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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Michael Haydn’s Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, his Stille, stille, Gottes Wille and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s… Bennett, Neal Andrew 2004

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Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, his Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft: an examination of these works, with performance suggestions and critical editions. by NEAL ANDREW BENNETT B. Mus. The University of British Columbia, 1994 Premiere Prix - Conservatoire de Musique de Montreal, 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (UBC School of Music; Doctor of Musical Arts, Alto and Tenor Trombones) We accept this thesis as conforming To the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2004 © Neal Andrew Bennett, 2004 ABSTRACT This document presents three arias for trombone and voice excerpted from parts of Lenten oratorios from Salzburg composed by Michael Haydn and an eleven-year-old W. A. Mozart. The primary aim of this research and document is to make these arias known to trombonists once more, thus extending the repertoire. Chapter Two discusses Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue its manuscript, musical textures, performance challenges and text. Chapter Three provides a similar examination of Haydn's Stitte, Stille, Gottes Witte and Chapter Four examines W.A. Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft. Chapter Five discusses Leopold Mozart's Violinschule as a performance resource for interpreting these works. The appendices contain performance editions of the arias composed by Michael Haydn. T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii Acknowledgements iv CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER II Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue 7 CHAPTER III Michael Haydn's Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille 22 CHAPTER IV Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft 33 CHAPTER V Leopold Mozart's Violinschule as a performance resource for interpreting solo trombone music from Salzburg circa 1770 39 CHAPTER VI In Conclusion 52 Bibliography 54 Appendix A - A Critical Edition of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue 58 Appendix B - A Critical Edition of Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille 85 iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the members of my Doctoral Committee for the support and input they provided in the final drafts of this document. Additionally I would like to acknowledge Professor Martin Berinbaum, my advisor, for his constant support of my career in music and life in general. I am grateful to Jesse Read for introducing me to the research that would eventually become this document and to J. Evan Kreider for his help in editing the final version of this document. I would also like to thank the staff of the Hungarian National Library and the University of Salzburg for their generous help in providing me with microfilm of the manuscripts and librettos I needed for this research. Special thanks to Doug Sparkes, Gordon Cherry, Joseph Zuskin and Alain Trudel for my technical foundations and the all the incredible inspiration I have had as a musician. Additional thanks go to my friends Jim Tranquilla, Greg Passmore, Andrew Poirier, Volkan Mutaf and Ken Pearce. We have learned so much together. To my femily Don & Beth, Ellen & Ken, David & Stephanie and Alex and Aine, Nancy and Hong Sun, without you guys I never would have done this. Last but not least thanks to Peggy Tong for her continuous support through the final phases of this document. iv Chapter One: Introduction This document examines three arias from three different oratorios composed in 1767,1768 and 1769. Because opera was forbidden in Catholic Salzburg during Lent (as it was elsewhere in Catholic Europe at this time), these oratorios provided a substitute devotional entertainment. Each of these oratorios was segmented into three parts, a different composer being commissioned to write each. Al l of these oratorios were to feature court composer Michael Haydn (1737-1806), the court singers and court trombonist and chamber musician Thomas Gschlatt. One of these works (Jener Dormerworte Kraft) also featured the compositional talents of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791).1 This early work is well known by scholars and included in the Neue Mozart Ausgabe. The works by Michael Haydn are unpublished. The original autograph manuscripts are located in the Eszterhazy Collection in the Hungarian National Library. That works by such a formidable master as Michael Haydn should have gone unacknowledged and unexamined for so long is unfortunate. Equally unfortunate is that only three of nine parts of these three oratorios are extant today. None of them can be performed in their entirety as a three-part work. Michael Haydn is the brother of the better-known Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). He is, in the opinion of many, greatly underrated as a composer. When he wrote the oratorios studied in this document he was at the peak of his powers. E.T.A. Hoffman (1776-1822) considered his writing in the church style to be superior to that of his brother Joseph Haydn.3 Michael Haydn came to Salzburg in 1762 after the death of Johann Ernst Eberlin (1702-1762) to take up the post of court Konzertmeister.4 Haydn composed a great deal of sacred dramatic music while at Salzburg, much of which is lost. The years 1 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe sSmlichter Werke. Serie I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. 2 Michael Haydn, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.104, Autograph 1768,1 score: 200p. 23 x 31 cm. From me Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary; and Michael Haydn, Kaiser Constantin I Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Sz&henyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.107, Autograph 1769,1 score: 232p. 21.4 x 29.9 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. The author thanks the staff of the Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar for providing microfilm of these manuscripts. 3 Dwight Blazin: 'Haydn Michael', Grove Music Online de. L. Macy (Accessed 3 June 2004), <http://www.grovemusic.com> 4 Ibid. 2 surrounding the composition and performances of the oratorios Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung and Kaiser Constantin I. Feldzug und Sieg were happy years that included his marriage to Maria Magdelena Lipp (1745-1827) in 1768. The two trombone solos from these oratorios will not be the first time trombonists have encountered music by Michael Haydn. Several of his other works, such as the Divertimento in D 5 (known to many trombonists as his concerto for trombone), the Serenata in D 6 and his Larghetto col trombone concertino7, were likely written with trombonist Thomas Gschlatt in mind and are already somewhat well known to trombonists. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was eleven when he composed his section of the German Oratorio examined in this document While already well known to scholars, his work needed to be included in this document because of its use of the trombone, similarity of musical genre and chronological proximity to the Michael Haydn compositions. One of the myths regarding Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots is that the Archbishop of Salzburg, incredulous that such a young boy could compose, locked the boy Mozart in a room to compose without the aid of his father.8 This has however been proven false as there are corrections in the score in the hand of Leopold Mozart.9 While the aria Jener Donnerworte Kraft is not reflective of the same maturity of compositional genius as Don Giovanni or his Requiem for example, it is entirely remarkable as the work of an eleven-year-old boy. Leopold Mozart (d. 1787), like Michael Haydn, is also often unappreciated as a composer. His music has much of the character and wit that would characterize his son's output. The years of 1767-69 were relatively happy for the Mozart family. These were 5 Michael Haydn, Divertimento. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus n. 84, Autograph 1764,1 score: 44p. 35 x 21.6 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 6 Michael Haydn, Serenata. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus II. 82, Autograph 1767,1 score: 91p. 21.S x 30.5 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 7 Michael Haydn, Serenata. Manuscript, A GO Abbey of GOttweig, uncatalogued, Autograph 1763,1 score: 6 pages. 35.7 x 232 cm. For a modern edition refer to CH. Sherman. Dilletto Musicale No. 373. (Wein: Doblinger, 1974). 8 Robert C. Wigness, The Soloistic Use of the Trombone in 18th Century Vienna. (Nashville: The Brass Press, 1978), 34. 9 Stanley Sadie, "Mozart's Moralities," Musical Times vol. 109 no. 1501 (March 1968): 223. the years in which the children were on tour with their father visiting the great courts of Europe. Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots was composed in Salzburg shortly after the family had come from Munich. In addition to his close supervision of his son during this period, Leopold Mozart is the only composer to have left documentation regarding performance practice. Leopold's Violinschule (1787) is also a wonderful source of ideas for performance practice and it will be referred to frequently in Chapter Five of this document. Trombonist Thomas Gschlatt was a Salzburg court musician in the service of the Archbishop; he also played the trombone, the violin, the waldhorn and the cello.10 He was probably the trombone soloist for whom the works in this document were written. Several other Salzburg composers wrote extensively for Gschlatt as soloist, notably Johann Ernst Eberlin and Anton Cajetan Adlgasser. Gschlatt was given the title of court chamber musician and soloist in the Salzburg court. As he was a multi-instrumentalist, it is likely that his duties were not all trombone related. In fact, he was also required to perform the services of a valet as part of his appointment.11 Eventually Gschlatt left Salzburg to take up the post of Thurnemeister (band master) in Olmutz.12 More research could be done regarding the life and times of Thomas Gschlatt. There are many interesting connections between Gschlatt and the 2 major 18th century concerti for trombone by G.C. Wagenseil13 and J.G. Albrechtsberger14 for example that could be researched further. The three oratorios examined in this research are representative of the German oratorio in Salzburg. The German oratorio was more or less identical to the 1 0 J. Richard Raum, "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist I," Brass Bulletin 87, no. 87(1994): 14. " J. Richard Raum, "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist II," Brass Bulletin 88, no.88 (1994): 22. 1 2 J. Richard Raum, "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist III," Brass flK//<?tf»,no.89(1995):31. 1 3 Ken Schifrin, "The solo trombone of the Austro-Bohemian Baroque II," Brass Bulletin no. 120 (2002): 48-54. 1 4 J. Richard Raum, "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist III," Brass Bulletin, no. 89 (1995): 34. 4 contemporaneous Italian oratorio in Catholic areas such as Salzburg.13 These works, similar to their Italian counterparts in all respects save language, were normally used to emphasize the ecclesiastical season of Lent and particularly Holy Week.16 There is the possibility that Michael Haydn's Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung may have been performed before a model of the Holy Sepulchre either in court or in a church. It is the only work whose premiere falls within the possible dates for Holy Week itself. It is not known if these Lenten compositions were staged when performed. Typically the texts of German Oratorios were either German translations of Italian libretti or newly composed libretti in German. The librettists were, generally speaking, local poets. There was no "German Metastasio" that created models for other poets.17 Prominent Salzburg citizens composed the libretti for the oratorios in this document. Johan Anton Weiser (1701-1785) composed the libretto for Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots. He would later become mayor of Salzburg.18 Johann Heinrich Driimel (1707-1770) composed the libretti for both Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung and Kaiser Constantin I. Feldzug und Sieg. Little is known of Driimel except that he came to Salzburg in 1755 to serve the Bishop as a Professor des Staatsrechts [professor of state (public) law] after his family converted to Catholicism.19 He is also the author of Eine Neue Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache [New Grammar of the Latin Language] (1747).20 The bulk of the Austrian sacred repertoire for obbligato trombone and voice is for alto voice. Salzburg seems to have been an exception in this regard as several of her other composers frequently paired the trombone with soprano or tenor voice. Johann Ernst Eberlin's (1702-1762) Der blutschwitzende Jesus is a good example of a Salzburg 1 5 Charles E. Smither, A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 4 The Oratorio in the Classical Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977), 331. 1 6 Charles E. Smither, A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 4 The Oratorio in the Classical Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977), 340. 1 7 Charles E. Smither, A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 4 The Oratorio in the Classical Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977), 356. 1 8 Charles Osborne, The Complete Operas of Mozart. (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1978), 25. 1 9 Richard Wolf, 'Johann Heinrich Drumel', Lateinische WdrterbUcher - Eine illustrierte Bibliographic (Accessed May 21st 2004), <htto://www.richardwolf.de/latein > 20 Ibid 5 oratorio with the trombone solos combined with either tenor and soprano voices/1 This observation also holds true for other Salzburg composers writing sacred dramatic music such as Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729-1777).22 Because mis music was likely performed only once, it was inevitable that this repertoire would fade into obscurity with the passage of time. The works by Michael Haydn have not been performed for well over two hundred years. The lecture recital that accompanies this document will likely be their North American premiere. This document provides an examination of each of the three extant arias from the selected oratorios which feature alto trombone. Additionally, critical editions of the arias by Michael Haydn are provided as appendices to this document. With this study trombonists will be better able to acknowledge the fact that their instrument, in a solo context, was not as absent from the greater minds of the Classical era as might have been thought. 2 1 Johann Ernst Eberlin, Oratorium, Der blutschwitzende Jesus, nebst Anhang: Stiicke cms anderen Oratorien. Edited by Robert Haas. Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Ostereich, vol. 55. Vienna: Universal Edition; Leipzig: Breitkopf & HflrteL 1921. 2 2 Christine Decatzanaro, and Werner Rainer. Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729-1777: a thematic catalogue of his works. New York, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 2000. 6 Chapter Two: Michael Haydn 's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue The German oratorio Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung (The Battle of Penance and Conversion) was composed in three parts by the composers Anton Cajetan Adlgasser, Johann Michael Haydn, and David Westermayer.23 Only Michael Haydn's contribution is extant.24 Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue [I Come with True Repentance] from Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung was first performed before the 2nd of April 1768. Records indicate that Adlgasser and Haydn were paid 30 florins each by Archbishop Schrattenbach for this work on that date.25 Notes from the score indicate that Michael Haydn's composition was completed the 21st of February 1768.26 The published libretto presents a complete account of the singers from the premiere. Example 1 - From the libretto of Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung (1768)27 Very little is known about Westermayer. Some works by Westermayer can be found in the RISM catalogue. 2 4 Michael Haydn, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript H-Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.104, Autograph 1768,1 score: 200p. 23 x 31 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 2 5 Christine Decatzanaro and Werner Rainer, Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729-1777): a thematic catalogue of his works (New York, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 200), 185. 2 6 At the end of the manuscript is written Fine. / Salisborgo /21 Febraio /1768 2 7 Johan Heinrich Druemel, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4126. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. T h e p e r f o r m e r s f o r t h e p r e m i e r e w e r e A n t o n F r a n z S p i t z e d e r a s C h r i s t , F e l i x W i n t e r a s Freygeist [ t h e f r e e s p i r i t ] , M a r i a A n n a F e s s m a y r a s Weltmensch [ w o r l d l i n e s s ] , M a r i a M a g d a l e n a L i p p a s Gnade [ m e r c y ] , a n d M a r i a A n n a B r a u n h o f e r a s Gerichtigkeit [ j u s t i c e ] . I c h komm m i t wahrer Reue w a s s u n g b y s o p r a n o M a r i a A n n a F e s s m a y r 2 9 w h o p e r f o r m e d t h e r o l e o f Weltmensch a t t h e p r e m i e r e . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t r o m b o n e v i r t u o s o T h o m a s G s c h l a t t p e r f o r m e d t h e o b b l i g a t o t r o m b o n e s o l o i n t h e s a m e a r i a . I c h komm m i t wahrer Reue ( e x a m p l e 2 ) i s a n a r i a f o r s o p r a n o v o i c e w i t h obbligato a l t o t r o m b o n e . T h e f i r s t p a g e o f t h i s a r i a i s r e p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e n e x t e x a m p l e . E x a m p l e 2 - F i r s t p a g e o f t h e a u t o g r a p h s c o r e o f I c h komm m i t wahrer Reue.30 In later years Maria Magdalena Lipp would marry Johann Michael Haydn to become Maria Magdalena Haydn. Refer to the roster of performers in example 18 of this document. 29 Fessmayer would later many Adlgasser. 30 Michael Haydn, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi Kdnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms. mus 11.104, Autograph 1768,1 score: 200p. 23 x 31 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 9 The accompanying orchestration specifies parts for 2 flutes, 2 horns, 2 violins, viola and basso. The horn parts are notated in B-flat alto. The violin part suggests multiple performers were required as indicated in the opening divisi writing in both parts. The vocal part is notated in the soprano clef and is characterized by long florid lines. The trombone obbligato in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue features very long phrases. The trombone performer is required to execute phrases similar to those required in the vocal solo (example 3). Example 3 - Trombone Part to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue Alto Trombone Ich kooun mit wahrer Reue™ Larghetto im1 i:n ri iiirrn'ctfr cgt ' r rM p safe n r r T ^ i u i i i f T T - ^ i p r p t c C r c c S c r i «" 1 LU -I 1 1 LU m im' I"I i LUJ i Lp irn'r i irrr The full vocal part is presented below to validate the previous assertion about the length of phrases. 10 Example 4 - Voca l Part to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue Soprano Ich komm mit wahrer Reue... The tessitura of the trombone part would have presented no unprecedented challenges to Thomas Gschlatt This part ascends to a high D only occasionally. Comparing the tessitura of this work to contemporaneous repertoire by Leopold Mozart (examples 4 and 4.5), one can see that Gschlatt's technical capabilities can be assumed to have been similarly extensive. Examples 5 - Trombone Parts from contemporaneous music by Leopold Mozart31 Trombone Agnus Dei IVombone Adagio - from Serenata in1 LL..I Q j lu i l i f Q i Q f e f ii 'oiSlff l j iDUiLlgff l j i i D u ' In Zc/i Aom/n /wY wahrer Reue the trombone and voice work most often in direct imitation one stating the same material that the other has just played more or less literally. Less often, there are instances of simultaneous melody and countermelody. The manuscript score is fairly devoid of dynamic markings in the solo trombone part. The aria is a do 3 1 Leopold Mozart Agnus Dei from Lauretanische Litanei in Es. Edited by Ernst Hintermaier. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe samlichter Werke. Serie X, Werkgruppe 28, Band la. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1990 and Leopold Mozart Concerto for Trombone. Edited by Alexander Weinman. Zurich, Switzerland: Eulenburg, 1977. 12 capo aria with an essentially verbatim reprise in which embellishment would have been possible. The middle section is somewhat developmental as it moves the previous material through several key areas. The reprise ends with a codetta section. The text of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue is located on page 25 of the published libretto by Johan Heinrich Driimel. Example 6 - Page 25 of the published libretto to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue32 The text of the aria presented in the original German and a loose translation are as follows: Johan Heinrich Driimel, Der Kampf der Busse md Bekehrung. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4126. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. 13 Weltmensch: Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, Mein Heiland, nun zudir In deinem tiefen Wunden, Wird alles Heil gefinden: So hilfauch mir, auch mir: Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, Mein Heiland, nun zu dir. Worldliness: Now I come with true repentance to you my saviour In your deep wounds is all salvation to be found So help me also.33 In essence, the text is a sinner's realization of sin and a plea for forgiveness. This text is quite appropriate to the Catholic and conservative court of Salzburg at this time. Johann Heinrich Driimel wrote the text of the oratorio. There is not a great deal known about Driimel, a prominent Salzburg citizen who dabbled in drama. The same is true of Mozart's Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots for which Salzburg merchant, and later mayor, Ignaz Anton Weiser composed the libretto. Musical representation of affekt and imagery of texts is typical in German 18th century oratorios.34 There are noteworthy examples of musical representations of text in the aria. For example, the music enhances the imagery of the text with a minor-seventh leap on the word Wunden (wounds) perhaps to emphasize the suffering of Christ (example 6). Example 7. Measures 29-32 of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue l i ^ r > J U J J J I J I i ii 1 1 rjir^=i In ctol-nMn tto-fton Vftm » dsn wtn l wA-t#s Itefl m fin-(ton Translation by Dr. Alexander J. Fisher - University of British Columbia 3 4 Charles E. Smither, A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 4 The Oratorio in the Classical Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977), 369. 14 Likewise, the importance of the word Heiland (saviour) is emphasized through an extended mellismatic treatment (example 7). Example 8. Measures 44-54 of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue * P r >p ciJCrc££fite f ft aXrflfriP f totals Later on Tiefen (deep), and thereby the severity of the wounds of Christ, are characterized by a leap of an octave (examples 8,8.5 and 8.75). Example 9. Measures 62-65 of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue to ftoi wM fin* Example 10 Measures 68-71 of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue in Example 11 Measures 71-73 of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue to dM 15 Clearly, the appreciation o f musical representations o f text is key to attaining full musical understanding o f these works. The aria Ich komm mit wahrer Reue is not the only section o f Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung to utilize the trombone as a solo instrument. There is also another brief episode o f trombone solo at the beginning o f the preceding arioso and recitative (examples 9 and 10). Example 12 - From the autograph score o f Ich komm mit wahrer Reue35 Michael Haydn, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi Konyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.104, Autograph 1768,1 score: 200p. 23 x 31 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 16 The technical challenges of the wider leaps in this section of Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung are greater than that of the following aria. Example 13 - Trombone part from recitative section of Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung This practice of briefly introducing the solo trombone before launching the major trombone solo aria in an oratorio is not unprecedented. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots has a brief passage of trombone prior to the aria Jener Donnerworte Kraft. This can also be seen in works by Gregor Werner.36 3 6 Gregor Werner manuscripts in the Hungarian National Library, First Esterhazy Collection. 17 The text of this arioso and recitative can be found in the published libretto. Example 14 - Pages 24-25 from the libretto of Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung 3xm\ Jntrg. £>txltl 3* J rjft»-Sgk» jtnf fc, Bit «g ft* WKJCWC*, o ®«* tut 3>«i*H • * « B o m 3« pare 9 8 * K r t t i t o « i 3* tram ma w**r » * / > team nrici » • * ( « / 8BM «•« Oat w6«*w; C f Ml M * " * • * ! M w i B w i n W (KM J j c i U * « " P » « -s>* The text of the arioso and recitative loosely translated begins: Christ: Zulezt erthont schrdcklichsten Posaunen Schailen: Ihr Todten stehet auf und kommet vor Gericht. Sie kommen an erstaunt, bestiirzt, erbleicht mit grosser Schwach der Siinden uberzeugt verstummen sie. Dann trSibt der Sunder games Heer hoch und nieder [untermengt] der Satan in der H&lle und grdulich warten an der Thiir millionen Drachen ihr Johan Heinrich Druemel, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4126. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. 18 Christ: Finally is sounded the most horrible shriek of the trombone: You (the dead) dead rise up and face judgement. They approach bewildered, dismayed, pale with great weakness; convinced of their sins, they fall silent Then the great army of sinners envelops Satan in hell on all sides and awaiting them at the gates the horror of a million dragons5* There is further evidence of musical representations of the text in this arioso. First there is the rising up of the sinners' music represented by the ascending scale and descent in arpeggiated triplets. Example 15 - 1st Violin measures 12-14 (Rising up of the Dead) Generally speaking, the majority of the music from this period is in major tonalities. Associating ideas like the 'rising up from the dead' with musical motives in major keys is not necessarily an inappropriate assertion. Additionally, the staccato-allegro-molto accompaniment of the strings in the example below could perhaps represent the environment of hell. Translation by Dr. Alexander J. Fisher University of British Columbia. 19 Example 16 - 1st Violin measures 12-14 (Fires of Hell Motif) The additional chromaticism of this motive also lends credibility to the idea that it is suggestive of fire. Lastly, Michael Haydn utilized the blast of two bassoons fortissimo a low B-flat perhaps representing the dragon's breath. Example 17 - Selection from Score of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue (dragon bream) In conclusion, Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, and its preceding recitative and arioso make a significant addition to the repertoire of the solo trombone. While the music does not yield any dramatic new discoveries about 18th century trombone playing and is typical in terms of 18th century German oratorios from Catholic areas, it is a significant example of music by a master composer featuring solo trombone. The full score of this aria is presented in appendix A of this document. 21 Chapter Three: Michael Haydn's Stille, StUle, Gottes mile The German oratorio Kaiser Constantin I. Feldzug und Sieg [Emperor Constantin I. Campaign and Victory] was composed in three parts by the composers Anton Cajetan Adlgasser, Johann Georg Scheicher39 and Johann Michael Haydn. Only Michael Haydn's contribution is extant.40 Michael Haydn's Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille ist uns heilsam ewig gut (Be still, be still, God's will is everlasting) from Kaiser Konstantin Feldzug und Sieg was first performed the 28th of February 1769. The manuscript indicates that Michael Haydn finished his section on the 20th of February 1769 4 1 The published libretto cites the performers from the premiere in the opening pages. Example 18 - From the published libretto to Kaiser Constantin I. Feldzug und Sieg ff<wra»ff»mp»iiijt wrtScjaarjt/ bat bn crjtti/ £r. 3r*am Secrj C<bridjtt, Jar. au-ditor, teg UMQtrn, £r. SeNm SidttdgQtas^fiirjH. SEwKfrtiwiftrr.ks ftttttn ?twl «m< PMttcrt; Ufaafr tm& ^uirfifriimfii nit uVrrt SNracrmn. Cbcofogb: lutrn fr-iar)e?«yrt«. Vopftifrji: tx. «!<fc 8B*OT. QVadbt: 3jr.g8». 9m* Tjttaattttm. Pbflefbpfct: 3(r.^.SI»iMS5r«xaWcria. Smujaft bet ^ DrjfcUunvj. etarSkatrnM tw i w 9MBW3KII Jtofr fr/ftWJIW X»gJW#BI »*(€*£»• >,attfrt« flay ttfcriftt Slack ac* ^ ^ V ^ H 4H>w^rt*•r*^ —** ^ P P ^ ^ ^ P U * WPH? •Qnptai to rfinftttfii •MffcftouAcr/ rod int ^ Atoi tomb £m)r«Mi«t Smclnwft Me fc& Urtatg Mr MWPMHJ 3MgMi afcriw. Srtotof / tcr 9utfcR$£ tow? 33cvvrtMUM. toeto ivvrr|hvff / AMC «hr ttty MH 3UI«* KrlMfcra/ HM> lit£ mfthrtny ftaMM. fltfMtk&^nMlirtaiR to Nc fatter M 9Wm. 9tcktx< (ftofWe win mlct* »«cr N<f<* Orrwtxiji jnrofcoi, ra» a hawses (tteSnwswirtrtictSNtota^irat kef / tratai 1« kfbriNgrt; ta$ fk m K£ JC^ tf. « 2 & Little is known of Scheicher save that he was a choirboy at the Salzburg cathedral and never rose to a position at court. Michael Haydn, Kaiser Constantin I Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.107, Autograph 1769,1 score: 232p. 21.4 x 29.9 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 4 1 At the end of the manuscript is written Salisborgo / 20 Febraio /1769 4 2 Johan Heinrich Druemel, Kaiser Konstantin I. Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4144. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. 23 The performers for the premiere were Anton Franz Spitzeder as Christ, Felix Winter as Tapferkeit [bravery], Maria Anna Fessmayr as Glaube [faith], Maria Magdalena Haydn as Kleinmutigkeit [faint-heartedness] and Maria Anna Braunhofer as Philosophic [philosophy]. Once again, the trombone virtuoso Thomas Gschlatt would most likely have performed the obbligato trombone solo in the same aria. Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille, like the work examined in the previous chapter, is an aria for soprano voice with obbligato alto trombone. The accompanying orchestration specifies 2 flutes, 2 horns, 2 violins, viola and basso. Ex. 19. Page 139 of Kaiser Constantin Feldzug undSieg43 4 3 Michael Haydn, Kaiser Constantin I Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.107, Autograph 1769,1 score: 232p. 21.4 x 29.9 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 24 The horns are written D basso. Even more remarkable is that there are two different obbligato instrumentalists accompanying the soprano.44 The other obbligato instrument is a solo horn. Remarkably, the solo trombone is written in D like the solo horn. This author has not discovered another manuscript in which the trombone has been similarly transposed. While interesting, it is almost certainly an anomaly peculiar to this instance of Michael Haydn's writing for two solo instruments, one of them already in D basso. The trombone concertante writing in Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille (examples 16) is characterized by less lengthy phrases than those found in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue. Example 20 - Alto trombone part to Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille Alto Trombone Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille_ Andante i i ' i ' r f r n i f f f r i - M I ' M jfri'i irrrfrrfru M I I* i f f r r f t r r j f i r in frr Allegretto fa JL 1 i[jr1 Andante _ EcpjenlttTT n ft I'ri-ijrri'rir M i H There are numerous examples throughout the 18 century of two like instruments used obbligato with a voice in sacred music. The practice was extremely common with two trombones in many composers of the Viennese mass. For musical examples please refer to: Bruce Maclntyre, The Viennese Concerted Mass of the Early Classic Period. (Ann Arbor UMI Research Press, 1986), 509-514 & 326-331. 25 The tessitura of this work would have, again, presented no new challenges to Thomas Gschlatt This work ascends only to high D, and then infrequently. The horn part (example 17) is of approximately the same level of difficulty. Example 21 - Horn Part to Stille, Stille Gottes Wille Solo Horn in F Stffle, Stille, Gottes Wille-Andante -A 'Lu ' u | r i i i I ^ ' L L I " 1 "!u!ii.i Lu' j ^ f ^Ijjjlf flliljjli I'l IL/UIT *l I jr/Wr*! I"I n N L n L r, jiM f^ pi<-Q* JirH-- *ifn- "ifn- M-TU N-TU J i^Tp • mJTi MJI. HHPTJH^Tjii.Pi Andante $ 9 * .e, . - r . : The horn player in this instance was likely Joseph Leutgeb (1732-1811). When considering the challenges found in Michael Haydn's or Mozart's horn concerti, also written for Leutgeb45, this work seems less difficult. The trombone and horn are equal partners in this work. This is not the only time Michael Haydn wrote for this particular combination of solo instruments. There is also a concertino from a serenade that is 4 5 Thomas Hiebert and Reginald Morley-Pegge: Grave Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 21" June 2004), <http://www.grovemusic.com> 26 written for solo horn and trombone.46 Richard Raum suggests in an article that this work may have been performed by Gschlatt and Leutgeb while performing for the future Hapsburg emperor Joseph II at Lambach Abbey in 1765 as part of the Vornehmsten Virtuosi ensemble.47 While quite possible there is no known official documentation of this as a fact.48 In Stille, Stille Gottes Wille, the trombone and horn work most often in direct imitation stating the same material that the other has just played more-or-less literally. Less often, instances of simultaneous melody and countermelody occur. The manuscript score is virtually devoid of dynamic markings in the solo trombone and horn. Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille is organized in three-part form. Somewhat unusual is that the middle section is in a different tempo and meter; the hom and trombone are reduced to mere accompaniment The third section, which reprises material from the first, is not an exact da capo as would be expected. Furthermore, a separate transitional section from the second to the third section has a designated tempo as well. The voice part, originally written in the soprano clef, is again characterized by the writing of long florid lines like those already seen in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue. Trills and frequent arpeggios predominate throughout the vocal part The fermata measures suggest the possibility cadenzas at some of these cadences. Michael Haydn, Serenata. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KSnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus II. 82, Autograph 1767,1 score: 91p. 21.5 x 30.5 cm. Prom the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 4 7 J. Richard Raum, "An Historical Perspective of an 18m Century Trombonist TL," Brass Bulletin, no. 89 (1994): 24-25. 4 8 Raum's article is a first person account of the life of Thomas Gschlatt where the few details we have of his life are used to create a narrative mat gives us a personalized idea of Gschlatt's life and times. 27 Example 22 - Vocal part to Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille Soprano Stille Stille, Gottes Wille-Andante BO - te. GK j.^jj^fi rnijfr ijjrjjrj]i,rnr H J J L U L U I) LuI'UH Lu 11 Ul Allegretto ^ i T 1 P 1 ^ J f g p *-<•> t> • ha. ft'tin i II ni, , II Hui 11 ) fa f r— LJ H i i> r n t | i1 in [j i ifKrritrcfi ft 11% ' i i u ^ u n if i^ h Adagio Andante  ftirtcrtiriV r > iJ"tdrdr'^r r 'f ^ n ' f 11 iL-Lrfn frji^ " i^rrVjjiiy icirrirife r r - p i f M i • ir u M I> J sir o-'ej-i MI h. 28 j-frr r >i 1 r i i i i II i ni riu ii 111 r #J iJ J »tr j U»» i f i, n 11 inr.^1 fat at bdl-v. . - - t a p * h UI • • • -^firr^n^u^jjicfjrTnrrii mi m i _ •<* • - - t o p * i iigjirrriiia/LrrrniLiiri f ^ irnT m j1' i ^ i 4 ' i • The tessitura of the vocal part ascends to high B occasionally and to high C frequently. While challenging to perform, it cannot be seen as exceptional because this vocal writing is quite similar to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue examined in the previous chapter. The text of the aria presents the sentiments of Kleinmutigkeit [faintheartedness]. Faintheartedness urges that one be still and have faith in the eternally saving will of God. The tone of the text is similarly pious to that found in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue. Reproduced below is the text of the aria from the published libretto by Johan Heinrich DrUmel. 29 Example 23 - From the published libretto of Kaiser Konstantin I. Feldzug und Sieg49 ©Me, €nflt, O H M 3BMC at M I triTwi. firlii M L Sift da S m r tov Crte, 9BMM cr (YITOI loHf MIHIHM/ •Over fffet cr lew 9M> ym9ktrjnn jK a w i f w ? gjfa gttaflc, wv ©cu dw. 13 3a et*, em, 9ms mm t ^ r * Surds m * * 3 i M « Tittfta «HM>n, •£>*t rate ^ d^4cbt •Jba MftntcfeM* « I m M tatobt tctrad-t! Hwm-gyy«t»itW wr> n i l Un* oacUntxa, Itab terttn $aff {fttlctttf tsr^ cia tlcta. £ t r < a o ) « * k € « t * « OMdtf. L C M a r t n r trm « * r r t Uafcfl MprMr. UM.Sew* $<f»* Na £ « r | ) n f a brtafr ? SKI c t « f c m 3 * t m o i n * a K ) Nr&aftca. f t a aattct mi)t, fta* aa&Dcr gnat) M f c o n , 9*«J«. MX fcnpcaim aM*r awlaa: Waw. ««kfy»5«T aa » e r r M M M M t , f * trat e»*r wr craMttr Cfertcam raw ! CVek^&ajrtrt na> w SUaea, 2?* H M A J I M M tnfr «wftM*<r dn. ;vr*.r«fc ed) at! aBtrtra ferfJi* i i e* r«*art S - J t n r t - br*. 3ntoi, u*Snickaif- ***«"' 3a M r r jc*»tr«c*araa)rMMa ( H a « 3«t Ha* t r t gwmaK S t f c t f » , JtoS «l<t< S*. fUr« Urtm^T/ SrnM. tc* Drain* 3o*ro. W a » J p M h K « « ' «Raa*. Wn- ftfmt aaftna ( a t ^ M o t / ^ gs«Jt« adj, ORna Oca} ^ k a » e t a c a i a a c t * t a > ba&lnjra. t^eoJca,gr V (dm .a* 7^ act {XsNa SxxrftMt t*t m da €at> M i gta gtcjg ffinjaalai atrfaattat t*rr,q, C ^ C M M i a » e n cai aj**ct3uMf<fc«T. * O f . 7. 31 -17. ** i-.Atoai.at. 11. r. j. i». 14. 4 9 Johan Heinrich Druemel, Kaiser Konstantin I. Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4144. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. 30 The text of the aria and a loose translation read as follows: Kleinmutigkeit: Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille 1st uns heilsam ewig gut. Lafit ein Voter seine Erben, Warn er helfen kann, verderben, Oder opfert er sein Blut, libre Rettungzu erwerben? Mir gefalle, was Gott thut. Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille 1st uns heilsam ewig gut. Faint-heartedness: Be still, be still, God's will is eternally saving. Does a father let his heirs perish, when he can help, Or does he sacrifice his own blood for their salvation? My will is God's will.50 This text offers less opportunity for musical personification than did the aria from the previous chapter, possibly because there are fewer evocative adjectives and verbs to represent than in the aria from the previous chapter. The extended mellismatic writing on the word Heilsam (saviour) is one example of musical accentuation of textual significance. Example 24 - Excerpt from vocal part to Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille 1st um facfl Translation by Dr. Alexander J. Fisher - University of British Columbia. 31 Likewise, the chosen tempi of contrasting sections and the sighing melodic treatment of the word Stille [still] serves to enhance the meaning of the text in a similar fashion to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue of the previous chapter. Example 25 - Sigh motif ftom Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille IfHirirr > i f i r r > ir r r i^crr > n Sul - le, SCO - le, Got - tes WD - le While less obvious than in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue the music of Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille can also be said to enhance the meaning of the text with musical personification. To conclude, Stille, Stille Gottes Wille will be primarily of interest to trombonists, horn players and Haydn researchers. Like Ich komm mit wahrer Reue it is not progressive in any sense other than its instrumentation. The fact that Stille, Stille Gottes Wille is written for horn and alto trombone as obbligato instruments might make it an excellent program choice to accompany performances of Michael Haydn's other solo work for this combination of obbligato instruments.51 The full score of this aria is presented in appendix B of this document for the enjoyment of trombonists and their audience.52 5 1 Michael Haydn, Serenata. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus II. 82, Autograph 1767,1 score: 91p. 21.5 x 30.5 cm. From the Ezsterfaazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 5 2 Please refer to page 89 of mis document Chapter Four: W.A. Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft The German oratorio Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots (The Lessons of the First Commandment) was composed in three parts by the composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Michael Haydn and Anton Cajetan Adlgasser. Only Mozart's contribution is extant53 His Jener Donnerworte Kraft [translation] from Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots was first performed the 12* of March 1767. The libretto lists the performers from the premiere in the opening pages (example 19). Example 26 - Excerpt from a facsimile of the published libretto to Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots54 ^^ )u f^r(C^  ^^ flftflU^  tC^lflt E^^ ^^ f^ j 3a Htm SNiUn Crfrr «MI h vtm «* ea*a»it»e, t> Bluietftt: tot 00*m»Wm Pm mm The performers for the premiere were Joseph Meissner as Christ, Anton Franz Spitzeder as Christen-Geist [spirit of Christianity], Maria Anna Fessmayr as Welt-Geist [worldly 5 3 GB-WR Windsor Castle, no shelfinark. 5 4 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe samlichter Werke. Serie I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. 34 spirit], Maria Magdalena Lipp as G&ttliche Barmherzigkeit [godly mercy] and Maria Anna Braunhofer as G&ttliche Gerechtigkeit [godly justice]. Jener Donnerworte Kraft would have been sung by tenor Joseph Meissner, actually a bass who sang tenor for this performance, who performed the role of Christ at the premiere. Once again, trombone virtuoso Thomas Gschlatt most likely performed the obbligato trombone solo in the aria. The orchestration of Jener Donnerworte Kraft specifies a string orchestra with two violins, two violas and basso continuo. The use of two viola parts is not uncommon in early Mozart The first viola and the solo trombone often form a concertante pair within the orchestration of Jener Donnerworte Kraft. This is most evident and pleasing in the transitional passage of triplets leading into the recapitulation. Example 27 - Excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 125-129 Alto Trombone $ I i t * 1 f m\ i J ftfttrirtir ttrfrfrTrir > > j i J JJJTJJ ) ] } First Viola I - * * *. IR \K 11 fir rcrccri r rcrttrccrir > - i rrrrcrr r i r The trombone part to Jener Donnerworte Kraft is idiomatic to the abilities of the virtuoso for whom it was composed. The trombone solo writing in Jener Donnerworte Kraft would have once again presented no real challenges of tessitura to a player like Thomas Gschlatt The writing does make frequent use of trills and florid sixteenth note passages. Young Mozart made greater use of this ornament than did the older Michael Haydn. The trombone part is part is presented in the example below. 35 Example 28 - Trombone part to Jener Donnerworte Kraft Alto Trombone Jenner Donnerworte Kraft Andante un poco Adagto^ IHfti'ujjI'EfflLlBll 181*1 u[jJH The trombone solo writing in Je«er Donnerworte Kraft would have once again presented no real challenges of tessitura to a player like Thomas Gschlatt The writing does make frequent use of trills and florid sixteenth note passages. Young Mozart made greater use of this ornament than did the older Michael Haydn. The trombone also makes one other appearance in this oratorio; a short passage of accompanied recitative. Example 29 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft Alto Trombone Christ ^ a- >*fri*nrpppp tfjifrpp prip du wirst vondei-nem Le-ben ge - nau-e Rech-nung ge - ben 36 The trombone was used in a similar, though somewhat more extended, fashion in Ich komm mit wahrer Reue earlier in this document Jener Donnerworte Kraft is organized in three-part form. The form is fairly mechanical with the exception of a brief transitional passage before the recapitulation. The middle section moves predictably and somewhat abruptly to C minor, relative major of the preceding and following sections in E-flat major. Of particular note are the frequent opportunities for cadenzas. It is stylistically unusual for there to be cadenzas in a sacred work at all, especially for a brass instrument No examination of mis work is complete without finally examining and understanding the text The text of the aria and a loose translation are as follows: Christ: Jener Donnerworte Kraft, die mir in die Seele dringen, fordern meine Rechenschaft. Ja mit ihrem Widerhall hdrt mein banges Ohr erklingen dannoch den Posanenschall. Christ: The words of thunder, which oppress my soul, warn me of judgement. In their echoes my anxious ear already hears the trombone's call.55 This text continues the pious tone of the two preceding aria's by Michael Haydn. Salzburg merchant Ignaz Anton Weiser (1701-1785), who eventually became the mayor of Salzburg, wrote the libretto. The only obvious text representation is the trombone's echo of the singer's figure on Posaunenschall (example 21.5). Example 30 - Posaunenschall motive from Jener Donnerworte Kraft Alto Trombone • M - i - > J 14 J>J , a a ft L Tenor ^ tyrStfr >f I ' J . Jl J > | - || 5 5 Translation by Dr. Alexander J. Fisher - University of British Columbia. 37 The repetition of the singer's musical figure on this word is, literally speaking, the trombone's call Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft, like the arias examined in the preceding two chapters, offers no revelations in terms of 18th century trombone technique or musical genre. The demands on the soloists are typical. Certain aspects of the composition, such as the divided viola parts, hearken back to an older style of writing. This was to be expected however because this is the work of a very young Mozart still learning his craft from copying the masters under the supervision of his father. This work does, however, relate directly to the arias from chapters 2 and 3 as a contemporaneous work with solo trombone. Trombonists seeking to perform this work can consult the Neue Mozart Ausgabe to view a critical edition for performance. 38 Chapter Five: Leopold Mozart's Violinschule as a performance resource for interpreting solo trombone music from Salzburg circa 1770. 39 This discussion will consider briefly several of the interpretive challenges presented to the performer by the repertoire examined in this document. Neither Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart nor Michael Haydn left us much information regarding musical execution. The exception, and just as relevant considering his stature, his role in his son's musical development, and his geographic location, was Leopold Mozart. Leopold's Grundliche Violinschule, first published in 1756, provides the modern trombone soloist with a fair amount of information to consider regarding trills and other elements of musical execution. The document becomes all the more relevant when considering that Thomas Gschlatt was himself a violinist and would certainly have been familiar with either Leopold's text or the performance traditions he codified. Trills figure prominently in all three arias, but are especially prevalent in Jener Donnerworte Kraft. Leopold Mozart wrote thoroughly about trill execution in his Violinschule. The trill is a common and pleasing alternation of two neighbouring notes, which are either a whole-tone or a half-tone apart. The trill therefore is mainly of two kinds: namely the major second and the minor second.56 Leopold Mozart further defined his thoughts on the trill as follows: But as the trill is made with either the major or the minor second, exact attention must be given to the key of the piece and the additional modulations to the incidental keys. Neglect herein is a shameful fault of which many are guilty, who not only never look whether they have to trill with the major or minor second; but make the trill haphazard either on the third or even on an intermediate note. The trill must be played neither higher nor lower than the piece demands. For example:57 3 6 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Edhha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 186. 5 7 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Edhha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 186-187. 40 With the minor second, or half-tone trill. This poses some questions to the trombonist. Taking into consideration what the composer (or rather the composer's father and/or colleague) felt to be musical, we soon realise that very often the trombonist cannot meet Leopold's specifications for the violinist with ease. Refer to the following examples: Example 31 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 1-6 V [ J 1 i » j r i IIP? 9 1 Example 32 I - Trombone excerpt froi ftrvltll - | T Pf i n Ich komm m * f it wahrer Re\ ue mm. 15-3 J m 12 e — — The first example requires the trombonist to trill from middle C to D-flat and the second example would require a trill from C to D-natural. Neither of these feats is possible by conventional means on an alto trombone whether the instrument is pitched in E-flat or F. There are valid ways of addressing this dilemma. The trombonist can ignore Leopold's words and lip trill to the major third above C. This is a common practice solution, in which the effect can be quite acceptable, especially if the trill is executed rapidly enough with a proper resolution. Another less orthodox way of executing these ornaments, that this author has had some success with, is to lip trill between the harmonics. It is in fact possible to sound any note in any position on the trombone just as it is possible to sing a glissando through the instrument or to play a glissando on a trumpet. Practice and excellent embouchure control are required to make the approach work. The practiced 41 result does, arguably, sacrifice sound quality somewhat and is exceptionally difficult for many players. Compromising sound quality might be less obvious on a period instrument due to the less direct overall natural sound. The third option, and ultimately most satisfactory, is to have the trombone in E-flat equipped with a half-tone valve. Diligent practice with this equipment will enable the player to produce uncompromising results with the correct resolutions. What are the correct methods of beginning and ending a trill according to Leopold Mozart? Firstly, Leopold Mozart gave great importance to the placement of the appoggiatura as he stated below: One must know how to apply the appoggiatura both before and after the trill, in the right place and of appropriate length and brevity. If a trill occurs in the middle of a passage; for example: Then not only is an appoggiatura made before the trill, but the appoggiatura is held through half the value of the note, while the trill with the turn is not begun till the other half as given here:58 Here are two occasions in the arias where this information could be applied to interpretation. 58 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Edhha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 190-191. 42 Example 33 - Trombone excerpt from Ich komm mit wahrer Reue mm. 15-16 ^ i^ rw, 1 K • 1 3H • 1 1 J j J |T[fjJ 1 ^ Example 34 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 128-129 Most of the trills, however, are on longer notes and Leopold Mozart was equally explicit about their resolutions: In the long, descending intermediate cadenzas, too, it is always better by means of a few little notes which are slurred onto the trill as a turn, and which are played somewhat slowly, to fall directly to the closing note rather than make the performance sleepy by playing an appoggiatura before the closing note. But I speak of long, not of short notes, to which at all times the appoggiatura can be applied. Here are long intermediate cadenzas:59 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Edima Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 191. 43 This thought might well be applied in the following instances: Example 35 - Trombone excerpt from Ich komm mit wahrer Reue mm. 33-36 Leopold Mozart offers yet another possible way of resolving such trills. It sounds, however, more beautiful and melodious if the last two little turn-notes a passing appoggiatura be given: ^ t e f r i r r II The application of this information might be especially graceful in the following example: Example 37 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 79-85 Leopold Mozart also explained what to do in the case of the ascending resolution: On the other hand, in the long, ascending intermediate cadenzas one must enter into the closing note immediately at the close of the trill; or one must make the turn with two short notes only and then make 44 the an appoggiatura of two notes from the third upwards; which is to be seen from the bass note.60 Hen umt one apply at the end of the trill asan anticipation or forestalling of the concluding note- (nt) This information might be applied in the following instances: Example 38 - Trombone excerpt from Ich komm mit wahrer Reue mm. 131-135 Example 39 - Trombone excerpt from Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille mm. 243-257 These suggestions, however valid, cannot be held as absolute. The following passage from Jener Donnerworte Kraft provides an example contradictory to the aforementioned practices: 6 0 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Editha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 192. 45 Example 40 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 48-52 tr tr tr _ tr tr Apparently a different practice may have existed for long notes joined in this fashion. The resolutions of the trills are obviously notated in the above instance. There are some relevant statements in Leopold's work regarding the accentuation of certain notes. The notes raised by a sharp and natural should always be played rather more strongly, the tone then diminishing again during the course of the melody. For example: J l , f _ ; Ifjfr JTTpi In the same way a sudden lowering of a note by a flat and natural should be distinguished by forte. For example:61 B S L H J B S 3 S S 3 This could be applied in the following examples from the arias: 6 1 Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals of violin playing, trans. Edhha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 218-219. 46 Example 41 - Trombone excerpt from Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 1-4 tr Example 42 - Trombone excerpt from Ich komm mit wahrer Reue mm. 11-14 It is important in execution that trombonists not carry this interpretive idea to extremes. One must keep in mind the idea of "shades of light and dark" for forte and piano. Leopold also wrote: It is customary always to accent minims strongly when mixed with short notes, and to relax the tone again. For example: 3 ^ r» Yea, many a crochet is played in the same manner. For example:62 1 k k k k This information might come into the performer's consideration when performing the syncopated quarter notes of the next example: Leopold Mozart, Treatise on the fundamental principals ofviolin playing, trans. Editha Knocker (New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1948), 218. 47 Example 43 - Trombone excerpt from Ich komm mit wahrer Reue mm. 5-10 j^Efrjipr j J 3 % f i p r p c j r a a g Accentuating the syncopations in this passage gives a lighter, more gallant character appropriate to this music. There are occasions in all three arias where it is arguable that a trombone virtuoso might decide to perform a cadenza, although it is somewhat unusual for a trombone to be called upon for a cadenza in a sacred work. This researcher cannot think of a single instance of a cadenza for a brass instrument in a contemporaneous work. Jener Donnerworte Kraft has six possible opportunities for cadenza either for trombone alone as in this example: Example 44 - From Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 18-24 48 There are also opportunities for cadenzas with trombone and voice together as seen below (example 35) Example 45 - From Jener Donnerworte Kraft mm. 76-84 HUM VutH V U i l Vu.1 fl tr I : mi 1 tr . . j » JI 1 fl tr tr fl 3 / tr 1 " si fl / tr 1TW. T fl tr / tr ,tr 1 ft L * fbr*dMn flHt*BB B P cbss - CdM4L f p f e r < . _ _ r r . s r f r - . - L - £ . The Neue Mozart Ausgabe has several suggestions for performing these cadenzas in the notes to their edition of Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots 63. The examples are practical and short. Two of their suggested cadenzas are reproduced in the example below. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe s_mlichter Werke. Serie I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. 49 Example 46 - Suggested trombone cadenza from Neue Mozart Ausgabe Example 47 - Trombone and Voice cadenza from Neue Mozart Ausg IIP Lb, g V > f r*ilv * *— y -^rr f -T * f->F' #> f—fc—— 1 abe65 tr "n—r-*=i llLPLrrjf r ^flTLCD'1 ^ huh,^fH'r^HuJ1J»i r J i J - rrirrfri :=t=E= M tr lXEjfCIT^ ? 1 CT:-LJ-J- r r i/—M Re - - - chenschaft fer-dem mei - - - ne - Re - chen-schaft There is some question as to whether or not the singer and trombonist would have collaborated on a cadenza such as we see in the above example. It might be more or equally as pleasing to have the singer take the cadenzas alone or to break the cadenza into a call and response etc. Leopold Mozart unfortunately avoided the complicated subject of the cadenza in his Violinschule. Michael Haydn, however, did leave us some information on how a trombone cadenza might have been performed. Although not a textual example, Michael Haydn wrote out the following cadenza in the score of his Serenade in D in the original manuscript. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe samlichter Werke. Serie I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. 6 5 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe samlichter Werke. Serie I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. 50 Example 48 - Excerpt from Serenata in D 66 tr. This example would seem to make a similar case as other treatises. Johann Joachim Quantz wrote that 'Vocal cadenzas or cadenzas for a wind instrument must be so constituted that they can be performed by the performer in one breath."67 Some players can perform the above example in one breath. In conclusion, this study asserts that this information has been provided for the performers and general consideration. This has included information concerning the performance of trills, accentuation and other aspects of interpretation that can be applied by trombonists. While Leopold's Violinschule is not the only source regarding performance practice for music of this period, it is the nearest and most relative source to Michael Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's local environment It is hoped that more trombonists will look to the treatises of violin teachers, flute players and other instrumentalists who left us documentation of their thoughts on performance. 6 6 Michael Haydn, Serenata. Manuscript H Bn Orszagos Szechenyi Kdnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus II. 82, Autograph 1767,1 score: 91p. 21.5 x 30.5 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. 6 7 Johann Joachim Quantz, On playing the flute, trans. Edward R. Reilly (New York, New York: Schirmer Books, 1985), 185. 51 Chapter Six : In Conclusion The primary purpose of this document was to examine Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue and his Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille and to re-examine Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Jener Donnerworte Kraft from the trombonist's viewpoint as performer. The secondary purpose of this research was to make critical editions of the Michael Haydn works available to trombonists.68 There are no editions of these arias presently available to the trombone soloist The sacred repertoire of the trombone in 18th century Austria and Bohemia remains a relatively untapped resource. The trombone does not enjoy the same status as a solo instrument in the same sense as does its cousins, the horn and the trumpet This may be due to a perceived lack of repertoire and history. The quality of the repertoire in this document however, illustrates that it is possible for trombone players to work towards a remedy for this situation. Lastly, trombonists should take upon themselves the same creativity that the performers of other instruments of the 18th century have in applying the writings of the 18th century masters to modern performance. The treatises of C.P.E. Bach, J. J. Quantz and others regarding performance practice do not tutor only the instruments to which they were originally addressed. The editions are included in mis document as appendices A & B, pages 62 & 89. 53 Bibliography Bruenger, David. "Designing Classical Cadenzas Part I." Journal of the International Trombone Association 23, no. 3 (fall 1995): 30-35. . "Designing Classical Cadenzas Part II." Journal of the International Trombone Association 23, no. 4 (winter 1995): 42-45. Bryan, Paul R. "Mozart's Use of Horns in B-flat and the Question of Alto-Basso in the Eighteenth Century." Historic Brass Society. Accessed 8 t h of July 2004 <www.historicbrass.org> Decatzanaro, Christine, and Werner Rainer. Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729-1777: a thematic catalogue of his works. New York, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 2000. Druemel, Johan Heinrich, Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4126 . From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. Druemel, Johan Heinrich, Kaiser Konstantin I. Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript Libretto A-Su, Shelf No: 4144. From Salzburg University Library, Salzburg, Austria. Eisen, Cliff. Orchestral Music in Salzburg. Madison, Wisconsin: A-R Editions, 1993. 54 Guion, David. The Trombone: Its History and Music 1687-1811. New York, N.Y.: Gordon and Breach, 1988. Haydn, Michael. Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung. Manuscript H-Bn Orszagos Szechenyi Kdnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus 11.104, Autograph 1768,1 score: 200p. 23 x 31 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. . Kaiser Constantin I Feldzug und Sieg. Manuscript H-Bn Orszagos Szechenyi Kdnyvtar, Shelf No.: Ms.mus n.107, Autograph 1769,1 score: 232p. 21.4 x 29.9 cm. From the Ezsterhazy Collection of the Hungarian National Library, Budapest, Hungary. . Serenade in D, Edited by Werner Rainer. Budapest, Hungary: Zenem Ukaido, 1966. Mozart, Leopold. Concerto for Trombone, Edited by Alexander Weinman. Zurich, Switzerland: Eulenburg, 1977. . Treatise on the fundamental principals qf violin playing. Translated by Editha Knocker. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1948. 55 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots. Edited by Franz Giegling. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Neue Ausgabe samlichter Werke. I, Werkgruppe 4, Band 2. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1958. Serie Osborne, Charles. The Complete Operas of Mozart. England, London: Victor Gollancz Ltd.,1978. Quantz, Johann Joachim. On Playing the Flute. Translated by Edward R. Reilly. New York, New York: Schirmer Books, 1985. Raum, J. Richard. "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist I." Brass Bulletin, no. 87 (1994): 10-29. . "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist II." Brass Bulletin, no. 88 (1994): 18-35. . "An Historical Perspective of an 18th Century Trombonist HI," Brass Bulletin, no. 89 (1995): 31-47. Sadie, Stanley. "Mozart's Mont-ities," Musical Times vol. 109 no. 1501 (March 1968): 222-224. 56 Schifrin, Kenneth. "The solo trombone of the Bohemian baroque," Brass Bulletin, no. 120 (2002): 48-54. Sherman, Charles H., and T. Donley Thomas. Johann Michael Haydn (1737-1806), a chronological thematic catalogue of his works. Stuyvesant, New-York: Pendragon Press, 1993. Sluchin, Benny. "The Trombone in the Sacred Works of W.A. Mozart," Brass Bulletin, no. 46 (1984): 31-5. Smither, Howard E. A History of the Oratorio, vol. 3, The Oratorio in the Classical Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977. Tromlitz, Johann George. The Virtuoso Flute Player. Translated and edited by Ardal Powell. Madison - New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Wagenseil, G.C. Concerto for Trombone. Edited by Paul Robey Bryan. Vienna, Austria: Universal, 1979. Wigness, Robert C. The Soloistic Use of the Trombone in 18th Century Vienna. Nashville, Tennessee: Brass Press, 1978. 57 Appendix A: Michael Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue A critical edition Critical Report on Ich komm mit wahrer Reue Sources Micahel Haydn's Ich komm mit wahrer Reue is an aria for soprano with obbligato trombone and orchestra dated 1768. This aria is excerpted from part of a larger oratorio entitled Der Kampf der Busse und Bekehrung [The Battle of Pennace and Conversion]. The music of the present edition of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue is based on the autograph manuscript housed in the Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar (Hungarian National Library) in Budapest Hungary. Part of the Ezsterhazy collection, the score is listed in the thematic catalogue of Michael Haydn by Charles Sherman. I examined this work in the fall of 1999 while on a tour of Europe researching 18th century trombone repertoire and players from Austria and Bohemia. Editorial Methods Unfortunately there are no copies or parts to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue against which to compare any notes or markings which were not clear in the autograph. For its part the manuscript is remarkably accurate and free of questionable notation or errors. One exception to this is measures 15-19 of the second violin. In the autograph Michael Haydn indicated the following: 15 The effect of this is grating to the ear and likely an oversight due to writing quickly. This edition is corrected to the following: 15 } i This edition preserves all of Michael Haydn's markings as they appear in the autograph. However, in this edition I have not preserved the original clef of the soprano solely because it is not common practice for a soprano to read soprano clef today unless they specialize in authentic 59 performance. The orchestral horn parts could be either B flat basso or alto transposition. It is likely that they are in B flat basso because of the range of the first horn ascends to written high G. Text and Translation The text of Ich komm mit wahrer Reue is taken from an authentic copy of the printed libretto in the library of the University of Salzburg. The translation is by Professor Alex Fisher of the University of British Columbia. In this aria Weltmensch [worldliness] is offering a statement of repentance to God. Weltmensch: Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, Mein Heiland, nun zu dir In deinem tiefen Wunden, Wird alles Heil gefinden: So hilf auch mir, auch mir: Ich komm mit wahrer Reue, Mein Heiland, nun zu dir. Worldliness: Now I come with true repentance to you my saviour In your deep wounds is all salvation to be found. So help me also. The text was written by Johan Heinrich DrOmel, a teacher and scholar of latin active in Salzburg. 60 I c h k o m m m i t w a h r e r R e u e Larghetto Horn in B-flat Basso 1 Horn in B-flat Basso 2 Flute 1 Flute 2 Violin I Violin II Viola Alto Trombone Soprano Basso fin r Oi Johann Michael Haydn 1768 Ed. Neal Bennett 2003 I L_,3 —«~~ * i t i t i i 0-0-XJ * / it it i t L L U L-TLLT'I: i f - . _ / i i » i t it i t 61 62 63 65 66 Hn. 1 Hn. 2 Fl. 1 F1.2 Vta.I V l n H Via. A. Ton. Sop. p i f ? land nun zu ' j J J IJ J ii 67 68 69 i i i I'll • i i U i i r II f i r ir , u i 70 71 72 73 74 75 77 r r r ' J i r r r r ' r r r M r r r r i r r r r i r r r r ' 79 80 Hn. 1 Hn.2 Fl. 1 F1.2 Vlnl Via U Via. A. Tbn JIH m Sop. I' I I | mi rYrrrrrri i H >r r 'ir if r r r ir 81 83 Appendix B: Michael Haydn's Stille, StiUe, Gottes Wille A critical edition Critical Report on Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille Sources Micahel Haydn's Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille is an aria for soprano with obbligato trombone and orchestra dated 1769. This aria is excerpted from part of a larger oratorio entitled Kaiser Constantin I. Feldzug und Sieg [Emperor Constantin I. Campaign and Victory]. The music of the present edition of Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille is based on the autograph manuscript housed in the Orszagos Szechenyi KOnyvtar (Hungarian National Library) in Budapest Hungary. Part of the Ezsterhazy collection, the score is listed in the thematic catalogue of Michael Haydn by Charles Sherman. I examined this work in the fall of 1999 while on a tour of Europe researching 18th century trombone repertoire and players from Austria and Bohemia. Editorial Methods Unfortunately there are no copies or parts to Ich komm mit wahrer Reue against which to compare any notes or markings which were not clear in the autograph. For its part the manuscript is exceptionally accurate and free of questionable notation or errors. This edition preserves all of Michael Haydn's markings as they appear in the autograph. However, in this edition I have not preserved the original clef of the soprano solely because it is not common practice for a soprano to read soprano clef today unless they specialize in authentic performance. The orchestral horn parts could be either D basso or alto transposition. It is likely that they are in B flat basso because of the range of the first horn ascends to written high G. Text and Translation The text of Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille is taken from an authentic copy the printed libretto in the library of the University of Salzburg. The translation is by Professor Alex Fisher of the University of British Columbia. In this aria Kleinmutigkeit [faintheartedness] is urging one to be still and have faith in the everlasting will of God. 86 Kleinmutigkeit: Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille Ist uns heilsam ewiggut. Lafit ein Voter seine Erben, Warm er helfen kann, verderben, Oder opfert er sein Blut, Iihre Rettung zu erwerben? Mir gefalle, was Gott thut. Stille, Stille, Gottes Wille Ist uns heilsam ewig gut. Faint-heartedness: Be still, be still, God's will is eternally saving. Does a father let his heirs perish, when he can help, Or does he sacrifice his own blood for their salvation? My will is God's will. The text was written by Johan Heinrich DrOmel, a teacher and scholar of latin active in Salzburg. 87 S t i l l e , S t i l l e , G o t t e s W i l l e . . . Andante Johann Michael Haydn 1769 Edition by Neal Bennett 2003 Horn in D Basso 1 Horn in D Basso 2 Flute 1 Flute 2 Violin I Violin II Viola Solo Horn in D Basso Alto Trombone Soprano Continuo 88 97 104 

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