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A cause worth fighting for : Chinese Canadians debate their participation in the Second World War Maxwell, Judy 2005

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A C A U S E W O R T H FIGHTING FOR: C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s D e b a t e T h e i r P a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r  by JUDY MAXWELL B.A., University of British C o l u m b i a , 2 0 0 2  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (History)  THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUMBIA September 2005 © Judy Maxwell, 2005  ABSTRACT  T h i s p a p e r u s e s t h e c o l l e c t i v e oral h i s t o r i e s of t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s , s i x t y y e a r s after t h e i r s e r v i c e in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , to e x p l o r e t h e l i t t l e - k n o w n d e b a t e s t h a t e n s u e d in t h e V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s w h e n t h e m e n w e r e called up in 1 9 4 4 for c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y  service. These debates uncover how C h i n e s e  C a n a d i a n s u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r p o s i t i o n in t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e y s a w existing between military service and citizenship. When  Canada  entered  the  S e c o n d W o r l d W a r on  10 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 , t e n s  of  t h o u s a n d s of w h i t e C a n a d i a n s e n l i s t e d for m i l i t a r y d u t y , w h i l e " O r i e n t a l s " w e r e b a r r e d f r o m serving. A s military  s e r v i c e had long b e e n s e e n a s t h e u l t i m a t e t e s t of c i t i z e n s h i p , t h e  government anticipated that disenfranchised people who served C a n a d a during the  war  w o u l d r e t u r n h o m e a n d m a k e c l a i m s for e q u a l i t y a n d for all t h e p r i v i l e g e s of c i t i z e n s h i p , i n c l u d i n g t h e r i g h t to v o t e . T h u s , by d e n y i n g t h e m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to s e r v e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d s a v e itself t h e h u m i l i a t i n g t a s k of d e f e n d i n g its u n d e m o c r a t i c p o s i t i o n . T h i s a l l c h a n g e d in A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 w h e n P a c i f i c C o m m a n d c a l l e d u p t h e C h i n e s e in British C o l u m b i a u n d e r t h e N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s M o b i l i z a t i o n A c t . T h e B r i t i s h W a r Office h a d pressured Ottawa  to  recruit  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s for  employment  in S p e c i a l O p e r a t i o n s  E x e c u t i v e ( S O E ) t h r o u g h o u t S o u t h e a s t A s i a in t e r r i t o r i e s u n d e r J a p a n e s e c o n t r o l . T h i s w a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t m a n y C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s had b e e n a n x i o u s l y w a i t i n g f o r ; for o t h e r s , however, compulsory military service was resented. W h e n t h e 1 9 4 4 d i r e c t i v e c a m e d o w n f r o m O t t a w a for t h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y m o b i l i z e , h u n d r e d s a s s e m b l e d in both V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a to d i s c u s s w h e t h e r should accept or  reject  the  call to  compulsory  military  to  they  service. Although the Chinese  p o p u l a t i o n in B C w a s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , t h e r e w a s , in f a c t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e c l a s h of o p i n i o n s . U l t i m a t e l y , it w a s a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be to o b t a i n full c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s by s e r v i n g in t h e a r m e d f o r c e s . E x p l o r i n g t h e 1 9 4 4 c o n s c r i p t i o n d e b a t e s u n c o v e r s v a l u a b l e insights into r e a s o n s b o t h for a n d a g a i n s t m i l i t a r y w a r t i m e s e r v i c e , p e o p l e s ' l o y a l t i e s , a s well as h o w t h e y s a w c i t i z e n s h i p , c o m m u n i t y , a n d h o w t h e y i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s . T h e military s e r v i c e of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w o u l d p r o v e t h e i r w o r t h i n e s s a n d w o u l d s e c u r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o m p l e t e s u p p o r t for t h e i r g o a l , a s well a s t h e c o l l e c t i v e g r a n t i n g of full c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s t o a l l A s i a n C a n a d i a n s , r e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r o r not t h e y f o u g h t in t h e Second World War. These vanguards understood that military service w o u l d ,  ultimately,  bring a b o u t e q u a l i t y .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  Abstract  ii  T a b l e of C o n t e n t s  iii  Acknowledgements  iv-v  I  Introduction  1-4  II  Canada's War  5-9  III  B o u n d by I n j u s t i c e  10-23  IV  E v o l u t i o n of the D e b a t e s  24-39  V  Conclusion  40-41  Bibliography  42-56  Appendix  (BREB form)  57  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following people have had a great influence on my life and my research, at different times and in varying degrees. I want to acknowledge each of them with thanks and appreciation. For years, I had taken courses in pursuit of my undergraduate degree, without finding any particular niche of interest. Then I took History 482: Chinese Migration, with Prof. Diana Lary, and I found my calling. Throughout that exciting and inspiring course I received constant encouragement and support from Prof. Lary. She was the person that first planted the seed in my mind to do postgraduate studies. Prof. Lary has had an incredible influence on my research, has shared her profound insights, and has looked out for my best interest throughout my Master's degree and beyond. I am forever grateful to her for this and for giving me the confidence in my academic abilities that I formerly lacked. My other graduate supervisor, Prof. Peter Moogk, has also been a very important person throughout my Master's research on the Chinese Canadian veterans, as his expertise in oral and Canadian history and his military experience have helped me tremendously in areas that were previously unfamiliar. His course History 547: Oral Interviewing  Techniques  was pivotal in helping me to understand how to ask compelling questions and how to draw out the essential answers for the core of my thesis on the Chinese Canadian veterans from the Second World War. Without this course, I would not have been able to capture and reclajm this historic part of the Chinese Canadian experience. Prof. Moogk has also spent a lot of time scrutinizing my drafts for corrections, clarifications, and improvements. His attention to detail, in addition to his support and encouragement, has been greatly appreciated. Hayne Wai, a speaker whom I met at a Round Table discussion- on the intergenerational perspectives of Chinese Canadians at UBC's Faculty of Education, has been a big supporter of me from even before I began my M.A. When I approached him about possible topics for graduate research, he made time to talk to me even though we barely knew each other. He has always been a proud advocate of Chinese Canadian history and he was the first one to suggest that I pursue research on the Chinese Canadian veterans. Throughout my program, he has made time for coffee with me, he offered assistance and encouragement, and has sent me supportive and humourous e-mails. Thanks, Hayne. Honourary Lt. Col. Howe Lee, the President of the Chinese Canadian Military Museum of Vancouver, has been a devoted supporter of me through my research. Howe has been  iv  encouraging, complimentary,  insightful, candid yet diplomatic, reliable, inclusive, and has  become a good friend. I can't thank him enough! I w a n t to s p e c i a l l y t h a n k all t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s w h o a l l o w e d m e into t h e i r lives a n d s h a r e d t h e i r p r e c i o u s histories w i t h m e . In a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , I w o u l d like to a c k n o w l e d g e t i m e s p e n t w i t h Neill C h a n , Bill C h o n g , Bill C h o w , L e w i s C h o w , M a r s h a l l C h o w , C h o n g J o e , J o h n K o B o n g , D a n i e l L e e , Ed L e e , A l e x L o u i e , b r o t h e r s A l b e r t a n d C e d r i c M a h , Roy M a h , G o r d o n Q u a n , b r o t h e r s B i n g a n d F r a n k W o n g , G i m W o n g , G l e n W o n g , N o r m a n W o n g , Peggy Wong Lee, and Victor W o n g . Richard Kwong and Trevor S a m also deserve t h a n k s for s h a r i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t Kwong and  r e c o r d s a n d s t o r i e s of t h e i r d e c e a s e d f a t h e r s ,  D o u g l a s S a m . I a l s o w a n t to t h a n k  the  other  veterans  who  George  shared  their  T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g s w i t h m e , o n c e a m o n t h , at Foo's Ho Ho r e s t a u r a n t . T h e y k n o w m e a n d a p p r e c i a t e m e a s t h e i r T r a v e l i n g A m b a s s a d o r , a n d t h e y h a v e f o r e v e r i n f l u e n c e d m y life a n d Canadian history. V a r i o u s a c a d e m i c s , C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , a n d p e o p l e in t h e V a n c o u v e r a n d  Ottawa  communities have also provided me with their support, insights, and guidance. They include Ed W i c k b e r g , L a r r y W o n g , W i n g C h u n g N g , Patricia R o y , J e a n B a r m a n , J o e W a i , K. S c o t t W o n g , D a v i d C Y . L a i , D a v i d B r e e n , H e n r y Y u , Philip S t a m p , W e s K n a p p , M a r i e - L o u i s e Perron, Robert Yip, and S e n a t o r Vivienne Poy. I a m a l s o b l e s s e d w i t h s u c h w o n d e r f u l , s u p p o r t i v e , a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r i e n d s : Pat a n d C o r i n n e D u n n of the Island Inn,  B a r b S c h o b e r , R e b e c a L a u , L o m e M a d g e t t , Florie S i a ,  m y c o u s i n s D i a n e G o n g a n d A n d r e a Y o u n g in S a n F r a n c i s c o , a n d t w o s p e c i a l p e o p l e w h o , t h a n k f u l l y , h e l p e d m e o n t h e last leg o n this j o u r n e y — M i c h e l e T i t c o m b e a n d Z o h a r G e v a . G o d b l e s s y o u t w o for y o u r e n c o u r a g i n g w o r d s ! F i n a l l y , I d e d i c a t e m y t h e s i s to t w o s p e c i a l p e o p l e . I d e d i c a t e t h i s to the m e m o r y of A l b e r t M a h — t h e o n l y v e t e r a n I k n e w p e r s o n a l l y t h a t p a s s e d a w a y d u r i n g the period of m y g r a d u a t e r e s e a r c h . In his last few d a y s in the h o s p i t a l , A l b e r t t o o k t h e t i m e to fill out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t I h a d s e n t h i m a n d a s k e d the h o s p i t a l o r d e r l y to m a i l it to m e right a w a y . I w a s c r u s h e d to l e a r n of his d e a t h , b e c a u s e he n e v e r f o r g o t a b o u t  m e t h r o u g h o u t his  s i c k n e s s a n d a l s o b e c a u s e I r e c e i v e d t h e a n s w e r s to m y q u e s t i o n n a i r e j u s t d a y s before his p a s s i n g . I will a l w a y s k e e p t h e h a n d - s c r i b b l e d note t h a t he s e n t m e , c o m p l i m e n t i n g m e o n m y hard w o r k a n d d e d i c a t i o n . J u s t w h e n I t h o u g h t he w o u l d g e t b e t t e r , A l b e r t p a s s e d a w a y on 6 M a y 2 0 0 5 . He h a s s u c h a s p e c i a l place in m y h e a r t . I a l s o w a n t to d e d i c a t e this to J a d e — It is you and I walking along a path, and it is  the journey  together  acknowledgement  that is what is important;  of the integrity  of the journey.  the reaching  of the goal is simply  the  I look f o r w a r d to s h a r i n g m y life w i t h y o u  in M e l b o u r n e . v  Chapter 1  When  the  Second World  War  INTRODUCTION  began  in S e p t e m b e r  C a n a d i a n s v o l u n t e e r e d for the w a r effort, but O r i e n t a l s  1  1939, tens  of t h o u s a n d s  of  w e r e b a r r e d f r o m s e r v i n g in t h e  a r m e d f o r c e s . T h e C h i n e s e , in p a r t i c u l a r , had long b e e n r e g a r d e d a s s o c i a l l y inferior to w h i t e C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e i r s e r v i c e in t h e m i l i t a r y w a s r e j e c t e d government. performed  This  the  predisposition  duties  of  i m p o s s i b l e to d e n y t h e m  was  citizens  in  the v o t e .  2  based the  on  the  b y all l e v e l s of t h e  belief  Canadian armed  that  if  forces,  Canadian  Chinese Canadians it  would  be  almost  Politically d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d a n d l a b e l e d ' a l i e n s ' , legal  obstacles w e r e s e t - u p to e x c l u d e t h e m f r o m m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . A c c o r d i n g to t h e  National  S e l e c t i v e S e r v i c e ( N S S ) R e g u l a t i o n s , the official r e a s o n t h a t t h e C h i n e s e w e r e b a r r e d f r o m serving  was  restrictions Chinese  because they  were  did not p r e v e n t  from  enlisting  not  of " p u r e  European  descent".  Nonetheless,  racial  numerous young Canadian-born and Canadian-raised ethnic  for  war  service. They  wanted  the  opportunity  to  prove  their  a l l e g i a n c e by s e r v i n g C a n a d a — " t h e i r h o m e a n d n a t i v e l a n d " — a s t h i s p a p e r will s h o w . As the war continued a n d , eventually, as m a n p o w e r shortages b e c a m e a serious c o n c e r n , r e s t r i c t i o n s w e r e r e l u c t a n t l y l o o s e n e d . T h e t u r n i n g p o i n t w a s in A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 , w h e n the a r m y ' s Pacific C o m m a n d c a l l e d up C h i n e s e r e g i s t e r e d in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s r e v e r s a l 3  was based on pressure from across the Atlantic. Great  Britain  Japanese-occupied Canadians  4  needed British  British  territories  Subjects who in  Southeast  could Asia,  blend behind  into t h e enemy  populations lines.  of  Chinese  w e r e i d e a l c a n d i d a t e s for the j o b b e c a u s e m o s t S o u t h e a s t A s i a n c o u n t r i e s h a d  By definition, the word "Oriental" is Eurocentric, referring to things east of Europe. Formerly, Oriental was the common term used to classify Chinese, Japanese, and East Indians together. The common, more a term is now " A s i a n , " which is more accurate, less Eurocentric, and less loaded with connotations. I have chosen to use the word appropriate to the time periods described. 1  Attorney-General Gordon Wismer told Colonel L.R. LaFleche, the Associate Deputy Minister of National War Services, that "... if these men are called upon to perform the duties of citizens and bear arms for Canada, it will be impossible to resist the argument that they are entitled to the franchise." (G.S. Wismer to Col. L.R. LaFleche, 8 October 1940.) He also said to Defence Minister J.L. Ralston that the Oriental vote might eventually lead to Orientals in the Parliament. (Wismer to J.L. Ralston, 23 September 1940, in NAC, RG 25 G l , File 263-38.) 2  Pacific Command included British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon, and adjacent parts of the Northwest Territories. This Command was formed at the time the Special Committee on Orientals in British Columbia was appointed by the Cabinet War Committee (CWC) in October 1940 to investigate the Chinese and Japanese in that province. 3  Dan Lee, a Chinese Canadian veteran from the Second World War, explained to me that the term "Chinese Canadian" was not used to describe the Chinese in Canada until they had attained Canadian citizenship, after the Second World War. For the sake of simplicity, I will utilize it, along with other terms, to describe the Chinese in Canada both before and after the war. (Lee, Daniel. Interview with Author, 7 March 2005.) 4  1  C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s . T h i s c h a n g e of h e a r t a n g e r e d m a n y C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , y o u n g a n d o l d , m a l e a n d f e m a l e . For so long t h e y had b e e n t r e a t e d a s p a r i a h s , t h e n s u d d e n l y , a f t e r y e a r s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d m i s t r e a t m e n t , t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l u e d B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s a n d w e r e c o n s c r i p t e d . T h e 1 9 4 4 s u m m o n s to C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n m e n for a c t i v e , m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e d u t y provoked  debates  within  the  Chinese populations  of  Vancouver and  Victoria,  British  C o l u m b i a w h e r e t h e l a r g e s t C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s r e s i d e d . W h i l e one m i g h t e x p e c t c o n s e n s u s in a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p o f a b o u t 11,000 p e o p l e , t h e r e w a s , in f a c t , a c l a s h o f o p i n i o n s 5  that reflected t h e h a r d e x p e r i e n c e s a n d f r u s t r a t e d h o p e s of t h e C h i n e s e in C a n a d a . T h i s d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d g r o u p p a s s i o n a t e l y d e b a t e d t h e r e a s o n s for a n d a g a i n s t  its  p a r t i c i p a t i o n : W h y s h o u l d t h e y f i g h t a n d p o s s i b l y die for a c o u n t r y t h a t w o u l d not r e c o g n i z e t h e m a s full c i t i z e n s ? S h o u l d e n l i s t m e n t b e u s e d to p r o v e t h a t t h e y w e r e d e s e r v i n g o f t h e vote a n d c i t i z e n s h i p ? W o u l d t h e y g a i n e q u a l i t y a n d g r e a t e r rights for t h e i r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e a s s o m e J a p a n e s e h a d d o n e in t h e First W o r l d W a r ? S h o u l d t h e i r s e r v i c e p r e c e d e o r follow t h e 6  franchise? W e r e t h e r e o t h e r r e a s o n s to c o n s i d e r ? A f t e r r e t u r n i n g h o m e w i t h t h e i r r e c o r d of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , v e t e r a n s d i d p e t i t i o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t for t h e f r a n c h i s e a n d d e m a n d e d e q u a l s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s for t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , a s w e l l a s for o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s in C a n a d a . F o r t u n a t e l y , m a n y of t h e s e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s a r e still alive to s e e t h e i r Canada.  service finally  acknowledged and  celebrated  by t h e  government  of  7  Until q u i t e r e c e n t l y , f e w p e o p l e r e a l i z e d t h a t at t h e t i m e of t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , Canada's ' d e m o c r a t i c ' g o v e r n m e n t handicapped s o m e racial minorities while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  According to the Census of Canada 1941, the total Chinese Canadian population was 18,619, with 7,880 in Metropolitan Vancouver (42.3%), 3,435 in Metropolitan Victoria (18.4%) and the remainder comprising 7,304 (39.3%) in New Westminster, Nanaimo, Kamloops, Duncan City, Port Alberni, Vernon, Nelson, and various other places. Only cities with 100 Chinese residents or more were recorded. 5  "The franchise argument was based on precedent. During the First World War, at least one hundred and sixty-six Japanese (most of whom were not Canadian-born) managed, with difficulty, to enlist in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. After returning to British Columbia, the survivors persevered in a campaign for the right to vote. In 1931, by a one-vote margin, the provincial legislature enfranchised approximately eighty Japanese veterans who still lived in the province. (Roy, Patricia E. The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want: Her Chinese and Japanese Citizens, The Canadian Historical Review, LIX, 3, 1978, p. 343.)  6  Conversely, Chinese Canadians veterans from the First World War also sought to obtain the franchise, but they were unsuccessful. Author Marjorie Wong records that, "As early as 1919 over 500 Chinese Canadians in Victoria petitioned the federal government with respect to the franchise." This group of 500 included veterans and others from the Chinese community. (Wong, Marjorie. The Dragon and the Maple Leaf. Toronto: Pirie Publishing, 1994, p. 7.) 7  Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) has partnered with the Chinese Canadian Military Museum of  Vancouver to video-interview the surviving Chinese Canadian veterans for posterity and for educational purposes. This project is one of the VAC's initiatives for 2005, the Year of the Veteran.  2  fighting t h e w a r a g a i n s t F a s c i s m — a b l a t a n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n in t h e A l l i e d c a u s e .  8  Even fewer  people are a w a r e t h a t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s s e r v e d in all s e r v i c e s a n d t h e a t r e s d u r i n g  the  S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , a n d t h a t t h e i r w a r s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d t h e m w i t h t h e m o r a l a r g u m e n t for an enlargement  in C a n a d i a n h u m a n  rights  and immigration  changes made possible C a n a d a ' s transformation French n a t i o n into t o d a y ' s m u l t i c u l t u r a l m o s a i c .  policies. Eventually, these  from a once predominantly  British and  9  T h i s p a p e r e x p l o r e s t h e d e b a t e s in t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s of V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a r e g a r d i n g t h e m e n ' s 1 9 4 4 c o n s c r i p t i o n into t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . T h r o u g h o r a l interviews w i t h m a n y of t h e r e m a i n i n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s , I e x p l o r e t h e i r d i v e r s e opinions o n c o n s c r i p t i o n at t h e t i m e a n d find o u t w h a t w a s at s t a k e : W h a t w e r e  their  feelings a b o u t C a n a d a , C h i n a , a n d t h e w a r ? How did t h e y u n d e r s t a n d p a t r i o t i c o b l i g a t i o n , their social rights a n d responsibilities as a hybrid c o m m u n i t y of both C h i n e s e a n d C a n a d i a n culture? D i d t h e y s e e m a t t e r s s t r a t e g i c a l l y , w i t h e n l i s t m e n t a s part of a c o n s c i o u s p l a n to s h o w t h a t t h e y w e r e d e s e r v i n g of full c i t i z e n s h i p ? H o w did t h e i r f a m i l i e s feel a b o u t  their  w a r t i m e s e r v i c e ? W h a t w e r e t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t t h e y h a d to o v e r c o m e in o r d e r to be a c c e p t e d by both t h e C a n a d i a n A r m e d F o r c e s a n d by w h i t e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y ? F r o m e x c l u s i o n to i n c l u s i o n , C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s u l t i m a t e l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be to o b t a i n full citizenship rights, and that military service would prove their worthiness a n d secure the g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o m p l e t e s u p p o r t for t h e i r g o a l . To set the  s t a g e for  the  debates, chronologically, I weave together  significant  historical d a t e s a n d e v e n t s t h a t lead up to t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s 1 9 4 4 c o m p u l s o r y c a l l up of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . A f t e r t h i s brief I n t r o d u c t i o n , C h a p t e r T w o f o l l o w s w i t h a r e v i e w of C a n a d a ' s role in t h e w a r , b o t h at h o m e a n d a b r o a d , e x p l o r i n g h o w t h e M a c k e n z i e K i n g government  resolved  the  issue  of  conscription.  Chapter  Three  surveys  the  major  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l i m i t a t i o n s o n t h e C h i n e s e l i v i n g in C a n a d a , f r o m t h e i r f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t  up  until t h e i r c o n s c r i p t i o n , a n d s h o w s h o w t h e w a r w i t h J a p a n t r a n s f o r m e d w h i t e a t t i t u d e s of toward t h e C h i n e s e . C h a p t e r F o u r c o v e r s t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s ' d e b a t e s t h r o u g h r e c o l l e c t i o n s of s o m e of t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s f r o m t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . T h i s c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e v e t e r a n s ' f o r m a t i v e Chinese cultural 8  British  influences, how discrimination  Columbia's  provincial  government  e n c o u r a g e d to t a k e discriminatory  was  most  years growing  affected culpable  u p in C a n a d a ,  t h e m , and their and  m e a s u r e s by B.C. politicians, w h o  the  federal  supplied the  their  views on  the  government  was  initiative  and  the  example. 9  Today, C a n a d a represents a truly multicultural mosaic, a country where different cultural groups a n d  v a l u e s a r e not o n l y c e l e b r a t e d , but h a v e b e c o m e part of o u r l a r g e r C a n a d i a n culture a n d identity. has b e e n t h e official policy of C a n a d a s i n c e 1 9 7 1 . (Statistics C a n a d a .  The Changing Mosaic.  This  Canada's Ethnocultural Portrait:  14 June 2 0 0 5 .  <http://wwwl2.statcan.ca/enqlish/census01/products/analvtic/companion/etoimm/contents.cfm>')  3  conflicting  policies  regarding  their  enlistment.  This  framework  will  allow  a  deeper  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t s h a p e d t h e i r v a l u e s a n d b e l i e f s , in o r d e r to h e l p us u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r l o y a l t i e s , m o t i v e s , a n d t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e d e b a t e s . T h e final c h a p t e r t i e s together A l t h o u g h s i x t y y e a r s h a v e p a s s e d s i n c e t h e e n d of t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r ,  the  m e m o r i e s of t h e s e v e t e r a n s a r e a m a z i n g l y c l e a r . T h i s is not to s a y t h a t t h e s e v e t e r a n s h a v e been able to r e t a i n t h e i r m e m o r i e s perfectly o r t h a t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e not b e e n a l t e r e d with the p a s s i n g of t i m e o r by o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , but t h e s e d e b a t e s took p l a c e at a p i v o t a l t i m e in t h e i r lives — in t h e i r l a t e t e e n s a n d e a r l y t w e n t i e s — w h e n t h e y w e r e o l d e n o u g h to m a k e i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s . T o e n s u r e a c c u r a c y , t h e i r s t o r i e s are c o m p a r e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r for d i s c r e p a n c i e s a n d v e r i f i e d a g a i n s t o t h e r s o u r c e s . Y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s n e v e r f o r g o t the big d e b a t e s in t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t a l l o w e d t h e m to e x p e r i e n c e s of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , training o v e r s e a s , o r b e i n g t r e a t e d a s e q u a l s to t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s — all f i r s t - t i m e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e s e e v e n t s w e r e w h e r e t h e i r f u t u r e s s t a r t e d a n d h o w d o o r s o p e n e d for t h e m as i n d i v i d u a l s a n d a s C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . To appropriately capture the ' m o o d ' the e r a , I have used antiquated Oriental i n s t e a d of A s i a n , N a t i v e I n d i a n  terminology:  versus of First N a t i o n s P e o p l e , E a s t I n d i a n  as  opposed to I n d o C a n a d i a n , a n d old n a m e s for f o r m e r c o l o n i e s — i.e. M a l a y a ( M a l a y s i a ) , C e y l o n (Sri L a n k a ) , I n d o c h i n a ( V i e t n a m ) , a n d o t h e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c o m m u n i t y d e b a t e s p r o v i d e o n l y a ' s n a p s h o t ' of t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t these v e t e r a n s r e c a l l , t h e i r s t o r i e s will p r o v i d e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h o w t h e y c o n c e i v e d of their i d e n t i t i e s a n d h o w m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e h e l p e d to l i b e r a t e a n d t r a n s f o r m t h e m and  collectively.  This  investigation  complicated relationship  will  significantly  enrich  our  individually  understanding  of  the  b e t w e e n r i g h t s , d u t i e s , o b l i g a t i o n s , a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in c i v i l  society. It will a l s o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t into m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m ' s e m e r g e n c e a n d r a c i s m ' s d e c l i n e . T h i s s t u d y will h e l p t o r e c l a i m a l a r g e l y u n c h a r t e d part of C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y to m a r k  the  b e g i n n i n g of m a j o r c h a n g e s in C a n a d i a n p o s t - w a r s o c i a l p o l i c y a n d to r e c o r d v o i c e s u n h e a r d for future g e n e r a t i o n s .  4  Chapter 2  CANADA'S WAR  P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g led C a n a d a t h r o u g h o u t the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . A t t h e o u t s e t , C a n a d a w a s i l l - p r e p a r e d w i t h a r e g u l a r a r m y of o n l y 5 0 0 0 a n d a m i l i t i a of 4 6 , 2 5 1 , but w i t h i n the first m o n t h Canadian manpower  of t h e w a r , the s t a n d i n g a r m y ' s r a n k s s w e l l e d to  70,000.  p o l i c i e s , a n d the v i e w s of p o l i t i c i a n s a n d the p u b l i c u p o n it,  1 0  were  d e e p l y affected by the c o u r s e of the w a r a b r o a d . S u c c e s s i v e m i l i t a r y a n d political c r i s e s s h a p e d the p o l i c i e s of c o n s c r i p t i o n . In  1 9 3 9 , fighting a limited  war seemed possible.  1 1  At the onset, enlistment  v o l u n t a r y a n d o n l y t h o s e v o l u n t e e r i n g for a c t i v e s e r v i c e w e r e s e n t a b r o a d .  1 2  was  T h e first of  s e v e r a l c r i s e s w h i c h c h a n g e d t h e s i t u a t i o n w e r e t h e A l l i e d d i s a s t e r s in E u r o p e in t h e s p r i n g a n d e a r l y s u m m e r of 1 9 4 0 . T h e c o l l a p s e of F r a n c e a n d the D u n k i r k e v a c u a t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h Army  led  both  the  King's government  and  the  Opposition  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s c a l e of C a n a d a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s  would  parties  h a v e to  in  Canada  to  the  i n c r e a s e — t h a t is,  u n i v e r s a l m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e for h o m e d e f e n c e w a s now n e c e s s a r y . King conscription  faced 13  an  agonizing  dilemma:  although  he  had  promised  not  to  impose  in t h e 1 9 4 0 e l e c t i o n , he n e e d e d to m o b i l i z e t h e n a t i o n for a n a l l - o u t w a r . His 1 4  reputed political d i c t u m " N o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s c r i p t i o n , but c o n s c r i p t i o n if n e c e s s a r y " intended to  reassure the country  that military conscripts would  be e m p l o y e d  in  1 5  was  home  defence o n l y . M a n y p e o p l e r i g h t l y s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h i s w a s j u s t t h e first s t e p t o w a r d s full c o n s c r i p t i o n for o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e . T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r a n d his c o l l e a g u e s f o r m u l a t e d  the  N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s M o b i l i z a t i o n A c t ( N R M A ) , e n a c t e d o n 21 J u n e 1 9 4 0 , w h i c h g a v e  the  g o v e r n m e n t s w e e p i n g p o w e r s j u s t s h o r t of c o n s c r i p t i o n for o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e . T h e effect of By the end of the war, Canada had become a significant military power, with the third largest navy, the fourth largest air force, and an army of six divisions. (Byers, Daniel. "Mobilizing Canada: The National Resources Mobilization Act, the Department of National Defence, and Compulsory Military Service in Canada, 1940-1945," in Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, New Series, V o l . 7, 1996, p. 78.) 1 0  Canadian politicians planned for a limited war with the Nation's primary contribution being the British Commonwealth Air Training Program (BCATP). 1 1  "During the First World War, the issue of conscription had caused a bitter division in the country and in the Liberal Party. King hoped to avoid another confrontation on this question, so even before the Second World War began, the Liberals and Conservatives had agreed to avoid conscription for overseas service." ("Mackenzie King and the Second World War," The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King. National Archives of Canada. 30 June 2005. <http://www.collectionscanada.ca/kinq/053201/053201130207 e.htmM 1 2  1 3  Conscription can generally be defined as forced enrolment of persons for military service.  This promise largely contributed to the Liberals' re-election in March 1940, their second consecutive majority government and King's third term as Prime Minister. 1 4  1 5  This phrase was suggested by a reporter in an interview; it did not originate with King. 5  this s t a t u t e w a s t o l e g a l i z e c o m p u l s o r y s e r v i c e a t h o m e , w h i l e still m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n that no C a n a d i a n c o u l d b e c o m p e l l e d t o s e r v e a b r o a d W i t h t h a t p r o m i s e m a d e , t h e P r i m e Minister c o n v i n c e d his c a b i n e t a n d P a r l i a m e n t t o t a k e m e a s u r e d p r e p a r a t o r y s t e p s t o w a r d National W a r t i m e S e r v i c e .  1 6  From S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 0 o n w a r d s , under the new law, men were being called u p for h o m e d e f e n c e . M a n y o f t h e s e m e n c h o s e t o " g o a c t i v e : a n d v o l u n t e e r for g e n e r a l s e r v i c e ; t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r m e n c a l l e d u p u n d e r N R M A v o l u n t e e r e d in t h i s m a n n e r for t h e A r m y , either on r e c e i v i n g t h e i r c a l l - u p o r d e r s o r a f t e r a p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e .  By the spring of 1 9 4 1 ,  however, s o m e difficulty w a s e n c o u n t e r e d in o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y n u m b e r s o f m e n . I n A p r i l , M i n i s t e r s f r o m t h e t h r e e s e r v i c e s b r o a d c a s t e d t h e i r m a n p o w e r needs'. A s r e c r u i t i n g for the army b e c a m e an urgent matter, special publicity tactics were constantly being d e v i s e d to e n c o u r a g e m e n t o e n l i s t . T h i s n a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n t o recruit v o l u n t e e r s w a s a l s o K i n g ' s w a y of a v o i d i n g t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e m e a s u r e s w e r e a d e q u a t e l y e f f e c t i v e , t h e y w e r e o n l y a c h i e v e d b y s t e a d i l y w i d e n i n g t h e field o f c a l l - u p u n d e r t h e N R M A . The second of the w a r crises, which f u n d a m e n t a l l y affected m a n p o w e r policy, began in D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 1 w i t h t h e a t t a c k o n Pearl H a r b o r b y J a p a n . H o w e v e r , e v e n before J a p a n entered t h e w a r , t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e C a n a d i a n O p p o s i t i o n h a d c h a n g e d i t s p o l i c y o n conscription. A t the s a m e t i m e , the Ministers within King's Cabinet w h o , unlike the Prime Minister, h a d s o m e d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s o v e r s e a s c o n s c r i p t i o n a n d a f t e r m u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n , King came to the conclusion that the solution for the immediate problem was a national plebiscite in w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y m i g h t r e l e a s e t h e g o v e r n m e n t f r o m its c o m m i t m e n t a g a i n s t compulsory service overseas. The m a n p o w e r question entered a new phase. By A p r i l 1 9 4 2 , w h e n t h e A r m y a n d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e Party put p r e s s u r e o n t h e L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f a n t r y r e i n f o r c e m e n t s for t h e w a r in E u r o p e , a n a t i o n a l plebiscite w a s i m p l e m e n t e d . W h e n v o t e s w e r e c o u n t e d o n t h e n q u e s t i o n " A r e y o u i n f a v o u r of r e l e a s i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t  from a n y obligation  arising o u t of any past  commitment  restricting t h e m e t h o d s o f r a i s i n g m e n f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ? " , it s h o w e d t h a t t h e p l e b i s c i t e had backfired a n d left t h e c o u n t r y d i v i d e d . A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d i a n s a p p r o v e d o f compulsory  overseas  service,  French-speaking  disenfranchised minorities strongly opposed i t .  1 6  1 7  Quebecois,  Canadian  farmers, a n d  C a n a d a was only a small nation with 11  The Act r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l m e n a n d w o m e n r e g i s t e r f o r e s s e n t i a l w a r - r e l a t e d w o r k , s o t h a t a c a l l - u p  list c o u l d b e c r e a t e d . 1 7  Conscription threatened  support  national  unity with 7 2 . 9 % of Q u e b e c voting  elsewhere. (Stacey, C P . "Manpower and  War Policies of Canada, 1939-1945.  C o n s c r i p t i o n , " Arms,  a g a i n s t it a n d  overwhelming  Men and Governments:  The  O t t a w a , O N : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 7 0 , p. 4 0 0 . )  6  million i n h a b i t a n t s  — p e o p l e b e g a n to w o n d e r h o w m a n y m o r e m e n t h e  1 8  government  intended to s e n d o v e r s e a s . W h e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t p r o c e e d e d to follow up t h e r e s u l t of t h e plebiscite by i n t r o d u c i n g  Bill 80  — i n t e n d e d to r e m o v e f r o m t h e N R M A t h e  prohibition  a g a i n s t c o m p e l l i n g m e n to s e r v e o v e r s e a s — t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r had difficulties w i t h b o t h sides of his C a b i n e t .  1 9  The conscription question effectively divided the country.  A f t e r t h e r e f e r e n d u m c r i s i s of 1 9 4 2 , t h e r e w a s a period of q u i e t . T h e n e w p o w e r s that had b e e n g r a n t e d to t h e g o v e r n m e n t w e r e l a r g e l y held in r e s e r v e for t h e t i m e b e i n g ; the final c r i s i s o v e r c o n s c r i p t i o n h a d , a s it t u r n e d o u t , b e e n m e r e l y p o s t p o n e d . T h e i s s u e s of providing a n a d e q u a t e pool of " r e i n f o r c e m e n t s " wastage"  2 1  2 0  for t h e f i g h t i n g f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e " r a t e s of  w e r e u r g e n t a n d f u n d a m e n t a l , y e t difficult for a r m y p l a n n e r s to c a l c u l a t e p r i o r to  C a n a d i a n s o l d i e r s e n t e r i n g t h e i r first p r o t r a c t e d c a m p a i g n . H o w e v e r , after l o s s e s in t h e I t a l y C a m p a i g n in J u l y 1 9 4 3 , t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r c o u l d n o l o n g e r a v o i d t h e a r m y ' s n e e d for r e p l a c e m e n t s . K i n g ' s g o v e r n m e n t w a s a n x i o u s l y l o o k i n g for n e w , i n n o v a t i v e w a y s t o f i n d more infantry recruits. S e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s w e r e s u g g e s t e d to t h e C a b i n e t to i n d u c e N R M A m e n to " g o a c t i v e " . A d j u t a n t G e n e r a l L e t s o n — a s c h r o n i c l e d in Arms, Men and Governments  — proposed "to  s h i p s o m e of t h e b a t t a l i o n s in C a n a d a , n o w c o m p o s e d l a r g e l y of N R M A m e n , o v e r s e a s a s units a n d u s e t h e m a s b a t t a l i o n s in r e s e r v e or a s r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . "  22  R e s i s t a n c e to " g o i n g  a c t i v e " had long b e e n f a m i l i a r to a r m y officers w h o h a d b e e n p r e s s u r i n g c o n s c r i p t s t o v o l u n t e e r . T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n to i n c r e a s i n g the  financial  i n c e n t i v e s , s u c h a s " f i g h t i n g p a y " for g e n e r a l d u t y i n f a n t r y m e n  employment.  Despite  deficiencies.  F o l l o w i n g in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d of e n l i s t m e n t , t h e n u m b e r s of  23  all  efforts  to  counteract  shortages,  there  were  in o p e r a t i o n still  chronic  N R M A s o l d i e r s c o n v e r t i n g to g e n e r a l s e r v i c e c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e . In t h e m o n t h of D e c e m b e r  According to government census records mid-1939, Great Britain had a population of 41.5 million and the United States 131 million..Canada's population was very small in comparison. 1 8  There is a long list of reasons why there was little agreement amongst the Cabinet members: some disapproved of and were hostile to the amendment; others argued that war industry and production took priority over a large army; still, some disputed changed to "compassionate" or "agricultural" leaves. For a more detailed examination of the disagreements, please consult pp. 404-414 in Stacey's, 1 9  Arms, Men and Governments. 2 0  "Reinforcements" is another word for replacing of casualties.  Nevertheless, from August 1940 onward, the Canadian army overseas estimated its rates of wastage to be a slightly higher figure than those accepted for the British forces, as there was a time lag involved in shipping men from Canada. 2 1  2 2  Stacey, C P . "Manpower and Conscription," Arms, Men and Governments, pp. 4 2 8 - 9 .  Colonel J . L . Ralston, King's Minister of Defence, complained of chronic deficiencies in the infantry. (Stacey, p. 429.)  2 3  7  1943, only 295 NRMA soldiers converted.  T h e n , after the N o r m a n d y Invasion  of J u n e  1 9 4 4 , w h e n c a s u a l t y r a t e s p r o v e d to be f a r h i g h e r t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e m i l i t a r y staff a n d the C a b i n e t W a r C o m m i t t e e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r s h o u l d n o w s e n d N R M A m e n to the battlefronts. T h i s p r o d u c e d f u r t h e r conflict w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n t h e political p a r t i e s . M a c k e n z i e K i n g h a d long o p p o s e d c o n s c r i p t i o n for a c t i v e d u t y . K i n g ' s a r g u m e n t s , a s noted by C P . S t a c e y , i n c l u d e d "... t h e t h r e a t to n a t i o n a l u n i t y , i n v o l v i n g e v e n a d a n g e r of civil conflict; a n d t h e political c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y ... [and] t h a t c o n s c r i p t i o n in C a n a d a m i g h t ruin the p r o s p e c t for a w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h w a s to m a i n t a i n p e a c e . . . "  25  His C a b i n e t w a s split into t w o c a m p s : o n e w i n g t h a t s u p p o r t e d v o l u n t a r y e n l i s t m e n t a n d the other w i n g t h a t w a s p r o - c o n s c r i p t i o n . S t a c e y s t a t e s t h a t d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s , K i n g s o u g h t t h e advice of C h u r c h i l l o n t h e n e c e s s i t y a n d r i s k s of r a i s i n g t h e o v e r s e a s c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e at this s t a g e of t h e w a r . O n 27 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 4 , C h u r c h i l l r e p o r t e d  t h a t his C h i e f s of  Staff  a d v i s e d h i m t h a t the w a r in E u r o p e c o u l d g o o n u n t i l t h e s u m m e r of 1 9 4 5 a n d t h a t "it  must  be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y will be e n g a g e d in l a r g e s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s for t h e final defeat of G e r m a n y , . . " .  26  K i n g ' s d i a r y l o g s his r e a c t i o n a s " g r e a t l y s u r p r i s e d t h a t C h u r c h i l l  had not i n d i c a t e d his d e s i r e to m e e t t h e s i t u a t i o n , "  2 7  h o w e v e r , he w a s still u n c o n v i n c e d t h a t  C a n a d a ' s N R M A m e n s h o u l d not be o r d e r e d o v e r s e a s . On  20  November  1944,  some  senior  officers  under  General  Pearkes —  area  C o m m a n d e r of Pacific C o m m a n d ( V a n c o u v e r ) — m e t m e m b e r s of t h e p r e s s at a C o m m a n d conference at V a n c o u v e r . A c c o r d i n g to S t a c e y , t h e s e n i o r officers b o l d l y s t a t e d t h a t " T h e y are w a i t i n g for the g o v e r n m e n t to g i v e t h e o r d e r a n d t h e y a r e r e a d y to o b e y " a n d " N . R . M . A . soldiers w e r e w a i t i n g to be o r d e r e d o v e r s e a s . " the s e n i o r o f f i c e r s '  frank c o m m e n t s  and  2 8  T h a t e v e n i n g in t h e n e w s , K i n g l i s t e n e d to  gauged  their  opinion.  Even National  Defence  H e a d q u a r t e r s , a s K i n g s h o r t l y d i s c o v e r e d , h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t i m e h a d c o m e to e x p r e s s a strong  opinion.  General Andrew  McNaughton, former  Commander  in C h i e f of t h e  First  C a n a d i a n A r m y , p r o p o s e d t h a t " a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of m e n be t a k e n a n d t r a i n e d to m e e t t h e situation."  29  T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d M c N a u g h t o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n , a n d by  21  N o v e m b e r the P r i m e M i n i s t e r d e t e r m i n e d t h a t o v e r s e a s c o n s c r i p t i o n w a s n o w a n e c e s s i t y . He called a n e m e r g e n c y C a b i n e t m e e t i n g o n t h e e v e n i n g of 2 2 N o v e m b e r a n d a n n o u n c e d  " Stacey, p. 429. 2 5  Stacey, p. 447.  2 6  Stacey, p. 450.  King, William Lyon Mackenzie. The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King. National Archives of Canada. 30 June 2005. < http://kinq.collectionscanada.ca/EN/PaqeView.asp> p. 7 (1059). 2 7  2 8  Stacey, p. 4 7 1 .  2 9  Stacey, p. 473.  8  t h a t he w o u l d be u s i n g c o n s c r i p t s a s r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . T h e next a f t e r n o o n , K i n g read t h e Order in Council, w h i c h a u t h o r i z e d a n d d i r e c t e d t h e M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e t o d i s p a t c h forces t o t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m a n d t o o p e r a t i o n a l t h e a t r e s . A s r e c o r d e d in Arms, Men and Governments: "... s u c h p e r s o n n e l , in s u c h n u m b e r s a s m a y be a p p r o v e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l ( t h e n u m b e r h e r e b y a p p r o v e d b e i n g s i x t e e n t h o u s a n d , w h o a r e s e r v i n g by r e a s o n of t h e i r h a v i n g b e e n c a l l e d o u t f o r t r a i n i n g , s e r v i c e o r duty pursuant to the provisions of the National Resources Mobilization A c t , 1 9 4 0 ... [ p l a c i n g ] a l l s u c h p e r s o n n e l o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e b e y o n d C a n a d a f o r the defence thereof ..." 30  The  news  that  16,000  NRMA  soldiers  would  be s e n t  overseas  produced  alarming  repercussions in British C o l u m b i a . This news also sparked passionate debates amongst various minority groups w h o had e x p e r i e n c e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  by the federal  government.  Although  the Chinese had  e x p e r i e n c e d t h e h a r s h e s t i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s , it w a s d o u b l y - i r o n i c t h a t n o t o n l y w e r e they s u m m o n e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o fight o v e r s e a s f o r C a n a d a , b u t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s were also conscripted for overseas duty compulsory c a l l - u p .  3 1  more than  three  months  before t h e n a t i o n a l  F o r y e a r s , t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e official o p p o s i t i o n h a d  b e e n a m b i v a l e n t a b o u t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s in t h e A r m e d F o r c e s . T h e n in ' o n e fell s w o o p ' , t h e B r i t i s h r e s o l v e d t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n f u s i o n b y m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n f o r it. Finally, a decision had been m a d e to conscript Chinese C a n a d i a n s for overseas service. This w a s great news for those young Chinese Canadians w h o wanted to prove their loyalty t o C a n a d a . F o r o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , it w a s a n o u t r a g e t o be o r d e r e d t o risk d y i n g f o r a c o u n t r y t h a t w o u l d n o t e v e n r e c o g n i z e t h e m a s full c i t i z e n s . T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e government's  d e m a n d w a s f a i r o r u n j u s t , a n d to u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y  of b e i n g  C h i n e s e in C a n a d a a t t h a t t i m e , it is n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w s o m e o f t h e a n t i - C h i n e s e l a w s a n d t r a g i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e a n d affected t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . O n l y t h e n c a n t h e i r m i x e d f e e l i n g s of a c c e p t a n c e , r e j e c t i o n , a n d o u t r a g e be fully a p p r e c i a t e d .  J U  Stacey, p. 474.  Ottawa advised Pacific Command on 24 March 1944 that the British government was setting up a special training school in that command to be operated by British Security Coordination, an agency of the War Office. Chinese Canadians received the call-up by Pacific Command in mid-August 1944. (Pearkes to Gibson, "The Disposal of Men of Chinese Racial Origin called up for Service under NRMA," DHH 322.009, D478.) 3 1  •9  Chapter 3  While  Chinese  railway  BOUND BY INJUSTICE  workers  contributed  to  the economic  development  of  C a n a d a , t h e y e n d u r e d i n c r e d i b l e h a r d s h i p s . F r o m t h e t i m e of t h e G o l d R u s h u p until t h e 3 2  S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , t h e C h i n e s e h a d c o n f r o n t e d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s s e t by t h o s e w i t h political p o w e r . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , m a n y C h i n e s e bore t h e p a i n of s e p a r a t i o n f r o m  their  f a m i l i e s a n d c u l t u r e in C h i n a . T h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h a p e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , a s w e l l a s t h e i r ability to c o p e a n d p e r s e v e r e . A n e x a m i n a t i o n of m a n y o p p r e s s i v e , a n t i - C h i n e s e l a w s a n d s o m e critical h i s t o r i c e v e n t s will  provide insight  into t h e s t r u g g l e s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a n d  p e r s p e c t i v e s of t h e C h i n e s e in C a n a d a . Prior t o t h e d i s c o v e r y of g o l d in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a in t h e late 1 8 5 0 s , t h e r e w e r e f e w C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s in C a n a d a . T h e n , t h e 1 8 5 8 G o l d R u s h b r o u g h t t h o u s a n d s of C h i n e s e north to V i c t o r i a , f r o m C a l i f o r n i a a n d o v e r s e a s .  3 3  T h e s u d d e n influx s e t off a n t i - C h i n e s e  agitation b y w h i t e s . A f t e r t h e a l l u v i a l ( o r p l a c e r ) g o l d p e t e r e d o u t , C h i n e s e w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d a s l a b o u r e r s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Pacific R a i l w a y ( C P R ) . A l t h o u g h t h e i r  low-paid,  b a c k b r e a k i n g l a b o u r w a s t h e b a s i s of l i n k i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e p r a i r i e s , B C s w h i t e manual w o r k e r s them."  3 5  3 4  c o n s i d e r e d t h e C h i n e s e a n e c o n o m i c t h r e a t a n d w e r e e a g e r t o g e t rid of  A n i m o s i t y t o w a r d t h e C h i n e s e p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n t e n s i f i e d a n d , in t i m e , t h e f e d e r a l  government yielded to pressure from British C o l u m b i a by enacting a n t i - C h i n e s e legislation. T h e h i s t o r y of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e province's b e g i n n i n g s . W h e n it e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n in 1 8 7 1 , p e o p l e of B r i t i s h  origin  a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 9 . 6 per cent of r e s i d e n t s , w h i l e 6 1 . 7 per cent of t h e p r o v i n c e ' s p o p u l a t i o n  When the colony of British Columbia agreed to join Confederation in 1871, one of the conditions was that the Dominion government would build a railway linking BC with Eastern Canada within ten years. Sir John A . Macdonald, Canada's first Prime Minister, wanted to reduce costs by employing Chinese to build the railway. Notably, he said "No Chinese, no railway"; more precisely, he declared "Either you must have this labour or you cannot have the railway." (Ward, Peter. A White Man's Province: Popular Attitudes and Public Policy Toward Orientals in British Columbia. Montreal, Q C : McGill-Queen's University Press, 1978, p. 24.) 3 2  3 3  Victoria was the first major Canadian Pacific port of entry, only to be eclipsed by Vancouver in 1887.  3 4  Employers preferred Chinese workers.  Although the white majority agreed that the Chinese were socially inferior, it was divided when it came to economic advantage. To build the railway and work the mines, white capitalists wanted cheap Chinese labour. Chinese middlemen played a significant role that was simultaneously self-defeating: setting up Chinese immigrants in jobs that undercut white workers created animosity, prejudice, and marginalization of the Chinese in the host societies. In the e n d , middlemen suffered equally from these same prejudices — they, too, became outcasts. White capitalists removed themselves from any business connection to the Chinese by hiring Chinese middlemen to be responsible for organizing the cheap Chinese labour. In the end, it was only the Chinese who were viewed as the enemy, not the capitalist employers. 3 5  10  was Aboriginal or Chinese.  In a n a t t e m p t to c r e a t e their " w h i t e o u t p o s t " of E m p i r e , t h e  m u n i c i p a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e l e c t i v e l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d residents, based on r a c e . Registration railroad  of Voters  was  3 7  In  1 8 7 2 , the  B C L e g i s l a t u r e a m e n d e d the Qualification  Act to b a r t h e C h i n e s e f r o m v o t i n g .  completed  in  1885,  among  C a n a d a ' s first  3 8  and  Later, after t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  anti-Chinese  immigration  laws  were  i n t r o d u c e d : e v e r y p e r s o n of C h i n e s e a n c e s t r y w a s r e q u i r e d to pay a h e a d t a x to e n t e r t h e country.  39  A f e w y e a r s later, in 1 8 8 7 , d i s g r u n t l e d , u n e m p l o y e d w h i t e w o r k e r s s t a r t e d a riot  in Coal H a r b o u r a g a i n s t s e v e r a l h u n d r e d C h i n e s e , w h o u n d e r c u t t h e i r w a g e s by half. It w a s not until 1 9 0 7 , w h i l e V a n c o u v e r w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g a n e c o n o m i c s l u m p , t h a t t h e n e x t assault on t h e C h i n e s e o c c u r r e d . A rally to protest O r i e n t a l I m m i g r a t i o n  major  ended with angry  m o b s v a n d a l i z i n g a n d l o o t i n g b u i l d i n g s in C h i n a t o w n a n d n e i g h b o u r i n g Little T o k y o .  4 0  White  British C o l u m b i a n s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e i r o w n i g n o r a n c e of O r i e n t a l s , a belief in A n g l o - S a x o n s u p e r i o r i t y ,  m i s c o n c e p t i o n s of the  Oriental  character,  rumour  of  e c o n o m i c t h r e a t , f a l l a c i e s , a n d w h i t e n a t i v i s m t r a n s p l a n t e d f r o m C a l i f o r n i a a n d b e y o n d — all of w h i c h c o n v i n c e d t h e C h i n e s e t h a t t h e y w e r e not w e l c o m e . In t h e s u m m e r of 1 9 1 4 , w h e n G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s g o v e r n m e n t d e c l a r e d w a r o n G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a o n b e h a l f of t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , s o m e C a n a d i a n - b o r n a n d n a t u r a l i z e d C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e w i l l i n g to f i g h t to p r o v e t h e i r l o y a l t y to C a n a d a , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y H e a d T a x . In 1 9 1 7 , t h e Military  Service  $500  Act e m p l o y e d c o n s c r i p t i o n , h o w e v e r ,  These figures are approximate because the Native Indians were estimated rather than enumerated. (Ward, p. 27.)  3 6  Discrimination against the Chinese was a common feature in many countries that had a white majority. For example, Chinese in the United States and Australia experienced similar anti-Chinese legislation as their counterparts in Canada, whether it was disenfranchisement or exclusion.  3 7  In British Columbia, Aboriginals, people of description applied to anyone from the Indian affiliation was Hindu, Muslim, or any other disenfranchised people of Chinese origin, but due affected than in British Columbia. 3 8  Chinese and Japanese origin, and "Hindus" — a subcontinent, regardless of whether their religious — were all disenfranchised. Saskatchewan also to the small Oriental population there far fewer were  In 1885, the Chinese Immigration Act or Head Tax was legislated, with an initial charge of $50 per Chinese person; this increased to $100 in 1900 and further increased to $500 from 1903 until 1923, when another restrictive law replaced this tax. 3 9  For sake of comparison and relative value of Canadian currency, properties in Strathcona could be purchased for $100 in the early 1900s. (Nicolls, J.P. Real Estate Values in Vancouver: A Reminiscence. City of Vancouver Archives, 1954, p. 3.) "When news of the Vancouver riots reached Ottawa, Governor-General Earl Grey was furious and requested a report on the riots. He later appointed W.L. Mackenzie King as a commissioner to go to British Columbia and investigated the losses sustained by the Chinese. After his inquiry, King recommended compensation for them totaling $26,900 ... The compensation was later paid by the federal government." (Lai, David C.Y. Chinatowns: Towns Within Cities in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988, p. 8 4 ; Canada, Report on Losses Sustained by the Chinese 4 0  Population of Vancouver B.C. on the Occasion of the Riots in that City in September, 1907. Royal Commission: W.L. Mackenzie King Sessional Papers, in NAC, No. 74f, 1908, p. 18.)  11  this did not a p p l y to t h e C h i n e s e . A s a u t h o r Marjorie W o n g e x p l a i n s , r e c r u i t i n g officers in " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e f u s e d all s u c h recruits a n d it w a s n e c e s s a r y for t h e m to t r a v e l o u t s i d e of their h o m e p r o v i n c e to e n l i s t . " in the 5 2  n d  [New Ontario]  4 1  R e c o r d s are s k e t c h y , but at least o n e p l a t o o n of s i x t y m e n  Battalion was predominantly Chinese C a n a d i a n .  4 2  In t o t a l ,  no  m o r e t h a n t h r e e h u n d r e d C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s e n l i s t e d in t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y for t h e First World W a r . A l s o in 1 9 1 7 , t h e Wartime Elections A c t s t i p u l a t e d t h a t o n l y t h o s e w h o q u a l i f i e d for provincial f r a n c h i s e c o u l d v o t e in f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . S i n c e t h e C h i n e s e c o u l d not v o t e provincial  elections  in  British  Columbia  and  S a s k a t c h e w a n , they  were,  in  in  effect,  d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d in f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e i r w a r t i m e s e r v i c e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t did not grant C h i n e s e v e t e r a n s t h e f r a n c h i s e a s it had d o n e for J a p a n e s e First W o r l d W a r v e t e r a n s . L e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t h e C h i n e s e w e r e u n r e m i t t i n g . S h o r t l y after t h e G r e a t W a r , t h e new Dominion  Elections  Act  of  1920  was passed, which stated that those  provincially  d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d for " r e a s o n s of r a c e " w o u l d a l s o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e f e d e r a l f r a n c h i s e .  4 3  T h i s w a s a m e n d e d in 1 9 2 9 to i n c l u d e a c l a u s e t h a t r e q u i r e d all p r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s to be B r i t i s h Subjects  4 4  — t h i s e v e n e x c l u d e d C h i n e s e b o r n in C a n a d a , a s t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d ' a l i e n s ' ,  not B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s .  4 5  T h e s e l a w s w e r e in a d d i t i o n t o t h e a l r e a d y - r e s t r i c t i v e h e a d  a l t h o u g h its e f f e c t i v e n e s s w a s u n d e r r e v i e w — t h e m o n e t a r y d e t e r r e n t w a s not Chinese immigration  province w a s o n t h e r i s e .  4 1  curtailing  into B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s h o p e d ; in f a c t , t h e n u m b e r e n t e r i n g 4 6  tax,  the  C o n s e q u e n t l y , in 1 9 2 3 , all c a p i t a t i o n t a x e s w e r e s u s p e n d e d a n d  Recruiters in Alberta and Ontario accepted Chinese into the Canadian Army. (Wong, p. 3.)  This group fought at Ypres in 1917, as communicated to James Morton by General George Pearkes. (Morton, James. In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: The Chinese in British Columbia. Vancouver: J . J . Douglas Ltd., 1977, p. 229.)  4 2  4 3  Statutes of Canada 1923, Vol. I and II, c. 46.  4 4  Statutes of Canada 1923, Vol. I and II, c. 40.  As late as 5 August 1944, the Honourable Mr. Justice A . M . Manson — Chairman of the Vancouver Mobilization Board and sympathetic towards Chinese Canadian enrollment — questioned use of the word 'alien' because "about 6 0 % of the men who are shown as aliens on their registration cards are not aliens at a l l . " (Manson to Assistant Director, Mobilization, in NAC, RG 27, V o l . 997, File 2-114, pt. 5.)  4 5  Under the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, only four classes of immigrants were allowed to enter Canada: (a) merchants, (b) university students granted entry for the period of their degree program, (c) native-born Chinese returning after several years of education in China, and (d) diplomatic personnel of the Chinese government. Terms were carefully defined: "Merchant" excluded operators of laundries, restaurants, retail produce dealers, and the like; "Students" were required to show proof of registration at a university. Some Chinese had entered Canada by purchasing real or forged birth certificates of Chinese Canadian children, bought and sold in Hong Kong. These children carrying false identity papers were referred to as "Paper Sons." Others claimed (and had documents to prove) that they were relatives of those Chinese who qualified as exempt. The Act was intentionally and legally designed to prevent all of these categories from meeting the qualifications, whose interpretation was left to the discretion of immigration officers, rather than the statute. (Roy, p. 32.)  4 6  12  replaced w i t h t h e Chinese  Immigration  Act,  b e t t e r k n o w n a s the Chinese  Exclusion  Act,  w h i c h r e m a i n e d in effect t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . T h i s Act b r o u g h t a b o u t n e a r total restriction o n C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n to C a n a d a a n d m a n y s e p a r a t e d f a m i l i e s w e r e n e v e r reunited. Nevertheless, the provincial g o v e r n m e n t  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d  municipalities  continued w i t h t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t h e C h i n e s e . T h e r e w e r e o t h e r a n t i - C h i n e s e l a w s e n a c t e d by e v e r y level of g o v e r n m e n t C h i n e s e w e r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m l i v i n g o u t s i d e of C h i n a t o w n , d e n i e d g o v e r n m e n t  in B C :  employment,  barred f r o m w o r k i n g in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , b a n n e d f r o m c i t y - o w n e d p u b l i c s w i m m i n g p o o l s , relegated to s i t t i n g in C h i n e s e - o n l y s e c t i o n s in m o v i e t h e a t r e s , Chinese w o m e n  of c h i l d b e a r i n g - a g e  in C a n a d a a n d  an  a n d so o n .  With  4 8  economic depression  in  few North  A m e r i c a , the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s l o w l y d e c l i n e d a n d C h i n a t o w n s b e g a n to w i t h e r a w a y . Jean B a r m a n notes, " B y 1931 j u s t t w e n t y - s e v e n  4 7  4 9  As  thousand British C o l u m b i a n s , totalling  u n d e r 4 per cent of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , w e r e C h i n e s e by e t h n i c o r i g i n . "  5 0  The dwindling Chinese  p o p u l a t i o n , to s o m e e x t e n t , e a s e d t h e f e a r s of t h e d o m i n a n t w h i t e s o c i e t y . H o w e v e r , a n t i C h i n e s e r e g u l a t i o n s r e m a i n e d in force a n d h a r d s h i p s in C a n a d a w e r e c o m p o u n d e d by t r a g i c , international e v e n t s . A s t i m e p a s s e d , life b e c a m e e v e n m o r e c h a l l e n g i n g for t h e o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e . W h i l e the Exclusion  Act  e a s e d a n t i - C h i n e s e a g i t a t i o n , it b o u n d m o s t C h i n e s e m e n to a l o n e l y ,  m i s e r a b l e e x i s t e n c e . M e a n w h i l e , in C h i n a , f a c t i o n a l i s m w i t h i n the Guomindang  Nationalist  Party c r e a t e d rifts w i t h i n t h e o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s , a l o n g political l i n e s .  5 1  T h e n in  The Crystal Swimming Pool had separate hours for Orientals and European Canadians. Originally located on Beach Avenue, it was acquired by the Vancouver Parks Board from a private club in 1940, renovated and reopened in 1941. In November 1945, the Parks Board was petitioned by the Vancouver School Board for segregation and, ultimately, resolved to no longer segregate the public on the basis of "race, colour or c r e e d . " The Crystal Pool was later demolished in 1975. (E-mail correspondence with Terri Clarke, Communication Coordinator of the Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 2 August 2005.) 4 7  There were endless restrictions on the Chinese in Canada, extensively listed in the following books: Peter Ward's White Canada Forever, James Morton's In the Sea of Sterile Mountains, Wickberg et al. From China to Canada, David Lai's Chinatowns, Kay Anderson's Vancouver's Chinatown, and Patricia Roy's books, to name a few sources.  4 8  In those days, most Chinese that immigrated to Canada were men. Thus, with the Act in place, much of the Chinese population remained a "bachelor society."  4 9  Barman, Jean. The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia - Revised Edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996, p. 2 3 3 ; Statistics Canada. Consensus of Canada, 1881-1981. 5 0  Until 1927 the Guomidang Nationalist party was split between leftists, who supported cooperation with Communists, and rightists, who opposed it; In places dominated by radicals, relations between the GMD and local elites were characterized by mutual hostility, culminating in campaigns against local elite. After 1927 factions, no longer based on their approach to Communism, became a main component of politics at all levels. Until 1937, the Jiangsu GMD remained the private preserve of the central party headquarters. Factionalism resulted in rapid personnel changes a n d diminished power. The GMD became a meek, quiet a n d unassertive adjunct of the government, unable to mobilize people and resources. 5 1  13  S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 1 , J a p a n e s e t r o o p s s e i z e d C h i n a ' s i n d u s t r i a l i z e d p r o v i n c e of M a n c h u r i a . " C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d the political d e v e l o p m e n t s in A s i a , c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i r r e l a t i v e s ' w e l l - b e i n g . In  1 9 3 7 , the J a p a n e s e i n v a d e d t h e rest of C h i n a ; by 1 9 3 8 , J a p a n  controlled a large part of e a s t e r n C h i n a .  5 3  Although  the Japanese government  justified  e x p a n s i o n i s m on t h e p r e t e x t of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e a n d J a p a n ' s n e e d for r a w m a t e r i a l s , few had a n y i l l u s i o n s a b o u t J a p a n ' s i m p e r i a l i s t a n d e c o n o m i c d e s i g n s o n C h i n a .  5 4  This invasion  w a s t h e f i r s t s t e p o n t h e p a t h l e a d i n g to t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r in t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n .  5 5  T h e w a r in C h i n a p r o m o t e d s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d every effort w a s d e v o t e d  to  helping the  mother  country.  In  2004, Second World  War  v e t e r a n R o y M a h r e c a l l e d " T h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y — not j u s t in V a n c o u v e r , but t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a in V i c t o r i a , C a l g a r y , E d m o n t o n , W i n n i p e g , T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l ... e v e r y w h e r e  there  w a s a C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y — rallied to t h e s u p p o r t of t h e C h i n e s e w a r effort to resist t h e Japanese a g g r e s s i o n . " Youth Association urge t h e  5 6  T h e local C h i n e s e f o r m e d a l l i a n c e n e t w o r k s — like M a h ' s  Chinese  of Victoria — to protest a g a i n s t s h i p m e n t s of s c r a p m e t a l to J a p a n a n d  boycotting  of J a p a n e s e g o o d s .  5 7  T h e J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n of C h i n a p r o v i d e d  an  i m p e t u s to f o r m m a n y C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y - w i d e [ a n t i - J a p a n e s e • u n i t e d - C h i n e s e • n a t i o n a l salvation]  w a r relief a s s o c i a t i o n s . For the c o u r s e of t h e w a r ,  between  1937 and  1945,  o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e r e s p o n d e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g f u n d d r i v e s for a l m o s t e v e r y m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e . Altogether, the Chinese Canadian c o m m u n i t i e s ' contributions went well beyond  5 8  providing  manpower. O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d A u s t r a l i a h a d c o m p a r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e s . M u n s o n K w o k a n d S u e l l e n C h e n g r e n d e r t h e A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e in Duty & Honour, " A c t i v i t i e s r a n g e d f r o m f u n d r a i s e r s a n d C h i n e s e b o n d d r i v e s , to s h i p p i n g s u p p l i e s ,  Japan's path of aggression began when it forcibly encroached on Korea. By 1907, Korea was completely under Japanese control — its annexation in August 1910 was simply a formality. Korea became Japan's stepping stone to the Asian mainland, where it subsequently targetted Manchuria. 5 2  Unfortunately, the Nationalist (or Guomindang) government was more preoccupied with antiCommunist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders and protecting their people. It was not until 1937 that the Nationalist formed a united front with the Communists. By this time, it was too late to block the Japanese. 5 3  With every aggression, the rationale for Japan was the removal of European colonialism and the creation of the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere under Japanese leadership. 5 4  5 5  Japan's invasion of China occurred long before the Second World War started in Europe.  5 6  Interview with Roy Mah, 15 November 2004, Vancouver.  Roy Mah was one of the founding members of the Chinese Youth Association of Victoria. During this time period, Roy sought to block shipments of scrap metal [for making weapons] to Japan and to have the government enforce sanctions on imported Japanese goods. (Interview with Roy Mah, 15 November 2004, Vancouver.) 5 7  Money was raised for hospital beds, to pay for labour, to equip field clinics and provide clinical care, for Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalists. 5 8  14  to rolling b a n d a g e s , to e v e n p r o t e s t i n g t h e s h i p m e n t of iron to J a p a n . "  5 9  F u n d r a i s i n g for the  w a r effort w a s a l s o a f e a t u r e of m a n y C h i n e s e A u s t r a l i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . R e g a r d i n g C h i n e s e A u s t r a l i a n s , M o r a g Loh a n d J u d i t h W i n t e r n i t z d e s c r i b e s o m e of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s m a d e in Dinky-Di:  "raising  money,  making  gifts for  troops,  holding  functions  to  boost  morale,  w o r k i n g a s p l a n e s p o t t e r s ... s o m e w e r e q u i t e e x p e r i e n c e d at o r g a n i z i n g s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , having s i n c e 1 9 3 7 r a i s e d f u n d s to help C h i n a resist t h e J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n . "  6 0  The responses  and e x p e r i e n c e s of m a n y o v e r s e a s C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r to e a c h o t h e r . S u p p o r t of the a n t i - J a p a n e s e w a r effort a l s o c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h white C a n a d i a n s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . B e s i d e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the R e d C r o s s c a m p a i g n s a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e w o r k , C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s in B C a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d $ 5 m i l l i o n to C a n a d a ' s V i c t o r y Loan D r i v e — m o r e , per c a p i t a , t h a n a n y o t h e r g r o u p in C a n a d a , a c c o r d i n g to Ed W i c k b e r g ' s research.  6 1  A s t e r r i b l e a s t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e W a r w a s , it did h a v e the benefit of u n i f y i n g t h e  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s , at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y . It a l s o h e l p e d to w i n s y m p a t h y a m o n g other C a n a d i a n s for C h i n a a n d for C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s .  6 2  W h i t e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s f o l l o w e d t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e W a r w i t h interest a n d g e n e r a l l y took the s i d e of C h i n a .  S y m p a t h y for  C h i n a led to c o o p e r a t i o n  between  C o l u m b i a n s a n d l o c a l C h i n e s e . T h e w a r a l s o h e l p e d w h i t e s differentiate Asian  5 9  peoples. As Patricia  R o y d e s c r i b e s in  her  recent  book,  The  white  British  between the Oriental  two  Question:  Kwok, Munson and Suellen Cheng, "Americanization of the Chinese Angelenos," in Duty & Honor: A  Tribute to Chinese American World War II Veterans of Southern California, edited by Marjorie Lee. Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1998. 6 0  Loh, Morag and Judith Winternitz.  Dinky-Di: The Contributions of Chinese immigrants  and  Australians of Chinese descent to Australia's defence forces and war efforts, 1899-1988. Canberra: AGPS Press publication for the Office of Multicultural Affairs, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989, p. 33. In Ed Wickberg's From China to Canada, he records the success of Chinese Canadian fundraising efforts: "Adding together all sums of monetary aid, Vancouver Chinese contributed an estimated C$1 million to China between 1937 and 1945" and "How much did the Chinese in Canada contribute? Taking into account all kinds of financial contributions, the usual figure given is Can $10 million — or about $125 per capita." (Con, Harry and Ronald J . Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg, William W. Willmott. Edgar Wickberg, Ed. From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd. in association with the Multiculturalism Directorate, Dept. of the Secretary of State and the Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada, 1988, p. 191 and 189.) 6 1  This was an incredible feat, considering that Chinese Canadians made approximately half the wages of white people, had some of the worst jobs, there was high unemployment because of the Depression, and many supported a family in Canada as well as relatives in China. The reaction in the United States was similar, however, the U.S. took this sympathy one step further. On 7 July 1942, the U.S. issued a postage stamp to commemorated China's five-year resistance against Japansese aggression. On the stamp is a map of China in the background, shown with U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on the left and Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Chinese Revolution,on the right. (Lee, Marjorie, Ed. Duty & Honor: A Tribute to Chinese American World War II Veterans of Southern California. Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1998, p. 9) 6 2  15  Consolidating  a White Man's Province,  "Whites attended war films, concerts and bazaars  a r r a n g e d by local C h i n e s e to raise m o n e y for w a r r e l i e f . "  63  The Cooperative Commonwealth  F e d e r a t i o n ( C C F ) , a n a t i o n a l political p a r t y , s u p p o r t e d t h e e m b a r g o e s o n s h i p m e n t s to a n d f r o m J a p a n . W h i t e C a n a d i a n s a l s o p r o v i d e d aid in o t h e r w a y s : s u c h a s t h e Chinese  War  Relief Fund, a n o t h e r w h i t e i n i t i a t i v e , w h i c h p r o v i d e d m e d i c a l a n d o t h e r a i d to t h e h o m e l e s s in C h i n a ; a n d V i c t o r i a ' s Rice Bowl Festival, w h i c h w a s a t t e n d e d by t h e c i t y ' s M a y o r A n d r e w 6 4  McGavin and a Brigadier General J . G . Austin, who represented the Canadian Red Cross Society.  65  J a p a n ' s military aggression helped people distinguish between C h i n e s e allies and  Japanese enemies. A s the Chinese d i m i n i s h e d  6 6  Sino-Japanese War  progressed, white agitation  against  the  and anti-Japanese sentiment intensified.  By t h e e n d of t h e 1 9 3 0 s , it w a s likely t h a t C a n a d a w o u l d be d r a w n into a n o t h e r global conflict. U n d e r t h e b a n n e r s of d e m o c r a c y a n d a n t i - f a s c i s m , B r i t i s h C o m m o n w e a l t h 6 7  forces m a r c h e d to w a r in S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 . C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , like m a n y o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , w e r e e a g e r to d e f e n d B r i t a i n a n d r u s h e d to e n l i s t .  6 8  However, they were excluded from  s e r v i n g in t h e a r m e d f o r c e s w h i l e o t h e r C a n a d i a n s w e r e a c c e p t e d .  6 9  Chinese C a n a d i a n s did  not pose a d e m o g r a p h i c t h r e a t : i m m i g r a t i o n h a d c e a s e d a n d , a c c o r d i n g to o n e n e w s p a p e r , those of f i g h t i n g - a g e  in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n u m b e r e d j u s t o v e r o n e t h o u s a n d .  Roy, Patricia E. The Oriental Question: of British Columbia Press, 2004, p. 96.  6 3  Consolidating  7 0  Further,  a White Man's Province. Vancouver: University  The Chinese War Relief Fund was estimated to have raised over $4 million, mostly because of the efforts of white Canadians, in the five-year period from December 1941 to December 1946. (Wickberg etal, p. 192.)  6 4  "Huge Crowd Attends Elaborate Festival Given to Aid China," Victoria Daily Colonist, 1939, p. 8.  6 5  27 October  The Chinese continued to experience racial discrimination right into the 1930s: a 1920 law forbade white and aboriginal women from working in Chinese restaurants, in 1926, the British Columbia legislature proposed that Chinese be forbidden to own real estate; in 1935, the Vancouver City Health Department proposed that Chinese cooks working in Western-style restaurants be required to pass a physical examination; the idea of school segregation was revived from time to time, but without success in Vancouver.  6 6  6 7  And communism, after 1941.  6 8  In the first month alone, over 58,000 Canadians enlisted. (Byers, p. 78.)  Some political screening excluded leftists. However, almost all Chinese in British Columbia experienced the beginning year of the war as civilians.  6 9  Then again, the University of British Columbia "decided that all able-bodied male students should take military training." (Roy, The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want, p. 344.) Chinese Australians experienced a similar dilemma. The Defence Act 1909 exempted those not of 'substantially European descent or origin' from combatant duties, nevertheless, many Chinese Australians joined up as soon as they could. (Giese, Diana. Courage & Service: Chinese Australians and World War II. Marrickville, N S W : Courage and Service Project, 1999.) At the beginning of the Second World War, there were only a little over one thousand Chinese of military-age living in British Columbia. "Vancouver Chinese are facing racial extinction, while Japanese  7 0  16  J a p a n e s e a t r o c i t i e s in C h i n a had m a d e t h e C h i n e s e v i c t i m s of t h e J a p a n e s e .  7 1  Still, BC  politicians did not w a n t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t to s u m m o n C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s for m i l i t a r y d u t y . T h e y u r g e d t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r a n d his w a r m i n i s t e r s to c a n c e l a n y o r d e r s to call up C h i n e s e for c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g .  7 2  In m i d - F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 0 , t h e C a b i n e t W a r C o m m i t t e e ( C W C ) a p p r o v e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e for all C a n a d i a n s , but s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e d O r i e n t a l s a n d e n e m y aliens.  73  By J u n e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d a d o p t e d c o n s c r i p t i o n for h o m e s e r v i c e u n d e r t h e  National R e s o u r c e s M o b i l i z a t i o n A c t ( N R M A ) , w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t to r e g i s t e r m e n a n d w o m e n a n d t o m o v e t h e m i n t o j o b s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y for w a r t i m e p r o d u c t i o n , b u t did not c o m p e l t h e m to p e r f o r m o v e r s e a s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s c o u l d e n l i s t v o l u n t a r i l y in a n y of t h e p r o v i n c e s , under N R M A .  7 5  7 4  but officially, at t h i s t i m e , t h e y w e r e not c a l l e d u p  T h i s rule w a s c o n f i r m e d b y S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 0 , but it o n l y a p p l i e d to B C . T h a t  s a m e m o n t h , a n u m b e r of O r i e n t a l s w e r e s u m m o n e d for m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s — " t h e first s t a g e in t h e g e n e r a l c a l l - u p for c o m p u l s o r y t r a i n i n g for h o m e d e f e n c e u n d e r t h e according to h i s t o r i a n P a t r i c i a R o y  7 6  NRMA,"  — but t h e y w e r e n e v e r s e n t to m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s .  O n e C h i n e s e m a n in B . C . c o m p l a i n e d in a n e w s p a p e r l e t t e r , " T h e m a j o r i t y of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s are r e a d y to a c c e p t us a s t h e i r e q u a l ; but official B C still c o n s i s t e n t l y , for m a n y p r e j u d i c e d r e a s o n s , r e f u s e s to g r a n t us e q u a l rights a n d p r i v i l e g e s a s are to be e x p e c t e d of o u r G o d - w i l l e d b i r t h in t h i s land ... B r i t i s h f a i r p l a y is p r o v e r b i a l . M a n y of u s a r e g l a d to s e r v e the c o u n t r y in a n y w a y m o s t b e n e f i c i a l to h e r ... but w h e r e is o u r v o i c e a n d where our e n c o u r a g e m e n t ? " 7 7  are increasing in number twice as fast as other races in Vancouver." (Chinese Face 'Racial Extinction', Vancouver Province, 15 October 1941, p. 17.) "During the late 1930s and early 1940s, British Columbians had increasingly fretted about the possibility of Japan attacking their undefended coast and about the true loyalties of the Canadian Japanese." Consequently, Japanese civilians on the west coast were monitored closely by the Canadian government. (Roy, Patricia E. A White Man's Province, p. 266.) 7 1  Similarly, Australians of Chinese descent and Chinese Americans were barred from the armed forces. They were not allowed to enlist because all three countries considered the Chinese 'aliens'. However, the U.S. was the first to change this designation in late 1942, and by 1943 Congress repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, to strengthen the alliance between China and the United States. This legal amendment allowed American Chinese to become naturalized citizens. 7 2  From Sept 1939, Chinese Canadians could usually enlist voluntarily in any of the provinces, but officially they were not called up under NRMA until September 1944. (Cabinet War Committee Records, 13 February 1942.) 7 3  Application of the government policy allowing Chinese to enlist in the Canadian army varied across Canada. 7 4  7 5  The CWC made this decision on 1 October 1940. (Wong, p. 71.)  Roy, Patricia E. The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want: Her Chinese and Japanese Citizens, The Canadian Historical Review, LIX, 3, 1978, p. 342.  7 6  7 7  Lin Yu Yong. A Chinese Speaks, Vancouver Sun, 23 November 1940, Editorial Section.  17  By t h e e n d of 1 9 4 0 , C a n a d a  n e e d e d to i n c r e a s e its w a r effort — i n c l u d i n g  the  e x p a n s i o n of its o v e r s e a s f o r c e s — a s , by t h i s t i m e , F r a n c e a n d m o s t of w e s t e r n E u r o p e h a d fallen to N a z i G e r m a n y , t h e A x i s a l l i a n c e h a d b e e n f o r m a l i z e d , a n d B r i t i s h f o r c e s h a d b e e n driven off t h e c o n t i n e n t . W i t h m o s t w e s t E u r o p e a n d e m o c r a c i e s u n d e r N a z i d o m i n a t i o n , C a n a d a r e m a i n e d B r i t a i n ' s c h i e f ally in t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t y r a n n y . Y e t , t h e C a n a d i a n federal g o v e r n m e n t Orientals.  c o n t i n u e d to  m a k e e x c u s e s for its d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s a i m e d  at  78  T h e i s s u e of c o n s c r i p t i o n c o n t i n u e d to d i v i d e t h e c o u n t r y . In J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 , t h e C W C ban on c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e for O r i e n t a l s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s e x t e n d e d n a t i o n w i d e . C o n c u r r e n t l y , P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g w a s b e i n g p r e s s e d by t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d t h e A r m e d F o r c e s to  introduce  c o n s c r i p t i o n for o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e . B y t h i s t i m e ,  g o v e r n m e n t r e a l i z e d t h a t its p l a n for w a g i n g a w a r of " l i m i t e d  the  federal  liability" was unrealistic.  M e a n w h i l e , U . S . P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t h i n d e r e d t h e flow of w a r m a t e r i a l s to J a p a n e s e , a n d in a n effort to d i s c o u r a g e J a p a n ' s a t t a c k s o n C h i n a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , G r e a t B r i t a i n , a n d t h e Netherlands imposed a selective trade embargo against J a p a n .  7 9  This later induced J a p a n to  retaliate by a t t a c k i n g t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n y of H o n g K o n g , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l 8 0  Settlement  in  S h a n g h a i , t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n y of M a l a y a , a n d t h e U . S . p r o t e c t o r a t e of t h e P h i l i p p i n e s . N o t long after t h a t , o n 7 D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 1 , J a p a n e s e f o r c e s l a u n c h e d a m a s s i v e a i r s t r i k e o n t h e A m e r i c a n fleet at P e a r l H a r b o r . T h a t d a y , C a n a d a p r o m p t l y d e c l a r e d w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n — one d a y before b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h i s a t t a c k b r o u g h t t h e U S into t h e w a r a n d a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d C h i n a a s o n e of t h e A l l i e s . M o r e o v e r , it p r o v i d e d t h e C a n a d i a n federal g o v e r n m e n t w i t h t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n it n e e d e d t o r e m o v e all J a p a n e s e in C a n a d a f r o m the w e s t e r n c o a s t a l r e g i o n a n d into i n t e r n m e n t c a m p s f u r t h e r i n l a n d . J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e officially  branded as " E n e m y A l i e n s . "  recognized a s " R e g i s t e r e d A l i e n s , "  8 2  8 1  In c o n t r a s t , C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e  however, they  still  remained  now  legally h a n d i c a p p e d .  Reported excuses for barring the Chinese from military service ranged from "not of pure European descent" and "difficulties of mixing races" (Wong, pp. 19 and 70) to "the harmful effect on the moral of white soldiers" (Roy, The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want, p. 345); for Indo Canadians, excuses for rejection included "not able to accommodate their special diets" and customs. (Wong, p. 80). 7 8  This included a ban on oil and steel, both vital war staples. Without these resources, Japan's military machine would grind to a halt.  7 9  80  In November 1941, Canada sent approximately 2000 soldiers to help garrison the British colony of Hong Kong: the Winnipeg Grenadiers and the Quebec Royal Rifles of Canada. Most of the soldiers were in need of training and were not combat-ready, but they fought hard and suffered high casualties. In the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor, some Chinese wore badges or displayed signs in shop windows asserting that they were Chinese, not Japanese. German and Italian Canadians were also branded as "enemy aliens" because they were from a country hostile to Canada. 8 1  8 2  18  Nonetheless, following  t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n , t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t  a t t e m p t e d to d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e of racial e q u a l i t y in t h e s e r v i c e s . T h e t h r e e a r m e d s e r v i c e s h a d difficulty c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r o w n w a r p o l i c i e s into o n e coherent  national  policy. Shortly after the  attack  on  Pearl H a r b o r , t h e  Department  of  N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e ( D N D ) , t h e N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , a n d the R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d Police ( R C M P ) u n a n i m o u s l y r e c o m m e n d e d r e v e r s i n g t h e C W C policy of 1 9 4 0 by c a l l i n g up O r i e n t a l s . Pat R o y e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e R C M P b e l i e v e d t h a t , "... t h i s would p r e v e n t a s e n s e of racial d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a m o n g A s i a n - C a n a d i a n s a n d f o r e s t a l l a n y white  Canadian jealousy  of  relief  (sic)  from  military  obligations."  83  Disregarding  the  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , o n e m o n t h l a t e r in e a r l y 1 9 4 2 , t h e C W C c o n f i r m e d its policy of r a c i a l s e p a r a t i o n . B y s p r i n g , t h i s rule w a s c h a l l e n g e d by t h e p r o p o s a l for a n a l l - C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n b a t t a l i o n ; in a d d i t i o n , a n o f f i c e r in t h e C a n a d i a n C o r p s o f S i g n a l s s u g g e s t e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a  Chinese Signal  Unit.  Nevertheless, approximately  eight  months  later,  the  Toronto  C h a i r m a n of t h e N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e c o u l d not u n d e r s t a n d w h y t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r Force ( R C A F ) w o u l d not a c c e p t a n y q u a l i f i e d C h i n e s e pilots in a n y c a t e g o r y — he w a s not a w a r e t h a t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e not  b e i n g c a l l e d up u n d e r t h e N R M A ; o n l y  then was the chairman being informed that Japanese C a n a d i a n s and Chinese C a n a d i a n s w e r e p r e s e n t l y not b e i n g c a l l e d for m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g a c r o s s C a n a d a — not j u s t in B C . E n d l e s s arguments  about  race,  misunderstandings,  and  confusion  undermined  every  possible  initiative. A l t h o u g h t h e g o v e r n m e n t c l a i m e d to be in f a v o u r of racial e q u a l i t y , no o n e official w a s willing to t a k e t h e lead a n d g i v e p r a c t i c a l effect. In A p r i l 1 9 4 2 , P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g ' s g o v e r n m e n t h e l d a n a t i o n a l p l e b i s c i t e , which asked the  population  to  release the  government  from  its  promise  not  to  send  c o n s c r i p t s o v e r s e a s . K i n g ' s r e p u t e d s t a n c e m a d e d u r i n g t h e 1 9 4 0 e l e c t i o n , " C o n s c r i p t i o n if necessary,  but  not  necessarily conscription,"  reflected  the  ambiguous  nature  of  the  plebiscite. A s e x p e c t e d , t h e p l e b i s c i t e w a s s u p p o r t e d by m o s t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s , w h o v o t e d 8 0 % in f a v o u r , but h a r d l y at all b y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y in Q u e b e c .  8 4  S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e c t i o n s of t h e N R M A t h a t did not a l l o w t h e u s e of c o n s c r i p t s for o v e r s e a s service w e r e r e t r a c t e d . D e s p i t e t h e l a c k of s u p p o r t f r o m m a n y C a n a d i a n s o n t h i s i s s u e , c h a n g e s in p o l i c i e s w e r e u n d e r w a y . T h e R C A F w a s t h e first of t h e C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e s to a c c e p t C h i n e s e o n a n ' e q u a l ' b a s i s , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e r e s t r i c t e d to g r o u n d d u t i e s until t h e racial r e q u i r e m e n t aircrew  5  1  be w h i t e w a s officially  d r o p p e d . C h a n g e s to  the  racial requirement  had  that been  Roy. The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want, p. 348. S t a c e y , p.  257.  19  proposed a s e a r l y a s 1 9 4 1 , but it w a s not until O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 t h a t The King's and  Regulations  Orders for the Royal Canadian Air Force w e r e a m e n d e d to a l l o w C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s to  enlist for a i r c r e w .  8 5  Not e v e r y o n e in t h e R C A F w a s i n f o r m e d of t h e s e c h a n g e s : a n  RCAF  s p o k e s m a n a n n o u n c e d at a m e e t i n g in A p r i l 1 9 4 3 t h a t t h e a i r f o r c e ' s p o l i c y s h o u l d be a m e n d e d " t o a c c e p t a l i e n s after v e t t i n g but not e n e m y a l i e n s . S p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , apply to O r i e n t a l s ... [but] t h e g e n e r a l policy is to d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r e n l i s t m e n t . "  8 6  C l e a r l y , he  did not k n o w t h a t s e v e r a l C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e a l r e a d y s e r v i n g in t h e R C A F . R e s t r i c t i o n s did not p r e v e n t s o m e C h i n e s e f r o m a t t e m p t i n g to e n l i s t e a r l y o n . In 1 9 4 3 , O t t a w a s e t up t h e B u r e a u of P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n to p r o m o t e p a t r i o t i s m a n d ' C a n a d i a n i s m ' a m o n g all e t h n i c g r o u p s in E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g C a n a d a . T h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t also e s t a b l i s h e d t h e N a t i o n a l i t i e s B r a n c h of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s t o a t t e m p t to c o m b a t w i d e s p r e a d a n t i - i m m i g r a n t a t t i t u d e s ,  87  evident during the 1930s. With  its staff of t w o , t h e b r a n c h w a s a t o k e n r e s p o n s e to a v e r y s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . A s t h e W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d r e p o r t e d , "It is o b v i o u s t h a t p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t ' f o r e i g n e r s ' in g e n e r a l a n d J e w s in p a r t i c u l a r h a s g r o w n . "  8 8  T h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s f a i n t - h e a r t e d g e s t u r e to r a c i a l e q u a l i t y  c o m b i n e d w i t h its t o l e r a n c e for u n e q u a l , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s s a b o t a g e d i n i t i a t i v e s to e n d racial a n t a g o n i s m s . As with the RCAF, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) also had a 'whites only' policy. Blacks who were British S u b j e c t s and Indians (native and Asian) from British C o l u m b i a were not a l l o w e d to e n l i s t in t h e R C N u n t i l t h e King's Regulations  c h a n g e d ; e v e n if a C h i n e s e w a s  C a n a d i a n - b o r n , he c o u l d t r y to e n l i s t in t h e R C N , but w o u l d be r e f u s e d o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t he w a s not w h i t e . "  8 9  A t a n i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l m e e t i n g in A p r i l 1 9 4 3 , t h e N a v y h a d s t a t e d  that its p o l i c y w a s to a c c e p t " a n y B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , but not a l i e n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , C a n a d i a n C h i n e s e or C h i n e s e b o r n acceptable."  90  in H o n g K o n g m a y e n l i s t in t h e  N a v y if t h e y  wish and  are  A l l r a c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s w e r e r e m o v e d in M a r c h 1 9 4 3 ; t h e o n l y s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h a t  r e m a i n e d w a s t h a t a recruit m u s t be a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t .  9 1  H o w e v e r , no s i m i l a r r e l a x a t i o n of  Order signed by AM L.S. Breadner, C A S , 1 October 1942, in NAC RG 24, Vol 17. 17.800, File 82821, Vol. 14; and Order in Council PC 7 9 / 1 1 1 6 0 , in NAC RG 2, Vol. 1784, approved 9 December 1942. Paragraph 227(1) of 77?e King's Regulations and Orders for the Royal Canadian Air Force, 1924.  8 5  8 6  Note for External Files, 27 April 1943, in NAC RG 25, Vol. 2818, File 1154-40.  8 7  Anti-immigrant attitudes were usually whites against visible minorities.  Pal, Leslie A. "Identity, Citizenship, and Mobilization: the Nationalities Branch and World War Two," Canadian Public Administration, Vol. 32, No.3 (1989), p. 46.  8 8  8 9  Wong, p. 60.  9 0  Note for External Files, 27 April 1943, in NAC RG 25, Vol. 2818, File 1154-40.  9 1  NAC, RG 2, Vol. 178, File 12 March 1943, Reel T5152. 20  regulations a p p l i e d to t h e m e r c h a n t n a v y . It w a s not u n t i l after t h e w a r t h a t t h e R C N m a d e a c o n c e r t e d effort to w e l c o m e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s . T h e c o l o u r b a r in t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y w a s m u c h m o r e s u b t l e a n d m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n the o t h e r t w o s e r v i c e s . W i t h i n t h e a r m y , C h i n e s e c o u l d e n l i s t v o l u n t a r i l y in a n y of t h e provinces e a s t of t h e R o c k i e s , but t h e y w e r e not c a l l e d up u n d e r N R M A until 1 9 4 4 . Marjorie W o n g w r i t e s , " I n i t i a l l y , ... [the]  P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g had a c t e d o n t h e r e q u e s t of  B C Premier T . D . Pattullo  to  not  c a l l up C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s [in  British  C o l u m b i a ] . If, s a i d P a t t u l l o , t h e C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e a r e ' c a l l e d up for s e r v i c e , t h e r e will be a d e m a n d t h a t t h e y tolerate.'"  92  be g i v e n t h e f r a n c h i s e , w h i c h w e in t h i s  Province can  never  T h e C h i n e s e w e r e w e l l a w a r e of t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y  service a n d t h e f r a n c h i s e , a n d t h e y p e t i t i o n e d t h e M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s in O t t a w a i n d i c a t i n g t h a t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w o u l d be e a g e r " t o g i v e w h a t e v e r s e r v i c e s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d of C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g , but t h a t in t u r n t h e y s h o u l d r e c e i v e c o m p l e t e r e c o g n i t i o n a s C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s a n d s h o u l d h a v e all t h e privileges of c i t i z e n s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r i g h t to v o t e . "  9 3  Ignoring the petition, one month  later, t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n f i r m e d t h e b a n o n C h i n e s e f r o m t h e a r m y ;  this  only  applied to B C , a s of O c t o b e r 1 9 4 0 . C h i n e s e y o u n g m e n w h o w a n t e d to s e r v e e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , h o w e v e r , r e c r u i t e r s e a s t of t h e R o c k i e s w e r e a c c e p t i n g C h i n e s e a s t h e y w e r e m o r e e q u a l s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e w h i t e m a j o r i t y t h e r e . In Doors,  Daphne Marlatt's  Dr. S o W o n L e u n g p r o u d l y s t a t e d , "I j o i n e d up b a c k e a s t . "  o n w a r d , h o w e v e r , t h e C W C e x t e n d e d t h i s b a n t o a l l of C a n a d a .  9 4  Opening  From January  1941  9 5  Not e v e r y o n e in t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d w i t h t h i s d e c i s i o n , but t h e m a j o r i t y w e r e b e h i n d P a t t u l l o a n d K i n g . T h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r , n u m e r o u s t i m e - c o n s u m i n g m e e t i n g s at all levels of g o v e r n m e n t , in b o t h O t t a w a a n d V i c t o r i a , f o c u s e d o n ' t h e O r i e n t a l p r o b l e m ' . G o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s a n d civil s e r v a n t s w e r e s h u f f l i n g off r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d m a k i n g e x c u s e s t o k e e p t h e C h i n e s e o u t of t h e a r m y . A t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e o f t h e w a r , it w a s still q u i t e e a s y to be s e l e c t i v e a b o u t r e c r u i t s , w h e n s o m e still b e l i e v e d t h a t a l i m i t e d w a r w a s f e a s i b l e .  9 2  Wong, p. 70.  Since jobs in the professions of law, pharmacy, accounting hinged on being on the voters' lists, the right to vote was far more significant than merely casting one's ballot. (NAC, RG 25, V o l . 2818, File 1154-40, 20 September 1940.)  9 3  Marlatt, Daphne. Opening Doors: Vancouver's East End, compiled and edited by Daphne Marlatt and Carol Itter. Victoria, B C : Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, Provincial Archives, 1979, p. 162. 9 4  "The CWC on 22 November 1941 included a ban on compulsory military service for Chinese as well as Japanese Canadians all across Canada not just in British Columbia." (The Report and  9 5  Recommendations of the Special Committee on Orientals in British Columbia December 1940, in NAC RG 27, Vol. 1500, File 2-K-184, N.W.S. Oriental BC.  21  A g r e a t d e a l of s e c r e c y w a s i n v o l v e d in t h e C W C d e c i s i o n to e x c l u d e t h e C h i n e s e from the  army,  so much  that  various  l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t  were  not  receiving  information. People were misinformed and there was tremendous disorder. Nine  this  months  after the C W C h a d c o m e to its d e c i s i o n , t h e T o r o n t o c h a i r m a n of N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s (NWS)  w a s not a w a r e t h a t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e not to be c a l l e d up u n d e r N R M A . F o r  s o m e r e a s o n , t h e r e w a s a l s o a d e l a y in g e t t i n g t h i s v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n to t h e boards.  Despite the  C W C decision, Chinese continued  especially in O n t a r i o a n d Q u e b e c .  to  be c a l l e d  up  mobilization  under  NRMA,  9 6  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d s e l e c t i v i t y w e n t o u t t h e d o o r w h e n t h e n e e d for  reinforcements  b e c a m e u r g e n t . T h e c o l l e c t i v e a n d s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s e s in t h e ill-fated D i e p p e R a i d in 1 9 4 2 , the c a m p a i g n s of Italy in 1 9 4 3 , a n d t h e B a t t l e of N o r m a n d y in 1 9 4 4 , a s well a s t h e s h o r t a g e of v o l u n t e e r s , f o r c e d  Canada's government  to  realistically confront  its s e v e r e  infantry  s h o r t a g e . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e a r m y c o u l d no l o n g e r afford to f o r e g o a n y v a l u a b l e r e s e r v o i r of m u c h - n e e d e d m a n p o w e r . B e c a u s e t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d r e f u s e d to a l l o w C h i n e s e into t h e a r m y , m a n y w h i t e s e r v i c e m e n w h o h a d b e e n r i s k i n g t h e i r lives for five long y e a r s m i g h t s e e the Chinese as cowardly w a r dodgers. A n d to further complicate the situation,  many  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s s o u g h t p e r m i s s i o n to l e a v e C a n a d a to j o i n t h e A m e r i c a n a r m e d f o r c e s while t h e M o b i l i z a t i o n B o a r d in V a n c o u v e r , d e s p e r a t e l y in n e e d of m e n , a n d " w a s s c r a p i n g t h e b o t t o m of t h e b a r r e l , " a s p r i n t e d in t h e Victoria  Daily  Times.  97  It d i d not s e e m to e v e n  m a t t e r to K i n g ' s g o v e r n m e n t t h a t C a n a d a w a s a l l i e d w i t h C h i n a . M a n s o n , t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y , t h e N S S , a n d t h e C W C c o n t i n u e d to p r e s s t h e g o v e r n m e n t for c h a n g e s in m a n p o w e r policy. C h a n g e c a m e a b o u t w h e n t h e B r i t i s h W a r Office c o n t a c t e d O t t a w a in t h e s p r i n g of 1 9 4 4 r e g a r d i n g " f i f t e e n C a n a d i a n C h i n e s e [ w h o a r e ] w a n t e d for d a n g e r o u s d u t i e s . " subjects were  n e e d e d for  espionage operations  in  British territories  9 8  occupied  British by  the  J a p a n e s e — C a n a d a w a s n o w o b l i g e d to h e l p B r i t a i n a g a i n s t t h e i r c o m m o n , a n d r e a l , enemy.  T h i s i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e — a c h a n g e o n l y m a d e u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n to t h e m o t h e r l a n d  — demonstrates the  King government's  f e a r of e x a c e r b a t i n g r a c i a l t e n s i o n s in  British  C o l u m b i a a n d in t h e a r m y , w h o s e m e m b e r s w e r e d r a w n f r o m t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y . C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e n o w p e r m i t t e d a c t i v e d u t y in all of t h e s e r v i c e s . Since their arrival to C a n a d a , discrimination against the C h i n e s e had been based on t h e i r p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , t h e i r l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e i r c u l t u r e — all of w h i c h w e r e s t r i k i n g l y  L.R. LaFleche, Associate Deputy Minister, NWS, to External Affairs, 6 October; Keenlyside reply, 9 October; LaFleche to The Honourable Mr. Justice J.G. Gillanders, Toronto, 10 October 1941, in NAC RG 27, Vol. 1489, File 2-184, NWS Orientals.  9 6  97  Victoria Daily Times, 22 Aug 4 4 ; A.M. Manson to Arthur MacNamara, 3 May 44, PAC, DLR vol. 127A.  9 8  Chinese Canadians were wanted for special duties with Special Operations Executive (SOE). 22  different  from  European Canadians. However,  now  that  British  territories  were  under  J a p a n e s e c o n t r o l , t h e C a n a d i a n a n d B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t s f o u n d C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s to be i n d i s p e n s a b l e to w i n n i n g t h e w a r : B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s w h o c o u l d e a s i l y b l e n d into S o u t h e a s t A s i a w i t h local C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y c h a n g e t h e c o u r s e of t h e Pacific w a r . T h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e of t h e C h i n e s e w a s n o l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d a n i m p e d i m e n t , but a n a d v a n t a g e . K n o w i n g t h i s , m a n y C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s s a w t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r a s a w a y to r e d e f i n e t h e i r s t a t u s . H o w t h e y s h o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h t h i s m o n u m e n t a l task? The following  chapter explores the  1944 debates regarding compulsory overseas  s e r v i c e , in t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s of V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a . T h r o u g h  oral  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h m a n y of t h e r e m a i n i n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s , t h e i r m e m o r i e s of t h e d e b a t e s will u n c o v e r i n s i g h t s into t h e i r m o t i v e s b o t h f o r a n d a g a i n s t a c t i v e d u t y . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s will a l s o r e v e a l h o w t h e y identified t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e i r h y b r i d c o m m u n i t i e s of both Chinese and C a n a d i a n cultures and how they understood what their responsibilities w e r e . T h e d e b a t e s — e v o l v i n g f r o m a c l a s h of o p i n i o n s t o a s i n g u l a r r e s o l u t i o n — w i l l e x p l a i n m u c h a b o u t t h e i r f e e l i n g s for C a n a d a , C h i n a , J a p a n , a n d t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r .  23  Chapter 4  EVOLUTION of the DEBATES  W h e n t h e first g e n e r a l m o b i l i z a t i o n call c a m e in 1 9 3 9 , m a n y C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s tried to enlist i n t h e a r m e d f o r c e s , b u t w e r e r e j e c t e d . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l m o s t a l l o f t h e m e x p e r i e n c e d t h e b e g i n n i n g y e a r s of t h e w a r a s c i v i l i a n s . It w a s not until m i d - A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 when Chinese C a n a d i a n s were conscripted for compulsory overseas duties — three months before t h e n a t i o n a l o v e r s e a s c a l l - u p — t h a t t h e y alongside other  were given the opportunity  to fight  Canadians. However, overseas conscription deeply divided their  much-  persecuted ethnic c o m m u n i t i e s : s o m e y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s were thrilled that opportunity  their  h a d c o m e ; o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , d i d not s u p p o r t m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e ; a n d t h e o l d e r  g e n e r a t i o n w a s s p l i t o n its v i e w s . T o f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e t h i n g s , r e a s o n s f o r a n d a g a i n s t service  were  not consistent,  nor did some  individuals  limit  themselves to just one  s t a n d p o i n t . In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f t h e d e b a t e s , I will b e g i n b y l o o k i n g at t h e u p b r i n g i n g o f a n d i n f l u e n c e s u p o n t h e s e m i l i t a r y - a g e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s t o s e e w h a t t h e y felt w a s a t s t a k e . O t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d b e t a k e n into a c c o u n t a r e t h e conflicting w a r p o l i c i e s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d a r m e d f o r c e s , f a m i l y a n d p e e r i n f l u e n c e s , plus a n u m b e r o f o t h e r d e t a i l s , t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r u n d e n i a b l y c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n . With t h e onset of t h e S e c o n d World War, m a n y Chinese Canadians in B C joined t h e rush to e n l i s t but, d u e t o t h e i r r a c e , t h e y w e r e n o t c a l l e d t o a c t i v e d u t y . T h e B C g o v e r n m e n t did not f a v o u r t h e e n l i s t m e n t o f C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s in t h e a r m e d f o r c e s ; later, t h i s b a n w a s extended nationwide a s the federal government gave w a y to pressure from the western p r o v i n c e . H i s t o r i a n Pat R o y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h i s b a n o n O r i e n t a l s in t h e forces w a s t h a t , " A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l G o r d o n W i s m e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ... told C o l o n e l L.R. LaFleche, Associate Deputy Minister of National W a r Services, 'if these m e n a r e called upon to perform t h e duties of citizens a n d bear a r m s for C a n a d a , it will b e i m p o s s i b l e t o resist t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e y a r e e n t i t l e d to t h e f r a n c h i s e ' ... a n d ... P r e m i e r T . D . P a t t t u l o d e c l a r e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia would 'never tolerate' a d e m a n d for the f r a n c h i s e . " 9 9  T h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s in t h e m i l i t a r y w a s u n w a n t e d b y a l l l e v e l s o f government — from the Defence Minister and Prime Minister to the Attorney General a n d the  P r e m i e r of B r i t i s h  Columbia  — a n d restrictions  were  legislated to prohibit  their  involvement because military service had long been seen a s t h e ultimate test of citizenship. By k e e p i n g t h e m o u t o f t h e s e r v i c e s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e  9 9  status  Roy. The Soldiers Canada Didn't Want, p. 342.  24  quo  on t h e C h i n e s e : d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d ' a l i e n s ' , a s t h e y w e r e l e g a l l y d e f i n e d .  1 0 0  What  the  g o v e r n m e n t f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e w a s t h a t y o u n g C h i n e s e m e n a n d w o m e n of m i l i t a r y - a g e w e r e far more C a n a d i a n t h a n t h e y a p p e a r e d to be. M a n y y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e first or s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n C a n a d i a n - b o r n , a n d , as s u c h , t h e y had g r o w n up h i g h l y a s s i m i l a t e d to E u r o p e a n - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e a n d w i t h w h i t e Canadian f r i e n d s .  1 0 1  T h e y w e r e not o n l y C h i n e s e , but a b i c u l t u r a l b l e n d of W e s t e r n a n d  C h i n e s e h e r i t a g e s . Prof. Lisa M a r e x p l a i n s , " T h e y a t t e n d e d C a n a d i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h a t e x t o l l e d t h e s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e B r i t i s h w a y of life, t h e E m p i r e a n d t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of British c i v i l i z a t i o n . "  1 0 2  A n d b e c a u s e t h e i r p a r e n t s w a n t e d t h e m t o retain t h e i r C h i n e s e n e s s ,  m o s t had a C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a s w e l l . M a n y w e r e s e n t to C h i n e s e s c h o o l , M o n d a y t o F r i d a y , after t h e i r  regular  public school education. S o m e even  had the  opportunity  to  study  o v e r s e a s in C h i n a . V e t e r a n H a r r y C o n told D a p h n e M a r l a t t t h a t he h a d s u c h a n u p b r i n g i n g : "In t h o s e d a y s m y p a r e n t s , or a n y o t h e r p a r e n t s , w o u l d like t h e i r c h i l d r e n to l e a r n s o m e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e ... so t h e y t o o k m e a n d m y s i s t e r b a c k to C h i n a to s t u d y C h i n e s e . I lived in C h i n a a b o u t n i n e y e a r s , a n d I c a m e b a c k around 1 9 3 4 . " 1 0 3  Roy Mah also had a similar experience: "I w a s b o r n in E d m o n t o n a n d I w a s r a i s e d , p a r t l y , in C h i n a . T h e e n t i r e f a m i l y m o v e d b a c k to C h i n a w h e n I w a s t h r e e - y e a r s - o l d , t h e n I c a m e b a c k to C a n a d a w h e n I w a s e l e v e n a n d s e t t l e d w i t h m y f a t h e r in V i c t o r i a . " 1 0 4  More t h a n fifty p e r c e n t of t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s s p e n t t i m e in C h i n a . O t h e r s , like s i b l i n g s F r a n k a n d B i n g W o n g , w h o g r e w up in A l e r t B a y , or b r o t h e r s A l b e r t a n d C e d r i c M a h and Peggy Lee, who  grew  up in Prince R u p e r t , n e v e r d i d  live in C h i n a n o r d i d  they  e x p e r i e n c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n t l y N a t i v e I n d i a n f i s h i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . W h e t h e r or not y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s s p e n t a n y t i m e in C h i n a , a l m o s t all of t h e m felt a d u a l l o y a l t y to b o t h c o u n t r i e s . T h e i r c o m m i t m e n t to C h i n a w a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b a s e d o n the h e r i t a g e t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s h a d i n s t i l l e d in t h e m , w a s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance which separated t h e m from n o n - C h i n e s e , w a s reinforced by their  residential  The Chinese had to register under the Exclusion Act of 1923 and were, thus, categorized as 'registered aliens.' 1 0 0  Marjorie Wong notes that, "Chinese of callable years in British Columbia were nearly all born in Canada — 9 3 % were Canadian-born." (Wong, 7 6 . ) 1 0 1  1 0 2  Mar, Lisa R. From Diaspora to North American Civil Rights: Chinese Canadian ideas, identities and  brokers in Vancouver, British Columbia, 1924-1960. PhD Thesis, University of Toronto, August 2002, p. 142. Harry Con was a member of a secret British commando group, Force 1 3 6 , which specialized in sabotage and reconnaissance behind Japanese enemy lines. (Marlatt, Daphne. Opening Doors, p. 157.) 1 0 3  1 0 4  Roy Mah. Interview with Author, 15 November 2002. 25  segregation to Chinatown,  105  and was due to discriminatory experiences. As a result, when  the war first broke out in China in 1937, Chinese communities across Canada rallied to the support of the Chinese War effort to resist Japanese aggression. Then again, many having 106  been born and raised in Canada — and most knowing no other homeland — were instilled with a strong sense of duty and the desire to defend Canada. In the case of John Ko Bong, his father had always encouraged his children to be loyal to both China and Canada.  107  Many  young Chinese Canadians were eager to do their share for Canada's war effort, despite their second-class citizenship. Discrimination did not restrain them from attempting to gain entry into the forces. Brothers Albert and Cedric Mah, born in Prince Rupert, already had their pilot's licences when they tried to enlist in the RCAF in 1939 — they were both rejected. Walter Joe of Vernon, made two attempts to enlist in the air force but was rejected on both occasions.  108  Douglas Sam, of Victoria, tried to enlist in the RCAF in 1940 but was advised that volunteers must be of European descent. When I interviewed Dan Lee concerning his effort to join the forces, he said: "Friends I went to school with joined. So when I went to enlist in 1940 and was rejected, I couldn't understand why. I thought that maybe my marks weren't good enough." 109  In 1940, the Vancouver  Sun  published a letter from a young Chinese Canadian who  was frustrated with the hypocrisy of the system: "Sir: I am one of the hundreds of Canadian-born Chinese, of military age, and glad of the privilege of fighting and dying for Canada. Here are the facts that I would like to place before the Canadian public to get their opinion on whether it does or does not constitute British fair play. First — Although my parents are naturalized British subjects for 35 years and myself born in Vancouver, I am not allowed to vote. The government's reason, I am an alien. Second — Although I possess registered firearms for hunting, I must surrender them by September 30, 1940. The government's reason, I am an alien."  Usually, only bigger BC cities like Vancouver and Victoria confined their Chinese populations to Chinatowns. 1 0 5  1 0 6  War-related activities brought them into integrated settings with other non-Chinese Canadians.  1 0 7  Ko Bong, John (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 7 April 2004.  Instead, Walter joined the BC Dragoons in 1939. Then in 1942, Walter made one last attempt to join the RCAF. This time he was accepted as the rules had changed. 1 0 8  'Friends' that Dan is referring to here are his non-Chinese friends who had no problem enlisting. (Lee, Daniel. Interview with Author, 10 November 2004.)  1 0 9  26  Third — Canada adopts conscription [under N R M A ] , therefore I a m drafted into t h e C a n a d i a n a r m y . T h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e a s o n , I a m a B r i t i s h Subject." 1 1 0  W h e n C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s volunteered for t h e forces they were rejected, but as of June 1 9 4 0 , when the government enacted the National Resources Mobilization A c t , they were legally obliged to register for the w a r e f f o r t .  111  Many thought that this rejection, then a  complete reversal, w a s outrageous. Consequently, this inconsistency led s o m e to challenge the g o v e r n m e n t ' s authority. M a n y C h i n e s e y o u t h s w h o w a n t e d to a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e in C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , t o o k this o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s d o u b l e s t a n d a r d . O n e y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c l y r a i s e d t h e i s s u e o f c i t i z e n s h i p in V i c t o r i a ' s Daily C o l o n i s t : " C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n s , a t t h i s critical h o u r o f C a n a d a ' s h i s t o r y , a r e n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o r a i s e a n i s s u e f o r e q u a l c i t i z e n r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , t h e y will fight w i t h h a p p y h e a r t s a n d h e a d s held h i g h if t h e y k n o w f o r c e r t a i n t h a t the land whose liberty they are defending c a n truly be called their o w n , t h a t t h e s t a b i l i t y (sic) a s f u l l - f l e d g e d C a n a d i a n s is in n o w a y l o w e r t h a n t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s . T h e y will t h u s fight w i t h a s p i r i t u n c o n q u e r a b l e , a n d c a n really s i n g w i t h full pride a n d j o y ' O h C a n a d a ! W e s t a n d o n g u a r d f o r thee!'" 1 1 2  Others, such a s R o y M a h a n d John K o B o n g , founders of t h e politically active C h i n e s e Y o u t h Association  of V i c t o r i a , b e g a n  sending  petitions  to B C Premier John  contradiction of British Columbia's democratic v a l u e s .  Hart  about the  1 1 3  " W e suggest that y o u , a s t h e leader of t h e British C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t , e x e r t y o u r p o w e r in h e l p i n g to a b r o g a t e t h e s e a n t i q u a t e d a n d u n n e c e s s a r y legalities which are basically contrary to the true democratic principles for which w e are now fighting." 1 1 4  Only a few Chinese youths understood the connection between compulsory military service a n d t h e f r a n c h i s e , b u t a c t i v i s t s like M a h a n d K o B o n g w e r e s l o w l y r a l l y i n g s u p p o r t t o l o b b y for a c h a n g e . H o w e v e r , t h e irony r e g a r d i n g t h e 1 9 4 0 m i l i t a r y  registration w a s that t h e  federal g o v e r n m e n t h a d y e t to r e s o l v e t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y Regulations  — which excluded  Blacks, Chinese, Japanese, a n d Native a n d East Indians from military service across t h e c o u n t r y — a n d to c o o r d i n a t e a n a t i o n a l policy t h a t a p p l i e d to a l l of t h e s e r v i c e s a n d in e a c h  1 1 0  "Case for B.C. Chinese," Vancouver Sun, 2 October 1940.  Men and women could be enlisted into military service, government service, or as part of companies supplying the war effort. 1 1 1  1 1 2  Lee, Daniel. Interview with Author, 10 November 2004.  Roy Mah and John Ko Bong joined the 1 6 Scottish Battalion (Reserve) in 1939, when they were rejected from active service due to their race.  1 1 3  1 1 4  th  "Canadian-born Chinese," Daily Colonist, 18 October 1940, p. 4. 27  of the p r o v i n c e s . T h i s p r e s e n t e d q u i t e a c h a l l e n g e to t h e civil s e r v a n t s a n d a r m y  officers  w h o were at o d d s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . Despite  all t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s ,  change  b e g a n to t a k e  p l a c e in 1 9 4 2 . T h e R o y a l  C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e a l l o w e d C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s to e n l i s t f o r a i r c r e w t h a t O c t o b e r , R C A F Regulations  w e r e not officially  although  a m e n d e d u n t i l D e c e m b e r . T h i s w a s t h e first of t h e  services to m a k e t h e s e c h a n g e s . T h o s e t h a t h a d e n l i s t e d prior to O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 , a n d w e r e c o n s i g n e d to g r o u n d d u t i e s , like A l b e r t a n d C e d r i c M a h , Douglas S a m ,  1 1 6  1 1 5  n o w q u a l i f i e d for a c t i v e s t a t u s .  W a l t e r J o e , D a n i e l L e e a n d m a n y o t h e r s w e r e n o w e l i g i b l e to be in t h e  R C A F . T h e r e w a s o n e c a t c h : Pacific C o m m a n d d i d n o t call u p C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s u n d e r t h e N R M A , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e c a l l e d u p in t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . N o t e x e m p t f r o m m i l i t a r y service u n d e r t h e Regulations,  b u t not c a l l e d u p f o r m i l i t a r y d u t y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p r e v a i l i n g  n o - w i n s i t u a t i o n of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . T h e n e x t m a j o r c h a n g e w a s in M a r c h 1 9 4 3 , w h e n t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n N a v y r e m o v e d its racial r e s t r i c t i o n s . C h i n e s e c o u l d n o w e n l i s t in t h i s s e r v i c e , h o w e v e r , n o s i m i l a r d i r e c t i v e applied to t h e m e r c h a n t n a v y . In t o t a l , not m o r e t h a n t e n C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s e n l i s t e d in t h e R C N , w i t h W i l l i a m Lore — a n e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e — p r e c e d i n g t h e O r d e r in C o u n c i l by a m o n t h or s o .  1 1 7  As mentioned  e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h t h e c h a n g e in t h e N a v y ' s Regulations  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s t o e n l i s t , it d i d n o t i m p r o v e t h e N a v y ' s r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o w a r d I m p l e m e n t i n g c h a n g e s to t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y Regulations  did allow  minorities.  w a s n o t a s s i m p l e a s in t h e  RCAF and R C N . There were always unresolved conflicts between the C W C decision a n d the Although they were rejected by the air force, they were accepted as civilian instructors for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). Both brothers went on to have distinguished careers as pilots. Albert and Cedric were contracted by Pan A m in 1942 to fly for the China National Aviation Corporation (CNAC), over the Himalayas between China and India; subsequently, Albert became a NATO instructor and pilot for Canadian Pacific Airlines and Cedric continued as a commercial pilot. A mountain in the BC coastal range was named Mount Ced Mah in 1953 for his "outstanding service transporting and supplying a government survey party under difficult flying conditions." (Vancouver Sun, 15 February 1946; and The Star Weekly, Toronto, 11 September 1954, p.6.) 1 1 5  lie / _ M j o r i e Wong describes, "Douglas S a m was advised that a request had been made to Ottawa for removal of this restriction. When the new Regulations were issued in 1942, he was informed by Ottawa." Doug Sam became a bomber pilot for No. 426 Thunderbird Squadron of No. 6 Bomber Group that bombed key enemy targets in German-occupied France to clear the way for infantry in the Normandy Campaign. On his last bombing mission, his aircraft was hit, but he survived and managed to link up with the French Resistance under the direction of MI 9. He worked with the French Resistance to liberate Paris from the Nazis. In later years, he became the Chief Intelligence Officer for Immigration Canada. (Wong, pp. 36-9.) ar  In 1939, Bill was employed as a radio operator with the Department of Transport, Radio Division, Marine Branch and Air Services Branch. In January 1943, however, Bill joined the RCN at the request of Vice-Admiral Percy F. Nelles, Chief of Naval Staff, and was assigned to the Operational Intelligence Centre, Naval Service Headquarters in Ottawa. Bill served in Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Also noteworthy was his work with General Douglas MacArthur. William Lore remained with the Canadian Civil Service until 1957, when he resigned to study law in Hong Kong and London, England. He practiced law in Hong Kong from 1962 until at least the mid-1990s, and introduced legal aid in Hong Kong. At 96, Bill is still living in Hong Kong. (Wong, p. 61) 1 1 7  28  Regulations.  There  were  Columbia's government  conflicts  between  federal  recommendations  and  what  British  w a n t e d , and responsibilities were shuffled around a n d decisions  d e f e r r e d . T h e r e w e r e a l s o e n d l e s s e x c u s e s to e x c l u d e C h i n e s e , a n d o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s , reasons of p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , c u l t u r e , a n d so o n . Marjorie W o n g d e s c r i b e s the  for  added  c o m p l i c a t i o n s : " T h e R C A F ... n e v e r b e c a m e e n t a n g l e d in d e f i n i t i o n s a s to w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e British s u b j e c t s o r C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l s , u n l i k e t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y . " d i s a g r e e m e n t s a b o u t c a t e g o r i e s : C a n a d i a n - b o r n versus  1 1 8  There were  always  Canadian nationals, defining  who  w a s a C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n , w h a t the British S u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of, w h o c o m p r i s e d a n Allied A l i e n a n d w h e t h e r t h e r e s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e a n d / o r s p e c i a l g r o u p i n g s for t h e m . T h e c o l o u r bar in t h e a r m y w a s v e r y s u b t l e , but the g e n e r a l policy w a s to d i s c o u r a g e C h i n e s e Canadian enlistment.  Because Chinese had great  difficulties  enlisting, many  requested  p e r m i t s to e n l i s t into t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r m e d f o r c e s . W o n g s u m m a r i z e s , " T h e difficulty enrolling  individuals  for  compulsory  military  a p p e a r e d to be a n i n s u r m o u n t a b l e h u r d l e . "  1 1 9  training  who  were  denied  the  of  franchise  All this bickering, ultimately, raised a major  p r o b l e m : t h a t t h e r e w a s no official d e f i n i t i o n of w h a t a C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n w a s . A n d , to m a k e m a t t e r s w o r s e , in t h e s u m m e r of 1 9 4 3 t h e a r m y b e g a n to f o r m u l a t e  its o w n r u l e s f o r  ' a l i e n s ' , i r r e s p e c t i v e of w h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d . D e s p i t e all t h e s e o b s t a c l e s , s o m e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s still w a n t e d to be a part of C a n a d a ' s w a r effort. C h a l l e n g e s to  enlistment  w a n t e d to f i g h t for C a n a d a . In  seemed insurmountable,  yet  many  Chinese youth  still  1 9 4 2 , F r a n k W o n g c a m e to V a n c o u v e r w i t h s o m e of his  friends f r o m A l e r t B a y — he had no p r o b l e m j o i n i n g  up.  1 2 0  Frank's situation was  u n u s u a l , but not a n i s o l a t e d e a s e . It p r o v e s t h e r e w e r e s e r i o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n  quite  problems,  not o n l y b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e a r m y , but a l s o w i t h i n t h e a r m y ' s s t r u c t u r e — between  Mobilization  Boards, Selective Services, Recruitment,  C e n t r e s — a n d m a n y C h i n e s e 'fell t h r o u g h t h e c r a c k s . ' a r m y in V a n c o u v e r .  1 1 8  Wong, p. 59.  1 1 9  Wong, p. 75.  1 2 2  1 2 1  Reception and  Training  In 1 9 4 3 , G l e n W o n g e n l i s t e d in t h e  G e o r g e K w o n g w a s a l s o a b l e to b y p a s s r e s t r i c t i o n s a n d j o i n t h e a r m y  In February 1943, Frank Wong was shipped to England where he joined the Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. He was being trained for the Normandy Invasion.  1 2 0  Many Chinese Canadians 'fell through the cracks" because " A great deal of secrecy was involved in the CWC decision to exclude the Chinese from the army, so much that various levels of government were not receiving this information" (as written on page 26). Recruiting Centers wanted all ablebodied men to report for duty, so unless Centres were given instructions to restrict certain people from the armed forces, no one was rejected. 1 2 1  Glen started with the Seaforth Scottish Highlanders for 10 days, then he was transferred into the Air Force. Glen served from the fall of 1943 to August 1945. He did not go overseas for active duties. 1 2 2  29  in  1943.  1 2 3  His  brothers,  however,  refused  to  serve  a  country  that  denied Chinese-  C a n a d i a n s the v o t e . T h e y s a i d , "If C a n a d a w o n ' t g i v e us t h e r i g h t [to v o t e ] , the hell w i t h them."  1 2 4  E v i d e n t l y , the a p p e a l for v o t i n g r i g h t s w a s g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y , b u t it a l s o c r e a t e d a  lot of u n r e s t in the C h i n e s e a n d n o n - C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . M a n y C h i n e s e e l d e r s d i d w a n t to c h a l l e n g e C a n a d a ' s l a w s , w h i l e m a n y y o u n g C h i n e s e did not h e s i t a t e to inequality. ready to Orientals.  In  the  non-Chinese communities, although  accept Chinese as equals, many Enlistment  in  the  armed  forces  others raised  not  contest  many white Canadians were  a d v o c a t e d for many  the  concerns  fair and  not  treatment revealed  of the  communities' conflicting opinions. Political c a m p a i g n s for e q u a l civil r i g h t s w e r e a t t r a c t i n g  the younger  generation.  A l t h o u g h the C h i n e s e Y o u t h A s s o c i a t i o n ( C Y A ) p u b l i c l y f o c u s e d o n a i d a n d s u p p o r t to C h i n a , it also had a local o b j e c t i v e of b u i l d i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t for racial e q u a l i t y . R o y M a h e x p l a i n e d the C Y A ' s c a u s e : "I w a s a f i r e b r a n d w h e n I w a s y o u n g e r . I f o u g h t for j u s t i c e w h e n I s a w i n j u s t i c e . T h e C h i n e s e Y o u t h A s s o c i a t i o n w a s a v e h i c l e for t h i s . W e w a n t e d to raise o u r s t a t u s in C a n a d a , s o w e f o u g h t for e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . It w a s m o r e t h a n j u s t t h e a c t of c a s t i n g o n e ' s ballot. It w a s t h e right to p r a c t i c e in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s - s u c h a s l a w , p h a r m a c y , a c c o u n t a n c y - to f i g h t in t h e C a n a d i a n f o r c e s , a n d in m a n y o t h e r a r e a s of C a n a d i a n l i f e . " 1 2 5  Roy M a h , J o h n K o B o n g , a n d t h e i r C Y A p e e r s w a n t e d o t h e r y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s to understand that they were j u s t as C a n a d i a n as their n o n - C h i n e s e counterparts and that they h a d the r i g h t to e n l i s t in t h e f o r c e s like a n y o n e e l s e . J o h n K o B o n g u r g e d C h i n e s e to a s s o o n a s they w e r e e l i g i b l e , b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y s h o u l d m a k e e v e r y effort to h e l p w i n t h e  war.  M e m b e r s of t h e C Y A i n s p i r e d y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , m a k i n g t h e m a w a r e t h a t political equality w a s p o s s i b l e for all C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . Lisa M a r w r i t e s , " T h e s e h y b r i d W e s t e r n C h i n e s e i d e n t i t i e s s e r v e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t m e a n s of p r o j e c t i n g t h e i r r e a d i n e s s for d e m o c r a c y ... E v e n t h o u g h B C v o t e r s h a d r e j e c t e d a n y h i n t of A s i a n C a n a d i a n e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t in 1 9 3 7 , d u r i n g the first few y e a r s of the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , s u b t l e s y m p a t h y a n d j o i n t  struggle  against a c o m m o n e n e m y helped build toward more direct challenges to c o m e . "  Fighting  1 2 6  a g a i n s t a c o m m o n e n e m y c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for C h i n e s e a n d w h i t e C a n a d i a n s to w o r k t o g e t h e r a n d d e v e l o p c o n n e c t i o n s of m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d e m p a t h y . T h i s g e n e r a t i o n ,  George fought with the First Canadian Army in France, Belgium, and Holland in the July 1944 DDay landings. 1 2 3  1 2 4  Smedman, Lisa. "Moving Pictures,"  The Vancouver Courier, 23 May 2001, Vol. 92 No. 4 1 , pp. 1, 4-  5. 1 2 5  1 2 6  "Canadian-born Chinese,"  Daily Colonist, 18 October 1940, p. 4.  Mar, p. 207. 30  having b e e n r a i s e d in C a n a d a , h a d a m o r e o p t i m i s t i c a n d m o r e W e s t e r n o u t l o o k t h a n  their  parents. C h i n e s e y o u t h w e r e s l o w l y r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e k e y to t h e i r d e s i r e to b e l o n g w a s t h e i r need to be v a l i d a t e d a s C a n a d i a n s , a n d m a n y , n o w , h a d faith t h a t t h i s c h a n g e a n d w o u l d come.  They  believed  that  it w a s j u s t  a matter  of t i m e  and dependent  upon  their  d e t e r m i n a t i o n . T h e n t h e u n e x p e c t e d h a p p e n e d in t h e s p r i n g of 1 9 4 4 : t h e C W C r e v e r s e d its decision a n d c a l l e d u p C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s u n d e r t h e N R M A .  1 2 7  This was the opportunity  that  they had b e e n w a i t i n g f o r . T h e c h a n g e in t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y ' s Regulations  was based on pressure from across  the A t l a n t i c . T h e B r i t i s h W a r Office n e e d e d C h i n e s e f o r s p e c i a l d u t i e s , s o O t t a w a  instructed  the a r m y t o a c c e p t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . B r i t i s h S e c u r i t y C o o r d i n a t i o n that Chinese Canadians could  p a s s a s ' l o c a l s ' in J a p a n e s e - o c c u p i e d B r i t i s h  knew  territories,  whereas Europeans would be easily detected. Chinese Canadians were also highly  valued  because — a c c o r d i n g  Subjects.  Britain  w a n t e d to e m p l o y t h e m in t h e S p e c i a l O p e r a t i o n s E x e c u t i v e ( S O E ) t o w o r k b e h i n d  enemy  to t h e British government  lines in o c c u p i e d t e r r i t o r i e s .  128  — they  were  British  R e g a r d l e s s of, t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y ' s s h o r t a g e o f m e n , Pacific  C o m m a n d w o u l d n o t h a v e c h a n g e d its p o l i c i e s had it n o t b e e n f o r B r i t a i n ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s policy-reversal  d i d n o t result  in u n a n i m o u s j u b i l a t i o n o r relief, b u t w a s , i n s t e a d ,  very  disruptive to t h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . W h e n t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t a n n o u n c e d c o m p u l s o r y o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e in t h e 1 9 4 4 c a l l - u p , t h e C h i n e s e in V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a — w h i c h , a t t h e t i m e , h a d t h e l a r g e s t C h i n e s e communities  in C a n a d a — w e r e d i v i d e d o n h o w t h i s d e m a n d s h o u l d b e h a n d l e d .  1 2 9  The  m o b i l i z a t i o n c a l l affected C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t i e s locally a s w e l l a s every C h i n e s e p e r s o n in  This decision only applied to Chinese who were Canadian-born or naturalized. (Meeting 24 May 1944 in office of Brig. J.A. de LaLanne, in NAC RG 27, Vol. 3004.)  1  Japan was a major Axis power in the Second World War. After occupying French Indochina in 1940, Japan expanded rapidly across Asia. On 25 December, the Crown Colony of Hong Kong fell. January 1942 saw the invasion of Burma, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and the capture of Manila and Kuala Lumpur. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore surrendered to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. Bali and Timor also fell in February, and, soon after Japan, attacked Darwin, Australia. By March, Java surrendered; the British had also been driven out of Ceylon. Under intense pressure, the British made a fighting retreat from Rangoon to the IndoBurmese border. This cut off the Burma Road, which was the western Allies' supply line to Chinese National Army (commanded by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek). In the Philippines, Filipino and US forces put up a fierce resistance to the Japanese until 8 May 1942 when more than 80,000 of them surrendered. 1 2 8  In October 1943, Churchill appointed Lord Mountbatten as the Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Command (SEAC) of the South East Asia Theatre. Realizing the value of Chinese-looking British subjects, SEAC employed Chinese Canadians in SOE's Force 136 and in Operation Oblivion. There was a common misconception that the Chinese in Canada only lived in British Columbia. Although BC had the largest Chinese population, there was a substantial number of Chinese living in Ontario. They resided across Canada. 1 2 9  31  C a n a d a . W i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s g a t h e r i n g s before t w o k e y g e n e r a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s t o o k p l a c e . In V a n c o u v e r , t h i s m e e t i n g w a s h e l d in A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 a t  the  C h i n e s e U n i t e d C h u r c h in C h i n a t o w n , at D u n l e v y a n d P e n d e r S t r e e t . T h e r e w a s a l s o a t o w n m e e t i n g at t h e C h i n e s e U n i t e d C h u r c h in V i c t o r i a .  1 3 0  The meetings  in both c i t i e s  c o m p a r a b l e , r e v e a l i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g how C h i n e s e s h o u l d a n s w e r the call to d u t y . elders, and c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s ,  1 3 1  Attended  by y o u n g  were  military-age  men and women,  fathers,  these meetings incited very emotional debates.  T h e r e w a s no s i n g l e r e a s o n for or against  c o m p u l s o r y m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , but  rather  n u m e r o u s r e a s o n s for e a c h s i d e , w i t h e v e r y o n e h a v i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y to a r g u e t h e i r c a s e . S o m e p e o p l e , like R o y M a h , p r e s e n t e d critical r e a s o n s to j o i n - u p : " W e t h o u g h t t h a t s e r v i n g in t h e a r m e d f o r c e s w o u l d be a n o p p o r t u n i t y for us to p r o v e to t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t h a t w e a r e l o y a l C a n a d i a n s , t h a t in t i m e of n e e d , t h e y w o u l d s e e t h a t w e h a v e no h e s i t a t i o n to d o n t h e K i n g ' s u n i f o r m a n d g o o v e r s e a s to f i g h t for o u r c o u n t r y , f i g h t to p r e s e r v e democracy." 1 3 2  Roy  believed  that  serving  in  the  military  would  demonstrate  the  loyalty  of  Chinese  C a n a d i a n s a n d w o u l d c o n v i n c e t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e d t h e right to v o t e . B i n g W o n g s u p p o r t e d R o y ' s v i e w s , but f r o m a different a n g l e : " W e w e r e c o n s c i o u s of not letting the C h i n e s e d o w n . W e w a n t e d to p r o v e to t h e w h i t e s t h a t w e w e r e g o o d s o l d i e r s , t o o . W e k n e w t h a t w e ' d be j u d g e d by o u r m i l i t a r y c o m p e t e n c y a n d o t h e r a b i l i t i e s . E v e r y s o l d i e r ' s b e h a v i o u r c o u l d effect o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e C h i n e s e . " 1 3 3  B i n g s a i d t h a t at e i g h t e e n - y e a r s - o l d , he d i d not w a n t to g o b e h i n d e n e m y l i n e s in territories u n d e r J a p a n e s e c o n t r o l . He s a i d t h a t he h a d h e a r d w h a t t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e d o i n g to people in C h i n a , t h r o u g h his p a r e n t s a n d f r o m n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t s — " e v e r y o n e k n e w . " A l t h o u g h B i n g e x p r e s s e d f e a r of t h e J a p a n e s e , m o s t of t h e v e t e r a n s t h a t I i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t t h e y w e r e not c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of b e i n g k i l l e d . S o m e of t h e V a n c o u v e r boys said: " N o b o d y ' s p r e p a r e d to d i e ... at 2 1 , y o u c a n ' t e v e n c o n c e i v e of d e a t h . " " D i d g i v e it s o m e t h o u g h t , but d i d n ' t d w e l l o n i t . "  1 3 4  1 3 5  The article "No Vote, No Fight!" (Vancouver Sun, 24 August 1944) verifies the Chinese United Church as the place of the Vancouver debates. In regards to Victoria, Roy Mah and John Ko Bong confirmed the Chinese United Church as the location of the Victoria debates. 1 3 0  There were a few non-Chinese people at the smaller gatherings, but not the bigger meetings. ("Meeting Endorses Votes for Chinese," Vancouver Sun, 2 September 1944).  1 3 1  1 3 2  Mah, Roy (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 15 November 2002.  1 3 3  Wong, Bing (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 4 January 2004.  1 3 4  Wong, Glen (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 3 December 2004.  1 3 5  Chow, Marshall (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 11 March 2005. 32  " T h e t h o u g h t of d a n g e r n e v e r e n t e r e d m y m i n d . " "No."  1 3 6  1 3 7  S o m e of t h e V i c t o r i a v e t e r a n s r e c o l l e c t e d : " W h e n y o u ' r e y o u n g , y o u t h i n k y o u are  immortal."  1 3 8  " N o t a f r a i d , j u s t a c c e p t e d t h a t I m i g h t not be c o m i n g b a c k . " "No."  1 3 9  1 4 0  B i n g r e c a l l e d p e e r p r e s s u r e f r o m f r i e n d s , like fellow v e t e r a n , D a n i e l L e e , to  uphold  the i m a g e of t h e C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s o l d i e r . D a n Lee r e m e m b e r e d u r g i n g B i n g to e n l i s t . He clarified t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g j o i n i n g u p : "I s a i d to B i n g t h a t w e ' r e C h i n e s e a n d if w e d o n ' t j o i n u p , t h e n p e o p l e a r e g o i n g to s a y t h a t w e ' r e a f r a i d to f i g h t t h e J a p a n e s e . It's a l s o o u r d u t y to help C h i n a in its w a r of r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t J a p a n . " 1 4 1  A s D a n m e n t i o n e d , he b e l i e v e d t h a t C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s n e e d e d to " m e a s u r e u p " a n d d e f e n d t h e i r p u b l i c r e p u t a t i o n , a s w e l l a s s h o w t h e i r s u p p o r t for C h i n a ' s w a r . In m y  interviews,  s e v e r a l v e t e r a n s e x p r e s s e d a h a t r e d for t h e J a p a n e s e a n d a n e e d " t o d o s o m e t h i n g a b o u t it" — such  as  Dan  or  Glen Wong  of  Vancouver,  and  Victor  Wong  of  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a r g u i n g t h a t t h e y n e e d e d " t o s e r v e t h e i r birth c o u n t r y " "patriotic  r e a s o n s to d e f e n d C a n a d a . "  1 4 3  Additionally,  1 4 2  Victoria  —  while  o r t h a t t h e y felt  m a n y saw this as their chance  to  complete equally with other C a n a d i a n s . At the Victoria meeting, John Ko Bong explained: " W e n e e d e d to f i g h t to r e p r e s e n t o u r c o m m u n i t y , to f i g h t s h o u l d e r a l o n g w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s ... to f i g h t for C a n a d a . "  shoulder-to-  1 4 4  Others optimistically believed that the g o v e r n m e n t recognized that this was their fight, too. Hardly a n y o n e c l a i m e d o n l y o n e v i e w p o i n t o n c o n s c r i p t i o n , but, r a t h e r , q u i t e a f e w r e a s o n s for a n d / o r against m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Chinese A m e r i c a n s had similar experiences. Historian Scott Wong interviewed  many  of t h e s e v e t e r a n s w h o " f e l t m o r e A m e r i c a n t h a n C h i n e s e " o r t h a t t h e y w e r e " A m e r i c a n s first and Chinese s e c o n d . "  1 4 5  T h e y a l s o w a n t e d to f i g h t t h e J a p a n e s e . A s J a m e s J a y t o l d W o n g :  Lee, Ed (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 18 March 2004. Mah, Cedric (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 7 November 2002. Wong, Victor (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 3 December 2004. Quan, Gordon (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 10 March 2005. Ko Bong, John (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 7 April 2004. Lee, Daniel (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 10 November 2004. Wong, Glen, 3 December 2004. Wong, Victor, 3 December 2004. Ko Bong, John. 7 April 2004.  33  "I t h i n k t h a t I w a n t e d to fight the J a p a n e s e b e c a u s e of all t h a t I read in the p a p e r s a b o u t t h e rape of N a n k i n g a n d all t h e s e k i l l i n g s of c i v i l i a n s . I s a i d t h a t I w a n t e d to go to C h i n a a n d f i g h t J a p a n e s e . I w a s b o r n in C h i n a so it's part of m y h e r i t a g e . I live in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I d o n ' t w a n t to s e e t h o s e t w o c o u n t r i e s go to the J a p a n e s e . S o t h e y ' r e sort of i n t e r l i n k e d together." 1 4 6  C h i n e s e A u s t r a l i a n s also s a w the c o n n e c t i o n a n d w a n t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e  in t h e  war  effort. M s . E u n i c e L e o n g , w h o j o i n e d the forces w i t h h e r b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r , d e s c r i b e d to Historian D i a n a G i e s e : " W e t r i e d to r a i s e p e o p l e ' s a w a r e n e s s of w h a t w a s g o i n g o n in C h i n a b e c a u s e p e o p l e in A u s t r a l i a d i d n ' t k n o w v e r y m u c h a n d d i d n ' t c a r e v e r y m u c h a b o u t w h a t w a s g o i n g o n in C h i n a a t t h e t i m e . W h e n A u s t r a l i a c a m e into t h e W a r , w e felt t h a t w e w e r e o n t h e s a m e s i d e , a n d t h a t w h a t w e w e r e d o i n g for A u s t r a l i a w a s a l s o d o i n g s o m e t h i n g for C h i n a . It w a s p a r t of t h e s a m e f i g h t . " 1 4 7  Some  young  Chinese  Canadians  had  complementary  C a n a d i a n w a r effort, w h i l e o t h e r s had conflicting  reasons  for  joining  beliefs. A s the C h i n e s e Cultural  the  Centre  A r c h i v e s r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e , B e v a n J a n g z e did not w a n t to f i g h t for C a n a d a a f t e r t h e R C A F h a d rejected h i m , but later he h a d a c h a n g e of h e a r t : " O n c e I t r i e d to s i g n up for t h e A i r F o r c e a n d t h e y w o u l d n ' t a c c e p t m e . T h e y s a i d t h a t I d i d n ' t fit i n . I d i d n ' t h a v e a n y r i g h t s , so w h y s h o u l d I f i g h t for a c o u n t r y t h a t I d i d n ' t h a v e a n y rights in? T h e n t h e r e w a s a rally in C h i n a t o w n a n d a B r i g a d i e r f r o m E n g l a n d c a m e to t a l k to us a n d p r o m i s e d t h a t if w e j o i n e d w e c o u l d h a v e the r i g h t s of t h e r e g u l a r [ C a n a d i a n ] c i t i z e n . W e d i d n ' t k n o w w h a t o u r j o b w a s , b u t w e v o l u n t e e r e d to g o overseas." 1 4 8  For o t h e r s , t h e n e e d to d e f e n d t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n , in a d d i t i o n to f i g h t i n g for C a n a d a a n d C h i n a , w a s c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e for b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s to t h e i r c o n f i n e d e x i s t e n c e . Y o u n g C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s h o p e d for a b e t t e r life t h a n w a s offered to t h e i r  parents'  g e n e r a t i o n . H a v i n g g r o w n up in t h e c o n f i n e s of C h i n a t o w n d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n a n d u n a b l e to e n v i s i o n a n y p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s potential  greater than their  parents',  many  r e c r u i t s f o u n d t h e m y s t i q u e of the m i l i t a r y a p p e a l i n g to t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s ,  and  desire for a d v e n t u r e . It w a s a l s o a n a m b i t i o u s o p t i o n for t h o s e w i t h f e w e d u c a t i o n a l  and  employment 1 4 5  p r o s p e c t s , s u c h a s C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s . For e x a m p l e , A l b e r t  Mah said that  Wong, K. Scott. "The Meaning of Military Service to Chinese Americans During WWII," in Duty &  Honor: A Tribute to Chinese American World War II Veterans of Southern California, edited by Marjorie Lee. Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1998, p. 9. 1 4 6  Wong, K. Scott. "The Meaning of Military Service to Chinese Americans During WWII," p. 8-9.  Giese, Diana. Courage & Service: The Australian Chinese Ex-Services National Reunion Monument Project. 30 August 2005. <http://www.caf.orq.au/autumn2003/qiese2.html>  1 4 7  Chinese Canadian Veterans Oral History Program Collection, Chinese Cultural Centre of Vancouver, Chinese Cultural Centre Museum and Archives, Vancouver, BC, 1996. 1 4 8  34  compulsory overseas service was a way "to get a job and help my family."  149  Marshall Chow  explained that he wanted to join "for adventure and to learn a trade ... everyone seemed to be joining."  150  Ed Lee simply stated that, "It was a way to travel for free."  151  Like Canadians,  Chinese Australians were also interested in opportunities for travel and new experiences. Lionel Nomchong explained to Diana Giese: "We were country boys ... We'd have probably stopped there all our lives. The War opened up everything." 152  Even women found the armed forces appealing. Peggy Lee, a veteran of Canada's St. John's Women's Ambulance Corps, said that she hoped that military service would provide her with "comradeship, feeling a part of [something], and helping."  153  Peggy also wanted to  do her part, as well as escape the routine of her daily life. Chinese Australian women felt similarly. Kathleen Quan Mane, who served in the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force said to Diana Giese that, "I came out of the RAAF still a young girl of 19, but my time there gave me the experience and courage to venture further afield. There I learned my capacity to live a collective life, I learned independence, new skills, both social and technical, and developed tolerance and understanding." 154  Women found the armed forces to be a place where their abilities and intelligence were valued. The arguments for participation in the armed forces appealed to team spirit, manliness, and athletic ability. As Alex Louie succinctly described in an interview with Rosalie Sayer, "We were excited because we thought war was a big adventure. We were young and didn't think of the dangers at first. Besides, times were tough. It was hard to support yourself because there were no jobs." 155  1 4 9  Mah, Albert (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 21 March 2004.  1 5 0  Chow, Marshall, 11 March 21005.  1 5 1  Lee, Ed,. 18 March 2004.  Giese, Diana. Courage & Service: The Australian Chinese Ex-Services National Reunion Monument Project. 30 August 2005. <http://www.caf.orq.au/autumn2003/qiese2.html> 1 5 2  Women did not see active combat, therefore, their contribution to the war effort did not carry the weight that the men's active service did. (Lee, Peggy (WWII veteran). Interview with Author, 28 December 2004.) 1 5 3  Giese, Diana. Courage & Service: The Australian Chinese Ex-Services National Reunion Monument Project. 30 August 2005. <http://www.caf.orq.au/autumn2003/qiese2.html> 1 5 4  1 5 5  Sayer, Rosalie. "Chinese Conscripts: Setting Asia Ablaze," unpublished paper, History  304,  University of British Columbia, 24 November 1999, p. 2.  35  Although there seemed to be unlimited reasons why Chinese Canadians should fight, conscription was fiercely resented by others. One simple reason not to fight was highlighted by Harry Con: "Because after all, even though we were born here, we didn't have full rights as Canadian citizens." 156  Not only did Chinese Canadians lack social, economic, and political rights, but many had parents who had paid the Head Tax and many had been cut off from their families as a result of the Chinese Immigration  Act of 1923. A large segment of the Chinese community,  whether Canadian-born or not, believed that it was unjust for the government to demand military service from a group of people that had been treated so unfairly. Nevertheless, some Chinese elders had another view regarding the responsibilities of those eligible to serve. As noted in the Vancouver Sun 24 August 1944: "Chinese community elders attempted to persuade young men that they had citizenship duties even if they did not have citizenship rights." 157  Canadian-born Chinese youths disagreed with their traditional, more culturally Chinese elders. To the younger generation, these reasons seemed out-of-touch and unworthy of consideration. The Chinese were entitled to feel contempt for the discrimination that they had endured. However, is seems as though the greatest sense of injustice resulted from their rejection when attempting to enlist. Although Frank Wong never experienced rejection when he enlisted, he does explain how discrimination affected the younger generation: "When we were young, we just take it [discrimination] for granted; we were just raised that way, in that environment." 158  Roy Mah also said that, "We accepted our situation because we didn't know any better... we were brainwashed into thinking that this is how it is and it's not going to change. 159  For some who experienced rejection, this insults was the breaking point. Lisa Mar recorded an interview with veteran Andrew Joe: "Earlier in the war, the air force rejected my brother twice on racial grounds, so when the army drafted him, he refused to report ... Perhaps out of sympathy the army didn't prosecute him." 160  Marlatt, 159. "No Vote, No Fight!" (Vancouver Sun, 24 August 1944). Wong, Frank (WWII). Interview with Author, 10 May 2004. Mah, Roy, 10 December 2004. Mar, p. 227.  36  M a n y m e n w h o w e r e first e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e f o r c e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d not to f i g h t , w h i l e o t h e r s — like W a l t e r J o e , w h o w a s r e j e c t e d t w i c e before he w a s finally a c c e p t e d into t h e R C A F , o r R o y M a h w h o s t a r t e d in t h e R e s e r v e s a n d a d v a n c e d to c l a n d e s t i n e w o r k w i t h Force 136 in S o u t h e a s t A s i a — p e r s e v e r e d . T o m a n y , it m a d e no s e n s e to f i g h t in a w a r for d e m o c r a c y w h e n t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t b e t r a y e d t h e ideal of e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y by d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e a n d o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s . S o m e f a t h e r s o p p o s e d t h e call up of t h e i r s o n s , s a y i n g t h a t s h o u l d not h a v e to f i g h t w i t h o u t t h e f r a n c h i s e .  1 6 1  they  The majority believed that the franchise  w o u l d be a fair r e w a r d for t h e i r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . H a r r y C o n d r e w a t t e n t i o n to t h e f u t u r e . In D a p h n e M a r t l a t t ' s i n t e r v i e w w i t h h i m : " A t t h a t t i m e , m a n y of u s w e r e t h i n k i n g , y o u k n o w , of a b e t t e r f u t u r e , not o n l y for u s , but for f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s if w e a n s w e r e d t h e call ... B u t if w e d i d n ' t , w e l l , m a y b e t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d h a v e t h e right to s a y , ' Y o u g u y s d i d n ' t s e r v e in t h e w a r , d i d n ' t a n s w e r t h e c a l l , a n d y o u d o n ' t d e s e r v e it.' M a y b e t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be p e r m a n e n t . " 1 6 2  P u b l i c s h a m i n g o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e s e d e b a t e s . Lisa M a r d o c u m e n t e d t h a t t h o s e w h o supported  military  service  were  called " s u c k e r s " or,  amongst  those  that  wanted  v o l u n t e e r , t h e y j o k e d a r o u n d a b o u t h o w f o o l i s h it w a s t h a t t h e y w a n t e d to f i g h t .  1 6 3  to  Ed L e e  pointed out that, " W h e n y o u ' r e a t e e n a g e r , y o u do d a r i n g t h i n g s . It's not like w e t h o u g h t it o v e r ... y o u j u s t d o w i l d t h i n g s . " 1 6 4  Further, R o y M a h s a i d t h a t m a n y of t h o s e w h o r e f u s e d t o j o i n c a m e f r o m m o r e p r o s p e r o u s f a m i l i e s , so t h e y c o u l d p r e s e n t r e a s o n s w h y t h e C h i n e s e s h o u l d not f i g h t in t h e w a r . S t i l l , s o m e felt t h a t t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o b e c o n s c r i p t e d a n y w a y — l i k e B i l l C h o w a n d G l e n W o n g — s o t h e y " m i g h t a s b e a t t h e m to it by v o l u n t e e r i n g . "  1 6 5  T h e d e b a t e s c a m e to a h e a d w h e n t h e r e w a s a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e c a l l - u p w a s not m e r e l y a political i s s u e , but a m o r a l c o n c e r n , t o o . In V i c t o r i a , R o y M a h put in his t w o - c e n t s ' worth: "The community was very divided about how they should proceed with this c a l l - u p . O n e s i d e s a i d , ' W e ' r e s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s . If y o u w a n t us to  1 6 1  "No Vote, No Fight!" Vancouver Sun, 23 August 1944.  1 6 2  Marlatt, p. 159.  1 6 3  Mar, pp. 225-6.  1 6 4  Lee, Ed, p. 18 March 2004.  Although these were Glen's exact words, Bill Chow also said the same thing when I interviewed him. Glen and Bill know of each other, but have not interacted before. (Wong, Glen. 3 December 2004.) 1 6 5  37  s e r v e for C a n a d a , t h e n g i v e us the right to v o t e first.' I led t h e o t h e r s i d e a n d s a i d to e v e r y o n e , ' N u m e r i c a l l y , w e ' r e too s m a l l to p r e s s u r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e y will not s u b m i t to o u r d e m a n d s for the f r a n c h i s e . ' I s u g g e s t e d , ' S e r v e first, t h e n w h e n w e c o m e back w i t h solid c r e d e n t i a l s , w e c a n d e m a n d rights l a t e r ! ' " 1 6 5  Roy s a i d t h a t , in the e n d , not e v e r y o n e a g r e e d w i t h t h i s c h o i c e , but m o s t d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s w a s the b e s t s t r a t e g y to g e t the f r a n c h i s e a n d raise t h e i r s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l y , in V a n c o u v e r , H a r r y C o n recalled t h a t at t h e c o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g : " W e w a n t e d to g e t o u r f r a n c h i s e b a c k , so for t h a t r e a s o n , w e v o t e d a n s w e r the g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a l l . "  to  1 6 7  The  Chinese Canadian community  specifically recruited  was the  only  minority  community  that  was  by B r i t a i n for the A l l i e d w a r effort in A s i a , a n d u p o n r e a l i z i n g  this  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d the m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s route community's enlistment,  future. although  to  p u r s u e for  R e g a r d i n g B l a c k C a n a d i a n s , t h e r e w a s no p r o h i b i t i o n most  experienced  isolated  incidents  of  their  against  discrimination.  The  their Black  c o m m u n i t y did not h a v e t o f a c e l e g a l i z e d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s like t h e C h i n e s e , a n d e v e n if t h e y d i d , it is d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e b l a c k s ' m u c h s m a l l e r a n d l e s s c o h e s i v e c o m m u n i t y  would  be a b l e to i n f l u e n c e c h a n g e s . For J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s , c o n s c r i p t i o n w a s not a n i s s u e a s most had been interned  during  the w a r .  1 6 8  Native Indians,  like t h e C h i n e s e , h a d  been  d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , y e t w e r e e a g e r to s e r v e C a n a d a . H o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s British S u b j e c t s , a n d i n s t e a d of c o m m u n i t y  debates,  m a n y N a t i v e I n d i a n s B a n d s s e p a r a t e l y r e s p o n d e d to t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h p r o t e s t m a r c h e s and petitions.  Because there  w a s no unified  representative, Aboriginal displeasure carried government.  1 6 9  response or spokesperson or less negotiating  influence  community  on the  federal  E a s t I n d i a n s w e r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d B r i t i s h S u b j e c t s , but after r e c e i v i n g t h e i r  notices to r e p o r t for b a s i c t r a i n i n g , the t e m p l e i n t e r v e n e d a n d e m p l o y e d legal s e r v i c e s to c o u n s e l t h e m . T h e y w e r e a d v i s e d not to g o t o w a r u n t i l t h e y w e r e g r a n t e d full f r a n c h i s e rights, a n d a l t h o u g h t h e y did not f i g h t in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e f r a n c h i s e s o m e t i m e after C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n v e t e r a n s . T h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w a s t h e first s t e p t o w a r d s t h e e n d of d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t . Newspaper  headlines across the  country  reflected  the  call-up  controversy,  the  debates and the results: " A r m y Calls Up 132 C h i n e s e , " "City Chinese Oppose Call U p , " "Half  1 6 6  Mah, Roy, 15 November 2002.  1 6 7  Marlatt, p. 159.  168 Nevertheless, there were a handful of Japanese Canadians — such as Joe Takashima — who were employed as translators for Force 136. (Source: Chinese Canadian Military Museum.) 1 6 9  Status Indians also lacked the vote. 38  of C h i n e s e P a s s A r m y E x a m , " " C h i n e s e J o i n A c t i v e A r m y , " " C h i n e s e L a d s ' G o A c t i v e ' , " a n d m a n y s i m i l a r h e a d l i n e s . T h e r e l a t i v e l y u n a n i m o u s a g r e e m e n t to p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e w a r a l s o resulted in a n a v a l a n c h e of c o n s c r i p t s e i t h e r r e p o r t i n g f o r d u t y o r v o l u n t e e r i n g . A s n o t e d in the Daily Province after t h e w a r ' s e n d , " 9 5 % of t h e s o l d i e r s of C h i n e s e d e s c e n t v o l u n t e e r e d for this s p e c i a l w o r k ( p o s t i n g to S o u t h e a s t A s i a ) . "  1 7 0  A s o n e young m a n proudly explained to  the press: "I feel t h a t w h a t I a m d o i n g is r i g h t , " s a i d M a u r i c e E u g e n e J a n g , 1 2 2 P o w e l l . I k n o w I a m f i g h t i n g t o p r o t e c t o u r r i g h t s . T h a t i n c l u d e s t h e right to v o t e , e v e n f o r t h o s e w h o d o n o t j o i n u p . ' " 1 7 1  A n d , in h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h R o s a l i e S a y e r , A l e x L o u i e h a d a p o i g n a n t m e m o r y : "I r e m e m b e r w a l k i n g d o w n G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t w i t h m y f r i e n d s w h e n w e g o t o u r n e w u n i f o r m s . P e o p l e j u s t p a r t e d a s w e w a l k e d t o w a r d t h e m ! I felt p r o u d w e a r i n g t h e u n i f o r m , a n d I u n d e r s t o o d w h a t it w a s like t o b e a m a n w h o w a s r e s p e c t e d b y w h i t e s . It felt g o o d . " 1 7 2  In  March 1 9 4 5 , approximately  four  hundred  Chinese Canadian servicemen  from  British C o l u m b i a w e r e g r a n t e d t h e f r a n c h i s e , w i t h r e m a i n d e r of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s a n d o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s r e c e i v i n g e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t in 1 9 4 7 . C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e m e n w e r e v a n g u a r d s t h a t p u b l i c l y c h a l l e n g e d racial b a r r i e r s a n d o p e n e d d o o r s n o t o n l y f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d future g e n e r a t i o n s of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , b u t a l s o f o r o t h e r v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s .  Daily Province, 21 December 1945. "Troops Ignore Speeches in Hurry to Get Home," Daily Province, 21 December 1945. "Troops Ignore Speeches in Hurry to Get Home," Sayer, p. 2. 39  Chapter 5  CONCLUSION  The 1944 debates regarding compulsory overseas service are a very significant, yet little-known  part  of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y .  The community-wide  consultations  and  d i s c u s s i o n s — c o n c e r n i n g w h e t h e r o r not y o u n g m e n of m i l i t a r y a g e s h o u l d e n l i s t in t h e armed  forces  —  multigenerational  demonstrates relationships.  the  significance  A n d the  of  their  cultural  issues raised exposed the  connections irony  of  and  Canadian  d e m o c r a c y , t h e d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s of g o v e r n m e n t s a n d of t h e a r m e d f o r c e s , a n d r e v e a l e d w h o a real C a n a d i a n w a s . A s the c o m m u n i t y d e b a t e s u n c o v e r e d o p i n i o n s both  for a n d against c o n s c r i p t i o n , w e  s a w how c o m p l e x a n d l a y e r e d t h e s e v i e w s w e r e : h o w i n d i v i d u a l s i d e n t i f i e d  and  aligned  t h e m s e l v e s , b e y o n d t h e i r p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d b i r t h r i g h t ; how m o t i v e s for s e r v i c e c o u l d be c o n t r a d i c t o r y , m u l t i f a c e t e d , a n d / o r s t r a t e g i c ; h o w p a r t i c i p a n t s s a w civil r i g h t s a n d c i v i c duty;  a n d t h e i r v i e w s g a v e us f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s into t h e i r  motives and aspirations. The  debates also showed how w a r could create solidarity or divisions, strengthen or discourage people, and elevate status and confer opportunity  where there was none previously. The  d e c i s i o n for m o s t t o s e r v e m a r k e d the b e g i n n i n g s of p o s i t i v e a n d p r o g r e s s i v e c h a n g e in Canada  and  for  C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , results  that  were  far  beyond  the  veterans'  and  communities' expectations. It is h a r d to s a y w h e t h e r t h i s d e c i s i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t J a p a n e s e a g g r e s s i o n in t h e P a c i f i c t h e a t r e . W h a t w e d o k n o w is t h a t J a p a n e s e h o s t i l i t i e s did c r e a t e ' s p a c e s ' for i n t e r a c t i o n a n d f a c i l i t a t e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n w h i t e s a n d C h i n e s e , a p i v o t a l o p p o r t u n i t y to g e t t o l e a r n a b o u t e a c h o t h e r a n d w o r k t o w a r d s a c o m m o n c a u s e — w h e t h e r collaboration were on the homefront, battle.  These occasions permitted  in t h e i n t e g r a t e d a r m e d f o r c e s , o r t h e f r o n t l i n e s whites  to  interact  with  Chinese and  come  to  of the  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e t w o g r o u p s w e r e , in fact, not t h a t different f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T h e y w e r e both C a n a d i a n s . O u t of t h e 4 1 , 0 0 0 C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s a c r o s s C a n a d a at t h e t i m e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 0 s e r v e d in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . T h e y w e r e t h e o n l y e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p t h a t s e r v e d in a l l s e r v i c e s a n d e v e r y t h e a t r e of t h e w a r . T h e i r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r w o r t h i n e s s for full g o v e r n m e n t  support, justified  the  r e m o v a l of all d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  legislation,  and  40  allowed t h e m  to o b t a i n full c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s ,  including  t h e right t o v o t e .  1 7 3  Individual  e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t after m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e of C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s w a s a likely p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e collective g r a n t i n g of full c i t i z e n s h i p rights t o a l l A s i a n C a n a d i a n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r o r not they f o u g h t in t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s a r e n o l o n g e r s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s , b u t are o n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . E x p l o r i n g t h e 1 9 4 4 c o n s c r i p t i o n d e b a t e s u n c o v e r s t h e r e a s o n s both f o r a n d a g a i n s t military w a r t i m e s e r v i c e , p e o p l e s ' l o y a l t i e s , a s w e l l a s h o w t h e y s a w c i t i z e n s h i p , c o m m u n i t y , a n d how C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s identified t h e m s e l v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o p i n i o n s f r o m A m e r i c a n and Australian overseas Chinese communities confirm their similarities a n d connections to C a n a d i a n C h i n e s e , a s i n d i c a t e d by c l a i m s o f d u a l l o y a l t i e s , by c o l l a b o r a t i v e a n d i n t e g r a t e d experiences with whites, discriminatory legislation that excluded them from the forces, a n d many  others.  Fortuitously,  the recovery  of this  history  coincides with  the Canadian  g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e s i g n a t i o n o f 2 0 0 5 a s The Year of the Veteran, t o m a r k t h e 6 0  t h  anniversary  of the e n d of t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . W e f o r e v e r o w e g r a t i t u d e t o t h e s e v e t e r a n s f o r d e s p i t e all t h e rebuffs t h e y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d , a n d f o r t h e i r f a i t h t h a t o t h e r C a n a d i a n s w o u l d a c c e p t t h e m a s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . It is a l s o t i m e l y t h a t t h e i r h i s t o r i e s are n o w p r e s e r v e d f o r p o s t e r i t y .  Although it is commonly believed that the military service of these veterans provided a compelling argument for extending the franchise to all citizens of Chinese ancestry, this argument was not made in the parliamentary debates on the 1947 bill. 1 7 3  41  BIBLIOGRAPHY  C o m m o n l y  U s e d  CWCR  R e f e r e n c e s  Cabinet War Committee Records  DHH  Directorate of History  NAC  N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of C a n a d a  RG  Record Group  Vol  Volume  P r i m a r y  S o u r c e s  A r c h i v a l Office f o r N a t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s . " P e r s o n s P r e s e n t 1 8 0 1 - 1 9 7 1 , P e r s o n s R e s i d e n t 1 9 8 1 - 2 0 0 1 , E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , " 1891 Census Historic Tables - Great Britain. 1 4 J u n e 2 0 0 5 . <http://www.qsi.qov.uk/main/notices/information/qsi-003-2002.pdf>  S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . Consensus of Canada,  1881-1981.  Report of t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n in 1 8 8 5 . O t t a w a : P r i n t e d b y O r d e r of t h e C o m m i s s i o n , 1 8 8 5 .  Report o n L o s s e s S u s t a i n e d by t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n of V a n c o u v e r B . C . o n t h e O c c a s i o n o f t h e R i o t s in t h a t C i t y in S e p t e m b e r 1 9 0 7 . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n : W.L. Mackenzie King  Sessional Papers, in N A C N o . 74f, 1 9 0 8 , 1 8 . S t a t e s C a n a d a , 1 9 2 3 , V o l . I a n d II. U n i t e d C h u r c h of C a n a d a They Came Through: Stories of Chinese Canadians ( p a m p h l e t , circa 1930s). U B C Library Rare Books a n d Special Collections, S P A M 5 7 0 3 . U.S.  C e n s u s B u r e a u . Estimated Population of the United States, 1939 to 1946. 1 4 J u n e 2005. <http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/1990s/popclockest.txt>  S t a t i s t i c s in N A C , R G 2 4 , R e c o r d s of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e , V o l . 1 8 7 1 5 , File 1 3 3 . 0 6 5 ( D 3 6 0 ) , " N R M A S T A T S - 1 9 3 9 / 4 5 by D V A , W a r S e r v i c e R e c o r d s d / 1 0 J a n 5 0 , " a n d V o l . 1 8 8 2 9 , File 1 3 3 . 0 6 5 ( D 7 4 0 ) , " S e c o n d W o r l d W a r s t a t i s t i c s r e c e i v e d f r o m War Service Records, 26 Jan 1966: RCN war 1939-45 Appointments and Enlistments period 1 9 3 9 - 4 6 i n c l u s i v e ; C a n a d i a n A r m y G e n e r a l S e r v i c e . " A l s o C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t of N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e , N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e H e a d q u a r t e r s , O t t a w a , D H H , File 1 1 1 . 1 3 ( D 6 ) , " R e t u r n of N R M A o n s t r e n g t h b y r e l i g i o n , p r o v i n c e o r p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e a s o f 11 O c t 44."  42  G . S . W i s m e r to C o l . L.R. L a F l e c h e , 8 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 0 ; W i s m e r t o J . L . R a l s t o n , 2 3 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 0 , in N A C R G 2 5 G I , File 2 6 3 - 3 8 . Report a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o n O r i e n t a l s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 0 , in N A C R G 2 7 , V o l . 1 5 0 0 , File 2 - K - 1 8 4 , N . W . S . O r i e n t a l B C .  C e n s u s of C a n a d a , 1 9 4 1 , T a b l e 3 3 a n d T a b l e 4 3 , 5 0 8 - 1 7 . Gillanders, Justice. "Justice Gillanders, C h a i r m a n of the Board (Draft/Mobilization), Toronto to M a j . G e n . L.R. L a F l e c h e , A s s o c . D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , D e p t . of N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s . " 2 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 , in N A C File 2 - 1 8 4 , " O r i e n t a l s — N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , " V o l . 1 4 8 9 . RG 2 7 .  W o n g , T . S . ( S e w K w o n g W o n g ) . T . S . W o n g t o T o r o n t o Draft B o a r d , D e p a r t m e n t of N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , circa late S e p t e m b e r - e a r l y O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 . File 2 - 1 8 4 , . " O r i e n t a l s N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , " in N A C V o l . 1 4 8 9 , R G 2 7  L.R. L a F l e c h e , A s s o c i a t e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , N W S , to E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , 6 O c t o b e r ; K e e n l y s i d e r e p l y , 9 O c t o b e r ; L a F l e c h e t o T h e H o n o u r a b l e Mr. J u s t i c e J . G . G i l l a n d e r s , T o r o n t o , 1 0 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 , in N A C R G 2 7 , V o l . 1 4 8 9 , File 2 - 1 8 4 , N W S O r i e n t a l s . M a n s o n t o A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , M o b i l i z a t i o n , in N A C R G 2 7 V o l . 9 9 7 , File 2 - 1 1 4 , pt. 5 . " M e m o r a n d u m . S e c r e t N o . 1, D e p t . o f N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , " 2 0 N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 1 in N A C File 2 - 1 8 4 , " O r i e n t a l s — N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s . " V o l . 1 4 8 9 R G 2 7 .  C W C R , 13 February 1942.  B r e a d n e r , A M L . S . ( s i g n e d O r d e r ) C A S , 1 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 , in N A C R G 2 4 , V o l 1 7 . 1 7 . 8 0 0 , File 8 2 8 - 2 1 , V o l . 1 4 ; a n d O r d e r in C o u n c i l P C 7 9 / 1 1 1 6 0 in R G 2 V o l . 1 7 8 4 , a p p r o v e d 9 December 1942. R i l e y , M a j . G e n . H J . t o A . M a c N a m a r a , l e t t e r , c i r c a 1 9 4 3 in N A C File 2 - 1 1 4 - 5 , " N a t i o n a l Selective Service-Aliens-Chinese," Vol. 9 9 8 RG 2 7 .  E x t e r n a l F i l e s , 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 4 3 , in N A C R G 2 5 V o l . 2 8 1 8 , File 1 1 5 4 - 4 0 .  T a c h e , A . d e G a s p e . " O r i e n t a l s - N a t i o n a l W a r S e r v i c e s , " Dept. of Labour, National Selective Service Mobilization Regulations, 3 0 J a n u a r y 1 9 4 3 in N A C File 2 - 1 8 4 V o l . 1 4 8 9 R G 27. H e n r y , C h a r l e s . " C h a r l e s H e n r y to A r t h u r M a c N a m a r a , D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r , 2 9 J u l y 1 9 4 3 , " in N A C File 2 - 1 1 4 - 5 , " N a t i o n a l S e l e c t i v e S e r v i c e — A l i e n s — C h i n e s e , " V o l . 9 9 8 RG 2 7 . 43  A . M . M a n s o n to A r t h u r M a c N a m a r a , 3 M a y 1 9 4 4 in N A C D L R V o l . 1 2 7 A .  " B j a r n s o n , E . 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C . , " Vancouver  Vancouver  Vancouver  Daily  Daily Province,  " C h i n e s e of V i c t o r i a G i v e $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 at V i c t o r i a D o c k , " Vancouver 1 9 3 7 , p. 3. " C i t y C h i n e s e D o n a t e $ 9 0 , 0 0 0 to W a r C a u s e , " Vancouver 1.  Sun,  Province,  28  20  September  November  30 March 1936. Daily  Daily Province,  Province,  30 August  30 A u g u s t 1 9 3 7 , p.  44  " C h i n e s e A t t e m p t t o Halt S h i p m e n t s of M e t a l F r o m H e r e , " Daily Colonist, 1 2 A u g u s t 1 9 3 9 , p. 1,8. " C h i n e s e S t a r t M e l e e A n d P r e v e n t L o a d i n g O f M e t a l S h i p m e n t s , " Daily Colonist, 13 A u g u s t 1 9 3 9 , p p . 1, 1 0 .  " H u g e C r o w d A t t e n d s E l a b o r a t e F e s t i v a l G i v e n t o A i d C h i n a , " Daily Colonist, 27 O c t o b e r 1 9 3 9 , p. 8 .  C h i n e s e Y o u t h A s s o c i a t i o n of V i c t o r i a , B C . 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"Move to B a r Chinese in Residential A r e a s : Civic Committee Takes Action A s Delegation Protest O r i e n t a l F a m i l y in W e s t Point G r e y . " New Herald, 4 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 . " C o n s u l P r o t e s t s C i t y P l a n t o ' R o p e Off' O r i e n t a l s . " S o u r c e u n k n o w n , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s N e w s c l i p p i n g File. 5 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 .  " O p p o s e B a n O n O r i e n t a l s , " The Vancouver Sun, 9 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 . " B a r O r i e n t a l s f r o m B e t t e r R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s : L e g a l i t y of P r o p o s e d B y - L a w Q u e s t i o n e d by A l d e r m a n . " Pro vince, 14 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 . " C h i n e s e W i n s a C o m m i s s i o n , " City of Vancouver Archives,  14 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 .  45  " C h i n a t o w n N o i s i l y J u b i l a n t at U . S . W a r A g a i n s t J a p a n e s e , " Vancouver Daily Province, 8 December 1941, pp. 3-4.  " C a n a d i a n C h u r c h C a s h to A i d C h i n a , " The Vancouver Sun, 17 M a r c h 1 9 4 2 , p. 1.  " C h i n e s e A s k V o t e a n d B e t t e r D e a l , " Victoria Daily Times, 10 D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 2 , p. 5. " C h i n e s e S e e k R i g h t T o V o t e , " Vancouver News Herald, 10 D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 2 , p. 1 2 .  " C a n a d i a n - C h i n e s e C i t i z e n s , " Victoria Daily Times, 15 D e c e m b e r 1 9 4 2 , p. 3 .  " C h i n e s e S e n d Gift of $ 1 , 6 7 7 to R e d C r o s s , " Evening Telegram, 19 M a r c h 1 9 4 3 . " T r i b u t e to C h i n e s e in C a n a d i a n F o r c e s , " Victoria Daily Times, 17 A p r i l 1 9 4 3 , p. 1 6 . " D i d M a d a m e C h i a n g T a l k of B . C . C h i n e s e ? " Vancouver Daily Province, 17 J u n e 1 9 4 3 , p. 1 6 . " C a n a d a a n d t h e C h i n e s e , " Vancouver News Herald, 1 4 J u l y 1 9 4 3 . " H a l f of C h i n e s e P a s s A r m y E x a m , " Daily Colonist, 2 3 A u g u s t 1 9 4 3 , p. 3 . 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