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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Academic economies : scholarship, publishing, capital Pollex, Michael 2000

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ACADEMIC ECONOMIES: SCHOLARSHIP, PUBLISHING, CAPITAL by MICHAEL POLLEX B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1992 M.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i ^ as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER (c^  2000  M i c h a e l P o l l e x , 2000  standard  In  presenting  this  thesis in  degree at the University of  partial  fulfilment of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of  this thesis for  department  or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the head of  understood  that  copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  fir*.  ^  / 3JQ60  Abstract  T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the growing r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic knowledge marketplace.  production,  the realms o f  s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g and the c a p i t a l i s t  B e g i n n i n g with an e a r l y f o r m u l a t i o n o f the g o a l s o f the  modern u n i v e r s i t y as understood by Immanuel Kant, I examine  the e x t e n t  to which these i d e a l s , which I r e f e r t o as academic l i b e r a l i s m , are inadequate t o account f o r academic p r a c t i c e s today.  Despite  several  t h e o r e t i c a l attempts t o j u s t i f y the autonomy o f academic p r a c t i c e , I demonstrate how a contemporary account o f academic p r a c t i c e must r e c o n s i d e r i t s socio-economic s i t u a t i o n . knowledge methodology t o examine political  I follow a sociology of  the extent t o which our c u r r e n t  economic s i t u a t i o n leads t o economic c r i s e s i n academia.  Among the more s i g n i f i c a n t o f these c r i s e s , v  crisis  o f consumption' f o r academic l i b r a r i e s .  I argue, i s the In t h i s  crisis  lies  one o f the c o n n e c t i o n s of s c h o l a r s h i p t o the l o g i c and p r a c t i c e s o f contemporary c a p i t a l i s m . consumer,  With the l o s s o f academic knowledge's p r i m a r y  a c h a i n r e a c t i o n i s s e t o f f throughout the system o f  s c h o l a r l y p r o d u c t i o n where s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s must scramble f o r new markets i n order t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a l r e a d y modest p r i n t  runs. Through  i n t e r v i e w s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l e t h n o g r a p h i c data, I demonstrate the e x t e n t t o which the consumer p u b l i c a t i o n of s c h o l a r l y  i s c o n s i d e r e d as a f a c t o r i n the  knowledge.  An engagement o f s c h o l a r s h i p with consumer about many s i g n i f i c a n t  culture also brings  changes f o r the academic author.  Using the  c u l t u r a l M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s o f Jean B a u d r i l l a r d and P i e r r e Bourdieu, I examine how p u b l i s h i n g i n consumer  c u l t u r e leads t o a v a r i e t y o f forms  of c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r the academic author.  Ultimately,  I demonstrate  t h a t economic f o r c e s p e n e t r a t e the v e r y p r a c t i c e s t h a t are t r a d i t i o n a l l y thought t o e x i s t o u t s i d e o f economic  determination.  iii  Table o f Contents  Abstract  i i  T a b l e o f Contents  i i i  L i s t of Figures  v  Acknowledgements  vi  Introduction  1  P a r t One: I d e o l o g i e s o f P r o d u c t i o n  Chapter 1:  Academic L i b e r a l i s m  1.1  The  1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  Freedom o f I n q u i r y i n t h e Modern U n i v e r s i t y M o d e r n i t y , 'Autonomy' and D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n The L i b e r a l Mandate f o r S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g The P u b l i s h i n g o f a S c h o l a r l y M a n u s c r i p t  Chapter 2: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Chapter 3: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5  Conflict  of  Faculties  The Theory o f t h e Knowledge S o c i e t y Social Structure, P o l i t y , Culture O b j e c t i v i t y and t h e U n i v e r s a l i t y o f Knowledge The 'Black Box' o f Knowledge Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n and C a p i t a l i s m C a p i t a l i s m and Academic Knowledge  24 25  29 32 40 44 50 53 55 61 67 81  The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Academic Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n . . 83 L i b r a r i e s and t h e Consumption o f Academic Knowledge . . . 86 S c h o l a r l y J o u r n a l s and D i s t r i b u t i o n 88 V e n t u r e C a p i t a l and D i s t r i b u t i o n 90 Knowledge, Labour and V a l u e 98  P a r t Two: P r a c t i c e s o f Consumption  Chapter 4: The Market, t h e Monograph and S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6  . . . 106  R e s e a r c h i n g Academic Economies 107 The S c h o l a r l y Monograph and t h e S e r i a l s C r i s i s . . . . 112 Academia Meets t h e M a r k e t p l a c e : U n i v e r s i t y Press P u b l i s h i n g 117 S c h o l a r s h i p t h a t S e l l s : Commercial S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h e r s 132 C o m m o d i f i c a t i o n and C r i t i c a l S t u d i e s : P u b l i s h i n g a t Routledge 136 The Monograph, t h e S u p e r s t o r e and t h e 'Mass' Market . . 143  iv  Chapter  5:  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6  Chapter  6:  6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5  Consumer  and the  A c a d e m i c Commodity  150  C a p i t a l i s m as an Economy o f S i g n s The C o m m o d i t y i n Consumer C u l t u r e The Book as C o m m o d i t y S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g i n Consumer C u l t u r e S e e k i n g the S c h o l a r l y Consumer: Academic A d v e r t i s i n g i n Magazines Seeking the ' I n t e l l e c t u a l ' Consumer: 'Mass' A d v e r t i s i n g The A c a d e m i c C o m m o d i t y a n d t h e  151 159 163 164 166 17 8  Sign of C u l t u r a l  C u l t u r a l C a p i t a l : K n o w l e d g e as C a p i t a l Cataloguing Capital Book D e s i g n , t h e A c a d e m i c C o m m o d i t y a n d C u l t u r a l A r t and A c a d e m i c C a p i t a l C r i t i c a l C o n t e n t a n d t h e C o m m o d i t y Form  Chapter Seven:  7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8  Culture  The C u l t u r a l Economy o f P i e r r e S c h o l a r s h i p as C a p i t a l  Capital  Capital  191 193 198 211 224 231  Bourdieu:  The C o n d i t i o n s f o r A c a d e m i c R e c o g n i t i o n C a p i t a l i n Content Language and A c a d e m i c C a p i t a l P u b l i s h i n g and A c a d e m i c D i s t i n c t i o n The A c a d e m i c C o m m o d i t y o f M i c h e l F o u c a u l t The A c a d e m i c C o m m o d i t y o f P i e r r e B o u r d i e u The A u t h o r , t h e M a r k e t a n d t h e C o m m o d i t y - T e x t S c h o l a r s h i p as C a p i t a l : The C o n v e r t i b i l i t y o f Capital  241 242 243 251 258 262 267 270 Academic 278  Conclusion  284  Bibliography  291  Appendix  299  L i s t of  Figures  Figure  2.1.  I d e o l o g y i n the Theory  Figure  3.1.  M o n o g r a p h and  Figure  4.1.  Academic Economies o f S c h o l a r l y Knowledge P r o d u c t i o n  Figure  5.1.  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  Figure  5.2.  S t o d d a r t P u b l i s h i n g Ad  174  Figure  5.3.  McGill-Queen's  179  Figure  5.4.  C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Ad  185  Figure  5.5.  B e r r e t t K o e h l e r P u b l i s h e r s Ad  186  Figure  5.6  M.I.T. P r e s s A d  188  Figure  6.1.  McGill-Queen's  Figure  6.2.  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Figure  6.3.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s C a t a l o g u e  202  Figure  6.4.  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  203  Figure  6.5.  Cloth-Bound  Figure  6.6.  X  Figure  6.7.  Max  Figure  6.8.  Joseph  Figure  6.9.  Andy Warhol's  C o s t s i n ARL  Libraries  ...  1986-1997  P r e s s Ad  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Ad  U n i v e r s i t y Press Catalogue Columbia  f o r the  Press Catalogue  Press Catalogue  Two  Stella's  conquest  of  cool  S i s t e r s cover B a t t l e of Lights  Diamond  Dust  69 . 97  .  I l l 173  L i b r a r y E d i t i o n S c h o l a r l y Monograph  7-Up' J a c k e t Ernst's  Serial  o f the Knowledge S o c i e t y  Shoes  200 . . . .  201  . . . 213 216 227  cover  230  cover  233  vi  Acknowledgements  I want t o express my p r o f o u n d g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r s  Richard  Dawn C u r r i e , and Thomas Kemple f o r t h e i r guidance, s u p p o r t , and  friendship.  Ericson, patience  Their i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s p r o j e c t i s  i n s u r m o u n t a b l e and  i t c e r t a i n l y would not have been p o s s i b l e i n i t s  p r e s e n t form w i t h o u t t h e i r generous c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I c o u l d not have completed t h i s p r o j e c t w i t h o u t the and moral s u p p o r t of my way  contributed  f r i e n d s and  colleagues,  t o the s p i r i t of t h i s p r o j e c t .  who  intellectual  each i n t h e i r  I e s p e c i a l l y thank  K e v i n Haggerty, Aaron Doyle, Karen E i s l e r , C a r l o s Neves, J i l l Randy-Lee C u t l e r , Monica L a n d o l t , e l s e who  g r a c i o u s l y endured my  d e s p i t e t h e i r own  the L e v e n s t e i n  f a m i l y and  sometimes h a r s h c r i t i c a l  Spicer,  everyone  sensibilities  p o s i t i o n on such m a t t e r s .  T h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the l o v e support of my  family.  I want t o thank my  s i s t e r Sonya P e t e r s  f a m i l y f o r t h e i r encouragement through a l l times good or bad; Inge P o l l e x f o r her  kindness, patience  and  a b e t t e r person.  and  and my  her mother  c l a r i t y ; and most of a l l my  f a t h e r , the l a t e Paul P o l l e x , whose honesty, hard work and made me  own  This t h e s i s i s dedicated  to  F i n a l l y I want t o thank my w i f e E l i z a b e t h Hardy.  dedication  him. Not  the l i f e of a graduate s t u d e n t t h r u s t upon her but a l s o the  only  was  entire  i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o j e c t t h a t accompanies i t . She managed t o be l o v i n g , supportive,  e n c o u r a g i n g and n o u r i s h i n g  f o r me  p r o v i d i n g a l l of these q u a l i t i e s f o r our new most h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e .  w h i l e a t the same time son N i c o l a s .  I owe  her  my  1  Introduction  As i t i s t h e p o w e r o f e x c h a n g i n g t h a t g i v e s o c c a s i o n t o t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , so t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s d i v i s i o n m u s t a l w a y s be l i m i t e d by t h e e x t e n t o f t h a t p o w e r , o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , by t h e e x t e n t o f t h e m a r k e t . (Adam S m i t h ,  Wealth  of  Nations)  No t h e o r y t o d a y e s c a p e s t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . E a c h one i s o f f e r e d as a p o s s i b i l i t y among c o m p e t i n g o p i n i o n s ; a l l a r e p u t up f o r c h o i c e . ( T h e o d o r A d o r n o , Negative  Every year publishers International book f a i r ' s  Book F a i r .  Much l i k e  For  o f F r a n k f u r t becomes h o s t t o t h i s are  publishing  trade  gather  at the  t h e s e few  Idiots)  to the  latest  hope o f f i n d i n g  days i n October, the  internationally with  the b a r g a i n i n g  computer software  manuals  newest o f f e r i n g s i n c u l t u r a l  o f T h e o d o r A d o r n o ' s Aesthetic  the  to  city  g i a n t m a r k e t p l a c e where p u b l i s h e r s  r i g h t s o f t h e i r b o o k s on  from the  i n d u s t r i e s , the  a venue f o r m a n u f a c t u r e r s  l o o k i n g to extend t h e i r business  ranging  Frankfurt  shows f r o m o t h e r  l a t e s t wares t o p o t e n t i a l consumers w i t h  markets f o r t h e i r products.  attend  world  primary purpose i s to provide  display their new  from around the  Dialectics)  Theory)  table. (e.g.  theory  a r e b o u g h t and  p u b l i s h e r s w i t h a f e r v o r t h a t i s u n r i v a l l e d by  any  a new  s o l d by  other  the  H e r e book's  Windows  (e.g.  who  for translation  over  8000  book f a i r  in  the  world. F r o m an  outsider's perspective,  phantasmagoria of the  Frankfurt  commodity s p e c t a c l e :  New  d i s p l a y e d t o consumers from booths t h a t r i v a l  and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l deals  o f t e n the  a r e made f o r t h e  commodities t h a t are  b a s e d upon t h e i r  a  giant  a b u s t l i n g t r a d i n g house  t h e W o r l d E x p o s i t i o n o r an a u t o m o t i v e show.  important  a p p e a r s as  products are  stalls  d i s p l a y e d succeed or  commercial acceptance at the  fair.  colourfully  i n shopping  circulation  From  malls,  of those  fail  like  goods,  financially  this  2  p e r s p e c t i v e , the f a c t t h a t i t i s books t h a t are the commodity on d i s p l a y i s i n the l a r g e r scheme of t h i n g s somewhat i r r e l e v a n t .  As one i m m e d i a t e l y  understands from the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f a i r from i t s u n a v o i d a b l e presence i n p u b l i s h i n g magazines  i n N o r t h America t o  g i a n t b i l l b o a r d s a t the F r a n k f u r t a i r p o r t and throughout the c i t y  during  the f a i r - i t c o u l d be any l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t f o r s a l e from the range of s e d u c t i v e o f f e r i n g s i n consumer c u l t u r e .  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e f a i r i s the  epitome o f the k i n d of commercial a c t i v i t y t h a t t i e s a l l contemporary b u s i n e s s endeavors t o each o t h e r , r e g a r d l e s s of i t s p r o d u c t .  I t i s on i t s  most b a s i c l e v e l a m a r k e t p l a c e where commodities a r e exchanged  by  p r o d u c e r s w i t h consumers and d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h the u l t i m a t e hope of f i n a n c i a l gain. of  The F r a n k f u r t Book F a i r i s , f i r s t and foremost, a p l a c e  business. As a commercial book f a i r whose mandate i s t o p r o v i d e a medium f o r  exchange  and as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p l a c e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n of g l o b a l  book c a p i t a l , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d i n a t t e n d a n c e a l l of the w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t commercial book p u b l i s h e r s from a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e languages and c o u n t r i e s .  T h e i r attendance i s mandatory  as i t i s i n d e e d  among the demands f o r the movement of today's g l o b a l c a p i t a l .  On  l e v e l , t h e r e are no a p o l o g i e s  o f book  about the n a t u r e of the business  this  s e l l i n g : the v a l u e of a book comes down t o i t s economics, i t s exchange v a l u e and s u b s e q u e n t l y i t s commercial p o t e n t i a l f o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f capital.  The f a c t t h a t many commercial p u b l i s h e r s are now p a r t of l a r g e r  trans-national corporations  (e.g. Fox T e l e v i s i o n owner Rupert Murdoch's  a c q u i s i t i o n of mega-publisher H a r p e r C o l l i n s and the now d e f u n c t s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r B a s i c Books) demonstrates the i n h e r e n t c o n n e c t i o n commodities f o r g l o b a l c a p i t a l .  o f books  as  The book p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y has, s i n c e  i t s i n c e p t i o n w i t h the Gutenberg P r e s s , never e x i s t e d p u r e l y f o r the sake  3  of  communicating  knowledge:  from i t s b e g i n n i n g book p u b l i s h i n g has always  been a commercial v e n t u r e , a l b e i t not always a l u c r a t i v e As a consequence  one.  of t h i s c o n n e c t i o n of books t o commerce, today i t  i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g t o see elements of consumer c u l t u r e a t the f a i r . As today's c a p i t a l i s m n e c e s s i t a t e s the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s i g n s as a fundamental a s p e c t of communication and the s y m b o l i c management of exchange, m a r k e t i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g r e i g n supreme a t such an event.  Often  p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s based upon the s y m b o l i c c u r r e n c y of the p r o d u c e r as w e l l as the d i s t i n c t i o n of the p r o d u c t .  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , each  booth s e l l s the p u b l i s h e r as w e l l as the books and t h e i r a u t h o r s and seeks to  e s t a b l i s h the potency of t h e i r p r o d u c t l i n e - the books t h a t comprise  t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g l i s t s - i n r e l a t i o n to other p u b l i s h e r s .  Such  c o m p e t i t i o n breeds a s e m i o t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the form of b o l d m a r k e t i n g t e c h n i q u e s where a p u b l i s h e r ' s success a t the f a i r i s r e l a t e d t o i t s ability  t o m a n i p u l a t e s i g n s i n o r d e r t o s t a n d out from the crowd  s y m b o l i c a l l y p o s i t i o n i t s e l f i n the p u b l i s h i n g h i e r a r c h y . of  the i d e n t i f i e r s of the consumer c u l t u r e  and  Of c o u r s e , a l l  ' o u t s i d e ' can i n d e e d be found  on the ' i n s i d e ' as ways of communicating brand names and p r o d u c t s .  Here  i t i s not a s t r e t c h of the i m a g i n a t i o n t o see a p a r a l l e l between the w o r l d of books and the l a r g e r w o r l d of commodities where p u b l i s h e r s are s u f f i c i e n t l y , a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y , s e m i o t i c c a p i t a l i s t s s e e k i n g r e t u r n on t h e i r magnanimous i n v e s t m e n t .  Consequently, p u b l i s h e r s  utilize  a l l of the a d v e r t i s i n g and m a r k e t i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them from consumer c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o ensure the consumption of t h e i r p r o d u c t . A l t h o u g h such commercial s t r a t e g i e s do not appear i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  g r e a t e r i m p u l s e of the f a i r , what does appear somewhat e n i g m a t i c among  a l l of the g l i t t e r  and s w i r l i n g of the commodity s i g n s a t the F r a n k f u r t  Book F a i r i s the presence of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s .  W h i l e the appearance  4  of Penguin t o u t i n g t h e i r l a t e s t c o l l e c t i o n o f a b r i d g e d c l a s s i c s o r Doubleday s e l l i n g t h e l a t e s t John Grisham n o v e l i s o f l i t t l e s u r p r i s e , t h e presence o f s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s  i n v o k e s c u r i o s i t y i n t h o s e who a r e aware  of t h e a g e - o l d mandate o f s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s : knowledge's sake'.  'to p u b l i s h knowledge f o r  Most do not commonly a s s o c i a t e s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y ,  even i n i t s p u b l i s h i n g form, w i t h commercial a c t i v i t y . t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s as o c c u p y i n g o p p o s i t e  Indeed many see  ends o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l  spectrum.  However, a t F r a n k f u r t we w i t n e s s a s y n c h r o n i c i t y where commercial and scholarly publishers  a l i k e e x i s t side-by-side,  each v y i n g  f o r a share o f  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l book t r a d i n g market. What makes s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s  such u n l i k e l y p a t r o n s a t t h i s event  i s n o t t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o commerce, f o r a l l p u b l i s h e r s  regardless  of the  commercial v i a b i l i t y o f t h e i r book l i s t s must s e l l t h e i r books i n o r d e r t o stay f i n a n c i a l l y a f l o a t .  Rather, t h e academic a u t h o r i t y o f t h e i r t i t l e s ,  the type o f knowledge t h a t i s communicated, t h e c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t y such knowledge i n v o k e s and t h e i d e a l s o f academic freedom u n d e r p i n n i n g academic w r i t i n g make s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s book f a i r . contracts sell,  a s u r p r i s i n g p a r t i c i p a n t a t a commercial  U n l i k e commercial p u b l i s h e r s who o f t e n o f f e r l u c r a t i v e f o r a u t h o r s o f v a r y i n g backgrounds who can w r i t e books t h a t  scholarly publishers  f o r commercial g a i n .  a r e not i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f p u b l i s h i n g  strictly  S c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those p r e s s e s  that  are u n i v e r s i t y a f f i l i a t e d , a r e i n t h e r a t h e r awkward and somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g i n the b u s i n e s s o f p u b l i s h i n g t o f u r t h e r the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c g o a l o f t h e ' f r e e ' d i s s e m i n a t i o n  o f knowledge.  U n l i k e commercial p u b l i s h e r s who must p u b l i s h f o r p r o f i t and whose a u t h o r s do l i k e w i s e , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r s c h o l a r l y mandate s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s a r e seldom a b l e t o o f f e r t h e i r a u t h o r s a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l reward. other f a c t o r s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of b a s i c  fiscal  Among  5  considerations:  the knowledge t h a t s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s  disseminate  t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f s p e c i a l i z e d monographs seldom p r o v o k e s enough book s a l e s t o even r e c o v e r the c o s t s o f p u b l i s h i n g .  The f a c t t h a t t h e  s c h o l a r l y knowledge c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the books i s s p e c i a l i z e d n e c e s s a r i l y means t h a t t h e r e are o n l y a few consumers t o whom t h i s knowledge i s of interest.  The r e a l i t y o f low s a l e s does not t y p i c a l l y pose a p r o b l e m f o r  s c h o l a r l y a u t h o r s , f o r u n l i k e commercial a u t h o r s , they a r e not l o o k i n g t o make f i n a n c i a l g a i n s but r a t h e r , t r u e t o the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f l i b e r a l academia, academics are l o o k i n g t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o knowledge r e g a r d l e s s  of i t s m a r k e t a b i l i t y , l i m i t e d a u d i e n c e and p o t e n t i a l  f o r mass consumption.  In t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l  difference  between commercial and s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g : commercial p u b l i s h i n g i s p r i m a r i l y about p u b l i s h i n g 'books f o r economic g a i n , s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i s p r i m a r i l y about p u b l i s h i n g books f o r the advancement o f knowledge. H i s t o r i c a l l y , b o t h are s u p p o r t e d by a u t h o r s / p r o d u c e r s and readers/consumers who m a i n t a i n s i m i l a r v a l u e s . Academic a u t h o r s c o n t i n u e t o produce the knowledge t h a t i s d i s s e m i n a t e d by s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s because, u n l i k e commercial a u t h o r s , they a r e f i n a n c i a l l y supported by an i n s t i t u t i o n whose r a i s o n d ' e t r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h e autonomous p r o d u c t i o n o f 'knowledge f o r knowledge's sake' and the advancement of knowledge more g e n e r a l l y .  In contrast to  commercial a u t h o r s whose books must s e l l i n o r d e r f o r them t o e a t academic a u t h o r s a r e n o r m a l l y f e d , so t o speak, by the u n i v e r s i t y .  I d e a l l y , then,  academic a u t h o r s need not worry about the economics of p u b l i s h i n g when p r o d u c i n g , exchanging and d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e i r knowledge i n p u b l i s h e d form. E s s e n t i a l l y academics are f i n a n c i a l l y cared f o r i n t e r n a l l y as a consequence o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n  (so t h a t t h e y need not  w r i t e out o f t h e e x t e r n a l i n t e r e s t s o f f i n a n c i a l g a i n ) .  With t h i s  ideal,  6  an a s p e c t o f t h e l a r g e r p r i n c i p l e u n i v e r s i t y environment allows considered is  more  of  'academic  freedom' , t h e modern  authors t o produce  knowledge  ' p u r e ' , l e s s b i a s e d a n d c l o s e r t o i t s o b j e c t i n s o f a r as i t  o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e production  the  commercial value,  Academic  knowledge,  consumption  i n this  or f i s c a l  respect,  authority that i s indeed d i f f e r e n t knowledge.  well  o f knowledge  feasibility  of  and  i s endowed w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r  from other  cultural  of commercial s e l f - i n t e r e s t  gain.  Academic  as p o l i t i c a l ,  and knowledge  a u t h o r i t y a t t e m p t s t o be  religious  not  knowledge. cultural  sources of  I t s a u t h o r i t y i s based i n i t s attempt to d i s t a n c e i t s e l f  the b i a s e s economic  that i s  from  f o r the sake o f  ' f r e e ' o f economic  as  and o t h e r b i a s i n g f o r c e s o f p a r t i s a n  interest. In l i g h t partially  of t h i s  i m p e t u s o f t h e modern u n i v e r s i t y and t h e s e i d e a l s  b a s e d upon t h e l a r g e r p r i n c i p l e o f a c a d e m i c  freedom,  presence of s c h o l a r l y publishers at Frankfurt i s a l i t t l e for  what i s b e i n g  commodities  sold, traded  and exchanged  c l e a r o r o b v i o u s when one  authority i s partially i s confronted  The  finance.  w i t h thousands  Not o n l y a r e monographs exchanged  many c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , b u t t h e way p r e s e n t e d t o consumers  at the f a i r  commercial counterparts. s c h o l a r l y books  We  i n many f o r m s .  We  overt  see t h i s  from  of s c h o l a r l y c o m m e r c i a l book i n t h e same way  i n which t h e s e books  also differs  witness this  distance  based i s not at a l l  m o n o g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d i n much t h e same f o r m as t h e l a t e s t on p e r s o n a l  more p u z z l i n g ,  among t h e many b o o k -  are the products of s c h o l a r l y research.  commerce on w h i c h a c a d e m i c  the  little  are  from t h e i r o v e r t l y  commercialization  i n t h e way  of  i n w h i c h many  s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r ' s i m p r i n t s a r e p r o j e c t e d l i k e b r a n d names f r o m monolithic trading kiosks University  Presses).  We  as  (e.g. t h e t r a d i n g b o o t h s o f O x f o r d and  giant  Cambridge  see t h i s w i t h the d i s p l a y of such s c h o l a r l y books  as A n t h o n y G i d d e n s ' b o a s t s on i t s book  Capitalism  cover:  'value-packs'  'over  that  scholarly  consumer.  producers  of  and Modern Social  100,000 copies  attempt  However,  s c h o l a r l y books  v i e w t h e i r work i n c o n t r a s t  sold'.  this with  to appeal to the bargain  conscious  significant difference  - academics  n o t see  this  those issue  commercial endeavors  i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of  relatively  To some,  academic  commercial and academic t e x t s respect  to the  academic  the  freedom,  the still  a  academic for  appears  of  knowledge academics  to  do or  remain  as  I explore  f o r m when c o m p a r i n g  circulated.  commodities and the  On t h e one h a n d ,  claim that  interference.  they are  system  c i t i n g the autonomous  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a t  and  F r a n k f u r t and  i n t h e p u b l i s h i n g w o r l d , i n academia and i n consumer c u l t u r e  large,  is  clear  commodity t h a t  is  that  academic  subject  Seeing Martin Heidegger's Clearasil  indeed c i r c u l a t e s  t o a' d e f i n i t i v e s y s t e m o f e c o n o m i c Being  and Time ' r e a d '  The Birdcage  'read'  by a r e c e p t i o n i s t  only reveals  the  surface  of  such p e r v a s i v e  t h e e c o n o m i c demands o f  exchange. teen i n a  Nietzsche  consumer c u l t u r e ,  is,  thus as  without i n f l u e n c i n g  p r o d u c t i o n or t r a n s f o r m i n g the purpose of that  film  c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n oJ  The q u e s t i o n i s  c a n c i r c u l a t e as a c o m m o d i t y , t h a t  at  a  i n a scene from the Hollywood  a c a d e m i c a l l y produced knowledge.  academic knowledge  as  by a p o c k - f a c e d  a c n e c r e a m c o m m e r c i a l on Much M u s i c o r s e e i n g  innocuously  critical  knowledge  of  ideal  elsewhere it  in  exposes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h  many a c a d e m i c s  immune f r o m ' e x t e r n a l '  that  so.  However,  similarity  academic p r o d u c t i o n of those  exchange i n which they are of  research  u n t o u c h e d by such c o m m e r c i a l f o r c e s .  more d e t a i l i n t h e p a g e s t o come,  is  and g a r n e r  as p o s i n g a n y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m s  academic p u b l i s h e r s .  here  text  and s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s -  p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful c u l t u r a l authority for doing Many o f  that i r o n i c a l l y  We s e e  the  to  Theory  knowledge.  whether  subject  to  the  Or t o  rephrase  8  the q u e s t i o n  s l i g h t l y : Can academia r e s i s t i t s c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n when  academic knowledge c i r c u l a t e s as a p r o d u c t i n consumer c u l t u r e , o r , has the r e s i l i e n c e o f c a p i t a l p u t an end t o such autonomous f i e l d s o f production? The  F r a n k f u r t Book F a i r i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and f r u i t f u l s i t e t o open  an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y books and academic knowledge i n consumer c u l t u r e because i t i s not e x c e p t i o n a l b u t r a t h e r t y p i c a l o f t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f academic knowledge i n consumer c u l t u r e . As we see a t F r a n k f u r t , s c h o l a r l y p r o d u c t s such as Adorno's r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e o f advanced c a p i t a l i s m a r e i r o n i c a l l y , much i n t h e s p i r i t o f Adam Smith, e q u a l l y exchanged i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e as commodities by p u b l i s h e r s , l a r g e s c a l e commercial o r s m a l l e r s c a l e s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s , p r i m a r i l y f o r commercial reasons.  However, i f one buys a s c h o l a r l y book  published  by a s c h o l a r l y p r e s s a t a l o c a l b o o k s t o r e o r (as i s becoming more common today) a book c h a i n s u p e r s t o r e  such as t h e Canadian b o o k s t o r e g i a n t  C h a p t e r s , chances a r e t h a t t h e s c h o l a r l y book's appearance c l o s e l y resembles i t s commercial c o u n t e r p a r t s .  That i s , i t s cover,  t i t l e , the  a u t h o r ' s c r e d e n t i a l s , the c r e d e n t i a l s o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e b l u r b s ( t e s t i m o n i a l p r a i s e s from c r e d i b l e sources used t o s e l l books as w e l l as f i l m s , music, a r t e t c . ) , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t has b l u r b s a t a l l , geared t o s e l l t h e book t o p r o s p e c t i v e  readers/  book i s promoted as s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h  and a p r o d u c t o f 'academic freedom'  t h i s f a c t does not change.  consumers.  are a l l  Even when t h e  I n t h i s and many o t h e r ways we w i t n e s s t h e  c i r c u l a t i o n o f academic knowledge as a commodity n o t u n l i k e any o t h e r product i n the g l o b a l marketplace.  The i s s u e t h a t I e x p l o r e here i s not  g e n e r a l l y whether o r not knowledge i s a commodity, f o r I b e l i e v e w i t h many others 1981;  t h a t today t h i s can h a r d l y be d i s p u t e d Lyotard  1984; Stehr  ( B e l l 1973; B a u d r i l l a r d  1994), b u t r a t h e r , my concern i s s p e c i f i c a l l y to  9  what extent consumer  academic knowledge becomes a commodity i n contemporary  culture.  As I have d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e course o f my i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h i s p r o j e c t , even t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t academic knowledge i s a commodity i s deemed by many l i b e r a l academics t o be p r e p o s t e r o u s .  Skeptics point to  the average s a l a r y o f an academic o r t h e f i n a n c i a l g a i n s earned from a p u b l i c a t i o n i n j o u r n a l o r book form as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f academics do not produce knowledge f o r commercial g a i n .  For many, t h i s  view i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e range o f r e s e a r c h t o p i c s e x p l o r e d by academics t h a t have a b s o l u t e l y no commercial v a l u e o r l a r g e appeal.  consumer  F u r t h e r , many contend t h a t t h e degrees o f academic s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  c e r t a i n l y l i m i t t h e number o f a c t u a l consumers o f such knowledge.  Given  the l i m i t e d market range f o r academic knowledge and t h e meager f i n a n c i a l compensation, many l i b e r a l academics u p h o l d t h e i d e a t h a t academic p r o d u c t i o n i s immune o r s h e l t e r e d from t h e types o f market f o r c e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e o t h e r forms o f p r o d u c t i o n .  Other forms o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n  s i m p l y do n o t o p e r a t e under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a s c r i b e d freedom t o produce l i k e t h o s e t h a t s u p p o s e d l y e x i s t i n t h e t e n u r e d s e c u r i t y o f an academic setting.  Many would argue, then, t h a t because o f t h e academic freedom  embodied i n t h e t e n u r e system, t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f academic knowledge as a commodity i s u n l i k e l y o r i m p o s s i b l e e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e academia i s by d e f i n i t i o n s e p a r a t e from commercial i n t e r e s t s . In what f o l l o w s I attempt t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n f u s i o n i n t h i s  assertion  by examining t h e e x t e n t t o which c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d but d i s t i n c t processes.  Whereas c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o  a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n s t r i c t l y f o r t h e purposes o f f i n a n c i a l g a i n t h r o u g h p r o f i t , c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n ( i n t h e way i t i s used by t h e o r i s t s o f consumer c u l t u r e and throughout t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n ) r e f e r s more b r o a d l y t o t h e  10  s t r u c t u r i n g of v a l u e embedded i n systems of exchange.  This, of course, i s  a d e p a r t u r e from the t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n of the commodity as s t r i c t l y o b j e c t of commerce t h a t i s s i m p l y bought and s o l d . commodification,  an  Rather,  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t i s used here i n r e l a t i o n t o the  p r o d u c t i o n of knowledge)  r e f e r s t o the c a p i t a l i s t economic system and the  g e n e r a l l o g i c of unequal a c c u m u l a t i o n and exchange i n which knowledge, o t h e r commodities, c i r c u l a t e .  and  The l o g i c of c a p i t a l , as we see below, has  many forms - from a s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l  economic l e v e l on which commerce i s  a p r i m a r y f a c t o r such as the F r a n k f u r t Book F a i r , t o a c u l t u r a l  economic  l e v e l where symbols are o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o an economic l o g i c t h a t i s based on a c c u m u l a t i o n and a s y m b o l i c h i e r a r c h y .  To speak of academic  knowledge as a commodity then i s not t o say t h a t academics a r e i n the b u s i n e s s o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n and p u b l i s h i n g s i m p l y t o accumulate f i n a n c i a l wealth.  T h i s i d e a , as e v e r y u n d e r p a i d academic w i l l  p r o t e s t , i s p a t e n t l y absurd.  However, an economic l o g i c e x i s t s which i s  common t o a l l p r o d u c t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of i t s i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n t o such f o r c e s .  surely  positioning i n  W h i l e t h e r e i s a l e v e l of commerce t h a t cannot  be d e n i e d , the commodity form i n academia t a k e s on a much deeper s y m b o l i c meaning as the a c c u m u l a t i o n of c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l and s y m b o l i c power.  As I  attempt t o demonstrate, t h i s i s not e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r i c t l y i n terms of commerce but i n d e e d p o s s e s s e s a s i m i l a r  logic.  In t h i s r e s p e c t the a s s e r t i o n t h a t knowledge i s a commodity i s not as r a d i c a l as i t may  a t f i r s t appear.  Many contemporary s o c i a l  theorists  have p o i n t e d t o academic p r o d u c t i o n and knowledge p r o d u c t i o n more g e n e r a l l y as b e i n g i m p l i c a t e d w i t h i n a l a r g e r economic system of c a p i t a l i s t exchange.  Most famously perhaps f o r s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s ,  F r a n c o i s L y o t a r d i n The Postmodern  Condition:  A Report  Jean-  on Knowledge  claims  11  that increasingly economic  knowledge i n contemporary s o c i e t y f l o w s a c c o r d i n g t o  an  logic:  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s u p p l i e r s and u s e r s o f k n o w l e d g e t o t h e k n o w l e d g e t h e y s u p p l y a n d u s e i s now t e n d i n g and w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n d , t o assume t h e f o r m a l r e a d y t a k e n by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f commodity p r o d u c e r s and c o n s u m e r s t o t h e c o m m o d i t i e s t h e y p r o d u c e and consume - t h a t i s , t h e f o r m of value. K n o w l e d g e i s and w i l l be p r o d u c e d i n o r d e r t o be s o l d , i t i s a n d w i l l be c o n s u m e d i n o r d e r t o be v a l o r i z e d i n a new p r o d u c t i o n : i n b o t h cases the g o a l i s exchange. K n o w l e d g e c e a s e s t o be an e n d i n i t s e l f ( L y o t a r d 1984 : 4) . Others  such  consequence of the the  shift  as N i c o  S t e h r i n Knowledge  commodification  Societies  see  the  o f k n o w l e d g e as an i n h e r e n t a s p e c t  of p r o d u c t i o n from manual l a b o u r to i n t e l l e c t u a l  s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of s o c i e t y l i v e s  inevitable  o f f the s e l l i n g  of  of  l a b o u r where a  knowledge:  I t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a l m o s t s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t , i n a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h k n o w l e d g e becomes t h e d o m i n a n t p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e , t h a t k n o w l e d g e , o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f k n o w l e d g e a t l e a s t , t u r n s i n t o a c o m m o d i t y a n d c a n be a p p r o p r i a t e d , r e c o g n i z e d and t r e a t e d as p r o p e r t y . Of c o u r s e k n o w l e d g e has a l w a y s h a d i t s p r i c e and has n e v e r b e e n a v a i l a b l e i n an u n l i m i t e d s u p p l y , t h a t i s , k n o w l e d g e has b e e n n o t u n l i k e o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s , s c a r c e , and i n o r d e r t o u t i l i z e i t , one h a d t o s o m e t i m e s buy i t ( S t e h r 1994:109) . Although  these  statements  r e l a t e to the p r o d u c t i o n of  k n o w l e d g e more g e n e r a l l y , o t h e r s o c i a l The  Future  Bourdieu site  of  Intellectuals  i n Homo Academicus  the  Rise  through  In t h e i r  society. elites  New  as A l v i n  Class  and  K n o w l e d g e as a f o r m o f c u l t u r a l  o f a c a d e m i a as  consumers.  the  that secure  capital  those  the possessor  the c a p i t a l i s t  of  a  industrial  c r e a t e s a new  u l t i m a t e l y i t s p o s s e s s i o n by  of  knowledge  that reproduces  whose s t a t u s i s b a s e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e as and  Pierre  argue t h a t a c q u i r e d  as c a p i t a l  social hierarchy that rivals  commodity, i t s a c c u m u l a t i o n ,  Gouldner i n  knowledge i n t o v a r i o u s forms  t h a t l e d t o i t s a c q u i s i t i o n and  p o s i t i o n i n the  the  r e s p e c t i v e analyses, both  the e d u c a t i o n a l system operates  conditions  of  such  p o i n t to the i n s t i t u t i o n  of economic p r a c t i c e s t h a t convert  capital.  few  and  theorists  contemporary  class  of  a relatively  12  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e s o c i a l development o f t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge a r e t h o s e e x c u r s e s i n which academic p r o d u c t i o n i s examined i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a more g e n e r a l l i t e r a r y economy. I n t h e s e a n a l y s e s , academic p r o d u c t i o n i s seen i n terms o f w r i t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g and t h e e x t e n t t o which such p r a c t i c e s a r e v i a b l e and v a l i d a t e d i s seen as r e l a t e d t o the academic m a r k e t p l a c e , g l o b a l c a p i t a l i s m and t h e economy o f w r i t i n g . Production':  As Ben Agger t e l l s us i n 'Aporias o f Academic  'the dominant view o f American academia i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the metaphor o f an open market o f competing i d e a s , p a r a l l e l i n g t h e l i b e r a l metaphor o f a market economy' (Agger 1991:89).  A l i t e r a r y economy f o r  Agger i s comprised of t h e c r e a t i o n of i d e a s i n an academic s e t t i n g t h a t c a t e r t o market f o r c e s as s t r u c t u r e d and s a n c t i o n e d by S t a t e  interests.  P u b l i s h i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t p l a y s an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f knowledge which i s l i m i t e d by t h e e x t e n t t o which p u b l i s h i n g p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e development o f p a r t i c u l a r forms o f knowledge.  The  economy o f academic w r i t i n g then i s not so much an e f f e c t o f i t s c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n , as some might p r o t e s t , but more i m p o r t a n t l y o f t h e academic p r o d u c e r ' s response and c o n c e s s i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r market f o r c e s . I mention t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s by s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s o f t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge i n o r d e r t o demonstrate t h e b u r g e o n i n g l i t e r a t u r e t h a t concerns i t s e l f w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n i n contemporary c a p i t a l i s m .  However, r e g a r d l e s s of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , t h e  i d e a o f t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge s t i l l might seem r a d i c a l , d i s t a s t e f u l o r a l t o g e t h e r i n c o r r e c t t o t h o s e who u p h o l d a l i b e r a l  vision  of academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n and t h e autonomy t o f r e e l y pursue knowledge.  T h i s problem c l e a r l y d i v i d e s t h o s e who r e c o g n i z e t h e  phenomenon from t h o s e who do n o t ; t h i s , i n t u r n , b r i n g s me t o a f u r t h e r problem.  13  On the o t h e r s i d e of the c o i n l i e s the l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n t o a b e l i e f i n the autonomy of academic p r a c t i c e .  t h a t adheres  According  t o t h i s view,  academics are i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y accorded freedom t o pursue knowledge t h a t i s f r e e from e x t e r n a l i n t e r e s t s . b e l i e f below, f o r now allows  A l t h o u g h I d e v e l o p the h i s t o r y of t h i s  i t i s enough t o say t h a t , i n t h e o r y ,  f o r a ' d i s i n t e r e s t e d ' p u r s u i t of r e s e a r c h .  t h i s autonomy  Whether the knowledge  concerns a f i s h , an atom, a s o c i e t y or a b e h a v i o u r , the autonomy of academic p r a c t i c e i s deemed e s s e n t i a l f o r unpacking the  'objective'  As a r e s u l t , academic knowledge as developed through pure r e s e a r c h accorded a p r i v i l e g e d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t a t u s .  world. is  I t s a u t h o r i t y i s based upon  the u n f e t t e r e d p u r s u i t of i t s o b j e c t as e s t a b l i s h e d through the autonomy of the i n s t i t u t i o n . and  s o c i o l o g i c a l , one  Given t h i s p o s i t i o n , which i s b o t h can see why  epistemological  l i b e r a l s might t h i n k the premise of  c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n of academic knowledge i s p a t e n t l y absurd.  the  Knowledge, i n  t h i s view, n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t s i t s o b j e c t and not i t s c o n t e x t . However, the problem i s t h a t the l i b e r a l view a c t u a l l y obscures i s s u e of the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n of knowledge. c h a p t e r two,  such o b f u s c a t i o n  Enlightenment epistemology.  As  the  I develop f u r t h e r i n  e x i s t s because of l i b e r a l i s m ' s c o n n e c t i o n By t h i s account the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  'the o b j e c t ' t h a t i s the b a s i s f o r the l i b e r a l p r o d u c t i o n  p r i m a c y of  of knowledge i s  a h i s t o r i c a l whereas the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n t h a t I am r e f e r r i n g t o can o n l y u n d e r s t o o d as a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l o c c u r r e n c e .  to  The  be  autonomy of  academic p r a c t i c e h i s t o r i c a l l y e x i s t e d t o a l l o w knowledge t o r e v e a l  the  i n t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of the o b j e c t of r e s e a r c h w i t h o u t e x t e r n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , such as p o l i t i c a l , economic or r e l i g i o u s c e n s o r s h i p .  The  traditional  f o c u s o f the p u r s u i t o f knowledge i s s t r i c t l y i n t e r n a l i s t and as such does not see s o c i a l or h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s as i n f l u e n c i n g the p u r s u i t of  14  knowledge,  either  content  academic  of  ideally  epistemologically commodification for  the  very  inquiry  the  reflexively historic largely  and  course  own.  i t s  this  or  book  titled  the  academic  such  market  acquiring  1996).  this  literary were  an  in  invitation; prospectus  but  to  forces,  the  articles  as  one  the  I don't  betrays  a  academic  Ezra  response  senior  anthology feel  concept  scholar  T.S. to who  to  As  the  strictly  including  on  see  they  in  a  Eliot  market  and  James  forces  with  the  'Thank-you The  Joyce,  in  Joyce an  among  eye  for to  your  phrasing  Wolfe,  Watt  founders'  invitation  for  some  and  the  and  declined  to  recent  literature  how  any  the  (Dettmar  examine  of  of  experienced  thesis  by  have  dismissive  English  that  to  we  the  socio-  Canonization  of  contribute.  belittles.  follows  knowledge  production  forces  of  ideological resistance  their  responded:  moved that  canon  choose  Pound,  academic  quite  market  note  line  establishes  authority,  often  i s an  explore  authors  fact writing in As  the  a  i t undermines  Promotion,  editors  that  canon  such  Self  reexamine  the  for  There  for  of  tautology,  such  that  knowledge  are  a  contemporary  knowledge production.  collection  sales.  essay  influences  Modernisms:  attempts  of  liberals  knowledge.  in a  of  the  investigation that  foundation  approach  foundation  external  Marketing  that  this  academic  academic  difficulty  write  rejected  respect,  about  commercial  the  autonomous  Non-critical studies  autonomous  ideas  others,  contrast  of  autonomy  empirically researched  such  the  i s the  the  way,  nonsensical,  of  of  of  appears  authority  production  In  examination  research  By  i s p r i m a r i l y upon  this  an  regarding  of  negates.  In  of  context.  Rereading  knowledge  focus  assumption  neglected  In  i t s form.  empirical  empirical  The  s i t u a t i n g knowledge production  objectivist  light  of  not  an  academic  basis  one-dimensional  claims  speaking,  of  in practice.  knowledge,  necessarily  challenges  or  of  Ford,  the et  a l .  15  were a f t e r a l l n o t j u n i o r academics w i t h a way t o make' (Dettmar and Watt 1996:1).  W h i l e t h i s response c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a c e r t a i n d i s d a i n f o r b o t h  the s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e form i n which i t i s p r e s e n t e d ,  i t also reveals  the r e l u c t a n c e o f some l i b e r a l academics t o c o n f r o n t , i f n o t deny a l t o g e t h e r , t h e e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of knowledge p r o d u c t i o n , s i m p l y as i f they do not e x i s t . contradictory.  However, t h e tone of t h e response i s t e l l i n g l y  I t both frowns upon t h e r e e x a m i n a t i o n  o f t h e canon i n  terms o f market f o r c e s , y e t a l s o i m p l i c i t l y acknowledges t h e s i t u a t i o n o f j u n i o r academics 'with a way t o make' and thus as c a t e r i n g t o market forces.  Even i f t h e authors  o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n a r e m i s g u i d e d and c a n o n i c a l  l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s a r e not as they c l a i m 'market-driven' , does n o t t h e acknowledgement o f t h e need f o r j u n i o r f a c u l t y t o be so i n c l i n e d i n d i c a t e a need t o examine t h i s f u r t h e r r a t h e r than s i m p l y t o d i s m i s s  their  a c t i v i t y as 'with a way t o make'? I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , t h e message a t an American S o c i o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n workshop I a t t e n d e d  f o r graduate s t u d e n t s  d i s s e r t a t i o n was a l s o r e f l e c t i v e o f such i d e o l o g y . a tenured  on p u b l i s h i n g one's  On t h e one hand, b o t h  s o c i o l o g i s t and an e d i t o r from a h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d u n i v e r s i t y  p r e s s argued t h a t s t u d e n t s must pursue t h e i r p a s s i o n s ignore the pressures  t o produce f o r t h e academic m a r k e t p l a c e .  s o c i o l o g i s t , whose Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n on Freaks l a t e r p u b l i s h e d as a book, p u t i t : instrumentalism. research'.  on Television  As t h e Talk Shows  ' i t i s a b a t t l e between i n t e g r i t y and  Don't l e t i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e your  Or as t h e e d i t o r who p u b l i s h e d t h e book p u t i t :  p a s s i o n and l o v e i n a m a n u s c r i p t . inform the process. real fast'.  f o r knowledge and  Manuscripts  I never l e t i n s t r u m e n t a l  'I l o o k f o r considerations  where t h i s i s apparent g e t o f f my desk  A l l o f t h e speakers on t h e p a n e l s t r o n g l y urged s t u d e n t s not  t o l e t i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , and c o n t r a r y  16  to what s t u d e n t s might t h i n k i s i n demand, they urged s t u d e n t s t o produce something t h a t t h e y themselves f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g .  They t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t  i f t h e t o p i c i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t then i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y  find  i t s way t o p u b l i c a t i o n , f o r i t i s o n l y out o f t h i s genuine, autonomous quest f o r knowledge t h a t t r u l y worthy knowledge i s produced.  Here t h e  i d e o l o g y o f t h e message i s c l e a r l y l i b e r a l - t h e genuine academic p u r s u i t of  knowledge i s i n h e r e n t l y autonomous.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e i n d e e d many who  a s c r i b e t o t h i s view, the q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y r a i s e s i n today's academic c o n t e x t , however, i s whether t h i s l i b e r a l v i e w o f academic p r a c t i c e a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s t h e contemporary p r a c t i c e o f academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  As I demonstrate below, adherence t o t h i s  ideology  o f t e n l e a d s t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between l i b e r a l academic t h e o r y and a c t u a l contemporary academic p r a c t i c e s .  B r i e f l y , t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n can be  summarized from an i n t e r v i e w I conducted f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h .  T h i s academic  m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , on t h e one hand, he o n l y w r i t e s f o r h i m s e l f  (the s t a n d a r d  l i b e r a l view o f academic autonomy).  But i n t h e course o f t h e i n t e r v i e w he  a l s o r e c o u n t e d how he wanted a 'sexy' t i t l e f o r h i s l a t e s t book i n o r d e r to  g a i n a w i d e r a p p e a l f o r t h e s t u d e n t market.  T h i s example  superficially  demonstrates what I e x p l o r e a t a deeper l e v e l : t h a t t h e market as comprised by consumers o f academic knowledge p l a y s a fundamental y e t unacknowledged r o l e i n today's p r o d u c t i o n o f academic knowledge.  It is  t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e l i b e r a l view o f academic p r o d u c t i o n t h a t requires explanation. The l i b e r a l account o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n i s c l e a r about where i t stands on t h e i s s u e o f market f o r c e s and c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n as t h e y r e l a t e t o academia, and t h i s i n i t s e l f l a r g e l y p r e v e n t s f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e issue.  For many l i b e r a l s t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f academic knowledge  does not and s h o u l d not e x i s t .  simply  On t h e o t h e r hand, however, much o f t h e  17  critical between  t h e o r e t i c a l work t h a t p o i n t s  to the inherent  t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge  knowledge  and t h e economics  contained i n c r i t i c a l  setting.  critically  social practices.  Thus,  i n a rigorous analysis  t h a t generates such p r a c t i c e s . social  although the t h e o r e t i c a l  I n o t h e r words,  1991; O ' N e i l l  culture  and d e v e l o p s t h e  f e a t u r e s o f knowledge  1992); however, sociological  little  production i s further  analysis  of the c i r c u l a t i o n  that  o f commodities  consumer c u l t u r e i n p r a c t i c e i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f knowledge i n  an a c a d e m i c  setting.  theoretical  tradition,  examined culture.  Thus as t h e m a t t e r s t a n d s i n t h e c r i t i c a l academic  In this  analysis  from Marx's  early  B o u r d i e u , b y way o f a g r o u n d e d knowledge  has y e t t o be  reflexively  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f consumer  I seek t o d e v e l o p t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  more c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r s i o n s  academic  knowledge  as a commodity t h a t c i r c u l a t e s  commodification, the  characteristics  as an  much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n  acknowledges  d e v e l o p e d b y way o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y g r o u n d e d  in  i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  o r as a p a r t o f t h e c o n s u m e r  methodological legitimacy of the external  how t h e m a r k e t  literature  o f t h e c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge  theory c r i t i c a l l y  G o u l d n e r 1979; A g g e r  production  t h a t g r o u n d t h e phenomenon i n  c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n more g e n e r a l l y ,  ongoing s o c i a l p r a c t i c e i n academia  examines  a l t h o u g h such  i n d e e d r e f e r t o contemporary a s p e c t s i n knowledge  confronts  contemporary  analyses of the  That i s ,  t h e y do n o t e l a b o r a t e t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s contemporary  anecdotes  a r e o f t e n c o n d u c t e d on s u c h a l e v e l o f  a b s t r a c t i o n as t o appear c o n t e x t - f r e e . commentaries  A s i d e from v a r i o u s  exegeses, t h e o r e t i c a l  c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge  (cf.  o f academic  production often leaves the issue r e l a t i v e l y unnoticed,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the North American  grounded  contradictions  critiques of  f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e commodity form t o  found i n Jean B a u d r i l l a r d analysis  t h a t examines  and P i e r r e  the extent t o which  f u n c t i o n s as a c o m m o d i t y f o r c o n s u m e r  capitalism.  18  A l t h o u g h my aim i s  p r i m a r i l y to develop  analysis  f o r academic knowledge  examples  as i l l u s t r a t i o n s  a theoretical  i n consumer c u l t u r e ,  of p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l  framework f o r I utilize  insights  empirical  to the  r e v o l v i n g p r i m a r i l y around the d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption of knowledge.  In t h i s  respect  advance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  academic  analyses of knowledge but a l s o  r o l e of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s  t h a t attempt  most c l o s e l y  to demonstrate  with other c r i t i c a l s o c i o l o g i c a l  the  complex mosaic i n v o l v e d i n  i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n of knowledge  (cf.  Gouldner 1979,  to  and the  marketplace i n the l a r g e r system of academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n . follows  issues  I hope not only to advance a c r i t i c a l  contemporary framework f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l  analysis  the  This  studies  the Latour  1987,  Bourdieu 1988) . Furthermore, capitalism  f o l l o w i n g i n the  ( B a u d r i l l a r d 1981;  Jameson 1991;  Bourdieu 1991),  f o o t s t e p s of t h e o r i s t s  Horkheimer and Adorno 1988; I attempt  relatively  recent  of the  commodity form.  s o c i a l development,  Lash  1990;  to b u i l d upon the n o t i o n of  b l u r r i n g of boundaries between these p r e v i o u s l y d i s t i n c t and the omnipotence  of c u l t u r e and  social  With r e f e r e n c e  I examine the  to  spheres  this  symbiosis  of  academic and the economic spheres i n t o what I r e f e r to as the economy.  T h i s term i s meant to provoke those l i b e r a l academics  ' l i b e r a l ' academic knowledge.  impossible  to conceive  from g r e a t e r  who are  production i n this  As I i n t e n d to demonstrate,  way i s  forces.  it  T h i n k i n g of academic  not an e x c e p t i o n but r a t h e r proves  the encroachment of the economic i n t o every s o c i a l c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n of everyday l i f e that  creation  of any form of p r o d u c t i o n t h a t occurs i n  economic and s o c i a l  (cf.  the  academic  i d e o l o g i c a l l y b l i n d to the i n c r e a s i n g r o l e of the market i n the of  the  is isolation  knowledge  the  r u l e of  sphere and the  G o t t d i e n e r 1994).  What we see  is  the n o t i o n of a s e p a r a t i o n between academic and economic v a l u e i s  no  19  l o n g e r an adequate f o r m u l a t i o n o f academic p r i v i l e g e . way  Rather, the only  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s i t u a t i o n o f academe i s t o f u l l y  i n c o r p o r a t e an a n a l y s i s  o f some o f t h e ' e x t e r n a l '  f e a t u r e s o f knowledge  p r o d u c t i o n s u c h as t h e m a r k e t p l a c e , c o n s u m p t i o n , c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e logic  and forms o f l a t e  capitalism.  I n e x p l o r i n g t h e s e i s s u e s we come t o  see t h a t a t t h e h e a r t o f academic economies the exchange  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of scholarly  i s s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g and knowledge.  The p r o v o c a t i o n i n t e n d e d b y t h e n o t i o n o f a n ' a c a d e m i c economy' makes s e n s e i n r e l a t i o n knowledge's  sake'.  t o t h e academic i d e a l  This i d e a l  relative  o f 'knowledge f o r  and i t s c o n t e x t a r e e x p l o r e d i n t h e f i r s t  t h r e e c h a p t e r s i n P a r t One: Ideologies explore the origins  only  of Production.  I n c h a p t e r one I  o f t h e n o t i o n o f ' p u r e ' academe a n d t h e s e p a r a t i o n a n d  autonomy o f academic p r a c t i c e .  production i s o r i g i n a l l y  I n l o o k i n g a t how  academic  f o r m u l a t e d a n d how i t s m a n d a t e r e m a i n s a  f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e o f a c a d e m i c e n d e a v o u r s t o d a y , we come t o s e e how t h e n o t i o n o f academic knowledge who i d e o l o g i c a l l y differentiation  adhere t o such'a p o s i t i o n .  Moreover, i n e x p l o r i n g the  sake'.  i s t o s e c u r e t h e mandate o f 'knowledge f o r T h i s c h a p t e r a c t s as a n i d e o l o g i c a l m e a s u r i n g s t i c k t o  g a u g e how f a r t h e p r a c t i c e s their  ideological  o f c o n t e m p o r a r y academe h a v e s t r a y e d  production i s not a romantic i d e a l prominent contemporary s o c i o l o g i c a l society.  from  origins.  I n c h a p t e r two I e x p l o r e how t h e l i b e r a l  knowledge  liberals  o f t h e m o d e r n u n i v e r s i t y we come t o s e e how f u n d a m e n t a l  scholarly publishing knowledge's  as a c o m m o d i t y m i g h t o f f e n d t h o s e  In this  c o n c e p t i o n o f knowledge  from t h e p a s t b u t i s r a t h e r u p h e l d by a t h e o r y o f knowledge:  c h a p t e r I examine  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y one-sided such l i b e r a l  the theory of the  how t h e o r e t i c a l l y a n d  t h e o r i e s o f knowledge  a r e a n d how t h e y u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o a n e n t i r e l y  production  inadequate formulation of  20  knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  In the t r a d i t i o n of a Marxist sociology of  knowledge, I demonstrate how economic f a c t o r s cannot m a t e r i a l l y nor h i s t o r i c a l l y be f a c t o r e d out o f any e x p l a n a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  regardless  of t h e many i d e o l o g i c a l attempts t o do so. In c h a p t e r t h r e e I demonstrate by way o f c u r r e n t e m p i r i c a l d a t a t h e r o l e o f economic f o r c e s and t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e from academic l a b o u r w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n  of the r o l e of s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s f o r  commercial s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s .  Here we see how academic l a b o u r used f o r  the c r e a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s p l a y s a fundamental r o l e i n t h e generation of surplus value f o r venture  capital.  Here academics d i r e c t l y  contribute t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s of c a p i t a l .  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p reveals the r o l e of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i n the commodification  o f academic knowledge f o r i t i s t h r o u g h t h e p r i c i n g o f  j o u r n a l s t h a t a c h a i n r e a c t i o n occurs throughout t h e academic system t h a t e v e n t u a l l y poses s i g n i f i c a n t economic concerns f o r academic  authors.  C a p i t a l i s m c o n f r o n t s academic p r o d u c t i o n as y e t another form o f l a b o u r , thereby  a s s e r t i n g i t s dominance as t h e p r i m a r y  creator of value i n  c a p i t a l i s t society.. F o l l o w i n g an a n a l y s i s o f commercial s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s and t h e i r r e l i a n c e upon academic l a b o u r f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s u r p l u s I examine i n chapter  f o u r what many a r e now c a l l i n g  communication.  Through an e x a m i n a t i o n  'the s e r i a l s c r i s i s ' i n s c h o l a r l y o f t h i s c r i s i s I demonstrate how  the m a r k e t p l a c e p l a y s a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s and t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o p u b l i s h academic books.  L a r g e l y drawing upon i n t e r v i e w d a t a ,  I e x p l o r e t h e i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e consumer f o r s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s i n t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f academic work. Two o f t h e t h e s i s : Practices  of Consumption  T h i s c h a p t e r opens P a r t  t h a t attempts t o b a l a n c e t h e  i d e o l o g y o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f o r m e d  empirical  21  illustrations  of academic p r a c t i c e s of consumption - from s c h o l a r l y  p u b l i s h e r s t o p u b l i s h i n g academics, t h e i r students and other p o t e n t i a l readers - i n order to more c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e the t h e o r e t i c a l  arguments  p r e s e n t e d throughout the t h e s i s . Chapter F i v e examines the  the growing i n f l u e n c e of consumer  p r a c t i c e s of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s and how  a c c o r d i n g to the l o g i c of the commodity-sign.  academic books  c u l t u r e upon circulate  Here I look at  how  a d v e r t i s i n g p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n the communication of academic p r o d u c t to a consuming market of r e a d e r s . are in  As I demonstrate, p a r t i c u l a r  strategies  u t i l i z e d by s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s i n order to make t h e i r books a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e academic marketplace.  visible  In t h i s we see how  the  p r a c t i c e s of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s are growing more s i m i l a r to t h e i r commercial  counterparts.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s l o g i c i n Chapter S i x I examine how monograph, and s c h o l a r l y books more g e n e r a l l y ,  the s c h o l a r l y  can be viewed as among the  p r i m a r y s i t e s of the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n of academic knowledge. Bourdieu's concept of c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l I demonstrate how are  u t i l i z e d by s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h e r s  how  such a p r a c t i c e r e v e a l s a symbiosis of v a l u e s between  the  academic spheres.  Using s e v e r a l examples  the author, the market  readership. liberal  academic v a l u e s and  the economic and  from 'popular'  academic  the c u l t u r a l  f o r such a work and the c u l t u r a l  capital  c a p i t a l of i t s  U l t i m a t e l y I s e t out t o demonstrate t h a t no matter  or c r i t i c a l  Pierre  f o r the s a l e of s c h o l a r l y books  books I examine more c l o s e l y the c o n n e c t i o n between of  Using  how  the content of an academic work, the f u n c t i o n of  c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l u l t i m a t e l y a s s e r t s the commodity form over i t s c r i t i c a l content. F i n a l l y i n Chapter Seven I r e f l e x i v e l y e x p l o r e how  a l l o f the  f a c t o r s d e t a i l e d thus f a r come to bear on the academic author.  Here u s i n g  22  s o c i o l o g i s t P i e r r e Bourdieu's c a r e e r as an example, I e x p l o r e how through s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g , academic p r a c t i c e s o f c a p i t a l a r e geared towards t h e academic m a r k e t p l a c e .  I n t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n we see s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g as  a form o f c a p i t a l t h a t u l t i m a t e l y has economic c o n v e r t i b i l i t y as i t s f i n a l destination.  Here t h e p r a c t i c e s o f c a p i t a l a r e shown n o t o n l y i n t h e  f i n a n c i a l m o t i v e s o f p u b l i s h e r s b u t a l s o , i n t h e s h o r t e r term, i n t h e s y m b o l i c p r o f i t o f t h e academic a u t h o r .  U s i n g B o u r d i e u and h i s s i t u a t i o n  i n t h e French i n t e l l e c t u a l m a r k e t p l a c e as an example I a l s o show how an academic economy based upon t h e s t r a t e g i c a c c u m u l a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l through s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i s r e l e v a n t f o r academics  capital  today i n N o r t h  America. Through t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n we come t o see how t h e i d e o l o g y of academic l i b e r a l i s m cannot a d e q u a t e l y account f o r these changes i n s c h o l a r l y practice.  I t r y t o demonstrate  t h a t any account o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge  must n o t o n l y account f o r t h e adequacy o f academic c o n t e n t b u t must a l s o attempt t o address t h e r e l e v a n c e o f i t s form f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n and acceptance o f such knowledge.  Since s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i s i n t e g r a l to  the c i r c u l a t i o n and exchange o f such knowledge, then t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f knowledge must a l s o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s o c i o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f knowledge.  The n o t i o n o f an academic economy, beyond i t s  p o l e m i c a l v a l u e , e x p r e s s e s an attempt t o address t h e h i g h l y  significant  m e d i a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f economic v a l u e f o r t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f academic knowledge, i f o n l y t o p r o v i d e a c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s f o r t h e c r i t i c a l i n s p e c t i o n o f how these economic f o r c e s c o l o n i z e t h e r e a l m o f l i b e r a l scholarship.  PART  I D E O L O G I E S  OF  ONE  PRODUCTION  24  1  Academic  Freedom  through  l i b e r a l i s m . Doesn't  However,  E x i s t ' ,  'Indeed of  the  reason,  obvious'  the  status  (Fish  s p e c i a l  of  of  Fish  of  l i b e r a l i s m  that  i s ,  depends the  are  not  in  thought on  not  is  l i b e r a l i s m  and  from  r e l i e s  dissemination  t h i s on  of  forms  ' L i b e r a l i s m  seldom  questioned:  i n t o  reason's the  the  status  status  is  contemporary  charge.  the  of  essay  i n q u i r i n g that  exempt  many  his  assumption  a u t h o r i t y  free  behind  observes  l i b e r a l  Academic  academic and  on  p r i n c i p l e  Today  assumption  knowledge  are  the  that  the  indeed  obvious  ' n a t u r a l ' .  s o c i a l  and  academic  of  up  F i s h ' s  h i s t o r i c a l  l i b e r a l i s m .  informing  the  academic  l i b e r a l i s m  freedom i n  the  feature  s c h o l a r l y  i n q u i r y '  consequence l i b e r a l  u n i v e r s i t y ,  that  In  analysis  the  and  that  with  i n s t i t u t i o n ,  of  i t s  emphasis  d i r e c t l y  the  the  on  development  'pure'  notion  i n  of  is  the  a  of  a  i d e o l o g i c a l  ideas  the  notion  of  than  being  'autonomy  of  the  u n i v e r s i t y  democracy.  autonomy value  of  the  i n t r i n s i c  tendencies  attempts  demonstrate to  through  e s t a b l i s h  the  this  ideals  examination of  how  l i b e r a l i s m  i n  the  modern  academic  as By  to  inherent  modernity. I  a  h i s t o r i c a l  s o c i a l  as  of  i d e a l s  the  of  the  Rather  the  constructed  research  l a r g e r  the  academe.  freedom  the  i n t o  inspect  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  how  r e f l e c t s  I  e s t a b l i s h  production  see  i n q u i r e  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  of  the  academic  I  follows  f i r m l y  inquiry,  and  we  chapter  that  to  knowledge  r e l a t i o n s  to  p r a c t i c e s  grounds  modernization  these  l e d  attempts  knowledge  this  epistemological  i n s t i t u t i o n a l of  i n  forces  that  i n s t i t u t i o n  developing  the  of  challenge,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l  ' n a t u r a l '  i n  of  discovery  basic  Stanley  scholarship  Taking  a  as  the  1994:135).  status  t r u t h f u l  is  foundation  depends,  p r a c t i c e s  or  reason  Liberalism  u n i v e r s i t y p r a c t i c e  i n  25  t h r e e d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d ways: f i r s t , as an  through the i s o l a t i o n of academe  'autonomous' sphere of knowledge p r o d u c t i o n ; second, t h r o u g h the  p r o d u c t i o n of academia's differentiated  own mode and methods of e v a l u a t i o n as a  'value sphere'; and t h i r d , through the c r e a t i o n of d i s t i n c t  c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , such as s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g , s e p a r a t e from o t h e r s o c i a l spheres such as r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s and economics.  Once I e s t a b l i s h  the c o n n e c t i o n between l i b e r a l i d e a l s and s c h o l a r l y p r a c t i c e i n t h i s c h a p t e r I then examine i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r how accounts o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge p r o d u c t i o n , such as the t h e o r y of the knowledge s o c i e t y , focus o n l y upon t h o s e s c h o l a r l y p r a c t i c e s t h a t a f f i r m l i b e r a l i d e a l s , t h e r e b y c o n s t i t u t i n g what I r e f e r t o as academic 1.1  The  Conflict  of  the  ideology.  Faculties  The c e n t r a l t e n e t of l i b e r a l i s m , whether i n i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l or academic  economic,  sense, a s s e r t s the freedom n a t u r a l l y endowed upon  i n d i v i d u a l s t o pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own d e s i r e s w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n from e x t e r n a l f o r c e s .  ' L i b e r a l i s m denotes  o f f i c i a l l y a g n o s t i c or n e u t r a l g r i d t h a t a l l o w s s e l f - g o v e r n i n g  an individuals  t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s i n ways t h a t maximize a t t a i n m e n t of t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l purposes' -(Beiner 1997:4).  and  the If a  c e n t r a l theme can be drawn from Enlightenment thought i t i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l who  o b t a i n s knowledge through reason i s t r u l y f r e e .  t o p h i l o s o p h e r Immanuel Kant: 1970:29) . We  'reason i s by i t s n a t u r e f r e e '  According  (Kant  commonly w i t n e s s t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n the u n i v e r s a l  humanist  e q u a t i o n t h a t emerges out of Enlightenment t h i n k i n g : Reason = T r u t h = Freedom. liberals  This p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l  i d e o l o g i c a l l y m a i n t a i n e d by many academic  ( c f . Bloom 1987).  However, i n Kant's p h i l o s o p h y the freedom t o know i s not an a p r i o r i r i g h t but r a t h e r one t h a t must be s o c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d .  For Kant t h e r e i s  26  an  i m p l i c i t  e s p e c i a l l y of  a  and c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h e freedom  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  without  r e l i g i o u s  i n s t i t u t i o n the  state,  upon For  that such  t h e p u r s u i t Kant,  true  l e g i s l a t i o n In  the  h i s  given  that  no  of  t h e  of  o f  Europe  foundation  the  for  true  for  t h e autonomy  scholars  of  for  knowledge's  the  basic  free  of  of  free  l i e s  academic  there  and  i r o n i c a l l y ,  t h e  by  be  i s  e x i s t  an  t h e a u t h o r i t y can be  (ultimately)  must  parameters  that  must  nor constraints  t r u t h  know,  w i t h i n  and status  of  placed  freedom.  secured  establishes  from  t h i s  c u r r i c u l a  Kant's  and free f o r that  but also  t h e need  through  than  f o r i t s  program,  large  Kant  On an  extent  u n i v e r s i t y  s t i l l  system  presents  s t r u c t u r a l  d e t a i l s  a  t o  reason  t r e a t i s e as  t h e  i n q u i r y  o f  i n t o  1993). of  continuing  t h e  on  basis  necessity produced  by  'knowledge  t r u t h In  i n  a  f o r t h e  t h e pursuit  (cf. Russell  i n q u i r y ,  f o r knowledge  f o r t h e l e g i t i m a t i o n  and t h e basis  a  establishes  and r a t i o n a l  t r u t h  t h e foundation  t r e a t i s e  ^Conflict'  other  a  modern  r e l a t i o n s h i p  p r a c t i c e ,  i n t e r e s t s  t o  t h e conditions  and i t s  s c h o l a r l y  sake',  In  r a t i o n a l  o u t l i n e s  which  f o r today's  America.  of  Kant  knowledge,  p r i n c i p l e s  i n q u i r y  knowledge  on t h e freedom  ' t r u e '  Hence,  conditions  conception  t o  f r e e l y ,  c o n t r o l ,  (1798/1970),  u n i v e r s i t y  knowledge.  t o be  inquiry,  Faculties  o f modern  necessity  or  p r i v i l e g e  reason,  occurs  knowledge  i n t e r e s t s  statement  n o t only  the  t h e freedom  State.  and North  that  s p e c i a l  external  of  acquire  tutelage  knowledge,  t h e founding  b l u e p r i n t  of  i s  that  n e c e s s a r i l y  To  or p o l i t i c a l  f o r t h e pursuit  expresses most  context.  prophetic  Conflict  agenda  t o i n q u i r e  freedom  by  awareness  as  one of  t h i s  today's  production  p r i v i l e g e d  c u l t u r a l  a u t h o r i t y . The scholars  foundation has  censorship. of  h i s  work  i t s In  of  roots  what i n  a  we know c o n f l i c t  1798, Immanuel  ' R e l i g i o n  w i t h i n  Kant  today that  as  academic  involved  c r i t i c a l l y  t h e Limits  o f Mere  i t s  freedom  opposite,  responded Reason'  f o r  t o by  t h e  namely, censorship  F r i e d r i c h  27  Wilhelm  II with a call  of h i g h e r knowledge. the  'free'  interests requires c a n be the  search  f o r the establishment According  t o Kant, such  of reason,  k n o w l e d g e , and  the g r a n t i n g of p r i v i l e g e  truth,  inquiry.  combating such  establishing To  t h e h i e r a r c h y and  begin,  faculties  institution  Medicine  In t h i s  he  and  from the lower  examinations,  i t s own  the u n i v e r s a l l y words,  The sublimated deference  doctors'  (Kant  form of s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n but to the a u t h o r i t y of the  l o w e r b e c a u s e i t may The  the  having  lower  certainty  faculty  by  itself. higher  of  curricula  admits  lower  use  r e q u i r e d by  free teachers  f o r Kant i s not  students  confer  - i n other  of  considered  the government i t s e l f ,  i t s own  a  response  'For a f a c u l t y i s  the i n t e r e s t s  while  the  of science i s  judgement a b o u t what i t t e a c h e s '  f a c u l t y of philosophy  are u l t i m a t e l y  and  conducted  rather a p o l i t i c a l  State:  interest  freedom of i n q u i r y t h a t the h i g h e r faculties  also  only  1970:23).  f a c u l t y whose f u n c t i o n i s o n l y t o l o o k a f t e r  higher  the lower  'the u n i v e r s i t y  s c h o o l s and,  d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n h i g h e r and  1970:27).  not  a u t h o r i t y [ i s able to] to grant degrees or  higher only i f i t s teachings  called  from others but  r e c o g n i z e d s t a t u s o f " d o c t o r " on  t o create  C o n f l i c t of  an i n s t i t u t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e s the grounds f o r graduate  the g r a n t i n g of a doctorate of philosophy:  by  I n The  i n the u n i v e r s i t y between the  R e l i g i o n - and  seeking entrance  the  restrictions  d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n  K a n t maps a d i v i s i o n  - Law,  philosophy.  a b l u e p r i n t f o r such  s e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  In  t o an i n s t i t u t i o n w h e r e s u c h p u r s u i t s  f r e e l y e x e r c i s e d f r e e from e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t .  by mapping the  and  c e n s o r s h i p o b v i o u s l y impedes  f o r t r u t h as t h e b a s i s f o r r a t i o n a l  F a c u l t i e s Kant p r o v i d e s  (Kant  of a p r o t o c o l f o r the p u r s u i t  faculties  do  c o n s t r a i n e d by  occupies  law,  lower  f a c u l t y o f p h i l o s o p h y must have t h e  certain  not possess,  f o r the  the a u t h o r i t y of the  i t s canonical texts,  civil  a  t h e B i b l e and m e d i c a l / s c i e n t i f i c t e x t s .  such  as t h e  According  code  State of  t o Kant  freedom to q u e s t i o n the  the  grounds  28  f o r c a l l i n g such t e x t s and t h e i r knowledge ' t r u e ' and, t h e r e f o r e , must e x i s t independently  o f t h e S t a t e i n order t o do so:  I t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e l e a r n e d community a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y a l s o c o n t a i n a f a c u l t y t h a t i s independent o f t h e government's command w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s t e a c h i n g s ; one t h a t , having no commands t o g i v e i s f r e e t o e v a l u a t e e v e r y t h i n g , and concerns i t s e l f w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s c i e n c e s , t h a t i s , w i t h t r u t h : one i n which reason i s a u t h o r i z e d t o speak out p u b l i c l y . For w i t h o u t a f a c u l t y o f t h i s k i n d , t h e t r u t h would n o t come t o l i g h t ; b u t reason i s by i t s n a t u r e f r e e and admits o f no command t o h o l d something as t r u e . The reason why t h i s f a c u l t y , d e s p i t e i t s g r e a t p r e r o g a t i v e (freedom) i s c a l l e d t h e lower f a c u l t y l i e s i n human n a t u r e ; f o r a man who can g i v e commands, even though he i s someone e l s e ' s humble s e r v a n t , i s c o n s i d e r e d more d i s t i n g u i s h e d than a f r e e man who has no one under h i s command (Kant 1970:29). Here l i e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n  o f reason and freedom t o t h e i d e a o f  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d autonomy t h a t i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f l i b e r a l s c h o l a r s h i p today - 'one t h a t , having no commands t o g i v e i s f r e e t o e v a l u a t e everything'. philosophy  Of p a r t i c u l a r importance t o Kant i s t h e autonomy o f  (which i s i t s e l f d i v i d e d i n t o t h e departments o f h i s t o r y ,  geography, p h i l o l o g y , h u m a n i t i e s , m e t a p h y s i c s and pure p h i l o s o p h y )  n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , pure mathematics, pure from e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s .  consequence o f t h i s freedom, 'the p h i l o s o p h y  As a  f a c u l t y can, t h e r e f o r e , l a y  c l a i m t o any t e a c h i n g i n order t o t e s t i t s t r u t h '  (Kant 1970:45). I t s  e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o ' t e s t t r u t h ' i s l a r g e l y based on an i n t e r n a l i s t a p p r a i s a l of i t s c a t e g o r i e s , o r , upon p h i l o s o p h y ' s  a b i l i t y t o produce i t s own  judgements and e v a l u a t e those judgements based upon i t s own c r i t e r i a . Granted t h i s freedom, p h i l o s o p h y stands as t h e u l t i m a t e judge o f reason. Because o f i t s s e p a r a t i o n from t h e o t h e r f a c u l t i e s and t h e s t a t e , philosophy,  i n Kant's f o r m u l a t i o n , i s t h e most f r e e and l i b e r a l o f  scholarly pursuits. Through t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f such freedom by t h e S t a t e and i t s implementation  o f these i d e a s , freedom can be a t t a i n e d f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f  h i g h e r knowledge, i t s t r u t h , and t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h i s t r u t h t o t h e masses.  The e n l i g h t e n i n g and p r o g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r o f 'higher'  knowledge  29  i s founded upon t h i s ' n a t u r a l ' , f r e e s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h and d i s s e m i n a t i o n to  'the masses'.  communication and  Today's l i b e r a l mandate f o r  i t s eventual scholarly  e d u c a t i o n of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s seen i n Kant as  e a r l y i n s i g h t i n t o the e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t y between s c h o l a r s h i p  an  and  publishing: E n l i g h t e n m e n t of the masses i s the p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n of the p e o p l e i n i t s d u t i e s and r i g h t s v i s - a - v i s the s t a t e to which they b e l o n g . S i n c e o n l y n a t u r a l r i g h t s and r i g h t s a r i s i n g out of the common human u n d e r s t a n d i n g are concerned h e r e , then the n a t u r a l h e r a l d s and e x p o s i t o r s o f t h e s e among the p e o p l e are not o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d by the s t a t e but are f r e e p r o f e s s o r s of law, t h a t i s p h i l o s o p h e r s who, p r e c i s e l y because t h i s freedom i s a l l o w e d t o them, are o b j e c t i o n a b l e t o the s t a t e , which always d e s i r e s t o r u l e a l o n e . . . Thus the p r o h i b i t i o n of p u b l i c i t y impedes the p r o g r e s s of people toward improvement, even i n t h a t which a p p l i e s to the l e a s t of i t s c l a i m s , namely i t s s i m p l e , n a t u r a l r i g h t (Kant 1970:161). The  c a t e g o r i c a l d i v i s i o n s t h a t Kant makes p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n t h i s  t r e a t i s e p r o v i d e not  o n l y the  f o u n d i n g i d e a l s f o r what we  academic freedom but  also provide a p r a c t i c a l blueprint  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and university.  As  know today as  for  the  'autonomous' modern  such the i d e a of p r o d u c i n g t r u t h f u l knowledge,  legitimated  t h r o u g h the autonomy of s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t , i s based on the impetus f o r b e i n g f u l l y i n s t i t u t e d i n the p r a c t i c e of academic s c h o l a r s h i p guaranteed freedom to conduct r e s e a r c h to advance knowledge. of t r u t h , reason and administrators  and  the  In the name  freedom these i d e a l s are d e t e r m i n e d by s c h o l a r s  and  as worthy of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the modern u n i v e r s i t y  system. 1.2  Freedom of  I n q u i r y i n the  D u r i n g h i s l i f e Kant d i d not the German u n i v e r s i t y . W i l h e l m von  Modern U n i v e r s i t y  implement h i s t r e a t i s e i n the p r a c t i c e s  However, a contemporary of K a n t ' s , the  Humboldt, brought about i t s s u c c e s s f u l  U n i v e r s i t y of B e r l i n i n 1810  philosopher  a p p l i c a t i o n to  (Readings 1996:62; Rand 1 9 9 2 : v i i i ) .  a p p e a l of Kant's i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s  of  the From the  for r a t i o n a l inquiry i n B e r l i n ,  30  i t was  not much l a t e r t h a t h i s p l a n f o r the autonomy o f the f a c u l t i e s  implemented i n u n i v e r s i t i e s both i n Germany and abroad,  seeing i t s f i r s t  i n c a r n a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s s e v e r a l decades l a t e r w i t h Columbia Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t i e s The  was  and  (Rand 1 9 9 2 : v i i i ) .  i m p o r t a t i o n of the German b l u e p r i n t f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p l a y s a  c r i t i c a l r o l e i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the American h i g h e r  education  system and t h e r e f o r e these i d e a l s c o n t i n u e t o have a s u b s t a n t i a l impact the p r a c t i c e s of s c h o l a r l y knowledge p r o d u c t i o n i n N o r t h America. short p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g i t s implementation  on  In a  i n Germany, over 9000 Americans  s t u d y i n g a t German u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y brought back w i t h them the methods and i d e a l s of the German u n i v e r s i t y system 1996:65; Muto 1993:3). concept  (Stone  Most e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , they i m p o r t e d the K a n t i a n  of f r e e r e s e a r c h through academic freedom t h a t p r o v i d e d the  American system w i t h a much-needed p r o v i s o t o ensure the q u a l i t y standards of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and i t s r e s e a r c h programs.  and  No l o n g e r were  mere pedagogues and d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s the p u r s u e r s of h i g h e r knowledge but now  the r e s e a r c h u n i v e r s i t y a t t r a c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f d i v e r s e i n t e l l e c t u a l  abilities  (Stone 1996:66).  T h i s d i v e r s i t y r e f l e c t e d a new  found  freedom  of academic i n q u i r y t h a t a l l o w e d f o r the pure' p u r s u i t of knowledge f o r v  knowledge sake w i t h o u t the i n t e r f e r e n c e of p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s or p r a c t i c a l application.  As Stone p o i n t s out i n the f o l l o w i n g passage, t h i s f r e e  p u r s u i t of knowledge based upon the German model became the d e f i n i t i v e  and  d i s t i n c t i v e aspect of the academic p r o f e s s i o n . The modern c o n c e p t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y as a r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n was i n l a r g e p a r t a German c o n t r i b u t i o n . The o b j e c t of the German u n i v e r s i t y was the determined, m e t h o d i c a l and independent s e a r c h f o r t r u t h , w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The German p r o f e s s o r enjoyed the freedom of t e a c h i n g and freedom of i n q u i r y . The German system h e l d t h a t t h i s freedom was the d i s t i n c t i v e p r e r o g a t i v e of the academic p r o f e s s i o n and t h a t i t was the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n of a u n i v e r s i t y (Stone 1996:66). F u r t h e r , Stone adds, the assumption t h a t academic freedom d e f i n e s the modern u n i v e r s i t y i s the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the German  31  u n i v e r s i t y t o t h e American system.  P r i o r t o t h i s , t h e American U n i v e r s i t y  was p l a g u e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s z e a l o t r y and p o l i t i c a l what Kant e x p e r i e n c e d i n Germany (Stone 1996:66).  censorship not u n l i k e The freedom o f r a t i o n a l  i n q u i r y , a c h i e v e d through t h e German i d e a l o f t h e autonomy and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , now p r o v i d e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r today's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a u t h o r i t y o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge.  Through t h e  autonomy o f s c h o l a r l y v a l u e s comes t h e freedom t o pursue 'knowledge f o r knowledge's sake'. As we see i n t h i s statement from W i l l i a m Rainey Harper, t h e f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, academic freedom t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y guaranteed autonomy must c o n s t i t u t e t h e c e n t r a l mandate o f a university: When f o r any reason . . . t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a u n i v e r s i t y o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n any o f i t s departments i s changed by an i n f l u e n c e from w i t h o u t , o r any e f f o r t i s made t o d i s l o d g e a p r o f e s s o r because t h e p o l i t i c a l s e n t i m e n t o r r e l i g i o u s sentiment o f t h e m a j o r i t y has undergone a change, a t t h a t moment t h e i n s t i t u t i o n has ceased t o become a u n i v e r s i t y (quoted i n Stone 1996:66). So s t r o n g i s t h i s b e l i e f i n t h e freedom t o pursue h i g h e r knowledge w i t h o u t c o n s t r a i n t t h a t t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y P r o f e s s o r s  (AAUP)  i s s u e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c statement: I n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a r e conducted f o r t h e common good and n o t to f u r t h e r t h e i n t e r e s t o f e i t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as a whole. The common good depends upon t h e f r e e s e a r c h f o r t r u t h and i t s f r e e e x p r e s s i o n (quoted i n H a m i l t o n 1995:3). The i d e a l o f academic freedom a l s o a p p l i e s e q u a l l y today t o t h e modern r e s e a r c h u n i v e r s i t y and t h e contemporary p r o d u c t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge.  As we see i n a r e c e n t m i s s i o n statement from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e s e i d e a l s a r e d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e modern research u n i v e r s i t y .  Among t h e o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d i s t h e f o l l o w i n g :  The u n i v e r s i t y w i l l m a i n t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n as one o f N o r t h America's major r e s e a r c h u n i v e r s i t i e s , and c a r r y out r e s e a r c h t h a t i s a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f human knowledge and which can be f r e e l y and o p e n l y d i s s e m i n a t e d i n a wide range o f f i e l d s . . . I t w i l l s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n an environment which r e s p e c t s t h e academic freedom o f s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y (U.B.C. 1999).  32  Through t h e i d e a l o f academic freedom as t h e d e f i n i n g of t h e academic p r o f e s s i o n , s c h o l a r l y legitimation  characteristic  knowledge e n j o y s a p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t o t h e r sources o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n do n o t p o s s e s s .  However, as we f i n d below, t h e 'autonomy' o f t h e modern u n i v e r s i t y only the r e s u l t of the i d e a l s for a p r a c t i c a l application larger  i s not  o f Enlightenment p h i l o s o p h y and i t s attempts  b u t such 'autonomy' i s a l s o t h e r e s u l t o f t h e  s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n and an  i n c r e a s i n g d i v i s i o n of labour i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y .  In t h i s  respect,  s c h o l a r s h i p , r a t h e r than b e i n g s t r i c t l y i n t e r n a l l y d e f i n e d by i t s own system o f v a l u e s as Kant s u g g e s t s , a l r e a d y b e g i n s t o d i a l e c t i c a l l y r e f l e c t its situation  1.3  As  i n modern i n d u s t r i a l  Modernity,  sociological  society.  'Autonomy' and D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  t h e o r i e s o f m o d e r n i t y t e l l us, among t h e many o b s e r v a b l e  features of the h i s t o r i c a l process of modernization i s the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s o c i a l structures. scholarly  practice  The i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e autonomy o f  can be understood t o be a r e s u l t o f t h i s  tendency o f modern s o c i e t i e s  increasing  toward s o c i a l differentiation.  According to  i t s p u n d i t s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s i n m o d e r n i t y whereby each c u l t u r a l sphere a t t a i n s  t h e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e autonomy, and becomes s e l f -  l e g i s l a t i n g , d e v e l o p i n g i t s own c o n v e n t i o n s and modes o f v a l u a t i o n 1990:9) .  I n m o d e r n i t y , academic autonomy a c h i e v e s a d i s t i n c t  r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s o c i a l spheres. sociologists  status  I f we examine here t h e work o f  E m i l e Durkheim i n h i s s t u d y The D i v i s i o n of Labour  (1893) and T a l c o t t Parsons i n The American  University  economic i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  in  Society  (1973) we see how  v a r y i n g s o c i a l spheres such as t h e r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l ,  g r e a t e r whole o f modern s o c i e t y .  (Lash  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  from one a n o t h e r w i t h i n t h e  We can then see how t h e academic sphere  33  a c q u i r e s a r e l a t i v e autonomy as a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t i s differentiated particular  from o t h e r modern s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h i t s  v a l u e s t r u c t u r e f o r the  freedom of r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n we legitimates scholarly parameters of l a r g e r  Through an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  come t o see  inquiry  how  does not  socio-historical  In Durkheim's The t h a t a r i s e i n the  advancement of knowledge and  Division  the  take p l a c e o u t s i d e of  the  see  the  emerging d i f f e r e n c e s  t r a n s i t i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l to modern s o c i e t i e s . of the  large-scale d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s that s m a l l e r p o r t i o n of s o c i a l l i f e ' f a c t t h a t the  traditional societies,  central  f e a t u r e s of modern  i n c r e a s i n g tendency toward  (Durkheim 1973:5) .  supposedly homogenous s t r u c t u r e  collective,  and  Here Durkheim i s  where a l l members a s c r i b e to a s i n g l e ,  d o c t r i n e of the  In  ' r e l i g i o n embraces a s m a l l e r  common b e l i e f system, or a conscience  of shared  t y p i c a l l y through  the  church, t r a n s m o g r i f i e s i n t o a heterogenous  c o l l e c t i o n of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s each s e r v i n g a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l w i t h i n the  of  processes.  i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t h a t b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s the  religious  idea  n o t i o n of autonomy t h a t  of Labour we  t h i s study he demonstrates t h a t one  p o i n t i n g to the  the  d e v e l o p i n g d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r .  Religion,  function  i n t h i s sense, as  a  common b i n d i n g f o r c e p l a y s a s m a l l e r r o l e i n p e o p l e ' s l i v e s as i t increasingly  competes w i t h the  v a l u e s of the  s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the  economy, p o l i t i c s , a e s t h e t i c s and  i n t e l l e c t u a l sphere ( c f . Weber 1958). r a t h e r than b e i n g dominated by  various other developing  Social  a single  l i f e i n modern  what Durkheim famously r e f e r s solidarity  to as the  of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s ,  an almost a u t o m a t i c c o n f o r m i t y to one organic  solidarity  societies,  i n s t i t u t i o n , i s subject to  v a l u e s from a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Of  the  the  course, t h i s i s  s h i f t away from the  mechanical  where s o c i a l c o h e s i o n i s d e f i n e d set of common norms, to t h a t  i n modern s o c i e t i e s ,  where c o h e s i o n i s d e f i n e d by  by  of 'the  34  c o - o p e r a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s  or groups of i n d i v i d u a l s  which d e r i v e  from t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h i n  a differentiated  of l a b o u r '  two  Durkheim  (Giddens 1973:8) .  In comparing the  division  forms of s o l i d a r i t y  states:  The s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t i e s where o r g a n i c s o l i d a r i t y i s p r e p o n d e r a n t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t [from those where m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y i s p r e p o n d e r a n t ] . These are formed not by the r e p e t i t i o n of s i m i l a r , homogenous segments, but by a system of d i f f e r e n t organs each of which has a s p e c i a l r o l e , and which are themselves formed of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t s . Not o n l y are s o c i a l elements not of the same n a t u r e , but they are not d i s t r i b u t e d i n the same way (Durkheim 1973:143). For  Durkheim, s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the  of an i n c r e a s i n g this increasing  d i v i s i o n , people who  determines the  ultimately  consequence  d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r through i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s take on the position  inevitable  new  are  afforded a plethora  Through  of  o b j e c t i v e s of t h e i r employment.  s p e c i f i c s of the v a l u e - s t r u c t u r e where norms  e s t a b l i s h e d through the  occupational structure.  a c h i e v e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as a s p e c i f i c v a l u e - s p h e r e .  are  Academe s i m p l y  Different  values  p o t e n t i a l l y e x i s t i n harmony, a c c o r d i n g to Durkheim, because of different  Each  can  their  objectives:  In the same c i t y , d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s can c o - e x i s t w i t h o u t b e i n g o b l i g e d m u t u a l l y to d e s t r o y one another, f o r they pursue d i f f e r e n t objectives. The s o l d i e r seeks m i l i t a r y g l o r y , the p r i e s t moral a u t h o r i t y , the statesman power, the businessman r i c h e s , and the s c h o l a r s c i e n t i f i c renown. Each of them can a t t a i n h i s end w i t h o u t p r e v e n t i n g the o t h e r s from a t t a i n i n g t h e i r s (Durkheim 1973:154). In the  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l spheres c r e a t e  v a r i o u s demands f o r the  employed, each of which i s thought t o possess  v a l u e s t h a t are m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e from the businessman wants r i c h e s  next.  For  example,  (the l i b e r a l - e c o n o m i c v a l u e of s e l f - g a i n ) ,  s c h o l a r s c i e n t i f i c renown (the l i b e r a l - a c a d e m i c v a l u e of the of knowledge).  Differentiation,  The  the  advancement  f o r Durkheim, i m p l i e s a d i s t i n c t i o n  s e p a r a t i o n of t h e s e v a l u e s throughout v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n occupational world.  the  and  the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s c h o l a r s h i p extends t h i s  35  p r o c e s s i n t o the sphere of r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y . p u r e l y autonomous, i n Durkheim's account in  relation  However, r a t h e r than b e i n g  s c h o l a r l y values are  understood  t o the v a l u e s of o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l spheres where s c h o l a r l y  v a l u e s are a p p a r e n t l y absent.  Academic p u r s u i t then f i n d s i t s  relative  autonomy i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v a l u e sphere of the modern u n i v e r s i t y where the v a l u e s f o r the p u r s u i t of knowledge are upheld as v a l u e s s p e c i f i c t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l sphere.  Academe's i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , however, i s  u n d e n i a b l y an e x t e r n a l aspect of the l a r g e r p r o c e s s of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n which d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n d t h e i r r e l a t i v e autonomy. Durkheim observes  f u r t h e r t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y and the knowledge  produced t h e r e i n not o n l y develop t h e i r own modes of v a l u a t i o n but a l s o r e f l e c t o t h e r t e n d e n c i e s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n , such as i n c r e a s i n g specialization.  The  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n h e r e n t t o the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i s  then not s t r i c t l y an aspect of the economic sphere but can a l s o be witnessed w i t h i n other s o c i a l spheres, f u r t h e r demonstrating autonomy of the academic  the r e l a t i v e  sphere:  But the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i s not p e c u l i a r t o the economic w o r l d ; we can observe i t s growing i n f l u e n c e i n the most v a r i e d f i e l d s o f s o c i e t y . The p o l i t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s are growing more and more s p e c i a l i z e d . I t i s the same w i t h the a e s t h e t i c and s c i e n t i f i c functions. I t i s l o n g s i n c e p h i l o s o p h y r e i g n e d as the s c i e n c e unique; i t has been broken i n t o a m u l t i t u d e o f s p e c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s each o f which has i t s own o b j e c t , method, and thought (Durkheim 1955:40). Rather than b e i n g totally  immune or s e p a r a t e from e x t e r n a l f o r c e s ,  academia i s r e v e a l e d t o e x h i b i t some of the l a r g e r f e a t u r e s of s o c i a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n , such as the i n c r e a s i n g tendency towards s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  As  a modern s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n academia i s somewhat awkwardly i n f l u e n c e d by the l a r g e r laws of m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  On the one hand the academic sphere  promotes the advancement of knowledge as s t r i c t l y an i n t e r n a l  'autonomous'  p u r s u i t s p e c i f i c t o the academic i n s t i t u t i o n y e t , on the o t h e r hand t h i s sphere i s u n d e n i a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the g r e a t e r s o c i a l and f e a t u r e s o f modernity,  historical  such as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  In  36  t h i s awkward r e l a t i o n a r i s e s a t e n s i o n t h a t i s not y e t o b v i o u s t o  Durkheim  between the i n t e r n a l demands of the advancement of knowledge and the e x t e r n a l demands o f v a r i o u s o t h e r v a l u e spheres, such as t h o s e o f the economic  sphere.  T h i s a m b i g u i t y of the r o l e of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s f o r  s c h o l a r l y knowledge p r o d u c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the c o l l i s i o n of the academic and the spheres t h a t I e x p l o r e i n subsequent c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r e not acknowledged Parsons who  chapters.  economic  However, such  by s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s such as T a l c o t t  c l e a r l y m a i n t a i n s , f o r the sake of academic i n t e g r i t y ,  s e p a r a t i o n of the v a l u e s of the academic  the  sphere from o t h e r s o c i a l spheres.  W h i l e the i n s t i t u t i o n of academe i s c l e a r l y a p r o d u c t of m o d e r n i t y , the knowledge i t produces appears as i f i t i s r e l a t i v e l y immune from such 'external' forces. The American  The l a c k of r e f l e c t i o n upon t h i s problem i n Parsons'  University  q u i c k l y moves the academic  i n q u i r y i n t o the r e a l m of academic  i d e a l o f freedom of  ideology.  E i g h t y years f o l l o w i n g Durkheim's d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n , T a l c o t t Parsons' f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the academic  sphere.  However, i n Parsons' account  see more s p e c i f i c a l l y how i d e o l o g i c a l l y secure the n o t i o n of freedom i s , not o n l y as an e x p l a n a t i o n of academia's  we  academic  s p e c i f i c value  s t r u c t u r e but now a l s o as a l e g i t i m a t i o n of the e p i s t e m i c p r i v i l e g e of academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  Here the academic  sphere p r o c u r e s a  s p e c i a l p r o t e c t e d s t a t u s , not a t a l l u n l i k e t h a t which Kant d e s i r e d f o r p h i l o s o p h y from the P r u s s i a n S t a t e .  As Parsons t e l l s  us:  L e a r n i n g can most e f f e c t i v e l y t a k e p l a c e i n p r o t e c t e d s i t u a t i o n s . Membership s t a t u s , which d e f i n e s the b o u n d a r i e s of the academic system and r e i n f o r c e s i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from o t h e r systems, s p e c i f i e s the range of t h i s p r o t e c t e d n e s s . Academic freedom d e f i n e s c o n d i t i o n s of o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s t h a t bear on the performance of t h e s e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s (Parsons 1973:149).  37  I n Parsons'  account we have a s p e c i f i c development of the unique  s t r u c t u r e of contemporary (American) academe t h a t i s not found i n Durkheim's a n a l y s i s but i s , however, a d e l i b e r a t e e x t e n s i o n of the same principles.  The unique v a l u e s t r u c t u r e of academe, f o r example, i s based  i n p a r t upon the  ' f a c t u a l ' f o u n d a t i o n of knowledge: 'the focus of the  s a n c t i o n system l i e s i n the realm of p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e ; the e f f o r t i s t o be p e r s u a s i v e , but on l e v e l s of g e n e r a l i t y which p r e c l u d e  persuasion  s o l e l y through l e t t i n g the f a c t s of the s i t u a t i o n speak f o r  themselves'  (Parsons 1973:124).  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y of academic v a l u e s  then  renders i t s unique p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y and a l l o w s the p r o d u c e r s  of  knowledge p r i v i l e g e d access t o 'pure' r e s e a r c h and i n q u i r y i n t o  'knowledge  f o r i t s own  sake'  (Parsons 1973:92-93).  Parsons  adds: 'In the s t r u c t u r e  of the i d e a l type of the American u n i v e r s i t y i t (pure r e s e a r c h  and  knowledge f o r knowledge's sake) has been " d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o u t " , above a l l , i n f a c u l t i e s o f a r t s and s c i e n c e s and f o r them w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r combined f u n c t i o n s of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l r e s e a r c h and the t r a i n i n g of graduate  s t u d e n t s f o r p r i m a r i l y academic f u n c t i o n s ' (Parsons  1973:93).  What f u r t h e r g i v e s academia a s p e c i a l s t a t u s as a p r i v i l e g e d o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n i s , f o r Parsons, i s i t s f i d u c i a r y (Parsons 1973:140). or d e m o c r a t i c  realm  responsibility  U n l i k e market c o m p e t i t i o n , b u r e a u c r a t i c enforcement  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t h a t d e f i n e o t h e r s o c i a l spheres, academia i s  d e f i n e d by the t r u s t c o n f e r r e d on i t by s o c i e t y a t - l a r g e t h a t i t performs i t s s a i d f u n c t i o n of knowledge p r o d u c t i o n and m a i n t a i n i t s commitment t o the v a l u e of c o g n i t i v e r a t i o n a l i t y .  Academic v a l u e s must be r e s p e c t e d by  the s o c i e t y i n which they f u n c t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n academic privilege.  In r e t u r n f o r t h i s p r i v i l e g e academe must share i t s knowledge:  The c e n t r a l d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e s of i t s members i s t h a t they are e x e r c i s i n g a f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on b e h a l f o f o t h e r s e c t o r s o f society. F i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be grounded i n commitment t o v a l u e s - i n t h i s case the v a l u e of c o g n i t i v e r a t i o n a l i t y . The presumptive commitment of members of the academic p r o f e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s h i g h e r  38  e c h e l o n s , l e g i t i m i z e s t h e p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s which academic t e n u r e and academic freedom c o n f e r . S i n c e t e n u r e and academic freedom i n d i f f e r e n t ways b u i l d i n exemptions from p r e s s u r e s which o p e r a t e i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , t h e r e must be a presumption t h a t t h e modal incumbent can be t r u s t e d t o p e r f o r m h i s expected f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e d e t a i l e d c o n t r o l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , through market c o m p e t i t i o n , b u r e a u c r a t i c enforcement, o r d e m o c r a t i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o a d e f i n e d c o n s t i t u e n c y , which o p e r a t e i n o t h e r s e c t o r s (Parsons 1973:123). U n l i k e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models such as those o f t h e market, b u r e a u c r a c y o r democracy, t h e model o f f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y b e s t d e f i n e s f o r Parsons t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f academia i n s o f a r as t h e o t h e r models have v a l u e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n academic p r a c t i c e : The absence o f f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e performance o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s e t o f s o c i e t a l f u n c t i o n s makes a l l t h r e e o f t h e above s t r u c t u r a l types i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e academic case. Markets and b u r e a u c r a c i e s do n o t have f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d e m o c r a t i c government i s n o t f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c enough f o r t h e academic system (Parsons 1973:129). The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e - s p h e r e s thus p r o v i d e s academia w i t h a degree o f autonomy t h a t indeed s e p a r a t e s i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s from t h a t of other i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Academe i s then accorded a p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s w i t h  r e s p e c t t o knowledge p r o d u c t i o n as i t i s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f ' i n t e g r i t y , development and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f knowledge and o t h e r components o f t h e c o g n i t i v e complex' 1973:130). uniqueness  (Parsons  Such p r a c t i c e s as t e n u r e and p u b l i c a t i o n f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t h e o f t h e academic i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s l i b e r a l mandate.  A t t h e f a c u l t y l e v e l , t h e symbol o f s t a t u s i n a f i d u c i a r y a s s o c i a t i o n a l c o l l e c t i v i t y i s academic t e n u r e . Tenure i s r e l a t i v e l y o l d i n t h e h i s t o r y of European u n i v e r s i t i e s and has become w i d e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n A m e r i c a , though i t i s now under a t t a c k . C a l l i n g i t a symbol o f s t a t u s i n an academic community s t r e s s e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f t e n u r e from t h e s t a t u s o f o r d i n a r y c o n t r a c t u a l employment. Tenure i s t h e badge o f f u l l membership i n t h e l o c a l academic c o l l e c t i v i t y . A t e n u r e d f a c u l t y member i s t h e r e b y t r u s t e d on a l e v e l than a r e o t h e r members. Tenure i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t h a t h i s performances o r o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be r e p e a t e d l y reviewed. Tenure does not i m p l y freedom from any n o r m a t i v e c o n t r o l . A t e n u r e d member i s expected t o f u l f i l l h i g h standards o f f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i s t r u s t e d t o do so. I n t h i s c o n t e x t i t i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l form o f p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy (Parsons 1973:131).  39  The c o n d i t i o n s academic are  for tenure,  freedom i n i t s  most l i t e r a l  internally established  involve,  to  a large  knowledge through manuscripts.  by t h e  degree,  the  Parsons  the  scholars  sense but  academic  are  based  upon  r a t h e r upon s t a n d a r d s  that  community.  not  These  standards  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f  presentation  A s we s h a l l s e e ,  acknowledges,  of research  through  standards  surpass  editors.  Through p u b l i s h i n g the  i n the  form o f  published  the p u b l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  and e n t e r the  realm of the  academic  p u b l i s h i n g world of  w o r l d o f s c h o l a r s h i p expands  into  other  domains: Two m e c h a n i s m s o f e v a l u a t i o n w e r e m e e t i n g s a t w h i c h members f r o m a v a r i e t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s met w i t h e a c h o t h e r f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a p e r s a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t o p i c s a n d new r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s a n d new p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l s i n which communication could take p l a c e . A s s o o n as t h e o u t p u t o f m a n u s c r i p t s began t o exceed the space a v a i l a b l e i n the j o u r n a l s , and t h i s happened v e r y q u i c k l y f o r f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e a s o n s , a c c e p t a n c e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n became h o n o r i f i c ; t h e e d i t o r s o f j o u r n a l s a c q u i r e d an e v a l u a t i v e r o l e , b o t h h e l p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h r e p u t a t i o n s - o r d i m i n i s h them - and s e t t i n g e v a l u a t i v e s t a n d a r d s (Parsons 1 9 7 3 : 1 1 2 ) . The e v a l u a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c the  academic  sphere,  standards,  as we s e e  i s p a r t i a l l y b a s e d upon t h e  t h o s e who p u b l i s h a c a d e m i c m a n u s c r i p t s . becomes  the  basis  autonomy o f t h i s  sphere.  b a s e d u p o n an i n t e r n a l i s t legitimate  of the  values  that  of by  respect,  reaffirms  the  knowledge  is  constitute  knowledge:  autonomy -  2)  integrity -  3)  o b j e c t i v i t y - l e t t i n g the  4)  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - to  the p r a c t i c e  of pure  'knowledge f o r  The e n t r e n c h m e n t the  supposedly  account  evaluations  The v a l i d a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c  appraisal  1)  of  internal  Publishing, i n this  f o r academic e v a l u a t i o n t h a t value  i n Parsons'  research  knowledge's facts  speak  communicate the  of these values  sake' for  themselves  findings  i n the  of  research  p u b l i c a t i o n process  d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c h o l a r l y knowledge i s  an a t t e m p t t o  as  ensure  the the  site  40  i n t e g r i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n as i t reproduces i t s s t a n d a r d s i n a l l knowledge p r o d u c t i o n and the s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e of academe's f i d u c i a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the f r e e p r o d u c t i o n of knowledge.  The b e l i e f i n the  autonomy of the academic i n s t i t u t i o n i s then m a i n t a i n e d through t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c values. Parsons produced t h i s  ' d e s c r i p t i o n ' of the American U n i v e r s i t y i n  the 1970s a t a time i n which these i d e a l s were a l r e a d y r e l a t i v e l y e n t r e n c h e d i n the system of academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  Although h i s  t h e o r y of the American u n i v e r s i t y i s i n d e e d an i d e a l t y p e , he sought t o p r o v i d e a model t h a t e x p l a i n e d the a c t i v i t i e s of academe as c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s o c i e t a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of a l l s o c i a l spheres.  In t h i s regard,  Parsons' model of the American u n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e s us w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b e l i e f i n academic autonomy t h a t i s e n t r e n c h e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t y system. l i b e r a l i d e a l s now  I t a l s o a c t s as a d e s c r i p t i o n of  how  a c t i d e o l o g i c a l l y t o l e g i t i m a t e the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  p r i v i l e g e of s c h o l a r s h i p .  I n Parsons' model academia's v a l u e s appear t o  be i n t e r n a l l y d e f i n e d and t o t a l l y s e p a r a t e from o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s .  In  moving from a p r e s c r i p t i o n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n , academic l i b e r a l i s m moves from the r e a l m of i d e a l s t o the r e a l m of i d e o l o g y .  This b e l i e f i n  academia's unique v a l u e s t r u c t u r e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d and s u p p o r t e d by the mandate f o r s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g .  1.4  The  L i b e r a l Mandate f o r S c h o l a r l y  Publishing  The p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p r o c e s s by which l e a r n i n g i s advanced. A s c h o l a r has not o n l y the d e s i r e but the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o submit the r e s u l t s of h i s i n q u i r i e s t o the judgement of h i s peers and t o as wide an audience as p o s s i b l e . The American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s The e q u a t i o n of reason w i t h freedom i n the Enlightenment f o r m u l a t i o n i s presumed t o have u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i s t o be p o s s i b l e o n l y i f  41  reason and freedom a r e a v a i l a b l e t o a l l .  As e v i d e n t i n t h e knowledge  produced by ' f r e e ' and 'autonomous' s c h o l a r s ,  t h i s requires  communicated and made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c .  t h a t r e a s o n be  In order f o r t h i s  to o c c u r , t h e knowledge produced out o f such freedom must a l s o then be 'freely' disseminated.  According to t h i s p r i n c i p l e , the basis  unique c h a r a c t e r o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge, as Parsons p o i n t s the c o n n e c t i o n between u n i v e r s i t i e s and s c h o l a r l y  out,  for the lies in  publishing.  W h i l e academic freedom, u n d e r s t o o d as t h e c e n t r a l m i s s i o n o f a modern u n i v e r s i t y , was i m p o r t e d from t h e German model, t h e i d e a b e h i n d  publishing  s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , u n d e r s t o o d as a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n o f a u n i v e r s i t y , was i m p o r t e d from t h e E n g l i s h models o f O x f o r d and Cambridge u n i v e r s i t i e s t o N o r t h America.  The 'Oxbridge' b l u e p r i n t  of a u n i v e r s i t y  p r e s s was f i r s t implemented i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a t C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1869  (Kerr 1958:38).  From t h i s l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y  publishing  came a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e duty o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y not o n l y t o produce knowledge t h r o u g h s c h o l a r s h i p through p u b l i c a t i o n .  b u t a l s o t o communicate t h a t  knowledge  The t r u t h o f t h e r e s u l t s o f s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h i s i n  t h i s way g i v e n t h e mandate o f communication t o t h e masses.  In reference  to t h e 'Cambridge formula' M.H. B l a c k makes t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n  with  r e s p e c t t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y as p u b l i s h e r : . . . t h i s t i t l e [ u n i v e r s i t y press] implies a s p e c i a l the u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f has d e c i d e d t h a t i t i s a n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n as a c e n t r e o f 'education, r e l i g i o n , l e a r n i n g make a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s t o f t h e l e a r n e d w o r l d those members e n t r u s t t o i t s p r e s s . . . (Black 1984:3).  s t a t u s - namely t h a t part of i t s and r e s e a r c h ' t o books which i t s own  A l l u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s e s i n N o r t h America used O x f o r d and Cambridge U n i v e r s i t i e s as t h e i r models f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and i t s scholars at-large.  t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d scholarship  f o r the p u b l i c  We see t h i s commitment i n an e a r l y m i s s i o n statement from  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  Press:  42  Inaugurated p r i m a r i l y f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of books of a h i g h s c h o l a r l y c h a r a c t e r , t h e H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s aims t o a i d i n t h e advancement o f k n o w l e d g e by m a k i n g p o s s i b l e t h e w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e w o r k o f t h e foremost s c h o l a r s of the world. I t w i l l also help i n promptly d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y p r i n t i n g a number o f s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . I t d o e s n o t p l a n , h o w e v e r , t o c o m p e t e w i t h a c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r , s i n c e i t s c h i e f f u n c t i o n w i l l be t h e i s s u i n g o f b o o k s t h a t w o u l d n o t be c o m m e r c i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e (Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Catalogue 1913). The  freedom t o pursue knowledge a p a r t  commercial p r o f i t a b i l i t y scholarship.  As  we  another necessary  see  i s o n l y one i n Parsons'  aspect  aspect  i s the need t o d i s s e m i n a t e  from the  s c h o l a r s as w e l l as  their  research.  t h a t he  n o t i o n was  classrooms,  liberal  expected h i s professors Further,  he  he  as  an  organic  insisted  a l s o supported  part and  attend  to  be  judged i t  t o p u b l i s h the products  upon d e v e l o p i n g  of  the  institution  a d v a n c e d by  as  of  Gilman contended:  a press  accident,  (Shugg  1966:xi).  Daniel Gilman, the  ' i t i s one  to  an  o f Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y . . In a r e p o r t e n d o r s i n g  can  the  i n f l u e n c e of the U n i v e r s i t y f a r  o f a u n i v e r s i t y t o a d v a n c e k n o w l e d g e and who  of  responsibility,  added power o f t h e p r i n t e d page, not  of a u n i v e r s i t y press,  those  notion  t h a t knowledge t o  f u n c t i o n of  (Shugg 1 9 6 6 : x i ) .  Wanting to extend the  attachment, but  president  social  t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y i n c l u d e d a press  give s c h o l a r s h i p the  This  outset  teachers  b e y o n d i t s campus and  an  liberal  of  W i l l i a m Rainey Harper, p r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of  Chicago, asserted  essential  of the  n o t i o n of f i d u c i a r y  p u b l i c as p a r t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d scholarship.  from the pressures  of the  the  noblest  first function duties  t o d i f f u s e i t n o t m e r e l y among  the d a i l y l e c t u r e s but  f a r and  wide'  (quoted  in  Kerr  1958: 38) . As as  i s obvious i n these  e s s e n t i a l to the  production  success  e a r l y accounts, of a research  o f q u a l i t y s c h o l a r s h i p and  knowledge w e l l beyond the w a l l s of the c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i s seen  u n i v e r s i t y , b o t h i n terms of  i n terms of communicating institution.  i d e a l s of knowledge i n a l i b e r a l  This  the  that  notion i s quite  democracy where  the  43  s t a t e f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t s the p u r s u i t of knowledge t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are s e t a s i d e from p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s .  Such i n s t i t u t i o n s  produce o b j e c t i v e knowledge i n o r d e r f o r the masses t o e f f e c t i v e l y and d e m o c r a t i c a l l y l i v e s f r e e from the b i a s e s  should  reflexively,  i n f o r m t h e i r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  of r e l i g i o n or p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s .  economic  In t h i s  way  s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g , as w e l l as p u b l i s h i n g more g e n e r a l l y , i s seen t o e s s e n t i a l t o the h e a l t h y  f u n c t i o n i n g of a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , as A l e x i s  Toqueville proudly declared: i n s t r u m e n t of freedom'  'The  (quoted i n Kerr  1958:42).  s c h o l a r l y knowledge from i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , the m i s s i o n p u b l i s h i n g i n N o r t h America was  of  of s c h o l a r l y  c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d as the medium f o r the  of the t r u t h f u l knowledge produced by u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r s .  Marsh J e a n n e r e t , the former d i r e c t o r of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto confirms t h i s  de  p r e s s i s the c h i e f e s t d e m o c r a t i c  As the l i b e r a l mandate of academe cannot s e p a r a t e the p r o d u c t i o n  dissemination  be  Press,  mission:  . . . the e m a n c i p a t i o n of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s from p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l has been most s u c c e s s f u l i n the case of our u n i v e r s i t i e s , and t h a t t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n of what i s o r d i n a r i l y d e s c r i b e d as academic freedom Western democracy may have i t s g r e a t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e achievement. . . The unique f e a t u r e of a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s p u b l i s h i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s scope f o r the f r e e e x e r c i s e of s c h o l a r l y o b j e c t i v i t y (Jeanneret 1961:4). I n t h i s way,  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i s  e s s e n t i a l t o the t r u t h f u l and produced by i t s s c h o l a r s .  accurate dissemination  of the  knowledge  S c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g d i f f e r s , i n t h i s sense,  from o t h e r forms of p u b l i s h i n g i n t h r e e  s u b s t a n t i a l ways.  F i r s t , as  we  see above i n the cases of Chicago and Harvard, a s c h o l a r l y p r e s s i s o f t e n a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a host u n i v e r s i t y . the autonomy of the academic m i s s i o n p u b l i s h the r e s e a r c h  In t h i s way  a s c h o l a r l y p r e s s enjoys  of the u n i v e r s i t y and  the freedom t o  of members of t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n as w e l l as  from o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Second, i n o r d e r t o ensure the  s t a n d a r d s of the books i t p u b l i s h e s ,  scholarship  scholarly  a s c h o l a r l y p r e s s submits a l l  44  r e c e i v e d m a n u s c r i p t s f i r s t t o academic r e v i e w e r s who a r e t y p i c a l l y i n the scholar's f i e l d  peers  and second t o an academic r e v i e w b o a r d t h a t i s  comprised o f f a c u l t y members from t h e h o s t u n i v e r s i t y .  T h i r d , and i n many  ways most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i n a u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g , i s t h e n o t - f o r - p r o f i t mandate: t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p from commercial concerns.  As these components comprise t h e  uniqueness o f u n i v e r s i t y p u b l i s h i n g programs, they deserve some a t t e n t i o n here f o r i t i s through t h i s agenda t h a t t h e commitment t o t h e l i b e r a l p r a c t i c e o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge i s i n p a r t upheld.  Such p r a c t i c e s  attempt  to m a i n t a i n t h e i d e a l s o f freedom o f academic i n q u i r y , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and the i n t e r n a l focus o f academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n . 1.5  The P u b l i s h i n g o f a S c h o l a r l y  Manuscript  Of utmost importance t o a s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g program a t a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e s c h o l a r l y m e r i t o f t h e books they p u b l i s h .  The  i n t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y m e r i t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d through s e v e r a l mechanisms t h a t ensure t h a t a commitment t o academic s t a n d a r d s o f t r u t h and v e r i f i c a t i o n i s upheld.  I n unpacking t h i s p r o c e s s we f i n d t h a t t h e  i d e a l s o f academic l i b e r a l i s m a r e adhered t o as an attempt t o m a i n t a i n t h e strictly of  i n t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge and u p h o l d t h e v a l u e s  t h e academic sphere.  I n t h i s r e g a r d academic l i b e r a l i s m appears t o  have a t t a i n e d a r e a l i t y o u t s i d e o f i t s i d e o l o g y i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p r a c t i c e s of s c h o l a r l y publishing. The are  f i r s t mechanism t h a t attempts t o ensure t h a t academic s t a n d a r d s  u p h e l d i n t h e s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g p r o c e s s i s t h e 'gatekeeper'  function of the a c q u i s i t i o n s e d i t o r at a s c h o l a r l y press.  The e d i t o r a c t s  as t h e f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p r e s s and o f t e n t u r n s away m a n u s c r i p t s t h a t  (s)he deems as ' u n s c h o l a r l y ' .  In seeking the  p u b l i c a t i o n o f a s c h o l a r l y m a n u s c r i p t every author must b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s  45  by e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t a c t w i t h an a c q u i s i t i o n s e d i t o r .  However, the e d i t o r  i s not s o l e l y r e l i a n t on the p a s s i v e acceptance of m a n u s c r i p t s and a c t i v e l y seek p u b l i s h a b l e s c h o l a r l y m a t e r i a l elsewhere. e d i t o r , through e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n the s c h o l a r l y f i e l d , knowledge of what m a n u s c r i p t s are p u b l i s h a b l e through an  may  T y p i c a l l y the a c q u i r e s a broad initial  e v a l u a t i o n o f a f i e l d and the m e r i t s of a p a r t i c u l a r m a n u s c r i p t f o r i t s o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n to scholarship.  The a c q u i s i t i o n s e d i t o r p l a y s a  p r i m a r y and s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r the maintenance i d e a l s as  of l i b e r a l academic  (s)he i s among the f i r s t i n a c h a i n of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o d e c i d e  upon the s c h o l a r l y m e r i t of a m a n u s c r i p t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . (s)he  I n essence,  d e c i d e s whether or not a m a n u s c r i p t i s i n d e e d worthy of  communication  i n s c h o l a r l y book form.  The second mechanism t h a t attempts t o m a i n t a i n the s c h o l a r l y s t a n d a r d s of a m a n u s c r i p t and perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t mechanism f o r the ' i n t e r n a l ' e v a l u a t i o n of s c h o l a r l y m e r i t i s the peer r e v i e w p r o c e s s . Every m a n u s c r i p t t h a t i s s u b m i t t e d t o a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s must undergo a peer r e v i e w p r o c e s s where the m a n u s c r i p t s are e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i r contribution to scholarship. m a n u s c r i p t r e s t s here.  specific  The u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n t o p u b l i s h a  I n a peer r e v i e w s i t u a t i o n one or more s c h o l a r s  who  are acknowledged  are  asked by the a c q u i s i t i o n s e d i t o r t o read the m a n u s c r i p t t h o r o u g h l y and  comment on  e x p e r t s i n the s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d o f the m a n u s c r i p t  'the o r i g i n a l i t y and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of knowledge of the  m a n u s c r i p t and the competence of the a u t h o r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h e y are thus e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m e d a d v i c e about the s e r v i c e t o s c h o l a r s h i p the m a n u s c r i p t would p e r f o r m and whether i t deserves p u b l i c a t i o n ' 1980:44).  I n t h i s way,  (S.S.H.R.C.  the peer r e v i e w p r o c e s s i s deemed e s s e n t i a l t o  m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a n d a r d s of ' o b j e c t i v e ' knowledge of a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s imprint.  Peer r e v i e w i s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d as the way of m a i n t a i n i n g  e d i t o r i a l o b j e c t i v i t y , as Marsh J e a n n e r e t a s s e r t s :  46  What must be p r e s e r v e d i s a complete e d i t o r i a l o b j e c t i v i t y c o n c e r n i n g the q u a l i t y o f the m a n u s c r i p t s a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . T h i s o b j e c t i v i t y can b e s t be ensured by b r i n g i n g t o the e d i t o r i a l committee the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e and most detached r e a d e r s ' r e p o r t s t h a t can be p r o c u r e d . It f o l l o w s t h a t these r e p o r t s w i l l n o r m a l l y be from o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s than the a u t h o r ' s own, t h a t the r e a d e r ' s anonymity w i l l be s c r u p u l o u s l y p r o t e c t e d by the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s and by the e d i t o r i a l committee, and most i m p o r t a n t , perhaps - t h a t care w i l l have been taken t o p r o c u r e a q u a l i t y o f r e p o r t s which w i l l p e r m i t the e d i t o r i a l committee t o make a sound d e c i s i o n . A p r e s s ' s g r e a t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r i s e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r o c u r i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these r e a d e r s ' r e p o r t s (Jeanneret 1962:8) . The  standards of e v a l u a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a s c h o l a r l y book  by a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o these c r i t e r i a , e s t a b l i s h e d not the p r e s s and i t s p o t e n t i a l b i a s e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n but r a t h e r by  by  the  s c h o l a r l y community and i t s u n i v e r s a l commitment t o the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of t r u t h f u l knowledge.  T h i s g o a l i s a c h i e v e d through a peer r e v i e w  t h a t can p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e the m a n u s c r i p t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o knowledge. p r o c e s s are assumed t o be  process  according to i t s s p e c i f i c  The d e c i s i o n s anonymously made i n the  review  ' o b j e c t i v e l y ' based on the s c h o l a r l y m e r i t of  the work and not a c c o r d i n g t o the s u b j e c t i v e b i a s e s of the r e a d e r s o t h e r f a c t o r s extraneous  t o the work i t s e l f .  or  Anonymity i s o b v i o u s l y  i m p o r t a n t here as i t f r e e s the reader from any p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l  battles  t h a t might ensue as a r e s u l t of h i s or her comments on a p a r t i c u l a r manuscript.  I n t h e o r y , anonymity a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r e d i t o r i a l  obj e c t i v i t y . As we  see i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto  P r e s s ' Author's  Handbook,  s t e p s are taken by both the p r e s s and i t s r e v i e w e r s t o ensure the s c h o l a r l y c h a r a c t e r of a m a n u s c r i p t .  Among the c r i t e r i a ,  manuscript  r e v i e w e r s are asked t o c o n s i d e r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s when a s s e s s i n g manuscripts  such as: What i s the t h e s i s of the work?  sound and up-to-date? to  i t s field?  on the s u b j e c t ?  How  Does the manuscript  I s the s c h o l a r s h i p  make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n  does t h i s work compare w i t h o t h e r major books p u b l i s h e d  These q u e s t i o n s o r i e n t the r e v i e w e r s t o focus  47  s p e c i f i c a l l y on the s c h o l a r l y q u a l i t y of the m a n u s c r i p t and t h e r e f o r e emphasize an i n t e r n a l i s t r e a d i n g of the t e x t and i t s o b j e c t . In a peer r e v i e w s i t u a t i o n the r e a d e r s are e x p e c t e d t o examine the s c h o l a r l y m e r i t of the work and ensure the maintenance standards f o r u n i v e r s i t y p u b l i s h e r s .  of s c h o l a r l y  T h i s p r o c e s s f o r m a l i z e s the  a u t h e n t i c i t y of p u b l i s h e d s c h o l a r s h i p so t h a t n o n - s p e c i a l i s t r e a d e r s of the work p u b l i s h e d by a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s are guaranteed of i t s m e r i t . Robert Merton s u p p o r t s t h i s p o i n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e p u b l i s h i n g and the Royal S o c i e t y ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the peer r e v i e w process.  H i s comments here speak e q u a l l y t o the contemporary  needs o f  n o n - s c i e n c e s c h o l a r s h i p and the s t r u c t u r e of the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s : In t h e i r c a p a c i t y as p r o d u c e r s of s c i e n c e , i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s were concerned w i t h h a v i n g t h e i r work r e c o g n i z e d through p u b l i c a t i o n i n forms v a l u e d by o t h e r members i n the emerging s c i e n t i f i c community who were s i g n i f i c a n t t o them. In t h e i r c a p a c i t y as consumers o f s c i e n c e , they were concerned w i t h h a v i n g the work produced by o t h e r s c o m p e t e n t l y a s s e s s e d so t h a t they c o u l d count on i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y (Merton 1973:469). The need f o r an a u t h o r i z e d , a u t h e n t i c t e x t r e v e a l s i t s e l f on many l e v e l s of u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s p u b l i s h i n g .  I n t h i s r e g a r d the m a n u s c r i p t s are  not o n l y e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i r s c h o l a r l y c o n t e n t and the form of knowledge p r e s e n t e d by peer r e v i e w e r s , but t h e s e reviews are a l s o then f u r t h e r r e v i e w e d by the e d i t o r i a l board of the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s . The e d i t o r i a l board of a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y i f not s o l e l y of d i s t i n g u i s h e d f a c u l t y members of the p a r e n t u n i v e r s i t y .  After a  m a n u s c r i p t has been peer reviewed, and i f those peer r e v i e w s are i n d e e d f a v o r a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , then the m a n u s c r i p t w i t h the r e v i e w s a t t a c h e d i s brought t o the e d i t o r i a l board by the e d i t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c q u i r i n g that manuscript. to  I t i s here t h a t the f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s made w i t h r e s p e c t  scholarly publication.  Of utmost concern t o the e d i t o r i a l board i s  whether the m a n u s c r i p t i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s c h o l a r s h i p , t h a t i s , whether or not i t advances knowledge i n i t s f i e l d  (S.S.H.R.C. 1980:44).  This i s  48  a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h the peer r e v i e w p r o c e s s , the e d i t o r ' s b r o a d knowledge of the a u t h o r ' s work, i t s s i t u a t i o n i n the s c h o l a r l y community, and wisdom and The  e x p e r i e n c e of the members of the board. s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l i b e r a l s c h o l a r s h i p of the s t r u c t u r e  s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g l i e s i n i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment t o advancement of knowledge and sake'.  the  the p u r s u i t of  the  'knowledge f o r knowledge's  Based upon the i d e a l s of academic freedom and  a university publishers'  of  s c h o l a r l y autonomy,  f i r s t g o a l i s t o p u b l i s h knowledge t h a t i s  v e r i f i e d as l e g i t i m a t e w i t h r e s p e c t  t o s c h o l a r l y s t a n d a r d s of t r u t h  v e r i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e b y r e p r o d u c i n g the mandate of the u n i v e r s i t y g u a r a n t e e i n g the t r u t h f u l knowledge i t produces and  and  and  disseminates.  At f i r s t appearance t h i s i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e of a s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g program from commercial p u b l i s h e r s : publishers  commercial  are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the economics of p u b l i s h i n g  t h e i r f i s c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o the commercial p u b l i s h e r s  'bottom-line'.  Broadly speaking,  are concerned w i t h the s i z e of the r e a d e r s h i p  p o t e n t i a l book t h a t , i n t u r n , amounts t o the s a l e s p o t e n t i a l consumption of a book.  of a  and  By c o n t r a s t a s p e c i a l i z e d work such as an academic  monograph i s of l i m i t e d r e a d e r s h i p , S c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i n t h i s way of the u n f e t t e r e d  and  consumption and  profitability.  attempts t o f u r t h e r the l i b e r a l  project  quest f o r t r u t h f u l knowledge, f i r s t , by a t t e m p t i n g t o  eliminate external biases  such as economic i n t e r e s t t h a t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y  censor knowledge by e x c l u s i o n , second, by e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r advancement of knowledge, and  the  t h i r d , by a t t e m p t i n g t o communicate the  e s t a b l i s h e d t r u t h beyond the w a l l s of the u n i v e r s i t y t o the p u b l i c - a t large.  The  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g i n the  sphere demonstrates the attempt by u n i v e r s i t i e s and  academic  s c h o l a r s a l i k e t o keep  the v a l u e s of knowledge i n q u i r y i n t e r n a l t o the s c h o l a r l y p r o c e s s .  49  So f a r t h e p r a c t i c e o f s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g  stands as a model  d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f academic l i b e r a l i s m i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge.  The accounts e x p l o r e d above  lead  one t o b e l i e v e t h a t academia has s u c c e s s f u l l y s e p a r a t e d i t s e l f from 'external'  f o r c e s through i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as an 'autonomous'  sphere, t h e r e b y making t h e n o t i o n economic r e a l m l u d i c r o u s .  value-  o f t h e c o l l i s i o n o f academe w i t h t h e  However as we come t o see, an e x p l a n a t i o n o f  s c h o l a r l y knowledge p r o d u c t i o n t h a t o n l y r e l i e s upon t h e ' i n t e r n a l ' v a l u e s as an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y p r a c t i c e f a i l s t o account f o r t h e s o c i o - h i s t o r i c dynamic t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y i n f o r m s s c h o l a r l y p r a c t i c e . L i b e r a l i s m as a contemporary account o f s c h o l a r l y p r a c t i c e i n t h i s way a c t s as an i d e o l o g i c a l b l i n d t o t h e changing c h a r a c t e r knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  of s c h o l a r l y  These i d e o l o g i c a l t e n d e n c i e s a r e most o b v i o u s i n  the t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y , f o r what we see i n t h i s t h e o r y a r e the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d f e a t u r e s  o f l i b e r a l i s m , such as o b j e c t i v i t y and  autonomy, t h a t e x c l u d e any ' e x t e r n a l ' a n a l y s i s o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge. What we come t o see through a c r i t i q u e o f l i b e r a l i s m i n t h e t h e o r y of t h e knowledge s o c i e t y i s t h a t many ' e x t e r n a l '  features  the p r o d u c t i o n o f knowledge i n t h e modern u n i v e r s i t y . f o r s c h o l a r l y knowledge a r e not o n l y i n t e r n a l l y d e f i n e d  indeed  influence  That i s , t h e v a l u e s by l i b e r a l  academics b u t they a r e a l s o dependent upon t h e i r s o c i o - h i s t o r i c c o n t e x t . Once I t h e o r e t i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h t h e need t o examine t h e s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n of s c h o l a r l y knowledge p r o d u c t i o n today, I w i l l then r e t u r n t o s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g as t h e e m p i r i c a l s i t e f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e e x t e r n a l ( h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic) i n f l u e n c e s knowledge  production.  upon s c h o l a r l y  50  2 The  Theory o f the Knowledge S o c i e t y  Academic l i b e r a l i s m f i n d s i t s most complete and u n a d u l t e r a t e d endorsement i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y i n the t h e o r y o f the knowledge s o c i e t y . demonstrated thus f a r ,  As I have  s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y i n the t r a d i t i o n o f Durkheim  and Parsons o f t e n produces l e g i t i m a t i n g accounts f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , 'autonomous' and p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge i n modern societies.  As a contemporary e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l i n e a g e , the  t h e o r y o f the knowledge s o c i e t y , d e v e l o p e d by D a n i e l B e l l i n The Coming of Post Industrial Societies  Society  the  Knowledge  (1994), f u r t h e r s the l i b e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c l a i m s o f the  academic sphere. of  (1976) and advanced by N i c o S t e h r i n  I n these a c c o u n t s ,  'the knowledge s o c i e t y ' i s the r e s u l t  the s u c c e s s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n of academic l i b e r a l i s m  (the autonomy o f  sphere o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n ) and i s e v i d e n t i n the s o c i a l and  t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s o f Western s o c i e t i e s .  The knowledge s o c i e t y i s i n  t h i s sense a s o c i e t y t h a t i s based upon the growth o f 'knowledge' as a v i t a l s o c i a l resource.  S i n c e the w e l l s p r i n g of t h i s knowledge i s the  'pure' r e s e a r c h g e n e r a t e d p r i m a r i l y by s c i e n c e i n the academic sphere, t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t c o n n e c t i o n between the c l a i m s o f the knowledge s o c i e t y t h e o r i s t s and the advocates o f academic l i b e r a l i s m t h a t I d e s c r i b e above.  However, as we see below, s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e i n t h e t h e o r y  of t h e knowledge s o c i e t y p r e c i s e l y because o f t h i s i n t r i n s i c  connection  with l i b e r a l i s m . Much l i k e academic l i b e r a l i s m ' s t r e a t m e n t o f academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n as autonomous the  and o b j e c t i v e , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f knowledge i n  t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y i s based upon s i m i l a r assumptions o f  how knowledge i s produced.  The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n how knowledge i s not  51  opened t o e i t h e r s o c i a l o r h i s t o r i c a l i n s p e c t i o n .  R a t h e r , a crude v e r s i o n  of t h e l i b e r a l t h e o r y o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n (academic knowledge as differentiated definition  and autonomous) i s t a k e n as t h e u n q u e s t i o n e d and p r i m a r y  o f knowledge.  I n t h i s r e g a r d , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f knowledge i n  the t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y i s not l i n k e d t o i t s p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as t h e t h e o r y c l a i m s , b u t r a t h e r i s a b s t r a c t e d from them i n o r d e r t o ensure t h e c o n t i n u e d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r i v i l e g e academic a u t h o r i t y .  As I demonstrate,  of  i n t h i s account t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of knowledge remains v i r t u a l l y undeveloped  from i t s Enlightenment  formulation. In t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s I f o l l o w a M a r x i a n s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge methodology i n o r d e r t o i n s p e c t t h e impact o f r e c e n t s o c i a l  and economic  changes i n t h e form o f consumer c u l t u r e upon t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y knowledge.  The premise t h a t I borrow from Marx t h a t stands as a  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s h i s p o s i t i o n i n The German Ideology  and throughout h i s work c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  knowledge: The p r o d u c t i o n o f i d e a s , o f c o n c e p t i o n s , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i s a t f i r s t d i r e c t l y i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l a c t i v i t y and t h e m a t e r i a l i n t e r c o u r s e o f men. . . The same a p p l i e s t o mental p r o d u c t i o n as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e language o f p o l i t i c s , law, m o r a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , m e t a p h y s i c s , e t c . o f a p e o p l e . Men a r e t h e p r o d u c e r s o f t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s . . . as t h e y a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by a d e f i n i t e development o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s (Marx and Engels 1970:47). W h i l e Marx m a i n t a i n s t h a t knowledge i s ' c o n d i t i o n e d ' by p r o d u c t i o n , he a l s o i n s i s t s t h a t such p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s cannot be u n d e r s t o o d o u t s i d e o f their historical specificity.  P r o d u c t i o n , he c o n t i n u e s , i s a l s o an  inherently h i s t o r i c a l act: But l i f e i n v o l v e s b e f o r e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , a h a b i t a t i o n , c l o t h i n g and many o t h e r t h i n g s . The f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l a c t i s thus t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means t o s a t i s f y these needs, t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f material l i f e i t s e l f . And i n d e e d t h i s i s an h i s t o r i c a l a c t , a fundamental c o n d i t i o n o f a l l h i s t o r y (Marx and Engels 1970:48).  52  These pages  from  The  for the Marxian t r a d i t i o n  German  Ideology  e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c  i n t h e S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge.  assumptions  T h e s e a r e : a)  k n o w l e d g e i s t h e r e s u l t o f p r o d u c t i o n , b) p r o d u c t i o n i s an h i s t o r i c a l a c t , c) as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f a) a n d b ) , k n o w l e d g e i s a l s o h i s t o r i c a l . of t h i s  to i t s social,  Following these c r i t e r i a  economic and h i s t o r i c a l  f o r t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e my  chapter i s to develop a t h e o r e t i c a l  critique  two w a y s .  First,  I conduct  o f academic  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  aim i n  liberalism  account  In t h i s  analysis  I demonstrate  today.  Second, I conduct  the n e c e s s i t y  f o r producing a  i n s p e c t i o n we  s e e how  new  scholarly  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n  knowledge t o economic p r o d u c t i o n i n the t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge In t h i s  this  knowledge  o f k n o w l e d g e p r o d u c t i o n , one t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  practices  I do  ideological  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f knowledge t h a t i n f o r m s t h e t h e o r y o f t h e society.  and  situation.  t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r y o f t h e k n o w l e d g e s o c i e t y . in  virtue  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the s t r u c t u r e of knowledge i n b o t h i t s c o n t e n t  form i s r e l a t i v e  this  By  of  society.  the t r e a t m e n t o f knowledge i s i n h e r e n t l y  ideological  as i t p o r t r a y s t h e w o r l d  emphasizing  the determinacy  'upside-down' thus  clearly  o f knowledge over p r o d u c t i o n .  I argue  that  because of the i n h e r e n t d i a l e c t i c a l  relations  o f p r o d u c t i o n as  articulated  by Marx,  be v i e w e d  as a u t o n o m o u s o r  self-  scholarly  legislating position,  knowledge cannot  i n relation  I argue  to other s o c i a l  spheres.  Following a Marxian  that the p r o d u c t i o n of s c h o l a r l y  an e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y t h a t m u s t be v i e w e d  knowledge i s i n h e r e n t l y  as s u c h i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y  understand i t s c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n advanced c a p i t a l i s m . scholarly  To  understand  k n o w l e d g e p r o d u c t i o n one m u s t s i t u a t e a c a d e m i c l a b o u r i n t h e  c o n t e x t o f c a p i t a l i s m r a t h e r than f a l s e l y a b s t r a c t the economic sphere of a theory of s c h o l a r l y  knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l  Here I c o n t i n u e a  tenets of l i b e r a l i s m i n order to  out  critical  53  establish  the c o n c e p t u a l parameters  scholarly  knowledge p r o d u c t i o n .  2.1  Social  Structure, Polity,  B e f o r e examining  f o r a n a l y s i n g academic economies of  Culture  the treatment of knowledge i n the Theory o f the Knowledge  S o c i e t y , I f i r s t want t o s i t u a t e t r a d i t i o n of s o c i o l o g i c a l  D a n i e l B e l l ' s work i n the modern  theory to c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h  the v e r s i o n of academic l i b e r a l i s m d e s c r i b e d above. a g a i n see how  In B e l l ' s t h e o r y  the academic sphere i s s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r s o c i a l  through d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and p r i v i l e g e d Similar  h i s connection to  spheres  as the realm of freedom of  t o Durkheim b e f o r e him and h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l  Parsons, D a n i e l B e l l adheres t o the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s  we  inquiry.  contemporary T a l c o t t of  societal  m o d e r n i z a t i o n as the p r o d u c t of the modern d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  social  spheres and the subsequent development o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e autonomies. For B e l l , s o c i e t a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can be understood as the c o n c e p t u a l s e p a r a t i o n of t h r e e spheres: s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ,  p o l i t y , and  culture.  A n a l y t i c a l l y s o c i e t y can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , the p o l i t y and the c u l t u r e . The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e comprises the economy, t e c h n o l o g y and the o c c u p a t i o n a l system. The p o l i t y r e g u l a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and a d j u d i c a t e s the c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s and demands of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The c u l t u r e i s the realm of e x p r e s s i v e symbolism and meanings ( B e l l 1976:12). B e l l i s f i r m l y p l a c e d i n the t r a d i t i o n of modern s o c i o l o g i c a l by a n a l y t i c a l l y d i v i d i n g  theory  s o c i e t y i n t o these d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c a t e g o r i e s ;  l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , he e s t a b l i s h e s the s e l f - l e g i s l a t i n g a b i l i t y of each v a l u e - s p h e r e t o be governed by a s p e c i f i c axial c a t e g o r i e s appear somewhat d i f f e r e n t  principle.  Although  from t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , the i d e a i s  much the same: each v a l u e sphere i s r e g u l a t e d by s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s are i n t e r n a l l y generated by t h a t sphere.  the ' p u r i t y ' ,  that  What i s i m p o r t a n t here i s t h a t  B e l l t h e o r i z e s the s e p a r a t i o n of 'the economic' from thereby e s t a b l i s h i n g  the  'the c u l t u r a l ' ,  s e p a r a t i o n and i n t e g r i t y of the v a l u e s  54  i n h e r e n t t o each realm. form o f t h e o r e t i c a l the  In a s i m i l a r vein, scholarly  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge a l s o a c q u i r e s autonomy t h r o u g h  separation of the u n i v e r s i t y  s o c i a l spheres.  knowledge i n t h e  B e l l claims:  and i t s s c i e n t i f i c community from o t h e r  ' t h i s v e r y autonomy i s t h e v e r y h e a r t o f t h e  ethos - and o r g a n i z a t i o n - o f s c i e n c e ' s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y  ( B e l l 1973:379).  Consequently  stowed away from t h e p o l l u t i n g  ' e x t e r n a l ' i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e p o l i t y o r t h e economy i n o r d e r t o s u s t a i n i t s epistemological integrity.  In t h i s theoretical  separation of s o c i a l  spheres and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v a l u e s , t h e t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y reproduces t h e fundamental assumptions h e l d by many modern theorists  sociological  and academic l i b e r a l s a l i k e .  I t i s u s e f u l t o d i v i d e s o c i e t y i n t h i s way because each a s p e c t i s r u l e d by a different axial principle. I n modern Western s o c i e t y t h e a x i a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s economizing - a way o f a l l o c a t i n g resources according t o p r i n c i p l e s of l e a s t cost, s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y , o p t i m i z a t i o n , m a x i m i z a t i o n , and t h e l i k e . The a x i a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e modern p o l i t y i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , sometimes m o b i l i z e d o r c o n t r o l l e d sometimes demanded from below. The a x i a l p r i n c i p l e o f c u l t u r e i s t h e d e s i r e f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t and enhancement o f t h e s e l f . I n t h e p a s t these t h r e e areas were l i n k e d by a common v a l u e system. But i n o u r times t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g d i s j u n c t i o n o f t h e t h r e e ( B e l l 1973:12-13) . B e l l ' s theory exhibits  t h e p a r a d o x i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n t h a t w i t h i n such  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h e v a l u e o f t h e autonomy o f knowledge p r e v a i l s . analytic  This  s e p a r a t i o n a l l o w s B e l l , and l a t e r N i c o S t e h r , t o examine t h e  unilateral effects  o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge on changes i n t h e economy and  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e more g e n e r a l l y .  'Knowledge' as an a n a l y t i c  category i s  a b s t r a c t e d from i t s s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n o r d e r f o r t h e theorists  o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y t o ' o b j e c t i v e l y '  measure t h e e x t e n t t o  which modern s o c i e t y has changed i n r e l a t i o n t o such knowledge.  However,  t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n c o n f l a t e s o b j e c t i v e knowledge as an i d e a l w i t h s c i e n c e as a practice internal,  based upon t h e shared autonomy o f t h e academic sphere and i t s s e l f - l e g i s l a t i n g value structure.  'objectivity'  S i n c e b o t h ' s c i e n c e ' and  a r e assumed t o be immanent i n t h e academic sphere, h i s  55  account  o f knowledge i s s t r i c t l y  eliminates  internal.  the p o t e n t i a l f o r c r i t i c a l  Such s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l i t y  r e f l e c t i o n upon the p o s i t i o n o f  academic knowledge p r o d u c t i o n as i t assumes t h a t t h a t knowledge i s a l r e a d y accounted  f o r by the v a l u e s i n h e r e n t t o the academic sphere.  I n other  words, knowledge as an o b j e c t o f s o c i o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y remains hidden proper a n a l y s i s .  T h i s i d e o l o g i c a l c l o s i n g o f meaning i n the t h e o r y o f t h e  knowledge s o c i e t y begins w i t h the r e l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e scientific 2.2  knowledge t o  inquiry.  Objectivity  In 1966,  from  and the  Universality  of  Knowledge  Robert Lane produced a d e f i n i t i o n o f the  'knowledgeable s o c i e t y '  t h a t today stands as a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n t  f o r t h e o r i s t s o f the knowledge  society  I t reads:  ( B e l l 1973:176; S t e h r 1994:5).  As a f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o a d e f i n i t i o n , the knowledgeable s o c i e t y i s one i n which, more than i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s , i t s members: a) i n q u i r e i n t o t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r b e l i e f s about man, n a t u r e and s o c i e t y ; b) are guided, (perhaps u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) by o b j e c t i v e standards o f v e r i d i c a l t r u t h , and, a t upper l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , f o l l o w s c i e n t i f i c r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e and i n f e r e n c e i n i n q u i r y ; c) devote c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o t h i s i n q u i r y and thus have a l a r g e s t o r e o f knowledge; d) c o l l e c t , o r g a n i s e and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r knowledge i n a c o n s t a n t e f f o r t t o e x t r a c t meaning from i t f o r t h e purposes a t hand; e) employ t h i s knowledge t o i l l u m i n a t e (and perhaps modify) t h e i r v a l u e s and g o a l s as w e l l as t o advance them. J u s t as t h e d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y has a f o u n d a t i o n i n governmental and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and the a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y i n economics, so the knowledgeable s o c i e t y has i t s r o o t s i n e p i s t e m o l o g y and the l o g i c o f i n q u i r y (Lane 1966:650) . Among o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f the establishment of 'objective  'knowledgeable s o c i e t y ' , t h e  standards o f v e r i d i c a l t r u t h ' and ' s c i e n t i f i c  r u l e s o f evidence i n i n q u i r y ' are among the p r i m a r y a x i a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e o r i s t s o f the knowledge s o c i e t y .  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s used by b o t h  D a n i e l B e l l and N i c o Stehr t o emphasise the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f o b j e c t i v e , s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r the growth and development o f contemporary Western s o c i e t i e s  ( c f . S t e h r 1994:119).  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h academic  l i b e r a l i s m , here s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s accorded a s p e c i a l  56  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t a t u s t h a t p r o v i d e s the r e s t of s o c i e t y w i t h a f o r t r u t h f u l knowledge  f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l a c t i o n .  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d autonomy of the academic sphere out o f which knowledge  i s produced a l l o w s f o r i t s o b j e c t i v i t y .  o b j e c t i v e knowledge  then a c t s as a u n i f y i n g f o u n d a t i o n  and remakes our b a s i c s o c i a l  The scientific  The p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f o r knowledgeable  s o c i a l a c t i o n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i s t s of the knowledge informs  foundation  society,  institutions.  S c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y are remaking our b a s i c s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r example i n such areas of work, e d u c a t i o n , p h y s i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , c u l t u r e , the economy, and the p o l i t i c a l system. The hope t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w i l l open up many, i f not a l l , of the s e c r e t s of n a t u r e and the heavens and t h a t such i n s i g h t s w i l l prove t o be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b u i l d i n g a b e t t e r w o r l d , based on n a t u r e ' s d e s i g n but f o r the b e n e f i t of mankind, i s a dream l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l e g i t i m a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y (Stehr 1994:viii). Knowledge i n the t h e o r y of the knowledge assumption t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  s o c i e t y i s based upon the  o n l y corresponds w i t h the o b j e c t s i t  seeks t o e x p l a i n - not a l s o w i t h the s o c i e t y out of which t h o s e concepts are produced.  I n t h i s way s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  of the knowledge  s o c i e t y p o s s e s s e s an autonomy and hence an a u t h o r i t y t h a t  i s not a c c o r d e d t o o t h e r forms of knowledge. knowledge  as d e s c r i b e d by t h e o r i s t s  Here the t r u t h b e h i n d  lies i n i t s potential for objectivity.  Such o b j e c t i v i t y i s o n l y  p o s s i b l e from an autonomous sphere of i n q u i r y - the r e s e a r c h u n i v e r s i t y o f which the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the s c i e n c e s i s a fundamental and c o n s t i t u t i v e component (Stehr  1994:80).  The account of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge  as t h a t which i s b e s t  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d f o r ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' i s h i s t o r i c a l l y based upon the s u c c e s s of the s c i e n t i f i c method i n c o n c e p t u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t i n g the laws of n a t u r e .  W h i l e the d i s c o v e r y and f a b r i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c  method i s i n i t s e l f undoubtedly h i s t o r i c a l , the laws themselves t h a t a r e r e v e a l e d through i t s a p p l i c a t i o n are supposedly not s u b j e c t t o e i t h e r s o c i a l or h i s t o r i c a l forces.  They a r e , i n t h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l account,  57  independent o f such  ' r e l a t i v e ' f o r c e s : t h e laws o f n a t u r e a r e u n i v e r s a l .  Human knowledge through i t s ' n a t u r a l ' and ' u n i v e r s a l ' c a p a c i t y f o r Reason can s u b s e q u e n t l y  a p p r o p r i a t e such laws.  The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f Reason i s , as  I r v i n g Z e i t l i n p o i n t s o u t , among t h e c e n t r a l f o u n d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Enlightenment: More than t h e t h i n k e r s o f any p r e c e d i n g age, t h e men o f t h e Enlightenment h e l d f i r m l y t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e mind c o u l d comprehend t h e u n i v e r s e and s u b o r d i n a t e i t t o human needs. Reason became t h e god o f these p h i l o s o p h e r s who were enormously i n s p i r e d by t h e s c i e n t i f i c achievements o f t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r i e s . Those achievements l e d them t o a new c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e based on t h e u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l laws; u t i l i z i n g t h e concepts and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , they s e t about t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a new w o r l d based on reason and t r u t h . T r u t h became t h e c e n t r a l g o a l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s o f t h i s age, b u t n o t t r u t h founded on r e v e l a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n o r a u t h o r i t y ; r a t h e r i t was reason and o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t were t o be t h e t w i n p i l l a r s o f t r u t h ( Z e i t l i n 1968:1). This u n i v e r s a l understanding w o r l d i t c l a i m s t o understand by advocates  o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f our knowledge t o t h e  through reason i s d e s i g n a t e d as o b j e c t i v i t y  o f t h e power o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge.  This conception of  o b j e c t i v i t y provides the i d e o l o g i c a l foundation f o r a n o t i o n of l e g i t i m a t e knowledge t h a t c l a i m s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d .  O b j e c t i v i t y , as we  see i n c h a p t e r one, i s o f t e n synonymous w i t h s c h o l a r l y p r o d u c t i o n as o b j e c t i v e knowledge i s seen t o be n e c e s s a r i l y autonomous and independent of i t s l a r g e r c o n t e x t .  P a r a l l e l t o t h e i d e a o f autonomy i s t h e i d e a t h a t  o b j e c t i v i t y a l s o c l a i m s a direct  r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d based on ' c a u s a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t h o l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o man and n a t u r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e i r procedures  f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n t e x t s i n which t h e s e  are found t o have l o c a l dominance' concepts  ( O ' N e i l l 1982:153).  relationships  I n t h i s way, both  a r e a n a l y t i c a l l y f r e e d from t h e i r l a r g e r c o n t e x t .  As R i c h a r d B e r n s t e i n s u g g e s t s , t h e b e l i e f i n o b j e c t i v i t y adheres t o the c o n v i c t i o n 'that t h e r e i s o r must be some permanent, a h i s t o r i c a l m a t r i x o r framework t o which we can u l t i m a t e l y appeal i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f knowledge, t r u t h . . . '.  He argues t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y has been  58  used t o d e s i g n a t e  a m e t a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y - 'the c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s a  w o r l d o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y t h a t e x i s t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f us and t h a t has a d e t e r m i n a t e n a t u r e o r essence t h a t we can know . . . What i s out t h e r e ( o b j e c t i v e ) i s presumed t o be independent o f us ( s u b j e c t i v e ) and knowledge i s a c h i e v e d when a s u b j e c t c o r r e c t l y m i r r o r s o r r e p r e s e n t s reality'  ( B e r n s t e i n 1983:8) .  objective  Understood i n t h i s way, c o r r e c t knowledge i s  b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t o r ' m i r r o r ' i t s o b j e c t as i t i s not p o l l u t e d by t h e i m p u r i t i e s of surrounding or economics.  i n f l u e n c e s such as p e r s o n a l  In t h i s formulation  relations, politics  t h e r e i s a g a i n an i n t r i n s i c  link  between t h e procedures o f ' o b j e c t i v e ' knowledge ( s c i e n c e ) and t h e autonomy of t h e sphere o f knowledge p r o d u c t i o n  (academe).  Through t h i s c o n v i c t i o n t o o b j e c t i v i t y , i n t h e t h e o r y  of the  knowledge s o c i e t y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e ' n a t u r a l ' and ' s o c i a l ' w o r l d s i s m i n i m i s e d , f o r i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t such o b j e c t i v i t y i s e q u a l l y a t t a i n a b l e i n b o t h realms.  This c o n v i c t i o n provides  a common ground f o r  s c h o l a r l y endeavours t o u n i v e r s a l i z e t h e e v a l u a t i v e s t a n d a r d s f o r l e g i t i m a t e academic knowledge.  The c a p a c i t y o f t h e s c h o l a r l y sphere f o r  s e l f - l e g i s l a t i o n then e s t a b l i s h e s a d e f i n i t i o n f o r s c h o l a r s h i p as t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e t r u t h o f the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d .  I t s standards are b e l i e v e d  t o be based upon t h e u n i v e r s a l commitment t o t h e u n v e i l i n g o f t h e o b j e c t i v e world.  Many s c h o l a r l y p u r s u i t s i n t h e t h e o r y  society, regardless criteria.  of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n a r y a f f i l i a t i o n ,  T h e r e f o r e t h e primacy o f t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d  eliminates the methodological the  'soft' s o c i a l sciences.  o f t h e knowledge cannot escape such effectively  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e 'hard' n a t u r a l and I n t h i s sense much academic i n q u i r y i s  u n i f i e d t h r o u g h i t s shared methodology: . . . t h e m a t e r i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f n a t u r e means t h a t n a t u r e i n t o t o i s g r a d u a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a human p r o d u c t by s u p e r i m p o s i n g on n a t u r e new, s o c i a l l y constructed designs. T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s o b j e c t i f i e d knowledge, namely, an e x p l i c a t i o n and r e a l i s a t i o n o f what we know a r e t h e laws o f  59  n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s extended by e n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The same a p p l i e s t o s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (Stehr 1994:105). I t i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e o r i s t s o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y t h a t s o c i a l f a c t s do not d i f f e r from n a t u r a l f a c t s o r s o c i a l knowledge from n a t u r a l knowledge i n t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n s o f a r as both forms o f knowledge  relate  t o an o b j e c t 'out t h e r e ' t h a t can be e x p e r i e n t i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r purposes o f s o c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n .  S o c i a l progress i n t h i s  sense,  a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y as s o c i a l a c t i o n i n f o r m e d by s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - p r o d u c e d knowledge, i s but a mere e x t e n s i o n o f the f a c t u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n of t h e laws o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d  ( s c i e n c e ) and  the subsequent a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s knowledge t o t h e m a s t e r i n g o f n a t u r e and s o c i e t y ( t e c h n o l o g y ) .  'Knowledge as a c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n enables one  t o s e t something i n t o motion . . . s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y  c o n s t a n t l y add  t o t h e e x i s t i n g s t o c k o f knowledge and t h e r e f o r e t o t h e a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l actors t o a f f e c t t h e i r circumstances  of a c t i o n '  ( S t e h r 1994:97-  98) . The i d e a t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and t h e h a r n e s s i n g o f n a t u r e l e a d s us from s o c i a l a c t i o n t o s o c i a l p r o g r e s s through t e c h n o l o g y i s i n d e e d n o t new t o t h e knowledge s o c i e t y .  In fact, i t i s i n t h i s  principle  t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y r e v e a l s i t s f o u n d a t i o n not as a contemporary t h e o r y o f knowledge b u t r a t h e r as a d i r e c t i n h e r i t a n c e of t h e Enlightenment  t r a d i t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l i s m .  In t h i s  largely  unacknowledged c o n n e c t i o n we f i n d t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f t h e knowledge s o c i e t y d e n i e s i t s own h i s t o r i c i t y as an Enlightenment  t h e o r y o f knowledge.  To make t h i s h i s t o r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n c l e a r , we can t u r n t o t h e p o s i t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f Auguste Comte f o r h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l and t h e s o c i a l worlds and, hence, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a science of society.  A c c o r d i n g t o Comte, t h e laws t h a t  show t h e i r r e l e v a n c e i n p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y a r e a l s o found i n t h e realm  60  of the s o c i a l , thus c r e a t i n g not o n l y the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r an  objective  ' p o s i t i v e ' s c i e n c e of the e n t i r e o b j e c t w o r l d but a f o u n d a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge t o s o c i a l p r a c t i c e and of the human c o n d i t i o n .  The  f o r the  the p e r f e c t i o n  f o l l o w i n g passage reads as i f Comte were a l s o  a t h e o r i s t of the knowledge s o c i e t y ; the t h e o r e t i c a l p a r a l l e l between the theorists i s certainly clear. When the a b s t r a c t laws e x h i b i t i n g v a r i o u s modes of a c t i v i t y have been brought s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b e f o r e us, our p r a c t i c a l knowledge of each s p e c i a l system of e x i s t e n c e ceases t o be p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l , though the g r e a t e r number of c o n c r e t e laws may s t i l l be unknown. We f i n d the b e s t example of t h i s t r u t h i n the most d i f f i c u l t and i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t of a l l , s o c i o l o g y . Knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s t a t i c and dynamic laws of s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e i s e v i d e n t l y s u f f i c i e n t from the purpose of s y s t e m a t i z i n g the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of p r i v a t e or p u b l i c l i f e , and t h e r e b y of r e n d e r i n g our c o n d i t i o n f a r more p e r f e c t (Comte 1975:331). As an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g , the t h e o r y  the f o u n d a t i o n  f o r knowledge i n  of the knowledge s o c i e t y i s a h i s t o r i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l , and  r e i f i e d , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s moved i n t o a contemporary t h e o r y substantial reflection.  In these accounts the d i f f i c u l t i e s of o b j e c t i v i s m  a r i s e as a s u b s t a n t i a l problem not o n l y i n the t h e o r y of the s o c i e t y but  f o r 'theory' more g e n e r a l l y , as Max  ' [ i n the p u r s u i t of s c i e n c e ]  the c o n c e p t i o n  knowledge  Horkheimer p o i n t s  of t h e o r y was  i n some o t h e r a h i s t o r i c a l way,  out:  absolutized,  though i t were grounded i n i n n e r n a t u r e of knowledge as such, or  as  justified  and thus became a r e i f i e d i d e o l o g i c a l  category'  (1972:194).  ideology:  i t attempts t o l e a v e no t r a c e of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and  conceals  without  Knowledge viewed i n l i g h t of o b j e c t i v i s m i s pure  the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t make i t p o s s i b l e .  Hence the  of knowledge i n the t h e o r y of the knowledge s o c i e t y c o n c e a l s  the  therefore treatment very  s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t make such knowledge p o s s i b l e . Opening the h i s t o r i c a l t i e s w i t h Enlightenment e p i s t e m o l o g i e s i n s p e c t i o n i s one way  to  of c r i t i c a l l y s i t u a t i n g t h i s t r e a t m e n t of knowledge  in a theoretical tradition.  61  2.3  The  'Black Box'  o f Knowledge  A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y t h a t a r i s e s w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f