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Salmon and sustainability : the biophysical cost of producing salmon through the commercial salmon fishery… Tyedmers, Peter 2000

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Salmon and Sustainability: The Biophysical Cost of Producing Salmon Through the Commercial Salmon Fishery and the Intensive Salmon Culture Industry by Peter Horst Tyedmers B.Sc. (Hons.) Applied Earth Science, The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, 1988 L L . B . The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Resource Management and Environmental Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the^cpired standard The University of British Columbia 2000 © Peter Horst Tyedmers, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Abstract Technologies play a critical role in mediating the impact o f the human enterprise on the ecosphere. Consequently, the adoption of more biophysically efficient technologies is essential i f the sustainability o f the human enterprise is to improve as populations and per capita consumption demands increase. Within this context, the biophysical efficiency o f two salmon production technology systems were analysed and compared using ecological footprint and energy analysis. The two systems evaluated are the vessel-based commercial salmon fishery and the salmon farming industry, as both exist in Bri t ish Columbia, Canada. In addition, the relative efficiency o f the three harvesting technologies employed within the commercial fishery were also evaluated. The ecological footprint analyses entailed quantifying the marine and terrestrial ecosystem support areas needed to grow salmon, sustain labour inputs, and assimilate CO2 equivalent to the greenhouse gases that result from industrial energy and material inputs. The energy analyses focussed exclusively on the direct and indirect industrial energy inputs to both systems. The results o f both the ecological footprint and energy analyses indicate that salmon farming is the least biophysically efficient, and hence least sustainable system for producing salmon currently operating in Brit ish Columbia. On a species-specific basis, farmed chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) appropriated .the largest total area o f ecosystem support at 16 ha/tonne. This was followed by farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 12.7 ha/tonne, and commercially caught chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) at 11 ha/tonne and 10.2 ha/tonne, respectively. Commercially caught sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), chum (Oncorhynchus ketd), and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) had the smallest total ecological footprints at 5.7, 5.2 and 5 ha/tonne, respectively. Results o f the energy analyses followed a similar pattern. Farmed chinook salmon required a total fossil fuel equivalent industrial energy input o f about 117 GJ/tonne while at the other extreme, total energy inputs to commercially harvested pink salmon amounted to only 22 GJ/tonne. Within both systems, however, opportunities exist to improve the biophysical efficiency o f salmon production. Final ly , amongst the three commercial fishing technologies evaluated, purse seining was approximately twice as efficient at harvesting an average tonne o f salmon as were either gillnetting or trolling. ii Table of Contents A B S T R A C T II T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S III L I S T O F T A B L E S VIII L I S T O F F I G U R E S X I I A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S X I V D E D I C A T I O N X V C H A P T E R 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y 1 ALTERNATIVE ECOLOGICAL ECONOMIC APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY 3 Weak and Strong Sustainability 3 Conflicting Worldviews 6 How Much Natural Capital is Enough? 7 BIOPHYSICAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES 9 The Limitations of Economic Analyses 9 Energy Analysis and Related Techniques 10 Material Throughput Based Techniques 11 Carrying Capacity Based Techniques 12 P R E - A N A L Y T I C V I S I O N 14 I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E C A S E S T U D Y 14 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 15 METHODS USED 16 O U T L I N E O F R E M A I N I N G C H A P T E R S 16 C H A P T E R 2: S A L M O N P R O D U C T I O N I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 18 T H E C O M M E R C I A L S A L M O N F I S H E R Y 18 BASIC LIFE HISTORY OF PACIFIC SALMON 19 SALMON HARVESTING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 22 A Brief History of the Commercial Fishery and the Technologies Used 22 The Contemporary Commercial Salmon Fishery 25 ARTIFICIAL ENHANCEMENT OF SALMON 28 T H E I N T E N S I V E S A L M O N C U L T U R E I N D U S T R Y I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 30 BRIEF HISTORY OF SALMON FARMING 30 CONTEMPORARY SALMON FARMING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 34 Hatchery Production of Smolts 35 Lake-Based Smolt Rearing 36 Marine Grow-out 37 Harvesting and Transport 38 iii C H A P T E R 3: O V E R V I E W O F I S S U E S , A S S U M P T I O N S A N D M E T H O D S C O M M O N T O B O T H A N A L Y S E S 40 I S S U E S A N D A S S U M P T I O N S 40 T H E LIKE-PRODUCT ASSUMPTION 40 T H E PARTITIONING PROBLEM 41 T H E BOUNDARY PROBLEM 44 How INPUT PARAMETER VALUES WERE CHOSEN 44 A N A L Y T I C A L O V E R V I E W 45 ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS 45 Overview of the Inputs Included in This Analysis 46 Overview of How Ecosystem Support Areas Were Estimated 47 Footprinting Biological Inputs 48 Footprinting Labour Inputs 50 Footprinting Fossil Fuel Inputs 51 Footprinting Electricity Inputs 53 Footprinting Inorganic and Synthetic Organic Material Inputs 54 Aluminium 1 55 Steel 56 Other Metals 56 Glass 57 Concrete 58 Plastics 59 ENERGY ANALYSIS 60 The Energy Quality Problem 60 Energy Return on Investment 60 C H A P T E R 4: A N A L Y S I S O F T H E I N T E N S I V E S A L M O N C U L T U R E I N D U S T R Y 62 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E D I R E C T M A T E R I A L , L A B O U R A N D E N E R G Y I N P U T S T O T H E F R E S H W A T E R P H A S E O F S A L M O N F A R M I N G 62 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E D I R E C T M A T E R I A L , L A B O U R A N D E N E R G Y I N P U T S T O T H E S A L T W A T E R P H A S E O F S A L M O N F A R M I N G 65 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E D D 3 E C T L A B O U R A N D E N E R G Y I N P U T S T O S A L M O N T R A N S P O R T 69 S U M O F D I R E C T I N P U T S T O F A R M E D S A L M O N P R O D U C T I O N 70 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E I N P U T S , A N D E C O S Y S T E M S U P P O R T A R E A S T O C O N T E M P O R A R Y S A L M O N F E E D 72 QUANTIFYING THE DIRECT MATERIAL, LABOUR AND ENERGY INPUTS TO THE FORMULATION OF SALMON FEED PELLETS 74 The Direct Industrial Energy Inputs to Salmon Feed Milling 76 The Gross Nutritional Energy Content of Contemporary Salmon Feed 76 ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL INPUTS TO FEED 77 Ecosystem Support Area to Provide Fish Meals and Oils 77 Ecosystem Support Area to Provide the Livestock By-Product Meals 81 Ecosystem Support Area to Provide Agricultural Crop Inputs 83 Sum of Ecosystem Support Areas to Supply Material Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Feed Produced 84 ENERGY INPUTS TO FISH HARVESTING, PROCESSING AND TRANSPORTATION FOR FISH M E A L AND OIL 84 Energy to Capture Fish for Conversion to Fish Meal and Oil 84 Fuel Energy Inputs to the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery 86 Indirect Energy Inputs to the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery 86 iv Energy Inputs to the Gulf of Mexico Purse Seine Menhaden Fishery 88 Energy to Process Raw Fish to Fish Meal and Oil 89 Energy to Transport Fish Meal and Oil to Vancouver 91 ENERGY INPUTS TO LIVESTOCK REARING AND BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING AND TRANSPORTATION 92 Energy to Rear Chicken Biomass for By-Product Meals 92 Energy to Process Livestock By-Products into Meals 93 Energy to Transport By-Products and the Resulting Meals 93 ENERGY TO HARVEST, PROCESS AND TRANSPORT THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT CROP INPUTS 94 Energy to Produce/Harvest Agricultural Crops 94 Energy to Process Oilseed and Grain Corn into Protein Meals 95 Energy to Transport Agricultural Inputs 96 ENERGY TO TRANSPORT FINISHED SALMON FEEDS 97 SUMMARY OF THE ECOSYSTEM SUPPORT AND TOTAL ENERGY INPUTS TO SUPPLY A TONNE OF SALMON FEED 98 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E M A T E R I A L INPUTS A N D A S S O C I A T E D E M B O D I E D E N E R G Y A N D G R E E N H O U S E G A S EMISSIONS T O B U I L D A N D M A I N T A I N S A L T W A T E R G R O W - O U T SITE I N F R A S T R U C T U R E 99 C H A P T E R 5: A N A L Y S I S O F T H E C O M M E R C I A L S A L M O N F I S H E R Y 102 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E E C O S Y S T E M S U P P O R T A R E A T O G R O W A T O N N E O F S A L M O N F O R A G I N G IN T H E W I L D 103 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E D I R E C T M A T E R I A L , L A B O U R , A N D E N E R G Y INPUTS T O T H E A R T I F I C I A L R E A R I N G O F C H I N O O K A N D C O H O S M O L T S 105 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E INPUTS O F F U E L , L A B O U R A N D G E A R T O L A N D A T O N N E O F C O M M E R C I A L L Y C A U G H T S A L M O N 108 QUANTIFYING THE DIRECT FUEL ENERGY INPUTS ASSOCIATED WITH HARVESTING A TONNE OF SALMON 111 QUANTIFYING THE DIRECT LABOUR INPUTS ASSOCIATED WITH HARVESTING A TONNE OF SALMON 113 QUANTIFYING THE INDIRECT ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PROVIDING THE FISHING GEAR "CONSUMED" PER TONNE OF SALMON LANDED 115 Q U A N T I F Y I N G T H E M A T E R I A L , L A B O U R A N D E N E R G Y INPUTS T O B U I L D A N D M A I N T A I N FISHING V E S S E L S P E R T O N N E O F S A L M O N L A N D E D 121 QUANTIFYING THE DIRECT INPUTS TO BUILD AND MAINTAPW SALMON GILLNET AND SEINE VESSELS PER TONNE OF SALMON LANDED 127 The Direct Inputs to Build an 18 m Aluminium-Hulled Seiner, a 10 m Fibreglass-Hulled Gillnetter and a 10 m Aluminium-Hulled Gillnetter 128 The Functional Life of Fishing Vessels and Their Components 129 Inputs to Repair and Maintain the Vessel's Components 130 Estimating the Direct Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed 131 CONVERTING THE MATERIAL AND ELECTRICITY INPUTS TO FISHING VESSELS INTO INDIRECT ENERGY INPUTS AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PER TONNE OF SALMON LANDED 133 C H A P T E R 6: R E S U L T S 136 E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T A N D E N E R G Y A N A L Y S E S O F INTENSIVE S A L M O N C U L T U R E IN BRITISH C O L U M B I A 136 THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF INTENSIVELY CULTURED SALMON IN B.C. 141 ENERGY ANALYSIS OF INTENSIVE SALMON CULTURE 142 Energy Return On Investment Ratios for Intensively Cultured Salmon 144 Industrial Energy Inputs Associated with Producing Salmon Feed 144 NUTRITIONAL ENERGY INPUTS TO INTENSIVE SALMON CULTURE 146 V E C O L O G I C A L F O O T P R I N T A N D E N E R G Y I N P U T S A S S O C I A T E D W I T H T H E C O M M E R C I A L S A L M O N F I S H E R Y I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 146 T H E E C O L O G I C A L FOOTPRINT OF C O M M E R C I A L L Y C A U G H T S A L M O N IN B . C . 154 E N E R G Y A N A L Y S I S OF T H E C O M M E R C I A L S A L M O N FISHERY 156 Energy Return On Investment Ratios for the Commercial Salmon Fishery 161 E C O L O G I C A L FOOTPRINT A N D E N E R G Y A N A L Y S I S A S S O C I A T E D WITH H A R V E S T I N G S A L M O N USING DIFFERENT FISHING G E A R S 162 Ecological Footprint of Salmon Harvesting Technologies 164 Energy Return On Investment Ratios of Different Harvesting Technologies 165 S E N S I T I V I T Y A N A L Y S I S 165 A L T E R N A T I V E A C C O U N T I N G CONVENTIONS T O A D D R E S S T H E PARTITIONING P R O B L E M 166 Treating Co-Products as Free Inputs 166 Using Relative Economic Value as a Partitioning Criterion 169 R E D U C I N G T H E R A T E OF T O T A L F E E D U S E B Y T H E INTENSIVE S A L M O N C U L T U R E INDUSTRY 170 N E T PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY 173 A V E R A G E TROPHIC L E V E L OF A Q U A T I C INPUTS 175 C H A P T E R 7: C O N C L U S I O N S A N D D I S C U S S I O N 177 A N S W E R I N G T H E R E S E A R C H Q U E S T I O N S P O S E D 177 A R E T H E R E DIFFERENCES B E T W E E N T H E BIOPHYSICAL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH T H E C O M M E R C I A L FISHERY A N D T H E INTENSIVE S A L M O N C U L T U R E INDUSTRY? 177 Using Ecological Footprint Analysis to Compare the Systems 177 Comparing My Results with Previous Ecological Footprint Analyses 180 Using Energy Analysis to Compare the Systems 182 Comparing My Results with Previous Energy Analyses 183 A R E T H E R E DIFFERENCES B E T W E E N T H E BIOPHYSICAL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH C A T C H I N G S A L M O N USING PURSE SEINE, GILLNET OR T R O L L FISHING TECHNOLOGIES U N D E R R E C E N T HISTORICAL CONDITIONS? 185 Comparing My Results with Previous A nalyses 186 W H A T OPPORTUNITIES EXIST T O R E D U C E T H E BIOPHYSICAL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCING S A L M O N VIA T H E INTENSIVE F A R M I N G PROCESS A N D T H E S A L M O N FISHERY? 188 Salmon Farming 188 The Commercial Fishery 190 A D D I T I O N A L O B S E R V A T I O N S 191 T H E BIOPHYSICAL C O S T OF SUBSTITUTING W I L D S A L M O N F O R A G I N G B E H A V I O U R W I T H A N INDUSTRIAL PROCESS 191 Is S A L M O N F A R M I N G A N E T S O U R C E OR SINK OF E D I B L E S E A F O O D ? 192 G R E E N H O U S E G A S EMISSIONS 193 T H E I M P O R T A N C E OF L A B O U R INPUTS 194 E P I L O G U E 194 R E F E R E N C E S C I T E D 196 A P P E N D I X A : S U M M A R Y A N D A N A L Y S I S O F C O - O P E R A T I V E A S S E S S M E N T O F S A L M O N I D H E A L T H ( C . A . S . H . ) P R O G R A M D A T A 217 A P P E N D I X B : A N A L Y S I S O F T H E D I R E C T M A T E R I A L , L A B O U R A N D E N E R G Y I N P U T S T O T H E F R E S H W A T E R P H A S E O F F A R M E D S A L M O N P R O D U C T I O N 219 A P P E N D I X C : S U M M A R Y O F A V E R A G E B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A L I Q U I D F U E L P R I C E S F O R T H E P E R I O D 1985 T O 1996 221 v i APPENDIX D: ANALYSIS OF THE DIRECT MATERIAL, LABOUR AND ENERGY INPUTS TO THE SALTWATER PHASE OF FARMED SALMON PRODUCTION 222 APPENDIX E: ANALYSIS OF THE DIRECT LABOUR AND ENERGY INPUTS TO FARMED SALMON TRANSPORT 226 APPENDIX F: ANALYSIS OF THE AVERAGE TROPHIC L E V E L OF THE CHILEAN INDUSTRIAL FISHERY 1990-1993 227 APPENDIX G: AVERAGE PRODUCTIVITIES OF SELECTED CANADIAN GRAINS AND OILSEEDS 1981 TO 1996 229 APPENDIX H: ANALYSIS OF THE MATERIAL INPUTS AND ASSOCIATED EMBODIED ENERGY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TO NET-CAGE SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE 230 APPENDIX I: ESTIMATING THE AVERAGE TROPHIC L E V E L AT WHICH WILD SALMON FEED 232 APPENDIX J: CALCULATION OF THE PROPORTION OF SEP OPERATIONAL INPUTS DEDICATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF E A C H SPECIES OF SALMON 241 APPENDIX K: ANALYSIS OF THE DIRECT MATERIAL, LABOUR AND ENERGY INPUTS TO CHINOOK AND COHO SMOLT PRODUCTION TO TWO SEP HATCHERIES 243 APPENDIX L: RELEASES AND FINAL DISTRIBUTION OF SEP ORIGIN CHINOOK AND COHO SALMON, 1985 TO 1994 246 APPENDIX M : BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMERCIAL SALMON C A T C H BY SPECIES AND GEAR TYPE, 1985 TO 1994 249 APPENDIX N: INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT PRICE INDEX FOR MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS FOR SPORTING, FISHING AND HUNTING EQUIPMENT 252 APPENDIX O: MATERIAL, LABOUR AND ENERGY INPUTS TO BUILD AND MAINTAIN SALMON FISHING VESSELS 253 vii List of Tables Table 1. Outline of the Quantified Inputs and Methods Employed to Convert Them Into A Corresponding Area of Supporting Ecosystem 48 Table 2. Ecological Footprint of the Average Canadian's Annual Food Consumption in 1993 51 Table 3. Assumed Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities for Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Natural Gas and Propane52 Table 4. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Steel 56 Table 5. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Metals Other Than Steel and Aluminium 57 Table 6. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Glass 58 Table 7. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Concrete 58 Table 8. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Plastics 59 Table 9. Summary of Greenhouse Gas Emission and Energy Intensity Values Used 60 Table 10. Summary of Inputs To and Smolt Production From Four Companies' Freshwater Operations 64 Table 11. Operating Inputs Required to Produce an Average Tonne of Salmon Smolts 64 Table 12. Average Operating Inputs to Smolt Production to Yield a Final Harvested Tonne of Salmon 65 Table 13. Average Direct Operating Inputs Associated with the Saltwater based Grow-Out Phase of Salmon Farming per Round Tonne of Salmon Produced 68 Table 14. Summary of Average Direct Operating Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Intensive Atlantic Salmon Culture 70 Table 15. Summary of Average Direct Operating Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Intensive Chinook Salmon Culture 71 Table 16. Total 1996 Direct Employment in the British Columbia Salmon Farming Industry 71 Table 17. Average Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Salmon Feeds 75 Table 18. Estimated Gross Nutritional Energy Content of an Average Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed77 Table 19. Yield Rates and Wet Weight of Fish Required for Fish Meal and Oil for One Tonne of Salmon Feed 78 Table 20. Primary Productivity Required to Provide the Fish Biomass for Fish Meal and Oil Inputs to One Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed 80 Table 21. Marine Ecosystem Support Areas Required to Produce the Fish Biomass for Fish Meal and Oil Inputs to a Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed 81 Table 22. Yield Rate and Wet Weight of Chicken By-Products Required to Provide By-Product Meal Inputs to Salmon Feed 82 Table 23. Agricultural Ecosystem Support Area Required to Provide the Direct Crop Inputs to Contemporary Salmon Feed 84 Table 24. Estimates of Direct Diesel Fuel Consumed by the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery, 1991 and 1994 86 Table 25. Average Herring Catch per Licensed Purse Seiner in British Columbia, 1990-1994 87 Table 26. Estimated Material, Energy and Labour Inputs Required to Build and Maintain a Typical 18m Seiner per Tonne of Herring Landed 88 Table 27. Summary of Catch and Fuel Consumed by Omega Protein's Gulf Menhaden Fleet: 1998 & 199989 Table 28. Summary of Estimates of Energy Inputs to the Reduction of Fish to Fish Meal and Oil 90 Table 29. Summary of Transportation Distance, Mode and Energy Input for the Fish Meal and Oi l Components of Salmon Feed 91 Table 30. Average Direct and Indirect Industrial Energy Inputs, Excluding Feed, to Chicken Production...92 Table 31. Estimates of Unit and Total Industrial Energy Requirements to Produce and Harvest the Direct and Indirect Crop Inputs to Salmon Feed 95 Table 32. Estimated Average Energy Inputs to Soybean Processing using Solvent Extraction 96 Table 33. Estimates ofthe Transportation Energy Required for Direct and Indirect Crop Inputs to an Average Tonne of Salmon Feed 97 Table 34. Direct and Indirect Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Salmon Feed and Resulting Greenhouse Gas Emissions 99 viii Table 35. Capital Expenditures made by British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association Member Companies in 1996 100 Table 36. Material Inputs and Associated Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Build and Maintain Marine Grow-Out Site Infrastructure per tonne of Salmon Produced 101 Table 37. Primary Productivity Required to Yield One Harvested Tonne of Pink, Chum, Sockeye, Coho and Chinook Salmon 104 Table 38. Ecological Footprint to Sustain the Production of Prey Consumed by One Tonne of Pink, Chum, Sockeye, Coho and Chinook Salmon 105 Table 39. Estimated Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs Required to Produce Chinook and Coho Smolts from SEP Hatcheries 107 Table 40. SEP-Related Inputs to the Average Commercially Harvested Tonne of Chinook and Coho Salmonl08 Table 41. Total Fuel Expenditures Made While Salmon Fishing by the B.C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and '94 I l l Table 42. Estimated Average Blended Fuel Price Paid by Seiners, Gillnetters and Trailers in 1985, '88, '91, and '94 112 Table 43. Estimated Average Fuel Consumption, in litres and MJ , per Tonne of Salmon Landed by Seiners, Gillnetters and Trailers 112 Table 44. Average Fuel Consumption per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C 113 Table 45. Labour Inputs to Salmon Fishing by the B.C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and'94 114 Table 46. Labour Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed by the B.C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and'94 114 Table 47. Labour Inputs per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Chum and Pink Salmon Landed in B.C. 115 Table 48. Total Expenditures Made by Seiners, Gillnetters and Trailers in 1985, '88, '91, and '94 on Salmon Fishing Gear (expressed in 1998 dollars) 116 Table 49. Average Expenditures on Salmon Fishing Gear per Tonne of Salmon Landed by Gear Type (expressed in 1998 dollars) 116 Table 50. Inputs to Fabricate a Standard Inside Salmon Seine Net 117 Table 51 .Breakdown of Commercial Gillnet and Troll Fishing Gear Sales Made by Pacific Net and Twine Ltd. in 1998 119 Table 52. Estimates of Average Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Providing the Fishing Gear Inputs to Seiners, Gillnetters and Trailers per Tonne of Salmon Landed 120 Table 53. Estimated Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Provide the Fishing Gear Inputs per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C 120 Table 54. Proportion of Salmon Fishing Vessels Constructed Primarily from Wood, Steel, Fibreglass and Aluminium 123 Table 55. Life Expectancies of Trawl Fishing Vessel Components 130 Table 56. Estimated Direct Annual Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain Typical Salmon Seine and Gillnet Vessels 131 Table 57. Average Salmon Catch per Vessel for Gillnetters and Seiners in British Columbia from 1985 to 1994 132 Table 58. Estimated Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed Required to Build and Maintain Typical Salmon Seine and Gillnet Vessels 133 Table 59. Embodied Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with the Material and Electricity Required to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed 134 Table 60. Estimated Total Energy, and Labour Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Building and Maintaining Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C 135 Table 61. Summary of A l l Feed, Labour and Industrial Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Associated Ecosystem Support Required to Produce an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Intensively Cultured Atlantic Salmon 137 Table 62. Summary of A l l Feed, Labour and Industrial Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Associated Ecosystem Support Required to Produce an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Intensively Cultured Chinook Salmon 139 ix Table 63. Energy Return on Investment Ratios for Intensively Cultured Atlantic and Chinook Salmon 144 Table 64. Summary of A l l Feed, Labour and Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Support Required to Produce and Harvest an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Chinook Salmon Caught by the Commercial Fishery 147 Table 65. Summary of A l l Feed, Labour and Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Support Required to Produce and Harvest an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Coho Salmon Caught by the Commercial Fishery 149 Table 66. Summary of A l l Labour and Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Support Required to Produce and Harvest an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Sockeye Salmon Caught by the Commercial Fishery 151 Table 67. Summary of A l l Labour and Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Support Required to Produce and Harvest an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Chum Salmon Caught by the Commercial Fishery 152 Table 68. Summary of A l l Labour and Energy Inputs, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Support Required to Produce and Harvest an Average Tonne (Round Weight) of Pink Salmon Caught by the Commercial Fishery 153 Table 69. Ecological Footprint Required to Produce and Harvest a Tonne of Commercially Caught Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Chum and Pink Salmon in B.C 154 Table 70. Energy Return on Investment Ratios for Different Species of Commercially Caught Salmon ....161 Table 71. Energy and Labour Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Landing An Average Tonne of Salmon in British Columbia 163 Table 72. Energy Return on Investment Ratios of Commercial Salmon Harvesting Technologies 165 Table 73. Effect of Treating Livestock By-Products and Herring Carcasses as "Free" 167 Table 74. Ecosystem Support and Energy Efficiency that Results from Reducing the Total Feed Used in Atlantic Salmon Culture 171 Table 75. Ecosystem Support and Energy Efficiency that Results from Reducing the Total Feed Used in Chinook Salmon Culture 172 Table 76. Marine Ecological Footprint to Produce of a Tonne of Each Species of Commercially Caught Salmon Using the Mean, and the Lower and Upper 95% Confidence Limits of the Mean Trophic Level of Their Prey 175 Table 77. Ecological Footprint of Farmed and Commercially Caught Salmon as of 1996 178 Table 78. Ecological Footprints of Aquatic Food Production Systems 181 Table 79. Energy Return on Investments and Total Industrial Energy Inputs to Farmed and Commercially Caught Salmon in 1996 183 Table 80. Edible Protein Energy Return on Investment Ratios for a Variety of Food Production Systems 184 Table 81. Energy Intensity of Commercial Fisheries 187 Table A - l . Summary of Data Provided by the C.A.S.H. Program 218 Table B - l . Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to, and Smolt Production from Four Companies' Freshwater Operations 219 Table C - l . Average British Columbia Retail Prices of Petroleum Products, 1985-1996 221 Table D - l . Summary of the Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to and Chinook Salmon Production from Two Companies' Saltwater Grow-out Operations 223 Table D-2. Summary of the Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to and Atlantic Salmon Production from Two Companies' Saltwater Grow-out Operations 224 Table E - l . Analysis of Operating Labour and Energy Inputs to Salmon Transport 226 Table F - l . Estimated Average Trophic Levels of the Five Species Used for Reduction 228 Table F-2. Landings Data and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Chile's Industrial Fishery from 1990 to 1993 228 Table G - l . Average Productivities of Canadian Wheat, Canola, Corn and Soybeans from 1981 to 1996 ..229 Table H - l . Analysis of the Material Inputs to the Fabrication and Maintenance of Saltwater Grow-Out Site Infrastructure per Tonne of Salmon Produced 231 Table 1-1. Summary of Chinook Salmon Stomach Content Analyses and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Prey 233 Table 1-2. Summary of Coho Salmon Stomach Content Analyses and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Prey 235 Table 1-3. Summary of Sockeye Salmon Stomach Content Analyses and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Prey : 237 Table 1-4. Summary of Pink Salmon Stomach Content Analyses and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Prey .238 Table 1-5. Summary of Chum Salmon Stomach Content Analyses and Estimated Average Trophic Level of Prey 240 Table J - l . Total Number and Average Weight of Unfed Fry, Fed Fry and Yearling Smolts Released from all SEP Operational Facilities, 1994-1996 241 Table J-2. Total Feed Derived Weight Gain and Proportion of Weight Gained by each Species Released from all SEP Operational Facilities, 1994-1996 242 Table K - l . Summary of the Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Chinook and Coho Salmon Smolt Production from Two SEP Hatcheries and Average Inputs per Million Smolts Produced 244 Table L - l . Juvenile Chinook and Coho Releases from all SEP Facilities, 1985 to 1994 246 Table L-2. Fate of SEP Origin Adult Coho Returns, 1985-1994 247 Table L-3. Fate of SEP Origin Adult Chinook Returns, 1985-1994 247 Table M - l . British Columbia Commercial Catch of Chinook and Coho Salmon, 1985 to 1994 250 Table M-2. British Columbia Commercial Catch of Sockeye and Pink Salmon, 1985 to 1994 250 Table M-3. British Columbia Commercial Catch of Chum Salmon and A l l Species Combined, 1985 to 1994251 Table N - l . Canadian Industrial Product Price Index for Miscellaneous Manufactured Chemical Products Used for Sporting, Fishing and Hunting Purposes (CANSIM data series #P3647) (1992=100) 252 Table O - l . Estimates of the Major Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain a Typical Aluminium Hulled Purse Seiner per Tonne of Salmon Landed 254 Table 0-2. Estimates of the Major Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain a Typical Fibreglass Gillnetter per Tonne of Salmon Landed 255 Table 0-3. Estimates of the Major Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain a Typical Aluminium Hulled Gillnetter per Tonne of Salmon Landed 257 xi List of Figures Figure 1. Ocean Migration Patterns of Major Stocks of North American Sockeye, Chum and Pink Salmon During Their First Summer at Sea, Along with Their Probable Migrations During the Subsequent Fall and Winter (reproduced from Salo 1991, p. 264) 21 Figure 2. Commercial Salmon Landings in British Columbia, 1873 to 1997 (from Wallace 1999) 24 Figure 3. British Columbia Commercial Salmon Landings by Species, 1980 to 1997 (data from Department of Fisheries and Oceans Annual Commercial Catch Statistics, 1980-1997) 26 Figure 4. British Columbia Commercial Salmon Landings by Gear Type, 1980 to 1997 (data from Department of Fisheries and Oceans Annual Commercial Catch Statistics, 1980-1997) 27 Figure 5. Number of Active Commercial Salmon Fishing Vessels by Gear Type in British Columbia, 1983 to 1997 (data provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, October, 1999. Note data for 1995, 1996 and 1997 preliminary) 27 Figure 6. Juvenile Salmon Released from Salmon Enhancement Program Supported Activities, 1985 to 1995 (data provided by Mr. Greg Steer, SEP, 1996) '. 29 Figure 7. Total Catch of SEP-Origin Salmon, 1985 to 1995 (data provided by Mr. Greg Steer, SEP, 1996)30 Figure 8. World Marine-Based Farmed Salmon and Trout Production, 1984 to 1997 (data from FAO FIDI statistical database Fishstat+) 31 Figure 9. British Columbia Farmed Salmon Production (round weight) by Species, 1981 to 1998 32 Figure 10. Simplified Schematic of Cage-Culture Technology Typically Used for Rearing Salmon in Saltwater (from British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol. 3, p. B-8) 37 Figure 11. Length Distributions of British Columbia's Commercial Salmon Gillnet, Troll and Seine Vessels in 1998 122 Figure 12. Age Distribution and Primary Hull Materials Used in the Construction of Salmon Purse Seiners in British Columbia 124 Figure 13. Age Distribution and Primary Hull Materials Used in the Construction of Salmon Gillnetters in British Columbia 125 Figure 14. Age Distribution and Primary Hull Material Used in the Construction of Salmon Trailers 126 Figure 15. Sources of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Intensively Cultured Atlantic Salmon (total input: 94,100 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 143 Figure 16. Sources of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Intensively Cultured Chinook Salmon (total input: 116,900 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 143 Figure 17. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed (total input approximately 48,000 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 145 Figure 18. Marine and Terrestrial Ecological Footprint Required to Produce a Tonne of Salmon in B.C. 155 Figure 19. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Commercially Caught Chinook Salmon (total input: 35,200 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 157 Figure 20. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Commercially Caught Coho Salmon (total input: 41,200 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 157 Figure 21. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Commercially Caught Sockeye Salmon (total input: 27,200 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 158 Figure 22. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Commercially Caught Chum Salmon (total input: 24,000 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 158 Figure 23. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Commercially Caught Pink Salmon (total input: 22,300 M J fossil fuel equivalent) 159 Figure 24. Total Industrial Energy Inputs (Expressed as Fossil Fuel Equivalents) per Tonne of Salmon Produced by the Intensive Culture Industry and the Commercial Salmon Fishery in B.C 161 Figure 25. Effect of Treating Co-Product Derived Inputs to Salmon Feed as Free Inputs on the Ecological Footprint of Farmed Salmon 168 Figure 26. Ecological Footprint Required to Produce One Tonne of Intensively Cultured Atlantic Salmon Under a Range of Total Feed Use Rates 171 Figure 27. Ecological Footprint Required to Produce One Tonne of Intensively Cultured Chinook Salmon Using a Range of Total Feed Use Rates 172 xii Figure 28. Marine Ecosystem Support to Produce One Tonne of Salmon Using Both Source Ecosystem Specific and Uniform Estimates of Net Primary Productivity 174 Figure 29. Marine Ecological Footprint of Wild Caught Salmon Using the Mean and the Lower and Upper 95% Confidence Limits of the Mean Trophic Level of Their Prey 176 Figure 30. Relative Contribution by Weight and Energy of Major Components of Salmon Feed 189 xiii Acknowledgements First and foremost, I would like to thank Brenda Tyedmers for her unwavering love, patience and support throughout this adventure. While it was more than either of us bargained for, she kept me going when my commitment flagged. I would also like to thank my father, Horst Tyedmers, for always trusting me to make my own decisions regardless o f his own misgivings and Margaret and Antje Tyedmers for their love and support at different times o f my life. For his friendship, intellectual guidance and his passionate commitment to improving the sustainability o f the human enterprise, I would like to thank my supervisor and mentor B i l l Rees. Special thanks to Les Lavkul ich for his reassuring guidance and for being the heart and soul o f the Resource Management and Environmental Studies program. I'm still not sure how he manages to do it a l l . I am also very grateful to both Peter Nemetz for his insightful contributions to my work and to George Iwama for his advice and moral support. Within the B C commercial fishing industry, Messrs. Chris Cue, Gary Nakashima, Bob Pearson, J im Walker, along with M r . M i k e Wilson o f Omega Protein al l generously provided me with time and data. I am grateful to many people within the salmon farming community for advice and access to data. In particular, I would like to thank David Groves, Jason Mann, Grace Karreman, B i l l Vernon, Don Mi l l e rd , John and Anne Heath, Doug Louvier, Jennifer Dufour and the others who wished to remain anonymous. Within Fisheries and Oceans Canada, I would like to thank Stewart Kerr, Greg Steer, Br ian Moore and Diane Plotnikoff for their input and access to data. For their good humour and help working through ideas, I'd like to thank Scott Wallace and Carlos Gomez-Galindo. Finally, I would also like to acknowledge the financial support o f the Minis try o f Environment, Lands and Parks, Bri t ish Columbia Environmental Research Scholarship program, the B C Hydro Scholarship program, and the Hampton Fund at the University o f Brit ish Columbia. This financial assistance, however, would have all been for naught without Brenda's efforts to keep a roof over our heads. Without her, this research simply would never have been completed. xiv Dedication For Adam Walker Tyedmers. M a y he share a future with wi ld salmon. xv Chapter 1: Introduction "The human species, considered in broad perspective, as a unit including its economic and industrial accessories, has swiftly and radically changed its character during the epoch in which our life has been laid. In this sense we are far removed from equilibrium - a fact which is of the highest practical significance, since it implies that a period o f adjustment to equilibrium conditions lies before us, and he would be an extreme optimist who should expect that such adjustment can be reached without labour and travail. We can only hope that our race may be spared a decline as precipitous as is the upward slope along which we have been carried, heedless, for the most part, both o f our privileges and o f the threatened privation ahead. Whi le such sudden decline might, from a detached standpoint, appear as in accord with the eternal equities, since previous gains would in cold terms balance the losses, yet it would be felt as a superlative catastrophy [sic]. Our descendants, i f such as this should be their fate, w i l l see poor compensation for their i l ls in the fact that we did live in abundance and luxury." Alfred Lotka 1924 (as appears in the 1956 reprint edition, p. 279) I was motivated to undertake this dissertation because I am concerned, as was Alfred Lotka over 75 years ago, about the fate o f human society. A s a result, in this chapter I present some o f the theoretical issues that both inspired and informed my research. I begin by briefly introducing the multifaceted ideal o f sustainability and explore in greater detail the competing "weak" and "strong" approaches to it. Within this context, the important yet contrasting roles that technologies are believed to play in the pursuit o f sustainability are discussed, as are the ways in which the competing visions o f sustainability reflect profoundly divergent worldviews. This is followed by a discussion of the need for biophysical techniques for evaluating human activities which includes a brief review of some o f the more prominent methods currently in use. In the penultimate section of this chapter, I state my personal pre-analytic vision regarding the relationship between the economy and the ecosphere, and the role that technology plays in mediating this relationship. Final ly, I introduce the case study that I have undertaken: an evaluation o f how the use o f different technologies affects the biophysical costs, and hence the relative sustainability, o f producing salmon in Brit ish Columbia. Sustainability During the closing decades o f the 20 t h century, concern has grown regarding humanity's impact on the natural environment, or ecosphere, and its capacity, in turn, to continue to meet the resource 1 extraction and waste assimilation needs o f a growing human population with rising per capita consumption demands. A s a result, individuals, governments and private organisations are embracing the ideals o f sustainable development and sustainability. However, because o f the complexity o f the relationships between humans and our environment and amongst ourselves, the apparently singular ideal o f sustainability has likewise emerged as a complex multidimensional objective. Consequently, no single definition or evaluation method has been developed that encompasses al l aspects o f sustainability. There is a long intellectual history o f concern regarding the fate o f human societies 1 and our impact on non-human life. However, it was arguably not until the publication o f Our Common Future by the Wor ld Commission on Environment and Development ( W C E D ) in 1987 that the concepts o f sustainable development and sustainability were popularised. The W C E D can also be credited with providing the first definition o f sustainable development when it wrote: "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable - to ensure that it meets the needs o f the present without compromising the ability o f future generations to meet their own needs." ( W C E D 1987, p. 8). Since the W C E D first provided this rudimentary definition countless books and articles have been written that explore both quantitative and qualitative aspects o f sustainability. Whi le this has resulted in a more complete understanding of what sustainability entails, the picture that has emerged is not a simple one. In its broadest sense, sustainability encompasses three main domains; the social/cultural (Boothroyd 1991, Berkes and Folke 1994, Dai ly and Ehrl ich 1996, Hediger 2000), the economic (Common and Perrings 1992, Pearce et al. 1994, Victor et al. 1995, Pearce 1998) and the ecological/biophysical (Rees 1990, 1995, 1996, Arizpe et al. 1991, Costanza and Daly 1992, Dai ly and Ehrl ich 1992, Goodland et al. 1992, Rees and Wackernagel 1994). But while the importance o f each o f these broad domains, along with their many linkages and interactions, is now widely recognised, their integration into a single coherent solution to the sustainability challenge has remained elusive (Perrings 1994, Charles 1994, Robinson and Tinker 1995, Ar row et al. 1996, Dai ly and Ehrl ich 1996, Costanza et al. 2000). In large part this reflects the difficulty o f finding an optimal solution when as yet there is no one common framework or language available for evaluating and trading off the social, economic and biophysical dimensions o f a given problem on an equal footing. This situation is exacerbated where an apparent improvement in one dimension results in a deterioration in other dimensions. Consequently, to date, most practical attempts to improve the 2 sustainability o f human activities focus primarily on one or another o f its aspects, resulting in the pursuit o f partial solutions. Without diminishing the importance o f social/cultural aspects o f sustainability, the issues that most interested me, and which consequently influenced my research, fall within the ecological/biophysical and, to a lesser extent, the economic realms o f sustainability. A s a result, the remainder o f this chapter focuses in these areas. Alternative Ecological Economic Approaches to Sustainability To date, a great deal o f attention has been directed at understanding the interactions between and integrating the economic and ecological/biophysical aspects o f sustainability (Daly and Cobb 1989, Daly 1991, Common and Perrings 1992, Pearce et al. 1994, Vic tor et al. 1995, Pearce 1998, Lange 1999). The trans-discipline that has emerged almost expressly in response to this challenge is known as ecological economics (Costanza 1991, Jansson et al. 1994). Within ecological economics, much o f the current sustainability dialogue revolves around two related yet fundamentally conflicting approaches to achieving sustainability. Weak and Strong Sustainability For simplicity, these concepts have become known as the weak and strong approaches to sustainability (Daly 1991, Pearce et al. 1994, Vic tor et al. 1995, Pearce et al. 1998). What they have in common is that in both cases their bottom line objective is the long-term maintenance or improvement o f per capita human welfare. A s such, both are fundamentally anthropocentric. The key differences arise, however, with respect to 1) the role that natural capital 2 is seen as playing in the maintenance o f human welfare into the future, and 2) the importance o f technologies, and human ingenuity generally, in overcoming scarcities in ecosystem goods and services. Underlying these differences are profoundly opposed worldviews with respect to the nature o f the relationship between the human enterprise and the ecosphere. 1 In the West, formal concern regarding the fate of society dates to at least the Reverend Thomas Malthus' "Essay on the Principle of Population", published in 1798. For a review of many lesser known early writers on the limitations faced by society see Martinez-Alier (1987). 2 Natural capital, together with manufactured and human capital, are the three forms of productive capital recognised by ecological economists. They are roughly analogous to the three factors of production - land, capital and labour respectively - as traditionally defined within neo-classical economics. Natural capital, however, encompasses a far greater range of ecosystem sourced goods and services than is traditionally associated with "land". It includes all the biotic and abiotic goods and services that either directly or indirectly contribute to the maintenance of the human enterprise. As with more traditionally defined resources, natural capital is often sub-divided into both non-renewable and renewable forms (Daly 1991, Costanza and Daly 1992, Goodland etal. 1992, Rees 1993, 1995, 1996). 3 Founded on neo-classical economic capital theory, weak sustainability would be achieved whenever per capita consumption o f resources flowing from the aggregate stock o f natural, manufactured and human capital remains constant or increases over time (Victor 1991, Daly 1991, 1994, Pearce et al. 1994, Vic tor et al. 1995, Pearce 1998) 3. Consequently, it is possible to conceive o f a "sustainable" human enterprise in which all natural capital assets are systematically liquidated 4 as long as part o f the resulting stream of rents is re-invested in other forms o f capital so as to maintain the productive capacity o f the remaining aggregate capital stock. The key assumption underlying this approach is that manufactured and human capital are ultimately perfectly substitutable for a l l forms o f natural capital. Closely tied to this belief is the faith that advocates o f weak sustainability have in the creative genius o f humanity to provide the technologies and innovations necessary to facilitate this substitution. A s a result, within the context o f weak sustainability, there are no limits to the growth potential o f the human enterprise that result from fundamental resource scarcity 5. A famous example o f the technological optimism and faith in the boundlessness o f the human enterprise held by many weak sustainability advocates was provided by the late Julian Simon when he wrote: "We now have in our hands - in our libraries, really - the technology to feed, clothe, and supply energy to an ever-growing population for the next 7 bi l l ion years. Most amazing is that most o f this specific body o f knowledge developed within the past hundred years or so, though it rests on knowledge that had accumulated for millennia, o f course. Indeed, the last necessary additions to this body of knowledge - nuclear fission and space travel - occurred decades ago. Even i f no new knowledge were ever invented after those advances, we would be able to go on increasing forever, improving our standard o f l iving and our control over our environment. The discovery o f genetic manipulation certainly enhances our powers greatly, but even without it we could have continued our progress forever." (Myers and Simon 1994, p. 65) While strong sustainability shares a common bottom-line objective with weak sustainability, it differs markedly with respect to the means by which non-declining per capita welfare may be achieved. The key point o f departure is that proponents o f strong sustainability believe that manufactured and human capital are not perfectly substitutable for al l elements o f natural capital. Indeed, it is argued that manufactured and natural capital are overwhelmingly complementary and at best only marginally 3 It has been argued that the maintenance of non-declining per capita Utility rather than consumption may be a more appropriate basis upon which to evaluate sustainability (Pearce et al. 1994, Pearce 1998). Daly (1991), however, argues that such an approach amounts to a very weak sustainability criterion as it hinges on the psychic benefits that flow the aggregate capital stock and not on the physical productivity of the stock itself. 4 In essence, this approach treats all forms of natural capital as non-renewable resources. 5 Indeed, it has been argued that the only possible limits faced by humanity result from too small a human population. More people, the argument goes, would not only provide a greater pool from which creative genius would emerge but would also provide the impetus for innovation that results from short-term scarcity constraints. 4 substitutable (Daly 1991 & 1994, Costanza and Daly 1992, Goodland et al. 1992, Rees 1995). Paraphrasing Herman Daly (1994), more fishing boats can't substitute for fewer fish just as more carpenters or hammers can't substitute for less wood with which to build houses. Furthermore, the inherent complementarity o f natural and manufactured capital remains true regardless o f the amount of technology or human ingenuity that is brought to bear6. Consequently, i f per capita welfare is to be maintained through time, then it is argued, the productivity o f each form of capital, and in particular natural capital, must be maintained independently (Daly 1991 & 1994, Costanza and Daly 1992, Goodland etal. 1992, Rees 1995). Although there is considerable scepticism regarding the capacity o f technology to facilitate the substitution o f manufactured for natural capital, this does not mean that technologies are irrelevant from a strong sustainability perspective. In fact, there is a great deal o f interest in the role that they play in mediating the impact o f the human enterprise on the ecosphere. B y way o f illustration, the I=PAT equation, used to describe the impact o f the human enterprise on the ecosphere (Ehrlich and Holdren 1971, Holdren and Ehrl ich 1974, Ehrl ich and Ehrl ich 1990, Dai ly and Ehr l ich 1992), explicitly acknowledges the role o f technologies through the inclusion o f the term "T", an index o f environmental damage that results from the specific technologies used to supply a given unit o f consumption 7. A s a result, there is considerable interest in promoting the development o f "eco-efficient" technologies that would allow society to maintain or increase per capita utility while reducing material and energy diverted through the economy (Costanza and Daly 1992, Business Counci l for Sustainable Development 1993, Ekins 1993, Schmidt-Bleek 1993a & 1993b, Pearce 1994, Rees 1995). In this regard, research suggests that for the global economy to become biophysically sustainable over the next 30 to 50 years and still meet growing demands for goods and services, there needs to be at least a 50% reduction, from present levels, in the material and energy that is cycled from the ecosphere through the economy. A n d i f this "dematerialization" ofthe global economy is to be accompanied by a more equitable distribution o f resources, industrialised countries w i l l have to reduce their material throughput ten-fold (Schmidt-Bleek 1993a & 1993b, Rees 1995, Hinterberger and Schmidt-Bleek 1999). 6 As a result, proponents of strong sustainability are frequently referred to as "technological sceptics". 7 The remaining terms ofthe equation represent: I = the total impact of the human enterprise on the ecosphere; P = the human population; and A = the average per capita affluence (which is often approximated by average per capita consumption). 5 Conflicting Worldviews Underlying these contrasting visions o f how sustainability can be achieved, are profoundly divergent worldviews with respect to the relationship between the economy and the ecosphere. From a weak sustainability perspective, and one that dominates current mainstream economic and political thinking, the economy and the natural environment are seen as separate, largely independent systems (Daly 1991 & 1994, Rees 1995). Indeed, within the context o f traditional economics, the environment seldom enters into consideration as attention is focussed almost exclusively on the flow of exchange value between households and firms. A t most, the physical interactions that are acknowledged are only material and energy exchanges, either in the form of resource imports to, or wastes exports from the economy (Daly 1991 & 1994, Rees 1995). In contrast, proponents o f strong sustainability see the economy as a materially and energetically open, yet wholly dependent, subsystem of the ecosphere (Goodland 1991, Goodland et al. 1992, Daly 1991 & Daly 1994, Rees 1995). A s such, the economy is therefore ultimately constrained by the carrying capacity o f the ecosphere. This worldview is founded, in large part, on an understanding o f how physical and energetic laws apply to economy/ecosphere interactions. While the application o f the first law of thermodynamics - the law of conservation o f energy -together with the law of conservation o f mass dictate that imports o f matter and energy to the economy must ultimately balance exports, and the scale o f the human enterprise is constrained by the matter available, their implications are not universally recognised. For example, an analysis o f Julian Simon's above quoted ebullient prognosis for humanity; indicates that even at a modest 1% annual rate o f grow, after only seven million8 years the human population would exceed the estimated number o f atoms in the universe by over thirty thousand orders o f magnitude; a clear violation o f the law o f conservation o f mass (Bartlett 1997). The second law of thermodynamics also has relevance to our understanding o f how the economy and ecosphere interact. A s classically defined, the second law can be expressed as: The entropy o f an isolated or closed system w i l l tend towards a maximum (Binswanger 1993). Defined in this way, however, it is o f little direct utility for analysing problems associated with the economy or the ecosphere. This is because the original formulation o f the second law applies only to systems near thermodynamic equilibrium 9 , and it "can only quantify reversible processes that take place infinitely slowly with infinitesimal changes o f thermodynamic variables." (Binswanger 1993, p. 212). In other 8 Not the seven billion as originally projected by Simon (Myers and Simon 1994). 6 words, it formally applies only under ideal conditions that cannot be reproduced in the real world where open conditions prevail and complete reversibility is impossible. The second law has, however, been reinterpreted to explain how self-organising, open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium - which include everything from simple physical and chemical systems to organisms, ecosystems and the economy - arise, evolve and achieve relatively stable states. The resulting theory o f dissipative structures states that the evolution and maintenance o f an open system far from equilibrium is only possible as a result o f irreversible processes that dissipate matter and available energy 1 0 from the environment surrounding the system with the result that there is an overall increase in the entropy o f that surrounding environment (Nicolis and Prigogine 1977, Prigogine and Stengers 1984, K a y 1991, Schneider and K a y 1992, K a y and Schneider 1992, Hornborg 1992, Binswanger 1993). Or stated more generally, al l processes o f energy or matter conversion must entail a net increase in entropy and a reduction o f order in the universe. App ly ing the theory o f dissipative structures to the relationship between the economy and the ecosphere, due to the inherent inefficiencies o f al l transformative processes, the maintenance and accumulation o f order within the economy can only be achieved at the expense o f greater amounts o f order from the surrounding ecosphere (Geogescu-Roegen 1971 & 1977, Binswanger 1993, K a y 1991, Giampetro, et al. 1992, K a y and Schneider 1992, Schneider and K a y 1992, Rees 1995). Moreover, as the scale o f the human enterprise increases, either biologically and technologically, the proportion o f the order required for maintenance also increases. In other words, the human enterprise becomes increasingly thermodynamically inefficient as its grows (Giampetro, et al. 1992, Hornborg 1992). Final ly, i f the integrity o f the ecosphere is to be maintained, at a minimum, the rate at which the human enterprise appropriates order must be less than the rate at which the ecosphere can itself accumulate or reproduce its own order. Once we appropriate order faster than it can be reproduced by the ecosphere then there must be, without question, a net decrease in order embodied in the ecosphere (Giampetro and Pimentel 1991, Giampetro, et al. 1992, Rees 1995). How Much Natural Capital is Enough? A challenge that then emerges within strong sustainability is how much o f the diverse natural capital endowment o f the earth is critical and must be preserved i f long-term productivity is to be maintained. For some, the answer is simple. The entire natural capital endowment inherited by one 9 A state in which all thermodynamic variables such as temperature, volume etc. remain constant. 7 generation must be passed on to the next. This interpretation has been termed very strong sustainability by some who have also observed that it functionally has the effect o f making the natural environment "sacred capital" (Hediger 2000). A more moderate approach, however, allows that many aspects o f the original natural capital endowment of the earth have already been converted to manufactured and human capital (hence their complimentarity) and some forms o f extant natural capital may yet be convertible to manufactured and human capital. The difficulty is knowing where to draw the line that separates critical and non-critical natural capital. This issue is confounded by: 1) our limited understanding o f the interdependence o f both biotic and abiotic components o f the ecosphere; 2) the existence o f irreducible uncertainty with respect to understanding these relationships; and 3) the irreversible nature o f liquidating many components o f natural capital (for example the extinction o f a species). In addition, there may be a substantial difference between the optimal level o f a natural capital asset required to maximise human welfare and that level needed purely for human survival. A s a result, it has been observed that the process o f identifying critical levels o f natural capital is inherently a subjective process (Hediger 2000). Although it may be difficult to determine with any certainty how much and which types o f natural capital are critical, a broad consensus is emerging that current consumption/waste production from the human enterprise has, or may soon, transgress the criticality thresholds o f many natural capital assets with the result that long-tem productivity may be impaired (Daly 1991 & 1994, Goodland 1991, Rees 1995). Examples include: the overexploitation o f individual stocks o f fish and shellfish (Sissenwine and Rosenburg 1993, Greenpeace International 1993, Emerson 1994, Garcia and Newton 1994, Hagler 1995, Parfit 1995, Safina 1995, Walters 1995, Slaney et al. 1996) together with the serial over-fishing o f multiple stocks (Pauly et al. 1998), biodiversity loss in general (Hughes and Noss 1992, P imm et al. 1995), the appropriation o f net primary productivity both on land (Vitousek, 1986, Haberl 1997) and from marine ecosystems (Pauly and Christensen, 1995), soil erosion and the depletion o f its productive capacity (Pimentel 1993, Brown 1994), increasing scarcity o f renewable freshwater (Postel et al. 1996), the deterioration o f the ozone layer, and the accumulation o f carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1990 & 1996, Office o f Global Change 1997, Vitousek etal. 1997, Meyerson 1998). Available energy or essergy, is a quality of energy which can be thought of as a measure of the orderliness, non-randomness or information inherent in energy. 8 Biophysical Assessment Techniques If we accept that the economy is indeed a wholly contained subsystem of a finite ecosphere, and that much o f the current evidence o f resource exhaustion/waste accumulation is non-trivial, than two observations follow: 1) the absolute scale o f the human enterprise and its impacts is important, and 2) the consumption o f many forms o f ecosystem goods and services may be approaching or have already exceeded critical thresholds. A s a result, i f society is to become more biophysically sustainable, it is important that we evaluate human activities using techniques that explicitly account for the scale o f our impact on ecosystem goods and services. The Limitations of Economic Analyses Conventional economics provides a range of techniques that are useful for evaluating many aspects of human activities. Unfortunately, they are o f relatively little use when attempting to assess ecological sustainability. This is largely because o f the need to translate al l values into monetary prices. A s a result, for ecosystem goods and services not traded in markets, their nominal value is zero and consequently they escape being accounted for within conventional pecuniary techniques. A n d for those goods and services for which markets exist (essentially natural resources), the prices so established typically reflect only a fraction o f their total value. This chronic under-pricing o f ecosystem assets results for a number o f reasons. Market prices reflect the marginal cost o f providing a given good or service, and not its absolute scarcity. Non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and minerals provide the most obvious examples o f this. In addition, natural capital assets often provide many structural and functional benefits to the economy, as wel l as to ecosystems, that are simply not reflected in their derivative commodity values. For example, the price o f lumber does not reflect all the other goods and services associated with a forest. N o r do prices reflect the increased risk o f destabilising ecosystem structures and flows that result from increased scarcity (Norton 1986 & 1988, Randall 1986, Rees and Wackernagel 1999). Although techniques have been developed to assign prices to non-marketed values, they are either o f limited applicability or their efficacy is suspect. For example, implicit pricing methods such as hedonic pricing and the travel cost method can only be used to estimate non-market values that are reflected in marketed goods or services (Randall 1988, Jacobs 1993, Simpson 1998). A n d while contingent valuation is frequently used to generate prices for ecological goods and services in 9 situations in which there are not even surrogate markets available , because o f a range o f unresolved theoretical and methodological issues, the results generated are o f uncertain utility (Vatn and Bromley 1993, Jacobs 1993, Portney 1994, Diamond and Hausman 1994). Fortunately, other evaluation techniques are available that explicitly track biophysical flows o f matter and energy. Energy Analysis and Related Techniques Energy flows have been used to evaluate human activities for over 100 years (Martinez-Alier 1987). It was not until the o i l price shocks o f the 1970's, however, that energy analysis rose to prominence 1 2 . Since then, a number o f variations and related techniques have also been developed. In its more traditional form, energy analysis entails quantifying the primary direct and indirect industrial energy inputs that are dissipated to produce a given object or provide a service (Peet 1992, Brown and Herendeen 1996) 1 3 . In doing so, energy analysis provides a measure o f the energy cost o f production - or what is frequently referred to as an item's embodied 1 4 energy (Kaberger 1991) 1 5 . The primary rationale underlying its use is "to quantify the connection between human activities and the demand for this important resource." (Brown and Herendeen 1996, p. 220) 1 6 . However, because 1 1 For a review of the contingent valuation method see Mitchell and Carson (1991). For examples of its use in pricing environmental goods and services see: Schulze et al. 1983, Whitehead 1990, Carson and Mitchell 1993, and Stevens 1995. 1 2 To date, energy analysis has been used to evaluate thousands of activities. Some of the most relevant to the research undertaken here include analyses of commercial fisheries (Wiviott and Mathews 1975, Edwardson 1976, Rochereau 1976, Leach 1976, Rawitscher 1978, Agiistsson et al. 1978, Lorentzen 1978, Nomura 1980, Brown and Lugo 1981, Hopper 1981, Veal et al. 1981, Watanabe and Uchida 1984, Ishikawa et al. 1987, Sato et al. 1989, Mitchell and Cleveland, 1993) and aquacultural systems (Mathews, etal. 1976, Pitcher 1977, Rawitscher 1978, Bardach 1980, Li 1987, Folke 1988, Larsson et al. 1994, Berg et al. 1996). 1 3 When quantifying energy inputs, one of two methods are typically used. In process or vertical analysis, the chain of activities required to yield a specific good or service is deconstructed, and the major types and quantities of primary energy required at each stage are identified and summed (Hall et al. 1979, Peet 1992, Brown and Herendeen 1996). Generally, direct inputs are accurately captured using process analysis. However, indirect inputs are often underestimated because of the limitations of time and data available (Hall et al. 1979). In contrast, input-output energy analysis, patterned on input-output economic models, employs detailed economic survey data together with data on the energy inputs to various sectors of the economy to generate estimates of the total direct and indirect energy required to produce various goods and services (Bullard and Herendeen 1975, Hall, et al. 1979, Peet 1992, Brown and Herendeen 1996). 1 4 While the term embodied energy is frequently used in energy analyses, it can be misleading. This is because only part of the energy dissipated in the process of producing a given item is retained in the item itself. As a result, embodied energy is often described as the energy use history of a good or service. 1 5 While energy analysis measures the energy cost of production, it does not provide a measure of an items value (Kaberger 1991, Brown and Herendeen 1996). It does, however, provide " a way of comparing the efficacies [sic] of the different technologies available for transforming available resources into a desired product or service. Thus you may see energy cost of production not as a measure of the product, but as a measure of the instrumental value of the process." (Kaberger 1991, p. 72). 1 6 For a review of the importance of energy to the human enterprise and our collective vulnerability to its increased scarcity see Duncan (1993) or Price (1995). 10 industrial energy use - and in particular fossil energy use - correlates with a number of major environmental issues including global climate change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1990 & 1996, Sundquist 1993, Meyerson 1998) and biodiversity loss (Ehrlich 1994b), it also has value as an indicator of biophysical sustainability (Kaberger 1991, Brown and Herendeen 1996). Because humans are also dependent upon flows of solar energy through ecosystems, efforts have been made to extend conventional energy analysis to include these flows. For example, in an effort to demonstrate a relationship between the market price and the energy cost of producing an item, Costanza (1980) expanded the boundaries of his analysis to include solar energy flows. Taking this process a step further, Odum (1988) developed an entirely new analytical technique called EMERGY analysis in which all forms of energy, along with material inputs and human and environmental services17 that combine to provide a good or service, are converted into their solar energy equivalents (Odum 1988, Odum and Arding 1991, Brown and Herendeen 1996)18. Material Throughput Based Techniques Pursuant to the widely perceived need to dramatically reduce the physical quantities of matter that are cycled through the economy, Schmidt-Bleek developed the concept of material intensity per unit service, or MIPS for short, and an associated accounting framework called material intensity analysis (Schmidt-Bleek 1994, Hinterberger and Schmidt-Bleek 1999). Within MIPS, the entire mass of material inputs19 associated with manufacturing, packaging, transporting, operating, re-use, re-cycling and disposing of a given good or service is quantified and summed to provide a measure of its material intensity and relative eco-efficiency (Hinterberger and Schmidt-Bleek 1999). Related to MIPS, a second material consumption-based technique is known as environmental space. Unlike MIPS, however, environmental space focuses on the equitable distribution of material consumption by comparing the per capita mass of specific resources consumed by a given society with the world average use of those resources. The types of resources typically used in an environmental space analysis are non-renewables, water, arable land, and forestry resources (Buitenkamp et al. 1993, Moffatt 1996, Hanley et al. 1999). 1 7 Some ofthe environmental services that are typically accounted for. within EMERGY analyses include; rain, wind, currents, waves, geologic uplift, earthquakes etc (Odum and Arding 1991). 1 8 While EMERGY analysis is not used as frequently as energy analysis, it has been used to evaluate at least one fishery (Hammer 1991) and one aquaculture system (Odum and Arding 1991) 1 9 This includes the mass of energy inputs. 11 Reflecting the growing concern regarding the impact of greenhouse gases on global climate, a third material-based technique could be called greenhouse gas emission intensity analysis. Based in part on energy analysis20, over the last decade a growing body of research has been undertaken to evaluate the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with a wide range of products, services and energy sources (Moriguchi et al. 1993, Pinguelli and Schaeffer 1995, Gielen 1995, Delucchi 1997, Gagnon and van de Vate 1997, van de Vate 1997, Subak 1997, 1999). A major difference between many of these analyses and simply converting the results of a conventional energy analysis into resulting greenhouse gas equivalents is that non-fuel related emissions are explicitly included. This can have a significant impact on the outcome of an analysis; for example, non-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in terms of C 0 2 equivalents) account for 63% and 99% of total emissions from pastoralist, and feedlot beef production systems, respectively (Subak 1999). Carrying Capacity Based Techniques The ecological concept of carrying capacity21 has been used for decades to help contextualise the problem of human over-consumption of natural capital assets (Ehrlich and Holdren 1971, Holdren and Ehrlich 1974, Hardin 1974, 1986, Rees 1990, 1993, 1996, Daily and Ehrlich 1992, Ehrlich 1994a, Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Daily and Ehrlich 1996, Arrow et al. 1996, Seidl and Tisdell 1999). It also forms the basis of a biophysical evaluation technique, ecological footprint analysis (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Rees 1996, Wackernagel and Rees 1996). Ecological footprint analysis measures the material and energy flows required to sustain a defined human population or activity, and converts these flows into a commensurate variable - ecosystem area - for evaluation and comparison. Consequently, it not only provides a measure of the ecosystem service appropriated by human activities, regardless of where on earth the source ecosystems occur, when used in comparative studies it provides a measure of relative ecological efficiency (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Rees 1996, Wackernagel and Rees 1996). The rationale underlying ecological footprint analysis is that human activities are inexorably, though often not obviously, tied to limited ecologically productive land and water to sustain both our biological and industrial metabolisms22. And it is this process of revealing the links between human 2 0 Reflecting the close linkage between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. 2 1 As defined within ecology, carrying capacity is the maximum population that can be sustained indefinitely by a given quantity of habitat without impairing the habitat. 2 2 The extent of this dependence has been conservatively estimated at 40% in the case of terrestrial ecosystems (Vitousek 1986, Haberl 1997). Similarly, between 25-35% ofthe primary productivity available from shallow coastal marine waters is currently appropriated solely to sustain fish and shellfish harvests (Pauly and Christensen. 1995). 12 consumption and sustaining ecosystem services that may be one of the greatest strengths of ecological footprint analysis. In practice, ecological footprint analysis proceeds initially much like a process energy analysis. The major direct and indirect material, labour, and energy inputs and outputs to a population or activity of interest are quantified. These are then converted, where possible, into corresponding ecosystem support areas; i.e. the areas of ecologically productive land and water required to produce the resource inputs and assimilate waste outputs on a continuous basis (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Wackernagel and Rees 1996). While ideally all inputs and waste products would be convertible into a corresponding ecosystem area, functionally some are difficult i f not impossible to incorporate. For example, mineral resources are conceptually difficult to footprint as are many types of wastes23. As a result, ecological footprint analyses generally underestimate the true appropriation of ecosystem services. Other limitations of ecological footprint analysis include that it does not discriminate between the relative scarcity of different ecotypes nor between more or less sustainable types of land use. In addition, the multiple complementary services provided by some ecosystems are generally not accounted for in many ecological footprint analyses (van den Bergh and Verbruggen 1999)24. Finally, because of the uncertainties associated with some of the transformation calculations, and because some components of a typical analysis rely on notional rather than actual ecosystem support areas25, the absolute ecological footprint values generated should generally be considered hypothetical. This problem is reduced by using input parameter values that result in conservative estimates wherever uncertainties exist. The significance of this issue is greatly reduced, however, when conducting comparative analyses where the relative results are of greater importance than the absolute ecological footprint values generated. To date, ecological footprint analysis has been used most frequently to assess the collective and per capita impacts of societies under specific technological, and cultural conditions on a variety of scales including at the city (Rees 1996, Folke et al. 1997), regional (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Folke, et 2 3 While carbon dioxide (together with other greenhouse gases), nitrates, and phosphates are frequently incorporated into ecological footprint analyses on the basis of the primary productivity required for their assimilation (see for example, Larsson et al. 1994, Berg et al. 1996, and Folke et al. 1997), other waste chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics, ozone-depleting chemicals etc. are conceptually very difficult to include. 2 4 An exception to this is the analysis by Berg et al (1996) in which complementary ecosystem services (oxygen production, and waste assimilation) are accounted for within the same ecosystem area. 13 al. 1997), and national level (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Wackernagel and Rees 1996, Wackernagel et al. 1997, 1999, Wada 1999). It has, however, also been used to evaluate alternative technology systems including field versus greenhouse tomatoes (Wada 1993), alternative forms of transportation (Wackernagel and Rees 1996), intensive versus pond culture of Tilapia (Berg et al. 1996) and intensive shrimp culture (Larsson et al. 1994). Pre-Analytic Vision My pre-analytic vision when undertaking this research was that the long-term interests of society will best be served through the pursuit of strong sustainability. As such, my vision of sustainability, and in particular biophysical sustainability, mirrors the definitions of Daly (1991), Giampetro et al. (1992), and others: sustainability is the achievement of a state of dynamic equilibrium between the ecosphere and its sub-component, the human enterprise. For this condition to be satisfied, our appropriation of natural capital goods and services through the extraction of resources and the discharge of wastes must not exceed that which the ecosphere can provide/assimilate on an ongoing basis. In other words, stocks of self-producing natural capital must remain constant and our collective impact must not exceed the carrying capacity of the ecosphere. Within this context, I believe that the adoption of more eco-efficient technologies is essential if biophysical sustainability of the human enterprise is to be achieved. Introduction to the Case Study My chosen case study - salmon production in British Columbia, Canada - provided an opportunity to conduct a detailed assessment of the biophysical efficiency, and hence relative sustainability, of two highly distinct technology systems, and several smaller sub-system technology options that yield a comparable commercial product: salmon for human consumption. The two salmon "production" technology systems that I evaluated are the vessel-based commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry, commonly referred to as salmon farming, as both systems exist as of the late 1990's. The commercial salmon fishery in British Columbia (B.C.) harvests both wild spawned and artificially enhanced stocks of five Pacific salmon species: sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), pink 2 5 For example, when accounting for fossil fuel use, most ecological footprint analyses employ hypothetical carbon sink forest land as the basis upon which an ecosystem support area is calculated (see Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Wackernagel and Rees 1996). 14 (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (Oncorhynchus keta), chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The contemporary commercial salmon fleet in British Columbia is comprised of over 2,500 vessels that deploy one of three fishing technologies or gears - purse seine, gillnet or troll fishing gear - in pursuit of salmon. Annual landings have typically varied between 40,000 and 100,000 round tonnes throughout the history of the fishery. The intensive salmon culture industry in British Columbia employs land-based hatchery and marine-based net-cage technology to produce chinook, coho and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). After its inception in the 1970's, the industry in British Columbia grew rapidly throughout the late 1980's and 1990's to the point that in 1998, industry-wide production of farmed salmon surpassed the harvest of wild salmon for the first time in British Columbia. Research Objectives Given the existence of these two technologically distinct salmon production methods, this research was undertaken to address the following questions: 1. Are there differences between the biophysical costs associated with the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry as both are currently conducted? 2. Are there differences between the biophysical costs associated with catching salmon using purse seine, gillnet or troll fishing technologies under recent historical conditions? 3. What opportunities exist to reduce the biophysical costs associated with producing salmon via the intensive farming process and the salmon fishery? The answers to these questions are important for several reasons. Should biophysical efficiency differences exist, either between production systems or harvesting technologies used in the salmon fishery, it will provide a strong indication of their relative biophysical sustainability. Moreover, it will confirm that alternate technology systems can indeed play a role in moving society away from or towards sustainability. Regardless of the relative outcome, however, this research will provide decision-makers both in government and industry with a quantitative basis for evaluating the sustainability implications of possible changes to these salmon production systems. 15 Methods Used Two biophysical accounting techniques - ecological footprint analysis and energy analysis - were used to evaluate and compare the average biophysical costs associated with producing a tonne of salmon from each system. The "downstream" boundary used in both analyses was the point at which unprocessed salmon figuratively hit the dock just prior to processing. In the case of the farmed salmon system, the biophysical costs associated with Atlantic and chinook salmon culture were analysed separately where this was possible26. The salmon farming sub-systems and inputs encompassed by the analysis include the major direct material, labour and energy inputs to smolt production, marine grow-out operations, and adult salmon transport. In addition, detailed analyses were conducted of the inputs associated with providing salmon feed as well as building and maintaining grow-out site infrastructure. With respect to the commercial salmon fishery, biophysical costs were calculated on both a fishing gear-specific and a species-specific basis. The inputs to the commercial fishery encompassed by the analysis include the direct fuel and labour associated with fishing, as well as the direct and indirect inputs required to build and maintain the fishing vessels themselves and provide fishing gear. In the case of chinook and coho salmon, the material, labour and energy inputs associated with artificial smolt production were also evaluated. Outline of Remaining Chapters The balance of the dissertation comprises six chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry in British Columbia. This includes a discussion of the basic life history characteristics of salmon, brief histories of the two industries in British Columbia and descriptions of the major technologies employed in both systems. In Chapter 3,1 review the major assumptions, research materials and methods that were common to both the analysis of intensive salmon culture and the commercial fishery. In Chapter 4 the research materials and methods used to analyse the biophysical costs of intensively cultured salmon are described in detail. Similarly, in Chapter 5, I present the research materials and methods used to analyse the biophysical costs of the commercial salmon fishery. The results of both the ecological footprint and energy analyses of the two salmon production systems appear in Chapter 6 along with a The biophysical costs of coho salmon farming were not analysed. 16 sensitivity analysis that explores the effect that altering four major assumptions or input parameters has on the results. In the seventh and final chapter, I consider the results in terms of the original research questions posed, and locate my results within the context of previous ecological footprint and energy analyses of seafood and other food production systems. Finally, I discuss additional insights that emerged as the research was conducted along with the broader sustainability implications of the work. 17 Chapter 2: Salmon Production in British Columbia " A s a fishery, salmon are ideal. They comb the ocean for its abundant food, convert this to delectable flesh, and return regularly in hordes to funnel through a limited number o f river mouths exposing themselves to the simplest o f capture - a g i l l net, trap, or seine net." John R. Brett 1983, p. 29 "Aquiculture [sic] is as susceptible to scientific treatment as agriculture; and the fisherman who has been in the past too much the hunter, i f not the devastating raider, must become in the future the settled farmer o f the sea, i f the harvest is to be less precarious." W . A Herdman as quoted in Lotka 1925 (as appears in the 1956 reprint edition, p. 172) In this chapter, I review the major features o f the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry in British Columbia (B.C. ) . This includes a description o f the life history characteristics o f the salmon native to B . C . , reviews o f the history and current status o f commercial salmon fishing in the province, and overviews o f the techniques used to artificially enhance w i ld salmon populations. Wi th respect to the intensive salmon culture industry, I briefly describe the history o f the industry in B . C . , and the processes and technologies used currently. The Commercial Salmon Fishery The commercial salmon fishery, in what is now Brit ish Columbia, has existed for over 130 years. Throughout this period, it has been one o f the largest and most lucrative commercial fisheries in the province employing thousands o f fishermen and shore workers annually. The contemporary fishery is conducted using three distinct fishing gears or technologies: gillnets, purse seines and troll fishing gear. Although the size o f the B . C . salmon fleet has been reduced in recent years, over 2,500 licensed vessels remain in the fleet. A l l five species o f Pacific salmon native to the province are fished commercially. They are the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerkd), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum salmon (Oncorhynchus ketd), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)21. In addition, steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)28 are also taken by 2 7 The other two species of Pacific salmon, the masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) and the amago salmon (Oncorhynchus rhodurus) are only native to Asia. 18 commercial salmon fishers in Brit ish Columbia. However, as the total landings o f steelhead in any one year are relatively small, and they are not the explicit target of commercial fishing activities, they are not considered further in this research. O f the five species o f interest, chinook are the largest on average, usually weighing between 5 and 20 kg when mature. Next in size are chum, typically weighing between 2.5 and 10 kg, and coho, which run between 2.5 and 7 kg. The two smallest species are sockeye and pink salmon, which typically weigh between 2 and 4 kg, and 1.5 and 3 kg, respectively, when mature. Sockeye, pink and chum salmon are by far the most plentiful o f the five species. Each year typically between 25 and 70 mil l ion mature adults o f these three species combined return to Bri t ish Columbian waters. In contrast, total coho returns to B . C . typically run wel l under 10 mi l l ion adults annually, while returns o f chinook generally number under 3 mil l ion fish per year. A s the general and species-specific life history characteristics of salmon have shaped or influenced the manner in which they are harvested, and artificially enhanced, it is important to review some of those characteristics. Basic Life History of Pacific Salmon29 A l l commercially harvested Pacific salmon in Brit ish Columbia are anadromous 3 0. A H spawn in gravel beds in streams, rivers, and in some cases along the margins o f lakes, typically between late summer and early winter. After emerging from the gravel during the subsequent late winter or spring, juvenile salmon migrate to the sea after an initial period spent in freshwater. The juvenile freshwater residency period may be as short as a few hours or as long as a few years. In general, chum and pink salmon spend the least amount o f time rearing in freshwater and usually migrate to estuarine areas within hours to weeks o f emerging (Salo 1991, Heard 1991). A t the opposite extreme, most sockeye and coho spend at least a full year rearing in freshwater. The 2 8 Recently both the steelhead trout and the cutthroat trout were re-classified as members of the genus Oncorhynchus (as Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus clarki, respectively). Previously they had been classified as members of the genus Salmo along with the Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar) and the brown trout {Salmo trutta) amongst others. 2 9 Pacific salmon display a tremendous range of life history characteristics reflecting both interspecific differences and diversity between populations and individuals of a given species. As such this section can only provide a highly generalized overview of their life history patterns. For a much more exhaustive review the reader is referred to Pacific Salmon Life Histories, edited by Groot and Margolis (1991). 3 0 Some populations of Pacific salmon, however, complete their entire lifecycle in freshwater. The most prominent example of this life history pattern in British Columbia is provided by the kokanee salmon, a landlocked version of the sockeye salmon. 19 sockeye's freshwater residence is spent primarily in lakes (Burgner 1991) while coho rear mainly in streams, rivers and adjacent slack-water off-channel areas (Sandercock 1991). Chinook salmon display perhaps the greatest range o f freshwater rearing habits. Some populations o f chinook, referred to as "ocean type", migrate to saltwater within their first year o f life while "stream type" chinook typically spend at least one year, and sometimes much longer, in freshwater before heading to sea (Healey 1991). Upon entering saltwater, Pacific salmon begin an extensive migration that sees them range over a wide area, feeding and growing rapidly 3 1 . The length o f time spent at sea varies among species, stocks, and individuals within a given population, but typically ranges from one and a half to four years 3 2. The migration routes and the regions o f the north Pacific ocean used by salmon originating in Bri t ish Columbia also vary between species and stocks. In general, however, most young salmon migrate in a northwesterly direction along the coast o f Bri t ish Columbia and Alaska during their first summer at sea. After this, most B . C . sockeye, pink, chum and, to a lesser extent, coho salmon, spend the majority o f their remaining time in saltwater foraging offshore in the G u l f o f Alaska, where they intermingle with other salmon from the Pacific Northwest, Alaska and A s i a 3 3 . Figure 1 illustrates the general migration pattern that is believed to hold for most North American sockeye, chum and pink salmon during their first summer, fall and winter at sea. Thereafter, their seasonal movements follow the general pattern o f migrating with the flow o f the Alaskan Gyre current into more southerly offshore waters during the winter and spring, and into more northerly near-shore waters during the summer and fall . For a review ofthe early oceanic migration patterns and growth rates of Pacific salmon while at sea, see Hartt and Dell (1986). As a species, pink salmon have the shortest marine residency largely as a result of their relatively short, two-year, lifecycle. Some B.C. salmon, however, are known to range west of the Aleutian Islands and north into the Bering Sea. 20 52°N 48°N 44°N 40°N 36°N 175°E 180° 175°W 170°W165°W 160°W 155°W 150°W 145°W 140°W 135°W Figure 1. Ocean Migration Patterns of Major Stocks of North American Sockeye, Chum and Pink Salmon During Their First Summer at Sea, Along with Their Probable Migrations During the Subsequent Fall and Winter (reproducedfrom Salo 1991, p. 264) Chinook salmon display much greater diversity in their marine life history behaviour. In general, "ocean-type" chinook appear to strongly favour inshore coastal waters, and relatively few stray more than 1,000 km from their natal river (Healey 1991). In contrast, "stream-type" chinook from Brit ish Columbia w i l l often venture further from their natal river and "are probably distributed mainly in the eastern North Pacific with the greatest concentrations over the continental shelf waters along the North American coast." (Healey 1991, p. 367). Whi le at sea, Pacific salmon are opportunistic, generalist feeders that exploit a wide range o f planktonic 3 4 and micro-nektonic 3 5 food items. Sockeye, chum and pink salmon appear to depend more heavily upon planktonic prey while coho and chinook appear to be more heavily dependent upon micro-nektonic prey 3 6 . O f the five species, chinook tend to be the most piscivorous and, depending on the relative availability o f prey species, focus mainly on small pelagic fish including herring, sandlance, anchovy and pilchards (Healey 1991). 3 4 T h e most c o m m o n planktonic prey items include euphasiids, copepods, amphipods and decapods. 3 5 M icro -nekton ic prey includes a wide range o f fish species, including herring, anchovy, sandlance, p.lchards, juveni le rock fish, and in some cases juveni le salmon, squid and occasionally je l lyf ish. 3 6 A s part o f my analysis o f the marine ecosystem support required to sustain the commercml salmon fishery (Chapter 5), 1 reviewed a large number o f published quantitative stomach content analyses for each o f the five species o f salmon. Summaries o f these analyses appear in A p p e n d i x I. 21 A s salmon begin to sexually mature at sea, they home in on their natal watershed. During their homeward migration, salmon continue to feed and grow rapidly 3 7 . Upon entering freshwater, salmon stop feeding and for the rest of their lives live off their reserves of fat and ultimately their muscle protein. The time spent in freshwater before spawning can range from as short as a few days to many months reflecting primarily the distance that a given stock must travel to reach its spawning grounds. Within a few days or weeks of spawning, all Pacific salmon die 3 8 . Their abundance, together with their anadromous life history and widespread distribution throughout accessible watersheds, both along the coast and into the interior of Bri t ish Columbia, has meant that salmon are an important component o f many coastal, riverine, lacustrine and riparian ecosystems (Cederholm et al. 2000). These same qualities along with the high yield o f palatable flesh that can be taken from a salmon carcass has also meant that they have been an important source o f food for humans for probably as long as people have inhabited this coast. Salmon Harvesting in British Columbia In Bri t ish Columbia salmon are harvested by three broad sectors, aboriginal, recreational and commercial fishers. In terms o f tonnage, the commercial sector accounts for roughly 90% of the total Brit ish Columbia salmon catch while the aboriginal fishery for food and ceremonial purposes and the recreational sector each take about 5% of the total. A Brief History of the Commercial Fishery and the Technologies Used For most intents and purposes, the commercial salmon fishery in Bri t ish Columbia was launched in 1871 with the advent o f the salmon canning industry on the Fraser River (Copes 1995, 2000, Meggs 1995) 3 9 . The early fishery that developed to supply the canneries relied heavily upon both aboriginal fishermen and fishing technologies, and in particular fish traps 4 0 and dipnets 4 1 to harvest the 3 7 For example, Brett (1986) estimated that, on average, Babine Lake sockeye double their weight during their last 5 to 6 months of ocean life. 3 8 The only exception to this general rule are steelhead and cutthroat trout which can survive the rigours of spawning to return to spawn again after recovering for a time at sea. 3 9 It is worth noting, however, that prior to the start of the salmon canning industry in British Columbia, salmon had been an important trade good both within the context of the pre-contact aboriginal economy and post-contact as an important trade item between aboriginals and the early European settlers, miners and traders (Copes 1995, 2000, Meggs 1995). For example, the Hudson's Bay Company was shipping barrels of salted salmon, that had been caught and traded by aboriginal fishers, from their trading post at Fort Langley to markets in Asia and South America, via Hawaii as early as 1830 (Foerster 1968, Roos 1991). 4 0 Fish traps, trap nets and reef nets are closely related passive fishing devices (i.e. they rely on the movement offish and water currents to capture fish) that generally consist of a maze or a series of progressively smaller openings in an otherwise impassable series of barriers that ultimately lead to a holding pen from which escape is difficult. As a salmon fishing technology, traps of one form or another emerged independently in at least three parts of the world, Japan, 22 abundant runs o f sockeye that returned to the Fraser River. Very quickly, however, gil lnets 4 2 , a European fishing technology that had first been introduced to Bri t ish Columbia in the mid-1860's, began to replace the indigenous technologies within the context of the commercial fishery (Meggs 1995) 4 3 . A s a result, for the first 30 years o f its existence, the commercial fishery in Bri t ish Columbia was predominantly a gillnet fishery that was conducted from small wooden skiffs primarily in the tidal and estuarine portions o f the province's major rivers 4 4 . The main targets o f this early fishery were the relatively abundant runs of sockeye and pink salmon. During this phase o f the fishery the catch grew steadily to the point that by the turn o f the last century, landings routinely exceeding 20,000 tonnes per year in Brit ish Columbia (Figure 2). northern Europe and along the Pacific coast of North America (see Stewart 1977 for examples of indigenous North American salmon traps and other fishing gears and Hallock et al. 1957, Dunn and Lincoln 1978 and Nomura 1980 for examples of relatively contemporary salmon traps). In certain locations in the Pacific Northwest, British Columbia and Alaska, traps were used to great effect both by pre-contact aboriginal communities (see Copes (1995, 2000) for a discussion of the efficacy and demise of aboriginal fish traps in British Columbia) and by the post-contact commercial salmon fishery. In many instances, their demise as a commercial salmon fishing technology was due not to their ineffectiveness at catching salmon but as a result of political pressure brought by other salmon fishing sectors that saw traps as being too efficient (for an excellent review of the political demise of both the Columbia River and Puget Sound commercial trap fishery for salmon, see Higgs 1982). 4 1 Dipnets are simple long-handled bag-like nets, typically handled by a single person, that are used, as their name implies, to simply dip or scoop migrating salmon from the water. While dipnets can be a very effective salmon harvesting devise under the right conditions, their use is restricted to locations in which the progress of salmon migrating in freshwater is slowed, and as a result fish become concentrated, behind either a naturally occurring or artificial barrier. Furthermore, by their relatively small-scale nature, dipnet fisheries are generally not productive enough to form the basis of a commercial fishery. 4 2 Gillnetting is a method of fishing in which a virtually invisible net, designed with a mesh-size that is slightly larger than the head of the species being targeted, is suspended in the water like a curtain in front of, and perpendicular to the path of migrating salmon. Gillnets are bouyed along their top edge by a series of floats and weighted along their bottom by a lead line. Once deployed, a gillnet is typically allowed to drift with the tides for anywhere from one to four hours before being retrieved. As fish swim into the net, they become entangled in the net's mesh by their gill plates and/or jaws. Historically, gillnets were made from flax twine but since the advent of synthetic fibers, most gillnets are made from nylon or monofilament. On average, modern salmon fishing gillnets in British Columbia are about 360 metres long and 60 mesh-widths deep. 4 3 This early technological evolution to a predominantly gillnet-based commercial fishery was largely the result of two related factors. Along the lower Fraser River, in the vicinity of where most of the early canneries were established, the catch from the existing trap and dipnet-based fishery simply couldn't keep up with the demand for salmon created by a rapidly growing canning industry. For example, by 1880, there were ten canneries located along the banks of the lower Fraser River and one cannery on the Skeena River in northern British Columbia (Meggs 1995). By 1881, additional canneries were also opened on the Nass River and in Rivers Inlet (Foerster 1968). And by 1890, there were 17 canneries on the lower Fraser (Meggs 1995). 4 4 Most early gillnet fisheries occurred in these areas because with only sail and oar power available, the fishery had to be conducted within fairly close proximity to the canneries in order to deliver the catch in a timely manner. However, many contemporary salmon gillnet fisheries are still conducted in the lower reaches or off the mouth of rivers as the turbid conditions associated with these areas help disguise the presence of gillnets in the water. 23 120,000 100,000 80,000 c o 40,000 20,000 CO CO CO f- 00 OO OO 00 00 CO oo cn a> a> Figure 2. Commercial Salmon Landings in British Columbia, 1873 to 1997 (from Wallace \999) From a technological perspective, the commercial fishery began to change again shortly after the turn of the century with the introduction o f the gasoline engine (Higgs 1982). Un t i l this point, another introduced fishing gear, the purse seine 4 5, had only seen limited use in the Brit ish Columbia fishery. This was largely because with only human power available to handle the net, and in particular to purse the seine, only relatively small nets could be effectively deployed. However, once equipped with engines, not only could larger nets be handled more easily 4 6 but the seine vessels themselves could range much further in pursuit o f salmon. A s a result, over the first two decades of this century, purse seining came into its own as a salmon fishing technology both in Brit ish Columbia and throughout the coast 4 7. A s purse seining is most effective where fish occur in relatively large, dense schools, it has been used most extensively to harvest the more plentiful sockeye, pink and chum salmon in areas in which these stocks are naturally concentrated. A s a result, most purse seining for salmon is conducted in coastal 4 5 Purse seining is an active fishing method in which a school of fish is first sighted and then trapped using the purse seine net. The purse seine net itself is a relatively long, deep, small mesh-sized net that is bouyed along its top by floats and weighted along its bottom by leadline. In addition, a heavy-duty "purse line" is strung through a series of metal rings along the entire bottom length of the net. When a school of fish is sighted or is believed to occur in a certain area, the net is typically deployed from the stern of the seiner using a small skiff to essentially hold one end of the net in place in the water. Alternatively, in near-shore areas, the lead end of the net may be tied to a fixed point on shore. The seiner then quickly maneuvers so as to encircle or trap the school of fish in the net. Once the ends of the net are joined, the purse-line is drawn tight, thus prohibiting the downward escape of fish. The trapped fish are then either brailed aboard the seiner using a dipnet or the entire catch can be hauled over the stern of the boat (see Ledbetter (1986) for a more detailed description of purse seining for salmon in British Columbia). 4 6 For example, a typical contemporary purse seine net used in the British Columbia salmon fishery is about 390 metres long and 21 metres deep (Mr, Chris Cue, seine operations manager, Canadian Fishing Company, pers. comm. 1998). 4 7 See Higgs (1982) for a description of the growth of the commercial salmon purse seine fishery in Washington State. 24 waters where mixed stocks o f migrating salmon funnel through narrows, into inlets, between islands and around promontories. The introduction o f the gasoline engine also meant that a third fishing technology, t ro l l ing 4 8 , emerged to become an important component o f the commercial salmon fishery. Whi le pre-contact aboriginal fishers trolled behind canoes (Stewart 1977) and early European trolling was conducted behind sail powered and rowed boats prior to the turn o f the century (Higgs 1982), with gasoline engines trailers could operate regardless o f the wind and for much longer periods o f time than previously. Gasoline engines also allowed trailers to deploy more lines and to venture relatively far offshore to fish some of the important feeding grounds used by salmon and in particular, chinook and coho salmon 4 9 . With the addition of both a sizeable purse seine and troll fleet to the already well-established gillnet fleet, by the end o f the First Wor ld War, the commercial salmon fishery in Bri t ish Columbia had essentially reached maturity with landings often exceeded 60,000 tonnes annually (Figure 2). The Contemporary Commercial Salmon Fishery Landings by the commercial fishery in Bri t ish Columbia vary considerably from year-to-year reflecting changes in the relative and total abundance o f salmon stocks. In broad terms, the annual catch over the last 20 years has remained more or less consistent with the longer term history of landings, and generally falls between 40,000 and 100,000 tonnes (Figure 2 ) 5 0 . A s has been the case throughout its history, sockeye, pink and chum salmon together account for the majority o f commercial salmon landings in Brit ish Columbia (Figure 3). 4 8 Trolling is a fishing method in which one or more fishing lines, each equipped with one or more lures or baited hooks, are slowly dragged through the water in areas in which the targeted species is known to feed. When a fish mistakes the lure or bait for a natural prey item and becomes hooked, the line is hauled in and the fish is landed individually. In the contemporary British Columbia salmon fishery, trailers typically deploy 6 to 8 stainless steel lines at a time with up to 80 lures or baited hooks per line. 4 9 Trailers have traditionally targeted chinook and coho salmon for a variety of reasons including: a larger proportion of chinook and coho (in contrast with sockeye, pink and chum salmon) tend to spend a greater proportion of their marine life-history feeding year-round in inshore waters, chinook and coho tend to favour prey items (such as squid, and small pelagic fish) that are easily replicated by lures and baits used by trailers, and chinook and coho have traditionally fetched relatively high prices especially for fish landed in good condition as is the case with troll caught fish. 5 0 It should be noted, however, that since the late 1980's, the trend in landings have progressively declined each year, with only two minor reversals, causing many observers of the fishery to express concern regarding the state of the stocks and fisheries management in British Columbia. 25 120,000 J ' 1 1 - i 1 - i 1 < ' ' ^ 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Figure 3. British Columbia Commercial Salmon Landings by Species, 1980 to 1997 (data from Department of Fisheries and Oceans Annual Commercial Catch Statistics, 1980-1997) From a technological perspective, al l three fishing gears; gillnet, purse seine and troll , continue to contribute to the commercial catch (Figure 4). In most years the seine fleet, while representing the smallest number o f vessels, typically accounts for the largest proportion o f the landings with the much larger t ro l l 5 1 and gillnet fleets accounting for smaller and often approximately equal proportions o f the catch (Figure 5). 5 1 Over the 1990's, however, trailers have been landing a progressively smaller proportion ofthe total catch largely result of conservation concerns that have emerged with respect to some populations of chinook and coho destine* southern British Columbia and the US Pacific Northwest. 26 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Figure 4. British Columbia Commercial Salmon Landings by Gear Type, 1980 to 1997 (data from Department of Fisheries and Oceans Annual Commercial Catch Statistics, 1980-1997) • Seine • Hybrid Gillnet/Troll H Troll • Gillnet U T — i i i 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Figure 5. Number of Active Commercial Salmon Fishing Vessels by Gear Type in British Columbia, 1983 to 1997 (dataprovided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, October, 1999. Note data for 1995, 1996 and 1997 preliminary) While the commercial salmon fishery in Brit ish Columbia remains one o f the largest and economically important fisheries in western Canada, from a global perspective, it is a relatively small contributor to total commercial salmon landings, accounting for an average o f only 9% of the total 27 global w i ld caught salmon over the period 1984-97 (data from F A O FIDI statistical database Fishstat+) : , z. Artificial Enhancement of Salmon For almost as long as there has been a commercial salmon fishery in Bri t ish Columbia, efforts have been made to augment the w i ld production o f juvenile salmon that head to sea with the hope that increased numbers o f adult salmon w i l l result 5 3. The techniques used to artificially enhance salmon vary considerably and include: • efforts to maintain and in some cases restore natural spawning grounds, • the construction o f fishways and ladders around natural and artificial in-river barriers to improve adult salmon access to spawning areas 5 4, • the construction o f artificial spawning channels, particularly for sockeye and pink salmon 5 5 , • the fertilisation o f sockeye rearing lakes to boost their productivity and hence their output o f sockeye smolts, and • the intensive culture of primarily juvenile chinook, coho and chum salmon in hatcheries for later release into the wi ld . The modern era o f salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia was launched in 1977 with the establishment o f the Salmonid Enhancement Program (SEP) by the federal government. When established, the primary objective o f the SEP was to double the return o f salmon to the province within 30 years ( A R A 1993, Pearse 1994) 5 6 . Whi le this goal has yet to be achieved, and it is very unlikely that it ever w i l l be given the change in focus o f the SEP over t ime 5 7 and the generally poorer 5 2 The rest of the global commercial salmon landings over the period from 1984 to 1997 are accounted for by the United States, and in particular Alaska, with 43% of the world total commercial catch, Japan with 29% and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation with 18% (from the FAO FIDI statistical database Fishstat+). 5 3 For example, the first salmon hatchery in British Columbia was built in 1882 on Bon Accord creek opposite New Westminster on the lower Fraser River and produced its first fry in 1884 (Meggs 1991, Pearse 1994). 5 4 See Roos (1991) for a discussion of the need for, and the construction history of fishways for salmon on the Fraser River and its tributaries. 5 5 Ibid, for a discussion of the construction of artificial spawning channels on the Fraser River and its tributaries. 5 6 Secondary objectives of the program included the augmentation of national and provincial income, employment generation, improved economic opportunities for aboriginal people and economically disadvantaged communities, and improved recreational fishing opportunities (Pearse 1994). 5 7 By 1983, the goal of doubling salmon returns to the province strictly through artificial enhancement techniques was beginning to be downplayed in favour of doubling salmon production using an array of stock rebuilding tools. In its place 28 than expected returns to enhancement facilities, its output of juvenile salmon and its contribution to British Columbia 's salmon catch has been substantial 5 8. For example, through the late 1980's and early 1990's S E P supported activities collectively produced between 500 to 750 mil l ion juvenile salmon annually (Figure 6). 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Brood Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 Figure 6. Juvenile Salmon Released from Salmon Enhancement Program Supported Activities, 1985 to 1995 (data provided by Mr. Greg Steer, SEP, 1996) Over the same period, these releases resulted in a total annual catch o f between four and nine mil l ion salmon o f artifically-enhanced origin (Figure 7). Expressed in terms o f tonnage landed, Pearse (1994) estimated that the S E P contributed an average o f approximately 13,000 tonnes annually between 1985 and 1990 to the total Canadian catch 5 9 amounting to about 13% o f our total commercial, recreational and aboriginal landings over the same period. the focus of SEP had shifted, by the mid-1980's, towards the restoration of depressed stocks and in particular, coho and chinook stocks (Pearse 1994). 5 8 An important caveat is necessary regarding the apparent contribution that enhancement activities have made to our total harvest of salmon. Mounting research suggests that many forms of traditional artificial enhancement have the potential to undermine the viability of remnant wild stocks of salmon through genetic interaction, resource competition, disease transfer, and resulting inappropriately high harvest levels (Meffe 1992, Hilborn 1992, McMichael et al. 2000, Morishima and Henry 2000, Thurow et al. 2000, Hillborn and Eggers 2000). 5 9 This includes the aboriginal, recreational and commercial catch of SEP-origin fish. 29 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Brood Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 Figure 7. Total Catch of SEP-Origin Salmon, 1985 to 1995 (data provided by Mr. Greg Steer, SEP, 1996) Although the S E P supports a great many small community-run enhancement projects throughout the province, most o f the program's efforts and resources go towards operating the over three dozen hatcheries and spawning channel complexes that form the core o f their operations (Pearse 1994). The Intensive Salmon Culture Industry in British Columbia In this section I briefly review the history o f intensive salmon culture both globally and within British Columbia. I then describe the major elements and activities that together make up the contemporary salmon farming industry. Brief History of Salmon Farming While juvenile salmon and trout have been cultured to either enhance existing fisheries or create new ones 6 0 for wel l over a hundred years 6 1, it was not until the late 1960's, and early 1970's that the first serious attempts were made to culture salmon intensively through to adulthood for commercial sale. Early commercial salmon farming efforts were initiated in a number o f jurisdictions including DO Once hatchery techniques were perfected for salmon and trout in the mid to late 1800's, countless attempts were made around the world to introduce salmon and trout into new ecosystems, largely to enhance recreational angling opportunities. Often these intentional introductions of non-native salmonids, including the repeated attempts to introduce Atlantic salmon into British Columbia between 1905 and 1935, failed (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, Vol. 3). However, in many other instances they succeeded. Examples include: the introduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta) throughout North America, the establishment of at least three species of Pacific salmon along with rainbow into the Great Lakes, the introduction of chinook salmon, rainbow and brown trout into both New Zealand and Tasmania, and the introduction of coho salmon, rainbow and brown trout into Chile and Argentina. For a brief review of the history of public and private salmon and trout culture activities see Sylvia et al. (2000). 30 Norway, Scotland, Japan, Chile , both Washington State and Maine in the United States, and in British Columbia (Sylvia et al. 2000). O f these, Norwegian producers enjoyed the earliest success and in 1972 produced a total o f 46 tonnes from five farms (Sylvia et al. 2000). B y 1980, global farmed salmon production amounted to under 10,000 tonnes and only Norway had established an industry o f any size and stability producing 4,300 tonnes that year (Sylvia et al . 2000). However, through the 1980's and 1990's, as culture techniques, farmed stock and feeds improved, global production grew rapidly, often exceeding 25% year-over-year annual growth rates (Figure 8). Currently, while intensive salmon farming is conducted in at least twenty countries 6 2, production is dominated by four. Norway, Chile , the United Kingdom (Scotland), and Canada who together account for over 85% of the farmed salmon and trout that is grown in marine-based net-cages (Figure 8). 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 B • Other • United States • Canada • United Kingdom • Chile • Norway 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Figure 8. World Marine-Based Farmed Salmon and Trout Production, 1984 to 1997 (data from FAO FIDI statistical database Fishstat+) In Brit ish Columbia, the salmon farming industry was effectively launched in 1973 when a privately owned hatchery near Duncan on southern Vancouver Island began raising juvenile salmon for later grow-out in saltwater-based net-cages using surplus eggs from government hatcheries (Kel ler and Leslie 1996) 6 3 . Early efforts were made to farm various species o f Pacific salmon including chum, sockeye and coho. Coho, however, quickly became the foundation o f the early industry in British 6 2 From the FAO FIDI statistical database Fishstat+. 6 3 For a detailed history of the British Columbia salmon farming industry see Keller and Leslie (1996). 31 Columbia. Throughout the 1970's the industry grew slowly as a variety o f technical and financial challenges resulted in the failure o f a large number of the pioneering salmon farming initiatives (Keller and Leslie 1996). A s a result, by 1980, total industry-wide production in British Columbia amounted to only a few hundred tonnes o f coho salmon. A s with salmon farming globally, the 1980's saw tremendous growth and change within the British Columbia industry. Early in the decade some farmers diversified into chinook salmon production. This proved successful and by 1987, chinook production exceeded coho production for the first time. Since then, chinook has been the dominant species o f Pacific salmon farmed in Brit ish Columbia (Figure 9 ) 6 4 . 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 • Atlantic salmon • Chinook • Coho 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Figure 9. British Columbia Farmed Salmon Production (round weight) by Species, 1981 to 1998 (Notes: 1981 to 1990 data from British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 1992; 1991 to 1995 data from Kenney 1996; 1996 to 1998 data from British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association pers. comm. 1999. Species specific dressed weight to round weight conversion factors as follows: coho 0.859, chinook 0.868, Atlantic 0.916 from British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association pers. comm. 1999) A second, potentially more consequential, and certainly more controversial, development occurred in the British Columbia industry during the late 1980's. Unt i l this point, although Atlantic salmon were the principal species being fanned internationally 6 5, in British Columbia only indigenous Pacific 6 4 It is also worth noting that British Columbia has been the largest single producer of farmed chinook in the world typically accounting for between 50% and 80% of annual global farmed chinook production over the last decade (from the F A O FIDI statistical database Fishstat+). 6 5 For example, on a tonnage basis, Atlantic salmon accounted for over 80% of the annual global farmed salmon production throughout the period from 1984 to 1997 (from the F A O FIDI statistical database Fishstat+). 32 salmon were used. This changed when salmon farmers began importing Atlantic salmon eggs into Brit ish Columbia in 1985 and began harvesting adults in 1988 (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 3 ) 6 6 . The most frequently cited reasons for shifting to Atlantic salmon are that the domesticated strains o f Atlantic salmon grow faster when in saltwater 6 7 and can be stocked at higher densities than either coho or chinook salmon (Kel ler and Lesl ie 1996, Bri t ish Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 3). A s a result, Atlantic salmon tend to be less expensive to raise than chinook or coho, ceteris paribus, while they fetch a comparable, i f not slightly higher price in many markets 6 8. Wi th the addition o f both chinook and Atlantic salmon to the production mix, coupled with the rapid expansion o f both the hatchery and grow-out capacity o f the industry and improved husbandry practices, over the course o f the 1980's, total industry-wide production in Bri t ish Columbia increased 30-fold, exceeding 10,000 round tonnes in 1989, with most of this growth occurring in the last two years of the decade (Figure 9). The expansion o f the industry through the late 1980's was not without problems. A combination o f environmental challenges 6 9 coupled with a major price collapse in domestic and international markets for premium farmed and wild-caught salmon in 1989 7 0 wreaked havoc throughout the industry 7 1 . A s a result, through the early 1990's the growth o f the industry slowed, and in two years, 1992 and 1994, output from the industry declined from the previous year (Figure 9). A t the same time, the expansion o f salmon farming through the late 1980's also gave rise to public concern regarding a range o f environmental issues. Pressure to address these concerns culminated in the provincial government establishing an industry-wide moratorium on the issuance o f new farm tenures in A p r i l , 1995, and 6 6 As of 1996, a total of almost 12 million Atlantic salmon eggs have been imported into British Columbia for the purposes of salmon farming. All have come from a small number of Canadian government approved hatcheries in Scotland, the United States, New Brunswick and Ireland (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997 Vol. 3). 6 7 It is interesting to note, however, that Atlantic salmon smolts are typically more difficult to rear while in freshwater and are therefore more costly, than either chinook or coho smolts (Dr. David Groves, pers. comm. 1997). 6 8 See Kenney (1996) for mid-1990's average monthly prices and markets for farmed British Columbian Atlantic and chinook salmon. 6 9 These included numerous harmful algal blooms in more southern British Columbian waters that devastated many farms particularly in the Sunshine coast area and an unusually severe winter storm in January 1989 that damaged many farms (Keller and Leslie 1996). 7 0 The 1989 salmon price collapse was due to a glut of salmon on international markets that resulted from over-production in most salmon farming countries (for example, Norway had forecast a production level of ~80,000 tonnes for 1989 but ended up harvesting almost 150,000 tonnes) and from a large wild salmon harvest in Alaska and British Columbia (Keller and Leslie 1996). 7 1 For example, by the summer of 1990, over a third of the salmon farming companies that had been in operation in 1988 in British Columbia failed, and many of the remaining companies were financially vulnerable. As a result, the British Columbia industry underwent a process of re-organization that left only 17 producer companies by 1995 (Keller and Leslie 1996). 33 launching a major industry-wide environmental assessment process, the Salmon Aquaculture Review ( S A R ) , in July, 1996 (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997) 7 2 . After an extensive technical review, the final report o f the S A R , including 49 major recommendations covering a range o f technical and regulatory aspect o f the industry, was released in August 1997. It was not until October, 1999, however, that the provincial government formally responded to the S A R report and announced that it would allow limited expansion o f the salmon farming industry in B . C . While in the short term, the moratorium on the issuance o f new licenses technically remains in place, ten new experimental salmon farms w i l l be a l lowed 7 3 and salmon farmers with existing tenures in unproductive sites w i l l be allowed to change location and push their farms into full production 7 4 (British Columbia Ministry o f Fisheries and Minis t ry o f Environment, Lands and Parks 1999). However, despite the moratorium that effectively limited the geographical expansion o f the industry through the latter 1990's, production o f farmed salmon in Brit ish Columbia increased steadily (Figure 9) to the point that in 1998 the harvest of over 43,000 round tonnes of farmed salmon exceeded the commercial harvest o f w i ld salmon in Brit ish Columbia for the first time. In addition, the use o f Atlantic salmon continued to expand over the course o f the decade, to the point that Atlantic salmon now account for approximately 75% of the farmed salmon produced in Brit ish Columbia (Figure 9). Contemporary Salmon Farming in British Columbia The process and techniques used to farm salmon in Bri t ish Columbia are essentially the same as those used around the world. The production process can be broken down into six major steps: • the harvest o f eggs from broodstock followed by the artificial spawning, incubation, and hatching of eggs in land-based hatchery facilities, • the rearing o f smolts in freshwater either in hatcheries or in lake-based net-cage sites, 7 2 The five main issues considered during the Salmon Aquaculture Review were: 1) the impact of escaped farmed salmon on wild salmonids, 2) fish health and the potential for disease transmission from farmed to wild fish, 3) waste discharges from marine grow-out sites, 4) the impact of farming operations on aquatic mammals and other predators, and 5)the siting of salmon farms generally (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997) 7 3 These ten new farms are to be developed with partial government support specifically to foster the development of new ntally-friendly grow-out technologies (British Columbia Ministry of Fisheries and Ministry of Environment, environment; Lands and Parks 1999). . „ . . u ^ , u- • A 7 4 As of mid-1999, only about 70% ofthe approximately 120 licensed salmon farm sites in British Columbia were occupied. 34 • the "grow-out" o f salmon in marine-based net-cages, • fish harvest and transport, • processing, and • marketing and distribution. O f the six stages, only the first four are encompassed by the analysis that follows and as such only these processes are briefly described further. Hatchery Production of Smolts Currently, virtually a l l salmon farmed in Bri t ish Columbia are raised from eggs that are harvested from privately maintained broodstock 7 5 and a l l smolts required by the industry are produced in Bri t ish Columbia as it is illegal to import live juvenile or adult f i sh 7 6 . When broodstock fish reach sexual maturity they are stripped o f eggs and milt that are then combined. The newly fertilized eggs are placed in covered trays 7 7 , or similar incubation structures 7 8, that are continually flushed with wel l oxygenated freshwater, for the duration o f their incubation. Once hatched, alevins generally remain in incubators until they reach the "swim up" stage of development and are ready to begin feeding. A t this point Pacific salmon fry are typically moved to relatively shallow indoor troughs or tanks to be introduced to feed while Atlantic salmon fry are usually introduced to feed in the tanks in which they were incubated. Once they attain a certain size, approximately three quarters o f a gram in the case o f Pacific salmon, fry are transferred to larger outdoor tanks. However, in the case o f most Atlantic salmon and a small but increasing proportion o f chinook salmon fry produced in Bri t ish Columbia, early rearing is conducted in indoor, heated water tanks for a period o f approximately six weeks before being transferred outdoors. This practice has been adopted to "accelerate" the early growth o f 7 5 During the industry's early development most of the eggs used came from wild broodstock that were surplus to government enhancement operations. In recent years, however, this practice has virtually disappeared as farmers have established selective breeding programs and the use of non-native Atlantic salmon has increased (Keller and Leslie 1996). 7 6 However, it is worth noting that during the period 1985-1996 a total of 11,949,000 Atlantic salmon eggs were imported into the province by companies which were taking advantage of new strains of farmed stock which had been developed in other jurisdictions - (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, Vol. 3) 7 7 The standard incubators used for Pacific salmon eggs are known as Heath trays. 7 8 Most Atlantic salmon eggs are incubated in what are referred to as Combi tanks whose name reflects the fact that they are also used for early rearing of fry. 35 fry in situations in which the ambient water temperature is lower than optimal for maximum growth 7 9 . The total time spent in freshwater typically varies from six months to two years depending on species, environmental factors such as rearing water temperature, feed quality, and the targeted final size o f the smolt (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 3). Data provided by the Cooperative Assessment of Salmonid Health (C .A.S .H. ) program indicate that during the mid-1990's in Bri t ish Columbia, the average farmed chinook smolt weighed approximately 35 grams when entering saltwater, while the average Atlantic salmon smolt weighed approximately 75 grams (Appendix A ) . In 1995, a total o f approximately 8.5 mil l ion Atlantic, chinook and coho smolts were produced by the 11 privately owned and operated hatcheries in British Columbia (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 3). Hatcheries owned, in whole or in part, by companies which also operate grow-out sites produce the majority o f the smolts used by the industry. A s o f 1997, o f the 13 "producer" member companies o f the Brit ish Columbia Salmon Farmers Association ( B C S F A ) , eight also operated hatcheries. A t the same time, three independent hatcheries also served the industry (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 4). Lake-Based Smolt Rearing Most, i f not al l , juvenile Pacific salmon move directly from the hatchery environment to saltwater grow-out sites when they are ready to undergo the physiological transformations associated with smoltification. In contrast, somewhere between 25% and 50% of the Atlantic salmon smolts used by the Brit ish Columbia industry are currently "finished" in freshwater lake-based rearing sites prior to being transferred to saltwater (Dr. Grace Karreman, pers. comm. January 28, 1999). This extra step is employed because larger smolts typically have higher survival and faster growth rates once they enter saltwater and the industry has found that it is more cost-effective to rear smolts to a larger size in lake-based facilities than it is to grow them to a comparable size in hatcheries 8 0. Currently, two lake-based rearing sites are licensed in Bri t ish Columbia. One is located in Lois Lake near the community o f Powel l River and the other in Georgie Lake near the community o f Campbell River on Vancouver Island (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, V o l . 3). 7 9 When accelerating fry, the optimal water temperature for both Atlantic and chinook salmon lies in the 15° to 16°C (Dr. David Groves, Sea Spring Salmon Farms Limited, pers. comm. 1999). 8 0 The primary advantages of lake-rearing over hatchery rearing include generally warmer water temperatures, lower capital costs, and lower operating costs because water does not have to be pumped. 36 Marine Grow-out When ready to enter saltwater, farmed salmon smolts are moved to saltwater grow-out sites. Currently in Bri t ish Columbia, al l commercial grow-out operations employ cage culture technology 8 1 . In cage culture, fish are enclosed by an appropriately sized open mesh net that is suspended within a rigid framework, typically constructed o f galvanised steel, aluminium, wood or plastic, 8 2 that is bouyed at the surface and held in place by an extensive system of anchors (Figure 10) (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol . 3). Figure JO. Simplified Schematic of Cage-Culture Technology Typically Usedfor Rearing Salmon in Saltwater (from British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol. 3, p. B-8) Most cage structures currently in use in Brit ish Columbia are square in plan view, and measure either 10, 20 or 30 metres on a side and range from 10 to 20 metres in depth 8 3. A typical contemporary farm site is comprised o f anywhere from 10 to 30 cages that are usually arranged in two rows along either side o f a central walkway. Attached or immediately adjacent to each site is one or more buildings 8 1 From the perspective ofthe salmon farmer, the major advantages of cage culture technology are that it is relatively inexpensive to build and maintain and it allows a free exchange of water and discharge of wastes. 8 2 A few cage structures still in use in British Columbia are constructed of wood and/or aluminum. 8 3 Following a growing trend in Europe, some salmon farms in British Columbia have also started to use large diameter circular cage systems that are fabricated of plastic. 37 that serve as a bunkhouse for the farm site staff, a workshop and a feed storage shed. In some cases these structures are located on land immediately adjacent to the net-cage system and in others, they are built on floating platforms that are directly linked to the net-cages (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol . 3). A typical farm site in Brit ish Columbia is located within 100 metres o f shore in areas that experience good tidal flushing yet are reasonably wel l sheltered from storms. The majority o f operating sites are currently concentrated in four areas around Vancouver Island. The two largest concentrations occur in the Northern Strait o f Georgia/Desolation Sound area and in the Johnstone Strait area. Most farms in these two regions produce Atlantic salmon. The next two largest concentrations o f farms are located along the west coast o f Vancouver Island in the relatively sheltered waters o f Clayoquot and Quatsino Sounds. Farms in these two areas produce the majority o f the chinook salmon'.farmed in British Columbia (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol . 3). Typically, salmon spend between 14 and 25 months growing in saltwater before they are harvested. Depending on market conditions, farmed salmon are usually harvested when they are anywhere between 2 and 5.5 kg. Harvesting and Transport During a normal production cycle, farmed salmon are transported at least twice prior to being processed. A t a minimum, smolts are transported from the hatchery where they were reared to a marine grow-out site. Later, when ready for harvest, they are transported from the grow-out site to one o f several land-based processing plants 8 4. Because the inputs associated with smolt transport are relatively trivial when compared with the other inputs to farmed salmon production, in this research, I have only quantified the inputs associated with transporting adult fish at harvest. While some marine grow-out sites currently being used in British Columbia are accessible by road, the majority can only be accessed by water or air. A s a result, at harvest, most farmed salmon are transported by boat to shore-based plants for processing. Vessels used for transporting farmed salmon are often retired salmon purse-seiners that have been converted to transport either live fish or freshly stunned, bled and iced carcasses 8 5. A t the farm site, live salmon are either brailed or pumped However, for the growing fraction of farmed salmon that are reared in lake-pen sites prior to entering saltwater, at least one additional transportation step is required. The practice, once fairly common in the British Columbia salmon farming industry, of processing salmon in the immediate vicinity ofthe marine grow-out site has virtually disappeared. Now, the vast majority of farmed salmon in 38 from the net-cage into the hold o f the ship. Depending on the proximity o f the farm site relative to the processing plant being used, transportation times may vary from as little as an hour to as much as a day. Once at the processing plant's dock, live salmon are usually brailed from the ship's hold into a receiving tank and are shortly thereafter processed. A s o f 1996, four o f the 16 companies operating grow-out sites in British Columbia transported their own animals to processing plants (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vo l . 4). The remainder o f the industry contracts out the transport of their animals upon harvest to one o f the specialised salmon transport companies operating in the province. British Columbia are transported to centrally located processing plants either as live animals or as freshly stunned and bled round carcasses (Mr. Don Millard, Transmar Shipping Ltd, pers. comm. 1997). 3 9 Chapter 3: Overview of Issues, Assumptions and Methods Common to Both Analyses In this chapter I review the issues, assumptions and methods that were common to both analyses. Issues and Assumptions The Like-Product Assumption A major assumption underlying this research is that the "products" o f the two technology systems under consideration are the same. If this assumption holds, it provides the basis upon which a direct comparison o f the biophysical inputs can be made. In simple terms, a tonne o f salmon is a tonne o f salmon ceteris paribus. Using other bases o f comparison, however, this assumption begins to break down. Biological and ecological differences between the six salmon species produced in Brit ish Columbia give rise to sometimes subtle physical, bio-chemical, and palatability differences which can in turn have an effect on their relative value to humans. For example, because o f the differences in diet and activity level, there are measurable differences in the average protein, ash and fat levels o f farmed and wi ld salmon. Typical ly , farmed salmon have lower levels of protein and ash and higher fat levels than do wi ld salmon o f the same species (Higgs et al. 1995). It is also worth noting that the composition o f the whole bodies and flesh o f both w i ld and farmed salmon can vary between individuals o f the same species, and over the life on an individual fish, reflecting quantitative and qualitative changes in diet, maturity, etc. Final ly, there can be significant differences in the subjective value that humans place on different salmon species as a foodstuff that is then reflected in their market price. These price differences result from a range o f factors including the flavour, relative abundance, seasonality o f availability o f different species, and culturally based preferences. For example, the current market value o f farmed Atlantic salmon is much higher than that o f an average kilogram of seine-caught pink or chum salmon. However, the price difference is minimal between farmed salmon and premium wi ld caught sockeye, chinook or coho salmon as evidenced by the high degree o f substitutability between these products in most markets (Herrmann et al. 1993, Clayton and Gordon 1999). 40 While there are a number o f ways in which the like-product assumption can be challenged, for present purposes, these differences were set aside and the analysis was conducted using mass as the basis for comparison. The Partitioning Problem The partitioning or joint production problem arises whenever there is a need to allocate inputs to a given activity within the economy amongst two or more outputs. Patterson (1996) provides the following simple illustration o f the problem within the context o f an energy analysis: "For instance, a given amount o f energy (MJ) is required to produce essentially two products from a sheep farm: wool (kg) and meat (kg). The problem arises when the energy input (MJ) has to be allocated to the outputs (kg)" (Patterson 1996, p. 385). In their review of methodological issues and conventions to be observed when conducting energy analyses, the International Federation o f Institutes for Advanced Studies (IFIAS) identified four broad conventions that can be adopted when addressing the partitioning problem: 1. Assign inputs entirely to the output o f interest. 2. Assign inputs in proportion to the monetary value o f the outputs. 3. Assign inputs in proportion to some physical parameter that characterises the outputs ofthe system (for example mass, volume, etc.). 4. Assign inputs in proportion to the marginal input savings which could be made i f the output o f interest was not provided (as summarised by Patterson 1996, p. 386). Since these four conventions were first articulated, Patterson (1996) reports that none have received wide-spread acceptance. This lack o f apparent consensus, however, probably reflects the reality that different analytical applications call for different conventions. During this research, two forms o f the partitioning problem were encountered. Both arise in the analysis o f the inputs to salmon feed manufacturing. The first, and more easily addressed form ofthe problem arises because both fish meals and fish oils, the two outputs o f the fish reduction process, are used in contemporary salmon diets 8 6 . In essence, the problem I faced was how to account for both fish meal and o i l , without double-counting any o f the inputs associated with fish production, Using Patterson's sheep farming example above, this is analogous to an activity which consumes both mutton and wool. 41 harvesting, and processing. In addressing this problem, I have essentially combined the first and third conventions outlined above. I account only for the inputs associated with providing the component, either fish meal or o i l , which represents the greater wet weight o f fish biomass. The second, and trickier, form of the partitioning problem arises because so-called "wastes" and by-products o f other economic activities are frequently used as inputs to salmon feed. For example, fish processing wastes 8 7 and inedible livestock by-products are used in contemporary salmon diets. The question that the use o f these wastes/by-products raises is: What portion, i f any, o f the inputs originally required to produce and/or harvest the live weight o f fish and livestock should be "charged" to the production o f salmon feed and ultimately to the production o f intensively cultured salmon? This form of the partitioning problem has been addressed, at least implicitly, in four previous energy analyses o f fish culture systems o f which I am aware (Pitcher 1977, Rawitscher 1978, L i 1987, Berg et al. 1996). In three cases (Pitcher 1977, Rawitscher 1978, Berg et al. 1996), the study authors tacitly adopted the first convention outlined by the IFIAS, that inputs should be assigned exclusively to the primary output o f interest. A s a result, subsequent activities, such as fish feed production, which utilise any resulting "wastes", do so at zero energetic cost other than that needed to possibly re-process the wastes into a useable form 8 8 . However, L i (1987) in his analysis o f a traditional integrated Chinese fish farm, partially adopted the third IFIAS convention when he accounted for the energy contributions made by chicken, cattle and human manures to the fish polyculture system he modelled. He did not, however, attempt to estimate the industrial energy inputs associated with producing the various manures that were incorporated as an input to fish feed. The slightly different approaches taken in these analyses, and the contexts within which they were conducted highlights an important issue which, I believe, is often overlooked when accounting for "wastes" and/or by-products within a biophysical model. Essentially, I realised that the decision as to which accounting convention to employ is highly subjective and as such is influenced, amongst other things, by our cultural perceptions o f "wastes" and by-products generally. Furthermore, even within 8 7 Fish processing wastes are essentially the fraction of the whole fish which remains after processing has occurred to remove the portion which is desired for direct human consumption. 8 8 For example, in Rawitscher's model of the energy inputs to catfish feed, she notes that "If fish waste were used instead of the herring (as the raw material to the fish meal used), it could be considered a free input and the energy in the feed would then be 3,524 kcal/kg." (Rawitscher 1978, Table G.14, p. 128) instead of 4,305 kcal/kg which results from using herring meal. Similarly, while Pitcher recognizes that the scrap meat and bone from livestock processing that is incorporated into the trout feed he is modelling "has accumulated a large energy debt during the production of meat for human 4 2 a given cultural context, the distinction between a "waste", a by-product and a bona fide co-product o f a given activity is relatively arbitrary and highly changeable over time. For example, many people outside o f the livestock processing industry perceive that many o f the inedible by-products such as offal, paunch, blood, and feathers that result from animal processing are valueless wastes. However, within the livestock processing sector, these inedibles can be important sources o f additional revenue which are essential to maintaining profitability in a highly competitive market. A s a result, analyses which a priori treat wastes and by-products as "free" inputs, limit the relevance and broader applicability o f their results to identical cultural and economic contexts. I also realised that the choice o f which accounting convention to adopt also depends in part upon the research question(s) being asked. Furthermore, i f one is not careful in adopting an appropriate convention, the results o f an analysis can be misleading. I believe that Berg et al's (1996) comparative energy and ecological footprint analysis o f two forms o f Tilapia culture in Zimbabwe provides an example o f how adopting an inappropriate accounting convention can distort results. A s part o f their analysis, Berg et al. set out to quantify and compare the area o f ecosystem required to sustain feed inputs to produce an equivalent amount o f Ti lapia from both a hypothetical intensive cage culture, and a hypothetical semi-intensive pond culture system. In building their models, they assumed: 1) that growing a given mass o f Tilapia w i l l require approximately the same feed energy inputs regardless o f whether the fish are cultured in ponds or cages 8 9, and 2) that the source ecosystems supplying the inputs are essentially the same in both instances 9 0. However, the pond culture system was deemed to derived 90% o f its feed energy requirements from fish processing and agricultural residues. Consequently, under the convention that they implicit ly adopted, these inputs were biophysically available free o f charge. Meanwhile, in the cage culture system only primary fishery and agricultural products were consumed as feed. Thus, the two culture systems end up with very different ecological footprints to sustain an equal amount o f fish growth 9 1 . In light o f the above, for the base case analysis o f this research, I have adopted a form of the third partitioning convention outlined by the IFIAS. I assign the inputs to a given activity amongst its consumption." he excludes the energy costs associated with livestock production from his analysis as these activities "would continue irrespective of the needs of the feedstuff manufacturers,..." (Pitcher 1977, notes to Table II, p. 61). 8 9 Berg et al. 1996, Figure 3, p. 146 and accompanying text. 9 0 In both cases, Berg et al. assume that the fish based feed inputs are derived entirely from kapenta harvested from Lake Kariba, the setting of the two hypothetical Tilapia culture systems, while the plant based inputs to feed would be sourced from the local Zimbabwean agricultural sector. 9 1 More precisely, they concluded that while the feed inputs associated with growing a kilogram of Tilapia in the pond culture system only required the ecosystem support of about 0.7 m2- of pond ecosystem, a kilogram of cage cultured 43 various co-products in proportion to the relative mass o f those co-products. However, as part o f the sensitivity analysis presented in Chapter 6,1 explore the effect o f adopting other partitioning problem accounting conventions. The Boundary Problem Whether explicitly recognised or not, almost every biophysical evaluation o f any non-trivial system encounters the boundary problem. Simply stated, the boundary problem arises because it is seldom possible for an analysis to encompass al l o f the inputs to and outputs from the system(s) o f interest. The major reasons for this are: 1. the diversity o f inputs and/or outputs that characterise many systems o f interest, 2. most systems o f interest are embedded within highly complex natural and socio-economic systems that are often difficult to conceptually "untangle". Consequently, it can be hard to describe the myriad inputs and outputs, and 3. even when it is possible to fully describe and conceptually trace the origin o f inputs and the fate o f outputs from a given system, quantitative data upon which an analysis can be built may be lacking or o f poor quality. Given these challenges, decisions are made whenever an analysis is undertaken regarding what is to be included and excluded. Consequently, an element o f subjectivity is introduced into each analysis that inevitably biases the results, to a greater or lesser extent, reflecting the choices made by the analyst. One advantage, however, o f conducting a side-by-side comparative analysis o f two or more systems, as is the case in this research, is that although the boundary problem related bias may still exist, its effects on the results can be minimised by establishing the same boundaries around each system. How Input Parameter Values Were Chosen A s the primary purpose o f this research was to evaluate and compare the relative sustainability ofthe alternative technologies used to produce salmon in B C as they currently exist, throughout the base case analyses I focussed on characterising the average biophysical costs associated with yielding a tonne o f salmon. Functionally, this meant that where reasonably high quality data were available Tilapia required the ecosystem support provided by 21,000 m 2 of lake ecosystem plus 420 m 2 of agricultural ecosystem 4 4 regarding a given input, I used average values in the models. However, in situations in which input parameter values had to be inferred or estimated, I chose values that had the ultimate effect o f reducing the total resulting biophysical costs associated with producing a tonne o f salmon. In other words, where I was uncertain as to what value would best represent the current average input, I used values that I believed would result in a conservative outcome. In evaluating the various technologies based on average inputs, however, it is important to note that the results do not reflect the mix o f inputs that would occur at the margin. A s a result, the next unit o f production added to either system may be more or less biophysically efficient than the average performance evaluated in this analysis. Similarly, this analysis does not reflect the use o f best-available, least biophysical cost technologies or inputs. Thus this research provides a picture o f which salmon producing system or fishing technology is currently more or less sustainable. Analytical Overview A s reviewed in Chapter 1, a variety o f biophysical accounting techniques are available to evaluate human activities. The primary technique that I have used in this research is ecological footprint analysis. However, I have also conducted an energy analysis o f the two salmon producing systems using data collected as part o f the ecological footprint analysis. This secondary energy analysis was undertaken primarily because it allowed me to compare the biophysical efficiency o f salmon production with a much wider range o f food producing systems. Ecological Footprint Analysis Ecological footprint analysis measures the material and energy flows required to sustain a defined human population or activity, and converts these flows into a commensurate variable - ecosystem area - for evaluation and comparison (Rees and Wackernagel 1994, Rees 1996, Wackernagel and Rees 1996). This ecological footprint analysis began with a detailed process analysis o f the major elements o f both salmon production systems. A range o f material, labour and energy inputs and outputs were quantified and normalised per tonne o f salmon produced. These inputs and outputs were then converted, where possible, into corresponding marine or terrestrial ecosystem support areas. These were then summed to provide an estimate o f the total ecological footprint per tonne o f salmon produced by each o f the systems being examined. (Berg et al. 1996, Figure 4, p. 148 and supporting text). 45 Overview of the Inputs Included in This Analysis The inputs incorporated into this analysis included: 1. the organic material either consumed by salmon foraging in the w i ld or incorporated into manufactured salmon feed, 2. the direct and some indirect labour inputs, 3. the direct and some indirect fossil fuels consumed, 4. the direct and some indirect electricity consumed, and 5. the major direct inorganic and synthetic organic material inputs to the two systems including: steel, aluminium, concrete, plastics, and fibreglass. Inputs and outputs that were not accounted for include: 1. the respired and excreted biological wastes o f salmon, and fish o f various species incorporated in manufactured salmon feed, 2. the marine organisms, other than the salmon themselves, that are intentionally or unintentionally kil led as part o f salmon fishing and salmon farming activities. This includes: • fishing discards and mortalities that result from interactions with fishing gear both in the salmon fishery and in the fisheries that provide inputs to farmed salmon, and • the mortality o f marine and avian predators, in particular seals and sea lions, that are ki l led both intentionally by salmon fishers and farmers and unintentionally through interactions with fishing gears and salmon farm infrastructure, 3. the disposal/assimilation o f salmon carcasses which formed part o f the population that ultimately yields a tonne o f harvested salmon, 4. dissolved oxygen required for respiration, 5. the antibiotics, pesticides and algicides used in salmon farming, 6. the government employed labour required to manage the two industries, 46 7. the area o f watershed required to sustain flows of freshwater for spawning and rearing o f w i ld smolts and for hatchery operations 9 2. Overview of How Ecosystem Support Areas Were Estimated The data sources, and manipulations required to standardise the data on the inputs to, and outputs from, the salmon farming industry and the commercial salmon fishery are described in detail in Chapters 4 and 5 respectively. However, once the various inputs and outputs were normalised per tonne o f salmon produced, the methods used to estimate the corresponding ecological footprint were the same (Table 1). I did not consider the area of ecosystem required to sustain flows of freshwater for both wild spawning and rearing of smolts and for hatchery operations for two main reasons. First it is both conceptually and functionally difficult to do. This is because the maintenance of both surface and groundwater flows is only partially dependent on the presence, type and extent of productive terrestrial ecosystem in a given watershed. Other factors that play a significant role in maintaining freshwater flows, and hence complicate any attempt to estimate a generalised ecosystem support area include topography, geology, and precipitation type and rate. Second, even if an area of minimum ecosystem support were quantified for a given watershed, it's inclusion within a sectoral footprinting analysis would be problematic. This is because the type and amount of ecosystem area associated with maintaining freshwater flows would almost invariably fulfil other ecological functions and as such, raises the potential of double-counting. 47 Table 1. Outline of the Quantified Inputs and Methods Employed to Convert Them Into A Corresponding Area of Supporting Ecosystem Input Basis upon which the associated ecological footprint was estimated 1) Biological inputs: - direct and indirect crop-based inputs - direct and indirect marine organisms - indirect livestock by-products using average Canadian agricultural productivities using average trophic transfer efficiencies of 10% and estimates of mean trophic levels of organisms and source ecosystem primary productivity conversion to quantity of crop-based agricultural product required, then included as an agricultural input 2) Direct and indirect person-days of labour using the area of agricultural and other ecosystem support required to sustain food intake based on the average Canadian diet 3) Direct and indirect fossil fuel energy for harvesting and/or production of inputs, re-processing of inputs and transportation of inputs and final products using the area of forest ecosystem required to assimilate the C 0 2 equivalent to the total greenhouse gas emissions which result 4) Direct and indirect electricity inputs for harvesting and/or production of inputs, and re-processing inputs using the area of forest ecosystem required to assimilate the C 0 2 equivalent to the total greenhouse gas emissions which result 5) Direct inorganic and synthetic organic material inputs (e.g. steel, aluminium, concrete, plastics, etc.) using the area of forest ecosystem required to assimilate the C 0 2 equivalent to the total greenhouse gas emissions which result from providing the various material inputs Footprinting Biological Inputs Three types o f biological inputs were encountered during the research. A common input to both salmon production systems were marine organisms that are either the prey o f w i l d foraging salmon or that are used to produce fish meal and o i l for inclusion in formulated salmon feeds. The other two biological inputs, agricultural crop-based products and livestock by-product meals, appear as inputs to salmon feeds only. In order to simplify the analyses, in the case o f al l three types o f biological inputs I only accounted for the ecosystem support to directly grow the biomass consumed and explicit ly excluded from consideration any additional biomass that must be maintained for reproduction. For example, the ecological footprint associated with providing the seeds needed for crop inputs has been excluded as has the footprint associated with maintaining the broodstock o f both w i ld caught salmon, and other marine species harvested for fish meals and oils. 48 The technique used to estimate the ecosystem support area required to produce marine organisms is based on the method used by Pauly and Christensen (1995) to estimate the primary productivity required to sustain global fisheries. The approach involved two steps. First, the grams o f carbon that must be fixed by autotrophs annually so as to yield a specific quantity o f marine organism consumed was estimated by assuming an average transfer efficiency between trophic levels o f 10% (Pauly and Christensen 1995) and a conservative 9:1 conversion ratio from wet weight o f organism to carbon content (Strathmann 1967) (see Equation 1). P = ( M / 9 ) x 1 0 ( T - 1 } Equa t ion 1 Where: P is primary productivity required, expressed in terms o f grams o f carbon fixed, M is the wet weight mass, in grams, o f the organisms for which an ecosystem support area is being calculated, and T is the mean trophic level at which the organism(s) feeds using a scale in which autotrophs are assigned a trophic level o f 1.0 by default. The area o f ecosystem support required was then calculated by dividing the mass o f carbon fixed, using Equation 1, by an appropriate estimate o f the average rate at which carbon is fixed (ie. the net primary productivity) by the supporting marine ecosystem. A s published estimates o f net primary productivity for a given marine ecosystem can vary considerably, reflecting different methodologies, assumptions, data sets, etc., I opted to use Longhurst et al. (1995) as the source o f all o f the estimates o f net primary productivity for the different regions o f the world's oceans. This paper was selected as the sole source o f marine primary productivity estimates because it provides estimates for 57 discrete biogeochemical marine provinces encompassing all o f the world's oceans using a consistent and analytically robust technique based on satellite sea-surface chlorophyll data 9 3 . Moreover, as Longhurst et al.'s values tend to be higher than previous estimates o f marine primary productivity (Koblentz-Mishke et al. 1970, Piatt and Subba Rao 1975, Berger et al. 1987), their use in this analysis w i l l result in relatively conservative ecological footprint estimates. The area o f ecosystem required to provide the crop inputs to farmed salmon feed was calculated using average Canadian agricultural productivities for the five-year period 1992 to 1996 inclusive. In estimating the area o f ecosystem required to provide livestock by-products that are incorporated into salmon feeds as protein meals, I first assumed that all o f the by-products required were derived For a complete description of their analytical technique see Longhurst et al. (1995). 49 from a single species, chicken 9 4 .1 then assumed that the wet weight chicken biomass required for by-product meals was raised exclusively on a diet o f grain corn 9 5 . Once I had estimated the quantity o f grain corn needed to grow the wet weight o f chicken equivalent to the by-product inputs, I used the five-year average Canadian yield o f grain corn to estimate the ecosystem support area. Footprinting Labour Inputs From the published literature, there is no single universally accepted method for incorporating labour inputs within biophysical accounting frameworks. Even within the limited context o f energy and ecological footprint analyses o f fish and shellfish production systems, a variety o f approaches have been used including: • excluding labour inputs entirely from the analysis (Mitchel l and Cleveland 1993), • incorporate only the nutritional energy content o f the food required to sustain the requisite labour inputs (Rawitscher 1978), • incorporate the industrial energy needed to provide the food required to sustain labour inputs (Pitcher 1977), and • incorporate the total industrial energy associated with wages paid for labour inputs using the industrial energy to Gross National Product ratio for the country within which labour is supplied. (Folke 1988, Hammer 1991, Larsson et al. 1994, and Berg et al. 1996). In this analysis, however, I have opted to use a different technique to those outlined above. I calculated the ecosystem support area associated with labour inputs (expressed in person-days) using estimates prepared by Wackernagel et al. (1997, 1999) o f the ecological footprint required to sustain the average Canadian's annual food consumption in 1993 (Table 2). Chicken was selected as the sole source of livestock by-products because: 1) they are the main source of feathers used to make feather meal, one of the three livestock by-product meals incorporated into salmon feed, and 2) chicken are, relative to swine and cattle, efficient converters of feed. I assumed that grain corn was the sole fodder used to grow the chicken biomass required because: 1) corn is one of the highest yielding agricultural crops, on a tonnage per hectare basis, grown in Canada - thereby resulting in a small ecosystem support area, and 2) the analysis was simplified by not attempting to model the myriad inputs associated with a highly formulated composite chicken feed. 50 Table 2. Ecological Footprint of the Average Canadian's Annual Food Consumption in 1993 Ecosystem Type Area Required to Sustain the Average Canadian's Annual Food Consumption (ha) Arable land 0.49 Pasture land 1.52 A l l Forest land (includes land to 0.39 assimilate C 0 2 from energy used to provide food) Total Terrestrial 2.4 Aquatic 0.96 Source: Electronic data file that accompanies Wackernagel et a/'s 1997 report. A s an example using the data presented in Table 2, the total terrestrial ecological footprint associated with providing ten days o f labour would be calculated as follows: (10 days 365 days/year) x 2.4 ha = 0.066 ha. Similarly, the marine ecological footprint associated with ten days o f labour would be calculated as follows: (10 days -s- 365 days/year) x 0.96 ha = 0.026 ha. Footprinting Fossil Fuel Inputs Estimating the ecological footprint associated with the use o f fossil fuels presents both conceptual and methodological challenges. Although fossil fuels have a biological origin, it is impossible to estimate the area o f ecosystem that was required to produce the original biomass that ultimately becomes a given quantity o f coal, o i l or natural gas. Most ecological footprint analyses therefore employ one o f two techniques when footprinting fossil fuel use. The first entails calculating the area o f ecosystem required to produce a contemporary biologically sourced liquid fossil fuel substitute such as ethanol, methanol, soydiesel 9 6 , or fish o i l 9 7 ' 9 8 . The second, and the one that I have adopted, is to estimate the area o f forest ecosystem required to sequester the C 0 2 equivalent to the greenhouse gases that are produced through the production and combustion o f fossil fuels. The rationale underlying this technique is that i f society is to avoid possible anthropogenic climate change then fossil fuel use should not exceed the assimilative capacity o f the world 's ecosystems 9 9. Both marine and terrestrial ecosystems are believed to play an important role in anthropogenic C 0 2 Soydiesel is, as its name suggests, a diesel fuel-like product of the soybean that is produced through the esterification of soy oil. Ahmed et al (1994) provides an excellent review of the process and energetics of soydiesel production. Fish oil, a co-product along with fish meal of the fish reduction industry, has been used as a fuel source in Danish thermo-electric generating stations (Sandison 1995), and as a diesel fuel substitute on board fishing vessels and in fish processing plants in Alaska (Blythe 1996). For a review of this approach to footprinting fossil fuel use see Wackernagel and Rees (1996, p. 72). The major sources of anthropogenic C 0 2 are fossil fuel combustion and through the oxidation of biomass due to disturbance of terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. deforestation, agriculture etc.). 51 assimilation 1 0 0 . However, because o f the difficulty estimating a global average marine CO2 sink rate and as terrestrial ecosystems are more readily manipulable than ocean ecosystems (e.g. carbon sink forests), most ecological footprint analyses to date have employed a notional CO2 assimilation forest ecosystem as the basis for modelling the ecosystem support associated with fossil fuel use (for examples see Wada 1993, Larsson et al. 1994, Wackernagel and Rees 1996, Folke et al. 1997). Practically, in modelling the ecological footprint associated with fossil fuel use, it was first necessary to quantify greenhouse gas emission intensities for each o f the major fossil fuel inputs encountered in the analysis. This included C 0 2 emissions that result directly from fuel combustion along with the total greenhouse gas emissions associated with providing the fossil fuels used. Table 3 summarises the emission intensity values that I used throughout this research for gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, and natural gas. Table 3. Assumed Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensities for Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Natural Gas and Propane Fossil Fuel C 0 2 Released Upon Combustion (gC0 2 /MJ) G H G Emissions from Production Through Fuel Dispensing (g C 0 2 eq./MJ) a Total G H G Emission Intensity (g C 0 2 eq./MJ) Gasoline Diesel fuel Natural Gas Propane 70.2" 73.9d 51 e 51 f 22.4° 14.0° 6.9C 6.9f 92.6 87.9 57.9 57.9 Notes: a. Includes gas leaks and flares from wells, feedstock recovery and transmission, and fuel refining, distribution and dispensing (see Delucchi 1997 for details). b. Calculated from the results of a "real-world" automotive emissions study (Pierson, et al. 1996, Table 6, p. 2245). c. Calculated from Delucchi 1997, Table 7, p. 191. d. Calculated from the results of a "real-world" marine exhaust emission study of over 40 vessels (Lloyd's Register Engineering Services 1995, Table 5, p. 17). e. From Weston 1996, Table 2, p. 2904. f. I have assumed that propane releases the same amounts of C 0 2 upon combustion and GHG's through the production cycle as does natural gas. B y multiplying the fossil fuel energy consumed, in M J , by the appropriate total greenhouse gas emission intensity (from Table 3), I estimated the total resulting greenhouse gas emissions, expressed in terms o f grams (or kilograms) o f C 0 2 equivalent, for each type o f fossil fuel consumed. ' Models ofthe fate of anthropogenic C 0 2 suggest that approximately 46% is accumulating in the atmosphere while another approximately 29% is being assimilated by the world's oceans with the remaining approximately 25% being assimilated by terrestrial ecosystems (see Longhurst 1991; Sarmiento and Sundquist 1992; Sundquist 1993). 52 Finally, in order to estimate the fossil fuel related ecological footprint, it was necessary to determine an appropriate carbon assimilation rate for a typical forest ecosystem. Not surprisingly, carbon assimilation rates by forests vary widely, depending on: • the latitude, altitude and attitude o f the forest, • moisture availability and temperature, and • species composition and the age o f the stand. In addition, while it may be most appropriate to use a global average carbon assimilation rate as all greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere enter the global "common pool", determining such a rate is difficult. A s a result, previous ecological footprint analyses have employed either regionally-specific rates or estimates o f the global average. For example Larsson et al. (1994) use a relatively high carbon assimilation value o f 5 tonnes C/ha/yr, reflecting the re-conversion o f tropical pasture to managed forest plantation while Folke et al. (1997) use an average value o f 0.45 tonnes C/ha/yr that reflects the range o f assimilation rates associated with newly growing temperate forests o f the Balt ic region. In contrast, Wackernagel and Rees (1996) employ an estimated global forest assimilation rate o f 1.8 tonnes C/ha/yr. In this analysis, I have chosen to use a carbon assimilation rate representative o f Brit ish Columbia's forests primarily because a reasonably defensible value was available. A s a result, the rate used throughout this research is 1 tonne C/ha/yr 1 0 1 which equates to a C 0 2 assimilation rate o f approximately 3.66 tonnes CCVha/yr . Footprinting Electricity Inputs The technique used to estimate the ecological footprint associated with the use o f electricity depends, in part, upon the primary source o f energy used to generate the electricity 1 0 2 . In this research, most o f the electricity consumed by the two salmon production systems was provided by B C Hydro, the provincial electrical utility. Currently, approximately 90% o f the electricity produced by B C Hydro is hydroelectric with the remaining 10% provided by a natural gas fired thermal generating station (Mr . 1 0 1 After conferring with Dr. David Spittlehouse a research scientist with the B.C. Ministry of Forests, this value was determined by dividing, 55.21 Tg C/yr, the estimated average annual change in forest ecosystem carbon storage for all of British Columbia over the period from 1920 to 1989 (as determined by Kurz, et al. 1996, Table 3, p. 22), by 57.9 Mha, the total average forested area of British Columbia (Kurz, et al. 1996, Table 1, p. 3). 1 0 2 For a review of the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the ecosystem support associated with the provision of electricity, see Wackernagel and Rees 1996, pp. 74-75. 5 3 John Rich , Senior Environmental Coordinator, B C Hydro, pers. comm. M a y , 1998). Given this mix of primary energy sources, I adopted an approach similar to that outlined above for estimating the ecological footprint associated with fossil fuel use. To wit, I estimated the average greenhouse gas emissions associated with generating a given quantity o f electricity in Brit ish Columbia and then converted this into the area o f typical Bri t ish Columbia forest ecosystem that would be required to assimilate an equivalent quantity o f carbon dioxide. For hydroelectricity, I have used a greenhouse gas emission intensity value o f 25 g C C V k W h generated. This is comprised o f an estimated 5 g C 0 2 equivalent per k W h that result from the inputs to dam and power plant construction 1 0 3 and 20 g C 0 2 equivalent per k W h that result from the decay of biomass in flooded reservoirs 1 0 4 . With respect to the thermoelectric power, Delucchi (1997) reports that the "fuel cycle" greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas fueled, boiler-type generators is 735 g C 0 2 / k W h o f electricity generated (p. 189, Table 6C). Using the current 90:10 mix of energy sources used by B C Hydro as the weighting factor, I estimate that the average greenhouse gas emissions associated with contemporary electricity generation 1 0 5 equals approximately 96 g C 0 2 / k W h or approximately 26.7 g C 0 2 / M J o f electricity delivered 1 0 6 . Footprinting Inorganic and Synthetic Organic Material Inputs A s part o f the analysis o f both salmon production systems, I also estimated the ecological footprints associated with the major direct inorganic and synthetic organic 1 0 7 material inputs per tonne o f salmon produced. The six inorganic and synthetic organic materials considered were aluminium, steel, al l other metals combined 1 0 8 , glass, concrete, and all plastics and related synthetic organic materials combined. Most previous ecological footprint analyses that have accounted for such inputs have converted either the physical quantities (Wada 1993), or the monetary value (Larsson et al. 1994, Berg et al. 1 0 3 After reviewing analyses of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the construction of hydro-electric dams and generating plants, Gagnon and van de Vate (1997) report that emissions typically fall within the range of 1 to 10 g C 0 2 equivalent per kWh generated. I have used the middle of this range of values in this analysis. 1 0 4 Greenhouse gases emissions through the process of biomass decay in reservoirs is influenced by a range of factors including: the types of soil and vegetation that is flooded, the area that is flooded, the depth of the reservoir, the latitude and altitude of the reservoir, annual duration of ice coverage of the reservoir and the age of the reservoir (Gagnon and van de Vate 1997). As a result, lifecycle emissions can vary widely between reservoirs. After reviewing a number of analyses of the emissions associated with hydropower reservoirs, Gagnon and van de Vate 1997, suggest that 20 g C 0 2 equivalent per kWh generated is a reasonable worldwide average greenhouse gas emission intensity value associated with biomass decay from reservoirs. 1 0 5 Estimated by adding the products of (735 x 0.1) and (25 x 0.9). 1 0 6 Where lkWh equals 3.6 M J . 1 0 7 The synthetic organic material inputs encountered in this research are primarily plastic derived. 54 1996) o f the inputs into an embodied energy equivalent which is then treated as any other energy input. In this analysis, however, I adopted a more comprehensive approach. Instead o f basing the estimate o f ecosystem support on the greenhouse gases that result solely from the energy used (i.e. the embodied energy), I estimated the ecosystem support based on the total fuel- and non-fuel-origin greenhouse gases emitted through the provision o f the material inputs 1 0 9 . Where possible, total greenhouse gas emission intensity values used in this research were based on representative contemporary Canadian values taken from the literature or from direct communication with researchers. In other instances, however, I had to rely on greenhouse gas emission intensity values from other countries. Because I am using energy analysis in addition to ecological footprint analysis to evaluate the two salmon production systems, I have also quantified contemporary energy intensity estimates for the six major material inputs. Aluminium I have used a greenhouse gas emission intensity value o f 8 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity value o f 140 M J / k g for contemporary Canadian-produced primary aluminium. These values are based on the results o f an extensive "cradle to gate" assessment o f A lcan Aluminum Limited 's Canadian facilities and their suppliers o f raw materials (Mr . Steven Pomper, Director, Environment, Alcan Aluminum Limited, per. comm. A p r i l , 1998). These values are comparable to, or lower than energy and emission intensity estimates for primary aluminium produced in other jurisdictions. For example, as part o f the same analysis that provided the above estimates, M r . Pomper reported that on a North American-wide basis, a greenhouse gas emission intensity value o f 14.5 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity value o f 186 M J / k g would apply (pers. comm., A p r i l , 1998). Similarly, Weston (1996) reports an emission intensity value o f 13.6 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity value o f 130 M J / k g for primary aluminium produced in the United States, while Moriguchi (1993) indicates that Japanese aluminium production results in emissions equivalent to 8.8 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and van de Vate (1997), indicates that European primary aluminium production results in emissions that range between 13 and 34 kg C 0 2 eq./kg. Final ly, ' Primarily comprised of lead and zinc. ' In many cases, embodied energy inputs account for the bulk of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with inorganic and synthetic organic materials. However, for some material inputs, such as concrete or aluminum, significant quantities of non-fuel origin greenhouse gases are emitted in their production. 55 Gielen, (1995) reports that contemporary Dutch primary aluminium production has an energy intensity o f 175 M J / k g . Steel I was unable to identify any greenhouse gas emission and energy intensity estimates for contemporary Canadian steel production. After reviewing a range o f emission and energy intensity estimates from around the world (Table 4), I have used a greenhouse gas emission intensity value o f 2.5 kg C 0 2 eq./kg steel produced and an energy intensity value o f 25 M J / k g steel produced throughout this research. Table 4. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Steel Energy . Greenhouse gas Type of Steel Country or Intensity Emissions Production Region Time Period (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Source Unspecified Canada mid 1970's 25.7 Cole and Rousseau 1992 Unspecified U.S. mid 1970's 39.0 ibid. Unspecified N.Z. mid 1970's 32.0 ibid. Unspecified Switzerland early 1980's 27.7 ibid. Unspecified Sweden 1988 24 BOrjesson 1996 Primary Netherlands 1990 23 Gielen 1995 Recycled Netherlands 1990 5 ibid. Unspecified Brazil 1991 31.7 Worrell etal. 1997 Unspecified China 1991 42.4 ibid. Unspecified France 1991 24.2 ibid. Unspecified Germany 1991 18.3 ibid. Unspecified Japan 1991 21.0 ibid. Unspecified Poland 1991 28.0 ibid. Unspecified U.S. 1991 26.5 ibid. Unspecified Japan early 1990's 1.52 Moriguchi 1993 High alloy Germany early 1990's 7.21 Frischknecht et al. 1994 in van de Vate 1997 Low alloy Germany early 1990's 3.03 ibid. Unalloyed Germany early 1990's 2.44 ibid. Low alloy Unspecified Unspecified 2.0-2.2 van de Vate 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Low alloy Europe early 1990's 2.4 E U R Commission 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Low alloy Germany early 1990's 3 Fritsche et al. 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Other Metals Relatively few references provided contemporary estimates o f either greenhouse gas emission or energy intensity values associated with the production o f metals other than steel and aluminium. A l l o f the estimates identified, regardless o f age, are summarised in Table 5. 56 Table 5. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Metals Other Than Steel and Aluminium Energy Greenhouse gas Country or Intensity Emissions Metal Region Time Period (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Source Nickel Canada mid 1970's 168.3 Cole and Rousseau 1992 Nickel U.S. mid 1970's 58.0 ibid. Nickel Finland early 1980's 468.0 ibid. Zinc Canada mid 1970's 64.1 ibid. Zinc N.Z . mid 1970's 68.4 ibid. Zinc Switzerland early 1980's 68.4 ibid. Zinc Finland early 1980's 43.2 ibid. Copper -prim. Netherlands 1990 100 Gielen 1995 Copper -recyc. Netherlands 1990 5 ibid. Lead - primary Netherlands 1990 25 ibid. Lead - recycled Netherlands 1990 4 ibid. Zinc - primary Netherlands 1990 25 ibid. Zinc - recycled Netherlands 1990 4 ibid. Copper Germany early 1990's 5.4 Frischknecht et al. 1994 in vande Vate 1997 Copper Europe early 1990's 2.7 E U R Commission 1995 in vande Vate 1997 Copper Germany early 1990's 8.8 Fritsche et al. 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Copper Unspecified Unspecified 3.5-4.9 van de Vate 1995 in van de Vate 1997 In this analysis, as lead and zinc were the most common metals encountered after steel and aluminium, and copper and nickel were, at most, minor inputs to the two systems being analysed, I adopted a conservative energy intensity value o f 25 M J / k g for al l other metallic inputs. A s no published greenhouse gas emission intensity values were identified for lead and zinc, I have simply assumed a value o f 2.5 kg CO2 eq./kg applies. Glass N o greenhouse gas emission or energy intensity estimates were found for contemporary Canadian glass production. Based on the published greenhouse gas emission and energy intensity values identified (Table 6), I have conservatively assumed that contemporary glass production has a greenhouse gas emission intensity o f 1kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity o f 10 M J / k g . 5 7 Table 6. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Glass Energy Greenhouse gas Type of Country or Intensity Emissions Glass Region Time Period (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Source Sheet Canada mid 1970's 10.2 Cole and Rousseau 1992 Sheet U.S. mid 1970's 19.8 ibid. Sheet N.Z. mid 1970's 16.7 ibid. Sheet Switzerland early 1980's 21.6 ibid. Sheet Finland early 1980's 16.5 ibid. Wool Canada mid 1970's 22.3 ibid. Wool U.S. mid 1970's 14.0 ibid. Wool Switzerland early 1980's 18.0 ibid. Wool Finland early 1980's 23.4 ibid. Primary Netherlands 1990 7 Gielen 1995 Recycled Netherlands 1990 6 ibid. Automobile Japan early 1990's 1.76 Moriguchi 1993 Unspecified Germany early 1990's 1.2 Frischknecht et al. 1994 in van de Vate 1997 Unspecified Germany early 1990's 1.9 Fritsche et al. 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified 0.9-1.2 van de Vate 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Concrete Once again, I was unable to find any greenhouse gas emission or energy intensity values for contemporary Canadian concrete production. A s a result, in this analysis I have assumed a greenhouse gas emission intensity o f 0.15 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity value o f 1 M J / k g for contemporary Canadian concrete production. These values were selected as they lie at the conservative end o f the range o f published values available (Table 7). Table 7. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Concrete Energy Greenhouse gas Country or Intensity Emissions Region Time Period (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Source Canada mid 1970's 1.2 Cole and Rousseau 1992 U.S. mid 1970's 1.3 ibid. N.Z. mid 1970's 2.0 ibid. Switzerland early 1980's 0.9 ibid. Germany early 1990's 0.14 Frischknecht et al. 1994 in vande Vate 1997 Germany early 1990's 0.16 E U R Commission 1995 in vande Vate 1997 Unspecified Unspecified 0.16 van de Vate 1995 in van de Vate 1997 0 58 Plastics A variety o f plastics and related synthetic organic materials are used in both salmon production systems being studied. However, the data available on the material inputs to the two systems are generally not detailed enough to permit an analysis based on the specific types o f synthetic organic materials used. A s a result, I combined all plastics and related synthetic organic material inputs and treated them as non-specific plastics. Table 8 summarises the range o f emission and energy intensity values for plastics available from the literature. Table 8. Review of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity Values for Plastics Energy Greenhouse gas Type of Country or Time Period Intensity Emissions Plastic Region (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Source Polyethylene Canada mid 1970's 87.0 Cole and Rousseau 1992 Polyethylene Switzerland early 1980's 49.3 ibid. Polystyrene Canada mid 1970's 105.0 ibid. Polystyrene Switzerland early 1980's 122.8 ibid. Polystyrene Finland early 1980's 118.8 ibid. Polystyrene Netherlands 1990 35 a Gielen 1995 P V C Netherlands 1990 35 a ibid. Other . Netherlands 1990 40 a ibid. Syn. Rubber Sweden 1988 96 Borjesson 1996 Syn. Rubber Japan early 1990's 1.28 Moriguchi 1993 Resin Japan early 1990's 1.61 ibid. Unspecified Germany early 1990's 1.37-5.45 Frischknecht et al. 1994 in van de Vate 1997 Unspecified Europe early 1990's 2.4 EUR Commission 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Unspecified Germany early 1990's 6 Fritsche et al. 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified 2 .0-7.9 van de Vate 1995 in van de Vate 1997 Note: a. Values exclude the provision of feedstock. Selecting values that fall to the conservative end o f the range o f values reported in the literature (Table 8), I have assigned a greenhouse gas emission intensity value o f 3 kg C 0 2 eq./kg and an energy intensity value o f 75 M J / k g to the generic plastics encountered in this study. Table 9 summarises the emission and energy intensity values that I used throughout this research for the six major types o f inorganic and synthetic organic material inputs encountered. 59 Table 9. Summary of Greenhouse Gas Emission and Energy Intensity Values Used Energy Greenhouse Gas Material Intensity Emissions Input (MJ/kg) (kg C 0 2 eq./kg) Aluminium 140 8 Steel 25 2.5 Other Metals 25 2.5 Glass 10 1 Concrete 1 0.15 Plastics 75 3 Energy Analysis Using data compiled as part o f the ecological footprint analysis, I conducted an energy analysis o f the two salmon production systems. This analysis focussed exclusively on the industrial energy (i.e. fossil fuels, and electricity) dissipated both directly and indirectly in the process o f producing salmon. The Energy Quality Problem A methodological issue that arose when conducting this analysis is typically referred to as the energy quality problem (Patterson 1983, 1996, Kaberger 1991). The energy quality problem occurs because standard enthalpic measures o f energy (for example M J or kcal) only measure the heat content o f the energy form and not its relative ability to do work, or, in other words, it relative qual i ty 1 1 0 . Therefore, in analysing a system that incorporates two or more qualitatively different forms o f energy, "[b]efore any efficiency calculations can be made, these energy forms need to be commensurated or adjusted in terms o f energy quality" (Patterson 1996, p. 383). In this research, because fossils fuels and electricity differ in their ability to do work, I converted the electrical energy inputs to the two systems into fossil fuel equivalents by assuming a 35% fossil fuel to electricity conversion efficiency 1 1 1 . Energy Return on Investment The results o f an energy analysis can be expressed in any one o f a variety o f ways. Frequently, energy inputs are expressed relative to the physical quantities o f outputs produced or services provided (e.g. MJ/l i t re o f orange juice, MJ/tonne'kilometre o f transport service provided) (Patterson 1 1 0 For a more complete review of the energy quality problem see Patterson 1996. 1 1 1 For example, 1 M J of electricity would be equivalent to approximately 2.86 M J of fossil fuel energy (1/0.35 = 2.86). 60 1996). In the case o f the current research, I expressed the results in terms o f the M J o f fossil fuel equivalent energy required to yield a round tonne o f salmon. However, because the two systems analysed can also be thought o f as food energy producing systems, I calculated their energy efficiency using energy return on investment (EROI) ratios Cleveland 1992, Mi tche l l and Cleveland 1993). E R O I ratios were calculated by dividing the useful energy output, in terms o f both the gross edible and edible protein energy produced, by the total industrial energy input. In calculating the gross and edible protein output, I assumed that the total edible yield from a round salmon carcass is 6 5 % ' 1 2 and that the average protein content o f the edible portion is 2 0 % ' 1 3 for al l species o f salmon produced. Furthermore, I assumed that the average gross wet weight energy content of salmon flesh, regardless o f species, is 7.6 M J / k g 1 1 4 and that the gross energy content o f protein is 23.6 M J / k g 1 1 5 . To permit ease o f comparison with published E R O I ratios for other food production systems, E R O I ratios for both salmon production systems were calculated using both gross edible energy and edible protein energy. As part of his analysis of the energy efficiency of two forms of salmon culture in Sweden, Folke (1988) assumed that the average edible yield from an Atlantic salmon carcass was 65%. Similarly, Crapo et al. (1993) report that for most species of Pacific salmon, the average canned yield from a round weight carcass is between 65 and 67%. This can be contrasted with the average yield of steaks from a round weight carcass, between 57 and 62%, while the yield of skinless/boneless fillets typically vary between 42 and 51% (Crapo et al. 1993). 1 1 3 The 20% protein content of salmon flesh value is based on the range of values for Pacific salmon reported by Higgs et al. (1995, Table 4.15, pp. 270-271). 1 1 4 The gross energy content of salmon flesh can vary widely reflecting a variety of factors including lifestage, diet, and activity level. The gross wet weight energy content value of 7.6 MJ/kg for salmon flesh is based on the range of values reported for the flesh of wild and cultured Pacific salmon by Higgs et al. (1995, Table 4.15, pp. 270-271). Furthermore, in his analysis of the energy efficiency of Atlantic salmon culture systems in Sweden, Folke (1988) also employed a gross wet weight energy value of 7.6 MJ/kg for salmon flesh. 1 1 5 The gross energy content of protein is taken from the notes to Table 4.15, p. 271 in Higgs etal. (1995). 61 Chapter 4: Analysis of the Intensive Salmon Culture Industry The intensive salmon culture industry in Brit ish Columbia employs essentially the same technology whether producing Atlantic, chinook or coho salmon. However, because o f interspecific differences in behaviour and survival patterns under farming conditions, the ecological footprint associated with producing a tonne o f Atlantic and a tonne o f chinook salmon was estimated separately where data were available to support such a distinction. Coho salmon were not analysed, as coho production has represented less than 10% of the total annual farmed production in Brit ish Columbia for most o f the last decade (Figure 9). Furthermore, I assumed that the ecological footprint associated with farmed coho production would closely resemble that o f farmed chinook. In estimating the ecological footprints o f farmed Atlantic and chinook salmon, I focused on four primary and one secondary aspect o f their production cycle. The primary aspects analysed were: 1. the direct operating material, labour and energy inputs associated with the production o f salmon smolts in hatcheries and lake-pen operations, 2. the direct operating material, labour and energy inputs associated with the saltwater production phase o f both chinook and Atlantic salmon until harvest, 3. the direct operating labour and energy inputs required to transport adult fish from sea-cage sites to processing plants, and 4. the direct material and energy inputs and indirect energy inputs required to build and maintain the capital infrastructure o f the sea-cage rearing systems. Because feed represents, after water, the largest single physical input to salmon farming, I also conducted a detailed analysis o f the direct and indirect material and energy inputs associated with the production, processing and transportation o f salmon feed. Quantifying the Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to the Freshwater Phase of Salmon Farming Four companies that together operate a total o f 5 hatcheries, were surveyed to determine the material, labour and energy inputs associated with producing smolts ready to enter saltwater. In addition to 62 operating hatcheries, two o f the four surveyed companies also used lake-pen rearing sites to "f inish" a portion o f their Atlantic salmon smolts prior to entering saltwater. The total 1996 production from these four companies combined was approximately 4.6 mil l ion smolts, representing approximately 50% of the total industry-wide production. The hatcheries operated by the companies surveyed range in size from the very small, under 100,000 smolts produced annually, to the very large, over 2.5 mil l ion smolts produced annually. One o f the hatcheries for which data was obtained produced only chinook smolts, three hatcheries produced only Atlantic salmon smolts and one produced Atlantic, chinook, coho and steelhead trout smolts during the period for which data were provided. However, because the hatchery that produced a variety o f smolts could only provide aggregated data (i.e. not broken down on a species-specific basis), and because the dedicated chinook hatchery is an unusually small facility, it was decided that material and energy inputs to smolt production would not be determined on a species-specific basis. Each company was asked to provide the following information regarding their freshwater operations for a recent representative year 1 1 6 : 1. for each species cultured, the total number, total weight and average weight o f the smolts produced, 2. the type and mass o f feed used for all freshwater operations, 3. the total amount o f electricity used in k W h , 4. the types and quantities o f fossil fuels used for al l hatchery and lake-pen related activities including fuel used to accelerate smolt growth, power vehicles, heat buildings etc., and 5. the amount o f labour required to sustain the hatchery and, i f applicable, the lake-pen rearing operations. A summary o f the material, labour and energy input and smolt output data supplied by the four companies appears in Appendix B . A l l o f the companies surveyed provided detailed information on all o f the inputs and outputs o f interest with the following two exceptions. One company was unable to provide data on their consumption o f fossil fuels. However, as this company only used fossil fuels to power hatchery support vehicles, this data gap should have a negligible impact on the overall analysis. The second data gap exists with respect to the labour, fossil fuel and electricity inputs 1 1 6 All companies provided data for either a calendar year or a fiscal year whichever was more convenient. 63 associated with the lake-pen rearing phase o f one company's smolt production. A full set o f material, labour and energy input data were available from this company's hatchery operations. However, during the lake-pen rearing phase, only data on the feed consumed by their smolts were available. Once again, it is believed that this data gap would have a negligible effect on the overall analysis as labour, fuel and electricity consumption is relatively small during lake-pen rearing. Because companies reported information differently, it was necessary to convert the data provided into a consistent form. The types and methods o f data conversion used is discussed in Appendix B . Table 10 provides a standardised summary o f the material, labour and energy inputs and smolt production for the four participating companies. Table 10. Summary of Inputs To and Smolt Production From Four Companies' Freshwater Operations Inputs Company 1 Company 2 Company 3 Company 4 Totals Labour (person-days) 556 1,440 4,320 4,400 10,716 "Dry" feed (kg) 3,703 31,225 145,000 368,015 547,943 Gasoline (MJ) n/a 224,621 451,500 420,379 1,096,500 Diesel (MJ) n/a 119,581 72,080 2,622,919 2,814,580 Propane (MJ) not used 2,458,935 not used 1,554,349 4,013,284 Electricity (MJ) 324,767 2,722,637 7,812,000 not used 10,859,404 Smolt Output (kg) 685 21,204 104,000 203,644 329,533 From the combined input and smolt production totals (Table 10), I estimated the weighted average inputs required to yield a tonne o f smolts using the mass o f smolts produced by each company as the weighting factor (Table 11). Table 11. Operating Inputs Required to Produce an Average Tonne of Salmon Smolts Inputs per tonne of smolts produced Labour (person-days) 32.5 "Dry" feed (kg) 1,663 Gasoline (MJ) 3,327 Diesel (MJ) 8,541 Propane (MJ) 12,179 Electricity (MJ) 32,954 Source: Appendix B. However, as the objective o f the research was to estimate the biophysical costs o f an average tonne of harvested adult chinook or Atlantic salmon, it was necessary to quantify the mass o f smolts that must enter saltwater, which upon harvesting w i l l yield one tonne, while accounting for typical 64 mortality losses during the entire saltwater rearing phase. Using data supplied by the C . A . S . H . program (Appendix A ) , I determined that, on average, approximately 20.6 kg o f Atlantic salmon smolts are required to yield a harvested round tonne o f adults while approximately 13.7 kg o f chinook smolts are required to yield a harvested tonne o f adults. Combining these values with the average inputs from Table 11, estimates were made o f the operating material, labour and energy inputs associated with the freshwater phase o f salmon farming per harvested tonne o f Atlantic and chinook salmon produced (Table 12). Table 12. Average Operating Inputs to Smolt Production to Yield a Final Harvested Tonne of Salmon Inputs to Smolt Production per Final Harvested Tonne Atlantic Chinook Labour (person-days) 0.67 0.45 "Dry" feed (kg) 34 23 Gasoline (MJ) 69 45 Diesel (MJ) 176 117 Propane (MJ) 251 166 Electricity (MJ) 679 450 Quantifying the Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to the Saltwater Phase of Salmon Farming In 1996, a total o f 16 companies operated saltwater based net-cage grow-out sites for salmon in Brit ish Columbian waters. Their combined production that year was approximately 800 round tonnes of coho, 8,450 round tonnes o f chinook and 19,300 round tonnes o f Atlantic salmon from a total o f approximately 80 active grow-out sites (Figure 9). Not surprisingly, the annual production from the 16 companies operating grow-out sites varied widely. For example, four companies each produced under 500 tonnes, three produced between 500 and 1,000 tonnes, another three produced between 1,000 and 2,000 tonnes and six produced over 2,000 tonnes each annually (British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997). To quantify the operating material, labour, and energy inputs associated with the saltwater based grow-out phase o f salmon farming, I surveyed four companies. Two o f these were dedicated chinook producers and two were dedicated Atlantic salmon producers. Over the time period for which these companies provided data, they operated a total o f 21 saltwater based grow-out sites. Individually, their annual harvest ranged from under 100 round tonnes to over 3,300 round tonnes. On a species-specific basis, the two chinook producers harvested a total o f 556 round tonnes or approximately 65 6.5% of the industry-wide chinook production in 1996 while the two Atlantic salmon producers harvested over 5,076 tonnes, representing the equivalent o f approximately 26% of the total 1996 industry-wide Atlantic salmon production. A l l companies surveyed were asked to provide the following information regarding their material, labour and energy inputs to saltwater based grow-out operations for a given representative time period: 1. the total number, and total round weight o f all salmon harvested, along with an estimate o f the total salmon "standing stock" 1 1 7 biomass change in the water from the start to the end o f the period over which data were provided, 2. the type and total mass o f feed used, 3. the amount, i f any, o f electricity used in k W h , 4. the types and quantities o f fossil fuels used for al l grow-out site related activities including heating, feed transport, personnel changes, etc., and 5. the amount o f labour required for al l grow-out site related activities. The data provided by the four companies along with the analysis o f the average inputs per tonne o f salmon produced appears in Appendix D . The primary difference between the information sought from saltwater-based and freshwater-based operations was that for marine grow-out operations, it was potentially important to determine the change in the standing stock biomass in the water over the period for which data were provided. This was particularly important in any situation in which a company was either actively increasing or decreasing its stock size. B y not accounting for such changes, inputs normalised per tonne o f salmon harvested could be inadvertently inflated or deflated. However, in situations in which a company was essentially operating in steady-state, it could be assumed that the standing stock biomass change over a year would be negligible, al l other things, such as mortality and escape losses, being equal 1 1 8 . 1 1 7 In this context, I use the term "standing stock" to refer to the total living biomass of farmed salmon in a given company's grow-out sites at a given point in time. 1 1 8 It is worth noting that by taking into account changes in the standing stock biomass, however, a bias is introduced which will consistently have the effect of underestimating the quantities of various inputs that are required to yield a harvested tonne of salmon. This occurs because when the stock of salmon is being built up, not all of the increased "production" will ultimately be harvested. A certain proportion can be expected to die or escape prior to harvesting. Similarly, in the situation where the standing stock has been reduced over the time period for which data were provided, not all of the 66 A l l four companies canvassed provided me with all the information that I had requested regarding their salmon production and material, labour and energy inputs, in more or less detail, with the following exceptions. The largest producer surveyed was unable to provide me with data regarding the change in their standing stock o f salmon. A s a result, I had to assume that there was no change in the standing stock over the time for which data were provided. In addition, the same company only provided data regarding their total expenditure on gasoline and diesel fuel combined. Without any additional guidance from the company's representatives, I assumed that half o f the fuel expenditure was made on gasoline and half was made on diesel fuel. Because o f the internal record keeping practices used by most o f the surveyed companies, the electricity, fuel and labour inputs associated with the operation o f their head offices were included as part o f the inputs to their grow-out site operations. A n d while inputs to running an office are not, strictly speaking, grow-out site related, these inputs are likely to be relatively small when compared to true grow-out site operating inputs. Furthermore, I would argue that ultimately the operating inputs associated with office activities are part and parcel o f the overall process o f producing farmed salmon. A s was the case with respect to the inputs to freshwater operations (Appendix B ) , it was sometimes necessary with respect to marine grow-out data to either standardise certain inputs, such as labour, into a common unit o f measure and to convert inputs recorded as monetary expenditures into physical units (see Appendix D for details). From the input data in Appendix D and by using the total weight o f salmon produced by each company over the period for which data were provided, I calculated the weighted average operating material, labour and energy inputs associated with saltwater based grow-out operations for both chinook and Atlantic salmon (Table 13). change in biomass in the water is necessarily the result of accelerated harvest. A reduction in the standing stock biomass can also result from increased mortality or escape losses. 67 Table 13. Average Direct Operating Inputs Associated with the Saltwater based Grow-Out Phase of Salmon Farming per Round Tonne of Salmon Produced Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Produced Atlantic Chinook Labour (person-days) 3.3 10.9 "Dry" feed (kg) 1,736 2,183 Gasoline (MJ) 1,171 1,842 Diesel (MJ) 1,037 1,290 Propane (MJ) 239 0 Electricity (MJ) 0 463 From Appendix D. From the data in Table 13, the material, labour and aggregate energy inputs associated with chinook production are generally higher than the inputs to Atlantic salmon production. Specifically, labour inputs are over 300% higher, while the feed inputs are approximately 25% higher and aggregate energy inputs are about 46% higher. There are several possible reasons for this difference. Contemporary strains o f farmed chinook salmon may be inherently poorer performers than contemporary strains o f Atlantic salmon under intensive cultivation. For example, Jones (1997) found that due to differences in swimming speed and basic morphology, contemporary strains o f chinook farmed in Brit ish Columbia experience drag forces 40% higher than farmed Atlantic sa lmon 1 1 9 . A s a result, chinook use significantly greater energy for propulsion leaving consequently less energy available for growth when compared with Atlantic salmon. Anecdotal evidence from salmon farmers supports the view that contemporary domesticated strains o f Atlantic salmon are much more docile and less energetic in the net-cage environment than are contemporary strains of domesticated chinook salmon. A t the same time, because the two companies that supplied data on Atlantic salmon production are both much larger than the two companies that supplied data on chinook production, their lower inputs per unit o f production may reflect certain economies o f scale. A s a result, there may be a consistent bias towards lower inputs per unit Atlantic salmon production compared with chinook salmon production. One way to test whether the differences in the inputs reflect biological differences or data artefacts, is to compare the results with those o f an independent analysis. The data provided by the C . A . S . H . program (Appendix A ) , provides just such an opportunity. Comparing the feed used during saltwater grow-out for the 23 Atlantic and the 13 chinook salmon groups represented, shows that on average 1,460 kg and 2,020 kg o f feed were required to yield a round tonne o f Atlantic and chinook salmon 68 respectively. Therefore, from the C . A . S . H . program data, chinook would appear to require approximately 38% more feed per unit mass of salmon produced than do Atlantic salmon. This would appear to support the hypothesis that there is indeed an inherent difference between contemporary domesticated chinook and Atlantic salmon. It is also worth noting that the feed input requirements from the C . A . S . H . program data are lower for both Atlantic and chinook salmon than the estimates o f feed inputs determined by my survey. Specifically, my results indicate a feed consumption rate that is approximately 15% higher in Atlantic salmon and 7% higher in the case o f chinook when compared to the C . A . S . H . program data. These differences, while fairly small, are relatively important because, as we shall see below, the overall biophysical costs associated with intensive salmon farming are very sensitive to total feed use. When considering whether my data or the C . A . S . H . program results better reflect reality, there are two factors that should be kept in mind. First, my survey data reflect a much larger total production tonnage than the C . A . S . H . program data set. The total tonnage o f Atlantic salmon produced by the two companies that provided me with data is three orders o f magnitude larger that the total Atlantic salmon production reflected in the C . A . S . H . program data. Likewise, the total chinook production from the two companies that I surveyed is two orders o f magnitude larger than the chinook production upon which the C . A . S . H . program analysis is based. Perhaps more importantly, however, the C . A . S . H . program data that was provided to me explicitly excluded fish groups which experienced greater than 50% mortality. Thus the results o f the analysis o f the C . A . S . H . program data underestimate the actual average amount o f feed required to produce a given quantity o f salmon, given that occasional high mortality events are part o f contemporary intensive salmon culture. Quantifying the Direct Labour and Energy Inputs to Salmon Transport A s discussed previously, I did not attempt to quantify the inputs associated with the transport o f smolts. I did, however, quantify the operational labour and energy inputs associated with the transport o f adult salmon from marine grow-out sites to shore-based processing facilities. 1 1 9 Chinook were found to swim approximately 20% faster on average than Atlantic salmon while morphologically, chinook were consistently taller, thicker and shorter than Atlantic salmon of the same mass (Jones 1997). 69 One o f the specialised salmon transport companies, Transmar Shipping L td . (hereafter referred to as Transmar), was surveyed to determine the labour and energy inputs associated with hauling salmon from grow-out sites to processing plants (see Appendix E) . In 1996, using three converted purse seine vessels, Transmar transported approximately 7,692 round tonnes o f farmed Atlantic salmon (Mr . Don M i l l e r d , Transmar Shipping Ltd . , pers. comm., A p r i l , 1997). This represented approximately 40% of total industry-wide Atlantic salmon production in 1996 or about 26% of the total industry-wide production o f al l species. Transmar provided details o f its operating expenses associated with salmon haulage activities for three years; 1994, 1995 and 1996. From these data, I calculated average fuel and labour inputs per tonne o f salmon transported for each year and for al l three years combined using the mass o f salmon hauled as the weighting factor (Appendix E) . The analysis revealed that during transport, the average tonne o f farmed salmon required the direct combustion o f approximately 86.5 litres o f diesel fuel, with a net energy content o f 3,119 M J , and the expenditure o f 0.51 person-days o f labour. Final ly, although Transmar only transported Atlantic salmon, I assumed that the estimated labour and energy inputs apply equally to chinook transport. Sum of Direct Inputs to Farmed Salmon Production Based on the analyses above, Table 14 and Table 15 summarise the estimates o f the average direct operating material, labour and energy inputs to intensive salmon culture in Bri t ish Columbia, for Atlantic and chinook salmon respectively. Table 14. Summary of Average Direct Operating Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Intensive Atlantic Salmon Culture Operating Inputs per Rounc Tonne Atlantic Salmon Harvested To Smolt To Marine To Adult Production Grow-Out Transport Total Labour (person-days) 0.67 3.3 0.51 4.5 "Dry" feed (kg) 34 1,736 1,770 Gasoline (MJ) 69 1,171 1,240 Diesel (MJ) 176 1,037 3,119 4,332 Propane (MJ) 251 239 490 Electricity (MJ) 679 0 679 70 Table 15. Summary of Average Direct Operating Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Intensive Chinook Salmon Culture Operating Inputs per Round Tonne Chinook Salmon Harvested To Smolt To Marine To Adult Production Grow-Out Transport Total Labour (person-days) 0.45 10.9 0.51 11.9 "Dry" feed (kg) 23 2,183 2,206 Gasoline (MJ) 45 1,842 1,887 Diesel (MJ) 117 1,290 3,119 4,526 Propane (MJ) 166 0 166 Electricity (MJ) 450 463 913 It was possible to partially corroborate or "ground-truth" the above estimates using industry workforce data as a guide. A s part o f the provincial Salmon Aquaculture Review process, the 1996 total direct employment in the salmon farming industry was quantified (Table 16). Table 16. Total 1996 Direct Employment in the British Columbia Salmon Farming Industry Activity Fulltime Equivalent Positions Hatchery 124 Grow-Out Sites 496 Transport 78 Selling and Administrative 87 Other 25 Processing 332 Total 1,142 Source: British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office 1997, vol. 4, p. A-17 Excluding the jobs in the processing side o f the industry, there were a total o f 810 full-time equivalent positions in the industry as a whole in 1996 (Table 16). Given that a total o f 28,550 round tonnes o f farmed Atlantic, chinook and coho salmon were harvested in Brit ish Columbia that year and assuming that there are 240 days o f labour associated with each full-time position, we can say that, industry-wide, an average o f 6.8 person-days o f labour were required per round tonne o f salmon harvested 1 2 0. This can be compared with the average number o f direct person-days o f labour that were required to yield a round tonne o f salmon based on my data. In Tables 14 and 15 above, I estimated that a round tonne o f Atlantic and chinook salmon required 4.5 and 11.9 person-days o f direct labour respectively to reach the dock immediately prior to processing. Mul t ip ly ing these numbers by the round tonnes o f 1 Calculated as follows: (810 fulltime positions x 240 days per fulltime position) •*• 28,550 tonnes of salmon = 6.8 person-days/tonne. 71 Atlantic and chinook salmon harvested in 1996, or 8,450 tonnes and 19,300 tonnes, respectively, summing the result and dividing by the total tonnage o f Atlantic and chinook salmon harvested, I arrive at a weighted average of 6.8 person days o f labour required per tonne o f salmon harvested. Thus my estimates may be considered a reasonable proximate for true average inputs to farmed salmon production in Brit ish Columbia. Quantifying the Inputs, and Ecosystem Support Areas to Contemporary Salmon Feed There are several reasons why I undertook a detailed analysis o f the biophysical costs o f salmon feed for the contemporary Brit ish Columbia salmon farming industry. A s noted above, feed is the largest single physical input, after water, to salmon farming. Moreover, previous energy analyses o f intensive fish culture systems (Mathews et al. 1976, Pitcher 1977, Rawitscher 1978, Folke 1988, Berg et al. 1996) indicate that the energy inputs to feed typically represent over 90% o f the total energy inputs to the culture system being analysed. In addition, as feed represents the largest single cost sector to contemporary salmon farmers (Forster 1995, Asche 1997), there is continuing interest amongst salmon feed formulators to reduce the cost o f their product while maintaining or improving feeding performance (Kaushik 1990, Higgs et al. 1995, Higgs et al. 1996, Higgs 1997). Coupled with this economic incentive, there is also interest within the industry in reducing the dependence on some inputs, particularly fish-sourced ingredients, for political/environmental reasons. For this reason, I believe that there is an opportunity to provide salmon feed manufacturers with a benchmark by which they can evaluate the biophysical costs associated with the use o f alternative ingredients as they strive to reduce the economic cost o f salmon feed. The following analysis o f the inputs to salmon feed production and the ecosystem support areas required to sustain the biological inputs is based on the production o f an average tonne of contemporary salmon feed. The inputs per tonne o f feed produced were then incorporated into the larger model o f the biophysical costs associated with the production o f a tonne o f farmed chinook and Atlantic salmon using the estimates o f total feed inputs required as outlined in Tables 14 and 15. Broadly speaking, feeds used in the intensive culture of f i sh can be classified into four general types reflecting their relative water content. Wet, moist, semi-moist and dry feeds typically contain approximately 75%, 30%, 15% and 8% moisture by weight respectively. A n d while moist, and semi-72 moist feeds have been used historically in the British Columbia salmon farming industry, dry feeds are currently used almost exclusively (Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Limited, pers. comm. 1998). Since the first dry extruded diet was developed for salmon in 1971121, a great deal of research has gone into improving the production and formulation of dry feeds to meet the specific nutritional needs of the various life-stages of salmon, to improve the palatability and availability of the feeds to the fish, to improve the palatability and aesthetic appeal of the resulting salmon flesh to consumers, and to reduce the costs of feed production itself. As a result, contemporary dry salmon feeds can vary considerably, particularly with respect to gross composition, the size of the individual feed pellets, and, most importantly to this research, the range of ingredients used in their formulation. When contemplating this analysis I briefly considered using published formulations but rejected this approach for three reasons. First, as published feed formulations are invariably more than a few years old, it is unlikely that they reflect the latest advances in fish nutrition or the relative availability, quality, and price of potential ingredients. Second, any analysis based on a single published formulation cannot reflect the breadth of feeds currently in use. And finally, published formulations typically indicate only the generic type of most constituents. This is of limited value when trying to quantify the biophysical cost of using specific inputs. For example, while fish oil is a significant component of most published salmon diets, the specific type and source of the fish oil used is seldom reported. It was therefore important that detailed, reasonably current, feed formulation data along with data regarding the labour and energy input to feed milling be used in the analysis. When this analysis was undertaken in 1998, two companies, EWOS Canada Limited (hereafter referred to simply as EWOS) and Moore-Clark Co. (Canada) Incorporated, together supplied over 90% of the dry feed used by the intensive salmon culture industry in British Columbia and the US Pacific Northwest. The two companies have approximately equal market share and each operate one feed milling plant in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia (Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Limited, pers. comm. 1998). 1 2 1 For a brief review of the development history of artificial salmonid diets see Hardy (1987). 73 Quantifying the Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to the Formulation of Salmon Feed Pellets E W O S was approached to provide data on the material, labour and energy inputs associated with the production o f an average or typical tonne o f salmon feed. Specifically I requested the following information: 1. the type, quantities and sources o f ingredients from which contemporary salmon feeds are made, 2. the types and quantities o f energy required to process the various ingredients into a final product, and 3. the amount o f labour required to process the various ingredients into a final product. E W O S was an ideal source o f data on the inputs to salmon feed because, as o f mid-July 1997, their feed m i l l in Surrey became a dedicated fish feed only production facility in which over 95% of total production is salmon feeds for the local market 1 2 2 . Because o f the highly competitive nature o f the salmon feed industry, E W O S was reluctant to provide detailed formulation information regarding any o f their specific salmon feeds. They were, however, wi l l ing to provide composite or aggregate formulation data reflecting the complete range o f salmon feeds that they produce (Table 17). In other words, E W O S provided information on the amount o f various ingredients used in salmon feeds, normalised per tonne o f "average" feed produced. This was ideal for the purposes o f this study as the results should better reflect average industry-wide inputs to contemporary salmon feed manufacturing. Prior to this, EWOS's operations had included poultry feed production. 74 Table 17. Average Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Salmon Feeds Average quantity per tonne Input" feed produced (kg) L Prime or Superprime South American fish meal 323 B.C. herring meal0 57 Gulf of Mexico Menhaden o i l d 144 B.C. mixed fish o i l e 36 Wheat (whole kernel) 150 Corn Gluten meal (60% protein) 80 Canola meal f 40 Soybean meal (de-hulled, solvent extracted/ 40 Blood meal 40 Feather meal8 40 Meat meal8 40 Premixesh 10 Labour in person-days 0.05 Natural gas in M J 1 1,534 Electricity in kWh 140.72 Source: Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Limited, pers. comm. 1998 Notes: a. The material inputs were determined based on the 1998 projection of all ingredient purchases divided by the total projected sales tonnage for the year while labour and energy inputs were based on actual usage data for the five month period from August to December, 1997 inclusive divided by the total tonnage of salmon feed produced during that interval. b. Chilean and Peruvian Prime and Superprime meals are largely interchangeable. The fisheries which provide the inputs to these meals are dedicated industrial fisheries which target primarily the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens), the South Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax sagax), the Araucanian herring (Strangomera bentincki), the Inca scad (Trachurus murphyi) and the Chub mackerel {Scomber japonicus) (Polushin 1994). c. British Columbia herring meal provided by West Coast Reductions of Vancouver, the last fish reduction plant operating in British Columbia. The meal is derived almost entirely from carcasses of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) which result from the roe herring fishery (Mr. Russ Mitchellson, West Coast Reductions Ltd. pers. comm. 1997). d. Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil can be supplied by any one of a number of companies that operate fish reduction plants along the US gulf coast. It is the product of a dedicated industrial fishery which targets primarily the Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus). e. British Columbia mixed fish oil is supplied by West Coast Reductions of Vancouver, This fish oil is derived entirely from fish processing wastes derived from a wide range of species including Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), Pacific hake (Merluccius productus)and various Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) (Mr. Russ Mitchellson, West Coast Reductions Ltd. pers. comm. 1997). f. Canola meal and soybean meal are used interchangeably in salmon feed (Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Ltd. pers. comm. 1998) so each was assumed to contribute equally to the feed modelled. g. Feather meal and meat meal are used interchangeably in salmon feed (Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Ltd. pers. comm. 1998) so each was assumed to contribute equally to the feed modelled. h. Premixes include vitamins, carotenoid colouring agents, etc. i . Natural gas represents over 99% of the total fossil energy used in E W O S ' plant (Mr. Jason Mann, EWOS Canada Ltd. pers. comm. 1998). 75 Most o f the inputs to salmon feed used by E W O S and outlined in Table 17 are widely traded feedstuffs 1 2 3. The Direct Industrial Energy Inputs to Salmon Feed Milling The direct industrial energy inputs required to mi l l , pelletise, and dry one tonne o f salmon feed amount to approximately 507 M J o f electricity 1 2 4 and 1,534 M J o f natural gas (Table 17). Expressed as fossil fuel equivalents, this amounts to a total direct industrial energy input o f approximately 2,980 M J per tonne o f salmon feed 1 2 5 . This can be compared with previous estimates o f direct industrial energy inputs to feed mil l ing o f 900 MJ/tonne for trout feed (Pitcher 1977) and 3,270 MJ/tonne for catfish feed (Rawitscher 1978). The Gross Nutritional Energy Content of Contemporary Salmon Feed Using the component proportions outlined in Table 17 and estimates o f the unit gross nutritional energy content o f the individual feedstuffs, I estimate that the gross nutritional energy content o f an average tonne o f contemporary salmon feed is approximately 22,400 M J (Table 18). ' For descriptions of: a) the processes involved in reducing whole fish and/or fish processing wastes into fish meal and oil see FAO, Fisheries Industry Division (1986), Bimbo (1990) or Hardy (1992), b) the rendering process used to produce meat meal and the range of processes used to process blood into blood meal see Fernando (1992), c) the process used to make feather meal see Polin (1992), d) the corn wet milling process from which corn gluten meal results see Corn Refiners Association (1989), e) various soybean processing options and products see Considine and Considine (1982), and f) the canola milling process that yields canola meal see Hickling (1993). 1 140.72kWh of electricity multiplied by 3.6 MJ/kWh To convert the 507 MJ of electricity into fossil fuel equivalents, I divided by 0.35. 76 Table 18. Estimated Gross Nutritional Energy Content of an Average Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed Average Unit gross Total gross Input quantity per energy content energy content tonne feed (kg) (MJ/kg) (MJ) Total fish meal 380 20.2 a 7,676 Total fish o i l 180 36.4 b 6,552 Wheat 150 16.8° 2,520 Corn Gluten meal 80 18.0 d 1,440 Canola meal 40 18.1 e 724 Soybean meal 40 17.9 e 716 B lood meal 40 23.7 e 948 Feather meal 40 22.6 e 904 Meat meal 40 22 .5 f 900 Total : 22,380 Notes: a. I have applied the unit gross energy content value for Peruvian anchovy meal as reported in Hajen et al. (1993, Table 2, p. 336). b. I have applied a unit gross energy content of 36.4 MJ/kg for fish oil based on the gross energy content of lipids generally as noted in Higgs et al. (1995). c. Hajen et al. 1993, Table 2, p. 336. d. I have applied a unit gross energy content value of 18.0 MJ/kg for corn gluten meal with a protein content of 60%. e. Hajen etal. 1993, Table 2, p. 336. f. I have applied the unit gross energy content value for poultry by-product meal produced in British Columbia as reported in Hajen et al. (1993, Table 2, p. 336). Ecological Footprint of Biological Material Inputs to Feed Approximately 56% by weight o f the inputs to the salmon feed being modelled are derived from fish, 31% are derived directly from agricultural crops and 12% are derived from livestock (Table 17). A l l o f these inputs were analysed to determine the area o f ecosystem required to produce them as wel l as the types and quantities o f industrial energy inputs required to produce, harvest, process and transport them. Because the remaining 1% of the input to salmon feeds, the premixes, are such a small component and because o f their complex composition, their contribution to the biophysical costs o f salmon feeds was not analysed in this research. Ecosystem Support Area to Provide Fish Meals and Oils A s described in the previous chapter, the first step in estimating the marine ecological footprint associated with producing a given quantity o f fish or other marine organism involved using Equation 1 to quantify the primary productivity required to ultimately yield the mass o f marine organisms of interest. Re-stated here, Equation 1 appears as: P = (M/9) x 10 ( T ' 1 } 77 In using Equation 1 to estimate the primary productivity required to provide the fish meal and o i l inputs to salmon feed, it was first necessary to convert each into their wet weight o f fish equivalents. A s the yield rate from whole fish to fish meal and o i l can vary considerably depending on: • the species being reduced, • the season and hence the condition o f the fish at the time o f capture, • whether round fish or fish wastes are being reduced, • the freshness o f the fish upon processing, and • the efficiency o f the reduction plant, it was important to use representative yield rates, specific to the fish source and processing plants used. Table 19 summarises the applicable yield rates and wet fish equivalents for each o f the fish meal and o i l inputs to the feed modelled. Table 19. Yield Rates and Wet Weight of Fish Requiredfor Fish Meal and Oil for One Tonne of Salmon Feed Mass of Fish meal or Yield Wet Weight of Whole Input Oil Required (kg) Rate Fish Required (kg) Prime or Superprime S. American fish meal 323 22% a 1,468 British Columbia herring meal 57 16%b 356 Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil 144 12%c 1,200 British Columbia mixed fish oil 36 2% d 1,800 Notes: a. Fish meal yield rates for newer South American plants producing Prime and Superprime meals typically vary between 20% and 25% with 22% representing a reasonable year-round average (Mr. Tony Bimbo, a fish meal and oil manufacturing consultant, pers. comm. March, 1998). b. Mr. Russ Mitchelson, West Coast Reductions Ltd. pers. comm. 1997. c. Fish oil yield rates for Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil typically vary between 6% and 20% with 12% being an representative year-round average (Mr. Glen Speakman, Vice President, Daybrook Fisheries of New Jersey, pers. comm., March 5, 1998). d. A n oil yield rate of 2% for fish processing wastes is typical for the British Columbia fish reduction industry (Mr. Russ Mitchelson, West Coast Reductions Limited, pers. comm., October, 1997). The equivalent o f approximately 1,800 kg o f whole fish are required to supply fish meal, and 3,000 kg o f whole fish are required for fish oi l for each tonne o f contemporary salmon feed (Table 19). Only the industrial energy inputs required to capture and reduce 3,000 kg o f whole fish is included in the analysis below so as to avoid double-counting the energy required to provide both meals and oils. 7 8 The double-counting issue also applies with respect to the area o f ecosystem support required. However, because the ecosystem support areas associated with the fish meals and oils is only partially dependent upon the wet weight mass o f fish, it was necessary to continue the analysis for al l four of the meals and oils used. Therefore, the next step in the analysis was to estimate the average trophic level for each o f the fish derived inputs. A t least five species o f fish, including Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens), South Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax sagax), Araucanian herring 1 2 6 (Strarigomera bentincki), Inca scad 1 2 7 (Trachurus murphyi), and Chub mackerel 1 2 8 (Scomber japonicus), are used to produce South American fish meals and o i l s 1 2 9 . Using landings data from the Chilean industrial fishery for 1990 to 1993 inclusive, and estimates o f the mean trophic level for each o f the species used for reduction to meal and o i l , in Appendix F I have estimated that the overall mean trophic level for the industrial fisheries o f Chi le is 2.9. A s its name indicates, Brit ish Columbia herring meal is derived almost entirely from Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) carcasses that result from the roe herring fishery130. Based on the results o f several trophic models o f marine ecosystems around the margin o f the northeast Pacific (Pauly and Christensen 1996), I assigned a mean trophic level o f 3.0 to Pacific herring. G u l f of Mex ico menhaden oi l is derived almost entirely from G u l f menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) that are fished specifically for reduction to meal and o i l along the Mississippi , Louisiana and Texas G u l f coasts 1 3 1 . According to Ahrenholz (1991), G u l f menhaden, along with the other menhaden species native to the Atlantic and G u l f coasts o f the United States and Mexico , are filter feeding omnivorous planktivores. While I was unable to find any published trophic models that included G u l f menhaden, I was able to estimate their average trophic level from published quantitative stomach content analyses. In one analysis, the stomachs o f five mature G u l f menhaden taken from coastal bays in Texas were found to contain only phytoplankton (Matlock and Garcia 1983). However, a more recent analysis, in which the stomachs o f 100 mature G u l f menhaden were examined, found that approximately 72% o f their diet was phytoplankton and the remaining approximately 28% was 1 2 6 Another common names for the Araucanian herring is the South Pacific herring. 1 2 7 Other common names for the Inca scad are Jack mackerel and Horse Mackerel. 1 2 8 Another common name for the chub mackerel is the Pacific mackerel. 1 2 9 Based on data from the Chilean fishing industry for 1990 to 1993 inclusive presented in Polushin (1994). 1 3 0 Small quantities of other fish processing wastes may find their way into herring meal but these are considered to be trivial when compared to the mass of herring carcasses used. 79 zooplankton (Castillo-Rivera et al. 1996). Given the much larger number o f specimens examined as part o f the second analysis described, I have used it as the basis o f my estimate o f the average trophic level o f G u l f menhaden. A s a result, they are assigned a mean trophic level o f 2.3. A s the inputs to the Brit ish Columbia mixed fish o i l are fish processing wastes from several different fisheries that vary widely in their output from season to season and from year to year, it was difficult to estimate a representative average trophic level for these inputs. I therefore assumed that the input to this locally produced fish o i l is derived entirely from Pacific herring with a mean trophic level o f Us ing Equation 1, the wet weight mass o f fish required to yield each fish meal and o i l (Table 19), and the mean trophic levels described above, I estimated the primary productivity required to provide the four fish meal and o i l inputs per tonne o f salmon feed. Table 20. Primary Productivity Required to Provide the Fish Biomass for Fish Meal and Oil Inputs to One Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed Wet Weight of Whole Mean Trophic PPR Input Fish Required (kg)a Level" (kgC) c Superprime South American fish meal 1,468 2.9 12,956 B.C. herring meal 356 3.0 3,956 Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil 1,200 2.3 2,660 B.C. mixed fish oil 1,800 3.0 20,000 Notes: a. Values from Table 19. b. See text above. c. Calculated using Equation 1. Finally, using net primary productivity estimates from Longhurst et al. (1995) for the parts o f the world's oceans that conform most closely to the areas that supply fish destined for reduction, I calculated the area o f marine ecosystem required to produce the four fish meal and o i l inputs (Table 21). 1 3 1 The Gulf menhaden and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) reduction fisheries are two of the largest and oldest commercial fisheries in the United States with combined landings totaling between 600,000 and 1.2 million tonnes annually in recent decades (Smith 1991). 1 3 2 The zooplankton identified included tintinnids, a number of species of copepods, ostracods and cladocerans (Castillo-Rivera 1996, Table 1, p. 1105). 1 3 3 I believe that this is a reasonable assumption to make, as in recent years herring carcasses from the roe herring fishery make up large proportion of fish processing wastes handled by West Coast Reductions (Mr. Russ Mitchelson, West Coast Reductions Ltd., pers. comm. 1997). Furthermore, any error which results from making this assumption will tend to have the effect of underestimating the ecosystem support area required, as herring occupy a lower average trophic level than most, i f not all, of the other fish species, such as hake or salmon, whose processing wastes are also used for reduction purposes (Pauly and Christensen 1996). 80 Table 21. Marine Ecosystem Support Areas Required to Produce the Fish Biomass for Fish Meal and Oil Inputs to a Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed Input to Salmon Feed PPR Net Primary Productivity fe C/m 2 /year) Marine Ecosystem Support Area (ha) Superprime South American fish meal 12,956 B.C. herring meal 3,956 Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil 2,660 B.C. mixed fish oil 20,000 Notes: 269 a 525 b 190° 525b 4.8 0.75 1.4 3.8 a. The region of the Pacific ocean which supports the industrial fisheries of Chile and Peru falls entirely within the Chile-Peru Coastal Current province as defined by Longhurst et al. (1995). The average net primary productivity of the Chile-Peru Coastal Current is estimated to be 269 gC/m2/yr by Longhurst et al. (1995). b. Pacific herring spend the majority of their life history in coastal waters on the landward side of the continental shelf margin (Taylor 1984). This portion of the northeastern Pacific ocean conforms most closely to the Alaska Downwelling province and the California Upwelling province as defined by Longhurst et al. (1995), who estimated the average net primary productivities of these two regions as 661 and 388 g C/m2/yr respectively. A straight average of these net primary productivity values, or 525 g C/m2/yr, was used for the purposes of the current model. c. The marine ecosystem that sustains the Gulf menhaden fishery falls entirely within the Caribbean domain as defined by Longhurst et al. (1995). Longhurst et al. (1995) estimate that the average net primary productivity of the Caribbean domain is 190 g C/m2/yr. The combined ecosystem support area required to sustain the fish meal inputs to a tonne o f salmon feed is approximately 5.6 ha while the area required to provide the fish o i l inputs amounts to approximately 5.2 ha (Table 21). So as to not double-count, only the larger o f these two is incorporated into the overall model o f the inputs to farmed salmon production. Ecosystem Support Area to Provide the Livestock By-Product Meals Livestock by-product meals account for 12% of the mass o f the generic salmon feed being modelled (Table 17). A s these meals are largely interchangeable for each other (Mr . Jason Mann, E W O S Canada Ltd. , pers. comm. 1997), it was assumed that, on average, 40 kg o f each o f the three meals used - blood meal, meat meal and feather meal - is incorporated in an average tonne o f salmon feed. To simplify this part o f the analysis, I assumed that all by-product meals are derived from chicken. I believe this is a reasonable simplifying assumption as chicken by-products make up a significant proportion o f the inputs to meat and blood meals produced locally at the West Coast Reduction plant in Vancouver (Mr . Russ Mitchelson, pers. comm. 1997). Moreover, any error that is introduced into the analysis by adopting this assumption should underestimate the biophysical costs o f salmon feed 81 production. This is because chicken typically have higher feed conversion rates than cattle and similar feed conversion rates to swine when fed the same diet 1 3 4 . A s blood meal, feather meal and meat meal are al l co-products o f the meat, egg and dairy industries, the accounting convention used to address the partitioning problem has its greatest potential impact in this part o f the model. A s previously discussed, in the base case model I have apportioned all biophysical costs associated with producing a given live weight quantity o f livestock at slaughter in direct proportion to the mass o f the various co-products that result. Using appropriate yield rates, the wet weight quantities o f chicken co-products required to yield 40 kg each o f blood meal, feather meal and meat meal are presented in Table 22. Table 22. Yield Rate and Wet Weight of Chicken By-Products Required to Provide By-Product Meal Inputs to Salmon Feed Quantity Required Yield Rate from Wet Wet Weight of per tonne of Salmon Weight of Chicken Chicken By-Products By-Product Meal Feed (kg) By-Products Required (kg) Blood meal 40 10.75%a 372 Feather meal 40 100%b 40 Meat meal 40 25%c 160 Total: 572 Note: a. The blood meal yield rate of 10.75% was determined using the average dry matter content of blood meal at 93% (from Polin 1992, p. 187) and the average dry matter content of whole chicken blood at 10% (from Polin 1992, p. 186) and the following logic: 40 kg of blood meal contains 37.2 kg of dry matter (i.e. 40 x 0.93) and 372 kg of whole blood is required to yield 37.2 kg of dry matter (i.e. 372 x 0.1). Therefore, the yield rate from whole blood to blood meal equals 40/372 or 10.75%. b. The feather meal yield rate was deemed to be 100% as the average crude protein content of feather meal at 86.4% (from Polin 1992, p. 182) is approximately equal to the total protein content of whole feathers at 87% (Polin 1992, p. 178). c. Mr. Russ Mitchelson of West Coast Reductions, pers. comm. October, 1997. A total o f 572 kg o f wet weight chicken by-products are required to yield the livestock meal inputs to a tonne o f contemporary salmon feed (Table 22). The associated ecological footprint was then quantified by estimating the area o f agricultural ecosystem required to produce the feed to grow the equivalent o f 572 kg o f chicken. Although almost all contemporary chicken production employs specially formulated composite feeds that result in relatively high feed-to-chicken biomass conversion rates, I did not base the analysis o f ecosystem support area on such feeds. Instead, I assumed that the required mass o f chicken was fed For example, Smil et al. (1983) report that it takes between 5.4 and 6.75 kg of grain com for broilers to gain a kilogram of weight while swine require between 5.2 and 6.6kg per kilogram of weight gain and cattle require between 9.98 and 15.39kg of grain com per kilogram of weight gain. See also Ostrander (1980, p. 391) for a comparison of the relative efficiency with which different livestock species convert dietary energy into protein. 82 entirely on grain corn. I made this assumption for three reasons. First, by basing the analysis on unprocessed grain corn, I eliminate the potentially large "hidden" processing energy costs associated with composite feeds. Second, as corn has one o f the highest yields per hectare o f a l l grain crops, basing the model on grain corn alone w i l l minimise the resulting agricultural land ecological footprint. A n d finally, the overall analysis is simplified considerably. Smil et al. (1983) indicate that broiler chickens typically require between 5.4 kg and 6.75 kg o f grain corn to gain one kilogram in weight. Using the low end o f this range as the conversion rate for the model, I estimated that 3,089 kg o f grain corn is required to produce the wet weight o f chicken equivalent to the livestock by-product meal inputs 1 3 5 . Using the Canadian five-year average yield rate o f grain corn, 6,780 kg per hectare (Appendix G) , I estimate that 0.456 hectares o f agricultural ecosystem is needed to provide the livestock by-product meal inputs per tonne o f contemporary salmon feed produced. Ecosystem Support Area to Provide Agricultural Crop Inputs A n average tonne o f contemporary salmon feed includes 150 kg o f wheat, 80 kg o f corn gluten meal and 80 kg o f a combination o f de-hulled solvent-extracted soybean meal and canola meal (Table 17). A s canola and soybean meals are highly interchangeable in the feed formula (Mr . Jason Mann, E W O S Canada Limited, pers. comm. 1997), for the purposes o f this analysis I assumed that they contribute equally. Therefore 40 kg o f each is incorporated into the diet being modelled. A s corn gluten, soybean and canola meals are each co-pfoducts o f their respective mi l l ing processes, the partitioning problem arises once again. However, under the convention used throughout the base model I simply treated the three protein meals as whole oilseed/grain equivalents in determining the ecosystem support areas and energy inputs required to produce them. The areas o f agricultural ecosystem associated with producing the direct crop inputs to an average tonne o f salmon feed were determined (see Table 23) using the five-year Canadian average yields o f the four crops as presented in Appendix G . Calculated by multiplying 572 kg of chicken by 5.4 kg grain/kg chicken. 83 Table 23. Agricultural Ecosystem Support Area Required to Provide the Direct Crop Inputs to Contemporary Salmon Feed Input Mass required (kg) Canadian 5 year Average Yield (kg/ha)a Agricultural Ecosystem area required (ha) Wheat 150 2,200 0.068 Corn (for gluten meal) 80 6,780 0.012 Canola (for meal) 40 1,300 0.031 Soybean (for meal) 40 2,580 0.016 Total: 0.127 Notes a: A l l agricultural crop yield rates from Appendix G. A total o f 0.127 ha o f agricultural ecosystem support is required to provide the four crop-derived inputs to a tonne o f contemporary salmon feed (Table 23). Sum of Ecosystem Support Areas to Supply Material Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Feed Produced Combining the results o f the three sections immediately above, the average tonne o f salmon feed produced in Bri t ish Columbia requires the dedicated support o f approximately 5.6 h a 1 3 6 o f marine ecosystem and 0.58 ha 1 3 7 o f agricultural ecosystem. Energy Inputs to Fish Harvesting, Processing and Transportation for Fish Meal and Oil Energy to Capture Fish for Conversion to Fish Meal and Oil A s discussed above, only the energy required to capture the 3,000 kg o f fish destined for fish oi l was included in the model to avoid double counting. Energy analyses o f fisheries from different parts o f the world consistently show that energy intensities (e.g. the energy inputs per mass o f fish landed) can vary by as much as an order o f magnitude between different fishing gears (Leach 1976, Lorentzen 1978, Rawitscher 1978, Nomura 1980). Therefore, when modelling the energy inputs required to catch a given quantity o f fish, it is important to base the model on the appropriate fishing technology. Many o f the world 's largest reduction fisheries, including the fisheries that provide the South American fish meal and the G u l f o f Mex ico menhaden oi l used in salmon feeds, employ purse seine technology almost exclusively (Smith 1991, Polushin 1994, Arancibia et al. 1995). In addition, the majority o f the herring that end ' This is the marine ecosystem support required to provide the fish meal inputs only (see Table 21 and accompanying text). ' This is the sum of the 0.456 ha of agricultural ecosystem required to sustain the provision of the livestock by-product meal inputs and the 0.127 ha of agricultural ecosystem that is required to sustain the provision of the direct grain and oilseed derived inputs. 84 up being used to make mixed fish o i l here in Brit ish Columbia are also caught by purse seiners. Hence, I used this fishing technology to model the energy inputs required to catch the fish destined for reduction. Previous estimates o f the energy inputs to purse seine fisheries for small pelagic species have ranged from lows of: • 680 M J 1 3 8 per tonne o f capelin landed by Icelandic vessels during the mid-1970's (recalculated from Agiistsson et al. 1978), • 2,200 M J 1 3 9 per tonne o f herring landed in Maine in the early 1970's (recalculated from Rawitscher 1978, Table A-2) , • 2,355 M J 1 4 0 per tonne o f fish landed by the Norwegian herring reduction fishery o f the mid-1970's (re-calculated from Lorentzen 1978, Table 4), and • 3,500 M J per tonne o f herring landed by Scottish purse-seiners in the early 1970's (Searle and Windsor 1982) to highs o f 10,000 M J per tonne o f fish landed by both the South African pilchard fishery o f the early 1970's (Pitcher 1977) and for Japanese purse seiners catching small pelagics in the mid-1970's (Nomura 1980, Table 1). I was reluctant, however, to use any o f these results or an average o f them in my model because they are al l based on data which are at least 20 years old. Over that period, the energy efficiency associated with a given fishery or fishing technology can vary as a result o f changes in relative resource abundance and/or technology, in particular changes in vessel size and horsepower (Brown and Lugo 1981, Watanabe and Uchida 1984, Sato et al. 1989, Mi tche l l and Cleveland 1993) 1 4 1 . Fortunately data were available from which I could generate contemporary energy input estimates for both the Brit ish Columbia purse seine herring fishery and the G u l f o f Mex ico purse seine menhaden fishery. 1 3 8 Only included fuel inputs. 1 3 9 Included both direct and indirect energy inputs. 1 4 0 Ibid. 1 4 1 The twin effects of resource depletion and technological change over time on energy efficiency in a fishery is particularly well documented by Mitchell and Cleveland (1993). In their analysis they show that the energy used to harvest seafood increased from approximately 6 to 36 kcal of fuel for each kilocalorie of edible fish protein landed in the New Bedford, Massachusetts fishery from 1968 to 1988. 85 Fuel Energy Inputs to the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery142 Table 24 presents the analysis o f the fuel energy inputs to the British Columbia purse seine roe herring fishery for 1991 and 1994. Table 24. Estimates of Direct Diesel Fuel Consumed by the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery, 1991 and 1994 Year Total herring landings by B.C. purse seiners (tonnes)a Total fuel expenditures by fleet while herring fishingb Provincial average price of commercial diesel fuel ($/l)0 Fuel consumption per tonne herring landed (litres)" (MP/ •991 23,330 $1,170,000 $0,313 160 !994 23,572 $830,000 $0,307 115 Averages: 137.5 5,766 4,144 4,955 Statistics, 1991 and 1994. b. Data includes all purse seine vessels licensed to fish herring. 1991 data from Exhibit C l and 1994 data from Exhibit D . l ofGislason 1997. c. From Appendix C. d. Calculated by first dividing the total expenditures made on fuel (third column) by the average price of diesel fuel (fourth column). This was then divided by the total tonnes of herring landed by seiners (second column). e. Calculated based on the energy content of diesel fuel of 36.036 MJ/litre (Rose and Cooper 1977). Over the two years for which data were available, 1991 and 1994, the Brit ish Columbia purse seine fleet burned, on average, approximately 137.5 litres o f diesel fuel (Table 24), with a net energy content o f approximately 4,956 M J 1 4 3 . Therefore, 8,921 M J o f diesel fuel are required to harvest the 1,800 kg o f herring (Table 19) which must be caught to supply the British Columbia mixed fish o i l component o f the salmon feed being modelled. Indirect Energy Inputs to the British Columbia Purse Seine Herring Fishery A s most, i f not a l l , o f the purse seine vessels that are used to fish for herring in Brit ish Columbia are also used to fish for salmon, the results o f my analysis in Chapter 5, o f the inputs to build and maintain a typical 18m long aluminium-hulled salmon purse seiner, can be used to estimate the indirect inputs associated with landing a tonne o f herring 1 4 4 . From that analysis (see Table 56 and the accompanying text), I made the following estimates o f the inputs required, on an annual basis, to build and maintain a typical 18m long aluminium-hulled purse seiner: 1 The vast majority of the herring caught by the British Columbia purse seine fleet are taken as part of the roe herring fishery when the herring are highly aggregated just prior to spawning. As a result, the fishery should be relatively energetically efficient because the exact location of the pre-spawning aggregations of herring are very well know to fishers and therefore very little extra fuel is burned in the search for fish. In addition, unlike reduction fisheries that are conducted in warmer waters, purse seiners operating in British Columbia do not incur the additional energetic expense of refrigerating their catch while on board in order to avoid spoilage prior to processing. 1 Based on the net energy content of diesel fuel of 36.04MJ/1 as derived from Rose and Cooper 1977, p. 281. 1 Complete details of the analysis of the material, labour and energy inputs associated with building and maintaining a typical salmon purse seiner appears as part of the analysis of the inputs to the commercial salmon fishery in Chapter 5. 86 • 1,725 kg o f aluminium, • 1,380 kg o f steel, • 180 kg o f mixed metals and other materials, • 54,000 M J o f electricity, and • 52 person-days o f labour. To transform these total annual inputs into average inputs per tonne o f herring landed, a two-step conversion was required 1 4 5 . The first factor to account for is that herring fishing is not the only activity in which a typical purse seiner engages. To address this issue, I used income data for the entire Brit ish Columbia purse seine fleet, as reported by Gislason (1997, Table A . I ) , to calculate the herring fishing income to total income ratio for the five year period from 1990 to 1994 inclusive. The result, that herring fishing accounts for approximately 26% of the total seine fleet's income, was used to determine the proportion o f the total inputs to build and maintain a typical purse seiner that are attributable to herring fishing. Next it was necessary to calculate the average annual tonnage o f herring landed by a single seiner in Brit ish Columbia (Table 25). Table 25. Average Herring Catch per Licensed Purse Seiner in British Columbia, 1990-1994 Total tonnes of herring landed Number of seiners Average landings Year by purse seiners8 with herring licenses0 per vessel (t) 1990 24,372 252 97 1991 23,330 252 93 1992 19,937 252 79 1993 25,797 252 102 1994 23,572 252 94 Average: 93 Notes: a. Annual herring landings by purse seiners from Department of Fisheries and Oceans, annual British Columbia Commercial Catch Statistics, 1990 through 1994 inclusive. b. The number of herring seine licenses issued was taken from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada web site at: http://www.nrc.dfo.ca/communic/statistics/LICENSES/pacific/lic_e90.htm. B y first multiplying the annual material, energy and labour inputs to build and maintain a typical aluminium hulled purse seiner outlined above (and in Table 56), by the proportion that is attributable This is the same process that I employ in the analysis of the vessel related inputs per tonne of salmon landed. 87 to herring fishing, and then dividing the result by the average number o f tonnes o f herring landed per vessel (Table 25), I calculated the material and associated indirect energy inputs per tonne o f herring landed (Table 26). Table 26. Estimated Material, Energy and Labour Inputs Required to Build and Maintain a Typical 18m Seiner per Tonne of Herring Landed Annual inputs Inputs Energy Indirect energy to a typical per tonne of Intensity inputs per tonne Inputs 18m seiner3 herring landed" (MJ/kg)c herring landed (MJ) Aluminum (kg) 1,725 4.8 140 675 Steel (kg) 1,380 3.9 25 96 Mixed metals, etc. (kg) 180 0.5 25 13 Electricity (MJ) 54,000 151 Labour (person-days) 52 0.1 Notes: a. From Table 56. b. Values in this column calculated by multiplying the values in the first column by 0.26, the average ratio of herring fishing income to total income of seiners in British Columbia, and then dividing by 93, the average annual herring landings per vessel for the British Columbia seine fleet from 1990 to 1994. c. Energy intensity values used throughout this research are outlined in Table 9. A s a result, 151 M J o f direct electricity and 784 M J o f indirect energy, which for simplicity I have assumed is entirely derived from natural gas, is required to build and maintain the purse seine vessels themselves per tonne o f herring landed. Therefore, a total o f 271 M J o f electricity and 1,411 M J o f natural gas are required to produce and maintain the vessels used to harvest the 1,800 kg o f herring that end up as Brit ish Columbia mixed fish o i l . Energy Inputs to the Gulf of Mexico Purse Seine Menhaden Fishery Omega Protein Limited, the largest menhaden fishing company in the United States 1 4 6 provided me with data on the fuel consumed by their 37 purse seiners, based along the U S G u l f coast, during the 1998 and 1999 seasons (Table 27). ' Over the 1990's, Omega Protein Limited's fleet of 50 purse seiners, based out of five ports on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, landed an average of slightly over a half a million tonnes annually and accounted for about two thirds of all US menhaden landings. 88 Table 27. Summary of Catch and Fuel Consumed by Omega Protein's Gulf Menhaden Fleet: 1998 & 1999 No. of Catch Total Diesel Fuel Energy Intensity Year Home Port Vessels (tonnes) Consumption (litres) (litres/tonne) I (MJ/tonne) 1998 Moss Point 9 82,824 4,239,854 51 1,845 1998 Morgan City 6 64,171 2,468,986 38 1,386 1998 Cameron 12 100,204 4,173,174 42 1,501 1998 Abbeville 10 93,866 4,179,110 45 1,604 1999 Moss Point 9 108,539 4,028,643 37 1,338 1999 Morgan City 7 94,637 3,060,888 32 1,166 1999 Cameron 11 139,415 4,661,038 33 1,205 1999 Abbeville 11 149,405 4,866,749 33 1,174 Totals/Average: 833,062 31,678,442 38 1,370 Data provided by M r . M i k e Wi lson , V P Mar ine Operations, O m e g a Protein L imi ted , pers. c o m m . , January, 2000. From the data provided by Omega Protein, the average direct fuel energy inputs to the G u l f o f Mex ico menhaden fishery is 1,370 MJ/tonne o f fish landed (Table 27). Therefore, a total o f 1,644 M J of diesel fuel are required to harvest the 1,200 kg o f menhaden which must be caught to supply the menhaden o i l component o f the salmon feed modelled. I did not undertake a detailed analysis o f the indirect energy inputs associated with building and maintaining a typical menhaden purse seiner. Instead, based on the results o f other fisheries energy analyses (Rochereau 1976, Leach 1976, Rawitscher 1978, Lorentzen 1978, and my analysis in Chapter 5 o f the energy inputs to salmon fishing vessels) I have conservatively estimated that the indirect energy required to build and maintain the menhaden fishing vessels is equivalent to 10% of their direct fuel energy inputs. This amounts to approximately 140 MJ/tonne, o f which I have assumed 15% would be electricity while the remainder would be derived from natural gas. On this basis, a total 25 M J o f electricity and 143 M J o f natural gas are needed to produce and maintain the vessels used to harvest the 1,200 kg o f menhaden destined for fish o i l . Combining the direct and indirect energy inputs to both the Brit ish Columbia herring fishery and the G u l f menhaden fishery I estimated that a total o f 10,565 M J o f diesel fuel, 296 M J o f electricity and 1,554 M J o f natural gas are required to provide the 3,000 kg o f wet fish for the fish o i l inputs to salmon feed. Energy to Process Raw Fish to Fish Meal and Oil Many factors can influence the amount o f energy required to process a given quantity o f raw fish into meal and o i l . These include the type o f reduction process used and, in particular, the type o f dryer 8 9 employed 1 4 7 , the capacity o f the plant 1 4 8 , the age o f the plant's equipment, and the degree to which waste heat is recovered within the plant for use in pre-heating the raw fish and in multiple-effect stickwater evaporators ( F A O , Fisheries Industry Divis ion 1986). A s no energy use data were available from plants that currently supply the specific fish meal and o i l inputs being modelled, I had to rely on published energy use estimates and on data provided by a supplier o f fish meal reduction plant equipment (Table 28). Table 28. Summary of Estimates of Energy Inputs to the Reduction of Fish to Fish Meal and Oil Total direct Total direct Plant capacity energy input energy input (wet tonnes/day) Meal Type (MJ/wet tonne) (MJ/tonne meal) Comments Source n/a n/a 10,500 a n/a n/a 2,122 b n/a n/a 21,740 c n/a n/a 2,245 d 10 to 60 whole meal 2,370 no waste heat recovery e 100 to 200 whole meal 2,159 no waste heat recovery e 250 to 500 whole meal 2,070 no waste heat recovery e over 500 whole meal 1,944 no waste heat recovery e 100 to 200 whole meal 1,914 waste heat recovered e 250 to 500 whole meal 1,784 waste heat recovered e over 500 whole meal 1,658 waste heat recovered e n/a whole meal 2,600 f 60 whole meal 3,305 Con-Kix air dryer g 8 150 whole meal 2,949 Con-Kix air dryer Source notes: a. Edwardson 1976 as reported in Searle and Windsor 1981. b. Pitcher 1977. c. Rawitscher 1978. d. Lorentzen 1978. e. F A O , Fishery Industries Division 1986. f. Canadian Fishery Consultants Limited 1994. g. Mr. Chris Pook, regional manager, Alpha Laval Inc. pers. comm. November, 1997. While the direct energy inputs to process fish into fish meal and o i l vary from approximately 1,660 M J to 3,300 M J per tonne o f wet fish processed (Table 2 8 ) 1 4 9 , for the purposes o f the current model, I chose to use the lowest, most conservative energy input value o f 1,660 M J 1 5 0 per tonne 1 5 1 . At least five different types of dryers are currently in use in different fish meal plants, direct hot air or "flame" dryers, direct fired rotary dryers, indirect steam dryers, indirect tube dryers and indirect hot air dryers. (FAO Fishery Industry Division 1986). ! The capacity of fish meal and oil plants can vary from under 10 wet tonnes of fish processed per day to over 3600 wet tonnes of fish per day (FAO Fishery Industry Division 1986). ' Interestingly, the two highest energy input values are associated with the most modern fish meal plants for which data were available. The Con-Kix fish reduction plant by Alpha Laval, which uses a hot air dryer, is designed specifically to produce very high quality fish meals and oil. (Mr. Chris Pook, Alpha Laval Inc., pers. comm., November, 1997). ' This is the energy input value associated with a large capacity reduction plant operating with full waste heat recovery as described by the F A O , Fishery Industries Division (1986). 90 Therefore, a total o f 4,980 M J o f energy is required to process 3,000 kg o f wet fish represented by the fish o i l components in an average tonne o f salmon feed. O f this, approximately 95%, or 4,730 M J , is derived directly from fossil fuels 1 5 2 , while the remaining 5%, or 250 M J is represented by electricity 1 5 3 . Final ly, it is assumed that the fossil energy inputs are entirely natural gas der ived 1 5 4 . Energy to Transport Fish Meal and Oil to Vancouver Average energy consumption data associated with transporting freight by truck, rail and ship were unavailable for Canada and for the international carriage o f freight by ships. I therefore relied on 1996 average American transportation energy input values for hauling freight by ship, train and transport truck as reported in the 18th edition o f the Transportation Energy Data Book (Davis 1998). Table 29 summarises the estimated transportation distances required to haul fish meal and o i l inputs, the assumed modes o f transport, average energy intensities for the various modes o f transport, and the final transportation energy inputs required to deliver the four fish meal and o i l inputs to the E W O S plant in Surrey, Brit ish Columbia. Table 29. Summary of Transportation Distance, Mode and Energy Input for the Fish Meal and Oil Components of Salmon Feed Assumed Average Mass Mode of Transport Energy Intensity Transport Component (kg) Transport Distance (km) (KJ/tonne-km)a Energy (MJ) S. American fish meal 323 Ship 10,000" 298 963 B.C. herring meal 57 Truck 20 2,015 2 G. of Mexico menhaden oil 144 Rail 4,600° 266 176 B.C. mixed fish oil 36 Truck 20 2,015 1 Total: 1,142 Notes: a. A l l energy intensity values from Davis 1998. b. Estimated distance to transport South American fish meal based on the distance from Antofagasta, Chile to Vancouver, Canada, a straight line distance of 9,580 km as calculated on the web site http://www.indo.com/distance c. Estimated distance to transport Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil based on the railroad mileage from New Orleans, Louisiana to Seattle, Washington as calculated from the web site http://mv.uprr.com/pub/mileage/index.cfin 1 5 1 1 believe that employing this value will underestimate the actual processing energy inputs associated with producing the fish meals and oils used because the high quality fish meals and oils demanded by the salmon feed industry are often produced using reduction technologies which are not the most energy efficient available. (Mr. Richard Carrol of Atlas-Stord, pers. comm., March, 1998; Mr. Chris Pook, Alpha Laval Inc., pers. comm., November, 1997). 1 5 2 Used primarily to raise steam and in some cases to provide direct heating to dryers. 1 5 3 The 95:5 ratio of fossil fuel energy to electrical energy inputs associated with fish reduction plants is from F A O , Fisheries Industries Division 1986. 1 5 4 Natural gas is the primary fuel used in the West Coast Reduction plant in Vancouver (Mr. Russ Mitchellson, West Coast Reductions Ltd. pers comm. 1997) and in the plants that provide the Gulf of Mexico menhaden oil. However, the majority of Chilean and Peruvian fish reduction plants use heavy fuel oil (Mr. Tony Bimbo, fish reduction industry consultant, pers. comm., March, 1998). 91 A total o f 1,142 M J o f fuel are required to transport the fish meal and o i l components o f an average tonne o f salmon feed from their sources to the E W O S plant. Although ships and trains may burn heavier fuel oils, for simplicity, I have assumed that all of the transportation energy is derived from diesel fuel for the purposes o f modelling C 0 2 emissions. Energy Inputs to Livestock Rearing and By-Product Processing and Transportation Energy to Rear Chicken Biomass for By-Product Meals N o data were available on the energy inputs associated with chicken rearing in Canada. However, Ostrander (1980) provides a detailed breakdown of the average direct and indirect energy requirements o f broiler chicken production in northern U S states for 1974 (Table 30). Table 30. Average Direct and Indirect Industrial Energy Inputs, Excluding Feed, to Chicken Production Energy input per Proportion of the tonne of chicken Total Energy Input Inputs produced (MJ) a Required Buildings 4,940 35.3% Equipment 206 1.5% Propane of brooding 4,295 30.7% Electricity 2,300 16.4% Transportation 2,244 16.0% Total: 13,985 Notes: a. A l l values are recalculated from data presented by Ostrander (1980) based on the assumption that at slaughter an average broiler weighs 1.59 kg (3.5 lb.). From the data presented in Ostrander (1980), I estimated that the production o f a tonne o f chicken requires a total o f 13,985 M J o f energy for non-feed related purposes (Table 30). Therefore, approximately 8,000 M J o f energy is required to rear the 572 kg o f chicken biomass (Table 22) represented by the three livestock by-product meal inputs to an average tonne o f salmon feed. O f this, 1,315 M J is derived from electricity 1 5 5 , and 2,457 M J is derived from natural gas for brooding 1 5 6 . I assume that the remaining 4,228 M J required for buildings, equipment and transportation is derived from diesel fuel. Calculated by multiplying 8,000 M J by 0.164, the electrical energy proportion of the total energy inputs in Table 30. Calculated by multiplying 8,000 M J by 0.307, the brooding energy proportion of the total energy inputs in Table 30. 92 Energy to Process Livestock By-Products into Meals Relatively little published information was found regarding the energy inputs associated with processing livestock by-products into their respective meals. A s part o f her review o f the process technologies used to produce blood meal, Fernando (1992) uses a graph to illustrate the range o f energy inputs required to evaporate water from blood for several technologies (Fernando 1992, p. 88). In order to err on the conservative side, I chose to use the mid-range energy input value, 2.8 M J / k g o f water evaporated, associated with the most energy efficient process for which she provides data. A s approximately 332 kg o f water must be evaporated from whole blood in order to yield 40 kg o f blood meal (Table 22), approximately 930 M J o f energy is required for processing the blood meal component o f an average tonne o f salmon feed. N o published estimates were found o f the energy required to process meat scraps and feathers into their respective meals. I therefore applied the same unit process energy input o f 1,660 MJ/wet tonne that was used to model the energy required to reduce raw fish to fish meal and o i l 1 5 7 . Therefore, 332 M J o f energy is required to process the 160 kg o f meat and scraps and 40 kg o f raw feathers to yield the required quantities o f their respective meals in an average tonne of salmon feed. A s Fernando (1992) did not provide information regarding the sources o f primary energy used to process blood, I have assumed that the energy inputs to livestock by-product processing mirror the primary energy breakdown associated with fish meal processing. Therefore, o f the 1,262 M J total energy required to process by-products, I assume that 95%, or about 1,200 M J is derived from natural gas and the remaining 5% ,or 62 M J , is electrical energy. Energy to Transport By-Products and the Resulting Meals I assumed that the entire 572 wet weight kg o f livestock by-products required for by-product meals are sourced in the Fraser Val ley and are transported 50 km by truck to the West Coast Reduction Ltd . plant in downtown Vancouver for processing. I also assumed that the resulting 120 kg o f meal are transported by truck a distance o f 20 km from the reduction plant to E W O S ' feed mi l l in Surrey. Given an energy intensity o f 2,015 kJ/tonne-km for truck transport (Davis 1998), a total o f 62 M J o f diesel fuel is required to transport the raw livestock by-products and the resulting meal components o f an average tonne o f salmon feed. I believe that this is a reasonable assumption given that the average moisture content and consistency of scrap meat is similar to raw fish and fish wastes. It may, however, underestimate the energy requirements associated with feather meal 93 Energy to Harvest, Process and Transport the Direct and Indirect Crop Inputs Energy to Produce/Harvest Agricultural Crops A great many energy analyses o f agricultural systems have been conducted since the first o i l price shock o f 1973. For the purposes o f this work, however, I only reviewed analyses which assessed one or more o f the crops incorporated into salmon feed, namely wheat, grain corn, canola and soybeans. After reviewing seven works that provide estimates o f the energy inputs associated with wheat production (Briggle 1980, Stout et al. 1984, Zentner et al. 1989, Smith et al. 1995, Coxworth et al. 1996, Borjesson 1996, Sonntag 1997), six that provide estimates o f the energy inputs to corn production (Pimentel and Terhune 1977, Smil , et al. 1983, Stout et al. 1984, Pimentel et al. 1985, Swanton et al. 1996, Coxworth et al. 1996), five that provide estimates o f the energy inputs to soybean production (Scott and Krummel 1980, Stout et al. 1984, Ahmed et al. 1994, Swanton et al. 1996, Coxworth et al. 1996), and two that provide estimates o f the energy inputs to canola/rape seed production (Borjesson 1996, Sonntag 1997), I decided to use the estimates o f the energy inputs to wheat 1 5 8 , grain corn and soybean production from Coxworth et al. (1996) because: • the data from which their estimates are based reflect typical contemporary (1990's) Canadian agricultural productivities and practices for the three crops of interest, • their estimates, while encompassing the same suite o f inputs 1 5 9 as most contemporary agricultural energy analyses, tended to be on the conservative (low) side o f other recent estimates, and • by using a single source reference for three o f the four crops o f interest, variation that can result from differences in the assumptions and methodology used is minimised. A s Coxworth et a/'s work did not include an estimate o f the energy inputs associated with canola production, I relied on the results o f a Canadian speciality crop management study (Sonntag 1997) 1 6 0 . processing, as raw feathers must first be cooked under pressure with steam for up to an hour, in order to hydrolyse the keratin present in raw feathers, before they are dried to their original moisture content (Polin 1992). The energy input values which I use reflect a continuous wheat cropping system. ' The analysis by Coxworth et al. (1996) included the energy inputs associated with seed, fuel for all machinery including trucks engaged in farm related activities, machinery manufacture, depreciation and repair, fertilizers, and pesticides. 1 The data presented in Sonntag (1997) is based on a detailed study undertaken in Saskatchewan from 1992 to 1995 which examined the effects of variations of crop rotation and tillage method on the economics and energy performance of canaryseed, canola, lentil, mustard, peas and wheat. 94 Table 31 summarises the unit and total energy input estimates for the four direct crop components o f salmon feed, along with an estimate o f the energy inputs to produce the grain corn required for livestock by-product meal production. Table 31. Estimates of Unit and Total Industrial Energy Requirements to Produce and Harvest the Direct and Indirect Crop Inputs to Salmon Feed Direct and indirect crop inputs to salmon feed Quantity required per tonne of salmon feed (kg) Unit Energy Inputs (MJ/tonne harvested) Energy Inputs (MJ) Wheat 150 4,120a 618 Corn (for gluten meal) 80 3,180 b 254 Soybean (for meal) 40 l ,870 b 75 Canola (for meal) 40 6,370c 255 Grain corn used as fodder to 3,089 3,180 b 9,823 sustain by-product meal inputs Notes: a. Unit energy input value for continuous wheat cultivation from Coxworth et al. 1996, Table 1, p. 168. b. Unit energy input values for grain corn and soybeans from Coxworth et al. 1996, Table 4, p. 171. c. Unit energy input value for canola calculated from data presented in Sonntag 1997, Table 6, p. 13, Table 24, p. 32 and Table 28, p. 34. A total o f 1,202 M J o f energy is required to produce the quantities o f grain and oilseed-derived feedstuffs that are directly incorporated into an average tonne o f salmon feed. A n additional 9,823 M J o f energy is needed to produce the grain corn required to grow the livestock by-product meal inputs to an average tonne o f salmon feed (Table 31). Although several forms o f industrial energy are used in crop production, to simplify the analysis, I assumed that al l o f it is derived from diesel fuel. Energy to Process Oilseed and Grain Corn into Protein Meals A s the wheat component o f the salmon diet modelled is composed o f unprocessed whole grains, and for reasons discussed above I have assumed that the fodder required to sustain the livestock by-product meal components is derived entirely from unprocessed grain corn, it was only necessary to estimate the energy required to process 80 kg o f corn gluten meal, 40 kg o f soybean meal, and 40 kg of canola mea l 1 6 1 . Under the partitioning problem accounting convention used throughout the analysis (that energy inputs follow mass o f outputs) it was not necessary to estimate the whole grain or oilseed mass that must be processed to yield the quantities o f the three protein meals. I simply estimated the energy to process 80 kg o f corn, 40 kg o f canola and 40 kg o f soybeans. For a description ofthe com wet milling process from which corn gluten meal results, see Com Refiners Association 1989. For a description of various soybean processing options and products see Considine and Considine 1982. For a description ofthe canola milling process that yields canola meal see Hickling 1993. 9 5 Once again, there was a paucity o f published data on the energy associated with processing grains and oilseeds into their various component products. Fortunately, one publication (Ahmed et al. 1994) provided a detailed breakdown of the energy inputs to contemporary American soybean processing using conventional solvent extraction technology (Table 32). Table 32. Estimated Average Energy Inputs to Soybean Processing using Solvent Extraction Industry Average Energy Input Input (MJ/tonne of seed)3 Electricity 120 Fuel to raise steam 1,300 Solvent lossb 86 Total: 1,506 Notes: a. A l l energy input values have been recalculated from data in Ahmed et al. 1994, Table 4, p. 7. b. Conventional oilseed processing uses n-hexane as a solvent to maximize the extraction of the oil fraction of the seed. As n-hexane is highly volatile, it is inevitable that some is lost as part of the extraction process. Ahmed et al. (1994) estimate that on average the equivalent of approximately 2.9 litres of hexane is lost per tonne of oilseed processed. In assigning an energy value to the loss of hexane I have simply used its straight fuel energy value of approximately 29.7 MJ/1 (Ahmed et al. 1994). From the data presented by Ahmed et al. (1994), a total o f 1,506 M J o f energy is required to process a tonne o f soybeans into its meal and o i l fractions. O f this total, 120 M J , or approximately 8%, is electricity and I made the conservative simplifying assumption that all o f the remaining energy needed is derived from natural gas for the purposes o f modelling greenhouse gas emissions 1 6 2 . A s no data were available regarding the energy inputs to canola seed processing and corn wet mil l ing, I assumed that the unit energy inputs to these processes are the same as those for soybean processing. Therefore, a total o f 240 M J is required to process the 80 kg o f corn and 40 kg o f both canola and soybeans into their respective meals. O f this, approximately 19 M J is electricity while the remainder is assumed to be derived from natural gas. Energy to Transport Agricultural Inputs Table 33 summarises the estimates o f the energy to transport the quantities o f the three plant protein meals, the whole grain wheat and the grain corn required as fodder to produce the livestock by-: While the energy associated with hexane losses during the extraction process are clearly not derived from natural gas, it is a reasonable assumption that natural gas is used as the fuel to raise steam. As the energy input associated with raising steam represents the vast majority of the non-electrical energy inputs to soybean processing, I have simplified the analysis by assuming that all non-electrical energy inputs are natural gas derived. 96 product meals, from their respective major production regions in Canada to the Lower Mainland region o f Brit ish Co lumbia 1 6 3 . Table 33. Estimates of the Transportation Energy Requiredfor Direct and Indirect Crop Inputs to an Average Tonne of Salmon Feed Mass to Assumed Transportation Transportation transport Source Transport Energy Intensity Energy Required Input (kg) Region" Distance (km) (kJ/t-km)b (MJ) Wheat 150 Alberta 1,000 266 40 Canola meal 40 Alberta 1,000 266 11 Corn gluten meal 80 Manitoba 2,300 266 49 Soybean meal 40 Manitoba 2,300 266 24 Grain corn for fodder 3,089 Manitoba 2,300 266 1,890 Total: 2,014 Notes: a. The closest major Canadian production region for wheat and canola was assumed to be Alberta while for com and soybeans, it was assumed to be Manitoba. b. It was assumed that all of the agricultural inputs were transported by rail from their source region to the Lower mainland of British Columbia. The average energy intensity value of 266 kJ/t-km for transporting freight by rail was taken from Davis 1998. A total o f 2,014 M J o f diesel fuel derived energy is needed to transport the direct and indirect crop inputs per tonne o f salmon feed produced (Table 33). Energy to Transport Finished Salmon Feeds The final energy input associated with providing salmon feed that I quantified is that required to transport the finished feed from the feed mi l l to its location o f final use. The modes o f transportation used to deliver feed and the transport distances can vary widely. In instances where the hatchery or net-cage site is directly accessible by road, feed is often moved exclusively by truck. However, when there is no road access, or i f truck transportation is prohibitively expensive, feed is delivered by barge or other vessel from some central location with good road access. To simplify the estimation o f the transport energy, I assumed that the average tonne is hauled by truck 175 km, the approximate road distance from the feed mills in the Lower Mainland to Campbell River, the community that serves a large portion of the Brit ish Columbia salmon farming industry. Using an average energy intensity value o f 2,015 kJ/tonne-km for truck transportation (Davis 1998), approximately 353 M J o f diesel fuel energy is needed to transport a tonne o f salmon feed to its location o f final use. 11 did not estimate the energy required to transport the raw grain corn, canola and soybeans which go into the three plant protein meal components as I assumed that the processing mills are located in close proximity to the agricultural areas that provide the raw grain corn and oilseeds. 97 Summary of the Ecosystem Support and Total Energy Inputs to Supply a Tonne of Salmon Feed From the analysis above, an average tonne o f salmon feed used by the intensive salmon culture industry in Bri t ish Columbia requires the dedicated support o f approximately: • 5.6 ha o f marine ecosystem to produce o f fish-derived components, • 0.456 ha o f agricultural ecosystem to produce livestock byproduct meal-derived components, and • 0.127 ha o f agricultural ecosystem to produce crop-derived components. Table 34 summarises the direct and indirect industrial energy inputs required to harvest, process, and transport a tonne o f salmon feed and its components. It also provides an estimate o f the total energy inputs, expressed in terms o f fossil fuel equivalents, along with estimates o f the total resulting greenhouse gas emissions. 98 Table 34. Direct and Indirect Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Salmon Feed and Resulting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Total Energy Inputs Diesel Fuel Natural Electricity in Fossil Fuel Process (MJ) Gas (MJ) (MJ) Equivalents (MJ) a Indirect Inputs - Direct fuel input to fish capture 10,565 10,565 - Indirect inputs to fish capture 1,554 296 2,400 - Fish reduction 4,730 250 5,444 - Fish meal/oil transport 1,142 1,131 - Chicken rearing 4,228 2,457 1,315 10,442 - By-product processing 1,200 62 1,377 - By-product meal transport 62 62 - Production of direct crop inputs 1,202 1,202 - Production of corn for fodder 9,823 9,823 - Crop processing 221 19 275 - Crop transport 2,014 2,014 Direct Inputs - Salmon feed milling 1,534 507 2,983 - Salmon feed transport 353 353 Total (MJ): 29,389 11,696 2,449 48,082 G H G emission intensities 0.0879 0.0579 0.0267 Total Greenhouse (kg C 0 2 equiv./MJ)b: Gas Emissions GHG emissions (kg C0 2 equiv.): 2,583 677 65 3,325 Notes: a. Total energy inputs, expressed in terms of fossil fuel equivalents are calculated by assuming a 35% conversion efficiency from fossil fuels to electrical energy, b. Greenhouse gas emission intensity values from Table 3. A n average tonne o f salmon feed used by the intensive salmon culture industry in Brit ish Columbia requires the fossil fuel equivalent energy input o f approximately 48,100 M J o f industrial energy (Table 34). The greenhouse gas emissions that result from the various forms o f energy inputs amount to the equivalent o f 3,300 kg o f C 0 2 per tonne of salmon feed produced (Table 34). Quantifying the Material Inputs and Associated Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Build and Maintain Saltwater Grow-Out Site Infrastructure I did not undertake an exhaustive analysis o f the material, labour and energy inputs to build and maintain a l l forms o f capital infrastructure associated with intensive salmon culture in Brit ish Columbia. I did, however, quantify the material inputs and related embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with building and maintaining marine grow-out site infrastructure. Specifically, I quantified the inputs to build and maintain a galvanised steel cage system with a 99 complete set o f containment and predator nets, anchoring system and an associated floating combination bunkhouse/feedshed building. It is possible to gauge the relative importance o f grow-out site infrastructure by examining the total capital expenditures made by the 13 member companies of the Brit ish Columbia Salmon Farmers Association in 1996 (Table 35). Table 35. Capital Expenditures made by British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association Member Companies in 1996 Forms of Amount Capital Invested in 1996 Nets $3,347,000 Cages $3,750,000 Barges $1,173,000 Boats $1,091,000 Trucks $77,000 Equipment $3,729,000 Buildings $1,627,000 Other $1,579,000 Total $16,373,000 Source: Coopers and Lybrand 1997 In combination, cages, nets and buildings together represent over 50% of the capital expenditures made by the industry in 1996 (Table 35). A variety o f styles, sizes and configurations o f net-cage systems are used by the Brit ish Columbia salmon farming industry. The main structural members o f a cage system may be composed o f steel, aluminium, plastic or wood, depending upon the age, size and type o f cage system being used. However, based on discussions with individuals within the industry, it was determined that a galvanised steel framed system of ten cages, with each cage measuring 30 metres by 30 metres by 20 metres deep could be considered a fairly typical, large-volume system, and one which would likely characterise many new systems that might be built in the foreseeable future. B y modelling the inputs associated with such a relatively large-volume system, the results w i l l tend to err on the conservative side, as the inputs per tonne o f salmon produced decreases with increasing net-cage volume. Other attributes o f the net-cage system modelled included: a predator net surrounding the entire system, bird netting covering all cages, a floating combination feedshed/bunkhouse building, all required floatation and a complete anchoring system. 100 Given the above described characteristics, M r . Doug Louvier, president o f Wavemaster Canada Limited, a fabricator o f galvanised steel net-cage systems in British Columbia, provided detailed data on the physical quantities o f material inputs to build such a system, along with estimates o f the expected working life o f the various components. The data provided by M r . Louvier, along with the analysis o f the input materials required to build and maintain a marine grow-out site per tonne o f salmon produced appears in Appendix H . From the analysis in Appendix H , Table 36 presents the input quantities o f steel, zinc, plastics, concrete and wood associated with the production o f a tonne o f Atlantic and chinook salmon along with the total "embodied" energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Table 36. Material Inputs and Associated Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Build and Maintain Marine Grow-Out Site Infrastructure per tonne of Salmon Produced Inputs in kg/tonne Energy Embodied energy in GHG Emission GHG emissions/tonne salmon produced Intensities MJ per tonne salmon Intensities salmon (kg C0 2 equiv.) Inputs Atlantics Chinook (MJ/kg)a Atlantics Chinook (kg C0 2 eq./kg)b Atlantics Chinook Steel 4.5 7.8 25 113 196 2.5 11 20 Zinc 0.26 0.44 25 6 11 2.5 1 1 All plastics 9.9 17.1 75 739 1,281 3.0 30 51 Concrete 9.9 17.1 1 10 17 0.15 1 3 Wood 1.1 1.9 n/a n/a Totals: 869 1,505 43 75 Notes: a. Energy intensities from Table 9. b. Greenhouse gas emission intensities from Table 9. For each tonne o f Atlantic salmon produced by the contemporary salmon farming industry in Bri t ish Columbia, approximately 869 M J o f energy is "embodied" in the material inputs to build and maintain marine grow-out infrastructure and the equivalent o f approximately 43 kg o f CO2 were released to provide these materials. Similarly, for each tonne o f chinook salmon produced, approximately 1,505 M J o f energy is embodied in the material inputs and the equivalent o f 75 kg o f C 0 2 were released to provide those inputs. 101 Chapter 5: Analysis of the Commercial Salmon Fishery The ecological footprint analysis o f the commercial salmon fishery in Brit ish Columbia is comprised o f six components. I evaluated the ecosystem support area required to sustain: 1. the prey consumed by an average population o f wi ld foraging salmon which w i l l yield one tonne o f harvested adults, 2. the direct operating material, labour and energy inputs to the artificial production o f juvenile chinook and coho salmon in hatcheries for release into the wi ld , 3. the fuel consumed directly in the process o f catching a tonne o f salmon for each o f the three fishing gears used, 4. the labour required directly in the process o f catching a tonne o f salmon for each o f the three fishing gears used, 5. the material and energy inputs associated with providing the fishing gear "consumed" per tonne o f salmon landed for each gear type, and 6. the material, labour and energy inputs associated with building and maintaining the capital infrastructure o f the fishing vessels themselves, per tonne o f salmon landed for each o f the three fishing gears. The first component o f the analysis was undertaken on a species-specific basis for each o f the five salmon species caught by the commercial fleet. The second component was also undertaken on a species-specific basis but only for chinook and coho salmon 1 6 4 . A different analytical approach was necessary for the last four components listed above in that at first instance, I had to determine the inputs to land a generic tonne o f salmon on a gear-specific basis. This is because al l three gear sectors of the Brit ish Columbia salmon fleet harvest al l five species of salmon to a greater or lesser extent. However, by using the proportion o f the catch o f each species contributed by each gear sector, I converted gear-dependent inputs into inputs on a species-specific basis. ' The rationale for limiting the analysis to the inputs associated with the artificial production of chinook and coho smolts is presented as part of the analysis below of the inputs to artificial enhancement. 102 Quantifying the Ecosystem Support Area to Grow a Tonne of Salmon Foraging in the Wild In quantifying the area o f ecosystem required to grow a tonne o f each o f the five species o f Pacific salmon when foraging in the wi ld , I made three major simplifying assumptions. First, while hundreds of distinct stocks contribute to the British Columbia commercial salmon fishery, I modelled only the ecosystem support required to grow an "average" tonne o f chinook, coho, sockeye, chum and pink salmon. Second, I assumed that the food required to grow an average tonne o f salmon is derived exclusively from marine ecosystems. Although all Pacific salmon begin life in freshwater, for those salmon that do migrate to the ocean 1 6 5 and survive to a harvestable size, over 99% of their total biomass is acquired while foraging in marine ecosystems. This can be illustrated using coho salmon, a species that tends to have, on average, one o f the longest periods o f freshwater residence o f the five Pacific salmon species native to Brit ish Columbia and typically achieves a relatively large average size upon smoltification. I f an average coho weighs 20 grams when leaving fresh water 1 6 6 , and upon harvesting has a mass o f 2,700 grams 1 6 7 , 99.3% of its final mass has been derived from marine ecosystems. Final ly, I also assumed that the basic physiological requirements, and hence the life-cycle energy budgets o f chinook, coho, chum and pink salmon mirror that o f sockeye salmon. This assumption was necessary because almost.all o f the available literature on the bioenergetics o f Pacific salmon is derived from studies o f sockeye salmon. To maintain parallelism with the analysis o f the feed inputs required to yield a tonne o f farmed salmon, the first step in this analysis was to estimate the quantity o f prey that an average population o f Pacific salmon would consume in order to yield a harvestable tonne o f salmon. In other words, what is the average population growth efficiency o f Pacific salmon, taking into account the consumption by all members of the population regardless o f whether they reach maturity. Fortunately, Brett (1986) generated such an estimate for a typical w i l d population o f Babine Lake sockeye based upon his earlier detailed model o f the life-cycle energetics o f a typical individual 4-' Note some populations of Pacific salmon remain in freshwater throughout their life. The most prominent example of this life history pattern in British Columbia is provided by the kokanee salmon, the freshwater resident form of the sockeye salmon. ' While coho smolts can range widely in size both within a given population and between populations (see Sandercock 1991), an average of 20 grams per smolt is reasonable. Using data on the total tonnage and number of coho landed by the entire British Columbia commercial fleet for the ten years from 1985 to 1994,1 have calculated that the average coho weighs approximately 2.69 kg. 103 year-old Babine Lake sockeye (Brett 1983). He estimated that a typical cohort o f Babine Lake sockeye experience a population growth efficiency o f 22.8%, just 3.5% lower than the growth efficiency experienced by an individual fish (Brett 1986). In estimating the ecosystem area required to grow a tonne o f salmon foraging in the wi ld , I applied Brett's population growth efficiency o f 22.8% to chinook, coho, chum and pink salmon in addition to sockeye salmon. A s a result, a total o f 4,386 kg o f prey (wet weight) is consumed by the average population o f salmon that ultimately yields one harvestable tonne 1 6 8 . The next step in the analysis was to estimate the primary productivity required to sustain the production o f 4,386 kg o f prey. This was done using the analytical approach outlined in Equation 1, for each o f the five species o f salmon, taking into account interspecific differences in the average trophic level o f their respective prey. The average trophic level o f the prey o f the five salmon species was estimated using published stomach content analyses reflecting a range o f marine life stages for each species, drawn from several locations around the north Pacific basin. For each diet composition analysis used, a mean trophic level for the diet as a whole was estimated by assigning trophic level values, to one decimal place, to each o f the major prey types encountered. Finally, for each species o f salmon, I averaged the results o f al l o f the diet composition trophic level means to produce an estimate o f their overall prey base trophic level. Details o f the stomach content analyses used and the calculation o f the mean trophic level o f salmon prey appear in Appendix I. From the trophic level estimates generated in Appendix I, Table 37 presents the primary productivity required to sustain the production o f a harvested tonne o f each species o f Pacific salmon. Table 37. Primary Productivity Required to Yield One Harvested Tonne of Pink, Chum, Sockeye, Coho and Chinook Salmon Salmon species Wet weight mass of prey required (kg) Mean Trophic Level of Prey a Primary Productivity Required (kg C ) b Pink 4,386 2.50 15,411 Chum 4,386 2.51 15,770 Sockeye 4,386 2.54 16,898 Coho 4,386 2.81 31,465 Chinook 4,386 2.90 38,710 Notes: a. Mean trophic level of prey values are estimated in Appendix I b. Primary productivity required was estimated using Equation 1. ! This was calculated by dividing 1000 kg of harvested salmon by 0.228, the population growth efficiency estimated by Brett (1986). 104 Finally, the marine ecological footprint associated with growing a tonne o f each o f the five salmon species was calculated by dividing the estimates o f primary productivity required (Table 37) by appropriate net primary productivity values. A s before, Longhurst et al. (1995) was used to estimate average net primary productivity values for the regions o f the north Pacific ocean that conform most closely to the areas utilised by Pacific salmon originating from Brit ish Columbia and the Pacific Northwest (Table 38) 1 6 9 . Table 38. Ecological Footprint to Sustain the Production of Prey Consumed by One Tonne of Pink, Chum, Sockeye, Coho and Chinook Salmon Salmon species PPR (kgC) Net primary productivity (g C/m2/year) Marine Ecosystem Support Area (ha) Pink 15,411 341 a 4.5 Chum 15,770 341 a 4.6 Sockeye 16,898 341 a 5.0 Coho 31,465 341 a 9.2 Chinook 38,710 388b 10 Notes: a. The stocks of pink, chum, sockeye and coho salmon that are most likely to be harvested by commercial fishers in British Columbia originate primarily from British Columbian and Pacific Northwest rivers. These stocks utilise coastal and offshore portions of the northeast Pacific ocean (see Burgner 1991, Heard 1991, Salo 1991, Sandercock 1991 and Hart 1973). These areas conform most closely with Longhurst et al.'s (1995) California Upwelling Coastal province, Alaska Downwelling Coastal province, East Pacific Subarctic Gyre province (also known as the Alaskan Gyre), and Offshore California Current province. Longhurst et al.'s estimates of the net primary productivity for each of these four provinces is 388, 661, 199, and 117 g C/m2/year, respectively. I have used the average of these four net primary productivity values. b. Chinook stocks that are most likely to be harvested by commercial fishers in British Columbia originate primarily in British Columbian and Pacific Northwest rivers. The majority of chinook stocks from these regions tend to remain on the landward side of the continental shelf margin throughout their time in marine waters (Healey 1991, Hart 1973). These areas conform most closely with Longhurst et al.'s (1995) California Upwelling Coastal province, Alaska Downwelling Coastal province, and the Offshore California Current province. Longhurst et al.'s estimates of the net primary productivity for these three regions is 388, 661, and 117 g C/m2/year respectively. I have used an average of these three net primary productivity values in the current model. Quantifying the Direct Material, Labour, and Energy Inputs to the Artificial Rearing of Chinook and Coho Smolts In this analysis, I only quantified the biophysical costs associated with producing juvenile chinook and coho salmon from SEP-operated hatcheries. This decision was based on the belief that the inputs associated with producing salmon in hatcheries are very much greater than the inputs associated with producing them through all other artificial enhancement activities. This was confirmed by an analysis 1 6 9 Relatively few salmon of Asian or Alaskan origin are caught by commercial fisheries in British Columbia. 105 that I undertook o f feed consumption by fish throughout the SEP program (Appendix J). The results indicate that the production o f juvenile chinook and coho in combination account for approximately 84% of the total inputs to al l SEP facilities. Juvenile chum production accounts for about 15% of the inputs and pink and sockeye combined account for only about 1%. A s the vast majority o f SEP produced chinook and coho originate in hatcheries, they became the focus o f this part o f the analysis. Managers o f two SEP hatcheries (Tenderfoot Creek hatchery and Robertson Creek hatchery) were contacted to determine the average operating material, labour and energy inputs associated with juvenile chinook and coho production from their facilities. Tenderfoot Creek hatchery is located on a tributary o f the Cheakamus River in the Squamish River watershed, and produces approximately 1,600,000 chinook, and about 300,000 coho smolts per annum. Robertson Creek hatchery is located on a tributary o f the Stamp River on Vancouver Island and produces approximately 8,370,000 chinook, 890,000 coho, and 125,000 steelhead smolts per year 1 7 0 . Together, these two hatcheries account for approximately 18% of the total annual SEP production o f chinook smolts and about 6% o f the total annual S E P production o f coho smolts. Each hatchery manager was asked to provide the following information regarding their hatchery's operation for a recent representative year: 1. the total number and total mass o f smolts produced o f each species, 2. the types and quantities o f feed used, 3. the amount o f electricity, in k W h , used by the hatchery and an estimate o f the proportion attributable to the production o f the various species produced, 4. the types and quantities o f fossil fuels used for all hatchery-related activities, including fuel to heat buildings, power vehicles, etc., and an estimate o f the proportion attributable to the production o f the various species produced, and 5. the amount o f labour required to run the hatchery, and an estimate o f the proportion attributable to the production o f the various species produced. A summary o f the data provided appears in Appendix K . Table 39 presents the resulting estimates o f the average material, labour and energy inputs associated with producing one mi l l ion chinook and 1 Although I was provided with data on the biophysical inputs associated with steelhead smolt production from the Robertson Creek hatchery, it is not included as part of this research. 106 one mil l ion coho smolts from SEP hatcheries based on the data from the Tenderfoot Creek and Robertson Creek hatcheries. Table 39. Estimated Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs Required to Produce Chinook and Coho Smolts from SEP Hatcheries Inputs Inputs Required to Produce Chinook Smolts Coho Smolts per 106 pieces per tonne per 106 pieces per tonne "Dry" Feed (kg) 3,843 690 19,442 971 Labour (pers-days) 332 60 550 28 Electricity (MJ) 166,439 29,845 2,765,090 138,255 Gasoline (MJ) 26,179 4,694 106,347 5,317 Furnace Oil (MJ) 47,585 8,533 49,843 2,492 Propane (MJ) 9,637 1,728 0 0 Source: see Appendix K . Upon release, coho smolts require much greater inputs o f feed, and energy than do chinook smolts (Table 39). This is largely because coho are typically reared in the hatchery environment for a much longer period o f time, and to a much larger s ize 1 7 1 , than are chinook smolts. A s SEP-origin fish only make up a fraction 1 7 2 o f the total adult salmon population available to commercial fishers and because SEP activities are undertaken to meet a variety o f objectives in addition to producing fish for the commercial fishery 1 7 3 , i t was necessary to convert the data in Table 39 into inputs per tonne o f salmon landed by the commercial fleet. This conversion involved three steps. First, an estimate was made o f the inputs required to support the total average annual production o f chinook and coho smolts from all SEP facilities. This was done by multiplying the inputs per mil l ion smolts released (Table 39) by the average annual total number o f chinook and coho smolts released from SEP facilities. Using data provided by the SEP, I estimate that an average of approximately 57.692 mil l ion chinook and 20.907 mil l ion coho smolts were released annually between 1985 and 1994 (Appendix L ) . Next, the SEP-related inputs to the total average annual commercial harvest o f chinook and coho salmon was calculated by multiplying the total annual inputs to all S E P chinook and coho smolt production by the average proportion o f SEP-origin returning adult chinook and coho that are 1 7 1 For example, the average coho smolt released from the Robertson Creek hatchery weighs approximately 20 grams while the average chinook smolt weighs about 5.5 grams on release. 1 7 2 Of variable size depending on species of salmon, the year, etc. 1 7 3 Other beneficiaries of the Salmon Enhancement Program include the recreational fishery, the aboriginal fishery, and various American fisheries. In addition, the SEP is used to bolster the numbers of some weak or threatened stocks, in effect, meeting a conservation objective. 107 harvested by commercial fishers in Bri t ish Columbia. Again , using data provided by the SEP, I calculated that over the period from 1985 to 1994, 27% of SEP-origin adult chinook and 40% of SEP-origin adult coho were harvested by the B . C . commercial fleet (Appendix L ) . Finally, the SEP-related inputs per average tonne o f commercially caught chinook and coho were estimated by dividing the total SEP inputs to the entire annual commercial harvest o f chinook and coho by the average total annual tonnage o f commercially harvested chinook and coho for the period 1985 to 1994 (Appendix M ) . Table 40 presents the resulting SEP-related feed, labour and energy inputs to artificial chinook and coho smolt production per average tonne o f chinook and coho landed by the commercial fleet. Table 40. SEP-Related Inputs to the Average Commercially Harvested Tonne of Chinook and Coho Salmon Inputs SEP Related Inputs per Tonne of Commercially Harvested Salmon Chinook Coho "Dry" Feed (kg) 11.9 18.8 Labour (pers-days) 1.0 0.53 Electricity (MJ) 514 2,670 Gasoline (MJ) 81 103 Furnace Oil (MJ) 147 48 Propane (MJ) 30 0 Quantifying the Inputs of Fuel, Labour and Gear to Land a Tonne of Commercially Caught Salmon I quantified four inputs associated with the commercial harvest o f salmon from the w i ld for each o f the three fishing gears used (troll, purse seine and gillnet): 1. the fuel consumed directly in the process o f salmon fishing, 2. the direct labour to salmon fishing, 3. the direct material and related indirect energy inputs to fishing gear, and 4. the direct energy, labour and material inputs and associated indirect energy inputs to build and maintain fishing vessels. The first three were quantified using a similar technique and are considered in sequence immediately below. The inputs associated with building and maintaining salmon fishing vessels, however, were quantified using a different technique and, as such, is considered separately. 108 A s mentioned previously, each o f the five species o f salmon are caught, to a greater or lesser extent, by a l l three fishing gears. It was therefore not possible to directly quantify the fuel, labour and gear inputs associated with landing a tonne o f salmon on a species by species basis. I first had to quantify these inputs in terms o f a generic tonne o f salmon landed by each o f the three gears. These were then converted into inputs on a species-specific basis using the share that each gear sector contributes to the average landed tonne o f each species o f salmon as a weighting factor. Appendix M presents the total Bri t ish Columbia commercial catch, and proportion o f the total catch taken by each gear sector for the five species o f salmon, for the ten year period from 1985 to 1994 inclusive. In addition, as the inputs associated with harvesting a given quantity o f fish depends, in part, on stock abundance, which in the case o f salmon can vary markedly from year to year, an estimate o f the average inputs associated with landing a round tonne o f salmon would ideally be based upon an extended time series o f data. The most extensive data set available results from costs and earnings surveys o f the salmon fleet for the years 1985, '88, '91 and ' 94 1 7 4 . These surveys were undertaken by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (previously known as the Department o f Fisheries and Oceans) as a means to assess the financial performance o f the salmon fleet over time. For a randomly selected sample set for each o f up to 50 stratified segments o f the fleet, in-person interviews were conducted to elicit detailed information from skippers or fishing boat owners on a variety o f financial parameters related to their fishing activities 1 7 5 . Amongst other things, the data collected through the surveys included: • total monetary expenditures made while engaged in fishing and related activities for a variety o f fixed and variable costs, including expenditures made on fuel and fishing gear, • gross income earned by the vessel through fishing for each o f the various species for which the vessel is licensed and through other activities, and • crew size and the total number o f weeks that were spent fishing. 1 7 4 In Appendix M , I have calculated the average British Columbia commercial salmon harvest by species and gear type for both the years in which costs and earnings surveys have been conducted (1985, '88, '91, and '94) and for the entire decade from 1985 to 1994. By comparing these averages, it would appears as if the four years for which costs and earnings survey data are available are generally representative of the average British Columbia commercial salmon fishery over the decade. 1 7 5 Detailed descriptions of the methodology employed in surveying the fleet appear in reports prepared by the DPA Group (1988) and Department of Fisheries and Oceans (1992). 109 From the raw survey results, income statements were prepared, either by Fisheries and Oceans staff or by economic analysts contracted to the department, for the entire salmon fleet and for each o f four subsets o f the fleet: the purse seiners, the gillnetters, the trailers and the hybrid gillnet-trollers. These fleet-wide income statements appear in a series o f three reports on the financial performance of the salmon fleet as a whole ( D P A Group 1988, Department o f Fisheries and Oceans 1992, and Gislason; 1997). However, M r . Stuart Kerr o f the Program Planning and Economics Branch o f Fisheries and Oceans Canada, who prepared the second report, and who oversaw the production o f the third report by Gislason (1997), indicated to me that the income statements presented in Gislason's report should be considered the best, or most accurate, to date for al l four survey years (pers. comm., October, 1997). Therefore, I only used data presented in the income statements prepared by Gislason (1997) to estimate the fuel, gear and labour inputs to salmon fishing. In using these income statements, I was faced with two challenges. First, although there are only three gear types employed in salmon fishing (purse seine, gillnet and troll), and all salmon landings are reported in these terms, the income statements are prepared for four fleet subsets: the dedicated seiners, gillnetters, and trailers and the hybrid gillnet-trollers. This last group o f vessels possess licenses and equipment to harvest salmon using either gillnet or trolling methods. In order to incorporate the data for these hybrid vessels into my analysis, and without any hard data regarding the proportions o f this fleet's catch taken when gillnetting or trolling, I simply reapportioned the inputs o f interest to these vessels evenly between the dedicated gillnet fleet and the dedicated troll fleet. The second challenge is that in some cases, the inputs o f interest are reported in a disaggregated form while in other instances, they are reported as aggregates. For example, the income statements for all fleet segments for 1991 and 1994 (Gislason 1997, Appendices C and D) report fuel expenditures and labour inputs specifically in terms o f those incurred while engaged in salmon fishing, herring fishing and other fishing activities. However, the income statements for 1985 and 1988 (Gislason 1997, Appendix A ) only report fuel expenditures and labour inputs on the basis o f a l l activities undertaken by each fleet segment. Similarly, the income statements for al l four survey years only report the expenditures made on fishing gear by each fleet segment in an aggregate form. In other words, gear expenditures are not "broken out" on the basis o f that required to go salmon fishing, herring fishing, etc. In order to not over-estimate the fuel, labour and gear related inputs specifically associated with salmon fishing, it was therefore necessary to estimate a "salmon fishing specific fraction" for each o f 110 the aggregated inputs reported. This was done using the salmon fishing to total fishing income ratio for each fleet segment for each survey year. Quantifying the Direct Fuel Energy Inputs Associated with Harvesting a Tonne of Salmon Apply ing the above described data manipulations to the fuel expenditure data presented in Appendices A , C and D of Gislason (1997), estimates were made o f the total money spent on fuel by the entire Brit ish Columbia commercial seine, gillnet, and troll fleets for the four years in which costs and earnings surveys were conducted (Table 41). Table 41. Total Fuel Expenditures Made While Salmon Fishing by the B.C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and '94 Year Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet3 Troll Fleet3 1985" $6,287,000 $5,842,000 $6,651,000 1988b $4,386,000 $5,355,000 $4,265,000 1991 $4,080,000 $5,095,000 $5,525,000 1994 $4,340,000 $6,615,000 $4,975,000 Source: Gislason 1997, Appendices A , C and D. Notes: a. The estimates of the total fuel expenditures made by the gillnet and troll fleets each includes 50% of the fuel expenditures made by the hybrid gillnet-troll fleet. b. The estimates of the fuel expenditures made while salmon fishing in 1985 and 1988 were made by multiplying the total fuel expenditure for each fleet segment by that fleet segment's salmon fishing income to total fishing income ratio. To convert the fuel expenditure estimates (Table 41) into physical quantities o f fuel consumed it was necessary to estimate the diesel fuel to gasoline use mix ratio for each o f the three fleets. This is because the average unit prices o f commercial diesel fuel and commercial gasoline are quite distinct in most years. The fuel mix ratio for each o f the fleet sectors was calculated from an electronic data file o f the physical characteristics o f each vessel holding a valid salmon license as o f May , 1998 1 7 6 . From this data file, approximately 95% of seiners, 93% of trailers and 62% o f gillnetters used diesel fuel for propulsion, with the remaining vessels in each gear sector using gasoline. Us ing these fuel use proportions and the average fuel prices for commercial diesel and gasoline outlined in Appendix C , I estimated the hybrid or blended fuel prices per litre for the three gear sectors for 1985, '88, '91, and '94 (Table 4 2 ) 1 7 7 . ' This data file was provided to be by Mr. Brian Moore of the Program Planning and Economics Branch of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, May, 1998. It contained the following information for most of the licensed salmon fishing vessels at that time: type of salmon fishing license held (eg. seine, gillnet or troll), gross tonnage of the vessel, net tonnage ofthe vessel, length of vessel, primary hull material, propulsive fuel, year that the vessel was built, and year of re-build (if applicable). ' This of course assumes that the fuel type mix ratios have remained reasonably constant from 1985 to 1997 and that within each gear sector, there is no difference in the average fishing pattern of gasoline and diesel fueled vessels. Ill Table 42. Estimated Average Blended Fuel Price Paid by Seiners, Gillnetters and Troilers in 1985, '88, '91, and '94 Year Estimated Average Blended Fuel Price (cents/litre) Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet Troll Fleet 1985 34.7 35.7 34.8 1988 27.5 28.3 27.5 1991 31.6 33.4 31.7 1994 30.8 31.7 30.9 From the data presented in Table 41, Table 42 and Table M-3 o f Appendix M , I estimated the average number o f litres o f fuel burned per tonne o f salmon landed by each gear sector, for each o f the four years in which costs and earnings surveys were conducted 1 7 8 as wel l as an average o f the four years (Table 43). Table 43. Estimated Average Fuel Consumption, in litres and MJ, per Tonne of Salmon Landed by Seiners, Gillnetters and Trollers Year Blended Fuel Consumption per Tonne of Salmon Landed Seine Fleet (litres) Gillnet Fleet (litres) Troll Fleet (litres) 1985 308 650 808 1988 317 981 868 1991 304 785 735 1994 513 986 935 Average: 361 850 836 Diesel:Gasoline Use Ratio8 95:5 62:38 93:7 Energy Content of Fuel (MJ/l) b 35.85 34.60 35.77 Energy Content of Fuel (MJ) 12,900 29,400 29,900 Notes: a. See text above for an explanation of the diesel fuel to gasoline use ratios for each of the gear sectors. b. The average energy content of the fuel burned by each gear sector was estimated by taking a weighted average of 36.04 MJ/1 (the energy content of diesel fuel) and 32.04 MJ/1 (the energy content of gasoline) using the diesel to gasoline use ratios (fuel energy content data from Rose and Cooper 1977). On average, purse sieners consume approximately 360 litres o f fuel, gillnetters approximately 850 litres o f fuel, and trollers approximately 840 litres of fuel per tonne o f salmon landed (Table 43). In energetic terms, these fuel inputs equate to approximately 12,900 M J , 29,400 M J and 29,900 M J per tonne o f salmon landed by seiners, gillnetters and trollers respectively (Table 43). 1 This was done by first dividing the estimated total expenditure on fuel while salmon fishing (from Table 41) by the average price of blended fuel (from Table 42) for each gear sector in each survey year. This yielded an estimate of the total number of litres of fuel consumed while salmon fishing by each sector in each of the four years. These values were then divided by the corresponding total tonnage of salmon landed as reported in Table M-3 of Appendix M. 112 The final step in this part o f the analysis entailed converting the inputs per tonne o f salmon landed by each gear sector into average inputs on a species-specific basis, and for al l salmon combined. This was done using the average proportion that each gear sector contributes to an average tonne o f chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon landed in British Columbia for the years 1985, '88, '91 and '94 (see Appendix M ) as the weighting factor (Table 44) 1 7 9 . Table 44. Average Fuel Consumption per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C. Species of Salmon Average Fuel Consumption per Tonne of Salmon Landed litres M J Chinook 800 28,500 Coho 790 28,100 Sockeye 650 22,800 Chum 560 19,600 Pink 510 18,000 Average of all salmon 600 21,200 Although the fuel inputs per tonne o f salmon landed are a combination o f diesel fuel and gasoline, I simplified the estimation o f the greenhouse gas emissions that result by assuming that the emissions intensity o f the diesel/gasoline combination is 0.090 kg CO2 equivalent/MJ o f fuel burned. Quantifying the Direct Labour Inputs Associated with Harvesting a Tonne of Salmon The income statements prepared by Gislason (1997) for the British Columbia salmon fleet provide estimates o f the: • average crew size, • average number o f weeks fished180, and • total number o f licensed vessels, ' By way of example, the calculation of the energy input to an average tonne of chinook salmon landed would appear as follows: (12,900 M J x 0.080) + (29,400 M J x 0.116) + (29,900 M J x 0.804) = 28,482 that I have rounded to 28,500. 1 While the income statements prepared by Gislason (1997) for 1991 and 1994 provide estimates ofthe average number of weeks spent specifically fishing for salmon, the 1985 and 1988 income statements only provide estimates ofthe average total number of weeks spent fishing. Once again, I have attempted to "back out" an estimate of the average number of weeks spent salmon fishing by each gear sector in 1985 and 1988 by multiplying the salmon fishing income to total fishing income ratio, by the total number of weeks fished for each gear sector. 113 for each o f the four sub-sets o f the salmon fleet for 1985, '88, '91 and '94. B y assuming five working days per week, and by re-allocating half o f the labour inputs associated with the hybrid gillnet-troll fleet to the dedicated gillnet fleet and half to the dedicated troll fleet, I estimated the total labour input to the commercial fleets while salmon fishing for 1985, '88, '91, and '94 (Table 45). Table 45. Labour Inputs to Salmon Fishing by the B. C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and '94 Year Total Labour Inputs (person-days) Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet8 Troll Fleet8 1985" 162,788 208,712 234,851 1988b 149,782 232,413 185,315 1991 140,029 205,435 227,641 1994 164,175 301,053 213,455 Source: Gislason 1997, Appendices A , C, and D Notes: a. Labour inputs to the gillnet and troll fleets while salmon fishing each include 50% of the labour input to the hybrid gillnet-troll fleet while salmon fishing, b. The estimates of labour inputs to salmon fishing in 1985 and 1988 were made by multiplying the total number of weeks spent fishing for each fleet segment by that fleet segment's salmon fishing income to total fishing income ratio. Divid ing the total labour input estimates (Table 45) by the corresponding total tonnage o f salmon landed by each gear sector (Table M - 3 in Appendix M ) , I generated estimates o f the average labour inputs associated with landing a tonne o f salmon by seiners, gillnetters and trollers (Table 46). Table 46. Labour Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed by the B.C. Commercial Seine, Gillnet, and Troll Fleets, 1985, '88, '91, and '94 Labour Inputs (in person-days) per Tonne of Salmon Landed by the: Year Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet Troll Fleet 1985 2.8 8.3 9.9 1988 3.0 12.1 10.4 1991 3.3 10.6 9.6 1994 6.0 14.2 12.4 Average: 3.8 11.3 10.6 Once again, it was necessary to convert the gear-specific labour inputs per tonne o f salmon landed into average species-specific inputs and for al l salmon combined. A s before, this was done using the average proportions that each gear sector contributes to an average tonne o f chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon landed in Brit ish Columbia, for the years 1985, '88, '91 and '94 (determined in Appendix M ) , as the weighting factor (Table 47) 1 8 1 . By way of example, the calculation of the labour input to an average tonne of sockeye salmon landed would appear as follows: (3.8 pers.-days x 0.407) + (11.3 pers.-days x 0.452) + (10.6 pers.-days x 0.141) = 8.1 person-days. 114 Table 47. Labour Inputs per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Chum and Pink Salmon Landed in B.C. Species of Salmon Average Labour Input per Tonne of Salmon Landed (person-days) Chinook Coho Sockeye Average of all salmon Chum Pink 10.1 9.3 8.1 6.8 5.9 7.3 Quantifying the Indirect Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Providing the Fishing Gear "Consumed" per Tonne of Salmon Landed In the process o f fishing, it is inevitable that fishing gear is lost, damaged or worn beyond repair. In this section, I have quantified the average material inputs o f fishing gear, in terms o f steel, plastics, lead, etc., that are "consumed" in the process o f salmon fishing, along with the associated embodied energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, per tonne of salmon landed. The income statements prepared by Gislason (1997) provide estimates o f the total amount o f money spent on all fishing gear by each o f the seine, gillnet, troll and hybrid gillnet-troll fleets. For these fleet sub-sets, I estimated the amount spent specifically on salmon fishing gear by multiplying the total fishing gear expenditures by the corresponding ratio o f salmon fishing income to total fishing income. A s was the case in the analyses o f the inputs o f fuel and labour, I re-allocated half o f the gear expenditures made by the hybrid gillnet/troll vessels to the dedicated gillnet fleet and half to the dedicated troll fleet 1 8 2 . Final ly, in order to facilitate the conversion o f the expenditures on gear into corresponding physical quantities of material goods, I converted all o f the monetary values into their 1998 dollar equivalents using the Canadian industrial product price index for miscellaneous manufactured chemical products for sporting, fishing and hunting equipment (Appendix N ) . Table 48 presents the resulting estimates o f the total expenditures, expressed in 1998 dollars, made on salmon fishing gear by seiners, gillnetters and trailers in 1985, '88, '91 and '94. : Once again, this re-allocation ofthe inputs to the hybrid gillnet-troll fleet is based on the assumption that 50% of this fleet's salmon catch is made while gillnetting and 50% is made when trolling. 115 Table 48. Total Expenditures Made by Seiners, Gillnetters and Tr oilers in 1985, '88, '91, and '94 on Salmon Fishing Gear (expressed in 1998 dollars) Amount of Money Spent, in 1998$", on Salmon Fishing Gear by the: Year Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet" Troll Fleet" 1985c $5,086,855 $8,240,533 $6,993,310 1988° $4,626,619 $8,229,086 $6,166,876 1991° $3,795,013 $5,839,342 $6,547,644 1994° $5,313,916 $6,925,391 $5,471,616 Source: Gislason 1997, Appendices A , C and D. Notes: a. A l l dollar values were converted into their 1998 dollar equivalents using the industrial product price index for miscellaneous manufactured chemical products for sporting, fishing and hunting equipment (see Appendix N). b. The estimates of the expenditures on gear made by the gillnet and troll fleets each includes 50% of the gear expenditures made by the hybrid gillnet-troll fleet. c. For all four years, estimates of the salmon fishing related gear expenditures were made by multiplying the total expenditures on gear for each fleet segment by that fleet segment's salmon fishing income to total fishing income ratio. B y dividing the total expenditures made on salmon fishing gear (Table 48) by the corresponding total tonnage o f salmon landed by each gear sector for each o f the four years (Appendix M ) , I estimated the average expenditures on fishing gear, expressed in 1998 dollars, per tonne o f salmon landed by seiners, gillnetters and trollers (Table 49). Table 49. Average Expenditures on Salmon Fishing Gear per Tonne of Salmon Landed by Gear Type (expressed in 1998 dollars) Year Amount of Money Spent, in 1998$, on Salmon Fishing Gear per Tonne of Salmon Landed: Seine Fleet Gillnet Fleet Troll Fleet 1985 $87 $327 $295 1988 $92 $427 $345 1991 $89 $301 $276 1994 $194 $327 $318 Average: $115 $345 $309 On average, purse seiners spent $115, gillnetters $345, and trollers $309 (all expressed in 1998 dollars) on fishing gear per tonne o f salmon landed (Table 49). The expenditures were converted into their corresponding quantities of material inputs using data provided by two companies. The Canadian Fishing Company Limited, owners o f one o f the largest purse seine fleets in Bri t ish Columbia, and fabricators o f purse seine nets for their own vessels and for outside sale to other vessel owners, provided detailed data on the 1998 costs, and quantities o f material and labour inputs 116 required to fabricate a standard 575 mesh deep by 220 fathom long "inside" salmon seine net complete with two release bunts (Table 50). Table 50. Inputs to Fabricate a Standard Inside Salmon Seine Net Inputs Quantity of Inputs Input Cost (in 1998 $) Ratio of Input Cost to Total Cost of Net" Plastic derived components - braided nylon and polyester salmon netting for bunts, pre-bunt, body and borders - netline - purselines - other ropes and twines - floats (plastic shelled, foam cored) 2,360 kg 205 kg 250 kg 240 kg 340 kg $23,400 $3,150 $3,575 $3,400 $7,200 Sub-total of all plastic inputs: 3,395 kg $33,525 0.65 Lead in the form of leadcore leadline5 1,545 kg $11,050 0.18 Steel in the form of miscell. hardware 135 kg $2,010 0.03 Fabrication labour 230 hours Total: $9,200 $62,985 0.15 Source: Mr. Chris Cue, seine fleet operations manager, Canadian Fishing Company, pers. comm., September 8, 1998. Notes: a. Values in this column represent the proportion of the total costs of a seine net that each of the major component categories (eg. plastics, lead, steel and labour) represent. For example, the ratio for plastic derived inputs is calculated by dividing $33,525 by $62,985. b. Although leadline is a composite of a lead cord, encased in a sheath of nylon or polyester, for the purposes of this analysis, I have assumed that it is entirely composed of lead. B y assuming that the inputs associated with fabricating a complete standard seine net reflect the average inputs associated with the routine expenditures made on fishing gear by seiners, then, using Equation 2 below, and the data presented in Table 50, I estimated that approximately 6.2 kg o f plastics, 2.8 kg o f lead, 0.2 kg o f steel, and 0.4 person-hours o f labour are required to provide the fishing gear "consumed" per tonne o f salmon landed by seiners. (Qi / Cj) x (R; x GC s e i „e) Equation 2. where: Qj is the physical quantity o f input i , in kilograms or hours, to a standard seine net (as presented in the second column of Table 50), Cj is the cost o f input i to a standard seine net (as presented in the third column of Table 50), ; One of the ways in which the catching capacity of purse seiners is regulated in British Columbia is through limitations on the size of their nets. Salmon seine nets used on waters that lie between Vancouver Island and the mainland (i.e. to the "inside" of Vancouver Island), including the Strait of Georgia and Johnstone Strait, can be a maximum of 220 fathoms long by 575 mesh deep. On the other hand, salmon seine nets used on waters to the west or "outside" of Vancouver Island can be up to 225 fathoms long by 875 mesh deep in size. 117 Rj is the ratio o f the cost o f input i to total seine net cost (as presented in the forth column o f Table 50), and G C s e i n e is the gear cost per tonne o f salmon landed by seiners, which I have previously estimated to be $ 115. For the analysis o f the inputs to gillnet and troll fishing gear, I accessed information that reflects the routine pattern o f gear purchases made by gillnet and troll fishermen. Pacific Net and Twine Limited, a major supplier o f gi l lnet 1 8 4 and troll fishing gear in Bri t ish Columbia, provided me with estimates o f the following, based on their sales o f gillnet and troll fishing gear separately: estimates o f the proportions o f their total sales o f fishing gear that are comprised o f various materials such as plastics, steel, and lead, and • for each o f the broad material types (e.g. plastics, steel, and lead) estimates o f the average 1998 retail price per kilogram. Table 51 summarises the data provided by Pacific Net and Twine Limited. ' Pacific Net and Twine supplies over 30% of the gillnet fishing gear used in British Columbia (Mr. Gary Nakashima, owner, Pacific Net and Twine, pers. comm. October 1998). 118 Table 51 .Breakdown of Commercial Gillnet and Troll Fishing Gear Sales Made by Pacific Net and Twine Ltd. in 1998 Material Inputs to Proportion of Their Estimated Average Gillnet Fishing Gear Total Gillnet Gear Sales" Retail Price per kg A l l plastic derived 98% $60° components b L e a d d 2% $2 Material Inputs to Proportion of Their Estimated Average Troll Fishing Gear Total Troll Gear Sales" Retail Price per kg A l l plastic derived 55% $50* components* A l l steel components 8 40% $50" Lead and miscellaneous' 5% $2 Source: Mr . Gary Nakashima, owner, Pacific Net and Twine Limited, pers. comm., October 20, 1998 Notes: a. The proportions of Pacific Net and Twine's total sales of gillnet and troll gear are estimated on a dollar value basis. b. The plastic derived components of salmon gillnet fishing gear represent the gillnet mesh material itself, various nylon and polyester ropes and twines and plastic shelled, foam filled floats. c. The various plastic derived inputs to gillnet gear range widely in their price per kilogram (from approximately $38/kg to over $200/kg). The average price of $60/kg represents Mr. Nakashima's estimate of the average price based on average sales of various items. d. The lead used in gillnet gear is almost entirely represented by leadline. e. Plastic derived inputs to troll fishing gear include a variety of lures, wet weather clothing, etc. f. The average price of plastic derived inputs to troll fishing gear was estimated by Mr. Nakashima by taking a weighted average price of four plastic derived products that they sell. g. Steel inputs to salmon troll fishing gear include steel cable, hooks, snaps, swivels, knives, etc. h. The average price of steel components of troll fishing gear was estimated by Mr. Nakashima by taking the weighted average price of eight troll fishing related steel products that they sell. i . Lead "cannon balls", used as weighs represent the majority of inputs to this category. However, other inputs include wooden lures. Using Equation 3 below and the data presented in Tables 49 and 51,1 estimated that per tonne of salmon landed, gillnetters use approximately 5.6 kg o f plastics and 3.4 kg o f lead while trollers use approximately 3.4 kg o f plastics, 2.5 kg o f steel and 7.7 kg o f lead. (1 / APj) x (Pi x G C ) Equation 3. where: APj is the estimated average retail price o f material input i , to either gillnet or troll fishing gear (from the third column of Table 51), P i is the proportion o f total gillnet or troll gear sales that a material input i represents (from the second column of Table 51), and G C is the estimated average expenditure on salmon fishing gear made by gillnetters ($345) or trollers ($309) per tonne of salmon landed. The penultimate step in this part o f the analysis entailed the conversion o f the estimated material inputs to fishing gear, per tonne of salmon landed, by seiners, gillnetters and trollers, into corresponding embodied energy inputs, and greenhouse gas emissions (Table 52). 119 Table 52. Estimates of Average Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Providing the Fishing Gear Inputs to Seiners, Gillnetters and Trollers per Tonne of Salmon Landed Material Input Energy Input GHG Emissions Gear Sector per tonne of Energy per tonne of GHG Emission per tonne of and Material salmon landed Intensity salmon landed Intensity salmon landed Input (kg) (MJ/kg)° (MJ) (kg C0 2 eq/kg)b (kgC02 eq) Seiner Inputs - plastics 6.2 75 465 3.0 19 - steel 2.8 25 70 2.5 7 - lead 0.2 25 5 2.5 1 Totals: 540 27 Gillnet Inputs - plastics 5.6 75 420 3.0 17 - lead 3.4 25 85 2.5 9 Totals: 505 26 Troll Inputs - plastics 3.4 75 . 255 3.0 10 - steel 2.5 25 63 2.5 6 - lead 7.7 25 193 2.5 19 Totals: 511 35 Notes: a. Energy intensities used in this research are outlined in Table 9. b. Greenhouse gas emission intensities used in this research are outlined in Table 9. A s before, I converted the gear-related energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions per tonne o f salmon landed by each gear sector (Table 52), on a species-specific basis using the proportion that each gear sector contributes to a tonne o f chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon landed in Brit ish Columbia as the weighting factor (Appendix M ) 1 8 5 . The results o f these calculations, for al l five species o f salmon considered separately and for all salmon combined appear in Table 53. Table 53. Estimated Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Provide the Fishing Gear Inputs per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C. Energy Input to Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Provide Fishing Gear Provide Fishing Gear per per Tonne of Salmon Tonne of Salmon Landed Species of Salmon Landed (MJ) (kg C 0 2 equiv.) Chinook 510 33 Coho 510 33 Sockeye 520 28 Chum 530 27 Pink 530 28 Average of all salmon 520 28 Note: A l l values rounded to two significant figures. By way of example, the calculation of the energy input to provide the fishing gear used to land an average tonne of pink salmon would appear as follows: (540 M J x 0.70) + (505 M J x 0.114) + (511 M J x 0.186) = 531 M J . 120 Quantifying the Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed I encountered several challenges when trying to estimate the inputs, per tonne o f salmon landed, that go into building and maintaining the capital infrastructure o f the fishing vessels themselves. The problems arose largely because: • fishing vessels are compositionally complex, • the Bri t ish Columbia salmon fishing fleet is highly heterogeneous particularly with respect to vessel age 1 8 6 , size, and primary hull material 1 8 7 , and • detailed information regarding the inputs required to construct salmon fishing vessels was only available for purse seiners and gillnetters. In addition to the differences between salmon fishing vessels that result from their use o f different fishing gears, within each gear specific sub-set o f the fleet, there is tremendous diversity. For example, the physical size o f salmon fishing vessels can range widely. This is evident using vessel length as an indicator o f vessel size (Figure 11) 1 8 8 . ' As of 1998, licensed salmon fishing vessels in British Columbia ranged in age from 1 to over 90 years old (from data provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, May, 1998) By primary hull material, I am referring to the main material from which the vessel's hull, holds and decks are fabricated. While there are a wide range of physical characteristics that can be used to describe the size and/or power of a fishing vessel, vessel length is one of the few characteristics that are carefully measured and recorded by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (pers. comm, Mr. Brian Moore, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, May, 1998). This is because vessel length, along with the net tonnage, is used as the "replacement rule" when new vessels are built to replace vessels retiring from the fleet (Technical Advisory Committee on Replacement Rules 1993). 121 <u c = = o CD i— <r> • • • 0> CM CO CM CM CD CM LO CM 00 CM CM CM O CM 03 CD f IT) Ql o CO co in LO o d d in co co d LO CM d CM d LO o CD > CD uo CO 122 Purse seiners, which tend to be the largest, highest volume vessels in the salmon fleet, range in length from approximately 12.5 m to 31 m and average 19.4 m. Next in size are the trollers which range in length from about 5 m to 19 m with an average o f 12.4 m. A n d finally gillnetters, which are, on average, the smallest salmon fishing boats, range in length from 4 m to 15 m and average 10.4 m (Figure 11) 189 In addition to the fleet's heterogeneity with respect to size, a variety o f materials have been used to build salmon fishing boats over time. For example, as o f 1998, the Bri t ish Columbia salmon fleet included vessels constructed using at least four different primary hull materials: wood, steel, aluminium, and fibreglass 1 9 0 . For those vessels for which primary hull material information is available 1 9 1 , Table 54 presents the proportions o f each sub-set o f the Bri t ish Columbia salmon fleet that are built o f wood, steel, fibreglass and aluminium. Table 54. Proportion of Salmon Fishing Vessels Constructed Primarily from Wood, Steel, Fibreglass and Aluminium Vessel Type Primary Hull Material Wood Steel Fibreglass Aluminium Purse seiners3 32% 29% 9% 30% Gillnetters" 16% 0% 62% 22% Trollers0 62% 4% 33% 1% Source: Data file provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, May, 1998. Notes: a. Data represents 258 of the 372 licensed salmon seine vessels in 1998 b. Data represents 1,320 of the 1,734 licensed salmon gillnet vessels in 1998 c. Data represents 699 of the 886 licensed salmon troll vessels in 1998 This wide range o f primary hull material use reflects changes over time in materials availability, fabrication technology, and the relative cost o f various factors o f production. Figures 12, 13, and 14 illustrate the changes in primary hull material use over time along with the age distribution o f vessels in each o f the three main sub-sets o f the salmon fleet, the seiners, gillnetters and trollers. ' From an electronic data file of the fleet's physical characteristics provided to me by Mr. Brian Moore of the Program Planning and Economics Branch of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, May, 1998. ' Ibid. The database, maintained by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, on the physical characteristics of the licensed salmon fishing vessels is incomplete with respect to the primary hull material used in some vessels. 123 124 T3 CD H= O CD a. w c E CO CO 3 ro CD C I reg po SZ 3 o O < LL. CO • • • • • CD CD i o cn cn oo i o 00 cn • o cn CD i o CD cn i n i o cn i o cn CM i o CN cn i o cn o o CO o o o o CD O O ID O O o O CO o o CN o o V) i-co CD o < co tn o > S|3SS3A jo jaqainN 125 CD U= O CD C L C/) V) c E Z> CO E reg CD od o Alu Fib CD •4—1 CO Wo • • • • CD CD 6 CD CD CO I o CO CD O CD CN I o CNJ CD I o CD O O CO o LO CN O O CN O LO o o o LO S|9SS9A jo jaqwriN 126 Given the complexity and diversity exhibited by the vessels that comprise the salmon fleet, it was necessary to simplify the analysis of the inputs associated with building and maintaining the fishing vessels themselves. The approach that I adopted was to model the major inputs required to build and maintain vessels typical o f those that have been built over the last 20 years, for each o f the three sub-sets o f the fleet. Unfortunately, I was only able to obtain information regarding the inputs associated with building a typical: • an 18 m long aluminium hulled seiner 1 9 2 , • a 10 m long fibreglass hulled gillnetter 1 9 3 , and • a 10 m long aluminium hulled gillnetter 1 9 4 . N o data were available regarding the inputs associated with building a troll fishing vessel 1 9 5 . Quantifying the Direct Inputs to Build and Maintain Salmon Gillnet and Seine Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed Five analytical steps were involved in estimating the material, labour and energy inputs, per tonne o f salmon landed, associated with building and maintaining the vessels listed above. Brief ly, these steps were: 1. estimate the major material, labour and energy inputs required to build a complete vessel, 2. calculate the vessel fabrication inputs required on an annual basis, using estimates o f the expected functional life o f the various components or inputs, 3. multiply the vessel fabrication inputs required on an annual basis by an appropriate repair and maintenance factor to account for the material inputs associated with supplying ; Approximately half ofthe licensed British Columbia salmon seine vessels built in the last 20 years have aluminum hulls. The average length of these boats is approximately 18.1 m (from the data file provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada). Approximately 70% of the licensed British Columbia salmon gillnet vessels built in the last 20 years have fibreglass hulls. The average length of these boats is approximately 10 m (from the data file provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada). ' Approximately 28% of the licensed British Columbia salmon gillnet vessels built in the last 20 years have aluminium hulls. The average length of these boats is approximately 10 m (from the data file provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada). ' I believe that part of the problem that I faced in trying to find data on the inputs required to build a troll fishing vessel is that relatively few have been built in British Columbia over the last decade or so. For example, o f the 886 licensed salmon troll vessels in 1998, only 28 were under ten years old. 127 replacement parts and the labour and energy inputs required to repair and maintain the vessel's components, 4. determine the proportion o f the total annual material, labour and energy inputs that are attributable specifically to salmon fishing, using the ratio o f salmon fishing income to total vessel income for each vessel type 1 9 6 , and 5. determine the inputs per tonne o f salmon landed using the average annual tonnage o f salmon landed by the specific types o f vessels. The Direct Inputs to Build an 18 m Aluminium-Hulled Seiner, a 10 m Fibreglass-Hulled Gillnetter and a 10 m Aluminium-Hulled Gillnetter Information on the material composition and fabrication labour and energy inputs required to build a typical 18 m long aluminium hulled purse seiner was drawn from two sources. M r . J im Walke r 1 9 7 , who was employed for 18 years as the manager and estimator for Shore Boats L i m i t e d 1 9 8 (shortened hereafter to Shore Boats), provided me with estimates of: • the amount o f aluminium required to fabricate a bare 1 9 9 18 m purse seiner, • the electricity required to weld a bare 18 m purse seiner, and • the total amount o f labour required to build a complete 1 8 m purse seiner 2 0 0 . This information was combined with data provided by the Canadian Fishing Company Limited (shortened hereafter to their trade name Canfisco) 2 0 1 . Using their fleet o f working aluminium hulled purse seiners as a model, Canfisco provided estimates o f the total mass o f aluminium, steel and other components combined that are represented in a typical complete 18 m seiner including all mechanical ' This step was necessary because a typical salmon fishing boat is used for other activities besides salmon fishing. ' Mr. Walker is currently the manager of Alberni Engineering. 1 Shore Boats was one of British Columbia's largest aluminum boat yards. While they built a wide range of vessels, aluminum seine and gillnet boats for both the British Columbia and Alaskan markets, were a large portion of their business. ' I am using the term "bare" to describe the basic shell of a boat that consists of a hull, decks, holds and cabin structure. ' This includes the labour required to not only build the bare boat but to also install the mechanical, electrical and hydraulic systems and to paint the finished boat. Up until 1996, Canfisco owned and operated approximately 30 salmon seiners. As a result of the fleet rationalization initiatives of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, in 1996 their seine fleet was reduced to approximately 15 vessels (Mr. Chris Cue, seine fleet manager, Canadian Fishing Company, pers. comm. 1988). 128 equipment 2 0 2 and fixed fishing equipment 2 0 3. The information provided by M r . Walker and by Canfisco appears in Appendix O. Detailed information on the inputs required to build a typical 10 m long fibreglass hulled gillnetter, complete with a l l mechanical systems, fixed fishing equipment, etc. was provided by M r . Bob Pearson o f Pearson Marine and Industrial L i m i t e d 2 0 4 (shortened hereafter to Pearson Marine). The information provided by M r . Pearson appears in Appendix O. Information on the material, labour and energy inputs required to build a typical 10 m long aluminium-hulled gillnetter, complete with all mechanical systems, fixed fishing gear etc., was drawn from two sources. M r . J im Walker, ex-manager o f Shore Boats, provided an estimate of: • the amount o f aluminium required to fabricate the bare boat 2 0 5 , • the electricity required to weld the boat, and • the total amount o f labour required to build the complete boat 2 0 6 . This information was combined with data from M r . Bob Pearson o f Pearson Marine on the inputs required to fully rig out a "bare" gillnetter including all mechanical system inputs and fixed fishing equipment. The information provided by Messrs. Walker and Pearson appear in Appendix O. The Functional Life of Fishing Vessels and Their Components Few prior biophysical analyses o f fisheries report the specific functional life o f fishing vessels and their component parts. A s part o f her process analysis o f the energy inputs to build a tuna purse seiner, Rawitscher (1978) essentially adopts a financial accounting convention and "depreciates" the energy inputs to build the vessel over a 20-year period (Rawitscher 1978, Table A . I , p. 70). A s part o f their energy analysis o f a hypothetical Swedish salmon ranching operation, Folke and Aneer (1988) assume that the energy inputs required to build the "small boat" necessary to harvest returning salmon would be "written o f f over a ten-year period while its motor would be written off in five 2 0 2 In addition to the main engine and transmission, the mechanical systems on a typical seiner include an auxiliary engine that is used to power the fishing equipment related hydraulic systems (personal communication, Mr. Jim Walker, Sept. 1998). 2 0 3 Fixed fishing equipment on a typical purse seiner includes its mast and boom, and the net drum. 2 0 4 Over the last decade, Mr. Pearson has built 56 fibreglass gillnetters. 2 0 5 Once again, I am using the term "bare" to describe the basic shell of a boat that consists of a hull, decks, holds and cabin structure. 129 years (Folke and Aneer 1988, Table 6, p. 44). Rochereau (1976), however, drawing on data from the N e w England trawl fleet, arrived at very specific estimates o f the life expectancies o f the components that comprise a typical steel-hulled trawler (Table 55). Table 55. Life Expectancies of Trawl Fishing Vessel Components Life Expectancy Component (years) H u l l and structures 19.1 M a i n propulsion machinery 9 Auxi l ia ry machinery 6.5 Fishing deck equipment 9 Outfitting and hull engineering 11 Source: From Rochereau 1976, Table 2.4, p. 94. In this analysis, I had information from which I could only estimate the average functional working life o f the basic bare boat components o f the vessels that make up the Brit ish Columbia salmon fleet. This was possible by assuming that the average age o f the vessels currently in the fleet provides a minimum functional working life o f the vessel's bare boat components. A s the current average age of all the vessels in the Brit ish Columbia salmon fleet is approximately 27 years 2 0 7 , 1 have assumed that a reasonable minimum average working life for the bare boat components is 30 years. A s a result, all o f the material, labour and energy inputs associated with building the bare boats themselves, as outlined in Appendix O, is spread over 30 years. Recognising that, in general, the bare boat components last much longer than do a vessel's mechanical systems and fishing equipment 2 0 8, 1 have assumed that the average working life for al l the other components o f a salmon fishing vessel is 10 years. This generally approximates the findings o f Rochereau (1976) as outlined in Table 55. Inputs to Repair and Maintain the Vessel's Components I was unable to identify any previous analyses that provided estimates o f the amounts o f material, labour and energy required to repair and maintain fishing vessels, or their sub-components, over their functional working life. However, energy analyses o f agricultural systems typically add between 33% ; This includes the labour required to not only build the bare boat but to also install the mechanical, electrical and hydraulic systems and to paint the finished boat. ' From data provided by Mr. Brian Moore, Program Planning and Economics Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada ' For example, Mr. Chris Cue, the seine operations manager for the Canadian Fishing Company Limited, indicates that they need to typically rebuild or replace their vessel's engines every 7,000 to 12,000 running hours. 130 and 66% of the original inputs required to build a piece o f mechanical equipment to account for the repairs and maintenance inputs necessary over its functional life (Pimentel 1980, Borjesson 1996). In this analysis, for the bare boat components o f the fishing vessels, in effect the non-moving or "passive" parts o f a boat, I have assumed that an additional 25% of the initial material, labour and energy inputs that were required to build the boat are required to provide spare parts and to effect repairs and maintenance 2 1 0. However, for the more "active" components o f a fishing vessel, such as the mechanical systems and the fishing equipment, systems that are in many ways similar to the mechanical equipment used in agriculture, I have applied a repair and maintenance factor o f 50%. Combining the data on the material, labour and energy inputs required to build salmon fishing vessels (Appendix O) with the estimates o f the average functional life o f the major components and the repair and maintenance factors outlined above, I estimated total inputs required, on an annual basis, to build and maintain salmon fishing vessels (Table 56). Table 56. Estimated Direct Annual Material, Labour and Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain Typical Salmon Seine and Gillnet Vessels 18 m Aluminium 10 m Fibreglass 10 m Aluminium Inputs Hulled Seiner Hulled Gillnetter Hulled Gillnetter Aluminum (kg) 1,725 77 166 Steel and/or iron (kg) 1,380 306 285 Lead (kg) 10 10 Mixed metals and other materials (kg) 180 59 59 Glass (kg) 68 4 Fibreglass resin (kg) 50 Wood (m3) 0.21 Electricity (MJ) 54,000 13,500 Labour (person-days) 52 16 16 See Appendix O and the text above for details. Estimating the Direct Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed A s salmon fishing boats engage in other activities besides salmon fishing it was necessary to determine what proportion o f the total annual inputs (from Table 56) are attributable to salmon fishing specifically. I did this by calculating an overall average salmon fishing income to total income ratio for each o f the sub-sets o f the salmon fleet using the income statements prepared by 1 For example, tractors, combines, trucks etc. 1 Note, this is the same repair and maintenance factor as I used in the analysis above of the inputs to build and maintain the saltwater grow-out site infrastructure. 131 Gislason (1997) for the years 1985, '88, '91 , and ' 94 2 1 1 . Using this approach, approximately 66% of the inputs to build and maintain a purse seine boat are attributable to salmon fishing while approximately 92% of the inputs to build and maintain a gillnet boat are attributable to salmon fishing. Final ly, in order to estimate the direct material, labour and energy inputs associated with building and maintaining the fishing vessels, per tonne of salmon landed, it was necessary to calculate the average tonnage o f salmon landed annually by each licensed seiner and gillnetter over say a ten-year period (Table 57). Table 57. Average Salmon Catch per Vessel for Gillnetters and Seiners in British Columbia from 1985 to 1994 Total rnd wgt tonnes of Number of Average Landings all salmon taken by* Licensed Vessels6 per vessel (t) Year Gillnet Seine Gillnet Seine Gillnet Seine 1985 25,219 58,676 1,876 536 13.4 109.5 1986 26,130 53,156 1,988 526 13.1 101.1 1987 16,026 29,465 2,052 514 7.8 57.3 1988 19,281 50,401 2,151 522 9.0 96.6 1989 20,616 42,936 2,298 535 9.0 80.3 1990 23,257 47,338 2,219 534 10.5 88.6 1991 19,410 42,543 2,068 527 9.4 80.7 1992 23,183 28,641 2,106 513 11.0 55.8 1993 28,549 38,566 2,265 520 12.6 74.2 1994 21,178 27,426 2,208 508 9.6 54.0 Ten Year Average: 10.54 79.80 Source Notes: a. See Appendix M for sources. b. From Gislason 1997, Exhibit A - l . On average, between 1985 and 1994, licensed gillnetters in Brit ish Columbia landed approximately 10.5 round tonnes o f salmon annually while purse seiners landed approximately 79.8 round tonnes of salmon annually (Table 57). B y first multiplying the total annual material, labour and energy inputs per vessel (Table 56) by the average salmon fishing income to total income ratios described above, and then dividing the result by the average annual tonnage o f salmon landed per vessel (Table 57), I estimated the total direct inputs per tonne o f salmon landed by a typical aluminium-hulled seiner and by typical fibreglass- and aluminium-hulled gillnetters (Table 58). 1 Once again, these are the four years in which Costs and Earnings surveys of the salmon fleet have been conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 132 Table 58. Estimated Direct Material, Labour and Energy Inputs per Tonne of Salmon Landed Required to Build and Maintain Typical Salmon Seine and Gillnet Vessels 18m Aluminium 10 m Fibreglass 10 m Aluminium Inputs Hulled Seiner Hulled Gillnetter Hulled Gillnetter Aluminium (kg) 14.3 6.7 14.5 Steel and/or iron (kg) 11.4 26.8 25.0 Lead (kg) 0.88 0.88 Mixed metals and 1.49 5.1 5.1 other materials (kg) Glass (kg) 6.0 0.37 Fibreglass resin (kg) 4.4 Wood (m3) 0.018 Electricity (MJ) 447 1,183 Labour (person-days) 0.43 1.4 1.4 Converting the Material and Electricity Inputs to Fishing Vessels into Indirect Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions per tonne of Salmon Landed In order to incorporate the inorganic material inputs associated with building and maintaining fishing vessels into the ecological footprint and energy analyses, inputs were converted into their embodied energy and greenhouse gas emission equivalents using the energy and greenhouse gas emission intensity values outlined in Table 9 (Table 59). 133 Table 59. Embodied Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with the Material and Electricity Required to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed Input per Embodied GHG Emission GHG Emissions tonne of Energy Energy per Intensity per tonne of Vessel Type salmon landed Intensity tonne of salmon (kg C0 2 eq/kg salmon landed and Input (kg or MJ)a (MJ/kg)b landed (MJ) or MJ)C (kg C0 2 eq) Aluminium Seiner - aluminium 14.3 140 2,002 8 114 - steel 11.4 25 285 2.5 29 - mixed 1.49 25 37 2.5 4 materials'1 - electricity 447 l,276 e 0.0267 12 Totals: 3,600 159 Fibreglass Gillnetter - aluminium 6.7 140 938 8 54 - steel 26.8 25 670 2.5 67 - lead 0.88 25 22 2.5 2 - mixed 5.1 25 128 2.5 13 metalsd - glass 6.0 10 60 1 6 - plastics 4.4 75 330 3 13 (fibreglass resin) Totals: 2,148 155 Aluminum Gillnetter - aluminum 14.5 140 2,030 8 116 - steel 25.0 25 625 2.5 63 - lead 0.88 25 22 2.5 2 - mixed 5.1 25 128 2.5 13 metalsd - glass 0.37 10 4 1 0 - electricity 1,183 3,380e 0.0267 32 Totals: 6,189 226 Notes: a. Quantities of material and electricity inputs from Table 58. b. Energy intensities from Table 9. c. Greenhouse gas emission intensities from Table 9. d. I have assumed that the mixed materials and mixed metals inputs have an energy intensity of 25 MJ/kg and a greenhouse gas emission intensity of 2.5 kg C 0 2 equivalent/kg. e. For both of the aluminium hulled vessels, in order to address the energy quality problem, I have divided the direct electricity inputs from the second column by 0.35 to yield an estimate of the equivalent quantity of fossil fuel energy required. Approximately 0.43 days o f labour and 3,600 M J o f fossil fuel equivalent energy are required, per tonne o f salmon landed by purse seiners, to build and maintain the vessels themselves (Tables 58 and 134 59). The greenhouse gas emissions amount to 159 kg o f CO2 equivalent per tonne o f salmon landed (Tables 58 and 59). Averaging the inputs associated with building and maintaining the two types o f gillnet vessels, I estimate that 1.4 days o f labour and approximately 4,165 M J o f fossil fuel equivalent energy are required per tonne o f salmon landed. Similarly, the average greenhouse gas emissions amount to about 190 kg o f CO2 equivalent per tonne o f salmon landed. A s there were no data upon which I could directly estimate the inputs associated with building and maintaining a typical troll fishing vessel, I assumed that the energy and labour inputs and greenhouse gas emissions fall between those o f gillnet and purse seine vessels. Therefore, I assume that 1 day o f labour and 3,900 M J o f energy are required to build and maintain troll vessels and 175 kg o f CO2 equivalent are released per tonne o f salmon landed. The final step in this part o f the analysis entailed estimating the total energy and labour inputs, and greenhouse gas emissions per tonne o f each species o f salmon landed and for al l salmon combined. A s before, I did this by averaging the inputs and emissions on a gear specific basis using the proportion that each gear sector contributes to an average tonne o f each species o f salmon landed as the weighting factor (Table 60) 2 1 2 . Table 60. Estimated Total Energy, and Labour Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Building and Maintaining Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Chinook, Coho, Sockeye, Pink and Chum Salmon Landed in B.C. Species of Salmon Energy Inputs to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed (MJ) Labour Inputs to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed (days) G H G Emissions to Build and Maintain Fishing Vessels per Tonne of Salmon Landed (kg C 0 2 equiv) Chinook 3,910 1.0 175 Coho 3,890 1.0 175 Sockeye 3,900 0.9 175 Chum 3,820 0.8 170 Pink 3,720 0.6 165 Average all salmon 3,815 0.8 170 2 1 2 By way of example, the calculation of the total energy input to build and maintain the fishing vessels used to land an average tonne of coho salmon would appear as follows: (2,960 M J x 0.079) + (2,770 M J x 0.103) + (2,870 M J x 0.818) = 2,867 M J which I have rounded to 2,870 M J . 135 Chapter 6: Results In this chapter I present the results o f the ecological footprint and energy analysis described in Chapters 4 and 5. This includes: • the ecological footprint and total industrial energy inputs associated with producing an average tonne o f intensively cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon, which includes estimates of: • the total edible and protein energy return on industrial energy investment ratios for intensively cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon, • the total feed energy conversion efficiency o f intensively cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon, • the ecological footprint and total industrial energy inputs associated with producing and harvesting an average tonne o f commercially caught chinook, coho, sockeye, chum and pink salmon that includes estimates of: • the total edible and protein energy return on industrial energy investment ratios for commercially caught chinook, coho, sockeye, chum and pink salmon, and • the ecological footprint and total industrial energy inputs associated with landing an average tonne o f salmon using gillnet, troll and purse seine fishing gear. Fol lowing the presentation o f these results, I also explore how sensitive the major results are to changes in some o f the input parameters and methodological assumptions. 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C O X O " -a 0 T3 U T3 o S o tS 3 <2 — o -— ca Tii ^ 3 r<? 3 140 The Ecological Footprint of Intensively Cultured Salmon in B.C. I estimate that approximately 9.9 ha o f marine ecosystem support and 2.8 ha o f terrestrial ecosystem support is required to produce one tonne o f intensively cultured Atlantic salmon in Brit ish Columbia (Table 61). Based these results, the approximately 32,900 round tonnes o f Atlantic salmon harvested by the B . C . industry in 1998 had a marine ecological footprint o f about 3,200 k m 2 , and a terrestrial ecological footprint o f about 900 km 2 . Similarly, one tonne o f intensively cultured chinook salmon requires the support o f 12.4 ha o f marine ecosystem and 3.6 ha terrestrial ecosystem (Table 62). These results suggest that the approximately 8,200 round tonnes o f chinook salmon harvested by the industry in 1998 had a marine ecological footprint o f about 1,000 km 2 , and a terrestrial ecological footprint o f almost 300 k m 2 . O f the marine ecosystem support that sustains both intensively cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon, over 99% is required to produce the aquatic organisms used in the manufacture o f salmon feed 2 1 3 . The remainder is required to sustain human labour inputs. O f the terrestrial component o f the ecological footprint, in the case o f both Atlantic and chinook salmon culture, almost two-thirds is required to assimilate carbon dioxide equivalent to the total greenhouse gases that are emitted. These emissions amount to the equivalent o f about 6.5 tonne o f CO2 per tonne o f Atlantic salmon produced and approximately 8.0 tonnes o f C 0 2 per tonne of chinook salmon produced (Tables 61 and 62). O f this, over 99% results from direct and indirect industrial energy inputs to the two systems. The remaining less than one percent results from the provision o f the inorganic and synthetic organic material inputs required to build and maintain the grow-out site infrastructure. Most o f the remaining terrestrial ecological footprint o f both cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon is accounted for by the direct and indirect agricultural crop inputs to salmon feed. In the case o f Atlantic salmon, this amounts to slightly over one hectare per tonne o f salmon produced while a tonne o f cultured chinook requires the support o f approximately 1.3 hectares o f agricultural ecosystem. Only about two percent o f the terrestrial ecosystem support to intensive salmon culture is required to sustain labour inputs. 2 1 3 More specifically, this is the ecosystem support required to produce the fish meal components of contemporary salmon feed. 1 4 1 Energy Analysis of Intensive Salmon Culture The average tonne o f intensively cultured Atlantic salmon in Brit ish Columbia requires a total industrial energy investment, expressed in terms o f fossil fuel equivalents, o f approximately 94,000 M J (Table 61). A n average tonne o f intensively cultured chinook salmon requires a total industrial energy investment o f approximately 117,000 M J (Table 62). A s Figures 15 and 16 illustrate, in both cases feed alone accounts for approximately 90% of the total energy inputs. In the case o f Atlantic salmon, this amounts to slightly over 85,000 M J per tonne of salmon produced while in the case o f chinook salmon, approximately 106,000 M J o f industrial energy are required to provide feed inputs (Tables 61 and 62). 142 Energy to Provide D i r e c t E n e r 9 y l n P u t s Total Energy to Provide Feed 90% Figure 15. Sources of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Intensively Cultured Atlantic Salmon (total input: 94,100 MJ fossil fuel equivalent) Direct Energy Inputs Energy to Provide t Q S m o | t P r o d u c t i o n Total Energy to Provide Feed 91% Figure 16. Sources of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Intensively Cultured Chinook Salmon (total input: 116,900 MJ fossil fuel equivalent) In the case o f both cultured species, the energy required to transport adult salmon at the time of harvest amounts to only 3% o f the total energy inputs. Similarly, the energy embodied in grow-out 143 site infrastructure represents about 1% of the total inputs to both cultured species. Small differences in energy requirements occur, however, with respect to smolt production and grow-out site operations. In the case o f Atlantic salmon, both smolt production and grow-out site related energy inputs account for 3% of the total required. In contrast, in chinook culture about 1% of the energy inputs are accounted for by smolt production and 4% go towards grow-out site operations (Figures 15 and 16). Energy Return On Investment Ratios for Intensively Cultured Salmon From the industrial energy inputs just described, I estimated the gross edible energy return on the industrial energy investment ratio, and the edible protein energy return on the industrial energy investment ratio for both intensively cultured Atlantic and chinook salmon (Table 63). Table 63. Energy Return on Investment Ratios for Intensively Cultured Atlantic and Chinook Salmon Efficiency Cultured Atlantic Cultured Chinook Measure Salmon Salmon Gross Edible Energy Return on Total 5.2% 4.2% Industrial Energy Investment" Edible Protein Energy Return on Total 3.3% 2.6% Industrial Energy Investmentb Notes: a. Calculated by dividing 4,940 M J of gross edible energy per live weight tonne of salmon (assumes that 65% of a carcass is edible and the gross wet weight energy content of salmon flesh is 7.6MJ/kg) by 94,050 M J of total industrial energy input for Atlantic salmon (Table 61) and 116,851 M J of total industrial energy input for chinook salmon (Table 62). b. Calculated by dividing 3,068 M J of edible protein energy per live weight tonne of salmon (assumes that 20% of the edible portion of a carcass is protein that has a gross energy content of 23.6 MJ/kg) by 94,050 M J of total industrial energy input for Atlantic salmon (Table 61) and 116,851 M J of total industrial energy input for chinook salmon (Table 62). Contemporary Atlantic salmon culture in British Columbia provides a 5.2% total edible food energy return and a 3.3% edible protein energy return on the total industrial energy investment that is required. Similarly, intensive chinook culture in Brit ish Columbia provides a 4.2% total food energy return and a 2.6% edible protein energy return on the total industrial energy invested (Table 63). Industrial Energy Inputs Associated with Producing Salmon Feed A s salmon feed accounts for such a large proportion o f the total energy inputs to intensive salmon culture, Figure 17 presents an activity-based breakdown of the energy inputs to salmon feed using data presented in Table 34. 144 Feed Milling Feed Transport Fodder Corn Crop Input Production Processing 20% 1% Figure 17. Breakdown of Industrial Energy Inputs to Produce a Tonne of Contemporary Salmon Feed (total input approximately 48,000 MJfossil fuel equivalent) The two largest industrial energy inputs, each accounting for 22% of the total, are: the fuel consumed to capture fish for reduction 2 1 4 , and 2) the energy required to rear the mass o f chicken equivalent to the by-products needed for the blood, meat and feather meal inputs. When the latter is combined with the energy needed raise the corn for chicken fodder, representing 20% of the total, and the energy required to process by-products, at 3% of the total, the three by-product meals accounts for fully 45% of the total energy input to salmon feed. In contrast, providing the fish-derived feed components accounts for approximately 38%, and the crop-derived components account for only 3% of the total energy inputs (Figure 17). Transporting the various components, along with their precursors, from their ecosystems o f origin ultimately to the feed mi l l accounts for approximately 7% of the total energy inputs (Figure 17). Energy inputs associated with feed mil l ing account for a slightly smaller proportion, at 6% of the total, while transporting the finished feed to the consumer accounts for about 1% o f the total (Figure 17). 2 1 4 Recall that in this analysis, the fish oil inputs to salmon feed represented a greater quantity of whole fish than was represented by the fish meal components. As such, only the industrial energy inputs associated with the capture and reduction of the raw fish needed to provide oil is included to avoid double counting. 145 Nutritional Energy Inputs to Intensive Salmon Culture A s part o f my analysis o f the inputs to salmon feed in Chapter 4,1 estimated that the gross nutritional energy content o f an average tonne o f feed was approximately 22,400 M J (Table 18). Given that the production o f an average round tonne o f Atlantic salmon requires 1.77 tonnes o f feed (Table 61), then a total o f about 39,600 M J o f gross nutritional energy is required to yield one tonne o f Atlantic salmon. Assuming that a round tonne o f salmon contains 7,600 M J o f gross energy, this suggests that contemporary intensive Atlantic salmon culture in British Columbia displays a gross or total feed conversion efficiency o f approximately 19.2%, or about 3.5% lower than the conversion efficiency of a population o f wi ld salmon as estimated by Brett (1986). Similarly, given that a tonne o f cultured chinook salmon consumes an average o f 2.206 tonnes o f feed (Table 62), a total o f approximately 49,400 M J o f gross nutritional energy is required to yield the 7,600 M J o f energy embodied in the salmon itself. 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