UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The island trust concept : a proposed institutional arrangement to implement a policy of controlled development… Glover, Julia Mary 1974

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A6_7 G59_6.pdf [ 13.89MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099875.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099875-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099875-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099875-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099875-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099875-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099875-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099875-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099875.ris

Full Text

T H E I S L A N D T R U S T C O N C E P T p r o p o s e d I n s t i t u t i o n a l A r r a n g e m e n t t o I m p l e m e n t a P o l o f C o n t r o l l e d D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e G u l f I s l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by JULIA MARY GLOVER B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE In the Schoo 1 of COMMUNITY S REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the req u i red j f t ^ n d a f d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA M a y , 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, T agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed w ithout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ( \ <w> <f a iVv';';i-:^ -;v-~ iV> . . . . . . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada A B S T R A C T The G u l f I s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of Geor g i a are w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as having unique e c o l o g i c a l and c l i m a t i c c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s and o u t s t a n d i n g n a t u r a l beauty. The high s h o r e l i n e to l a n d area r a t i o o f the i s l a n d s and the s h e l t e r e d waters of the S t r a i t p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . However the s c e n i c and e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l environment of the i s l a n d s i s c u r r e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . E x i s t i n g development c o n t r o l s a v a i l a b l e to the seven R e g i o n a l Baords having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the G u l f I s l a n d s study a r e a , appear to be i n a d e q u a t e . The c e n t r a l t a s k of t h i s study t h e r e f o r e , i s to propose an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement c a l l e d the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t , to implement a p o l i c y o f c o n t r o l l e d development f o r the i s l a n d s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s and recommendations of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e ' s Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s which s t u d i e d the i s l a n d s d u r i n g 1973, were ac c e p t e d as the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s s t u d y . The methodology i s as f o l l o w s : I. To document the background deve lopments l e a d i n g t o the f o r m a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r t h e i s l a n d s . i i 2 . To a n a l y z e e x i s t i n g s i m i l a r purpose land use l e g i s l a t i o n f o r i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . 3 . To p r e p a r e a model b i l l wh ich d e f i n e s t h e s t r u c t u r e and powers of the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t . F i v e p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n are examined i n d e t a i l : 1. U . S . C o n g r e s s , N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l , I 97-3. 2 . H a w a i i , Land Use Law of 1961, as amended 1970. 3 . Ve rmont , E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law, 1970 ( A c t . No. 250 Vermont L a w s ) . 4 . O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development A c t , 1973. 5 . Wash ington S t a t e , S h o r e l i n e Management A c t of 19 7 1. These laws are a n a l y z e d on the b a s i s of s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a . From t h i s a n a l y s i s recommendations f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ment are g i v e n which i n c o r p o r a t e those s t r u c t u r e s and powers thought n e c e s s a r y to c o n t r o l development a c t i v i t i e s on the i s l a n d s . At the same time the recommended p r o v i s i o n s attempt to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the normative assumptions o f the author and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . The recommendations are embodied i n a model b i l l f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s which d e s c r i b e s the proposed i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i n terms o f c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e s , powers, and f u n c t i o n s . The l a n d use laws a n a l y z e d i n t h i s study are c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f the tr e n d s towards i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e i i i c o n t r o l over r e g i o n a l l a n d use mat t e r s and the i n c r e a s e d d e l e -g a t i o n of powers to s p e c i a l purpose b o d i e s . Only some of the l e g i s l a t i o n a n a l y z e d s e r i o u s l y attempts to accommodate l o c a l c i t i z e n i n p u t to the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The model b i l l proposed i n t h i s study i n c l u d e s mechanisms to p r o t e c t the i s l a n d environment and a t the same time makes p r o v i s i o n f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables: i x L i s t o f C h a r t s , F i g u r e s arid .Maps x Acknowledgements x i PART I: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 D e f i ni t i o n s 2 1 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s 3 1.3 Methodology 4 2 BACKGROUND 9 2.1 P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n 9 2.2 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 11 2.3 S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 16 2.4 Recent P l a n n i n g A c t i v i t i e s 21 2.5 Development of P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y 28 v Chapter Page 3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 36 3.1 Overview of the Need f o r C o n t r o l s 36 3.2 C e n t r a l Research Task 46 3.3. O u t l i n e of M a t e r i a l f o r A n a l y s i s 49 PART II: EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR-PURPOSE LAND USE CONTROLS 4 EXAMINATION OF THE ISLAND TRUST CONCEPT IN PROPOSED LEGISLATION 55 4.1 Model I s l a n d T r u s t L e g i s l a t i o n 55 4.2 Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l 59 4.3 H o u s a t o n i c R i v e r V a l l e y T r u s t B i l l 72 5 EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR-PURPOSE LEGISLATION FOR LAND USE CONTROL 75 5.1 H a w a i i , Land Use Law (1961) 75 5.2 Vermont, Environmental C o n t r o l Law (1970) 84 5.3 O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development A c t (1973) . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.4 Washington S t a t e , S h o r e l i n e Management Act (1971) 106 6 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING TRUST LEGISLATION AND SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION . . . 114 7 RELEVANCE OF EXISTING LAND USE LEGISLATION TO THE GULF ISLANDS PROPOSAL 122 7.1 Normative Assumptions 123 7.2 Rules of N a t u r a l J u s t i c e 123 7.3 Safeguards i n De l e g a t e d L e g i s l a t i o n . . . . . 123 v i Chapter Page PART III: SUGGESTED ISLANDS TRUST STRUCTURE AND LEGISLATION 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SUGGESTED STRUCTURE OF THE TRUST 128 8.1 Conceptual Framework 128 8.2 Suggested S t r u c t u r e of the I s l a n d s T r u s t 138 9 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ISLANDS TRUST LEGISLATION 146 9.1 I n t e n t and Scope of Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n . 146 9.2 G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model B i l l 147 9.3 Content A n a l y s i s of G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l 175 10 IMPLICATIONS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GULF ISLANDS TRUST COMMISSION 178 10.1 Inadequacy of L o c a l Development C o n t r o l s 178 10.2 Trend to I n c r e a s e d P r o v i n c i a l / S t a t e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n L o c a l A f f a i r s 184 10.3 Trend to S p e c i a l Purpose Bodies 184 10.4 The R i g h t to P a r t i c i p a t e 188 10.5 C o n c l u d i n g Comments 191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 194 APPENDICES A "Report of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , " i n Votes and Pro-ceedings of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia, Monday, September 24, 1 974 207 v i i Appendices Page B "National Island Trusts Act" model b i l l in Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, U.S. Department of the In te r io r , Islands of America, 1 970 212 G Nantucket Sounds Islands Trust B i l l , Congressional Record s. 1929, Washington, May 31 , 1 973 217 D Hawaii, Land Use Law of 1961, Hawaii Rev. Stat. c. 205 (1968) as amended (1 969,1 970) 223 E Vermont, Act No. 250 Vermont Laws, Tenth Vermont Stat . Ann. c. 1 51 , 1 970 227 F Ontar io , Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act, Ont. c. 22-, E l i z . II , 1973 . . . . • 2 3 3 G Washington, Shoreline Management Act of 1971 , RCW 90.58 252 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Tab! e Page 1 Land Area and Permanent 1971 P o p u l a t i o n , G u l f I s l a n d s . 12 2 C u r r e n t S t a t u s of Community Pl a n s and Bylaws, G u l f I s l a n d s , 1 974 29 3 Comparative A n a l y s i s of I s l a n d T r u s t and S i m i l a r Purpose L e g i s l a t i o n 116 4 A n a l y s i s of Contents of G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model B i l l 176 5 Comparison of F e a t u r e s of the Proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t to E x i s t i n g R e g i o n a l Boards . 182 LIST OF CHARTS, FIGURES AND MAPS Chart Page 1 Structure of the Vermont Environmental Protection System 91 2 Preparation of Shoreline Master Programs, Washington State 112 Figure 1 P o l i t i c a l and Planning Processes: Stage One 132 2 Po l i t i ca l and Planning Processes: Stage Two 1 34 3 Proposed Po l i t i ca l and Planning Frame-work, Gulf Islands 137 Map 1 Regional Setting: Gulf Islands 10 2 Regional D is t r i c t s : Gulf Islands 17 x A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S The aut h o r would l i k e to express her g r a t i t u d e to B i l l Rees and Brahm Wiesman f o r t h e i r numerous h e l p f u l comments and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s paper. Thanks a l s o to Al Lucas of the F a c u l t y of Law and B i l l Lane of the B.C. Land Commission who reviewed the model b i l l f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t and who o f f e r e d many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i x i P A R T I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The r e s e a r c h t a s k , as summarized i n t h i s paper, was c o n c e i v e d as an a n a l y s i s of a p a r t i c u l a r mechanism to implement a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a . The a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d the d e s i g n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to make and c a r r y out d e c i s i o n s , and recommendations f o r d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n which would implement t h i s s t r u c t u r e . In o r d e r to emphasize the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s p e c t , a number of assumptions were t r e a t e d as u n d e r l y i n g premises of the s t u d y . These assumptions w i l l be f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , however s e v e r a l of the more fundamental i s s u e s are s t a t e d here: I . The i s l a n d s - are a unique s c e n i c , r e c r e a t i o n a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e and are c u r r e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by v a r i o u s forms of overdevelopment. 2. The i s l a n d s c o n s t i t u t e a v a l u a b l e a s s e t to the r e g i o n , the p r o v i n c e and the c o u n t r y . 1 2 3 . There i s a need t o t a k e measures t o p r e s e r v e t h e un ique a t t r i b u t e s of the i s l a n d s s i n c e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s appear t o be i n a d e q u a t e i n c o n t r o l l i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . 4 . Any program u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e deve lopment c o n t r o l s on the i s l a n d s s h o u l d s t r i v e t o enhance s o c i a l o p p o r -t u n i t i e s by i n c r e a s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e uses t o as many i n d i v i d u a l s as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e m i n i m i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n . The purpose of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t h e r e f o r e not to prepare a case as to why the G u l f I s l a n d s s h o u l d be c o n s e r v e d , but r a t h e r , g i v e n w i d e s p r e a d acceptance of the need f o r con-s e r v a t i o n , to determine how t h i s can be e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d o u t . 1 . 1 O b j e c t i ves There are two major o b j e c t i v e s t o t h i s s t u d y : 1. To examine the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and t h e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s which have as t h e i r major o b j e c t i v e , p r e s e r v a t i o n of u n i q u e e n v i r o n m e n t s and c o n t r o l of d e v e l o p -ment , a n d , wherever p o s s i b l e , t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s in c a r r y i n g out p o l i c y . 2. To d e v e l o p a s u g g e s t e d s t r u c t u r e f o r a ' G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t ' t o implement a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d deve lopment and c o n s e r v a t i o n on the G u l f I s l a n d s . The major assumption of t h i s s tudy i s the acceptance of the recommendation made by the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s to the P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , September 24, 3 1973. T h i s Committee recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "an ' I s l a n d s T r u s t ' ( o r commission) as the most a p p r o p r i a t e body to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and to c o - o r d i n a t e the f u t u r e of each i s l a n d w i t h i n ( t h e P r o v i n c e ' s ) terms of r e f e r e n c e " (see Appendix A ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n s and recommendations i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t of t h i s Committee are t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d as an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n on the i s l a n d s . T h i s r e p o r t p r o v i d e s the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s s tudy which proceeds to develop a suggested s t r u c t u r e f o r a G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t . (The c o n t e n t s of the r e p o r t are d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n P a r t I , Chapter 2 of t h i s s t u d y . ) 1.2 Methodology T h i s study i n c o r p o r a t e s two r e s e a r c h methods, namely b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n of the p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d a s e a r c h of e x i s t i n g l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n which was c o n s i d e r e d to have r e l e v a n c e f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . The second a s p e c t of the r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d both p a r t i c i p a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n . P a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s began i n J u l y 1973 when the a u t h o r p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f to the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s which was t o u r i n g the i s l a n d s at t h a t t i m e . The major recommendation c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s b r i e f was t h a t "an I s l a n d T r u s t Commission s h o u l d be s e t up to implement p r o v i n c i a l 4 p o l i c y on the i s l a n d s " (Bowen I s l a n d S t u d y, 1973). F o l l o w i n g the recommendations made by the Committee to the L e g i s l a t u r e , September 1973, the au t h o r met w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the government d u r i n g which the s t r u c t u r e and r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y of the T r u s t were d i s c u s s e d . T h i s i n c l u d e d a meeting w i t h the M i n i s t e r , Hon. J.G. L o r i m e r , h i s e x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n t D. J a n t z e n , and the chairman of the Committee A. Nu n w e i l e r on October 16, 1973 and two meetings on February 11, 1974, one w i t h the M i n i s t e r and the o t h e r w i t h v a r i o u s s t a f f , members of the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s who were i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h and the d r a f t i n g of the l e g i s l a t i o n to c r e a t e the 'Gulf I s l a n d s T r u s t . ' I t was through these meetings t h a t the au t h o r was a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e her i d e a s and knowledge g a i n e d from r e s e a r c h to the proc e s s of d e f i n i n g the s t r u c t u r e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the T r u s t . At the same time the auth o r was a b l e to f o l l o w the p r o g r e s s of the d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h docu-mented i n t h i s s tudy r e p r e s e n t s the a u t h o r ' s own work and the s u g g e s t i o n s f o r d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n a r e based on t h i s r e s e a r c h , and on the a u t h o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n and development o f a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s . 1 . 3 D e f i n i t i o n s The s t u d y area i s d e f i n e d as the group o f f i f t e e n i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of Ge o r g i a between Vancouver I s l a n d and 5 the M a i n l a n d , which the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s t o u r e d i n May and J u l y 1973. These i n c l u d e the f o l l o w -i n g i s l a n d s : S a t u r n a , North Pender, South Pender, S a l t s p r i n g , G a l i a n o , Mayne, Bowen, Gambier, K e a t s , Denman, Hornby, L a s q u e t i , G a b r i o l a , Kuper and T h e t i s . The i s l a n d s are n:neluded i n seven R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : C a p i t a l , G r e a t e r Vancouver, Sunshine C o a s t , Comox-Strathcona, Powell R i v e r , Nanaimo and Cowichan V a l l e y . These i s l a n d s are r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s s tudy as the G u l f I s l a n d s and, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , i n c l u d e those i s l a n d s j u s t named. The G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t i s d e f i n e d as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement to be s e t up by the P r o v i n c i a l government to implement a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . The e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n to c r e a t e such a T r u s t w i l l l i k e l y be i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e i n the S p r i n g or F a l l S e s s i o n s , 1974. The t r u s t concept r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . The d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of ' t r u s t ' a p p r o p r i a t e to t h i s concept i n c l u d e : • a person or thing in whioh confidence is placed • a charge or duty imposed in f a i t h or confidence or as a condition of some r e l a t i o n s h i p • something committed or entrusted to one to be used or cared for in the i n t e r e s t of another :". dependence on something future or contingent (G.C. Merriam C., 1964) 6 The ' t r u s t c o n c ept' t h e r e f o r e suggests an a r r a n g e -ment wherein d e c i s i o n s p e r t i n e n t to the f u t u r e of an area or f i e l d of a c t i v i t y are e n t r u s t e d to a body which i s r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e of w i d e r i n t e r e s t s . I m p l i c i t i n the term ' c o n f i d e n c e ' i s the i d e a t h a t o b j e c t i v e s e x p r e s s e d by wide i n t e r e s t s w i l l be pursued, presumably f o r some common good. The term ' t r u s t ' a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be d e f i n e d i n terms of long-term r a t h e r than s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s . ' T r u s t ' may then be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean c o n s i d e r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f f u t u r e as w e l l as p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s . Land t r u s t s are most commonly e s t a b l i s h e d to hold l a n d i n ' t r u s t e e s h i p ' f o r the p u b l i c good. Land i s h e l d by the T r u s t under s p e c i f i c , l e g a l l y d e f i n e d c o n d i t i o n s and i s not n o r m a l l y a l l o w e d to be s o l d . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Independence I n s t i t u t e (1972) d e f i n e s a community l a n d t r u s t as: a legal e n t i t y , a quasi-public body chartered to hold land in stewardship for a l l mankind present and future while protecting the legitimate use-rights of i t s residents. Examples of t h i s community a p p r o a c h t t o l a n d c o n t r o l are r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n North America but s i m i l a r approaches have been u t i l i z e d , sometimes f o r hundreds of y e a r s , i n a number of c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y I n d i a , T a n z a n i a and Mexico ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Independence I n s t i t u t e , 1972). The more common form o f l a n d o r p r o p e r t y t r u s t i n Western c o u n t r i e s i s the p r i v a t e t r u s t which has been developed 7 m a i n l y to p r o t e c t c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d . The be s t known o f the s e i s the N a t i o n a l T r u s t of Great B r i t a i n . T h i s p r i v a t e , n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n was founded i n 1895 and i s now p r o t e c t e d by the N a t i o n a l T r u s t A c t s 1907 to 1953 (Nature Conservancy, 1964). The purpose of the T r u s t i s "promoting the permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n , f o r the b e n e f i t of the n a t i o n , o f lan d s and tenemants, of beauty or h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t , and, as re g a r d s l a n d s , f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n , of 9 their*; "natural a s p e c t f e a t u r e s and animal and p l a n t l i f e " ( N a t i o n a l T r u s t A c t 1 907 , S. 4 ( I - ) ) . The T r u s t i s su p p o r t e d by s u b s c r i p t i o n s of i t s members. In 1969 i t owned over two hundred h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s and about f o u r hundred thousand a c r e s o f l a n d i n Englan d , S c o t l a n d , Wales and No r t h e r n I r e l a n d ( W o r s k e t t , 1969). For the purposes of t h i s study the t r u s t concept is5di©f;in.edaashhavningtthiseeeeiliements: 1 . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of wider i n t e r e s t s 2. long term o b j e c t i v e s 3. c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u t u r e as w e l l as p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s A major p o r t i o n of t h i s work d e a l s w i t h the d e s i g n of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement to implement a g i v e n p o l i c y of the p r o v i n c i a l government, as exp r e s s e d i n the r e p o r t of the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s . An i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i s d e f i n e d as an i n t e r r e l a t e d s e t of r u l e s and e n t i t i e s ( Fox, 1971). Rules are d e f i n e d to i n c l u d e l a w s , r e g u l a t i o n s , 8 s u b s i d i e s , t a x e s , c h a r g e s , p e n a l t i e s and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d customs. E n t i t i e s are d e f i n e d as i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are c a p a b l e of a c t i o n or being the r e c i p i e n t of a c t i o n by a n o ther e n t i t y (Fox, 1971). I m p l i c i t i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i s t h a t , g i v e n an o b j e c t i v e , the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l pursue s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s to a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ment must have some power to e n f o r c e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . P o l i c y i s d e f i n e d b r o a d l y as a c o u r s e of a c t i o n pursued by governments, r u l e r s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s e t c . to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s . The f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d to be the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n o f government i n t h a t p o l i c y most o f t e n d e a l s w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n t O f v a l u e s f o r s o c i e t y . A u s t i n Ranney (1968) has d e f i n e d p o l i c y as having the f o l l o w i n g main components: • a p a r t i c u l a r object ov set of objects ' a desired course of events • a selected l i n e of action • a declaration of intent • •• • an implementation of intent - the actions a c t u a l l y undertaken v i s - a - v i s the p a r t i c u l a r set of objects in pursuance of the choices and declaration. Chapter 2 BACKGROUND 2.1 P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n The G u l f I s l a n d s are l o c a t e d i n the S t r a i t of Georg i a which s e p a r a t e s Vancouver I s l a n d from the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia (Map 1 ) . The S t r a i t i s p a r t of a s t r u c t u r a l t r o u g h which extends along the west c o a s t of North America i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , from the G u l f of C a l i f o r n i a to A l a s k a . Thousands of y e a r s of marine and r a i n e r o s i o n have produced the r i d g e s , v a l l e y s and i n l e t s t y p i c a l of the i s l a n d s ( F a r l e y , 1973). The S t r a i t of Ge o r g i a area and the s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s i n p a r t i c u l a r , have a moderate c l i m a t e w i t h mean summer temperatures i n the 6 0 o , s F and mean w i n t e r temperatures above f r e e z i n g . R a i n f a l l i s low compared to o t h e r c o a s t a l areas i n the p r o v i n c e . The so u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s r e c e i v e between t h i r t y and f o r t y i n c h e s of r a i n a n n u a l l y (Rees and Ve r b u r g , 1973). In a d d i t i o n to a m i l d c l i m a t e , 9 M A P 1 R E G I O N A L S E T T I N G : G U L F I S L A N D S 11 the waters of the S t r a i t are w e l l p r o t e c t e d , making them i d e a l f o r s m a l l c r a f t b o a t i n g . The i s l a n d s have a t o t a l l a n d area of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 270 square m i l e s or l e s s than 1% of the t o t a l area of the p r o v i n c e . The l a r g e s t i s l a n d i s S a l t s p r i n g w i t h an area of 71 square m i l e s and the s m a l l e s t i s Keats w i t h an area of 2.5 square m i l e s . The p o p u l a t i o n of the area i n 1971 was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,300. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s p r o b a b l y ranges from two to t h r e e times t h i s number.^ Ta b l e 1 c o n t a i n s a breakdown of p o p u l a t i o n and la n d area by i s l a n d . 2.2 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The f i r s t known v i s i t o r s to the G u l f I s l a n d s were the Coast S a l i s h I n d i a n s which i n c l u d e d the Nanaimo, Chemainus, Cowichan, S a a n i c h and Songhee t r i b e s (B.C. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a -t i o n , 1971). The i n d i a n s used the i s l a n d s f o r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g grounds but a c c o r d i n g to a r c h e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e d i d not b u i l d permanent s e t t l e m e n t s t h e r e . (afthei'rl summer f i s h i n g camps were l o c a t e d on s i t e s on the i s l a n d s which were f l a t and near the s h o r e l i n e . T h i s i s based on v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s of se a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s made by Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n e r s . For example, S a l t s p r i n g ' s s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d a t 1200 persons w h i l e Hornby's i s e s t i m a t e d a t over 500. 1 2 Table 1 Land Area and Permanent 1971 P o p u l a t i o n , G u l f I s l a n d s I s l a n d Area (square miles) P o p u l a t i on (1971 census) S a l t s p r i ng 71 .0 3,600 North Pender 10.5 South Pender 3.6 Mayne G a l i ano 8.9 23.0 1,700 Bowen 19.5 330 Gambier 26.8 67 Keats 2.5 5 Denman 19.2 250 Hornby 11.7 175 L a s q u e t i 25* 1 50 Gabr i o l a 27* 680 Kuper 3.8 200** T h e t i s 5* 150** 270 7,308 * e s t i m a t e d ** 1973 e s t i m a t e s SOURCE: P l a n n i n g Departments of the f o l l o w i n g R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s : C a p i t a l , G r e a t e r Vancouver, Sunshine C o a s t , Comox-S t r a t h c o n a , Powell R i v e r , Nanaimo, Cowichan V a l l e y , 1 974. 13 In 1792, C a p t a i n Vancouver s a i l e d around Vancouver I s l a n d , s e n t on a m i s s i o n by the B r i t i s h Government to s u r v e y t h a t area of the c o a s t . During h i s e x p l o r a t i o n he stopped o f f at Mayne I s l a n d and no doubt many o t h e r of the G u l f I s l a n d s ( H a m i l t o n , 1969). The r e s u l t s of C a p t a i n Vancouver's s u r v e y appeared i n 1798 i n a c h a r t which i n c l u d e d the s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1971). Vancouver named the G u l f of Geo r g i a a f t e r King George I I , and Howe Sound a f t e r E a r l Howe who d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f i n a b a t t l e w i t h the French i n 1794, halfway round the w o r l d (Howard, 1973). The c o a s t was a l s o e x p l o r e d by the S p a n i s h around t h i s same t i m e , and i t was Jose M a r i a Narvaez who named Saturna I s l a n d ((Gorri g a l , 1 969). During the 1800's the f i r s t European s e t t l e m e n t s appeared i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y on the m a i n l a n d . S e t t l e m e n t f o l l o w e d sometime a f t e r on the G u l f I s l a n d s . The f i r s t i s l a n d s to be s e t t l e d were those c l o s e s t to the m a i n l a n d , and to Vancouver I s l a n d : S a l t s p r i n g i n 1858, Mayne i n 1863 and Hornby i n 1862 ( W a l t e r , 1945; C o r r i g a l , 1969). The e a r l y s e t t l e r s pre-empted l a n d from the Crown i n the f e r t i l e v a l l e y s of the i s l a n d s and near the shores and s h e l t e r e d bays where boats c o u l d e a s i l y l a n d (Howard, 1973). T y p i c a l l y , these s e t t l e r s c l e a r e d the l a n d , s e l l i n g most of t h e i r t i m b e r w h i l e u s i n g p a r t of i t to b u i l d t h e i r homes. Many homesteaders worked a t lumbering and c o n s i d e r a b l e acreage 1 4 of v i r g i n f o r e s t was logged on the i s l a n d s d u r i n g the l a t e 1800's. Many s e t t l e r s c l e a r e d t h e i r l a n d to grow crops and r a i s e l i v e s t o c k to f e e d t h e i r own f a m i l i e s ; some e v e n t u a l l y e n l a r g e d t h e i r farms to grow v a r i o u s t ypes of produce f o r s a l e . There was an e a r l y f l o u r i s h of mining e x p l o r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on Bowen and S a l t s p r i n g , but c o m m e r c i a l l y f e a s i b l e o p e r a t i o n s never m a t e r i a l i z e d . Logging c o n t i n u e d to be an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y on the i s l a n d s and l o g g i n g companies o b t a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e acreage on some i s l a n d s such as G a l i a n o . In t i m e , l o g g i n g on the i s l a n d s became l e s s p r o f i t a b l e as more of the h i n t e r l a n d c o n t a i n i n g l a r g e t r a c t s of h i g h e r q u a l i t y f o r e s t l a n d s were opened up by roads and r a i l w a y s . E a r l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the i s l a n d s was by p r i v a t e steamship companies whose boats p l y e d the waters of the S t r a i t , c a r r y i n g passengers and s u p p l i e s . In the e a r l y days t h e r e were no i s l a n d r o a d s ; the boats stopped o f f a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s around each i s l a n d . G r a d u a l l y the P r o v i n c i a l government took over the f u n c t i o n of f e r r y s e r v i c e to the i s l a n d s and i n the 1950's c a r f e r r i e s were i n t r o d u c e d on some of the r u n s . The government now o p e r a t e s a l l f e r r i e s under the B.C. F e r r y S e r v i c e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the f e r r y to L a s q u e t i I s l a n d . With the a r r i v a l of the a u t o m o b i l e o r r t h e i s l a n d s the s e t t l e -ment p a t t e r n was d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d and p r e v i o u s l y i n a c c e s s i b l e areas were opened up to r e s i d e n t i a l development. R e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s h i f t e d from permanent to s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s . 15 The number of new homes b u i l t r o s e s t e a d i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1960 1 s when r i s i n g incomes and i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time meant t h a t g r e a t e r numbers of people c o u l d a f f o r d second homes. For example, on Hornby I s l a n d t h e r e were o n l y 44 s u b d i v i d e d s m a l l l o t s of l e s s than two a c r e s p r i o r to 1960; i n the p e r i o d to 1970, 400 s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s were c r e a t e d on t h a t i s l a n d (Comox-Strathcona R.D., 1971). S i m i l a r s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y has o c c u r r e d on most of the i s l a n d s i n the s o u t h e r n r e g i o n of the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a . The P r o v i n c i a l government imposed a f r e e z e on s u b d i v i s i o n s below a minimum of ten a c r e s i n October 1969, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h i s type of development has been p r o h i b i t e d s i n c e t h a t t i m e . Today the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r ^ g r e a t l y from i s l a n d to i s l a n d . Some i s l a n d s s u p p o r t a s i z e a b l e perma-nent p o p u l a t i o n ; on S a l t s p r i n g f o r example, 50 per cent of the p r o p e r t y owners are permanent r e s i d e n t s on the i s l a n d ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1971). On G a b r i o l a the s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d to be s l i g h t l y l e s s than two times the permanent p o p u l a t i o n (Nanaimo R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1974). And on Keats I s l a n d o n l y f o u r per cent of the p r o p e r t y owners l i v e permanently on the i s l a n d (Sunshine Coast R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1974). 16 2.3 S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e In 1965 the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e passed l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t h r ough-out the p r o v i n c e . S t a t u t o r y f u n c t i o n s were not a s s i g n e d to the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , but r a t h e r f u n c t i o n s c o u l d be a c q u i r e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y a c c o r d i n g to the needs and r e s o u r c e s o f the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o l l o w i n g passage of the l e g i s l a t i o n ; i t was not u n t i l 1968 t h a t a l l 28 R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s c o v e r i n g most of the p r o v i n c e had been formed ( C o l l i e r , 1972). T h i s r e g i o n a l l e v e l of government i s d i r e c t e d by a Re g i o n a l Board comprised of m u n i c i p a l members and members from n o n - m u n i c i p a l a r e a s . Non-municipal a r e a s , which i n c l u d e a l l the G u l f I s l a n d s , are r e p r e s e n t e d by members e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y from those a r e a s . These R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s , as they are c a l l e d , p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Board and have the same v o t i n g powers as the M u n i c i p a l D i r e c t o r s who r e p r e s e n t i n c o r -p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The non - m u n i c i p a l areas have been o r g a n i z e d i n t o E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s f o r e l e c t i o n purposes. In the G u l f Islands t h e r e a re e i g h t E l e c t o r a l Areas which i n c l u d e one or more of the f i f t e e n i s l a n d s ; these E l e c t o r a l Areas f a l l w i t h i n seven d i f f e r e n t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s (see Map 2 ) . Because f u n c t i o n s a re g r a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , the seven R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a area p r o v i d e v a r y i n g types and l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s M A P 2 R E G I O N A L D I S T R I C T S : G U L F I S L A N D S 18 to the i r member munic ipa l i t i es and E lectora l Areas. For example, Powell River provides some spec ia l i zed services such as ambulence service and garbage disposal to i t s members which include Lasqueti Is land. In many other Regional D i s t r i c t s th is type of serv ice would be supplied only by incorporated munic i -p a l i t i e s . Only some of the Regional D i s t r i c t s have assumed r e spons ib i l i t y for regional parks. In the case of the i s l ands , as for a l l unorganized areas, the Regional D i s t r i c t acts as the local government, handling local planning, issuance of bui ld ing permits, and other l imited funct ions . Most of the Regional D i s t r i c t s do not handle sewage treatment or water supply for the i s l ands ; the l a t t e r is carr ied out l o c a l l y through the operation of Water Improvement D i s t r i c t s , administered by the Province (Municipal A f f a i r s , 1973). Each Regional D i s t r i c t can assume new functions by a vote of i t s member areas, at the suggestion of the Provinc ia l government or by order of the Lieutenant-Governor in Counc i l . In unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s designated services are paid for through an addit ional levy on the real-property tax; the Minister of Finance d i rec ts that the amount added be paid to the Regional D i s t r i c t from the Provinc ia l Co l l ec tor (Municipal Act , R.S.B.C. 1960 C. 255, S. 775). E lectora l Areas can thus receive cer ta in services through the Regional D i s t r i c t without becoming incorporated. 1 9 The Regional D i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e thus o f f e r s both advantages and disadvantages to the Gul f I s l a n d s . C e r t a i n b e n e f i t s are der i ved from the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s . On the other hand, communications with Regional Board members and r e g i o n a l s t a f f i s o f ten made d i f f i c u l t by the remoteness of some of the i s l a n d s . In some cases r e g i o n a l goals appear to be d i f f e r e n t from those of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s ; f o r example property owners on Bowen Is land have had great d i f f i c u l t y in communicating t h e i r r u r a l p o i n t of view on the matter of minimum l o t s i z e s , to a predominately urban Board (Glover and Chataway, 1973) . And f i n a l l y , the f a c t that seven Regional Boards have j u r i s d i c t i o n over f i f t e e n Gul f I s lands means that p r a c t i c a l l y each i s l a n d i s r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t types and l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s , and that good communication between i s l a n d s i n - d i f f e r e n t Regional D i s t r i c t s i s d i f f i c u l t to a c h i e v e . An a d d i t i o n a l problem i s c reated by the d e s i g n a t i o n of some i s l a n d s to p a r -t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . Lasquet i I s l a n d , f o r example, i s a member of the Powell Riiver Regional D i s t r i c t and ye t i t s on ly t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k i s by f e r r y to P a r k s v i l l e on Vancouver I s l a n d . Although the Regional D i s t r i c t s have assumed c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the i s l a n d s , the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e t a i n s many d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers i n these and other unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s in the P r o v i n c e . The Local S e r v i c e s Act ( R . S . B . C . 1960, C. 224) g ives the M i n i s t e r the a u t h o r i t y to 20 act as m a y o r - i n - c o u n c i 1 and the power to impose land use plans in these a r e a s . This power was e x e r c i s e d on October 3 1 , 1969 when the L ieutenant -Governor in C o u n c i l , upon the recommen-dat ion of the M i n i s t e r , dec la red the Gulf I s lands a ' l o c a l a r e a ' under t h i s a c t . At t h i s time the M i n i s t e r in t roduced a r e g u l a t i o n which prohibited s u b d i v i s i o n of land below a minimum of ten a c r e s . However the r e g u l a t i o n s a l lowed the submission of s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s up u n t i l March 3 1 , 1970 so as to not i n f r i n g e upon the r i g h t s of developers who where in the process of s u b d i v i d i n g l a n d . The i n t e r i m per iod from October to March caused a great rush in s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s ; the C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t a lone processed plans f o r 1900 l o t s dur ing t h i s per iod (The Province, November 10, 1971) . On Hornby I s l a n d , over h a l f of the e x i s t i n g subd iv ided l o t s (396 of 736) were r e g i s t e r e d a f t e r the announcement of the 10 acre f reeze i n October 1969 (Comox-Strathcona Regional D i s t r i c t , 1971) . Under the Local S e r v i c e s A c t , the L ieutenant -Governor in C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r , has a l l the powers of a c o u n c i l in respec t to community p l a n s , the r e g u l a t i o n of z o n i n g , land use , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and con -s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s or s t r u c t u r e s of any k i n d , in a d e s i g -nated ' l o c a l a r e a . ' This power i s e x e r c i s e d c h i e f l y by the M i n i s t e r of Mun ic ipa l A f f a i r s , a l though l e g a l l y the Cabinet has the f i n a l say on these m a t t e r s . S ince the e f f e c t i v e date of 21 the f r e e z e , March 31, 1970, l o c a l p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l on the i s l a n d s by the Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s has, i n e f f e c t , been s h i f t e d to the M i n i s t e r and the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . As a r e s u l t , new development on the i s l a n d s has been c o n f i n e d to l o t s s u b d i v i d e d p r i o r to t h i s d a t e , or to l o t s g r e a t e r than t en a c r e s i n a r e a . At the time the r e g u l a t i o n came i n t o f o r c e , the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Dan Campbell s t a t e d t h a t "the tend a c r e f r e e z e was i n s t i t u t e d to g i v e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s times to come up w i t h a p l a n " and t h a t "the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t concerned s h o u l d be the l o c a l agency through which the a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions i n these v a r i o u s i s l a n d s would g i v e e f f e c t to t h e i r i d e a s " { V i c t o r i a Daily Times. January 6, 1970). The P r o v i n c i a l government i s s u e d no o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i v e to the Re g i o n a l Boards to prepare p l a n s f o r the i s l a n d s . However the M i n i s t e r made h i s i n t e n t i o n s p u b l i c through the media i n the hopes t h a t the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would conform w i t h o u t e x p l i c i t r e g u l a t i o n . 2.4 Recent P l a n n i n g A c t i v i t i e s P r i o r to the f o r m a t i o n o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s and p r o p e r t y owners had l i t t l e say i n the d i r e c t i o n of development of t h e i r communities. However, s i n c e the Regi o n a l D i s t r i c t s a c q u i r e d the l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n on the i s l a n d s , and s i n c e the ten a c r e f r e e z e was imposed by the 22 P r o v i n c e , e f f o r t s have been made on some i s l a n d s , to draw up community pl a n s and bylaws w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s . The i n i t i a t i v e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of such p l a n s has u s u a l l y come from the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r f o r the a r e a , or from the i s l a n d e r s t h e m s e l v e s . The Re g i o n a l D i r e c t o r a p p o i n t s a f i v e member A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission to a s s i s t him i n mat t e r s r e l a t i n g to l o c a l p l a n n i n g on an i s l a n d or group of i s l a n d s . In one c a s e , G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , a P l a n n i n g Commission has been e l e c t e d . T h i s was made p o s s i b l e by the i n f o r m a l agreement of the Re g i o n a l D i r e c t o r f o r t h a t area and the Reg i o n a l Board; the Commission was e l e c t e d by a vote of i s l a n d p r o p e r t y owners and then ' a p p o i n t e d ' by the R e g i o n a l Board. Where i t i s a v a i l a b l e , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s pro-v i d e d by the r e g i o n a l s t a f f , to the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission and the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r . At the time of t h i s w r i t i n g Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s the o n l y d i s t r i c t which does not have a s t a f f p l a n n e r ; L a s q u e t i I s l a n d must t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t p l a n n i n g a s s i s t a n c e from the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Communicty p l a n s and z o n i n g bylaws are s u b m i t t e d to the R e g i o n a l Board f o r a p p r o v a l . Between f i r s t and second r e a d i n g s of a p l a n or bylaw, a p u b l i c h e a r i n g must be h e l d a c c o r d i n g to s t a t u t e ( M u n i c i p a l A c t R.S.B.C. 1960, C. 255, P a r t X X I ) . The Reg i o n a l Board votes to approve or d i s a p p r o v e 23 a bylaw a f t e r the t h i r d r e a d i n g . In the case of r e g u l a t o r y bylaws t h e r e must be an a f f i r m a t i v e vote of t w o - t h i r d s of the D i r e c t o r s whose areas p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n p l u s an a f f i r m a t i v e vote of t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l the D i r e c t o r s on t h e Board ( M u n i c i p a l A c t R.S.B.C. 1960, C. 255, S. 778). F o l l o w i n g r e g i o n a l a p p r o v a l , the p l a n or bylaw i s s u b m i t t e d f o r a p p r o v a l and enactment by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . A few R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s had produced z o n i n g bylaws f o r the i s l a n d s p r i o r to September 1972 when the New Democratic P a r t y Government assumed power. Bylaws which had been prepared and approved by the P r o v i n c e i n c l u d e d those f o r Denman and Bowen I s l a n d s (Comox-Strathcona R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1972, G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1972). At t h i s time the N.D.P. Government d e c i d e d to review the problems o f the G u l f I s l a n d s which had l e a d to the i m p o s i t i o n of the ten a c r e f r e e z e by the former government i n 1969. I t became p o l i c y of the government to w i t h o l d a p p r o v a l of p l a n s and bylaws u n t i l a s t u d y of the i s l a n d s had been completed. The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f r e v i e w of r e c e n t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on the i s l a n d s , c a t e g o r i z e d by R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t : 24 Capital Regional District (C.R.D.) The C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has been v e r y a c t i v e i n p l a n n i n g on the so u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s . S i n c e 1971 work has been p r o c e e d i n g on the f i r s t p a r t of the r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the d i s t r i c t to cover E l e c t o r a l Area G (Outer G u l f I s l a n d s ) and E l e c t o r a l Area F ( S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d ) . In December 1971, the P l a n n i n g Department of the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c i r -c u l a t e d a p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d " G u l f I s l a n d s O p t i o n s " to the people of the a r e a . T h e i r aim was "to c h a l l e n g e and to s t i m u l a t e debate and response i n o r d e r t h a t the C.R.D. may shape a R e g i o n a l P l a n a c c o r d i n g to the d e s i r e s of the pe o p l e " ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1971). In a d d i t i o n to c o n s i d e r a b l e f a c t u a l i n f o r -m a t i o n , the p u b l i c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t h r e e o p t i o n s which d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n t development s c e n a r i o s on the i s l a n d s . A f o u r t h o p t i o n was l e f t blank f o r the rea d e r to submit h i s or her own i d e a s and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o i n c l u d e d . The response r a t e f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , up to A p r i l 15, 1972 was 8%. Using the r e s u l t s of t h i s survey and o t h e r s t u d i e s and s u r v e y s done on the i s l a n d s , the C.R.D. worked towards p r e p a r i n g a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r the a r e a . L o c a l community groups o f t e n worked a c t i v e l y w i t h the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r and the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission to prepare p l a n s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s . The P l a n n i n g Department of the C.R.D. has s u p p l i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h i s work. 25 At the time of w r i t i n g community pla n s have been com-p l e t e d f o r South Pender, G a l i a n o and S a l t s p r i n g w h i l e those f o r North Pender, Mayne and Saturna are s t i l l i n p r e p a r a t i o n . Zoning bylaws f o r S a l t s p r i n g and the Outer G u l f I s l a n d s were enacted January 13, 1971 and June 27, 1972 r e s p e c t i v e l y but r e q u i r e u p d a t i n g to conform w i t h the new p l a n s . The P r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t approved the plan s f o r South Pender and G a l i a n o J a nuary 1974, and S a l t s p r i n g , March 1974. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (G.V.R.D.) Bowen I s l a n d was i n c l u d e d i n the G.V.R.D. but the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t d i d not a c q u i r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g on the i s l a n d u n t i l A p r i l , 1971. P r i o r to t h i s the P r o v i n c i a l government had begun p r e p a r a t i o n of a zo n i n g bylaw which was not complete at the time of the t a k e o v e r . The c u r r e n t bylaw was prepared by the p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t f o r the area (who i s h i r e d by the G.V.R.D.) and the Re g i o n a l D i r e c t o r f o r Bowen w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the a p p o i n t e d A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission. The bylaw was passed by the Re g i o n a l Board and approved by the P r o v i n c i a l government on August 1, 1972. Work was not begun on a community p l a n u n t i l the f a l l of 1973 when the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a s s o c i a t i o n took on the j o b v o l u n t a r i l y w i t h o u t formal r e c o g n i t i o n . A d r a f t of the 26 proposed p l a n was ready by February 1974 and was being c i r -c u l a t e d to i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s f o r t h e i r comments and recommendati Sunshine Coast Regional District There has been no o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g on Gambier and Keats I s l a n d s to d a t e . The Sunshine Coast R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g a s p e c i a l study on the s e i s l a n d s but has n o t , a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , proceeded f a r enough to produce a d r a f t p l a n or zo n i n g bylaw f o r the i s l a n d s . Comox-Strathcona Regional District Comox-Strathcona R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has spent con-s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n s and bylaws f o r Hornby and Denman I s l a n d s . In t h i s r e g a r d , the i s l a n d e r s were g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f pla n s f o r t h e i r communities. In a d d i t i o n to community p l a n s , both z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaws have been prepared f o r the two i s l a n d s and approved by the R e g i o n a l Board. On August 21, 1972 the P r o v i n c i a l government approved the z o n i n g bylaw and s u b d i v i s i o n bylaw f o r Denman I s l a n d . To d a t e , f i n a l a p p r o v a l of the bylaws f o r Hornby I s l a n d has not been g i ven. 27 Powell River Regional P i s t r i c t At the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , t h i s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s w i t h o u t l o c a l or r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s on i t s s t a f f . No p l a n s or bylaws have been prepared f o r any p a r t of t h i s r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g L a s q u e t i I s l a n d . A p o l i c y statement adopted by the Board on February 28, 1974 i n c l u d e d statements on the encourage-ment of s l o w , r a t i o n a l growth i n the r e g i o n and p r o p o s a l s f o r e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g (Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , February 28, 1974). ( A l t h o u g h Texada I s l a n d i s a member of t h i s d i s t r i c t , i t was not i n c l u d e d i n the r e c e n t p r o v i n c i a l s t u d y of the G u l f I s l a n d s and hence i s not p a r t of the study area f o r t h i s work.) Nanaimo Regional D i s t r i c t E l e c t o r a l Area A o f the Nanaimo R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was r e - o r g a n i z e d p r i o r to the November 1973 m u n i c i p a l and l o c a l e l e c t i o n s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t G a b r i o l a I s l a n d now comprises one complete E l e c t o r a l Area and so e l e c t s i t s own R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r to the R e g i o n a l Board. A community p l a n has been i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a number of months but a t the time o f t h i s w r i t i n g i s not y e t completed. The p l a n i s being prepared by an A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Committee which was e l e c t e d by i s l a n d v ote and s u b s e q u e n t l y ' a p p o i n t e d ' by the R e g i o n a l Board. A bylaw was enacted f o r G a b r i o l a i n 1971. 28 Cowichan Valley Regional District Kuper and T h e s t i s I s l a n d s comprise o n l y p a r t of E l e c t o r a l Area G of the Cowichan V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . A s u b d i v i s i o n bylaw i s being p r o c e s s e d by the Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a t the time of w r i t i n g . In a d d i t i o n , zoning r e g u l a t i o n s a re being d i s c u s s e d by the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission and the community at l a r g e . To date t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l p l a n or zo n i n g bylaw f o r Kuper or T h e t i s I s l a n d s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t to note t h a t 2300 of the 2400 a c r e s on Kuper I s l a n d are I n d i a n r e s e r v e lands and hence come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the F e d e r a l government. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d by the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development. T a b l e 2 summarizes the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of community pl a n s and bylaws f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . (The p r e c e e d i n g d i s -c u s s i o n was drawn from correspondence w i t h the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r s o f the seven R e g i o n a l D i s t H c t s which have i s l a n d s i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . ) 2.5 Development of P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y F o l l o w i n g the e l e c t i o n of the N.D.P. government i n August 1972, a s e l e c t s t a n d i n g committee of the L e g i s l a t u r e , the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s was formed. T h i s committee, 29 Table 2 C u r r e n t S t a t u s of Community Pla n s and Bylaws G u l f I s l a n d s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t I s l a n d Communi t y P l a n Zoni ng By 1 aw Capi t a l S a l t s p r i n g North Pender South Pender 0** P ** C c * * \ Mayne P \ * C / G a l i a n o ** C / Saturna p / G r e a t e r Vancouver Bowen p ** c Sunshine Coast Gambi er - -Comox-Strthcona Denman * c ** c Hornby * c * c Powell R i v e r L a s q u e t i - -Nanaimo G a b r i o l a p c * * Cowichan V a l l e y Kuper T h e t i s >p >p KEY: P - i n p r e p a r a t i o n C - complete •k C - comp l e t e , approved by R e g i o n a l Board C - comp l e t e , approved by R e g i o n a l Board, L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l 30 c h a i r e d by Mr. A l f N u n w e i l e r , was comprised of e l e v e n M.L.A.'s i n c l u d i n g the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l f o u r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The committee was i n s t r u c t e d to c a r r y out a study of the i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of Geo r g i a and to make recommendations to the L e g i s l a t u r e based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . The terms of r e f e r e n c e o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s of the Committee: To inquire into the question of the future development on the islands including the development of community plans and an examination of the existing sections of the Municipal Act and other acts affecting local governments and any orders under these acts with a view to recommending any changes considered appropriate which may have an effect on the future development of these islands. The Committee shall have the power to send for persons, papers, and records . and to hear representations from such organizations and individuals as may. in their discretion appear necessary3 visit and hold hearings on the islands, and shall report its find-ings and recommendations 'toi the House from time to time. (Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , June 13, 1973) I n i t i a l l y t he Committee heard p r e s e n t a t i o n s from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the v a r i o u s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s having i s l a n d s w i t h i n r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n (The Province. March 1, 1973). F o l l o w i n g these h e a r i n g s the Committee t o u r e d the i s l a n d s to observe the e x t e n t and q u a l i t y of development f i r s t h a n d and to hear p r e s e n t a t i o n s from i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s and i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 31 P u b l i c meetings were h e l d on almost every i s l a n d v i s i t e d . N o t i c e s were p l a c e d i n l o c a l newspapers and posted on the i s l a n d s p r i o r to the s e meetings and they were, on the whole, w e l l a t t e n d e d . In g e n e r a l , most p r e s e n t a t i o n s d e a l t w i t h l o c a l c oncerns on i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s . However, a number of problems common to a m a j o r i t y of the i s l a n d s , were c l a r i f i e d d u i r n g these meetings. The Committee met i n September 1973 to c o n s i d e r a l l s u b m i s s i o n s p r e s e n t e d to i t over the p r e c e d i n g few months. At t h i s time the Committee propared a r e p o r t which was p r e s e n t e d to the l e g i s l a t u r e September 21, 1973. The r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d a l i s t of o b s e r v a t i o n s based on the Committee's t o u r of the i s l a n d s and the s u b m i s s i o n s p r e s e n t e d to them. The o b s e r v a t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by f o u r recommendations (see Appendix A f o r the f u l l r e p o r t of the Gommi t t e e ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n s ranged w i d e l y from a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s l a n d s to the problem of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y over I n d i a n l a n d s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s of the Committee having i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s are summari zed beiow: 1. Large s u b d i v i s i o n s and o v e r - d e v e l o p m e n t were i d e n t i f i e d as t h e p r i o r i t y c o n c e r n . 2 . A need f o r i n c r e a s e d , s u p e r v i s e d p u b l i c space was c i t e d . 32 . 3. W a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t h e i s l a n d s w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a k e y f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n -i n g t h e e x t e n t o f f u t u r e g r o w t h o n t h e i s l a n d s . T h e C o m m i t t e e n o t e d t h a t c o n t r o l a n d c o - o r d i na t - i o n o f t h i s f u n c t i o n w a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i I i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o n t h e i s l a n d s w a s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e C o m m i t t e e s u g g e s t e d e m p h a s i s s h o u l d b e p l a c e d o n p e d e s t r i a n t r a n s i t . • 4. A s e r i o u s l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s w a s n o t e d . 5 . T h e e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s - -• - w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n s o m e c a s e s a n d a s u g g e s t i o n w a s m a d e t o r e v i e w t h e b o u n d a r i e s . 6 . C o n c e r n i n g l a n d u s e o n t h e i s l a n d s , i t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t e m p h a s i s b e p l a c e d o n r e c r e a t i o n , m o d e r a t e r e s i d e n t i a l u s e a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e rcural a t m o s p h e r e . 7. T h e s h o r t a g e o f p o t a b l e w a t e r w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s a p r i o r i t y i s s u e o n m o s t i s l a n d s . W a s t e a n d g a r b a g e d i s p o s a l w e r e a l s o c i t e d a s s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . F o l l o w i n g these o b s e r v a t i o n s , f o u r major recommenda-t i o n s were made i n the r e p o r t of the Committee. These recom-mendations are as f o l l o w s : I. T h e C o m m i t t e e r e c o m m e n d s t h a t t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s b e r e v i e w e d a n d a d j u s t e d t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e r e s p e c t i v e i s l a n d s a r e i n t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e R e g i o n a l - D i s t r i c t . 33 2. The Committee a l s o recommends t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government e s t a b l i s h an " I s l a n d s T r u s t " (o r Commiss ion ) as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e body t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and t o c o - o r d i n a t e the f u t u r e of each I s l a n d w i t h i n our terms of r e f e r e n c e . I t must be emphas i zed most s t r o n g l y t h a t the T r u s t i s t o assume p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l G u l f i.-.s l a n d s ' a f f a i r s w i t h i n Government j u r i s d i c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g land u s e ; f u t u r e growth p a t t e r n s ; c o n t r o l of d e v e l o p m e n t ; i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y ; as w e l l as p a r k s and open space d e s i g n a t i o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the T r u s t be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s - not o n l y on the I s l a n d s - but t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e as a w h o l e . W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g the r i g h t s of t h e I s l a n d e r s , the Commit tee s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a c t i v i t y which does not have the same impact in o t h e r p a r t s of t h e P r o v i n c e . . . . Because i t i s r e c o n g i z e d t h a t a v a r i e t y of Government Depar tments and A g e n c i e s : H i g h w a y s , F e r r i e s , Lands and F o r e s t s , P a r k s e t c . , as w e l l as R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and c i t i z e n g roups on the I s l a n d s , a l l have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y in t h i s r e s p e c t , we emphas i ze t h a t the p roposed T r u s t o r Commiss ion must not be a s e p a r a t e and/or remote a g e n c y , but ra th v er a f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i n g body whose t a s k i t i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r each g r o u p , agency o r Department of Government and t o a c t in t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of t h e i s l a n d s and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s , w i t h due r e g a r d f o r the b r o a d e r and p r o v i n c e - w i d e i n t e r e s t . 3. The Committee a l s o recommends t h a t u n t i l t h e T r u s t o r Commiss ion i s e s t a b l i s h e d , no s u b d i v i s i o n s be p e r m i t t e d on any I s l a n d s s o u t h of and i n c l u d i n g Denman, Hornby and L a s q u e t i I s l a n d s , i . e . on any of the G u l f I s l a n d s in the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a . 34 4 . The Committee recommends t h a t the 10 a c r e f r e e z e be c o n t i n u e d on the n o r t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s t h a t have not y e t been s t u d i e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e . The p o s s i b i l i t y of fo r m i n g one R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t to encompass a l l the G u l f I s l a n d s was c o n s i d e r e d b r i e f l y by the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s and the a u t h o r . The advantages of such an approach are t h a t a new Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o u l d be formed under e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e r e would be no need to c r e a t e an a d d i t i o n a l q u a s i - j u d i c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body superimposed on the Re g i o n a l government s t r u c t u r e . In a d d i -t i o n , communications between i s l a n d s would i n c r e a s e . The d i s -advantages would be as f o l l o w s : 1. The a v a i l a b l e powers would s t i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h o s e o u t l i n e d in the M u n i c i p a l A c t u n l e s s amendments were made to i n c r e a s e the powers of a l l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " (which f rom t h e p r o v i n c i a l v i e w p o i n t i s l i k e l y t o be p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e ) . 2 . The R e g i o n a l t a x base would be i n -adequate in p r o v i d i n g any f u n c t i o n s ove r and above r u d i m e n t a r y s e r v i c e s . If a s u b s i d y was p r o v i d e d t o the G u l f I s l a n d s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t h e p rob lem of e q u i t y would be r a i s e d by t h e o t h e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . 3 . The t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y w o u l d . b e l i m i t e d t o , r e g i o n a l s t a f f r a n d the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e . 4 . C o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t -ments would l i k e l y not improve o v e r t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . 35 5 . P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s would not be d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d . 6 . Some s e r v i c e s such as h o s p i t a l s and ambulence s e r v i c e s c o u l d not be e f f i c i e n t l y p r o v i d e d by a G u l f I s l a n d s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t due t o e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . 7 . I t appears t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e would be r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h a new R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t than t o e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l purpose T r u s t C o m m i s s i o n . Time i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r due t o t h e t e m -p o r a r y n a t u r e of the 10 a c r e f r e e z e and the i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r l o t s on t h e i s l a n d s . As a r e s u l t , the f o r m a t i o n of a s i n g l e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t to i n c l u d e a l l the G u l f I s l a n d s was not c o n s i d e r e d to be e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e or s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . The i n s t i t u -t i o n a l arrangement c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s tudy t h e r e f o r e , was l i m i t e d to a s p e c i a l purpose body or T r u s t Commission as recommended by the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s . Chapter 3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 3.1 Overview o f the Need f o r C o n t r o l s The S t r a i t of G e o r g i a area has been d e s c r i b e d by the U.S. N a t i o n a l Park S e r v i c e and Parks Canada i n a r e c e n t r e p o r t (1973): (The S t r a i t of Georgia) 'inland sea' is considered one of the world's most beautiful3 diverse and e c o l o g i c a l l y . ' r i c h regions. I t s proximity to the larger populations of the P a c i f i c Northwest and southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia endow i t with outstanding recreational p o t e n t i a l s . It is worth noting that this r i c h island* type environment with i t s sheltered waters and equable climate has considerable t o u r i s t appeal and can be considered a unique con-t i n e n t a l resource. Such an environment has a t t r a c t e d many p e o p l e , s e e k i n g escape from the more h a r r i e d c i t y l i f e to the peace and s o l i t u d e of the i s l a n d s . During the 60's and 70's r i s i n g incomes and i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time have c r e a t e d a demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e t i r e m e n t homes thro u g h o u t North America (Mosena, 1973). The problem of t h i s type of development i n r u r a l a r e a s , which 36 37 o f t e n do not have adequate development c o n t r o l s , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e . By i t s very nature, recreational land develop-ment is attracted to beautiful and often e c o l o g i c a l l y f r a g i l e natural settings.- along lakeshores. streams, and seacoasts. and in mountains, deserts and wetlands. As national demands for outdoor recreation increase, these types of land resources w i l l become even more c r i t i c a l and scarce. Clearly there are some areas of the country in which no development of any type should occur. These areas should be preserved in t h e i r natural state for present and future generations. rather than divided up among those people with enough money to reserve them for t h e i r exclusive use. (Mosena, 1973) A s i m i l a r phenomenon i s o c c u r r i n g on the G u l f I s l a n d s . S i n c e the l a t e 1950's, i n c r e a s i n g numbers are s e e k i n g p r o p e r t y on the i s l a n d s , to b u i l d a second home f o r weekend and h o l i d a y v i s i t s and e v e n t u a l r e t i r e m e n t . The p r o c e s s of s u b d i v i d i n g l a r g e h o l d i n g s i n t o s m a l l l o t s i s o c c u r r i n g a t v a r y i n g r a t e s on the d i f f e r e n t i s l a n d s . Mayne i s one of the more h i g h l y developed i s l a n d s ; i t has 1360 s u b d i v i d e d l o t s and l e s s than o n e - t h i r d of these have been b u i l t upon {School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1972). Gambier on the o t h e r hand, has t h r e e times the area o f Mayne and y e t has o n l y 86 l o t s which have been b u i l t on (Sunshine Coast R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1974). I t appears t h a t the s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s have been more a t t r a c t i v e to r e c r e a -t i o n a l development due to t h e i r g r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n . 38 F a m i l y h o l d i n g s ( e . g . Bowen^ I s l a n d ) or f o r e s t i n d u s t r y h o l d i n g s ( e . g . G a l i a n o I s l a n d ) have remained i n t a c t on some i s l a n d s , and l a r g e p o r t i o n s of the l a n d a r e , as y e t undeveloped. The amount of Crown l a n d r e m a i n i n g on the i s l a n d s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , the s o u t h e r n G u l f I s l a n d s c o n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4300 a c r e s of p r o v i n c i a l Crown la n d out of a t o t a l of 83,700 a c r e s , w h i l e Bowen I s l a n d has over one q u a r t e r of i t s l a n d area of 12,500 a c r e s under p r o v i n c i a l t i t l e (Rees and V e r b u r g , 1 973). I n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e g i o n and r i s i n g demands f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and v a c a t i o n homes have p l a c e d added p r e s s u r e on the i s l a n d environment. During the l a t e 60's and e a r l y 70's concern over the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the environment from u n c o n t r o l l e d development became i n c r e a s i n g l y common. Many exp r e s s e d the f e a r t h a t the p a r t i a l l y s e c l u d e d n a t u r e of the i s l a n d s was being eroded by i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n . Elma G a v i n , a member of the G u l f I s l a n d s Committee which r e p r e s e n t s the r e s i d e n t s of s e v e r a l s o u t h e r n i s l a n d s , commented as f o i l o w s : The present trend to f a c i l i t a t e automobile usage is r e s u l t i n g in the loss of more and more precious a g r i c u l t u r a l and recreational land for the b u i l d i n g of freeways3- bridges and tunnels. . . .Development of this kind on the islands w i l l result in the loss of a. rural way of l i f e which many people seek for permanent homes or for holiday recreation. . . . The ensuing rush for property within commuting distance of the c i t i e s could eventually lead to the destruction of the c l o s e l y linked Gulf Is lands. (Vancouver Sun, June 30, 1973) 39 P l e a s ^ s u c h as t h e s e , to l i m i t a c c e s s , slow growth and p r e s e r v e the a m e n i t i e s o f the i s l a n d s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e q u e n t . The problem of the u n c o n t r o l l e d development of sub-d i v i s i o n s on the i s l a n d s appears to be the major concern of most people (Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , 1973). A number of very l a r g e developments were approved b e f o r e the P r o v i n c i a l government's f r e e z e on s u b d i v i s i o n s i n 1969. On North Pender, Magic Lake E s t a t e s has an e x i s t i n g development of 1300 l o t s (The Province. May 10, 1973). I f a l l these l o t s were s o l d and b u i l t on, the i s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d i n c r e a s e f i v e t i m e s . Mayne I s l a n d i s c u t up w i t h numerous s u b d i v i s i o n s and a g a i n , i f a l l l o t s were b u i l t on, the p o p u l a -t i o n would r e a c h upwards of 6000 persons (School o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1 972). S e v e r a l major s u b d i v i s i o n p r o p o s a l s have been de-f e a t e d , i n the l a s t few y e a r s , e i t h e r a t the r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . On G a l i a n o I s l a n d , M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l which owns. 9000 a c r e s , proposed a l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n i n 1 972 . F o l l o w -i n g announcement of the p r o p o s a l , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s o r g a n i z e d a p r o t e s t and a f t e r s e v e r a l stormy h e a r i n g s , the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e j e c t e d the p l a n s f o r development of 1500 l o t s (Vancouver, Sun. May 1 5, 1 972). T h i s p r o t e s t however p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r the community to prepare a p l a n f o r the i s l a n d . In 1971 G a b r i o l a Wildwood E s t a t e s proposed a 550 l o t s u b d i v i s i o n f o r t h a t i s l a n d . In the s p r i n g of 1971 the 40 Nanaimo Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t t u r n e d down the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l a n d use c o n t r a c t a f t e r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e q u i r e d by s t a t u t e i n d i c a t e d n e g a t i v e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The development company appealed the d e c i s i o n to the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s who h e l d a second h e a r i n g J u l y 12, 1972. At t h i s h e a r i n g over 200 r e s i d e n t s spoke out a g a i n s t the development p r o p o s a l . In August 1972 the C a b i n e t f i n a l l y r e j e c t e d the p r o p o s a l on the a d v i c e of the M i n i s t e r {Vancouver Sun, August 18, 1972). RF R e c r e a t i o n a l demands on the i s l a n d s have become i n -c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t as w e l l . In 1970 L i b e r a l Member of P a r l i a m e n t , David Anderson, proposed t h a t the G u l f I s l a n d s - S t r a i t of G e o r g i a area be made i n t o a n a t i o n a l marine park (Vancouver Sun, December 19, 1971). R e a c t i o n s to the p r o p o s a l were mixed. Many l o c a l people d i d not l i k e the idea of even l i m i t e d f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over the area and some f e a r e d they would l o s e t h e i r p r o p e r t y through f e d e r a l e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r p a r k l a n d . Concern was expressed over the i n c r e a s e d numbers of b o a t e r s who would be a t t r a c t e d to the area and the need f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of p u b l i c a r e a s . The p r o p o s a l d i d not r e c e i v e adequate s u p p o r t , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t being r e a l i z e d , f a d e d . However, the F e d e r a l Department of the Environment and i n p a r t i c u l a r i t s Mi n i s t e C v - J a c k , D a v i s , s t i 11 . have d e s i g n s on the area f o r park as i n d i c a t e d i n r e c e n t statements to the press (Vancouver Sun, December 6, 1973). 41 International Park Proposal In October 1973, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Board which i s a committee of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission, p u b l i s h e d a r e p o r t "On S o l u t i o n s to the Problems F a c i n g the R e s i d e n t s of P o i n t R o b e r t s . " T h i s r e p o r t recommended t h a t an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Park be s e t up to i n c l u d e the G u l f I s l a n d s - San Juan a r c h i p e l a g o (as f a r n o r t h as G a b r i o l a I s l a n d ) . The major o b j e c t i v e of the park would be: . . . to preserve the existing attractive eharaoteristios of the island archipelago astride the border including the preserva-tion of marine and land-based wildlife, archaeological and historic resources, and the maintenance of water quality standards. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Board, 1973) The p r o p o s a l e n v i s a g e d the park as an area of m u l t i p l e use to i n c l u d e e x i s t i n g and new park a r e a s , p o p u l a t e d areas and the s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s . Only some new lands would be a c q u i r e d f o r park p u r p o s e s ; these i n c l u d e d a number of s m a l l e r i s l a n d s such as P r e v o s t , S i d n e y , James, Samuel and P a r k e r I s l a n d s (U.S. N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e , Parks Canada, 1973). The P o i n t Roberts Board proposed t h a t a b i - n a t i o n a l forum be e s t a b l i s h e d to reach agreement on recommendations f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the park. The forum would make p o l i c y recommendations i n an e f f o r t to " b r i n g about b i n a t i o n a l l y agreed p r i n c i p l e s w i t h r e s p e c t to such m a t t e r s as water q u a l i t y maintenance, w i l d l i f e p r e s e r v a t i o n , l a n d use development, . . . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 42 f a c i l i t i e s , s p o r t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and so on." The p r o p o s a l r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the b i - n a t i o n a l forum would have to "work c l o s e l y w i t h s t a t e p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s toward the achievement of the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s " ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Board, 1973). The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission h e l d a s e r i e s of f i v e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l park p r o p o s a l i n Washington S t a t e and B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g December, 1973. A number of c r i t i c i s m s of the proposed park system and p a r t i c u -l a r l y the i n c l u s i o n of the G u l f I s l a n d s i n the p a r k , were v o i c e d a t the Canadian h e a r i n g s . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t the r e p o r t used the words ' r e c r e a t i o n ' and ' c o n s e r v a t i o n ' i n t e r c h a n g e d l y and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n as to which o b j e c t i v e would be emphasized i n the f o r m a t i o n of a park. Many l o c a l p eople o b j e c t e d to the p r o p o s a l on the grounds t h a t the G u l f I s l a n d s were being used to s o l v e problems which were e s s e n t i a l l y c o n f i n e d to P o i n t R o b e r t s . (Ther terms of r e f e r e n c e of the P o i n t Roberts Board were to i n v e s t i g a t e the problem's of t h a t a r e a , i n c l u d i n g customs l a w s , employment r e g u l a t i o n s , h e a l t h and medical s e r v i c e s e t c . and to make recommendations to s o l v e these problems.) A number of b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d a t these h e a r i n g s c i t e d the l a c k of l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the p r o p o s a l and t h e r e was an o f t e n e x p r e s s e d f e a r t h a t l o c a l r e s i -dents would have l i t t l e or no say i n the d i r e c t i o n and a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n of such an e x t e n s i v e park system (The Province. Vancouver 43 Sun, December 5, 6, 7, 8, 1973). F o l 1 o w i n g ~ t h e December hear-i n g s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t t h a t a d e c i s i o n would not be made on an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Park f o r t h i s area u n t i l f u r t h e r s t u d i e s were made. These s t u d i e s were expected to be completed e a r l y i n 1975. The p r e c e e d i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the problems c r e a t e d by i n c r e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l demands on the i s l a n d s and the sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s of d i f f e r e n t u s e r s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e are a number of groups which p l a c e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of demands on the i s l a n d environment. I t may be u s e f u l to c l a s s i f y t h e s e users i n t o a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s a l t h o u g h any such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s bound to be somewhat a r t i f i c i a l and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about them, very a p p r o x i m a t e , T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s based on the r e s u l t s of two r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s undertaken on Bowen I s l a n d and G a b r i o l a I s l a n d d u r i n g the summer of 1973 ( G l o v e r et al., 1973 and T y h u r s t et al., 1973). With these l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind, the f o l l o w i n g c l i e n t groups 1 may be i d e n t i f i e d : Permanent r e s i d e n t s - These r e s i d e n t s l i v e permanently on the i s l a n d s and are g e n e r a l l y employed t h e r e . The more common forms of employment i n c l u d e s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s and b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y o c c u p a t i o n s ; o t h e r j o b s i n c l u d e highways and f e r r i e s work, f a r m i n g , l o g g i n g , c r a f t s and r e a l e s t a t e (School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , 1972). These people are a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y 44 dependent on c o n t i n u e d growth on the i s l a n d s and t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y s u p p o r t some degree of i n c r e a s e d development. S e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s - These are the 'second home p e o p l e ' who a r r i v e on the i s l a n d s on weekends and f o r summer h o l i d a y s . These people appear to have a l a r g e s t a k e i n p r e s e r v i n g the e x i s t i n g r u r a l environment of the i s l a n d s and l i t t l e s t a k e i n t h e i r economic development. S i n c e t h i s group has grown con-s i d e r a b l y i n numbers over the past few y e a r s t h e i r concerns have been i n c r e a s i n g l y heard. Ret i red res i den ts - T h i s i s a l s o a r a p i d l y growing group i n c l u d i n g many c o u p l e s who f o r m e r l y v i s i t e d the i s l a n d s s e a s o n a l l y and who, upon r e t i r e m e n t , took up permanent r e s i d e n c e . T h i s group g e n e r a l l y has a high i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g the a m e n i t i e s of the i s l a n d s but they a l s o f a v o u r improved s e r v i c e s which are sometimes f e a s i b l e o n l y w i t h l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s . V i s i t o r s - Th i s i s a l a r g e and d i v e r s e group w i t h v a r y i n g i n t e r e s t s . V i s i t o r s demand more r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the form of campgrounds, t o u r i s t l o d g i n g s and marine park f a c i l i t i e s . D e s p i t e the demand f o r some s e r v i c e s , v i s i t o r s g e n e r a l l y come to the i s l a n d s to 'get away from i t a l l ' and to enjoy the s l o w e r pace of l i f e ; a c t i v i t i e s they p r e f e r i n c l u d e w a l k i n g , h i k i n g and beachcombing ( C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1971). 45 P o t e n t i a l v i s i t o r s and the p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l - T h i s i s an e x t r e m e l y l a r g e and amorphous group whose o b j e c t i v e s and v a l u e s are d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e . In g e n e r a l , i t can be assumed t h a t they p l a c e some v a l u e i n p r e s e r v i n g the i s l a n d environment and p r e v e n t i n g i r r e v e r s i b l e changes on them, whether they are l i k e l y to use the i s l a n d s or not. C o n s i d e r i n g the wide v a r i e t y of users and t h e i r some-times c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , i t becomes i m p o r t a n t to b a l a n c e the d i f f e r e n t uses of the i s l a n d s w i t h the c a p a b i l i t y of the l a n d f o r these u s e s , which i s by no means an easy t a s k . The p r e s s u r e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment c o u n t e r e d by a s t r o n g , v o c a l r e s i d e n t o p i n i o n demonstrate the need f o r a w e l l developed and e x p l i c i t p o l i c y f o r ^ t h e i s l a n d s . In the p a s t , p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y has been u n c l e a r , based l a r g e l y on s p o r a d i c and sometimes ad hoc d e c i s i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l p r o p o s a l s . The need f o r c o n t r o l s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ; the t a s k at hand i s to determine the optimum way of d e f i n i n g and im-p l e m e n t i n g these c o n t r o l s . The f i r s t s t e p of t h i s p r o c e s s i s the p r e p a r a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n to s e t up a mechanism to c o n t r o l development and to c o n s e r v e the environment of the i s l a n d s . T h i s t o p i c i s developed i n P a r t s I I and I I I of t h i s s t u d y . 46 3.2 C e n t r a l Research Task There appears to be a w i d e l y f e l t need to p r o t e c t the n a t u r a l , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environments of the G u l f I s l a n d s . P r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d s from overdevelopment i s the p r i o r i t y concern e x p r e s s e d by the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s i n i t s r e p o r t to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , September, 1973. For the purposes of t h i s study the o b s e r v a t i o n s and recommenda-t i o n s of the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s were a c c e p t e d as the p o l i c y of the P r o v i n c i a l government. The need f o r c o n t r o l s on development was t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d to be e s t a b l i s h e d and hence the problems of the i s l a n d s which have c r e a t e d t h i s need were not the s u b j e c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h . Given t h i s s i m p l i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the b a s i c problem, i t i s apparent t h a t a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d . The c e n t r a l problem, t h a t of d e v i s i n g a mechanism to c o n t r o l development on the i s l a n d s , r a i s e s two q u e s t i o n s : 1 . To what e x t e n t s h o u l d t h e i s l a n d s be d e v e l o p e d ? T h i s would i n c l u d e both how much deve lopment and what k i n d of deve lopment to be a l l o w e d . 2 . How can a p o I i cy of c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p -ment be e f f e c t i v e l y implemented? The f i r s t q u e s t i o n r a i s e s the need f o r f u r t h e r p o l i c y r e f i n e m e n t . The r e p o r t of the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s p r o v i d e s some g u i d e l i n e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . For example, the r e p o r t s t a t e s " t h e r e i s a need f o r an i n c r e a s e of s u p e r v i s e d 47 p u b l i c space" i m p l y i n g t h a t p o l i c y on the amount of p u b l i c space on the i s l a n d s i s i m p o r t a n t . Another p o l i c y area which the r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; the r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t "emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on p e d e s t r i a n t r a n s i t r a t h e r than v e h i c l e t r a n s i t and the use of the i s l a n d s s h o u l d thus be planned a c c o r d i n g l y . " I t i s c l e a r however t h a t f u r t h e r p o l i c y r e f i n e m e n t s are n e c e s s a r y . T h i s c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s e v e r a l ways. One a l t e r n a t i v e i s f o r p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g to s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s to be drawn up by the P r o v i n c i a l government (on the recommenda-t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) and r e f l e c t e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s . A nother a l t e r n a t i v e would be f o r the P r o v i n c i a l government to d e l e g a t e a u t h o r i t y to a s p e c i a l body e n t r u s t e d w i t h s e v e r a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s f o r the i s l a n d s . In l i g h t of the recommendations made by the Committee, i t appears l i k e l y t h a t some c o m b i n a t i o n of these two a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l be used. The second q u e s t i o n d e a l s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p o l i c y . The r e p o r t of the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s speaks d i r e c t l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n i t s recommendations. The Committee recommends " t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government e s t a b l i s h an I s l a n d s T r u s t ( o r Commission). . .to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r and to co-o r d i n a t e the f u t u r e of each i s l a n d . . . (and) to assume the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l G u l f I s l a n d s ' a f f a i r s w i t h i n Government j u r i s d i c t i o n . " The Committee does not e l a b o r a t e on the s t r u c t u r e or s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of 48 the proposed T r u s t . I t does note however, t h a t the T r u s t s h o u l d be " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l i n t e r e s t s . . . throughout the P r o v i n c e as a whole." I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the recommenda-t i o n s of the Committee, t h a t a mechanism f o r r e f i n i n g and im-plemen t i n g p o l i c y i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n t r o l development on the i s l a n d s . The c e n t r a l t a s k , and the one t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h paper has addressed i t s e l f to s p e c i f i c a l l y , i s to develop a pr o p o s a l f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement w i t h the purpose of implementing a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a -t i o n of the G u l f s i s 1ands. T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i s c a l l e d the 'Gulf I s l a n d s T r u s t . ' B e f o r e o u t l i n i n g the approach taken t o c a r r y out t h i s t a s k i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the a u t h o r ' s assumptions on d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s e s be made e x p l i c i t . In t h i s r e s p e c t , s e v e r a l n o r mative assumptions were f o l l o w e d throughout t h i s work: In accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of p a r t i c i -p a t o r y democracy, p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g from the l o c a l i s l a n d l e v e l t o the l e v e l of the T r u s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n v o l v e s those who are most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the r e s u l t s of d e c i s i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and shou l d be communicated in a manner which i s honest and e a s i l y understood i n o r d e r t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s can e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . 49 D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d e c i s i o n i m p l e m e n t a -t i o n c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of a p r o c e s s which i s e v o l u t i o n a r y in n a t u r e . For t h i s r e a s o n t h e r e i s a need f o r c o n t i n u o u s i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w , f e e d - b a c k , r e f o r m u l a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of any p u b l i c p r o g r a m . 3.3 O u t l i n e of M a t e r i a l f o r A n a l y s i s There appears to be a t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d g overn-ment c o n t r o l over l a n d use d u r i n g the l a s t few y e a r s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). L o c a l z o n i n g has proved i t s e l f i n a dequate i n d e a l i n g w i t h many problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n v o l v i n g r e g i o n a l and even p r o v i n c e - w i d e i n t e r e s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y i n some areas newiland use c o n t r o l s have been e s t a b l i s h e d through the enactment of l e g i s l a t i o n to c o n t r o l development f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . In a n a l y z i n g the problem o f s u i t a b l e development c o n t r o l s f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s , r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n i n l a n d use c o n t r o l s , r a n g i n g from 1961 to the p r e s e n t , was s t u d i e d f o r i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the s p e c i a l environment of the i s l a n d s , i t s r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l c ommunities, and the need to p r e s e r v e the unique e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area being l e g i s l a t e d f o r . An i n i t i a l s urvey of the l e g i s l a t i o n was made which i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g s t a t u t e s and b i l l s : 50 CANADA 1. B r i t i s h C olumbia, Land Commission Act, 1973 - (R.S.B.C. 1973, C.46) 2. O n t a r i o , Niagara Escarpment•Planning and Development Act ( B i l l 1 29), 1973. 3. O n t a r i o , Planning and Development Act ( B i l l 128), 1973. UNITED STATES 4. C a l i f o r n i a , Coastal Zone Conservation Act, 1972 (S. 27000). 5. C o l o r a d o , Land Use Act, 1971. 6. F l o r i d a , Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 ( F l o r i d a S t a t . Ann. C. 370 to 380, 1972). 7. H a w a i i , Land Use Law of 1961 (Hawaii Rev. S t a t . , C. 205 (1968) as amended (supp. 1 969). 8. Maine, Site Location of Development Act, 1970 ( r e v . 1971 , C. 571 , S. 2 ) . 9. Oregon, Land Use Act ( B i l l 1 0 0 ) , 1973. 10. Vermont, Act No. 250, Vermont Laws, 1970 (Tenth Ver. S t a t . Ann. C. 151). 111 . WWashiington ^Shor/eMneMManag-em'ent-tAety--1 971 (C. 286). 51 PROPOSED BILLS: 12. Washington, House B i l l 791 (Land Use P l a n n i n g ) , 1973. 13. U.S. Senate, Housatonio River Valley Trust Bill. S. 3633, 1972. 14. U.S. Senate, Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Bill. S. 3485, 1972; S. 1929, 1973. EUROPE 15. Denmark, Urban and Rural Zones Act. 1 9691.,. 16. Great B r i t a i n , Town and Country Planning A Act, 1962 (10 & 11, E l i z . 2., Ch. 3 8 ) . 17. Great B r i t a i n , National Trust Acts, 1907 to 1953. 18. S w i t z e r l a n d , Loi Federale sur la Protection de la Nature et du Pay sage, 1966. T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was reviewed b r i e f l y and f i v e p i e c e s were s e l e c t e d f o r a more d e t a i l e d r e v i e w . T h i s s e l e c t i o n was based on s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a : 1. o b j e c t i v e s of the l e g i s l a t i o n ; were they a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s ? -2 . e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l ( s t a t e ) a u t h o r i t y ; d i d the l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t e a s p e c i a l body or agency t o c a r r y out c e r t a i n s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? . 3. f u n c t i o n s of the r e g i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y ; d i d the f u n c t i o n s of the s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n c l u d e land use c o n t r o l 52 t h r o u g h t e c h n i q u e s such as z o n i n g or deve lopment p e r m i t s ? 4 . r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; were p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d t o d e l e g a t e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o I oca I a u t h o r i t i es? 5 . p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; were p r o v i s i o n s f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r a p p e a l s i n c l u d e d in the l e g i s l a t i o n ? On t h i s b a s i s the f o l l o w i n g f i v e p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s : 1. Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Act ( p ro posed b i l l ) , I 9.73 . 2 . Hawaiian Land Use Law, 1961. , 3 . Vermont Environmental Control Law, 1970. 4 . Washington Shoreline Management Act, 197 1. 5 . Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act, 1973. L e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to i s l a n d s has been proposed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress i n the form of two b i l l s , The f i r s t , i n t r o d u c e d by Se n a t o r Henry J a c k s o n , February 1972, proposed t h a t the U.S. Government adopt a n a t i o n a l i s l a n d p o l i c y to pwotect and conserve the n a t i o n ' s i s l a n d s . I n c l u d e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n was a model ' N a t i o n a l I s l a n d s T r u s t ' b i l l . In A p r i l 1973, Senator Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l i n the U.S. Congress p r o p o s i n g i s l a n d t r u s t s t a t u s f o r Martha's V i n e y a r d and the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s which are l o c a t e d o f f 53 Cape Cod on the East c o a s t . The Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , was chosen f o r the a n a l y s i s as i t appeared to d e a l w i t h problems which are most s i m i l a r to those f a c i n g the G u l f I s l a n d s . The Land Use A c t of Hawaii was s e l e c t e d because i t i s an example of e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r l a n d use c o n t r o l and hence i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s can be e v a l u a t e d to some e x t e n t . S i n c e the s t a t e i s composed of a group of i s l a n d s , i t i s a l s o f a c e d w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d amount of l a n d and i n c r e a s i n g demands by r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s . The Vermont Environmental C o n t r o l Law (1970) was i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s as an example of a more r e c e n t l a n d use law having the o b j e c t i v e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n . Vermont i s a l s o c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the problem of a l a r g e i n f l u x of r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and people s e e k i n g second homes, and the S t a t e has attempted to deal w i t h t h i s through the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a number of development c o n t r o l s . The S t a t e of Washington's S h o r e l i n e Management A c t was examined, a g a i n because of the emphasis on e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p a r t i c u l a r l y s h o r e l i n e p r o t e c t i o n . T h i s A c t a f f e c t s the Puget Sound-San Juan .Islands . area., which shares many'of the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and development problems of the Canadian G u l f I s l a n d s . And f i n a l l y the P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o ' s N i a g a r a E s c a r p -ment P l a n n i n g and Development Act was i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s as a Canadian example of iland use l e g i s l a t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r 54 r e g i o n which has been d e s i g n a t e d as an area of unique e n v i r o n -ment worthy of s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n . These p i e c e s of l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n have a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. 1. They have as a majo r o b j e c t i v e , c o n t r o l of deve lopment and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e env i ronment . 2 . They a t t e m p t to s o l v e the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p rob lems of l o c a l z o n i n g by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s i n g l e r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . 3. They make p r o v i s i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n whose f u n c t i o n i s t o c o n t r o l deve lopment in the manner o u t -l i n e d in the l e g i s l a t i o n . These f i v e p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n are d e s c r i b e d i n P a r t I I and a com p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s i s made of s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s of these laws. From t h i s a n a l y s i s s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s a p p r o p r i a t e to the G u l f I s l a n d s are i d e n t i f i e d . U s i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s as a b a s i s , P a r t I I I proceeds to develop s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the G u l f I s ! a n d s . P A R T I I EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR PURPOSE LAND USE LEGISLATION Chapter 4 EXAMINATION OF T H f I S L A N D TRUST CONCEPT IN PROPOSED LEG ISLAT ION 4.1 Model I s l a n d T r u s t L e g i s l a t r i o n In 1970 the U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of a comprehensive study e n t i t l e d Islands of America (Bureau of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , 1970). The study i n -c l u d e d an e x t e n s i v e i n v e n t o r y of the r e c r e a t i o n a l , s c e n i c and h i s t o r i c v a l u e s of America's c o a s t a l i s l a n d s . Twommajor g o a l s or p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s were recommended by the r e p o r t : 1. p u b l i c c o n t r o l of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s l a n d a r e a s s u f f i c i e n t t o meet p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , s c e n i c , w i l d e r -n e s s , h i s t o r i c and s c i e n t i f i c n e e d s ; 2. r e s t o r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of a l l A m e r i c a n i s l a n d s . The study a l s o recommended a number of a c t i o n s to r e a l i z e these o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t recommendation proposed a n a t i o n a l system of I s l a n d T r u s t s . The o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c -t i o n s o f such a ' T r u s t ' arrangement were d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : 55 This (Trust) concept was developed for islands where t r a d i t i o n a l techniques for the protection and enhancement of t h e i r unique q u a l i t i e s are not p r a c t i c a b l e . An Island Trust is made up of an island or group of islands with outstanding scenic, h i s t o r i c or recreational values. The Congress would authorize the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r to e s t a b l i s h these Trusts through .appropriate agreements with the States involved. Such agreements would provide fortthe establishment of Island Trust Commissions. A Commission to be successful must provide for the broadest possible involve-ment. It would generally be composed of a Federal member appointed by the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r ; a member appointed by the Governor of each p a r t i c i p a t i n g state; and a member appointed by each local governing body involved, with zoning authority. The composition of the commissions would be f l e x i b l e to meet the special conditions of each Island Trust. The • commissions would develop and main-t a i n comprehensive plans for the islands. The goals of such plans would be preserva-tion of the unique island environment, establishment of s u f f i c i e n t public areas to provide for recreation use, and orderly and compatible development of islands by public and private i n t e r e s t s . The commissions would encourage State and local governments to adopt and enforce adequate master plans and zoning ordinances to promote the use and development of p r i v a t e l y owned lands within the Island Trusts in a manner ^consistent with the comprehensive plans. They may also recommend a c q u i s i t i o n by such governments of p r i v a t e l y owned property. Land a c q u i s i t i o n would be l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to underdeveloped areas. Whenever less than fee a c q u i s i t i o n , such as scenic easements, can provide adequate protection or meet public needs, such a c q u i s i t i o n would be encouraged. A c q u i s i t i o n , development and management of areas within the Island Trusts would be coordinated A by the Commissions. If the State or local governments f a i l to take the 57 action recommended, the commissions would be empowered to assure that the comprehensive plans are carried out. In such cases the commissions would have the authority to adopt- and enforce adequate master plans or zoning ordinances, acquire land or f a c i l i t i e s , develop and administer the Island Trusts, and take a l l action necessary to f u l f i l l the purpose of the Island Trusts. The study proposed t h a t the Casco Bay I s l a n d s i n Maine s e r v e as the p i l o t p r o j e c t f o r the i s l a n d t r u s t c o n c e p t . In a d d i t i o n to the Casco Bay I s l a n d s the r e p o r t recommended a number of o t h e r i s l a n d groups to be f u t u r e components of the N a t i o n a l System of I s l a n d T r u s t s . A d r a f t b i l l f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a N a t i o n a l System of I s l a n d T r u s t s was i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t , to s e r v e as a model f o r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s area (Appendix B ) . The major f e a t u r e s of t h i s model b i l l i n c l u d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I s l a n d T r u s t Commission to "develop and m a i n t a i n a comprehensive p l a n " f o r the i s l a n d s i n c l u d e d i n the T r u s t , and to encourage l o c a l governments to "adopt and e n f o r c e adequate master p l a n s and z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . " In a d d i t i o n , f e d e r a l l y a s s i s t e d p r o j e c t s on i s l a n d s i n the t r u s t system, which have " d i r e c t and adverse e f f e c t s " on the i s l a n d s ' environments are f o r b i d d e n . On F ebruary 14, 1972, S e n ator J a c k s o n i n t r o d u c e d to the Senate a b i l l "to d e c l a r e a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y to p r o t e c t and manage i s l a n d s of the N a t i o n which possess unique e n v i r o n -m e n t a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s " (U.S. 58 C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 1575, N a t i o n a l I s l a n d s C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n A c t , February 14, 1972). Because the Nixon a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had taken no a c t i o n on the model N a t i o n a l I s l a n d T r u s t s b i l l , S e n a t or J a c k s o n i n t r o d u c e d a new b i l l to p r o v i d e a w i d e r scope f o r f e d e r a l a c t i o n i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i s l a n d s . T h i s b i l l , the N a t i o n a l I s l a n d s C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n A c t , i n t e n d e d to e s t a b l i s h the f o l l o w i n g statementaas n a t i o n a l p o l i c y : To strengthen the environmental, recreational and c u l t u r a l well-being of the •people of the United States, the Congress declares that i t - -is the policy of the United States that islands or groups of islands of the Nation which possess unique environmental, recreational, h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l values which warrant preservation and enhancement should be protected and managed through the combined e f f o r t s of Federal, State and local governments and the private sector to insure that future generations shall have the opportunity to enjoy the Nation 's island heritage. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record , S. 1 575) The b i l l p r o v i d e s f o r a f u r t h e r study to make recom-mendations on those i s l a n d s to be i n c l u d e d i n N a t i o n a l P a r k , W i l d l i f e Refuge and F o r e s t Systems and i s l a n d s which s h o u l d be a c q u i r e d by the S t a t e s , w i t h F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . P r i o r i t y f o r Fe d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e would be g i v e n to i s l a n d s which are a c c e s s -i b l e to urban r e g i o n s !and,are most t h r e a t e n e d by immediate development; and to s t a t e s which have demonstrated the capa-c i t y to ta k e s t e p s to p r o t e c t the i s l a n d s and have developed 59' l a n d use c o n t r o l s under S t a t e laws to p r o t e c t the i s l a n d s w i t h -out r e q u i r i n g purchase of i s l a n d l a n d s (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l R ecord, S. 1575). The p r o p o s a l s of t h i s b i l l c o n s t i t u t e , e s s e n t i a l l y a f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e program to p r o v i d e funds to those s t a t e s t h a t are w i l l i n g and that have the c a p a c i t y to s e t up systems of l a n d use c o n t r o l s to p r o t e c t the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ments of the i s l a n d s . There are no recommendations as to what k i n d s of c o n t r o l s s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d nor i s t h e r e any s u g g e s t i o n of implementing i n n o v a t i v e approaches to s o l v i n g l a n d use problems f o r unique environmen t s . Money would be made a v a i l a b l e to the S t a t e s f o r p l a n n i n g and development of i s l a n d lands and f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of p r o p e r t y on i s l a n d s . There i s however, no mention of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g programs which might be developed a t the s t a t e l e v e l . The N a t i o n a l I s l a n d s C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n A c t was r e f e r r e d to the Committee on I n t e r i o r and I n s u l a r A f f a i r s , f o l l o w i n g i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the Congress. 4.2 Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l 4.2.1 Background On A p r i l 11, 1972 S e n ator Edward Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l i n t o Congress "to p r e s e r v e and c o n s e r v e " the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I s l a n d s T r u s t 60 (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 3485, Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t , A p r i l 1 1 , 1972) . 2 T h i s b i l l was amended i n J u l y 1972, a t h i r d v e r s i o n was i n t r o d u c e d to Congress May 1973, and a f o u r t h v e r s i o n i s , a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , b e i n g prepared f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n to the 94th Congress. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the development of t h i s b i l l f o l l o w s i n o r d e r to i l l u m i n a t e those a s p e c t s of the p r o c e s s which might have r e l e v a n c e f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . The b i l l i n t r o d u c e d A p r i l 11, 1972, p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a thirteen-member Commission to a d m i n i s t e r the T r u s t , the m a j o r i t y ,of the Commission'to b?e composed of members of the l o c a l town governments and the c o u n t y . The Commission would a c t to e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s and development s t a n d a r d s , to c o n s i d e r l a n d f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and to a d m i n i s t e r T r u s t owned l a n d s . In t h i s r e s p e c t the proposed T r u s t was s i m i l a r to the model N a t i o n a l I s l a n d T r u s t s b i l l recommended i n 1970 by the Department of the I n t e r i o r . - Kennedy's b i l l however d e p a r t e d markedly from the model i n i t s p r o p o s i t i o n to zone a l l l a n d on the i s l a n d s i n t o t h r e e broad c a t e g o r i e s (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 3485): 1. Lands Forever Wild - those areas whose seenio or ecological or other values are so great that no development should be permitted on them3 or should ever The Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s i n c l u d e Nantucket I s l a n d , Martha's V i n e y a r d and the E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . 61 take place on them (this e l a s s i f i o a t i o n is to include a l l beach lands), 2. Scenic Preservation Lands - those areas in which the i n t e n s i t y of development r Ji.ausEoulid hot lberincr.eas.edrovertwhdt i t currently is, 3. Town and County Lands - those areas to which future development a c t i v i t y should be confined, and in which the town or country governments, as appropriate, w i l l have the authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to plan for this development. In the t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f 'town planned l a n d s , ' w h i l e the l o c a l towns would have the a u t h o r i t y to prepare p l a n s and bylaws, the Commission would r e t a i n the power to approve or d i s a p p r o v e these p l a n s and bylaws. With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l a l l development i n the f i r s t c a t e g o r y of l a n d was frozen,, pending passage and enactment of the l e g i s l a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a b l e debate was sparked by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l . I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s o b j e c t e d to the l a c k of l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t ; i s l a n d e r s has not hbeen p u b l i c a l l y c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n of the b i l l . Many f e l t t h a t l o c a l i n t e r e s t s were not p r o v i d e d f o r and t h a t f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the l o c a l a f f a i r s of the i s l a n d s was not w a r r a n t e d . The debate c e n t r e d around the b i l l s p r o c e s s of p r e p a r a t i o n and the^methods of im-p l e m e n t a t i o n ; the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of c o n s e r v i n g the n a t u r a l environment was not i n d i s p u t e ( F i n k l e r , 1972). 62 However, the b i l l d i d have a p o l a r i z i n g e f f e c t on the i s l a n d e r s . Summer r e s i d e n t s many of them from the l a r g e r c i t i e s a l o n g the E a s t e r n seaboard s u p p o r t e d s t r o n g l y both the i n t e n t and the means of the proposed T r u s t . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s were i n p r e s e r v i n g the e x i s t i n g environment; d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l and s c e n i c v a l u e s would destroy^.- t h e i r reasons f o r e s c a p i n g to the i s l a n d s . L o c a l r e s i d e n t s on the o t h e r hand o b j e c t e d to the 'no-growth' tone of the b i l l ; t h e i r l i v l i h o o d s i n many cases depended on f u r t h e r growth i n the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and expansion of the t o u r i s t t r a d e . T h e i r major c o m p l a i n t s however were t h a t l o c a l people were c o m p l e t e l y bypassed i n the pre-p a r a t i o n of the b i l l and t h a t f e d e r a l z o n i n g amounted to a c u s t o d i a n s h i p o f the i s l a n d . C e r t a i n o b j e c t i o n s were made on the l e g a l i t y of f e d e r a l z o n i n g and the i m p o s i t i o n a o f • the f r e e z e on c o n s t r u c t i o n of "improvements" commencing on the'day the l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o -duced to the Senate. F u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m was made on the vague-ness of c e r t a i n p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n the t e x t of the b i l l ( B e a t t y and M unson,1972). F o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l a c o n g r e s s i o n a l committee h e l d s e v e r a l h e a r i n g s on the i s l a n d s . During d i s -c u s s i o n s the p o l a r o p i n i o n s f o r and a g a i n s t the b i l l were v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e . S e v e r a l major p o i n t s were r a i s e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e of these d i s c u s s i o n s and some of these were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o amendments p r e s e n t e d to the Senate, J u l y 27, 1972. One of the 63 more i m p o r t a n t changes i n the amended b i l l was t h a t the Commission would no l o n g e r have the r i g h t to approve p l a n s and z o n i n g i n the town planned l a n d s ; i n the amended v e r s i o n the Commission's power was reduced to commenting on such p l a n s and o r d i n a n c e s p r i o r to t h e i r a d o p t i o n . Another i m p o r t a n t change was the i n c l u s i o n of a s e c t i o n which would l i m i t a c c e s s to the i s l a n d s . The Commission i n t h i s amendment, would have the power to recommend " s p e c i f i c measures de s i g n e d to l i m i t the number of motor v e h i c l e s and passengers ( p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , water and a i r ) c a r r i e r s might o t h e r w i s e t r a n s p o r t to the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s " (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 3485, Amendment No. 1372, J u l y 27, 1972). Other changes i n the amended b i l l i n c l u d e d the pro-v i s i o n t h a t T r u s t owned l a n d s would pay t a x e s as i f p r i v a t e l y owned; t h a t some l i m i t e d development would be a l l o w e d i n s c e n i c p r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s ; t h a t f a m i l y ownership of lands i n the f o r e v e r w i l d c a t e g o r y c o u l d be c o n t i n u e d ; and t h a t emphasis would be p l a c e d on c o n s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than r e c r e a t i o n on the i s l a n d s . There was s t i l l a b i t t e r d i v i s i o n i n r e a c t i o n s to the amended b i l l . A government sponsored referendum h e l d on Martha's V i n e y a r d , November 1972, i n d i c a t e d t h a t 60% of the island&s'. 6500 permanent r e s i d e n t s were opposed to the new b i l l . S i n c e s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n t s d i d not have a v o t e , the outcome might have been markedly d i f f e r e n t i f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n had voted [Time, J u l y 30, 1973). 64 S i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l b i l l * c i t i z e n ' s committees have worked d i l i g e n t l y i n p r e p a r i n g s u b m i s s i o n s to the Senate Subcommittee on Parks and R e c r e a t i o n which was a u t h o r i z e d to ho l d h e a r i n g s and a c c e p t s u b m i s s i o n s on the pro-posed b i l l . Kennedy and h i s s t a f f a t t e n d e d a number of meetings on the i s l a n d s and made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t to i n c l u d e the most p r e s s i n g c l a i m s of the i s l a n d e r s i n the r e v i s e d b i l l . On May 31, 1973, Senator Kennedy i n t r o d u c e d the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t to the Senate (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 1929, May 31, 1973). T h i s r e v i s e d b i l l had been c i r c u l a t e d to a l l i s l a n d o f f i c i a l s and i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s d u r i n g March 1973, and was p r i n t e d i n the l o c a l newspapers (Appendix C ) . 4.2.2 Commission The new b i l l p r o v i d e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h r e e commissions, one each f o r N a n t u c k e t , Martha's V i n e y a r d and the E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . The m a j o r i t y of the Commissions' member-s h i p i s to be comprised of l o c a l people w i t h one F e d e r a l and one S t a t e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The purpose of the Commission i s to develop p o l i c i e s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the i s l a n d s and to implement these p o l i c i e s through the enforcement of a g e n e r a l l a n d use p l a n , the a c q u i s i t i o n of some p r i v a t e l a n d s , and co-o r d i n a t i o n of F e d e r a l and S t a t e a c t i v i t i e s on the i s l a n d s . The b i l l p r o v i d e s p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s i n some areas and i t a l s o 65 e s t a b l i s h e s the t h r e e b a s i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of use f o r d i f f e r -ent l a n d t y p e s . The Commission has the power to w r i t e and e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l a n d use on the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s ( f o r e v e r w i l d and s c e n i c p r e s e r v a t i o n ) . A p a i d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a l o n g w i t h s t a f f from the S t a t e and the Department of the I n t e r i o r i s to be made a v a i l a b l e to the Commission f o r t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e . In t h i s c u r r e n t v e r s i o n of the b i l l the Commissions are the " c e n t r a l management a u t h o r i t y f o r the i s l a n d s t r u s t " ; the Governor or S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r no l o n g e r have veto power over t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . The Commissions do not have the power to a c q u i r e l a n d from p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; t h i s and o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n t e n d e d to encourage c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i o n s by v o l u n t a r y p r i v a t e a c t i o n . As i n the p r e v i o u s amended v e r s i o n of the b i l l the Commissions can make recommendations on measures to l i m i t the number o f passengers and v e h i c l e s t r a n s p o r t e d to the i s l a n d s . In a d d i t i o n , a new c l a u s e p r o v i d e s a statement of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y which would p r e v e n t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b r i d g e , cause-way o r t u n n e l to the i s l a n d s . The b i l l a l s o p r o v i d e s a mechanism by which the Commissions and towns c an, i n e f f e c t , s u b s i d i z e the purchase of l a n d f o r homes, by permanent r e s i d e n t s a o f the i s l a n d . T h i s measure i s i n t e n d e d to p r o t e c t the a l l - y e a r r e s i d e n t s from 66 b e i n g f o r c e d out by high l a n d c o s t s and to p r o v i d e some measure of p r o t e c t i o n f o r the e x i s t i n g communities. Rather than making a l l beaches on the i s l a n d s p u b l i c as i n the e a r l i e r b i l l , p r i v a t e ownership i s to be c o n t i n u e d except t h a t a r i g h t - o f - p a s s a g e easement i s to be c r e a t e d a t the high water mark. The d r a f t e r s of the b i l l f e l t t h a t i f a l l beaches were p u b l i c , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to r e g u l a t e dune buggies and o t h e r v e h i c l e s . However to s a t i s f y p u b l i c demands f o r beach a c c e s s , two new p u b l i c beaches are to be a c q u i r e d on Martha 1 s Vi neyard . Measures f o r p o l l u t i o n and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l are c l a r i f i e d i n the c u r r e n t b i l l . S e c t i o n 14 c a l l s f o r the co-o p e r a t i o n of the Commissions w i t h l o c a l , S t a t e and F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s to p r o v i d e s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t p o l l u t i o n of waters i n the T r u s t a r e a . T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o c a l l s f o r a s u r v e y of ground water s u p p l y . In the m a t t e r of e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , s i m i l a r co-o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s are c a l l e d f o r and any works c a r r i e d out must conform w i t h a p l a n approved by the Commissions, the Governor and the S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r . A program f o r dune and headland e r o s i o n c o n t r o l i s to be c a r r i e d out to r e s t o r e damage and to p r e v e n t f u r t h e r damage of these f r a g i l e a r e a s . Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a q u a c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r e and i n any f i e l d s a p p r o p r i a t e to the purposes of the A c t are to be i n v e s t i g a t e d and developed by the Commissions w i t h the co-o p e r a t i o n of o t h e r government a g e n c i e s . Funds are to be made 67 a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose. In a d d i t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l uses are to be encouraged on T r u s t l a n d s . ( T h i s p r o v i s i o n was added a f t e r c r i t i c s o f the b i l l c l a i m e d the 'slow growth' p o l i c i e s would put i s l a n d e r s out of work.) The Commissions are a l s o g i v e n the a d d i t i o n a l powers to r e s t r i c t h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g " f o r reasons of p u b l i c h e a l t h , p u b l i c s a f e t y , f i s h or w i l d l i f e management, a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , or p u b l i c use and enjoyment." The major i n t e n t of the new b i l l i s to p l a c e p r i o r i t y on c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of unique areas on the i s l a n d s r a t h e r than on r e c r e a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n a l uses w i l l c o n t i n u e to be of some p r i o r i t y but such uses must not j e o p r a d i z e the o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g the environment. The b i l l a l s o p l a c e s a heavy emphasis on l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . Senator Kennedy spoke on t h i s i s s u e i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l e g i s l a t i o n : On each (commission)3 there is a majority of local island people - an important factor both in terms of local knowledge being brought to bear on the problems3 and also in terms of enhancing the ability of a locally based institution to exercise some high degree of control over the is lands. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 1929) However, Senator Kennedy emphasizes t h a t l o c a l govern-ments al o n e c o u l d not e f f e c t i v e l y a c c o m p l i s h the o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n the b i l l . Rather than r e l y i n g on one l e v e l of govern-ment, Kennedy f e e l s t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n between the t h r e e l e v e l s can produce the most d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s . 68 The b i l l then, seeks to create a new kind of partnership between the Federal3 State, and the local governments involved. It recognizes at the outset that most of the decisionmaking as i t relates to the future of the islands, belongs in the hands of the local people themselves. But i t also recognizes r e a l i s t i c a l l y that both the powers and the funds a v a i l a b l e at the State and Federal level are absolutely essential if the islands are to be preserved for future generations. I am convinced that only with the partner-ship of the type represented by the island trust b i l l can preservation and conservation e f f o r t s by successful overthe long term. One of the key lessons of the discussions over the past 18 months about these preser-vation and conservation methods has been a s t e a d i l y growing awareness that the town governments and county governments do not have the tools at t h e i r disposal to control, in any meaningful way, the development pressures. . . . at the same time i t has become plain that Federal l e g i s l a t i o n , to be successful, must wherever possible be f i t t e d together with whatever State and local laws are a v a i l a b l e to the people of the islands, or. may become a v a i l a b l e in the future. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 1929) 4.2.3 L i mi t a t i o n s The most unusual f e a t u r e of the b i l l i s the d e s i g n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of l a n d by the l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h , to a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , amounts to f e d e r a l z o n i n g . However/, i f the owner of l a n d s d e s i g n a t e d 'fo r e v e r w i l d 1 or ' s c e n i c p r e s e r -v a t i o n ' demonstrates " h a r d s h i p " due to such d e s i g n a t i o n the S e c r e t a r y i s r e q u i r e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n to purchase those l a n d s a t " f a i r market v a l u e " (S. 1959, Sec. 7 ) . T h i s l a n d c o n t r o l 69 t e c h n i q u e has been termed "encouraged z o n i n g " and has been upheld i n a U.S. f e d e r a l c o u r t i n an analogous case i n the E v e r g l a d e s N a t i o n a l Park ( B e a t t y and Munson, 1972). In an e x h a u s t i v e l e g a l a n a l y s i s of the Kennedy b i l l B e a t t y and Munson., (1 972) attempted to a s c e r t a i n whether the f e d e r a l government had the r e q u i s i t e p o l i c e powers to r e g u l a t e z o n i n g . They concluded t h a t t h e r e may be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f e d e r a l z o n i n g of p r i v a t e l a n d s where such l a n d s b o r d e r on f e d e r a l l a n d s , and where the use of the p r i v a t e l a n d s a f f e c t s the v a l u e of the f e d e r a l lands f o r the purposes of con-s e r v a t i o n . However, where t h e r e i s l i t t l e f e d e r a l l y owned l a n d i t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t such powers would be c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note however, t h a t o t h e r c r i t i c s of the b i l l have not q u e s t i o n e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f the f e d e r a l power to zone. The p r o v i s i o n whereby landowners who prove undue ha r d -s h i p can s e l l t h e i r l a n d to the f e d e r a l government, may c i r -cumvent t h i s q u e s t i o n of l e g a l i t y . In t h i s c a s e , the p r i m a r y t o o l f o r l a n d use c o n t r o l would be government a c q u i s i t i o n . 4.2.4 F u r t h e r Developments On J u l y 16, 1973, the Senate I n t e r i o r Subcommittee on Parks and R e c r e a t i o n h e l d h e a r i n g s on the i s l a n d s to d i s c u s s the r e v i s e d b i l l {Time, J u l y 30, 1973). Over 2000 people a t t e n d e d these meetings to v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . A l a r g e number 70 of speakers p r o t e s t e d " o f f - i s l a n d e r 1 s" i n t e r f e r e n c e i n l o c a l m a t t e r s and o b j e c t e d to the proposed F e d e r a l z o n i n g c o n t r o l s . I n c l u d e d i n the o p p o s i t i o n was M a s s a c h u s e t t s S e n a t o r , Edward Brooke. At the c l o s e of the meetings Senator Kennedy asked o f f i c i a l s and r e s i d e n t s to prepare and submit to him, t h e i r p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s . The P l a n n i n g Commission f o r Dukes County (which encompasses the s i x towns on Martha's V i n e y a r d and one on the E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s ) h e l d a number of meetings on the i s l a n d s ; under the d i r e c t i o n o f A l e x F i t t i n g h o f f , i t drew up a p r o p o s a l i n the form of a d i s c u s s i o n paper, e n t i t l e d "Martha's V i n e y a r d Resource Management Fund" (vineyard Gazette, December 21, 1973). The p r o p o s a l was p r i n t e d i n t o the C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record December 10th at the r e q u e s t of Senator Kennedy. The p r o p o s a l d e c l a r e s " c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s e s s e n t i a l to the p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n of the l a n d s and w a t e r s " i n the proposed area and s e t s up a s t a t e a p p o i n t e d commission which can e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h the f e d e r a l government to e s t a b l i s h programs of c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s . The p r o p o s a l p l a c e s a heavy emphasis on l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r g o v e r n -mental c o - o p e r a t i o n . On December 19, 1973 a j o i n t meeting was h e l d between f e d e r a l and s t a t e o f f i c i a l s to d i s c u s s the I s l a n d s T r u s t b i l l . No d e f i n i t e agreement was reached except t h a t c o n t r o l of development on the i s l a n d s must be a j o i n t f e d e r a l - s t a t e - 1 o c a l 71 e f f o r t . A statement i s s u e d a f t e r the meeting i n d i c a t e d t h a t both the S t a t e o f f i c e of Senator Brooke and the F e d e r a l o f f i c e of S e n a t o r Kennedy would " c o n t i n u e to work t o g e t h e r on d r a f t i n g r e v i s i o n s f o r c i r c u l a t i o n to I s l a n d r e s i d e n t s f o r t h e i r r e v i e w and comment" [vineyard Gazette, December 21, 1973). N e g o t i a t i n g s e s s i o n s have s i n c e been h e l d i n Boston and Washington and the f o u r t h v e r s i o n of the r e v i s e d I s l a n d s T r u s t b i l l i s expected to be r e - i n t r o d u c e d to Congress sometime d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1974 (vineyard Gazette, February 22, 1974). 4.2.5 Comments Such a l e n g t h y r e v i s i o n p rocess i s having s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s on the l i k e l y outcome of the l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s . Some of these changes might p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n s i g h t s f o r the d r a f t e r s of the G u l f I s l a n d s l e g i s l a t i o n . A number of the more i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s are summarized below: 1 . The i n t e n t of the l e g i s l a t i o n changed from p r e s e r v i n g the i s l a n d s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n to c o n s e r -v a t i o n as the primary o b j e c t i v e . 2 . A p r o v i s i o n was added to l i m i t a ccess t o the i s l a n d s as a means of c o n t r o l l i n g i s l a n d 'growth.' 3. P r o v i s i o n s were added which would, perhaps i n d i r e c t l y , attempt to p r e s e r v e the i s l a n d e r s ' l i f e s t y l e . These i n -clu d e d encouragement of a c t i v i t i e s which would p r o v i d e f o r l o c a l employ-ment and s u b s i d i z a t i o n of ' R e s i d e n t Home Si t e s ' t o ensure t h a t l o c a l r e s i -dents are not f o r c e d t o move of>f the 72 i s l a n d s due to r i s i n g land c o s t s . These two measures are intended t o p r o t e c t the v i a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g i s l a n d communities. 4. R e v i s i o n s gave some powers back to l o c a l ©ea:;l ^ governments . For example, i n the t h i r d v e r s i o n of the b i l l t he Commission c o u l d o n l y review and comment on town bylaws and p l a n s r a t h e r than approve or d i s a p p r o v e them as i n e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s . 5. I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the T r u s t would r e q u i r e f u l l co-o p e r a t i o n between l o c a l and s e n i o r l e v e l s of government. 6. I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l o c a l powers and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s were inadequate to c o n t r o l r e c r e a t i o n a l developments on the i s l a n d s and t h a t the a s s i s t a n c e of s e n i o r governments was necessary i f lands of high s c e n i c and e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s were to be p r e s e r v e d . The debate on the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s has l a r g e l y c e n t r e d around the means by which c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s can be a c h i e v e d ( F i n k l e r , 1972). S i n c e the goal of c o n s e r v a t i o n of s p e c i a l v a l u e s on the i s l a n d s i s not i s d i s p u t e i t appears l i k e l y t h a t c u r r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n s w i l l be r e s o l v e d sometime i n the near f u t u r e and p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s w i l l be e n a c t e d . 4.3 H o u s a t o n i c R i v e r V a l l e y T r u s t B i l l The o n l y o t h e r p r o p o s a l of the f e d e r a l ' t r u s t ' concept to date has been to a n o n - i s l a n d a r e a , the H o u s a t o n i c R i v e r V a l l e y i n C o n n e c t i c u t . The r i v e r o r i g i n a t e s i n the B e r k s h i r e 73 H i l l s of Massac h u s e t t s and runs through C o n n e c t i c u t f o l l o w i n g the Western boundary o f the s t a t e . I t empties i n t o Long I s l a n d Sound j u s t west of New Haven. A b i l l to c r e a t e the H o u s a t o n i c R i v e r V a l l e y T r u s t was i n t r o d u c e d to Congress, May 23, 1972 by Senator Abraham R i b i c o f f (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 3633, Housatonic R i v e r ; V a l l e y T r u s t A c t , May 23, 1972). In most r e s p e c t s , the b i l l i s ve r y s i m i l a r to the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t b i l l . The b i l l p r o v i d e s f o r the c r e a t i o n of a Commission to a d m i n i s t e r c o n t r o l over development i n the d e s i g n a t e d area and i t s membership would i n c l u d e town, S t a t e and F e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A g a i n , t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of l a n d would be e s t a b l i s h e d and d e s i g n a t e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n : l a n d s f o r e v e r w i l d , s c e n i c p r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s and town l a n d s . P r o v i s i o n i s made i n the b i l l f o r a f r e e z e on d e v e l o p -ment b e g i n n i n g t h i r t y days a f t e r enactment of the law r a t h e r than on the date of i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l as d i d Kennedy's proposed l e g i s l a t i o n . S e n a t or R i b i c o f f t r e a t e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n as a commencing p o i n t i n a d i a l o g u e between l o c a l people and the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government. He exp r e s s e d h i s d e s i r e f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o p o s a l s and s t a t e d t h a t he would w a i t u n t i l consensus was reached b e f o r e r e - i n t r o d u c i n g l e g i s l a t i o n which the r e s i d e n t s would be agreed on. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s were made i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y speech: Time is running out on many of our great natural resources including the Housatonic River Valley. But those interested in pre-serving the valley, which lies on the edge of a r a p i d l y urbanizing area, cannot simply wall out a l l future development. What is needed is a vehicle to channel the i n e v i t a b l e forces of development in such a way as to protect the c u l t u r a l and natural resources without disrupting the local economy and the residents1 l i f e s t y l e s . . . . we must begin a dialogue directed toward saving this- area before i t is polluted by uncontrolled progress. (U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, S. 3633) Chapter 5 EXAMINATION OF SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION FOR LAND USE CONTROL 5.1 H a w a i i , Land Use Law (1961) 5.1.1 Background The S t a t e of Hawaii passed i t s l a n d Use Law i n 1961, the f i r s t s t a t e to implement s t a t e - w i d e z o n i n g c o n t r o l s (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). The l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of a Land Use Commission and d i r e c t e d t h i s Commission to c l a s s i f y a l l l a n d under f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : urban, r u r a l , a g r i c u l t u r e and c o n s e r v a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l purpose of the A c t was to p r e s e r v e f a r m l a n d s i n c e o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of the l a n d area i n Hawaii i s s u i t a b l e f o r c r o p s . A secondary purpose was to r e s t r i c t the growth of H o n o l u l u , the S t a t e ' s l a r g e s t c i t y (Appendix D). Soon a f t e r the l e g i s l a t i o n was e n a c t e d , the Commission s e t to work d e f i n i n g the l a n d use a r e a s . Areas c l a s s i f i e d as urban i n c l u d e d the c u r r e n t urban area p l u s a ' r e s e r v e ' area 75 76 which would accommodate the e s t i m a t e d need of ten y e a r s growth. R u r a l areas i n c l u d e d n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s which c o n t a i n e d low d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l uses. A g r i c u l t u r a l areas were comprised of crop and g r a z i n g l a n d s a l o n g w i t h i n d u s t r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e , p l u s any lands not f a l l i n g under the o t h e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e c c o n s e r v a t i o n zones i n c l u d e d i n 1961, a l l the e x i s t i n g F o r e s t and Water Reserve Zones which were state-owned. P r i v a t e lands were not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y u n t i l the bou n d a r i e s were r e v i s e d i n 1969. These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a g e n e r a l l a n d use p l a n which was o f f i c i a l l y adopted i n 1964. 5.1.2 Commi s s i o n The nine-member commission a p p o i n t e d by the Governor i s made up of seven p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and two government r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s ( Hawaii Rev. S t a t . , Ch. 205, 1968). The government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n c l u d e the D i r e c t o r of the Department of Land and N a t u r a l Resources and the D i r e c t o r of the Department of P l a n n i n g and Economic Development. The c i t i z e n s a r e a p p o i n t e d from each of the s i x s e n a t o r i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one who i s a p p o i n t e d a t l a r g e . There i s no compensation f o r s e r v i c e s except reimbursement f o r expenses. The Commission e l e c t s i t s chairman from among i t s members (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). 77 On the a v e r a g e , the Commission meets two to f o u r times a month a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s around the s t a t e . Meetings are h e l d , p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of c o n s i d e r i n g p e t i t i o n s f o r changes i n z o n i n g . The s t a f f i n c l u d e s one e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and one p l a n n e r . 5.1.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A p e t i t i o n f o r a z o n i n g or boundary change i s r e f e r r e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e County P l a n n i n g Commission f o r i t s recommen-d a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s h e l d i n the appro-p r i a t e County. When a l l views have been h e a r d , the Commission votes on the m a t t e r ; s i x out of n i n e votes c a r r i e s the m o t i o n . The m a j o r i t y of z o n i n g changes s i n c e 1964 have been to urban uses.(Chang, 1970). In i t s d e c i s i o n s the Commission has f a v o u r e d r e z o n i n g areas i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to e x i s t i n g urban a r e a s . In these cases the Commission puts the onus on the a p p l i c a n t to prove why the development cannot t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n the a l r e a d y zoned urban a r e a . The s t a t u t e r e q u i r e s t h a t the d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s be reviewed every f i v e y e a r s ; the f i r s t r e v i s i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1969. A group of c o n s u l t a n t s was h i r e d a t t h i s time to p r o v i d e a comprehensive overview of l a n d use i n the s t a t e and to i n -d i c a t e f u t u r e t r e n d s i n l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s (Eckbo, et al.3 1969). 78 In 1970 the Legis la ture passed two major amendments to the Land Use Law. The f i r s t amendment made provis ion for the granting of permits by the Commission, to allow certa in "unusual and reasonable uses" within agr i cu l tu ra l and rural d i s t r i c t s , other than those uses already spec i f i ed (Hawaii Rev. S t a t . , C. 205 (1968) as amended (1970)). Hearings must be held before the approval of such permits. A second amendment dealt with shorel ine protect ion and empowered the Commission to make regulat ions for setbacks of between twenty and for ty feet from the high water mark. A number of uses are prohibi ted in the setback area and these include the removal of sand and rock, and any construct ion "not necessary for safety and the protect ion of property . " The regulat ions are to be administered and enforced by the planning departments of each county. 5.1.4 Legi s l a t i ve Limi tat ions The l eg i s l a t i on requires the Commission to c l a s s i f y a l l lands in the State into one of four categories and to make decis ions on appl icat ions for land use changes. The Commission is given no c lear d i rec t i ve on the p r i o r i t y of the four major land uses and in add i t ion , is not s p e c i f i c a l l y d i rected to estab l ish land use pol icy which would give p r i o r i t y to a set of goals . The Commission has, to date, been weak in i t s development of pol icy and consequently has not taken a hard l i ne in the preservation of farmland (Chang, 1970). Chang recommends 79 several a l te rnat ive remedies, one being to inser t a statement into the law proh.ibitng the conversion of prime agr i cu l tu ra l land to other uses. The minimum lo t s ize (1 acre) in ag r i cu l tu ra l d i s t r i c t s has been c r i t i c i z e d as being too small (Eckbo et al. 3 1969). Recommendations have been made to increase the minimum lo t s ize in these zones to f i ve acres. By s ta tu te , land use within the Conservation d i s t r i c t s is regulated by the Department of Land and Natural Resources and the Counties exercise no control in these areas. This provis ion has created a s i gn i f i c an t amount of f r i c t i o n between local planning agencies and the State agency (Chang, 1970). Recommendations have been made to allow special county-approved permits such as exist in the agr icu l ture and rural d i s t r i c t s (Eckbo et al. 3 1969). The Conservation d i s t r i c t s comprise 45% of the land area of Hawaii and consequently zoning within these areas is quite important. The l e g i s l a t i o n suggests that there should be areas within conservation zones for the protect ion of water-sheds, scenic and histor icaareas etc . However, some c r i t i c s feel that these d i s t r i c t s need to be further protected by the preparation of comprehensive general plans to include subzones re la t ing to spec i f i c resource categories (Eckbo et al.3 1969). There is a statutory requirement for publ ic hearings in the event of appl icat ions for d i s t r i c t boundary changes. However, hearings are not required when an app l i ca t ion is made 80 f o r a permit ted use in a conservat ion d i s t r i c t . The Eckbo repor t (1969) notes that the Department of Land and Natura l Resources has sometimes al lowed "non -permi t ted uses" wi thout a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ; the repor t suggests that the p u b l i c should be heard before d e c i s i o n s are made on uses permit ted in con -s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t s . The r e v i s e d General Plan f o r the State recommended " implementat ion procedures in the Land Use Law should be c l a r i f i e d and areas of c o n f l i c t between State and County respo s i b i l i t i e s e l i m i n a t e d " ( H a w a i i , 1967) . Both the General P lan R e v i s i o n Program and the Eckbo repor t recommended tha t the l e g i s l a t i o n should prov ide f o r g reate r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the County in land use c o n t r o l programs (Chang, 1970) . A study requested by the s t a t e Senate and completed 1970 by the L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Bureau made a number of recommendations f o r l e g i s l a t i v e changes i n the Land Use Law (Chang, 1970) . The four major recommendations were: 1. i n c r e a s e membership of the Land Use Commiss ion ( a l t e r n a t i v e s range from e l e v e n t t o twenty p l u s members) 2 . r e t a i n pr ime a g r i c u l t u r a l land in a g r i c u l t u r a l use (and c l a r i f y goa l p r i o r i t i e s ) 3. adopt subzone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in c o n -s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t s (and reduce t h e u r b a n - t y p e uses c u r r e n t l y p e r m i t t e d in t h i s d i s t r i c t ) 4. adopt the c o n c e p t of i n c r e m e n t a l z o n i n g by s t a t u t e t o f o r c e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h o r i g i n a l deve lopment p l a n s ( i . e . approve z o n i n g changes f o r each deve lopment i ncrementa M y ) 81 In a d d i t i o n , the author of t h i s r e p o r t , Chang, quest ioned the usefu lness of r u r a l d i s t r i c t d e s i g n a t i o n s on the argument that these d i s t r i c t s appear to be e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l -t u r a l or conservat ion and so could be r e c l a s s i f i e d to one or the other ca tegory . A f i n a l suggest ion by Chang was that S ta te agencies improve the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of data r e l a t i n g to land use. 5 . 1 . 5 Comments One of the most common c r i t i c i s m s of the Hawaiian Land Use Commission i s the time requ i red to process rezoning a p p l i -c a t i o n ; t h i s v a r i e s from four and a h a l f months to one year (Bosseiman and C a l l i e s , 1971) . This i s due, at l e a s t i n p a r t , to the extremely small s t a f f and the low budget of the Commission. The Commission has r e c e n t l y begun to take an " i n c r e -mental approach" to approving rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the recommendation of the L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Bureau (Chang, 1970) . The Commission grants only a smal l p o r t i o n of the rezoning at a time in order to ensure that the developer i n v e s t s h e a v i l y i n the i n i t i a l phases which u s u a l l y i n c l u d e i n s t a l l a t i o n of the s e r v i c e s f o r the p r o j e c t . In order to r e c e i v e the r e s t of the rezoning the developer must car ry out h is scheme i n the o r i g i n a l concept . Although t h i s approach has been c r i t i c i z e d by d e v e l o p e r s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y cons idered to prov ide an i n n o -v a t i v e mechanism to assure compliance to the o r i g i n a l , approved proposal (Eckbo, 1969; Chang, 1970) . 82 The f ive year review of zoning boundaries in 1969 drew some cr i t ic ism that inadequate public notice was given by the Commission (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). In some cases l i t i ga t ion was in i t iated against the Commission and the Commission has subsequently considered several appeals on the boundary changes. One of the major weaknesses in the administration of the Act has been the lack of specified procedure and resources for enforcement. The statute specifies that the County is responsible for enforcing the law but the Commission has neither the staff nor the time to ensure that this is being done. Charges of conf l ic t of interest were levied against some Commission members during the 1970 state election campaign. The resulting publicity damaged the reputation of the Commission (Bosselman and Ca l l i es , 1971, Meckler, 1973). No doubt the most serious weakness of the Commission has been i t s inab i l i t y to draw up clearly specified policy guidelines for future land use in the State. On the whole the Land Use Commission appears to have met with some success considering the limited resources i t has been provided with. There is general agreement that there has been increased co-ordination between state agencies where i t has been necessary to receive the approval of the Land Use Commission (Bosselman and Ca l l i es , 1971). Local administra-t ions, although often c r i t i c a l of the Commission, conceded that 83 they r e l y on the Commission and the Land Use Law to w i t h s t a n d l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . Bosselman and C a l l i e s (1971) i n an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y of the Hawaiian Land Use Law i d e n t i f y a need f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of e x i s t i n g tax p o l i c i e s w i t h l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s . In t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s they r e p e a t the o p i n i o n of the Counsel of the Hawaii County C o r p o r a t i o n t h a t "the Commission needs b e t t e r a r t i c u l a t e d p l a n n i n g s t a n d a r d s and fewer ad hoc d e c i s i o n s . A s e r i e s of seminars sponsored by the G e o r g i a I n s t i t u t e r of Technology and h e l d between 1967 and 1971, examined o f f i c i a l s t a t e p l a n n i n g programs i n f i f t y American s t a t e s ( C a t a n e s e , 1972). The programs were a n a l y z e d f o r nin e elements on the b a s i s o f f o u r methods o f a n a l y s i s . E I e m e n t s : I. s t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n 2 . f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n 3. f u n c t i o n a l r e g i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n 4. t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e 5 . i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m 6. b u d g e t 7. r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s 8. r e s e a r c h c a p a c i t y 9 . c a p a c i t y f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g s u p p o r t M e t h o d s : I. a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s , p l a n s e t c . o f t h e o f f i c i a l s t a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s 2 . o p i n i o n s u r v e y o f e l e c t e d a n d a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s o u t s i d e t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . 3 . i n t e r e s t s e x p r e s s e d by c h i e f p l a n n e r s i n s t a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s 4. a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e a c h o f f i c i a l s t a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y 84 For the nine elements of Hawaii's p l a n n i n g program, the S t a t e s c o r e d ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' on each, based on an aggregate measure of the f o u r methods. In t h i s survey Hawaii r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t e v a l u a t i o n of a l l s t a t e p l a n n i n g programs. Other o b s e r v e r s have been more c r i t i c a l . A s t u d e n t study c a r r i e d out i n 1 9 7 3 a t the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York a n a l y z e d the General P l a n f o r Hawaii and the v o t i n g r e c o r d s of the Land Use Commission ( M e c k l e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . The stu d y c r i t i c i z e d the Commission f o r f o l l o w i n g the recommendations of t h e i r s t a f f o n l y 77 per cent of the time and f o r f o l l o w i n g the recommenda-t i o n s of the county o f f i c i a l s o n l y 76 per cent of the tim e . The d i f f e r e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d m o s t l y a p p r o v a l s by the Commission where r e f u s a l s had been recommended. The stu d y a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t seven commissioners showed " b i a s to t h e i r home i s l a n d " i n t h e i r v o t i n g r e c o r d s . I t was M e c k l e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the Commission has not a c h i e v e d i t s o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d d u r i n g i t s t w e l v e y e a r s of o p e r a t i o n . 5 . 2 Vermonti Environmental ControUlaaw (f97>0) 5 . 2 . 1 Background In the past decade Vermont has r e c e i v e d a l a r g e i n f l u x o f v a c a t i o n home buyers and s k i - r e s o r t d e v e l o p e r s (Mosena, 1 9 7 3 ) . In response to t h i s p r e s s u r e , l e g i s l a t o r s i n 1 9 6 7 extended the a u t h o r i t y of l o c a l governments to c o n t r o l the use of l a n d 85 under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n by i n c r e a s i n g the f l e x i b i l i t y of z o ning and p l a n n i n g commissions (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). Under the Vermont A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures A c t , s t a t e a g e n c i e s were g i v e n broad a u t h o r i t y to adopt r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r s t a t u t o r y area of competence (Vermont A c t No. 360, 1967). However, t h i s broadening of power appeared to be i n a d e q u a t e to the t a s k as demands f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d s c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e a t a f a s t r a t e . In 1969 the Governor c r e a t e d a s p e c i a l Commission on E n v ironmental C o n t r o l to which both l e g i s l a t o r s and c i t i z e n s were a p p o i n t e d . The Commission was i n s t r u c t e d to hold h e a r i n g s and to submit a r e p o r t to the L e g i s l a t u r e . As an i n t e r i m measure the Commission recommended t h a t the H e a l t h Department adopt s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s " c o n t r o l ! i hg water and sewage d i s p o s a l . In i t s f i n a l r e p o r t i t proposed a s t a t e - w i d e system of l a n d use p l a n n i n g w i t h the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of e n s u r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n . The Commission s t a t e d i n i t s r e p o r t : A basic goal . . . should be the preparation of a comprehensive land use plan for the State of Vermont to be undertaken as soon as practical and completed within a period of one year. Secondly3 such a plan and its subsequent administration should be the responsibility of an effective administra-tive unit clearly charged with the respon-s i b i l i t y of protecting the environment. . . . (Vermont, 1970) 86 In 1970 the s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e adopted A c t No. 250 known as the Envi r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law which embodied the major recommendations made by the Governor's Commission ( A c t No. 250, Ch. 1515, 1970) (Appendix E ) . 5.2.2 Commission The A c t p r o v i d e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an E n v i r o n -mental Board a p p o i n t e d by the Governor. There are nin e members which s e r v e p a r t - t i m e on a per diem b a s i s . Members ser v e f o u r y e a r terms and t h e i r appointments are s t a g g e r e d ; the chairman s e r v e s two y e a r s . To date the members have been chosen to r e p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d i n g both development and c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . The Board i s an independent r e g u l a t o r y body l o c a t e d w i t h i n the Agency of Envi r o n m e n t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n which i s a new u m b r e l l a agency f o r s t a f f and budget purposes but f o r o t h e r f u n c t i o n s i s independent. The Board has two major f u n c t i o n s : 1. a judgement function in the issuing of development and subdivision permits, 2. a planning function in the approval of a statewide comprehensive land use plan (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). The l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o c r e a t e d n i n e D i s t r i c t Commissions having t h r e e members each. The members s e r v e on a per diem b a s i s f o r a two y e a r term and are a p p o i n t e d from each d i s t r i c t 87 by the gov e r n o r . Members s e r v e on the av e r a g e , one day a week or one day b i w e e k l y . The chairman s e r v e s one year and, i n an a c t i v e D i s t r i c t , works v i r t u a l l y f u l l t i m e . 5.2.3 Admi ni s t r a t i on The major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of the D i s t r i c t Commissions i s the i s s u a n c e of development p e r m i t s f o r both commercial and i n d u s t r i a l developments (ove r 10 a c r e s ) and r e s i d e n t i a l developments (over 10 a c r e s or 10 l o t s ) . In a d d i t i o n p e r m i t s are a l s o r e q u i r e d f o r any development by m u n i c i p a l or s t a t e a g e n c i e s and developments of any type above an e l e v a t i o n of 2500 f e e t above sea l e v e l . The D i s t r i c t Commissions hold h e a r i n g s on a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s , i f a r e q u e s t i s made by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g commission, any s t a t e a g e n c i e s or a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t y owners. These same i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have the s t a t u t o r y r i g h t to appear b e f o r e a Commission a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The pr o c e s s f o r i s s u a n c e of a p e r m i t i s b r i e f l y de-s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s , based on t h e . s t u d y made by Bosselman and C a l l i e s ( 1 9 7 1 ) : The a p p l i c a n t f i l e s f i v e c o p i e s of the a p p l i c a -t i o n and s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e w i t h the r e g i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t o r who a c c e p t s them f o r the D i s t r i c t Commission. P u b l i c n o t i c e of the a p p l i c a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n and a t t h i s time p r o p e r t y owners may r e q u e s t p e r m i s s i o n to be heard. Two c o p i e s are forwarded 88 to the En v i r o n m e n t a l Board, one of which i s passed on to the Agency 250 Review Committee which i s a s p e c i a l i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l body to c o - o r d i n a t e s t a t e r e view of p e r m i t s . Another copy i s sen t to the l o c a l 'environmental a d v i s o r ' who makes an o n s i t e i n s p e c t i o n which he r e p o r t s to the S t a t e . A c h a l l e n g e by any p a r t y n e c e s s i t a t e s a h e a r i n g which i s n o r m a l l y h e l d w i t h i n twenty days of an a p p l i c a t i o n (so f a r h e a r i n g s have been h e l d on a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s as a matter of p o l i c y ) . A p p l i c a t i o n s are p r o c e s s e d by the P r o t e c t i o n D i v i s i o n of the Agency o f E n v i r o n -mental C o n s e r v a t i o n which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t e departments r e v i e w the a p p l i c a t i o n s . F o l l o w -i n g t h i s r e v i e w the D i v i s i o n summarizes a l l comments, prepares i t s own p o s i t i o n paper and submits both documents to. the Agency 250 Review Committee. The f i n a l Agency 250 p o s i t i o n paper i s p r e s e n t e d a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The paper g e n e r a l l y does not recommend a fit a t d e n i a l or a p p r o v a l but r a t h e r l i s t s a number of c o n d i t i o n s which the s t a t e f e e l s s h o u l d be imposed upon the development. B e f o r e a D i s t r i c t Commission may g r a n t a p e r m i t , i t must f i n d t h a t the development: 1. Will not result in undue water or a i r poIlution. 2. Does have s u f f i c i e n t water a v a i l a b l e for the reasonably foreseeable needs of the subdivision or development. 3. Will not cause an unreasonable burden on an e x i s t i n g water supply i f one i s to be u t i l i z e d . 89 4. Will not cause unreasonable s o i l erosion or reduction in the capacity of the land to hold water so that a dangerous or unhealthy condition may r e s u l t . 5. Will not cause unreasonable highway con-gestion or unsafe conditions with respect to use of the highways e x i s t i n g or proposed. 6. Will not cause an unreasonable burden on the a b i l i t y of a municipality to provide educational services. 7. Will not place an unreasonable burden on the a b i l i t y of the local government to provide governmental services. 8. Will not have an undue adverse effect on the scenic or natural beauty of the area. 9. Is in conformance with a duly adopted development plan3 land use plan or land c a p a b i l i t y plan. 10. Is in conformance with any duly adopted local or regional plan. (Act No. 250, S. 6086) The burden of p r o o f i s on the a p p l i c a n t f o r c r i t e r i a numbered 1 to 4, 9, and 10, and on any opposing p a r t i e s f o r c r i t e r i a 5 through 8. In making i t s d e c i s i o n the Commission c o n s i d e r e d the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d , c o n f o r m i t y of the a p p l i c a t i o n to l o c a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n s , and the ten s t a t u t o r y g u i d e l i n e s s e t out i n S e c t i o n 6086 of the Law. In t h e i r d e c i s i o n s the Commissions have a l s o i n c l u d e d a e s t h e t i c , h i s t o r i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The Envioronmental Board s e r v e s as the body of appeal f o r d e c i s i o n s made at the D i s t r i c t l e v e l . Only the a p p l i c a n t , 90 a s t a t e agency or the r e g i o n a l or m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g commissions can appeal such a d e c i s i o n . F u r t h e r appeal may be made to the Supreme Court (see Chart 1 f o r a summary of the p e r m i t r e v i e w s y s t e m ) . 5.2.4 P l a n n i ng I t i s a l s o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the En v i r o n m e n t a l Board to adopt t h r e e s t a t e p l a n s . The f i r s t i s an " i n t e r i m l a n d  c a p a b i l i t y arid development p l a n which w i l l d e s c r i b e the p r e s e n t use o f the l a n d and d e f i n e i n broad c a t e g o r i e s the c a p a b i l i t y of the l a n d f o r development and use based on e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s " (Act No. 250, S. 6041). The second, the l a n d c a p a b i l i t y  and development p l a n has the ge n e r a l purpose of " g u i d i n g and a c c o m p l i s h i n g a c o - o r d i n a t e d , e f f i c i e n t and economic development of the s t a t e , which w i l l . . . bes t promote the h e a l t h , s a f e t y , o r d e r , c o n v e n i e n c e , p r o s p e r i t y and w e l l being of the i n h a b i t a n t s , as w e l l as e f f i c i e n c y and economy i n the proc e s s of development" (Ac t No. 250 , S. 604.2). The t h i r d p l a n i s a l a n d use p l a n based on the c a p a b i l i t y and development p l a n . I t i s to c o n t a i n a map of p r e s e n t and p r o j e c t e d l a n d uses i n the s t a t e and i s to be implemented by the enactment of s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and z o n i n g c o n t r o l l s at the l o c a l l e v e l . On J u l y 1, 1973 amendments to t h e " E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Law were made which i n c l u d e d t h e s o f f i ei'al cadopt j l o n t o f rtbe l a n d ' -c a p a b i l i t y p l a n as s t a t e p o l i c y . The t h i r d p l a n , t h e l a n d use  pla n i s to be adopted i n 1974. The i n t e r i m l a n d c a p a b i l i t y CHART 1 91 STRUCTURE OF THE VERMONT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SYSTEM (not a l l i n c l u s i v e ) ACT 250 REVIEW PROCESS • LOCAL REVIEW PROCESS STRUCTURE OF TILE VERMONT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SYSTEM (not a l l inc lus ive) Partte» t o C t f t r i c t C o n c i s i o n Proceedings I . The S t a t e Review P r o c e s s T h i s i s the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e oi p o r n i t s and l i c e n s e s r e q u i r e d i n rr.ost s l a v e s . With i n c r e a s e s i n developmental p r e s s u r e , they have responded w i t h i n c r e a s -i n g l y d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s . The s t a t e i s b e i n g r e o r g a n i z e d i n c a b i n e t l e v e l super a g e n c i e s which nroup do pa r tnen ts fjnctt.or . 3 l l y . While n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s are g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Agency o f Env trc:\r cn t a 1 Cor. se c va t ton , note that o t h e r A g e n c i e s have departments w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s . I I . A c t 250 Review p r o c e s s W h i l e t h i s i s a c r e a t u r e o f the s t a t e government, i t i s the Agency 2S0 Co::rr.itt.ee t h a t p r o v i a c u a s t a t e r e v i e w l i a i s o n . The d i s t r i c t c m n i s s i o n i s a q u a s i -l o c a l body t h a t has the c a p a c i t y to d e a l w i t h a l l i n t e r -e s t e d l o c a l p a r t i e s . I I I . Loca I Review p r o c e s s In ir-ost coiTununi t i c s t h i s i s weak o r n o n e x i s t e n t . Where i t e x i s t s i t can be as po w e r f u l as the d i s t r i c t corcmiss i o n . Thus, w h i l e the d i s t r i c t c o m s s i o n may Open the eyes or" q u i e s c e n t I oca I p l a n n e r s , a s o p h i s t i -c a t e d l o c a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s w i l l p r o b a b l y j c p e r a t e i n d e -p e n d e n t l y . It is not u n u s u a l t o r l o c a l p e o p l e to d i s -approve p r o j e c t s approved by l o c a l d i s t r i c t , c o rnmissions. IV. The R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g Cotsmi3sion T h i s corrjnission s i t s between l o c a l , 250, and a t a t e p l a n s and r e g u l a t i o n s . The 253 l e g i s l a t i o n e s -s e n t i a l l y b y passed i t . A l t h o u g h c o n f u s i n g l y s i m i l a r i n narr.e, the d i s t r i c t CCT-TISS i o n and the r e g i o n a l com-m i s s i o n are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n dir't'erent j u r i s d i c t i o n s , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y not co-ex t e n s i v e , ana e x e r c i s e v e r y d i f -f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . However, the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s o t the s t a t u t o r y c r i t e r i a which must be met tot an A c t 250 p e r n i t . SOURCE: F. Bosselman, D. C a l l i e s , Land Use Control, 1971. The Quiet Revolution in 92 p l a n was i n e f f e c t between 1971 and J u l y 1, 1973 (Bureau of N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s I n c . , June 15, 1973). A l t h o u g h the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Board i s v e s t e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y to approve the s t a t e p l a n s , p l a n n i n g remains an e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n of the Governor (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). A S t a t e P l a n n i n g Committee composed of the Governor, h i s c a b i n e t , and the chairman of the Environmental Board has.been c r e a t e d to s u p e r v i s e the s t a t e p l a n n i n g s t a f f s . In a d d i t i o n , r e g i o n a l t a s k f o r c e s have been c r e a t e d to c o - o r d i n a t e p l a n n i n g a c i t i v i t e s a t the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . The S t a t e P l a n S t e e r i n g Committee r e c e i v e s r e p o r t s from the r e g i o n a l t a s k f o r c e s and c a r r i e s out the work of p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n . 5.2.4 L e g i s l a t i v e L i m i t a t i o n s Due to the s h o r t time t h i s s t a t e p l a n n i n g program has been i n o p e r a t i o n , weaknesses i n the s t r u c t u r e are d i f f i c u l t to s e p a r a t e from o p e r a t i n g problems which stem from i t s 'newness. 1 However, s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the l e g i s l a t i o n have been noted by Bosselman and C a l l i e s (1971) a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a number of people i n v o l v e d i n the p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l i m i t a t i o n i n the scope of development c o n t r o l a r i s e s from the number of exemptions a l l o w e d by the A c t . N o t a b l e among these are developments by p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , f o r e s t r y and f a r m i n g r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and developments having p l a n s which e x i s t e d p r i o r to enactment of the l e g i s l a t i o n . The s t a t u t o r y d e f i n i t i o n of " s u b d i v i s i o n s " tends to encourage the development 93 of l a r g e l o t s over ten a c r e s ; such developments c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y harm the environment as much as s m a l l e r l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s . There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of s e p a r a t i o n of r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Board and the s t a t e p l a n n i n g process as the s t a t e p l a n n i n g committees and departments r e t a i n most of the c o n t r o l over the p r e p a r a t i o n of s t a t e l a n d use p l a n s . The d i s t r i c t commissions do not have any s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p r o v i d e i n p u t to these p l a n s a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s p r o v i s i o n f o r them to make comments. There appear to be v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s between the p l a n n e r s who are implementing the law and both the Commission members and the d e v e l o p e r s (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). The former view the p l a n s as ' f l e x i b l e i n s t r u m e n t s ' to a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g development p o l i c y , w h i l e the l a t t e r view them as z o n i n g . The view of s t a t e p l a n s as z o n i n g r a t h e r than p o l i c y p l a n s accounts f o r the c o m p l i c a t e d procedure which has b u i l t up around t h e i r a p p r o v a l . 5.2.5 Comments The Environmental C o n t r o l A c t of Vermont appears to have met w i t h a f a i r degree of i n i t i a l s u c c e s s i n c o n t r o l l i n g u n d e s i r a b l e development i n the o p i n i o n of Bosselman and C a l l i e s (1971). The d i s t r i c t commissions have a d j u s t e d procedures to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and thus seem to o f f e r a wide degree of f l e x i b i l i t y . Development p r o p o s a l s can a l s o be opposed by l o c a l p l a n n i n g commissions, r e g a r d l e s s o f the d i s t r i c t commission's d e c i s i o n and t h e i r r e f u s a l can be recommended to the l o c a l 94 c o u n c i l which p r o v i d e s an a d d i t i o n a l measure of c o n t r o l . In the o p i n i o n of Bosselman and C a l l i e s ( 1 9 7 1 ) , d i s t r i c t commissions are a p p l y i n g broad p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s to t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and they are t a k i n g an e x p a n s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term " e n v i r o n -mental p r o t e c t i o n . " The o b j e c t i v e of p r o t e c t i n g areas of s t a t e - w i d e i n t e r e s t i s b e g i n n i n g to be f u l f i l l e d . As a g e n e r a l r u l e enforcement p r o c e e d i n g s have been s u c c e s s f u l and a s e r i o u s approach to enforcement has been taken which has no doubt d e t e r r e d many p o t e n t i a l r u l e - b r e a k e r s . The A c t has p r o v i d e d an impetus f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l p l a n s s i n c e the e x i s t e n c e of a town or r e g i o n a l p l a n i s one c r i t e r i o n f o r a p p r o v a l of a p p l i c a t i o n s . Vermont has had a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n of l o c a l government as have many o t h e r areas i n New England. The A c t and the c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g program under i t have appeared to ensure l o c a l c o n t r o l over p l a n n i n g w h i l e p r o t e c t i n g s t a t e - w i d e g o a l s . I n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o r d i n a t i o n has been e f f e c t e d by the Agency 250 Review Committee as w e l l as t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Board. Ad hoc, piecemeal p l a n n i n g i s being -r e p l a c e d by an o r d e r l y system of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s approved o n l y when t h e r e i s c o n f o r m i t y w i t h l o c a l p l a n s and s t a t e -developed c r i t e r i a f o r development. D e s p i t e i t s s h o r t p e r i o d i n o p e r a t i o n , the Environmental C o n t r o l A c t appears to be a c h i e v i n g i t s * o b j e c t i v e s of en v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n w h i l e a t the same t i m e , e n s u r i n g l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . The Vermont law i s o f t e n c i t e d as an example of im-p o r t a n t and i n n o v a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the area of e n v i r o n m e n t a l 95 p r o t e c t i o n and l a n d use c o n t r o l ( H a s k e l l , 1973). An example of one of the i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s i s the 'burden of p r o o f p r o v i s i o n which r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a n t to submit p r o o f t h a t the development w i l l conform to a number of c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d i n the A c t . The l o n g range success of the law w i l l depend on the f a i r n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y of the p e r m i t p r o c e s s i n g system, and on the v a l u e of the c a p a b i l i t y p l a n s and the l a n d use p l a n to s e r v e as s t a t e p o l i c y to guide d e c i s i o n s i n those realms of a c t i v i t y which e f f e c t the environment. 96 5.3 O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development A c t 5.3.1 Background The p r i m a r y concern which l e a d to l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i n the N i a g a r a Escarpment area of Southern O n t a r i o was the spread of u r b a n - l i k e development throughout the r i c h f a r m l a n d s of the N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a and a l o n g the escarpment which runs n o r t h from N i a g a r a F a l l s to the Bruce P e n i n s u l a and G e o r g i a n Bay. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s development was the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of p i t s and q u a r r i e s along the escarpment. Oh March 10, 1967 the Premier o f O n t a r i o , John Robarts announced to the L e g i s l a t u r e a wide r a n g i n g study of the N i a g a r a Escarpment w i t h a view to p r e s e r v i n g i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h as a r e c r e a t i o n area f o r the people of O n t a r i o . L.O. G e r t l e r was commissioned to c a r r y out the study which was to f o c u s on s t r a t e g i e s to implement a c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y f o r the a r e a . His r e p o r t which was s u b m i t t e d to the government June 1968, proposed a comprehensive p l a n n i n g program f o r the a r e a , an a r e a -wide park system, r e g u l a t i o n s f o r l a n d use w i t h s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l s over p i t s and q u a r r i e s , and j o i n t f u n d i n g by p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments ( G e r t l e r , 1968). The r e p o r t a l s o recom-mended t h a t 55,000 a c r e s be brought under complete c o n t r o l by a c q u i s i t i o n , t h a t a f u r t h e r 35,000 a c r e s be a c q u i r e d s e l e c t i v e l y and t h a t 300,000 come under r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l . The r e p o r t was not i n t r o d u c e d to the L e g i s l a t u r e u n t i l l a t e 1969 ( L e g i s l a t u r e of O n t a r i o Debates, June ! 3 S 1973). 97 During January 1968 to October 1972, the P r o v i n c e bought 19,000 a c r e s of l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y of the escarpment f o r $6.8 m i l l i o n . On May 1, 1972 the government s e t up a t a s k f o r c e to a s c e r t a i n the o v e r a l l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of government p o l i c y f o r the area and to make recommendations f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g program. T h i s r e p o r t which was completed December 1972, c o n t a i n e d a number of p r o p o s a l s , the m a j o r i t y of which were embodied i n the government's statement o f p o l i c y on the N i a g a r a Escarpment which was r e l e a s e d June 4, 1973. The f u n d a -mental goal f o r the a r e a , recommended by the t a s k f o r c e and a c c e p t e d as p o l i c y by the C o n s e r v a t i v e Government i s "to main-t a i n the N i a g a r a Escarpment as a c o n t i n u o u s n a t u r a l environment w h i l e s e e k i n g to accommodate demands c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t environment" ( O n t a r i o , June 1973). A b i l l to " p r o v i d e f o r p l a n n i n g and development of the N i a g a r a Escarpment and i t s v i c i n i t y " was i n t r o d u c e d to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e June 4, 1973 and was passed June 22 ( O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development A c t , B i l l 129, 1973) (Appendix F ) . The a r e a c o v e r e d by the A c t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,000 square m i l e s . 5.3.2 Commi s s i on The l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a seventeen member Commission. The members are a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l and i n c l u d e e i g h t who a r e to be 98 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p u b l i c a t l a r g e and e i g h t to be chosen from a l i s t of nominees from each of the e i g h t c o u n t i e s and r e g i o n s w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a . The term of o f f i c e and remu-n e r a t i o n are to be e s t a b l i s h e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r . The chairman i s a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r from the group of members which r e p r e s e n t the p u b l i c . The h i r i n g of s t a f f i s l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the Commission but the engagement of p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e on a c o n s u l t a n t b a s i s must be approved by the M i n i s t e r of Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the A c t . The M i n i s t e r i s d i r e c t e d to e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t two a d v i s o r y com-m i t t e e s , one to r e p r e s e n t the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c o u n t i e s and the o t h e r to be " b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of people i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a . " The major f u n c t i o n of the Commission i s to pr e p a r e the Nia g a r a Escarpment P l a n as s e t f o r t h by the A c t . A second f u n c t i o n i s development c o n t r o l ; the Commission and t h e i r s t a f f have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to c o n s i d e r and approve development a p p l i c a t i o n s i n those areas d e s i g n a t e d as 'p l a n n i n g a r e a s ' by the M i n i s t e r . The M i n i s t e r has suggested t h a t the Commission s h o u l d d e l e g a t e t h i s second f u n c t i o n to the Chairman ( W h i t e , November, 1973). 5.3.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The A c t s p e c i f i e s seven o b j e c t i v e s t o be f o l l o w e d by the Commission i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n of the p l a n , the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e 99 b e i n g "to p r o t e c t unique e c o l o g i c and h i s t o r i c a r e a s . " In a d d i -t i o n the p l a n must c o n t a i n any pol i c i e s o r programs t h a t any m i n i s t e r or p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r y i n the government wishes to be i n c l u d e d . A number of p r o v i s i o n s i n the A c t p e r t a i n to the pro-cedure to be f o l l o w e d d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of the p l a n . These i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s to be h e l d p r i o r to f i n a l a d o p t i o n . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of the p l a n ( e x p e c t e d 1976), the Commission must p r o v i d e c o p i e s to each m u n i c i p a l i t y , county and r e g i o n a l m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a , and to a l l a d v i s o r y committees, and must p u b l i s h a n o t i c e i n the l o c a l newspapers n o t i f y i n g the p u b l i c of the p l a n sand where i t can be viewed. L o c a l governments and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a l l o w e d t h r e e months to comment on the p l a n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , o n e or more h e a r i n g s must be h e l d to p r e s e n t the p l a n to the p u b l i c and to hear r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n s . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g comments made at the h e a r i n g s the Commission must make recommendations to approve the p l a n and f o r w a r d i t to the M i n i s t e r f o r f i n a l a p p r o v a l and a d o p t i o n . The N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n , so approved, i s l e g a l l y b i n d i n g on a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and on a l l a g e n c i e s of the Pro-v i n c i a l Government. A l l l o c a l o f f i c i a l p l a n s and bylaws must be amended to conform w i t h the N i a g a r a Escarpment p l a n . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the p r o v i n c e or the p u b l i c can i n i t i a t e amendments to the p l a n a t any time and a s i m i l a r procedure on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the amendment f o r comments and the h o l d i n g 1 00 of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , must be f o l l o w e d . The l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o r e -q u i r e s t h a t the P l a n be reviewed every f i v e y e a r s . S e c t i o n 16 of the A c t g i v e s the M i n i s t e r the a u t h o r i t y to r e q u i r e any m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Area to prepare and adopt a l o c a l p l a n and zoning bylaw. In S e c t i o n 18 the M i n i s t e r i s g i v e n the power to a c q u i r e l a n d by purchase or expropriation..; and to develop such l a n d f o r purposes which are not c l e a r l y s p e c i f i ed. The l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the t e c h n i q u e of development c o n t r o l to c o n t r o l l a n d use both d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n of the p l a n and a f t e r . Using t h i s t e c h n i q u e the M i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e any area as a Development P l a n n i ng Area under l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n 1973 ( O n t a r i o , B i l l 129). Under t h i s A c t the p r o v i s i o n s of z o n i n g bylaws cease to have e f f e c t i n d e s i g n a t e d areas and the M i n i s t e r can make r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g f o r the i s s u a n c e of development p e r m i t s . Under t h i s p r o c e s s each development i s c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a f t e r an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p e r m i t has been made. The M i n i s t e r may a t t a c h c o n d i t i o n s t o the p e r m i t to a s s u r e accordance w i t h the i n t e n t of the A c t . The M i n i s t e r a l s o has the power to d e l e g a t e or withdraw the a u t h o r i t y to i s s u e p e r m i t s t o the Commission or to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Where the M i n i s t e r , the Commission or l o c a l governments i s s u e p e r m i t s , these bodies must s u p p l y a copy of each a p p l i c a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r and to a s s e s s e d owners w i t h i n 400 f e e t of the a p p l i c a n t ' s l a n d , who may make an appeal a g a i n s t the p e r m i t w i t h i n f o u r t e e n days. I f an appeal i s made, a p u b l i c h e a r i n g on the 101 i s s u a n c e of the pe r m i t must be h e l d , a f t e r which the M i n i s t e r makes a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . The government must make payments i n l i e u of taxes to those l o c a l governments i n whose j u r i s d i c t i o n s l a n d has been a c q u i r e d f o r the P l a n . Land w i l l be taxed a c c o r d i n g to the d e s i g n a t i o n of l a n d use p r o v i d e d f o r i n the P l a n ; i f l a n d i s used l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y than the d e s i g n a t i o n i m p l i e s , s p e c i a l a r r a n g e -ments can be made f o r a p a r t i a l d e f e r r a l of p r o p e r t y t a x e s . In a d d i t i o n , the p r o v i n c e can p r o v i d e g r a n t s to a i d some l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of o f f i c i a l p l a n s and bylaws. 5.3.4 L e g i s l a t i v e L i m i t a t i o n s With no e f f e c t i v e r e c o r d to r e v i e w , the A c t must be examined i n l i g h t of what are f e l t to be l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f . One p r o b a b l y minor l i m i t a t i o n i s the s i z e of the Commission; a t seventeen members i t i s the l a r g e s t of any reviewed i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . More s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s e out of what appears to be the major i n t e n t of the A c t - t h a t i s to prepare a Master Pla n f o r the Nia g a r a Escarpment A r e a . A l t h o u g h wide p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c l a i m e d d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of the P l a n , i t i s l i k e l y to be f a i r l y l i m i t e d s i n c e comments are i n v i t e d o n l y i n the t h r e e month p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the proposed p l a n . I t i s s o l e l y at the p u b l i c h e a r i n g t h a t " r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , r e p o r t s , p l a n s and the l i k e t h a t were used to p r e pare the p l a n " are r e q u i r e d to be made a v a i l a b l e to the 102 p u b l i c . Rather than being c a l l e d upon to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s of the P l a n , both the p u b l i c and the l o c a l govern-ments are a l l o w e d o n l y to r e a c t to a completed, a l t h o u g h not f i n a l i z e d p l a n . There i s the very d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t such " r e a c t i v e " p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l have o n l y minimal e f f e c t on the outcome o f the f i n a l P l a n . Throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n of the p l a n the M i n i s t e r r e t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t power. He can, a t any t i m e , r e q u i r e t h a t l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s prepare p l a n s or bylaws to conform w i t h the i n t e n t of the A c t . There i s however no i n d i c a t i o n i n the l e g i s l a -t i o n t h a t these l o c a l p l a n s w i l l p r o v i d e any i n p u t i n t o the pr o c e s s of p r e p a r i n g the Master P l a n . The M i n i s t e r a l s o has the power to d e s i g n a t e any area a 'development p l a n n i n g a r e a 1 and under such d e s i g n a t i o n the pro-v i s i o n s of any z o n i n g bylaw l o s e f o r c e . The M i n i s t e r then has the a u t h o r i t y to make r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c o n t r o l of development i n t h a t area and r e t a i n s the r i g h t to make a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the i s s u a n c e of a development p e r m i t . The M i n i s t e r may, a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n , d e l e g a t e the a u t h o r i t y to re v i e w a p p l i c a -t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s to the Commission or to l o c a l governments but he i s not bound to do so by law. The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the A c t i s expected to c o s t the p r o v i n c e a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of money. Land a c q u i s i t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d to c o s t between $250 and $500 m i l l i o n and f u n d i n g of the Commission i s expected to be i n excess of $200,000 ( O n t a r i o , 1973). A d d i t i o n a l funds w i l l be needed to a s s i s t l o c a l governments 103 i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s and b y l a w s , to make payments to governments i n l i e u of p r o p e r t y t a x e s on Crown l a n d , to r e l o c a t e p i t and q u a r r y o p e r a t o r s i n the r e s t r i c t i v e zones and o t h e r v a r i o u s c o s t s and expenses. There i s no s t a t u t o r y l i m i t a t i o n on the amount of money to be a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s A c t . 5.3.5 Comments The N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development Act was passed June 22, 1973 and the f i r s t meeting of the N i a g a r a Escarpment Commission was h e l d November 6, 1973. Due to the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about the o p e r a t i o n of the'-Commi s s i o n the f o l l o w i n g comments are based on r e p o r t s i s s u e d by the M i n i s t r y of T r e a s u r y , Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s and c o r r e -spondence w i t h the s t a f f of the M i n i s t r y and the d i r e c t o r of the Commission. When B i l l 129 was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d to the l e g i s l a t u r e the o p p o s i t i o n took i s s u e w i t h what appeared to be e x c e s s i v e powers of the M i n i s t e r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the use of l a n d i n the escarpment area ( O n t a r i o , June 13, 1973). During the debate on the b i l l accusations were made t h a t the M i n i s t e r was b e i n g g i v e n a b s o l u t e power, t h a t l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had not been con-s u l t e d d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n of the b i l l and t h a t t h e r e was no p r o v i s i o n f o r appeal of a d e c i s i o n to the O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l Board, the c a b i n e t or the c o u r t s . The N.D.P. l e a d e r , Mr. L e w i s , 1 04 s t a t e d a t t h a t time t h a t the law g i v e s the m i n i s t e r the d i s -c r e t i o n a r y power to i s s u e development p e r m i t s i n d e s i g n a t e d areas w i t h no time l i m i t on the M i n i s t e r ' s enjoyment of t h i s power, a l t h o u g h he may d e l e g a t e i t to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f he d e s i r e s . The D i r e c t o r of the Commission, J.W. G i l b e r t has responded to the q u e s t i o n of t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y power as f o l l o w s : Onn the faoe of it, such wide d i s c r e t i o n a r y •power appears disturbing to people outside of the Government, however, having been a c i v i l e servant for several years. . . .1 can see the need for t h i s type of l e g i s l a t i o n . The prime intent of this section was to allow for a delegation of the development control authority to those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s that could properly administer i t once an approved plan is established. ( G i l b e r t , February 13, 1974) A s t a f f member of the m i n i s t r y r e p o r t e d t h a t i n f a c t "the M i n i s t e r has not got i n t o the development p e r m i t b u s i n e s s " and t h a t the i s s u a n c e p r o c e s s i s "being c a r r i e d out by the Commission w i t h o u t r e f e r r a l to the P r o v i n c e " ( F i t z p a t r i c k , February 4, 1974). Another s u b j e c t area of c o n s i d e r a b l e debate has been the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r a p p e a l . Under the A c t , appeals on development p e r m i t s can o n l y be made to the M i n i s t e r a g a i n s t a d e c i s i o n of the Commission. J.W. G i l b e r t has answered c r i t i c i s m s on t h i s m a tter by s a y i n g t h a t appeals to the O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l Board are u n s u i t a b l e because "the Board must r u l e on matters of law and cannot a c c e p t Government statements of p o l i c y 105 as s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n " and t h a t the c a b i n e t cannot take the time to hear m a t t e r s of such a mundane n a t u r e . I t i s G i l b e r t ' s o p i n i o n t h a t the M i n i s t e r i s "the l o g i c a l judge of appeals f o r the development c o n t r o l system" s i n c e the Commission r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y to the M i n i s t e r and the M i n i s t e r " i s the p r o v i n c i a l spokesman on la n d use p l a n n i n g p o l i c y " ( G i l b e r t , February 13, 1974). The h e a r i n g procedure has a l s o been c r i t i c i z e d . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g r e p r e s e n t s the o n l y p r o v i s i o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e v iew of the a c t and a l l h e a r i n g s are conducted by a h e a r i n g o f f i c e r who i s a p p o i n t e d by the M i n i s t e r . A l e g a l o p i n i o n has been g i v e n by J.A. Kennedy on the comparison of t h i s procedure to the r u l e of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , ' t h a t a t r i b u n a l s h a l l be w i t h o u t b i a s . 1 The argument proceeds as f o l l o w s : It is the Minister's own program that is being reviewed (in a public hearing). So i t could notbe said that these hearing o f f i c e r s would be independent, or without bias. It might be argued however, that these hearing o f f i c e r s are not the tribunal because they do not decide, they only report to the Minister. If t h i s means that the Minister is the tribunal then i t is his program that is being reviewed and he could not be said to be without bias. Only if the hearing o f f i c e r and the Minister do not agree do these statutes provide for a decision by the cabinet. But in neither case is the decision made by 'the person who conducts the hearing. In the case of Mehr v. Law Society of Upper Canada . . . the Supreme Court of Canada held that i t is a breach of the rule of natural j u s t i c e if the decision is made by persons other than those who conducted the hearing. (J.A. Kennedy, December 17, 1973) 106 In c o n c l u s i o n i t appears t h a t the M i n i s t e r does have c o n s i d e r a b l e power, both under the Nia g a r a Escarpment A c t and the P l a n n i n g and Development A c t . The success of the l e g i s l a -t i o n t h e r e f o r e depends, i n p a r t , on the M i n i s t e r ' s use or abuse of these very wide powers. 5.4 Washington S t a t e , S h o r e l i n e Management A c t (1971) 5.4.1 Background The S h o r e l i n e Management A c t was passed i n 1971 by the Washington S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e "to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the S t a t e ' s s h o r e l i n e s and, a t the same t i m e , to r e c o g n i z e and p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " (Washington, 1972). N a t u r a l systems covered by the Ac t i n c l u d e beaches and the s h o r e l i n e s of i s l a n d s , e s t u a r i e s , r i v e r s , l a k e s , streams and the P a c i f i c c o a s t l i n e of which almost 160 m i l e s a r e . w i t h i n t h e S t a t e ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The impetus f o r the l e g i s l a t i o n came w i t h the r e a l i z a -t i o n by the S t a t e t h a t Washington "possesses s h o r e l i n e areas whose uniqueness and d i v e r s i t y are u n e q u a l l e d i n the N a t i o n " (1972). In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the G u i d e l i n e s f o r the S h o r e l i n e Management A c t , Governor Evans s t a t e d : Experiences in other parts of the country however, and i n c r e a s i n g l y in Washington, show that we cannot continue to take our shoreline resources for granted. Our shorelines are a l i m i t e d asset - we cannot 107 increase them3 but we can lose them if we f a i l to protect them through a sound, comprehensive management program. (Washington, 1972) 5.4.2 Commission The l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a S h o r e l i n e s H e a r i n g s Board which has a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n . Three members of t h i s six-member Board a l s o s i t on the S t a t e ' s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board. Two members are a p p o i n t e d , one each from the A s s o c i a t i o n of Washington C i t i e s and the A s s o c i a t i o n of County Commissioners. The s i x t h member i s the S t a t e Land Commissioner or h i s d e s i g n e e . The chairman of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board i s a l s o a p p o i n t e d chairman of the S h o r e l i n e s Hearings Board. The major f u n c t i o n of the Board i s to hear appeals on the g r a n t i n g o f p e r m i t s f o r developments w i t h i n the d e s i g n a t e d s h o r e l i n e a r e a . The l o c a l government i s the body which g r a n t s p e r m i t s , the S t a t e Department of Ecology and the A t t o r n e y General r e c e i v e r e q u e s t s f o r appeals and the Hearings Board hears the a p p e a l s . The Board a l s o r e views the l o c a l programs of s h o r e l i n e r e g u l a t i o n . 5.4.3 Admi ni s t r a t i on The i n t e n t of the A c t i s to p r o t e c t a l l the s h o r e l i n e areas of the S t a t e from u n c o n t r o l l e d development. C e r t a i n f o r e s h o r e areas are d e s i g n a t e d by the Act 'areas of s t a t e w i d e 1 08 s i g n i f i c a n c e ' and i n c l u d e f i v e s p e c i f i c areas i n Puget Sound and the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca p l u s a d j a c e n t s a l t waters ( i . e . from the l i n e of low t i d e to the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s ) . There are two mechanisms f o r development c o n t r o l : one a p e r m i t system f o r developments o f a c e r t a i n s i z e and type and two, a comprehensive p l a n n i n g program i n c l u d i n g use r e g u l a -t i o n s . The p e r m i t system r e q u i r e s t h a t a property-owner o b t a i n a p e r m i t f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l development (over $1,000) on the f o l l o w i n g s h o r e l i n e s : 1 . l a k e s l a r g e r t h a n 20 a c r e s 2 . s t r e a m s w i t h a mean annual f l o w g r e a t e r t h a n 20 c u b i c f e e t per s e c o n d . 3 . m a r i n e w a t e r a r e a s 4 . on land e x t e n d i n g 200 f e e t landward f rom the o r d i n a r y h igh wate r mark o r a s s o c i a t e d w e t l a n d s Uses exempt from the p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t i n c l u d e : 1 . - c o n s t r u c t i o n o r r e p a i r o f a s i n g l e -f a m i l y res i dence i f under 35 f e e t in h e i g h t , on the w e t l a n d s and i f f o r t h e o w n e r ' s use on I y 2 . c o n s t r u c t i o n of a barn o r s i m i l a r a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e i f under 35 f e e t in h e i g h t , on the w e t l a n d s . 3 . normal p r o t e c t i v e b u l k h e a d s f o r a s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e 4 . c o n s t r u c t i o n or m o d i f i c a t i o n of n a v i -g a t i o n a l a i d s 109 5v m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e p a i r of an e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e 6 . emergency c o n s t r u c t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y f rom damage by the e I e m e n t s c o n s t r u c t i o n of a d o c k , d e s i g n e d f o r p l e a s u r e cr?aft o n l y , f o r the p r i v a t e noncommerc ia l use of the owner , - l e s s e e , o r c o n t r a c t p u r c h a s e r of a s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e , t h e c o s t of wh ich does not exceed $2500. P e r m i t s are g r a n t e d by each l o c a l government f o r s h o r e l i n e s areas under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . The concept of ' s h o r e l i n e management' under the A c t i n c l u d e s the p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a Master Program f o r the purpose of r e g u l a t i n g s h o r e l i n e uses. These programs are to be i n i t i a t e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l governments. The S t a t e f u n c t i o n i s to a c t i n a s u p p o r t i v e and r e v i e w c a p a c i t y , The S t a t e Department of Ecology i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the A c t . In an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , the Department i s r e q u i r e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n , to submit proposed g u i d e l i n e s f o r s h o r e l i n e programs, to a l l e f f e c t e d governments. The pr o -cedure s p e c i f i e d i n the A c t i s as f o l l o w s : W i t h i n s i x t y days of r e c e i p t o f the proposed g u i d e l i n e s , l o c a l governments must r e t u r n comments on these g u i d e l i n e s to the Department. A f t e r one hundreduand twenty days, the Department must r e - s u b m i t the f i n a l g u i d e l i n e s . A f t e r two p u b l i c h e a r i n g s are h e l d , the Department adopts the g u i d e l i n e s which are s u b s e q u e n t l y b i n d -ing on the l o c a l governments and the S t a t e . F o l l o w i n g enactment 110 of the l e g i s l a t i o n i n June 1971 t h i s procedure was f o l l o w e d and i n June 1972 the " F i n a l G u i d e l i n e s , S h o r e l i n e Mangement A c t " were o f f i c i a l l y adopted (Washington, 1972). L o c a l governments are a l s o r e q u i r e d by the l e g i s l a -t i o n to submit p r o p o s a l s f o r c o a s t a l i n v e n t o r i e s and s h o r e l i n e management programs w i t h i n s i x months of enactment of the law. In the absence of a c t i o n by the l o c a l governments, the Depart-ment has the a u t h o r i t y to proceed w i t h i t s own s t u d i e s and programs f o r these a r e a s . The i n v e n t o r i e s and programs f o r r e g u l a t i o n of s h o r e -l i n e uses are r e q u i r e d t o be completed by the l o c a l governments w i t h i n e i g h t e e n months. F o l l o w i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , they are s u b m i t t e d to the Department o f E c o l o g y , al o n g w i t h a statement o u t l i n i n g the program o f c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t f o l l o w e d by the l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the p o l i c i e s and programs. A f a i l u r e by the l o c a l government to encourage and u t i l i z e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i s t r e a t e d as a f a i l u r e to comply w i t h the i n t e n t of the A c t , and the Department may r e t u r n the program w i t h o u t a p p r o v a l w i t h the d i r e c t i v e to e s t a b l i s h a c c e p t a b l e methods of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Washington, 1972). The l e g i s l a t i o n o u t l i n e s the f o l l o w i n g seven elements which may be i n c l u d e d i n the s h o r e l i n e program: 1 . economic deve lopment 2 . p u b l i c a c c e s s 3 . c i r c u l a t i o n 4 . r e c r e a t i o n 5 . s h o r e l i n e use 6 . c o n s e r v a t i on 7. h i s t o r i c a I / c u I t u r a I e l e m e n t 111 See Chart 2 f o r an o u t l i n e of the p r e p a r a t i o n of Master Programs. The A c t r e q u i r e s the Department of Ecology and the l o c a l governments to review the s h o r e l i n e management programs p e r i o d i c a l l y . As w e l l , a l l s t a t e a g e n c i e s must r e v i e w t h e i r management p o l i c i e s , p l a n s and bylaws which e f f e c t l a n d s a d j a c e n t to s h o r e l i n e s . The department may make recommendations to these a g e n c i e s which would b r i n g a d j a c e n t uses i n l i n e w i t h the S h o r e l i n e Management A c t . The Department of Ecology and the l o c a l governments h o l d most of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the A c t ; the S h o r e l i n e s Hearings B o a r d s a c t s m a i n l y as a r e v i e w and hear-i n g body. The Department and the l o c a l governments, i n a d d i t i o n to drawing up p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g programs, a l s o have the power to a c q u i r e l a n d and to a c c e p t g r a n t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s of l a n d . They may a l s o a p p o i n t a d v i s o r y committees and c o n t r a c t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s . The Department of Eco l o g y i s r e q u i r e d to r e p r e s e n t ' s h o r e l i n e i n t e r e s t s ' b e f o r e water r e s o u r c e r e g u l a t i o n bodies and f e d e r a l commissions. 5.4.4 L i mi t a t i ons T h e r e s t r i c t e d area of c o n t r o l ( i . e . s h o r e l i n e s ) i s a p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s A c t . However, s i n c e 1970 Washington S t a t e has passed s e v e r a l o t h e r a c t s aimed a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n which are s u p p o r t i v e of the purposes o f the-Shoreline-Management A c t . One a c t p r o v i d e s 112 PHASE X-PHASEH PHASE IE-E S T A B L I S H C I T I Z E N ADVISORY C O M M I T T E E D E V E L O P A R E A - WIDE G O A L S D E V E L O P S H O R E L I N E P O L I C Y S T A T E M E N T S D E F I N E E N V I R O N M E N T S O N A L L S H O R E L I N E S D E V E L O P S H O R E L I N E U S E R E G U L A T I O N S ~lkL E J^ Eii T§i - { U S E ^ A C T I V I T I E S ] 1 H VJ Rp N M E N T S ] R U S E A C T I V I T I E S 8n L E ^ V J R O N M E N J S j C O N D U C T D E T A I L E D S T U D I E S I E L E M E N T S a j tuSE _ A C T [ V I T I E S J CHART 2 PREPARATION OF SHORELINE MASTER PROGRAMS, WASHINGTON STATE SOURCE : D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o l o g y , Wash i n g t o n S t a t e . 11 3 f o r an e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact statement procedure s i m i l a r to t h a t r e q u i r e d by the N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A c t of 1969 (Washington, Chapter 43, 21C, RCW 1971). A second p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n , to c o n t r o l l a n d use throughout the s t a t e was i n t r o d u c e d in-a.974 (Washington, Senate B i l l 3369 , 1 974). The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the S h o r e l i n e Management Act may be reduced by the number of a l l o w a b l e exemptions from p e r m i t s . Some of the p o t e n t i a l l y damaging exemptions i n c l u d e developments or a c t i v i t i e s such as d r e d g i n g and removal of sand, which do not i n v o l v e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s , and developments which are to be completed w i t h i n two y e a r s of the e f f e c t i v e date of the l e g i s l a t i o n . 5.4.5 Comments The A c t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t the major i n i t i a t i v e f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of management programs, i s to be p r o v i d e d by l o c a l governments. U l t i m a t e c o n t r o l over p o l i c y and programs of r e g u l a t i o n r e s t s w i t h the S t a t e r a t h e r than the a p p o i n t e d Board. C o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n to the p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s of both the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y and the p r e p a r a t i o n and a d o p t i o n of p l a n s or programs. P u b l i c par-t i c i p a t i o n i s mandatory at a l l s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s r a t h e r than s o l e l y a t the l a t e r stage of program a d o p t i o n . Chapter 6 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ISLAND TRUST LEGISLATION AND SIMILAR PURPOSE LEGISLATION F i v e p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n were s e l e c t e d f o r a com-p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s . The Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t ( s . 1929) was chosen to r e p r e s e n t the v a r i o u s proposed p i e c e s o f i s l a n d t r u s . t - l e g i s l a t i o n . The b i l l s. 1929 , i n t r o d u c e d to the U.S. Senate May 29, 1973, i s the most r e c e n t p r o p o s a l f o r t h a t area to da t e . T h i s b i l l i s the o n l y U.S. f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s and the o n l y law which has y e t to be enac t e d . The o t h e r s i m i l a r purpose l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s i s : 1. H a w a i i , Land Use Law of 1961, as amended 1970. 2. Vermont, Environmental C o n t r o l Law 1970 ( A c t No. 250 Vermont Laws) 3. O n t a r i o , N i a g a r a Escarpment P l a n n i n g and Development A c t 1973. 4. Washington, S h o r e l i n e Management Act of 1971'. The purpose of the a n a l y s i s was to compare the c h a r -a c t i v e r i s t i c s and c o n t e n t s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n r a t h e r than t o 114 115 e v a l u a t e the s t r u c t u r a l components e s t a b l i s h e d by the law, and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . The f i r s t step i n the a n a l y s i s was to determine the i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a l components and s t a t u t o r y f u n c t i o n s p r e s e n t i n the s e l e c t e d p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n . Nine c a t e g o r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or elements of the l e g i s l a t i o n were chosen f o r the a n a l y s i s and a number of subelements were s e l e c t e d to d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of these elements. These elements arid sub-elements were s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose of comparing i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s of d i f f e r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h a view to drawing c o n c l u -s i o n s which might be u s e f u l i n the development of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . A c h a r t format was used to convey t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (Table 3). For the purpose of the a n a l y s i s the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i -t i o n s were a c c e p t e d : r e c r e a t i o n - t h e r e f r e s h m e n t of mind and body t h r o u g h p l a y , s p o r t s , amusement and re I a x a t i o n . c o n s e r v a t i o n - the a c t of c o n s e r v i n g , p r e -s e r v i n g o r p r o t e c t i n g from l o s s , d e c a y , i n j u r y o r v i o l a t i o n . p r o t e c t i o n of f a r m l a n d - t h e a c t of p r o t e c t -ing land which i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f rom n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s . s h o r e l i n e management - the a c t of p l a n n i n g f o r r e a s o n a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e uses a l o n g s h o r e l i n e s . deve lopment c o n t r o l - t h e a c t of r e s t r i c t -ing i n a p p r o p r i a t e uses of land and w a t e r . C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f I s l a n d T r u s t and S i m i l a r P u r p o s e L e g i s l a t i o n ' ( • • s i g n i f i c a n t e m p h a s i s , • e m p h a s i s , I m e n t i o n ) E l e m e n t o f L e g i s l a t i o n N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s 1 1973 •'. H a w a i i 1961 ( 1 9 7 0 ) '. Ve rmont 1970 N i a g a r a E s c a r p m e n t 1973 W a s h i n g t o n S h o r e l 1 n e 1971 OBJECTIVES FOR LAND USE CONTROL C o n s e r v a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n P r o t e c t i o n o f F a r m l a n d S h o r e l i n e Management D e v e l o p m e n t C o n t r o l . • • • • • • « • • © • • • © © • • • • • • © AREA OF CONTROL S t a t e o r P r o v i n c e - w i d e S p e c i a l R e g i o n s • • - • • COMMISSION STRUCTURE S i z e T e n u r e D e g r e e o f R e g i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n s A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e s 9 9 6 3 yrs - 4yrs -85 % 6 7 % 0 . * 4 7 % 3 3 % - - 9 - -1 + - - 2 1 + COMMISSION POWERS P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n Land use c o n t r o l s : z o n i n g Land u s e c o n t r o l s : p e r m i t s Land a c q u i s i t i o n by p u r c h a s e , g i f t s Land a c q u i s i t i o n by e x p r o p r i a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n o f a M a s t e r P l a n • < o e • • • • • © O © © o © • • • • • • • CO-ORDINATING FUNCTION I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l S e n i o r - l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t c o - o r d i n a t i o n 4 • • • O o • • < 1 9 © TECHNICAL C A P A B I L I T Y H i r i n g o f S t a f f A c c e s s t o G o v e r n m e n t S t a f f H i r i n g o f C o n s u l t a n t s • • • • ' • • • . • • • b• CONTINUED T a b l e 3 ( C o n t i n u e d ) E l e m e n t o f L e g i s l a t i o n N a n t u c k e t . Sound I s l a n d 1 9 7 3 . H a w a i i 1961 1970 Vermont 1970 N i a g a r a E s c a r p m e n t 1973 \ W a s h l n g t o n S h o r e l i ne 1971 PUBLIC PART IC IPAT ION A v a i l a b i l i t y o f P l a n s t o P u b l i c 4 0 0 0 H e a r i n g s on P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n 4 0 0 H e a r i n g s on A d o p t i o n o f P l a n s • 0 • 0' • • 0 • H e a r i n g s on Z o n i n g Changes • • . . . # . . 4 ©" H e a r i n g s on P l a n R e v i s i o n s • 0' 08 H e a r i n g s on P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s • 0 0 0 a B u r d e n o f P r o o f on A p p l i c a n t • o 0 ENFORCEMENT S e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l • • 0 " 4 L o c a l . C o n t r o l 4 • 0 . 0 APPEAL PROCEDURES 1 P r o v i s i o n f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A p p e a l 0 0 0 P r o v i s i o n f o r J u d i c i a l A p p e a l • • 0 P r o v i s i o n f o r P e r i o d i c R e v i s i o n o f P l a n s 0 0 *The N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t i s t h e o n l y f e d e r a l p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . B i l l 1 3 6 , 1970 amended t h e Land Use Law g i v i n g t h e Land Use C o m m i s s i o n t h e mandate t o e s t a b l i s h s e t b a c k r e g u l a t i o n s o f 20 t o 40 f e e t f r o m t h e h i g h w a t e r m a r k . 3 The N a n t u c k e t Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t e s t a b l i s h e s t h r e e C o m m i s s i o n s , one e a c h f o r M a r t h a ' s V i n e y a r d , N a n t u c k e t a n d t h e E l i z a b e t h s . -A S p e c i a l u s e s a r e g ranted u n d e r a p e r m i t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l D i s t r i c t s o n l y . ^The p r i m a r y c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e i s b e t w e e n f e d e r a l and l o c a l a g e n c i e s . ^ B e c a u s e t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o l o g y p l a y s t h e l a r g e r r o l e i n i m p e l e m e n t a t i o n , s t a f f i s a t t a c h e d to t h i s a g e n c y r a t h e r t h a n t h e B o a r d . ' 'The M i n i s t e r c a n r e j e c t p l a n amendments w h i c h a r e ' f r i v o l o u s o r n o t 1n good f a i t h . ' 8 T h e S h o r e l i n e s H e a r i n g s B o a r d h o l d s q u a s i - j u d i c i a l h e a r i n g s on r e q u e s t . o n p e r m i t s , r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , g u i d e l i n e s and m a s t e r p r o g r a m s . 9 In D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g A r e a s t h e M i n i s t e r c a n r e t a i n e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h r o i t y w h e r e a s i n a r e a s h a v i n g l o c a l p l a n s and b y l a w s , t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h o r i t y . 118 The a n a l y s i s p o i n t s out a number of i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s of r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r l a n d use c o n t r o l . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the major o b j e c t i v e o f the m a j o r i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s to c o n t r o l development over d e s i g n a t e d areas of l a n d , and i n some cases such as Washington, over water as w e l l . The Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l p l a c e s the s t r o n g e s t emphasis on c o n s e r v a -t i o n as an o b j e c t i v e , w h i l e the o t h e r s t a t u t e s emphasize con-s e r v a t i o n a s p e c t s to a l e s s e r degree. The Hawaii and Vermont s t a t u t e s are the o n l y " s t a t u t u e s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s which e s t a b l i s h a s t a t e - w i d e program of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . The number of Commission members v a r i e s from s i x f o r Washington's S h o r e l i n e s Hearings Board to seventeen f o r the N i a g a r a Escarpment Commission. Vermont makes no s p e c i f i c pro-v i s i o n f o r r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on i t s s t a t e l e v e l E n v i r o n -mental Board but i t does c r e a t e n i n e D i s t r i c t Commissions which are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each D i s t r i c t i n the S t a t e . The Martha's V i n e y a r d Commission has the h i g h e s t degree of l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n w i t h t w e l v e l o c a l members, one S t a t e a p p o i n t e e and one F e d e r a l a p p o i n t e e . C o n s i d e r i n g the two t i e r commission s t r u c t u r e used i n Vermont, l o c a l or r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l of the s t a t u t e s a n a l y z e d . The s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a d v i s o r y committees i s p r e s e n t i n t h r e e of the a c t s . The Ni a g a r a Escarpment A c t r e -q u i r e s the appointment o f two l o c a l a d v i s o r y committees whereas the Nantucket and Washington b i l l s make the appointment of a d v i s o r y committees o p t i o n a l . 119 The powers of the Commissions vary w i d e l y . The S h o r e l i n e s Hearings Board of Washington i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a p p e a l s body and has l i t t l e power beyond h e a r i n g appeals an p e r m i t s , r e g u l a t i o n s or master programs. The N i a g a r a Escarpment Commission has c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y i n a l l areas d e s c r i b e d i n the a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g major emphasis on the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a Master P l a n f o r the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a . However, the M i n i s t e r of Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s f o r O n t a r i o r e t a i n s the power to make a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the a d o p t i o n of both l o c a l p l a n s and the Master P l a n , and on the i s s u a n c e of p e r m i t s so 'that the a c t u a l power of the Commission i s somewhat l i m i t e d . Both Hawaii and Nantucket emphasize z o n i n g c o n t r o l s to a c h i e v e l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s ; i n f a c t the z o n i n g p l a n ; i t s e l f i s a major component of the l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s . The Vermont A c t combines the use of development p e r m i t s and zoning to c o n t r o l development as does the O n t a r i o a c t . I n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n i s mentioned i n a l l the s t a t u t e s s t u d i e d . C o - o p e r a t i o n between s e n i o r and l o c a l governments i s s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r i n the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t A c t and the S h o r e l i n e Management A c t . A l l the l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e f o r the appointment of s t a f f d i r e c t l y to the commissions w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the Washington A c t . The d i s c r e t i o n a r y power to h i r e s p e c i a l con-s u l t a n t s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n o n l y two a c t s . 1 20 S t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s vary somewhat. Vermont i s the o n l y government which does not s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e f o r the showing of p l a n s to the p u b l i c . The Washington and Vermont A c t s are the o n l y a c t s which p r o v i d e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n stage of p l a n n i n g ; i n Vermont i t i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y w h i l e i n Washington i t i s mandatory. A l l f i v e p i e c e s of l e g i s -l a t i o n p r o v i d e f o r h e a r i n g s on z o n i n g changes, g e n e r a l p l a n r e v i s i o n s and p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Nantucket b i l l which does not c r e a t e a p e r m i t s y s t e m ) . However the l e g i s l a t i o n d i f f e r s more w i d e l y i n the degree to which p u b l i c o p i n i o n "as expressed i n hearings, i s c o n s i d e r e d i n f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . In N a n t u c k e t , H a w a i i , and Vermont the major power r e s t s w i t h the Commission which makes d e c i s i o n s based, at l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , on the r e s u l t s of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . In Washing-ton the Board hears appeals and makes a f i n a l d e c i s i o n which i s s u b m i t t e d to the Department of Ecology f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . However, i n O n t a r i o the Commission makes recommendations to the M i n i s t e r who makes the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . The o n l y p i e c e of l e g i s -l a t i o n which makes e x p l i c i t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p u b l i c and l o c a l governments i n the p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n or p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n stage i s the S h o r e l i n e Management Act of Washington. In Hawaii enforcement of the Land Use Law i s c a r r i e d out e n t i r e l y a t the l o c a l l e v e l of government. The o t h e r f o u r p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e f o r j o i n t programs of enforcement between s e n i o r and l o c a l governments. The b a l a n c e of power i n 1 21 enforcement appears to l i e w i t h the f e d e r a l government i n the I s l a n d s T r u s t l e g i s l a t i o n ( i . e . the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e who p r o v i d e s funds) and w i t h the Envi r o n m e n t a l Board i n the Vermont l e g i s l a t i o n . In Washington, l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c o u n t i e s e n f o r c e a l l l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s and bylaws r e l a t i n g to s h o r e l i n e use, p r o v i d e d t h a t these r e g u l a t i o n s comply w i t h S t a t e g u i d e -l i n e s and are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the S h o r e l i n e Management A c t . The appeals procedure v a r i e s w i d e l y i n the s t a t u t e s s t u d i e d . Appeals are made f i r s t to the government board or s p e c i a l commission i n the case of Washington and Vermont, or to the c o u r t s alone i n Nantucket and H a w a i i . In O n t a r i o a p p e a l s are made d i r e c t l y to the M i n i s t e r . Chapter 7 RELEVANCE OF EXISTING LAND USE LEGISLATION TO THE GULF ISLANDS PROPOSAL The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s of l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n brought to l i g h t a number of p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o n t r o l mechanisms which were thought to be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r a p r o p o s a l f o r G u l f I s l a n d s l e g i s l a t i o n . The s u i t a b i l i t y of the v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s to the G u l f I s l a n d s ' proposed i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was con-s i d e r e d under t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of c r i t e r i a . The f i r s t c a t e o g r y d e a l s w i t h the normative assumptions developed t h r o u g h o u t t h i s paper. Fox (1971) has i d e n t i f i e d the need to c o n s i d e r normative assumptions i n the d e s i g n or e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ments. The second c a t e g o r y d e a l s w i t h the r u l e s o f n a t u r a l j u s t i c e . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s s a f e g u a r d s i n l e g i s l a t i o n which d e l e g a t e s a u t h o r i t y to a n o n - e l e c t e d body. The importance of these s a f e g u a r d s has been s t r e s s e d by Ca r r (1970) i n a d i s -c u s s i o n of E n g l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t r e p r e s e n t s the c r i t e r i a under which the v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s o f l a n d use l e g i s l a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d 122 1 23 f o r t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s to a p r o p o s a l f o r l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s : 7.1 Normative Assumptions a. Elements embodied i n the t r u s t concept such as: r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w i d e r i n t e r e s t s ; l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s ; and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u t u r e as w e l l as p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t s . b. Acceptance of the l e g i t i m a c y of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy ( i . e . l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and users p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s at the l o c a l ( l e v e l ) . c. Acceptance of the l e g i t i m a c y of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy (n;.e. e l e c t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to p o s i t i o n s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s ) . d. I n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n a complete and comprehensive form. 7.2 Rules of N a t u r a l J u s t i c e a. Every t r i b u n a l s h a l l be w i t h o u t b i a s . b. Audi alteram partem; a l l s i d e s must be heard and c o n s i d e r e d . 7 . 3 Safeguards i n Delegated L e g i s l a t i o n a. D e l e g a t i o n s h o u l d be to a t r u s t w o r t h y a u t h o r i t y ( t h i s i s r e l a t e d to the type of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Commission). 1 24 b. The e n a b l i n g a c t s h o u l d c o n t a i n the l i m i t s of d e l e g a t e d power i n c l e a r and p r e c i s e terms. c. A l l i n t e r e s t s s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d by the d e l e g a -t i o n of power s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d p r i o r to the drawing up of l e g i s l a t i o n . d. Rules and r e g u l a t i o n s drawn up by the new a u t h o r i t y shouldbbe made p u b l i c ; t h i s ensures the r e a l i z a t i o n of the common law p r i n c i p l e of a s c e r t a i n a b i 1 i;ty. e. The e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s r e l a t e d r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s can be amended or revoked by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body. Using these c r i t e r i a s e v e r a l p r o v i s i o n s were s e l e c t e d from the f i v e p i e c e s of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a pr o p o s a l f o r G u l f I s l a n d s l e g i s l a t i o n . These p r o v i s i o n are summarized b r i e f l y and t h e i r s o u r c e s are noted i n b r a c k e t s as f o l 1 o w s : 1 . I t appears to be f e a s i b l e i n B.C. l e g i s l a t i o n to i n t r o d u c e the r a t i o n a l e f o r the l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o the o f f i c i a l r e c o r d , i n the form of a preamble. (A preamble to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e x t i n which the l e g i s l a t i o n was being enacted was c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c of a l l the U.S. l e g i s l a t i o n . ) 125 2. The importance of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t l o c a l l e v e l s s h o u l d be noted w h i l e at the same time r e c o g n i z i n g the need f o r the a d d i t i o n a l powers and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e a t h i g h e r l e v e l s of government (Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s ) . 3. S i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Commission appears to be d e s i r a b l e due to the natu r e of l a n d use problems and the o b j e c t i v e of a l l o c a t i n g d e c i s i o n making powers to l o c a l people (Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s ) . 4. A t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y f o r the new a u t h o r i t y through p r o v i s i o n s f o r the h i r i n g of s t a f f and c o n s u l t a n t s appears to be an i m p o r t a n t requirement (Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s , H a w a i i , Vermont, O n t a r i o ) . 5. P r o v i s i o n f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i t i z e n s and l o c a l governments at an e a r l y stage i n the p l a n n i n g process through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a procedure to prepare p o l i c y g u i d e -l i n e s appears to be d e s i r a b l e ( Washington). 6. C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f the Commission w i t h o t h e r govern-ment departments and a g e n c i e s i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t ( a l l l e g i s l a t i o n ) . 126 7. The d e l e g a t i o n of power to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to p repare p l a n s and bylaws appears to p r o v i d e a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of d e c i s i o n m a k i n g powers (Vermont, O n t a r i o , Washi n g t o n ) . 8. P r o v i s i o n s to h o l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s p r i o r to the a d o p t i o n of any p l a n s , programs or bylaws are i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e ments to ensure o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( a l l l e g -i s l a t i o n ) . 9 . Where a l o c a l government f a i l s to p r e p a r e a p l a n or bylaw a c c o r d i n g to the terms of the l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o v i s i o n s which empower the S t a t e or P r o v i n c i a l body to c a r r y out t h i s f u n c t i o n appear to be necessary to ensure i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of government p o l i c y ( O n t a r i o , Washington). 10. The r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t an a p p l i c a n t f o r a d e v e l o p -ment p e r m i t must submit proof t h a t the proposed developed w i l l not cause undue harm to the environment, appears to p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l measure o f c o n t r o l over the development p r o c e s s (Vermont). 11. A p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n of l a n d use and management pl a n s i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t ( H a w a i i , O n t a r i o , Washington). 127 12. A procedure f o r appeals i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t 'due p r o c e s s ' be r e a l i z e d ( a l l l e g i s l a t i o n ) . Chapter 8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SUGGESTED INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE GULF ISLANDS TRUST 8 . 1 Conceptual Framework As o u t l i n e d i n P a r t I , the c e n t r a l t a s k of t h i s r e s e a r c h paper was to develop a p r o p o s a l f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r the purpose o f implementing a p o l i c y of con-t r o l l e d development on the G u l f I s l a n d s . The approach f o l l o w e d was : 1. t o document the background d e v e l o p m e n t s l e a d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r o -v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s i n S e p t e m b e r , 1973. 2 . t o a n a l y z e e x i s t i n g , s i m i l a r p u r p o s e , land use l e g i s l a t i o n f o r i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h e GuIf I s I a n d s . In P a r t I an attempt was made to un d e r s t a n d the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and problems of the i s l a n d s through a d i s c u s s i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the a r e a . In P a r t I I the a n a l y s i s was i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the attempts of o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s to deal w i t h l a n d use and 1 28 1 29 e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e . The l o g i c a l next s t e p and the i n t e n t of P a r t I I I i s (on the b a s i s o f the documen-t a t i o n of P a r t I and the a n a l y s i s of P a r t I I ) , t o develop a p r o p o s a l f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement to a c h i e v e p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the i s l a n d s . A concept f o r such an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement was de v e l o p e d , based on an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l r o u t e t h a t p l a n n i n g on the i s l a n d s has f o l l o w e d . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s approach i s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t any p r o p o s a l f o r the f u t u r e of the i s l a n d s must e v o l v e , to some e x t e n t , out of pa s t e x p e r i -ences and pa s t and p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i o n s o f change. The c o n c e p t u a l framework which f o l l o w s i n c o r p o r a t e s an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and l e a d s to a c o n c e p t u a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e which r e c o g n i z e s the e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . For the purpose of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s on the i s l a n d s were c o n s i d e r e d through two time p e r i o d s : 1. t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o the f o r m a t i o n of R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . 2. the p e r i o d under R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t j u r i s d i c t i o n . The f i n a l c o n c e p t u a l framework proposes a system of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r the f u t u r e . P r i o r to the t a k e o v e r of i s l a n d p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s by the Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o l a n d use were c o n f i n e d to a few government departments. These i n c l u d e d the 1 30 Department of Highways which s t i l l c o n t i n u e s t o g r a n t . s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l s i n uno r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s and the P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h Branch which c o n t i n u e s to approve the d e s i g n of sewage d i s p o s a l systems. D e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the d i r e c t i o n of development on the i s l a n d s c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be typed a c c o r d i n g to t h r e e d i f f e r e n t groups of a c t o r s i n the p r o c e s s : 1. The e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e P r o v i n c i a l government who p o s s e s s e d p o l i c y and d e c i s i o n -making powers f o r u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s ( I n c l u d i n g the - ' power of t h e M i n i s t e r t o a c t as m a y o r - i n - c o u n c i I ) . 2 . The l i n e a g e n c i e s of the P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -ment ( i n c l u d i n g . t h e H e a l t h Branch and Department of H ighways) who e n f o r c e d r e g u -l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o land u s e . 3 . The p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s whose a c t i v i t i e s had d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on the e n v i r o n m e n t . During t h i s p e r i o d d e c i s i o n s tended to be made on an ad hoc b a s i s , l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s from competing i n t e r e s t groups. No s p e c i f i c p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s had been a r t i c u l a t e d by the P r o v i n c i a l government. In some c a s e s , f o r example Bowen I s l a n d , P r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s had begun p r e p a r a t i o n of zo n i n g bylaws, based l a r g e l y on t h e i r s t a n d a r d bylaw format f o r unor g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s , w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s l a n d . A number of a c t i v i t i e s were a f f e c t i n g the i s l a n d environments but t h e r e was l i t t l e f o rmal r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r an e c o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r t i c u l a r 131 environment were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y where they imposed s p e c i f i c c o n s t r a i n t s on proposed developments, and t h e n , o n l y to a l i m i t e d degree. Whatever p l a n n i n g o c c u r r e d , was o f a p i e c e m e a l , r e a c t i v e n a t u r e . F i g u r e 1 g i v e s a s y m b o l i c r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g stage on the i s l a n d s . The c r e a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l l e v e l of government ex-panded the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on the i s l a n d s . With i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n - i n the r e g i o n and r i s i n g incomes c r e a t i n g a demand f o r v a c a t i o n homes, t h e r e was indeed a need f o r g r e a t e r governmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i s l a n d a f f a i r s . At the same time i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s were demanding a g r e a t e r r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e s of e a r l i e r times were p r o v i n g to be inadequate to deal w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s assumed the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s f o r the i s l a n d s . Competing groups made t h e i r i n t e r e s t s p u b l i c and demanded a say i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g on the i s l a n d s . As a r e s u l t some of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s developed e x t e n s i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n the s e cases com-munity p l a n s were developed which p r o b a b l y came c l o s e to rep-r e s e n t i n g a concensus of v i e w s . In o t h e r cases p l a n s were prepared somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y under the d i r e c t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n was d e f i n i t e l y expandi ng. At the same time e n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns were b e i n g f e l t to a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t and p r o t e c t i o n of the environment came to be a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n f o r making d e c i s i o n s . Demands 1 32 F I G U R E 1 P O L I T I C A L & P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S E S : S T A G E O N E 1 33 f o r i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s were ex p r e s s e d by l o c a l and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g roups, and a l s o by some departments w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l government such as the H e a l t h Branch. As t h e s e spheres of a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d i n scope* t h e i r f u n c t i o n s o v e r l a p p e d . L o c a l p l a n n i n g was becoming, from some p o i n t s of view the ' r i g h t ' of the i s l a n d e r s , w h i l e a t the same t i m e , the concern of the e l e c t e d members of government. Out of what might be c a l l e d ' c r e a t i v e c o n f l i c t ' over d i f f e r i n g o b j e c t i v e s a n d d i 1 1 - d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e r e emerged a p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s , i n the form of the r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by the p r o v i n c i a l committee i n September, 1973. The p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n thus e v o l v e d out of the i n t e r a c t i o n s between d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , p l a n n e r s , i s l a n d e r s and the environment. Figurem 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s t a g e of the proc e s s d u r i n g which a g e n e r a l p o l i c y f o r the i s l a n d s developed^ .eva 1 . The next stage i n the proc e s s of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n was to synthsieze an a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework t h a t might be developed to implement p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on the i s l a n d s . T h i s i s the problem o f a c t u a l i z i n g the o b j e c t i v e s c o n t a i n e d i n the p o l i c y . The approach taken was to l e g i t i m i z e to some e x t e n t the i n t e r e s t s of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a c t i v i t y spheres so f a r d e s c r i b e d . Such an approach r e c o g n i z e s the e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s on the i s l a n d s and attempts to extend the spheres of i n f l u e n c e of these p r o c e s s e s by c r e a t i n g a system o f s t r u c t u r e s t o a c h i e v e R E G I O N A L S T A F F P R O V I N C I A L L I N E A G E N C I E S R E G I O N A L & P R O V I N C I A L R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S .POL ICY A D V I S O R Y P L A N N I N G C O M M I S S I O N S I N T E R E S T GROUPS F I G U R E 2 P O L I T I C A L & P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S E S : S T A G E T W O 135 s p e c i f i e d g o a l s . These s t r u c t u r e s or i n s t i t u t i o n s would be g i v e n the mandate to c a r r y out s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s , by the passage of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the i s l a n d s . In t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n the group a c t i v i t i e s or f u n c t i o n s become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d by the f o r m a t i o n of c o u n c i l s or committees endowed w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g out a c t i o n s to a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s under g i v e n p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . A C o u n c i l might be e l e c t e d by i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s to c a r r y out the l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n on the i s l a n d s . T h i s i s a l o g i c a l ex-t e n s i o n of the e x i s t i n g A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Committees. P r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s onthe i s l a n d s would be r e p r e s e n t e d by a 'Trust Com-m i s s i o n ' or s i m i l a r body which would have the power to s e t p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s and to approve p l a n s and bylaws p r e p a r e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l . An i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of the Commission would be to c o - o r d i n a t e among the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments and agenci es. L e g i t i m i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s i s a much more d i f f i c u l t t a s k . In t h i s r e g a r d i t i s thought t h a t Environment Committees c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d on each i s l a n d , e i t h e r through e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s or i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The r o l e of such a committee might be to i n s t i t u t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c -t i o n measures, monitor changes i n the environment and educate r e s i d e n t s and v i s i t o r s on areas of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n . Outputs of such a system would a r i s e out of the j o i n t a reas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s l e g i t i m i z e d i n t e r e s t s . The Commission, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l i s ! a n d S o u n c i 1 s , 1 36 would develop p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the c o n t r o l of development on the i s l a n d s . L o c a l C o u n c i l s w i t h the a d v i c e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups would prepare more s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s f o r such t h i n g s as the p r o t e c t i o n of watershed a r e a s . E n v i r o n -ment Committees would make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to the Commission, and through i t o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s to i n t r o d u c e c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i s i o n s based on " c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l systems and the i s l a n d environment. These groups might a l s o lobby f o r improved l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n s on c o n s e r v a t i o n measures. The r e s u l t i n g o u t p u t s would be dependent upon the a c t i v e par-t i c i p a t i o n of the v a r i o u s group members, the c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r -a c t i o n s of the groups and the l a r g e r community, and the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n i n a u s e f u l form. I m p l i c i t i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement would be a high degree of i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n and between groups. On more s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and programs t o t a l concensus i s not l i k e l y but the committee framework, emphasizing d i a l o g u e , c o u l d t u r n p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i n t o c r e a t i v e d e c i s i o n -making (Friedman, 1973). The c o n c e p t u a l framwork of a s e t of s t r u c t u r e s to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. In a s s e s s i n g the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s i m p l i c i t i n the c o n c e p t u a l framework, the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l normative c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d (Fox and P e t e r s o n , 1973): 1 37 F I G U R E . 3 P R O P O S E D P O L I T I C A L & P L A N N I N G F R A M E W O R K 1 38 1. The i n d i v i d u a 1 s h o u l d have r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o n s e -quences of a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . 2 . The i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d be a b l e t o communi -c a t e h i s p r e f e r e n c e s to t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e t o r making t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n on b e h a l f of soc i e t y . 3 . S i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l cannot hope t o be f u l l y i n fo rmed on a l l i s s u e s , he s h o u l d be a b l e to p e r m i t a group or a n o t h e r i n d i -v i d u a l w i t h whom he i d e n t i f i e s t o communi -c a t e h i s p r e f e r e n c e s . 4 . The i n d i v i d u a l , o r the group w i t h which he i d e n t i f i e s , s h o u l d have the o p p o r t u n i t y to communicate h i s v iews t o o t h e r s in an e f f o r t to s e c u r e a d h e r e n t s t o h i s own p r e f e r e n c e s . 5. A s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s com-pro-p r o rim ises "among i n d i v i d u a l s (or t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) whereby l e s s e r p r e f e r e n c e s a r e f o r e g o n e in o r d e r t o s e c u r e a c c e p t a n c e of g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e s . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o -c e s s e s s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t y p e of t r a d i n g among p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s . 8.2 Suggested S t r u c t u r e of the I s l a n d s T r u s t The development of a c o n c e p t u a l framework suggests a s e t of s t r u c t u r e s or an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement to o p e r a t i o n -a l i z e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i s c a l l e d an I s l a n d s T r u s t . The pri m a r y s t r u c t u r e s recommended f o r the T r u s t a re the I s l a n d s T r u s t Commission and an e l e c t e d C o u n c i l f o r each i s l a n d . A secondary s t r u c t u r e i s the E n v i r o n -ment Committee,ca T o c a T ^ o r g a n i z a t i o n which would" „ work to promote e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s . 139 8.2.1 Commi s s i o n The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I s l a n d s T r u s t Commission i s i n c l u d e d i n the recommendations made by the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s i n i t s r e p o r t to the l e g i s l a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , a l l the s i m i l a r purpose l e g i s l a t i o n a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s i m i l a r commission or board to r e p r e -s e n t p r o v i n c i a l ( s t a t e ) and l o c a l i n t e r e s t s . The Commission i s i n t e n d e d to c o n s o l i d a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers of the government which a r e c u r r e n t l y spread among v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . At the same time the Commission s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f both l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . An eleven-member Commission i s recommended to be composed of t h r e e members to r e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s and e i g h t members to r e p r e s e n t l o c a l i n t e r e s t s . The e i g h t members would be the e i g h t R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s who would assume t h i s f u n c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to s e r v i n g on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e R e g i o n a l Boards. Because an e l e v e n member Commission might be d i f f i c u l t to c a l l t o g e t h e r f r e q u e n t l y i t i s recommended t h a t an E x e c u t i v e Committee be formed to i n c l u d e two p r o v i n c i a l members and t h r e e l o c a l members i n c l u d i n g the chairman of the Commission. The E x e c u t i v e Committee would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s . For example, the Committee c o u l d approve amendments to pla n s and bylaws and a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a n d use c o n t r a c t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i s l a n d . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the i s l a n d f o r which the amendment or a p p l i c a t i o n i s being c o n s i d e r e d s h o u l d s i t as a v o t i n g member of the E x e u c t i v e Committee f o r each case i n v o l v i n g t h a t i s l a n d . 140 The major goals of the Commission as out l ined by these recommendations would be: (1) to ensure that prov inc ia l po l i cy is being followed on the is lands through the exercise of various con t ro l s ; (2) to co-ordinate those programs of other prov inc ia l departments and agencies which e f fec t development on the i s l ands . The primary functions of the Commission would inc lude: 1 . p r e p a r a t i o n • a n d a d o p t i o n of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i s l a n d s . 2 . a p p r o v a l of community p l a n s and b y l a w s . . 3. a p p r o v a l of amendments t o p l a n s and b y -laws and land use c o n t r a c t s ( i . e . a f u n c -t i o n of t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e ) . 4. a l l o c a t i o n of funds t o a s s i s t in t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s and by laws on t h e i s l a n d s and t o c a r r y o u t s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s p roposed by i s l a n d g r o u p s . 5. p r e p a r a t i o n of model s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . 6 . co -o t id i nat i on of t h e p o l i c i e s and programs of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n on the i s l a n d s . 7. c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 8 . c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of the T r u s t . 8.2.2 Island Councils The d i s t r i bu t i on of decision-making powers to those affected by decis ions on the is lands is one of the goals of this author 's proposal . Hence i t is recommended that elected 141 I s land Counc i l s be e s t a b l i s h e d on each i s l a n d . A p o s s i b l e mechanism f o r the c r e a t i o n of these c o u n c i l s would be the d e s i g -nat ion of each i s l a n d a 'deve lop ing community' under S e c t i o n 798 CA of the Mun ic ipa l A c t . Under t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n each i s l a n d would e l e c t a f i v e member Adv isory Counc i l to a s s i s t the Regional D i r e c t o r and to adv ise the Regional Board as does the e x i s t i n g Adv iso ry P lann ing Commission. The l e g i s l a t i o n would g ive the i s l a n d Adv isory Counc i l s a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s : 1. p r e p a r a t i o n of a community p l a n 2 . p r e p a r a t i o n of a z o n i n g bylaw which might i n c l u d e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s 3. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of funds f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s and by laws 4 . c o - o r d i n a t i o n between i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , the R e g i o n a l Board and the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Comm i ss i on 5 . p r e p a r a t i o n and/or s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Commiss ion of p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o j e c t s by e n v i r o n m e n t a l or community g roups on the i s l a n d s . In a d d i t i o n the I s land Counc i l s should be assured access to i n f o r m a t i o n from var ious departments , through the Commission. They should a l s o prov ide i n t p u t to the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i s l a n d s i n g e n e r a l . 8 . 2 . 3 Environment Committees I t i s recommended that the fo rmat ion of Environment Committees be encouraged by the T rust Commission through the p r o v i s i o n of funds f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n . This would 142 serve to l e g i t i m i z e environmental i n t e r e s t s which have up to now, been given l i t t l e formal r e c o g n i t i o n and have s u f f e r e d from lack of funding ( H a s k e l l , 1971) . I t would a l so serve as another avenue of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . An a d d i t i o n a l and extremely important b e n e f i t might be the p r o v i s i o n of some measure of p r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d environment. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of Environment Committees should come about through the l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e of i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s . Such committees might develop as committees of e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s which are a l ready we l l organized on most i s l a n d s , or they might evolve independent l y . The i s l a n d Adv iso ry C o u n c i l s would submit proposals f o r funding of these groups , along wi th 3 t h e i r recommendations to the Commission f o r i t s a p p r o v a l . C r i t e r i a f o r judg ing proposals might i n c l u d e : 1. d e g r e e t o w h i c h p r o p o s a l s u p p o r t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e T r u s t 2. p r o v i s i o n s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h a r e n o t c u r r e n t l y b e i n g m e t 3. o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a I e d u c a t i o n o f 'vj s I a n d r e s i d e n t s a n d v i s i t o r s 4* o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n Examples of acceptab le p r o j e c t s might i n c l u d e a n t i -l i t t e r programs, the es tab l i shment of nature t r a i l s and 3 The procedure f o r funding might be s i m i l a r to that c u r r e n t l y used by the Federal Government i n i t s O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth Program. 1 43 observation areas, and the introduction of public school pro-grams on island ecosystems. An example of a project which is already underway on Denman and Hornby Islands is the protection of island beaches from o i l s p i l l s ; the community group on these islands has purchased peat moss to soak up o i l from the island beaches in emergency situations. The functions of such environmental projects might include: 1 . i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l e o n t r o I s ; 2 . e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g ; c o m m u n i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e i n f r i n g e m e n t s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l laws to t h e p r o p e r a u t h o r i t y ; 3 . e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n ; 4 . i n p u t of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o i n t of v iew t o i s l a n d p l a n s and t o p o l i c y g u i deI i n e s ; 5. recommendat ions t o a p p r o p r i a t e b o d i e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of w i l d l i f e and c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s and E c o l o g i c a l R e s e r v e s on the i s l a n d s ; 6. c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h E n v i r o n m e n t a l Commit tees on ocf/her i s l a n d s . These Environment Committees would be local ly organ-ized with voluntary membership and local ly proposed programs. The only contribution of the Trust Commission would be the pro-vision of funds for such groups to operate. The basic cr i ter ion for establishing funding of these groups would be compliance of their functions with the intent of the Islands Trust leg is -lation and provincial pol icy. 1 44 8.2.4 Procedure Procedures to be f o l l o w e d by the v a r i o u s bodies w i t h i n the T r u s t must be an i m p o r t a n t component of the l e g i s l a -t i o n i f the g o a l s expressed i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r are to be r e a l i z e d . I t i s the a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g must come a t an e a r l y s t a g e i f i t i s to be t r u l y mean-i n g f u l . I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t the Commission p r e p a r e p r o p o s a l s f o r p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i s l a n d s and t h a t t h e s e be adopted o n l y a f t e r t h e r e has been adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , I s l a n d C o u n c i l s and Re g i o n a l Boards to comment and make recommendations. S e v e r a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g s s h o u l d be h e l d on the i s l a n d s to a l l o w any i n d i v i d u a l s or groups to p r e s e n t t h e i r v i e w s . In t h i s r e s p e c t the proposed p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be w e l l p u b l i c i z e d and made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . When the Commission f i n a l l y adopts p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s , i t s h o u l d g i v e reasons f o r any changes and a l t e r a t i o n s which might have been made. The procedure f o r the a d o p t i o n of pla n s and bylaws as w e l l as amendments i s a l s o of extreme i m p o r t a n c e . I t i s recommended t h a t p l a n s , bylaws and amendments be approved by the I s l a n d Counci1 , the Re g i o n a l Board and the T r u s t Commission. A f t e r a p p r o v a l a t these t h r e e l e v e l s the p l a n or bylaw becomes e f f e c t i v e upon the ap p r o v a l o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g be h e l d by the Commission p r i o r to app r o v a l being g r a n t e d and t h a t adequate n o t i c e 145 of such h e a r i n g s be g i v e n and adequate o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t the a p p l i c a n t f o r a bylaw amendment or a l a n d use c o n t r a c t be r e q u i r e d to submit p r o o f t h a t the proposed development conforms to a l i s t of r e q u i r e m e n t s s p e c i f i e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n or r e g u l a t i o n s o f the T r u s t . T h i s 'burden of p r o o f p r o v i s i o n which puts the r e v e r s e onus on the a p p l i c a n t , i s f e l t to be an i m p o r t a n t mechanism to ensure t h a t proper a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to p r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d e n v i ronment. F u r t h e r p r o c e d u r a l recommendations i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s , p l a n s and b y l a w s , and p r o v i s i o n f o r appeals on d e c i s i o n s of the Commission to the Environmentaand Land Use Committee of the P r o v i n c i a l government. Chapter 9 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LEG ISLAT ION FOR THE GULF ISLANDS TRUST 9.1 I n t e n t and Scope of Proposed L e g i s l a t i o n The i n t e n t of the l e g i s l a t i o n i s to implement c o n t r o l s which would o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the p o l i c y of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n on the i s l a n d s . Recommendations f o r l e g i s l a -t i o n have been made w i t h the g o a l s e x p r e s s e d i n Chapter 8 mn mind. The s u g g e s t i o n s f o r G u l f I s l a n d s l e g i s l a t i o n which f o l l o w are exp r e s s e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l . They embody a number of id e a s which are not o r d i n a r i l y e x pressed i n l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n which f o l l o w s the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of being c o n c i s e and to the p o i n t as opposed to American l e g i s l a t i o n which i s more d e s c r i p t i v e . How-ever the suggested p r o v i s i o n s have been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s manner to p r o v i d e a f u l l e r and more e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n of the l e g i s -l a t i v e and r e g u l a t i v e c o n t r o l s which are recommended f o r the i s l a n d s . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the a c t u a l l e g i s l a t i o n would l i k e l y be b r i e f e r and l e s s s p e c i f i c i n some a r e a s . 146 147 I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a number of p r o v i s i o n s con-t a i n e d i n the a u t h o r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , might more r e a l i s t i c a l l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a t i o n s or o p e r a t i n g bylaws of the T r u s t Commission, f o l l o w i n g passage of the l e g i s l a -t i o n by the [ L e g i s l a t u r e . Moreover, the recommendations have not, i n any comprehensive way, i n c o r p o r a t e d the p o l i t i c a l l y -a r r i v e d at v a l u e s , n e c e s s a r y i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of any l e g i s l a -t i o n . The recommendations which f o l l o w t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e one a l t e r n a t i v e which might be c o n s i d e r e d by the l e g i s l a t o r s and the p u b l i c . The f o l l o w i n g recommendations to e s t a b l i s h a G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t i n c l u d e a l l the p r o v i s i o n s recommended by the author as a r e s u l t of her r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t . For c l a r i t y and convenience a l e g i s l a t i v e format has been f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h o u t . 9.2 G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model B i l l Preamble I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t : ( I ) The G u l f I s l a n d s have un ique e c o l o g i c a l , s c e n i c and n a t u r a l v a l u e s . Both t h e i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s and t h e P r o v i n c e have a common i n t e r e s t i n c o n s e r v i n g t h e s e v a l u e s f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . 1 4 8 (2) These v a l u e s a r e c u r r e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d by u n -c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t . (3) E x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s appear t o be i n a d e q u a t e t o deal w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n . ( 4 ) In o r d e r t o i n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n of the i s l a n d s t h e r e i s a need t o c o - o r d i n a t e a c t i o n between p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ( 5 ) Such a c t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out in the i n t e r e s t of theepeppibewoftitrhePPtsoviince w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g s p e c i a l emphas is on p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement of e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . I . I n t e r p r e t a t i on - -" G u l f I s l a n d T r u s t A r e a " o r " G u l f I s l a n d s " means t h e f o l l o w i n g I s l a n d s : S a l t s p r i n g , Nor th P e n d e r , South P e n d e r , Mayne, G a l i a n o , S a t u r n a , K u p e r , T h e t i s , G a b r i o l a , Bowen, G a m b i e r , K e a t s , L a s q u e t i , Denman, Hornby and i n c l u d i n g s m a l l e r i s l a n d s in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s . 2 . P u r p o s e W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t most of t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g r e l a t i n g t o the f u t u r e of t h e i s l a n d s b e l o n g s in the hands of the l o c a l p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s , i t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e powers and funds a v a i l a b l e a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a r e e s s e n t i a l 149 t o c o n t r o l deve lopment of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e lands on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e purpose of t h i s A c t t o p r e s e r v e the i s l a n d s f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s and to i n c l u d e : ( 1 ) c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h o s e a r e a s of the i s l a n d s h a v i n g i m p o r t a n t s c e n i c , , h i s t o r i c , a r c h e o I o g i c a I and e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s ; (2) land use p o l i c y which e m p h a s i z e s moderate r e s i -d e n t i a l u s e ; moderate r e c o r e a t i o n a I use and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e r u r a l a t m o s p h e r e ; . (3) land use p o l i c y which e m p h a s i z e s p e d e s t r i a n and b i c y c l e t r a n s i t on the i s l a n d s r a t h e r than v e h i c l e t r a n s i t ; (4) p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e s h o r e l i n e and t h e e c o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t t h e r e o n ; ( 5 ) m a i n t e n a n c e of h igh wate r q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s in s u r r o u n d i n g w a t e r s ; ( 6 ) g u a r a n t e e of p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e f o r e s h o r e where adequate c o n t r o l s a r e p r o v i d e d ; ( 7 ) p r e s e r v a t i o n of the i n t e g r i t y and v i a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g i s l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . 1 50 3 . T r u s t Commission (The Commission i s ( I ) A commission s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d e s t a b I i shed) t o be known as the "G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Commission" t o c a r r y out d u t i e s i n the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t A r e a , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the Gu l f I s l a n d s . ( 2 ) T h i s commission s h a l l be composed as f o l l o w s : (a) seven members t o r e p r e s e n t the i s l a n d s . These members would be the seven e l e c t e d i s l a n d R egional D i r e c t o r s from the e x i s t i n g Regional D i s t r i c t E l e c t o r a l Areas (Outer G u l f I s l a n d s ; S a l t S p r i n g ; Bowen; G a b r i o l a ; Gambler'and Keats; Kuper and T h e t i s ; L a s q u e t i ; Denman and Hornby). These r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d to the Commission a t the same time as they are e l e c t e d t o the R e g i o n a l Board. 1 51 Comment Each I s l a n d o r group of I s l a n d s would t h e r e f o r e e I e c t one rep-r e s e n t a t i v e . T h i s person would s e r v e a dual purpose as member of both the Regional D i s t r i c t Board and T r u s t Commission. T h i s would r e q u i r e o n l y one e l e c t i o n f o r both p o s i t i o n s ; a c h i e v e co-o r d i n a t i o n between Regional D i s t r i c t programs and p o l i c i e s and those of the Commission; and ensure the i s l a n d e r s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Commission. (CCha i r p e r s o n ) (C.ompensa t i on ) E x e c u t i v e Committee (b) t h r e e members a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l t o r e p r e s e n t broad p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . ,(•3.) The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l s h a l l d e s i g n a t e one member t o c h a i r the Commission. T h i s member would work f u l l time f o r the Comm i ss i on. (4) Members of the Commission s h a l l r e c e i v e a s a l a r y p l u s expenses. ( E s t a b l i s h m e n t of an an E x e c u t i v e Comm. of the Commission) ( I ) A 5 person E x e c u t i v e Committee s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d t o be com-posed of members of the Commission Comment The purpose of t h i s group would be t o f u n c t i o n as the " c o r e " of the commission; i t would handle the main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work load and meet more f r e q u e n t l y on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 1 5 2 (Compos i t i on) (Power of the Execu-t i ve Comm i ss i oh) Comm i s s i o n S t a f f (EmpIoyees) ( P r o f e s s i ona I ) Cons u I t a n t s ) ( 2 ) The E x e c u t i v e Committee sha I I con-s i s t of 3 p r o v i n c i a l members i n -c l u d i n g the c h a i r p e r s o n of the commission, and 2 i s l a n d members. These members would be e l e c t e d by a m a j o r i t y vote of the whole comm i s s i o n . ( 3 ) The E x e c u t i v e Committee s h a l l have the power to a c t for: the commission on c e r t a i n m a t t e r s as s p e c i f i e d under s e c t i o n 6 of t h i s A c t . (1) The commission s h a l I be f r e e t o a p p o i n t an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r and o t h e r employees, i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e and p l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l , as i t f i n d s necessary t o c a r r y out. i t s d u t i e s . (2) The commission sha I I be f r e e t o engage such o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s as they may r e a s o n a b l y req u i re . 1 53 ( 3 ) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I make i t s s t a f f a v a i l a b l e t o t h e I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s t o a s s i s t in t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n s . ( 4 ) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l e s t a b l i s h an o f f i c e and m a i l i n g a d d r e s s . The o f f i c e s h o u l d be where the o r d i n a r y b u s i n e s s of t h e c o m m i s s i o n i s c o n d u c t e d and where p l a n s and r e c o r d s a re k e p t . 6 . By laws and R e s o l u t i o n s ( B y l a w s ) i The c o m m i s s i o n may make such by laws and pass such r e s o l u t i o n s as i t c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e f o r the c o n d u c t of t h e a f f a i r s of t h e c o m m i s s i o n ; and may make by laws and pass r e s o l u t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t i m e and p l a c e of c a l l i n g and h o l d i n g m e e t i n g s , the p r o c e d u r e t o be f o l l o w e d a t t h e m e e t i n g s , and gene ra M y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n d u c t of the a f f a i r s of t h e com-m i s s i o n ; and may r e p e a l , amend, o r r e - e n a c t them. (Ava i I a b I e s t a f f t o I s l a n d Adv i -s o r y Cou nc i I s ) ( O f f i c e and ma i i ng add r e s s ) 1 54 7 . Powers of the Commiss ion (The powers l i s t e d in t h i s s e c t i o n r e f e r t o the whole Com-m i s s i o n u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d . ) (PoI i cy G u i d e -l i n e s ) ( I ) W i t h i n 120 days from the e f f e c t i v e date of t h i s A c t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l s u b m i t t o the M i n i s t e r , t o I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s , e f f e c t e d R e g i o n a l Boards and o t h e r i n t e r -e s t e d groups and i n d i v i d u a l s upon t h e i r r e q u e s t , p roposed p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e purpose of t h i s A c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o such t h i n g s a s : t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and f rom t h e i s l a n d s deve lopment of p a r k l a n d s , p u b l i c open space and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h • p r e s e r v i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t wate r q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r e s h o r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and co nt ro I s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a " f o r e v e r w i l d " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r c e r t a i n un i que.-j:l:a'nds-tot-;be p r o t e c t e d from f u r t h e r deve lopment • 1 55 ( N o t i c e t o Loca A u t h o r i t i e s f o r comment) ( . K-Pub I tcHLlea M ings on P o l i c y Gu i deI i nes ) t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e i s l a n d s f o r f u t u r e growth (a) W i t h i n 60 days of t h e r e c e i p t of such proposed p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s , A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s , R e g i o n a l Boards and i n t e r e s t e d groups and i n d i -v i d u a l s s h a l l s u b m i t t o t h e com-m i s s i o n in w r i t i n g , comments on and s u g g e s t e d changes t o t h e p r o -posed g u i d e l i n e s . (b) W i t h i n 60 days of the s u b m i s s i o n of the p roposed g u i d e l i n e s t o A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s , e t c . , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s s h a l l be h e l d by t h e c o m m i s s i o n on a t l e a s t f i v e of t h e e f f e c t e d i s l a n d s a t which i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a r t i e s s h o u l d have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t s t a t e m e n t s and v iews on t h e p roposed g u i d e l i n e s . N o t i c e of such h e a r i n g s s h o u l d be pub -l i s h e d and p o s t e d a t l e a s t t h r e e weeks i n a d v a n c e . 1 56 ( A d o p t i o n of Gu i deI i nes) ( A p p r o v a l of P l a n s and By Iaws ) ( A p p r o v a l of Amendments t o P l a n s , By laws and Land use C o n t r a c t s ) ( c ) W i t h i n , 30 days f o l l o w i n g the l a s t p u b l i c h e a r i n g t h e com-m i s s i o n s h a l l o f f i c i a l l y adopt a r e v i s e d s e t of p o l i c y g u i d e I i n e s . (2) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l , f o l l o w i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g as s p e c i f i e d under S e c t i o n 9 of t h i s A c t , approve community p l a n s and z o n i n g by laws f o r each of the G u l f I s l a n d s and s h a l l s u b m i t approved community p l a n s and z o n i n g by laws t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l f o r t h e i r f i n a l a p p r o v a l . (3) The E x e c u t i v e Committee of the commiss ion on b e h a l f of the com-m i s s i o n s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p r o v i n g a l l amendments t o com-muni ty p l a n s ; z o n i n g by laws and land use c o n t r a c t s . Where an i s l a n d i s not d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t e d on the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , t h e member f o r t h a t i s l a n d s h a l I be 1 57 c a l l e d t o s i t on the c o m m i t t e e f o r the p u r p o s e s of c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n . (4) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I be empowered t o : (A I l o c a t i o n of Comm i s s i o n Funds) <) (a.) a l l o c a t e funds and/or s t a f f t o a s s i s t in the p r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n s and z o n i n g b y l a w s . (b) a l l o c a t e funds t o s u p p o r t e n -v i r o n m e n t a l p r o j e c t s o r s t u d i e s whose aims a r e t o p r o t e c t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t o f u r t h e r promote t h e p u r -pose of t h i s A c t . (c ) a l l o c a t e funds o r t o r e - d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r funds f o r the deve lopment of l o c a l com-muni ty p r o j e c t s s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l of the I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s p r o v i d e d such p r o j e c t s a r e in k e e p i n g w i t h the i n t e n t of t h e A c t . 1 58 ( 5 ) The c o m m i s s i o n may p r e p a r e model s u b d i v i s i o n • r e g u I a t i o n s f o r t h e i s l a n d s . The A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s may use the model s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s in the p r e p a r a t i o n of z o n i n g b y l a w s . ( 6 ) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l endeavour t o c o - o r d i n a t e the programs of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s on the i s l a n d s so t h a t they comply w i t h t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s A c t . ( A c q u i s i t i o n of Land under t h e Land Commiss ion ) (a) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l make recommendat ions t o t h e Land Commiss ion f o r the a c q u i s i -t i o n of land (g reen b e l t s , c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s , e t c . ) where such lands a r e t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s A c t . ( P a r k P l a n n i n g and C o - o r d i n a t i o n ) (b) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l , in c o -o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Depar tment of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a -t i o n , c o - o r d i n a t e the p l a n n i n g of a sys tem of g reen b e l t s , 159 m a r i n e p r o t e c t o r a t e s and c o n -s e r v a t i o n a r e a s on the G u l f I s l a n d s . Where p a r k s and c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s a r e p l a n n e d , s t r i c t c o n t r o l s on u s e r s s h a l l be e n f o r c e d . Comment: Such a park sys tem s h o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h e x i s t i n g pI ans of t h e P a r k s Branch and a l s o w i t h l o c a l community p l a n s . S i n c e t h e Land Commiss ion a l r e a d y has the power t o a c q u i r e land f o r p a r k s , g r e e n b e l t s and c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s as does the Depar tment of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , a d u p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f u n c t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o be u n n e c e s s a r y . I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e d o n a t i o n of land t o the Crown o r s a l e of . land a t l e s s t h a n market v a l u e s h o u l d be encouraged t h r o u g h t h e use of t a x i n c e n t i v e s and c o n -c e s s i o n s . Such a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be made p u b l i c to a t t r a c t donors and s e l l e r s . ( A p p r o v a l of Crown L e a s e s ) (c ) The E x e c u t i v e Commit tee of t h e eommiss ion on b e h a l f of the c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l make recommendat ions t o the Lands Depar tment f o r t h e a p p r o v a l of a l I Crown l e a s e s on t h e G u l f I s l a n d s i n c l u d i n g f o r e s h o r e and wate r I o f I eases . ( P i t s and Q u a r r i e s ) (d.) The E x e c u t i v e Commit tee of the c o m m i s s i o n , on b e h a l f of t h e c o m m i s s i o n , 160 s h a l l make recommenda-t i o n s t o the Department of Highways re t h e s i t i n g of p i t s and q u a r r i e s o r re a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s of g r a v e l s u p p l i e s f o r the purposes of road works on the i s l a n d s . ( B r i d g e s & Tunnels) (e) Because expanded access t o the i s l a n d s would be c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the pur-poses of t h i s A c t , i t shal I be the pol i c y of the commission t o d i s -courage the c o n s t r u c t i o n of any b r i d g e , causeway, t u n n e l , o r o t h e r d i r e c t v e h i c u l a r access from the mainland to the G u l f I s l a n d s o r between the G u l f I s l a n d s . (Access to Fo r e s h o r e ) ( f ) I t s h a l l be the p o l i c y of the commission t o en-courage p u b l i c a c c e s s t o 161 ( C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Reg i onaI A u t h o r i t i e s ) (7) ( A c c e s s t o P r o v . D e p t . I n fo rmat i o n ) (8) I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s ( D e s i g n a t i o n of G u l f I s l a n d s as D e v e l o p i n g Commun i t i es ( I ) t h e f o r e s h o r e a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o v i s i o n s of the Land R e g i s t r y A c t I 960 c . 2 0 8 s . 8 6 , where adequate c o n t r o l s can be p r o v i d e d . The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l f a c i l i t a t e c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I have a c c e s s t h r o u g h the E n v i r o n m e n t & Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t , t o i n f o r m a t i o n of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e comm i s s i o n . The M i n i s t e r s h a l l d e s i g n a t e each of the G u l f I s l a n d s as a ' d e v e l o p -ing communi ty ' under S e c t i o n 798CA of the M u n i c i p a l A c t . An I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l would then be e l e c t e d f o r each i s l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s e t down i n 1 62 (Powers of A d v i s o r y Cou nc i Is) (Commu n i ty P l a n s ) (Zo n i ng B y l a w s ) ( I n f o r m a t i o n M e e t i n g s ) (Rece i p t & A d m i n i -s t r a t i o n of Funds) S u b s e c t i o n (3) of S e c t i o n 798CA of the M u n i c i p a l A c t . (2) In a d d i t i o n t o t h e powers s e t f o r t h f o r t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s in the M u n i c i p a l A c t t h e G u l f I s l a n d s A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s s h a l l : (a) P r e p a r e a community p l a n as d e f i n e d under S e c t i o n s 695 t o 700 i n c l u s i v e of the M u n i c i p a l A c t , o r r e v i s e t h e e x i s t i n g p l a n f o r each i s l a n d t o comply w i t h the i n t e n t of t h i s A c t and o t h e r A c t s of the P r o v i n c e (b) P r e p a r e a z o n i n g bylaw which may i n c l u d e s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u -l a t i o n s t o implement t h e commun i t y p l a n . (c ) Hold one o r more p u b l i c i n -f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s of p r e p a r i n g the community p l a n and z o n i n g b y l a w . (d) R e c e i v e and a d m i n i s t e r funds f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of p l a n s . 163 ( C o - o r d i nat i ng F u n c t i o n ) ( 3 ) Serve as an a d v i s o r y and c o -o r d i n a t i n g body between i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s , t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the c o m m i s s i o n . ( P r o p o s a l s f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l & Com-muni ty P r o j e c t s ) ( f ) Deve lop and s u b m i t t o the com-m i s s i o n p r o p o s a l s f o r e n v i r o n -mental programs and community p r o j e c t s t h a t confo rm t o t h e i n t e n t of t h i s A c t . ( A c c e s s t o I n f o r m a t i o n ) ( 3 ) I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the c o m m i s s i o n and t h r o u g h i t , v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s . The c o u n c i l s s h a l l a l s o a s s i s t the c o m m i s s i o n and p r o -v i n c i a l s t a f f in o b t a i n i n g i n f o r -mat ion on l o c a l i s l a n d m a t t e r s where needed and s h a l I be r e i m b u r s e d by t h e commiss ion f o r any s t u d i e s o r r e p o r t s so r e q u e s t e d . 164 P r o c e d u r e f o r A p p r o v a l of Community P l a n s and Z o n i n g By laws ( A p p r o v a l by Co unc i I & Reg i ona I Boa rd (I) No community p l a n o r z o n i n g bylaw s h a l l be adopted o r r e p e a l e d e x c e p t a f t e r a h e a r i n g under S e c t i o n 10, S u b s e c t i o n s (2) and (3) of t h i s A c t and e x c e p t upon a m a j o r i t y v o t e of the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l and the Reg iona B o a r d . ( A p p r o v a l by Commiss ion & L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r in Cou nc i I ) (Ex i s t i ng Com-muni ty P l a n s ) (2) A p l a n o r bylaw adopted under S u b -s e c t i o n (I) does not come i n t o f o r c e and e f f e c t u n t i l i t has r e -c e i v e d a p p r o v a l by t h e c o m m i s s i o n under S e c t i o n 6 of t h i s A c t and u n t i l i t has r e c e i v e d t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r in Counc i (3) Where a community p l a n has been approved by the R e g i o n a l Board p r i o r t o the e f f e c t i v e date of t h i s A c t , i t s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d and approved by t h e commiss ion i f i t c o m p l i e s w i t h the g e n e r a l i n t e n t of t h i s A c t . 1 6 5 (By laws & P l a n s t o Conform) ( 4 ) Where in the o p i n i o n of t h e com-m i s s i o n any p l a n s o r by laws s u b -m i t t e d f o r a p p r o v a l under S u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) do not conform t o e i t h e r t h e i n t e n t of t h e A c t or poI i c y g u i d e -l i n e s d e v e l o p e d under S e c t i o n ( 6 ) of t h e A c t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l a d v i s e t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l which adopted the p l a n o r pas'sett t h e z o n i n g bylaw of t h e p a r t i c u l a r s w h e r e i n the p l a n o r z o n i n g bylaw c o n f l i c t s w i t h the i n t e n t of the A c t and/or the e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s ; the commiss ion s h o u l d i n v i t e the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l t o s u b m i t w i t h i n such t i m e as t h e M i n i s t e r s p e c i f i e s , p r o p o s a l s t o r e v i s e the p l a n o r bylaw t o c o n -form w i t h t h e i n t e n t of the A c t . ( R i g h t of Commiss ion t o p r e p a r e p l a n s ) (5) Where no community p l a n i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n o r approved by t h e c o m m i s s i o n w i t h i n one y e a r of e n a c t -ment of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , the M i n i s t e r may d e l e g a t e the p r e p a r a t i o n of a 166 0 . commu.n i.ty p l a n and/or by I aw-.,to t h e comm i s s i o n . P r o c e d u r e f o r Amendments t o Community P l a n s and Z o n i n g By laws  and A p p r o v a l s of Land Use C o n t r a c t s ( A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Amendments t o P l a n s & B y l a w s ) (Not i f i c a t i on of AppI i c a t i on) ( H e a r i n g on Appl i c a t i on) (1) A f t e r f i n a l a d o p t i o n of a community p l a n o r z o n i n g bylaw any depar tment o r agency of t h e P r o v i n c e , any a f f e c t e d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o r any p r o p e r t y owner may a p p l y t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n f o r a change in the p l a n o r z o n i n g b y l a w . (2) W i t h i n 10 days of the r e c e i p t of an appI i c a t i o n f o r an amendment , the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i s s i o n , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e commiss ion f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s S e c t i o n , s h a l l f o r w a r d a copy of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o the a f f e c t e d R e g i o n a l Board and A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l f o r comments and recommendat ions on t h e p roposed amendment. (3) A f t e r 60 days but w i t h i n 120 days of the o r i g i n a l r e c e i p t of the a p p l i c a -t i o n t h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l a d v e r t i s e 167 ( A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Land Use C o n t r a c t ) . ( H e a r i n g on Land Use C o n t r a c t ) ( S t a t u s of Land Use C o n t r a c t ) a p u b l i c h e a r i n g t o be h e l d on the a p p r o p r i a t e i s l a n d , by p o s t i n g n o t i c e of the h e a r i n g on t h a t i s l a n d and by p u b l i s h i n g n o t i c e of the h e a r i n g in the l o c a l newspaper . (4.) Any p r o p e r t y owner may make a p p l i c a -t i o n t o the c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of a r e a s of land w i t h i n a zone as deve lopment a r e a s , and may make app I i c a t i o n to e n t e r i n t o a land use c o n t r a c t t o e s t a b l i s h terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e use and deve lopment of the land as may be m u t u a l l y agreed upon. ( 5 ) A land use c o n t r a c t s h a l I not be e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e c o m m i s s i o n u n t i l i t has h e l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The P r o v i s i o n s of S u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) and ( "3) a p p l y , w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y changes and so f a r as a r e a p p l i c a b l e , t o a h e a r i n g under t h i s s e c t i o n . (6) A land use c o n t r a c t i s deemed t o be a z o n i n g bylaw f o r t h e purpose of t h e C o n t r o l l e d A c c e s s Highways A c t 1 68 197 1 c . 3 8 s . 5 2 ; 1972 c . 3 6 s . 2 8 . (Burden of P r o o f ) (7) Wi th r e s p e c t t o a p p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o amendments t o community p l a n s and/or z o n i n g b y l a w s , o r the use o t land under a land use c o n t r a c t no change o r use s h a l l be approved by the c o m m i s s i o n u n l e s s the a p p l i c a n t has s u b m i t t e d p roo f t h a t : (a) t h e r e i s a need f o r the use p roposed (b) t h e land i s u s e a b l e and a d a p t -a b l e f o r t h e use p roposed (c) the l a n d i s c a p a b l e of s u s t a i n -ing the use p roposed (d) the use w i l l not r e s u l t in u n -due water o r a i r p o l l u t i o n in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the land e l e v a t i o n above sea l e v e l ; t h e n a t u r e of the s o i l s t o a d e q u a t e l y s u p p o r t waste d i s p o s a l ; t h e s l o p e of the land and i t s e f f e c t on e f f l u e n t s . ; t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s f o r t h e d i s p o s a l of e f f l u e n t s ; t h e a p p l i -c a t i o n of- h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s and 169 r e q u i r e m e n t s under t h e PoI Iut ion C o n t r o 1 A c t (19 6 5 ) ; the impac ts of t h e d i s p o s a l of any wastes on the e n v i r o n m e n t and b i o l o g i c a l c o m m u n i t i e s in t h e a r e a . (e) There i s s u f f i c i e n t wate r a v a i l -a b l e f o r t h e r e a s o n a b l y f o r e -s e e a b l e needs of t h e d e v e l o p -ment and w i l l not cause u n r e a -s o n a b l e Burden on any e x i s t i n g wate r supp l i es . ( f ) The deve lopment w i l l not cause u n r e a s o n a b l e c o n g e s t i o n of p e o p l e o r v e h i c l e s which would be c o n -t r a r y t o t h e i n t e n t of t h i s A c t . (g) The deve lopment w i l l not have undue a d v e r s e e f f e c t on t h e s c e n i c o r n a t u r a l beauty of the a r e a . (Ava i Iab i I i t y of I n f o r m a t i o n at H e a r i n g s ) ( 8 ) The burden of p roo f r e q u i r e m e n t s under S u b s e c t i o n (7) s h a l l be made a v a i l a b l e by the c o m m i s s i o n to i n -t e r e s t e d g roups and i n d i v i d u a l s a t 1 70 t h e h e a r i n g and s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t t h a t h e a r i n g . ( D e c i s i o n ) (9) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l i s s u e the d e c i s i o n on a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r amend-ments t o p l a n s and by laws and a p p l i -c a t i o n s f o r land use c o n t r a c t s w i t h i n 30 days of the f i n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g and s h a l l g i v e r e a s o n s f o r i t s d e c i s i o n s . P e r i o d i c Review of P l a n s and P o l i c i e s ( P e r i o d i c R e v i s i o n ) ( I ) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l r e v i e w i t s p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r the i s l a n d s every 5 y e a r s . (2) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l , in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e I s l a n d A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , r e v i e w t h e community p l a n s and z o n i n g by laws f o r each i s l a n d every 5 y e a r s , and the r e v i s e d p l a n s and by laws s h a l I not be adopted e x c e p t a f t e r a h e a r i n g under S e c t i o n 10, S u b s e c t i o n s (2) and (3) of t h i s A c t . 171 I 2 . A p p e a l s ( A p p e a l s on D e c i s i o n s of Commiss ion ) (I.) Any p e r s o n s , government o r a g e n c i e s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y a g g r i e v e d by a d e c i s i o n of the com-m i s s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o : (a.) amendments t o community p l a n s (b) amendments t o z o n i n g by laws (c) a p p l i c a t i o n f o r land use c o n t r a c t s -• ( W r i t t e n S u b -m i s s i o n s ) (2 ) S u b j e c t t o t h e p r o c e d u r e p r e s c r i b e d by t h e r e g u l a t i o n s an a p p e a l under S u b s e c t i o n ' 0 1 ) s h a l l be a h e a r i n g and r e v i e w but the E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Committee may a c c e p t w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s o r any o t h e r form of e v i d e n c e . ( C o s t s of H e a r i n g ) (3) The E n v i r o n m e n t and Land Use Com-m i t t e e may, a f t e r a h e a r i n g , a l l o w the appea l s u b j e c t t o such te rms and c o n d i t i o n s as i t may c o n s i d e r 1 72 a d v i s a b l e , or r e f u s e the a p p e a l ; and in the e v e n t the appea l i s r e f u s e d , may o r d e r t h a t any c o s t s of the h e a r i n g be p a i d by t h e appe I I e n t . ( R a r t y on H e a r i n g ) ( 4 ) The c o m m i s s i o n i s e n t i t l e d t o be a p a r t y on the h e a r i n g of the appea l and may t a k e p a r t in the p r o c e e d i n g s . (Appeal t o C o u r t s ) ( 5 ) A p p e a l s on a q u e s t i o n of law o r e x c e s s of j u r i s d i c t i o n o n l y , may be made to the Supreme C o u r t . I 3. L o c a l Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s (-.Emp I oymeht O p p o r t u n i t i e s ) ( I ) The c o m m i s s i o n , when u n d e r t a k i n g any s t u d i e s o r programs on t h e i s l a n d s h a l l c o n s i d e r wherever p o s s i b l e , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o employ l o c a l i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s f o r the work n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t t h e s e s t u d i e s and prog rams. ( 2 ) The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l examine the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the deve lopment of a c t i v i t i e s on t h e i s l a n d s such as a q u a c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r e , which would p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l o c a l employment . 1 73 ( R e v i e w o f o t h e r Government P r o -g rams t o Comp I y w i t h A c t ) ( 2 ) A l l p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s , a g e n c i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s h a l l r e v i e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , p l a n s and by laws r e l a t i n g t o jands under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s in the G u l f I s l a n d s t o e n s u r e com-p l i a n c e w i t h the i n t e n t of t h i s A c t . I 5 . E x p a n s i o n of G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Area (Add i t i o n of I s Iands t o G u l f I s l a n d T r u s t A rea ) ( I ) The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l may a t the r e q u e s t of a R e g i o n a l B o a r d , t h e c o m m i s s i o n o r t h e M i n i s t e r , by o r d e r , d e s i g n a t e a d d i t i o n a l i s l a n d s o r a r e a s t o be i n c l u d e d in the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Area and t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t w i l l a p p l y m u t a t i s  m u t a n d i s . ( 2 ) The L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r may by, an Order in C o u n c i l o r amendment t o t h i s A c t : (a) c r e a t e a n o t h e r s e p a r a t e T r u s t Commiss ion a r r a n g e m e n t f o r a group of i s l a n d s o t h e r t h a n t h e 1 74 G u l f I s I a n d s s u n d e r the terms of t h i s A c t . Comme n t : I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t because the ve ry p r e c i o u s and un ique c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r i s l a n d g roups in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a such as t h e queen C h a r l o t t e s , may in the near f u t u r e be t h r e a t e n e d by the same k i n d s of p r e s s u r e s now on the G u l f I s l a n d s , t h e government s h o u l d s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r and a l l o w f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g o t h e r " T r u s t s " f o r such a r e a s . (b) d i v i d e t h e G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Commiss ion i n t o more than one T r u s t Commiss ion f o r s p e c i f i c a r e a s , each h a v i n g t h e same powers of the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Commiss ion as s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s A c t . Comment: I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t a t some f u t u r e date t h e c o m m i s s i o n may f i n d i t more c o n v e n i e n t and/or e f f i c i e n t to e x e r c i s e i t s powers under the A c t by d i v i d i n g the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Area i n t o s m a l l e r a r e a s of g roups of i s l a n d s . I 6 . Annua I R e p o r t (Annual R e p o r t ) T ^ s The c o m m i s s i o n s h a l I p r e p a r e and d i s t r i b u t e an annual r e p o r t o u t -l i n i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e n d i -t u r e s f o r t h a t y e a r and s u b m i t t h i s r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r . 1 75 I 7 . A p p r o p r i a t i o n of Funds (Ap p rop r i a t i on ) For the p u r p o s e s of t h i s A c t the M i n i s t e r of F i n a n c e s h a l l , f rom t i m e t o t i m e , as r e q u i r e d by t h e commis -sion pay out from g e n e r a l revenue funds an amount not t o exceed 9 . 3 Content A n a l y s i s of G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l An a n a l y s i s of the c o n t e n t of the G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t model b i l l was c a r r i e d out and the r e s u l t s appear i n Ta b l e 4 . The c o n t e n t o f the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n can be compared to the s i m i l a r purpose l e g i s l a t i o n a n a l y z e d i n t h i s study b y . r e f e r r i n g to T a b l e 3 . A comparison of Tab l e s 3 and 4 demonstrates the emphasis the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n p l a c e s on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T a b l e 4 , . ' 176 A n a l y s i s of Contents o f G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model B i l l G u l f I s l a n d s Element *of L e g i s l a t i o n T r u s t Model B i l l OBJECTIVES FOR LAND USE CONTROL C o n s e r v a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n P r o t e c t i o n of Farmland S h o r e l i n e Management Development C o n t r o l AREA OF CONTROL S t a t e or P r o v i n c e - w i d e S p e c i a l Regions COMMISSION STRUCTURE S i z e Tenure Degree of R e g i o n a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n D i s t r i c t Commissions A d v i s o r y Committees COMMISSION POWERS 11 73 Q/o P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n Land use c o n t r o l s : Land use c o n t r o l s : Land a c q u i s i t i o n by Land a c q u i s i t i o n by z o n i ng permi t s p u r c h a s e , g i f t s e x p r o p r i a t i o n P r e p a r a t i o n of a Master P l a n CO-ORDINATING FUNCTION I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l S e n i o r - l o c a l government c o - o r d i n a t i o n TECHNICAL CAPABILITY H i r i n g of S t a f f Access to Government S t a f f H i r i n g of C o n s u l t a n t s CONTINUED 1 77 Table 4 ( C o n t i n u e d ) Element of L e g i s l a t i o n Hear ngs PUBLIC PARTICIPATION . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f P l a n s to P u b l i c on P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n on A d o p t i o n of P l a n s on Zoning Changes on P l a n R e v i s i o n s on P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s H e a r i ngs Hear i Hear ngs ngs He a r i ngs Burden of Pr o o f on A p p l i c a n t G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t Model B i l l ENFORCEMENT S e n i o r government c o n t r o l L o c a l C o n t r o l APPEAL PROCEDURES P r o v i s i o n f o r P r o v i s i o n f o r P r o v i s i o n f o r of P l a n s A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Appeal J u d i c i a l Appeal P e r i o d i c R e v i s i o n Chapter 10 IMPLICATIONS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A GULF ISLANDS TRUST COMMISSION 10.1 Inadequacy of L o c a l Development C o n t r o l s The major impetus f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e l e v e l c o n t r o l s over l a n d use appears to be the i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to contend w i t h the p r e s s u r e s c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d ( S t r o n g , 1963; Babcock, 1966; H a s k e l l , 1971). U n i n c o r p o r a t e d r u r a l areas o f t e n l a c k t h r e e i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate l a n d use p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n i s the e x i s t e n c e o f a s u i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c -t u r e to make d e c i s i o n s and c a r r y out p o l i c i e s and programs. For the G u l f I s l a n d s the Re g i o n a l Board c u r r e n t l y s e r v e s as the ' s u r r o g a t e ' c o u n c i l f o r u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s . Under s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , such as the 10-acre f r e e z e , and on any q u e s t i o n of appeal from the Regi o n a l Board, the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a c t s as the M a y o r - i n - C o u n c i 1 . The P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and the Re g i o n a l Boards are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l f u n c t i o n s and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of un o r g a n i z e d 1 78 179 t e r r i t o r i e s i s sometimes of low p r i o r i t y . In a d d i t i o n the l o c a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s are u s u a l l y f a r removed p h y s i c a l l y from the i n d i v i d u a l i s l a n d s and communications have been poor p a r t l y as a r e s u l t . The second c o n d i t i o n f o r c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d use i n any area i s the e x i s t e n c e of adequate powers a t the l e v e l of r e g u l a -t i o n . In B r i t i s h Columbia the p r i n c i p l e a u t h o r i t y - d e l e g a t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s the M u n i c i p a l A c t . Under t h i s A c t the m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s are g i v e n the power to r e g u l a t e l a n d use through the enforcement of z o n i n g bylaws and s u b d i v i s i o n and b u i l d i n g regu-l a t i o n s . The A c t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s the procedures by which amendments to pl a n s and bylaws must be a p p l i e d f o r and g r a n t e d . As lo n g as the a p p l i c a n t f o l l o w s the c o r r e c t l e g a l procedure and the C o u n c i l ( o r the R e g i o n a l Board i n the case of the i s l a n d s ) c o n s i d e r s "the promotion of h e a l t h , s a f e t y , convenience and w e l f a r e of the p u b l i c " i n i t s d e c i s i o n , the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a zoning change or development p e r m i t must be approved ( M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C V,'I 960, s. 702). The language of the M u n i c i p a l Act i s s u f f i c i e n t l y vague t h a t i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to prove t h a t a p r o p o s a l i s not i n keeping w i t h the p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e . The problem i s compounded by the d i s c r e p a n c y between the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the d e v e l o p e r ( i n terms of ' e x p e r t ' con-s u l t a n t s ) and the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . T h i s l e a d s us to the t h i r d p o i n t of the ' t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y ' of l o c a l governments. 180 The t h i r d c o n d i t i o n f o r s u c c e s s f u l p u b l i c r e g u l a t i o n o f l a n d i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate r e s o u r c e s . L o c a l m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s and u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s are dependent on revenues from p r o p e r t y t a x e s . In the p a s t , t h e r e has been a g r e a t tendency f o r l o c a l governments to encourage development to i n c r e a s e the t a x base (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). I t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t some governments have begun to r e a l i z e t h a t the hidden c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d development, o f t e n outweigh the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from h i g h e r tax revenues ( E h r l i c h s a n d E h r l i c h , 1970). A B.C. C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r has been r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g : Whatever the rewards to the developers . . . (the Minister) is concerned . . . with the cost-benefit r a t i o to the Province of large-scale developments on the islands. He believes there is no waytthis r a t i o can be a favourable one. The future costs . . . include services such as p o l i c e and f i r e protection, schools, hospitalssewers, road maintenance, parks and - above a l l - increased f e r r i e s . ( T y h u r s t , 1972) With the e x i s t i n g tax revenues on the i s l a n d s t h e r e are not enough funds a v a i l a b l e f o r comprehensive r e s o u r c e i n v e n -t o r i e s and p l a n n i n g programs. There are a l s o i nadequate funds and t e c h n i c a l s t a f f a v a i l a b l e to s u p p l y the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n the event of p r o p o s a l s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e development on the i s l a n d s . In c o n c l u s i o n , the c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which r e g u l a t e s l a n d use on the i s l a n d s appears to p r e c l u d e a 1 8 1 s a t i s f a c t o r y system of development c o n t r o l based on the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . T h i s i s due to t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1. The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p rocess , in the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e i s c o m p r i s e d l a r g e l y of a number of d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and l e v e l s of government making i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t c o - o r d i n a t i o n and w i t h d i s r e g a r d , in some c a s e s , f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e of a c c o u n t a b i I i t y . 2 . The l a c k of power of l o c a l governments in g e n e r a l , and u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s in p a r t i c u l a r t o make l e g i s l a t i o n f o r land use beyond t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , more l i m i t e d mechanisms of z o n i n g by laws and s u b d i v i s i o n reg uI a t i o n . 3 . The l i m i t e d t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of l o c a l governments which a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o a revenue s o u r c e based on p r o p e r t y t a x e s . The proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e : c a p a b l e of c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments and l e v e l s o f government; w i t h the r e q u i s i t e powers s p e c i f i e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n to implement p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y ; and w i t h an adequate t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y and r e s o u r c e s drawn from the p r o v i n c i a l t a x base. T a b l e 5 summarizes the p e r c e i v e d advantages of the proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t over the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of seven R e g i o n a l Boards i n the G u l f I s l a n d s study a r e a . Table 5 Comparison of F e a t u r e s of the Proposed G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t to E x i s t i n g Regional Boards I n s t i t u t i o n a l F e a t u r e s G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t (proposed) Regional Boards ( e x i s t i n g ) Scope/obj e c t i ves s p e c i a l i z e d ; f o c u s e d on development c o n t r o l g e n e r a l i z e d ; p r o v i s i o n of a number of s e r v i c e s Powers s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n l i m i t e d to d e l e g a t e d powers o u t -l i n e d i n M u n i c i p a l A c t F i n a n c i a l Resources drawn from g e n e r a l revenue funds based on p r o v i n c i a l tax base l i m i t e d to a p o r t i o n of the prop-e r t y taxes of a s p e c i f i c e l e c -t o r a l a r e a s ; p r o p e r t y t a x e s are r e g r e s s i v e i n nature T e c h n i c a l C a p a b i l i t y Commission s t a f f ; P r o v i n c i a l s t a f f ; c o n s u l t a n t s Regional s t a f f ; T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee ( c a p a b i l i t y v a r i e s w i t h R.D.); P r o v i n c i a l S t a f f C o - o r d i n a t i ng F u n c t i o n Commission p l a y s c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e between p r o v i n c i a l departments p r o v i n c i a l departments have no s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n to heed r e g i o n ' s i n t e r e s t s R e p r e s e n t a t i o n l o c a l ; r e g i o n a l ; p r o v i n c i a l 1ocal ; r e g i o n a l CONTINUED CO ro Tab! e 5 ( C o n t i nuecl) lEhstditut-iional F e a t u r e s G u l f I s l a n d s T r u s t (proposed) Regional Boards ( e x i s t i n g ) L e v e l o f P l a n n i n g i s l a n d s may be added to or d e l e t e d from T r u s t d i f f i c u l t to expand any c o - r o d i n a -tionv.with 7 or more R.D.'s I n t e r - I s ! a n d Communication s u b s t a n t i a l negl i gdibl e Organi z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r tendency to be more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d and i n n o v a t i v e lower l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n i n regards to p l a n n i n g on the i s l a n d s 184 10.2 Trend to I n c r e a s e d P r o v i n c i a l / S t a t e R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  i n L o c a l A f f a i r s T h i s study has documented i n some d e t a i l , s e v e r a l examples of s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n to p r o v i d e l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s which had f o r m a l l y been the j u r i s d i c t i o n of l o c a l governments. There are c o u n t l e s s o t h e r examples. The S t a t e s of Maine, F l o r i d a , Washington and Oregon have each adopted a s t a t e w i d e r e g u l a t o r y system i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s . Other s t a t e s have enacted l a n d use c o n t r o l s f o r " c r i t i c a l a r e a s " or areas of " s t a t e w i d e s i g n i f i c a n c e . " These i n c l u d e , among o t h e r s , Washington, W i s c o n s i n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Delaware and C a l i f o r n i a (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). Canada's P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s have a l s o responded to the need f o r i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l over l a n d use. The two n o t a b l e examples are the Land Commission A c t (R. S . B . C , 1973) of B r i t i s h Columbia to p r e s e r v e f a r m l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e and the P l a n n i n g and Development A c t (1973) of O n t a r i o . 10.3 Trend to S p e c i a l Purpose Bodies Many of the i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the S t a t e and P r o v i n c i a l governments have been d e l e g a t e d to s p e c i a l purpose bodies ( C r a w f o r d , 1954). The s p e c i a l bodies and commissions c r e a t e d by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n are e n t r u s t e d w i t h implement-i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . The f u n c t i o n s and powers of the com-m i s s i o n are g e n e r a l l y s p e l t out i n the l e g i s l a t i o n and an e l e c t e d 185 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p e o p l e , u s u a l l y a M i n i s t e r , i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the A c t . G i v i n g a member of the l e g i s l a t u r e u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l over the commission makes the d e c i s i o n s of the commission a c c o u n t a b l e to the p u b l i c . A number of o b s e r v e r s such as Rogers, C o r r y and Fi n k l e m a n , have noted the t r e n d towards d e l e g a t i o n of powers to boards and commissions p a r t i a l l y independent of the e l e c t e d govern-ment body having c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n (Lane, 1970). A number of reasons have been advanced to j u s t i f y t h i s t r e n d ; some of these are summarized as f o l l o w s : With t h e e x p a n s i o n of government a c t i v i t i e s , p a r l i a m e n t i s f a c e d w i t h a l i m i t a t i o n of t i m e . It a p p e a r s more i m p o r t a n t t h a t p a r l i a m e n t has t h e t i m e to devo te i t s e l f to the l e g i s l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e more d e -t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . 2 . The s u b j e c t of leg i n c r e a s i ngIy t e c h n more d i f f i c u l t t o b i l l s . i sI a t i on i s beom i ng i caI and the r e f o r e i n c o r p o r a t e i nto 3 . More t e c h n i c a l p rob lems appear t o r e q u i r e g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y which i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o b i l l s . In a d d i t i o n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r unknown c o n -t i n g e n c i e s . 4 . A s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n can be more f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 5 . D e l e g a t e d b o d i e s can be more e x p e r i m e n t a l in n a t u r e and can p r o f i t f rom e x p e r i e n c e . 186 6. D e l e g a t e d b o d i e s can respond more q u i c k l y t o a sudden n e e d . (Committee on M i n i s t e r s ' Powers, 1932 i n Lane, 1970) The s e l e c t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e agency to e x e r c i s e the p r o v i n c e / s t a t e r o l e i n land use r e g u l a t i o n appears to vary w i d e l y . Bosselman and C a l l i e s (1971) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e a l t e r -n a t i v e s i n the s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r r e c e n t s t u d y : 1. l i n e a g e n c i e s of s t a t e government 2. i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e c o m m i s s i o n s . 3. s t a t e - c r e a t e d r e g i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s S i n c e much of the r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i o n has d e a l t w i t h s t a t e - w i d e r e g u l a t i o n s , the f o r m a t i o n of an independent com-m i s s i o n appears to be a common approach. The B.C. Land Commission, the Vermont Envi r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Board and the Hawaiian Land Commission are examples of t h i s approach. The advantages of t h i s type of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement l i e i n the g r e a t e r o b j e c t i v i t y of a s p e c i a l body which i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i n -dependent of o t h e r government departments. In a d d i t i o n the tendency f o r more i n n o v a t i v e , l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to problems are o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of new o r g a n i z a t i o n s (Gawthrop, 1969). The c r e a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l commission i s a p p r o p r i a t e where an area of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r p r o t e c -t i o n . Examples i n c l u d e the Nia g a r a Escarpment A c t , the San 187 F r a n c i s c o Bay Area C o n s e r v a t i o n D i s t r i c t and the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l . Independent r e g i o n a l commissions e s t a b l i s h e d by l e g i s l a t i o n tend to have the same advantages as s t a t e or p r o v i n c e - w i d e commissions. However the appointment of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a pro-development b i a s , e s p e c i a l l y where l o c a l p r o p e r t y taxes are the o n l y source of revenue and s u b s i d y by the s t a t e or p r o v i n c i a l governments i s not i n v o l v e d (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971 ). The c r e a t i o n of a l i n e agency of the s t a t e or p r o -v i n c i a l government has been commonly used where the r e g u l a t i o n s focus on a s i n g l e purpose. These i n c l u d e the M a s s a c h u s e t t s Wetlands A c t and the Washington S h o r e ! i h e Management Program. Other s t a t e s have u t i l i z e d t h i s approach to a c h i e v e more com-p r e h e n s i v e o b j e c t i v e s , f o r example Minnesota's newly c r e a t e d Department of N a t u r a l Resources and New J e r s e y ' s Department of En v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n ( F u l l e r , 1971). Where the a u t h o r i t y to c o n t r o l l a n d use a t a p r o v i n c e or s t a t e - w i d e l e v e l i s g i v e n to an e x i s t i n g department or agency t h e r e i s the c r i t i c i s m t h a t these departments are too b i a s e d towards t h i e r r o w n programs to do a f a i r j o b on a new program of wide scope (Bosselman and C a l l i e s , 1971). T h i s t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e a u t h o r i t y i s a t t r i b u t e d o n l y p a r t l y to the s t r u c t u r a l problems of l o c a l governments. I t i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y a r e s u l t of changing 188 c o n d i t i o n s which have c r e a t e d a need f o r l o n g e r - t e r m p l a n n i n g and i n c r e a s e d r e g i o n a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n . The growing l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y of urban and r e g i o n a l systems have made h i g h e r o r d e r r e g u l a t i o n s more n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e i n some c a s e s . 10.4 The R i g h t to P a r t i c i p a t e The r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n two ways. The f i r s t i s through the e l e c t i o n of a body of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s by the community a t l a r g e to make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g l o c a l a f f a i r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy i s thus d e f i n e d as the t a k i n g of d e c i s i o n s "by a body of r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s e l e c t e d by the p o p u l a t i o n , and moreover, t h a t the r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e body s h o u l d c o n t r o l the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s by the e x e c u t i v e " (Leemans, 1970). The second r o u t e to democracy i s through c i t i z e n par-t i c i p a t i o n which has been d e f i n e d as " p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the governed i n t h e i r government" ( A r n s t e i n , 1969). S e v e r a l forms of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy, r a n g i n g from token c o n s u l t a t i o n to c i t i z e n c o n t r o l have become i n c r e a s i n g l y common over the l a s t few y e a r s . While t h e r e has been a t r e n d towards i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l / s t a t e a c t i v i t y i n l o c a l a f f a i r s t h e r e has a l s o been a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g t r e n d to i n c r e a s e the r i g h t of i n d i v i d u a l s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the proc e s s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The c r i t i c i a l i m p e r a t i v e then i s to f i n d the c o r r e c t b a l a n c e i n the d i s t r i b u -t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers. 189 T h i s q u e s t i o n of an a c c e p t a b l e b a l a n c e of powers i s one t h a t has been f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d d u r i n g the d r a f t i n g o f l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s . Senator Kennedy, i n h i s speech to the Senate on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the b i l l , spoke of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the one hand, and the l a c k of powers and r e s o u r c e s a t the l o c a l l e v e l on the o t h e r . The S t a t e of Washi ngton ' s'"Shore! i ne Management program has r e c o g n i z e d the importance of i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s d i r e c t l y i n the e a r l y stages of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The A c t charges the s t a t e and l o c a l governments w i t h the r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y of i n f o r m i n g people about the program and a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l p e r s o n s , groups and p r i v a t e e n t i t i e s , which have an i n t e r e s t i n s h o r e l i n e management (Washington, 1972). C o n s i d e r i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s of o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i t appears l i k e l y t h a t any l e g i s l a t i o n and subsequent r e g u l a -t i o n s w i l l have a g r e a t e r chance of a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e of c o n t r o l l i n g development on the i s l a n d s , i f they have the su p p o r t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l o c a l people and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The matter of the bal a n c e of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers between l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups was con-s i d e r e d to be the key f a c t o r i n the d e s i g n of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s . The c r e a t i o n of a T r u s t Commission by l e g i s l a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d to be a d e s i r a b l e means to a c h i e v e t h i s end. A number of p r o v i s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n 1 90 the recommendations f o r l e g i s l a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to a c h i e v e a r e a l i s t i c b a l a n c e of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers which would r e s u l t i n b e n e f i t s to both the i s l a n d r e s i d e n t s and the people of the P r o v i n c e . For example: 1. The l e g i s l a t i o n would e s t a b l i s h broad p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r t h e i s l a n d s . 2 . The C o m m i s s i o n , which r e p r e s e n t s l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s , would f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . G u i d e l i n e s would not be adopted u n t i l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s u l t a t i o n was had w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , g roups and i n d i v i d u a l s . The p r e p a r a t i o n of community p l a n s and z o n i n g by laws would be c a r r i e d out by l o c a l l y e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s on each i s l a n d . F u r t h e r avenues f o r p a r t i c i p a t ion -wouId be p r o v i d e d by t h e f u n d i n g of E n v i r o n m e n t Commit tees by t h e Commiss ion t o c a r r y o u t f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p r o t e c t i n g t h e env i ronment . To r e i t e r a t e , i t i s f e l t to be mandatory t h a t p a r t i c i -p a t i o n be p r o v i d e d f o r and encouraged throughout the e n t i r e p r o c e s s of p l a n n i n g f o r the i s l a n d s . B o l l e (1973) has d e f i n e d ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s meaning: P a r t i c i p a t i o n must mean f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n or else i t is no p a r t i c i p a t i o n in r e a l i t y . The word p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not lend i t s e l f very well to degrees. P a r t i c i p a t i o n implies action by those involved, not necessarily equal action but action and i n t e r a c t i o n of some kind by both and each. . . .The decision process3 which is fundamental to policy and program formulation, consists of several steps: problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , goal determination, 191 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and analysis- of a l t e r n a t i v e s , decision, action, feedback, and re-analysis etc. The emphasis is on process. . .If there is p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a l l i t must be within a l l the process i t s e l f - a l l as.pects of the process or none. The recommendations f o r G u l f I s l a n d s l e g i s l a t i o n are i n t e n d e d to i n c o r p o r a t e the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and m o n i t o r i n g phases of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . L e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s however are not enough; i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the p u b l i c to keep c o n s t a n t watch over the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 10.5 C o n c l u d i n g Comments The days of l a i s s e z - f a i r e are l o n g p a s t and a l l l e v e l s of government are paying i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n to the a l l o c a t i v e e f f e c t s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t y ' s r e s o u r c e s . T h i s i n -c r e a s e d s o c i a l emphasis has been noted by numerous w r i t e r s . Dawson (1963) notes t h i s "growing c o n v i c t i o n — common thr o u g h -out the w o r l d —- t h a t governments sh o u l d a c t i v e l y i n t e r v e n e to promote s o c i a l and economic w e l f a r e . " The e f f e c t s of t h i s t r e n d i n Canada have been to i n c r e a s e p r o v i n c i a l power s i n c e items p e r t a i n i n g to s o c i a l good f a l l w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a c c o r d i n g to S e c t i o n 92 of the B r i t i s h North America Ac t ( R . S . C , 1867). Areas of i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n c e r n , such as e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and l a n d use, have been l e g i s l a t e d 1 92 on by the P r o v i n c i a l governments. The proposed l e g i s l a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h an I s l a n d s T r u s t to a d m i n i s t e r p l a n n i n g f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s i s thus a good example of the t r e n d i n t h i s l a t t e r a r e a . The p r o v i n c e i s b e t t e r s u i t e d to deal w i t h s p e c i a l s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems such as t h i s , because of the r e g i o n a l n a t u r e of the area and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of g r e a t e r r e s o u r c e s to the p r o v i n c e due to our p r e s e n t system of t a x a t i o n . S o c i e t y has p l a c e d a high v a l u e on the i s l a n d s because of t h e i r unique n a t u r a l and s c e n i c environments and t h i s v a l u e j u s t i f i e s a ' s u b s i d y ' on the p a r t of the P r o v i n c i a l government to p r e s e r v e the i s l a n d s f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The d e l e g a t i o n of power to a commission may be c i t e d as a narrowing of the r u l e of law. Dawson (1963) notes " t h i s has tended to remove the a c t s of the o f f i c i a l s from j u d i c i a l s c r u t i n y . " To d i s c o u r a g e the abuse of d i s c r e t i o n a r y power i t i s t h e r e f o r e e x t r e m e l y n e c e s s a r y to b u i l d s a f e g u a r d s i n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n which c r e a t e s these s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e b o d i e s . The ' r i g h t of a p p e a l ' i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t i n such l e g i s l a -t i o n to p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . The - 1 r i g h t • to be h e a r d 1 i s another i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e and s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r by s t a t u t e . With these p r o c e d u r a l s a f e g u a r d s made e x p l i c i t i n l e g i s l a t i o n i t appears t h a t the advantages wrought by the work of such commissions can f a r outweigh the d i s a d v a n t a g e s . I t i s hoped t h a t by the r e c o g n i t i o n of the r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , 193 by the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of o b j e c t s , powers and f u n c t i o n s by s t a t u t e and by the d e l e g a t i o n o f power to a knowledgable and t r u s t w o r t h y body, the I s l a n d s T r u s t can p r o g r e s s towards the o b j e c t i v e of c o n t r o l l e d development and c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r the G u l f I s l a n d s of B r i t i s h Columbia. A law is only as e f f e c t i v e as public consciousness allows i t to be and a s u f f i c i e n t number of [concerned people i n s i s t s that it-'-be-. (Burhenne and I r w i n , 1973) B I B L I O G R A P H Y NEWSPAPER ARTICLES The Province, October 31, 1969; November 10, 1971; March 1, 1973; May 10, 1973; December 6, 1973; December 8, 1973. The Vancouver Sun, October 29, 1969; December 7, 19, 1971; May 15, 1972; August 18, 1972; March 27, 1973; June 30, 1973; August 29, 1972; December 4, 5, 6 & 7, 1973 V i c t o r i a Daily Times, January 6, 1970. Vineyard Gazette (Martha's V i n e y a r d , Mass.), December 21, 1973. LEGISLATION B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s , Environment and Land Use Act, R.S.B.C. 1971, c. 17; Land Commission Act, R.S.B.C. 1973, C. 46; Land Registry Act, R.S.B.C. 1 960, c. 208; Local Services Act, R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 224; Municipal Act, R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 225; P o l l u t i o n Control Act, R.S.B.C. 1967, c. 34. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t u t e s , Coastal Zone Conservation Act of 1972, s. 27000, 1972. Denmark, Urban and Rural Zones. Apt, .1 972 . F l o r i d a S t a t u t e s , Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972, F l o r i d a S t a t . Ann. c. 370 to 380, 1972. 1 94 195 Great B r i t a i n , Town and Country Planning Act, 10 & 11 E l i z . 2, c. 38,1962; National Trust Acts, 1907 to 1953. Hawaii S t a t u t e s , Land Use Law of 1961, Hawaii Rev. S t a t . c. 205 (1968) as amended (supp. 1969, 1970). Maine S t a t u t e s , Site Location of Development Act, 1970, r e v . 1971 , c. 571 , s. 2. O n t a r i o S t a t u t e s , Niagara Escarpment Planning and Development Act ( B i l l 1 29), 1973; Ontario Planning and Development Act ( B i l l 1 28), 1973. Oregon S t a t u t e s , Land Use Act ( B i l l 1 0 0 ), 1973. S w i t z e r l a n d , L'Assembled Fe"de"rale, Loi Federale sur la Protection de la Nature et du Paysage, 1966. U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate 92nd Congress, National Islands Conservation and Recreation Bill, s. 3164, February 14, 1972; Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Bill, s. 3485, A p r i l 11, 1972; Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Amendment, Amendment No. 1372, J u l y 27, 1972. U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e, 93rd Congress, Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Bill, s. 1929, May 31, 1973. Vermont S t a t u t e s , Act No. 250, Vermont Laws, 1 970, Tenth Vermont S t a t . Ann. c. 151. Washington S t a t u t e s , State Environmental Policy Act of 1971, Chapter 4 3 - 21c RCW; Shoreline Management Act of 1971, Chapter 90«58 RCW amended 1973; Open Space Taxation Act, Chapter 212 Laws of 1973, RCW 84-34. Washington B i l l s , House B i l l 791 (Land Use P l a n n i n g ) , 1973; Senate Bill '3369 (Land Use P l a n n i n g ) , 1 974. 1 96 BOOKS AND PERIODICALS A r c h i t e c t u r e , School o f , Background Study: Mayne Island, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, September, 1 973. A r n s t e i n , S h e r r y «,R., "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, J u l y , 1969. Babcock, R i c h a r d , The Zoning Game, Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wi sconsinPPress,1H966 . Bagne, Conrad N., "How to w r i t e a down-to-earth l a n d - u s e b i l l , " Planning ASPO Magazine, September, 1973. Bangs, Frank, "Questions & Comments on s. 3485, the Nantucket -r. Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t B i l l , " memo to E a r l F i n k l e r , September 25, 1972. B e a t t y , John F., Munson, G a l e , "The I s l a n d s of Nantucket Sound: S t r a t e g i e s f o r ' F r a g i l e O u t p o s t s , ' " u n p u b l i s h e d paper, Harvard Law S c h o o l , May 3, 1972. Becker T., P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ofComox-S t r a t h c o n a , correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , December 5, 1973. B o l l e , A r n o l d W., " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and En v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y , " i n U t t o n , A.E. and Henning, D.H. ( e d s . ) , Environmental Policy: Concepts and International Implications, New York, Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. Bosselman, Fred and C a l l i e s , D a v i d , The Quiet Revolution in Land Use Control, prepared f o r the U.S. C o u n c i l on Env i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y , Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1971. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , A Gulf Islands Patchwork, P e n i n s u l a P r i n t i n g Co., 1961. 197 Bureau of N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s I n c . , Environmental Reporter, Vermont Land Use Law, V o l . 4(7.), June 1 5, 1 973; Oregon Land Use Law, V o l . 4 ( 9 ) , June 29, 1973. Bureau of Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Islands of America, Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1970. Burhenne, W.E. and I r w i n , W.A., "The C o o r d i n a t i o n of L e g i s l a t i v e P o l i c y and the R e g u l a t i o n of P r i v a t e I n t e r e s t s : Some Suggested Pr a g m a t i c P r i n c i p l e s f o r Envi r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y , " i n U t t o n , A.E. and Henning, D.H. ( e d s . ) , Environmental Policy: Concepts and International Implications, New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1 973 . i C a l d o , D.K., An Analysis of Conservation Easements as a Means of Preserving Open Space, M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C, Vancouver, May 1969. C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Department, " G u l f I s l a n d s O p t i o n s , " V i c t o r i a , 1971. , "Summary of G u l f I s l a n d s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Received to A p r i l 15, 1972," V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 1972. C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Bylaw No. 66 ( S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d ) , October 1971; Bylaw No. 103 (Outer G u l f . I s l a n d s ) , June 1972; Community P l a n S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d , October 1972; O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , South Pender I s l a n d ? . . January 1974; O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , G a l i a n o P l a n n i n g A r e a , January 1974; Re g i o n a l P l a n f o r S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d and Outer G u l f I s l a n d s , November, 1 972. C a r r , C.T., "Safeguards i n Delegated L e g i s 1 a t i on 'J " (1 94--T-) i n Lane, W.T. (ed.) , Selected Readings in Law for Local Public Administrators, School of Community and Regi o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C. , Vancouver, 1 970. Catanese, A.J.,."An E v a l u a t i o n of S t a t e P l a n n i n g , " Planning ASPO Magazine, V o l . 3 8 ( 7 ) , August 1972. 1 98 Chambers, A l l a n , Simulation of a Cottage Lot Subdivision - A Synthesis of Social, Environmental and Economic Concerns, Ph.D. T h e s i s , Department of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver 1971. Chang, S.B.K., The Land Use Law Revisited: Land Uses Other than Urban, L e g i s l a t i v e Reference Bureau, U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii , December 1970. C o l l i e r , Robert W., "The E v o l u t i o n of R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia," B.C. Studies ( 1 5 ) , Autumn,1972. Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e , "Report to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia," September 24, 1974. Community & Re g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , School o f , The Sunshine Coast Region: Planning for the Future, U.B.C., Vancouver, A p r i l , 1 973 . Comox-Strathcona R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Department, Hornby Island Planning Study, C o u r t e n a y , 1971. : , Denman Island Planning Study, C o u r t e n a y , 1971. —: : , Quadra Island Planning Study, Courtenay , 1971. Comox-Strathcona R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Bylaw No. 89, "Denman I s l a n d Zoning Bylaw," August 1972; Bylaw No. 90, "Denman I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l Bylaw," August 1972; "Hornby I s l a n d Zoning Bylaw, 1972"; "Hornby I s l a n d S u b d i v i s i o n C o n t r o l Bylaw, 1972." C o r r i g a l , M., The History of Hornby Island, Comox: Comox D i s t r i c t Free P r e s s , 1969. Cowichan V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , "Submission to the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Board R e p o r t , " undated (December 1 973) . 199 C r a w f o r d , K.G., " M u n i c i p a l Governments" (1954) i n Lane, W.T. ( e d . ) , SeZeceted Readings in Law for Local Public Administrators, School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1 970. Dawson, R.M., "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Powers" (1963) i n Lane, W.T. ( e d . ) , Selected Readings in Law for Local Public Administrators, School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1 970. Eckbo, Dean, A u s t i n & W i l l i a m s , State of Hawaii Land Use D i s t r i c t s and Regulations Review, r e p o r t to the Land Use Commission, August 1969. E h r l i c h , D.R. and E h r l i c h , A . H . , Population, Resources, Environment, San F r a n c i s c o : Freeman and Co., 1970. F a r l e y , L.A., " I n t r o d u c t i o n to G e n e r a l i z e d Land Use Map, S t r a i t of G e o r g i a , Puget Sound," Department of Energy, Mines & Re s o u r c e s , Ottawa, 1973. F i n k l e r , E a r l , "Cahia T r u s t Turn the T i d e on the I s l a n d s ? " Planning ASPO Magazine, V o l . 3 8 ( 1 0 ) , November 1972. F i t t i n g h o f f , A l e x D., "A D i s c u s s i o n Paper on Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t L e g i s l a t i o n , " p r i n t e d i n C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, December 10, 1973. F i t z p a t r i c k , G.W., Manager, P o l i c y S e c t i o n , M i n i s t r y of T r e a s u r y , Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , O n t a r i o Government, correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , February 4, 1974. Fox, I r v i n g K. , Water Resources P o l i c y in Wisconsin: A Summary Assessment, V o l . 1, T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t , Water Resources C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1971. -, "Environment, Economics and I n s t i t u t i o n s , " Journal of Environmental Education, V o l . 4(1) Fal1 , 1972 Fox, I r i n g , P e t e r s o n , Ken, "Notes on Democratic Theory," un-p u b l i s h e d paper, Westwater Research C e n t r e , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1973. 200 F r a n s o n , R.T., " L e g i s l a t i o n to E s t a b l i s h E c o l o g i c a l Reserves f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of N a t u r a l A r e a s , " Osgoode Hall Law Journal, V o l . 1 0 ( 3 ) , December 1972. Friedman, John, Retraoking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning, Garden C i t y : Anchor P r e s s , 197:3. F u l l e r , James C , " C o a s t a l Land Use Development: A P r o p o s a l f o r C u m u l a t i v e Area Wide Z o n i n g , " North Carolina Law Review, V o l . 49 , 1 970-71. Gawthrop, L o u i s C , Bureaucratic Behavior in the Executive Branch, An Analysis of Organizational Change, New York: The Free P r e s s , 1969. G e r t l ; e r , L.O., N i a g a r a Escarpment Study Group, Niagara Escarpment Study, Conservation and Recreation Report, O n t a r i o Government: T r e a s u r y Department, Finance & Economics, June 1968. G i f f o r d , K. Dun, c o n s u l t a n t to Senator Kennedy on the Nantucket Sound I s l a n d s T r u s t Bi11 , correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , October 30, 1973. G i l b e r t , J.W., D i r e c t o r o f the N i a g a r a Escarpment Commission, correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , F ebruary 14, 1974. G l o v e r , J.M. and Chataway, P . J . , "Bowen: I s l a n d Park or I s l a n d Suburb?," Vancouver Sun, J u l y 21, 1973. G l o v e r , J . , Chataway, P., S m i t h , R., Rapanos, M., "Bowen I s l a n d Study: P o l i c y and Program Recommendations," b r i e f s u b m i t t e d to the Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , J u l y 23, 1973. , "Background Study of Bowen I s l a n d , " September, 1973. H a m i l t o n , Bea, Saltspring Island, Vancouver: V M i t c h e l l , 1969. H a s k e l l , E.H., Managing the Environment: Nine States Look for New Answers, Washington, D.C: Woodrow-Wi1 son I n t e r n a t i o n a l Centre f o r S c h o l a r s , A p r i l , 1971. 201 H a s k e l l , E.H., "New D i r e c t i o n s i n S t a t e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g , " Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners3 V o l . 37, J u l y 1971 . H a s k e l l , E.H., P r i c e , U.S., State Environmental Management, Case Studies of Nine States, New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. H a w a i i , S t a t e o f , General Plan Revision Program, 1967 ( s i x volumes). Hayes, L., S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r , Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , c orrespondence w i t h the a u t h o r , December 3, 1973. H i t e , J.C., J.M. Stepp ( e d . ) , Coastal Zone Resource Management, New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Hoemberg, P., P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , Sunshine Coast R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , February 13, 1974. H a i l i n g , C.S., "G.I.R.L.S.: G u l f I s l a n d s R e c r e a t i o n a l Land S i m u l a t i o n , " Background Paper f o r Resource S i m u l a t i o n Games, Resource S c i e n c e C e n t r e , U.B.C, Vancouver, March, 1971. Holmes, Madelyn, " S l i c e s of Danish Land," Geographical Magazine, V o l . X LV(11), August 1973. Howard I r e n e , Bowen Island 1872-1972, Bowen I s l a n d H i s t o r i a n s , Bowen I s l a n d , 1973. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Independence I n s t i t u t e , The Community Land Trust: A Guide to a New Model for Land Tenure in America, Cambridge, Mass.: Center f o r Community Economic Development, 1972. I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o i n t Roberts Boards, "Report to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission on S o l u t i o n s to the Problems F a c i n g the R e s i d e n t s of P o i n t R o b e r t s , " O c t o b e r s 1 9 7 3 . Kennedy, J.A., "Report on P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development L e g i s l a t i o n , " l e t t e r to A.J.H. S c o t t , c h a i r m a n , L e g i s l a t i v e Committee, Urban Development I n s t i t u t e , O n t a r i o , December 17, 1973. 202 Ketchum, Bostwick H., The Water's Edge: C r i t i c a l Problems of the Coastal Zone, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1972. Krueger, R . R . e t al.3 Regional and Resource Planning in Canada, Toronto: Hol t , Rinehart & Winston L t d . , 1963. Lake Washington Regional C i t izens Advisory Committee and Technical Committee, "Lake Washington Regional Shorel ine Goals and Po l i c i es , " October 31 , 1 973. Lands D i rec tora te , Dept. of the Environment, "Shoreland: Its Use, Ownership, Access and Management," proceedings of a seminar March 8, 1972, Amherst, Nova Sco t i a . Lane, W.T. (ed. ) , Selected Readings in Law for Local Public Administrators, School of Community and Regional Planning, U . B . C , Vancouver, 1 970. Leemans, A . F . , Changing Patterns of Local Governments, The Hague: International Union of Local Au tho r i t i e s , 1970. L i p t z , H., McKechiiie, W., Tweedale, R., "A Proposal Respecting the Establishment of Park Regions in the Canadian Gulf Is lands, " unpublished paper, Law Facul ty , U .B .C , Vancouver, 1971. Mackay, W. S . , PIanning D i rec tor , Regional D i s t r i c t of Nanaimo, correspondence with the author, January 30, 1974. Meckler, David, "Hawaii had a good idea . . . but i t f a i l e d , " Planning ASPO Magazine, Vo l . 39'('8), September 1 973. Mosena, David, "A Report on Recreational Land Development," Planning ASPO Magazine, Vo l . 38(1,1), December 1972. Mosena, David P., Popper, Frank J . , "Leisure Homes Urbanize the Countryside," Planning ASPO Magazine, Vo l . 39(3) , March-Apri l , 1 973. Municipal A f f a i r s , Department o f , B r i t i sh Columbia, S t a t i s t i c s Relating to Regional and Municipal Governments in B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , May 1972 and May 1973. 203 M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Department o f , B r i t i s h Columbia, "Memorandum to the Members of the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , " June 13, 1973. Nature Conservancy, The, The Countryside in 1970, P r o c e e d i n g s of the Study Conference h e l d a t Fishmongers' H a l l , London, November 4, 5, 1963, London: Her Magesty's S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1964. N i c k e r s o n , Norton H., "An E c o l o g i c a l E v a l u a t i o n of the I s l a n d s of Nantucket Sound," prepared f o r the N a t i o n a l Park S e r v i c e , U.S. Dept. of the I n t e r i o r , 1972. O'Mara, P a u l , "The Coast Becomes P r o t e c t e d , " Planning ASPO Magazine, V o l . 3 9 ( 3 ) , M a r c h - A p r i l 1973. O n t a r i o , "Development P l a n n i n g i n O n t a r i o : The N i a g a r a Escarpment," M i n i s t r y of T r e a s u r y , Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , June 1973. , "Design f o r Development: N i a g a r a (South O n t a r i o ) R e g i o n , Phase I ; A n a l y s i s ,". .Regional Development Branch, Department of T r e a s u r y & Economics, June 2, 1 970. , "Guide to the I m p l i c a t i o n s of the O n t a r i o Government's P o l i c y f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of the N i a g a r a Escarpment," M i n i s t r y of T r e a s u r y , Economics and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s , undated, 1973. , Legislature of Ontario Debates, T h i r d S e s s i o n of the Twenty-Ninth L e g i s l a t u r e , Tuesday, June 5, 1973; Wednesday, June 13, 1973; Thursday, June 14, 1973. , " O n t a r i o P l a n n i n g and Development A c t : Need R a t i o n a l e and R e l a t i o n s h i p to M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , " M i n i s t r y of T r e a s u r y , Economics and Intergovernment A f f a i r s , undated (1 973). , "Remarks by the Honourable John White of the I n a u g u r a l Meeting of the N i a g a r a Escarpment Commission, November 6, 1973," M i n i s t r y o f T r e a s u r y , Economics and I n t e r -governmental A f f a i r s , 1973. 204 Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , " P l a n n i n g P o l i c y f o r Powell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t " ( ( m i m e o ) , February 28, 1 974. R a g a t z , R.L., Vacation Homes: An Analysis of the Market for Seasonal-Recreational Housing, Ph.D. T h e s i s , Depart-ment of Housing and D e s i g n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New York, 1969. Ranney, A u s t i n ( e d . ) , P o l i t i c a l Science and Public Policy, C h i c a g o : Markham P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1968. Rees, W.E., K a r l s e n , E., "The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s and Environmental P l a n n i n g i n B.C.," Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , Papers on L o c a l Government, V o l . 1 ( 6 ) , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, Vancouver, 1973. Rees, W.E., V e r b u r g , K., Gulf Islands' Recreation Study, School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C, Vancouver, 1 973. R o b e r t s , Anthony H., D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , correspondence w i t h t t h e a u t h o r , November 26, 1973. S e e l , K . J . , S h o r e l i h e Management Program, Washington S t a t e , correspondence w i t h the a u t h o r , March 7, 1974, A p r i l 1, 1 974. Simon, Anne W., "To Save the V i n y a r d , " New York Times, September 21 , 1971. Spencer, John' F., A Technique for Resource C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C a p a b i l i t y Analysis in Coastal Zone Management, M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C, Vancouver, May 1 972. S t a l l a r d , Graham, P r e s i d e n t , P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h C o l umbia, correspondence w i t h R.W. P r i t t i e , A s s o c i a t e Deputy M i n i s t e r , Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , "Re: The Report by the S e l e c t S t a n d i n g Committee on M u n i c i p a l M a t t e r s , " February 14, 1974. S t i n s o n , K., P l a n n e r , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of Cowichan V a l l e y , c o r r e -spondnece w i t h the a u t h o r , December 12, 1974. 205 S t r o n g , Ann L o u i s e , Open Spaoe in the Penjevdel Region, Now ov Nevev, P h i l a d e l p h i a : Pennsylvania-New J e r s e y - D e l a w a r e M e t r o p o l i t a n P r o j e c t I n c . , 1963. T e c l a f f ,'..L..A. "arid E. T e c l a f f , "Saving the Land-water Edge from R e c r e a t i o n f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " Avizona Law Review, V o l . 14(1 ) , 1 972. Time Magazine, "The Great I s l a n d Debate," J u l y 31, 1972; "Martha's T r o u b l e d V i n y a r d , " J u l y 30, 1973. T y h u r s t , J.S., "Land Use - G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , M a t e r i a l Prepared f o r P u b l i c Hearings on Proposed S u b d i v i s i o n of J e n k i n s ' Farm," G a b r i o l a I s l a n d , J u l y , 1 9 7 2 . T y h u r s t , C. et al., " G a b r i o l a I s l a n d : P h y s i c a l and Human Resource Survey," p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a , December 1973. U.S. Congress, Committee on I n t e r i o r & I n s u l a r A f f a i r s , National Land Use Policy Legislation, 9Svd Congvess, An Analysis of Legislative Pvoposals & State Laws, p r e p a r e d by the E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y D i v i s i o n of the C o n g r e s s i o n a l Research S e r v i c e , Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1973. U.S. N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e , Parks Canada, An Inventovy of Inter-national Pavk Possibilities: Point Roberts, Boundary Bay, San Juan and Gulf Islands Archipelago, A Joint Report Prepared for the International Point Roberts Board, August,1 973. U t t o n , A.E., Henning, D.H. ( e d s . ) , Environmental Policy: Concepts and International Implications, New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. Vermont, "Report of the Governor's Commission on E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l , " Vermont, January 19, 1970. W a l t e r , M.S., Early Days Among the Gulf Islands of British Columbia, V i c t o r i a : Diggon-Hibben L t d . , 1946. Washington S t a t e , "Department o f Ecology Master Program Review" ( D r a f t P r o p o s a l ) undated. 206 Washington S t a t e , " D e s i g n a t i o n s of Wetlands A s s o c i a t e d w i t h S h o r e l i n e s of the S t a t e , " Chapter 173-22 WAC, amended e f f e c t i v e J u l y 28, 1973. , " F i n a l G u i d e l i n e s : S h o r e l i n e Management A c t of 1971," Department of E c o l o g y , June 20, 1972. , "How Does S h o r e l i n e Management A f f e c t Me?," A s s o c i a t i o n of Washington C i t i e s , Washington S t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n of C o u n t i e s , Washington S t a t e Department of E c o l o g y , O c t o b e r 9 1 9 7 3 . , " P e r m i t s f o r S u b s t a n t i a l Developments on S h o r e l i n e s of the S t a t e , " Chapter 173-14 WAC, amended e f f e c t i v e November 22, 1973. W o r s k e t t , Roy, The Character of Towns, An Approach to Conservation, London: The A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1969. 207 APPENDIX A "REPORT ON THE SELECT STANDING COMMITTEE ON MUNICIPAL MATTERS/' IN VOTES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 2 4 , 1974 LO? No. 8 VOTES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE Legislative Assembly of British Columbia Monday, September 24, 1973 Two O'CLOCK P.M. Prayers by the Rev. W. B. Taylor. Order called for "Oral Questions by Members." Pursuant to Order, the House resumed the adjourned debate on the Address in reply to the Speech of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor at the opening of the Session. During the debate, by leave of the House, the Hon. D. D. Stupich (Minister of Agriculture) presented An Economic Study of the Tree Fruit Industry in British Columbia, a report to the Minister of Agriculture by S. C. Hudson, Consulting Economist, Agricultural Consultant Services. The debate continued. On the motion of Mr. Nimweiler, the debate was adjourned to the next sitting of the House. Resolved, That the House, at its rising, do stand adjourned until 2 o'clock p.m. tomorrow. Mr. Nunweiler presented the Report of the Select Standing Committee on Municipal Matters, as follows: REPORT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ROOM, September 21, 1973 Mr. Speaker: Your Select Standing Committee on Municipal matters, beg leave to report as follows: The Select Standing Committee on Municipal Matters examined the matters affecting islands in the Strait of Georgia and the adjacent waters. It visited and viewed the following islands: May 2, 3, 4, North Pender, South' Pender, Saltspring, Galiano, Mayne, Saturna; July 23-27, Bowen, Gambier, Keats, Denman, Hornby, Lasqueti, Gabriola, Kuper, Thetis. 2 SEPTEMBER 24 209 On July 23 the Committee experienced a most meaningful day at the UBC Resource Science Centre under the direction of Dr. Crawford Holling, who pre-sented a computer simulation that demonstrated the relationships between specu-lation thrust, peoples satisfaction, land prices, land values, environmental equality, etc. In its context, environmental quality was related to ease of transportation, water availability, nearness to a lake or ocean, slope of land, type of land, i.e., agriculture vs. rock, and the amount of open land and finally the diversity of tree cover. Public meetings were held on the islands, and the Committee was pleased and impressed with the interest and turnout by the local people who expressed a vital concern about the future of the islands. It is apparent to the Committee that the islands are of extreme importance to the Province of British Columbia, they are fragile, their location is crucial, being between the two largest cities in the Province, it is felt that people are entitled to use them and enjoy them to the capacity which they are able to serve. For the purpose of this report the Gulf Islands shall mean all islands in the Strait of Georgia and adjacent waters. Observations 1. These islands are different from each other and from the Mainland. How-ever, some Mainland areas, especially the Sunshine Coast because of difficult access, probably have some similar problems. 2. Apart from their natural insularity, isolation, and uniqueness, the islands have the problem of these "special interests": (a) Local residents, many of whom arc retired, and others who have to make their living locally; . (b) Large numbers of summer residents and (or) visitors; (c) Large landowners, usually absentee, often corporate and foreign; (d) A larger or "provincial" interest of the general public; (e) Land developers and speculators; (/) Tree-farm licence holders (TFL). 3. Existing boundaries of regional districts and means of representation and communication to and from some regional districts are causing considerable frus-tration. (Seven regional districts each have a portion of the islands within their boundaries). 4. A complete lack of jurisdiction by Provincial, regional, or municipal bodies over Indian lands because of exclusive Federal jurisdiction may cause increasing difficulty. 5. There are some existing subdivisions which appear attractive and rural in character but this is only due to the fact that many arc as little as 15 per cent developed. Of all the problems the Committee indentifics large subdivisions and over-development as the priority concern. 6. Requirements such as a 10-acre freeze or limiting subdivisions to larger parcels of similar size will not be sufficient in the long term, nor will such rules be as effective as other more sophisticated and imaginative planning techniques such as clusters, green belts, etc. 7. There is a need for an increase of supervised public space, beach access, hiking trails, picnic and (or) campgrounds, etc., on virtually every island. Most land adjoining the best beaches is privately owned. It is unfortunate that many of the'Howe Sound islands' most attractive bays and coves are spoiled for recre-ational use by log storage and booming grounds. 210 " SEPTEMBER 24 3 8. Water transportation to the islands is a key to the entire situation and needs careful control and co-ordination (but this is not within regional district jurisdiction). It is also evident that no one island or regional district canicontrol the frequency, cost, and type of transportation. Transportation on the islands is also an important related factor. Emphasis should be placed on pedestrian transit rather than vehicle transit, and the use of the islands should thus be planned accord-ingly. 9. One of the major problems encountered by the Committee in its tours, hearings, and public meetings is the fact that there has been, and remains, a very serious lack of co-ordination and communication. In many respects, the islands have fallen victim to ad hoc or "band-aid" activity. There is a need for a co-ordinated jurisdiction to be responsible for planning, zoning, control of land use, transportation, and related matters for all the islands and this jurisdiction would require sufficient funding over and above the current revenue source from local taxation. 10. Although regional districts arc not geared to carry out all the responsi-bilities expected of them relative to the future of the Coastal islands of British Columbia, they can well serve the islands for many administrative purposes in-cluding hospitals, schools, local improvements, special projects, health, building inspection, etc. Boundaries of regional districts need to be reviewed for possible transfer of some islands, based on natural lines of communication. Further, the means of representation and communication between some islands and its regional district needs to be studied. 11. Recognizing the need to ensure continued employment opportunities for some residents of the islands, strictly controlled limited commercial development, light industry, and agricultural activity compatible with the life style of the islands can continue, nonetheless, emphasis for the future development of the islands should be placed on recreation, moderate residential use, and preservation of a rural atmosphere. The Committee was impressed with some instances of desirable land use (by residences, summer camps, a few parks, endowments) but was alarmed at the possession or hoarding of land by resident and absentee owners for high capital gains purposes. It was also distressed by the evidence of considerable subdivision activity in the past, which was undertaken without full determination of its impact on the future of each island. Our belief is that the islands arc too important to the people of Canada to be left open to exploitation by real-estate developers and speculators. 12. Virtually without exception shortage or potential shortage of potable water is of major concern to practically all islands and to this Committee. 13. Waste and garbage disposal is another serious matter of major concern to this Committee. 14. A potential exists for conserving many arcrueological sites on the islands. Recommendations 1. The Committee recommends that the regional district boundaries be re-viewed and adjusted to assure that the respective islands are in the most appro-priate regional district. 2. The Committee also recommends that the Provincial Government es-tablish an "Islands Trust" (or commission), as the most appropriate body to be responsible for and to co-ordinate the future of each island within our terms of reference. It must be emphasized most strongly that the trust is to assume the primary responsibility for all Gulf Islands' affairs within Government jurisdiction, including land use, future growth patterns, control of development, industrial, 4 •SEPTEMBER 24 recreational, and commercial activity, as well as parks and open space designations. It is essential that the trust be fully representative of all interests, not only on the islands, but throughout the Province as a whole. While recognizing the rights of the islanders, the Committee suggests that this section of British Columbia is dra-matically affected by private and public activity which does not have the same impact in other parts of the Province. The Committee again refers to the fragile nature of these coastal units. Because it is recognized that a variety of Govern-ment departments and agencies: Highways, Health, Ferries, Lands and Forests, Parks, etc., as well as regional districts and citizen groups on the islands, all have an important role to play in this respect, we emphasize that the proposed trust or commission must not be a separate and (or) remote agency, but rather a fully representative co-ordinating body, whose task it is to bring together each group, agency, or department of Government and to act in the best interests of the islands and their residents, with due regard for the broader and Province-wide interest. 3. The Committee also recommends that until the trust or commission is established, no subdivisions be permitted on any islands south of and including Denman, Hornby, and Lasqueti Islands, i.e., on any of the Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia and any adjacent waters. 4. The Committee recommends the JO-acre freeze be continued on the north-ern Gulf Islands that have not yet been studied by the Committee. Conclusion The Committee appreciates that many months of hard work have gone into the planning process on some of the islands, and the Committee hopes that if the Government accepts these recommendations, that the trust be established and operative as soon as possible, so as not to prolong unduly the wait on these islands. A . A . NUNWEILER, Chairman By leave of the House, the report was taken as read and received. 212 APPENDIX B NATIONAL ISLAND TRUSTS ACT" MODEL B I L L IN BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION, U . S . DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, ISLANDS OF AMERICA, 1970 213 • A B I L L To designate a pilot program for the establishment of a national system of island trusts and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SHORT TITLE SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "National Island Trusts Act." STATEMENT OF POLICY SEC. 2.(a) It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United States that certain islands or groups of islands of the Nation which possess outstanding natural, scenic, historic, or recreational values should be protected and man-aged by the joint efforts of all levels of government and the private sector in order to insure that future generations will have an opportunity to enjoy our island heritage. (b) The purpose of this Act is to implement this policy by designating a pilot program for the establishment of a national system cf island trusts and prescribing the method by which islands or groups of islands subsequently designated by the Congress may become part of the system. N A T I O N A L SYSTEM OF ISLAND TRUSTS SEC. 3.(a) The Casco Bay Islands of Maine, comprising 324 islands in Cumberland and Sagadahoc Counties, are hereby designated as eligible to become the initial component of the national system of island trusts. (b) The national system of island trusts shall comprise any other islands or groups of islands that are subsequently designated by Congress as eligible for inclusion in the system. Such islands shall— ( i ) possess outstanding natural, scenic* historic, or recreational values; . (2) be reasonably accessible to urban areas; and (3) be largely undeveloped. Such islands shall become part of the national system of island trusts upon the execution of agreements between the United States and the concerned States that are modeled after and substantially conform to the requirements of sections 4 through 9 of this Act. TRUST COMMISSIONS SEC. 4.(a) The Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary") is authorized, on behalf of the United States, to enter into an agreement with the State of Maine providing for the protection and manage-ment of the Casco Bay Islands as a national island trust after the Secretary is satisfied that State legislation exists to carry out the agreement. (b) The agreement shall provide for the establishment of a National Island Trust Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "Commission") composed of a Federal member appointed by the Secretary, a member appointed by Governor of Maine, and a member appointed by the govering body of c.ic" county and municipality involved. The agreement shall further provide that— (1) the Commission shall elecrannually a Chairman and a Vice Chairuu-'1 from among its members; 214 : (2) members of the Commission shall serve for six-year terms, except the i member appointed by the Secretary shall serve at his pleasure; > (3) vacancies on the Commission shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment and for the balance of the unexpired term; (4) the Commission shall provide for its own organization and procedure and adopt rules and regulations governing its meetings and transac-tions, and all actions of the Commission shall require a favorable vote of a majority of its members; and (5) that Commission members shall be compensated at the rate of $100 • per diem while engaged in the performance of official duties and shall receive reimbursement for any necessary traveling and subsistence ex-penses incurred thereby. ; FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 5.(a) The agreement shall require the Commission to develop and maintain a comprehensive plan to preserve, restore, utilize, and develop the .natural, scenic, historic, and recreational values of the Casco Bay National Island Trust, which plan shall (1) set forth the needs of the public for enjoyment of such values and the availability of resources to meet such needs; (2) identify critical natural, scenic, historic, and recreational problems and recommend desirable remedial actions to be taken by the Federal, State, county, and local governments involved and private interests; and (3) be in accord with the comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation plan submitted by the State of Maine pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (78 Stat. 897), as amended. The Secretary may agree, within the limits of available funds and manpower, to provide the Commission with technical assistance in die development of such plans. . (b) The agreement shall require the Chairman of the Commission, within one year after the establishment of the Commission, to transmit the initial plan to the Secretary, the Governor of Maine, and the governing body cf each county and municipality involved, and to transmit subsequent revisions of the plan to such persons as soon as practicable. If the plan recommends enactment of additional Federal legislation, the agreement shall require the Secretary to transmit the plan to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (c) The agreement shall also require the Commission to (1) formulate uniform and coordinated policies for implementation of the plan by the Fed-eral, State, county, and local governments involved and by private interests; (2) to encourage the State, county, and local governments involved to adopt and enforce adequate master plans and zoning.ordinances which will promote the use and development of privately owned lands within the national island trust in a manner consistent with the Commission's plan; and (3) to issue guidelines prescribing standards for such plans and ordinances, and provide technical assistance in obtaining their adoption. POWERS OF THE COMMISSION SEC. 6.(a) The agreement shall provide that if the State of Maine or any of its political subdivisions has failed, at any time after the expiration of two years from the date of transmittal of the Commission's plan to (1) adopt and enforce master plans and zoning ordinances consistent with the Commission's plan, or (2) acquire any privately owned property or interests therein recom-- mended for acquisition by such governments in the Commission's plan, the Commission shall be empowered to— 215 (i) adopt and enforce such plans and ordinances by whatever means arc authorized under the constitution and laws of the State of Maine; (ii) acquire such property or interests therein by donation, negotiated pur-chase with donated or appropriated funds, or by condemnation in accord-ance with the provisions of the State condemnation law applicable to the properly involved or, in the absence of such law, in accordance with the provisions of Federal condemnation law. The agreement shall provide that any award of compensation in such condemnation proceedings shall be paid by the Commission, and neither the State nor Federal Government or any agencies thereof shall be liable for such award 'or compensation. (b) The heads of Federal agencies may transfer administrative jurisdiction over any Federal property located within the Casco Bay National Tsland Trust to the Commission without transfer of funds, and the Commission may, in turn, transfer jurisdiction over such property to the State of Maine or any of its political subdivisions. Any such transfers shall be exercised in a manner consistent with the comprehensive plan developed by the Commission. (c) The Commission shall have juridical personality and all powers and capacity necessary or appropriate for fulfilling its functions pursuant to the agreement between the United States and the State of Maine which shall include, but not be limited to, the powers and capacity— (1) to accept, use, and dispose of donations or services or property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible; (2) issue and enforce such rules and regulations as it deems necessary to regulate the use of any property under its jurisdiction in order to carry out the purposes of the agreement; (3) to enter into contracts; (4) to sue or be sued; (5) .to grant concessions, if deemed desirable; (6) to appoint its own employees, and to fix the terms and conditions of their employment and compensation; and (7) to adopt such rules of procedure as it deems desirable to enable it to perform the functions set forth in this agreement. T A X E X E M P T I O N SEC. 7. The Commission and any income or property received or owned by it, and all transactions relating to such income or property, shall be exempt from all Federal, State, and local taxation with respect thereto. ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES OF T H E COMMISSION SEC. 8.(a) The agreement shall provide that the expenses incurred by the Commission for each fiscal year in carrying out its planning, acquisition, ad-ministrative, and other functions shall be paid 50 per centum by the Secretary and 50 per centum by the State of Maine. The Federal payment shall be made from monies appropriated under section 12 of this Act. Such payments may be made in installments and in advance or by way of reimbursement with neces-sary adjustments on account of overpayments or underpayments. (b) The Commission shall submit a budget each fiscal year to the Secretary and the principal budget officer of each State involved in such manner as may be required under their respective budgetary procedures, and shall conduct its operations in accordance with such budget. SEC. 9. The agreement may contain such other terms and conditions as the parties thereto deem desirable. 216 SEC. 10(a). The Secretary is authorized on behalf of the United Stales to enter into agreements with the States in which are located the islands or groups of islands subsequently designated by Congress as.eligible for inclusion in the national island trust system that substantially conform to the require-ments of sections 4 through 9 of this Act: Provided, That the Secretary first determines that State legislation exists to carry out such agreements. (b) Nothing in the agreements authorized by this Act shall be construed to relinquish the functions, powers, or duties of the Congress with respect to the control of any navigable waters within any national island trust, nor shall any provision thereof be construed in derogation of any of the constitutional powers of Congress to regulate commerce among the States and with foreign nations. The power and right of Congress to withdraw the Federal Government as a party to each agreement by amendment, repeal, or modifica-tion of this Act is hereby expressly reserved. (c) Nothing in the agreements authorized by this Act shall be deemed to restrict the executive powers of the President in the event of a national emer-gency. RESTRICTIONS ON F E D E R A L L Y ASSISTED PROJECTS SEC. 11. No Federal department or agency shall assist by loan, grant, license, or otherwise in the construction of any water or land resources project that would have a direct and adverse effect, as determined by the Secretary, on the natural, scenic, historic, or recreational values of the Casco Bay National Island Trust, or any islands or group of islands that are subsequently included in the national island trust system. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS SEC. 12. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated annually, through the Department of the Interior and related agencies Appropriation Acts, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 217 APPENDIX C NANTUCKET SOUNDS ISLANDS TRUST B I L L CONGRESSIONAL RECORD S . 1 9 1 9 , WASHINGTON, MAY 3 1 , 1973 209 -6- 218 (b) There la a national Interest ln pre-serving and conserving these values for the present and future well-being of the Na-tion and for present and future generations: (c) Thcae values are being Irretrievably damaged and lost through Ill-planned de-velopment; (d) Present state and local Institutional arrangements for planning and regulating land and water uses to preserve and conserve these values are Inadequate; (e) The key to more effective preservation and conservation of the values of the Nan-tucket Sound Islands ls a program encour-aging coordinate action by Federal. State, and local governments ln partnership with pri-vate Individuals, groups, organizations, and associations for the purpose of administering sound policies and guidelines regulating il l-planned development; (f) Such a program can protect the nat-ural character and Bcenic beauty of the Nan-tucket Sound Islands consistent with main-tenance of sound local economies and pri-vate property values; and (g) Because expanded access to the Is-lands would seriously Impair them and be ln contravention to the purposes of this Act, It shall be national policy that no bridge, • causeway, tunnel or other direct vehicular access be constructed from the mainland to the Islands. N A N T U C K E T SOUND ISLANDS TRUST S E C . 2. In order to provide for the preserva-tion and conservation of the unique natural, scenic, ecological, scientific, cultural, historic, and other values of the Nantucket Sound Islands, there ls established In the Common-wealth of Massachusetts the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust (hereinafter referred . to as the "Trust") consisting of the area described ln section 4 herein. This Trust area shall be administered as hereinafter described through programs and polloiee de-signed to achieve wise use of the land and water resources of the area, giving full con-sideration to protection of the values of the area as well as to needs for (sound local economies. N A N T U C K E T SOUND ISLANDS TRUST COMMISSIONS S E C . 3. (a) There are hereby established the Nantucket Trust Commission, the Martha's Vineyard Trust Commission, and the Elizabeth Islands Trust Commission, to be known collectively as the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust Commissions (herein-after referred to as the "Commissions"). It shall be the purpose of the Commissions *o have principal management authority for the Nantucket Sound Islands Trust. . (b) The Nantucket Trust Commission shall have the responsibilities as established herein over the lands and waters In Nan-tucket County, and shall be composed of seven members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commence on the first Monday ln April. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary"); (2) a member appointed by the Governor of the Common wealth of Massachusetts ' (hereinafter referred to as the "Governor".); (3) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Nantucket within two weeks after the annual • town meeting, one of whom shall be a seasonal resident property owner; (4) two members who shall be qualified • voters of the town and shall be elected at the annual election which ls a part of the annual town meeting; and (5) a member appointed by the Nan-tucket Planning Board within two weeks after the anual town meeting, who shall be a qualified voter of said town. Not more than one member of the Commission may serve simultaneously ln any elective Town or County office. (c> ine Martha's Vineyard Trust Com-mission shall have the responsibilities as established herein over the lands and waters ln Dukes County, excepting the Elizabeth Islands, and shall be composed of -thirteen members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commerce on the first Monday ln June. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary; (2) a member appointed by the Governor; (3) a member elected by each town on Martha's Vineyard at the annual election which ls a part of the annual town meeting, each of whom shall be a qualified voter of the town; (4) a member appointed by the Dukes County Selectmen's Association: (5) a member appointed by private con-servation organisation on Martha's Vine-yard; (0) two members appointed by seasonal resident taxpayer associations, on Martha's Vineyard: and (7) a member elected by the senior class of the regional high school, who shall, not-withstanding other provisions of this sub-section, serve a one year term. Only the member selected under paragraph (4) of this subsection may hold elective Town or County office during his term of office as Commission member. (d) The Elizabeth Islands Trust Commis-sion shall have the responsibilities a3 estab-lished herein over the lands and waters of Hie Elizabeth Islands, and shall be. com-posed of seven members serving three-year staggered terms which shall commence on the first Monday in April. Members shall be selected as follows: (1) a member appointed by the Secretary-, (2) a member appointed by the Governor: (3) a'member elected at the annual "elec-tion which ls a part of the annual town meeting; (4) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen to represent the Island of Cuttyhunk. one of whom shall be a per-manent resident of Cuttyhunk and one of whom shall be a seasonal resident of Cutty-hunk; and (5) two members appointed by the Board of Selectmen to represent the other Islands ln the Elizabeth Islands, one of whom shall be a permanent resident of one of such other islands and one of whom shall be a seasonal resident of one of such other Islands. (e) Each Commission shall have a Chair-man. The Chairmen of the Commissions shall each be olected by the membership thereof for a term of not to exceed two years. Any vacancy ln the Commissions shall be filled In the same manner ln which the original selection was made, except that interim ap-pointments may be made by the remaining members of the Commission. (f) All members of the Commission shall be paid at the rate of 850 per diem when actuary serving. The "Secretary— Is' authbr-lzedto pay the expenses reasonably incurred by the Commissions ln carrying out their responsibilities under this Act on the pre-sentation of vouchers signed by the Chair-men. (g) The Commissions shall publish and make available to the Secretary and to the public an annual report reviewing matters relating to the Trust, including acquisition of lands, progress toward accomplishment of the purposes of this Act, and administration, and shall make such recommendations thereto as they deem appropriate to the Secretary, the Governor, and the towns. (h) The Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Commissions shall, and the Elizabeth la-lands Commission may. each have an Execu-. tive Director, and such other permanent or part-time professional, clerical, or other -7- 2 1 9 ;rsormel aa they find are required, and may igage such other professional services as ley may reasonably require a n d the Secre-xy shall approve. E a c h Commiss ion ail all ave an office and a mai l ing address at a cen-•al location In the area of its Jurisdiction, nd such office shall be where Its ordinary oslneas i3 conducted and Its maps and icords kept. (1) T h e Commissions shall each have the uthorlty to appoint Commiss ion Advisory ommlttees ln their -own discretion. Each ommtsslon shall designate three of Its [embers to serve on a coordinating commlt -se with members of the other Commissions > treat matters of common concern. (J) A t its first meeting each Commiss ion la l l adopt by-laws and rules of procedure, h l c h may Include dates of meetings, publ ic Istrlbutlon of Information relating; to C o m -dsslon activities, disclosure of ownership i n -srest ln trust lands by Commiss ion m e m -era, a n d any other matters normal to the Deration of such bodies and consistent with he purposes of this Act. T h e Commissions hall comply with the provisions of the Mas-kchusetts Open Meetings Law. and they shall e deemed to be "boards" wi th in the mean-i g of said law. (k) I n exercising their management and dmlnlstrat lve responsibilities under this A c t he Commissions shal l not adopt regulations rhlch are less restrictive than regulations i n >rco a n d effect l n tho Commonwealth of tassachusetts or the respective towns w l t h -a the T r u s t area. (I) Members of Commissions may serve Iso as members of any resources or land nanagement counci l heretofore or hereafter stabl lshed under the laws of the C o m m o n -wealth, of Massachusetts. . cv..:.; i " T R U S T A B E A S E C . 4. (a) T h e area of the T r u s t