UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Functions of western loanwords in Japanese newspaper articles Shimada, Maiko 2003

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_2004-0003.pdf [ 6.23MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0099743.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099743-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099743-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099743-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099743-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099743-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099743-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

FUNCTIONS OF WESTERN LOANWORDS IN JAPANESE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES by M A I K O SHIMADA B.A., Sophia University, 1999 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 2003 © Maiko Shimada, 2003 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A~S)4\A SJud^£ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 10/31/03 DE-6 (2/88) Abstract Previous studies on Western loanwords in Japanese showed that they account for approximately 10 percent of the Japanese lexicon and their number is continuing to grow. This thesis examined the functions of Western loanwords in the language of newspaper articles. 3,844 occurrences of loanwords were collected from four consecutive issues of Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition published in April 2001 and classified into four main functional categories. The four main functional categories were "technical terms," "lexical-gap-fillers," "elevating the images of the referents," and "replacing the native vocabulary items." "Technical terms" were terminologies used specifically in certain fields such as sports, politics, medicine, etc., regardless of their familiarity among the general public. "Lexical-gap-fillers" could be divided into two types: those which denoted novel objects or concepts ("true LGFs") and those which filled lexical gaps by having either broader or more specific meanings than native terms ("semi-LGFs"). The loanwords in the "elevating the images of the referents" function could either have stylistic effects or a euphemistic role depending on the connotations of native equivalents. If a loanword replaced the native equivalent with a neutral connotation, it created a better image by adding stylishness, prestige, casualness, etc. On the other hand, i f the native term had negative connotation, then the loanword functioned as a euphemism to conceal the a negativity. "Replacing native equivalents" could be divided into three stages according to the degrees of replacement. The loanwords in the earliest stage functioned as i i synonyms of the native equivalents. The next stage included loanwords that are used more commonly than their native counterparts in everyday language. The loanwords in the most advanced stage have almost completely replaced the native terms, which have become obsolete. The quantitative analysis of the above functions showed that "lexical-gap-fillers" was the most prevalent function (45.08%). This result was contradictory to the result from Takashi's (1990a) quantitative study on functions of English loanwords in advertisement texts, which revealed that the main function was to create better images of referents. Thus, this thesis concluded that the most prominent function of loanwords is different depending on text styles and purposes. i i i Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vii List of Figures vi i i Acknowledgements ix C H A P T E R 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Introduction 1 C H A P T E R 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8 2.1 Factors Triggering the Spread of Western Loanwords 8 2.1.1 Psychological Factors 8 2.1.2 Historical Factors 10 2.1.3 Educational Factors 13 2.1.4 Social Factors 15 2.2 Review of Functions of Western loanwords 16 2.2.1 Technical Terms 17 2.2.2 Filling Lexical Gaps 19 2.2.3 Western/Japanese Differentiation 21 2.2.4 Creating a Modern, Sophisticated, or Exotic Atmosphere 22 iv 2.2.5 Euphemisms 24 2.2.6 Summary 28 C H A P T E R 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y 30 3.1 Data Description 30 3.1.1 Reasons for the Choice of Data 30 3.1.2 Collection of Loanword Samples 32 3.2 Categorizing Procedures 35 3.2.1 Criteria for Categorization 37 C H A P T E R 4 DATA PRESENTATION A N D ANALYSIS 40 4.1 Loanwords as Technical Terms 40 4.1.1 The Dominance of English as the Source Language 42 4.2 Lexical-gap-fillers 45 4.2.1 True Lexical-gap-fillers 45 4.2.2 Semi-lexical-gap-fillers 48 Broader Range of Meaning 49 Providing Finer Shade of Meaning 60 4.3 Elevating the Images of the Referents 69 4.3.1 Loanwords With Stylistic Effects 69 4.3.2 Loanwords as Euphemisms 73 v 4.3.3 Comparisons Between Loanwords With Stylistic Effect and Euphemisms 77 4.4 Replacing Native Vocabulary Items 79 4.4.1 Synonyms 79 4.4.2 Loanwords More Commonly Used Than their Japanese Equivalents 80 4.4.3 Loanwords With Obsolete Native Equivalents 82 4.4.4 The Degree of Loanword Dominance 86 4.5 Summary 88 C H A P T E R 5 CONCLUSIONS 94 5.1 Summary of Findings 94 5.2 Suggestions for Further Studies 96 Reference List 98 Appendices 104 Appendix A List of "Technical Terms" 104 Appendix B List of "True Lexical-Gap-Fillers" 119 Appendix C List of Loanwords With Stylistic Effects 140 Appendix D List of Synonymous Loanwords 151 Appendix E List of More Commonly Used Loanwords 155 vi List of Tables Table 1. The Composition of the Contemporary Japanese Lexicon 3 Table 2. The Sections of the Four Issues of The Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition 34 Table 3. List of "Semi-Lexical-Gap-Fillers" With Broader Range of Meaning 54 Table 4. List of "Semi-Lexical-Gap-Fillers" With Finer Shades of Meaning 63 Table 5. List of Loanwords as Euphemisms 74 Table 6. List of Loanwords Whose Japanese Equivalents are Old-fashioned 83 Table 7. The Numbers and Percentages of Examined Loanwords in Each Functional Category 89 Table 8. The Number and Percentage of English Loanwords in Each Functional Category (from Takashi 1990a) 91 vn List of Figures Figure 1. The Meaning Range of the Loanword Oopun(-suru) 50 Figure 2. The Meaning Range of the Loanword Gyararii 51 Figure 3. The Image-Elevating Effect of Loanwords With Stylistic Effect and Euphemisms 78 Figure 4. The Relationships Between the Three Sub-categories in the Replacement Process 87 Figure 5. The Proportion of Functional Categories in Terms of Loanword Tokens and Loanword Types 90 viii Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my M . A . thesis committee members: Drs. Sharalyn Orbaugh, Ross King, and Joshua Mostow, for their valuable comments and suggestions. I am especially indebted to my supervisor, Dr. Sharalyn Orbaugh, whose insightful feedbacks and constant encouragement helped me to complete this study. I would also like to thank Dr. Duan Duan L i , who chaired and organized my oral defense. I was very fortunate to have had a great deal of emotional support from my friends throughout my graduate study. I would like to thank Peter and Natsuko, whose kindness and encouragement have helped me deal with the time of uncertainty. Very special thanks go to my dearest friend, Viviane, whose humour always helped me to lighten up. Her constant emotional support was the main source of encouragement and comfort. Last but not least, my deepest gratitude goes to my family. M y parents, who have always trusted and respected my decisions, and have supported me both emotionally and financially. M y sister, for being the best sister and the best friend. M y brother and his family, for being a constant source of cheerfulness. A l l I have accomplished would have been impossible without their love and support, and I thank them for just being there. ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The Japanese language has built its lexicon by borrowing foreign words from various languages throughout its history. Earlier in history, Japanese imported numerous words from Chinese, and in more recent years, from European languages. Such adoption of foreign words is evident in the composition of the Japanese lexicon. The Japanese lexicon can be divided into three categories (Sakagami 2000, 13; Shibatani 1990, 142): (1) wago 'Japanese words,' (2) kango 'Chinese words,' and (3) gairaigo, literally 'foreign coming words' (Shibatani 1990, 142). Wago refers to the native vocabulary. Kango are words of Chinese origin, which were borrowed continuously into the Japanese language from the end of the fourth century (Loveday 1986, 24; Shibatani 1990, 145) until the Edo period (1603-1868) (Miyaji 1988, 1020). Kango also include wasei kango 'Japan-made kango,' i.e. kango coined in Japan, which were created as translations of words from European languages1 (Shibatani 1990 145; Suzuki 1993, 86). Gairaigo basically refers to loanwords 1 Wasei kango were made to provide translations of Dutch words adopted through Japan's contact with the Netherlands during the Edo period. However, the majority of wasei kango were created after the Meiji Restoration (1868) when Japan ended the isolation period. Japanese people coined kango to designate newly introduced Western ideas and objects (Miyaji 1988, 1020-1021; Shibatani 1990, 145). Nowadays, coining kango still remains as a way to designate new ideas or objects, but foreign words tend to be borrowed by "directly representing just the sounds using katakana" (Shibatani 1990, 150). 1 from Western languages acquired through Japan's contact with Western nations since the mid-sixteenth century.2 Kongo are written in kanji (Chinese characters)3 and gairaigo are mostly written in katakana.4 The National Institute for Japanese Language has conducted two extensive studies on the Japanese lexicon in different domains. One study examined the vocabulary of ninety different magazines published in 1956 (National Institute for Japanese Language 1964), and the other investigated that of the morning and the evening editions of three widely circulated newspapers published in 1966 (National Institute for Japanese Language 1971). In comparison with these studies that used written Japanese as the data, Nomoto et al. (1980) examined the vocabulary of spoken Japanese. Their study examined forty-two hours of tape-recorded conversations of seven speakers, who were either linguists or Japanese language educators from the Tokyo area. The results from the three studies are summarized in Table 1. 2 For a full discussion of the definition of gairaigo, see Ishino (1983), Ishiwata (1985), and Suzuki (1981). 3 There are four different writing systems in Japanese: (1) kanji, (2) hiragana, (3) katakana, and (4) romaji. Kanji are pictographs and ideographs, representing meaning. Hiragana and katakana are phonemic syllabaries. Romaji is the Latin alphabet, which is used to write acronyms such as OL (Office Lady, 'office girl') (Shibatani 1990, 129). 4 Some gairaigo that were borrowed during the early days of linguistic contact with the Western languages such as Portuguese-derived tabako 'tabaco (cigarette)' and kappa 'capa (raincoat)' are not often written in katakana. They have been integrated into the Japanese language and "are losing their identity as foreign words in the Japanese writing system" (Sakagami 2000, 20). 3 Table 1. The Composition of the Contemporary Japanese Lexicon %of Types of Data (Source) % of Wago % of Kango Gairaigo (Western loanwords) %of Hybrids8 90 different magazines published in 1956 36.7 47.5 9.8 6.0 (NIJL b 1964, 61) 3 different newspapers published in 1966° 38.8 44.4 12.0 4.8 (NIJL b 1971, 18) Conversations of linguists and Japanese language specialists 46.9 40.0 10.1 3.0 (Nomoto et al. 1980, 72) A hybrid refers to a word that is a combination of wago, kango, and/or gairaigo (Western loanwords), e.g. pen-saki 'a nib (of a pen),' where pen 'pen' is a gairaigo from English and saki 'tip' is a wago. National Institute for Japanese Language. ° The percentages are modified based on the study by National Institute for Japanese Language (1971, 18). The original percentages of wago, kango, gairaigo, and hybrids were smaller because the total included other categories such as proper nouns and numbers. In order to make a consistent comparison with the other two studies, which exclude proper nouns and numbers from the total, the researcher calculated the proportions (i.e. percentages) of wago, kango, gairaigo, and hybrids from the total of the occurrences of the four categories. Table 1 shows that more than 40 percent of the Japanese lexicon is of Chinese origin, and the proportion of native words, i.e. wago, is smaller than that of kango in written Japanese. On the other hand, the proportion of wago is larger than that of kango in spoken data. The proportion of Western loanwords varies slightly from one type of data to another, but these percentages indicate that Western loanwords account for approximately 10 percent5 of the modern Japanese lexicon. The National Institute for Japanese Language (1964, 64) has also examined the source languages of Western loanwords. The results show that English was the most dominant, accounting for up to 80.8 percent of the total Western loanwords. Although Western loanwords only comprise approximately 10 percent of the whole Japanese lexicon, their number is continuously increasing. Nomura (1982) examined the entries of the 1980 edition of Gendaiyogo no Kiso Chishiki, which is a dictionary designed to introduce and define words that have recently entered the lexicon. His results showed that 57.5 percent of new words were Western loanwords. On the other hand, the percentage of kango was only 29.0 percent. These results clearly indicate that Western loanwords are increasing at such a rapid rate that they may cause a great change in the composition of the Japanese lexicon in the future. In order to understand the motivations behind the influx of Western loanwords, many researchers have suggested various kinds of functions loanwords perform in the contemporary Japanese language. Although there are differences in how each scholar recognizes the functions, the following five functions were commonly pointed out by various scholars. First, Western loanwords function as technical terms, as many technical terminologies 5 The average of Western loanwords' percentages from the three studies presented in Table 1 is 10.63 percent. are borrowed directly from European languages (Honna 1995; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Ono 1993; Takashi 1990a; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979). The most noticeable examples are computer related terms such as intaanetto 'internet' and modemu 'modem.' Second, they may fill lexical gaps that are left by the native vocabulary (i.e., wago and kango6) (Hoffer 1990; Honna 1995; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Nagata and Nakagawa 1998; Ono 1993; Takashi 1990a; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979). They are words that designate an object, a concept, a phenomenon, etc., that did not exist in Japan previously, e.g. sukaato 'skirt' and puraibashii 'privacy.' Third, Western loanwords are sometimes used to differentiate a Western variety from a Japanese one (Hoffer 1990; Honna 1995; Ono 1993; Sakagami 2000). For example, the word hoteru 'hotel' was borrowed to refer to a Western-style hotel as opposed to ryokan 'hotel,' which designates a Japanese-style hotel (Ono 1993, 65). Fourth, many Western loanwords are used instead of native equivalents to create a fashionable, modern and sophisticated atmosphere (Haarmann 1986b; Hoffer 1990; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Ono 1993; Sakagami 2000; Takashi 1990a; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979). This function is used frequently in advertisements and youth culture in order to appeal to the audience (Haarmann 1986b, 109; Takashi 1990a, 89-92). Fifth, loanwords sometimes function as euphemisms because they conceal the negative connotations that the native 6 Although kango (apart from wasei kango) are borrowings from Chinese, this study does not consider them as loanwords since they are fully assimilated into the modern Japanese language. equivalents carry (Azuma 1996; Hoffer 1990; Honna 1995; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Ono 1993; Sakagami 2000; Takashi 1990a; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979). For example, the loanword meido, 'maid,' is used instead of the native term jochii, 'maid,' because even though both words mean "maid" the loanword has fewer negative connotations than the native word (Hoffer 1990, 14). Although the five functions presented above have been pointed out by many researchers, Takashi's study (1990a) is the only one that investigated the functions of Western loanwords using empirical data. Takashi conducted a quantitative examination of the Western loanword usages of advertisement texts. Her results showed that the most prevalent function of Western loanwords in advertisement texts is to create a fashionable and sophisticated atmosphere. Takashi's (1990a) study is valuable because it provided quantitative results of how Western loanwords are used in a certain type of language sample, i.e. advertisement texts. However, her results do not reflect loanword usages in other types of texts. That is, creating a fashionable and sophisticated atmosphere may be the most dominant function in the language of advertisement texts, but another function may be the most prevalent in a different type of text. Therefore, this study examines the Western loanword usages in newspaper articles and investigates which of their functions is the most prevalent in the language of newspaper articles. By doing so, this study provides a new dimension on how Western loanwords are used and contributes to a broader picture of Western loanwords in the Japanese language today. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Section 2.1 of this chapter reviews various factors that trigger the influx of loanwords, namely, psychological (Section 2.1.1), historical (Section 2.1.2), educational (Section 2.1.3), and social factors (Section 2.1.4). Section 2.2 presents a review of relevant scholarship on five common functions of Western loanwords. The five functions discussed in this section are technical terms (Section 2.2.1), filling lexical gaps (Section 2.2.2), Western/Japanese differentiation (Section 2.2.3), creating a modern, sophisticated, or exotic atmosphere (Section 2.2.4), and euphemisms (Section 2.2.5). 2.1 Factors Triggering the Spread of Western Loanwords 2.1.1 Psychological Factors Some researchers have argued that there are psychological factors behind the massive adoption of Western loanwords. Miller (1967) states that the Japanese language is highly hospitable to loanwords, having easily absorbed words from the foreign languages with which it has come into contact. He remarks on the positive attitude of upper class Japanese people towards Chinese loanwords in ancient times: 8 9 In the Heian period the last word of praise for virtually anything was to describe it as ima meku "having a modern air." This expression neatly sums up much of the traditional upper-class Japanese approach to the new and the foreign, and goes far toward helping to explain the massive additions of loanwords which the language has generally welcomed. (Miller 1967, 236-237) When Japan came in contact with European languages starting from the mid-sixteenth century, "the Japanese upper classes reacted with their customary enthusiasm for the new and the different" (Miller 1967, 240). Although the number of new Western loanwords significantly decreased from the mid 1930s to the end of World War II due to the government's restriction of the "language of the enemies," i.e. English (Yoshizawa, Ishino, and Egawa 1984), before and since that time the Japanese people have always been eagerly adopting foreign words to enrich their vocabulary. Yazaki (1964, 18-19) claims that the current abundance of Western loanwords is the result of a blind admiration towards Western civilization that has accelerated since the end of World War II. The spread of English language education in schools has motivated Japanese people to use newly learned English elements in Japanese to display their knowledge of the language. Even i f a person does not understand the meaning of an English word used in conversation, the person may act as though he/she understands its meaning from the fear of showing his/her lack of knowledge or education. Yazaki argues that this attitude promotes the borrowing process. Ishiwata (1985, 109), however, disagrees with Yazaki's view of the Japanese admiration 10 for the West. He states that blind admiration towards Western civilization ended with the current generation of middle-aged people, and that the use of Western loanwords among the younger generation is not directly associated with their feelings towards the West. Ishiwata claims that young people today welcome loanwords because they are adjusting to a Japanese society which is becoming more and more internationalised. 2.1.2 Historical Factors Honna (1995, 55-56) argues that the spread of English loanwords after World War II is a result of the restriction of kanji (Chinese characters) that occurred during the Allied Occupation (1945-1952). As a part of the democratically oriented reforms carried out under the guidance of the Occupation authorities, the United States Education Mission (USEM) recommended that kanji be abolished and replaced by romaji.7 The Americans perceived kanji as "the root of many evils in Japan, including some related to the war" (Gottlieb 1995, 121). They believed that ordinary Japanese people resisted fanatically during the war partly because they were cut off from information about the world situation reported in the press due to their inability to read kanji. Thus, the simplification of written language was vital for the dissemination of democracy (Gottlieb 1995, 122-123). On the Japanese side, there was both support and opposition to the recommendation 7 For detailed account of the script reform during the Occupation, see Unger (1996). 11 made by the U S E M . Reformers, who had promoted kana syllabaries or romaji as the script of Japanese language since the Meiji period, now had strong support from the Occupation authorities to realize their idea. On the other side, conservatives opposed the abolition of kanji arguing that kanji is an important part of Japanese tradition. Although the intellectual climate of the immediate postwar period was in favour of the reformers, the USEM's recommendation was not adopted. The Japanese Education Committee, which had been set up by the Ministry of Education at the request of the Occupation authorities, decided that kanji would continue to be used together with hiragana and katakana but that the number of kanji would be limited. Consequently, the Toyo Kanjihyd (List of Characters for Interim Use), which consisted of 1,850 kanji, was accepted by the National Language Council in November 1946. The List restricted the number of kanji used not only in school education but also in the print media.8 Honna argues that the restriction of kanji in the immediate postwar period had some drawbacks: This policy was definitely instrumental in weakening the expressive power of kanji to respond to new experiences Japanese people were going through as the nation was exposed to new products, new concepts, new ways of life, and new scientific discoveries. (Honna 1995, 56) The Japanese people at the time, however, welcomed the policy since the social climate was "one of revulsion from the xenophobia and reactionary conservatism and ultranationalism of the 8 For a full discussion on kanji restriction policies, see Gottlieb 1995. 12 war period" and the people yearned for "things that were modern and western and rational" (Gottlieb 1995, 124). Thus, Japanese people turned to English-derived loanwords as the primary linguistic source for new words to describe new products and concepts imported from Western countries. Suzuki (1990, 214) suggests that this policy was based on the idea that, i f one can pronounce words, comprehension wil l automatically follow. That is, it is more practical to use phonetic syllabary such as hiragana and katakana than kanji, because hiragana and katakana have only fifty letters each whereas the number of kanji is much larger and therefore requires more time for acquisition. This notion that pronounceability equals comprehension has led to the extensive use of Western loanwords written in the katakana syllabary as Japanese people welcomed them as replacements for Sino-Japanese words (i.e. kango). Ishino (1983, 49-50) disagrees on the influence that kanji policy during the Occupation period has had on the spread of Western loanwords. He argues that the influx of Western loanwords had already began before World War II, and sees this phenomenon as a necessary process accompanying Japan's modernization and Westernization after the Meiji Restoration (1868). In the Meiji period (1868-1912), words from European languages were transferred as loan translations or loan renditions,9 but gradually more words began to enter the Japanese 9 When "the model is reproduced exactly, element by element," (Weinreich 1974, 51) the procedure is called "loan translation". For example, Huguenot French avoir droit 'to have, right' after German recht haben 13 vocabulary without being translated (Ishino 1983, 50). Another factor that triggered the influx of Western loanwords was the shift from Classical Chinese studies to Western studies as the main academic discipline during the Meiji period (Ishino 1983, 51). Before the Meiji Restoration, the study of Classical Chinese was an essential part of education for intellectuals, but it was replaced by academic studies based on Western cultures after 1868. The number of individuals who had a thorough enough knowledge of Classical Chinese to create loan translations decreased, and the adoption of Western words through loan translations and loan renditions decreased commensurately. 2.1.3 Educational Factors After World War II, English education became virtually compulsory in secondary schools although it was officially considered an elective subject.10 This change in English language education has helped to increase the number of Western loanwords, particularly those from English (Honna 1995, 66-61; Ishino 1983, 51-52). Although the English language program in secondary schools has failed to produce fluent English speakers, Japanese people 'right, to have' (Weinreich 1974, 51). Examples from Japanese are ku-ko 'air-port,' kaizoku-ban 'pirated-edition' and shojo-kokai 'virgin-voyage' (Sakagami 2000, 73). "Loan rendition" is a procedure in which "the model compound only furnishes a general hint for the reproduction" (Weinreich 1974, 51). Haugen (1972) considers this type as a part of "loan translation." Examples are German Wolkenkratzer 'cloud scraper,' French grate-ciel 'scrape sky,' Spanish rascacielos 'scrape skies,' all modeled on English 'skyscraper' (Haugen 1972, 84), and German Halb-insel 'half-island' after Latin paen-insula 'almost-island' (Weinreich 1974, 51). Japanese examples are ma-ten-ro 'magic-sky-tower' after English 'skyscraper,' and sei-sho 'holy book' meaning 'bible' (Sakagami 2000, 72). 1 0 Yuriko Otsuka, "Eigo (English)," in Sekai daihyakka jiten (World encyclopedia), 1988 ed. 14 have accumulated an extensive linguistic knowledge of the language (Honna 1995, 60). Ishino (1983, 52) argues that knowledge of English has made Japanese people less reluctant to accept Western loanwords because they have the means to understand the meaning of most Western loanwords, which are usually derived from English. Suzuki (1990, 216-217) argues that the extensive knowledge of English not only accelerated the adoption of Western loanwords, but also caused semantic discrepancies. He explains that the process of adopting an English word into Japanese is not done directly, but in a two-step process: the English word is translated into a native Japanese word (usually a Sino-Japanese word), and then replaced by a loanword to avoid the learning difficulties associated with words written in kanji. For example, niizu 'needs' is not treated as a direct borrowing of an English word "needs" but as a replacement of Sino-Japanese words such as juyd 'a demand,' and yokyu 'a request.' Thus, there are alterations in the meaning and usage of Western loanwords that do not exist in the original language. Furthermore, this two-step process allows people to use a loanword without fully understanding the meaning of the word in its original tongue, resulting in a semantically ambiguous loanword (Suzuki 1990, 216). Shibata (1993, 17-18) also points out that there is semantic ambiguity in Western loanwords due to the inconsistency in individual understanding of their meanings. 15 2.1.4 Social Factors Accessibility to information is another important factor in the decrease of loan translations and loan renditions (Ishino 1983, 52). Today, advances in technology have increased the speed and amount of information that we can access. Information is exchanged between individuals all over the world instantly, so that there is no time available to translate borrowed words into native words. Ishino (1983, 52) says that this is especially true in journalism, where there is much information but only a limited amount of time to process the information into news articles. In these cases, loan translation is not a good choice as there is no time to standardize the loan translation across media. Thus, the simplest way is the direct borrowing method, in which the word is transcribed into katakana syllabary and its explanation is added, the first time it is introduced into Japanese. This is because katakana syllabary "gives any individual the ability and freedom to write an English word in native script, without having to assign or learn characters for it, nor know its spelling in the original" (Kay 1995, 72). Honna (1995, 52) states that Japanese speakers do not expect direct borrowings in technical fields to be translated into Japanese, although the meanings of words transcribed in katakana are more difficult to grasp compared to loan translations, where a foreign word is transferred into kanji to fit the original meaning. Since the lingua franca of the technical field is English, the availability of common vocabulary helps Japanese people to exchange 16 information as well as to compete and cooperate internationally (Kay 1995, 74). The four factors discussed above are all intertwined and, at the same time, all rooted in the fact that the Japanese people have always had a positive attitude towards the new and the foreign. This positive attitude, together with the pressure from the Western nations to become industrialised, caused the shift from Classical Chinese studies to Western studies as the main academic discipline during the Meiji period. After World War II, the Japanese people's preference for the new and foreign was accelerated by the revulsion against extreme conservatism and ultranationalism of the war period and such a trend brought about the mandatory English language education and the kanji restriction policy during the Occupation period. The increase in the speed and amount of accessible information can be seen as a universal phenomenon in the modern world, but as Ishino (1983, 51-52) argues, Japanese people could not have readily accepted Western loanwords directly at the current rate i f they had not accumulated an extensive knowledge of English through English language programs in schools. Thus, all four factors are related to each other and all factors are necessary to explain the abundance of Western loanwords in the Japanese language today. 2.2 Review of Functions of Western loanwords Many researchers (e.g. Honna 1995; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Sakagami 2000; Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979) have investigated the functions that Western 17 loanwords play in modern Japanese. The review of functions wil l provide more practical reasons why so many Western loanwords are used in the Japanese language. 2.2.1 Technical Terms Takashi (1990a, 1990b, 1992) examined 5,556 Western loanword tokens 1 1 from television commercials and print advertisements in newspapers and magazines. In her study, Takashi divides loanwords that lack native equivalents into two functional categories, namely "lexical-gap-filler" and "technical term," based on the fields those loanwords are related to. "Lexical-gap-filler" includes words related to sports, music, fashion, and home life. The examples are basukettobooru 'basketball,' piano 'piano,' sukaato 'skirt,' and koohii 'coffee.' On the other hand, "technical term" represents loanwords in the fields of medicine, science and modern technology. The examples of those are furoppii disuku 'floppy disk' and dejitaru torakkingu 'digital tracking' (Takashi 1990a, 81). In his research for the National Institute for Japanese Language (National Institute for Japanese Language 1981), Miyajima argues that the distinction between technical terms and everyday vocabulary depends on how familiar a word is to the majority of the population. From this perspective, Takashi's criteria for the distinction is questionable because, as Honna (1995, 52) points out, not only specialists but also amateurs are quick to accept technical terms, 1 1 Takashi (Takashi 1990a, 89) uses "loan tokens" to describe "the total number of occurrence of loans." "Loan tokens" is used in contrast to "loan types" which refers to "the number of different loanwords." 18 especially those from the computer industry such as hakkaa 'hacker' and nettowaakingu 'networking.' The fact that loanwords such as furoppii disuku and dejitaru torakkingu have appeared in advertisements indicates the availability of technical terms to non-specialists since the advertisements are aimed at the general public. The lines between functions are not always easy to draw and some loanwords have more than one function (Loveday 1996, 201-202; Ono 1993, 69; Sakagami 2000, 232-233; Takashi 1990a, 82). The border between loanwords' functions as technical terms and fillers of lexical gaps can be indefinite. For example, Ishiwata (1985, 100-101) classifies pureeto tekutonikusu 'plate tectonics' as a technical term, but Yoshizawa and Ishiwata (1979, vii) consider it to have been borrowed out of the necessity to fill a lexical gap. Ishiwata (1985, 100) explains that in present-day Japan, it is impossible for technical terms to remain solely in the language of specialists because the society depends on advanced scientific technology and information is a commodity. For example, i f an earthquake hits a part of Japan, the technical terms of geology such as pureeto tekutonikusu 'plate tectonics' are used in newspapers and magazines to explain how an earthquake occurs. In Japanese society today, technical terms easily enter everyday vocabulary, just as technical information is available to the majority of the population through the media. 19 2.2.2 Filling Lexical Gaps Borrowing a foreign word out of the necessity to fill a lexical gap is a function that is widely recognized by researchers (Bloomfield 1933; Honna 1995; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Kunihiro 1981; Loveday 1996; Ono 1993; Stanlaw 1982; Takashi 1990a, 1990b; Weinreich 1974). Those words are borrowed to "name imported things or ideas which did not exist in Japan or Japanese culture previously" (Kay 1995, 74). Some examples of this type are puraibashii 'privacy' (Kay 1995, 74), zukkiini 'zucchini' (Ishiwata 1985, 87), sooru fuudo 'soul food' (Honna 1995, 53), rokkunrooru 'rock'n'roll' (Ono 1993, 64), bataa 'butter,' chiizu 'cheese,' and kurakkaa 'cracker' (Kunihiro 1981, 9). These words tend to be borrowed directly because "using ready-made designations is more economical than describing things afresh" (Weinreich 1963, 57). Some loanwords are adopted because they have a wider range of meaning than the native words (Ono 1993, 65) or they help to distinguish different shades of meaning (Ishiwata 1985, 98-99; Sakagami 2000, 146 et seq.). For example, the loanword sutaa 'star' is linguistically convenient as it semantically includes all of the four native terms of similar meaning: ninki-haiyii 'popular actor,' ninki-joyu 'popular actress,' ninki-kashu 'popular singer,' and ninkimono 'popular person' (Ono 1993, 65). In other instances, the loanwords are used because there are subtle differences between the referent of a loanword and that of a native word. 20 Sakagami (2000, 160 et seq.) compared the usages of the loanwords biifu 'beef and chikin 'chicken' and their native terms gyuniku 'beef and toriniku 'chicken' respectively, and found that these loanwords "refer to food, cooked food or food sold as ready to eat (Sakagami 2000, 161) as in roosuto biifu 'roast beef On the other hand, the native Japanese terms denoted unprepared food or the name of a traditional Japanese dish such as toriniku iri kayu 'rice gruel mixed with chicken.' Furthermore, Loveday (1996, 85-86) suggests that loanwords provide more specific classifications under a native superordinate term such as kutsu 'shoes.' For instance, the loanwords sandaru 'sandals' and buutsu 'boots' distinguish one type of shoes from another, but they are both generally referred to as kutsu. Loveday (1996) also suggests that "synonymous borrowings" such as sutoroberii 'strawberry' and uedingu 'wedding' are integrated despite the availability of the native encodings because the loanwords' referents are "westernized versions or appear in westernized contexts in Japanese culture" (Loveday 1996, 83). He points out that these loanwords are employed in compounds as in sutoroberii sheeku 'strawberry shake,' uedingu doresu 'wedding dress,' and uedingu keeki 'wedding cake.' These loanwords tend to be employed only in compounds because their fundamental concepts are already encoded in Japanese. Hence, raw strawberries are always called ichigo 'strawberry,' and when a person refers to a marriage ceremony it is called kekkon-shiki 'wedding.' Loveday relates this phenomenon to the 21 westernization of Japanese culture: This folk-linguistic patterning seems to suggest that the westernized referents of such borrowings are interpreted only as modifications of the basic concept, which is natively encoded. In other words, a certain portion of westernization in Japan is regarded as merely material transformation. (Loveday 1996, 83) 2.2.3 Western/Japanese Differentiation In modern Japanese language, lexical duality exists to distinguish a Western variety from a Japanese one. That is, despite the existence of a native term, a loanword that has the same meaning is often adopted to designate a Western version of a Japanese item (Honna 1995; Kabashima 1981; Kunihiro 1981; Loveday 1996; Ono 1993; Sakagami 2000; Sonoda 1975). For example, the loanword hoteru 'hotel' refers to a Western-style hotel with Western-style rooms and services, but the native term ryokan 'hotel' represents a Japanese-style hotel or inn with traditional Japanese-style rooms, dinners, and most frequently, a public hot spring bath (Ono 1993, 65). Loveday (1996, 82) argues that these pairs reflect the Westernization of Japanese culture or life-style. He points out that the native term and Western loanword pairs divide the two cultural worlds of modern Japan and that this material and lexical duality co-exist instead of conflicting with each other. In some cases, the referents of Western loanwords have come to be more common than their native counterpart in everyday life, and thus the use of Western 22 loanwords is more frequent. For instance, Japanese people nowadays use pen 'pen' instead of fude 'brush' as a writing instrument and similarly have a sutoobu 'stove' 1 2 instead of a hibachi 'charcoal brazier' for heating rooms. Western units of measurements, such as kiromeetoru 'kilometre' and rittoru 'litre,' are also replacing the traditional Japanese terms ri (3.93 kilometres) and sho (1.8 litres) respectively (Loveday 1996, 82). 2.2.4 Creating a Modern, Sophisticated, or Exotic Atmosphere In some cases Western loanwords are preferred over the native equivalents to create a modern and sophisticated atmosphere (Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Kunihiro 1981; Ono 1993; Sakagami 2000; Stanlaw 1987, 1988; Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992; Yoshizawa and Ishiwata 1979). As Sakagami (2000, 231) explains, these loanwords "create an elevated level of speech or writing by adding a sense of prestige, status, flair, or glamour in order to make the speech cosmopolitan and fashionable." Yanabu (1976, 24-25) makes an interesting remark on the attractiveness of a word that cannot be replaced by a different word with the same referent. He claims that a word is like a beautiful jewel case that fascinates people, as they believe that something precious and beautiful is inside the case. Thus, a loanword attracts people because they believe that there is a profound meaning attached to it. This stylistic use of Western loanwords is prominent in advertisements and product names (Kay 1995; Ono 1993; Stanlaw 1 2 The loanword sutoobu derives from English word 'stove,' but it does not mean a cooking device. When used as a loanword in Japanese, it refers to a room heater. 23 1987, 1988; Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992). For instance, sports drinks that are sold primarily for the domestic Japanese market bear English names such as ' N C A A ' and Pokari Suetto 'Pocari Sweat' in order to appeal to the consumers (Ishiwata 1985, 92). Takashi (1990a, 1990b, 1992) calls this type of loanwords "special-effect-givers." In the previously mentioned quantitative study of Western loanwords in advertising texts, Takashi found that 45.1 percent of 5,556 loanwords examined were "special-effect-givers." The examples are sukin-kea 'skin-care,' puresutiiji-na 'prestigious,' and herushii 'healthy' (Takashi 1990a, 90). Takashi's findings confirm Haarmann's (1984, 1986a, 1989) conclusion that the main purpose of the use of Western loanwords in advertisements is not to facilitate communication, but to appeal to the emotion of audiences who desire to become members of a cosmopolitan society. However, Sakagami (2000, 245-247) observes that some loanwords lose their stylistic value as they become too familiar to the Japanese people. She compares the usages of the established loanword sarariiman 'salaried man' and the more recent borrowing bijinesuman 'business man' across several magazine articles and concludes that sarariiman has lost the stylistic value that it had when the term was new to Japanese society. In her data, sarariiman was used "to describe life-weary middle-aged white-collar workers who did not have bright futures" (Sakagami 2000, 246) whereas bijinesuman referred to an active and energetic 24 white-collar worker. Western loanwords can also be used to convey foreignness and to create alien settings effectively (Ishiwata 1985; Ono 1992, 1993; Sakagami 2000). Ono (Ono 1992, 35-36; Ono 1993, 67-69) observes this stylistic effect employed in some contemporary Japanese literary works to attract readers' attention. For example, the contemporary writer Murakami Ryu (1990) uses unfamiliar loanwords such as airisshu baa 'Irish bar' and dorafuto 'draft beer' one after another in the beginning of 'You Don't Know What Love Is — Koi wa Itsumo Michi-na Mono: Uso wa Tsumi — It's a Sin to Tell a Lie ' to create a foreign or alien atmosphere for the story (Ono 1992, 36; Ono 1993, 67). Sakagami (2000, 181 et seq.) and Ishiwata (1985, 115-116) observe this stylistic effect used in magazine and newspaper articles. The loanwords that appeared in the articles are unfamiliar to the majority of the readers but are used because "they have special suitability for the topic under discussion" (Sakagami 2000, 181). For example, a Portuguese-derived word saudaaji 'saudade (one's yearning for home, nostalgia)' was used in a newspaper article, reporting the arrival of Brazilian singers in Japan, to emphasize the exotic nature of the topic (Ishiwata 1985, 116). 2.2.5 Euphemisms Preference for loanwords over native equivalents may reflect the loanwords' euphemistic value (Azuma 1996; Honna 1995; Hattori 1980; Hoffer 1990; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; 25 Loveday 1986; Ono 1993; Passin 1977; Sakagami 2000; Stanlaw 1987, 1988; Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992). Loanwords are sometimes used to discuss topics that are considered taboo or difficult to talk about in Japanese, such as personal relationships and sex. Stern (1931, 331) states that loanwords are less definite in meaning and therefore less offensive than the native words. Kachru (1986) calls this linguistic strategy, which avoids direct expressions, "neutralization" and explains it as follows: It is a linguistic strategy to "unload" a linguistic item from its traditional, cultural, and emotional connotations by avoiding its use and choosing an item from another code. The borrowed item has referential meaning, but no cultural connotations in the context of the specific culture. Thus a borrowed item is used not because it fills a "lexical gap", but because for the user it has certain neutrality and specificity. (Kachru 1986, 60) Azuma (1996) argues that loanwords are employed as a politeness strategy in some instances. In the following example (la) is more indirect and non-confrontational than (lb) due to the usage of the English-derived roon 'loan': (1) a. Roon de kuruma wo katta no? loan by car A C C bought Q 'Did you buy your car by getting a loan?' b. Shakkin-site kuruma wo katta no? loan-did car A C C bought Q (Azuma 1996, 5) Azuma explains that the native term shakkin 'loan' connotes an individual's irresponsibility over his or her financial matters, and that one has to borrow money as an undesirable consequence. Honna (1995, 53) and Hoffer (1980, 14) argue that the euphemistic value of roon is further 26 enhanced when it occurs with the verb kumu 'to form,' as won o kumu 'to form a loan,' which makes it sound like a well-planned effort. Some researchers consider individualism a domain in which Western loanwords are used to avoid directness (Loveday 1986; Passin 1977; Stanlaw 1987, 1988; Takashi 1990a, 1990b). Passin (1977, 22-26) and Stanlaw (Stanlaw 1987, 99; Stanlaw 1988, 529-530) argue that the English possessive pronoun main 'my,' as in mai kaa 'my/one's own car' and mai hoomu 'my/one's own home,' reflect changing attitudes and priorities of Japanese people, that is, "the notion of giving priority to one's family and to one's private realm—as against the collective entity in which one is embedded" (Passin 1977, 24). Traditional morality required people to privilege the collectivity, such as family and workplace, over the individual. Although Japanese morality has been moving towards an individualist-orientation since the end of World War II, the notion of subordination to the group still remains strong within the society. Thus, self-assertion tends to be considered an act of selfishness. Under these conditions, the neutrality of loanwords helps Japanese to express the idea of individualism without sounding too offensive. As part of their discussion of loanwords as euphemism, both Ono (1993, 64-65) and Honna (1995, 53-54) include the strategy of improving an object's or concept's public image 1 3 The usage of mai 'my' in Japanese is different from that in English, as it is used to indicate the 'idea' of ownership (e.g. mai kaa 'my/one's own car') or of self-determination (e.g. maipeesu 'my pace,' meaning a self-determined pace). 27 through the use of loanwords. Honna observes this strategy's deployment in the changes in construction work terminology promoted by the Ministry of Construction. For example, kdjigenba 'construction site' is rephrased as suteeshon 'station' and hanba 'bunkhouse for workers' as autodoa rejidensu 'outdoor residence.' The purpose of this change in terminology is to improve the image of construction work, since the indigenous terms are laden with dirty, dangerous and laborious connotations. Ono (1993, 64) argues that some heavy industry companies rename their companies using English elements to free themselves of the connotations mentioned above, in order to gain recruits more easily. For instance, a bridge construction company which was originally called Yokokawa Kyoryo Seisakusho 'Yokokawa Bridge Factory' changed its name to Yokokawa Burijji 'Yokokawa Bridge.' Strategies to improve the image of an object or concept are not restricted to tough and dangerous physical work. Hattori (1980, 153) gives an example of such a strategy used in the renaming of low-class distilled liquor. Shochu is a liquor usually distilled from sweet potatoes or buckwheat and has a traditional reputation as 'cheap liquor.' In order to improve its image, the name was changed from shochu to the English-derived loanword howaito rikaa 'white liquor.' Although Hattori considers this as another example of euphemism, this commercial strategy resembles the aforementioned example of English derived names of sports drinks marketed to Japanese consumers (see pp. 22-23). As Sakagami (2000, 232-233) points out, the 28 euphemistic and the stylistic roles of loanwords overlap in some cases since a loanword can disguise the negative side of an item while simultaneously elevating the level of speech or writing. 2.2.6 Summary As Takashi (Takashi 1990a, 81; Takashi 1990b, 330; Takashi 1992, 135) points out, loanwords that have the functions of technical terms and filling lexical gaps do not have native equivalents. Loanwords that distinguish a Western-style version from a Japanese-style one lie along the same line as those that fill lexical gaps since they designate a new concept or an object. On the other hand, loanwords that create a modern and sophisticated atmosphere and those used for their euphemistic value are chosen in certain contexts despite the existence of native equivalents. Within the function of filling lexical gaps, there is a range in the novelty of a concept or an object designated by a loanword. For example, zukkiini 'zucchini' is an extremely novel object as it did not exist in Japan previously. On the other hand, the aforementioned loanwords sutaa 'star' and chikin 'chicken' (see pp. 19-20) lack the novelty of the referents since there are native terms that have similar meanings. However, those terms are still filling lexical gaps because there are no native terms that have exactly the same referents as those of the loanwords. The last two functions, creating a modern and sophisticated atmosphere and euphemisms, 29 are based on a characteristic of Western loanwords, which is to improve the image of the referent by their attractiveness as words. Thus, i f a Western loanword is used as a euphemism, it can bring a word with negative connotations up to a neutral level. Similarly, a loanword elevates the connotation to a favourable one when it replaces a native term that does not have any negative connotation attached to it. Although the five functions presented in this section are commonly recognized by many researchers, Takashi (1990a) is the only researcher who examined the functions of Western loanwords quantitatively using empirical data, i.e. advertisement texts. Her results showed that the most frequently-used function was "special-effect-givers," accounting for 45.1 percent of the total occurrences of loanwords. Her study provided a clear picture of the loanword usages in advertisement texts, supported by quantitative results. However, as previously mentioned, Takashi's result can only be applied to the loanwords usages in advertisement texts and not to those in other types of texts. Thus, in order to provide another perspective to Western loanword usage, this study examines the functions of Western loanwords in the language of newspaper articles, whose purpose and audience are different from those of advertisement texts. CHAPTER 3 M E T H O D O L O G Y The research questions of this study are as follows: • What functions do Western loanwords serve in the language of newspaper articles? • Which function is the most prominent in the language of newspaper articles? In order to answer these questions, Western loanwords in newspaper articles are divided into four different functions. This chapter is organized in the following manner. Section 3.1 provides the description of the data including the reasons for the choice of data (Section 3.1.1) and information on how Western loanwords were collected (Section 3.1.2). Section 3.2 describes the procedures followed in categorizing loanword samples into functional categories. 3.1 Data Description The data of this study was collected from four consecutive issues of The Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition, from April 22, 2001 to April 25, 2001. The Yomiuri Shinbun is a widely circulated daily newspaper in Japan. 3.1.1 Reasons for the Choice of Data Newspaper articles were chosen as the data for this study for the following reasons. Firstly, to the researcher's knowledge, the usages of loanwords in newspaper articles have not 30 31 been examined. Previous studies on Western loanwords examined their usages in advertisement texts (Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992; Haarmann 1984, 1986a, 1989) and magazines (Haarmann 1986b; Sakagami 2000). Examining the usages of Western loanwords in newspaper articles gives a new perspective because there is a fundamental difference between the previously examined types of text, and newspaper articles. As Quackenbush (1974) notes, writers of articles and advertisement copy use Western loanwords even though they are not fully understood by the readers: People who write articles and advertising copy for women's magazines, special interest journals, and the like, often subordinate intelligibility to other concerns and consciously employ numerous words and expressions from foreign languages, particularly English, in the full knowledge that these words will be totally strange to most of their readers (Quackenbush 1974, 66). In contrast, newspaper articles put more emphasis on conveying information and facilitating communication with the readers than the other two types of printed media. Secondly, newspapers do not have a particular target audience. On the contrary, advertisement texts have target audiences as they are trying to sell a product or a service to the potential consumers. Magazines also have "a targeted, therefore identifiable, audience" (Sakagami 2000, 117) and the language used in a magazine reflects its readers. The fact that newspapers have a much broader target audience suggests that the language used in newspaper articles is understood by the majority of the population. 32 Lastly, newspaper articles cover a variety of topics.1 4 Ishino's research (1983, 43) on the proportion of Western loanword entries in Gendaiyogo no Kiso Chishiki (Basic Knowledge of Modern Japanese Vocabulary) published in 1976 shows that the proportion of Western loanword entries varies depending on the topic. For example, the percentages of loanwords in the fields of fashion (97 percent), food (84 percent), and sports (76 percent) are much higher than those in business (45 percent), biology (30 percent), and history (17 percent). Therefore, the wide range of topics covered by newspapers enables the researcher to observe the loanword usages in different fields to capture a broader picture of the functions Western loanwords serve in the Japanese language today. 3.1.2 Collection of Loanword Samples Western loanwords were collected from all the articles in four issues of The Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition (April 22, 23, 24, 25, 2001) that were written in Japanese15 except for the following sections: the television guide, cartoons, daily novel, 1 6 advertisements, and stock market charts. Stock market charts were excluded for two reasons. Firstly, the loanwords that appear in stock market charts were names of companies, i.e. proper nouns, which were not 1 4 The various topics covered by the newspaper articles are presented in Section 3.1.2. 1 5 There are two pages in every issue of Satellite Edition occupied by national and international news written in English. 1 6 There is a column in each issue where a small portion of a serialized novel is printed. The novel is usually compiled and published as a book after the serial finishes. 33 included as data in this study. Secondly, words listed in charts did not have any context, unlike loanwords that appeared in articles. The television guide was left out because it was almost impossible to grasp the context in which Western loanwords were used, due to the extremely limited spaces provided for the titles and/or explanations of each television program. Advertisements were excluded because they are "less concerned with conveying information than in creating an image" (Quackenbush 1974, 65). Also, the advertisements presented in the issues included those targeted only for Japanese people residing in North America and did not fully represent the Japanese language used in Japan. The daily novel and cartoons were excluded because they have different text styles, i.e. literary style and dialogue, which are different from newspaper articles. There are ten to twelve sections in each issue of The Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition. The sections of the four issues are summarized in the following table: 34 Table 2. The Sections of the Four Issues of The Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite Edition Sections Number of pages Sports 14 Top news/ Editorials 12 Unmarked 12 Economics 11 International news 8 Living/ Family life 8 Domestic news 8 Politics 4 Book reviews 3 Reader's column 3 Commentary 3 Education 2 Culture 2 Health 1 The unmarked section covers a variety of topics that do not fall into the fixed categories listed above. Such sections include articles such as the introduction of a city in Southern Japan; a profile of a recently elected prime minister; interviews of different kinds of people such as a top executive, a television commercial producer, and an amateur karate champion; reviews of readers' poems; feature articles on foreign workers in Japan; and a summary of the trial of a nuclear plant accident. The articles under each section are all related to the specification of sections, but the articles under sections such as "living/family life" and "commentary" cover various kinds of topics. For example, in the "living/family life" section of the April 24, 2001 issue, there is an article reporting on problems caused by a recycling law. In the same section of the April 22, 2001 issue, one of the articles introduces a cooking club whose members are 35 retired businessmen. Thus, the articles in the four issues investigated cover a wide range of topics. The following section explains the procedures followed to categorize the loanword samples into four functions. 3.2 Categorizing Procedures In categorizing Western loanwords into functions, the following procedures were taken: 1. A l l Western loanwords that appeared in the articles in the aforementioned sections (see Table 2) of four editions of the newspaper were collected and listed. When a loanword(s) occurred as a compound, the dictionaries listed below in step 4 were consulted to see i f the compound has an entry in them. If so, then the compound is listed as a compound because it is considered that the compound has an established meaning as itself. If not, the compound is divided into single words and listed separately. 2. The contexts in which the loanwords occurred were noted next to each entry. 3. Among the Western loanwords listed, proper nouns and acronyms were excluded from the list. The reason for the exclusion of proper nouns is that they are not affected by the context. Acronyms were excluded because some acronyms do not consist of foreign words, e.g. N H K , which is an abbreviation for Nihon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Also, they were excluded because they are not assimilated orthographically into Japanese. 4. In identifying the function of each loanword, the following dictionaries were consulted to understand the meanings of the loanwords more accurately: Sanseidd's Konsaisu Katakanago Jiten (Concise Dictionary of Katakana Words), Kdjien 5 t h ed., 1 7 and Jiyu Kokuminsha's Gendaiyogo no Kiso Chishiki 2002 (Basic Knowledge of Modern Japanese i g Vocabulary 2002). Also, the contexts in which the loanwords occurred were examined closely to determine the functions. 5. If a loanword was not listed in any of the dictionaries above, the context was closely 1 7 Internet on-line, <http://www.so-net.ne.jp/myroom/iwanami/kojien/>. 1 8 Internet on-line, <http://www.so-net.ne.jp/bitway/jiyu/gendaiyogo/> 36 examined and it was left to the researcher's native intuition to determine its function. 6. Western loanwords were categorized into four main functions: (1) technical terms, (2) lexical-gap-fillers, (3) elevating the images of the referents, and (4) replacing the native vocabulary items. If a loanword had different functions depending on the context in which it was used, the word was considered to have more than one function and entered in all possible functional categories. This study divided Western loanwords into the above four functions, albeit five functions were reviewed in the previous chapter, for the following reasons. Firstly, "lexical-gap fillers" includes "Western/Japanese differentiation" function identified by Ono (1993) and others in Section 2.2.3, because these loanwords represent different objects, facilities, etc. and cannot be replaced by the native terms when used in a context. Thus, these loanwords fill lexical gaps even though they share core meanings with the native terms. Secondly, "elevating the images of the referents" includes two functions mentioned in the previous chapter, namely "creating a modern, sophisticated, or exotic atmosphere" (Section 2.2.4) and "euphemisms" (Section 2.4.5). The two functions were merged into one function in this study because they both serve to improve the images of the referents. Lastly, the initial examination of the data revealed that some loanwords were used instead of their native equivalents without improving the images of the referents. Also, there were some loanwords that had native equivalents, but their native equivalents sounded old-fashioned. Thus, "replacing the native vocabulary items" function was set up under the assumption that some loanwords are in the process of replacing the native words. 37 In the following section, the criteria employed to categorize loanwords into these four functions are explained. 3.2.1 Criteria for Categorization A loanword is identified as a "technical term" when one or more of the following criteria applies: 1. A loanword is marked with a specialist subject label such as computer, sports, and economics in any of the dictionaries listed in the previous section. 2. A loanword's definition in the dictionaries shows that the word is of a technical nature. 3. A loanword has a distinctive meaning when used in a context relating to a particular field. For example, when geemu is used in a context of sports such as baseball or basketball, it means 'a match,' whereas in other contexts, it could mean 'a computer game.' 4. If criteria 1 and/or 2 applies, a loanword is considered a technical term even i f it is used metaphorically in a context other than its technical field. The above criteria are applied in descending order. For example, to identify loanword X as a technical term, the researcher first checked to see i f the loanword was marked with a specialist subject label in the dictionaries. If it was not, the definition was consulted to determine whether the word was of a technical nature or not. If the loanword was not listed in any of the dictionaries, then the context in which it occurred was closely examined. If the word had a specific meaning when used in a certain field, the loanword was considered a technical term. A loanword is categorized as a "lexical-gap-filler" when it fulfills one or more of the 38 following criteria: 1. The definition of a loanword in the dictionaries is descriptive and there is no Japanese equivalent. 2. A loanword has a broader range of meaning than the Japanese words mentioned in the dictionaries and the loanword can be replaced by different words in different contexts. 3. There are Japanese words of similar meaning mentioned in the dictionaries, but they cannot replace the loanword in the context in which it is used because the loanword has a more specified meaning than the native words, or there is a difference in their nuances. The loanwords that have the functions of "elevating the images of the referents" and "replacing the native vocabulary items" are used despite the existence of the native equivalents. Thus, the following criteria apply to the loanwords recognized to have either of the two functions: 1. There is a Japanese equivalent(s) mentioned in the dictionaries that can replace the loanwords without changing the meaning of the sentence. 2. If the Japanese equivalent(s) mentioned in the dictionaries cannot replace the loanwords, but the researcher can provide the Japanese equivalent(s) based on what is mentioned in the dictionaries. Having satisfied the above criteria, these loanwords are divided into the function of "elevating the images of the referents" or that of "replacing the native vocabulary items." The loanwords are recognized to have the function of "elevating the images the referents" when they fulfill one of the following: 1. The loanword adds a positive nuance to the text, which is absent in the native equivalent. 39 2. The loanword designates something that is unpleasant or related to taboo topics such as personal relationships or sex. For the loanwords to be categorized as "replacing the native vocabulary items," the following criteria were used: 1. The loanword can be replaced by the native equivalent(s) interchangeably, without a change in nuance. 2. The Japanese equivalent(s) mentioned in the dictionaries is rarely used in the everyday language and the loanword is the common word to designate the referent. 3. The Japanese equivalent(s) mentioned in the dictionaries is obsolete and sounds old-fashioned. In order to ensure that each of the loanwords fulfills one of the criteria mentioned above and are divided into correct functional categories, the contexts in which they appear are carefully examined. The next chapter provides the analyses of the four functions. CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION A N D ANALYSIS This chapter explains the functional categories in which the loanwords were divided and reports on the findings of their analyses. Throughout this study, the number of the occurrences of loanwords is called "loanword tokens" as opposed to "loanword types," which is the number of different loanwords or loanword entries. In this study, a total of 3,844 loanword tokens (1,044 loanword types) were examined and were divided according to their functions. As mentioned in section 3.2, when a loanword had multiple functions depending on the contexts, the loanword was listed in all possible functional categories. The four main functional categories are "technical terms," "lexical-gap-fillers," "elevating the images of the referents," and "replacing native vocabulary items." Each function is discussed in detail in the following sections. 4.1 Loanwords as Technical Terms Three hundred and fifty-eight loanword types (1240 loanword tokens) functioned as "technical terms." Among them, the technical terms related to sports were the most frequent (184 loanword types), followed by those related to the economy, politics, and international affairs (39 loanword types) and computers (38 loanword types). The rest of the loanwords (97 40 41 loanword types) were related to other fields such as medicine, music, biology, geology, education, etc. The list of technical terms is provided in Appendix A . There are two ways of looking at technical terms. One is to distinguish them from everyday words in terms of their familiarity among the general public. The other is to perceive technical terms as words that represent the objects and concepts of a certain field, regardless of their familiarity (National Institute for Japanese Language 1981, 3). The present study took the latter perception of technical terms in categorizing loanwords. It is impossible for technical terms to remain "technical" in today's society where all sorts of information is provided to the general public through media (Ishiwata 1985, 100). The fact that these loanwords have appeared in newspaper articles suggests that they have already entered the vocabulary of the general population regardless of their intelligibility. Therefore, it was more appropriate to recognize technical terms as words representing objects and concepts related to a certain technical field. Consequently, the list of technical terms included familiar loanwords, e.g. hoomu ran 'a home run,' samitto 'a summit conference of leaders of nations,' konpyuutaa 'a computer,' and arerugii 'allergy,' as well as loanwords that are unfamiliar, e.g. zodo 'damages caused by heavy snowfall.' Technical terms usually lack native equivalents because they accompany new technology, systems, sports, etc., that are being introduced from foreign countries. In this respect, the line 42 between "technical terms" and "true lexical-gap-fillers" (discussed in more detail in Section 4.2) is not clear. For example, meeru 'e-mail' was classified as a technical term, but terebi 'television' was categorized as a true lexical-gap-filler. If we strictly follow the above perception of technical terms, terebi is also a technical term since it represents an object related to high technology. Similarly, meeru is also a true lexical-gap-filler because there is no native equivalent. Both loanwords, therefore, could be technical terms and true lexical-gap-fillers at the same time, i.e. they have multiple functions. However, as some researchers (Loveday 1996, 201-202; Takashi 1990a, 82) suggest, one function is more prominent than the other. Thus, meeru was considered as a technical term as people recognize the word in stronger relation to computer science and high technology than terebi. However, there is a strong possibility that meeru wil l not be considered a technical term, but a true lexical-gap-filler in the future when it becomes so familiar that it loses its technicality as a word. Therefore, the main functions of loanwords can change at different points in time. 4.1.1 The Dominance of English as the Source Language As observed by several researchers (Arakawa 1943; Sakagami 2000; Shibatani 1990; Yazaki 1964), words borrowed from certain languages are concentrated in certain fields. English is the dominant language in the field of sports and high technology such as computers, being the source language of all examined technical terms of those fields. Other European 43 languages such as French and German provided technical terms related to art and medicine respectively. The examples are French-derived mochiifu 'motifs motif)' and German-derived uirusu 'virus (virus).' However, it is interesting to see that loanwords that entered the Japanese lexicon recently were mainly from English even though they are related to fields such as fine arts and medicine. For example, medical terms such as donaa 'an organ donor' and intaaferon 'interferon' were adopted after World War II 1 9 and derived from English. These examples show the dominance of English in technical fields, as well as its dominance as a source language of Western loanwords in contemporary Japanese language. The status of English as the major source language for loanwords in Japanese reflects its current position as the world's lingua franca. As the United States became a world superpower in the second half of the twentieth century, the English language spread together with the U.S.'s economic, technological and cultural influence all over the world (Graddol 2000, 8; Crystal 1997, 17). In the past two decades or so, the status of English as a global language is strengthened by its dominance in the computer languages, especially in the Internet (Graddol 2000, 30-31; Warschauer 2002). Although Graddol (2000, 30) points out that the "close linkage that once existed between computers and English has been broken" as translations of English software into other languages have helped to develop technical vocabulary in other 1 9 According to Sanseidd's Konsaisu Katakanago Jiten (Concise Dictionary of Katakana Words), s.v. "donaa" and "intaaferon." 44 languages, new technical vocabulary in Japanese is still closely associated with English. As the data of this study illustrates, the influence of English as the language of new technology is so great that those new vocabulary items take the form of direct borrowing from English. 45 4.2 Lexical-gap-fillers Four hundred and eight loanword types (1,733 loanword tokens) were identified to have the function of "lexical-gap-fillers." Among the 408 loanword types, 336 were loanwords that did not have any native equivalents ("true lexical-gap-fillers"). The remaining 72 loanword types ("semi-lexical-gap-fillers") filled lexical gaps by having broader ranges of meaning than the native terms (44 loanword types) or by providing finer shades of meanings (28 loanword types). The results of each sub-category are presented and discussed in the following sections. 4.2.1 True Lexical-gap-fillers "True lexical-gap-fillers (true LGFs)" are loanwords that do not have native equivalents or near-equivalents. The most straightforward example of a true LGF is when a novel object, concept, etc. is introduced from a foreign country and the adoption of the word that refers to it occurs concurrently. The time of adoption varies from word to word. It can be as old as during the sixteenth century, e.g. tabako 'Portuguese tabaco (a cigarette),' (Sakagami 2000, 20) or as recent as in the past few decades, e.g. risaikuru 'recycling.' The list of true LGFs is provided in Appendix B. A loanword that represents an imported object or concept usually retains its original meaning because it is not likely to have multiple meanings, i.e. the correspondence between the word and the referent is one to one. However, in some cases, the meaning as a loanword is 46 more restricted than the meaning of the word used in the original language. For example, for Japanese people, baabekyuu 'barbeque' is a leisure activity where a group of friends get together to eat food grilled with a portable barbeque set in the open air such as parks and river banks. The loanword does not include the meaning 'to roast or broil on a rack over hot coals or on a revolving spit before or over a source of heat'2 0 and therefore, the meaning of the loanword baabekyuu is more restricted than that of the original English word. Another point that is worth mentioning is that among the loanwords that derive from languages other than English that appeared in the data, most of them belonged to this functional category. These loanwords were adopted in different times in history, but not likely during the late twentieth century. For example, the Portuguese-derived botan 'botao (button)' and pan 'pao (bread)' were adopted during the sixteenth century; the Dutch-derived ekisu 'extract (extract)' was adopted during Japan's isolation period where the Dutch were the only European allowed to trade in the country (seventeenth to late nineteenth century); and the French-derived manto 'manteau (cloak, mantle)' was introduced during the mid to late nineteenth century as Japan was opening up to the Western nations (Sakagami 2000, 26-27; Umegaki 1975, 184). This result clearly indicates the dominance of English as a source language of recent loanwords and that many recent English-derived loanwords are not borrowed out of necessity to fill lexical 2 0 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "barbeque." Internet on-line. <http://www.m-w.com>. [12 May 2003]. 47 gaps, but to function in different ways in the modern Japanese language. In some cases, a loanword is adopted to fill a lexical gap not because something new is imported from foreign countries, but to provide a word for an idea that requires a phrase to be expressed in the native language. For example, the loanword esukareeto-suru 'to escalate' is used instead of the phrase dankaitekini zdkasuru 'to increase gradually.' The adoption of the English word 'escalate' is in the interest of linguistic economy since the same concept is expressed by a single word instead of a phrase. There are loanwords that are not borrowed from another language, but rather created by Japanese people using foreign words. These loanwords are recognized by several researchers (e.g. Miller 1986, 1998; Quackenbush 1974; Stanlaw 1988) and are considered a unique quality of the modern Japanese language.21 Although they do not originate in foreign languages, they function as "true LGFs" because they are created to name a new object or phenomenon. For example, famirii resutoran 'family restaurant' was created to designate a restaurant that is aimed at middle-class families and offers a variety of menu items with reasonable prices. As we can see from the arguments presented above, the reasons for adopting foreign words to fill lexical gaps vary from word to word. It could be because the word was adopted together with a new concept or object from foreign countries, or to express something in fewer 2 1 These loanwords are labelled in various ways by different researchers; "pseudo English" (Quackenbush 1974), "Japan-made English" (Miller 1986), and "English-inspired vocabulary items" (Stanlaw 1988). 48 words, or to name something that has been created domestically. Whatever the reason is, the loanwords listed in this category all have the same main function of filling lexical gaps. 4.2.2 Semi-lexical-gap-fillers As discussed in Chapter 2 (Section 2.3.2), some loanwords are adopted because their range of meaning is either broader or narrower than that of native words with similar meanings. These "semi-lexical-gap-fillers (semi-LGFs)" are different from "true LGFs" because native words that have similar referents existed at the time of adoption. However, they are still "lexical-gap-fillers" as the semantic association between the loanword and the native word is not one to one, i.e. they do not have exactly the same ranges of meaning. For example, the loanword dezain 'a design' can mean both sekkei 'a design of a building, a ship, a car, etc' and zuan 'a design of an illustration, a flag, etc' depending on the context. Thus, dezain has a broader range of meaning than the native words sekkei or zuan. On the other hand, a loanword can provide a finer shade of meaning. For instance, when a person refers to his/her day off as kyujitsu 'a day off,' it is suspected that the person works during regular working hours, probably an office worker. But when a person uses the loanword ofu 'off (a day off),' then his/her profession is likely to be one with irregular working hours, such as a professional athlete or a flight attendant. In the following two sections, these two types of "semi-LGFs" are discussed in details. 49 Broader Range of Meaning Among the loanwords that appeared multiple times in the data, there were those that had different meanings depending on the contexts they were in, i.e., a single loanword could be replaced by two or more native words according to the contexts. For example, the loanword oopun(-suru) 'an opening of (or to open)' could be replaced by two different native words kaikan(-suru) and kaigyd(-suru), both meaning 'an opening of (or to open).' However, these native terms have restricted meanings; kaikan(-suru) can only be used to refer to an opening of or to open facilities that are designated by words which end with the kanji 'kan (ff).' These facilities are usually cultural or public amenities such as a library (toshokan HSHrffT), a science museum (hakubutsukan W-^Oit), an art museum (bijutsukan H^ftlQ, or an aquarium (suizokukan TK^flt). Kaigyo(-suru), on the other hand, is used to describe an opening of or to open a business such as a store, a hotel, a restaurant, etc. Furthermore, the loanword oopun can be used to describe 'an opening of or to open' where native terms cannot be used. One article in the data reported on the opening of a support centre for crime victims and the loanword oopun was used because no native word exists to denote an opening of a sentaa 'a centre,' which is also a loanword. Thus, the range of meaning for the loanword oopun can be represented by the following diagram: 50 Oopun(-suru) Figure 1. The Meaning Range of the Loanword Oopun(-suru). The outer circle represents the meaning range for the loanword oopun(-suru) and the inner circles represent those of the native terms kaikan(-suru) and kaigyd(-suru) respectively. Because oopun(-suru) can both mean kaikan(-suru) and kaigyd(-suru), the meaning range of oopun(-suru) subsumes those of the native terms. A n opening of a sentaa 'a centre' wil l fall inside the outer circle but outside the two inner circles, since it can only be referred to by the loanword oopun(-suru). In some cases, the loanword had a broader meaning range than a native word but it was not necessarily replaceable by several native words according to the contexts. The loanword gyararii 'a gallery' can refer to an art gallery that exhibits any forms of art, but its near-equivalent gard 'an art gallery' only denotes an art gallery whose exhibits are paintings. The wider meaning range of the loanword gyararii was exemplified in the data, where it 51 referred to an art gallery that exhibits photographs. Although the concept of 'a place to exhibit art' is shared between gyararii and gard, the use of gyararii that appeared in the data could not be replaced by the native term. On the contrary, although it is not supported by the data, an art gallery that exhibits paintings can also be called a gyararii?2 Thus, the meaning range of gyararii is broader than that of gard and it can be presented in a similar way as the meaning range of oopun(-suru). Gyararii Figure 2. The Meaning Range of the Loanword Gyararii. The meaning range of the loanword gyararii, represented by the outer circle in Figure 2, contains the meaning range of the native term gard (the inner circle). The meaning of gyararii expands beyond the meaning range of gard because the exhibits of gyararii can be any types of art including paintings. The list of loanwords that have a broader meaning range is provided at 2 2 A quick internet search of keywords "gyararii" and "kaiga (paintings)"using Google Japan (www.google.co.jp) provided numerous websites of art galleries (including online galleries) that exhibit paintings that are called a gyararii. 52 the end of this section (Table 3). The advantage and probably the main reason for having this type of loanword is linguistic economy. As illustrated by the example of oopun(-suru), the loanword groups the native words that share the same idea (in this case, 'an opening of or to open') and fills lexical gaps left by the native terms. With the adoption of oopun(-suru), a person does not need to stop and think which word to use to mean 'an opening o f or wonder how to say 'an opening of a sentaa' in Japanese. However, there is also a disadvantage. Because the loanwords can denote different things from one context to the other, the meaning of the loanword becomes ambiguous without a context. For example, the loanword kea 'care' could mean the medical care provided by a nurse to a patient, or care for the elderly or the disabled depending on the context. The 23 Gairaigo Iinkai (Loanword Committee) of The National Institute for Japanese Language (2003) proposes that kea should be replaced by different native terms with more specific meanings according to the context in which the loanword is used. It is suggested that kea should be replaced by kango 'care for the (physically) sick (by a nurse)' in the medical context, and by kaigo 'care for the elderly or the disabled (by a caretaker)' when used in the context of welfare. However, the usages of kea in the data examined for this study revealed that there are 2 3 This committee was set up in August 2 0 0 2 to discuss the usages of loanwords in the contemporary Japanese language and proposes solutions to the problems caused by ambiguous loanwords. Further details on its activity is available at their website, <http://www.kokken.go.jp/public/gairaigo/>. 53 instances where the loanword kea is used but cannot be replaced by either of the native terms suggested by the Committee. In the data, kea was used to refer to 'care for the mental health' or 'care for the mentally sick.' Although this context may have been considered a medical one, it sounded awkward when it was replaced by kango because the meaning of kango emphasizes care for the physically sick. Although the suggestion made by the Gairaigo Iinkai is valuable as it helps to avoid the ambiguity of the loanword, it needs further consideration on how to distinguish one type of care from others. Table 3. List of "Semi-Lexical-Gap-Fillers" With Broader Range of Meaning LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Aidea (Idea) Koso 'an idea, a plan (of a project or an artwork)' Koan 'a devised idea' 5 Boodo (Board) Tokutenban 'a scoreboard' Keijiban 'a bulletin board' 2 Booto (Boat) Tantei 'a rowing boat' Fune 'a boat, a ship' 3 Burokku (Block) Kukaku 'a section, a division' Tsumiki 'building blocks' 6 Chekku (Check) Tenken 'inspect, examine' Kakunin 'verify' 9 Dezain (Design) Sekkei 'a design of a building, a ship, a car, etc' Zuan 'a design of an illustration, a flag, etc' 6 Gerira (Guerrilla) Yugekisen 'guerrilla warfare' Yugekitai 'a guerrilla' 3 Gyararii (Gallery) • a place to exhibit all kinds of art Garo 'an art gallery' • a place to exhibit mainly paintings 3 Hooru (Hall) Ohiroma 'a hall (in a hotel etc.)' Kokaido 'a (concert) hall' 3 Imeeji (Image) Insho 'an impression' Shinsho 'an image (as mental picture)' 31 (Si 4± Table 3 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Irasuto (Illust(ration)) Sashie 'pictorial illustrations between texts of a book' Soga 'pictorial illustrations on the fronvljack cover of 5 a book' Kea (Care) Kango 'care for the physically sick (in medical • includes 'mental health care' which cannot be contexts)' 13 expressed by kango or kaigo Kaigo 'care for the elderly (in welfare contexts) Keesu (Case) Jirei 'an instance, a precedent' Jiken 'an incident' 17 Baai 'a circumstance' Hako 'a box' Konsaato (Concert) Ongakukai 'a concert of classical music' • refers to concerts of all kinds of music including 5 classical music Kontorooru (Control) Ch5setsu 'control, adjustment' T Yokusei 'control (especially of emotion or desire) Z Koosu (Course) Kyogiro 'a course for sports competition such as marathon' 7 Shinro 'a route, a course' Kamoku 'an academic course' Kurasu (Class) Kaikyu 'a rank' f. Gakkyu 'a class (of school)' o Table 3 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Kuupon (Coupon) • includes other kinds of coupons such as premium tickets • can be a paper or digital coupon Waribikiken 'a discount coupon' • likely to be a paper coupon Maaku(-suru) (Mark (+ Japanese suffix -suru 'to do')) Kigo 'a mark, a sign' Kiroku(-suru)a 'to set (a record in a competition etc.)' Menbaa (Member) • can also be used to refer to 'a member' of e.g. a terrorist group, where kaiin nor ichiin cannot be used Kaiin 'a member of a club, an association, etc' Ichiin 'one of the members' Jinyo 'a lineup of a sport team' 37 Mini (Mini) Shokibo 'small-scaled' Kogata 'small, miniature' Modem (Model) Mohan 'a model, an example' Hoshiki 'a method' Katashiki 'a model (of a product such as cars, electronics, etc.)' Oopun(-suru) (Open (+ Japanese suffix -suru 'to do')) • also can be used to mean 'an opening or to open' where neither kaikan nor kaigyd can be used, such as an opening or to open a support centre for victims of crimes Kaikan(-suru) 'an opening (or to open) a library, a museum, a movie theatre, etc' Kaigyo(-suru) 'an opening (or to open) a business' 0\ Table 3 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Pointo (Point) Ten 'point(s) (as a counter)' 24 Yoten 'the main point, the gist' Puran (Plan) Keikaku 'a plan' Ryokin taikei 'a payment plan' Purosesu (Process) Katei 'a process' 8 Hoho 'a means, a plan' Reberu (Level) Dankai 'a level (meaning 'a position in a scale or rank'b)' 9 Suijun 'a standard' Rirakkusu (Relax) Kincho o yurumeru 'to relieve the tension' Kutsurogu 'be at ease, to make oneself at home' J Risuto (List) Meibo 'a list of names' Ichiranhyo 'a list' J Saabisu (Service) Motenashi 'service' • service to a customer/a guest at a restaurant, a hotel etc. 4 Hoshi 'service, volunteer work' • service to the community Saikuru (Cycle) Shuki 'a period, a cycle' f, Junkan 'circulation' Sain (Sign) Shomei 'a signature' 7, • also includes 'autograph' Aizu 'a signal' -J —1 Table 3 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Shiizun (Season) Kisetsu 'a season (as in winter, spring, summer and fall)' Jiki 'a period in which a certain activity is carried out more frequently, such as "tourist season'" Shinario (Scenario) Kyakuhon 'a script, a screen play' • can also be used to refer to a series of events or i incidents that can happen in the future, as in J saiaku no shinario 'worst case scenario' Shisutemu (System) Seido 'a system' 41 Hoshiki 'a method' Sukyandaru (Scandal) Shubun 'malicious or defamatory gossip'0 Fushoji 'a disgrace, a scandal (as an incident, not a 2 rumour)' Sutaa (Star) Ninki haiyu 'a popular actor/actress' Ninki senshu 'a popular athlete' J Sutaato (Start) Kaishi 'start (as opposed to stop)' 27 Shuppatsu 'depart (from a start line), begin' Sutaffu (Staff) Shokuin 'a staff member (e.g. of an election campaign office)' 2 Seisaku kankeisha 'a production staff' 00 Table 3 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) WORDS IN INNER CIRCLE # OF OCCURRENCE Sutairu (Style) Kakko 'a shape (of a person's body, of a car, etc.)' • as opposed to kakko, sutairu is likely to refer to Yosooi 'an attire, how a person is dressed' the bodily figure of a person Kata 'a style (a particular way of doing something that is characteristic to a certain group of people or an individual)' 7 Taipu (Type) Kata 'a type' • includes personality types and types or • a type of inanimate objects such as a disease, a 21 characteristics as an athlete food product etc. Teema (German Thema) Shudai 'a theme, a subject' 18 Shudaika 'a theme song' Toppu (Top) Sento 'the lead' Saikoi 'the highest (in terms of rank)' Saijokyu 'the highest (in terms of quality or degree), 30 the best' Saiko kanbu 'a top executive (of an organization)' Waido (Wide) Kakudai 'to expand, expansion' 1 Chojikan 'long hours' TOTAL 410 The Japanese equivalent provided by the researcher based on the definitions of maaku(-suru) in the dictionaries. b Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "level." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [30 April 2003]. c Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10' Edition s.v. "scandal." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [April 30 2003]. 60 Providing Finer Shade of Meaning Some loanwords that have native equivalents with similar meanings have more specific meanings and provide finer shades of meaning. Such loanwords are listed in Table 4. The loanwords such as furonto 'front desk' and hoteru 'hotel' help to distinguish a Western-style object from a Japanese-style one. In these cases, the difference between the meanings of the loanword and the native term is clear. Although both the loanword furonto and native word choba designate a front desk, they are associated with different kinds of facilities and settings. Furonto usually refers to the front desk of a Western-style hotel or other public facility that derived from Western countries such as a clubhouse at a golf course or a campground. On the other hand, choba refers to the front desk of a traditional Japanese inn or a checkout counter in a traditional Japanese store. Thus, the loanword has an association with a Westernized setting, whereas the native term associates with a traditional Japanese setting. However, the boundaries between the meaning of the loanword and that of the native terms (sometimes between two loanwords, as discussed below) are not always clearly defined. Sometimes the boundary can be as subtle as a difference in nuance. For example, the loanword mama 'mommy' and native terms okaasan 'mom,' ofukuro 'mom,' and haha '(my) mother' all mean 'mother,' but each word has a connotation that is different from the other. The connotation of each word provides quite a lot of information, such as the setting in which the 61 term is likely to be used, the age and sex of a person who uses it, and what impression it gives when used by a certain kind of person. The loanword mama is usually used by preschool children to address their own mothers or the mother of a friend. Some young girls and women address their mothers as mama and use it to refer to their mothers in a casual conversation, but such usage by a woman sounds childish and gives the impression that she is still very dependent on her mother. The native term ofukuro is used by a man to address his own mother directly or in a casual conversation with a person other than his mother. Okaasan is the most neutral term, used both by males and females of all ages to address their mothers and mother-in-laws. It could also be used to refer to one's own or somebody else's mother or mother-in-law in a casual conversation. On the other hand, haha is a formal term and is used by adults to refer to their own mothers in a conversation where formality is required. Thus, the loanword mama, together with the set of native terms, provides a finer shade of meaning to the general concept of mother. In some cases, the shades of meaning are created by two or more loanwords alone. For example, apaato and manshon derive from the English words 'apartment' and 'mansion' respectively and they both refer to an apartment building. However, when a Japanese person hears those words, he/she will create a different mental image of the referent. The image of an apaato would be likely to be a small two-story apartment building made of wood, whose units 62 are quite small and the rent is cheap. The units might not be equipped with a shower or a bathtub, requiring the occupant to go to a public bath to bathe. On the other hand, the image of a manshon would be more luxurious than that of an apaato. The building has more than two stories (sometimes a high-rise) and is made of reinforced concrete. The suites might vary in size and rent, but the rent is usually more expensive than that of a unit in an apaato. Therefore, these two words create shades of meaning by representing two types of apartment building. The reason for the lack of a native term that provides these finer shades of meaning may be that apartment buildings originated in Western countries and the word apaato was adopted with the building itself. As apartment buildings became more popular and readily available, people (probably the realtor) started to refer to more expensive and well-equipped apartment buildings as manshon to give a luxurious and appealing impression to the consumers. This is why a Japanese person would get a more luxurious impression when he/she hears the word manshon instead of apaato. Table 4. List of "Semi-Lexical-Gap-Fillers" With Finer Shades of Meaning LOANWORD (Original Word) NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Amachua (Amateur) • Emphasis on doing something as a hobby, as opposed to as a profession, especially in the field of sports. Shiroto 'an amateur' • Emphasis on how inexperienced a person is in a certain field. Apaato (Apart(ment)) • A small apartment building, usually two-stories high and made of wood or reinforced concrete. • Individual suites are smaller and the rent is cheaper than that of a suite of manshon. Manshon (Mansion) • A n apartment building made of reinforced concrete. • Usually has more than two stories and can be a high-rise. Individual suites range in size and the rent varies according to the size of a suite. The rent is usually more expensive than that of a suite of apaato. Arubaito (German Arbeit) • A part-time job, usually for students. Paato (Part-(time)) • A part-time job, usually for housewives. Table 4 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Daibaa (Diver) Sensuifu 'a diver' • A person who scuba dives or free dives as a leisure • A person who dives to work underwater. 1 activity. Dansu (Dance) Buyo 'dance' 1 • Western dances, especially ballroom dance. • Includes all kinds of dances. Essee (Essay) Zuihitsu 'an essay' 8 • Essays written in modern time. • Essays written in any time period. Furonto (Front (desk)) Choba 'front desk' • A front desk of a Western-style hotel and other • A front desk of a traditional Japanese inn or a 1 facilities that originates in Western countries, e.g. checkout counter in a traditional Japanese store. clubhouse of a golf course, campgrounds, etc. Hoteru (Hotel) Ryokan 'a hotel, an inn' 44 • A Western-style hotel. • A traditional Japanese-style inn. Intabyuu (Interview) Kaiken 'an interview' • Likely to be a one-on-one interview. • Likely to be one person against a number of people as in kisha kaiken 'a press conference.' 10 Konbi (Combi(nation)) Kumiawase 'a combination' • Usually refers to a pair of actors, comedians, or • Two individuals working as a team. athletes in a team that forms a great combination. • The pair could be two strangers who happened to 1 • The pair is likely to be tied closely as friends or be paired in a game, pair-work, etc. professional partners. OS 4^  Table 4 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Kooru gaaru (Call girl) Baishunfu 'a prostitute' • A call girl, a prostitute with whom an appointment • Prostitutes in general. 1 may be made by telephone.3 Kyanpu (Camp) Gasshuku 'a training camp' • A training camp of a professional athlete or team. • A training camp of amateur athletes or teams such as a school sports team. 3 Maaketto (Market) Ichiba 'a market' 1 • Likely to be a market in a Western setting. • Likely to be a market in an Asian setting. Mama (Mamma) Okaasan 'mom' • Usually used by preschool children. • A neutral term used by both males and females of • Sometimes used by young girls or women to call various ages to call their own mothers, or their own mothers, or refer to their own mothers in a mother-in-laws, or refer to their mothers and casual conversation. mother-in-laws in a casual conversation. • Sounds childish when used by young women. Ofukuro 'mom' • Likely to be used by men to call their own z mothers or refer to their mothers in a casual conversation. Haha 'mother' • A formal term used by adults to refer to their own mothers in a formal conversation. Table 4 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Myuujishan (Musician) Ongakuka 'a musician' • Likely to be a musician of contemporary music • Likely to be a musician of classical or traditional 1 such as jazz, pop, rock, etc. music. Ofu (Off) Kyujitsu 'a day off' • Usually associated with a profession that has an • Usually associated with a profession with regular 1 irregular working schedule such as a professional working hours. baseball player, a flight attendant, etc. Orijinaru (Original) Dokusoteki 'original' • Emphasis on 'one of a kind' or 'personalized' • Emphasis on original as opposed to modeling. 2 quality. Papa (Papa) Otosan 'dad' • Usually used by preschool children. • A neutral term used by both male and female of • Sometimes used by young girls or women to call various ages to call their own fathers, or their own fathers, or refer to their own fathers in a father-in-laws, or refer to their fathers and casual conversation. father-in-laws in a casual conversation. • Sounds childish when used by young women. Oyaji 'old man' • Likely to be used by men to call their own fathers or refer to their fathers in a casual conversation. Chichi 'father' • A formal term used by adults to refer to their own fathers in a formal conversation. 1 OS ON Table 4 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Poteto (Potato) Jagaimo 'potato' • Adds flair and stylishness. • Implies that the food needs preparation (since 1 • Implies a cooked and ready to eat food (Sakagami potatoes are called jagaimo in the list of 2000, 165). ingredients). Puro (Pro(fessional)) Kuroto 'an expert, a specialist, a professional' • Emphasis on doing something as a profession, • Emphasis on how experienced a person is in a 23 especially playing a sport. certain field. Ranningu (Running) KyosS 'a race, competitive running' • Running for pleasure and/or as everyday exercise. • Competitive running. Suteppu (Step) Ashidori 'steps' • Likely to refer to dance steps. • Likely to refer to walking steps, or how a person walks. 1 Sutereotaipu (Stereotype) Monkirigata 'stereotype' • Likely to refer to a stereotypical image of a person • Likely to refer to conventional phrases and 1 from a certain country or a profession. methods. Tooku (Talk) (O)shaberi 'a chat, a monologue' • Only refers to conversations between people in • Refers to both public and personal conversations. public settings such as a talk show or a television L interview. Table 4 — Continued. LOANWORD (Original Word) #OF NATIVE WORDS WITH SIMILAR MEANING OCCURRENCE Tsuaa (Tour) Jungyo 'a tour' • Association with music e.g. A tour by Paul • Association with sumo, i.e. when sumo wrestlers McCartney J go on a tour around Japan and sometimes foreign countries for tournaments. Vaacharu (Virtual) Kasoteki 'virtual, imaginary' • Emphasis on the virtuality produced by high • Virtuality produced in a person's mind. 1 technology. TOTAL 130 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10' Edition s.v. "call girl." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [10 May 2003]. ON 69 4.3 Elevating the Images of the Referents There were 88 loanword types (189 loanword tokens) that had the function of creating better images or impressions of the referents. Among the 88 loanword types, 77 had stylistic effects and the remaining 11 had a euphemistic quality. The loanwords with stylistic values and those with a euphemistic quality are discussed in Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2, respectively. In Section 4.3.3, these two sub-functions are compared and their similarity is discussed. 4.3.1 Loanwords With Stylistic Effects The main function of the loanwords with stylistic effects is to create a better image or impression of the referent by adding stylishness, sophistication, prestige, internationality, modernity, etc.2 4 For example, in one context, derakkusu 'deluxe' was used instead of its Japanese equivalent gdka 'luxurious, deluxe' to describe a meatloaf. To a Japanese ear, derakkusu miitoroofu 'deluxe meatloaf sounds more sophisticated and elaborate. At the same time, it emphasizes the splendour of the dish more than does the native term gdka miitoroofu 'deluxe meatloaf.' Because of its origin, loanwords are associated with foreign cultures, especially North American and European cultures. Derakkusu, therefore, added a Western "feel" to the luxuriousness of the dish, and since a meatloaf is a Western dish, derakkusu matched it as an adjective as opposed to the native term gdka. 2 4 The list of loanwords with stylistic effects is provided in Appendix C. 70 Another example is bijinesuman 'businessman,' which refers to white-collar workers in the articles in which it appeared and could be replaced by the native term kaishain 'a company employee.' As Sakagami (2000, 245 et seq.) pointed out, bijinesuman carries the image of an active and energetic white-collar worker who travels internationally to carry out business. Her observation is supported by the data of this study as illustrated by the following examinations of each occurrence of the loanword. Bijinesuman occurred in three different contexts. The first context introduced socks made from washi 'a Japanese paper' which were gaining popularity among middle-aged bijinesuman in spite of their higher price when compared to cotton socks. Although it was not an advertisement for the manufacturer of the socks, the article was introducing the socks as an innovative and better alternative to cotton socks. By telling the readers that these socks are popular among bijinesuman instead of kaishain the article enhanced the positive image of the product. The second context talked about the liveliness of the Nihonbashi and Kyobashi districts of metropolitan Tokyo where many bijinesuman are bustling in the streets. The effect of the loanword in this context was to emphasize those districts as one of the major parts of Tokyo where the most competent and successful individuals work. Such emphasis was possible because the loanword bijinesuman gave the impression of an active and competent businessman. 71 The third example occurred in an article that reported the end of the occupation of a high-end hotel in Istanbul, Turkey by a group of armed Chechens. The loanword was used in a sentence describing how Japanese businessmen (bijinesuman), who had been taken hostages, were released and contacted their families and colleagues on the phone. These Japanese businessmen were most likely to have been in Istanbul on business trips which implied that they were competent individuals with the ability to conduct business overseas. Thus, bijinesuman was more appropriate than its plain native counterpart kaishain 'a company employee' as it emphasized the internationality and competence of a white-collar worker. As these examples demonstrate, the loanwords in this functional category create a more positive impression than their native equivalents. Some loanwords in the list added casualness and made the meaning sound less definitive or authoritative than their native equivalents. For instance, the loanword adobaisu 'advice' sounds casual and less compelling than its native equivalent jogen 'a piece of advice.' According to Kunihiro (1981, 9), adobaisu and jogen both mean a recommendation that is advantageous to the advisee, but adobaisu is personal advice as opposed to jogen which is official or professional advice. However, the usages of adobaisu observed in the data revealed that it does not always mean personal advice and can be used to refer to instances of professional advice as well. For example, in one context, adobaisu was used to refer to 72 professional and technical advice from an employee of a securities firm on the points to look for before buying stocks. In another context, it denoted advice from a doctor to potential patients on how to choose the right specialized doctors. Moreover, when adobaisu was replaced by jogen, the native word gave a serious and authoritative impression that was absent in the original sentences. Thus, the difference is not in the matter of the advice being personal or official, but the impression each word gives to listeners or readers. The differences in the impressions that adobaisu and jogen give to the listeners or readers are rooted in the general impression of loanwords and Sino-Japanese words. Sino-Japanese words "generally convey a more formal impression" but loanwords "have a modern and stylish flavour" (Shibatani 1990, 144). Also, the fact that Sino-Japanese words are written in kanji and the loanwords in katakana syllabary gives a serious, formal and authoritative impression to jogen and more casual and neutral impression to adobaisu. On some occasions, the loanword is preferred over native terms because the katakana syllabary, in which loanwords are written, has a highlighting effect and attracts the readers' attention. The following example illustrates such an effect being used to emphasize the meaning of the native word. In one article, the loanword pawaa 'power' was used instead of its native equivalent chikara 'power, strength' in a quote by a doctor who was impressed by a patient's vitality and will to survive. The patient suffered from severe diabetes and had 73 recovered from several critical conditions. The doctor was very impressed and said that he wanted to get some pawaa from the patient. In this context, pawaa meant more than just strength, but a tremendous vitality and a strong will to survive. Thus, it is likely that the doctor chose pawaa instead of chikara to emphasize the strength of the patient. 4.3.2 Loanwords as Euphemisms The loanwords that function as euphemisms were preferred over their Japanese equivalents to avoid the directness of the native term related to taboo topics (Hattori 1980; Honna 1995; Hoffer 1990; Ishiwata 1985; Kay 1995; Loveday 1986; Ono 1993; Passin 1977; Sakagami 2000; Stanlaw 1987, 1988; Takashi 1990a, 1990b, 1992) or as a politeness strategy (Azuma 1996). The loanwords that were categorized in this function are listed in Table 5: 74 Table 5. List of Loanwords as Euphemisms LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Booi (Boy) Kyuji 'a waiter' 1 Egoisutikku (Egoistic) Rikoteki 'egoistic' 1 Gei (Gay) Doseiaisha 'a homosexual' 3 Nuudo (Nude) Ratai 'a naked body, a nude' 1 Ribenji (Revenge) Fukushu 'revenge' 1 Romanchisuto (Romanticist) Musoka 'a dreamer' 1 Roon (Loan) Shakkin 'a loan' 3 Sekkusu (Sex) Seiko 'sexual intercourse' 2 Senchimentaru (Sentimental) Kanshoteki 'sentimental' 1 Toire (Toile(t)) Benjo (literally 'a place to defecate') (O)tearai (literally '(a place for) washing 7 hands') / 'a toilet, a washroom' Ueetaa (Waiter) Kyuji 'a waiter' 1 TOTAL 22 A l l the Japanese equivalents of the loanwords listed in Table 5 have some sort of negative connotation. The negativity varies from word to word. For instance, doseiaisha 'a homosexual' and seiko 'sexual intercourse' are considered negative because they refer to topics such as sex and sexuality that require indirectness when brought up in a conversation. Also, the fact that the native terms are written in kanji, which represent meaning, makes them more direct and graphic than the loanwords written in the phonemic syllabary katakana.25 Shakkin, Doseiaisha 'a homosexual' consists of four kanji I W l t t i ^ (Dd-sei-ai-sha), and each kanji represents the meanings 'same,' 'sex,' 'love,' and 'person' respectively. As for seiko 'sexual intercourse,' it consists of two kanji (Sei-kd), which mean 'sex' and 'commingle' respectively. 75 on the other hand, is associated with irresponsible financial management but the loanword won 'a loan' annuls such a negative connotation, as pointed out by several researchers (Azuma 1996, 5; Hoffer 1990, 14; Honna 1995, 53). Thus, the loanwords neutralize the native terms with negative connotations and allow people to refer to sensitive topics economically but relatively painlessly. One interesting example in the list is toire 'toilet.' Toire is a little bit different because not all of its Japanese equivalents are words of an unpleasant nature. For example, (o)tearai is used frequently by both men and women to refer to a washroom in conversations. However, benjo is considered too direct and unpleasant because of its literal meaning 'a place to defecate.' In this case, the loanword toire and the native term (o)tearai are both euphemistic terms for benjo. The loanwords booi 'boy' and ueetaa 'waiter' show an example of a loanword replacing another loanword as a euphemism. The two loanwords are both used to avoid the native term kyuji 'waiter.' Kyuji carries a negative connotation associated with an underappreciated occupation and the past social structure where workers' rights were neglected. However, the level of negative image within the two loanwords seems to be different. The National Institute for Japanese Language (1965, 161) shows two excerpts from the readers' columns of national newspapers in which two people expressed their concern about how a kyuji should be called. 76 One person wrote in February 1961 that it is not nice to call somebody a booi but it is much better than calling somebody a kyuji. In October 1962, another person expressed that people should stop using the term booi and replace it with ueetaa or the Sino-Japanese term settaiin 'a receptionist.' From these excerpts, it is suspected that there are different degrees of negativity between the three terms; kyuji being the most negative and ueetaa being the least. Then why did booi and ueetaa both appear in the data? Is booi still used nowadays or has it been replaced by ueetaa in the past decades? Booi appeared in an interview article, in which the interviewee talked about his part-time job experiences during his university years in the 1950s or 1960s and quotes a person who had asked him i f he knew anybody who would work as a booi at weddings. In this context, the speaker is likely to have used the term he had been using at the time, i.e. the 1950s or 1960s, and his choice of word did not necessarily reflect contemporary usage. On the other hand, ueetaa appeared in an article written by a journalist at the time of the newspaper publication (April 25, 2001). Therefore, it is suspected that ueetaa is considered to have better image than booi and has replaced booi as a euphemism for kyuji in contemporary Japanese. Besides avoiding directness, loanwords with euphemistic qualities can be used as a politeness strategy (Azuma 1996). Azuma argues that a loanword is used instead of its native equivalent to save a person's positive face, which is every competent adult member's desire to 77 be liked or admired by others. This function is illustrated by the examples senchimentaru 'sentimental' and romanchisuto 'romanticist,' which were used instead of their native equivalents kanshoteki 'sentimental' and musoka 'a dreamer' respectively. Both words were used to portray Junichiro Koizumi, the recently elected (at the time of publication, April 2001) Prime Minister of Japan, as a sensitive individual. However, the native terms kanshoteki 'sentimental' and musoka 'a dreamer' were avoided because they emphasized the negative aspects of being sentimental and a dreamer such as impracticality and the inability to control his emotions when a rational judgment is called for. These aspects are negative because they are not the qualities desired in the leader of a nation. Thus, the use of the loanwords saved the Prime Minister's "face" by neutralizing those negative connotations the Japanese equivalents carry. As illustrated by the examples above, the loanwords that function as euphemisms are preferred over their Japanese equivalents to avoid directness and allow people to talk about taboo topics indirectly. Also, they are used to save the "face" of someone as a politeness strategy. The common characteristic of the two qualities is that they omit the negative connotations of native terms and elevate their images to a neutral level. 4.3.3 Comparisons Between Loanwords With Stylistic Effect and Euphemisms As shown in the previous two sections, the loanwords with stylistic effects and those 78 with a euphemistic quality share the same function, i.e. to elevate the image of an object, a person, or an idea which was originally referred to by the native equivalent. The difference between the two is the starting point of the image elevation, that is, whether the native equivalent has a negative or neutral image. When a loanword has a stylistic effect, it elevates the image of a native equivalent with a neutral image or connotation to a positive one. A euphemism, however, elevates the image from negative to neutral. This image-elevating effect is illustrated in Figure 3 with the examples of derakkusu 'deluxe' and gei 'gay, a homosexual.' POSITIVE N E U T R A L NEGATIVE > > > > > > > > > > > < < < < > > > > > < < < < < Derakkusu 4 Goka STYLISTIC EFFECT Gei W V . V > > A\\\SVV,\S\SV| V W W W W W W V ^\\\\\\NS\SS\S\S\\\S\\\\S\\\SS f \ \ \ N \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ N N N \ \ \ s s s s \ \ \ s \ \ \ \ w LJUc> til LI Li) nil \ s \ \ \ \ \ \ \ s \ \ \ \ \ \ Figure 3. The Image-Elevating Effect of Loanwords With Stylistic Effect and Euphemisms. 79 4.4 Replacing Native Vocabulary Items This section examines the loanwords that are in the process of replacing their native equivalents. Two hundred and thirty loanword types (668 loanword tokens) were identified in this functional category. These loanwords were divided into three sub-categories according to the extent of replacement, and are discussed separately in Sections 4.4.1, 4.4.2, and 4.4.3. Section 4.4.4 examines the relationship between the three sub-categories. 4.4.1 Synonyms There were 97 loanword types (288 loanword tokens) that functioned as synonyms to their native equivalents and could be used interchangeably. The list of synonymous loanwords is provided in Appendix D. Unlike a loanword with stylistic effects, a synonymous loanword can be replaced by its native equivalent in a context without changing the meaning of the sentence or the image level of the. word. Thus, the synonymous loanwords do not elevate the images of the referents and the loanwords and their native equivalents share the same image level, which is usually neutral. For example, the loanword eria 'area' could be replaced by the native term chiiki 'area.' The loanword appeared twice in an article about the real estate values in the outskirts of Tokyo. The article reported that according to the findings of research conducted by one of the leading real estate agencies, the eria where an average middle-class white-collar worker (a sarariiman) 80 can own a house within the price that is equal to five times his annual income is expanding. Not only could the loanwords be replaced by the native equivalent chiiki in the two sentences where the loanword is used, chiiki was also used several times in the article to refer to the same referent as eria, a potential area for a sarariiman to own a house within a certain budget. The usage of both the loanword and its native equivalent referring to the same thing in an article demonstrates the synonymity of two words and shows that they can be used interchangeably. Although it is clear from the above example that loanwords can function as synonyms to their native equivalents, it should be noted that these loanwords are identified as synonyms only in the examined articles. In other words, the same loanword could have a different function i f it was used in a different context. However, it is important to recognize the synonymous quality of loanwords because there is a trend toward loanwords replacing native terms in contemporary Japanese, as discussed in Section 4.4.4. 4.4.2 Loanwords More Commonly Used Than their Japanese Equivalents The loanwords in this sub-category have native equivalents, but they are more commonly used in the everyday language. There were 109 loanword types (307 loanword tokens) in the data that were listed in this sub-category. The list is provided in Appendix E. There are several possible reasons for these loanwords to be used more frequently than their native equivalents in everyday language, but the main reason seems to be the tendency of 81 Japanese people to prefer loanwords (i.e. direct borrowings) (Ishiwata 1985, 55 et seq.; National Institute for Japanese Language 1965; Nomura 1982). The loanwords in this sub-category are more dominant than the synonymous loanwords in terms of frequency but have not replaced the native equivalents to the extent of loanwords with obsolete native equivalents (see the next section). However, the fact that these loanwords appeared in the data instead of their native equivalents, by itself, proves that the loanwords are more popularly used than the native terms. Although the native equivalents of the loanwords listed in this sub-category have not been replaced completely, some of them are in the preliminary stage of being replaced and becoming obsolete. For instance, such native terms as kubikazari 'a necklace,' tenpi 'an oven,' and momoiro 'pink (colour)' are seldom heard in everyday conversations nowadays. Instead, the loanwords nekkuresu 'necklace,' oobun 'oven,' andpinku 'pink' are commonly used. There are some loanwords that are more common than their native equivalents despite the fact that the loan translations or loan renditions were created when the objects or concepts were introduced. However, those translations did not settle in the everyday vocabulary and instead, the direct borrowing became popular. Such examples are dorai kuriiningu 'dry cleaning' and erebeetaa 'elevator.' When those two ideas were introduced to Japan, the English words 'dry cleaning' and 'elevator' were translated to kanshiki sentaku, literally 82 'dry-method laundry' and shokoki literally 'an up and down machine,' respectively. However, those translations were not established as everyday terms but the ideas are completely understood and expressed by the loanwords dorai kuriiningu and erebeetaa in the Japanese language today. Some loan translations and loan renditions survive in the academic contexts despite the dominance of direct borrowings in everyday language. For example, the loan translations jinpon shugi 'humanism' and yiisan kaikyu 'bourgeoisie' are still used in academic contexts. However, once we step outside the academic context, the direct borrowings hyuumanizumu 'humanism' and burujowa 'bourgeois' are more commonly used. Although the situations of native equivalents in contemporary Japanese language are different from one another, the underlying Japanese people's preference of loanwords over native terms reflects the popularity of loanword usages. 4.4.3 Loanwords With Obsolete Native Equivalents Twenty-four loanword types (73 loanword tokens) examined in the data had completely replaced the native equivalents. In other words, the native equivalents for these loanwords are no longer used as everyday terms and sound old-fashioned if used in a conversation today. Unlike the loanwords such as dorai kuriiningu and erebeetaa discussed in the previous section, the native equivalents of the loanwords in this sub-category had been used in everyday language 83 in the past. Such loanwords are listed in Table 6 below: Table 6. List of Loanwords Whose Japanese Equivalents are Old-fashioned LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT (literal translation) 'meaning' #OF OCCURRENCE Anaunsaa (Announcer) Hosoin (broadcasting person) <; 'a T V announcer, a news anchor' Basu (Bus) Noriai jidosha (shared car) 11 'a (public) bus' Bataa (Butter) Gyuraku (butter) 'butter' 2 Biiru (Beer) Bakushu (barley liquor) 'beer' 1 Daiyamondo (Diamond) Kongoseki (solid stone) 'a diamond' 2 Deeto (Date) Aibiki (a tryst, a rendezvous) 'a date' 1 Kamera (Camera) Shashinki (photograph machine) 2 'a camera' Kisu (Kiss) Seppun (kiss) 'a kiss' 2 Kyaria uuman (Career Woman) Shokugyo fujin (occupational woman) 1 'a career woman' Mafuraa (Muffler) Erimaki (collar wrapper) 'a scarf 1 Memo (Memo(randum)) Oboegaki (remembering note) 4 'a memorandum' Rabu retaa (Love letter) Koibumi (love letter) 'love letter' 1 Raitaa (Lighter) Tenkaki (lighting device) 1 'a lighter' Rajio (Radio) Hoso musen denwa (broadcasting radiotelephone) 4 'a radio' Rekoodo (Record) Onban (sound board) 9 'a musical record' z. Saakuru (Circle) Dokokai (same interest club) 'a club, e.g. soccer club, art club, usually 4 consisting of university students' Shoowindoo (Show window) Chinretsumado (display window) 1 'a show window' Table 6 — Continued. 84 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT (literal translation) 'meaning' #OF OCCURRENCE Sukuriin (Screen) Eishamaku (projection screen) 2 'a movie screen' Supuun (Spoon) Sajia (spoon) 'spoon' 2 Sutenresu (Stainless (steel)) Fushuko (non-rusting steel) 17 'stainless steel' Taipuraitaa (Typewriter) Injiki (typing machine) 1 'a typewriter' Tenisu kooto (Tennis court) Teikyujo (tennis place) "X 'a tennis court' j Toiretto peepaa (Toilet paper) Otoshigami (dropping paper) 1 'toilet paper' Wain (Wine) Budoshu (grape liquor) 'wine' 2 TOTAL 73 Although saji is still used in cooking measurements, as in osaji 'tablespoon' and kosaji 'teaspoon,' it sounds obsolete when used to refer to a spoon as a piece of cutlery. Several research projects conducted in the 1960s and 1970s have illustrated how certain loanwords are replacing the native terms due to the tendency of the younger generation to prefer loanwords to native equivalents. For example, The National Institute of Japanese Language (1965) conducted research in 1962 on the usage of the loanword kamera 'camera' in Nagaoka City in Niigata prefecture, which is located in the northwestern part of Japan. The 290 randomly selected subjects were shown a picture of a camera and asked what they would call it, kamera or shashinki 'a camera.' The result clearly showed the dominance of the loanword kamera (over 80 percent) and the younger generations' preference of loanword. The loanword 85 kamera was most dominant among the people in their late twenties (95 percent), declining as the age increased. Among the oldest age group, subjects who were 55 to 70 years old, only 65 percent used kamera. Similar research was conducted in 1979 by N H K (Nippon Hoso Kyokai), which is the national broadcasting station in Japan. It was a nationwide study with 3,600 subjects from all parts of Japan. The results of this study have been reported by several researchers (Ishiwata 1985, 50 et seq.; Nomoto 1982; Tsutsumi 1980). Ishiwata (1985, 59-61) reports on the pair supuun 'spoon' and its native equivalent saji. The result shows that 63.6 percent of the informants used the loanword supuun and only 29.9 percent of them used the native term saji. Supuun is most dominant among people in their early twenties (81.9 percent) and least so among people over 70 years of age (25.3 percent). The studies by the National Institute of Japanese Language and N H K both revealed the process of replacing native terms with loanwords and younger generations' strong preference for loanwords. More than two decades have passed since NHK's research and those informants who were in their twenties then are now in their forties and fifties. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that these loanwords have almost completely replaced the native terms in 2001. The native equivalents for anaunsaa and rekoodo, hosoin 'broadcasting person' and onban 'sound board' respectively, were created during the 1930s and 1940s when the Japanese 86 government banned the use of loanwords (Stanlaw 1992, 60). Those loanwords must have entered the Japanese lexicon earlier in the century as true lexical-gap-fillers. After World War II, the native equivalents did not remain in the Japanese vocabulary as the popularity of English came back immediately and more and more loanwords, mainly from English, have been adopted since then. The tendency of the younger generations' preferring loanwords over the native equivalents in the post-war decades also explains why those made-up native equivalents became obsolete quickly. 4.4.4 The Degree of Loanword Dominance As stated previously, the three sub-categories discussed in Sections 4.4.1, 4.4.2, and 4.4.3 represent the loanwords that are in the different stages of replacing native equivalents. Synonymous loanwords represent the earliest stage of the replacing process and loanwords with obsolete native equivalents represent the most advanced stage of the process. Thus, the three sub-categories can be apprehended as a continuum with different degree of loanword dominance. Degree of Replacement Figure 4. The Relationships Between the Three Sub-categories in the Replacement Process. The shaded area in Figure 4 shows the proportion of native terms and the white portion represents that of loanwords. The right side of the diagram shows the continuum of the three sub-categories. In the range of synonymous loanwords, the proportion of loanword usages is around 50 percent. The proportion of loanword usage grows larger as it moves from the synonymous loanword range to the range of loanwords with obsolete native equivalents, where native equivalents are almost completely replaced by the loanwords. The tendency of loanwords to replace the native equivalents has been evident in past studies (Ishiwata 1982; Nomoto 1982; Nomura 1977, 1982; Tsutsumi 1980). For example, 88 Nomura (1982) examined 23,448 entries of the 1980 edition of the new word dictionary Gendaiyogo no Kiso Chishiki (Basic Knowledge of Modern Japanese Vocabulary) and found out that 57.5 percent of the new words were loanwords. He also compared the entries in the 1960 edition and the 1980 edition of the same dictionary. The comparison revealed that some native terms had been listed together with the loanwords in the 1960 edition, but only the loanwords were listed in the 1980 edition. This result suggests that the replacement of native terms by the loanwords had taken place during the two decades. Such dominance of loanwords can be explained by the Japanese people's general preference for loanwords. The findings of the aforementioned large-scale research by N H K show a clear picture of how Japanese people approve of loanword usages (Tsutsumi 1980). According to the research, the preference for loanword over native terms was prominent among younger generations. People aged between sixteen and twenty were the leading advocates of loanwords with 72 percent of them approving the usages of loanwords. Considering that more than two decades have passed since the research, it is reasonable to assume that the preference for loanwords over their native equivalents is more dominant among the Japanese population today. 4.5 Summary The summary of the numbers and percentages of loanwords in each functional category 89 is presented in Table 7: Table 7. The Numbers and Percentages of Examined Loanwords in Each Functional Category Functional Category Loanword Tokens (%) Loanword types (%) Technical Terms 1240(32.26%) 358(34.29%) Lexical-gap-fillers 1733(45.08%) 408(39.08%) True LGF 1192(31.01%) 336(32.18%) Semi-LGF Broader Meaning 411(10.69%) 44(4.21%) Semi-LGF Finer Shades 130(3.38%) 28(2.68%) Elevating the Images of the Referents 189(4.92%) 88(8.43%) Stylistic Effects 167(4.34%) 77(7.38%) Euphemisms 22(0.57%) 11(1.05%) Replacing Native Vocabulary Items 668(17.38%) 230(22.03%) Synonyms 288(7.49%) 97(9.29%) Loanwords More Common 307(7.99%) 109(10.44%) Obsolete native term 73(1.90%) 24(2.30%) Unidentified 14(0.36%) 9(0.86%) TOTAL 3844(100.00%) 1093(104.69%a) Actual Total of Loanword Types 1044 The percentage exceeds 100% because loanwords with multiple functions are entered in each of the functions that they have. For example, the loanword hoomu is entered in both true L G F and technical term categories because when it refers to a home for the elderly, it functions as a true LGF, but it is a technical term when it means a home ground for a soccer team. Table 7 shows that the most dominant function of the loanwords used in newspaper articles is "lexical-gap-fillers," comprising 45.08 percent of loanword tokens (the number of loanword occurences) and 39.08 percent of loanword types (the number of different loanword entries). It is followed by "technical terms" (32.26 percent loanword tokens, 34.29 percent 90 loanword types), "native term replacements" (17.38 percent loanword tokens, 22.03 percent loanword types), and "elevating the images of the referents" (4.92 percent loanword tokens, 8.43 percent loanword types). The results from Table 7 are presented in pie charts in Figure 5: 45.08% Lexical-gap-fillers 39.08% Lexical-gap-fillers Figure 5a. Loanword Tokens. Figure 5b. Loanword Types. Figure 5. The Proportion of Functional Categories in Terms of Loanword Tokens and Loanword Types. In terms of loanword types, the percentage of "lexical-gap-filler" was 39.08 percent. As shown in Figure 5, the loanword token percentage of this function was higher (45.08 percent) than the loanword types percentage. On the other hand, the loanword tokens percentages of "native term replacements" and "elevating the images of the referents" (17.38 percent and 4.92 percent, respectively) were smaller than their loanword types percentages 91 (22.03 percent and 8.43 percent, respectively). These results suggest that "lexical-gap-fillers" are repeated more frequently than "native term replacements" and "elevating the images of the referents." The results obtained from this study showed a considerable difference when compared to the results from Takashi's (1990a) study on the functions of English loanwords in advertisement texts. Takashi's results are shown in Table 8: Table 8. The Number and Percentage of English Loanwords in Each Functional Category (from Takashi 1990a) Functional Category Number Percent Special-Effect-Giver 2,506 45.1% Brand Name 1,408 25.3% Lexical-Gap Filler 883 15.9% Technical Term 737 13.3% Euphemism 20 0.4% Unidentified 2 0.0% TOTAL 5,556 100.00% Source: Takashi, Kyoko. 1990a. A functional analysis of English borrowings in Japanese advertising: Linguistics and sociolinguistic perspectives. Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 90. Takashi defines "special-effect-givers" as loanwords "used to give new and cosmopolitan images of the product/service advertised" (Takashi 1990a, 90). Thus, it is basically equivalent to the category of "stylistic effects" in this study since they both represent loanwords that give positive images to the referents. The proportions of this function in the 92 two studies are in sharp contrast. Table 8 shows that this function was most dominant in advertisement texts, comprising 45.1 percent of the total loanwords examined. However, in the language of newspaper articles, this function accounted only for 4.34 percent of the total loanword tokens (Table 7). The functions of "lexical-gap filler" and "technical term" in Takashi's study are not equivalent to the "lexical-gap-fillers" and "technical terms" categories used in the present study. "Technical terms" in this study included loanwords that designate an object or a concept related to a certain field, even the loanword was very familiar to the general public. It included terms used in all kinds of fields such as sports, politics, economics, computers, medicine, fashion, fine arts, etc. On the other hand, Takashi's definition of "technical term" is more limited and only includes loanwords related to the fields of medicine, science and modern technology (Takashi 1990a, 81). However, Takashi recognizes terms related to sports, music, and fashion such as basukettobooru 'basketball' and piano 'piano' as "lexical-gap filler," whereas those terms were classified as "technical terms" in this study. Thus, "technical terms" in the present study is the combination of "technical terms" and a part of "lexical-gap filler" in Takashi's study. "Lexical-gap filler" category of Takashi's study also includes loanwords that do not have native equivalents, such as takushii 'taxi' and koohii 'coffee' (1990a, 80-81). These two loanwords also appeared in the data of this study and were included in the sub-category "true 93 LGFs," which represents loanwords without native equivalents or near-equivalents. Therefore, "true LGFs" used in this study constitutes a part of "lexical-gap filler" in Takashi's study. As explained above, Takashi's "technical term" and "lexical-gap filler" categories do not correspond individually to "technical terms" and "lexical-gap-fillers" of this study. However, the combination of the two functions from Takashi's study is essentially equivalent to the combination of "technical terms" and "true LGFs" used in the present study.26 The percentages of "technical term" and "lexical-gap filler" in Takashi's study add up to only 29.2 percent. On the other hand, the sum of the percentages of "technical terms" and "true LGFs" in the present study is 63.27 percent. The comparison of the results from Takashi's study and the present study revealed that loanwords function differently according to the styles and the contexts in which they are used. The dominant function in each study reflects the characteristics of advertisement texts and newspaper articles. The dominance of "special-effect-giver" serves the purpose of advertisement texts, which is to sell a product or a service by creating favourable images and appealing to the consumers. Similarly, the purpose of newspaper articles is to provide news and information to the readers, and thus, "lexical-gap-fillers" are dominant in this type of text. 2 6 "Lexical-gap filler" category in Takashi's study also includes proper nouns such as names of foreign places and foreigners (Takashi 1990a, 91). CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Summary of Findings This study examined the functions of Western loanwords in the language of Japanese newspaper articles. The goal of this study was to determine how the Western loanwords in the newspaper articles function and which function was the most prominent in this particular text style. In order to achieve this goal, 3,844 loanwords tokens were collected from four issues of the Yomiuri Shinbun Satellite edition, and divided into four main functional categories. These were (1) technical terms, (2) lexical-gap-fillers, (3) elevating the images of the referents, and (4) replacing native vocabulary items. "Technical terms" were terminologies used in certain fields such as sports, politics, medicine, art, etc., regardless of their familiarity among the general public. However, since many of these technical terms were adopted with new technologies from foreign countries and usually do not have native equivalents, the line between "true LGFs" and "technical terms" can be ambiguous. The data also suggested that English was becoming more and more dominant as a source language, especially in the fields of medicine and art. "True LGFs" functioned to denote novel objects or concepts that were imported from foreign countries, to designate a new thing or phenomenon created in Japan, or to enable a 94 95 shorter expression, i.e. to provide a word for an idea which could only be expressed by a phrase in the native terms. The "semi-LGFs," on the other hand, filled lexical gaps because they had either a broader meaning range or more specific meaning than native terms. There were two types of loanwords that elevate the images of the referents, depending on the connotations of their native equivalents. If the native equivalent had a neutral connotation, the loanword created a better impression of the referent by adding stylishness, prestige, casualness, sophistication, etc. If the native term had a negative connotation, the loanword functioned as a euphemism and brings the image to a neutral level, concealing the negativity. Some loanwords were in the process of replacing native equivalents due to Japanese people's general preference for loanwords (Tsutsumi 1980; Nomura 1982). Three stages of the replacement process were observed in the data. The loanwords in the earliest stage of the process acted as synonyms of the native equivalents, since they could be used interchangeably in the context. The next stage involved loanwords which were used more commonly in everyday language than their native counterparts. The most advanced stage was characterized by loanwords that have almost completely replaced the native terms and, as a result, the native terms have become obsolete. The quantitative analysis of the four functions revealed that "lexical-gap-fillers" were the most dominant function, comprising 45.08 percent of the loanword tokens. It was followed by 96 "technical terms" (32.26 percent), "replacing the native vocabulary items" (17.38 percent), and "elevating the images of the referents" (4.92 percent). The comparison with the results from Takashi's (1990a) quantitative study on the functions of English loanwords in advertisement texts showed that the most prevalent function is different from one style of text to the other (i.e. advertisement vs. news article texts), depending on their purposes. 5.2 Suggestions for Further Studies This study examined the functions of Western loanwords in newspaper articles and concluded that the most prominent function was to fill lexical gaps. Although the findings of this study provided an insight in how loanwords are used in the modern Japanese, there are several limitations. Although this study divided Western loanwords into functions according to specific criteria in order to be objective as possible, there were instances where the researcher's native intuition was called for in making the judgment. Therefore, in order to obtain the usages of loanwords by a wide range of Japanese speakers, a questionnaire should be conducted to test and confirm the functions presented in this study. It would be ideal i f the informants were diverse in terms of age, sex, occupation, and region because the newspaper used in the data is a national newspaper and has a wide range of readers. As discussed in Section 4.5, the comparison of the results of this study to the results 97 from Takashi's (1990a) study revealed that the prevalent function is different from one text type to the other. Thus, functional analyses of Western loanwords in other text styles such as literary works or personal letters should provide a different emphasis on Western loanword functions. Furthermore, since the data of this study is limited to written texts, an examination of loanword usages in different types of spoken languages should provide a more complete picture. For example, examining the loanword functions in conversations of different age groups would offer insights into how people use Western loanwords when communicating with other people and the differences in their usages, i f any, according to the age groups. 98 Reference List Arakawa, Sobei. 1943. Gairaigo gaisetsu (An introduction to loanwords). Tokyo: Sanseido. Azuma, Shqji. 1996. Borrowing and politeness strategy in Japanese. In General session and parasession on the role of learnability in grammatical theory: Proceedings of the twenty-second annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society 16-19 1996, edited by M . L . Juge J. Johnson, and J. L. Moxley, 3-12. Berkeley, C A : Berkeley Linguistics Society. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Crystal, David. 1997. English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gottlieb, Nanette. 1995. Kanji politics: Language policy and Japanese script. New York: Kegan Paul International. Graddol, David. 2000. The future of English?: A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century [PDF file]. Internet on-line. Available from <http://www.britishcouncil.org/english/pdf/future.pdf>. [May 28 2003]. Haarmann, Harald. 1984. The role of ethnocultural stereotypes and foreign languages in Japanese commercials. International Journal of the Sociology of Languages 50:101-121. . 1986a. Language in ethnicity: A view of basic ecological relations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. . 1986b. Verbal strategies in Japanese fashion magazines: A study in impersonal bilingualism and ethnosymbolism. International Journal of the Sociology of Languages 58:107-121. . 1989. Symbolic values of foreign language use: From the Japanese case to a general sociolinguistic perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Hattori, Yukimasa. 1980. Patterns of English lexical adoption in Japanese. Ph.D. diss., The University of Texas at Austin. Haugen, Einar. 1972. The ecology of language. Stanford, C A : Stanford University Press. 99 Hoffer, Bates. 1990. English loanwords in Japanese: Some cultural implications. Language Sciences 12 (1): 1-21. Honna, Nobuyuki. 1995. English in Japanese society: Language within language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16 (l-2):45-62. Ishino, Hiroshi. 1983. Gendai gairaigo kd (Modern ideas on Western loanwords). Tokyo: Taishukan. Ishiwata, Toshio. 1982. Gendai seikatsu no goiryo (The amount of vocabulary in the modern life). In Gendai no goi (The modern vocabulary), edited by Kiyoji Sato. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin. . 1985. Nihongo no naka no gaikokugo (Foreign languages in Japanese). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Kabashima, Tadao. 1981. Nihongo wa do kawaruka (How does the Japanese language change?). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Kachru, Braj B. 1986. The alchemy of English: The spread, function and models of non-native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English. Kay, Gillian. 1995. English loanwords in Japanese. World Englishes 14 (l):67-76. Kunihiro, Tetsuya. 1981. Sosetsu, hosetsu (Overview and notes). Jnlmi to goi (Meanings and vocabulary), edited by Tetsuya Kunihiro, 1-14. Tokyo: Taishukan. Loveday, Leo. J. 1986. Explorations in Japanese sociolinguistics. Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing Company. . 1996. Language contact in Japan: A socio-linguistic history. Oxford: Claredon Press. Miller, Laura. 1986. Aspects of Japanese language attitudes. Journal of Asian Culture 10:9-44. . 1998. Wasei eigo: English "loanwords" coined in Japan. In The life of language: Papers in linguistics in honor of William Bright Wasei eigo: English "loanwords" coined in Japan, edited by Jane H . Hi l l , P.J. Mistry, and Lyle Campbell, 123-139. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 100 Miller, Roy Andrew. 1967. The Japanese language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Miyaji, Yutaka. 1988. Nihongo to gaikokugo (Japanese and foreign languages). In Nihongo hyakka daijiten (An encyclopaedia of the Japanese language), edited by Haruhiko Kindaichi, Oki Hayashi and Takeshi Shibata, 1009-1052. Tokyo: Taishukan Publishing Company. Murakami, Ryu. 1990. You don't know what love is — Koi wa itsumo michi-na mono: Uso wa tsumi — It's a sin to tell a lie. Original edition, Shukan Asahi, 21 September 1990: 50-51. Cited in Reiko Ono. Sociolinguistic perspectives on English borrowing in Japanese (1). Kobe Kaisei Review 32: 53-74, 1993. Nagata, Akemi, and Akira Nakagawa. 1998.1997 nendo gairaigo ni kansuru chosa: gairaigo kara shingo, ryukogo e (An investigation of Western loanwords in 1997: From loanwords to new words and fad words). Journal of Linguistic and Cultural Studies 10:153-166. National Institute for Japanese Language. 1964. Gendai zasshi kyujusshu no yogo ydji (Vocabulary and Chinese characters in ninety magazines of today). Vol. 3. Tokyo: Shuei Shuppan. . 1965. Ruigigo no kenkyu (Japanese synonymy and its problems). Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyujo hokoku (National Institute for Japanese Language report) 28. Tokyo: Shuei Shuppan. . 1971. Denshi keisanki niyoru shinbun no goi chosa (Studies on the vocabulary of modern newspapers). Vol. 2. Tokyo: Shuei Shuppan. . 1981. Senmongo no shomondai (A study of specialized terminology: The problems of technical terms). Kokuritsu kokugo kenkyujo hokoku (National Institute for Japanese Language report) 68. Tokyo: Shuei Shuppan. National Institute for Japanese Language Gairaigo Iinkai (Loanword Committee). 2003. Dai ikkai "gairaigo" iikae teian (The first proposal of replacement of loanwords by native terms). Internet on-line. Available from <http://www.kokken.go.jp/public/gairaigo/Teianl/iikae_teianl.pdf>. [May 27 2003]. 101 Nomoto, Kikuo. 1982. Gendaigo no sedaisa (The generation gap in modern vocabulary). In Gendai no goi (The modern vocabulary), edited by Kiyoji Sato, 91-109. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin. Nomoto, Kikuo et al. 1980. Nihonjin no chishikiso ni okeru hanashikotoba no jittai (The spoken language of Japanese intellectuals). Tokyo: Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyujo Nihongo Kenkyu Sentaa. Nomura, Masaaki. 1977. Zogoho (The methods of coining). In Goi to imi (Meaning and vocabulary), edited by Takeshi Shibata and Susumu Ono, 245-284. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. . 1982. Shingo jiten no gairaigo (The Western loanwords in new word dictionaries). Gengo Seikatsu 366:42-49. Ono, Reiko. 1992. Englishized style repertoire in modern Japanese literature. World Englishes 11 (l):29-50. . 1993. Sociolinguistic perspectives on English borrowing in Japanese (1). Kobe Kaisei Review 32:53-74. Passin, Herbert. 1977. Japanese and the Japanese. Tokyo: Kinseido. Quackenbush, Edward M . 1974. How Japanese borrows English words. Linguistics: An international review 131:59-75. Sakagami, Shizuka. 2000. Gairaigo: The semantics of western loanwords in Japanese. Ed.D. diss., Columbia University Teachers College. Shibata, Takeshi. 1993. Gairaigo wa nihongo o midasuka (Do Western loanwords contaminate the Japanese language?). In Gairaigo (Western loanwords), edited by Etsutaro Iwabuchi et al., 16-22. Tokyo: Kawade Shobo Shinsho. Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1990. The language of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sonoda, Koji. 1975. A descriptive study of English influence on modern Japanese. Ph.D. diss., New York University. 102 Stanlaw, James. 1982. English in Japanese communicative strategies. In The other tongue: English across cultures English in Japanese communicative strategies, edited by B. B. Kachru. New York: Pegamon Press. . 1987. Japanese and English: borrowing and contact. World Englishes 6 (2):93-109. . 1988. Englanese: English loanwords and the Japanese language. World and 11 (8):522-533. . 1992. "For beautiful human life": The use of English in Japan. In Re-made in Japan: Everyday life and consumer taste in a changing society "For beautiful human life": The use of English in Japan, edited by Joseph J. Tobin, 58-76. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Stern, Gustaf. 1931. Meaning and changes of meaning: With special reference to the English language. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Suzuki, Takao. 1993. Gairaigo wo megutte (thoughts on Western loanwords). In Gairaigo (Western loanwords), edited by Etsutaro Iwabuchi et al., 68-88. Tokyo: Kawade Shobo Shinsho. . 1990. Nihongo to gaikokugo (Japanese language and foreign language). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Takashi, Kyoko. 1990a. A functional analysis of English borrowings in Japanese advertising: Linguistics and sociolinguistic perspectives. Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University. . 1990b. A sociolinguistic analysis of English borrowing in Japanese advertising texts. World Englishes 9 (3):327-341. . 1992. Language and desired identity in contemporary Japan. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 3 (1): 133-144. Tsutsumi, Tetsuro and Ishino, Hiroshi. 1980. Wakamono no gengo ishiki (The young generation's attitude towards language). Gengo Seikatsu 343:36-44. Umegaki, Minoru. 1975. Gairaigo (Loanwords). Tokyo: Kodansha. 103 Warschauer, Mark. 2002. Languages.com: The Internet and linguistic pluralism. In Silicon literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, edited by liana Snyder, 62-74. London: Routlege. Weinreich, Uriel. 1974. Languages in contact. The Hague: Mouton. Yanabu, Akira. 1976. Honyaku towa nanika: Nihongo to honyaku bunka (The meaning of translation: Japanese language and the culture of translation). Tokyo: Hosei Daigaku Shuppankyoku. Yazaki, Genkuro. 1964. Nihon no gairaigo (Loanwords in Japanese). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Yoshizawa, Norio, Hiroshi Ishino, and Kiyoshi Egawa. 1984. Gairaigo no genjo wo kangaeru (Thoughts on the current state of Western loanwords). Gengo Seikatsu 391:2-12. Yoshizawa, Norio, and Toshio Ishiwata. 1979. Gairaigo no gogen (Etymology of loanwords). Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten. 104 Appendices Appendix A List of "Technical Terms" Table A l . List of "Technical Terms" Related to Sports LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Aachi (Arch) A homer, a home run (baseball) 1 Aisuhokkee (Ice hockey) Ice hockey 4 Amerikan futtobooru (American American football football) Z Andaa (Under) Under (golf) 4 Auto (Out) Out 4 Autosaido (Outside) Outside (soccer) 1 Baadii (Birdie) A birdie (golf) 9 Bakku (Back) Back players (baseball) 4 Bakku suingu (Back swing) A back swing (baseball) 1 Banto (Bunt) A bunt (baseball) 9 Bareebooru (Volleyball) Volleyball 7 Basukettobooru (Basketball) Basketball 4 Batafurai (Butterfly) Butterfly (swimming) 8 Batterii (Battery) A battery (baseball) 2 Batto (Bat) A bat (baseball) 1 Benchi (Bench) The bench for players (soccer), a f. dugout (baseball) o Besuto (Best) One's best record 5 Biggu iningu (Big inning) The big inning (baseball) 1 Biichi baree (Beach volley(ball)) Beach volleyball 3 Bogii (Bogey) A bogey (golf) 3 Bokusaa (Boxer) A boxer 1 Bokushingu (Boxing) Boxing 13 Booru (Ball) Ball, as opposed to strike (baseball) 2 Bureeku (Break) Break (tennis) 1 Burupen (Bullpen) A bullpen 1 Chanpion (Champion) A champion (boxing) 4 105 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Daabii (Derby) A derby (horse racing) 1 Daburu sukoa (Double score) A double score 3 Daburusu (Doubles) Doubles (table tennis) 1 Dagguauto (Dugout) A dugout (baseball) 1 Difensu (Defence) Defence (soccer) 3 Dorafuto (Draft) A draft (for professional sports 1 such as baseball and basketball) Doraibu (Drive) A drive (table tennis) 2 Doriburu (Dribble) Dribble (soccer) 2 Eapisutoru (Air pistol) Air pistol 2 Endo rain (End line) End line (soccer) 1 Entorii (Entry) Entry (to a competition etc.) 2 Eraa (Error) Error (baseball) 1 Fainaru setto (Final set) The final set (volleyball, tennis) 2 Faito manee (Fight money) Fight money (boxing) 1 Fauru (Foul) A foul ball (baseball) 4 Fauru chippu (Foul tip) A foul tip (baseball) 1 Feawee (Fairway) Fairway (golf) 1 Furaingu (Flying (start)) A flying start 1 Fukku (Hook) A hook (boxing) 1 Furai (Fly) A fly ball (baseball) 1 Furaikyu (Fly + Japanese kyii 'class, Flyweight (boxing) division') L Furii pisutoru (Free pistol) Free pistol 1 Furu setto (Full set) A full set 1 Furu suingu (Full swing) A full swing (baseball) 1 Gaado (Guard) Guard (boxing) 1 Gyararii (Gallery) Spectators at a golf tournement 1 (golf) Geemu (Game) A game 2 Geemusetto (Game set) The end of a game 1 Gooru (Goal) Goal 3 106 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Gorufu (Golf) Golf 13 Gurabu (Glove) A baseball glove 2 Haadoru (Hurdle) A hurdle (athletics) 3 Hande (Handi(cap)) A handicap (golf) 1 Handobooru (Handball) Handball 3 Hebiikyu (Heavy + Japanese kyu 'class, Heavyweight (boxing) Q division') y Heddo (Head(ding)) A heading (soccer) 1 Heddo koochi (Head coach) A head coach 2 Hitto (Hit) A hit (baseball) 1 Hoomu (Home) Team's home field (soccer) 1 Hoomu in (Home in) A runner coming back to the home 1 base to score (baseball) Hoomu ran (Home run) A homer, a home run (baseball) 1 Hooru (Hole) A hole (golf) 3 Inkoosu (In course) A pitch heading inside corner 1 (baseball) Intaahai (Inter high (school)) A national competition of high 1 school sports teams Kaado (Card) A matching of teams for a game 5 Kabaaringu (Covering) Covering, to cover a teammate's 1 position (soccer) Katto man (Cut man) A chopper, a defender (table tennis) 2 Kaunto (Count) Ball count (baseball) 1 Kikku (Kick) Kick (swimming) 1 Konbineeshon (Combination) A combination play (soccer) 1 Koochi (Coach) A coach 7 Kooto (Court) A court (table tennis) 1 Kurabu chiimu (Club team) A sport team made up of people living or working in a 3 community 107 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Kuriinappu (Cleanup) The third, fourth, and fifth batter of 1 a team (baseball) Kurosu (Cross) A cross pass (soccer) 1 Kyanbasu (Canvas) The floor of a ring (boxing) 1 Macchi pointo (Match point) A match point (table tennis) 1 Macchi puree (Match play) A match play (golf) 1 Marason (Marathon) Marathon 4 Maundo (Mound) A mound (baseball) 5 Medoree (Medley) Medley, as in individual medley 17 (swimming) Mitto (Mitt) A mitt (baseball) 1 Nain (Nine) The nine (i.e. a team) (baseball) 1 Netto (Net) A net (table tennis) 2 Non taitorusen (Non title + Japanese A non-title match (boxing) 1 sen 'match') Noo bogii (No bogey) No bogey (golf) 2 Noo hitto noo ran (No hit no run) A no-hit, no-run game 1 Oobaa (Over) Over (golf) 1 Oobaa eeji (Over age) A n "overage" player (soccer) 1 Oopunsen A n exhibition game (baseball) (Open + Japanese sen 'game') Oorusutaa (All-star) All-star (game) 3 Oun gooru (Own goal) An own goal (soccer) 1 Paa (Par) A par (golf) 5 Panchi (Punch) A punch (boxing) 1 Patto (Put) A put (golf) 2 Penanto (Pennant) A pennant, championship 1 (baseball) Picchi (Pitch) A pitch, the playing field (soccer) 1 Picchingu (Pitching) Pitching (baseball) 1 Pisutoru (Pistol) Pistol (as a sport) 1 108 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Pojishon (Position) The positions of players (soccer, T, baseball) D Pojishoningu (Positioning) The positioning of players (soccer) 1 Pooru pojishon (Pole position) A pole position (motor racing) 1 Pure taikai (Pre + Japanese taikai A pre-competition of the World 1 'competition') Cup (soccer) Puree (Play) Play 15 Pureeofu (Play-off) A play-off (basketball) 7 Puroresu (Pro(fessional) Wres(tling)) Professional Wrestling 1 Ragubii (Rugby) Rugby 6 Rainaa (Liner) A liner (baseball) 1 Ran (Run) Run (baseball) 16 Rappu (Lap) A lap (swimming) 1 Rasuto supaato (Last spurt) A last spurt (swimming) 1 Raundo (Round) A round (boxing) -i A round of 18 holes (golf) j Reesu (Race) A race (swimming, horse racing) 12 Regyuraa (Regular) A regular player (baseball) 1 Reshiibu (Receive) A receive (table tennis) 1 Riakushon taimu (Reaction time) A reaction time at the start 1 (swimming) Riido (Lead) A lead in the score Q A lead by a pitcher (baseball) y Riigu (League) A league 41 Ringu (Ring) A ring (boxing) 1 Riree (Relay) A relay (swimming) 2 Ririifu (Relief) A relief pitcher (baseball) 1 Roodo reesu (Road race) A road race (motorbike racing) 1 Rooteeshon (Rotation) A rotation (of pitchers) (baseball) 1 Rosu taimu (Loss time) Injury time (soccer) 1 Ruukii (Rookie) A rookie (baseball) 1 Saabu (Serve) A serve (table tennis) 3 109 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Saakitto (Circuit) A circuit (motor racing) 1 Saido (Side) Side (soccer) 4 Saido bakku (Side back) Side back (soccer) 1 Sain (Sign) Sign (baseball) 2 Saishu rain (Japanese saishii' the last' The last line of defence (soccer) 1 + line) Sakkaa (Soccer) Soccer 14 Seebu (Save) Save (baseball) 5 Seefu (Safe) Safe (baseball) 1 Sekando shotto (Second shot) The second shot (golf) 1 Sentaa bakku (Centre back) Centre back (soccer) 2 Setto (Set) A set (table tennis) 1 Setto kaunto (Set count) A set count (volleyball) 1 Shiizun (Season) A regular season (baseball) 3 Shingurusu (Singles) Singles (table tennis, tennis) 4 Shinkaa (Sinker) A sinker (baseball) 1 Shinkuronaizudo suimingu Synchronized swimming 1 (Synchronized swimming) Shooto (Short) Shortstop (baseball) 1 Shotto (Shot) A shot (golf) 2 Shuuto (Shoot) A running fastball (baseball) 1 Sukuizu (Squeeze (play)) A squeeze play (baseball) 1 Soro (Solo) A solo homer (baseball) 3 Suingu (Swing) A swing (baseball) 1 Sukoa (Score) A score 3 Sumasshu (Smash) Smash (a ball) (table tennis) 1 Supaakuringu (Sparkling) Sparkling round (boxing) 1 Supiido sukeeto (Speed skate) Speed skate 1 Supin (Spin) Spin (of a ball) (table tennis) 1 Suraidaa (Slider) A slider (baseball) 1 Suroo kaabu (Slow curve) A slow curve ball (baseball) 1 Sutamen (Sta(rting) mem(ber)) Starting lineup 1 110 LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Sutoppaa (Stopper) A stopper (baseball) 1 Sutoraiku zoon (Strike zone) The strike zone (baseball) 1 Sutoreeto (Straight) A straight pitch (baseball) To win in straight sets (volleyball, 3 table tennis) Taan (Turn) A turn (swimming) 1 Tai (Tie) A tie (in a score) 7 Taimu (Time) A (lap) time (swimming) 3 Taimurii (Timely) A timely hit (baseball) 1 Taitoru macchi (Title match) A title match (boxing) 1 Tenisu (Tennis) Tennis 9 Tii shotto (Tee shot) A tee shot 1 Toonamento (Tournament) A tournament 7 Toppu battaa (Top batter) The first batter 1 Torai (Try) A try (rugby) 1 Toraiasuron (Triathlon) Triathlon 2 Toreedo (Trade) A trade (of players) (baseball) 1 Toripuru sukoa (Triple score) A triple score 1 Tsuaa (Tour) A tour (golf) 1 Ueeto oobaa (Weight over) Overweight (boxing) 1 Waido (Wide) Wide, one type of winning in horse 4 racing Wanpanchi K O (One punch K(nock) A knock out caused by a heavy O(ut)) blow to vital parts such as one's head (boxing) 1 Yaadeeji (Yardage) Yardage (golf) 1 Yuusu (Youth) Youth soccer (team) 1 I l l Table A2. List of "Technical Terms" Related to Economy, Politics, and International Affairs LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Anarisuto (Analyst) A securities analyst 3 Baburu (Bubble) Bubble economy 14 Baransu shiito (Balance sheet) A balance sheet 1 Beesu (Base) A base, a basis 2 Danpingu (Dumping) Dumping 1 Defure (Deflation) Deflation 10 Deribatibu (Derivative) Financial derivatives 1 Detanto (French Detente) Detente, the relaxation of tensions 1 between nations Doimoi (Doi Moi) Vietnam's Doi Moi program 3 Ekuiti (Equity) Equity 1 Fando (Fund) A fund 8 Fasutotorakku (Fast Track) Fast track (trade) 4 Furiihando (Freehand) The free hand 1 Guruupu (Group) A corporate group 7 Hooruseeru (Wholesale) A wholesale 2 Infura (mfra(structure)) A n infrastructure 8 Kaado (Card) A means of achieving a goal as a last resort, usually used in 4 foreign policy. Kaikei biggu ban (Japanese kaikei Accounting big bang 'finance'+ big bang) Kooru (Call (market)) A call market 1 Maaketingu (Marketing) Marketing Maaketto (Market) A market 1 Negatibu risuto (Negative list) Negative list 1 Ofu baransu (Off balance) Off balance sheet financing 1 Ooto roon (Auto loan) A loan for buying a car 1 Opushon (Option) Options Peiofu (Payoff) A payoff 1 Peresutoroika (Russian Pyeryestroykd) Perestroika 1 112 Table A2 — Continued. LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Raundo (Round) A trade round 1 Risukuhejji (Risk hedge) A risk hedge 1 Risutora (Restru(cturing)) Restructuring (of an organization) 7 Riteeru (Retail) Retail 5 Saabisu (Service) Service, labour 39 Samitto (Summit) A conference of highest-level officials (as heads of 5 government)3 Seefugaado (Safeguard) Safeguard 17 Seefuti netto (Safety net) Safety net 1 Shea (Share) A share 3 Supairaru (Spiral) A (deflation) spiral 1 Sutokku (Stock) A financial stock 7 Sutoratejisuto (Strategist) A financial strategist 3 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10' Edition s.v. "summit." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [21 May 2003]. 113 Table A3. List of "Technical Terms" Related to Computers LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Adoresu (Address) (An e-mail or website) address 5 Akusesu (Access) Access (to information, websites, 1 etc.) Apuraiansu (Appliance) (Internet appliances) 1 Buroodobando (Broadband) Broadband 1 Daburukurikku-suru (Doubleclick + To doubleclick 1 Japanese suffix -suru 'to do') Daunroodo-suru (Download + To download « Japanese suffix -suru 'to do') j Deeta (Data) Digital data 2 Deetabeesu (Database) A database 3 Dejitaru (Digital) Digital 4 Dejitarukamera (Digital camera) A digital camera 1 Doraggu-suru (Drag + Japanese suffix To drag 1 -suru 'to do') Fairu (File) A (computer) file 1 Hoomupeeji (Homepage) A homepage 14 Insutooru-suru (Install + Japanese To install 1 suffix -suru 'to do') Intaanetto (Internet) or netto (net) Internet 39 Kiiboodo (Keyboard) A computer keyboard 1 Kiro bitto (Kilo bit) Kilo bit 1 Konpyuutaa (Computer) A computer 11 Kontentsu (Contents) (Website) contents 8 Kurikku-suru (Click + Japanese suffix To click 9 -suru 'to do') _ Meeru ((E-)mail) A n e-mail 34 Mega baito (Mega byte) Mega byte 2 Mega bitto (Mega bit) Mega bit 1 Menyuu (Menu) A command menu that appears on 1 the screen 114 Table A3 — Continued. LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Modemu (Modem) A modem 1 Netto saafin (Net surfing) Net surfing 1 Onrain (Online) Online 5 Pasokon (Per(sonal) com(puter)) A personal computer, a home 31 computer Pootaru saito (Portal site) A portal site 1 Puroguramingu (Programming) Computer programming 1 Saito (Site) A (web)site 14 Settoappu (Setup) A setup (for installing a software) 1 Shisutemu (System) A (computer) system 5 Sofuto(wea) (Soft(ware)) Software 11 Sukurooru-suru (Scroll + Japanese To scroll 1 suffix -sum 'to do') Tacchipaneru (Touch panel) A touch panel display 2 Tenkii (Ten key) A numeric keypad on a computer 9 keyboard z Webusaito (Website) A website 1 115 Table A4. List of "Technical Terms" Related to Other Fields LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Anmonia (Ammonia) Ammonia 3 Ansanburu (French ensemble 'group, A music ensemble 1 set') Arerugii (German allergie 'allergy') Allergy 1 Bacchi (Batch) A batch, a unit used to measure 20 uranium Bagupaipu (Bagpipe) A bagpipe 1 Baiorin (Violin) A violin 1 Baiorinisuto (Violinist) A violinist 1 Baipasu (Bypass) Bypass, as in cardiac bypass surgery 3 Bareru (Barrel) A barrel, a unit used to measure 1 crude oil Bekutoru (German vektor 'vector') A vector 1 Benzen (Benzene) Benzene 1 Bifizusukin ((lacto bacillus) bifidus + Lactobacillus bifidus -i Japanese kin 'bacillus') j Biikaa (Beaker) A beaker 3 Bitamin (Vitamin) Vitamin 1 Bokkusu (Box) A type of lottery 2 Chaataa sukuuru (Charter school) The charter school program 1 Chenbaro (Italian cembalo A harpsichord 1 'harpsichord') Chero (Cello) A cello 3 Chippu (Chip) A chip 1 Daiokishin (Dioxin) Dioxin 1 Dei saabisu (Day service) A welfare program which provides nursing care for the elderly 3 during the daytime Diizeru (Diesel) Diesel 1 Dokyumentarii (Documentary) A documentary 1 116 Table A4 — Continued. LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Donaa (Donor) A donor 1 Eizu (AIDS) AIDS, HIV 16 Enjin ruumu (Engine room) A n engine compartment 1 Furamenko (Flamenco) Flamenco 1 Furii sukuuru (Free school) Free school 1 Furonto guriru (Front grill) The front grill of a car 1 Ganma naifu (Gamma knife) A gamma knife 1 Gipusu (German gips 'plaster') Plaster 1 Gitaa (Guitar) A guitar 1 Heddo ranpu (Head lamp) A car headlamp 1 Herunia (Hernia) A hernia 1 Herupaa (Helper) A person who provides care and help for the elderly or disabled 4 people Hikari faibaa (Japanese hikari 'light' + Optical fibre 1 fibre) Horumon (Hormone) A hormone 7 Hosupisu (Hospice) A hospice 3 Intaaferon (Interferon) Interferon 1 Kaaten kooru (Curtain call) A curtain call 1 Karushiumu (Calcium) Calcium 1 Karute (German karte 'card') A medical record, a chart 2 Kea manejaa (Care manager) A welfare consultant who assesses appropriate care plans for the 2 elderly who needs nursing Kinaaze (German kinase 'kinase') Kinase 1 Kisuringu (German Kissling) A Kissling (A knapsack for 1 mountain climbing) Kuroon (Clone) A clone 11 Kurosu burendo (Cross blend) A cross-blend method 1 Maguma (Magma) Magma 1 Magunichuudo (Magnitude) Magnitude 4 Table A4 — Continued. LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Marinba (Marimba) A marimba 2 Masuto (Mast) The mast of a ship 2 Mausu (Mouse) A mouse used in experiments 3 Medoree (Medley) A medley (music) 1 Mentooru (Menthol) Menthol 1 Mesu (Dutch mes 'knife') A surgical knife 1 Mini ban (Mini van) A mini van 1 Misairu (Missile) A missile 10 Misuterii (Mystery) A mystery play (a play based on 1 the bible) Mochiifu (French motif ''motive') A motif 1 Nairon (Nylon) Nylon 1 Obuje (French objet 'object') Objet d'art 2 Ookesutora pitto (Orchestra pit) A n orchestra pit 1 Ootomata (Automata) A n automaton 6 Orugan (Portuguese orgao 'organ') A n organ (instrument) 1 Piano (Piano) A piano 3 Poriesuteru (Polyester) Polyester 2 Purasu (Plus) Plus 4 Purasuchikku (Plastic) Plastic 1 Pureeto (Plate) Any of the large movable segments into which the earth's -3 lithosphere is divided according J to the theory of plate tectonics3 Purusaamaru (Plu(tonium) thermal Plutonium thermal use, recycling T (use)) of used nuclear energy z Raifu sapootaa (Life supporter) Same as herupaa 1 Reesu gurasu (Lace glass) A lace glass 3 Regyuraa (Regular) Regular gasoline 2 Regyuraa bangumi A television program that is (Regular + Japanese bangumi broadcasted at a fixed time for 1 'program') more than 3 months Table A4 — Continued. LOANWORDS (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURENCE Reshiibaa tanku (Receiver tank) The receiver tank of a nuclear plant 5 Saabo (Servo(mechanism)) Servomechanism 1 Samaa sukuuru (Summer school) Summer school 1 Semana santa (Spanish Semana santa Semana Santa (Holy week) 'holy week') z Setto (Set) A set (one type of lottery) 2 Shirikon uehaa (Silicon wafer) A silicon wafer 1 Shiruetto (French silhouette 'outline, A silhouette, an outline 1 silhouette') Shooto sutei (Short stay) A program of nursing homes where a patient can stay for a short 1 time when the family members cannot care for the patient Sonaa (Sonar) Sonar 8 Soro (Solo) A solo singer 1 Supesharu kuruu (Special crew) A special crew at a nuclear plant 2 Suteroido horumon (Steroid hormone) A steroid hormone 1 Sutoresu (Stress) Stress 5 Toruen (Toluene) Toluene 1 Uirusu (German virus 'virus') A virus 38 Uran (German uran 'uranium') Uranium 46 Uraniru (Uranyl) Uranyl 24 Wagonsha (Wagon + Japanese sha A station wagon A 'vehicle') t Wakuchin (German vakzin 'vaccine') A vaccine 4 Yotto (Yacht) A yacht 1 Zodo (Mongolian dzud 'winter disaster') Damages caused by heavy snowfall 1 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10' Edition s.v. "plate." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [21 May 2003]. Appendix B List of "True Lexical-Gap-Fillers" LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Adobaruun (Ad(vertising) baloon) • A pseudo loan • A balloon used for advertising an event such as a sale or the 1 opening of a new store, etc. It can be in various shapes and is usually tied to the roof of a building. Aidoru (Idol) • An idol, as in teen idol. 1 Akushon (Action) • Action, in terms of fighting and vigorous physical movements 1 in scenes movies, television series, etc. Anarogu (Analog) • Analog, as opposed to digital. 2 Angura (Un(der)gro(und)) • An avant-garde movie or play that is usually shown in underground theatres. Anime (Anima(tion)) • An animated cartoon, an animation. 6 Ankeeto (French Enquete) • A questionnaire. 7 Apiiru (Appeal) • To appeal (to the public, the world, etc.). 8 Arubamu (Album) • A music album. 1 Autodoa (Outdoor) • Outdoor activities such as camping, hiking, bird watching, 1 fishing, etc. Baabekyuu (Barbeque) • To barbeque meat, seafood and/or vegetables in the open air (usually in parks and on river banks) as a part of a leisure 1 activity. LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING OCCURRENCE Baiburu (Bible) • A publication that is preeminent especially in authoritativeness or wide readership.3 1 Baketsu (Bucket) • A bucket. 19 Banana (Banana) • Bananas. 8 Barieeshon (Variation) • A variant of something. 2 Barikan (French Barriquand (de Marre)) • Hair clippers. 1 Barikeedo (Barricade) • A barricade. 2 Benchaa (bijinesu) (Venture (business)) • A venture business. 3 Besuto (Best) • The best, as in the best 16 (of a chart, a rating, etc.) 4 Besutoban (Best + Japanese ban) • An album that consists of hit songs of an artist. • Greatest hits. 6 Besutoseraa (Bestseller) • A bestseller. 1 Beteran (Veteran) • A person with a lot of experience in the field. 10 Bideo (Video) • Video, or an abbreviation of bideoteepu 'a videotape.' 3 Bideo kamera (Video camera) • A camcorder. 1 Bideo teepu (Videotape) • A videotape. 1 Biru (Buil(ding)) • A building, usually a high-rise building. 12 Boikotto-suru (Boycott + Japanese suffix suru 'to do') • To boycott. 1 Booi sukauto (Boy scout) • A Boy Scout. 1 Borantia (Volunteer) • A volunteer. 8 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Botan (Portuguese Botao) • A button. 5 Burandee (Brandy) • A brandy. 1 Buriki (Dutch blik) • A tinplate. 1 Burokkorii (Broccoli) • Broccoli. 1 Burudoozaa (Bulldozer) • A bulldozer. 2 Buuingu (Booing) • Booing. 1 Buumu (Boom) • A boom. 7 Chaaji (Charge) A violent rush forward (as to attack).b 1 Cheen (Chain) a group of enterprises or institutions of the same kind or function usually under a single ownership, management, or control <fast-food chains>° 1 Chiimu (Team) • A group of people associated together in work or an activity 54 such as a game or a sport. Chiimuwaaku (Teamwork) • Teamwork. 3 Chuurippu (Tulip) • A tulip. 1 Daaku hiiroo (Dark hero) • A villain in a story who possesses some kind of heroic quality. 1 Daiyaru-suru (Dial + Japanese suffix -sum • To dial (a telephone number). 1 'to do') Debitto kaado (Debit card) • A debit card. 1 Debyuu (French Debut) • Debut. 7 Deeta (Data) • Data. 9 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Denshirenji (Japanese dens hi 'electronic' + • A microwave. 1 range) Dibeeto (Debate) • A discussion of a certain topic by the two opposing sides, 1 usually pro and con. Dorai (Dry) • Businesslike, not involving personal emotions. 1 Dorama (Drama) • A drama series on television. 6 Doru (Dollar) A dollar. 27 Ekisu (Dutch Extract) • A n extract (of a herb, a fruit, etc.). 3 Ekonomii kurasu (Economy class) • Economy class (of a passenger aircraft). 1 Enameru (Enamel) • An enamel (paint). 1 Enerugii (German Energie) • Energy. 12 Epokku (Epoch) • An epoch. 1 Eriito (Elite) • An elite. 3 Esukareeto-suru (Escalate + Japanese • To escalate. 1 suffix -suru 'to do') Fairu (File) • A paper file. 1 Fakkusu (Fax) • A facsimile, a fax. 23 Famirii resutoran (Family restaurant) • A restaurant which offers a variety of menu items with low i prices. Usually open 24 hours a day. E.g. Denny's. j Fan (Fan) • A fan, as in a basketball fan. 10 Fasshon (Fashion) • Fashion. 5 to LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING OCCURRENCE Feminizumu (Feminism) • Feminism. 1 Ferii (Ferry) • A ferry. 2 Firumu (Film) • A film used for a still camera or a projector. 2 Furan (Franc) • A franc (the currency used such country as France, Switzerland, Belgium, etc.) 1 Furiitaa (Free + German (arbei)ter) • A person who makes his/her living by working part-time (arubaito 'a part-time job') instead of having a steady full-time job. 1 Furu (Full) • Being at a maximum degree. • Being qualified without any conditions, legitimate. 2 Gaadoreeru (Guardrail) • A crash barrier, a guardrail. 1 Garasu (Glass) • Glass. 14 Gasorin sutando (Gasoline stand) • A gas station. 1 Gasu (Gas) • Gas such as natural gas and poison gas. 4 Gattsu poozu (Guts pose) o A pseudo loan • To clench one's fist in victory or triumph. 2 Gaun (Gown) • A dressing gown. 1 Geemu (Game) • A game such as a computer game or a board game. 11 Googuru (Goggle) • Goggles. 1 Gurafu (Graph) • A graph. 3 Guramu (Gram) • Gram. 13 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Gureepufuruutsu (Grapefruits) • A grapefruit 2 Gyappu (Gap) • A gap, especially a difference in ideas. 2 Gyooza (Chinese Chiao tzu) • A Chinese dumpling. 1 Haadoboirudo (Hard-boiled) • A hard-boiled novel. 2 Haburashi (Japanese ha 'tooth' + brush) • A toothbrush. 2 Hai peesu (High pace) • A pseudo loan. 1 • Fast-paced, in a fast pace. Haijakku (Hijack) • A hijack (of an airplane). 1 Haikingu (Hiking) • A hike. 1 Hamusutaa (Hamster) • A hamster. 3 Handobaggu (Handbag) • A handbag. 1 Hau tsuu (How to) • Giving practical instruction and advice (as on a craft).d 1 Hekutaaru (Hectare) • A hectare. 1 Herikoputaa (Helicopter) • A helicopter. 3 Hisuterikku-na (Hysteric + Japanese • Hysterical. 1 adjectival suffix na) Hitto (Hit) • A hit, as in a hit song or a hit movie. 4 Hoomu (Home) • Nursing homes. 6 Horaa (Horror) • Horror. 1 Ibuningu doresu (Evening dress) • An evening gown. 2 Ideorogii (German Ideologie) • A n ideology. 1 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Inchi (Inch) • An inch. 1 Insentibu (Incentive) • An incentive, as an external influence such as a reward given to 1 consumers, employees, etc. to achieve a corporate goal. Insupireeshon (Inspiration) • Inspiration. 1 Intaanshippu (Internship) • An internship. 4 Interi (Russian Intelligentsiya) • An intellectual or an educated person. 1 Inuitto (Inuit) • Inuit. 1 Irasutoreetaa (Illustrator) • An illustrator. 4 Jaajii (Jersey) • Sportswear consisting of a jacket and pants, especially those 9 designated by a school. z Jaanarisuto (Journalist) • Ajournalist. 1 Jaketto (Jacket) • A jacket. 7 Jendaa (Gender) • Gender. 1 Jeru (Gel) • Gel. 1 Jirenma (Dilemma) • A dilemma. 3 Juushii (Juicy) • Juicy. 1 Kaado (Card) • A card, as in an index card, a library card, an identification card, etc. j Kaaneeshon (Carnation) • A carnation flower. 1 Kabaa (Cover) • Coverage (of an insurance policy). 9 • The dust jacket of a book. Z LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Kabaa booi (Cover boy) • A man who appears on a magazine cover. 1 Kakao (Cacao) • Cacao. 1 Kakuteru raunji (Cocktail lounge) • A cocktail lounge (in a hotel, a restaurant, an airport, etc.). 1 Kamera (Camera) • A camera. 1 Kappu (Cup) • A (measuring) cup. 4 Karaa (Colour) • Colour, as opposed to black and white. 7 Karafuru (Colourful) • Colourful. 3 Karee raisu (Curry (and) rice) • Curry and rice. 1 Karisuma (Charisma) • Charisma. 1 Katorikku (Catholic) • Catholic. 3 Kattaa (Cutter) • A utility knife. 1 Kaunseraa (Counsellor) • A professional counsellor, usually with a proper degree and 9 training in the field. z> Kaunseringu (Counselling) • Counselling done by a professional counseller. 2 K i i paason (Key person) • A person who has power and influence over the progress of a 1 project or in an organization. Kiiwaado (Keyword) • A key word. 1 Kiraa (Killer) • A person with a charm to enchant somebody. • Usually occurs in a compound and the word attached before kiraa refers to a person who is enchanted. E.g. Obasan kiraa 1 'a person who has a charm to enchant obasan (a middle aged woman).' to ON LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Kirisuto (Portuguese Cristo) • (Jesus) Christ. 1 Kiro (Kilo) • Abbreviation for kilogram or kilometre. 34 Kiro guramu (Kilogram) • Kilogram. 1 Kiro meetoru (Kilometre) • Kilometre. 2 Kiro watto (Kilowatt) • Kilowatt. 1 Komaasharu (Commercial) • A radio or television commercial. 1 Komento (Comment) • A comment. 5 Komyunikeeshon (Communication) • Communication. 3 Konbiniensu sutoa (Convenience store) • A convenience store such as Seven Eleven. 2 Kondoomu (Condom) • A condom. 1 Konkuriito (Concrete) • Concrete (building material). 1 Konkuuru (French Concours) • A music or art contest. 2 Konpakuto (Compact) • Compact. 2 Konsarutanto (Consultant) • A consultant. 2 Konsarutingu (Consulting) • A consultation. 1 Konsensasu (Consensus) • A consensus. 4 Konseputo (Concept) • A fundamental view or idea of a project or an organization, a 1 concept. Kontena (Container) • A container (a large box for transporting cargo by a ship or a 1 truck). Konto (French Conte) • A short story. 1 to —] LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Koodo (Code) • A code. 1 Koohii (Dutch koffie) • Coffee. 3 Koonaa (Corner) • The section of a newspaper, a television show, or a radio show 8 that is dedicated to one topic. Koppu (Dutch kop) • A glass, a tumbler. 3 Kurabu (Club) • A club, a group of people with common interest. 3 Kurashikku (Classic) • Western classical music. 4 Kurasshu (Crush) • Crush. 1 Kurejitto kaado (Credit card) • A credit card 1 Kuria (Clear) • Clear. 2 Kurieetibu direkutaa (Creative director) • A person who directs the process of creating advertisements. 1 Kuriin (Clean) • Clean, meaning free from scandals and corruptions. 1 Kuriiningu (Cleaning) • Laundry done at a cleaner's shop, including dry cleaning. 6 Kuroozetto (Closet) • A closet. 3 Kuroozu appu (Close up) • A close-up, meaning a detailed view of an incident or a person. 2 Kuudetaa (French Coup d'Etat) • A coup d'etat. 4 Kyacchi booru (Catch ball) • Catch, as in 'to play catch.' 1 0 0 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Kyarakutaa (Character) • A character of a cartoon, a book, etc., especially non-human characters. • An animated person or non-human character created by commercial brands used in advertisements or made into a doll, such as Hello Kitty. 1 Kyaria (Career) • a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive achievement especially in public, professional, or business life.6 Maajan (Chinese Ma chiieh) • Mahjong. 1 Maikurobasu (Microbus) • A n angular shaped station wagon or a van. 1 Mairu (Mile) • A mile. 1 Majikku (Magic) • A marker pen. 1 Man (Man) • Usually occurs with a word that describes an occupation to mean 'a man whose job is xxx.' E.g. eigyd man 'a sales man.' • Manee rondaringu (Money laundering) • The act of laundering money. 1 Manejaa (Manager) • A person who manages the work schedules and public relations of a singer, an actor, a band, etc. Manned (Manneri(sm)) • A monotonous routine, a rut. 1 Manto (French Manteau) • A mantle, a cloak. 1 Mantorupiisu (Mantelpiece) • A mantelpiece. 1 Maruchi shoho (Multi + Japanese shoho 'a • A multilevel marketing plan. marketing method') Maruchimedia (Multimedia) • Multimedia. 2 to LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Maruku (German (Deutsche) Mark) * A mark (the currency of Germany). 1 Masshuruumu (Mushroom) « A mushroom. 2 Masukomi (Mass Commu(nication)) • Mass media, the press. 9 Media (Media) « Media. 13 Meetoru (Metre) « A metre. 109 Messeeji (Message) « A message. 7 Miitoroofu (Meatloaf) « A meatloaf. 1 Mini tomato (Mini tomato) « A cherry tomato. 1 Minisukaato (Miniskirt) « A miniskirt. 1 Miri (Milli) A millimetre. 5 Misumacchi (Mismatch) • A mismatch. 1 Monitaa (Monitor) • A monitor (of e.g. computer). 2 Monitaringu-suru (Monitoring + Japanese « To monitor. 1 suffix -sum 'to do') Musshuu (French Monsieur) • Monsieur, Mister, sir. 2 Nachizumu (Nazism) • Nazism. 1 Nashonaru chiimu (National team) • A national team. 1 Nekkachiifu (Neckerchief) • A neckerchief. 2 Nekutai (Necktie) * A (neck)tie. 1 Nettowaaku (Network) « A network. 5 Nitto (Knit) . Knitted clothes or clothes made from a knitted fabric. 5 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Nouhau (Know-how) • Knowledge of how to do something smoothly and efficiently/ 1 the "tricks." Nyuansu (French Nuance) • A nuance. 1 Nyuusu (News) • News. 8 Oo do toware (French Eau de toilette) • Eau de toilette. 1 Ootobai (Auto bi(cycle)) • A motorcycle. 2 Opinion riidaa (Opinion leader) • A n opinion leader. A person whose opinions have the influence to the formation of public opinion, such as journalists or critics. 1 Opushonaru tsuaa (Optional tour) • A n optional tour. A one-day or half-day tour which a person 1 can choose and join with an extra cost. Oriibu (Olive) • Olive. 2 Painto (Pint) • A pint. 1 Paipu (Pipe) • (In a metaphorical sense) a person who works to promote better understanding between people or organizations. 5 Pakku tsuaa (Pack tour) or tsuaa (Tour) • A package tour, a holiday package. 17 Pan (Portuguese Pao) • A bread. 2 Paneru (Panel) • A flat, rectangular board used to display a poster or a photograph. • A group of people, usually experts, who discuss a topic of the area of their expertise before an audience. J Panikku (Panic) • Panic. 1 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Pantsu (Pants) • A pair of pants, trousers. 1 Paruchizan (French Partisan) • A partisan. 1 Parupu (Pulp) • (Wood) pulp. 1 Pasuteru karaa (Pastel colour) • Pale or light colours. 1 Patokaa (Pat(rol) car) • A patrol car. 1 Pea (Pair) • A pair consisting of a man and a woman (or a male and a -i female), a couple. Pedaru (Pedal) • A pedal (e.g. of a bicycle). 1 Peeji (Page) • A page. 9 Peesu (Pace) • A pace, speed. 6 Peso (Peso) • A peso (a currency used in Mexico, Chile, Argentina, etc.). 1 Picchi (Pitch) • A pace, a rate of progress. 3 Piero (French Pierrot) • A clown. 1 Pikunikku (Picnic) • A picnic. 1 Pinpointo (Pinpoint) • Pinpoint. 1 Pondo (Pound) • A pound (a currency used in the United Kingdom). 16 • A pound (a unit used to measure weight) Ponpu (Pump) • A pump. 3 Pooru (Pole) • A pole, as in a flagpole. 1 Posutaa (Poster) • A poster. 2 Puraibashii (Privacy) • Privacy. 3 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Purattohoomu (Platform) • A platform in a station. 1 Pureeto (Plate) • A commemorative plate. 1 Puripeido kaado (Prepaid card) • A prepaid card such as a calling card. 3 Puroguramu (Program) • A program, as in an internship program. 2 Radikaru (Radical) • Radical 1 Rain (Line) • An assembly line of a factory. 1 Rappu (Wrap) • A plastic wrap. 1 Rasshu (Rush) • A rush, as in a medal rush. 2 Reberu appu (Level up) • Raising a level or a standard (of something). 2 Reesu (Lace) • A lace. 3 Rejaa rando (Leisure land) • A pseudo loan. • A large amusement park, which integrates a variety of facilities such as a swimming pool, a baseball stadium, a golf club, etc. 1 Rentakaa (Rent-a-car) • A rented car. 3 Renzu (Lens) • A lens. 1 Retasu (Lettuce) • A lettuce. 2 Ribon (Ribbon) • A ribbon. 3 Rifuresshu-suru (Refresh + Japanese suffix -suru 'to do') • To refresh, revive, or replenish. 1 Rihabiri (Rehabili(tation)) • A rehabilitation (after an injury or illness). 7 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Rikuesuto (request) • A request made by viewers or listeners on a television or radio 1 show, usually a song. Rimokon (Remo(te) con(trol)) • A remote controller of a TV, VCR, etc. 1 Rimujin (Limousine) • A limousine. 3 Rippu saabisu (Lip service) • A lip service, an avowal of advocacy, adherence, or allegiance 9 expressed in words but not backed by deeds.8 Rira (Lira) • A lira (a currency used in Italy). 1 Risaikuru (Recycle) • Recycling. 12 Rittoru (Litre) • A litre. 9 Robii (Lobby) • The lobby (e.g. of a hotel). 7 Robotto (Robot) • A robot. 1 Rokkaa (Locker) • A locker. 1 Roman (French Roman) • Something that satisfies one's dream or admiration for an 1 adventure. Romantishizumu (Romanticism) • Romanticism. 1 Ronguseraa (Long(time) seller) • A longtime seller, such as a book. 1 Roomaji (Roma + Japanese ji 'a • The Latin alphabets. 1 letter/character') Ryukku (German Ruck(sack)) • A knapsack, a daypack. 3 Sarada (Salad) • A salad. 3 Sarariiman (Salari(ed) man) • A n office worker. 16 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Sauna(Sauna) • A sauna. 1 Seerusu tooku (Sales talk) • Sales pitch/talk. 1 Seetaa (Sweater) • A sweater. 1 Senchi (Centi(metre)) • Centimetre. 11 Senseeshonaru (Sensational) • Sensational. 1 Sentaa (Centre) • A centre, as in day-care centre. 8 Serori (Celery) • Celery. 2 Serufu (Self) • An abbreviation of serufu saabisu 'self-service.' 1 Setto (Set) • Something that sets up an electronic device such as a computer or software, so that it can be used. 3 • An artificial setting for a movie or a play. Shanpen (Champagne) • Champagne. 1 Shatoru basu (Shuttle bus) • A shuttle bus. 1 Shatsu (Shirts) • A shirt. 1 Shawaa (Shower) • A shower, as 'to take a shower.' 1 Sheekaa (Shaker) • A cocktail shaker. 1 Shiiru (Seal) • An adhesive sticker, as in a bumper sticker. 1 Shingaa songuraitaa (Singer songwriter) • A singer who composes his/her own music and writes the lyrics. > Shinishizumu (Cynicism) • Cynicism. 1 Shinku tanku (Think tank) • A think tank. 1 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Shinnaa (Thinner) • A volatile liquid (as turpentine) used especially to thin paint.h 1 Shinpojiumu (Symposium) • A symposium. 1 Shiriizu (Series) • A series. 8 Shokku(Shock) • A shock, as in ' I am in shock.' 9 Sofa (Sofa) • A sofa. 3 Sukaafu (Scarf) • A scarf. 1 Sukaato (Skirt) • A skirt. 2 Sukauto (Scout) • A scout, as in boy scout or girl scout. 1 Sukii (Ski) • Skiing. 4 Sukuutaa (Scooter) • A motor scooter. 1 Sukyandarasu (Scandalous) • Scandalous. 1 Sunappu shashin (Snap + Japanese • A snapshot. 1 shashin) Supootsu (Sports) • Sports. 13 Supootsuman (Sportsman) • A sportsman, an athlete. 1 Surimuka (Slim + Japanese suffix ka) • To downsize a company or an organization by cutting the unnecessary expenses so that it can be managed more 1 efficiently. Suroogan (Slogan) • A slogan. 1 OS LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Sutando (Stand) • Stands, meaning tiered seats for spectators at sports facilities such as a stadium. • An abbreviation of gasorin sutando 'gasoline stand' which means 'a gas station.' z Suteeki (Steak) • A (beef) steak. 1 Sutereo (Stereo) • A stereo (an audio system). 1 Suupaa (Super(market)) • A supermarket. 12 Suupaasutaa (Superstar) • A superstar. 1 Suupu (Soup) • A soup, usually a Western styled soup. 6 Suutsu (Suits) • A suit. 4 Tabako (Portuguese Tabaco) • A cigarette. 1 Tacchi (Touch) • A characteristic or distinguishing trait or quality.1 Especially those added intentionally by the creator of a movie, a book, an animation, etc. so that it has a specific feel. E.g. a horror touch. 1 Tafu (Tough) • Tough. 1 Taimingu (Timing) • Timing. 3 Taimurii (Timely) • Timely. 1 Taiya (Tire) A tire. 1 Takosu (Spanish Tacos) • A taco. 1 Takushii (Taxi) • A taxi. 1 Tanku (Tank) • A tank (for storing fuel, water, etc.). 2 LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING #OF OCCURRENCE Tarento (Talent) • A T V personality, a celebrity (from the entertainment industry, f. especially television). o Teema paaku (German Thema + park) • A theme park. 3 Teepu (Tape) • A n audiotape. 2 Terebi (Televi(sion)) • A television. 43 Tero (Terro(rism)) • Terrorism. 12 Terorisuto (Terrorist) • A terrorist. 3 Uon (Won) • A won (the currency of North and South Korea). 2 Usutaa soosu (Worcestershire) sauce) • Worcestershire sauce. 1 Waakushoppu (Workshop) • A workshop. 2 Waido shoo (Wide show) • A television program which broadcasts entertainment news 1 including gossips. Wanpiisu (One piece) • A dress. 1 Wingu (Wing) • Parts of airport that project from the main building like wings. 1 Yaado (Yard) • A yard (a unit used to measure length or distance). 7 Yooguruto (Yoghurt) • Yoghurt. 1 Yunihoomu (Uniform) • A uniform. 1 Yuukari (Eucaly(ptus)) • Eucalyptus. 1 Yuuro (Euro) • A euro (the currency used in the countries of the European A Union). H Zakku (German Sack) • A knapsack. 1 0 0 #OF LOANWORD (Original Word) MEANING OCCURRENCE Zubon (French Jupon) • A (pair of) pants, trousers. 2 TOTAL 1192 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10' Edition s.v. "bible." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [21 May 2003]. b Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10lh Edition s.v. "charge." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [21 May 2003]. c Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "chain." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [21 May 2003]. d Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10lh Edition s.v. "how-to." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. c Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10lh Edition s.v. "career." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. f Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "know-how." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. 8Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "lip service." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. h Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "thinner." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. 1 Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition s.v. "touch." Internet on-line, <http://www.m-w.com>. [22 May 2003]. Appendix C List of Loanwords With Stylistic Effects LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Aatisuto (Artist) Geijutsuka 'an artist' 1 • emphasizes the meaning of geijutsuka Adobaisu (Advice) Jogen 'an advice' • sounds less definitive, less authoritative, less • sounds authoritative 7 compelling Adobaizaa (Advisor) Komon 'an advisor' • gives the impression that an advisor is that of • gives the impression that an advisor is that of a 1 an organization based on Western ideas traditional Japanese hierarchical organization Bijinesuman (Businessman) Kaishain 'a company employee' • sounds sophisticated and special • gives the impression that a person is a 3 competent and active businessman who carries out business internationally Bosu (Boss) Oyabun 'a boss' • the loanword can be used in a colloquial or • the word is too colloquial for a newspaper 3 formal contexts article Bukku (Book) Hon 'a book' • to emphasize the new format of books, which 1 is digital or online books 4 ^ O LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Burando (Brand) Meigara 'a brand' • sounds sophisticated • burando usually refers to a famous brand 6 names and to have a product of those brands is a status indicator Chaina (China) Chugoku 'China' 1 • emphasized China as an international nation Chiifu (Chief) Shunin 'chief • sounds stylish • only occurs as a compound that refers to a job J title Derakkusu (Deluxe) Goka 'luxurious, deluxe' • sounds sophisticated and emphasize the 1 splendour of a dish, a product, etc. Dokyumento (Document) Kiroku 'a record, a document' A • sounds stylish H Eesu (Ace) Shuryoku senshu 'a main player (of a sport team)' • gives the impression that a person is a star • sounds more plain than eesu A player of a team and is a skilled and famous • gives the impression that a person is a skilled player but not necessarily a famous player LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Ekonomisuto (Economist) Keizaigakusha 'an economist' • sounds up-to-date and practical • gives the impression that a person has a • association with a person that has a practical theoretical knowledge of economy but not 9 knowledge of economy necessarily a practical one • association with a professor of economics at a post-secondary institution Entateimento (Entertainment) Goraku sakuhin3 'a piece of entertainment.' • sounds elaborate, sophisticated, more 1 glamourous Episoodo (Episode) Itsuwa 'an anecdote' 1 • sounds casual • sounds serious and dignified Eregansu (Elegance) Yubi 'elegance' • emphasis on the sophistication and 1 gracefulness Ereganto (Elegant) Johin 'elegant' • emphasis on the sophistication and 1 gracefulness Faasuto redii (First lady) Shusho fujin 'the Prime Minister's wife' • to emphasize the significance of the status of 1 the Prime Minister's wife Fea (Fair) Kohei 'fair' • to emphasize the meaning of kohei 1 • to avoid the repetition of the word kohei LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Feanesu (Fairness) Kosei 'fairness' • a nonce borrowing 1 • to emphasize the meaning of kosei Furoa (Floor) Kai 'a floor (of a building)' 1 • sounds stylish and sophisticated Girutii (Guilty) Yuzai 'guilty' • a nonce borrowing • to indicate the foreignness of the subject 1 • to display the speaker's intellect or his/her knowledge of the English language Guroobaru (Global) Chikyu kibo 'global scale' • sounds modern and contemporary 4 • emphasis on 'world' rather than 'earth' Gurotesuku (Grotesque) Iyo 'strange, grotesque' 1 • to emphasize the meaning of the word iyo Haato (Heart) Kokoro 'heart' • to emphasize the dedication of a person to the 3 team Hantaa (Hunter) Shuryoka 'a hunter' 1 • to create an alien atmosphere of the story Hiiroo (Hero) Eiyu 'a hero' o • sounds casual z LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Hiroin (Heroine) Josei shujinko 'a principal female character • sounds more dramatic (=heroine)' u Ibento (Event) Moyoshi 'an event' f. • sounds modern and trendy • sounds somewhat traditional Iesu (Yes) Hai 'yes' 1 • sounds stylish Izumu (—ism) Shugi 'a principle, doctrine' 1 • sounds stylish and somewhat casual Junia (Junior) (No) musuko 'a son (of)' • emphasize the fact that the person is somebody's son 1 • a stylish way to say that a person is somebody's son Kauntodaun (Countdown) Byoyomi 'a countdown' 1 • sounds stylish K i i (Key) Shuyo 'important, key (as in 'key industry')' • sounds stylish 1 • usually occurs as a compound Komyunitii (Community) Chiiki shakai 'local community' • emphasis on friendliness and the • emphasis on the official aspect of a 2 "neighbourhood" feeling community Korekushon (Collection) Shushuhin 'a collection' • emphasis on the artistic aspect of a collection z 4^ LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Kuraimakkusu (Climax) Yama 'the climax' 1 • sounds more dramatic Kyarakutaa (Character) Seikaku 'character, personality' 1 • adds sophistication to the speech or text Manmosu (Mammoth) Kyodaina 'gigantic, enormous' • to emphasize the meaning of the word 1 kyodaina Medarisuto (Medallist) Medaru jushosha 'a medal winner' • to emphasize the honour and prestige of 2 winning a medal Meeto (Mate) Nakama 'a companion' • sounds stylish 1 • only occurs as a compound Modan (Modern) Kindaiteki 'modern' • emphasis on style and fashion • emphasis on ideas and techniques 1 • creates a nostalgic and retro atmosphereb Moraru (Moral) Dotoku 'morals' • association with morals based on • association with morals based on traditional 1 contemporary ideas values Noo (No) lie 'no' • to emphasize the denial of a person or a matter 3 • sounds fashionable 4*. LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Ofisu (Office) • sounds sophisticated and stylish Jimusho 'office' • sounds plain and unstylish 1 Oiru (Oil) • sounds fashionable and appealing to the consumers • likely to be associated with oils for cosmetic use Abura/yu (when as a compound, e.g. kyanoora-yu 'canola oil') 'o i l ' • can also be associated with cooking oil 1 Paatii (Party) • sounds modern, sophisticated, and stylish Enkai 'a party' 6 Pakkeeji (Package) • gives the impression that a product is packaged in an elaborate way Hoso 'package' • gives the impression that a product is packaged in a plain and conventional way 2 Parijan (French Parisien) • sounds sophisticated and posh Parikko 'Parisien(ney • does not have the sophistication or the flair of parijan 1 Pawaa (Power) • to emphasize the meaning of chikara Chikara 'power, strength' 6 Pootaburu (Portable) • sounds stylish and sophisticated • to appeal to the consumers Keitaiyo 'portable' 1 Pootoreito/Pootoreeto (Portrait) • sounds artistic Shozo 'a portrait' 2 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Rakkii (Lucky) Koun 'lucky, fortunate' o • sounds casual L Rannaa (Runner) Sosha 'a runner' • creates the feeling that a person is a 4 professional runner Retoro (Retro) Kaiko 'reminiscence' • gives a new and fashionable images to 7 something that belongs to an old time Riaritii (Reality) Genjitsu(sei) 'reality' • sounds sophisticated and adds a flair to the text J Ruumu (Room) Heya/shitsu (when in compound, e.g. rokkaa shitsu • sounds stylish 'a locker room') 'a room' 2 • only occurs as a compound Sekuto (Sect) Toha 'a faction' 1 • sounds more anti-authoritarian Shattoauto (Shut out) Shimedasu 'to shut out' • sounds less strong and offensive, thus • has the connotation that somebody is being 1 softening the tone of a sentence shut out for a punishment Shinboru (Symbol) Shocho 'a symbol' 1 • to emphasize the meaning of the word shocho Shingaa (Singer) Kashu 'singer' 1 • sounds modern, new-fashioned LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Shinia (Senior) Jokyu 'higher rank, senior' • sounds stylish 1 • only occurs as a compound that refers to a job title Shiruku (Silk) Kinu 'silk' • sounds modern and Westernized • likely to be associated with traditional 1 • likely to be used to refer to silk as a material Japanese clothing such as kimono for Western clothing Shoppingu (Shopping) Kaimono 'shopping' • sounds fashionable and trendy • emphasis on shopping out of necessity 1 • emphasis on shopping for fun Shoppu(Shop) Mise/ten (when as compound, e.g. supootsu-ten 'a • sounds fashionable sports shop') 'shop' 1 • only occurs as a compound Supesharisuto (Specialist) Senmonka 'a specialist, an expert' A • sounds modern and new-fashioned Tabuu (Taboo) Kinki 'taboo' • sounds less serious 4 • decreases the degree of prohibition Taimu (Time) Jikan 'time' 1 • sounds stylish Tesuto (Test) Shiken 'an exam, a test' • sounds less important or less serious • sounds important and serious 4*. 0 0 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT # OF OCCURRENCE Toraburu (Trouble) Izakoza 'a trouble' • the loanword can be used in colloquial or • the word is too colloquial for a newspaper 2 formal contexts article Toraianguru (Triangle) Sankakkei 'a triangle' 1 • sounds stylish Toreeningu Wea (Training Wear) Undogi 'sportswear' 1 • sounds sophisticated and stylish • sounds somewhat dowdy and tacky Torio (Trio) Sanningumi 'a trio' • adds humour Waaku (Work) Shigoto 'work' • sounds sophisticated Wan (One) Ichi 'one' • sounds stylish 2 • only occurs as a compound Wocchingu (Watching)0 Kansatsu 'observation' 1 • emphasis on a leisure activity • emphasis on scientific observations Zeneraru manejaa (General manager) Soshihainin 'a general manager' • emphasis on the authenticity (since the management system of a professional baseball 4 or ice hockey team was imported from the United States) TOTAL 167 4^ a This Japanese equivalent was provided by the researcher. In the dictionaries, the native term goraku 'entertainment, recreation' was provided. However, in the context, the loanword entateimento 'entertainment' referred to a book. Thus, the researcher, based on her native intuition, decided that it would be more appropriate and would sound more natural if sakiihin 'a piece, a work' was added to goraku to make a compound goraku sakuhin 'a piece of entertainment,' which projects the actual meaning of entateimento in this particular context. However, since the loanword entateimento only occurs once in the data, it is impossible to prove if entateimento has a wider semantic range than goraku. b According to Kojien 5 t h ed. (online version), kindai 'modern age,' from a historical perspective, refers to a period between the Meiji Restoration (1868) and the end of the Pacific War (1945) in the Japanese history. Since the loanword modan was adopted during that time period {Sanseido's Konsaisu Katakanago Jiten (Concise Dictionary of Katakana Words) suggests it was adopted around mid 1920s), the researcher suspects that the word reflects the "modernness" of that period and thus creating a nostalgic and retro effect when used in a contemporary setting. c The loanword wocchingu occurs in compounds, as in baado wocchingu 'bird watching.' However, it is not a loanword that occurs in accordance with another loanword to make a compound because of the following reasons. Firstly, it does not necessarily make a compound with another loanword, i.e., it can make a compound with a non-loanword, such as umiushi wocchingu 'nudibranch watching,' which appears in the data. Secondly, wocchingu can be replaced with the Japanese equivalent kansatsu 'observation' in the context that the loanword appears in the data. Lastly, using wocchingu instead of kansatsu makes the act of observing nudibranch a leisurely activity rather than a scientific observation. o 151 Appendix D List of Synonymous Loanwords LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Appu (Up) Josho3 'a rise, an ascent' 3 Appu Daun (Up (and) Down) Ukishizumi 'ups and downs' 1 Arukooru (Alcohol) Sake 'alcoholic drink' 1 Baggu (Bag) Kaban 'bag' 1 Bakku (Back) Ushirodate 'support, backing' 1 Beesu (Base) Kijun 'standard, base' 3 Besuto (Best) Sairyo 'the best' 2 Bijinesu (Business) Jigyo 'business' 6 Bijon (Vision) Tenbo 'a prospect, a view' 3 Booru (Ball) Tama 'ball' 2 Bureeki (Brake) Hadome 'brake' 1 Burookaa (Broker) Nakagainin 'a broker, a middleman' 1 Chansu (Chance) Kikai 'a chance, an opportunity' Charenji (Challenge) Chosen 'challenge' 1 Dairekuto (Direct) Chokusetsuteki 'directly' 1 Dameeji (Damage) Dageki 'damage, a blow' Daun(suru) (Down) Sagaru 'to go down' 1 Dorama (Drama) Geki 'a play, drama' 1 Eeru (Yell) Seien 'encouragement, cheering' Eria (Area) Chiiki 'area' 1 Faito (Fight) Toshi 'fighting spirit' 1 Fakutaa (Factor) Yoso 'a factor, an element' 1 Fiiringu (Feeling) Kanji 'feeling, sense' Firumu (Film) Usumaku'a sheet of film' 1 Furanku (Frank) Zakkubaran 'frank, candid' 1 Fureezu (Phrase) K u 'a phrase' 1 Gaido (Guide) Annai 'guide' 1 Gesuto (Guest) Tokubetsu (shutsujo/shutsuen)b 'special (participation/appearance)' z Guruupu (Group) Shudan 'group' 35 152 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Janru (Genre) Shurui 'a kind, category' 2 Kameraman (Cameraman) Shashinka 'cameraman' 1 Karaa (Colour) Shoku 'colour (meaning 1 'characteristics')' (as in 'kaikaku shoku') Kaunto(suru) (Count) Kazoeru 'to count' 1 Keesu bai keesu (Case by case) Koko no baai ni ojite 'according to each 3 case or occasion' Kiipu (Keep) Kakuho 'secure' 3 Konpurekkusu (Complex) Rettokan 'inferiority complex' 1 Kontakuto (Contact) Renraku 'contact (with someone)' 1 Kosuto (Cost) Hiyo 'cost, expenses' 27 Kuoritii (Quality) Shitsu 'quality' 1 Kyanseru (Cancel) Torikeshi 'cancel' 2 Manaa (Manner) Reigisaho 'manner, etiquette' 2 Masutaa (Master) Shutoku 'learn, master' 1 Meeku (Make (up)) Kesho 'makeup' 1 Meen (Main) Shuyo 'main, major' 2 Mentenansu (Maintenance) Seibi 'maintenance' 1 Meritto (Merit) Riten 'a merit' 6 Misuterii (Mystery) Suiri shosetsu 'a mystery/crime novel' 3 Muudo (Mood) Funiki 'an atmosphere' 18 Nekku (ni naru) (Neck) Shogai 'an obstacle' 1 Oonaa (Owner) Shoyusha 'owner' 5 Oopuningu (Opening) Shonichi 'the first day, an opening day'0 1 Opushon (Option) Sentakuken 'option' 1 Piiku (Peak) Saikocho 'peak' 5 Pinchi (Pinch) Kik i 'crisis' 11 Posuto (Post) Chii 'a position, a rank, status' 4 Puraido (Pride) Jisonshin 'pride, self esteem' 1 Purasu (Plus) Yuri 'advantageous, profitable' 2 Pureeyaa (Player) Senshu 'player, athlete' 3 Purojekuto (Project) Kikaku 'a project, a plan' 1 153 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Raifu saikuru (Life cycle) Shogai sekkei 'life plan' 1 Raifusutairu (Lifestyle) Seikatsu yoshiki 'a lifestyle' 4 Rain (Line) Suijun 'a level, a standard' 2 Ranchi (Lunch) Chushoku 'lunch' 2 Reen (Lane) Shasen 'a (traffic) lane' 2 Reeto (Rate) Soba 'market value' d 2 Riaru (Real) Genjitsuteki 'real, actual' 2 Riidaashippu (Leadership) Tosotsuryoku 'leadership' 3 Ripooto (Report) Hokokusho 'a report' 2 Risuku (Risk) Kiken 'a risk, a danger' 6 Rizumu (Rhythm) Choshi 'rhythm, as in "to get into the rhythm of life'" z Ruuto (Route) Keiro 'a route' 1 Seerusu (Sales) Hanbai 'sales' 1 Seminaa (Seminar) Koshukai 'seminar, lecture' 2 Sensu (Sense) Kankaku 'sense' 2 Setto (Set) Hitokumi 'a set, a pair' 3 Shifuto (Shift) Iko 'shift' 3 Shinpuru (Simple) Kanso 'simple, plain' 5 Sofuto (Soft) Odayaka 'amicable' 1 Sukeeru (Scale) Kibo 'scale (as in large/small scale)' 2 Sukejuuru (Schedule) Nittei 'schedule' 2 Sukiru (Skill) Gino 'skil l ' 1 Sukuriin (Screen) Gamen 'screen (of a television or a 1 monitor)' Sumuuzu (Smooth) Enkatsu 'smooth' 2 Supeesu (Space) Kukan 'space, room' 1 Supiido (Speed) Sokudo 'speed' 5 Suteeji (Stage) Butai 'stage' 1 Suteppu (Step) Dankai 'a step, a stage (as in 'proceed 1 step by step')' Sutoorii (Story) Monogatari 'story' 2 154 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Sutoppu(suru) (Stop) Tomaru 'to stop' 8 Taagetto (Target) Hyoteki 'target' 1 Taitoru (Title) Daimei 'title' 3 Tekunikku (Technique) Giko 'technique' 1 Tenshon (Tension) Kincho 'tension' 1 Toon (Tone) Gocho 'a tone of voice' 1 Toree (Tray) Bon 'tray' 2 Ueeto (Weight) Juyosei 'importance' 1 Wan suteppu (One step) Ichidankai 'one step' 1 TOTAL 287 a The word josho was provided by the researcher as a synonym for agarukoto 'to rise (+ nominalizer koto),'' which was provided in the dictionaries. Agarukoto and Josho have the same meaning, but since the loanword appu was treated as a noun (without a suffix -suru which turns it into a verb) in two of three occurrences in the data, josho, which is also a noun, was more appropriate as the Japanese equivalent. b The loanword gesuto occurs in two different compounds, gesuto shutsujo 'guest participation' and gesuto shutsuen 'guest appearance.' In these cases, the compounds can be replaced by Japanese equivalents tokubetsu shutsujo 'special participation' and tokubetsu shutsuen 'special appearance' respectively. However, it should be noted that the loanword gesuto 'guest' is not equivalent to tokubetsu 'special,' although as compounds, they are interchangeable. c The word shonichi was provided by the researcher as a synonym for words provided in the dictionaries such as kaishi 'start' and hatsukokai 'open for the public for the first time.' In the data, the loanword oopuningu is used to refer to the first day of a photo exhibition. Thus, based on her intuition as a native speaker of Japanese, the researcher judged that shonichi 'the first day, an opening day' was the most suitable Japanese equivalent and it could be used interchangeably with the loanword oopuningu in this context. d In the data, the loanword reeto 'rate' occurs as a compound kawase reeto '(foreign currency) exchange rate.' As a compound, kawase reeto can be used interchangeably with its Japanese equivalent kawase soba. Appendix E List of More Commonly Used Loanwords 155 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Akusento (Accent) Kyochoten 'a stress point' 1 Akusesarii (Accessory) Soshingu 'ornaments, accessory' 1 Baransu (Balance) Kinko 'balance' 9 Beddo (Bed) Shindai 'a bed' 6 Beru (Bell) Suzu 'a bell' 2 Biza (Visa) Sasho 'a visa' 35 Boonasu (Bonus) Shoyo 'a bonus' 3 Burujowa (French Bourgeois) Yusan kaikyu 'the bourgeoisie' 1 Charitii (Charity) Jizen 'charity' 2 Chiketto (Ticket) Kippu 'ticket' 1 Demo (Demo(nstration)) Shii undo 'a (public) demonstration' 6 Dezainaa (Designer) Ishoka 'a designer of crafts, toys, 1 commercial products, etc' Doa (Door) To 'a door' 2 Doraikuriiningu (Dry cleaning) Kanshiki sentaku 'dry cleaning' 1 Doramachikku (Dramatic) Gekiteki 'dramatic' 1 Doreepu (Drape) Hida kazari 'a frill, gathers' 1 Eakon (Air con(ditioner)) Kuki chosetsu sochi 'air conditioning device' Z Enjin (Engine) Hatsudoki 'an engine' 2 Epuron (Apron) Maekake 'an apron' 1 Erebeetaa (Elevator) Shokoki 'an elevator (literally, 'an up 1 and down machine')' Fensu (Fence) Saku 'a fence' 1 Fooramu (Forum) Kokai toronkai 'an open forum' 4 Furesshu (Fresh) Seishin 'fresh, new' 2 Gaidorain (Guideline) Shishin 'a guideline' 2 Gasorin (Gasoline) Kihatsuyu 'volatile oil, gasoline' 6 Gasu masuku (Gas mask) Bodokumen 'a gas mask' 1 Gurume (Gourmet) Bishoku 'epicurean' 2 156 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Haiteku (High-tech) Sentan gijutsu sangyo 'high technology industry' Hangaa (Hanger) Yofukukake 'a coat hanger' 1 Hankachi (Handkerchief) Tefuki 'a handkerchief 1 Herumetto (Helmet) Hogobo 'a safety helmet' 1 Hyuumanizumu (Humanism) Jinpon shugi 'humanism' 1 Kaabu (Curve) Wankyoku 'a curve' 1 Kakuteru (Cocktail) Kongoshu 'cocktail' 1 Kappuru (Couple) Koibito doshi 'a couple, lovers' 1 Keebufu (Cable (car)) Kosaku tetsudo 'wire rope railway' 1 Kontesuto (Contest) Kyogitaikai 'a contest, a competition' 1 Kopiiraitaa (Copywriter) Kokoku bunansha 'copywriter' Koramu (Column) Kakomi kiji 'a boxed article' 1 Kyacchifureezu (Catchphrase) Jakku 'a catchphrase' 1 Kyanbasu (Canvas) Hanpu 'canvas' 1 Manyuaru (Manual) Tebiki 'a handbook, a manual' 1 Medaru (Medal) Shohai 'a medal' 11 Meekaa (Maker) Seizogyosha 'manufacturer' 15 Menyuu (Menu) Kondate 'a menu' Midoru neemu (Middle name) Chukanmei 'middle name' 1 Misu (Miss) Shippai 'a mistake, a failure' Mottoo (Motto) Zayu no mei 'a motto' 1 Nekkuresu (Necklace) Kubikazari 'a necklace' 1 Niizu (Needs) Yokyu 'a request' 1 Nikkuneemu (Nickname) Adana 'a nickname' 1 Nookomento (No comment) Nanimo iukoto wa nai '(I) have nothing to say' (literal meaning) • Nosutarujikku (Nostalgic) Kaikyuteki 'nostalgic' 1 Oobun (Oven) Tenpi 'an oven' 1 Ookesutora (Orchestra) Kangengakudan 'an orchestra' 1 Oorora (Aurora) Kyokko 'an aurora, northern/southern lights' • 157 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Opera (Opera) Kageki 'opera' 5 Orenji (Orange) Daidai(iro) 'orange(-coloured)' 1 Paatonaa (Partner) Kyodosha 'a cooperator, a partner' 3 Pairotto (Pilot) Koku sojushi '(an airplane) pilot' 4 Panfuretto (Pamphlet) Shosasshi 'a booklet, a pamphlet' 1 Pasu (Pass) Tsuko kyokasho 'a pass (meaning 'a permit')' j Pataan (Pattern) Kata 'a pattern, a model' 2 Patorooru (Patrol) Junshi 'an inspection, a patrol' 3 Penneemu (Pen name) Hitsumei 'pen name' 1 Pinku (Pink) Momoiro "t 'pink (literally, 'peach colour')' z Puranto (Plant) Kojo shisetsu i 'a plant (literally, 'factory facilities')' j Puresshaa (Pressure) Atsuryoku 'pressure' 4 Purezento (Present) Okurimono 'a present, a gift' 1 Purodyuusaa (Producer) Seisaku sekininsha 'a producer' 4 Puroretaria (German Proletariat) Musan kaikyu 'the proletariat' 1 Raibaru (Rival) Kyoso aite 'a competitor, a rival' 2 Raibu (Live) Namaenso 'a live performance' 9 Raion (Lion) Shishi 'a lion' 1 Rankingu (Ranking) Junizuke 'ranking (be put in ranks)' 1 Ranku (Rank) Juni 'rank, ranking' 5 Rasuto (Last) Makugire 'an end' 1 Reedaa (Radar) Denpa tanchiki 'radar equipment' 1 Refarensu (Reference) Shiryo sodan 'reference service (at libraries) (literally, 'material 2 consultation')' Reriifu (Relief) Ukibori 'a carved relief 2 Resutoran (Restaurant) Ryoriten 'a restaurant' 3 Riidaa (Leader) Shidosha 'a leader' 11 Rinchi (Lynch) Shikei 'lynching' 4 Rizumikaru (Rhythmical) Ritsudoteki 'rhythmical' 1 158 LOANWORD (Original Word) JAPANESE EQUIVALENT #OF OCCURRENCE Roopu (Rope) Nawa 'a rope' 1 Runesansu (Renaissance) Bungei fukko 'the Renaissance' 5 Rupo (Repo(rtage)) Genchi hokoku 1 'a field report, a reportage' Ruuru (Rule) Kisoku 'a rule, a regulation' 4 Sain bukku (Sign book) Shomeicho 'a sign book' 1 Saizu (Size) Okisa 'size' 1 Seeru (Sale) Yasuuri 'a sale' 1 Sepia (Sepia) Kurokasshoku 'sepia' 1 Shiin (Scene) Bamen 'a scene' 5 Suponsaa (Sponsor) Koensha 'a supporter, a sponsor' 5 Supuree (Spray) Funmuki 'a spray' 2 Sutajio (Studio) Satsueishitsu 'a (photo) studio' 3 Tankaa (Tanker) Yusosen '(an oil) tanker' 2 Teeburu (Table) Shokutaku 'a (dining) table' 2 Tento (Tent) Tenmaku 'a tent' 6 Tonneru (Tunnel) Suido or Zuido 'a tunnel' 2 Torakku (Track) Kamotsu jidosha 'a truck' 2 Toreeningu (Training) Tanren 'training' 1 Uuru (Wool) Keorimono 'wool' 1 Yuumoa (Humour) Kaigyaku 'humour' 4 Yuumorasu (Humorous) Kaigyakuteki 'humorous' 1 Yuutopia (Utopia) Risokyd 'a Utopia' 1 Zemi (Semi(nar)) Enshu 'a seminar (at a university)' 1 Zenekon (Gene(ral) con(tractor)) Sogo kensetsugyosha -i 'general contractor' Zero (Zero) Rei 'zero' 5 TOTAL 307 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items