l a n d s , and c o -  and S t a t e a c t i v i t i e s  on t h e i s l a n d s .  g u i d e l i n e s i n some a r e a s  and i t a l s o  The  65  establishes ent  land  enforce  the three  types.  basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  The C o m m i s s i o n  regulations concerning  categories  s t a f f along  with  Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r Commission current  has t h e power land  preservation).  s t a f f f r o m t h e S t a t e and t h e  f o r technical information  and a d v i c e .  In t h i s  the Commissions a r e the " c e n t r a l  management a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e i s l a n d s t r u s t " ; of the I n t e r i o r  A paid  i s t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  v e r s i o n of the b i l l  Secretary  t o w r i t e and  u s e on t h e f i r s t two  ( f o r e v e r w i l d and s c e n i c  professional  o f use f o r d i f f e r -  no l o n g e r  the Governor or  have v e t o power  over  their  decisions. The C o m m i s s i o n s do n o t have t h e power land  from p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n  provisions  concerning  actions  As i n t h e p r e v i o u s Commissions  organizations; this  non-profit organizations  to encourage c o n s e r v a t i o n  by v o l u n t a r y  and o t h e r  are intended private action.  amended v e r s i o n o f t h e b i l l  c a n make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  on m e a s u r e s  number o f p a s s e n g e r s and v e h i c l e s t r a n s p o r t e d In a d d i t i o n , a new c l a u s e  to acquire  provides  the  to l i m i t the  to the i s l a n d s .  a statement of n a t i o n a l  p o l i c y which would prevent the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b r i d g e , causeway  or tunnel  to the i s l a n d s .  The b i l l  also provides  a mechanism  by w h i c h t h e  C o m m i s s i o n s and towns c a n , i n e f f e c t , s u b s i d i z e t h e p u r c h a s e of  l a n d f o r homes, by p e r m a n e n t  measure  i s intended  to p r o t e c t  residentsaof  the i s l a n d .  the a l l - y e a r r e s i d e n t s from  This  66  being  f o r c e d out  by  high  of p r o t e c t i o n f o r the  l a n d c o s t s and  existing  to p r o v i d e  communities.  R a t h e r t h a n making a l l b e a c h e s on as  i n the  earlier  bill,  p r i v a t e ownership  except that a right-of-passage h i g h w a t e r mark.  The  for  other  d r a f t e r s of the  vehicles.  beach a c c e s s ,  two  new  the  islands public  i s t o be  easement i s t o be  b e a c h e s were p u b l i c , i t w o u l d be b u g g i e s and  some m e a s u r e  bill  difficult  felt  continued  created  the  that i f a l l  to r e g u l a t e  However t o s a t i s f y  p u b l i c beaches are  at  dune  p u b l i c demands  t o be a c q u i r e d  on  Martha s Vi neyard . 1  Measures f o r p o l l u t i o n clarified  i n the  current  operation  of  Commissions w i t h  agencies  the  to p r o v i d e  the T r u s t  area.  water supply. operative  and  the  14  calls  pollution  section also c a l l s  be  are  called  a plan approved  to prevent  of the  f o r and by  the  Interior.  any  f o r a survey  of  works c a r r i e d  Commissions, the  carried  out  fragile  fields  appropriate  of other  to the  d e v e l o p e d by  the  comust  Governor and  t o r e s t o r e damage areas. and a g r i c u l t u r e  purposes of the A c t Commissions w i t h  government a g e n c i e s .  in  ground  out  A program f o r dune  f u r t h e r damage o f t h e s e  i n v e s t i g a t e d and  operation  Federal  In t h e m a t t e r o f e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , s i m i l a r  Secretary  i n any  co-  of waters  Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a q u a c u l t u r e and  are  f o r the  l o c a l , S t a t e and  against  h e a d l a n d e r o s i o n c o n t r o l i s t o be and  erosion control  Section  safeguards  This  efforts  conform w i t h  bill.  and  Funds a r e  the  t o be  are comade  to  67 available for this to  be  after  lands.  ( T h i s p r o v i s i o n was  critics  claimed  the  of the b i l l  i s l a n d e r s out The  restrict  of  Commissions are  hunting, fishing  t i o n , o r p u b l i c use The  also given and  on  and  or w i l d l i f e  management, a d m i n i s t r a -  new  bill  Kennedy s p o k e on  i s to place  participation  The  bill  priority  the i s l a n d s continue  s u c h u s e s must n o t j e o p r a d i z e  local  this  on  R e c r e a t i o n a l uses w i l l  o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g the environment. a heavy e m p h a s i s on  powers  " f o r reasons of p u b l i c  p r e s e r v a t i o n of unique areas  but  policies  enjoyment."  recreation.  be o f some p r i o r i t y  growth'  are  added  the a d d i t i o n a l  trapping  major i n t e n t of the  conservation  r a t h e r than  and  'slow  uses  work.)  health, public safety, fish  on  In a d d i t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l  e n c o u r a g e d on T r u s t  w o u l d put  to  purpose.  to  the  also  in planning.  places Senator  i s s u e i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  legislation:  On each (commission) there is a majority of local island people - an important factor both in terms of local knowledge being brought to bear on the problems and also in terms of enhancing the ability of a locally based institution to exercise some high degree of control over the is lands. 3  3  (U.S. Congressional R e c o r d , S. 1929) However, S e n a t o r ments a l o n e outlined  c o u l d not  i n the b i l l .  ment, Kennedy f e e l s can  Kennedy e m p h a s i z e s t h a t l o c a l  effectively Rather  than  govern-  accomplish  the o b j e c t i v e s  relying  on one  level  of  between t h e  three  levels  that co-operation  p r o d u c e t h e most d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s .  govern-  68  The b i l l then, seeks to create a new kind of partnership between the Federal State, and the local governments involved. It recognizes at the outset that most of the decisionmaking as i t relates to the future of the islands, belongs in the hands of the local people themselves. But i t also recognizes r e a l i s t i c a l l y that both the powers and the funds a v a i l a b l e at the State and Federal level are absolutely essential if the islands are to be preserved for future generations. I am convinced that only with the partnership of the type represented by the island trust b i l l can preservation and conservation e f f o r t s by successful overthe long term. One of the key lessons of the discussions over the past 18 months about these preservation and conservation methods has been a s t e a d i l y growing awareness that the town governments and county governments do not have the tools at t h e i r disposal to control, in any meaningful way, the development pressures. . . . at the same time i t has become plain that Federal l e g i s l a t i o n , to be successful, must wherever possible be f i t t e d together with whatever State and local laws are a v a i l a b l e to the people of the islands, or. may become a v a i l a b l e in the future. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e c o r d , S. 1929) 3  4.2.3  L i mi t a t i o n s The  most u n u s u a l  f e a t u r e of the b i l l  of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to a l l i n t e n t s if  and  of land  p u r p o s e s , amounts t o f e d e r a l  demonstrates  Secretary  i s required  at " f a i r market  " h a r d s h i p " due  1  zoning. or  Sec. 7 ) .  which, However/,  'scenic preser-  t o such d e s i g n a t i o n  by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n  v a l u e " ( S . 1959,  designation  by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ,  t h e owner o f l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d ' f o r e v e r w i l d  vation'  i s the  to purchase This land  the  those lands control  69  technique upheld  has  been t e r m e d  i n a U.S.  Everglades  and  federal zoning. for on  zoning  l a n d s , and  of the b i l l  The s h i p can  sell  cumvent t h i s  some  and  justification lands  border  of the p r i v a t e lands  lands f o r the purposes of federally  powers w o u l d be to note  owned  however, t h a t the  conland  constitutionally other  constitutionality  p r o v i s i o n w h e r e b y l a n d o w n e r s who their  l a n d to t h e f e d e r a l  q u e s t i o n of l e g a l i t y .  July  control  p r o v e undue  g o v e r n m e n t , may  In t h i s  case, the  w o u l d be g o v e r n m e n t  hard-  cir-  primary  acquisition.  Developments  16,  1973,  Recreation  the r e v i s e d b i l l attended  be  have not q u e s t i o n e d  Further On  the  power t o z o n e .  f o r l a n d use  4.2.4  bill  p o l i c e powers t o r e g u l a t e  H o w e v e r , where t h e r e i s l i t t l e  of the f e d e r a l  Parks  where t h e use  It is interesting  the  to a s c e r t a i n whether  t h a t t h e r e may  the v a l u e of the f e d e r a l  appropriate.  on  attempted  t h a t such  in  a n a l y s i s o f t h e Kennedy  o f p r i v a t e l a n d s where s u c h  appears u n l i k e l y  tool  legal  been  Munson, 1 9 7 2 ) .  the r e q u i s i t e  They c o n c l u d e d  federal  critics  ( B e a t t y and  exhaustive  g o v e r n m e n t had  servation. it  an  has  c o u r t i n an a n a l o g o u s c a s e  Munson., (1 972)  federal  affects  federal  N a t i o n a l Park In  Beatty  " e n c o u r a g e d z o n i n g " and  {Time,  the Senate I n t e r i o r  held hearings July  30,  on  1973).  these meetings to v o i c e t h e i r  the  Subcommittee  islands  Over 2000 opinions.  to d i s c u s s people  A l a r g e number  70  of speakers  protested  matters  objected  and  " o f f - i s l a n d e r s" to the  proposed  Included  i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n was  Brooke.  At the  r e s i d e n t s to prepare  proposals  for protective legislation Planning  Elizabeth  R e s o u r c e Management Fund" proposal  10th  at the  "certain  s u b m i t t o him,  their  f o r the  islands.  Martha's Vineyard  Fittinghoff,  was  (vineyard  printed into  request  of Senator  national policies  conservation and  asked  I s l a n d s ) h e l d a number o f m e e t i n g s on of Alex  s e t s up  of the  lands  and  a s t a t e appointed  the  Vineyard  The  Record  proposal  i n the  and  mental  co-operation. On  federal No  and  definite  December 19,  1973  state o f f i c i a l s a g r e e m e n t was  d e v e l o p m e n t on  the  islands.  participation  and  reached  except  area  enter  into  programs  The  a j o i n t m e e t i n g was  to d i s c u s s the  December declares  proposed  of c o n s e r v a t i o n  local  1973).  preservationand  the f e d e r a l government to e s t a b l i s h  a heavy e m p h a s i s on  islands;  "Martha's  agreements w i t h  places  the  proposal  c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h can  p r o t e c t i o n f o r the  on  December 2 1 ,  to the  waters"  one  a  the C o n g r e s s i o n a l Kennedy.  and  (which  i t drew up  Gazette,  essential  Edward  Kennedy  the form o f a d i s c u s s i o n paper, e n t i t l e d  The  Senator,  C o m m i s s i o n f o r Dukes C o u n t y  s i x towns on  under the d i r e c t i o n in  and  local  zoning c o n t r o l s .  c l o s e of the meetings Senator  and  encompasses the  Federal  Massachusetts  officials  The  interference in  1  proposal  intergovern-  held  Islands Trust  between bill.  t h a t c o n t r o l of  i s l a n d s must be a j o i n t f e d e r a l - s t a t e - 1 o c a l  71  effort.  A statement issued  both the S t a t e o f f i c e  for circulation  and comment" [vineyard Negotiating Washington bill  and  the meeting  of Senator Brooke  o f S e n a t o r Kennedy w o u l d revisions  after  to I s l a n d  sessions  the s p r i n g  4.2.5  December 2 1 ,  v e r s i o n of the r e v i s e d  a lengthy revision  on t h e l i k e l y  i n Boston  and  Islands Trust sometime  F e b r u a r y 22,  insights  process i s having  outcome o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n  N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s . useful  to Congress Gazette,  review  1973).  have s i n c e been h e l d  (vineyard  drafting  1974).  Comments Such  effects  o f 1974  office  residents for their  i s e x p e c t e d t o be r e - i n t r o d u c e d  during  that  the Federal  " c o n t i n u e t o work t o g e t h e r on  Gazette,  the f o u r t h  and  indicated  Some o f t h e s e c h a n g e s  f o r the d r a f t e r s  of the G u l f  A number o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s  substantial  f o r the might p r o v i d e  Islands  are summarized  legislation. below:  1.  The i n t e n t of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n changed from p r e s e r v i n g t h e i s l a n d s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n t o c o n s e r v a t i o n as t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e .  2.  A p r o v i s i o n was added t o l i m i t a c c e s s t o t h e i s l a n d s as a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g i s l a n d 'growth.'  3.  P r o v i s i o n s were added w h i c h w o u l d , perhaps i n d i r e c t l y , attempt to p r e s e r v e the i s l a n d e r s ' l i f e s t y l e . These i n c l u d e d e n c o u r a g e m e n t of a c t i v i t i e s which would p r o v i d e f o r l o c a l employment and s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f ' R e s i d e n t Home S i t e s ' t o e n s u r e t h a t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a r e not f o r c e d t o move of>f t h e  72  i s l a n d s due t o r i s i n g l a n d c o s t s . T h e s e two m e a s u r e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t the v i a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g island communities. 4. R e v i s i o n s gave some powers back t o l o c a l ©ea:l ^ g o v e r n m e n t s . For example, i n the t h i r d v e r s i o n of t h e b i l l t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o u l d o n l y r e v i e w and comment on town b y l a w s and p l a n s r a t h e r t h a n a p p r o v e o r d i s a p p r o v e them as i n earl i e r versions. ;  centred  5.  I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e T r u s t would r e q u i r e f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n between l o c a l and s e n i o r l e v e l s of government.  6.  I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l o c a l powers and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s were i n a d e q u a t e to c o n t r o l r e c r e a t i o n a l developments on t h e i s l a n d s and t h a t t h e a s s i s t a n c e of s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s was n e c e s s a r y i f l a n d s o f h i g h s c e n i c and e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s were t o be p r e s e r v e d .  The  d e b a t e on t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound  a r o u n d t h e means by w h i c h c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d  objectives  c a n be a c h i e v e d  of c o n s e r v a t i o n dispute will  be r e s o l v e d  preservation  Since  the goal  on t h e i s l a n d s i s n o t i s  sometime i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e and p r o t e c t i v e be  Housatonic River V a l l e y Trust only other  proposal  d a t e has been t o a n o n - i s l a n d  Valley  has l a r g e l y  that current differences of opinions  f o r the islands w i l l  The to  ( F i n k l e r , 1972).  of s p e c i a l values  i t appears l i k e l y  legislation  4.3  Islands  i n Connecticut.  The r i v e r  enacted.  Bill of the f e d e r a l  area,  'trust'  the Housatonic  concept  River  o r i g i n a t e s i n the Berkshire  73  Hills  o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s and r u n s t h r o u g h C o n n e c t i c u t  the Western boundary o f t h e s t a t e . Sound j u s t w e s t o f New Haven.  I t e m p t i e s i n t o Long  A bill  R i v e r V a l l e y T r u s t was i n t r o d u c e d  to create  In most r e s p e c t s , N a n t u c k e t Sound  the designated  State of  and F e d e r a l  area  R e c o r d , S. 3 6 3 3 ,  bill.  i s very  and i t s membership w o u l d  representatives.  Again,  forever w i l d , scenic Provision  ment b e g i n n i n g  preservation  i s made i n t h e b i l l  thirty  three  f o r the  development  include  town,  classifications  by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n :  lands  and town  f o ra freeze  lands.  on d e v e l o p -  days a f t e r e n a c t m e n t o f t h e l a w r a t h e r  t h a n on t h e d a t e o f i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e b i l l proposed  to the  provides  c o n t r o l over  l a n d w o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d and d e s i g n a t e d  lands  similar  The b i l l  c r e a t i o n o f a Commission t o a d m i n i s t e r in  the Housatonic  A c t , May 2 3 , 1 9 7 2 ) .  the b i l l  Islands Trust  Island  t o C o n g r e s s , May 2 3 , 1972 by  S e n a t o r Abraham R i b i c o f f ( U . S . C o n g r e s s i o n a l Housatonic R i v e r ; V a l l e y Trust  following  as d i d Kennedy's  legislation. Senator R i b i c o f f treated the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s  piece  of l e g i s l a t i o n  between l o c a l expressed stated  as a commencing p o i n t  p e o p l e and t h e v a r i o u s  ina  dialogue  l e v e l s o f government.  h i s d e s i r e f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the proposals  t h a t he w o u l d w a i t  re-introducing  until  c o n s e n s u s was r e a c h e d  He and  before  l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s w o u l d be a g r e e d  on. The speech:  f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w e r e made i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y  Time is running out on many of our great natural resources including the Housatonic River Valley. But those interested in preserving the valley, which lies on the edge of a r a p i d l y urbanizing area, cannot simply wall out a l l future development. What is needed is a vehicle to channel the i n e v i t a b l e forces of development in such a way as to protect the c u l t u r a l and natural resources without disrupting the local economy and the residents lifestyles. . . . we must begin a dialogue directed toward saving this- area before i t is polluted by uncontrolled progress. (U.S. Congressional R e c o r d , S. 3633) 1  Chapter 5  EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION FOR LAND USE CONTROL  5.1  Hawaii,  Land Use Law ( 1 9 6 1 )  5.1.1  Background The  the  first  S t a t e o f Hawaii  to  1971).  a l l land  to preserve  was  farmland  i n Hawaii  The o r i g i n a l  since only a small  is s u i t a b l e for crops.  controls called  urban,  for  the  Commission rural,  purpose o f the  Act  percentage o f the A secondary  the  1961,  State's  purpose  largest  (Appendix D). Soon a f t e r  the  s e t t o work d e f i n i n g t h e as  The l e g i s l a t i o n  t o r e s t r i c t the growth o f H o n o l u l u ,  city  zoning  under f o u r c a t e g o r i e s :  a g r i c u l t u r e and c o n s e r v a t i o n .  land area  Use Law i n  o f a Land Use C o m m i s s i o n and d i r e c t e d t h i s  classify  was  i t s land  s t a t e t o implement s t a t e - w i d e  (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , creation  passed  urban i n c l u d e d  legislation land  the c u r r e n t  75  use  was e n a c t e d ,  areas.  urban area  Areas  the  Commission  classified  plus a 'reserve'  area  76 which would Rural  accommodate t h e e s t i m a t e d need o f t e n y e a r s g r o w t h .  areas included  low d e n s i t y  non-agricultural  residential  o f c r o p and g r a z i n g  uses.  lands which  Agricultural  lands along with  categories. existing  T h e c o n s e r v a t i o n zones  under  included  c  associated  with  the other three i n 1961, a l l  the  F o r e s t and Water R e s e r v e Zones w h i c h were s t a t e - o w n e d .  Private  l a n d s were n o t i n c l u d e d  b o u n d a r i e s were r e v i s e d incorporated adopted  in this  i n 1969.  into a general  These  land  category u n t i l the classifications  use p l a n w h i c h was  were  officially  i n 1964.  5.1.2  Commi s s i o n The  nine-member c o m m i s s i o n  i s made up o f s e v e n p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s sentatives  and N a t u r a l Planning  a p p o i n t e d by t h e G o v e r n o r and two g o v e r n m e n t  ( H a w a i i Rev. S t a t . , Ch. 2 0 5 , 1 9 6 8 ) .  representatives  include the D i r e c t o r  and Economic  Development.  government  o f the Department  The c i t i z e n s  districts  o f one who i s a p p o i n t e d a t l a r g e . for services  The  repre-  o f Land  R e s o u r c e s and t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t  from each o f t h e s i x s e n a t o r i a l  elects  a r e a s were c o m p r i s e d  industry  a g r i c u l t u r e , p l u s any l a n d s n o t f a l l i n g  contained  except reimbursement  There  with  of  are appointed  the exception  i s no c o m p e n s a t i o n  f o r expenses.  The  Commission  i t s c h a i r m a n f r o m among i t s members ( B o s s e l m a n and  Callies,  1971).  77 On  the a v e r a g e ,  t h e C o m m i s s i o n meets two  a month a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s held, primarily  f o r the purpose  changes i n z o n i n g . and  one  The  staff  of c o n s i d e r i n g  i n c l u d e s one  dations. priate  Following this  executive director  P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n f o r i t s recommena public  h e a r i n g i s h e l d i n the  The to urban  uses.(Chang,  areas.  1970).  t h e a p p l i c a n t t o p r o v e why t h e a l r e a d y zoned  be r e v i e w e d  In i t s d e c i s i o n s  urban  dicate future  have been Commission  t h a t the d i s t r i c t  of land  trends i n land  existing on  take place  area.  o f c o n s u l t a n t s was overview  the  the development cannot  every f i v e y e a r s ; the f i r s t  a comprehensive  1964  t h e C o m m i s s i o n p u t s t h e onus  statute requires  A group  votes  motion.  immediately a d j a c e n t to  In t h e s e c a s e s  The  the  m a j o r i t y of z o n i n g changes s i n c e  favoured rezoning areas  1969).  appro-  have been h e a r d , t h e C o m m i s s i o n  the m a t t e r ; s i x out of n i n e votes c a r r i e s  1969.  petitions for  County. When a l l v i e w s  within  are  f o r a z o n i n g or boundary change i s r e f e r r e d  to t h e a p p r o p r i a t e C o u n t y  urban  Meetings  Administration A petition  has  the s t a t e .  planner.  5.1.3  on  around  to f o u r times  hired use  revision at this  boundaries occurred in time to p r o v i d e  i n t h e s t a t e and  requirements  ( E c k b o , et  to i n al.  3  78 In 1970 the L e g i s l a t u r e to the Land Use Law.  The f i r s t  passed two major amendments  amendment made p r o v i s i o n f o r  the g r a n t i n g of permits by the Commission, to allow "unusual and reasonable uses" w i t h i n a g r i c u l t u r a l districts, Rev.  other than those uses already  Stat.,  be held before the approval  and r u r a l  specified  C. 205 (1968) as amended (1970)). of such p e r m i t s .  certain  (Hawaii  Hearings must A second amendment  d e a l t with s h o r e l i n e p r o t e c t i o n and empowered the Commission to make r e g u l a t i o n s  f o r setbacks of between twenty and f o r t y  f e e t from the high water mark.  A number of uses are  prohibited  in the setback area and these i n c l u d e the removal of sand and r o c k , and any c o n s t r u c t i o n "not necessary f o r s a f e t y p r o t e c t i o n of p r o p e r t y . "  The r e g u l a t i o n s  and the  are to be administered  and enforced by the planning departments of each county.  5.1.4  Legi s l a t i ve Limi t a t i o n s The l e g i s l a t i o n  all  requires  the Commission to  lands in the State into one of four c a t e g o r i e s  d e c i s i o n s on a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r land use changes. is given no c l e a r  directive  on the p r i o r i t y  land uses and in a d d i t i o n , i s  of the four  not s p e c i f i c a l l y  The Commission has, to d a t e ,  and to make  The Commission  directed  e s t a b l i s h land use p o l i c y which would give p r i o r i t y of g o a l s .  classify  been weak  major to  to a set in  its  development of p o l i c y and consequently has not taken a hard in the p r e s e r v a t i o n of farmland (Chang, 1970).  line  Chang recommends  79 several  alternative  remedies, one being to i n s e r t  i n t o the law proh.ibitng the conversion of prime land to other  a statement  agricultural  uses.  The minimum l o t  s i z e (1 acre)  has been c r i t i c i z e d as being too small  in a g r i c u l t u r a l (Eckbo et al.  3  districts  1969).  Recommendations have been made to i n c r e a s e the minimum l o t s i z e in these zones to f i v e By s t a t u t e ,  acres.  land use w i t h i n  the Conservation  i s r e g u l a t e d by the Department of Land and Natural and the Counties e x e r c i s e no c o n t r o l  districts  Resources  in these a r e a s .  This  p r o v i s i o n has created a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of f r i c t i o n local  planning agencies and the State agency  Recommendations have been made to allow  (Eckbo et al.  3  and r u r a l  important.  conservation zones f o r  that these d i s t r i c t s  However,  need to be f u r t h e r  is  some  critics  p r o t e c t e d by the  plans to i n c l u d e subzones  to s p e c i f i c resource c a t e g o r i e s There i s a s t a t u t o r y  (Eckbo et al.  requirement f o r p u b l i c  i n the event of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d i s t r i c t However,  these areas  the p r o t e c t i o n of water-  etc.  p r e p a r a t i o n of comprehensive general relating  land  The l e g i s l a t i o n suggests that there should be  sheds, s c e n i c and h i s t o r i c a a r e a s feel  districts  comprise 45% of the  area of Hawaii and consequently zoning w i t h i n  areas w i t h i n  county-approved  1969).  The Conservation d i s t r i c t s  quite  (Chang, 1970).  special  permits such as e x i s t in the a g r i c u l t u r e  between  3  1969). hearings  boundary changes.  hearings are not r e q u i r e d when an a p p l i c a t i o n i s made  80  f o r a p e r m i t t e d use i n a c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t .  The  Eckbo  r e p o r t (1969) notes t h a t the Department of Land and N a t u r a l Resources has sometimes a l l o w e d " n o n - p e r m i t t e d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ; the r e p o r t suggests  uses"  without  t h a t the p u b l i c  should  be heard b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s are made on uses p e r m i t t e d i n c o n servation  districts. The r e v i s e d General  " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n procedures  P l a n f o r the S t a t e recommended  i n the Land Use Law should be  c l a r i f i e d and areas of c o n f l i c t between S t a t e and County respo sibilities  eliminated" (Hawaii,  1967).  Both the General  R e v i s i o n Program and the Eckbo r e p o r t recommended t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n should p r o v i d e  for greater  County i n land use c o n t r o l  programs  Plan  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the  (Chang,  1970).  A study requested by the s t a t e Senate and completed 1970 by the L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Bureau made a number of recommendations f o r l e g i s l a t i v e changes i n the Land Use Law (Chang,  1970).  The f o u r major recommendations were:  1.  i n c r e a s e membership of t h e Land Use C o m m i s s i o n ( a l t e r n a t i v e s r a n g e from e l e v e n t t o t w e n t y p l u s members)  2.  r e t a i n prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land in a g r i c u l t u r a l use (and c l a r i f y g o a l priorities)  3.  adopt subzone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t s (and r e d u c e t h e u r b a n - t y p e uses c u r r e n t l y p e r m i t t e d in t h i s district)  4.  a d o p t t h e c o n c e p t of i n c r e m e n t a l z o n i n g by s t a t u t e t o f o r c e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h o r i g i n a l development plans ( i . e . approve z o n i n g c h a n g e s f o r each d e v e l o p m e n t i ncrementa M y )  81  In a d d i t i o n , the author of t h i s r e p o r t , q u e s t i o n e d the u s e f u l n e s s of r u r a l  Chang,  d i s t r i c t d e s i g n a t i o n s on the  argument t h a t these d i s t r i c t s appear to be e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l or c o n s e r v a t i o n and so c o u l d be r e c l a s s i f i e d to one or other category.  the  A f i n a l s u g g e s t i o n by Chang was t h a t S t a t e  agencies improve the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of data r e l a t i n g to l a n d u s e .  5.1.5  Comments One of the most common c r i t i c i s m s of the Hawaiian Land  Use Commission i s the time r e q u i r e d to process r e z o n i n g  appli-  c a t i o n ; t h i s v a r i e s from f o u r and a h a l f months to one y e a r (Bosseiman and C a l l i e s , 1971).  T h i s i s due, at l e a s t i n  part,  to the extremely small s t a f f and the low budget of the Commission. The Commission has r e c e n t l y  begun to take an " i n c r e -  mental approach" to approving r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the recommendation of the L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Bureau 1970).  The Commission g r a n t s o n l y a small p o r t i o n of  (Chang, the  r e z o n i n g at a time i n o r d e r to ensure t h a t the d e v e l o p e r heavily  invests  i n the i n i t i a l phases which u s u a l l y i n c l u d e i n s t a l l a t i o n  of the s e r v i c e s f o r the p r o j e c t .  In o r d e r to r e c e i v e the  rest  of the r e z o n i n g the developer must c a r r y out h i s scheme i n the o r i g i n a l  concept.  by d e v e l o p e r s ,  it  Although t h i s approach has been c r i t i c i z e d  i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to p r o v i d e an i n n o -  v a t i v e mechanism to assure compliance to the o r i g i n a l , proposal  (Eckbo, 1969; Chang, 1 9 7 0 ) .  approved  82  The five year review of zoning boundaries in 1969 drew some c r i t i c i s m that inadequate public notice was given by the Commission (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971).  In some cases  l i t i g a t i o n was i n i t i a t e d against the Commission and the Commission has subsequently considered several appeals on the boundary changes. One of the major weaknesses in the administration of the Act has been the lack of specified procedure and resources for enforcement.  The statute specifies that the County is  responsible for enforcing the law but the Commission has neither the staff nor the time to ensure that this is being done. Charges of c o n f l i c t of interest were levied against some Commission members during the 1970 state election campaign. The resulting publicity damaged the reputation of the Commission (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971, Meckler, 1973). No doubt the most serious weakness of the Commission has been i t s i n a b i l i t y to draw up clearly specified policy guidelines for future land use in the State. On the whole the Land Use Commission appears to have met with some success considering the limited resources has been provided with.  it  There is general agreement that there  has been increased co-ordination between state agencies where i t has been necessary to receive the approval of the Land Use Commission (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971).  Local administra-  tions, although often c r i t i c a l of the Commission, conceded that  83 they r e l y local  on t h e C o m m i s s i o n and t h e Land Use Law t o w i t h s t a n d  political  pressures.  B o s s e l m a n and C a l l i e s the of  ( 1 9 7 1 ) i n an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f  H a w a i i a n Land Use Law i d e n t i f y existing  conclusions  tax p o l i c i e s  land  use d e s i g n a t i o n s .  they repeat the o p i n i o n of the Counsel  County C o r p o r a t i o n planning  with  a need f o r t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n  that  In t h e i r  of the Hawaii  " t h e C o m m i s s i o n needs b e t t e r  articulated  s t a n d a r d s and f e w e r ad hoc d e c i s i o n s . A s e r i e s o f s e m i n a r s s p o n s o r e d by t h e G e o r g i a  Institute  r  o f T e c h n o l o g y and h e l d state  planning  1972).  between 1967 and 1 9 7 1 , e x a m i n e d  programs i n f i f t y  American s t a t e s  official  (Catanese,  The p r o g r a m s were a n a l y z e d f o r n i n e e l e m e n t s on t h e  b a s i s o f f o u r methods o f a n a l y s i s . EIements:  Methods:  I. 2. 3. 4.  state development plan functional planning co-ordination functional regional co-ordination technical assistance  5.  information  6. 7. 8. 9.  budget regulatory controls research capacity capacity for local planning  I.  analysis  of  etc. of the a g e n c i es 2.  .3.  the  interests state  analysis official  support  publications,  official  opinion survey of o f f i c i a l s outside  in 4.  system  plans  planning  elected and appointed the planning agencies  expressed planning  state  by  chief  planners  agencies  of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of state planning agency  each  84 For t h e n i n e elements the S t a t e s c o r e d  'significant'  measure o f t h e f o u r m e t h o d s .  of Hawaii's  planning  on e a c h , b a s e d on an  aggregate  In t h i s  received  survey  the h i g h e s t e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l s t a t e p l a n n i n g Other  of  the General  Plan f o r Hawaii  tions The  of the county  officials  showed  voting records.  cultural  5.2  approvals  5.2.1  by t h e C o m m i s s i o n  "bias to t h e i r  also claimed home  island"  opinion that the  i t s o b j e c t i v e of preserving  land during i t s twelve years  Vermonti E n v i r o n m e n t a l  staff  t h e recommenda-  The s t u d y  I t was M e c k l e r ' s  C o m m i s s i o n has n o t a c h i e v e d  criticized  o n l y 76 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e .  had been recommended.  t h a t seven commissioners  York  t h e recommendations o f t h e i r  d i f f e r e n c e s represented mostly  their  The s t u d y  p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e and f o r f o l l o w i n g  where r e f u s a l s  in  A student  and t h e v o t i n g r e c o r d s  (Meckler, 1973).  the Commission f o r f o l l o w i n g 77  programs.  have been more c r i t i c a l .  t h e Land Use C o m m i s s i o n  only  Hawaii  o u t i n 1 9 7 3 a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New  study c a r r i e d analyzed  observers  program,  ControUlaaw  agri-  of operation.  (f97>0)  Background In  t h e p a s t d e c a d e Vermont has r e c e i v e d a l a r g e  of  v a c a t i o n home b u y e r s  In  response  to t h i s  the a u t h o r i t y  and s k i - r e s o r t  developers  (Mosena,  i n 1967  extended  pressure, legislators  of local  governments t o c o n t r o l  influx 1973).  t h e use o f l a n d  85  under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n zoning  and  Under t h e  planning  by  commissions  Vermont A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  were g i v e n b r o a d a u t h o r i t y statutory  increasing  area of  task  continued  as  and  increase  at a f a s t  In  1969  Governor created  agencies  within  360,  1971).  their  1967).  inadequate  to  r e s i d e n t i a l lands  rate. a special  Commission  t o w h i c h b o t h l e g i s l a t o r s and  on  citizens  appointed. The  C o m m i s s i o n was  to submit a r e p o r t the  state  power a p p e a r e d t o be  to  Control  No.  of  Callies,  Procedures Act,  demands f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  Environmental were  ( B o s s e l m a n and  competence (Vermont A c t  the  flexibility  to adopt r e g u l a t i o n s  However, t h i s b r o a d e n i n g o f the  the  to t h e  instructed  Legislature.  C o m m i s s i o n recommended t h a t  subdivision  r e g u l a t i o n s " c o n t r o l ! i hg  In i t s f i n a l planning with protection.  the  to  hold  As  an  hearings  interim  measure  Health Department w a t e r and  sewage  adopt disposal.  report  i t proposed a s t a t e - w i d e system of  the  of  The  primary o b j e c t i v e Commission s t a t e d  ensuring  in i t s  A basic goal . . . should be the preparation of a comprehensive land use plan for the State of Vermont to be undertaken as soon as practical and completed within a period of one year. Secondly such a plan and its subsequent administration should be the responsibility of an effective administrative unit clearly charged with the respons i b i l i t y of protecting the environment. . . .  (Vermont,  1970)  land  environmental  report:  3  and  use  86  In 1970 t h e s t a t e  legislature  known as t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l recommendations Ch.  a d o p t e d A c t No. 250  Law w h i c h  made by t h e G o v e r n o r ' s  embodied t h e m a j o r  Commission  ( A c t No. 2 5 0 ,  1 5 1 5 , 1970) ( A p p e n d i x E ) .  5.2.2  Commission The  mental which  A c t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an E n v i r o n -  B o a r d a p p o i n t e d by t h e G o v e r n o r . s e r v e p a r t - t i m e on a p e r diem  y e a r terms  and t h e i r  s e r v e s two y e a r s .  appointments  Board  are s t a g g e r e d ; the chairman  including  both development  i s an i n d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a t o r y  body  t h e Agency o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n w h i c h  new u m b r e l l a agency functions  and  f o rstaff  and b u d g e t  purposes  located isa  but f o r other  i s independent. The  Board  1.  a judgement development  2.  a planning a statewide  function in the approval comprehensive land use  (Bosselman  and C a l l i e s ,  The having  Members s e r v e f o u r  interests.  The within  basis.  a r e n i n e members  To d a t e t h e members have been c h o s e n t o  represent a variety of interests conservation  There  has two m a j o r  legislation  t h r e e members e a c h .  functions:  function in the and subdivision  also  created  issuing of permits, of plan  1971). nine D i s t r i c t  Commissions  The members s e r v e on a p e r diem  b a s i s f o r a two y e a r t e r m and a r e a p p o i n t e d f r o m each  district  87  by t h e g o v e r n o r . or  Members s e r v e on t h e a v e r a g e ,  one day b i w e e k l y .  active  The c h a i r m a n s e r v e s one y e a r  D i s t r i c t , works v i r t u a l l y  5.2.3  one day a week  full  a n d , i n an  time.  Admi n i s t r a t i on The m a j o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t  Commissions  i s the i s s u a n c e o f development permits  commercial  and i n d u s t r i a l  residential  developments  permits  ( o v e r 10 a c r e s ) and  ( o v e r 10 a c r e s o r 10 l o t s ) .  In a d d i t i o n  a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d f o r any d e v e l o p m e n t by m u n i c i p a l o r  state agencies of  developments  f o r both  and d e v e l o p m e n t s o f any t y p e a b o v e an e l e v a t i o n  2500 f e e t a b o v e s e a l e v e l . The  for  District  Commissions  permits, i fa request  and r e g i o n a l  i s made by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , m u n i c i p a l  p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , any s t a t e a g e n c i e s  p r o p e r t y owners. statutory  h o l d h e a r i n g s on a p p l i c a t i o n s  right  These  same i n d i v i d u a l s  or a d j o i n i n g  and g r o u p s have t h e  t o appear b e f o r e a Commission  at the public  hearing. The  process  f o r issuance of a permit  i s b r i e f l y de-  scribed  as f o l l o w s , b a s e d on t h e . s t u d y made by B o s s e l m a n and  Callies  (1971):  tion  and s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e  who a c c e p t s of  The a p p l i c a n t f i l e s  may r e q u e s t  copies of the a p p l i c a -  with the regional  them f o r t h e D i s t r i c t  the a p p l i c a t i o n  five  Commission.  i s a l s o g i v e n and a t t h i s  permission  t o be h e a r d .  co-ordinator Public notice  time  property  owners  Two c o p i e s a r e f o r w a r d e d  88  to the Environmental Agency  B o a r d , one o f w h i c h i s p a s s e d on t o t h e  250 R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e w h i c h i s a s p e c i a l  body t o c o - o r d i n a t e s t a t e sent to the l o c a l  review of permits.  'environmental  i n s p e c t i o n w h i c h he r e p o r t s party necessitates  processed mental  makes an  (so f a r h e a r i n g s  as a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y ) .  by t h e P r o t e c t i o n  Division  onsite  A c h a l l e n g e by any  a hearing which i s normally  t w e n t y d a y s o f an a p p l i c a t i o n on a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s  A n o t h e r copy i s  a d v i s o r ' who  to the S t a t e .  interdepartmental  held  within  have been  held  Applications  o f t h e Agency o f  are  Environ-  Conservation which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r seeing t h a t a l l  a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t e departments review the a p p l i c a t i o n s . ing  this  its  own  review the D i v i s i o n position  s u m m a r i z e s a l l comments, p r e p a r e s  p a p e r and s u b m i t s b o t h documents  250 R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e .  Follow-  The f i n a l  Agency  presented at the p u b l i c  hearing.  recommend a fit a t d e n i a l  or approval  t o . t h e Agency  250 p o s i t i o n  paper i s  The p a p e r g e n e r a l l y does n o t  of c o n d i t i o n s which the s t a t e f e e l s  but r a t h e r should  lists  a number  be i m p o s e d upon  the development. Before a D i s t r i c t must f i n d  C o m m i s s i o n may  grant a permit, i t  t h a t the development: 1.  Will not poIlution.  result  in  undue  water  or a i r  2.  Does have s u f f i c i e n t water available for the reasonably foreseeable needs of the subdivision or development.  3.  Will not cause an an e x i s t i n g water utilized.  unreasonable burden supply i f one i s to  on be  89  4.  Will not cause unreasonable soil erosion or reduction in the capacity of the land to hold water so that a dangerous or unhealthy condition may r e s u l t .  5.  Will not cause unreasonable highway gestion or unsafe conditions with to use of the highways e x i s t i n g or proposed.  6.  Will not cause an unreasonable the a b i l i t y of a municipality educational services.  7.  Will not place an unreasonable burden on the a b i l i t y of the local government to provide governmental services.  8.  Will not have an undue adverse effect the scenic or natural beauty of the  9.  Is in conformance development plan capability plan.  with land  3  10.  Is in conformance local or regional  The  burden  5 through In  burden on to provide  a duly adopted use plan or land  with any duly plan. ( A c t No. 250, S.  adopted 6086)  10, and  on any o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s f o r  8.  making  i t s decision  the Commission  evidence p r e s e n t e d , c o n f o r m i t y of the a p p l i c a t i o n regional Section  p l a n s , and  the ten s t a t u t o r y g u i d e l i n e s  6086 o f t h e Law.  have a l s o  included  on area.  o f p r o o f i s on t h e a p p l i c a n t f o r c r i t e r i a  numbered 1 t o 4, 9, and criteria  conrespect  In t h e i r  aesthetic,  decisions  historical  and  the  c o n s i d e r e d the to l o c a l  and  s e t out i n Commissions  ecological  consi derations. The for  Envioronmental Board  d e c i s i o n s made a t t h e D i s t r i c t  s e r v e s as t h e body o f a p p e a l level.  Only the  applicant,  90 a s t a t e agency o r t h e r e g i o n a l can  appeal  such a d e c i s i o n .  Supreme C o u r t  or municipal  Further  planning  appeal  ( s e e C h a r t 1 f o r a summary  commissions  may be made t o t h e  of the permit  review  system).  5.2.4  P l a n n i ng It  i s also the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Board t o adopt t h r e e capability  state plans.  of the Environmental  The f i r s t  arid d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n w h i c h w i l l  describe  use  of the land  the  l a n d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t and use b a s e d on e c o l o g i c a l  tions" and  development plan  a co-ordinated,  as w e l l  and economy  ( A c t No. 250 , S. 604.2). on  the c a p a b i l i t y  of present  and d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . land  capability  development  being  safety,  of the i n h a b i t a n t s ,  i n the process of development"  The t h i r d p l a n  and p r o j e c t e d  considera-  promote t h e h e a l t h ,  c o n v e n i e n c e , p r o s p e r i t y and w e l l as e f f i c i e n c y  the present  p u r p o s e o f " g u i d i n g and  e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c  . . . best  land  the c a p a b i l i t y of  The s e c o n d , t h e l a n d  has t h e g e n e r a l  the s t a t e , which w i l l  order,  i n broad c a t e g o r i e s  ( A c t No. 2 5 0 , S. 6 0 4 1 ) .  accomplishing of  and d e f i n e  i s an " i n t e r i m  i s a land  use p l a n  I t i s to contain  based a map  uses i n t h e s t a t e and i s t o be  i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e e n a c t m e n t o f s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and z o n i n g controlls  at the local  level.  On J u l y 1, 1973 amendments Law were made w h i c h capability plan  plan  included  to the"Environmental  t h e s o f f i ei'al c a d o p t j l o n t o f rtbe  as s t a t e p o l i c y .  i s t o be a d o p t e d i n 1 9 7 4 .  The t h i r d  Control land'-  p l a n , t h e l a n d use  The i n t e r i m l a n d  capability  91  CHART 1 STRUCTURE  OF T H E VERMONT E N V I R O N M E N T A L  (not a l l  PROTECTION  SYSTEM  inclusive)  Partte» to C t f t r i c t Concision Proceedings  ACT  250 REVIEW  PROCESS  •  LOCAL  REVIEW  STRUCTURE OF TILE VERMONT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SYSTEM  I.  TheState  Review  Process  III.  T h i s i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e oi p o r n i t s a n d l i c e n s e s r e q u i r e d i n rr.ost s l a v e s . With increases i n developmental p r e s s u r e , they have responded w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s . The s t a t e i s b e i n g r e o r g a n i z e d i n c a b i n e t level s u p e r a g e n c i e s w h i c h n r o u p do pa r t n e n t s f j n c t t . o r . 3 l l y . While n a t u r a l resources are g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e A g e n c y o f Env trc:\r cn t a 1 Cor. se c va t t o n , n o t e t h a t o t h e r A g e n c i e s have d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to environmental concerns. II.  Act  250 R e v i e w  process  W h i l e t h i s i s a c r e a t u r e o f the s t a t e government, i t i s t h e A g e n c y 2S0 Co::rr.itt.ee t h a t p r o v i a c u a s t a t e review l i a i s o n . The d i s t r i c t c m n i s s i o n is a quasil o c a l b o d y t h a t has the c a p a c i t y t o d e a l w i t h a l l i n t e r ested l o c a l parties.  SOURCE:  LocaI  Review  PROCESS (not  a l l  inclusive)  process  In ir-ost coiTununi t i c s t h i s i s weak o r n o n e x i s t e n t . Where i t e x i s t s i t c a n be a s p o w e r f u l a s t h e d i s t r i c t corcmiss i o n . T h u s , w h i l e t h e d i s t r i c t c o m s s i o n may Open t h e e y e s or" q u i e s c e n t I oca I p l a n n e r s , a s o p h i s t i cated l o c a l review process w i l l probablyjcperate independently. I t is not u n u s u a l t o r l o c a l p e o p l e t o d i s approve p r o j e c t s approved by l o c a l d i s t r i c t , cornmissions. IV.  The Regional  planning  Cotsmi3sion  T h i s c o r r j n i s s i o n s i t s b e t w e e n l o c a l , 250, a n d atate plans and regulations. The 253 l e g i s l a t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y bypassed i t . Although c o n f u s i n g l y s i m i l a r i n narr.e, the d i s t r i c t CCT-TISS i o n a n d t h e r e g i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n dir't'erent j u r i s d i c t i o n s , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y not co-ex t e n s i v e , ana e x e r c i s e very d i f ferent functions. However, t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n i s o t t h e s t a t u t o r y c r i t e r i a w h i c h m u s t be met tot a n A c t 250 perni t.  F. B o s s e l m a n , D. C a l l i e s , The Land Use Control, 1971.  Quiet  Revolution  in  92 p l a n was  i n e f f e c t between 1971  and  National  Affairs  1973).  I n c . , J u n e 15,  Although  the  Environmental  authority  to approve the  executive  f u n c t i o n of the Governor  A State  Planning  and  chairman of the  the  supervise forces the  the  and  staffs.  with  remains  the  The  the  an  Callies,  1971).  cabinet,  Board has.been c r e a t e d  to  In a d d i t i o n , r e g i o n a l  task  to c o - o r d i n a t e  planning  State  Plan  acitivites  Steering  r e g i o n a l t a s k f o r c e s and  at  Committee  carries  out  preparation.  to the  short  time t h i s  been i n o p e r a t i o n , w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e from o p e r a t i n g  limitations  by  Callies  B o s s e l m a n and  o f the  s t r u c t u r e are  legislation  i n the  present  are  d e v e l o p m e n t s by  farming  related activities,  existed  prior  definition  of  and  has  difficult  to  have been  noted  interviews  planning  1  with  process.  scope of development c o n t r o l a r i s e s  number o f e x e m p t i o n s a l l o w e d  among t h e s e  program  i t s 'newness.  (1971) a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g  a number o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e A limitation  state planning  p r o b l e m s w h i c h stem f r o m  However, s e v e r a l  from the  of  Legislative Limitations Due  separate  i s vested  ( B o s s e l m a n and  Environmental  regional levels.  r e c e i v e s r e p o r t s from  5.2.4  (Bureau  C o m m i t t e e composed o f t h e G o v e r n o r , h i s  state planning  t h e work o f p l a n  Board  1973  state plans, planning  have been c r e a t e d  local  J u l y 1,  by  the A c t .  public u t i l i t i e s ,  Notable f o r e s t r y and  developments having  to enactment of the  legislation.  The  " s u b d i v i s i o n s " tends to encourage the  plans  which  statutory development  93 of  l a r g e l o t s over ten a c r e s ; such developments  harm t h e e n v i r o n m e n t as much as s m a l l e r There sponsibilities planning retain  between  most o f t h e c o n t r o l The  responsibility provision  district  l o t subdivisions.  degree of s e p a r a t i o n  planning  of r e -  committees  and  departments  do n o t have any  statutory  i n p u t to these plans a l t h o u g h there  a p p e a r t o be v a r y i n g  perceptions  between  a r e i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e law and b o t h t h e t h e d e v e l o p e r s ( B o s s e l m a n and  Callies,  1971).  'flexible  establishing  development  p o l i c y , w h i l e the l a t t e r  zoning.  v i e w o f s t a t e p l a n s as z o n i n g r a t h e r t h a n  The  instruments'  v i e w them as  local  has  built  approval.  Environmental Control  with a f a i r  The  district  conditions  flexibility.  and  A c t o f Vermont a p p e a r s t o  degree of i n i t i a l  u n d e s i r a b l e development (1971).  policy  Comments The  have met  The  to a s s i s t i n  plans accounts f o r the c o m p l i c a t e d procedure which their  the  Commission  f o r m e r v i e w t h e p l a n s as  5.2.5  land  f o r them to make comments.  p l a n n e r s who  up a r o u n d  state  over the p r e p a r a t i o n of s t a t e  commissions  to provide  There  members and  potentially  t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l B o a r d and t h e  p r o c e s s as t h e s t a t e  use p l a n s .  is  is a substantial  could  success i n c o n t r o l l i n g  i n the o p i n i o n of Bosselman  commissions  have a d j u s t e d  t h u s seem t o o f f e r  Development  decision  and  refusal  of  p r o p o s a l s can a l s o be o p p o s e d  commissions, r e g a r d l e s s o f the d i s t r i c t  Callies  procedures to  a wide degree  planning  their  and  by  local  commission's  can be recommended t o t h e  local  94 council the  which provides  an a d d i t i o n a l measure o f c o n t r o l .  o p i n i o n o f B o s s e l m a n and C a l l i e s  are a p p l y i n g they  protection."  state-wide  interest  commissions  d e c i s i o n s and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e term  "environ-  The o b j e c t i v e o f p r o t e c t i n g a r e a s o f i s beginning  r u l e enforcement proceedings  t o be f u l f i l l e d .  As a g e n e r a l  have been s u c c e s s f u l and a s e r i o u s  a p p r o a c h t o e n f o r c e m e n t has been t a k e n deterred  district  broad p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s to t h e i r  a r e t a k i n g an e x p a n s i v e  mental  (1971),  In  w h i c h has no d o u b t  many p o t e n t i a l r u l e - b r e a k e r s . The  A c t has p r o v i d e d  of  local  plans  is  one c r i t e r i o n  a strong  an i m p e t u s f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  s i n c e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a town o r r e g i o n a l f o r approval  tradition  of l o c a l  of a p p l i c a t i o n s .  New E n g l a n d .  The A c t and t h e c u r r e n t  it  have a p p e a r e d  to ensure l o c a l  state-wide  Vermont has had  g o v e r n m e n t as have many o t h e r  in  protecting  plan  goals.  planning  program  c o n t r o l over planning  Inter-agency  areas under  while  c o - o r d i n a t i o n has  been e f f e c t e d by t h e A g e n c y 250 R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e as w e l l as theEnvironmental replaced  Board.  by an o r d e r l y s y s t e m o f p e r m i t  o n l y when t h e r e  i s conformity  developed c r i t e r i a in  local  The  ensuring  local  planning  Control  plans  and i n n o v a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n  and s t a t e -  i t s short  period  A c t a p p e a r s t o be protection while at  participation  Vermont l a w i s o f t e n c i t e d  i s being -  a p p l i c a t i o n s approved  Despite  i t s * o b j e c t i v e s of environmental  same t i m e ,  portant  with  f o r development.  o p e r a t i o n , the Environmental  achieving the  Ad h o c , p i e c e m e a l  i n planning.  as an e x a m p l e o f i m -  i n t h e area  of  environmental  95  protection of  one  and  land  use c o n t r o l  of the i n n o v a t i v e  p r o v i s i o n which  requires  the  will  in  development  (Haskell,  features  i s the  1973). 'burden  An  example  of p r o o f  the a p p l i c a n t to submit p r o o f  conform  t o a number o f c r i t e r i a  that  specified  the A c t . The  fairness  and  long  r a n g e s u c c e s s o f t h e law w i l l  efficiency  of the permit p r o c e s s i n g  on t h e v a l u e o f t h e c a p a b i l i t y s e r v e as s t a t e activity  policy  which e f f e c t  p l a n s and  to guide d e c i s i o n s the  environment.  the land  depend on system,  the  and  use p l a n  i n those realms of  to  96  5.3  O n t a r i o , Niagara 5.3.1  primary  the N i a g a r a  spread  concern  of Southern Ontario  Peninsula  from N i a g a r a in this  quarries  along Oh  and  Falls  along  to the  Bruce P e n i n s u l a  d e v e l o p m e n t was  the  the  recreation  March 10,  area  commissioned strategies  1967  f o r the  the Premier  people  to c a r r y out  H i s r e p o r t w h i c h was  the  submitted  study  i t s entire  study  L.O.  w h i c h was  runs  Georgian of p i t s  q u a r r i e s , and  governments  Bay. and  be  Robarts Niagara  l e n g t h as a Gertler  was  on  f o r the  area.  to the government June  1968,  p r o g r a m f o r t h e a r e a , an  joint  funding  ( G e r t l e r , 1968).  mended t h a t 55,000 a c r e s  of the  to focus  policy  w i d e p a r k s y s t e m , r e g u l a t i o n s f o r l a n d use  with by  The  specific  provincial  area-  controls and  r e p o r t a l s o recom-  brought under complete c o n t r o l  a c q u i s i t i o n , t h a t a f u r t h e r 35,000 a c r e s  be a c q u i r e d  by  selectively  t h a t 300,000 come u n d e r r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l . The  late  farmlands  of O n t a r i o , John  of O n t a r i o .  proposed a comprehensive p l a n n i n g  municipal  and  proliferation  to implement a c o n s e r v a t i o n  and  the  escarpment.  Escarpment w i t h a view to p r e s e r v i n g  pits  Act  action  the escarpment which  announced t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a w i d e r a n g i n g  and  was  of u r b a n - l i k e development throughout the r i c h  Included  over  Development  which l e a d to l e g i s l a t i v e  Escarpment area  of the Niagara north  and  Background The  in  Escarpment P l a n n i n g  1969  r e p o r t was  not  introduced  ( L e g i s l a t u r e of O n t a r i o  to the  Legislature until  D e b a t e s , June ! 3  S  1973).  97 During  January  1968  to October  a c r e s o f l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y On ascertain for  May  1, 1972  the o v e r a l l  t h e a r e a and  planning 1972,  1972,  the P r o v i n c e bought  o f t h e e s c a r p m e n t f o r $6.8  t h e g o v e r n m e n t s e t up  g o a l s and  o b j e c t i v e s of government  This r e p o r t which  was  completed  w e r e embodied i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s t a t e m e n t  mental  Escarpment which  as p o l i c y  the Niagara  while seeking environment"  the Niagara  1973.  129,  E s c a r p m e n t as a c o n t i n u o u s  The  approximately  5.3.2  and  1973).  its vicinity"  L e g i s l a t u r e J u n e 4,  1973  was and  E s c a r p m e n t P l a n n i n g and  (Appendix  2,000 s q u a r e  with that  F).  The  development of i n t r o d u c e d to  was  passed  June  Development A c t ,  area covered  by t h e A c t i s  miles.  Commi s s i on The  seventeen  funda-  n a t u r a l environment  t o " p r o v i d e f o r p l a n n i n g and  E s c a r p m e n t and  1973)  the  by t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e G o v e r n m e n t i s " t o m a i n -  ( O n t a r i o , Niagara  Bill  r e l e a s e d J u n e 4,  ( O n t a r i o , June  the P r o v i n c i a l  which  o f p o l i c y on  t o accommodate demands c o m p a t i b l e  A bill  22  December  g o a l f o r t h e a r e a , recommended by t h e t a s k f o r c e  accepted tain  was  policy  appropriate  c o n t a i n e d a number o f p r o p o s a l s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f  Niagara  million.  a task f o r c e to  t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r an  program.  19,000  legislation  calls  member C o m m i s s i o n .  Lieutenant-Governor  f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a  The  i n C o u n c i l and  members a r e a p p o i n t e d i n c l u d e e i g h t who  by  are to  the be  98 representative from a l i s t regions  o f t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e and e i g h t  o f n o m i n e e s f r o m e a c h o f t h e e i g h t c o u n t i e s and  w i t h i n the planning  neration  area.  The t e r m o f o f f i c e  and remu-  a r e t o be e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r .  chairman i s appointed  the p u b l i c .  The h i r i n g  of s t a f f i s  t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n b u t t h e engagement o f  professional  and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  on a c o n s u l t a n t  be a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E c o n o m i c s and A f f a i r s who i s r e s p o n s i b l e  basis  f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e A c t . The  i s d i r e c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t two a d v i s o r y  mittees,  one t o r e p r e s e n t  other  t o be " b r o a d l y  must  Intergovernmental  Minister  the  The  by t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r f r o m t h e g r o u p  o f members w h i c h r e p r e s e n t left  t o be c h o s e n  com-  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c o u n t i e s and representative  of people i n the planning  area." The m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n i s t o p r e p a r e t h e Niagara  E s c a r p m e n t P l a n as s e t f o r t h  function  i s d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l ; t h e C o m m i s s i o n and t h e i r  have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y applications the  5.3.3  and a p p r o v e  this  second f u n c t i o n  staff  development  as ' p l a n n i n g  The M i n i s t e r has s u g g e s t e d  delegate  November,  to consider  i n those areas designated  Minister.  should  by t h e A c t . A s e c o n d  areas'  by  t h a t the Commission  to t h e Chairman  (White,  1973).  Administration The A c t s p e c i f i e s s e v e n o b j e c t i v e s t o be f o l l o w e d  the  Commission i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n  of the p l a n , the f i r s t  by  objective  99 being tion  " t o p r o t e c t u n i q u e e c o l o g i c and the  p l a n must c o n t a i n any  m i n i s t e r or p r o v i n c i a l  historic  areas."  In  pol i c i e s o r programs t h a t  s e c r e t a r y i n the  addi-  any  government wishes to  be  included. A number o f p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e A c t c e d u r e t o be i n c l u d e the final  followed during  Upon c o m p l e t i o n  C o m m i s s i o n must p r o v i d e  notifying  the  p u b l i c of the  held  the  to p r e s e n t  tations.  plan  plan  After considering  plan.  held  planning  a r e a , and  Niagara  binding  on  vincial  Government.  be  to the  local  p u b l i c and  be  to hear  A l l local  Municipalities,  the  to  on  represen-  plan  Niagara  plans  of  and  province  or the  p l a n a t any  t i m e and  a similar  and  legally  the  Pro-  b y l a w s must  Escarpment  the  the  adoption.  a l l agencies  official  must  hearings  and  and  viewed.  E s c a r p m e n t P l a n , so a p p r o v e d , i s  amended t o c o n f o r m w i t h  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  approval  the  newspapers  t h r e e months  comments made a t t h e  a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  amendments t o t h e  1976),  t h i s , o n e o r more h e a r i n g s  i t to the M i n i s t e r f o r f i n a l The  to  to a l l a d v i s o r y  C o m m i s s i o n must make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o a p p r o v e t h e forward  These  prior  (expected  p l a n sand where i t can  Following  the  pro-  t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y , c o u n t y  i n d i v i d u a l s are allowed  plan.  of the  t o be  must p u b l i s h a n o t i c e i n t h e  g o v e r n m e n t s and  comment on be  copies  of the  m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the  c o m m i t t e e s , and  Local  preparation  p r o v i s i o n for p u b l i c hearings  adoption.  regional  the  p e r t a i n to the  plan.  p u b l i c can  initiate  procedure  o f t h e amendment f o r comments and  the  on  holding  1 00  of  public  quires  hearings,  that  must be f o l l o w e d .  the Plan Section  to r e q u i r e and is and  every f i v e  16 o f t h e A c t g i v e s  any m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n  adopt a l o c a l given  be r e v i e w e d  The l e g i s l a t i o n  plan  and z o n i n g  t h e power t o a c q u i r e  to d e v e l o p such land  land  years.  the Minister  the Planning bylaw.  also r e -  the a u t h o r i t y  Area  to prepare  In S e c t i o n  18 t h e M i n i s t e r  by p u r c h a s e o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . . ;  f o r purposes which are not c l e a r l y  s p e c i f i ed. The control and  legislation  to control  after.  Using  land this  introduces  the technique of development  use b o t h d u r i n g  preparation  of the plan  t e c h n i q u e t h e M i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e any  a r e a as a D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i ng A r e a u n d e r l e g i s l a t i o n 1973  (Ontario,  Bill  1 2 9 ) . Under t h i s  A c t the provisions  b y l a w s c e a s e t o have e f f e c t i n d e s i g n a t e d can  make r e g u l a t i o n s  permits.  Under t h i s  individually The  providing  a r e a s and t h e M i n i s t e r  f o r the i s s u a n c e o f development  a f t e r an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p e r m i t has been made. conditions  the i n t e n t of the Act.  Commission o r t o l o c a l  to the permit to assure  The M i n i s t e r a l s o  delegate or withdraw the a u t h o r i t y  to issue  permits,  to t h e M i n i s t e r applicant's fourteen  permits to the  municipalities.  t h e s e b o d i e s must s u p p l y a copy o f each and t o a s s e s s e d owners w i t h i n  l a n d , who may make an a p p e a l  days.  accordance  has t h e power t o  Where t h e M i n i s t e r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n o r l o c a l issue  of zoning  p r o c e s s each d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d  M i n i s t e r may a t t a c h  with  passed i n  I f an a p p e a l  application  400 f e e t o f t h e  against  i s made, a p u b l i c  governments  the permit  hearing  within  on t h e  101 issuance  of the permit  makes a f i n a l  must be h e l d , a f t e r w h i c h t h e M i n i s t e r  decision.  The g o v e r n m e n t must make payments i n l i e u those  local  acquired  g o v e r n m e n t s i n whose j u r i s d i c t i o n s  f o r the P l a n .  designation less  Land w i l l  of l a n d use p r o v i d e d  intensively  a d d i t i o n , the province  5.3.4  in  according  to the  implies, special  d e f e r r a l of property  can p r o v i d e  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  grants  plans  arrange-  taxes.  t o a i d some  of o f f i c i a l  i s used  In  local  and bylaws.  Legislative Limitations W i t h no e f f e c t i v e  examined  has been  f o r i n the Plan; i f land  than the d e s i g n a t i o n  ments c a n be made f o r a p a r t i a l  municipalities  be t a x e d  land  of taxes to  record  i n l i g h t o f what a r e f e l t  the l e g i s l a t i o n  itself.  to r e v i e w ,  t h e A c t must be  t o be l i m i t a t i o n s  One p r o b a b l y  inherent  minor l i m i t a t i o n  i s the  s i z e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ; a t s e v e n t e e n members i t i s t h e l a r g e s t o f any r e v i e w e d out  in this  research.  More s e r i o u s  wide p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n Plan, i t i s l i k e l y  invited of  arise  o f what a p p e a r s t o be t h e m a j o r i n t e n t o f t h e A c t - t h a t i s t o  prepare a Master Plan f o r the Niagara  the  limitations  only  t o be f a i r l y  Although  during  the p r e p a r a t i o n of  limited  s i n c e comments a r e  i n t h e t h r e e month p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  the proposed p l a n .  "research  i s claimed  Escarpment Area.  It i s solely  m a t e r i a l , r e p o r t s , plans  at the p u b l i c hearing and t h e l i k e  that  t h a t were u s e d  t o p r e p a r e t h e p l a n " a r e r e q u i r e d t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  102 public. initial  Rather  than  being  called  stages o f the P l a n , both  upon t o p a r t i c i p a t e  t h e p u b l i c and t h e l o c a l  ments a r e a l l o w e d o n l y t o r e a c t t o a c o m p l e t e d , finalized  plan.  "reactive"  There i s the very d i s t i n c t  participation will  outcome o f t h e f i n a l  i nthe  although not  possibility  have o n l y m i n i m a l  govern-  that  such  e f f e c t on t h e  Plan.  Throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n of the plan the M i n i s t e r retains local  significant  municipalities  intent of the Act. tion of  that these  He c a n , a t any t i m e , r e q u i r e t h a t  prepare  local  plans w i l l  p r o v i d e any i n p u t i n t o  1  and u n d e r such  bylaw l o s e f o r c e .  he  f o r permits  t h e n has  the c o n t r o l of  t h e r i g h t t o make a  on t h e i s s u a n c e o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t .  may, a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n , d e l e g a t e tions  d e s i g n a t i o n the pro-  The M i n i s t e r  t o make r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h a t a r e a and r e t a i n s decision  the process  M i n i s t e r a l s o has t h e power t o d e s i g n a t e any a r e a  o f any z o n i n g  the a u t h o r i t y  i n the l e g i s l a -  Plan.  'development p l a n n i n g a r e a  visions  plans o r bylaws t o conform w i t h t h e  T h e r e i s however no i n d i c a t i o n  p r e p a r i n g the Master The  a  power.  the a u t h o r i t y  t o t h e Commission or t o l o c a l  final  The M i n i s t e r  to review  applica-  governments but  i s n o t bound t o do so by l a w . The  implementation  province a substantial estimated  amount o f money.  Additional  funds  t o be i n e x c e s s  will  to cost the  Land a c q u i s i t i o n i s  t o c o s t between $250 and $500 m i l l i o n  the Commission i s expected 1973).  of the A c t i s expected  and f u n d i n g o f  o f $200,000 ( O n t a r i o ,  be needed t o a s s i s t  local  governments  103  in  the  preparation  of plans  governments i n l i e u pit  and  quarry  c o s t s and  of property  operators  expenses.  on  Crown l a n d , t o r e l o c a t e  restrictive  z o n e s and  statutory limitation  appropriated  Niagara  f o r the  p a s s e d J u n e 22,  Escarpment P l a n n i n g  1973  and  E s c a r p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n was l a c k of  the  first  various  on  the  implementation  of  comments a r e  of Treasury,  h e l d November 6,  b a s e d on  E c o n o m i c s and  spondence w i t h  the  staff  and  Development  meeting of the  i n f o r m a t i o n about the o p e r a t i o n  following  reports  1973.  Niagara  Due  to  the  o f the'-Commi s s i o n i s s u e d by  Intergovernmental  the  the  the M i n i s t r y  Affairs  o f t h e M i n i s t r y and  Act  and  corre-  d i r e c t o r of  Commission. When B i l l  129  was  first  introduced  to the  t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o o k i s s u e w i t h what a p p e a r e d t o be powers o f t h e M i n i s t e r i n c o n t r o l l i n g escarpment area on  other  Comments The  the  taxes  to  Act.  5.3.5  was  i n the  b y l a w s , t o make payments  T h e r e i s no  amount o f money t o be this  and  the  given sulted  bill  during  Board, the  1973).  use  excessive  of land  During  the  in  power, t h a t l o c a l preparation  f o r appeal  of the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had bill  and  courts.  The  not  being been  t h a t t h e r e was  of a d e c i s i o n to the O n t a r i o  c a b i n e t or the  the  debate  a c c u s a t i o n s were made t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r was  absolute  provision  ( O n t a r i o , J u n e 13,  the  legislature  con-  no  Municipal  N.D.P. l e a d e r , Mr.  Lewis,  1 04  stated  a t t h a t time  t h a t t h e law g i v e s  the m i n i s t e r the d i s -  cretionary  power t o i s s u e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s  areas  no t i m e  with  power, a l t h o u g h  limit  i n designated  on t h e M i n i s t e r ' s e n j o y m e n t o f t h i s  he may d e l e g a t e  i t to t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f  he d e s i r e s . The  D i r e c t o r o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n , J.W. G i l b e r t has  responded t o the q u e s t i o n  of this  d i s c r e t i o n a r y power as f o l l o w s :  Onn the faoe of it, such wide d i s c r e t i o n a r y •power appears disturbing to people outside of the Government, however, having been a c i v i l e servant for several years. . . .1 can see the need for t h i s type of l e g i s l a t i o n . The prime intent of this section was to allow for a delegation of the development control authority to those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s that could properly administer i t once an approved plan is established. ( G i l b e r t , F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1974) A s t a f f member o f t h e m i n i s t r y r e p o r t e d "the and  M i n i s t e r has n o t g o t i n t o that the issuance  Commission w i t h o u t February  process  referral  t h e development permit i s "being  business"  o u t by t h e  (Fitzpatrick ,  4, 1 9 7 4 ) . o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e has been  the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r a p p e a l . development permits  criticisms Municipal  on t h i s  Under t h e A c t ,  appeals  c a n o n l y be made t o t h e M i n i s t e r a g a i n s t  a d e c i s i o n o f the Commission.  matters  carried  to the Province"  Another s u b j e c t area  on  that i n fact  matter  J.W. G i l b e r t  by s a y i n g  has a n s w e r e d  t h a t appeals  to the Ontario  B o a r d a r e u n s u i t a b l e b e c a u s e " t h e B o a r d must r u l e on  o f l a w and c a n n o t a c c e p t  Government s t a t e m e n t s  of policy  105 as s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n "  and t h a t t h e c a b i n e t c a n n o t  take  t h e t i m e t o h e a r m a t t e r s o f s u c h a mundane n a t u r e .  It is  Gilbert's  judge of  opinion that the M i n i s t e r  appeals f o r t h e development reports d i r e c t l y provincial February  to the Minister  spokesman on l a n d  system"  s i n c e t h e Commission  and t h e M i n i s t e r  " i s the  use p l a n n i n g p o l i c y "  (Gilbert,  13, 1974). The  public  control  i s "the l o g i c a l  h e a r i n g p r o c e d u r e has a l s o been c r i t i c i z e d .  hearing represents the only  provision  The  for administrative  r e v i e w o f t h e a c t and a l l h e a r i n g s a r e c o n d u c t e d by a h e a r i n g o f f i c e r who i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e M i n i s t e r .  A legal  been g i v e n by J.A. Kennedy on t h e c o m p a r i s o n to t h e r u l e o f n a t u r a l without bias.  1  justice,  of this  'that a t r i b u n a l  The argument p r o c e e d s  o p i n i o n has procedure  shall  be  as f o l l o w s :  It is the Minister's own program that is being reviewed (in a public hearing). So i t could notbe said that these hearing o f f i c e r s would be independent, or without bias. It might be argued however, that these hearing o f f i c e r s are not the tribunal because they do not decide, they only report to the Minister. If t h i s means that the Minister is the tribunal then i t is his program that is being reviewed and he could not be said to be without bias. Only if the hearing o f f i c e r and the Minister do not agree do these statutes provide for a decision by the cabinet. But in neither case is the decision made by 'the person who conducts the hearing. In the case of Mehr v. Law Society of Upper Canada . . . the Supreme Court of Canada held that i t is a breach of the rule of natural j u s t i c e if the decision is made by persons other than those who conducted the hearing. ( J . A . Kennedy, December 1 7 , 1 9 7 3 )  106 In c o n c l u s i o n  i t appears t h a t  t h e M i n i s t e r does  considerable  power, both under t h e N i a g a r a  the  and D e v e l o p m e n t A c t .  Planning  tion  therefore  of these very  5.4  wide  the State's protect  interest" Act  Management A c t was p a s s e d  Legislature "to protect  shorelines  private property  rights  recognize the p u b l i c  s y s t e m s c o v e r e d by t h e  b e a c h e s and t h e s h o r e l i n e s  of i s l a n d s , e s t u a r i e s ,  are.within  by t h e S t a t e  the State's  c o a s t l i n e of which  came w i t h  the r e a l i z a -  "possesses s h o r e l i n e  are unequalled  In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e G u i d e l i n e s  Management A c t , G o v e r n o r Evans  almost  jurisdiction.  t h a t Washington  whose u n i q u e n e s s and d i v e r s i t y (1972).  interest  Natural  The i m p e t u s f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n tion  to  consistent with  l a k e s , s t r e a m s and t h e P a c i f i c  160 m i l e s  i n 1971 by t h e  the p u b l i c  a n d , a t t h e same t i m e ,  (Washington, 1972).  include  rivers,  Management A c t ( 1 9 7 1 )  Background  Washington S t a t e  and  The s u c c e s s o f t h e l e g i s l a -  powers.  The S h o r e l i n e  in  E s c a r p m e n t A c t and  d e p e n d s , i n p a r t , on t h e M i n i s t e r ' s u s e o r a b u s e  Washington S t a t e , S h o r e l i n e 5.4.1  have  areas  i n the Nation" f o r the Shoreline  stated:  Experiences in other parts of the country however, and i n c r e a s i n g l y in Washington, show that we cannot continue to take our shoreline resources for granted. Our shorelines are a l i m i t e d asset - we cannot  107 increase them but we can lose them if we f a i l to protect them through a sound, comprehensive management program. ( W a s h i n g t o n , 1972) 3  5.4.2  Commission The  Board which this  The  sixth  The  chairman  Cities  and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  Control  function  members o f  Commissioners.  or h i s designee.  i s also appointed  Board.  o f t h e Board  i s t o h e a r a p p e a l s on within  the designated  g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e body w h i c h g r a n t s  p e r m i t s , t h e S t a t e Department  o f E c o l o g y and t h e A t t o r n e y  r e c e i v e r e q u e s t s f o r a p p e a l s and t h e H e a r i n g s  hears the a p p e a l s .  The B o a r d  shoreline  regulation.  5.4.3  Admi n i s t r a t i on The  Control  from t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  o f County  Board  o f permits f o r developments The l o c a l  Hearings  Pollution  Commissioner  of the Shorelines Hearings  shoreline area.  of  Three  s i t on t h e S t a t e ' s  of the P o l l u t i o n  granting  General  function.  member i s t h e S t a t e Land  The m a j o r the  a Shorelines  Two members a r e a p p o i n t e d , one each  Washington  chairman  establishes  has a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l  six-member Board a l s o  Board. of  legislation  also  reviews the l o c a l  Board programs  i n t e n t of the A c t i s to p r o t e c t a l l the s h o r e l i n e  areas of t h e S t a t e from u n c o n t r o l l e d  development.  Certain  f o r e s h o r e a r e a s a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e A c t ' a r e a s o f s t a t e w i d e  1 08 significance' and  the S t r a i t  and i n c l u d e f i v e  specific  areas i n Puget  o f J u a n de Fuca p l u s a d j a c e n t s a l t w a t e r s ( i . e .  from t h e l i n e o f low t i d e  to the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  boundaries).  T h e r e a r e two mechanisms f o r d e v e l o p m e n t one a p e r m i t s y s t e m f o r d e v e l o p m e n t s and  Sound  two, a comprehensive p l a n n i n g  of a certain  program  control : s i z e and t y p e  including  use r e g u l a -  tions. The  p e r m i t system r e q u i r e s  a permit f o ra substantial following  that a property-owner obtain  development  ( o v e r $ 1 , 0 0 0 ) on t h e  shorelines: 1.  lakes  larger  t h a n 20 a c r e s  2.  s t r e a m s w i t h a mean a n n u a l f l o w t h a n 20 c u b i c f e e t p e r s e c o n d .  3.  marine water  4.  on l a n d e x t e n d i n g 200 f e e t l a n d w a r d f r o m t h e o r d i n a r y h i g h w a t e r mark o r associated wetlands  greater  areas  Uses exempt f r o m t h e p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t i n c l u d e : 1 . - c o n s t r u c t i o n or r e p a i r of a s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i dence i f under 35 f e e t i n h e i g h t , on t h e w e t l a n d s and i f f o r t h e o w n e r ' s use on I y 2.  . 3. 4.  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b a r n o r s i m i l a r a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e i f under 35 f e e t i n h e i g h t , on t h e w e t l a n d s normal p r o t e c t i v e b u l k h e a d s f o r a s i n g l e - f a m i l y residence c o n s t r u c t i o n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n of gational aids  navi-  109  5v m a i n t e n a n c e o r structure 6.  repair  of  an  existing  emergency c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y f r o m damage by t h e eIements c o n s t r u c t i o n of a d o c k , d e s i g n e d f o r p l e a s u r e cr?aft o n l y , f o r the p r i v a t e n o n c o m m e r c i a l use of t h e o w n e r , - l e s s e e , o r c o n t r a c t p u r c h a s e r of a s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e , t h e c o s t of w h i c h does not e x c e e d $2500.  Permits are granted shorelines  areas The  includes  under t h e i r  by e a c h l o c a l jurisdiction.  c o n c e p t o f ' s h o r e l i n e management' u n d e r t h e A c t  the p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  for  the purpose of r e g u l a t i n g  are  t o be i n i t i a t e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d  The S t a t e  function The S t a t e  implementing is for  required  by l o c a l  I n an a d v i s o r y  programs  governments. and r e v i e w  capacity,  to submit proposed  i n t h e A c t i s as f o l l o w s :  comments on t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s  guidelines  Within  The p r o -  sixty  days  governments  must  to the Department.  After  t w e n t y d a y s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t must r e - s u b m i t t h e  guidelines.  A f t e r two p u b l i c  Department adopts the g u i d e l i n e s on t h e l o c a l  capacity,  the Department  programs, to a l l e f f e c t e d governments.  one h u n d r e d u a n d final  These  i s responsible f o r  r e c e i p t o f the proposed g u i d e l i n e s , l o c a l  return  ing  uses.  Department o f Ecology  by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ,  cedure s p e c i f i e d of  shoreline  o f a M a s t e r Program  i s to a c t i n a supportive  the Act.  shoreline  government f o r  hearings  are held, the  which are subsequently  g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e S t a t e .  Following  bindenactment  110  of  the l e g i s l a t i o n  i n J u n e 1971 t h i s  and i n J u n e 1972 t h e " F i n a l Act"  were o f f i c i a l l y Local  tion  p r o c e d u r e was  Guidelines,  Shoreline  followed Mangement  adopted (Washington, 1972).  governments a r e a l s o  to submit proposals f o r c o a s t a l  required  by t h e l e g i s l a -  i n v e n t o r i e s and s h o r e l i n e  management p r o g r a m s w i t h i n s i x months o f e n a c t m e n t o f t h e l a w . In t h e a b s e n c e o f a c t i o n by t h e l o c a l ment has t h e a u t h o r i t y t o p r o c e e d w i t h programs  f o r these The  line  i t s own s t u d i e s and  areas.  i n v e n t o r i e s and p r o g r a m s f o r r e g u l a t i o n o f s h o r e -  uses a r e r e q u i r e d  within  governments, the Depart-  t o be c o m p l e t e d by t h e l o c a l  e i g h t e e n months.  Following  a public hearing,  submitted  to t h e Department o f E c o l o g y , along w i t h  outlining  t h e program o f c i t i z e n  local  jurisdiction  programs. utilize with  citizen  by t h e l o c a l  they are  a statement  involvement followed  i n the preparation  A failure  governments  of the p o l i c i e s  government  involvement i s treated  by t h e and  t o e n c o u r a g e and  as a f a i l u r e  to comply  t h e i n t e n t o f t h e A c t , and t h e D e p a r t m e n t may r e t u r n t h e  program w i t h o u t a p p r o v a l  with  the d i r e c t i v e  to e s t a b l i s h  a c c e p t a b l e methods o f c i t i z e n  participation  (Washington, 1972).  The  legislation  w h i c h may be i n c l u d e d 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  o u t l i n e s the f o l l o w i n g seven elements  i n the s h o r e l i n e  program:  economic development p u b l i c access circulation recreation s h o r e l i n e use c o n s e r v a t i on historicaI/cuIturaI element  111 See  Chart  2 f o r an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f M a s t e r The  local  Act r e q u i r e s the Department of Ecology  Programs.  and  the  g o v e r n m e n t s t o r e v i e w t h e s h o r e l i n e management p r o g r a m s  periodically.  As w e l l , a l l s t a t e a g e n c i e s  management p o l i c i e s , to s h o r e l i n e s .  The  p l a n s and  bylaws  d e p a r t m e n t may  these agencies which  would b r i n g  must r e v i e w  which  effect  their  lands  adjacent  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  a d j a c e n t uses  in line  with  t h e S h o r e l i n e Management A c t . The  Department of Ecology  h o l d most o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the S h o r e l i n e s Hearings ing  body.  The  to drawing  up  policies  and  power t o a c q u i r e l a n d and of l a n d . for  They may  professional  Ecology water  governments of the A c t ;  m a i n l y as a r e v i e w and  the l o c a l  hear-  governments, i n a d d i t i o n  planning programs, a l s o t o a c c e p t g r a n t s and  have  the  contributions  a l s o a p p o i n t a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s and c o n t r a c t  and  technical  services.  i s r e q u i r e d to r e p r e s e n t  resource regulation  5.4.4  the l o c a l  f o r implementation  Boardsacts  D e p a r t m e n t and  and  The  'shoreline  b o d i e s and  Department  interests'  federal  of  before  commissions.  L i mi t a t i ons Therestricted  a potential  limitation  However, s i n c e 1970  area of c o n t r o l  to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e has  a c t s aimed a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l the purposes  ( i . e .shorelines) is of t h i s  passed  p r o t e c t i o n which  of the-Shoreline-Management  Act.  Act.  several  other  are s u p p o r t i v e of One  act provides  112  ESTABLISH ADVISORY  CITIZEN COMMITTEE  DEVELOP  PHASE X-  AREA -  ~lkL J^ ii §i  WIDE  E  GOALS  DEVELOP POLICY  PHASEH  SHORELINE  E  T  -{USE^ACTIVITIES]  STATEMENTS  DEFINE  ENVIRONMENTS  ON A L L  SHORELINES  DEVELOP  H VJ Rp  N M EN T S ]  U S E ACTIVITIES 1 LE^VJRONMENJS  R  SHORELINE  USE  REGULATIONS  IELEMENTS  CONDUCT  PHASE IE-  DETAILED  tuSE  STUDIES  _ACT[VITIESJ  CHART 2 PREPARATION OF SHORELINE MASTER PROGRAMS, WASHINGTON STATE  SOURCE :  Department  of  Ecology,  Wash i n g t o n  State.  aj  8n j  11 3  for  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s i m i l a r  that required  by t h e N a t i o n a l  ( W a s h i n g t o n , C h a p t e r 4 3 , 21C, legislation, introduced  to c o n t r o l  1971).  effectiveness  A second  use t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t e Bill  sand, which  or a c t i v i t i e s do n o t i n v o l v e  developments effective  5.4.5  o f t h e S h o r e l i n e Management A c t from  s u c h as d r e d g i n g and  include  removal  of  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s ,  and  two y e a r s o f t h e  legislation.  Comments The  Act s t i p u l a t e s  t h a t the major  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f management p r o g r a m s ,  by l o c a l  was  3369 , 1 9 7 4 ) .  w h i c h a r e t o be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n  date of the  1969  p i e c e of  Some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l l y damaging e x e m p t i o n s  developments  of  RCW  be r e d u c e d by t h e number o f a l l o w a b l e e x e m p t i o n s  permits.  the  Environmental P o l i c y Act of  in-a.974 ( W a s h i n g t o n , S e n a t e The  may  land  to  governments.  regulation  Ultimate control  rests with  initiative for i s t o be p r o v i d e d  over p o l i c y  and  programs  the S t a t e r a t h e r than the a p p o i n t e d  Board. Considerable attention  i s paid  i n the l e g i s l a t i o n  the  p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s of both the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y  the  preparation  ticipation than s o l e l y  and a d o p t i o n o f p l a n s o r p r o g r a m s .  i s mandatory at a l l s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s at the l a t e r  s t a g e of program a d o p t i o n .  to  and  Public rather  par-  Chapter 6  A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ISLAND TRUST LEGISLATION AND SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION  Five pieces parative analysis.  of l e g i s l a t i o n  The N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ( s .  1929) was c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t island  were s e l e c t e d f o r a com-  trus.t-legislation.  the v a r i o u s proposed pieces o f  The b i l l  s . 1929 , i n t r o d u c e d  U.S.  S e n a t e May 29, 1 9 7 3 , i s t h e most r e c e n t p r o p o s a l  area  to date.  included enacted. the  This  bill  i s the only  i n t h e a n a l y s i s and t h e o n l y The o t h e r s i m i l a r  U.S. f e d e r a l  to the for that  legislation  law w h i c h has y e t t o be  purpose l e g i s l a t i o n  included i n  analysis i s : 1.  H a w a i i , Land Use Law o f 1961, as amended 1970.  2.  Vermont, E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law 1970 ( A c t No. 250 Vermont Laws)  3.  O n t a r i o , Niagara Escarpment and D e v e l o p m e n t A c t 1973.  4.  W a s h i n g t o n , S h o r e l i n e Management A c t of 1971'.  The  p u r p o s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t o compare t h e  activeristics  and c o n t e n t s  Planning  o f the l e g i s l a t i o n 114  char-  r a t h e r than t o  115  evaluate their  the s t r u c t u r a l  components e s t a b l i s h e d  operation. The f i r s t  step  important informational in  the selected  characteristics the  analysis  various  pieces  of l e g i s l a t i o n .  aspects of these elements.  information  functions  Nine c a t e g o r i e s  legislation  Islands. (Table  For  of  to  describe  T h e s e e l e m e n t s arid s u b -  with  individual  a view to drawing  i n the development  A chart  present  were c h o s e n f o r  f o r the purpose of comparing  w h i c h m i g h t be u s e f u l  the Gulf  tions  components and s t a t u t o r y  and a number o f s u b e l e m e n t s were s e l e c t e d  aspects of d i f f e r e n t  for  i n t h e a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  or elements of the l e g i s l a t i o n  e l e m e n t s were s e l e c t e d  sions  by t h e l a w , and  conclu-  of l e g i s l a t i o n  f o r m a t was used t o c o n v e y  this  3).  the purpose of the a n a l y s i s  the f o l l o w i n g  were a c c e p t e d : recreation body t h r o u g h re Iaxat i o n .  t h e r e f r e s h m e n t of mind and p l a y , s p o r t s , amusement and  c o n s e r v a t i o n - the a c t of c o n s e r v i n g , p r e s e r v i n g or p r o t e c t i n g from l o s s , d e c a y , i n j u r y or v i o l a t i o n . p r o t e c t i o n o f f a r m l a n d - t h e a c t of p r o t e c t ing l a n d w h i c h i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , from n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. s h o r e l i n e management - t h e a c t of p l a n n i n g f o r r e a s o n a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e uses a l o n g shorelines. development c o n t r o l - the i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e u s e s of  a c t of restrictl a n d and w a t e r .  defini-  Comparative  Analysis  of  '(••significant  Element of  Legislation  O B J E C T I V E S FOR LAND USE CONTROL Conservation Recreation P r o t e c t i o n of Farmland S h o r e l i n e Management Development C o n t r o l  Island  Trust  and S i m i l a r P u r p o s e  emphasis, • e m p h a s i s , Nantucket Sound Islands 1973 1  . •• «  • •  I mention)  •'. H a w a i i 1961 (1970)  • • ©• ••  AREA OF CONTROL S t a t e or P r o v i n c e - w i d e Special Regions  Legislation  • -  '.  Niagara Escarpment 1973  Vermont 1970  •  Washington Shorel1ne 1971  •  • • •  ••  •  ©© ©  •  •  •  COMMISSION STRUCTURE Size Tenure Degree of R e g i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n D i s t r i c t Commissions A d v i s o r y Committees COMMISSION POWERS Policy Formulation Land use c o n t r o l s : zoning Land use c o n t r o l s : permits L a n d a c q u i s i t i o n by p u r c h a s e , g i f t s L a n d a c q u i s i t i o n by e x p r o p r i a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n of a Master Plan CO-ORDINATING  Hiring Access Hiring  co-ordination  CAPABILITY of to of  -1 +  • •• • •  Staff Government S t a f f Consultants  -  67%  •• <  9 4yrs 0 . 9  6 *  o e  © © o  • •  ••  • ••  • •.  • •  <  -1 +  47%  33%  -2  -  •4 •  FUNCTION  Interdepartmental S e n i o r - l o c a l government TECHNICAL  9  3 yrs 85 %  O  • ©  ©  • • •• o  O  9©  1  • ' • •  • b  CONTINUED  Table  Element of  PUBLIC  Legislation  Hawaii 1961 1970  \  Niagara Escarpment 1973  Vermont 1970  Washlngton S h o r e l i ne 1971  PARTICIPATION  4  S e n i o r government Local. Control  • 4  control  PROCEDURES  Provision for Provision for Provision for of P l a n s  *The N a n t u c k e t  • • • •  •  ENFORCEMENT  1 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Appeal J u d i c i a l Appeal Periodic Revision  Sound  Islands  Trust Act  is  the  only  B i l l 1 3 6 , 1 9 7 0 amended t h e L a n d Use Law g i v i n g 20 t o 40 f e e t f r o m t h e h i g h w a t e r m a r k .  of  (Continued)  Nantucket. Sound Island 1973 .  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Plans to P u b l i c H e a r i n g s on P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n H e a r i n g s on A d o p t i o n o f P l a n s H e a r i n g s on Z o n i n g C h a n g e s H e a r i n g s on P l a n R e v i s i o n s H e a r i n g s on P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s B u r d e n o f P r o o f on A p p l i c a n t  APPEAL  3  the  federal  4 0  . . .  #  •  •  •  •  of  legislation  0 0 0 • •0•  0' 4 0' 0  . .  0 • o  •  piece  0 0  ©"  08 0 a 0  0" 0 .  4 0  0  0 0 0 0  0  included  L a n d Use C o m m i s s i o n t h e m a n d a t e  to  in  the  establish  analysis. setback  regulations  3 The N a n t u c k e t Sound and the E l i z a b e t h s . A Special  uses  Islands  a r e granted  under  ^The p r i m a r y c o - o r d i n a t i n g ^Because the Department of than the B o a r d . ''The  Minister  can r e j e c t  The Shorelines Hearings and m a s t e r p r o g r a m s . 8  Trust Act  a permit  role is Ecology  plan Board  establishes  three  in A g r i c u l t u r a l  Commissions,  and R u r a l  one e a c h f o r  Districts  holds  are  quasi-judicial  'frivolous hearings  or  not  1n g o o d  on r e q u e s t . o n  Vineyard,  Nantucket  only.  b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and l o c a l a g e n c i e s . plays the l a r g e r r o l e in impelementation,  amendments w h i c h  Martha's  staff  is  attached  to  this  agency  rather  faith.'  permits,  rules,  regulations,  guidelines  9 In  Development  bylaws,  the  local  Planning Areas government  is  the the  Minister  can r e t a i n  enforcement  enforcement  authority.  authroity  whereas  in  areas  having  local  plans  and  118  The of recent  analysis points  legislation  o u t a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g  f o r land  use c o n t r o l .  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  the major o b j e c t i v e o f the m a j o r i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n development over designated  Islands Trust tion  Bill  places  the strongest  as an o b j e c t i v e , w h i l e  servation  aspects The  included  i s to control  a r e a s o f l a n d , and i n some  s u c h as W a s h i n g t o n , o v e r w a t e r as w e l l .  the other  aspects  cases  The N a n t u c k e t Sound e m p h a s i s on  conserva-  s t a t u t e s emphasize  con-  to a l e s s e r degree.  Hawaii  and Vermont s t a t u t e s a r e t h e o n l y " s t a t u t u e s  i n the a n a l y s i s which e s t a b l i s h a state-wide  program  of land-use c o n t r o l . The  number o f C o m m i s s i o n members  Washington's S h o r e l i n e s Niagara  Hearings Board to seventeen f o r t h e  Escarpment Commission.  vision  f o r regional  mental  B o a r d b u t i t does c r e a t e  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Vineyard  Federal  representation  twelve  appointee.  local  The present quires the  i n the State.  Environ-  The M a r t h a ' s  degree of l o c a l  representa-  a p p o i n t e e and one  t h e two t i e r  or regional  pro-  Commissions w h i c h  commission  representation  structure  i s significant  analyzed.  s t a t u t o r y requirement f o r advisory  i n three  of the a c t s .  The N i a g a r a  t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f two l o c a l  N a n t u c k e t and W a s h i n g t o n b i l l s  advisory  District  members, one S t a t e  Considering  a l l of the s t a t u t e s  on i t s s t a t e l e v e l  nine  o f each D i s t r i c t  used i n V e r m o n t , l o c a l in  Vermont makes no s p e c i f i c  C o m m i s s i o n has t h e h i g h e s t  tion with  v a r i e s from s i x f o r  committees o p t i o n a l .  committees i s  Escarpment A c t r e -  advisory  committees  whereas  make t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f  119  The Shorelines  powers  of the Commissions  power  beyond  r e g u l a t i o n s or master programs.  hearing The  the designated  and  Intergovernmental  make a f i n a l  area.  However,  appeals  an p e r m i t s ,  Escarpment  Commission  described i n the  analysis,  Affairs  the M i n i s t e r of Economics  f o r Ontario  d e c i s i o n on t h e a d o p t i o n  t h e M a s t e r P l a n , and on t h e i s s u a n c e power  of the Commission  Both Hawaii to  achieve  is  a m a j o r component  permits  an  m a j o r e m p h a s i s on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a M a s t e r P l a n  for  Islands.  appeals  Niagara  has c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y i n a l l a r e a s  actual  The  Hearings B o a r d o f W a s h i n g t o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y  body and has l i t t l e  including  vary w i d e l y .  of both  i s somewhat  Vermont  and z o n i n g  t h e power  local  of permits  plans  to  and  so 'that t h e  limited.  and N a n t u c k e t e m p h a s i z e z o n i n g c o n t r o l s  l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s ; i n f a c t  The  retains  of the l e g i s l a t i o n A c t combines  to c o n t r o l  the zoning  plan;  itself  f o r t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound  t h e use o f d e v e l o p m e n t  d e v e l o p m e n t as does t h e O n t a r i o  act. Inter-departmental the s t a t u t e s s t u d i e d . governments  c o - o r d i n a t i o n i s mentioned i n a l l  Co-operation  is specifically  between  provided  s e n i o r and  local  f o r i n t h e N a n t u c k e t Sound  I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t and t h e S h o r e l i n e Management A c t . All staff  the l e g i s l a t i o n  directly  Washington A c t . sultants  provide f o r the appointment of  to the commissions with the e x c e p t i o n of the The  discretionary  power  to h i r e  special  i s s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n o n l y two a c t s .  con-  1 20  Statutory planning  process  w h i c h does not to  vary  The  acts which provide  while  stage  provide  revisions  and  the  public opinion decisions.  on  A l l five  zoning  policy  p i e c e s of  changes, general  create a permit  more w i d e l y  expressed  the  i n the  and  legis-  plan of  system).  the However  degree to which  i n hearings, i s considered  results  Board hears appeals  Vermont t h e m a j o r  M i n i s t e r who  of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s .  and  makes a f i n a l  to the Department of Ecology  However, i n O n t a r i o  in  final  power least  In W a s h i n g -  d e c i s i o n which  for  implementation.  t h e C o m m i s s i o n makes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  makes t h e f i n a l  w h i c h makes e x p l i c i t  decision. the  The  only piece of  participation  local  governments i n the  stage  i s t h e S h o r e l i n e Management A c t  out  the  only  t h e C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h makes d e c i s i o n s b a s e d , a t  submitted  lation  during  plans  the  a p p l i c a t i o n s (with the e x c e p t i o n  differs "as  are  the  government  showing of  Vermont A c t s  i t i s mandatory.  w h i c h does n o t  t h e o r e t i c a l l y , on ton the  f o r the  in  i n Vermont i t i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y  In N a n t u c k e t , H a w a i i ,  rests with  is  of p l a n n i n g ;  permit  legislation  provide  for public participation  f o r hearings  Nantucket b i l l  Vermont i s t h e o n l y  W a s h i n g t o n and  i n Washington  lation  somewhat.  specifically  the p u b l i c .  formulation  provisions for public participation  of the  p r e l i m i n a r y plan or p o l i c y of  the  legis-  public  and  formulation  Washington.  In  Hawaii  e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e Land Use  Law  is carried  entirely  at the  local  The  other  pieces  of l e g i s l a t i o n  between s e n i o r and  level  provide  local  of government.  for joint  governments.  programs of The  balance  four  enforcement o f power i n  1 21  enforcement appears t o l i e with Islands Trust provides  f u n d s ) and w i t h  legislation. enforce use,  the Environmental  studied. special  o f S t a t e who  B o a r d i n t h e Vermont  municipalities  and c o u n t i e s  r e g u l a t i o n s and b y l a w s r e l a t i n g  to s h o r e l i n e  t h a t these  r e g u l a t i o n s comply w i t h S t a t e  and a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h The  the  ( i . e . the Secretary  In W a s h i n g t o n , l o c a l  a l l local  provided  lines  legislation  t h e f e d e r a l government i n t h e  appeals  guide-  t h e S h o r e l i n e Management A c t .  procedure v a r i e s widely  A p p e a l s a r e made f i r s t  i n the statutes  t o t h e government board o r  c o m m i s s i o n i n t h e c a s e o f W a s h i n g t o n and V e r m o n t , o r t o  courts  alone  made d i r e c t l y  i n N a n t u c k e t and H a w a i i .  to the M i n i s t e r .  In Ontario  appeals are  Chapter 7  RELEVANCE OF EXISTING LAND USE LEGISLATION TO THE GULF ISLANDS PROPOSAL  The  preceding  a n a l y s i s o f land  to l i g h t a number o f p r o v i s i o n s were t h o u g h t t o be p o t e n t i a l l y Islands  Gulf  sidered deals paper.  ments. justice.  Islands'  the  useful  proposed  f o r a proposal  for  categories  Gulf  The t h i r d  design  the  The f i r s t  need t o c o n s i d e r  or evaluation  cateogry  category  with  includes  the  has been s t r e s s e d  of English administrative following l i s t  provisions  rules of natural  safeguards body.  by C a r r  the  i n legislation The i m p o r t a n c e  (1970) i n a d i s -  criteria  use l e g i s l a t i o n  122  arrange-  law.  represents  o f land  this  normative  of institutional  a u t h o r i t y to a non-elected  of these safeguards  various  provisions  s t r u c t u r e was c o n -  of c r i t e r i a .  The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y d e a l s  The  legislative  normative assumptions developed throughout  i n the  which delegates  various  institutional  Fox ( 1 9 7 1 ) has i d e n t i f i e d  assumptions  the  f o r c o n t r o l mechanisms w h i c h  s u i t a b i l i t y o f the  under t h r e e  with  cussion  brought  legislation. The  to the  use l e g i s l a t i o n  were  under which considered  1 23  for  t h e i r appropriateness  the  Gulf  7.1  to a proposal  Islands:  Normative Assumptions a.  E l e m e n t s embodied i n t h e t r u s t c o n c e p t s u c h a s :  representation consideration b.  o f w i d e r i n t e r e s t s ; l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s ; and of future  as w e l l  ( i . e . local  residents  decisions  at the l o c a l  (level).  c. democracy  of p a r t i c i p a t o r y  and u s e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g  Acceptance of the l e g i t i m a c y  of  (n;.e. e l e c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  decision-making d.  representative  to p o s i t i o n s  i n the  process).  Information  comprehensive  7.2  as p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s .  Acceptance of the l e g i t i m a c y  democracy  and  for legislation for  should  be a v a i l a b l e i n a c o m p l e t e  form.  Rules of Natural  Justice  a.  Every t r i b u n a l s h a l l  be w i t h o u t  b.  Audi  a l l sides  alteram  partem;  bias. must be h e a r d and  considered.  7.3  Safeguards a.  (this  i n Delegated L e g i s l a t i o n  Delegation  should  be t o a t r u s t w o r t h y  i s r e l a t e d to the type of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  authority  on t h e C o m m i s s i o n ) .  1 24  b. delegated  a c t should  contain  power i n c l e a r and p r e c i s e  c. tion  The e n a b l i n g  terms.  All interests specially  o f power s h o u l d  be c o n s u l t e d  the l i m i t s of  a f f e c t e d by t h e d e l e g a -  p r i o r to the drawing  up o f  legislation.  d.  R u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s  s h o u l d b b e made p u b l i c ; t h i s  drawn up by t h e new a u t h o r i t y  ensures the r e a l i z a t i o n  of the  common l a w p r i n c i p l e o f a s c e r t a i n a b i 1 i ; t y .  e. and  The e n a b l i n g  regulations  legislation  and i t s r e l a t e d  rules  can be amended o r r e v o k e d by t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  body.  Using from t h e f i v e proposal  these c r i t e r i a  pieces  f o rGulf  summarized b r i e f l y  several  of l e g i s l a t i o n  Islands  p r o v i s i o n s were  f o rconsideration  legislation.  and t h e i r  selected ina  These p r o v i s i o n a r e  sources a r e noted  i n brackets  as  fol1ows:  1. introduce  I t a p p e a r s t o be f e a s i b l e i n B.C. l e g i s l a t i o n t o  the r a t i o n a l e f o r the l e g i s l a t i o n  record,  i n t h e form o f a preamble.  context  i n which the l e g i s l a t i o n  acteristic  into the o f f i c i a l  (A p r e a m b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e  was b e i n g  o f a l l t h e U.S. l e g i s l a t i o n . )  e n a c t e d was  char-  125  2.  The i m p o r t a n c e  of decision-making at local  s h o u l d be n o t e d w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e r e c o g n i z i n g the a d d i t i o n a l of government  3. appears  Significant  local  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e C o m m i s s i o n  t o be d e s i r a b l e due t o t h e n a t u r e o f l a n d  ( N a n t u c k e t Sound  4.  decision  capability  provisions  appears  t o be an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t  local  lines  f o r the h i r i n g  of s t a f f  6.  Provision  and c o n s u l t a n t s  f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o be d e s i r a b l e  Islands,  i n c i t i z e n s and  stage i n the planning process to prepare  policy  and a g e n c i e s  guide-  (Washington).  C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f the Commission w i t h o t h e r  ment d e p a r t m e n t s legislation).  authority  ( N a n t u c k e t Sound  the establishment of a procedure  appears  to l o c a l  Ontario).  g o v e r n m e n t s a t an e a r l y  through  making powers  f o r t h e new  through  5.  use p r o b l e m s  Islands).  A technical  H a w a i i , Vermont,  levels  Islands).  and t h e o b j e c t i v e o f a l l o c a t i n g people  t h e need f o r  powers and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t h i g h e r ( N a n t u c k e t Sound  levels  govern-  i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t ( a l l  126 7.  The  p r e p a r e p l a n s and distribution  d e l e g a t i o n o f power t o l o c a l bylaws  appears  authorities  t o p r o v i d e a more  o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g powers  (Vermont,  to  equitable  Ontario,  Washi n g t o n ) .  8.  P r o v i s i o n s to hold p u b l i c  hearings prior  a d o p t i o n o f any  p l a n s , programs or bylaws  ments t o e n s u r e  opportunity for public  to  are important  participation  the  require  ( a l l leg-  islation).  9. or  bylaw  which  Where a l o c a l  government f a i l s  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e terms  of the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  empower t h e S t a t e o r P r o v i n c i a l  function  appear  t o be  government p o l i c y  10.  The  requirement  ment p e r m i t must s u b m i t not cause  implementation  of  t h a t an a p p l i c a n t f o r a d e v e l o p -  proof t h a t the proposed  measure o f c o n t r o l  this  Washington).  undue harm t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ,  additional  provisions  body t o c a r r y o u t  n e c e s s a r y to e n s u r e  (Ontario,  to prepare a plan  developed  appears  will  t o p r o v i d e an  over the development  process  (Vermont).  11. plans  A periodic  r e v i s i o n of land  i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t  use and  management  (Hawaii, Ontario,  Washington).  127  12. that  'due  A procedure  f o r appeals  p r o c e s s ' be r e a l i z e d  i s necessary  (all legislation).  i n order  Chapter 8  RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR A SUGGESTED  INSTITUTIONAL  STRUCTURE OF THE GULF ISLANDS TRUST  8.1  Conceptual  Framework  As o u t l i n e d i n P a r t research  p a p e r was t o d e v e l o p a p r o p o s a l  arrangement trolled  I , the c e n t r a l task  f o r t h e purpose  development  f o r an  of implementing  on t h e G u l f  Islands.  of t h i s  institutional  a policy  of con-  The a p p r o a c h  followed  was : 1.  t o document t h e b a c k g r o u n d d e v e l o p m e n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s in September, 1973.  2.  to analyze e x i s t i n g , s i m i l a r l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n f o r i t s t o t h e GuIf I s I a n d s .  In P a r t special  I an a t t e m p t was made t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e  characteristics  discussion  purpose, relevance  of the s o c i a l  and p r o b l e m s  and p o l i t i c a l  I n P a r t I I t h e a n a l y s i s was i n t e n d e d the a t t e m p t s o f o t h e r  of the i s l a n d s through a  jurisdictions  1 28  perspectives  to provide to deal  with  of the area.  insights into land  u s e and  1 29  environmental step  problems o f a s i m i l a r nature.  and t h e i n t e n t o f P a r t  tation of Part proposal  I I I i s (on t h e b a s i s  I and t h e a n a l y s i s o f P a r t  f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  objectives  The l o g i c a l  arrangement to a c h i e v e p r o v i n c i a l  f o r the i s l a n d s .  d e v e l o p e d , b a s e d on an a p p r e c i a t i o n planning  approach of  o f t h e documen-  I I ) , to develop a  A c o n c e p t f o r s u c h an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  that  i s the understanding  a r r a n g e m e n t was  of the h i s t o r i c a l  on t h e i s l a n d s has f o l l o w e d .  t h e i s l a n d s must e v o l v e ,  framework which f o l l o w s  t h a t any p r o p o s a l  t o some e x t e n t ,  leads  to a c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  evolutionary  f o r the future  out of past  political  The  expericonceptual  perspective  s t r u c t u r e which recognizes and p o l i t i c a l  the  processes.  the purpose of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , planning  p r o c e s s e s on t h e i s l a n d s were c o n s i d e r e d  and  t h r o u g h two  periods:  final  1.  the p e r i o d p r i o r to the Regional D i s t r i c t s .  2.  the p e r i o d under jurisdiction.  conceptual  structures  the Regional  confined  formation  Regional  of  District  framework proposes a system o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  f o r the f u t u r e . Prior  by  The  an h i s t o r i c a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o c i a l  For  time  incorporates  route  Implicit i n this  e n c e s and p a s t and p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i o n s o f c h a n g e .  and  next  to the takeover of i s l a n d planning D i s t r i c t s , decisions  relating  t o a few g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s .  functions  to land  use were  These i n c l u d e d t h e  1 30  D e p a r t m e n t o f Highways w h i c h s t i l l approvals  i n unorganized  Branch which continues  continues  territories  to grant .subdivision  and t h e P r o v i n c i a l  to approve the design  Health  o f sewage d i s p o s a l  systems. Decisions affecting islands  the d i r e c t i o n  c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be t y p e d  according  o f d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e to three  different  groups o f a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s : 1.  The e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t who p o s s e s s e d p o l i c y and d e c i s i o n making powers f o r u n o r g a n i z e d territories ( I n c l u d i n g the 'power of the M i n i s t e r to a c t as m a y o r - i n - c o u n c i I ) . -  2.  The l i n e a g e n c i e s of t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n ment ( i n c l u d i n g . t h e H e a l t h B r a n c h and D e p a r t m e n t of H i g h w a y s ) who e n f o r c e d r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to land u s e .  3.  The p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s whose a c t i v i t i e s had d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  During ad  hoc b a s i s , l a r g e l y  competing had  t h i s p e r i o d d e c i s i o n s tended  interest  as a r e s u l t  groups.  been a r t i c u l a t e d  of p o l i t i c a l  No s p e c i f i c p o l i c y  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  t o be made on an pressures  from  f o r the islands  government.  I n some  c a s e s , f o r e x a m p l e Bowen I s l a n d , P r o v i n c i a l  planners  had begun  preparation of zoning  on t h e i r  standard  bylaw format for  bylaws,  f o r unorganized  the special  were a f f e c t i n g  was l i t t l e  formal  largely  t e r r i t o r i e s , with  characteristics  activities  basis  based  little  of the i s l a n d .  the i s l a n d  A number o f  environments but there  r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e need f o r an  f o r l a n d use d e c i s i o n s .  regard  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  ecological of a  particular  131 e n v i r o n m e n t were t a k e n imposed s p e c i f i c  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y where  degree.  W h a t e v e r p l a n n i n g o c c u r r e d , was o f a  r e a c t i v e nature.  sentation of this The  initial  With  Figure  planning  1 gives a symbolic stage  and p l a n n i n g  repre-  on t h e i s l a n d s .  c r e a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l l e v e l  panded t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g islands.  they  c o n s t r a i n t s on p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t s , and t h e n ,  only to a l i m i t e d piecemeal,  into  o f government ex-  activities  on t h e  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n - i n t h e r e g i o n and r i s i n g  i n c o m e s c r e a t i n g a demand f o r v a c a t i o n homes, t h e r e was  indeed  a need f o r g r e a t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l  affairs.  A t t h e same t i m e role  island  i n the planning  earlier  participation  in island  r e s i d e n t s were demanding a g r e a t e r  process.  t i m e s were p r o v i n g  The l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e s o f  t o be i n a d e q u a t e  to deal with the  situation. The  Regional  Districts  for  the i s l a n d s .  and  demanded a s a y i n l o c a l  result  C o m p e t i n g g r o u p s made t h e i r  some o f t h e R e g i o n a l  provisions  interests public  p l a n n i n g on t h e i s l a n d s . Districts  f o r public participation  m u n i t y p l a n s were d e v e l o p e d resenting  assumed t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s  developed  a concensus o f views.  prepared  somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y  regional  representative.  extensive  and i n t h e s e  which probably  As a  cases  com-  came c l o s e t o r e p -  In o t h e r cases  plans  under t h e d i r e c t i o n  were  of the  The p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n was  definitely  e x p a n d i ng. A t t h e same t i m e felt  environmental  concerns  were  being  t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t and p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  came t o be a v a l i d  criterion  f o r making d e c i s i o n s .  Demands  1 32  FIGURE  1  POLITICAL  & PLANNING PROCESSES:STAGE  ONE  1 33  for  increased environmental  and  special  interest  the P r o v i n c i a l As their  groups,  these spheres  the ' r i g h t '  f o r the i s l a n d s ,  the p r o v i n c i a l The  policy  of c o n t r o l l e d  developed^.eva  1  next stage  m i g h t be d e v e l o p e d  in  the p o l i c y .  t h e r e emerged a  Figurem  2 illustrates  a general p o l i c y  f o r the  i n the process o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n institutional  of actualizing  policy  the o b j e c t i v e s  of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g Such an a p p r o a c h  to extend  by c r e a t i n g  framework t h a t on t h e i s l a n d s . contained  t a k e n was t o l e g i t i m i z e  nature of s o c i a l  i s l a n d s and a t t e m p t s  decision-makers,  .  so f a r d e s c r i b e d .  these processes  between  d u r i n g which  The a p p r o a c h  extent the interests  evolutionary  differing  d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s e r v a t i o n  to implement p r o v i n c i a l  i s t h e problem  spheres  over  o f t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by  and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  was t o s y n t h s i e z e an a l t e r n a t i v e  This  members o f g o v e r n m e n t .  responsibilities  i n t h e form  stage of the process  The  from  committee i n September, 1973.  planners, islanders  islands  i n c r e a s e d i n scope*  'creative c o n f l i c t '  thus evolved out o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s  this  Branch.  of the i s l a n d e r s , w h i l e a t the  of the elected  objectives anddi11-defined  within  L o c a l p l a n n i n g was b e c o m i n g ,  o f what m i g h t be c a l l e d  policy  as t h e H e a l t h  of a c t i v i t y  functions overlapped.  same t i m e , t h e c o n c e r n  by l o c a l  and a l s o by some d e p a r t m e n t s  government such  some p o i n t s o f v i e w  Out  c o n t r o l s were e x p r e s s e d  and p o l i t i c a l the spheres  a system  t o some  i n the a c t i v i t y recognizes the processes  on t h e  of influence of  of structures  to achieve  REGIONAL  STAFF  PROVINCIALLINE AGENCIES REGIONAL  &  PROVINCIAL REPRESENTATIVES  .POLICY  ADVISORY  PLANNING  COMMISSIONS  INTEREST GROUPS  FIGURE  2  POLITICAL  &  PLANNING  PROCESSES: STAGE  TWO  135 specified given  goals.  These s t r u c t u r e s  t h e mandate t o c a r r y o u t s p e c i f i c  passage of l e g i s l a t i o n In t h i s functions  conceptualization  endowed w i t h  to a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s  Council  m i g h t be e l e c t e d  tension  mission'  by t h e f o r m a t i o n  by i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s on t h e i s l a n d s .  This  Planning  o r s i m i l a r body w h i c h w o u l d and  level.  to approve plans An  to c o - o r d i n a t e  of  or  councils  of c a r r y i n g  out  policy guidelines.  A  to c a r r y out the is a logical  Committees.  o n t h e i s l a n d s w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d  guidelines local  function  the group a c t i v i t i e s  under g i v e n  of the e x i s t i n g Advisory  interests  be  f u n c t i o n s , by t h e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  actions  planning  would  f o r the i s l a n d s .  become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  or committees  local  or i n s t i t u t i o n s  ex-  Provincial  by a ' T r u s t  Com-  have t h e power t o s e t p o l i c y  and b y l a w s p r e p a r e d a t t h e  i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of the Commission  among t h e v a r i o u s  would  p r o v i n c i a l departments  be  and  agenci es. Legitimizing difficult  task.  Committees existing  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s i s a much more  In t h i s  could  regard  i t i s thought that  be e s t a b l i s h e d  resident's  on each  associations  i s l a n d , e i t h e r through  or independently.  o f s u c h a c o m m i t t e e m i g h t be t o i n s t i t u t e tion  measures,  residents  m o n i t o r changes  and v i s i t o r s  Environment  The  role  environmental protec-  i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and  educate  on a r e a s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n .  Outputs of such a system would a r i s e out of the areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y The  Commission,  o f the v a r i o u s  i n consultation with  joint  legitimized interests.  local  is!and Sounci1s ,  1 36 would develop p o l i c y  g u i d e l i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l  o f d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e i s l a n d s . of  environmental  for  Local  Councils with  g r o u p s w o u l d p r e p a r e more s p e c i f i c  the advice regulations  s u c h t h i n g s as t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f w a t e r s h e d a r e a s .  ment C o m m i t t e e s w o u l d make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and  through  i t other  provincial  agencies  Environ-  to the Commission,  to i n t r o d u c e  criteria  f o r d e c i s i o n s b a s e d on " c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s and  the i s l a n d  improved The  environment.  legislation  resulting  ticipation  These groups might a l s o lobby f o r  and r e g u l a t i o n s on c o n s e r v a t i o n  outputs  measures.  w o u l d be d e p e n d e n t upon t h e a c t i v e  of the various  g r o u p members, t h e c o n t i n u o u s  parinter-  actions  o f t h e g r o u p s and t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y , and t h e a v a i l -  ability  of information Implicit  high  i n a useful  in this  degree of i n t e r a c t i o n  between g r o u p s .  dialogue, could making  institutional among  On more s p e c i f i c  concensus i s not l i k e l y  form.  p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n and policies  turn p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t The c o n c e p t u a l  structures  to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e p r o v i n c i a l  in  3. In a s s e s s i n g  conceptual should  total  into creative decisionframwork o f a s e t o f policy  the d e c i s i o n processes  framework, the f o l l o w i n g general  be c o n s i d e r e d  and p r o g r a m s  but the committee framework, emphasizing  (Friedman, 1973).  Figure  a r r a n g e m e n t w o u l d be a  is illustrated  implicit normative  ( F o x and P e t e r s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) :  i n the criteria  1 37  FIGURE  .  PROPOSED  3 POLITICAL  & PLANNING  FRAMEWORK  1 38 1.  The i n d i v i d u a 1 s h o u l d have r e a s o n a b l e access to i nformation about the c o n s e q u e n c e s of a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n .  2.  The i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d be a b l e t o c o m m u n i cate h i s p r e f e r e n c e s to those r e s p o n s i b l e t o r making t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n on b e h a l f of s o c i e t y .  3.  S i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t hope t o be f u l l y i n f o r m e d on a l l i s s u e s , he s h o u l d be a b l e t o p e r m i t a g r o u p o r a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l w i t h whom he i d e n t i f i e s t o c o m m u n i cate his preferences.  4.  The i n d i v i d u a l , o r t h e g r o u p w i t h w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e s , s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e h i s v i e w s t o o t h e r s i n an e f f o r t t o s e c u r e a d h e r e n t s t o h i s own p r e f e r e n c e s .  5. A s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s com-prop r o rim ises "among i n d i v i d u a l s ( o r t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) whereby l e s s e r p r e f e r e n c e s are foregone in o r d e r to secure acceptance of g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e s . Decision-making proc e s s e s s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t y p e of t r a d i n g among p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s .  8.2  Suggested S t r u c t u r e The  of the Islands  development o f a conceptual  a s e t o f s t r u c t u r e s o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l alize  provincial  called for  an I s l a n d s  the  Council  policy.  Trust  Trust.  This  arrangement to o p e r a t i o n -  institutional  Trust  arrangement i s recommended  C o m m i s s i o n and an e l e c t e d  A secondary s t r u c t u r e i s the Environ-  ment C o m m i t t e e , c a T o c a T ^ o r g a n i z a t i o n work t o promote  framework s u g g e s t s  The p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e s  are the Islands  f o r each i s l a n d .  Trust  environmental  which would" „  interests.  139  8.2.1  Commi s s i o n The  included Matters  i n i t s r e p o r t to the l e g i s l a t u r e .  is  purpose l e g i s l a t i o n  the establishment  sent  provincial  intended  analyzed  of a s i m i l a r  ( s t a t e ) and l o c a l  spread  and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  interests.  Commission  local  members w o u l d be t h e e i g h t R e g i o n a l  o f t h e government departments  and p r o v i n c i a l  interests.  i s recommended t o be provincial  interests.  interests The e i g h t  D i r e c t o r s who w o u l d assume r e s p e c t i v e Regional  B e c a u s e an e l e v e n member C o m m i s s i o n m i g h t be  difficult  t o g e t h e r f r e q u e n t l y i t i s recommended t h a t an  Executive  Committee local  The C o m m i s s i o n  powers  f u n c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o s e r v i n g on t h e i r  call  provided  A t t h e same t i m e t h e C o m m i s s i o n  and e i g h t members t o r e p r e s e n t  Boards.  study  among v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l  composed o f t h r e e members t o r e p r e s e n t  to  i n this  commission or board to r e p r e -  be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f b o t h l o c a l An eleven-member  this  In a d d i t i o n , a l l  to c o n s o l i d a t e decision-making  which a r e c u r r e n t l y  should  o f an I s l a n d s T r u s t C o m m i s s i o n i s  i n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s made by t h e C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l  the s i m i l a r for  establishment  be f o r m e d t o i n c l u d e two p r o v i n c i a l  members i n c l u d i n g  members and t h r e e  the chairman of the Commission.  The  E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h matters p e r t a i n i n g to i n d i v i d u a l Committee  For example, the  c o u l d a p p r o v e amendments t o p l a n s and b y l a w s and  applications The  islands.  f o r l a n d use c o n t r a c t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i s l a n d  application  i s being  considered  of t h e E x e u c t i v e Committee  island.  f o r w h i c h t h e amendment o r should  s i t as a v o t i n g  f o r each c a s e i n v o l v i n g  that  member island.  140  The major recommendations is  would be:  being followed  controls;  (2)  departments  goals of the Commission as o u t l i n e d  on the  and agencies  that p r o v i n c i a l  through the e x e r c i s e  those programs of other  which e f f e c t  functions  development  p r e p a r a t i o n • a n d a d o p t i o n of g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i s l a n d s .  2.  approval  of  of  on the  bylaws.  a p p r o v a l o f amendments t o p l a n s and b y laws and l a n d use c o n t r a c t s ( i . e . a f u n c t i o n of t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e ) .  4.  a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s t o a s s i s t i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a n s and b y l a w s on t h e i s l a n d s and t o c a r r y o u t s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s p r o p o s e d by i s l a n d g r o u p s .  5.  p r e p a r a t i o n of  6.  c o - o t i d i n a t i on of t h e p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n on t h e i s l a n d s .  7.  co-operation with authori t i es.  8.  c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of  Island  regulations.  regional information the T r u s t .  Councils  by d e c i s i o n s  this author's  subdivision  and  islands. include:  . 3.  local  various  policy  community p l a n s and  model  policy  provincial  of the Commission would  1.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n affected  to ensure  islands  to co-ordinate  The primary  8.2.2  (1)  by these  of decision-making  on the i s l a n d s  proposal.  Hence i t  is  is  powers to  one of the goals  recommended that  those of  elected  141  I s l a n d C o u n c i l s be e s t a b l i s h e d on each i s l a n d .  A possible  mechanism f o r the c r e a t i o n of these c o u n c i l s would be the d e s i g n a t i o n of each i s l a n d a ' d e v e l o p i n g 798 CA of the M u n i c i p a l A c t .  community'  under  Section  Under t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n each i s l a n d  would e l e c t a f i v e member A d v i s o r y  Council  to a s s i s t  the  Regional D i r e c t o r  and to a d v i s e the Regional Board as does  e x i s t i n g Advisory  P l a n n i n g Commission.  g i v e the i s l a n d A d v i s o r y  The l e g i s l a t i o n  Councils additional of  a community  the  would  functions:  1.  preparation  plan  2.  p r e p a r a t i o n of a z o n i n g include regulations for  bylaw w h i c h m i g h t subdivisions  3.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f u n d s of p l a n s and b y l a w s  for  4.  c o - o r d i n a t i o n between i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d and t h e G u l f Islands T r u s t Comm i ss i on  5.  p r e p a r a t i o n and/or s u b m i s s i o n to the C o m m i s s i o n of p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o j e c t s by e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r community g r o u p s on t h e islands.  the  preparation  In a d d i t i o n the I s l a n d C o u n c i l s should be assured access to i n f o r m a t i o n from v a r i o u s Commission.  They s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e  of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the  8.2.3  Environment It  d e p a r t m e n t s , through intput  to the  the  formulation  islands in general.  Committees  i s recommended t h a t the f o r m a t i o n of  Environment  Committees be encouraged by the T r u s t Commission through p r o v i s i o n of funds f o r environmental  protection.  the  T h i s would  142 serve to l e g i t i m i z e environmental i n t e r e s t s which have up to now, been g i v e n l i t t l e formal r e c o g n i t i o n and have s u f f e r e d from l a c k of f u n d i n g  ( H a s k e l l , 1971).  I t would a l s o  serve  as another avenue of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s .  An  additional  provision  and extremely i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t might be the  of some measure of p r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of Environment Committees should come about through the l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s . committees might develop as committees of e x i s t i n g  Such  resident's  a s s o c i a t i o n s which are a l r e a d y w e l l o r g a n i z e d on most i s l a n d s , or they might e v o l v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y .  The i s l a n d A d v i s o r y  Councils  would submit p r o p o s a l s f o r f u n d i n g of these g r o u p s , along w i t h 3 t h e i r recommendations to the Commission f o r i t s C r i t e r i a for judging 1.  degree  p r o p o s a l s might i n c l u d e :  to  which  environmental 2.  provisions which  3.  are  for not  proposal  objectives  the  being  and  local  met education  v i s i t o r s participation  Examples of a c c e p t a b l e p r o j e c t s litter  Trust  protection  environmentaI  residents  opportunities for  4*  supports of  environmental currently  opportunities for o f 'vj s I a n d  approval.  might i n c l u d e a n t i -  programs, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of nature t r a i l s and 3  The procedure f o r f u n d i n g might be s i m i l a r to t h a t c u r r e n t l y used by the F e d e r a l Government i n i t s O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth Program.  1 43  observation areas, and the introduction of public school programs on island ecosystems.  An example of a project which is  already underway on Denman and Hornby Islands is the protection of island beaches from o i l s p i l l s ; the community group on these islands has purchased peat moss to soak up o i l from the island beaches in emergency situations. The functions of such environmental projects might include: 1.  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of eontroIs;  various  environmental  2.  environmental m o n i t o r i n g ; communication of p o s s i b l e i n f r i n g e m e n t s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l laws t o t h e p r o p e r a u t h o r i t y ;  3.  environmental  4.  input of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l v i e w t o i s l a n d p l a n s and t o g u i deI i n e s ;  5.  recommendations to a p p r o p r i a t e bodies f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of w i l d l i f e and c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s and E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s on t h e i s l a n d s ;  6.  c o - o r d i n a t i o n with on ocf/her i s l a n d s .  education; p o i n t of policy  Environmental  Committees  These Environment Committees would be l o c a l l y organized with voluntary membership and l o c a l l y proposed programs. The only contribution of the Trust Commission would be the provision of funds for such groups to operate.  The basic c r i t e r i o n  for establishing funding of these groups would be compliance of their functions with the intent of the Islands Trust l e g i s lation and provincial policy.  1 44 8.2.4  Procedure Procedures  within tion  t o be f o l l o w e d by t h e v a r i o u s  t h e T r u s t must be an i m p o r t a n t  i f the goals  expressed  bodies  component o f t h e l e g i s l a -  i n the previous  chapter  a r e t o be  realized. It  i s the author's  opinion that participation i n  p l a n n i n g must come a t an e a r l y ingful.  i f i t i s t o be t r u l y mean-  I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n  proposals  f o r policy  be a d o p t e d o n l y a f t e r individuals,  guidelines f o r the islands  islands  I s l a n d C o u n c i l s and R e g i o n a l Several  In t h i s  be w e l l  publicized  and made r e a d i l y  should  be h e l d on  or groups to p r e s e n t  r e s p e c t the proposed p o l i c y  When t h e C o m m i s s i o n f i n a l l y give reasons  these  B o a r d s t o comment and  p u b l i c hearings  t o a l l o w any i n d i v i d u a l s  views.  and t h a t  prepare  t h e r e has been a d e q u a t e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . the  stage  g u i d e l i n e s should  available  adopts p o l i c y  their  to the p u b l i c .  g u i d e l i n e s , i t should  f o r any c h a n g e s and a l t e r a t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t have  been made. The p r o c e d u r e as w e l l  as amendments  f o r the adoption  o f p l a n s and b y l a w s  i s a l s o o f extreme importance.  recommended t h a t p l a n s , b y l a w s and amendments the  I s l a n d Counci1 , t h e Regional  A f t e r approval effective It  a t these  upon t h e a p p r o v a l  to approval  of the Lieutenant-Governor  being  Commission.  t h e p l a n o r bylaw  i s a l s o recommended t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g  Commission p r i o r  be a p p r o v e d by  B o a r d and t h e T r u s t  three levels  It is  granted  becomes in Council.  be h e l d by t h e  and t h a t a d e q u a t e n o t i c e  145  o f s u c h h e a r i n g s be  given  for  g r o u p s t o make  i n d i v i d u a l s and  and  adequate o p p o r t u n i t i e s representations.  I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t b y l a w amendment o r a l a n d proof that  the  This  onus on  the  ensure that  contract  the  be  applicant for a  required  to  submit  proposed development conforms to a l i s t  r e q u i r e m e n t s s p e c i f i e d by Trust.  use  provided  the  legislation  'burden o f p r o o f  of  or r e g u l a t i o n s  p r o v i s i o n which puts the  applicant, is felt  t o be  an  proper a t t e n t i o n i s given  of  the  reverse  i m p o r t a n t mechanism  to p r o t e c t i o n of the  to island  envi ronment. Further  procedural  recommendations i n c l u d e  for  p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s , plans  and  p r o v i s i o n f o r a p p e a l s on  E n v i r o n m e n t a a n d Land Use  decisions  Committee of  of the the  and  provision bylaws,  Commission to  the  P r o v i n c i a l government.  Chapter 9  RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR  GULF  9.1  LEGISLATION  ISLANDS  Legislation  i n t e n t of the l e g i s l a t i o n  which would o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the p o l i c y and  conservation  tion  on t h e i s l a n d s .  have been made w i t h  THE  TRUST  I n t e n t and S c o p e o f P r o p o s e d The  FOR  i s to implement c o n t r o l s  of controlled  development  Recommendations f o r l e g i s l a -  the goals  expressed  i n C h a p t e r 8 mn  mind. The follow  suggestions  are expressed  f o rGulf  Islands l e g i s l a t i o n  i n considerable d e t a i l .  number o f i d e a s w h i c h a r e n o t o r d i n a r i l y This  i s particularly  the B r i t i s h  of being  to  the suggested  provide  lative  in legislation. which f o l l o w s  which  i s more d e s c r i p t i v e .  p r o v i s i o n s have been p r e s e n t e d  i n this  Howmanner  and more e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l e g i s -  and r e g u l a t i v e c o n t r o l s w h i c h a r e recommended f o r t h e  islands. likely  a fuller  expressed  c o n c i s e and t o t h e p o i n t as  opposed to American l e g i s l a t i o n ever  They embody a  t r u e f o r Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n  tradition  which  I t i s appreciated that the actual l e g i s l a t i o n  be b r i e f e r and l e s s  specific  146  i n some  areas.  would  147  It tained  i s also recognized  i n the author's  realistically  suggestions  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  bylaws o f the T r u s t  t h a t a number o f p r o v i s i o n s c o n -  into  forlegislation,  regulations or operating  Commission, f o l l o w i n g passage o f the l e g i s l a -  tion  by t h e [ L e g i s l a t u r e .  not,  i n any c o m p r e h e n s i v e way, i n c o r p o r a t e d  arrived tion.  at values,  m i g h t more  Moreover, t h e recommendations  necessary  have  the p o l i t i c a l l y -  i n the preparation  o f any l e g i s l a -  The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e one  a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d  by t h e l e g i s l a t o r s  and  the p u b l i c . The Islands Trust author  f o l l o w i n g recommendations  to e s t a b l i s h a Gulf  i n c l u d e a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s recommended by t h e  as a r e s u l t o f h e r r e s e a r c h  on t h e s u b j e c t .  For c l a r i t y  and c o n v e n i e n c e a l e g i s l a t i v e  f o r m a t has been f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t .  9.2  Bill  Gulf  Islands Trust  Model  Preamble It (I) and n a t u r a l  is  recognized The G u l f  values.  Islands  Both the  have a common i n t e r e s t and f u t u r e  that:  generations.  have  island  in conserving  unique e c o l o g i c a l , residents  and t h e  these values  for  scenic Province  present  148  (2) controlled  These v a l u e s  Existing  be i n a d e q u a t e t o (4)  and  this  un-  arrangements  appear  to  situation.  insure  protection  action  should  theepeppibewoftitrhePPtsoviince  of  between  the  islands  provincial,  regional  Galiano,  Keats,  Lasqueti,  while  interest  maintaining special  emphasis  Trust Area" or  Saltspring,  Saturna,  Kuper,  North  "Gulf  communities.  Islands"  Pender,  Thetis,  Denman, Hornby and  in the s u r r o u n d i n g  in the  existing  out  --  Island  Islands:  Mayne,  be c a r r i e d  and enhancement of  I n t e r p r e t a t i on  following  South  Gabriola,  including  means  the  Pender,  Bowen,  smaller  Gambier,  islands  waters.  Purpose While  relating the  to  Such a c t i o n  "Gulf  2.  with  In o r d e r  on p r e s e r v a t i o n  I .  by  authorities. (5)  of  deal  institutional  i s a need t o c o - o r d i n a t e  local  threatened  development. (3)  there  are c u r r e n t l y  local  powers  to the people  and f u n d s  it  is  future  recognized of  the  themselves, available  that  most of  the  islands  belongs  in the  it  is a l s o  at the  recognized  provincial  level  decisionmaking hands  that are  of  the essential  149  to c o n t r o l Islands. the  d e v e l o p m e n t of It  islands  is therefore for  (1) having  present  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e t h e p u r p o s e of  and f u t u r e  conservation  of  this  Act to  generations  t h o s e a r e a s of  important scenic,, h i s t o r i c ,  l a n d s on t h e  preserve  and t o the  archeoIogicaI  Gulf  include:  islands and  ecological  values; (2) dential the  l a n d use p o l i c y  use;  rural  moderate r e c o r e a t i o n a I  transit (4)  shoreline  l a n d use p o l i c y on t h e  of  rather  of  and t h e e c o l o g i c a l  surrounding  which emphasizes p e d e s t r i a n  islands  preservation  (5)  the  than v e h i c l e  natural  high water  exist  and  transit;  c h a r a c t e r of  communities t h a t  m a i n t e n a n c e of  the  thereon;  quality  standards  in  p u b l i c access to the  foreshore  where  waters;  (6)  g u a r a n t e e of  adequate c o n t r o l s (7) existing  use and p r e s e r v a t i o n  resi-  atmosphere; .(3)  bicycle  which emphasizes moderate  are  provided;  preservation  island communities.  of  the  integrity  and v i a b i l i t y  of  1 50  3.  Trust  Commission  (The C o m m i s s i o n estabI i shed)  is  ( I ) A commission s h a l l  be e s t a b l i s h e d  t o be known as t h e " G u l f Trust  Commission" t o c a r r y out  duties  in the Gulf  Area, hereafter Gulf (2)  Islands  Islands  Trust  r e f e r r e d t o as t h e  Islands.  This  commission s h a l l  be composed  as f o l l o w s : (a)  s e v e n members t o the  islands.  would  These  members  be t h e s e v e n  island  Regional  elected  Directors  from t h e e x i s t i n g  Regional  District  Areas  Electoral  (Outer Gulf Spring;  Islands;  Bowen;  Keats;  and T h e t i s ;  Lasqueti;  Kuper  and H o r n b y ) .  representatives  appointed  Salt  Gabriola;  Gambler'and  Denman These  represent  shall  t o t h e Commission  be at the  same t i m e as t h e y a r e e l e c t e d t o the  Regional  Board.  1 51  Comment Each I s l a n d o r group o f I s l a n d s would t h e r e f o r e e I e c t one r e p resentative. T h i s p e r s o n would s e r v e a d u a l p u r p o s e as member of b o t h t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d and T r u s t C o m m i s s i o n . This w o u l d r e q u i r e o n l y one e l e c t i o n f o r b o t h p o s i t i o n s ; a c h i e v e c o o r d i n a t i o n between R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p r o g r a m s and p o l i c i e s and t h o s e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ; and e n s u r e t h e i s l a n d e r s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e C o m m i s s i o n . (b)  t h r e e members a p p o i n t e d by the  Lieutenant-Governor in  Council  t o r e p r e s e n t broad  provincial (CCha i r p e r s o n )  ,(•3.)  interests.  The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l shall  d e s i g n a t e one member t o  c h a i r t h e Commission. w o u l d work  full  T h i s member  time f o r the  Comm i s s i o n . (C.ompensa t i on )  (4)  Members o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n receive a salary  Executive  plus  shall  expenses.  Committee  ( E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an an E x e c u t i v e Comm. o f the Commission) ( I ) A 5 person Executive shall  be e s t a b l i s h e d  Committee t o be com-  posed o f members o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n Comment The p u r p o s e o f t h i s group w o u l d be t o f u n c t i o n as t h e " c o r e " o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ; i t would h a n d l e t h e main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work l o a d and meet more f r e q u e n t l y on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  152  (Compos i t i on)  (2)  C o m m i t t e e sha I I c o n -  The E x e c u t i v e sist  o f 3 p r o v i n c i a l members i n -  cluding  the chairperson  of the  c o m m i s s i o n , and 2 i s l a n d members. T h e s e members w o u l d a majority  be e l e c t e d by  vote o f t h e whole  comm i s s i o n . (Power o f t h e Execut i ve Comm i s s i oh)  (3)  The E x e c u t i v e the on  Committee s h a l l  power t o a c t f o r : t h e c o m m i s s i o n c e r t a i n m a t t e r s as s p e c i f i e d  under s e c t i o n Comm i s s i o n  have  6 of t h i s A c t .  Staff  (EmpIoyees)  (1)  The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I  be f r e e t o  a p p o i n t an e x e c u t i v e  o f f i c e r and  other employees, strative as  including  and p l a n n i n g  i tfinds  admini-  personnel,  necessary t o carry  out. i t s d u t i e s . ( P r o f e s s i ona I ) Cons u I t a n t s )  (2)  The c o m m i s s i o n s h a I I be f r e e t o engage s u c h o t h e r services req u i re .  professional  as t h e y may r e a s o n a b l y  1 53  (Ava i I a b I e s t a f f t o I s l a n d Adv i s o r y Cou nc i I s )  (3)  The  commission shalI  staff  available  Advisory  ( O f f i c e and ma i i ng add r e s s )  (4)  preparation  The  commission s h a l l  (Bylaws)  of  its  Island  assist  office  should  be where  the  are  plans  an  The  the  commission  and where  plans.  establish  and m a i l i n g a d d r e s s .  of  in  community  office  records and  to  the  conducted  Bylaws  to the  Councils  business  6.  make  ordinary is and  kept.  Resolutions i  The  c o m m i s s i o n may make s u c h  and p a s s s u c h considers  resolutions  necessary  conduct  the  the  c o m m i s s i o n ; and may make  to the  resolutions  affairs  with  t i m e and p l a c e of  and h o l d i n g to  the  meetings,  be f o l l o w e d  at the  and gene ra M y w i t h conduct  of  the  of bylaws  respect calling  the  procedure  meetings,  respect  affairs  it  advisable  for  and p a s s  of  or  as  bylaws  of  mission;  and may r e p e a l ,  re-enact  them.  to the  the com-  amend,  or  1 54  7.  Powers of  the Commission  (The powers l i s t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e f e r mission unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d . ) (PoI i cy lines)  Guide-  (I)  Within  120 days  d a t e of shall Island  this  the  Act,  Advisory Boards  ested groups  the commission Minister,  to  effected  and o t h e r  inter-  individuals  proposed  guidelines  consistent  p u r p o s e of  this  to such t h i n g s  effective  Councils,  and  request,  w h o l e Com-  from the  submit to the  Regional  their  to  upon  policy  with  Act with  the respect  as:  transportation  t o and f r o m  the  islands development of  parklands,  open s p a c e and  recreational  facilities  public  which  are  compatible  with • preserving  the  environment  water  quality  foreshore  standards  accessibility  and  co nt ro I s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of classification  a "forever  for  un i que.-j:l:a'nds-tot-;be from f u r t h e r  certain protected  development •  wild"  1 55  ( N o t i c e t o Loca Authorities f o r comment)  (a)  the  capacity  for  future  Within  60 days of  Advisory  K-Pub I tcHLlea M i n g s on P o l i c y Gu i deI i nes )  (b)  Councils,  interested  mission  in w r i t i n g ,  Within  60 days o f  of  proposed  hearings  shall  to the of  public  public  by  the  at  and  of  which  private  have t h e  opportunity  s t a t e m e n t s and v i e w s  proposed  guidelines.  such h e a r i n g s  l i s h e d and p o s t e d weeks  to  least five  islands  should  present  etc.,  be h e l d  c o m m i s s i o n on a t  pro-  submission  guidelines  Councils,  com-  to the  the  Advisory  parties  indi-  comments on  changes  guidelines.  interested  Boards  submit to the  posed  of  guidelines,  g r o u p s and  shall  the e f f e c t e d  receipt  Regional  viduals  the  islands  the  policy  and s u g g e s t e d  ( .  the  growth  such proposed  and  of  i n advance.  should at  Notice be  least  pubthree  on  1 56  ( A d o p t i o n of Gu i deI i nes)  (c)  W i t h i n , 30 days last  public  following  hearing  mission shall  the  the com-  officially  adopt a r e v i s e d  s e t of  policy  gui d e I i n es . (Approval By Iaws )  of  Plans  and  (2)  The  commission s h a l l ,  public  hearing  Section  9 of  community for  as s p e c i f i e d  this  plans  each of  Act,  the Gulf  submit approved  plans  and z o n i n g  (3)  for  their  final  The  Executive  approve bylaws  Islands  shall  and  community  bylaws in  to  the  Council  approval.  Committee of  c o m m i s s i o n on b e h a l f  of  the  the com-  mission shall  be r e s p o n s i b l e  approving  amendments t o c o m -  munity  all  plans;  zoning  l a n d use c o n t r a c t s . island  is  on t h e  Executive  member f o r  not  bylaws Where  directly  that  a  under  and z o n i n g  Lieutenant-Governor  ( A p p r o v a l of Amendments t o P l a n s , B y l a w s and Land use C o n t r a c t s )  following  for  and an  represented  Committee,  the  island shalI  be  1 57  called the  t o s i t on t h e c o m m i t t e e  p u r p o s e s of  considering  for  that  application. (4)  The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I  be empowered  to : (A I l o c a t i o n of Comm i s s i o n Funds)  <)  (a.)  a l l o c a t e funds assist  and/or s t a f f  in the p r e p a r a t i o n  to  of  community p l a n s and z o n i n g bylaws. (b)  a l l o c a t e funds to support vironmental  or  studies  whose aims a r e  protect  the environment  to  further  pose of (c)  projects  promote the  applications  for  and pur-  projects  the approval Advisory  the  are  i n t e n t of  for  local  subject  Councils  such p r o j e c t s the  of  re-direct  funds  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of  with  to  thisAct.  a l l o c a t e funds or to  munity  en-  comto  Island  provided in keeping the  Act.  1 58  (5)  The  c o m m i s s i o n may p r e p a r e  subdivision•reguI ations islands.  The A d v i s o r y  may use t h e model regulations zoning (6)  the  Councils  in the p r e p a r a t i o n  of  bylaws.  to c o - o r d i n a t e  the  for  subdivision  The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l  other  model  endeavour  the programs  provincial  of  departments  i s l a n d s so t h a t  they  of  on  comply  with  the  purposes  this  Act.  (a)  The  c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l make  ( A c q u i s i t i o n of Land under t h e Land C o m m i s s i o n )  recommendations to the Commission f o r  Land  the  acquisi-  land  (green  belts,  conservation  areas,  etc.)  tion  of  where s u c h necessary this  lands are for  thought  the purposes  of  Act.  ( P a r k P l a n n i n g and Co-ordination)  (b)  The  commission s h a l l ,  operation of  the  R e c r e a t i o n and  tion, of  with  co-ordinate  a s y s t e m of  in  co-  Department Conservathe  green  planning belts,  159  marine p r o t e c t o r a t e s  and c o n -  servation  a r e a s on t h e  Islands.  Where p a r k s  conservation strict be  Gulf and  areas are  controls  planned,  on u s e r s  shall  enforced.  Comment: Such a p a r k s y s t e m s h o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h e x i s t i n g pI ans o f t h e P a r k s B r a n c h and a l s o w i t h l o c a l community p l a n s . Since the Land C o m m i s s i o n a l r e a d y has t h e power t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r p a r k s , g r e e n b e l t s and c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s as does t h e D e p a r t m e n t of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , a d u p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f u n c t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o be u n n e c e s s a r y . It i s t h o u g h t t h a t the d o n a t i o n of l a n d t o t h e Crown o r s a l e o f . l a n d a t l e s s t h a n m a r k e t v a l u e s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h t h e use of t a x i n c e n t i v e s and c o n cessions. Such a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be made p u b l i c t o a t t r a c t d o n o r s and s e l l e r s . (Approval  of  Crown L e a s e s )  (c)  The  Executive  C o m m i t t e e of  t h e e o m m i s s i o n on of  the commission s h a l l  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  to  the  for  Lands D e p a r t m e n t  the approval  (Pits  behalf  of  alI  Crown  l e a s e s on t h e G u l f  Islands  including  foreshore  and  water  I eases .  I of  and  Quarries)  (d.)  The of  Executive  Committee  t h e c o m m i s s i o n , on  behalf  of  the commission,  160  shall  make recommenda-  tions  t o t h e Department  of  Highways re t h e s i t i n g  of  pits  and q u a r r i e s o r  re a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s of g r a v e l  supplies f o r  the purposes  of road  works  on t h e i s l a n d s . (Bridges  &  Tunnels)  (e)  B e c a u s e expanded  access  t o t h e i s l a n d s would  be  contradictory  t o the pur-  poses  Act,  of t h i s  i t  s h a l I be t h e p o l i c y o f the commission courage of  the construction  any b r i d g e ,  tunnel,  to dis-  causeway,  or other d i r e c t  v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s from t h e mainland Islands Gulf  to the Gulf o r between t h e  Islands.  (Access to Foreshore)  (f)  It shall  be t h e p o l i c y o f  the commission courage  t o en-  p u b l i c access t o  161  the  foreshore  to the  according  provisions  Land R e g i s t r y  of  Act  I 960  c . 2 0 8 s . 8 6 , where controls (Co-operation Reg i onaI Authorities)  can be  the  adequate  provided.  with (7)  The  commission s h a l l  close co-operation regional (Access to Prov. Dept. Informat ion)  (8)  The  facilitate  with  the  to  for  access  & Land  information  provincial  necessary  have  Environment  Secretariat, other  and  authorities.  commission shalI  through  local  of  departments  the  Use  deemed  functioning  of  designate  each  t h e comm i s s i o n . Island  Advisory  ( D e s i g n a t i o n of G u l f I s l a n d s as Developing Commun i t i es  Councils  (I)  The M i n i s t e r of ing of  the Gulf  shall Islands  community'  as a  under  S e c t i o n 798CA  the M u n i c i p a l A c t .  Advisory elected  Council for  each  to the procedure  'develop-  An  Island  would then island set  be  according  down  in  1 62  Subsection of (Powers of Cou nc i Is)  Advisory  (2)  (3)  the M u n i c i p a l  In a d d i t i o n forth  for  Advisory Plans)  (a)  the Advisory  Councils  (b)  inclusive  with  intent  (c)  of  community  Municipal  existing  of  comply  this the  Act Province  bylaw  which  subdivision implement  regu-  the  plan.  H o l d one o r  process  as  695 t o  i s l a n d to  Prepare a zoning  formation  the  A c t s of  to  plan  the  each  commun i t y Meetings)  of  plan for  lations  Islands  Sections  revise  the  in  shall:  under  may i n c l u d e  (Information  Councils  defined  or  set  Act the Gulf  and o t h e r Bylaws)  powers  a community  Act,  798CA  Act.  Prepare  700  (Zo n i ng  Section  to the  the M u n i c i p a l  (Commu n i t y  of  more p u b l i c  meetings  during  preparing p l a n and  inthe  the zoning  bylaw. (Rece i p t & A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of F u n d s )  (d)  R e c e i v e and a d m i n i s t e r  funds  for  plans.  the  preparation  of  163  ( C o - o r d i n a t i ng Function)  (3)  Serve  as an a d v i s o r y  and  co-  ordinating  body between  island  residents,  the Regional  District  and t h e c o m m i s s i o n . (Proposalsfor Environmental munity  & Com-  Projects)  (f)  Develop  and s u b m i t t o t h e c o m -  mission proposals mental  programs  projects intent (Access  that  of  for  environ-  and community  conform to  this  the  Act.  to  Information)  (3)  Island  Advisory  provided  with  and t e c h n i c a l Regional  access to  it,  departments.  shall  staff  m a t i o n on  various  provincial  The c o u n c i l s  in o b t a i n i n g  local  needed and s h a l I  shall  so  be r e i m b u r s e d any s t u d i e s  requested.  pro-  infor-  island matters  the commission f o r reports  the  and t h e c o m m i s s i o n  a s s i s t t h e c o m m i s s i o n and  vincial  be  information  a s s i s t a n c e from  District  and t h r o u g h  also  Councils  where by or  164  Procedure  for  Approval  ( A p p r o v a l by Co unc i I & Reg i ona I Boa rd  of  (I)  Community P l a n s  and Z o n i n g  No community p l a n o r shall  be a d o p t e d o r  after  a hearing  Subsections and e x c e p t  (2)  Bylaws  zoning  bylaw  repealed  except  under S e c t i o n of  this  Act  upon a m a j o r i t y  vote  of  the A d v i s o r y  and (3)  10,  Council  and t h e  Regiona  Board. ( A p p r o v a l by C o m m i s s i o n & Lieutenant-Governor i n Cou nc i I ) (2)  A plan or section force  bylaw  (I)  does  and e f f e c t  ceived  approval  adopted  not come  into  until  has  of (Ex i s t i ng Community P l a n s )  (3)  it  the  it  this  has r e c e i v e d  Act  the  Where a community p l a n has by t h e R e g i o n a l  to the e f f e c t i v e it  shall  d a t e of  be c o n s i d e r e d  by t h e c o m m i s s i o n i f with  the general  re-  it  intent  and  approval  Lieutenant-Governor  approved  Sub-  by t h e c o m m i s s i o n  under S e c t i o n 6 of until  under  in  Counci  been  Board this  and  prior Act,  approved  complies of  this  Act.  165  (Bylaws  & Plans  Conform)  to ( 4 )  Where  in the o p i n i o n  m i s s i o n any mitted (2)  for  plans or approval  lines  of  the  the Advisory plan or  of  the  bylaws  sub-  or  zoning of  advise  zoning  conflicts  specifies, plan or  form w i t h  the  intent  the  may d e l e g a t e  of  the Advisory  proposals to  the is  one y e a r  con-  Act. submitted  approved  legislation, the  the  s u c h t i m e as  bylaw  plan  commission or  this  plan  guidelines;  to submit w i t h i n  commission w i t h i n  the  the  invite  no community  bylaw  with  the Act and/or policy  adopted  wherein  the  ment of  which  pas'sett t h e  revise  to the  guide-  commission s h a l l  commission should  Where  poI i c y  ( 6 ) of  Council  the M i n i s t e r  the  Section  bylaw  established  Council  Subsection  either  under  particulars  intent  ( R i g h t of Commission to prepare plans) (5)  com-  under  the Act or  developed  the A c t ,  to  the  do not c o n f o r m t o  intent  the  of  of the  preparation  by  the  enactMinister of a  166  commu.n i.ty  plan and/or  by I aw-.,to  the  comm i s s i o n . 0.  Procedure  for  and A p p r o v a l s  Amendments t o of  (Application for Amendments t o Plans & Bylaws)  Land Use  (1)  Community P l a n s and Z o n i n g  Contracts  After  final  plan or or  a d o p t i o n of  zoning  agency  of  bylaw  the  Regional  property  owner  or  zoning  a community  any  department  Province,  affected  commission  (Not i f i c a t i on AppI i c a t i on)  Bylaws  District  may a p p l y  for  any  a change  or  to  any  the  in the  plan  bylaw.  of (2)  Within  10 d a y s o f  appI i c a t i o n Executive referred the  to  of  a copy  of  an  an a m e n d m e n t , t h e  as t h e  affected  Advisory  receipt  Commission,  purposes  forward the  for  the  commission  this of  hereafter  Section,  the  for  shall  application  Regional  Council  for  to  B o a r d and comments and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on t h e  proposed  amendment. ( H e a r i n g on A p p l i c a t i on)  (3)  After  60 days  the o r i g i n a l tion  the  but w i t h i n receipt  of  120 d a y s the  commission s h a l l  of  applica-  advertise  167  a public  hearing  appropriate n o t i c e of  to  island,  the  (Application for Land Use C o n t r a c t ) .  (4.)  Any  in the  local  to the  on t h a t  of  a zone as d e v e l o p m e n t  (5)  into a  to e s t a b l i s h  terms  the  development  the  l a n d as may be  of  agreed  use and  upon.  A l a n d use c o n t r a c t  shalI  entered  commission  into  by t h e  has h e l d a p u b l i c  not  hearing.  Provisions  of  ("3) a p p l y ,  with  and so f a r  as a r e a p p l i c a b l e ,  hearing (6)  and may  for  it  ( S t a t u s of Land Use C o n t r a c t )  areas,  within  and c o n d i t i o n s  mutually ( H e a r i n g on Land Use C o n t r a c t )  the  land  to e n t e r  l a n d use c o n t r a c t  the  may make a p p l i c a -  a r e a s of  make appI i c a t i o n  island  newspaper.  commission f o r  designation  the  posting  n o t i c e of  p r o p e r t y owner  tion  by  hearing  and by p u b l i s h i n g hearing  be h e l d on  under  Subsection the  this  A l a n d use c o n t r a c t a zoning  bylaw  the C o n t r o l l e d  for  be until The  ( 2 ) and  necessary  changes to a  section. i s deemed t o the  purpose  A c c e s s Highways  be  of Act  1  197 1 c . 3 8 s . 5 2 ; ( B u r d e n of  Proof)  (7)  With  respect  1972 c . 3 6 s . 2 8 .  to a p p l i c a t i o n s  t o amendments t o and/or  zoning  community  bylaws,  or  relating  plans  the  use  l a n d u n d e r a l a n d use c o n t r a c t change o r the  use s h a l l  (a)  there  proof  ot  no  be a p p r o v e d  commission unless the  has s u b m i t t e d  68  by  applicant  that:  i s a need f o r  the  use  p roposed (b)  the able  (c)  the  land  is  for  the  landis  ing t h e (d)  the  u s e a b l e and use  or  consideration  not  result  air  pollution  of  elevation  above  nature  the  of  support waste s l o p e of  the  receiving  disposal  of  the sea  soils  in  to  the  adequately the  its  effect  availability  waters  for  effluents;  c a t i o n of- h e a l t h  un-  level;  disposal;  the  in  land  l a n d and  on e f f l u e n t s . ; of  sustain-  proposed  use w i l l  due w a t e r  proposed  c a p a b l e of  use  adapt-  the the  standards  appliand  169  requirements  under  PoI I u t i o n C o n t r o 1 the  i m p a c t s of  the Act  the  disposal  any w a s t e s on t h e and b i o l o g i c a l the (e)  able  communities  for  the  sonable water The  needs of  in  availfore-  develop-  cause  B u r d e n on any  unrea-  existing  s u p p l i es .  unreasonable vehicles  The  the  not  development  trary  water  reasonably  ment and w i l l  (g)  environment  is s u f f i c i e n t  seeable  or  of  area.  There  (f)  (19 6 5 ) ;  not  congestion which  to the  undue a d v e r s e  of  will  effect  natural  cause of  would  intent  development  s c e n i c or  will  people  be c o n this  not on  Act.  have the  beauty  of  the  area. (Ava i Iab i Ii t y of I n f o r m a t i o n at Hearings)  ( 8 ) The  burden of  under  proof  Subsection  available terested  by t h e groups  (7)  requirements shall  be made  commission to and  individuals  inat  1 70  (Decision)  (9)  the  hearing  and s h a l l  for  discussion  The  commission s h a l l  be  at that  hearing.  issue  decision  on a p p l i c a t i o n s  ments t o  plans  cations  for  30 days of and s h a l l  considered  the  for  and b y l a w s  amend-  and  appli-  l a n d use c o n t r a c t s the  give  final  public  reasons  for  within  hearing its  decisions. Periodic (Periodic  Review of Revision)  P l a n s and P o l i c i e s (I)  The  commission s h a l l  policy every (2)  The  guidelines  the  islands  for  5 years.  the  Council,  appropriate review  and z o n i n g every  except  for  each  not  be  a hearing  Subsections  conjunction  Island  and t h e  shalI  after  in  Advisory  t h e community  bylaws  5 years,  and b y l a w s  Act.  its  commission s h a l l ,  with  10,  review  (2)  and  plans  island  revised  plans  adopted under (3)  Section of  this  171  I 2.  Appeals ( A p p e a l s on D e c i s i o n s of Commission)  (I.)  Any  persons,  directly  affected  aggrieved  and  or  respect  amendments t o  agencies  consequently  by a d e c i s i o n  mission with (a.)  government  of  the  com-  to:  community  plans (b)  amendments t o  (c)  application  zoning  for  bylaws  land  use  c o n t r a c t s -• (Written Submissions)  (2)  Subject by t h e  (Costs  to the  procedure  regulations  prescribed  an a p p e a l  Subsection  '01)shall  and r e v i e w  but  the  under  be a h e a r i n g Environment  and Land Use C o m m i t t e e may  accept  written  submissions or  other  form of  evidence.  any  of  Hearing)  (3)  The  Environment  and Land Use Com-  m i t t e e may, a f t e r the appeal  subject  and c o n d i t i o n s  as  a hearing, t o such it  may  allow  terms  consider  1 72 advisable, and  refuse  in the event  refused, of  or  the  the  may o r d e r hearing  the a p p e a l ; appeal  that  is  any  be p a i d by  costs the  appe I I e n t . ( R a r t y on H e a r i n g )  (4)  The  commission i s e n t i t l e d  party  on t h e  hearing  and may t a k e p a r t (Appeal  to Courts)  (5)  Employment  in the  jurisdiction  made t o t h e Local  the  A p p e a l s on a q u e s t i o n of e x c e s s of  I 3.  of  Supreme  to  be a  appeal  proceedings. law  or  only,  may be  Court.  Opportunities  (-.Emp I oymeht Opportunities)  (I)  The c o m m i s s i o n , when any s t u d i e s o r shall  undertaking  p r o g r a m s on t h e  c o n s i d e r wherever  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s island  residents  necessary  possible,  t o employ for  to carry  the  out  island  local  work  these  studies  and p r o g r a m s . ( 2 ) The  commission s h a l l  examine  opportunities  for  of  on t h e  activities  as a q u a c u l t u r e w h i c h would for  local  the  and  provide  the  development islands  such  agriculture, opportunities  employment.  1 73 (Reviewofother Government P r o g rams t o Comp I y with  Act)  ( 2 ) All  provincial  and r e g i o n a l  districts  administrative  and b y l a w s  under  their  Gulf  Islands  Trust  review  regulations,  relating  to  jands  respective  jurisdictions  Islands  ensure  pliance with E x p a n s i o n of  agencies  shall  policies,  plans  in the G u l f  I 5.  departments,  the  to  i n t e n t of  com-  this  Act.  Area  (Add i t i o n of I s I a n d s to Gulf Island T r u s t Area)  (I)  The  Lieutenant-Governor  may a t t h e  request  the commission or order, or  of  in  Council  a Regional  the M i n i s t e r ,  designate additional  areas to  be i n c l u d e d  T r u s t A r e a and t h e  of  Act w i l l  apply  by  islands  in the  Islands this  Board,  Gulf  provisions  mutatis  mutandis. (2)  The  Lieutenant Governor  Order  in C o u n c i l  this  Act:  (a)  create  may by, an  o r amendment t o  another  separate  Trust  Commission arrangement  for a  group  than  of  islands other  the  1 74 Gulf of  IsIandssunder  this  the  terms  Act.  Comme n t : I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t b e c a u s e t h e v e r y p r e c i o u s and u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o t h e r i s l a n d g r o u p s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u c h as t h e queen C h a r l o t t e s , may in t h e near f u t u r e be t h r e a t e n e d by t h e same k i n d s of p r e s s u r e s now on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r and a l l o w f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g o t h e r " T r u s t s " f o r such a r e a s . (b)  divide  the Gulf  Commission  Islands  i n t o more t h a n  T r u s t Commission f o r areas,  each h a v i n g  powers o f  the Gulf  one  specific  t h e same Islands  T r u s t C o m m i s s i o n as i n th i s  Trust  specified  Act.  Comment: It i s t h o u g h t t h a t a t some f u t u r e d a t e t h e c o m m i s s i o n may f i n d i t more c o n v e n i e n t a n d / o r e f f i c i e n t t o e x e r c i s e i t s powers under t h e A c t by d i v i d i n g t h e G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t A r e a i n t o s m a l l e r a r e a s of g r o u p s of i s l a n d s . I 6.  Annua I (Annual  Report Report)  T  ^s  The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I p r e p a r e distribute  an a n n u a l  lining  activities  tures report  its for  that  to the  year  report and  and out-  expendi-  and s u b m i t  Minister.  this  1 75  I 7.  Appropriation  of  Funds For  (Ap p rop r i a t i on )  the purposes  M i n i s t e r of to  t i m e , as  sion pay funds  9.3  Content A n a l y s i s An a n a l y s i s  model  bill  of Gulf  this  required  out  an amount not t o  Islands Trust  legislation  similar  analyzed i n this  A comparison  emphasis t h e proposed  the  from t i m e commisrevenue  exceed  Bill  of the content of the Gulf  legislation  by t h e  from g e n e r a l  Islands Trust  was c a r r i e d o u t and t h e r e s u l t s a p p e a r  purpose  Act  Finance s h a l l ,  The c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o p o s e d  to T a b l e 3 .  of  i n Table 4.  c a n be compared t o t h e study  by.referring  o f T a b l e s 3 and 4 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e  legislation  p l a c e s on p u b l i c  participation.  Table A n a l y s i s of Contents  4  ,  .  '  o f G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model  E l e m e n t *of L e g i s l a t i o n  Gulf  Conservation Recreation P r o t e c t i o n of Farmland S h o r e l i n e Management Development C o n t r o l AREA OF CONTROL State or Province-wide S p e c i a l Regions STRUCTURE  Size Tenure Degree o f R e g i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n D i s t r i c t Commissions A d v i s o r y Committees  11  73 Q/o  COMMISSION POWERS Policy Formulation Land use c o n t r o l s : z o n i ng Land u s e c o n t r o l s : permi t s Land a c q u i s i t i o n by p u r c h a s e , g i f t s Land a c q u i s i t i o n by e x p r o p r i a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n of a Master Plan CO-ORDINATING  FUNCTION  Interdepartmental Senior-local  government  Bill  Islands Trust Model B i l l  OBJECTIVES FOR LAND USE CONTROL  COMMISSION  176  co-ordination  TECHNICAL C A P A B I L I T Y Hiring of Staff A c c e s s t o Government S t a f f Hiring of Consultants  CONTINUED  1 77 Table  4  (Continued)  Gulf Element o f L e g i s l a t i o n  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION  .  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Plans to P u b l i c Hear ngs on P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n H e a r i ngs on A d o p t i o n o f P l a n s Hear i ngs on Z o n i n g Changes Hear ngs on P l a n R e v i s i o n s H e a r i ngs on P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s B u r d e n o f P r o o f on A p p l i c a n t ENFORCEMENT S e n i o r government c o n t r o l Local Control APPEAL PROCEDURES P r o v i s i o n f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Appeal P r o v i s i o n f o r J u d i c i a l Appeal Provision f o r Periodic Revision of Plans  Islands Trust Model B i l l  C h a p t e r 10  IMPLICATIONS  OF T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T  ISLANDS  10.1  TRUST  Inadequacy o f Local The  controls  OF A G U L F  COMMISSION  Development  Controls  major impetus f o r i n c r e a s e d  provincial/state level  o v e r l a n d u s e a p p e a r s t o be t h e i n a b i l i t y  governments t o contend w i t h interests  i n land  (Strong,  Unincorporated conditions condition  necessary  the pressures  created  rural  areas often l a c k three  f o r adequate l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  'surrogate'  Islands  and  the Regional  c o u n c i l f o r unorganized  circumstances,  Affairs  The f i r s t  and p r o g r a m s .  Board c u r r e n t l y s e r v e s territories.  as t h e  Under s p e c i a l  s u c h as t h e 1 0 - a c r e f r e e z e , and on any q u e s t i o n  from t h e Regional  Board, the M i n i s t e r of Municipal  a c t s as t h e M a y o r - i n - C o u n c i 1 .  the Regional  provincial  important  i s the existence of a s u i t a b l e organizational struc-  the Gulf  of appeal  by p r i v a t e  1963; Babcock, 1966; H a s k e l l , 1971).  t u r e t o make d e c i s i o n s and c a r r y o u t p o l i c i e s For  of local  The P r o v i n c i a l  legislature  B o a r d s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many r e g i o n a l and  f u n c t i o n s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  1 78  unorganized  179  territories location  i s sometimes  o f low p r i o r i t y .  of the r e g i o n a l  physically  In a d d i t i o n  o f f i c e s are u s u a l l y  the  f a r removed  f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  have  been p o o r p a r t l y as a r e s u l t . The area  second c o n d i t i o n  i s the e x i s t e n c e  tion.  In B r i t i s h  legislation ities  Columbia  the p r i n c i p l e  The  Act.  Act also  b y l a w s and  long  Under t h i s A c t t h e land  the  Council  considers welfare zoning Act, is  (or the Regional  the c o r r e c t  Board  municipal-  and b u i l d i n g  t h e p r o c e d u r e s by  regu-  which  f o r and  granted.  l e g a l p r o c e d u r e and  i n the case of the  "the promotion of h e a l t h ,  islands)  s a f e t y , convenience  and  of the p u b l i c " i n i t s d e c i s i o n , the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a change o r d e v e l o p m e n t  R.S.B.C ,'I 9 6 0 , s. 7 0 2 ) . V  sufficiently  a proposal The  follows  regula-  use t h r o u g h t h e  subdivision  establishes  as t h e a p p l i c a n t  of  authority-delegating  amendments t o p l a n s and b y l a w s must be a p p l i e d As  use i n any  powers a t t h e l e v e l  t h e power t o r e g u l a t e  enforcement of zoning lations.  of adequate  i s the Municipal  are given  f o r c o n t r o l l i n g land  vague t h a t  p e r m i t must be a p p r o v e d The  problem  language of the Municipal  i t i s often  i s not i n k e e p i n g w i t h  (Municipal  difficult  to prove  the p u b l i c health  i s compounded by t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between  r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the d e v e l o p e r ( i n terms of  and  governments.  point  of the  'technical  that welfare.  the  'expert'  s u l t a n t s ) and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . us t o t h e t h i r d  Act  c a p a b i l i t y ' of  This  conleads  local  180  The of  land  third  i s the  palities  and  from p r o p e r t y  availability  unorganized taxes.  tendency f o r l o c a l the  condition for successful  of adequate r e s o u r c e s .  territories  In t h e  are  d e p e n d e n t on  past, there  has  Callies,  1971).  t h a t some g o v e r n m e n t s have begun t o r e a l i z e costs associated with  1970).  derived A B.C.  Local  been a  munici-  revenues  great  governments to encourage development to  t a x base ( B o s s e l m a n and  benefits  public regulation  increased  from h i g h e r  Cabinet  I t i s only t h a t the  increase  recently  hidden  development, o f t e n outweigh  tax  revenues  M i n i s t e r has  (Ehrlich and  Ehrlich,  s  been r e p o r t e d  as  the  saying:  Whatever the rewards to the developers . . . (the Minister) is concerned . . . with the cost-benefit r a t i o to the Province of large-scale developments on the islands. He believes there is no waytthis r a t i o can be a favourable one. The future costs . . . include services such as p o l i c e and f i r e protection, schools, hospitalssewers, road maintenance, parks and - above a l l increased ferries. (Tyhurst, 1972) With the are  not  tories and in  t a x r e v e n u e s on  the  islands  there  enough f u n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e s o u r c e and  planning  technical staff the  existing  programs.  There are  a v a i l a b l e to supply  event of proposals  also inadequate the  necessary  invenfunds  information  f o r l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t on  the  islands. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e which regulates  l a n d use  on  current the  institutional  structure  i s l a n d s appears to p r e c l u d e  a  181  satisfactory interest.  system o f development  This  i s due t o t h r e e f a c t o r s :  1.  The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , in t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e is comprised l a r g e l y of a number of d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t making i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t c o - o r d i n a t i o n and w i t h d i s r e g a r d , i n some c a s e s , f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e of a c c o u n t a b i I i t y .  2.  The l a c k of power o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n g e n e r a l , and u n o r g a n i z e d territories i n p a r t i c u l a r t o make l e g i s l a t i o n f o r l a n d use beyond t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , more l i m i t e d mechanisms of z o n i n g b y l a w s and s u b d i v i s i o n reg uI a t i o n .  3.  The l i m i t e d t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of l o c a l governments which are r e s t r i c t e d t o a r e v e n u e s o u r c e based on p r o p e r t y taxes.  The  proposed Gulf  Islands Trust  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e : other the  requisite  resources the  powers s p e c i f i e d  p o l i c y ; and w i t h  advantages  over the e x i s t i n g Gulf  and l e v e l s  Islands study  an a d e q u a t e  with with  to implement  t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y and  t a x base.  of the proposed G u l f  Table 5 Islands  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f seven R e g i o n a l area.  to provide  o f government;  in legislation  drawn f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l  perceived  i s intended  capable of co-ordination  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments  provincial  c o n t r o l b a s e d on t h e p u b l i c  summarizes Trust  Boards  i nthe  Table Comparison of Features  of the Proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t  to E x i s t i n g Institutional  Features  Gulf  Islands Trust  S c o p e / o b j e c t i ves  specialized; control  Powers  specially  5  focused  c r e a t e d by  Regional  Boards  (proposed) on  development  legislation  Regional  Boards  (existing)  g e n e r a l i z e d ; p r o v i s i o n o f a number of s e r v i c e s l i m i t e d t o d e l e g a t e d powers l i n e d i n Municipal Act  out-  Financial  Resources  drawn f r o m g e n e r a l r e v e n u e f u n d s b a s e d on p r o v i n c i a l t a x base  l i m i t e d to a p o r t i o n of the property taxes of a s p e c i f i c e l e c t o r a l areas; property taxes are r e g r e s s i v e i n nature  Technical  Capability  Commission s t a f f ; consultants  Regional s t a f f ; T e c h n i c a l Planning Committee ( c a p a b i l i t y v a r i e s w i t h R.D.); P r o v i n c i a l S t a f f  Provincial  staff;  C o - o r d i n a t i ng Function  Commission p l a y s c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e between p r o v i n c i a l departments  p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s have no s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n t o heed region's interests  Representation  local;  1ocal ; r e g i o n a l  regional;  provincial  CONTINUED  CO  ro  Tab! e 5 ( C o n t i nuecl)  lEhstditut-iional  Features  Gulf  Islands Trust  (proposed)  Regional  Boards  (existing)  i s l a n d s may be added t o o r d e l e t e d from T r u s t  d i f f i c u l t t o expand any c o - r o d i n a t i o n v . w i t h 7 o r more R.D.'s  Inter-Is!and Communication  substantial  n e g l i gdibl e  Organi z a t i o n a l Behaviour  t e n d e n c y t o be more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and i n n o v a t i v e  lower l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n i n r e g a r d s t o p l a n n i n g on t h e i slands  Level  of Planning  184  10.2  Trend t o Increased in Local This  examples  Affairs study  has documented i n some d e t a i l ,  o f s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l  use r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h local  governments.  States  Provincial/State Responsibilities  states  There a r e c o u n t l e s s  r e g u l a t o r y system  have e n a c t e d l a n d  areas of "statewide  and  examples  the Planning  10.3  legislatures  provincial  Columbia  to preserve  and D e v e l o p m e n t  Many o f t h e i n c r e a s e d  bodies created ing  1954).  by p r o v i n c i a l  provincial  mission  governments  (Crawford,  policy.  have each  five years.  adopted  Other  areas" or  i n c l u d e , among  others,  and C a l i f o r n i a  have a l s o  responded  c o n t r o l over land use.  a r e t h e Land C o m m i s s i o n  Trend to S p e c i a l Purpose  and P r o v i n c i a l  These  The  1971).  f o r increased  of B r i t i s h  and Oregon  use c o n t r o l s f o r " c r i t i c a l  Canada's P r o v i n c i a l  1973)  land  examples.  M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Delaware  ( B o s s e l m a n and C a l l i e s ,  two n o t a b l e  other  i n the l a s t  significance."  Washington, Wisconsin,  t o t h e need  to provide  had f o r m a l l y been t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f  o f Maine, F l o r i d a , Washington  a statewide  The  legislation  several  farmland  Act (R.S.B.C,  i n the province  A c t (1973) o f O n t a r i o .  Bodies responsibilities  have been d e l e g a t e d The s p e c i a l b o d i e s  legislation  of the State  to special  purpose  and c o m m i s s i o n s  are entrusted  with  implement-  The f u n c t i o n s and powers o f t h e com-  are g e n e r a l l y s p e l t out i n the l e g i s l a t i o n  and an e l e c t e d  185  representative responsible  of the people, u s u a l l y a M i n i s t e r , i s u l t i m a t e l y  f o r the implementation  of the l e g i s l a t u r e the d e c i s i o n s  ultimate  of the Act.  c o n t r o l over the commission  of the commission  boards  and commissions  the trend partially  as R o g e r s ,  towards  makes  independent  have been a d v a n c e d  C o r r y and  delegation  ment body h a v i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n number o f r e a s o n s  a member  a c c o u n t a b l e to t h e p u b l i c .  A number o f o b s e r v e r s s u c h F i n k l e m a n , have n o t e d  Giving  o f powers t o  of the elected (Lane, 1970).  to j u s t i f y  this  trend;  some o f t h e s e a r e s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : W i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n of g o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , parliament is faced with a l i m i t a t i o n of t i m e . It a p p e a r s more i m p o r t a n t t h a t p a r l i a m e n t has the time to devote i t s e l f to the l e g i s l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e more d e tailed administrative functions. 2.  The s u b j e c t of l e g i sI a t i on i s beom i ng i n c r e a s i n g I y t e c h n i caI and t h e r e f o r e more d i f f i c u l t t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o bills.  3.  More t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s a p p e a r t o r e q u i r e g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery which is a l s o d i f f i c u l t to i n c o r p o r a t e into b i l l s . In a d d i t i o n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r unknown c o n tingencies.  4.  A s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n can be more f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  5.  Delegated in nature  b o d i e s can be more e x p e r i m e n t a l and can p r o f i t from e x p e r i e n c e .  governA  186  the  6.  D e l e g a t e d b o d i e s can r e s p o n d more q u i c k l y t o a sudden n e e d . ( C o m m i t t e e on M i n i s t e r s ' P o w e r s , 1932 i n L a n e , 1970)  The  s e l e c t i o n of the appropriate  province/state  widely.  Bosselman  natives  role  i n land  and C a l l i e s  agency  to e x e r c i s e  use r e g u l a t i o n appears t o v a r y (1971)  i n the state l e g i s l a t i o n  identified  considered  three  in their  alterrecent  study: 1.  line  2.  independent  . 3.  mission the  government  commissions  regional  much o f t h e r e c e n t  commissions  legislation  r e g u l a t i o n s , the formation  Commission type  a r e examples  Control of t h i s  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  objectivity dependent  approach.  arrangement  government  The B.C. Land  are often  (Gawthrop,  i s at least  partially in-  In a d d i t i o n t h e approaches to  o f new o r g a n i z a t i o n s  1969). The  where an a r e a tion.  Land  l i e i n the greater  departments.  characteristic  Commission,  The a d v a n t a g e s o f  t e n d e n c y f o r more i n n o v a t i v e , l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l problems  with  B o a r d and t h e H a w a i i a n  o f a s p e c i a l body w h i c h  of other  has d e a l t  o f an i n d e p e n d e n t com-  a p p e a r s t o be a common a p p r o a c h .  Vermont E n v i r o n m e n t a l  this  state  state  state-created  Since state-wide  a g e n c i e s of  c r e a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l commission  i s appropriate  of special s i g n i f i c a n c e i s considered  Examples  i n c l u d e the Niagara  Escarpment  f o r protec-  A c t , t h e San  187  Francisco  Bay A r e a C o n s e r v a t i o n  District  and  the Nantucket  Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l .  Independent r e g i o n a l  established  t e n d t o have t h e same a d v a n t a g e s  by l e g i s l a t i o n  s t a t e or p r o v i n c e - w i d e commissions. a significant of are  number o f l o c a l  a pro-development the only  provincial  commissions  However t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f  residents  raises  the  b i a s , e s p e c i a l l y where l o c a l  s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e and  governments  as  possibility property taxes  s u b s i d y by t h e s t a t e o r  i s not i n v o l v e d  ( B o s s e l m a n and  Callies,  1971 ). The vincial  creation  government  f o c u s on a s i n g l e W e t l a n d s A c t and Other s t a t e s  have  of a l i n e  has been  These  the Washington this  of Natural  Environmental  Protection  state-wide level  (Fuller,  i s given  agency  there  biased  towards t h i e r r o w n  program  i s the c r i t i c i s m  of wide scope This trend  is  attributed  governments.  the M a s s a c h u s e t t s  M i n n e s o t a ' s newly Jersey's  to c o n t r o l  land  t o an e x i s t i n g  created  Department  of  use a t a p r o v i n c e  department  or  t h a t t h e s e departments a r e too  programs  t o do a f a i r  towards i n c r e a s e d  I t i s also  Program.  1971).  ( B o s s e l m a n and C a l l i e s ,  only partly  regulations  a p p r o a c h t o a c h i e v e more com-  R e s o u r c e s and New  Where t h e a u t h o r i t y or  include  S h o r e ! i h e Management  p r e h e n s i v e o b j e c t i v e s , f o r example Department  of the s t a t e or pro-  commonly used where t h e  purpose.  utilized  agency  new  1971).  provincial/state  to the s t r u c t u r a l partially  j o b on a  problems of  a r e s u l t of changing  authority local  188  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h have c r e a t e d a need f o r l o n g e r - t e r m and  increased regional co-ordination.  complexity  levels of  o f u r b a n and r e g i o n a l s y s t e m s have made h i g h e r  r e g u l a t i o n s more n e c e s s a r y  10.4  The g r o w i n g  planning  and d e s i r a b l e i n some  order  cases.  The R i g h t t o P a r t i c i p a t e The r i g h t  itself  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n two ways.  The f i r s t  i n decision-making  i s through  manifests  the e l e c t i o n  of a  body o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s by t h e community a t l a r g e t o make decisions thus  regarding  local  affairs.  Representative  democracy i s  d e f i n e d as t h e t a k i n g o f d e c i s i o n s "by a body o f r e p r e s e n -  tatives  e l e c t e d by t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and m o r e o v e r , t h a t t h e r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e body s h o u l d  control  the implementation  of p o l i c i e s  by t h e e x e c u t i v e " ( L e e m a n s , 1 9 7 0 ) . The s e c o n d r o u t e t o d e m o c r a c y i s t h r o u g h ticipation governed  w h i c h has been d e f i n e d as " p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in their  of p a r t i c i p a t o r y citizen  control  few y e a r s .  citizen  democracy, ranging  from token  have become i n c r e a s i n g l y  While  provincial/state  government" ( A r n s t e i n , 1969).  in local  forms  c o n s u l t a t i o n to  common o v e r  affairs  of the  Several  t h e r e has been a t r e n d t o w a r d s activity  par-  the l a s t  increased  t h e r e has a l s o been  a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g trend to i n c r e a s e the r i g h t of i n d i v i d u a l s to participate  i n the process  i m p e r a t i v e then tion  i s to find  of decision-making  of decision-making. the c o r r e c t balance  powers.  The  criticial  i n the d i s t r i b u -  189  T h i s q u e s t i o n o f an a c c e p t a b l e b a l a n c e o f powers i s one  t h a t has been f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d  legislation in  f o r the Nantucket  h i s speech  to the Senate  spoke o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y  during the d r a f t i n g of  Sound I s l a n d s .  Senator  on t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  of local  Kennedy,  of the b i l l ,  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on t h e one  h a n d , and t h e l a c k o f powers and r e s o u r c e s a t t h e l o c a l on  the o t h e r .  The S t a t e o f Washi n g t o n ' s'"Shore! i ne Management  p r o g r a m has r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e directly The  i n the early  A c t charges  sponsibility  t h e s t a t e and l o c a l  participation  e n t i t i e s , which (Washington,  appears  in shoreline  t h a t any l e g i s l a t i o n  actively private  management  jurisdictions,  and s u b s e q u e n t  d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e i s l a n d s ,  The between l o c a l  matter  people  regula-  and p r o v i n c i a l  t o be t h e key f a c t o r  C o m m i s s i o n by l e g i s l a t i o n achieve this  end.  i f they  have t h e s u p p o r t  and t h e g e n e r a l  public.  of the balance of decision-making individuals  and g r o u p s was  powers con-  i n t h e d e s i g n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  arrangement f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s .  to  a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m and  the experiences of other  parti ci pation of local  sidered  governments w i t h the r e -  have a g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f a c h i e v i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e o f  controlling and  process.  1972).  likely  tions w i l l  citizens  by a l l p e r s o n s , g r o u p s and  have an i n t e r e s t  Considering it  of involving  stages of the decision-making  of informing people  encouraging  level  The c r e a t i o n  of a Trust  was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a d e s i r a b l e  A number o f p r o v i s i o n s were  means  includedin  1 90  the recommendations realistic result  forlegislation  i n an e f f o r t  balance of the decision-making  i n benefits  of the Province.  to both the i s l a n d  to achieve a  powers w h i c h w o u l d  residents  and t h e p e o p l e  For example:  1.  The l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d e s t a b l i s h b r o a d p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y for the i s l a n d s .  2.  The C o m m i s s i o n , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s , would f o r m u l a t e policy guidelines. G u i d e l i n e s would not be a d o p t e d u n t i l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s u l t a t i o n was had w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , g r o u p s and individuals. The p r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n s and z o n i n g b y l a w s w o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t by l o c a l l y e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s on each i s l a n d . F u r t h e r a v e n u e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n -wouId be p r o v i d e d by t h e f u n d i n g of E n v i r o n m e n t C o m m i t t e e s by t h e C o m m i s s i o n t o c a r r y o u t f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d to p r o t e c t i n g the env i r o n m e n t .  To r e i t e r a t e ,  i tis felt  t o be m a n d a t o r y  that  partici-  p a t i o n be p r o v i d e d f o r and e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e process of planning 'participation  f o r the i s l a n d s .  incorporating  1  this  Bolle  ( 1 9 7 3 ) has d e f i n e d  meaning:  P a r t i c i p a t i o n must mean f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n or else i t is no p a r t i c i p a t i o n in r e a l i t y . The word p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not lend i t s e l f very well to degrees. Participation implies action by those involved, not necessarily equal action but action and i n t e r a c t i o n of some kind by both and each. . . .The decision process which is fundamental to policy and program formulation, consists of several steps: problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , goal determination, 3  191  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and analysisof a l t e r n a t i v e s , decision, action, feedback, and re-analysis etc. The emphasis is on process. . .If there is p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a l l i t must be within all the process i t s e l f - a l l as.pects of the process or none. The intended  recommendations f o r G u l f  to i n c o r p o r a t e  f o r m u l a t i o n , plan phases of the however a r e constant tatives  10.5  the  right  preparation  decision-making  not  and  legislation  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the implementation,  process.  and  Legislative  enough; i t i s n e c e s s a r y  watch over the a c t i v i t i e s and  Islands  f o r the  of t h e i r  Concluding  elected  days o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e paying  are  long  past  i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n to the  distribution  of s o c i e t y ' s r e s o u r c e s .  creased  social  e m p h a s i s has  been n o t e d by  Dawson ( 1 9 6 3 ) n o t e s t h i s the w o r l d  —-  promote s o c i a l  "growing c o n v i c t i o n —  t h a t governments should  and  economic w e l f a r e . "  to s o c i a l to S e c t i o n  ( R . S . C , 1867).  The  social  British  land  North  social use,  through-  intervene  power s i n c e  92  s e r v i c e s and  This i n -  e f f e c t s of t h i s  within provincial  Areas of i n c r e a s e d  allocative  common  actively  good f a l l of the  a l l levels  numerous w r i t e r s .  Canada have been t o i n c r e a s e p r o v i n c i a l  education,  keep  represen-  and  of the  according  provisions  p u b l i c to  effects  pertaining  monitoring  Comments  of government are  in  policy  administrators.  The  out  are  to trend  items  jurisdiction  America  concern,  have been  Act such  as  legislated  1 92 on by  the P r o v i n c i a l  establish Islands The  an  governments.  i s thus  environmental  the  p r o b l e m s such  p r o v i n c e due  and  the  to our  p l a c e d a h i g h v a l u e on and  the  The  To  discourage  legislation  i s an  important  necessary  value j u s t i f i e s government to  a  preserve  be  Dawson ( 1 9 6 3 ) n o t e s  to b u i l d  from  rights. and  cited "this  judicial  safeguards  power i t into  special-purpose bodies.  important  principle  has  unique  the abuse of d i s c r e t i o n a r y  to p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l  another  this  to  future generations.  which c r e a t e s these  ' r i g h t of appeal'  and  Society  because of t h e i r  Provincial  of the r u l e of law.  therefore extremely  tion  and  social  system of t a x a t i o n .  islands  area.  of g r e a t e r r e s o u r c e s  t o remove t h e a c t s o f t h e o f f i c i a l s  scrutiny." is  the  Gulf  because of the r e g i o n a l  availability  present  to  latter  d e l e g a t i o n o f power t o a c o m m i s s i o n may  as a n a r r o w i n g tended  as t h i s ,  p a r t of the  islands f o r present  has  to deal w i t h s p e c i a l  s c e n i c e n v i r o n m e n t s and  ' s u b s i d y ' on the  legislation  a good e x a m p l e o f t h e t r e n d i n t h i s  of the area  natural  proposed  I s l a n d s T r u s t to a d m i n i s t e r p l a n n i n g f o r the  province i s better suited  nature  The  requirement  i n such  The - r i g h t • t o be  should  1  be  provided  the The  legislaheard  1  is  f o r by  statute. With legislation of such  these  procedural  safeguards  made e x p l i c i t  i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s w r o u g h t by  c o m m i s s i o n s can  hoped t h a t by  the  f a r outweigh the d i s a d v a n t a g e s .  the r e c o g n i t i o n of the r u l e s of n a t u r a l  in work It is  justice,  193  by t h e c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n  o f o b j e c t s , powers and f u n c t i o n s  s t a t u t e and  by t h e d e l e g a t i o n  trustworthy  body,  o f power t o a k n o w l e d g a b l e  and  t h e I s l a n d s T r u s t can p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s  the  o b j e c t i v e of c o n t r o l l e d development Gulf  by  I s l a n d s of B r i t i s h  and c o n s e r v a t i o n  f o r the  Columbia.  A law is only as e f f e c t i v e as public consciousness allows i t to be and a s u f f i c i e n t number of [concerned people i n s i s t s that it-'-be-. 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R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r e a s u r y & E c o n o m i c s , J u n e 2, 1 970. , "Guide to t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s of the O n t a r i o Government's P o l i c y f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of the Niagara Escarpment," M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , E c o n o m i c s and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , u n d a t e d , 1973. , Legislature of Ontario Debates, T h i r d S e s s i o n of the T w e n t y - N i n t h L e g i s l a t u r e , T u e s d a y , J u n e 5, 1 9 7 3 ; Wednesday, J u n e 1 3 , 1973; T h u r s d a y , J u n e 14, 1973. , " O n t a r i o P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t A c t : Need R a t i o n a l e and R e l a t i o n s h i p t o M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , " M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , E c o n o m i c s and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t A f f a i r s , u n d a t e d (1 9 7 3 ) . , "Remarks by t h e H o n o u r a b l e J o h n W h i t e o f t h e I n a u g u r a l M e e t i n g o f t h e N i a g a r a E s c a r p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n , November 6, 1973," M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , E c o n o m i c s and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , 1973.  204  Powell  R i v e r Regional D i s t r i c t , "Planning P o l i c y f o r Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t " ( ( m i m e o ) , F e b r u a r y 28, 1 974.  R a g a t z , R.L., Vacation Homes: An Analysis of the Market for Seasonal-Recreational Housing, Ph.D. T h e s i s , D e p a r t ment o f H o u s i n g and D e s i g n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New Y o r k , 1969. Ranney, A u s t i n ( e d . ) , P o l i t i c a l Science and Public Policy, Chicago: Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1968. R e e s , W.E.,  K a r l s e n , E., "The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and Environmental P l a n n i n g i n B.C.," C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g Education, P a p e r s on L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , V o l . 1 ( 6 ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1973.  R e e s , W.E.,  V e r b u r g , K., Gulf Islands' Recreation Study, School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U . B . C , V a n c o u v e r , 1 973.  Roberts,  A n t h o n y H., D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t t h e a u t h o r , November 26, 1973.  S e e l , K . J . , S h o r e l i h e Management P r o g r a m , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r , March 7, 1974, A p r i l 1 974. S i m o n , Anne W., "To Save t h e 21 , 1971.  Vinyard,"  New  York  Times,  1,  September  S p e n c e r , John' F., A Technique for Resource C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C a p a b i l i t y Analysis in Coastal Zone Management, M.A. T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l Planning, U . B . C , V a n c o u v e r , May 1 972. Stallard,  Graham, P r e s i d e n t , P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h R.W. P r i t t i e , Associate Deputy M i n i s t e r , D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , "Re: The R e p o r t by t h e S e l e c t S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , " F e b r u a r y 14, 1974.  S t i n s o n , K., P l a n n e r , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f C o w i c h a n V a l l e y , c o r r e s p o n d n e c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r , December 12, 1974.  205  Strong,  Ann  Louise,  Open Spaoe  in  the  Penjevdel  Region,  Nevev, P h i l a d e l p h i a : Pennsylvania-New M e t r o p o l i t a n P r o j e c t I n c . , 1963.  Now  ov  Jersey-Delaware  T e c l a f f ,'..L..A. "arid E. T e c l a f f , " S a v i n g t h e L a n d - w a t e r Edge f r o m R e c r e a t i o n f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " Avizona Law Review, V o l . 14(1 ) , 1 972. Time Magazine, "The "Martha's  G r e a t I s l a n d D e b a t e , " J u l y 3 1 , 1972; T r o u b l e d V i n y a r d , " J u l y 3 0 , 1973.  T y h u r s t , J . S . , "Land Use - G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , M a t e r i a l P r e p a r e d f o r P u b l i c H e a r i n g s on P r o p o s e d S u b d i v i s i o n o f J e n k i n s ' Farm," G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , J u l y , 1 9 7 2 . T y h u r s t , C. et al., " G a b r i o l a I s l a n d : P h y s i c a l and Human R e s o u r c e S u r v e y , " p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a , December 1973. U.S.  C o n g r e s s , C o m m i t t e e on Land Use Policy of Legislative  Interior  & Insular A f f a i r s ,  National  Legislation, 9Svd Congvess, An Pvoposals & State Laws, p r e p a r e d  Analysis by t h e  Environmental P o l i c y D i v i s i o n of the C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1973.  U.S.  National  Parks S e r v i c e ,  P a r k s C a n a d a , An  Inventovy  national Pavk Possibilities: Point Roberts, Bay, San Juan and Gulf Islands Archipelago, Report Prepared for the International Point  Board,  of  Inter-  Boundary A Joint Roberts  A u g u s t , 1 973.  U t t o n , A.E., H e n n i n g , D.H. ( e d s . ) , Environmental Policy: Concepts and International Implications, New Y o r k : Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. V e r m o n t , " R e p o r t o f t h e G o v e r n o r ' s C o m m i s s i o n on E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l , " V e r m o n t , J a n u a r y 19, 1970. Walter,  M.S.,  Early  Victoria: Washington  Days Among the  Diggon-Hibben  Gulf  Islands  of  British  Columbia,  L t d . , 1946.  S t a t e , "Department o f E c o l o g y M a s t e r Program ( D r a f t P r o p o s a l ) undated.  Review"  206  Washington S t a t e , "Designations of Wetlands A s s o c i a t e d w i t h S h o r e l i n e s o f t h e S t a t e , " C h a p t e r 173-22 WAC, amended e f f e c t i v e J u l y 2 8 , 1973.  of  , "Final Guidelines: S h o r e l i n e Management A c t 1971," D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o l o g y , J u n e 20, 1 9 7 2 .  , "How Does S h o r e l i n e Management A f f e c t Me?," A s s o c i a t i o n of Washington C i t i e s , Washington S t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n of C o u n t i e s , Washington S t a t e Department of E c o l o g y , O c t o b e r 1 9 7 3 . 9  Worskett,  , "Permits f o r S u b s t a n t i a l Developments S h o r e l i n e s o f t h e S t a t e , " C h a p t e r 173-14 WAC, e f f e c t i v e November 2 2 , 1973.  on amended  Roy, The  Conservation,  London:  Character  of  Towns, An  Approach  The A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1969.  to  207  APPENDIX A "REPORT ON THE SELECT STANDING COMMITTEE ON MUNICIPAL MATTERS/' IN VOTES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE L E G I S L A T I V E ASSEMBLY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 2 4 , 1974  LO?  No. 8  VOTES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE  Legislative Assembly of British Columbia Monday, September 24, 1973 Two O'CLOCK P.M.  Prayers by the Rev. W. B. Taylor. Order called for "Oral Questions by Members." Pursuant to Order, the House resumed the adjourned debate on the Address in reply to the Speech of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor at the opening of the Session. During the debate, by leave of the House, the Hon. D. D. Stupich (Minister of Agriculture) presented A n Economic Study of the Tree Fruit Industry in British Columbia, a report to the Minister of Agriculture by S. C. Hudson, Consulting Economist, Agricultural Consultant Services. The debate continued. On the motion of Mr. Nimweiler, the debate was adjourned to the next sitting of the House. Resolved, That the House, at its rising, do stand adjourned until 2 o'clock p.m. tomorrow. Mr. Nunweiler presented the Report of the Select Standing Committee on Municipal Matters, as follows: REPORT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ROOM,  September 21, 1973 Mr. Speaker: Your Select Standing Committee on Municipal matters, beg leave to report as follows: The Select Standing Committee on Municipal Matters examined the matters affecting islands in the Strait of Georgia and the adjacent waters. It visited and viewed the following islands: May 2, 3, 4, North Pender, South' Pender, Saltspring, Galiano, Mayne, Saturna; July 23-27, Bowen, Gambier, Keats, Denman, Hornby, Lasqueti, Gabriola, Kuper, Thetis.  2  SEPTEMBER 24  On July 23 the Committee experienced a most meaningful day at the UBC Resource Science Centre under the direction of Dr. Crawford Holling, who presented a computer simulation that demonstrated the relationships between speculation thrust, peoples satisfaction, land prices, land values, environmental equality, etc. In its context, environmental quality was related to ease of transportation, water availability, nearness to a lake or ocean, slope of land, type of land, i.e., agriculture vs. rock, and the amount of open land and finally the diversity of tree cover. Public meetings were held on the islands, and the Committee was pleased and impressed with the interest and turnout by the local people who expressed a vital concern about the future of the islands. It is apparent to the Committee that the islands are of extreme importance to the Province of British Columbia, they are fragile, their location is crucial, being between the two largest cities in the Province, it is felt that people are entitled to use them and enjoy them to the capacity which they are able to serve. For the purpose of this report the Gulf Islands shall mean all islands in the Strait of Georgia and adjacent waters. Observations  1. These islands are different from each other and from the Mainland. However, some Mainland areas, especially the Sunshine Coast because of difficult access, probably have some similar problems. 2. Apart from their natural insularity, isolation, and uniqueness, the islands have the problem of these "special interests": (a) Local residents, many of whom arc retired, and others who have to make their living locally; . (b) Large numbers of summer residents and (or) visitors; (c) Large landowners, usually absentee, often corporate and foreign; (d) A larger or "provincial" interest of the general public; (e) Land developers and speculators; (/) Tree-farm licence holders (TFL). 3. Existing boundaries of regional districts and means of representation and communication to and from some regional districts are causing considerable frustration. (Seven regional districts each have a portion of the islands within their boundaries). 4. A complete lack of jurisdiction by Provincial, regional, or municipal bodies over Indian lands because of exclusive Federal jurisdiction may cause increasing difficulty. 5. There are some existing subdivisions which appear attractive and rural in character but this is only due to the fact that many arc as little as 15 per cent developed. Of all the problems the Committee indentifics large subdivisions and over-development as the priority concern. 6. Requirements such as a 10-acre freeze or limiting subdivisions to larger parcels of similar size will not be sufficient in the long term, nor will such rules be as effective as other more sophisticated and imaginative planning techniques such as clusters, green belts, etc. 7. There is a need for an increase of supervised public space, beach access, hiking trails, picnic and (or) campgrounds, etc., on virtually every island. Most land adjoining the best beaches is privately owned. It is unfortunate that many of the'Howe Sound islands' most attractive bays and coves are spoiled for recreational use by log storage and booming grounds.  209  210 " SEPTEMBER  24  3  8. Water transportation to the islands is a key to the entire situation and needs careful control and co-ordination (but this is not within regional district jurisdiction). It is also evident that no one island or regional district canicontrol the frequency, cost, and type of transportation. Transportation on the islands is also an important related factor. Emphasis should be placed on pedestrian transit rather than vehicle transit, and the use of the islands should thus be planned accordingly. 9. One of the major problems encountered by the Committee in its tours, hearings, and public meetings is the fact that there has been, and remains, a very serious lack of co-ordination and communication. In many respects, the islands have fallen victim to ad hoc or "band-aid" activity. There is a need for a coordinated jurisdiction to be responsible for planning, zoning, control of land use, transportation, and related matters for all the islands and this jurisdiction would require sufficient funding over and above the current revenue source from local taxation. 10. Although regional districts arc not geared to carry out all the responsibilities expected of them relative to the future of the Coastal islands of British Columbia, they can well serve the islands for many administrative purposes including hospitals, schools, local improvements, special projects, health, building inspection, etc. Boundaries of regional districts need to be reviewed for possible transfer of some islands, based on natural lines of communication. Further, the means of representation and communication between some islands and its regional district needs to be studied. 11. Recognizing the need to ensure continued employment opportunities for some residents of the islands, strictly controlled limited commercial development, light industry, and agricultural activity compatible with the life style of the islands can continue, nonetheless, emphasis for the future development of the islands should be placed on recreation, moderate residential use, and preservation of a rural atmosphere. The Committee was impressed with some instances of desirable land use (by residences, summer camps, a few parks, endowments) but was alarmed at the possession or hoarding of land by resident and absentee owners for high capital gains purposes. It was also distressed by the evidence of considerable subdivision activity in the past, which was undertaken without full determination of its impact on the future of each island. Our belief is that the islands arc too important to the people of Canada to be left open to exploitation by real-estate developers and speculators. 12. Virtually without exception shortage or potential shortage of potable water is of major concern to practically all islands and to this Committee. 13. Waste and garbage disposal is another serious matter of major concern to this Committee. 14. A potential exists for conserving many arcrueological sites on the islands. Recommendations  1. The Committee recommends that the regional district boundaries be reviewed and adjusted to assure that the respective islands are in the most appropriate regional district. 2. The Committee also recommends that the Provincial Government establish an "Islands Trust" (or commission), as the most appropriate body to be responsible for and to co-ordinate the future of each island within our terms of reference. It must be emphasized most strongly that the trust is to assume the primary responsibility for all Gulf Islands' affairs within Government jurisdiction, including land use, future growth patterns, control of development, industrial,  4  •SEPTEMBER 24  recreational, and commercial activity, as well as parks and open space designations. It is essential that the trust be fully representative of all interests, not only on the islands, but throughout the Province as a whole. While recognizing the rights of the islanders, the Committee suggests that this section of British Columbia is dramatically affected by private and public activity which does not have the same impact in other parts of the Province. The Committee again refers to the fragile nature of these coastal units. Because it is recognized that a variety of Government departments and agencies: Highways, Health, Ferries, Lands and Forests, Parks, etc., as well as regional districts and citizen groups on the islands, all have an important role to play in this respect, we emphasize that the proposed trust or commission must not be a separate and (or) remote agency, but rather a fully representative co-ordinating body, whose task it is to bring together each group, agency, or department of Government and to act in the best interests of the islands and their residents, with due regard for the broader and Province-wide interest. 3. The Committee also recommends that until the trust or commission is established, no subdivisions be permitted on any islands south of and including Denman, Hornby, and Lasqueti Islands, i.e., on any of the Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia and any adjacent waters. 4. The Committee recommends the JO-acre freeze be continued on the northern Gulf Islands that have not yet been studied by the Committee. Conclusion  The Committee appreciates that many months of hard work have gone into the planning process on some of the islands, and the Committee hopes that if the Government accepts these recommendations, that the trust be established and operative as soon as possible, so as not to prolong unduly the wait on these islands. A . A . NUNWEILER,  Chairman  By leave of the House, the report was taken as read and received.  212  APPENDIX B  NATIONAL  ISLAND TRUSTS ACT" MODEL B I L L  RECREATION,  U.S.  IN BUREAU OF OUTDOOR  DEPARTMENT OF THE  ISLANDS OF AMERICA, 1 9 7 0  INTERIOR,  213  •  A BILL  To designate a pilot program for the establishment of a national system of island trusts and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives  of the United  States of America in Congress assembled,  SHORT T I T L E SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "National Island Trusts Act."  S T A T E M E N T OF P O L I C Y SEC. 2.(a) It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United States that certain islands or groups of islands of the Nation which possess outstanding natural, scenic, historic, or recreational values should be protected and managed by the joint efforts of all levels of government and the private sector in order to insure that future generations will have an opportunity to enjoy our island heritage. (b) The purpose of this Act is to implement this policy by designating a pilot program for the establishment of a national system cf island trusts and prescribing the method by which islands or groups of islands subsequently designated by the Congress may become part of the system.  N A T I O N A L SYSTEM OF ISLAND TRUSTS SEC. 3.(a) The Casco Bay Islands of Maine, comprising 324 islands in Cumberland and Sagadahoc Counties, are hereby designated as eligible to become the initial component of the national system of island trusts. (b) The national system of island trusts shall comprise any other islands or groups of islands that are subsequently designated by Congress as eligible for inclusion in the system. Such islands shall— ( i ) possess outstanding natural, scenic* historic, or recreational values; .  (2) be reasonably accessible to urban areas; and (3) be largely undeveloped. Such islands shall become part of the national system of island trusts upon the execution of agreements between the United States and the concerned States that are modeled after and substantially conform to the requirements of sections 4 through 9 of this Act.  TRUST COMMISSIONS SEC. 4.(a) The Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary") is authorized, on behalf of the United States, to enter into an agreement with the State of Maine providing for the protection and management of the Casco Bay Islands as a national island trust after the Secretary is satisfied that State legislation exists to carry out the agreement. (b) The agreement shall provide for the establishment of a National Island Trust Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "Commission") composed of a Federal member appointed by the Secretary, a member appointed by Governor of Maine, and a member appointed by the govering body of c.ic" county and municipality involved. The agreement shall further provide that— (1) the Commission shall elecrannually a Chairman and a Vice Chairuu-' from among its members;  1  214  : i  (2) members of the Commission shall serve for six-year terms, except the member appointed by the Secretary shall serve at his pleasure;  >  (3) vacancies on the Commission shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment and for the balance of the unexpired term;  •  ;  (4)  the Commission shall provide for its own organization and procedure and adopt rules and regulations governing its meetings and transactions, and all actions of the Commission shall require a favorable vote of a majority of its members; and  (5)  that Commission members shall be compensated at the rate of $100 per diem while engaged in the performance of official duties and shall receive reimbursement for any necessary traveling and subsistence expenses incurred thereby.  FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 5.(a) The agreement shall require the Commission to develop and maintain a comprehensive plan to preserve, restore, utilize, and develop the .natural, scenic, historic, and recreational values of the Casco Bay National Island Trust, which plan shall (1) set forth the needs of the public for enjoyment of such values and the availability of resources to meet such needs; (2) identify critical natural, scenic, historic, and recreational problems and recommend desirable remedial actions to be taken by the Federal, State, county, and local governments involved and private interests; and (3) be in accord with the comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation plan submitted by the State of Maine pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (78 Stat. 897), as amended. The Secretary may agree, within the limits of available funds and manpower, to provide the Commission with technical assistance in die development of such plans. . (b) The agreement shall require the Chairman of the Commission, within one year after the establishment of the Commission, to transmit the initial plan to the Secretary, the Governor of Maine, and the governing body cf each county and municipality involved, and to transmit subsequent revisions of the plan to such persons as soon as practicable. If the plan recommends enactment of additional Federal legislation, the agreement shall require the Secretary to transmit the plan to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (c) The agreement shall also require the Commission to (1) formulate uniform and coordinated policies for implementation of the plan by the Federal, State, county, and local governments involved and by private interests; (2) to encourage the State, county, and local governments involved to adopt and enforce adequate master plans and zoning.ordinances which will promote the use and development of privately owned lands within the national island trust in a manner consistent with the Commission's plan; and (3) to issue guidelines prescribing standards for such plans and ordinances, and provide technical assistance in obtaining their adoption.  POWERS OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 6.(a) The agreement shall provide that if the State of Maine or any of its political subdivisions has failed, at any time after the expiration of two years from the date of transmittal of the Commission's plan to (1) adopt and enforce master plans and zoning ordinances consistent with the Commission's plan, or (2) acquire any privately owned property or interests therein recom- mended for acquisition by such governments in the Commission's plan, the Commission shall be empowered to—  215 (i) adopt and enforce such plans and ordinances by whatever means arc authorized under the constitution and laws of the State of Maine; (ii) acquire such property or interests therein by donation, negotiated purchase with donated or appropriated funds, or by condemnation in accordance with the provisions of the State condemnation law applicable to the properly involved or, in the absence of such law, in accordance with the provisions of Federal condemnation law. The agreement shall provide that any award of compensation in such condemnation proceedings shall be paid by the Commission, and neither the State nor Federal Government or any agencies thereof shall be liable for such award 'or compensation. (b) The heads of Federal agencies may transfer administrative jurisdiction over any Federal property located within the Casco Bay National Tsland Trust to the Commission without transfer of funds, and the Commission may, in turn, transfer jurisdiction over such property to the State of Maine or any of its political subdivisions. Any such transfers shall be exercised in a manner consistent with the comprehensive plan developed by the Commission. (c) The Commission shall have juridical personality and all powers and capacity necessary or appropriate for fulfilling its functions pursuant to the agreement between the United States and the State of Maine which shall include, but not be limited to, the powers and capacity— (1) to accept, use, and dispose of donations or services or property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible; (2) issue and enforce such rules and regulations as it deems necessary to regulate the use of any property under its jurisdiction in order to carry out the purposes of the agreement; (3) to enter into contracts; (4) to sue or be sued; (5) .to grant concessions, if deemed desirable; (6) to appoint its own employees, and to fix the terms and conditions of their employment and compensation; and (7) to adopt such rules of procedure as it deems desirable to enable it to perform the functions set forth in this agreement.  T A X EXEMPTION SEC. 7. The Commission and any income or property received or owned by it, and all transactions relating to such income or property, shall be exempt from all Federal, State, and local taxation with respect thereto.  A D M I N I S T R A T I V E EXPENSES OF T H E COMMISSION SEC. 8.(a) The agreement shall provide that the expenses incurred by the Commission for each fiscal year in carrying out its planning, acquisition, administrative, and other functions shall be paid 50 per centum by the Secretary and 50 per centum by the State of Maine. The Federal payment shall be made from monies appropriated under section 12 of this Act. Such payments may be made in installments and in advance or by way of reimbursement with necessary adjustments on account of overpayments or underpayments. (b) The Commission shall submit a budget each fiscal year to the Secretary and the principal budget officer of each State involved in such manner as may be required under their respective budgetary procedures, and shall conduct its operations in accordance with such budget. SEC. 9. The agreement may contain such other terms and conditions as the parties thereto deem desirable.  216 SEC. 10(a). The Secretary is authorized on behalf of the United Stales to enter into agreements with the States in which are located the islands or groups of islands subsequently designated by Congress as.eligible for inclusion in the national island trust system that substantially conform to the requirements of sections 4 through 9 of this Act: Provided, That the Secretary first determines that State legislation exists to carry out such agreements. (b) Nothing in the agreements authorized by this Act shall be construed to relinquish the functions, powers, or duties of the Congress with respect to the control of any navigable waters within any national island trust, nor shall any provision thereof be construed in derogation of any of the constitutional powers of Congress to regulate commerce among the States and with foreign nations. The power and right of Congress to withdraw the Federal Government as a party to each agreement by amendment, repeal, or modification of this Act is hereby expressly reserved. (c) Nothing in the agreements authorized by this Act shall be deemed to restrict the executive powers of the President in the event of a national emergency.  RESTRICTIONS ON F E D E R A L L Y ASSISTED PROJECTS SEC. 11. No Federal department or agency shall assist by loan, grant, license, or otherwise in the construction of any water or land resources project that would have a direct and adverse effect, as determined by the Secretary, on the natural, scenic, historic, or recreational values of the Casco Bay National Island Trust, or any islands or group of islands that are subsequently included in the national island trust system.  A U T H O R I Z A T I O N OF APPROPRIATIONS SEC. 12. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated annually, through the Department of the Interior and related agencies Appropriation Acts, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.  217  APPENDIX C  NANTUCKET SOUNDS ISLANDS TRUST B I L L S.  CONGRESSIONAL RECORD  1 9 1 9 , WASHINGTON, MAY 3 1 , 1 9 7 3  209  -6(b) There la a national Interest ln preserving and conserving these values for the present and future well-being of the Nation and for present and future generations: (c) Thcae values are being Irretrievably damaged and lost through Ill-planned development; (d) Present state and local Institutional arrangements for planning and regulating land and water uses to preserve and conserve these values are Inadequate; (e) The key to more effective preservation and conservation of the values of the Nantucket Sound Islands ls a program encouraging coordinate action by Federal. State, and local governments ln partnership with private Individuals, groups, organizations, and associations for the purpose of administering sound policies and guidelines regulating i l l planned development; (f) Such a program can protect the natural character and Bcenic beauty of the Nantucket Sound Islands consistent with maintenance of sound local economies and private property values; and (g) Because expanded access to the Islands would seriously Impair them and be ln contravention to the purposes of this Act, It shall be national policy that no bridge, • causeway, tunnel or other direct vehicular access be constructed from the mainland to the Islands. N A N T U C K E T SOUND ISLANDS TRUST  SEC. 2. In order to provide for the preservation and conservation of the unique natural, scenic, ecological, scientific, cultural, historic, and other values of the Nantucket Sound Islands, there ls established In the Commonwealth of Massachusetts the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust (hereinafter referred . to as the "Trust") consisting of the area described ln section 4 herein. This Trust area shall be administered as hereinafter described through programs and polloiee designed to achieve wise use of the land and water resources of the area, giving full consideration to protection of the values of the area as well as to needs for (sound local economies. N A N T U C K E T SOUND ISLANDS TRUST COMMISSIONS  SEC. 3. (a) There are hereby established the Nantucket Trust Commission, the Martha's Vineyard Trust Commission, and the Elizabeth Islands Trust Commission, to be known collectively as the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Commissions (hereinafter referred to as the "Commissions"). It shall be the purpose of the Commissions *o have principal management authority for the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust. . (b) The Nantucket Trust Commission shall have the responsibilities as established herein over the lands and waters In Nantucket County, and shall be composed of seven members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commence on the first Monday ln April. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary"); (2) a member appointed by the Governor of the Common wealth of Massachusetts ' (hereinafter referred to as the "Governor".); (3) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Nantucket within two weeks after the annual • town meeting, one of whom shall be a seasonal resident property owner; (4) two members who shall be qualified • voters of the town and shall be elected at the annual election which ls a part of the annual town meeting; and (5) a member appointed by the Nantucket Planning Board within two weeks after the anual town meeting, who shall be a qualified voter of said town. Not more than one member of the Commission may serve simultaneously ln any elective Town or County office.  218 (c> ine Martha's Vineyard Trust Commission shall have the responsibilities as established herein over the lands and waters l n Dukes County, excepting the Elizabeth Islands, and shall be composed of -thirteen members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commerce on the first Monday ln June. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary; (2) a member appointed by the Governor; (3) a member elected by each town on Martha's Vineyard at the annual election which ls a part of the annual town meeting, each of whom shall be a qualified voter of the town; (4) a member appointed by the Dukes County Selectmen's Association: (5) a member appointed by private conservation organisation on Martha's Vineyard; (0) two members appointed by seasonal resident taxpayer associations, on Martha's Vineyard: and (7) a member elected by the senior class of the regional high school, who shall, notwithstanding other provisions of this subsection, serve a one year term. Only the member selected under paragraph (4) of this subsection may hold elective Town or County office during his term of office as Commission member. (d) The Elizabeth Islands Trust Commission shall have the responsibilities a3 established herein over the lands and waters of Hie Elizabeth Islands, and shall be. composed of seven members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commence on the first Monday in April. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary-, (2) a member appointed by the Governor: (3) a'member elected at the annual "election which ls a part of the annual town meeting; (4) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen to represent the Island of Cuttyhunk. one of whom shall be a permanent resident of Cuttyhunk and one of whom shall be a seasonal resident of Cuttyhunk; and (5) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen to represent the other Islands ln the Elizabeth Islands, one of whom shall be a permanent resident of one of such other islands and one of whom shall be a seasonal resident of one of such other Islands. (e) Each Commission shall have a Chairman. The Chairmen of the Commissions shall each be olected by the membership thereof for a term of not to exceed two years. Any vacancy ln the Commissions shall be filled In the same manner ln which the original selection was made, except that interim appointments may be made by the remaining members of the Commission. (f) All members of the Commission shall be paid at the rate of 850 per diem when actuary serving. The "Secretary— Is' authbrlzedto pay the expenses reasonably incurred by the Commissions ln carrying out their responsibilities under this Act on the presentation of vouchers signed by the Chairmen. (g) The Commissions shall publish and make available to the Secretary and to the public an annual report reviewing matters relating to the Trust, including acquisition of lands, progress toward accomplishment of the purposes of this Act, and administration, and shall make such recommendations thereto as they deem appropriate to the Secretary, the Governor, and the towns. (h) The Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Commissions shall, and the Elizabeth lalands Commission may. each have an Execu. tive Director, and such other permanent or part-time professional, clerical, or other  219  -7;rsormel aa they find are r e q u i r e d , a n d m a y igage s u c h other professional services as ley m a y r e a s o n a b l y require a n d the Secrexy s h a l l approve. E a c h C o m m i s s i o n ail all ave a n office a n d a m a i l i n g address at a c e n •al l o c a t i o n In the area of its J u r i s d i c t i o n , nd s u c h office s h a l l be where Its o r d i n a r y oslneas i3 c o n d u c t e d a n d Its m a p s a n d icords kept. (1) T h e C o m m i s s i o n s s h a l l e a c h have the uthorlty to a p p o i n t C o m m i s s i o n A d v i s o r y ommlttees l n t h e i r -own discretion. E a c h o m m t s s l o n s h a l l designate three of Its [embers t o serve o n a c o o r d i n a t i n g c o m m l t se w i t h m e m b e r s of the other C o m m i s s i o n s > treat matters of c o m m o n c o n c e r n . (J) A t its first meeting e a c h C o m m i s s i o n l a l l a d o p t b y - l a w s a n d rules of procedure, h l c h m a y Include dates of meetings, p u b l i c I s t r l b u t l o n of I n f o r m a t i o n relating; to C o m dsslon activities, disclosure of ownership i n srest ln t r u s t l a n d s by C o m m i s s i o n m e m era, a n d a n y other matters n o r m a l to the Deration of s u c h bodies a n d consistent w i t h he purposes of t h i s A c t . T h e C o m m i s s i o n s h a l l c o m p l y w i t h the provisions of the M a s kchusetts O p e n Meetings L a w . a n d they shall e d e e m e d t o be "boards" w i t h i n the m e a n i g of said law. (k) I n exercising t h e i r m a n a g e m e n t a n d d m l n l s t r a t l v e responsibilities u n d e r t h i s A c t he C o m m i s s i o n s s h a l l n o t a d o p t regulations r h l c h are less restrictive t h a n regulations i n >rco a n d effect l n tho C o m m o n w e a l t h of t a s s a c h u s e t t s or the respective towns w l t h a t h e T r u s t area. (I) M e m b e r s of C o m m i s s i o n s m a y serve Iso as m e m b e r s of a n y resources or l a n d n a n a g e m e n t c o u n c i l heretofore or hereafter s t a b l l s h e d u n d e r the laws of t h e C o m m o n wealth, of Massachusetts. . cv..:.; i "  TRUST  ABE A  S E C . 4. (a) T h e area of t h e T r u s t s h a l l e n m p a s s t h e following lands a n d waters l n e C o m m o n w e a l t h of M a s s a c h u s e t t s : (1) N a n t u c k e t Island, a n d the I s l a n d t o tstward c a l l e d v a r i o u s l y S m i t h ' s I s l a n d or ther Island: ..... (2) T u c k e r n u c k I s l a n d ; , (3) M u s k e g e t Island: (4) M a r t h a ' s V i n e y a r d I s l a n d , a n d v a r i o u s a n d s a p p u r t e n a n t to it; (5) N o m a n ' s L a n d Island:. *„' (6) T h e E l i z a b e t h Islands, i n c l u d i n g b u t it l i m i t e d to the Islands of C u t t y h u n k , jnamasset, N a u s h o n , Pasque. N a s h a w e n a . acatena, Penlkese, a n d the Weepeckets; a n d (7) A n y o t h e r lands a n d waters l n N a n c k e t C o u n t y a n d D u k e s C o u n t y In the • m m o n w e a l t h of Massachusetts. (b) T h e area I n c l u d e d l n the T r u s t m a y • c h a n g e d o n l y by a n a m e n d m e n t to t h i s ;t a d o p t e d by the Congress a n d signed by te P r e s i d e n t , a n d o n l y u p o n p e t i t i o n t h e r e r b y the C o m m i s s i o n s w t i h the c o n c u r nee of— . _ (1) T h e t o w n or towns affected expressed r vote o f a t o w n m e e t i n g or m e e t i n g s ; (2) T h e G o v e r n o r ; a n d (3) T h e Secretary. (c) N o m a n ' s L a n d . T h e l a n d s a n d waters N o m a n ' s L a n d are hereby established as n a t i o n a l wildlife refuge, ^ n d the Secretary d i r e c t e d t o prepare a n d execute the n e c oary d o c u m e n t a t i o n for s u c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t r t h w l t h . T o make Noman's L a n d suitable n s u c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t , the Secretary a n d ie S e c r e t a r y of Defense s h a l l , w i t h i n twelve o n t h e after the date o f e n a c t m e n t of t h i s ct, s u r v e y N o m a n ' s L a n d for u n e x p l o d e d J U t a r y o r d n a n c e a n d render s u c h o r d n a n c e , herever It m a y be f o u n d , harmless. CLASSIFICATION  OF  THUST  LANDS  S E C . 6. (a) L a n d s a n d waters w i t h i n the rust area s h a l l all be assigned to the clasflcatlons established i n s u b s e c t i o n (b).of lis s e c t i o n . U p o n the date of e n a c t m e n t of jls A c t , s u c h l a n d s a n d waters s h a l l be a s g n e d to classifications a c c o r d i n g to the irms of s e c t i o n 6 of section 17 h e r e i n .  (b) Classifications of T r u s t l a n d s : (1) Class A : L a n d s Forever W i l d . L a n d s a n d waters so classified s h a l l r e m a i n forever free of Improvements, as defined hereinafter, of a n y k i n d except as provided h e r e i n . If I m p r o v e m e n t s extst o n any lands so classified . o n t h e data of e n a c t m e n t of this A c t , t h e n the C o m m i s s i o n s a n d the Secretary s h a l l p e r m i t a r i g h t of use a n d o c c u p a n c y to the legal or beneficial owner or owners thereof, or their successors or assigns, for so long as s u c h successors or assigns are m e m b e r of the same f a m i l y or families aa the legal or beneficial owner or owners. If. however, the legal or beneficial owner or owners seek t o sell o r otherwise convey t h e I m p r o v e m e n t w i t h or w i t h o u t the l a n d t h e r e u n d e r to others t h a n legal o r beneficial owners o r . m e m b e r s o f the same f a m i l y or f a m i l i e s as .the legal or beneficial owner or owners, t h e n the C o m m i s s i o n s a n d t h e Secretary s h a l l • have a n exclusive o p t i o n to purchase at f u l l a n d f a i r m a r k e t value, w h i c h s h a l l be promptly determined, and such option shall exist for sixty days after s u c h d e t e r m i n a t i o n . If s u c h o p t i o n is exercised, t h e n t h e . i m p r o v e m e n t m a y be moved or removed: If s u c h o p t i o n is n o t exercised, t h e n t h e sale or other conveyance m a y proceed i n the o r d i n a r y course. F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s p&ra^ g r a p h , f a m i l y s h a l l m e a n siblings of a legal or beneficial owner or owners, l i n e a l d e s c e n d a n t s n a t u r a l or a d o p t e d , or relatives by m a r riage. Access to a n d use of lands so classified u n d e r the t e r m s of t h i s A c t s h a l l be determ i n e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n s a n d t h e t Secretary, except t h a t uses s h a l l be l n a m a n n e r n o t less restrictive t h a n p e r m i t t e d by g e n eral purpose local o r d i n a n c e s , b y - l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s f r o m t i m e to t i m e In effect. O w n e r s of I m p r o v e m e n t s m a y m a k e neceseary repairs, a n d m a y make replacements or e x t e n s i o n s . w h i c h s h a l l n o t alter t h e basic :• c h a r a c t e r of t h e l a n d s , w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f : t h e . C o m m i s s i o n s a n d applicable T o w n or r C o u n t y agencies. (2) C l a s s B : S c e n i c P r e s e r v a t i o n L a n d s . L a n d s a n d waters so classified s h a l l n o t be developed b e y o n d t h e i r present Intensity of use, except as p r o v i d e d i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h . O w n e r s of s u c h l a n d s , or of I m p r o v e m e n t s . t h e r e o n , or of b o t h , m a y transfer, sell, assign, or demise s u c h l a n d or Improvements, or : b o t h . Reasonable r e p l a c e m e n t a n d extension : of I m p r o v e m e n t s s h a l l be p e r m i t t e d , u n d e r r e g u l a t i o n s Issued b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n s . D e v e l o p m e n t o n l a n d s so classified b e y o n d t h e i r present i n t e n s i t y of use s h a l l be p e r m i t t e d only u n d e r regulations consistent with the following guidelines: (1) T h e overall Intensity of use for l a n d s so classified l n a n y t o w n s h a l l n o t be greater t h a n slxty-fivo i m p r o v e m e n t s per s q u a r e m i l e , i n c l u d i n g I m p r o v e m e n t s existing' o n A p r i l 11, 1972; • (11) T h e aroa u p o n w h i c h i n t e n s i t y is c a l c u l a t e d s h a l l n o t Include' bodies of water •or wetlands classified as s u c h u n d e r M a s s a c h u s e t t s salt water or fresh water wetlands acts ( C h a p t e r s 784 a n d 782 of tho A c t s of 1972); (111) T h e overall Intensity g u i d e l i n e s h a l l n o t be t r a n s l a t e d Into u n i f o r m lot sizes a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e l a n d so classified, b u t s h a l l bo a p p l i e d w i t h flexibility to encourage s o u n d l a n d use p l a n n i n g r e s p e c t i n g t h e v a r y i n g n a t u r a l values • of t h e different g e o g r a p h i c a l - areas of l a n d ; a n d • (lv) A n y d e v e l o p m e n t m u s t take Into a c c o u n t the c a p a b i l i t y of the l a n d for s u c h - development, w h i c h s h a l l i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of existing l a n d use. Intensity of uses l n the i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y , areawide water q u a l i t y , soil c o n d i t i o n s , roadway u t i l i z a t i o n , • a n d visual and topographic conditions. R e g u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h these g u i d e '• lines s h a l l be d r a w n u p a n d p u b l i s h e d by each t o w n a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e C o m m i s s i o n , a n d s h a l l become effective o n l y after a p u b l i c h e a r i n g or h e a r i n g s t h e r e o n a n d after a p p r o v a l by tho G o v e r n o r a n d t h e Secretary. A f t e r s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s have become effective, t h e provisions of s e c t i o n 16 h e r e i n as they • a p p l y to the l a n d s covered by the r e g u l a t i o n s s h a l l n o longer a p p l y ; a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n of Improvements s h a l l thereafter bo p e r m i t t e d so long as the a p p r o p r i a t e C o m m i s s i o n h a s Issued a p e r m i t t h e r e f o r i n d i c a t i n g satisfac:  (3) C l a s s C : T o w n P l a n n e d L a n d s . L a n d s a n d waters so classified s h a l l r e m a i n u n d e r the J u r i s d i c t i o n of tho t o w n i n w h i c h located for purposes of p l a n n i n g a n d z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s a n d other l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s : P r o vided, T h a t such p l a n n i n g a n d zoning o r d i n a n c e s a n d other l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s s h a l l be reviewed a n d c o m m e n t e d u p o n by the C o m m i s s i o n s a n d the Secretary as to c o n sistency w i t h the purposes of t h i s A c t p r i o r to the a d o p t i o n of s u c h o r d i n a n c e s or r e g u lations or a m e n d m e n t s thereto; a n d provided further