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The conflict over animal experimentation in Vancouver, 1950-1990 McMillan, Robert Edward 2004

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THE CONFLICT OVER ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION IN VANCOUVER, 1950-1990 by ROBERT EDWARD MCMILLAN ; M.D., Queen's University, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this" thesis as\ conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2004 © Robert Edward McMillan, 2004 UBCl m) FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Library Authorization In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. k Q w i k c k ; \ \ < t v x \°i / Q S / M J O ^ -Name of Author (please print) Date (dd/mm/yyyy) V g w r i o i w - p r ^ \ S 5 t ) - H i t ) . : Degree: \ ^ ( \ Year: ^ Q Q I f Department of \ ^ y _ ? \ f l i The University of British Columbi Vancouver, BC Canada grad.ubcca/forms/?formlD=THS page 1 of 1 last updated: 13-Aug-04 A B S T R A C T Since before the opening of the University of British Columbia medical school in 1950, a group of Vancouver citizens has contested the use of laboratory animals by local scientists. The resulting debate has consistently centered around questions of the cruelty and scientific value of animal experimentation. Although antivivisectionists received little coverage in Vancouver's decidedly pro-vivisectionist mainstream press between 1950 and 1980, they nevertheless caused Vancouver researchers to employ a number of tactics to foster a positive image of their animal care practices during this period. By the early 1980s, Vancouver antivivisectionists had succeeded in disseminating highly graphic descriptions of animals undergoing experimentation via local community newspapers, and in using direct action tactics to link these images with specific Vancouver laboratories. In response, medical researchers heightened their longstanding efforts to conceal their experimental practices from public view. The limited public visibility of the animal lab and the commonly held belief in the necessity of animal use for medical progress both helped to limit opposition to animal experimentation between 1950 and 1990, despite an increasingly widespread acknowledgement of the cruelty of this set of practices. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 1 1 Table of Contents.... 1 1 1 Introduction • * 1945-53 7 1954-66 1 1 20 1967-77 29 1978-89 39 Conclus ion 44 Bibliography i n Introduction In 1970, researchers at the University of British Columbia (U.B.C.) published an experiment investigating whether cats could be conditioned to push a plate in response to a "neutral stimulus" such as a flickering light or the sound of a bell. If they did not push the plate, their hypothalamus (part of the brain) would be stimulated five seconds after the neutral stimulus began, causing a reaction characterized by "flight or escape with a manifestation of fear."1 First, researchers surgically inserted electrodes into the hypothalamus of anaesthetized cats. Then they stimulated 21 cats hundreds of times over a period of up to one week for an unspecified length of time per episode in an effort to train them to interrupt the stimulus by pushing a plate. The ten animals that learned to do this consistently continued on to further tests: on one day, they underwent 300 trials in which the sound of a bell was followed by stimulation; on another day the following month, they underwent 300 similar trials with a flickering light as neutral stimulus. None of the animals learned to avoid the stimulations consistently from the neutral stimulus alone. After more tests, the animals were killed and the placement of the electrodes was confirmed at autopsy. Because researchers caused these cats to suffer, their procedures involved animal cruelty. Such cruelty was not uncommon in experiments conducted in Vancouver, and no doubt throughout North America, between 1950 and 1990. Yet even though North ' J. Wada and M . Matsuda, "Can Hypothalamically Induced Escape Behavior Be Conditioned?" Experimental Neurology 28 (1970): 508. 2 To illustrate this point, this thesis will provide examples from a sample of 78 U.B.C.-generated research articles from the scientific literature. To obtain this sample, intended to be roughly representative of the published animal experimentation that took place at U.B.C. between 1950 and 1990,1 searched Biological Abstracts, an index of international biomedical research, for animal-based research articles conducted by U.B.C. scientists and cited during 1956, the first six months of 1971 and the first two months of 1986. I chose these three years without any knowledge of the particular experiments that had been cited during them. Using university calendars, I identified the names of all U.B.C. professors in departments that conducted animal research during the years in question, then looked up their names in the Biological Abstracts author index. For the 1970 and 1985 searches, I did not look up the names of every professor in large departments in which only a small proportion conducted animal-based research (ex. the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology), and occasionally did not look up all of the listed articles for authors with very common names (ex. M . Smith), when few if any of them were likely to pertain to U.B.C. I excluded articles from the sample that clearly did not take place in the Vancouver area, that did not list U.B.C. as a contributing institution, and that did not involve vertebrate animals. I included all other articles that mentioned or suggested animal use in the abstract or methods section, even if the procedures the animals 1 American society has long condemned cruelty towards animals, and Canadian antivivisection groups have tried to draw public attention to the cruelty of animal experimentation since at least the 1920s, animal experiments have rarely provoked a sizable public outcry. This raises the important question of why a modern society professing an ethic of humanitarianism has offered such a limited response to significant cruelty perpetrated within its own borders. In an effort to provide at least a partial answer to this question, this thesis will examine how Vancouver activists promoted their antivivisectionist agenda between 1950 and 1990, how scientists countered with pro-vivisectionist discourse and practices during this same period, and how this struggle affected public response to the vivisection issue. Because the majority of animal experimentation in Vancouver took place at U.B.C., this thesis focuses largely on that institution. The most common historical approach to the late twentieth-century fight against animal experimentation considers it as part of the animal rights movement, which arose in Britain during the late 1960s and in North America in the mid-to-late 1970s.3 This movement distinguished itself from the longstanding animal welfare movement by its frequent use of militant tactics and its challenge to the notion of human superiority over animals. Most historians of animal rights, as well as some historians of other animal-related social movements of the past 150 years, interpret a discontinuity between the vibrant Euro-American antivivisectionist movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the animal rights movement of today, implying that little antivivisectionist activity of note took place between 1920 and 1970.4 However, some historians have countered this interpretation, suggesting continuity in historically relevant action between "first wave" and "second wave" antivivisectionists. Susan Lederer has convincingly demonstrated that between 1921 and 1946, the editor of the prestigious American publication, the Journal of Experimental Medicine, altered the presentation of information about experimental animal use in an attempt to avoid antivivisectionist underwent were not specified. The resulting sample consists of 23 articles published in 1955-56, 24 published between 1968 and 1971 (most in 1970), and 31 published in 1985. 3 See L. Finsen and S. Finsen, The Animal Rights Movement in America: From Compassion to Respect (New York, 1994); J. Jasper and D. Nelkin, The Animal Rights Crusade: The Growth of a Moral Protest (New York, 1992); R. Ryder, Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes towards Speciesism (Oxford, 1989). 4 Ryder, 146-49; Jasper and Nelkin, 57-58; Finsen and Finsen, 32-42, 47-54; H. Ritvo, "Plus Ca Change: Antivivisection Then and Now," Bioscience 34 (1984): 630. 2 criticism. For Lederer, these editorial changes raise troubling questions about whether science was "suppressed or merely reencoded."5 Hilda Kean points out that British antivivisectionists have fought continuously against animal experimentation for more than a century, and considers their relevance partly in terms of the continuity in spirit and tactics between protesters of the past and present.6 She also suggests the historical relevance of campaigns against animal cruelty during various periods of British history, including from 1920 to 1970, by arguing that the changing public emphasis on specific types of animal cruelty reflected both the treatment of animals and other cultural and political concerns of the time.7 This thesis joins Kean and Lederer in countering the advocates of discontinuity by arguing that Vancouver antivivisectionists from the decades prior to 1980 had some political significance. The history of the conflict over animal experimentation in Vancouver since 1950 is one of continuity interspersed with various gradual or incremental changes, as opposed to one of "pre-history" followed suddenly by the emergence of history with the arrival of the animal rights movement in the late 1970s. Vancouver antivivisectionists have continuously condemned animal experimentation for its cruelty since before 1950; many of them have also challenged claims about its scientific value, though their arguments have changed over time. Antivivisectionist criticism has also troubled local scientists since 1950, consistently affecting their public discourse and leading them to form alliances with organizations espousing a rhetoric of animal welfare. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some changes occurred in the local vivisection struggle in conjunction with various broad cultural trends. For example, Vancouver scientists began to avoid mentioning the use of experimental animals aside from mice and rats as the public became increasingly sentimental about pets, wild animals and several other species.8 Also, voices demanding the abolition of animal experimentation re-emerged in Vancouver's mainstream press during these years of "deepening ambivalence" about 5 S. Lederer, "Political Animals: The Shaping of Biomedical Research Literature in Twentieth-Century America," Isis 83 (1992): 78. 6 H. Kean, "The 'Smooth Cool Men of Science': The Feminist and Socialist Response to Vivisection," History Workshop Journal AO (1995): 30-33; H. Kean, Animal Rights: Political andSocial Change in Britain Since 1800 (London, 1998), 211. 7 H. Kean, Animal Rights, 11, 180-200. 8 A. Franklin and R. White, "Animals and Modernity: Changing Human-Animal Relations, 1949-98," Journal of Sociology 37 (2001): 224. 3 science and medicine, joining voices throughout North America calling for the right to informed consent for medical treatment, the right to home births and rights for psychiatric patients.9 The tactics of local antivivisectionists also changed in the protest culture of the 1960s and 70s, evident in their dissemination of increasingly graphic descriptions of animals undergoing experimentation and their adoption of direct action practices that drew links between the cruelty of animal experimentation and certain local institutions. The antivivisectionists of the 1980s, who had a significant impact on public awareness of the vivisection issue, did not use radically new tactics; rather, they adopted a more militant version of these pre-existing ones. While changing cultural factors certainly influenced the tactics and media coverage of the Vancouver struggle, pro-vivisectionist historians who adhere to the discontinuity thesis have tended to reduce their explanation for the first-wave and second-wave antivivisectionist movements to these factors primarily. For example, in his 1975 work, Antivivisection and Medical Science in Victorian Society, Richard French explains Britain's first-wave antivivisectionist movement mainly in terms of anti-science and anti-medicine sentiment combined with "intense and often bizarre emotion" about pets.10 Also, James Jasper and Dorothy Nelkin focus on animal rights philosophy and environmentalist and feminist activism as important factors underlying the rise of animal rightists' "moral crusade" during the 1970s.11 However, to explain antivivisectionism mainly in terms of such factors is an example of what cultural studies scholar Steve Baker terms "denial of the animal." Baker argues that scholars and the media discredit animal rights activists by failing to acknowledge that concern about the plight of animals can itself be significant enough to motivate human behaviour. My central argument about the continuity of the vivisection struggle in Vancouver since 1950 is important 9 P. Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York, 1982), 393. 1 0 R. French, Antivivisectionism and Medical Science in Victorian Society (Princeton, 1975), 374. French also recognizes the legitimacy of antivivisectionist claims that their protests resulted from the cruelty inflicted onto experimental animals, but claims that the movement "transcended the issue of vivisection" (406). " Jasper and Nelkin, 1-10. Although these authors are not explicitly antivivisectionist, their characterization of animal rights activists as "fundamentalists" and their use of such loaded statements as "animal rights literature is obsessed with sadistic details that purge the enemy of every admirable quality" suggest where their sympathies lie. 1 2 S. Baker, Picturing the Beast (Manchester, 1993), 211. 1 3 Ibid., 211-17. 4 because it is compatible with the idea that a constant cultural characteristic of this period - the opposition to animal cruelty - has been an important driving force of the movement. The continuity thesis allows activists to feel the legitimacy of belonging to a social justice movement that has spanned more than a century in the English-speaking world, as opposed to a movement started "more or less single-handedly" by philosopher Peter Singer, which rose to prominence during the 1970s because it appealed to radicals at a time when "most radical impulses were dying away or being muffled," as one discontinuity proponent has suggested.14 The decision to focus specifically on the history of animal experimentation in Vancouver deserves some elaboration, especially as the history of vivisection in Canada since 1950 has yet to be written. Certainly, most histories of animal experimentation and antivivisection movements have a national focus.15 Even Arnold Arluke's anthropological studies of specific American animal laboratories have a somewhat "universal North American" flavour, as Arluke does not reveal their location.16 However, grounding the history of vivisection and the reaction against it in a local context has offered insights that a more national focus would have missed. In fact, the vivisection struggle in Vancouver between 1950 and 1990 was largely local in character, involving primarily local institutions and significantly affected by small, locally focused media outlets. 1 4 R. Fulford, "Monkey Business," Saturday Night 101 (1986): 7. 1 5 For a number of nationally focused histories, see N . Rupke, ed., Vivisection in Historical Perspective (London, 1987). For examples of nationally focused British histories, see C. Lansbury, The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers, and Vivisection in Edwardian England (Madison, 1985); R. French, Antivivisection and Medical Science in Victorian Society (Princeton, 1975); H. Ritvo, The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age (Cambridge, M A , 1987); J. Turner, Reckoning with the Beast: Animals, Pain, and Humanity in the Victorian Mind (Baltimore, 1980). For examples of nationally focused American histories, see C. Buettinger, "Women and Antivivisection in Late Nineteenth-Century America," Journal of Social History 30 (1997): 857-72; S. Lederer, "The Shaping of Biomedical Research Literature in Twentieth-Century America," Isis 83 (1992): 61-79. For the one nationally focused Canadian history, see J. Connor, "Cruel Knives?: Vivisection and Biomedical Research in Victorian English Canada," Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 14 (1997): 37-64. For one non-nationally focused history, primarily about vivisection in Alberta between the early 1960s and early 1980s, see J. Russell and D. Secord, "Holy Dogs and the Laboratory: Some Canadian Experiences with Animal Research," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (1985): 374-81. 1 6 See, for example, A . Arluke, "Going into the Closet with Science," Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 20 (1991): 306-30; A . Arluke, "Sacrificial Symbolism in Animal Experimentation: Object or Pet?" Anthrozoos 2 (1989): 98-117; A . Arluke, "Uneasiness Among Laboratory Technicians," Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 14 (1999): 305-16. 5 This thesis uses the word "image" to refer to photos or visually evocative descriptions; uses "local mainstream press" to refer to Vancouver's two major dailies, the Sun and Province}1 and uses "community newspaper" to describe smaller papers with a more exclusively local focus. It uses "vivisection" and "animal experimentation" interchangeably, uses "antivivisectionist" to refer to those groups or individuals who opposed any aspect of U .B.C. animal experimentation, and subdivides them into "abolitionists" and "reformers." This use of "antivivisectionist" may be confusing, as many activists consider antivivisectionists to be abolitionists. However, it would be counterproductive to limit this term in this way, because much of the surviving "antivivisectionist" discourse is neither clearly abolitionist nor reformist. A final note on semantics concerns the words "suffering" and "cruelty." The S.P.C.A., which often worked in conjunction with U . B . C , sometimes spoke about the "suffering" of laboratory animals, while antivivisectionists, both abolitionists and reformers, spoke more often of "cruelty" towards these animals. An important difference between these words is that "suffering" does not necessarily imply an agent who causes the suffering, and is thus less confrontational. However, this term has limited usefulness for analyzing the scientific literature. For example, it is difficult to determine whether cats suffered after researchers removed a portion of their brain, causing them to purr incessantly and 18 react with rage when they saw other cats. Yet removing part of the brain and observing the resulting behaviour was cruel, in that it significantly violated the animals' best interests. Thus, this thesis takes the unusual step for an academic work in referring to the cruelty - the degree to which researchers inflict suffering or violate the best interests of animals - involved in various experimental procedures. 1 7 Although the Sun and Province continued to have different owners until 1980, they amalgamated their production facilities and instituted a profit-sharing agreement in 1957 with the formation of Pacific Press. According to one historian, the 1957 amalgamation removed all significant competition from the Vancouver newspaper industry, leading to "unchecked corporate control over the news" that proved "a disservice to the community .. ." See M . Edge, Pacific Press: The Unauthorized Story of Vancouver's Newspaper Monopoly (Vancouver, 2001), xxiv (for quote), 22-24,44-46, 390. 1 8 M . Kennard, "Effect of Bilateral Ablation of Cingulate Area on Behaviour of Cats," Journal of Neurophysiology 18 (1955): 163-4. 6 1945-53 Relatively little animal experimentation took place in Vancouver before the opening of the U.B.C. medical school in 1950. In 1962, a U.B.C. professor estimated that 15 years earlier, there had been about 100 research animals on campus at a time.19 This number probably included animals used in bacteriological and zoological research, and possibly farm animals used in agricultural research. Also during these years, doctors at Vancouver General Hospital (V.G.H.) used some animals in their studies of heart disease.21 Despite the absence of large-scale animal experimentation in Vancouver, the locally based Anti-Vivisection Society of B.C. (A.V.S.) began to argue against this practice in the 1920s.22 Unfortunately, this organization has left little information about its early years: local archives do not hold its minute books or correspondence, and the local press appears to have largely ignored it. While the few indexed newspaper articles about this organization offer some information about the arguments it advanced, they provide no indication of its size, and little indication of its other tactics to win public support.23 For example, an article from 1947 reveals that the Society raised "protests" about animal experimentation at the proposed new medical school, but does not indicate how they registered these protests.24 Like contemporaneous antivivisectionists in Victoria, Calgary and Toronto,25 members of this Vancouver group denounced vivisection for its cruelty, and probably also for its scientific futility. To support their case for its cruelty, they used strong language ("torture"), suggested that the vast majority of animal researchers did not 1 9 "UBC ' s Animal Facilities Under SPCA Criticism," Province, 16 March 1962, 7 2 0 For a list of the departments at U.B.C. at this time, see U.B.C.A. , "U.B.C. Calendar, 1947-1948," <http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars/UBC_Calendar_1947-1948.pdf>, retrieved 3 August 2004. 2 1 "First Officers Named by Medical Research Bureau," Sun, 9 June 1948, 28. 2 2 This organization was founded in 1927 as the Humane Education and Anti-Vivisection Society (H.E.A.V.S.) of Vancouver, B.C., and changed its name in 1930 to the Anti-Vivisection Society of B.C. In 1961, it became the Animal Defence and A - V Society of B.C. It was inactive between 1933 and 1940. "Certificate: Societies Act," File S-1600, C.P.P.R.; H.E.A.V.S. /A.V.S. , Annual Reports, 1927-1950, File S-1600,C.P.P.R. 2 3 This study used the B.C. Newspaper Index to search for articles in the Sun and Province. 2 4 "Medical Tests Bring Protest," Sun, 26 March 1947, II. 2 5 "Anti-Vivisectionists of Victoria Oppose Inoculation, Vaccination," Colonist, 9 February 1947, 8; Secretary, Alberta Anti-Vivisection and Humane Education Society, to Vancouver City Council, 8 December 1951, "Miscellaneous (A)," 19-E-7 File 8, Vancouver Office the City Clerk, V . C . A . ; F. Tumpane, "War of Adjectives," Globe and Mail, 8 October 1953, 3. 7 use anaesthetics, and claimed that experiments involved "burning, freezing, crushing [and] shock."26 They also may have used graphic descriptions of experimental animals, but newspaper reports do not reflect this; however, mainstream Vancouver newspapers rarely printed such descriptions before the mid-1980s. As for arguments about science, the president of this organization - a naturopath and MD - advanced a discourse in 1945 that rejected the germ theory and vaccination. Antivivisectionists opposed vaccination because it was "harmful to the health and harder on the animal from which the serum is acquired," according to a Victoria-based antivivisectionist of this period. Members of the A.V.S. probably also argued, like their Calgary counterparts, that because of physiological differences between species, results from experiments on dogs were not applicable to human beings.29 Over the next 40 years, the A.V.S. and its successor organization, the Animal Defence and A - V Society of B.C., would continue to argue that vivisection was cruel, but would offer changing arguments contesting the scientific value of this practice. Although local antivivisectionists appear to have had little media exposure during these years, some U.B.C. scientists nevertheless considered them to be a potential threat. In an extensively researched 1946 report detailing his recommendations for the future medical school, bacteriology professor C E . Dolman noted that one of the "features of the local scene which intimately affect[s] the prospects of a medical school" was "the prevalence of certain high-minded individuals of a type rather apt to declare themselves anti-vivisectionists..." While acknowledging that some might find this "an alarmist and trivial point to raise," Dolman pointed out that "the resurgence of anti-vivisectionist propaganda" was currently causing great concern in New York and other American states.30 He was possibly referring to the promotion of antivivisectionism by the Hearst 2 6 "Dog Vivisection Assailed," Province, 3 November 1951, 5; "95% Without Anesthetics [letter from A.V.S . member]," News Herald (Vancouver), 11 February 1952, 4. 2 7 "Commercial Taint Seen in Serum Theory," Sun, 11 April 1945, 9; A.V.S . , Annual Report, 1940, File S-1600, C.P.P.R. 2 8 "Anti-Vivisectionists of Victoria Oppose Inoculation, Vaccination," Colonist, 9 February 1947, 8. 29Secretary, Alberta Anti-Vivisection and Humane Education Society, to Vancouver City Council, 8 December 1951, "Miscellaneous (A)," 19-E-7 File 8, Vancouver Office the City Clerk, V . C . A . 3 0 C. Dolman, "Report on the Survey of Medical Education Prepared on the Instructions of the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia and Submitted for their Consideration," 3 May 1946, Department of Medicine Dead File, Box 24, Information Services fonds, U.B.C. A. 8 chain of newspapers, which continued until the death of William Randolph Hearst in 1951.31 The fledgling medical school and City council were concerned enough about local antivivisectionist sentiment in 1951 that they involved the Vancouver branch of the B.C. S.P.C.A. in their plans for the city-operated pound to send unclaimed dogs to university laboratories. The S.P.C.A. announced in October 1951 that it endorsed this arrangement with the proviso that the dogs be used only for "acute" experiments (conducted under general anaesthesia followed immediately by euthanasia), and that it be allowed access at any time to inspect U.B.C. animal facilities.32 The uproar that followed this announcement - reportedly the first ever endorsement of vivisection by any branch of the S.P.C.A. worldwide - 3 3 spilled onto the pages of the Vancouver dailies, as the Anti-Vivisection Society of B.C. threatened legal action against City Hall. 3 4 The vivisection issue had significant ramifications for the S.P.C.A. over the next few years: it caused an immediate rift in the Victoria branch over whether to endorse the Vancouver decision, and led in 1954 to the formation of a splinter group in Vancouver over how to carry out the inspections at U . B . C , among other issues. The 1951 decision also made international waves, appearing on the agenda for a meeting of the World Federation for Protection of Animals in the Hague in 1953, but earning condemnation from a British antivivisectionist, who wrote a 53-page booklet about the Vancouver controversy as a warning about what must not happen in Britain. This example illustrates that by the middle of the twentieth century, antivivisectionism had not "come to seem a bizarre historical incident,"37 as one prominent Canadian journalist has claimed. In Vancouver at least, it held some power. In perhaps its only significant public response to this controversy, U.B.C.'s Faculty of Medicine advanced three main lines of argumentation. Speaking at the Vancouver Art 3 1 Lederer, 64. 3 2 D. Ricardo, "SPCA Explains Why It Approved Vivisection," Province, 23 October 1951, 5. 3 3 "SPCA, Medical Workers Co-operate in Problem," Sun, 14 April 1953, 6. 3 4 See, for example, "Court Action Looms Over U B C Dog Sales," Sun, 27 November 1951, 32. 3 5 "Election Follows Society Wrangle," Colonist, 1 February 1952, 25; H. Copp, "Miss Copp's Reply [letter]," Province, 11 June 1954, 6. 3 6 "SPCA, Medical Workers Co-operate in Problem," Sun, 14 April 1953, 6; "Local 'Battle' Gets Publicity Abroad," Sun, 12 April 1955,39. 3 7 R. Fulford, "Monkey Business," Saturday Night (January 1986): 7. 9 Gallery in early 1952, Dr. Myron Weaver, Dean of Medicine, reassured the public that laboratory animals "are not allowed to suffer pain," provided multiple examples to prove that animal experimentation had played an important role in medical advancement, and drew boundaries not only between experimental dogs and "the dogs we cherish in our homes,"39 but between more-valued and less-valued species, claiming that "no experimenter uses dogs, cats or monkeys in experiments where rats or mice would do just as well."40 U.B.C. representatives would repeat these same three arguments, with minor variations, over the next forty years. An article that appeared in the Province at the height of the 1951 controversy, containing excerpts from 21 letters to the editor objecting to the pound arrangement, offers a rare glimpse into the public mindset on the vivisection issue.41 Of the 13 letters that indicate a reason for their authors' opposition, ten refer directly or indirectly to cruelty or animal suffering, and a further two imply a concern about cruelty by citing limitations in the S.P.C.A.'s ability to carry out effective inspections. Only one letter clearly implies that the results of animal experimentation are scientifically invalid. This suggests that the discourse of the antivivisection movement, which claimed that animal experimentation was cruel and of questionable scientific value, did not resonate completely with most local antivivisectionists, who grounded their opposition primarily in terms of cruelty. About one-sixth of Vancouver's population held antivivisectionist views at this time: a 1956 public opinion poll of 500 Vancouver citizens revealed that 17% disapproved of the use of "[l]ive dogs and other animals [that] are operated on during medical experiments and for training doctors at many places including U B C . " 4 2 Of these, almost all probably based their opposition on a belief in the cruelty of vivisection. 3 8 "Animal Experimentation Defended by Medical Dean," Sun, 26 January 1952, 42. 3 9 Ibid. 4 0 "Doctor Defends Experiments," Province, 26 January 1952, 37. 4 1 "Dog Vivisection Assailed," Province, 3 November 1951, 5. I am assuming that members of the A.V.S . did not write most of these letters. 4 2 Market Research Associates, "Is Vivisection Vital to Medical Study?" Province, 24 May 1956, 17. 10 1954-66 In the 1950s and early 1960s, animal experimentation in Vancouver underwent tremendous expansion. The new medical school included departments of anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, physiology and neurological research, all of which conducted animal-based research. By the mid-1960s, the university also boasted a cancer research centre, arthritis research unit, and the G.F. Strong Laboratory, all located either on campus or at the V.G.H. site.43 Between 1955 and 1965, a Central Animal Depot on campus carried out an extensive breeding program, procured dogs and cats from pounds and other sources (that are never named in the surviving documentation), supplied animals to hospital and campus researchers, provided space for experimentation as required by cramped departments, and offered informal advice about animal care. However, individual departments had no obligation to deal with the Central Animal Depot, and many of them purchased animals from outside sources. The Depot closed in 1965, but a decentralized system, with no central authority regulating animal use, continued into the 1970s 4 4 The Faculty of Medicine published most of the animal-related research at U.B.C. that was cited in the 1956 volumes of Biological Abstracts, followed by the Faculty of Agriculture and Department of Zoology in the Faculty of Arts. The agricultural research from this sample focused on how to maximize the growth of farm animals, using relatively large numbers of animals but causing relatively little obvious suffering. By contrast, most of the sample's medical research used rats, but some used monkeys, dogs, cats, rabbits or mice. Also, this medical research was often cruel. For example, to investigate the function of various parts of the brain, Dr. M . Kennard removed or ablated parts of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and/or cingulate gyrus of monkeys and cats, then observed the behaviour of these brain-damaged animals. In one article, Kennard describes repeated surgeries on the same monkeys, in which different sections of the 4 3 J. McCreary and D. Graham, "University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine," Canadian Medical Association Journal 94 (1966): 746. 4 4 For information about the Central Animal Depot, see File 19, Box 15, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U B C A ; and Central Animal Depot File, Box 10, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. For the decentralized system that followed, see C.C.A.C. to W. Gage, 29 July 1969, Animal Care Correspondence File, Box 7, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. 11 brain were removed once the animals' behaviour from the previous surgery had stabilized.45 In another experiment from this sample, researchers studied the physiological effects of a new steroid by administering it daily to 16 rats. The chosen dose was obviously too high for researchers' purposes: it resulted in "sickly appearing]" and "moribund" animals, and caused such a "marked general metabolic upset" that "[e]lectrolyte determinations were unsatisfactory."46 Nevertheless, the experiment was continued for twelve days, terminated only after six of the animals had died. Although these articles would have been available to determined members of the public, antivivisectionists do not appear to have focused any attention on U.B.C.'s laboratory animal practices during these years. Even if they had tried to do so, both the Vancouver and the mainstream Canadian media virtually shut out their voices between 1954 and 1966.47 Despite this major obstacle, the languishing Anti-Vivisection Society of B.C. continued to spread its message via pamphlets, posters and limited mailouts. However, this predominantly female, middle-class organization focused most of its energy on sending letters to those advertising a "found" animal or an animal "free to a good home," warning that the classified ads often served as "a convenient source of supply for those who are on the lookout for animals to sell to research laboratories."48 Beginning in 1963, at least one of its 80 members probably also broadcast their message 4 5 M . Kennard, "Effect on Temporal Lobe Syndrome of Lesions Elsewhere in the Cerebral Cortex of Monkeys," Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 28 (1955/56): 342-50. See also M . Kennard, "Effect of Bilateral Ablation of Cingulate Area on Behaviour of Cats," Journal of Neurophysiology 18 (1955): 159-69; M . Kennard, "The Cingulate Gyrus in Relation to Consciousness, "Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 121 (1955): 34-39. 4 6 S. Friedman, C. Friedman and M . Makashima, "Observations on the Cardiovascular-Renal Effect of 9a-Chlorohydrocortisone Acetate in the Rat," Endocrinology 57 (1955): 11, 13. 4 7 Aside from a handful of letters to the editor (A. Walker, "Not A l l Merciful," Province, 3 July 1956; M . Coe, "Doubts Vivisection Laws," Province, 27 July 1956; E. Stanton, '"Please Tell ," ' Sun, 17 May 1963, 4; P. Stratton, "Laboratory Animals," Province, 1 December 1965, 4), three short articles (Market Research Associates, "Is Vivisection Vital to Medical Study?" Province, 24 May 1956, 17; "Vivisection Foes Take New Name," Sun, 15 May 1961, 29; "UBC's Animal Facilities Under SPCA Criticism," Province, 16 March 1962, 7), and some classified ads announcing Anti-Vivisection Society meetings, I found no indication of public concern about North American vivisection practices in either the Sun or Province between 1955 and 1966. The Canadian Periodical Index only lists one article on the topic of animal experimentation between 1950 and 1965. 4 8 A.V.S . , sample letter, ca.1955, "Societies - Anti-Vivisection Society," 506-C-4 File 1A, Major Matthews Collection, V . C . A . For the gender and occupation of directors, see A.V.S . /A .D.A.V. , Annual Reports, 1950-1990, File S-1600, C.P.P.R. 12 on CJOR radio's highly controversial Hot Line show . 4 y According to host Pat Burns, this program attracted a number of fringe callers, and marked "the first time people had a voice and were able to openly and publicly challenge many of the institutions that had for so long rammed their viewpoints down our throats . . ." 5 0 The Society advanced both science-based and ethics-based arguments against vivisection during these years. It appears to have dropped its focus on vaccination in favour of other science-related arguments, perhaps in response to widespread public enthusiasm about the new polio vaccine. According to one such argument, printed in a Society pamphlet from the mid-to-late 1950s, the abolition of vivisection might "give medical science a marked forward stimulus by obliging research workers to direct their energies into diverse and relatively unexplored research channels."51 To argue that vivisection was cruel, this pamphlet used some previously described tactics,52 but also provided some descriptions of cruel procedures performed on animals. The most visually evocative example - of "opening the skulls of animals and injecting substances, of no use in medicine, into their brains"53 - does not name the species of animal, and thus does not evoke much of a mental image. Another example - of "tying dog's intestines and allowing the animal to live in agony" -creates more of an effect by using the word "agony" than by generating an image. A delicate sensibility pervaded this group's discourse during these years: its posters featured "lovely pictures of cats and dogs,"54 the 1959/60 annual report provides no details about the "several weeks of acute misery" experienced by twelve dogs, citing concern for the sensitivity of readers;55 and the previously mentioned pamphlet calls the cruelties of vivisection "beyond description." In addition, this group was reticent to ground its relatively non-evocative images of experimental animals - all dogs, cats or unspecified animals - in physical space. Perhaps fearing the power of the medical establishment, it did not reveal the location of the "certain Canadian laboratory" where an 4 9 For the size of its membership, see Webster to Registrar of Companies, 4 April 1963, File S-1600, C.P.P.R. 5 0 P. Burns, " B B G Ruling on CJOR Muzzles Free Speech," Vancouver Times, 21 Apr. 1965, 16. 5 1 Dr. A . V . Allen, quoted in A.V.S. , "What is Vivisection?" ca. 1955, P A M Und. 552, V . C . A . 5 2 It used strong language, listed the horrors involved ("cutting, mutilating"), and focused on the infrequent use of anaesthetics. 5 3 Dr. J. Burnet, quoted in "What is Vivisection?" ca. 1955, P A M Und. 552, V . C . A . 5 4 A.V.S . , "Annual Report 1959-1960," Microfiche 1959-109, V.C .A. , 3. 5 5 Ibid., 4. 13 anonymous photographer had witnessed a skinned cat with electric needles sticking into it.5 6 Without publicly acknowledging antivivisectionist arguments, UBC medical scientists advanced their own pro-vivisectionist counterdiscourse in Vancouver's mainstream press in the late 1950s and early 1960s. I have identified eleven articles that appeared in the Sun or Province between 1957 and 1960, all of which advanced the pro-vivisection stand by providing at least one example of local animal-based research and suggesting its potential contribution to medical advancement.57 Although the medical use of animals was not usually their focus, such articles served as the primary means by which the university advanced its discourse about the medical necessity of animal experimentation in the local mainstream press until at least the late 1970s. What is particularly noteworthy about these eleven articles, compared to the many similar ones to follow in later years, is that photographs of U.B.C. lab animals accompany seven of them. While these photos were probably intended primarily to draw readers' attention to the articles, five or six of them function to counter the antivivisectionist charge of cruelty. Two clearly convey the message that researchers are humane: one depicts a young, pleasant-looking female research assistant watching ten uncaged mice on the table in front of her;58 the second shows a gentle-looking male scientist watching with interest as a hamster crawls along the back of his hand.59 Perhaps a third, of an older male scientist holding a white rat, conveys the same impression, but the scientist's stern expression also emphasizes his power oyer this small animal.60 The remaining photos, all of which show animals in the context of experimental procedures, convey the message that animals have to undergo invasive procedures for the advancement of science, but these procedures are quite benign. One shows two male scientists, one of whom appears about to perform a procedure on an anaesthetized rat; a second shows the hands of a researcher inserting intravenous electrodes into a rat, with a caption assuring that the animal "is unharmed in the test;" a third portrays an earnest 5 6 Ibid., 4. 5 7 In the next two paragraphs, I cite eight of these articles. The other three are: "Cancer Formula Works Upon Rats," Sun, 18 March 1958, 37; "UBC-Tested Drug Aids Heart Cases," Sun, 17 October 1959, 2; "New Cancer Control Drug Being Developed at U B C , " Sun, 20 August 1960. 5 8 D. Heal, "Medical Research 'Hard Up, '" Province, 12 September 1957, 30. 5 9 D. Illingworth, "City Scientist Seeking Method of Simple Cancer Diagnosis," Province, 5April 1958, 6. 6 0 A Myers, "Bone-Wrenching Chemicals Aid U B C Arthritis Probers," Sun, 14 May 1959, 30. 14 male scientist about to give an injection to a placid white rabbit.61 The last and most disturbing example shows two photos of a monkey with his head locked into a wooden restraining device.62 While the captions do not clearly describe what phase of the experiment the photos are portraying, the caption on the right, as well as the accompanying article, suggest that they were taken before and after chemicals were injected into the monkey's brain. The "before" photo of the screeching monkey is made less distasteful by the overexposed film, which obscures the fact that the animal's head is restrained. The "after" photo of the now-placid animal, in conjunction with the caption, suggests that the experimental procedure actually helped to calm down this animal who had previously been "too ferocious to touch." In six of the above seven examples, the photographic representation of researchers along with undistressed animals helps to convey the idea that cruelty did not take place in U.B.C. laboratories. Only the photos of the monkey experiment fail to include a researcher with the lab animal; notably, this is also the only example that depicts an animal in distress. These examples illustrate that participants in the vivisection debate have not always used photographic representations of laboratory animals to imply cruelty; when shown in conjunction with researchers, animals can help to convey an image of humaneness. These photos also demonstrate that during this period, U.B.C. scientists had not yet begun to deflect public attention away from experimental procedures with all species, as they soon began to do. These eleven articles also suggest the care with which U.B.C. medical scientists and their media allies represented the experimental use of dogs and probably cats. The only article from the above series to mention these animals had great clinical relevance - it concerned a Vancouver surgeon's pioneering attempts to transplant kidneys from puppies into adult dogs - and its section on dog use lay buried in the middle of the text. This is also the only article in this series with photographic representation of a medical researcher without research animals. Locally focused articles from this period were in fact as likely to portray dogs as the beloved pets of researchers as their experimental 6 1 "University Pushes Radiation Research," Sun, 29 April 1958, 3; D. Heal, "Blood Pressure Probed by Husband-Wife Team," Province, 23 March 1959, 9; A. Myers, "Arthritis Researcher Hopes to Solve Part of Big Puzzle," Sun, 26 October 1960, 27. 6 2 A . Myers, '"Plug-In Monkeys' Valuable Tool in Mental Research," Sun, 21 May 1959, 3. 6 3 A . Myers, "Transplanting in Humans Next," Sun, 23 June 1960, 57. 15 subjects.64 By contrast, the experimental use of dogs by Soviet researchers received no such delicate treatment. Stories about the impending death from asphyxiation of Laika, the dog orbiting earth in Sputnik, and about Soviet scientists who transplanted heads from one dog to another, both appeared on the front page of the Sun in the late 1950s.65 Thus, although it is questionable whether local scientists specifically intended to contest antivivisectionism with articles promoting medical research between 1957 and 1960, antivivisectionists had a definite effect on their public discourse. Researchers clearly tried to keep their experimental dogs, and probably cats, from public view. This is probably one reason that a professor in the Faculty of Medicine warned the Dean in 1957 about the "problem of possible sightseers," not to mention the public health risks, associated with his department's practice of leaving the dogs, cats, mice and rats killed every afternoon in outdoor garbage cans to await collection the following day.6 6 Yet if researchers could not prevent the focusing of attention onto dogs and cats, they had to portray their treatment of them as humane. This explains why U.B.C. not only continued its alliance with the troublesome S.P.C.A., but had formed its own animal welfare committee on campus by 1962.67 U.B.C. scientists also took considerable care when discussing their treatment of cats and dogs in the scientific literature from this period, as my 1955/56 sample illustrates: the small cage to which cats were confined for at least one day post-operatively to keep them from tearing their incisions functioned "as a well-tucked-in bed does in postoperative hospital care;" two Golden retrievers, though not anaesthetized for somewhat invasive studies of renal function, lay only "loosely restrained on a comfortable animal board [emphasis is mine];" and dogs used to study renal failure had intravenous anaesthesia administered "for all experiments."68 Articles from this sample show no such care in describing the treatment of other species. 6 4 See A. Lee, "Woman's Strength is Her Weakness," Province, 25 February 1960, 33. This article describes a husband-and-wife team of physicians visiting from St. Louis, and states that they "wil l be greeted ... by three dachshunds" on their return home. The photo suggests that they are researchers. 5 5 "Red Space Dog Fated To Die in 1,000-Mile High Satellite," Sun, 5 November 1957, 1; "Reds Put New Heads on Dogs," Sun, 29 Apr. 1958, 1. 6 6 Anatomy Dept. to Dean Patterson, 16 January 1957, File 20, Box 2, Friedman fonds, U .B .C .A. 6 7 " U B C ' s Animal Facilities Under SPCA Criticism," Province, 16 March 1962, 7. 6 8 M . Kennard, "Effect of Bilateral Ablation of Cingulate Area of Behaviour of Cats," Journal of Neurophysiology 18 (1955): 160; J. Foulks, "Homeostatic Adjustment in the Renal Tubular Transport of Inorganic Phosphate in the Dog," Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 33 (1955): 639; S. 16 Nevertheless, graphic depictions of other species undergoing experimentation concerned university officials on at least one occasion, illustrated by a 1956 newspaper clipping from U.B.C.'s student newspaper, the Ubyssey. The article includes a photo of four medical students dissecting a rabbit, with a caption that reads: "Pity the poor rabbit who lets UBC Med students disect [sic] him. The wiggling furry bundle vaguely visible here is being cut up by ... [and lists the students by name]." This article clearly troubled the university employee who saved it: pen marks highlight the caption and underscore "the wiggling furry bundle."69 During at least one period during these years, the university actively tried to promote its pro-vivisectionist agenda in the local mainstream press. In January 1963, at a meeting about the ongoing problem of dog supply, a high-ranking university official suggested conducting a media campaign, similar to a previous one at Harvard, in order "to educate the public in the need for animal experimentation to curtail the activities of the antivivisectionists."70 The pro-vivisectionist articles that followed between April and July of that year focused explicitly on the role of animals - particularly cats and dogs - in U.B.C.-based research.71 However, the offensive backfired. The first of two articles to deal with cats, concerning the use of their eyes in glaucoma research, generated a letter to the editor of the Sun asking where the university obtained these animals. The next, more disturbing article, about a U.B.C. researcher who controlled the behaviour of cats by inserting electrodes into their brains, prompted two directors of a Victoria-based animal welfare organization to denounce his experiments as "useless and cruel." Their condemnation received considerable press coverage, and generated subsequent 71 correspondence in the Victoria Colonist. This was almost certainly the first harsh, Friedman et al., "'Reflex' Anuria in the Dog," Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 34 (1956): 159. 6 9 "Med School: UBC's Newest, Most Active," Ubyssey, 9 November 1956, clipping in Department of Medicine Dead File, Box 24, Information Services fonds, U.B.C.A. 7 0 Minutes of the Management Subcommittee meeting, 25 January 1963, File 19, Box 15, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 7 1 1 found four such articles. Two appear in the next two footnotes; the others are "Healing Joined With Research," Province, 19 April 1963, 23; K. Hassard, "Out to Solve Mystery of Muscular Disease," Sun, 2 May 1963,32. 7 2 D. Ablett, "Cats' Eyes Help Search for Better Glaucoma Cure," Sun, 11 May 1963, 8; E. Stanton, '"Please Tell , ' " Sun, 17 May 1963,4. 7 3 " U B C Researchers Wire Cats in Disease Probe," Province, 18 July 1963, 23; '"Useless and Cruel,'" Colonist, 19 July 1963, 17. This story also appeared in the Nanaimo Daily Free Press, 19 July 1963, 17 public, vivisection-related criticism that the university had received in over a decade, and probably explains why it abandoned this explicitly pro-vivisectionist strategy. To understand the relationship between the Vancouver press of this period and the vivisection controversy, it is necessary to appreciate the high regard in which the public held the medical profession. This is well-illustrated by an editorial that appeared in the Province in 1959, just after Dr. McCreary, a pediatrician and the new Dean of Medicine, had claimed that B.C. children were dying due to a shortage of pediatricians and pediatric facilities. Such a self-interested call for increased funding would generate skepticism today, but prompted the Province'?, editor to write: "[W]hen a man of his standing can express such serious concern, it becomes a matter of concern for all. As laymen we would not presume to offer advice .. ." 7 4 Also, local newspaper articles dealing with Vancouver doctors were rarely if ever critical before the early-to-mid 1960s.75 With public support for medicine and biomedical science "unprecedented" during the postwar decades,76 it is likely that mainstream media outlets throughout North America considered most antivivisectionist claims about laboratory animal cruelty to be lacking in legitimacy.77 In smaller centers, however, where antivivisectionist voices were less likely to threaten entrenched interests, they were probably more likely to find public expression. Thus, when two Victoria women criticized U.B.C.'s cat experiments in 1963, the Victoria 78 Colonist and Nanaimo Daily Free Press ran the story, but the Sun and Province did not. The wall of deferent, doctor-related discourse began to spring leaks in about 1963, the year that the outspoken Pat Burns began broadcasting his popular call-in show on ailing CJOR radio. Burns's rhetoric probably resembled that of his column in the short-lived Vancouver Times two years later, in which he called doctors "a ruthless, self-centred, clipping in Box 30, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. ; M . Newton, "Cruel Experiments," Colonist, 24 July 1963,4. 7 4 "Still a Long Way To Go," Province, 5 May 1959, 4. 7 5 See the extensive scrapbooks of newspaper clippings collected by U.B.C. 's Faculty of Medicine from the 1950s to 1967, Boxes 29-32, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 7 6 Starr, 335. 7 7 The Canadian Periodical Index cites no articles on animal experimentation between 1955 and 1966.1 have found no mention in secondary sources of such articles in the mainstream American press from before 1966, but many examples from 1966. See, for example, Finsen and Finsen, 56-57. 7 8 Also, it is noteworthy that the Victoria-based Canadian Anti-Vivisection Society received considerably more extensive (or perhaps simply better indexed) coverage in the Victoria press of the 1940s than did the A.V.S . in the Vancouver press of the same decade, when publicly recognized animal experimentation was taking place in Vancouver, but probably not in Victoria ("Animal Experiments at U.B.C. Protested," Daily Times (Victoria), 13 February 1945, 11). 18 self-interested group who couldn't care less whether you live or die - as long as you pay the bill." 7 9 More financially stable B.C. newspapers began to give voice to some measured criticism of doctors in about 1964, but the level of criticism increased quite sharply in 1966.80 The reverence for doctors was waning, creating space for anti-medical discourses in its wake. In 1966, a wave of antivivisectionist dissent washed over not only Vancouver newspapers, but the mainstream print media throughout North America. In early 1966, a number of American magazines published provocative articles about dognappers and other unscrupulous animal dealers who sold animals to medical research labs.81 While scholars have cited the outrage generated by these articles as a major factor leading to 82 Washington's passing of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act in August 1966, my research suggests the complementary hypothesis that the diminished status of doctors facilitated both the magazine articles and the Act. Evidence of the antivivisectionist tide of 1966 first appeared in the Sun and Province in March of that year, in a story about the Victoria-based nun who had criticized U.B.C.'s glaucoma research three years earlier. Speaking at a provincial hearing into new animal welfare legislation, Mother Cecilia Mary denounced U.B.C. as sinful for breeding and torturing animals. Also in 1966, the Sun ran three articles concerning the Council for Laboratory Animals, a Vancouver-based animal welfare organization that had formed three years earlier to press for federal • • 84 laboratory animal legislation, but until then had received scant media attention. Although these papers covered the vivisection issue, they skewed their coverage strongly in favour of U . B . C : for example, the Province tried to discredit Mother Cecilia Mary by beginning its story about her with an anonymous complaint that she herself neglected 7 9 P. Burns, "Pat Burns!" Vancouver Times, 10 April 1965, 16. 8 0 See J. Wood, '"Write the Music' [letter]," Sun, 16 July 1964; " V G H Care Questioned in Gangrene Fatality," Province, 3 May 1966; "Medical Discrimination Alleged in Indian Survey," Daily Times (Victoria), 14 April 1966. A l l clippings in scrapbooks, Boxes 29-32, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C. A. 8 1 Finsen and Finsen, 56-57. 8 2 Ibid. See also B. Orlans, In the Name of Science: /ssues in Responsible Animal Experimentation (New York, 1993), 50; and A. Rowan, Of Mice, Models and Men: A Critical Evaluation of Animal Research (Albany, 1984), 56. 8 3 " U B C Acts Sinful, Says Nun," Sun, 24 March 1966, 2; "Nun Battles at Home and at House," Province, 25 March 1966, 2. 8 4 "Use of Animals in Research Brings Call for Legislation," Sun, 13 May 1966, 15; "Lab Animal Group's Leader Quits Over 'Sensationalism,'" Sun, 19 May 1966, 12; "New Council Head Denies 'Sensation,'" Sun, 21 May 1966, 2. I found only one earlier mention of this group: P. Stratton, "Laboratory Animals [letter]," Province, 1 December 1965, 4. 19 animals at the shelter she ran; and the Sun included subheadings that stressed "no Of dognapping" and "no pain inflicted" in an article on the use of dogs at U.B.C. Aside from the nun, no other abolitionist voices appeared in the Sun and Province during 1966; the mild voice of dissent belonged to reformers, who never once criticized U . B . C , and in fact suggested on more than one occasion that animal care at U.B.C. was better than that or at other Canadian and American centers. Thus, by the end of 1966, careful readers of Vancouver's mainstream press had seen vivisection portrayed as a contentious issue for the first time in 14 years, but had read little to legitimize the position of abolitionists or to support the reformist push for Canadian legislation. However, they would find virtually no discussion of this issue in their local daily newspapers for the next seven years. 1967-77 Animal experimentation continued to expand tremendously throughout the 1960s. According to figures from January 1969, U.B.C.'s "annual census," presumably including its V.G.H. site as well on-campus facilities, included just over 66,000 animals, 93% of which were mice, rats, chickens, frogs and fish. The tally for species that evoked greatest public concern was low compared to the total: 627 cats, 539 dogs and 13 non-human primates.87 The Faculty of Medicine produced about two thirds of the animal research at U.B.C. cited in Biological Abstracts during the first six months of 1971, while Zoology and Psychology produced most of the rest. Some experiments - for example, one oo psychological behavioural study - involved no obvious cruelty. Also, the proportion of experiments using live animals was lower than in the 1955/56 sample: researchers more often used tissue after having killed the animal or, in the case of one cat experiment, after 8 5 M . Farrow, "300 to 400 Dogs Used in UBC Research Annually," Sun, 11 May 1966, 19. 8 6 "Use of Animals in Research Brings Call for Legislation," Sun, 13 May 1966, 15; '"Few Signs of Cruelty,'" Sun, 3 October 1966, 18. 8 7 C .C.A.C. , "Animal Care Assessment, University of British Columbia, January 21 and 22, 1969," File 15, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 8 8 F. Valle, "Flavor Preferences in Laboratory Rats," Psychonomic Science 21 (1970): 31-32. 20 having rendered the animals brain-dead by severing their brainstem.sy This appears to reflect a shift in focus from the physiology of the whole animal, predominant in 1955, to the structure or function of a single, isolated organ, though a greater sample size is necessary to confirm this. Scientists also administered anaesthetic more frequently to animals undergoing painful procedures, including rodents, reptiles and fish, or else they simply took greater care to document their use of anaesthesia. However, much of the research from this sample involved considerable cruelty. For example, in one experiment studying the role of a certain part of the brain in causing seizures induced by loud noises, 80 rats and 17 cats were exposed to a 100 dB doorbell for two minutes every hour for eight hours. This caused "episodic running behavior" (ERB) in some animals, sometimes followed by seizures. The ERB displayed by cats is described as "spectacular and violent."90 Under anaesthesia, the animals then had lesions placed in specific parts of the brain. At least two weeks later, they underwent the same doorbell procedure again.91 During the 1970s, the structure of U.B.C.'s system of animal care changed significantly under the influence of the Canadian Council on Animal Care, an organization comprised primarily of research scientists that began to perform periodic confidential animal care assessments at Canadian institutions in the late 1960s. This pro-vivisection animal welfare organization has been condemned by some scientists for empire-building, and by many antivivisectionists for both its secrecy and its readiness to 09 compromise the interests of animals. While the history of this organization is beyond the scope of this thesis, the story of its formation by the research community in 1968 as a 8 9 J. Harwood and H. Sanders, "The Effect of Temperature on the Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Isolated Cerebral Cortex of the Cat," Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 47 (1969): 747-53. 9 0 J. Wada et al., "Inferior Colliculus Lesion and Audiogenic Seizure Susceptibility," Experimental Neurology 28 (1970): 330. 9 1 For another cruel experiment from the sample of 24 articles cited in 1971, see the cat experiment from the introduction. See also D. Albert et al., "Further Evidence for a Complex System Controlling Feeding Behavior," Physiology and Behavior 5 (1970): 1075-82; and L. Erikson and J. Wada, "Effect of Lesions in the Temporal Lobe and Rhinencephalon on Reproductive function in Adult Female Rhesus Monkeys," Fertility and Sterility 21 (1970): 434-54. This last article describes what is arguably the crudest experimental procedure in the entire sample of 78 articles. It involved multiple abdominal surgeries in individual female monkeys, both before and after they had various parts of their brain removed, to observe whether they were ovulating. One animal had eleven abdominal surgeries over a two-year period. However, it is not clear whether this experiment was conducted in Vancouver or Edmonton. 9 2 For condemnation by a scientist, see S. Revusky, Battles with the Canadian Council on Animal Care (St. John's, 1997); for condemnation by an antivivisectionist, see C. Montgomery, Blood Relations: Animals, Humans, and Politics (Toronto, 2000), 96-119. 21 type of self-regulatory body in the face of mounting public concern about the welfare of laboratory animals, its success in staving off federal legislation to regulate laboratory animal use (common to most other western industrialized nations)93 and, perhaps most remarkably, its success, in the absence of legislation, in wielding the ideology of animal welfare to impose its own power, and the power of the veterinary profession, over medical researchers, will one day make for fascinating reading. Under pressure from the C.C.A.C. , U.B.C.'s animal care system began to modernize in the early 1970s. The 1969 assessment panel criticized the university for poorly trained animal technicians, a lack of available veterinary care in many areas, a lack of central control to enforce animal care standards, and an inefficient system of animal procurement and care, in which Medicine, Agriculture, Psychology and Zoology operated almost independently of one another.94 The panel's conclusion that animal care was "below acceptable standards"95 in many areas of the university turned it into a top funding priority. In the early 1970s, the university hired a well-qualified veterinarian, Dr. John Gregg, to oversee animal care throughout the entire university, and had built a new animal care centre on south campus by 1976. During these years, Vancouver-based antivivisectionists expressed their opposition to animal experimentation with some graphic images, a somewhat local focus, and a more diverse set of voices. Their claims about the cruelty of animal experimentation remained unchanged, but they advanced a new line of argumentation about the science of vivisection, asserting that alternative methods such as tissue culture and computer modelling could replace some if not all of it. 9 6 Their descriptions of experimental animals included not only dogs and cats, but also monkeys, muskrats and other unidentified small 9 3 See J. Hampson, "Legislation: A Practical Solution to the Vivisection Dilemma?" in N . Rupke, ed., Vivisection in Historical Perspective (New York, 1987): 319-34. 9 4 Council for Laboratory Animals, "Newsletter," June 1969, Animal Care Correspondence File, Box 7, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. ; C .C.A.C. to U.B.C. President, 29 July 1969, Animal Care Correspondence File, Box 7, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. 9 5 Quoted from C.C.A.C. report in Council for Laboratory Animals, "Newsletter," June 1969, op. cit., 1. 9 6 See, for example, "Impounded Dog Policy Confirmed," Sun, 5 July 1973, clipping in File 11, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. Also, the B.C. Foundation for Non-Animal Research, dedicated to the promotion of alternatives, formed in 1970. ("Group Forms To Limit Use of Animals for Research," Columbian (New Westminster), 20 March 1972, 3). 22 animals.97 These were now quite graphic, and included the location where the experiments had taken place. For example, a 1969 newsletter from the Council for Laboratory Animals claimed that at Cornell University, cats "were injected with copper through a burr hole drilled into their skulls while 'lightly anesthetized'. The 18 animals which survived became totally paralysed shortly after injection, with loss of all ability for voluntary movement. ... Some ... survived for up to 9 days. They had no food or water for the duration of their survival. The researchers injected a nutrient (dextrose) in an effort to prolong their lives . . ." The apparent representation of a wider variety of species in local antivivisectionist literature may simply be a product of the small number of primary Vancouver-based sources available from prior to 1966, but this trend to increased representation of other species is also suggested by Animals' Defender, a monthly publication by Britain's National Anti-Vivisection Society. Over three-quarters of its covers featured photos of dogs or cats in the three years prior to March 1966, but beginning in April 1966, a wide variety of other species - both domestic and wild -began to appear.99 This admittedly inconclusive evidence for the extension of antivivisectionist discourse beyond a longstanding focus on pet species during the late 1960s and early 1970s needs to be confirmed by further research, but it is compatible with the burgeoning environmental movement's concern with wild animals,100 as well as the increasing sentimentalization of a wide variety of species over the latter half of the twentieth century.101 Local antivivisectionists grounded the idea of cruelty to laboratory animals in various physical structures within Vancouver during these years. In 1969, three North Vancouver women, who condemned animal experimentation as "inhumane," began buying about six dogs per week from the Vancouver pound just before the "dark blue UBC wagon" came 9 7 See Council for Laboratory Animals, "Newsletter," op. cit.; Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, "The Fur Bearers," Issue 17, 11 October 1977, File 37, Box 18, Roy Daniells fonds, U.B.C.A. 9 8 Council for Laboratory Animals, "Newsletter," June 1969, op. cit., 3. 9 9 When this journal began to feature animals on its cover in July/August 1962, a variety of different species appeared. The almost exclusive representation of pets began in early 1963. National Anti-Vivisection Society, Animals' Defender, 1962-68. 100 ^  1974 letter to the Sun suggests a link between the environmental movement and the soon-to-arise animal rights movement. Its author advocates a bill of rights for pets, farm animals and wild animals on the basis of "ecology, conservation and compassion." See G. O'Neil , "Animal Bill of Rights Needed," Sun, 23 May 1974, 5. For more on the link between the environmental and animal rights movements, see J. Jasper and D. Nelkin, The Animal Rights Crusade: The Growth of a Moral Protest (New York, 1992), 71 -89. 1 0 1 Franklin and White, 224. 23 to ship them to the university. The women then placed newspaper advertisements to find homes for the animals, but refused to adopt out dogs within Vancouver city limits for fear 102 they might get loose and end up at U.B.C. Through their publicized actions, these women portrayed the pound and the blue U.B.C. vehicle as symbolic of the cruelty of animal experimentation within the city. Similarly, the Animal Defence and A - V Society of B.C. staged a demonstration at Vancouver City Hall in 1973 - probably the first antivivisectionist demonstration in Vancouver history - to protest U.B.C.'s attempt to obtain pound dogs before the end of the customary five-day waiting period. With their bodies and signs, these protesters focused some attention on the building where politicians made decisions that led pound dogs to the laboratory. These two examples illustrate the ability of locally focused direct action to advance antivivisectionist discourse in the unreceptive mainstream press. Through their actions, as opposed to their words, these activists conveyed what were probably the first explicit objections to the U.B.C.-pound arrangement to appear in the mainstream press since 1952. As well, their direct actions linked the idea of the cruelty of vivisection with specific local sites - City Hall, the pound and U.B.C. (via the van). Cruelty to laboratory animals was not only something "out there," taking place in distant or unnamed laboratories. It also took place at home. Many of the characteristics of the antivivisectionist dissent of these years came together in the actions of the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, which had been active locally since at least the 1950s.104 In 1977, this group waged a campaign against the U.B.C. Muskrat Study, in which researchers allegedly strapped muskrats to a board, affixed them to a leg-hold trap, then drowned them.1 0 5 In focusing on non-pet species, providing detailed descriptions of disturbing laboratory practices, and 1 0 2 "Trio Buy Dogs To Give Away," Sun, 20 December 1969, 63. I 0 ' "Impounded Dog Policy Reaffirmed," Sun, 5 July 1973, clipping in File 11, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 0 4 Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, "14 t h Annual Report," May 1955, File S-4222, C.P.P.R. Because this report has the subheading "Number 2," and this Society became officially established in B.C. in the early 1950s, it is questionable whether it was active in Vancouver during the 1940s. It may have moved its headquarters from elsewhere. 1 0 5 Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals, "The Fur Bearers," Issue 17, 11 October 1977, 2. 24 grounding cruelty to animals locally, this campaign foreshadowed those of more militant Vancouver-based organizations of the 1980s. As in previous years, antivivisectionist groups received little coverage in the Sun and Province throughout the 1970s. While U.B.C. continued to use these papers as vehicles for the easy dissemination its propaganda, antivivisectionists sometimes resorted to taking out ads to disseminate theirs.106 Beginning in 1973, the Sun and Province began to publish occasional letters expressing relatively mild criticism of U.B.C.'s animal-related practices.107 However, other local media were not so partisan. In 1969, the Ubyssey quoted a university student who described having seen "a wall of cages containing confused and scared looking cats" at U.B.C.'s Animal Holding Unit, and who implied that the university "picks up stray animals and then proceeds to mistreat them and use them for experimental purposes."108 The New Westminster-based Columbian ran a 1972 feature story on the B.C. Foundation for Non-Animal Research, which included graphic descriptions of cats, dogs and monkeys undergoing experimentation, but no mention of the location of the laboratories in question.109 In 1976, this same newspaper directly attacked U.B.C.'s interests in relation to laboratory animals. Having received a tip about a secret arrangement between the university and the Surrey pound, Columbian staff staked out the pound for two days until they spotted the U.B.C. van. They subsequently confirmed the pound arrangement with university officials and ran their expose on the front page.110 In bringing this information to public light, the Columbian almost certainly played a role in Surrey council's ultimate decision to rescind the pound contract several years later.111 Probably the only antivivisectionist argument to resonate with a sizable portion of the public during these years concerned the cruelty of vivisection, an idea that was expressed 1 0 6 See ad from A . D . A . V . , Province, 8 July 1972, 2; ad from the Victoria-based Canadian Anti-Vivisection Society, Sun, 11 March 1974, 11. 1 0 7 See, for example, Name Withheld, "Callous Disregard for Dogs," Sun, 13 July 1973, 6. 1 0 8 C. Hammond, "Stray Animals in Holding Centre Used for Science Experiments," Ubyssey, 31 October 1969, clipping in File 11, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 0 9 A . Stubbs, "Group Forms To Limit Use of Animals for Research," Columbian, 20 March 1972, 3. 1 1 0 R. Holland, "Secrecy Shrouds Animals 'Condemned' to U B C Tests," Columbian, 22 May 1976, 1. ' " A n R.C.M.P. investigation showed that the Surrey pound was sending dogs to U.B.C. before owners had a chance to claim them. See P. Baran, "It'll Be a Dog's Life for Him if Chilliwack Supplies Animals to U B C , " Sun, I August 1980, E l 1. 25 by a number of local journalists from the mid-70s onwards. For example, in 1976, the science writer for the Sun commented: There is no arguing that animal research benefits mankind and even, on occasions, animalkind. The question is how to balance the costs in animal suffering against the benefits. Although some extremists might debate the point, it seems sensible that a human life should be rated as more valuable than any animal's. And presumably a monkey is more worthy than a cat and a cat than a guinea pig. Note that this author rejects the longstanding claim by some antivivisectionists that animal research is unnecessary for scientific advancement, and the emerging animal rights argument that animals deserve the same or similar moral treatment as human beings. Yet he acknowledges the suffering of laboratory animals as an important area of moral concern - one that U .B.C. scientists felt obligated to address. In responding to this issue, scientists did not, however, always speak with one voice. As late as 1971, one U .B .C. researcher followed the tactic of local scientists of the 1950s in all but denying the existence of laboratory animal suffering. In a letter to the editor of the Sun, this researcher wrote, "Animals used in medical research are kept under the most favourable conditions. They are fed the best diet, treated for their diseases and kept in air-conditioned quarters. When they are destroyed it is under the supervision of skilled and knowledgeable personnel."114 By contrast, a "new school" of scientists, which had become locally dominant by the time of the hiring of John Gregg as Director of Animal Care in 1972, acknowledged that some animal suffering did take place, but that the university minimized it whenever possible. This school favoured strong central control of animal care at the university,115 but had to overcome the resistance of various entrenched interests.116 In portraying itself as addressing legitimate public criticism, it not only acted to placate the public, but also to reinforce its own new position of power. Thus, Gregg's 1 1 2 T. Padmore, "Research Animals: Martyrs in the Lab for Mankind," Sun, 1 November 1976, 6. 1 1 3 For an example of a Vancouver doctor of the 1950s who all but denied the suffering of laboratory animals, see D. McLellan, "Vivisection - How Cruel," News Herald (Vancouver), 5 February 1952, 4. 1 1 4 L. Kraintz, "Pound Sells No Animals for Vivisection," Sun, 14 August 1971, 5. I assume this is the same L. Kraintz who was a professor of oral biology at U.B.C. 1 1 5 Minutes of Users' Committee Meeting, point #15, 26 June 1972, Animal Care Users' File, Box 7, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. ' 1 6 For an indication of the Faculty of Medicine's resistance to centralized control, see "Animal Care -Minority Report," ca. 1969, Animal Care Minority Report File, Box 7, Faculty of Agriculture fonds, U.B.C.A. No doubt some relatively autonomous individual scientists also resisted the imposition of centralized control, as did Sam Revusky at Memorial University in St. John's during the mid-1970s (Revusky, 5). 26 1973 description of inadequate dog accommodation on campus, with "damp, draughty" sleeping quarters and exercise runs "fenced by mildewed wood and with shade trees that harbour parasites," served to justify the $800,000 expense of the new animal care centre,117 which would act as both the seat of his new "empire," and a monument to reassure the public that animal care was a university priority. Public statements that Gregg supervised the welfare of all U.B.C. laboratory animals and inspected all animal facilities to ensure they met university standards served a similar dual purpose.118 The university also responded to negative publicity by arguing that animal research was necessary for medical advancement.119 However, it did not necessarily do so in response to antivivisectionist criticism of the scientific necessity or validity of animal experimentation, but also in response to perceived criticism of its treatment of animals. In arguing the necessity of animal experimentation, it was appealing to those members of the public who, like the Sun's science writer in the above quote, thought about this issue in terms of a balance between human benefits and animal harms. U.B.C. did not frequently articulate explicitly provivisectionist discourse, which risked attracting unwanted attention. In fact, articles focusing on animal use at U.B.C. probably appeared in the Sun and Province on only three occasions during these years (including 1966), each time soon after effective local antivivisectionist criticism: Mother Mary Cecilia's 1966 charge that U.B.C. tortured animals, the A.D.A.V.'s 1973 protest at 121 City Hall, and the 1976 Surrey pound expose. Even though these articles do not mention antivivisectionism - this would have acted to legitimize this opposing discourse - their timing almost confirms that their primary motivation was to offset criticism. It 1 1 7 S. Churcher, " U B C Plans New Home for Research Animals," Province, 3 October 1973, 39. 1 1 8 "New U B C Animal Facility Planned," U.B.C. Reports, 19 September 1973, 9. 1 1 9 See, for example, K. Lipinski, "20,000 Animals Die at U B C To Further Research," Sun, 14 July 1976, 23. 1 2 0 Several newspaper columnists and editors in the 1980s, both provivisectionist and antivivisectionist, appear to have thought in terms of this balance. See, for example, G. Wheelwright, "Geof Wheelwright," Courier (Vancouver), 29 January 1981, File 17, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. ; "Tests on Animals a Humane Pursuit [editorial]," Province, 8 August 1983, 12; "Humanity Lost in Animal Labs [editorial]," Province, 2 May 1989, 22. 1 2 1 Mother Cecilia Mary's criticism ran in the Sun on 24 March 1966, and the article in response ran 11 May 1966 ( M . Farrow, "300 to 400 Dogs Used in U B C Research Annually," Sun, 11 May 1966, 19). The City Hall protest occurred in early July 1973, and the article in response ran 3 October 1973 (S. Churcher, " U B C Plans New Home for Research Animals," Province, 3 October 1973, 39). The Surrey pound expose ran in the Columbian on 22 May 1976, and the responding article appeared in the Sun 14 July 1976 ("20,000 Animals Die at U B C To Further Research," Sun, 14 July 1976, 23). 27 appears that the university had long been following the advice of one Information Services official in 1981 "not [to] attack antivivisectionists or their statements directly, but rather speak over their heads at the greater community." The much more common articles that mentioned U.B.C. animal use during these years profiled medical researchers and suggested the clinical relevance of their work. However, animals were not their focus. The above two types of article had to achieve a balance between focusing on experimental animals to some extent, but not focusing on them too much, lest attention be drawn to U.B.C.'s experimental practices. This is evident from photos of U.B.C. lab animals that accompany the three explicitly provivisectionist articles cited above. These • 191 images - of dogs standing behind a fence (or in a large cage); shelves full of rats in cages, with a masked, gowned researcher inspecting them;124 and Dr. Gregg's face juxtaposed against a tiny nude mouse - 1 2 5 differ significantly from those that appeared in the Sun and Province between 1957 and 1960. They do not show animals undergoing experimentation, and do not depict researchers as humane. Rather, they draw attention to the powerlessness of research animals by showing them in confinement or emphasizing their smallness. This image of the powerless animal probably reflected an increasingly common public view that laboratory animals could experience cruel treatment. Interestingly, it did not harm, and may have even served the interests of Dr. Gregg by suggesting to some members of the public that subordinate animals needed the protection of the new animal welfare bureaucracy. This same strategy of drawing some attention to animal use, but not focusing on the animal's actual status as experimental material, is evident in the articles about U.B.C.-based medical research from 1967 to at least the mid-1970s. While these articles frequently mention that researchers discovered something through research with "animals," they rarely mention the species of animal involved 1 2 2 This official made this suggestion in conjunction with a new brochure he was advocating to counter antivivisectionism. Attachment to memo from Information Services to Dean of Medicine, 9 July 1981, File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 123 Sun, 11 May 1966, 19; Province, 3 October 1973, 39. 124 Province, 3 October 1973, 39. 125 Sun 14 July 1976, 1. 28 unless it was a rodent.126 By contrast, the many articles from the early 1960s onwards that list grants received by U.B.C. researchers from fundraising agencies, such as the B.C. Heart Foundation, rarely if ever mention experimental animal use.127 These observations suggest that the university and its media allies acted in some instances, when future grant money might be at stake, to obscure the use of animals, but acted in others to reinforce the necessity of animal use without drawing attention to animals that people might care about, or the actual procedures they underwent. Thus, although laboratory animals were technically visible in the mainstream press, their plight was largely invisible. 1978-89 In the late 1970s, a militant new brand of antivivisectionism appeared on the local scene, forcefully targeting individuals and buildings associated with animal experimentation. Anonymous individuals began sending hate mail to university officials in 1978, with messages such as: "For every lab animal you torture, you'll burn in hell where cruel bastards like you belong." In the latter half of 1980, the 400-member strong Animal Defence and A-V Society of B.C. (A.D.A.V.) waged a highly energetic campaign against Chilliwack city council's move to sell its pound dogs to U.B.C. for experimentation. The A.D.A.V. held demonstrations at both Chilliwack City Hall and U.B.C. 's animal care centre, a building it declared to be "symbolic of human exploitation of other living creatures."129 Protesters never linked with the A.D.A.V. placed late-night phone calls to researchers, spray-painted slogans such as "save monkeys, kill medical researchers" on the outside of researchers' homes, slashed tires and poured sugar into the gas tank of at least one animal care centre vehicle, and waged a poster campaign alluding 1 2 6 See clippings in File 6, Box 9, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A ; File 11, Box 22, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. ; Faculty of Medicine Files, 1968-74, Box 24, Information Services fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 2 7 See, for example, "Grants Aid UBC Researchers," Province, 25 July 1969, clipping in Faculty of Medicine File, Jan.68-Dec.69, Box 24, Information Services fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 2 8 Undated postcard, File 10, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 2 9 A . D . A . V . , " A . D . A . V . Newsletter," Fall 1980, File 10 or 19, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. , 1. 29 to the knee-capping of Dr. Gregg. 1 3 0 Militant action peaked in January 1981, when an 18-year-old activist broke the window of the animal care centre, poured in gasoline and then 131 ignited it; however, the resulting fire caused relatively little damage. These various actions succeeded in focusing some public attention on animal experimentation and on the fact that it took place at the university. As a reporter for the Ubyssey wrote in 1980 after some on-campus vandalism, "Vivisection is not an issue people are confronted with daily, but students at UBC may soon be forced to consider it."1 3 2 During the 1980s, antivivisectionists also used graphic descriptions and photographs to direct public attention towards the bodies of experimental animals. The most effective activist in this regard was Peter Hamilton, who left the A.D.A.V. in 1981 to found his own organization, Lifeforce. In 1983, during an international meeting of animal-based researchers in Vancouver, Hamilton held a press conference where he discussed the V.G.H.-based practice of cauterizing dogs' vocal cords to keep them from barking, described an experiment in which Vancouver researchers damaged the spinal cords of dogs and pigs by dropping weights onto their backs, and showed a videotape to back up some of his claims.1 3 3 Also in 1983, he voiced opposition to the building of a new research facility at Shaughnessy Hospital, in part because "the bedding and bodies of experimental animals used in the facility would be burned as a means of disposal" and might generate pollution.134 In 1984, he demonstrated in front of a U.B.C. lab by locking himself in restraints, drawing attention to the primates that were restrained there. His other activities included a 1985 protest against the long-term captivity of two grizzly bears at the university, the 1986 laying of private charges against three individuals at the G.F. Strong Laboratory in relation to their allegedly cruel postoperative treatment of a dog, and a large 1989 postcard campaign against cat-blinding experiments conducted by 1 3 0 "Animal Researchers Targets of Spray Paint, Threats," Province, 20 November 1980, A5; "Defenders of Animals Attack Campus Centre," Sun, 21 October 1980, A4; G. Bohn, "Dispute Over Experiments on Animals Heats Up," Sun, 3 December 1980, B l . 1 3 1 "Anti-Vivisectionist Discharged After Guilty Plea on Arson Try," Richmond Review, 19 June 1981, clipping in File 17, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 3 2 N . Campbell, "Animal Researchers Battle Vivid Image," Ubyssey, 24 October 1980, 1. 1 3 3 G. Schaefer and C. Volkart, "'Needless' Animal Torture Cited," Sun, 3 Aug 1983, A2; B. Hunter, "Tests, or Just Cruelty?" North Shore News,2\ August 1983, clipping in Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 3 4 "Research Unit Okayed," Western News, 5 January 1983, clipping in Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 30 university researchers. At least some of these actions probably had beneficial effects for the animals in question: in 1985, the university limited the restraint of apes in small boxes to hours at a time, as opposed to "weeks and even months," and transferred the two grizzly bears in question to a Kamloops-based wildlife park. 1 3 6 While Vancouver antivivisectionists continued to condemn the cruelty of animal experimentation, they incorporated some new content into their discourse during these years. One group of arguments, which emphasized the need to treat humans and animals with equal consideration, reflected the ideas of such philosophers as Peter Singer and Tom Regan. In his widely read 1975 book, Animal Liberation}37 Singer argued that to consider the interests of animals as less important than the interests of humans constituted an unjustifiable form of discrimination, which he referred to as "speciesism." In a similar vein, Regan promoted the idea of "animal rights."138 Both of these philosophies implied that mice and rats - subject of almost no previous concern by antivivisectionists -deserved the same moral consideration as dogs, cats, monkeys and humans. Hamilton clearly subscribed to a version of these ideas, which he promoted in media interviews.139 The increased prevalence of arguments and metaphors comparing animal labs to German concentration camps or slave plantations, though not new to this period, reflects this idea that people and animals possess an equivalent moral value.140 Claims about the scientific uselessness of vivisection re-emerged during this decade, influenced by Hans Ruesch's 1978 publication, Slaughter of the Innocent}41 Local antivivisectionists also referred to the vivisection "industry," implying by this term that scientists promoted this practice because it was in their own economic best interests.142 U.B.C. researchers countered the increasingly effective charges of cruelty against them with claims that they were humane, that they followed the guidelines of the 1 3 5 S. Cox, "Lifeforce Aims To End Exploitation," Sun, 3 September 1985, Dl 1; J. Ferry, "UBC Ends Coop Abuse of Apes," Province, 16 June 1985, 18; "UBC Staff Charged Over Dog," Sun, 13 May 1986, F8; "Cat Test Protested," Province, 20 August 1989, 16. 1 3 6 J. Ferry, "UBC Ends Coop Abuse of Apes," Province, 16 June 1985, 18. 1 3 7 P. Singer, Animal Liberation (New York, 1975). 1 3 8 T. Regan, "Do Animals Have a Right To Life?" in Animal Rights and Human Obligations, eds. T. Regan and P. Singer (Englewood Cliffs, 1976). 1 3 9 See, for example, T. Padmore, "Tests outrage anti-vivisectionists," Sun, 27 January 1981, A2; and W. Melnyk, "UBC porker ploy cuts use of dogs," Province, 2 August, 1985, 6. 1 4 0 See, for example, "Attack of the Animal Lovers," Province, 22 June 1980, Mag6. 1 4 1 H. Ruesch, Slaughter of the Innocent (New York, 1978). 1 4 2 See, for example, "Defenders of Animals Attack Campus Centre," Sun, 21 October 1980, A4. 31 Canadian Council on Animal Care, and that animal experimentation was necessary for medical progress. They considered this last point to be particularly important: as a 1980 U.B.C. media relations policy stated: "Reporters and the public are unaware of the absolute need of animals in medical research. This is the single most important point to convey to them. .. ." To help convince the public of the truth of this assertion, the policy then advised the long-followed strategy of listing off medical advances "made possible through the use of animals."143 The potential for the new style of antivivisectionism to shape public opinion and limit U.B.C.'s animal use alarmed university officials: as one of them wrote about the A.D.A.V. in 1980: "They are well-organised, dedicated, and capable of almost anything."144 Because of such concerns, some university officials sought new, more effective means of muzzling the opposition. For example, after the A.D.A.V. placed an ad in local papers advising people who had lost their dog "to visit the pound, the SPCA & the Animal Care Unit at UBC," an Information Services official advised obtaining a legal opinion about whether "any kind of restraining order can be obtained to prevent this type of thing in the future."145 Also, the U.B.C. research community tried unsuccessfully to delay or have rescinded Peter Singer's invitation to give two Cecil Green lectures at the university in the fall of 1981. They worried in particular that Singer's respected status and careful rationality would lend legitimacy to local antivivisectionists.146 As well as attempting to silence the opposition, the university tried to deflect attention from its laboratories and the animals within them. After the vandalism of late 1980 and early 1981, it appears to have decided not to tout the ongoing modernization of its facilities and increasing surveillance of its animal use, choosing to forego the public 1 4 3 U B C Information Services, "Policy for Dealing with Reporters Enquiring About the Use of Animals in Research," 17 November 1980. File 10, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. For a university official who used this strategy in the 1950s, see "Animal Experimentation Defended by Medical Dean," Sun, 26 January 1952, 42. 1 4 4 Animal Care Centre to Dean of Medicine, 12 August 1980, File 23, Box 17, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 4 5 For both quotes, see Information Services to V.P. Academic, 20 May 1981, File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 4 6 Faculty of Medicine to V.P. Academic, 22 December 1980, File 23, Box 17, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 32 relations benefits to be gained and striving instead for an elusive invisibility.147 In addition, the Animal Care Centre, and all of south campus with it, vanished from the official campus map between 1979 and 1981. Some limited media attention to experimental animals was still acceptable in November 1980, when a university media policy advised that instead of interviewing Dr. Gregg at the Animal Care Centre, where animals would be the focus, reporters "should be encouraged to speak to researchers using animals. ... By dealing with the researcher, the emphasis is placed where it belongs: on the use of the animal in the research and the health problem addressed by the research."149 This policy also stipulated that "under almost every circumstance," reporters and cameramen should be allowed entry to animal labs, lest they "think we have something to hide." However, less than one year later, in preparation for an A.D.A.V. protest in front of the neurological sciences laboratory, Information Services directed that the media not be allowed access to one particular area because "the use of primates and cats for epilepsy experiments could be portrayed in a spectacular way which would not take into account the end result of this experimentation, i.e. treatment and cure for epilepsy."150 Public access to the labs decreased over the decade as security increased, prompted in part by concerns that an unannounced visitor would take film footage of animals that would end up on the evening news. By 1989, the university claimed publicly that its usual policy was to deny both the media and the public access to its labs, citing risk of infection and distraction of scientists and animals as the reasons.151 The university hospital also tried to limit the visibility of animals being transported through patient areas: a 1981 policy draft stipulated that animals be transported in cages covered with a drape, that dogs be anaesthetized during transport, that only service elevators be used, and that "if a problem is envisioned, prior arrangements should be made ... to transfer 1 4 7 The last reference I found in which U.B.C. tried to offset criticism by citing the modernization of its animal laboratories dates from August 1980. See Chairman of Dog Control Sub-Committee, "Report to Council," Sept. 1980, File 23, Box 17, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 4 8 Series D, University Campus and University Endowment Lands - Maps and Plans Collection, U.B.C.A. 1 4 9 U B C Information Services, "Policy for Dealing with Reporters Enquiring About the Use of Animals in Research," 17 November 1980, File 10, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 5 0 Information Services to U.B.C. President and V.P. Academic, 10 July 1981, File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 5 1 "Off Limits to Press," Province, 1 May 1989, 5. 33 * 152 animals before the normal working day." Perhaps even when conceding its fight over Vancouver pound dogs, the university had the visibility of animals in mind. U.B.C. faced a dog supply crisis in the early 1980s, especially after Chilliwack council rescinded its agreement with U.B.C. in 1982, and antivivisectionists began buying all dogs from the Vancouver pound in 1984. While the university considered pushing for provincial legislation that would allow it to access pound animals, it opted instead to start a canine breeding program and slowly phase out the use of dogs in favour of Yucatan pigs. 1 5 3 While Gregg publicly stated "that animal rights activists could claim credit for having forced the university to breed its own animals,"154 he may well have decided to start the breeding program in an attempt to avoid the publicity that the pound issue consistently generated. As early as 1980, U.B.C.-based researchers had advocated such a breeding program, in part because "the mechanism of obtaining research animals" - and presumably the animals themselves - would then be "less 'visible.'"155 Scientists at U.B.C. and elsewhere also used various strategies to obscure the animals in their scientific articles, no doubt in response to stinging antivivisectionist critiques based on the scientific literature.156 One such strategy was to avoid expressing the number of animals used in a particular study. While this information had been quite clear in 1955, and still relatively clear in most cases in 1970, it was impossible to tell how many animals had been used in most animal-based medical studies in my 1985 sample. Another tactic, followed by the authors of seven of the 31 articles from 1985, involved referring readers to another article for description of at least part of the experimental methodology. Yet while antivivisectionists affected how researchers presented their work, they had no obvious impact on their cruelty. For example, researchers in the Psychology Department placed individual mice in cages with individual brain-damaged rats and measured how long it took rats with certain brain lesions to attack mice, how 1 5 2 "Information Manual, Animal Resource Unit, Acute Care Hospital, University of British Columbia," draft version, 1981, File 6, Box 18, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 5 3 Animal Care Centre to Dean of Medicine, 22 February 1984, 29 February 1984, File 4, Box 21, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 5 4 1 . Gi l l , " U B C Breeds Dogs as Source Blocked," Sun, 26 April 1986, H13. 1 5 5 Faculty member, Dept. of Anaesthesia, to faculty member, Dept. of Orthopaedics, 13 June 1980, File 23, Box 17, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 5 6 See, for example, A. Doncaster, Experiments on Animals: A Review of the Scientific Literature (Misssissauga, 1982). 34 long they spent eating them, and how long they bit them (presumably after they were already dead).157 In another experiment, to study the interaction between alcohol, stress and hypertension, researchers in the Pharmacology Department of the Faculty of Medicine fed twelve rats alcohol mixed with water for four weeks (plus their regular food), then began to expose them to a heat-lamp, alternating on and off every five minutes, for an hour per day. The heat, which visibly distressed the animals, caused their skin temperature to reach 40.5 degrees Celsius, a temperature "below that which is generally thought to be painful," according to the authors.158 At the end of twelve weeks, five of these animals had died of heart failure. Although Vancouver protesters began to target equally distasteful U.B.C. experimental practices in the early 1980s, they received little mainstream media coverage for their efforts. The Sun and Province continued to bias their vivisection-related coverage to U.B.C.'s advantage, offering little or no criticism of the university before the mid-1980s, ridiculing antivivisectionists,159 and printing feature articles with extensive interviews with researchers, but only a few quotes from protesters.160 Also, some local television news programs appear to have favoured U.B.C. in their coverage of the issue.161 By contrast, many community newspapers gave antivivisectionists a powerful voice. The Chilliwack Progress, for example, printed multiple letters to the editor on the vivisection issue, almost all of them critical of U.B.C. One of these letters described the author's visit to the G.F. Strong Laboratory at Vancouver General Hospital in extremely graphic terms: 1 5 7 D. Albert, "Medial Hypothalamic and Medial Accumbens Lesions Which Induce Mouse Killing Enhance Biting and Attacks on Inanimate Objects," Physiology and Behavior 35 (1985): 523-27. 1 5 8 T. Chan et al., "Chronic Ethanol Consumption, Stress, and Hypertension," Hypertension 7 (1985): 521. This study used rats in a number of control groups as well. For other particularly cruel examples from the 1985 sample, see S. Bhimji, D.V. Godin and J.H. McNeill , "Myocardial Ischemic Injury Induced by Isoproterenol in the Rabbit: Biochemical and Chemical Alternations," Canadian Journal of Cardiology 1 (1985): 282-87; and J. Wada, T. Mizoguchi and S. Komai, "Kindling Epileptogenesis in Orbital and Mesial Frontal Cortical Areas of Subhuman Primates," Epilepsia 26 (1985): 472-79. 1 5 9 See, for example, T. Padmore, "Tests Outrage Anti-vivisectionists," Sun, 27 January 1981, A2. 1 6 0 See, for example, B. Lewis, "Research Labs: It's Life and Death," Province, 31 July 1983, A4. Ironically, the article features a photo of Hamilton, though it and the sidebar focus exclusively on pro-vivisection arguments. 1 6 1 Information Services official mentions "extremely successful media interviews conducted last week with C B C - T V and B C T V . " See Information Services to Dean of Medicine, 31 October 1980, File 23, Box 17, Faculty of Medicine fonds, U.B.C.A. The same official also writes that "cbc tv will [do] a piece" with a U.B.C. researcher "on the need for $200,000," internal Information Services memo, 17 July 1981, File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 35 W e found 13 dogs in a dark room, they were i n small cages, standing on inserts o f expanding metal. They had been devocal ized and the on ly sounds I heard was [sic] the thump o f their tails h i t t ing the sides o f the cages when they saw us. One was t ry ing to bark, but instead made a p i t i f u l gurg l ing sound. . . . The dogs were covered in excrement that was ooz ing f r o m a section o f tissue that was approximately four inches long, pro t rud ing f r o m their abdomen. Some o f the dogs were tu rn ing f rant ical ly t ry ing to bite the section o f bowel hanging f r o m them. . . . One German Shepherd I saw, was on ly a l i v i ng skeleton and its r ibs were v is ib le even though i t had a heavy coat. . . . The next room we examined contained many cages o f rabbits. A t m y feet was a rabbit I thought was dead but i t started to crawl across the f loor dragging i t ' s [sic] mut i la ted h ind quarters, w h i c h were saturated in b lood. . . . 1 6 2 The wi l l ingness o f the Progress to pr in t letters on the U.B.C.-pound issue week after week, such as one author 's ta l ly o f the breeds o f al l 115 dogs that had "ended their short l i fe span as experimental subjects" at U . B . C . , 1 6 3 p layed a major role i n C h i l l i w a c k counc i l ' s decision to rescind its agreement w i t h the universi ty in 1982. The Richmond Review is another publ icat ion that t roubled U.B .C. o f f i c i a l s . 1 6 4 One o f its regular contr ibutors wrote mul t ip le in f lammatory co lumns about the "he l l -ho le " labs at U . B . C , and on one occasion described in graphic detai l a dog he had seen there in 1952: " I t was a m e d i u m sized dog w i t h b ig b r o w n eyes that l i teral ly cr ied out for help. Its body was a mass o f scars that were the product o f so-called medical research . . . I t seemed to be saying as I gent ly patted its head, ' W h y me? What have I done to you humans that I must endure this cont inuous t o r t u r e ? ' " 1 6 5 Accompany ing this co lumn was a photo o f a dog that had al legedly been skinned al ive (also run in the Progress). A much more restrained co lumnis t i n the Vancouver-based Courier p rov ided details i n 1981 about the U.B .C. Muskra t study, then advocated an end to animal exper imentat ion because o f his be l ie f that such "barbar ic methods o f animal torture are no longer necessary . " 1 6 6 F ina l ly , in 1980, the editor o f the Kamloops News referred to U.B.C. labs as " f i l t h y , inhumane 1 6 2 D. Walker, " . . . Research Lab," Progress, 29 October 1980, File 10, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 6 3 B. Bertram, "Animal Stats," Progress, 23 December 1981, clipping in File 11, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 6 4 Internal Information Services memo, 23 April 1981, File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 6 5 G. McKay, "Vox Pop," Richmond Review, 22 April 1981, clipping in File 17, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 6 6 G. Wheelwright, "Geof Wheelwright," Courier, 29 January 1981, clipping File 17, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 36 places where debarked dogs cower in excrement-filled cages awaiting their next torture," and called vivisection "a canine version of Auschwitz."167 These examples from a number of community newspapers suggest that, for all intents and purposes, the image of the tortured, mutilated experimental animal - especially the dog - had gone mainstream by the early 1980s. Yet it was not to be found in the pages of the local mainstream press. This would change within the decade. As the vivisection controversy appeared on the NBC Nightly News and the front page of the Globe and Mail,l6& the Province gradually became more receptive to antivivisectionist discourse. Nevertheless, it must have shocked the local activist community in 1989 when the Province became a staunch critic of local vivisection practices. In April of that year, it ran a two-page expose based on a leaked copy of U.B.C.'s recent confidential assessment by the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Two days later, it condemned U.B.C. in its editorial as follows: Hidden in the darkest corners of one of our exalted centres of higher learning lie animals with their eyelids sewn shut - or worse, with their eyes removed. In this University of British Columbia research facility, rats are scalded, then given nothing to ease their pain. A dog is left lying on a wet floor, recovering from anaesthesia. ... A monitoring group - which also works in secret - brands the facility [the G.F. Strong Laboratory] grossly inadequate, says it should be closed, views its continued operation with alarm and then bizarrely recommends that it remain open. A spokesman for the facility says improvements are a priority. We can accept his words at face value, close our eyes and let history unfold. But that's not good enough.169 Although the Sun was much less strident in its condemnation, one of its columnists referred to experiments at the G.F. Strong Laboratory as "abominations."170 Highly critical, highly graphic, highly localized antivivisectionist discourse had finally hit the mainstream press. By the 1980s, a large segment of the public believed that animal experimentation was cruel. For example, the agreement between U.B.C. and the Chilliwack pound generated a petition in Chilliwack with over 1,000 signatures, became a major issue in Chilliwack's 1 6 7 "Torture Labs Well-Documented," Kamloops News, 26 September 1980, clipping in File 16, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 6 8 Finsen and Finsen, 71; D. Helwig, "Charges Dismissed in Baboon Trial, Both Sides Call Judgment a Victory," Globe and Mail, 15 August 1985, 1. 1 6 9 "Humanity Lost in Animal Labs," Province, 2 May 1989, 22. 1 7 0 T. Lautens, "Trevor Lautens," Sun, 6 May 1989, B5. 37 1981 municipal election, and probably caused the defeat of one provivisectionist councillor.171 The public discourse surrounding the pound agreement focused on the cruelty of vivisection; very few writers from the Chilliwack area offered other reasons -such as scientific futility or animal rights - for their opposition.172 Also, the journalists who condemned animal experimentation in their editorials and columns during the 1980s, quoted in the preceding two paragraphs, all objected on the grounds of cruelty to animals, and most of them advanced grotesque descriptions of experimental animals in support of their position. In fact, journalistic commentary suggests that descriptions of suffering animals - which antivivisectionists had advanced tirelessly for the previous decade, and not quite so enthusiastically before that - had awakened some of these journalists to the cruelty of the animal lab. 1 7 3 Probably due in large part to the efforts of antivivisectionists, but also to increasing sentimentalization of particular species, 49% of 2,000 Canadians surveyed in 1989 believed that scientists should not be allowed "to do research that causes pain and injury to animals like dogs and chimpanzees," even "if it produces new information about human health problems;"174 and 8% were undecided. While surveys from this period have demonstrated little opposition to the experimental use of mice and rats,175 and Canadians were significantly more likely to offer support for vivisection if the polling question did not mention highly regarded species,176 it seemed - in that heady year of 1989 - that antivivisectionists were starting to win the battle for public opinion. 1 7 1 P. Fraser, "SPCA Astounded," Progress, 29 October 1980; "Not A l l Candidates Answered Voters," Progress, 4 November 1981; "Unwanted Dogs Get a Reprieve," Sun, 27 April 1982; all clippings in File 11, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 7 2 See, for example, letters to the editor of the Progress from 29 October 1980 and 5 November 1980, File 10, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 7 3 See, for example, G. Wheelwright, op. cit.; and "Humanity Lost in Animal Labs," op. cit. For a related discussion of the effectiveness of photographs and film footage for the animal rights movement, see Baker, 218. 1 7 4 L. Pifer, et al., "Public Attitudes Toward Animal Research: Some International Comparisons," Society and Animals 2 (1994): 100. 1 7 5 Ibid., 98. These were not specifically Canadian studies. 1 7 6 In a 1987 survey, 1,046 Canadians were asked, "Do you approve or disapprove of the use of animals in medical research if there is a reasonable chance that such research will provide knowledge of benefit in the treatment of animals?" 67% approved, 17% gave qualified approval, and 15% disapproved. Gallup Canada Inc., "15% Reject Use of Animals in Medical Research," Gallup Report, 26 February 1987. 38 Conclusion But it was not to last. The Province printed articles and letters critical of U.B.C. throughout May 1989, and made a brief reference to U.B.C. cat-blinding experiments that August. And then, after several years of drawing public attention to the U.B.C. animal lab through its coverage of the local vivisection controversy, this newspaper significantly changed its approach. Aside from one graphic but uncritical description of a U.B.C. kitten experiment that appeared in the Sun in 1991,177 not a single indexed article focusing on the issue of medically related animal experimentation at U.B.C. appeared in 1 78 the Sun or Province for over a decade."0The reason for this is not clear. Articles and columns about animal experimentation continued to run in the Vancouver dailies after 1989, often rational debates in the Sun between pro- and antivivisectionists about such issues as the necessity of animal experimentation for medical progress and the effectiveness of the nationwide C.C.A.C. assessment process. However, these newspapers omitted graphic descriptions of animal experiments, not only those conducted at U.B.C, but also throughout Canada.179 The Province's brief flirtation with graphic, locally focused discourse, which threatened the status quo by directing public attention onto the plight of Vancouver laboratory animals, was thus replaced by a rational discourse in the Sun that left laboratory animals themselves all but invisible. The invisibility of laboratory animals, reflected in the coverage of the local mainstream press for most of the period since 1950, is almost certainly the main reason that Vancouverites have offered such minimal resistance to animal experimentation. Rarely "seeing" these animals, most people have rarely thought about them. This phenomenon is why Baker states that the challenge for the animal rights movement is "to devise those ways of looking (and indeed of speaking) which will most effectively bring 1 7 7 A. Priest, "Tyranny of the Highest Species," Sun, 18 May 1991, DI. This article is accompanied by two photos of cats with an eye sewn shut, but the caption does not identify them as U.B.C. animals. 1 7 8 This statement is based on viewing the articles cited in the online B.C. Newspaper Index from 1990 to 2000 under the headings "animal experimentation" and "laboratory animals," and on viewing the articles under the headings "animal rights activists" and "University of British Columbia" with titles that appeared related to animal experimentation. Search conducted in June 2004. 1 7 9 One article concerns crash tests conducted by General Motors, presumably in the United States. N . Read, "These Crash Tests Really Are Heartbreaking," Sun, 22 January 1993, C8. 39 180 the animal into the visibility it is currently denied," and why U.B.C. scientists since 1980 have attempted to render their experimental animals, and the labs with which these animals are associated, as invisible as possible. In spite of this visibility factor, many Vancouver residents came to believe the antivivisectionist argument that animal experimentation is cruel. This occurred at a time of increasing public concern about a variety of animals, illustrated by such diverse examples as the rise of the environmental movement, the increasing popularity of vegetarianism, and the switch in focus of animal welfare organizations from euthanasia of strays to spaying and neutering programs. Within this relatively receptive historical context, antivivisectionists brought the suffering of laboratory animals into public view by disseminating a graphic discourse via community newspapers, radio, and no doubt less formal channels.181 However, most of the people who came to believe in the cruelty of animal experimentation did not demand major reform or abolition of this practice. The reason for this probably reflects a number of factors, including their failure to think about laboratory animals very often, their belief in the trivial nature of animal-related issues,182 and their understanding of the system of animal exploitation as "so vast, so complex, that they despair[ed] of really changing the relationship between [people] and animals."183 A final explanation for this limited public reaction is the long-held belief in the necessity of animal experimentation for medical progress. Between 1950 and 1990, this belief was compatible with public respect for the knowledge of the medical profession that espoused it, and conformed with repeated messages conveyed by the mainstream press. However, it was not supported by good evidence. U.B.C. scientists' commonest evidence - claims that certain medical innovations required experimental animal use - are no more convincing in and of themselves than antivivisectionist claims 1 8 0 Baker, 217. 1 8 1 For an undated CJOR radio editorial by Pat Burns, in which he refers to medical researchers as "sadists," see P. Burns, "Animal Research," undated (ca. 1979), File 18, Box 4, Community Relations fonds, U.B.C.A. 1 8 2 For more on the tendency of modern society to trivialize the animal, see Baker, 216. 1 8 3 G. Woodcock, "Attitudes to Animals (I)," Georgia Straight, 8 January 1982,4. 1 8 4 Even the Province's highly critical 1989 editorial supports the continuation of animal-based medical research, implying its benefits to human health. "Humanity Lost in Animals Labs," Province, 2 May 1989, 22. 40 that these innovations could have come about without the use of animals.183 Much more specific information is required about the exact role animals have played in the advancement of all aspects of medical knowledge, and about non-animal approaches that might have yielded similar results, in order to make an evidence-based judgement between these two possibilities. This is a major undertaking that the academic community has scarcely begun. Furthermore, scientists' tactic of citing historical examples such as the discovery of insulin to justify animal use at U.B.C. more than half a century later is largely irrelevant. The pertinent information - the likelihood that university animal experiments of the period in question might contribute to a significant medical advance - has never been available. An analysis of the clinically relevant knowledge that emanated from U.B.C. animal labs over the past thirty years, perhaps set against the over one million research animals that died at the university during this period,1 8 7 would provide an indication of this likelihood. One of the striking features of the 59 medical articles contained in my three samples of U.B.C.-based research is their lack of apparent clinical relevance; many of them from 1970 and 1985 make no reference to human medical conditions. Thus, despite detailed cost-benefit analyses in other health care sectors, it appears that the medical benefits of animal use have been accepted largely on faith. Recent historians have recognized the impact of antivivisectionists of the 1980s and early 1990s in drawing public attention to the issue of animal experimentation, and some have suggested a link between animal rights activism and the research community's new focus on minimizing pain and maintaining satisfactory housing conditions for experimental animals. According to Finsen and Finsen, "prominent researchers could 1 8 5 For example, Hamilton claimed that "insulin could have been developed from human corpses rather than dogs." C. Gray, "Animal Rights Versus University Rights," Canadian Medical Association Journal 133 (1985): 783. 1 8 6 For an article that suggests the limited role of animals in the advancement of medical knowledge about one specific condition, see P. Beeson, "The Growth of Knowledge about a Disease: Hepatitis," American Journal of Medicine 67 (1979): 366-70. 1 8 7 In 1968, probably about 46,000 laboratory animals died at U.B.C. This represents the total of the "annual census" figures minus the "daily census" figures listed in the 1969 C.C.A.C. assessment. See C . C . A . C , "Animal Care Assessment, University of British Columbia, January 21 and 22, 1969," op. cit. In 1990, U.B.C. researchers were using approximately 50,000 animals per year (A. Priest, "Tyranny of the Highest Species," Sun, 18 May 1991, Dl ) . With the reasonable assumption that the level of animal use stayed relatively constant between 1968 and 1990, it follows that just under one million animals died at the university between 1970 and 1990. 41 maintain that the use of animals posed no moral problems" during the early 1980s, but in 1993, "in light of the attention the animal rights movement has brought to the issue, such 188 a statement would be unthinkable." However, scholars do not appear to have recognized the impact of North American antivivisectionists from the three decades before the late 1970s, except for the role of reformists in pushing for American legislation to regulate laboratory animal use in the years leading up to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966.189 Yet this thesis has shown that Vancouver-based antivivisectionists concerned U.B.C. scientists in the 1950s, 60s and 70s, not only affecting their public discourse, but inducing them to form and maintain an alliance with the S.P.C.A. The resulting agreement that pound dogs would only be used for "acute" experiments no doubt decreased the amount of suffering that these animals would have otherwise experienced,190 caused the postponement of experiments that required "chronic" dogs,191 and probably contributed to scientists' ongoing concerns during the late 1950s and 1960s about the supply of dogs. Also, the lobbying for Canadian legislation to regulate animal experimentation during the mid-1960s by such groups as the Vancouver-based Council for Laboratory Animals probably played a role in the formation of the Canadian Council on Animal Care, which led U.B.C. to alter its institutional structure to reflect a concern for the welfare of laboratory animals. This may have translated into more humane overall treatment of these animals, but more evidence is required to draw this conclusion. In addition to their various possible, probable and definite effects on scientists and laboratory animals, Vancouver antivivisectionists of the pre-animal-rights era hold contemporary significance by illustrating that ever since a significant amount of animal experimentation has taken place in Vancouver, a group of local citizens has challenged it on the basis of its cruelty. For scientists, the history of the local vivisection struggle thus 1 8 8 Finsen and Finsen, 21. 1 8 9 Orlans, In the Name of Science, 44-46. 1 9 0 One of the experiments from the 1955/56 sample of the U.B.C.-generated scientific literature involving the least amount of obvious animal suffering was an "acute" experiment on mongrel dogs. (S. Friedman et al. "'Reflex' Anuria in the Dog," Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 34 (1956): 158-69). 1 9 1 "SPCA Rule Called Blow to Research," Sun, 11 May 1956, 9. 1 9 21 have found no direct evidence for this, but a letter to the editor of Science from 1964 claims: "In the hope of stemming effective legislation, many groups have recently advocated voluntary codes for humane treatment of [laboratory] animals." B. Orlans, "Legislation for Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals," Science 144 (1964): 367-69. 42 3 underlines the enduring nature of their opposition. For antivivisectionists, it provides the inspiring knowledge that forerunners have persistently stood up for the ideals of minimizing and eliminating animal cruelty, and even made some difference, despite facing institutional structures and practices that appeared firmly entrenched. 43 Bibliography A. Primary Sources 1. Archives and Manuscripts Sources Corporate and Personal Property Registry (C.P.P.R.), Ministry of Finance, Government o f British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia Animal Defence and A - V Society of B . C . File, 1927-2003 Society for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals. File, 1953-2003 University of British Columbia Archives ( U . B . C . A . ) , Vancouver, British Columbia Community Relations fonds Faculty of Agriculture fonds Faculty of Medicine fonds Information Services fonds Roy Daniells fonds Sydney M . Friedman fonds University Campus and University Endowment Lands - Maps and Plans Collection Vancouver City Archives ( V . C . A . ) , Vancouver, British Columbia Major Matthews Collection Microfiche Collection Pamphlet Collection Vancouver Office of the City Clerk Records. 2. Newspapers Colonist (Victoria, B.C.) Columbian (New Westminster, B.C. ) Courier (Vancouver, B.C. ) Daily Times (Victoria, B.C. ) Georgia Straight (Vancouver, B.C. ) Globe and Mail Kamloops News (Kamloops, B .C. ) Nanaimo Daily Free Press (Nanaimo, B.C. ) News Herald (Vancouver, B.C. ) North Shore News (North Vancouver, B.C. ) Progress (Chilliwack, B .C. ) Province (Vancouver, B.C. ) Richmond Review (Richmond, B.C. ) Sun (Vancouver, B.C.) Ubyssey (Vancouver, B.C. ) U.B.C. Reports (Vancouver, B.C. ) 44 Vancouver Times (Vancouver, B.C.) Western News (Vancouver, B.C.) 3. Other Serial Publications: Animals' Defender (National Anti-Vivisection Society, Great Britain) Calendar (University of British Columbia) Gallup Report (Gallup Canada Inc.) 4a. Scientific Literature, 1955/56 - Medical (Faculty of Medicine, U.B.C.) Cairns, A. and P. Constantinides. "Endocrine Effects on the Heparin-Induced Lipemia-Clearing Activity (LCA) of Rat Plasma." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 33 (1955): 530-38. Constantinides, P., G. Szasz and M. Darrach. "The Effect of Heparin on the Endogenous Lipemia Produced by Protracted Cortisone Treatment in the Rabbit." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 33 (1955): 226-31. Daniel, E.E. and B.N. Daniel. "Effect of Maturity and Desoxycorticosterone-Induced Hypertension on Tissue Electrolytes." American Journal of Physiology 182 (1955): 567-71. Foulks, J.G. "Homeostatic Adjustment in the Renal Tubular Transport of Inorganic Phosphate in the Dog." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 33 (1955) : 638-50. Friedman, S.M. et al. "'Reflex' Anuria in the Dog." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 34 (1956): 158-69. Friedman, S.M., C.L. Friedman and M. Nakashima. "Observations on the Cardiovascular-Renal Effects of 9a-Chlorohydrocortisone Acetate in the Rat." Endocrinology 57 (1955): 10-16. Friedman, S.M., D.F. Hardwick and J.A.M. Hinke. "The Effect of Pitressin on Sodium Tolerance in Experimental Hypertension." Circulation Research 3 (1955): 490-95. Friedman, S.M., J.A.M. Hinke and D.F. Hardwick. "Sodium Tolerance in Experimental Hypertension." Circulation Research 3 (1955): 297-305. Friedman, S.M., M. Nakashima and C.L. Friedman. "Biphasic Effect of Pitressin on Sodium Tolerance in the Hypertensive Rat." American Journal of Physiology 184 (1956) : 97-103. 45 Friedman, S.M., M . Nakashima and C L . Friedman. "Biphasic Effects of Graded Doses of YiXressm." American Journal of Physiology 184 (1956): 104-8. Friedman, S.M., W.A. Webber and C L . Friedman. "The Effect of Pitressin on the Renal Response to Salt Loading in the Rat." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 34 (1956): 475-80. Kennard, M . "Effect of Bilateral Ablation of Cingulate Area on Behaviour of Cats." Journal of Neurophysiology 18 (1955): 159-69. Kennard, M . "Effect on Temporal Lobe Syndrome of Lesions Elsewhere in the Cerebral Cortex of Monkeys." Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 28 (1955/56): 342-50. Kennard, M . "The Cingulate Gyrus in Relation to Consciousness." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 121 (1955): 34-39. Newsom, S.E. and M . Darrach. " A Comparison of the Effects of Certain Corticosteroids and Related Compounds on the Production of Circulating Hemolytic Antibodies in the Mouse." Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 34 (1956): 1 -5. Paterson, A.R.P. and S.H. Zbarsky. "In vitro Synthesis of Purines by Rat Intestinal Mucosa." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 18 (1955): 441-42. 4b. Scientific Literature, 1955/56 - Non-Medical (Departments of Animal Science, Poultry Science, Zoology, U.B.C.) Biely, J. and B.E. March. "The Nutritive Value of Herring Meals: The Effects of Heat Treatment and Storage Temperature as Related to Oil Content." Poultry Science 34(1955): 1274-79. Hoar, W.S., M.H.A. Keenleyside and R.G. Goodall. "The Effects of Thyroxine and Gonadal Steroids on the Activity of Salmon and Goldfish." Canadian Journal of Zoology 33 (1955): 428-39. Keenleyside, M.H.A. and W.S. Hoar. "Effects of Temperature on the Responses of Young Salmon to Water Currents." Behaviour 7 (1954): 77-87. Kitts, W.D., C B . Bailey and A J . Wood. "The Development of the Digestive Enzyme of the Pig During Its Pre-Weaning Phase of Growth." Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science 36 (1956): 45-58. March, B. and J. Biely. "Fat Studies in Poultry: The Effect of Triton WR-1339 on Tissue Lipid Levels in Cockerels." Poultry Science 34 (1955): 293-95. 46 March, B.E., J. Biely and S.P. Touchburn. "The Composition of the Breeder Diet and Blood Clotting in Dams and Chicks." Poultry Science 34 (1955): 1097-1100. Stringer, G.E. and W.S. Hoar. "Aggressive Behavior in Underyearling Kamloops Trout." Canadian Journal of Zoology 33 (1955): 148-60. 5a. Scientific Literature, 1968-71 - Medical (Faculty of Medicine, U.B.C.) Erikson, L.B. and J.A. Wada. "Effect of Lesions in the Temporal Lobe and Rhinencephalon on Reproductive Function in Adult Female Rhesus Monkeys." Fertility and Sterility 21 (1970): 434-54. Fast, D.K. et al. "The Effect of Growth Hormone on DNA Synthesis in Rat Spleen." Experimental Cell Research 62 (1970): 441-46. Graystone, P. et al. "The Induced Wave Activity of the Olfactory Bulbs of Toads, Iguanas and Snakes." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 37 (1970): 493-502. Guignard, J. and S.M. Friedman. "Intraluminal Pressure and Ionic Distribution in the Tail Artery of Rats." Circulation Research 27 (1970): 505-12. Harwood, J.P. and H.D. Sanders. "The Effect of Temperature on the Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Isolated Cerebral Cortex of the Cat." Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 47 (1969): 747-53. Okamoto, K. and J.H. Quastel. "Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Uptake of Ions and Water by Slices of Rat Brain in vitro." Biochemical Journal 120 (1970): 37-47. Okamoto, K. and J.H. Quastel. "Water Uptake and Energy Metabolism in Brain Slices from the Rat." Biochemical Journal 120 (1970): 25-36. Stich, H.F. and R.H.C. San. "DNA Repair and Chromatid Anomalies in Mammalian Cells Exposed to 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide." Mutation Research 10 (1970): 389-404. Thomson, M.J. , M.R. Garland and J.F. Richards. "Metabolic Effects of Nucleosides in Rat Thymus Cells In Vitro." Journal of Cellular Physiology 77 (1970): 17-30. Wada, J.A. and T. Asakura. "Circadian Alteration of Audiogenic Seizure Susceptibility in Rats." Experimental Neurology 29 (1970): 211-14. Wada, J.A. et al. "Inferior Colliculus Lesion and Audiogenic Seizure Susceptibility." Experimental Neurology 28 (1970): 326-32. 47 Wada. J .A. et al. 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