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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the population movements between the United States and Canada Brink, Reginald Murray 1925

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A STUDY OF THE POPULATION MOVEMENTS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND C A N A D A . - - - 0 0 O 0 0 - - -B y REGINALD MURRAY BRINK - - . - o c O o o - - -A Thesis submitted for the Degree MASTER OP ARTS i n t h e Department o f E C O N O M I C S . - - - 0 0 O 0 0 - - -The University of British Columbia April, 192^* : - . - - . - o o o O o o o - - - - -I P R E F A C E . In the preparation cf th is theeie . I have received much valuable assistance from k i te *ocdworth, Mise Jeffcrd, ana kr. Haweie cf fb University cf Brit ish Ccia»bia library staff , from aliee I). Eelmee ef the Provincial Legislature Library, and frea Professor H. P. Angus cf the University ef Brit ish Columbia, to a l l cf whoa; t re tuns thanks. B. M. 1 . - - • © c O c c » » » II TABLE OP COPTEKTS PREFACE. CHAPTER CHATTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CUE TWO THREE Part Part Part Part Part Part POUR Part Part Part Part Part FIVE SIX One Two Three Pour Fire Six One Two Three Pour Five The Problem. Historical Background* Americans in Canada. In Summary, Up to 1907. 1907-1913. 1914-1919. 1920-1984. Review. Canadians in the United State In Summary, 1870-1900. 1900-1910. 1910-1924. Review. Review of the Causes. Looking Forward. - . . - o o O o o - - -1 CHAPTER 0D1E. The two factors which contribute to the growth of a population are the natural increase, or excess of births eve] deaths, and the net immigration, or excess of arrivals over de-partures. While tte relative potency of these factors depends on a variety of causes, it may be said in general, that, in the case of a new country, net immigration provides an impor-tant part of the population increase , while in an old country natural increase, modified more or less by net immigration, or excess of departures over arrivals, is the principal ele-ment of growth. Canada, as a new country, should be augmenting her population by a net immigration. Recent figures show, how-ever, that Canada is losing a great part of what we might consider as her normal increase, to the United States. A late statistical abstract of the United States shows that in the last fifty years, 1,600,112 Canadian-born immigrants en-tered the United States from British North America, while 270,804 had entered the United States from the same source from 1820 to 1870. Varying estimates have been compiled to show that this exodus of Canadian population would have in-creased itself to at least five and one half millions of people. Using recent Canadian figures which include more than the Canadian-born elements in the outward movement, the magnitude of the outflow appears still more impressive. - 8 -Canadian population in 1901 was 5,271,516 Estimated natural increase was (1901-11) 852,566 Immigration, 1901-1911, was 1.847.651 Population should have been in 1911, 8,072,532 Census figures, 1911 .7.2Q6.643 Emigration, therefore, was 865,699 For the next decade the figures are net mere en-couraging. Canadian population in 1911 was 7,206,643 Estimated natural increasewas (1911-21) 1,150,659 Immigration, 1911-1921, was 1.728.921 Population should, have been, 1921, 10,086,223 Census figures , 1921, 8.78b.48g Emigration, therefore, was 1,297,740 These figures show that the nature of the increase in Canada's population. In both decades the emigration, and this was overwhelmingly to the United States, more than exceeded the natural increase. Immigration provided such increase in population as Canada enjoyed. Without entering into the abstract reasoning of the advantages and disadvanfeges of numbers in population, it seems that the millions of people lost by Canada to the United States would have materially aided in solving some of Canada's national problems. The colossal Rational, Provincial, and Municipal debts of the Dominion, her enormous railway systems, and the enormous structures of her banks are very heavy bur-- 3 -dens on the present Canadian population. Stephen Leacock has compared Canada to a frame, toe large for the picture, Canada's population. It appears that lessened distribution costs, lighter relative (despite actual increase in) taxation, and the loan burden distributed over more shoulders would raise Canada's efficiency by giving increased returns. More-over, the losses of population may actually decrease the ef-ficiency of the people that remain in Canada. This lessened productiveness might cause further exodus and still greate'r inefficiency. While it is unlikely that this "endless chain of causality" or "viscious circle" will go further on its course, Canada, by a slower relative growth, may fail to keep pace with her large neighbour and thus continue to supply the American market with labour. ' While Canada is losing annually whole battalions or cities of people, both native and immigrants, she has at-tracted in the past and is attracting in the present, some Americans into her fields and industries. At times this in-terchange or crossflow has made Canada the gainer in numbers but at present the movement is greatly in favour of the United States. While Americans millions have contributed large numbers to the population of Ontario and have endowed the Canadian prairies with some of their finest settlers, Canada with her much smaller population has given to the United States millions of ambitio**e citizens, who with their edu-cation paid for, with youth in their favour, and with physical fitness secured in the stimulating northern climate, have made - 4 -excellent citizens of the States to the south. In this movement is to be noted a great contrast; Canada as large as the United States, part of the same mid-continental tract, with resources little known and less de-veloped, not only falls to gain but is actually losing popu-lation to the country to the south. The contrast is more striking when we note that the United States has erected bar-riers against immigrants from all countries except Canada and Iriexico. The present American attitude seems to be, "We don't want immigration, but we will tolerate people from Canada". Thus, while Canadian politicians, bankers and railway magnates demand population as "the greatest need of the country"; while Canada employs immigration agents, advertises in a thou-sand American papers; Canada is able to attract the hundreds while the United States with merely a tolerating attitudet attracts the thousands. The truth seems to be that the living, economic, and comfort standards of the United States offer competition with which Canada is unable to cope, Ldgrations are reflec-tions of such conditions. Population movements reflect in a measure the course of affairs at home, but also the condi-tions of the receiving country. Present day movements are very largely individual, and the individual is seldomviholly blind. The individual in moving seeks to secure in the main, a better market for his or her abilities, but while the ci-tizen gains what he thinks is a better chance, the nation from - 5 -whence he goes may lose valuable energy. A population move-ment, then, is a process of adaptation to opportunity. A study, therefore, of the crossflow of population between the United States and Canada is largely a study of industrial and agricultural opportunities. In this resume of the ebb and flow of people over the international boundary line, we shall be studying in-directly the factors which have in the oast prevented Canada from keeping pace with the growth of her neighbour, of factors which seem to be impeding her present progress, of tte future effect of these and other causes. To do this, we shall en-deavour in the process of this essay to find out why Canada loses her population, why she gains. Our method, briefly, will be a study first of the actual movements, and secondly, by gathering such data as to occupation, destination, racial origin and the like we may find the causes. It will then be our purpose to apply these causes to the present movement, and seek to find a remedy for the future by eradicating fac-tors that impede at present. We shall then have a policy for the future. 6 -CHAPTER TWO. Between the two countries now called the United States and the Dominion of Canada there has ever been a cer-tain crossflow of population. Delving into history, we find that over two centuries ago French Canadian "coureurs de bois" established the western trade routes from Hudson Bay on the north to Louisiana on the south. This trade route down the Mississippi leaves it heritage in the French names of many of the great cities on that highway of commerce. Traces of this race are said to be found in the French names of many old families living along the Mississippi. Distancem modes of travel, and lack of knowledge of the country all tended to prevent any but very small movements of population between Hew France and Louisiana.' In 1783, however, a movement was started which more than paid on behalf of the United States, any population debt previously oMng. After the peace between England and the new Republic, the United Empire Loyalists moved up from flew Englam to found Upper Canada, flew Brunswick, and to settle the eastern townships of what is now Quebec. By this movement Canada received a racial stock whose independence of spirit, whose fortitude despite great hardships was of almost ines-timable value in giving Canada a start toward vigorous nation-hood. Canada received at a later date many slaves fleeing from their masters in the South. British soil meant freedom - 7 -for these negroes and Canada became a haven for considerable numbers. After the Civil War, many freed negroes came to join their brethren who had been fortunate enough to escape tc Canada. The effect it seen, even today, in such places as Chatham, Just over the Canadian boundary, where the negro population constitutes a large percentage of the total num-bers. There was also, in the post Civil War period, a move-ment by which many former slaves used Canada as a stepping stone in the return to Africa, ^umbers, running into the thousands left from Halifax for Sierra Leone. We see in this movement of negroes social and political causes working- in much the same way as the polictical forces which had brought the United Empire Loyalists to Canada. Such of this move-ment of negroes as was transitory, left few traces in the country through which it passed. This transhipment or movement in bond, seems to have had a modern counterpart in the move-ment of Europeans, who, coming first to Canada, have drifted over the line to that more powerful magnet, the United States. The opening of the Great American West in the middle of the last century drew many Ontario and Maritime farmers to the new lands of Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Wisconsin. As these states filled up, the Dakotas and Montana absorbed their share of the incoming Canadian population. Before the Canadian prairies were kno?/nto exist, lines of rail were being strung across the American plains. Labour used in their construction was largely of Irish origin, but Canadian-born were represented. When the lines were.completed, the new iron - 8 -horse carried many Canadian families across the plains to settle under a new flag. The Laurier government started the first exploi-v tation of the Canadian West just as the prairie states were becoming nicely populated. The vigorous immigration policy pursued attracted attention to the Canadian territories, re-duced the stream of Southern migration by changing the: direc-tion of the movement of Canadian youth from South to West, and finally drew a counterbalancing movement from the States of the east and even from the now maturing prairie states. Economic opportunity in the form of cheaper lands drew to Canada from 1897 to 191£ many American farmers and also many expatriated Canadians who moved back into Canadian territory not because of flag or creed, but because of the opportunities offered to make a better iiving. While western lands were filling up, currents and eddies of population were noticeable; between the eastern sec-tions of tfee two countries. French Canadians overran Quebec into Ontario and the Juaritime Provinces, and also into Hew England. They made Fall Eiver the third largest French Canadian city. Boston, Portland, and the cities like Buffalo and Rochester became very Canadian in aspect. Canada's con-tribution kept pace with the phenomenal growth of Detroit. Nor was the movement all one way. Ontario attracted steadily increasing numbers of native born Americans. While the French Canadian differences of race and religion have tended to keep native Americans out of Quebec, that province has attracted - 9 -back many French Canadians, and many American-born children cf these French Canadians. Such movements which, bring us almost to the present day are largely economic. In the Vest the movement has been from farm to farm; in the east there has been a movement from farm to factory, or from the rapidly vanishing extractive industries of the Republic to the younger and growing "primary" industries of the Dominion. With the French Canadian, love of race and religion seems to play a part in his movements across the boundary, but the similarity of race and language make the boundary almost now existent to the Canadian of British origin. The latter seeks indus-trial opportunity and if Canada is to retain her present or gain new population, she must offer at least equal if not better opportunities than the.country to the south. - 10 -CHAPTER THRE2. Pa r t Cce The e a r l i e s t census f i g u r e s f o r Canada show t h a t t h e r e has always beta a acYeireat cf Americans t c Canada. XQ Up e r Canada, in t h e year 1662 t h e r e were 42,722 Are r i cans b o r a , c o n s t i t u t i n g 4*59 per cen t cf a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n cf 962 ,004 . In the f o l l o w i n g census t a k e n In 166? t h e r e were 12,641 Airerlcan born c i t i z e n s cr 1.2Z par c e n t cf a t c t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 1 ,110,664 in Lower Canada and 50,758 in Uppar Canada, a pe rcen tage cf 8.62 in a p o p u l a t i o n cf 1 , 2 9 6 , 0 9 1 . In the s i x censuses s i n c e c o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e r e has been an a c t u a l I n c r e a s e in the American he rn of Canada's p o p u l a t i o n l a r g e enough to i n c r e a s e the proportion cf the American t c the t c t a l popu la t ion from 1.66 per cent l a 1671 t o 4 .25 per ce< t in 1 9 2 1 . i /hile t h i s increase has a c t been s teady t h e r e has never bean a ne t l o s s l a a s / decade. Actua l Hmnbers American C i t i z e n s of Canada; Canada: 1870-71 1861 . 1691 . 190*. 1911 . 1921, 64447 77752 60916 127699 202600 274024 Percentage of Inc r ea se — 20 .6 4 . 1 5 8 . 1 137.4 22.16 Percentage of American born t o Total Canadian Popu la t i on : — 1.79 1.67 2.58 4 . 2 1 4 .25 One n o t e s in the abeve t a o l e a huge i n c r e a s e in actual numbers i n the decade 1691-1901 but i t was in the huge mcvemaat - 11 -during the years 1901-11 that Canada received the largest proportion of her American born citizens. As we shall see late this increase of more than one hundred pox cent was largely due to the opening of the liew Canadian nest. The increase in numbers during the last census decade 1911-21, was lessened by the filling: up of the farms, which together with the political impediments imposed by war regulations and the phenomenal wages in American industry prevented any great movement tc Canada* In the percentage column, one sees in the almost stationary numbers from 1681 tc 1891 a reflection of the great development of the American West. Once the "great American desert" was proved tc be a myth, the land attracted the adventurous of the eastern States and also attracted many of Canada's youth. This development effectually prevented movement northward. Twenty years later the movement of American born citizens tc the prairies during the years 1901-1911 represents the same development in Canada. The third column enables one to relate the growth in numbers of American born citizens with the growth in numbers of the total population of Canada. That the United States' contribution has kept pace with Canada's growth is seen in the mere than doubling in the percentage of her con-tribution. During the years 1870-91, Canada's natural in-crease together with such immigration as she received from Europe, increased faster than did the American contribution to the population. Shis is seen in the decrease from 1.85 - 12 -per cent cf the total pcpulatiea in 1671 tc 1.67 per cast of the total population In 1891. Lear,while the native Cana-dians proportion of the population rose froa 62 percent to 86 per cent. Canada, even mere predominantly agricaltural than today, found it difficult to held her native population, much less attract others, while the Eastern United States' industries grew rapidly and while American land,alscat free ©f oo«t and unwocded was competing with the uncleared land of Ontario and the Laritlmes. The flow northward tc the Canadian prairies began In 1697, while the attractions and resources cf British Columbia first became widely Jmcax about this time, so that while the percentage of native born Canadians increased to 67 per cent, the 56 per cent increase in the total number of Aserloaa born raised thait percentage to the total Canadian population to £.26 per cent, Americana, closer geographically as well as recially, were In this period and have ever been, better able to take advantage of Canadian opportunities than the more distant European, The hordes cf Americans entering Canada daring the period 1901 to 1911 were destined largely for the free or cheap lands cf the prairie territories. Their incoming numbert wera ao great that the proportion.of American born citliens resident In Canada rose from 2,58 par cent la 1901 to 4.21 percent in 1911. *a see then that throughout Canada there has always jeen an American element, arid that this has grown until now (19£1 census) one out of ovary twenty-five citliens throughout Ca&ade was bem - IS -in the United States. Ontario until the census of 1911, led in numbers of persons horn in the United States. The growth of numbers has been very steady with the exception cf one decade. Actual Numbers of American born Residents: 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. Ontario: 45406 45454 4270E 44175 55676 70729 Percentage of Increase: Ontario: 4.9 -6.5 5.4 26. 28. Percentage of American 3orn to Total Population: Ontario: 2.67 2.56 2.02 2.02 2.20 2.41 In the above table there is evident an actual decrease in numbers during the decade 1881-91 and a very slight growth in the next ten years. Ontario it seems likely attracted a considerable agricultural population from the United States before the prairies were opened. During the thirty years in which the American prairies were opened and populated, Ontario failed to attract more than a casual number add actually lost some of her American born citizens. The very substantial industrial growth of Ontario after the turn of the century, the increased demand for her goods by the growing prairie population, the opening of many Canadian branches of American corporations and the development of mixed farming made Ontario attractive, once more to Americans. As yet, however, the American ratio of her total population - 14 -remaine less than the average for Canada. Quebec never became very tempting to American born people because tit her racial and religious dissimilarity. Actual lumbers American 3om Residents of Quebec: 19311- ^ 1921-29842 42124 6. 40. Percentage American Born to Total Population; 1. £4 1.43 1.25 1.72 1.49 1.78 Quebec, along with most of Saetern Canada suffered • decrease during the decade 1861-91. Again this decrease was not due so nmch te Canada's lack of prosperity but rather to the great opportunities open in the west. The figures given in the census figures for American born citizens of Quebec seem to refer in the main to children of returned French Canadians. These children, born of Canadian parents in the United States are entered in the Canadian statistics as American bcrn and seem to constitute the majority of this class resident in Quebec. In the above table one notices an increase of £2 peroent in 1661 and a 31 per cent increase is tabulated in 1901. Meanwhile the American born population of Ontario increased in the abrve mentioned periods by 4.9 and 3.4 per cent respectively. An explanation of this lack of correspondence between the population movement of the two pro-vinces is offered in the different effects of industrial crises on the two races. The French Canadian with his large l&Zli l W . 1,891.. 1901. 14714 19416 18524 28406 Percentage Increase: 31.9 -4.6 31.3 - 15 -population is forever poor and is rarely much above the sub-sistence level. His suffering in depressions, such as over-took flew England in 1875 aid again in 1893 is intense. While his poverty leaves him helpless at the time of the depression, he does not seem to forget during times of prosperity his misery in the days of the crises. Thus when his wealth is sufficient he returns to the poorer, harder but steadier lot on the farms of Quebec. "La Patrie" has the effect to call back to Canada many of her expatriated citizens. With the French Canadian and with him alone is the difference between Canadian and American laws and customs a driving force in the movements across the border. The total number of American born citizens of the Maritime provinces is small but has increased slowly. Actual lumbers American Bern Residents of Maritimes; I. B. 1871. j.881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. IS fi. B. 4088 5108 4878 5477 5766 8268 B- S. ££29 5004 3238 4294 4802 7016 P. E. I. 609 582 764 Percentage Increase; IS. B. — 25. -16.2 28.0 B. S. — 34.2 - 7.8 39.7 P. S. I. — — -4.4 31.4 Percentage American Born to Total Population: M. B. 1.48 1.59 1.33 1.65 1.64 2.13 E. S. .58 .68 .72 .96 .98 1.34 829 1215 6.0 60.0 9.0 40.0 9.0 25.0 - 16 -Like the movement to the other eastern provinces there was a decrease in numbers in the decade 1881-1891. Again the cause may be said to have be en the overshadowing of the advantages of the East by the opportunities offered by the new infest. Duringthe War decade 1911-1921 the per-centage of increase of American born citizens was greater in the Maritimes than in other Canadian provinces. Perhaps the most important cause arises out of the War. When the con-flict broke out many former Canadians who had left the Mwritimes for the Kew England states returned to Canada to enlist. They brought with them American born wives and children. While actually these numbers were small, they bore a relatively great relation to the few Americans already domiciled in the Maritimes. While the American born citizens of the iiaritimes have grown little in numbers they have been able with their slight increase to more than keep pace with the total growth of Canada's far eastern provinces. This is shown by the fact that the American born proportion has in-creased in new Brunswick from 1.48 per cent in 1871 to 2.13 per cent in 1921; that of Ecva Scotia has increased from .58 to 1.24 per cent in the same period, and the proportion in Prince Edward Island has grown from .56 in 1871 to 1.37 in 1921. While there has been nearly a doubling in this ratio, the proportion of Americans remains small for the same reason that the proportion of the total number of Canadians living in the ^aritimes remains small. The Kew England states by starting earlier have great advantages in manufactures, - 17 -the West offers greater inducements to the agriculturalist. Meanwhile the Maritimes attempt a varied life with protected industries, some agriculture, mostly fruit and extractive industries such as mining, fishing and lumbering. Perhaps this attempt at a well balanced structure of economic life prevents the advance that might take place with speciali-zation. Meanwhile the advantages and opportunities of the Maritimes, rather hidden by the superiorities of the other provinces, fail to attract much new population, or hold much more than their own. In British Columbia there was a steady increase in the numbers of .American born citizens up to the census of 1911. Actual Bumbers American Born Residents: 1861. 1691. 1901. 1911. 1921. B. C. 2295 6567 17164 S7548 54926 Percentage Increase: B. G. ~ 186.2 161.0 120.0 -7.0 Percent American born to Total Population: B. C. 4.64 6.69 9.61 9.57 6.66 In the decade 1911-1921 the decrease is prominent as the only one in any Canadian Province. Otherwise the growth in numbers of American born residents has been both steady and rapid. The lure of gold proved British Columbia's first attraction to the adventurous of the United States. Later the undoubted wealth of forest, mine and ocean, construction work of all kinds, together with the huge railroad enterprises attracted to British Columbia a nomrlatinn of - 18 -single men of which a good proportion were American born. The economic tie of a "job" was the only effective one that held these men to the province. When the crisis of 1912 and 1915 broke, it struck the extractive industries of British Columbia and the railwoad and constructional work exceedingly hard. A population SUCJ. as British Columbia had in 1912 was the first to leave when the storm broke and was especially easy to prevent from coming. The huge increase of 186, 161, and 180 per cent during the development years and the de-crease of 7 per cent show the instability of the American born population end the great dependence of such en the economic prosperity of the province. The relative growth of the American proportion of the population hat been from 4.64 per cent in 1881 to 9.57 per cent in 1911 but the proportion decreased during the years 1911 to 1921 to 6.6 per cent. American capital, for the first time locking for foreign investments has chosen British Columbia as a pro-fitable field. Where American capital penetrates, American labour is almost sure to follow. It is to be expected however that the native born element will, in the future, play a greater part in supplying her labour needs in the future. Very similar to British Columbia, is the growth in population in the territories: Actual lumbers of American Born Residents in Territories: 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 116 1961 6721 1905 605 Percentage Increase: - 19 -Per Cent American Born bear to Total Population: 1681, 1891. 1901. 1911. 1981. (Y.T. 22.22 12.40 .21 1.98 9.73 ( (K.vv.T. .18 .58 Always first to hear of a gold stike, oil dis-covery, or any economic opportunity which will likely re-pay the hardship,the American of the type that founded Cal-ifornia, Oregon arid Alaska proves an invaluable pioneer to lands such as British Columbia, the Yukon acd the Northwest Territories. Although a prairie province, Manitoba has not proved as attractive to Americans as either Saskatchewan or Alberta. The cause is partly geographical. Manitoba's lakes, the greater amount of woods, the cooling effect of Hudson's Bay and the loss of effectiveness of the Chinook winds from the Pacific play their part in making much of Manitoba less favourable than the other prairie provinces. B.umber American Born Residents of Manitoba: 1881. 1691. 1901. 1911. 1921. 1752 5063 6922 16528 21644 Percentage of Increase: 85.2 126.0 140.0 32.0 Percent of American Born to Total Popul- tjon: 2.82 2.01 2.71 5.54 3.55 There has been then, an increase in forty years from 1752 to 21644 American born residents of the province. That - 20 -Manitoba shared some of the movement from East fo West during the years 1881-91 is shown by the fact that her num-bers of American born residents increased by 85 per cent in that decade, whereas the numbers of American born residents of the Eastern provinces had declined. The increase of 126 per cent in 1901 antedated the movement tc Saskatchewan and Alberta. In the next decade, however, as the possibilities of the territory to the vVest were realized, Manitoba v/as able to attract only ten thousand American born sutlers, while her sister provinces each added to their population some Sixty-five thousand American born citizens. Itaring the next decade, Manitoba increased her numbers of American born residents more, relatively, than did the other prairie provinces. This is largely to be accounted for by the growth of Winnipeg as distributing centre for the increased Western crop and the consequent attraction of American grain experts as well as traders, labourers, and mechanics. While in Manitoba, the American born element'of the population has increased it has not assumed the proportions reached in the other prairie provinces. From the years 1891 to 1901 the American born entrants were insufficient to keep up the ratio to total population, but since then the American born farmer and the American entering Winnipeg have increased in numbers relatively faster than the native born am European born parts of the population. Almost identical for the purposes of a study of the movement of American population to other lands, Alberta - 21 -and Saskatchewan may well be studied together. The first census was taken in 1901 and revealed some 2758 American born citizens in the former province and 11119 in the latter. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905 but plans for their entrance to the Dominion had been made earlier. Actual lumbers American dorn Residents; Saskatchewan, Albeita. 1901. 2756 11119 1911. 69626 61S57 1921. 67617 99878 Percentage Total Population: Saskatchewan. 1911. 14.14 1921. 21.74 kany of the early settlers of Alberta came from the K earth Pacific States. Attracted by the free land offers of this district, numbers of Americans had moved to Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, but not finding the cleared prairie land they had imagined, these oeo le had trekked back to the nearest available prairie land, Alberta. Among the earliest American settlers in Alberta was a part of Hormone who had trailed their way to Southern ALberta from Utah. This colony, considerably increased in numbers, is still present. Between the years 1901 and 1911 the growth of prairie population was enormous, and American bora settlers constituted a huge percentage of Albej 1 1 , 16 , -ta. ,57 .97 - zi -the increase. Farmers in toe States tc the south sold their farms and took up the free or very cheap lands cf the Canadian plains. This movement northward was arrested in 191£ by a combination of factors. First, the Canadian lands were becoming less plentiful; secondly the American farms were becoming more difiicrilt to sell at such advantageous terms; and lastly, the approaching industrial crisis was ex8rting at least a psychological effect, in making people fearful of any change of »esidence. Then for the first two years of the war, the stream ci immigration became a mere trickle which freshened again with the world cry for wheat, and bumper crops, but the very low prices of grains and live-stock following the war again decreased the flow. Saskatchewan and alberta, of all the provinces cf Canada, re-present the highest proportion cf Americans to the total population. In 1911, 14.14 per cent of the residents of Saskatchewan wer American born, and in Alberta, the percentage was 21.74. Such a huge American element is net surprising when we consider th--t the American prairies lay closest cf all tc the Canadian plains and that these farmers had prospered under similar conditions just tr.e ether side cf the boundary .line ^either the Canadian farmer from Ontario nor the European agriculturalist from the small plots of Russia, Belgium, or France was as adequately fitted to develop the Canadian West as the farmer from the American prairie states of Iowa, Montana, and the Dakotas. - 2S -(Chapter S) BART TWO. Before entering on a discussion of the American movement to Canada up to 1907, it a,y be well to lock at the system by which Canada taps the supplies of American labour. Canada had failed to attract European immigrants to Dearly the same extent as had her Southern neighbour. To remedy this she set up in the United States as well as in Europe, numerous immigration agencies. Propaganda has been carried on in the United States for some thirty-five years, under an official designated as Inspector of Agencies. Under this official are press agents, aid also general agents with offices in about a score of cities. These are supplemented by sala-ried representatives who are paid (or were in 1910) three dollars per Eat, two dollars per iwcman and one dollar per ehilfl , sent to western Canada. Thus while Canada received about four hundred thousand people from the United States be-tween July 1900 and Larch 21st, 1910, the expense involved was considerable. To maintain this system in operation cost Canada the following amounts in the years 1698 to 1907: 1696, ,67,000. 1901, £144,000. 1904, #205,000. 1699, £75,000. 1902, £178,000. 1905, ,,525,000. 1900,£112,000. 1903, $161,000. 1906, #248,000. 1907, $151,000. Quoted in Reports of the Immigration Commission, Volume 4.0, - 24 -The difficulty of studying the movement of Americans to Canada is the lack of accurate figures up to the year 1907. Census figures, already used, indicate, quite accurately, the number of American bcrn residents in Canada every ten year period. Such figures however, do not give any idea of the movement year by year,, nor do they offer any clue as to the numbers of immigrants who used the United States as a stepping stone on their way to Canada, nor can one lay too much emphasis on the earlier immigration figures as the sys-tems of collecting these have changed repeatedly. Prom 1882 to 1691 a count was kept of-persons crossing the international boundary line irrespective of the intention of those counted to remain in Canada. From 1692 to 1896 no count whatever was kept of the entrants from the United States and this lack of statistics furnished the liberal party under Laurier with much political ammunition in the campaigns of 1895 and 1896. From 1896 to 1906 the figures are claimed, by Canadian officials, to be fairly accurate, but no details are given with the totals. Seemingly correct figures--at least they correspond with the prairie censuses of 1901 and 1906—exist for the prairie provinces, showing the number of American born citi-eens entering the Canadian West. There are also various re-ports which give in detail the country of birth of those coming to various Canadian immigration stations from the United States. From these reports we may be able to form a rough ratio between the native born American and the American bom outside the Republic. Applying this ratio to - 25 -the immigration figures of American born entrants we may thus get a rough estimate of the total number of settlers arriving in the Canadian West from the United States. Sevei^Western Canadian immigration agents' reports giwe both numbers and eountry of birth of those entering from the United States. A summary ci these reports reveaU that 2576T native born Americans entered Canada but that 88367 people born elsewhere than in the Republic entered the Dominion from the United States. A report of the Western Land Commissioner for 1902 states that while forty per oent of the prairie homesteads go to entrants from the States, only fifteen per cent are given to American born immigrants. Thus ever half the entrants to Canada from the States were born outside the Republic. Indications seem to he then that up to the year 1902, for every four Ameriosa horn oitlzens entering the prairie provincee some fire others came in from the United States, either European born or expatriated Canadians. Applying this rough ratio to the census figures at 1901 It seems that slout 46,000 people, domiciled on the prairies in 1901 had had their point of last emigration in the United States. In the prairie census of 1906 one notes exact figures for the immigration of native born Americans to the prairies: 1901, 6183 1904, UOI5 1902, 10532 1906, 15328 1903, 14656 1906, 18058 Total. 74846. x*iB»ipeg 1901, 1902, 1903. Lethbridge 1902. Calgary, 1902. Idmonton, 1902. Calgary, 1693. - 26 -Applying our approximate ratio we see a total movement from the United States of: 1901, 11684. 1904, 24966. 1902, 22706. * 1905, 34479. 1903, 32976. 1906, 40635. Total. 168406. Immigration figures for arrivals in all Canada from the United States were: 1901, 17987. 1904, 45171. 1902, 26388. 1905, 43543. 1903, 49473. 1906, 57796. This would leave the Eastern provinces and British Columbia the following immigration from the United States: 1901, 650S. 1904, 20405. 1902, 2682. 1905, 9064. 1903, 16497. 1906, 17161. While the latter column is likely very approxi-mate, it serves a purpose in demonstrating the fact that while the prairies attracted the greater proportion cf the American movement, 3ritish Columbia and the Eastern provinces drew within their boundaries considerable numbers of American immigrants. While our study ci' numbers has inevitably involved us in astudy of destination, it may be well to go a little more into detail. The movement from the States to the Canadian - 27 -prairie territories did not begin until 1897. While immi-gration huts had been erected in Winnipeg as early as 1886 they were not used by immigrants until the year 1897. From that year increasing numbers made use of them as seen in the following figures of entrants from the United States using then: 1897, 712. 1899, ££55. 1901, 7783. 1696, £645. 1900, 519 7. iuai;itoba as an incorporated province and with settlements of long standing was the first cf the prairie provinces to attract immigrants... Kext in point of time came Alberta. In 190c the Lethbridge immigration agent reports £456 entrants from the States, Calgary £011, and Edmonton 15148. As mentioned before', this first influx was due in large part to the movement returning from the north Pacific States. The mountain valleys after experience on prairie land, proved uninviting. The greater numbers going north, as seen in the Edmonton report, are largely due to the better soil and heavier rainfall of the Korth, but also because the cattlemen had made wheat farming almost impossible in the South because cf the freedom with which cattle were allowed to roam. Thehuge extent of this American movement to the prairies from 1897 to 1906 is shown by the fact that thirty per cent cf the entrants cf that period were American born. Entrants from the Republic had before been destined for all parts of Canada, but from that year the movement became largely - 28 -westward. Itenitoba attracted a steady number each year, but by 1906 Alberta and Saskatchewan were proving more at-tractive . To the latter provinces seme ten thousand American born entrants crossed into Canada and at least an equal number of Germans, Scandinavians, Icelanders and return-ing Canadians, all of whom- came to Canada after sojoixrns of various lengths of time in the United States. While the Canadian plains were proving the greater lure in this period just as the American prairie had proved the greater attraction in the 1670-60 period, the American element in Eastern Canada grew in prominence. Growth in the extractive indus-tries, other than farming, and the increase of industries and manufactures of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes proved sufficient attractions to induce considerable numbers of Americans both native and foreign born, to come to these Canadian provinces, during the years previous to 1906. Ag no occupation statistics for the immigrants from the United States are available, we are left largely to sur-mise. In the East, before the opening of the American plains, there had been an agricultural movement to Eastern Canada from the United States. With the exploitation of the prairies this movement ceased except to Quebec where some of the Kew Engl and industrialists went "back to the land". Such popula-tion as came to Eastern Canada from the United States engaged in industry or the extractive occupations other than agriculture. With the turn of the century the immigrants to Ontario entered the manufacturing establishments in in-creasing numbers, and in British Columbia new developments in mine, forest and fisheries drew many entrants from the United States. Although the prairie cities later became the goal of many entrants at a later date, the early movement of Americans was to the cheap farms of the land companies or the free homesteads of the government. Bo figures exist for the origins or country of i birth of the immigrants from the United States except the tabulation of which a few agents undertook. A little less than half the entrants from the United States to Western Canada seem to have been American born. Of the otheas,three races predominate—the Scandinavian, the German, and the Canadian returning to the land of his birth. Manitoba attracted in the years 1901 and- 1902 some 5500 of the latter, of whom between one quarter and one fifth were of French origin. Except for this report, no reference is made as to the exact number of French Canadians from the United States taking up land on the prairies, and indications such as census figures seem to point out that any movement was small except to •Manitoba, where a few French Canadian settlements were established. Other existing reports fail to show any-thing corresponding to the total numbers of other races entering from the United States, but they do demonstrate the predominance of Northern Europeans in the prairie influx. Three agents in Alberta in 1905 record the entrance from the States of: <* 50 -9797 American born. 4140 Returned Canadians. 25S4 Scandinavians. 1747 Germans. 148£ of other races. The Winnipeg report for the same ^ear records the entrance from the Republic of: 15070 American born. 59S Returned Canadians. 7892 Scandinavians. 6750 Germans. 500 Icelanders . VYhile it is hard to deduce a great deal from these meagre figures, one is able, however, to note first the predominance of Korthern Europeans in the movement, and secondly, the considerable numbers of Canadians returning to the Dominion. The entrants of this period were of a highly desirable class, willing to go on the land and further-more, having the ability to farm it properly. Naturalization figures, while only rough and ready tests of "assimilation", serve to indicate the immigrants' intentions of staying in the country of his naturalization. Thus, when the census figures of 1901 show that a majority of United States citizens living in Canada had become naturalized, it is then possible to ^ assume that the attraction of Canada has been sufficient to make their stay permanent. The ratio of naturalized American citizens to - SI -alien American citizens was about two to one in the Dominion as a whole. This ratio would have been greater but for the influx of Americans to the Territories and to British Columbia between the years 1897 and 1901. The older settlements of Ontario and Quebec showed proportions of four to one and the Maritime Provinces' ratio was fife naturalized citizens of American birth to one alien of American birth. The census of 1911 statistics shew an increasing tendency to natura-lization among the later immigrants. Undoubtedly this was caused to some extent by the growth of the idea that Canada had a future as a separate political entity, and was not doomed to become a mere appendage to the United States. Of the Americans entering Canada before 1890, 68 percent became naturalized; cf those entering between the years 1891 and 1901, f4 percent were naturallied; and 78 percent of the entrants from 1901 to 1906 became naturalized citizens of the Dominion, Thw last figure is especially noteworthy, seeming to show that the agriculturalists coming from the United States in this period were willing to become Canadian Oitizens when taking advantage of Canada's greater agricul-tural opportunities. Canada has made, since 1890, decided efforts to repatriate her citizens who have left to reside in the country to the South. The task is a hard one, acre difficult than the inducement of entirely new immigration. Old associations may draw back expatriated ditizens of old countries; Canada has no powerful magnet in her historical - 58 -traditions; hers must be an economic force. In her efforts to induce the return of her former citizens, the Canadian government has subsidized several so-called Repatriation Societies, whose object has been tc bring to Northern Ontario, Quebec, and the '.Vestern plains, as nany ex-Canadians as possible. Just what success was attained is difficult to ascertain. Figures which follow, give the combined results of three Repatriation Societies in the number of former Canadians, whom they were able tc bring back: 1901, 1368. 1902, 1956. 1905, 3537. 1904. 1930. 1905, 1884. 1906, 1789. The Rutland Railway reports in 1900 and in 1901 some 96S8 and 10037 French Canadians returning over their line, but doubtless these figures include some who returned for a visit. In the West, although no greater efforts were directed tc bring back Canadians than to attract any other race, there was a decided return movement. Again figures are lacking, but the fragmentary agents' reports previously noticed, and the fact that Canadian born citizens in the Central American state were decreasing in numbers indicates clear$* a decided return movement. The greater economic opportunities offered by the Canadian west proved more effective than did the highly expensive Repatriation Societies of the East. (Chapter 8.) PART TERES. (1907-1912) Since the year 1907, Canadian figures for im-migration from the United States have been reasonably accurate. The immigration office of the Department of the Interior tabulates the totals, sex, destination by provinces, and the occupations of the immigrant arrivals from the United States. Two things are lacking, however, namely, a classification as to origin and roace of the immigrants, and a tabulation of the emigration or outflow from Canada. Before going further, it may be well to consider the immigration law, the strictness of its enforcement, and the methods used tc attract immigration from the United States to Cauada. The Dominion, since the Liberal party inaugu-rated a vigorous immigration policy, has sought farmers or farm labourers as the most desirable population with which to settle her lands. This class of newcomers she has sought from three sources,--the United States, the British Isles, and Northern Europe. In the first mentioned, Canada carries on propaganda under the supervision of agents located in some twenty American cities, advertises extensively in rural papers, and exhibits Canadian pro-ducts at State and local fairs. This campaign was carried on vigorously during Che period between the years 1907 and 1912. At the same time, however, Canada maintained fairly - 34 -strict supervision over her boundary depots. That this is true is shown by the fact that Canadian officers re-jected the following percentages of applicants for entry: 1909, 7.6 1910, 8.6 1911. 12.8 1912, 16.5 191g. 12.5 While many of those desiring entry were refused because of physical and moral ills, many were turned down because they were believed to offer undesirable: competition to labourers in occupations in which Canada had a sufficient labour supply. Canada was, during this period, less easy to enter than her larger neighbour. While in the close of the period Canada loosened her, law to allow freer entry of' railway labourers, the Saturday Evening Post^could still say that "on the whole_,,the Canadian Immigration system is the best in the world." The years of this period, 1907 to 1918, form a natural division in the movement of population from the United States to Canada, for they witness the rise of the move-ment a peak, and also see the beginning of the decline. During this period, Canada enjoyed her greatest expansion. The Laurier government's immigration policy was getting results. Railways were branching and extending; cities were springing up almost from hay fields; land values were booming; everyone was enjoying prosperity. The entrance of industrial - 55 -and constructional workers followed close upon the arrival of the agricultural population. The latter had been a movement of families; the former was a movement of single men. The abnormal demand in industry and construc-tive work, drew from the United States many day labourers. While in 1907 the ratio of. male to female in the entrants to Canada from the United States had been two to one, this had become three to one in 1915. Canada, because of the increased demand for day labourers, slackened the enforce-, ment of her immigration laws, and called for her temporary tasks of railroad construction and the building of cities, a labour force which she thought would be permanent. That such population proved other than permanent will be our purpose to demonstrate later. ::Mf^-^^typ'^i:: 4 ~J-;4"V-i- -i—i-4- :;: mr j 4 J _ £ i . + 4 i r L j t U J . | 4 . 4 -.*• -L-.-i.—U—j—W-f- *--4Z^> + -*- - i—t * " -Cfr/r , . , . j . . . . . . t . K£3X# u - * p i ixtzdMb^imMii •i H "44-i-r * 1 f +-*-+• • 6 1 ' i I ; • ' > . _ . i . :.; .-....,-.,4.:. j . , 1 . ... ; ....... ^  * - I . . ..... ... _j .. •E M r • ? - -..; J .... paeiae' •» 5© ~ fAtrt/4*i\r/*S f/bpm tf/r/rtejp 4TATS& To Cft.Yft/}/? /JJL$Jil?/3 - 37 -The number of immigrants from the United States who chose the Juaritimes as their future Canadian home has never been large, hut a steady increase may be no-ticed in the number of American entrants to these pro-vinces during *he years of this period. As the life of the Maritime province farmers is hard when contrasted with the farmers' life in the West, it is net tr be expected that the &aritimes attracted many farmers from the Republic. These far eastern provinces were able to reflect to some extent the prosperity that Canada was enjoying by a considerable growth in manufsctures, fruit farming, and in the extractive industries such as mining, lumbering, and fishing. The growth along these lines enabled Kew Brunswick, &ova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island to attract increasing numbers of immigrants from the United States to their bor-ders . Considerable influx to wuebec from the States took place between the years 1S09 and 1915. A similarity seems to exist between the movements following the crises of 1872 and 189S and the movement during the above mentioned period. All three were largely caused by industrial condi-tions. In the latter flow, there had occurred no wide-spread industrial crisis, but there had taken place a certain amount of displacement of French Canadian labour by Southern Europeans. The French Canadians, unlike the Irish and other races which had been displaced, did not go West, but seems to have returned to Quebec, tfhile originally the movements - 38 -of French Canadians over the international noundary line were seasonal, meaning that the French Canadians left Quebec in the winter tc work in the brickyards and lumber camps of New England, there gradually developed a permanent all-year French Canadian copulation in the Kew 3n gland States, due to the growth of industrial life in that dis-trict in those states. At times of industrial crisis, such as occurred in 1672 and 1692, great wares of these people returned tc v.uebec only tc leave again if conditions in the Canadian province prevented the securing of an accustomed standard of living. There was little movement to Ontario from the Onited States in 1907 and 1906, but after these years the movement increased rapidly tc reach a high level in 1915. fhe attraction of Ontario was no longer agricultural but industrial. Supported by a protective tarrif, Canadian menufeeturicg plants, and branches of American corporations, constructed huge factories in Ontario, and drew from the Republic both skilled and unskilled labour to complete their labour force. Ontario developed along varied lines for her agriculture also prospered with development of mixed farming. While the boom in Ontario was considerable, the speculation in both land and goods was less wild than in the Western provinces. Ontario was building on a foundation—the prairies grew from little rr.ora than nothing. As the Ontario prosperity reached a less high level, the fol-lowing depression went less deep. Ontario, with u balance - 89 -between agriculture and industry,is built on mors solid foundations than any other Canadian province, and as a oonoequonce is less subject to depression and prosperity alike. The adventurous spirits of the United States were first attracted to British Columbia by the gold discoveries. When the gold claims came under the domination of large companies, the numbers of incoming Americans diminished. Soon, however, American and European capital, looking for profitable fields of Investment, was directed to British Columbia In Increasing amounts. As a consequence of this exploitation of her mines, her forsts, and her fisheries, British Columbia became the magnet that drew to Canada's population Sonsiderable numbers. The great part of her population became dependent on the prices of logs, minerals, and salmon. Thus, when these articles are high is j>rice, the boom is tremendous, and the flow of population Inwards is great; when prices of these extracted articles of all industrift, conditions in the province sink to a very low ebb, then the population flow is outward. British Columbia attracted in this period a population of single men who came to 4raw the wages paid for exploiting her resources and construct her railways, but who left as soon as it became unprofitable to develop these resources, and as soon as the railways wore completed. An unfortunate element in the inflow of American population to British Columbia was the entrance of a farming elass, which had been attracted by the - 40 -extensive advertising of the proTlncial government. In great contrast to the easily worked prairie land, the fruit farms of the interior ant the •heat ranches in the British Columbia valleys could only be made to pay tftW much toll and expenditure. That these difficulties were not mentioned in the advertisements seems to be undoubtedly true, and as a result many settlers entered the Province only to be disappointed and who, as a consequence, cade their stay of short duration. S inanitoba drew from the) United States small but steadily increasing numbers, until 1911. In the next year, the increase was even more noticeable, as the numbers doubled. This increase was largely due to the growth of Winnipeg as the distributing centre lor the rapidly developing prairie provinces, and also to the filling up of Alberta and Saskatchewan lands which resulted in greater attention being paid to iuanitoba. The growth of mixed farming around and about Winnipeg attracted many farmers from Wisconsin and other «tate6, where such development had proved profitable. By the year 1906, the flow of population tc Saskatchewan from flat He public had assumed considerable proportions. In 1909 however, the activity cf America;. railrodds, which began in that year more intensive axplci-tatlon of the opportunities offered by California and the Pacific Korth West, the throwing open for homestead entry much irrigated land, and great Indian reserves, and the activity of farmers cooperative organizations in the Cantral States, seem to have effected in combination, a diminution of the movement of American farmers to the Canadian pro-vinces. This diminution of the number of entrants proved to be only temporary, for the new American lands were soon taken up, and the Pacific North West proved unsuitable to prairie farmers. The peak of the movement to Saskatchewan was reached in 1912, when the available prairie lands, whether the free homesteads offered by the government, or the cheap lands offered for sale by the laud companies, grew scarce. Moreover, the American farmer was finding increasing difficulty in selling his farm at the high prices which pre-vailed in previous years. The movement to Alberta closely paralleled that to Saskatchewan. It is to be noted, however, that the point of greatest numbers of entrants was reached in 1910, two years before the high level was reached in Saskatchewan. While there was a slight decrease shown in the number of entrants for the year 1909, this decrease proved to be temporary, ana was followed by a sudden increase, largely due to the influx of many laddie • estem farmers, who had been attracted by the American railroad companies to the Pacific Kcrth "/est, but who had not been satisfied there, and came back to swell the totals entering Alberta in 1910. In the following years, the movement to Alberta lacked this abnormal element, and became closely similar to the flow into Saskatchewan. ' - 42 -Under "Occupations", Canadian atatietice classify lnrigranta under six heedinge, with a aeventh containing the unolaesified. The accuracy cf these figures is im-paired by the fact that they include women and children under the earr.e cleesificaticn as that of tela head of the family. There is not, .of course, Any guaranty* that the immigrant will follow his former occupation in hie new country, and thara may also be a tar tain tendency to arc it Canadian entrance restrictions by declaring oneeself to belong to some occupation favoured by the law. Despite) these inaccuracies, the figures art of value as ap-proximations. • 45 -In the year 1907, almost the entire immigration was classified under the heading of farmers or farm labour-ers. The figures rose in 1906 and fell again in 1909. (This fall corresponds with the relative decrease in numbers having Alberta and Saskatchewan as their destination.) This, with the similarity a£ numbers of total farmers and farm labourers with the numbers oi American entrants to Saskatchewan and Alberta, perhaps allow us to infer that these two provinces attracted almost in entirety this class of immigrants. Immigrants registering as general labourers were few in numbers in 1907. Her did the movement exceed 16,000 a year until 1911. In that year, the general boom had started, and railroad construction work, new industrial undertakings, and the enormous growth of prairie cities created a demand for general labourers, and in 1912 some 44,600 of this class entered the Dominion. The very pros-perity, however, had been built upon the very construction of towns and railways, and with the inevitable shrinkage of the boom, Canada was left with too large a house after the workmen had left. Classified as mechanics are two sets of labour, -industrialists who enter Canadian manufacturing plants, and skilled construction workers. Just as the inflow of general labourers signifies progress in constructional, enterprises, and the coming of farmers denotes agricultural development, so is the entrance of mechanics a sign of industrial pros-- 44 * parity. The growth in numbers in the entrants of this class was steady with the exception of oneyear. In that year, 191£, the demand for industrial labour seemed to be greater in the United States than in Canada. In the .next year, how-ever, the Canadian manufacturer, threatened by a shortage of labour and aided by a higher tariff, was able to raise wages,and thus attracted some 24,000 mechanics to enter from the States in 191?. While the members of this class were distributed throughout the Dominion, the largest numbers went to Ontario, vuebec and the Laritimes. In an agricultural country such as Canada, traders form but a small part of the population, but their arrival in increasing numbers is a good indication of the prosperity of Canada during the period under discussion. The fact that trade development followed the expansion, is evident from the rapid growth of the prairie cities. Just as the American bcrn people had entered the Canadian homesteads, so did they enter the rapidly growing cities. Of the total population of Edmonton in 1911, 11.85 per cent was American born; 9.4 per cent of Calgary's citizens were born in the Republic to the South, and of the residents of Moosejaw and Saskatoon, 8.18 and 8.69 per cent respectively were born in the American States. Canadian coal miners usually come from the British Isles and north-western Europe; the native born American and Canaiian prefer to work the other mines. In both l^ ova Scotia and Cape Breton mines, as well as those in British Columbia - 4* _ the miners are largely of European origin. While some of these people go first to the Unitad States, the miners are usually recruited directly from Europe. In mines ether than coal mines, much of the labour la unskilled. Because of this, the oocupation statistics do not include in the "Miners" classification nearly all those immigrants Who actually work underground. As with many other Canadian in-dustries, the amount of the mining done depends on the price of the product. As prices rose for mineral produots during the period, great activity in that industry took place, and although the statistics given as to tha miners entering, remain act a low level, it nay be assumed that many of the American immigrants found work in tha mines of British Columbia or Northern Ontario. In these days of factory employment, household servants seem to be ever is demand. So many causes enter into tha creation of both demand and supply of this labour that one is not able to glean much of value from such sta-tistics as are available, fhese figures contain an element of error, also* in that many desiring entry to Canada olaim to be domestic servants, and by so doing make their entry less doubtful. Tha ability* however, of Canada to take away from a country with an insatiable demand for this class of labour speaks well for Canada's prosperity. Under the unclassified heading, are mostly women and children. As we have noted, a family entering ia classed under tha occupation of the hreadwinner. For the unclassified - 46 -list, however, are left those families who are coming to rejoin the leader who has gone ahead, to prepare the way. Such movements were prevalent in the prairies, where the men went out to secure the land and put on the first improve-ments, after which the family was brought to Canada. We have perhaps, shown that in this period a great influx from the United States took place, a movement which was largely agricultural. While, however, homestead entries reached a peak in 1911, the immigration movement arrived at it highest point two years later. Two conclusions are suggested, namely, that accessible homesteads were being exhausted, and that the wave of development which accompanied their settlement had increased the demand for non-agricultural immigrants until they represented a greater part of the whole movement than they had in earler stages. Both conclusions are partly true. As the lands became scarce and farther away from railroads, the numbers of agriculturalists de-clined relatively to the numbers of entrants of the general labouring and mechanics class, who were entering in increased numbers. The best table compiled studying the racial origin of the immigrant population born in the United States is that compiled from the Canadian Census of 1911. The lack of classification of either American or Canadian origin and the fact that 14 per cent of those registered had no racial origin reported, makes the table less valuable. Peoples of British origin constituted 52.36 per cent of the total foreign - 47 -bore who claimed United States as the country of their birth. Of those, 48 per eent wore English, 27.5 pot cent wore Soctoh, and 22.5 per cent were Ir i sh . Of tho ether AiuerlWtt immigrants to Canada, those of Gorman, French, and Scandinavian origin ranked in tho order narod. liore than 92 per oent of tho immigrants of known or ig in , born in tho United States , wero of oither Br i t i sh , German, French, or Scandinavian or ig ins , The lack of a greater Southern European element i s largely due to the fact that t h i s move-ment had not reached groat proportions unt i l 1690, am thus thore would be few of the second generation available to f i l l Canada's demand for population in tho year 1911* Racial Origin of Immigrant Population 3orn in U. 3 . . Resldsnt Knglish, 65667. Irish £7646 Scot* 50765 Welsh 222£ Tot. British, 126620 Austrian 1604 Belgian 262 Roumaniai i Bulgarian ) 65 Chinese AS Dutch 8207 \b Canada -Finn French German Greei Hindu Indian Italian Japanese Jew ft ogre - ltll* 607 52946 45274 42 ^ 645 966 25 £ 2905 £697 Ms Russian Scandi-navian 3wll| Turk Others 840 1787 £6461 664 41 £452 Set Givec4£60Z Total £O£660. Such f igures , however, taken from the Census, give 0)nly tfce extent s f Amorists* born, and do not include - 48 4 returned Canadians and immigrants who arrive in Canada after a sojourn in the States. A report compiled by the U. S. Immigration Commission using American figures, (which approximate the Canadian), show that in the two years ending June 1911, of those entering Canada from the United States 64.7 per cent were American citizens. 21.6 per cent were aliens. 15.7 per cent were returned Canadians. The tabulation as given in the Immigration Commissioner's reports for the different years gives a classification by races of those leaving the United States for British Corth America, but again the lack of classifica-tion of Americans and Canadians, a lack of relation to Canadian immigration figures, and the huge proportion left unspecified 1912. 1918. 4 20 2 4 8 56 114 277 6 2 654 905 6 298 777 2997 4577 1660 1151 869 668 lessen its value; Jtfrican Armenian Bohemian Bulgarian Chinese Croats Cuban Dutch English Finn French 1911. 18 4 24 504 IS 846 12 554 5805 2555 585 — 1911. G-eruan Greek Hebrew Irish Italian,north " south Japan Magyar Mexican Poles Portuguese Eouffianians Bassiane Ruthenian Scandinavian Scotch Slovaks Spanish Syrian Turks Welsh West Indians Others Unspecified Total 1999 226 574 1005 818 16E7 12 269 --796 6 64 1422 7 4226 1269 411 116 24 27 79 45 155 25540 49272 1,912. 2556 45 55 770 154 £97 5 124 2 169 1 25 591 686 4852 1155 6 15 9 9 91 22 51 15201 22506 1912. 2274 185 1240 1229 471 916 8 227 A 779 2 70 1947 2141 4820 1816 52 42 22 118 109 146 19626 46981 W-8&--*-Because of the beforementioned difficulties, this table provts little. It does, however, enable us to see that there was an increase in the immigration of Southern Europeans, that is, Bulgarians, Croats, Greeks, Italians, Magyars, and Syrians. The Irish, too, entered in greater numbers. Because cf this growth in the numbers of n on-agri cultural races, we have further prof cf Canada's development in oonstnictiori work, which greatly increased the demand for general laoourers. The presence in Canada of so many Dutch, Finnlanders, Germans, Poles, Ruthenians, and €ther northern peoples is caused by tvo labour demands, that cf agriculture and that of the extractive industries. file Jewish element, which reached 1Z40 in 1915, is good proof of the Dominion's ability-to furnish a living. The •otrants from the United States to Canada were first of native American stock, but the free homesteads attracted also a considerable number of northern Europeans who had successfully farmed similar lands in the Western States. As agriculture prospered, there grew up a demand for general labourers, w& Irish and northern Europeans responded. By 1915, however, Canada was for the first time attracting Italians and ether Southern races. Whereas in the States immigration had been for years predominantly of Southern European origin, Canada had never attracted such large percentages of this class. American born residents cf Canada showed in 1911, - 51 -a fairly high percentage of naturalization, as the following tabIt shows: natura-lized . Alien. Total. Total. 152506 151572 S08680 Total Males. 77883 90595 168276 Lales Un-der 21 55752 50759 66611 Males Over 21. 42151 59656 101767 Females. 74425 6C977 13540S While the percentage naturalized is little over the if fifty per cent mark,/it is taken into account that the great bulk of numbers had entered in very recent times, which caused the percentage tc decrease—for no matter how willing the immigrant was, the residence clause prevented natura-lisation—the record of naturalization is very good. The class which shows the poorest record, that of males over twenty-one, would naturally prove to be the least permanent class, and thus the least likely to become citizens of Canada. Females and children, when it is considered that such a large percentage of their members had less than three years domicile in Canada, show remarkably high naturalization records. Their intention to stay in Canada seems undoubted. Of the total number of immigrants of British racial origin, horn in the United States, and classified as being of alien birth, the census figures show 51*68 per cent to have been naturalised. Of the people of ether origins, 56 per eent had taken oat citizenship papers, giving an average of 52.59 par oent for the total immigrant population - 6£ -torn In tha Unite a State*. TTe highest percentage of naturalisation le shown by t U M intigrant e of French origin, of whoa 78.6 per cent were naturalized. The lowest per-eentagefc* are those of tha American born immigrants of Bulgarian, I ta l ian , Russian, and Grecian origin* with par-cant ages of 84, 50, 26, and 19 respect ire ly . Froa the shore f igures , we may perhaps say that our be l i e f in tha stronger lore of country i s shown by tha French Canadian eren though born in tha United States , has bean further demonstrated. Moreover, the low percentages of naturali-sation of those American born immigrants of Southern 2urcpean Si ' ' ' origin seems to demonstrate that eren the ieseenear.te if the first arrivals In Amariea are largely transitory labourers. •» S3 «• (Chapter 3.} PART FOUR. 1914-1919 Briefly, this period of time witnesses in its opening year, the beginning of an industrial depression, sees that depression delayed by a great world conflict with its consequent revival of business prosperity, but in the closing years of the period, the depression inevitably takes place. These economic conditions are reflected in the population movement from the United States to Canada, which shows first a rapid decrease, next a decided increase in the number of entrants, and then a fall to a new low level. The war did not cause the first decline, as the fiscal year 1914, the year in which the drop in numbers of entrants was most sharp, ended llarch 31st, fully six months before the Surcpean Catastrophe started. Again it seems permissible to say that the population movements are caused predominantly by economic movements. During this period Canada maintained her staff of immigration agents in the United States, and attempted by the same methods of advertising, exhibitions, lectures, and personal solicitation used previously, to induce residents of the United States to come to Canada. AB a consequence of the war, however, border regulations prevented the entrance of enemy aliens. In other ways too, the war affected the movement, but it will be our purpose to deal with that phase 54 -of the subject later. The former immigration law, highly favourable to farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, remained in force throughout the period, and while nc statistics for the war years are available, Government officials claim that the lav; was strictly enforced. That Canada did by no means admit all who desired entry is shown by the foot that In the stations running from Sarnia on the east to iuanitcba en the west, in 1914, 871© immigraits from the United States were admitted, but entrance was refused to 8400. In 1919 the same division refused admittance to 9121 applicants, but allowed. 18429 to enter. jui.t '?*•** In the immigration movement to a new country such as Canada, there is usually a greater percentage of males. Such had been the case in the period 1907 to 1912. The de-*. '64 *• of the subject later. The former immigration law, highly favourable to farmers, farm labourers, and domestic servants, remained in force throughout the period, and while no statistics for the war years are available, Government officials claim that the law was strictly enforced. That Canada did by no means admit all who desired entry is shown by the fact that in the stations running from Sarnia on the east to Manitoba on the west, in 1914, 871© immigrants from the United States were admitted, but entrance was refused to 8400. In 1919 the same division refused admittance to 9121 applicants, but allowed 184S9 to enter. In the immigration movement t e a new country such as Canada, there is usually a greater percentage of males. Such had been the case in the period 1907 to 1913. The de-pression which came after an over-expansion such as Canada had undergone, had the effect cf limiting the number of male immigrants to Canada. Canada's bumper crop and the war time prosperity proved excellent advertisements, and attracted increased numbers in 1917. When the United States entered the war, she restricted the free movement of draft age males. After the Armistice the Canadian government held nearly all available land lor her returning soldiers, and this may have played a part in restricting the entrance of settlers from the States. VThile it is to be noticed that the totals of the numbers of male entrants varied sharply throughout the period, the arrivals of women and children remained comparatively steady in the various years. In the years 1913 and 1914 the - 55 -movement of women and children coming to Canada to rejoin the breadwinner, who had preceded them by a year or so, kept the number of entrants of this class at a steady level. There may also have been a movement to Canada of the wives and children of the United States residents who had enlisted in the Canadian army. Although there was, or seems to have been, a steady family movement to Canada, that influx never reached high levels during the period. The liar i times Provinces attracted steadily decreasing numbers throughout the years of the period. - 56 -The slight increase in the number of entrants to these provinces during 1915 may be accounted for by the number oi Canadians who returned to their birth place In these provinces In order to enlist.In the Canadian foroes. From 1915 onwards, there is a decline in the numbers of new-comers from the Republic, for, while the i«aritimes profiled by the war boom, the I*ew England and idddle Atlantic States prospered to a still greater extent. Here it may be well to notice the effect of a business cycle on the closely related countries of Canada and the United States. A revival of business Strikes the Republic first, and to enjoy this prosperity, Canadian population moves south, and population movements are like snowballs--once started, they increase in size. The expansion of business comes to the extractive in-dustries of Canada, a little later, but Canada has not by this time, a population suffering from a business depression, from which to draw, for the United States is now prosperous. Canaaa loses numbers and fails to regain them in her period of expansion. Since depressions that follow booms spread faster than the prosperity which preceded, and since the withdrawal of American capital from Canada, which ooours ae soon as panic strikes the Republic, and since Canada's prosperity, built en the extractive industries, is less stable than that of the Republic, for ell these reasons Canada's period of expansion, while Blower in starting, does not laet longer than the similar phenomenon is the States. Thus Canada fails to gain at the end, and setuelly losee population - 57 -at the commencement of an era of American prosperity. In a study of the population movement to and from Quebec during a period of war, we must consider more than the economic factor* In Quebec, almost alone Of Canadian provinces, questions of race, religioa, and political squa-lity seem to play a part in causing the ebb and flow of the French Canadian peoples. The movement to Quebec had grown steadily up to the year 1913. The entrance of Canada into the war, rumours of conscription, and fear of the political party power seem to have caused a reduction in the number of en-trants. Later, whea the United States joined la the conflict, there was once more a decided influx to Quebec, for the French Canadian seems to have preferred the war government of Canada to that of the Republic. The close of the war brought a decrease in the movement. From the high level of entrants in 1914. the in-coming population from the United States to Ontario fell less fast than it 414 in the other provinces. The extractive industries of the other provinces were hit first, and more Sharply than the manufactures of Ontario. Because the depression hit Ontario less hard, the prosperity of the war period was quicker in coming, and in 191J Ontario drew more people from the United States than any other province. This Ontario prosperity held in 1918, hut in the following years the flow was outward rather than inward. The building trades arid Manufactures of the United Statss by their unprecedented growth, offered competition with whleh Ontario oould not cope. - 58 -The peak of the influx to Manitoba came a year later than that to either Alberta or Saskatchewan. It may be supposed, however, that the agricultural immigrants reached the high level at about the same time, but that the movement to Winnipeg of American builders, labourers, and mechanics, •:ept up for a year longer. From the point of greatest numbers, however, the decline is rapid until the high prices of livestock and grains with the growth of importance of Winnipeg as a distributing centre for one of the most valued products of the world, wheat in war time, induced further movement. At the close of the war, both the provincial and federal governments set aside lands in connection with the returned soldier settlement schemes* The governments even bought up from private owners or land companies, huge areas of farm land. In doing this they discouraged settle-ment by farmers from the United States. This discouragement, coupled with the low prices which made agriculture most unprcsperoue, prevented any but very small settlement. The movement to Alberta and Saskatchewan is similar to that of Manitoba except that the numbers are greater and the rise and fall more extreme. In the United States in 1914, the government of that country revised her land laws to make them compare more favourably with those of Canada, and also opened up several huge Indian reserves, liovement to these newly opened lands was materially aided by the advertising and general activity of the American railways, which had been roused to activity by the successful exploitation of the - 59 -Canadian West by the railways cf the Dominion. Leanwhile in Canada, the foreign investors became hesitant of investing further, and as a consequence the boom period was breaking. Moreover, lands were growing scarce in the Canadian prairies. Due to this combination of factors, the immigration from the States to alberta and Saskatchewan fell very rapidly in 1812 and 1914. Wring 1915 the war prevented from coming to Canada many settlers of German origin, and these peoples had entered in large numbers in recant years. -bile the huga crops, free credit, and high prices caused the Influx of many settlers to Alberta and Saskatchewan in the war boom period, the eventual fall in agricultural prices and the tightening of credit bankrupted many of these later entrants SB vail as many old established Canadian farmers. In tha United Statee, similar conditions prevailed, hundreds of banks failing, and many farmers who had pre-viously bought expensive cars new seeking day labour in tha cities, while the Canadian teetern provinces wart in less miserable plight, their situation was nevertheless, unenviable. Tha lev prices of wheat and 11 restock and tha lack of credit made many hitherto vealthy prairie farmers bankrupt. Thus, while tha American farmer was not in a favourable position for saving, tha position of tha Canadian agricul-turalist was not eo much batter that tha American would atrlve hard to enter Canada. Thue tha movement into Alberta and Saskatchewan great Tory small. While in 1918 British Columbia was second of the Canadian provinces In tha numbers of American immigrants she - w * attracted, in 1915 she drew to her borders fewer settlers from the United States than any of the other provinces. During the years 1911, 1912, and 1915 the far western pro-vince attracted Italian labonr gangs, Slavic section hands, woodsmen and miners of all races. The depression by destroying the high price level of mineral and forest products, destroyed the ind-p.oementg that caused the entry of these newcomers. Thus the movement of immigrants from the United States to British Columbia became very small. Her did the war prosperity cause an influx. While operating enterprises prospered, the shortage of capital and the lack of single men (British Columbia's medium of labour), prevented new works being undertaken. The high operating cost caused the working only of the richest ores and the thickest forests. After the War, in order, it. was argued, to ensiire employment for the returning soldiers, an order-in-council was passed which rigidly restricted the entrance of immigrant labour. This law was lifted in 1919. British Columbia, dependent for her prosperity on the prices of extractive products, has an unstable labour demand, a demand which rises and falls with the prices of these products, and the amount of capital avail-able for the exploitation of her resources. - 61 -In the previous period a closing up of the gap between the number of farmers and farm laborers on one hand, and the numbers of mechanics and traders on the other hand was noticed. A similar occurrence took place in the - 62 -present period. The huge movement of agriculturists between 1907 and 1912 may have exceeded the ability of the country to absorb them. At any rate, the numbers of entrants from the United otates fell sharply. Canada was able to harvest the huge crop of 1915 with but a slight increase in the labour supply. After this bymper crop, however, a new movement started, attracted by the high prices and easy financing of-fered by the banks. In their efforts to profit most from the prevailing high prices, the farmers erred in producing overmuch, and forced unwittingly the now falling prices to sink to still lower levels. Post-war agricultural conditions grew deplorable. American farmers could not sell, and there-fore could not buy, nor could the bankrupt farmers make a fresh start, as the lands were no longer free of cost, and the banks would no longer lend except on "liquid" assets. While Canada potentially possesses great ability of agricultural production, the low prices and lack of credit prevented new-comers from entering, and thus taking advantage of this potential ability. The last years of the prosperity part of the business cycle had seen an unprecedented demand for general labourers. Suddenly the bubble of business activity burst. The class which suffered first and suffered most was that composed of these geraral labourers, who had entered Canada to build her railways, her towns, and her factories. As the capital for these undertakings or their future expansion was withdrawn, this class of labour became a drug on the labour • 69 -market. There came than a sudden movement outwarde, and Canada, who had built her house with the proapact of mora roornera coming, found herself not only with these spare rocae empty, hut also with those vacated ay former occupants for Mat. Meanwhile, the world demand for foods, generated by the war, started a cycle cf industrial activity in tha United States first, and thus drew from Canada a considerable number of her population, and Canada, whose period cf prosperity started later, did not attract a reciprocal num-ber back. hcreorar, Canada having already built her house large enough, in fact, to© large, did not need this class cf general labourers as aid the United States, which now drew from Canada a classotf Jebour formerly secured from Europe. ThuB the War boom not only prevented labourers from entering Canada, but attracted them from Canada. The War too, caused a movement of Austrian and German labourers out of Canada. While 1c H16 the war time prosperity Induced allghtly greater numbers of this class of labour to enter Canada, the post-bellum expansion of American induatriee reduced the entry of general labourers to a vary low ebb. As the skilled trades do net feel tha pinch ef depression as quickly as tha unskilled trades, we may assume, from the steady numbers of this class who entered Canada during tha firet years of the period that the depression was almost bridged aver by the arrival of the 'Tar boom. The nationality element, prominent la tha movement cf Austrian unskilled labourers across the border during the war, was less - 64 -Important in the skilled trades as a greater percentage of the workers In these trades are British, American, or •anadian. While the trade depression reduced the number of entrants of this class, tha first wave of the proaperlJtjr forced by the War caused a revival in the skilled trades in Canada, but such barriers as tha American draft law and ruling good times in tha Republic soon caused a decrease, and by 1919 the insnigration movement of this class was no longer very high. The unclassified, including as before,explai ned, tha woman and children travelling to Canada to rejoin members who had preceded them, reached tha peak in 1914. It seems therefore, that these people entered Canada a year and in •oat eases two years after the head of the family had crossed the border. This mcvnment is somewhat similar to that of the Ignorant Immigrant who arrives In maximum numbers Just as a orisia Is breaking. The reduction of this movement came in 1916, after which date the movement was very steady. Tha entrance of tha trading class is a reflection of tha profits to be made in the country to which the trader goes, the numbers of this class entering the Dominion in-creased and decreased with tat rise and fall of prices and profita. The actual numbera never grew large, for Canada, aa an agricultural country, needs comparatively few of this class* While in 1914 a considerable influx of miners took place from the States, in the other years of the period the number of entrants was very small. During the war, because - 65 -of the lack of capital and high cost of operation, the mineral industry was left in the hands of the operators, and few new undertakings were started* The number of female servants entering Canada declined Tery slowly throughout the whole period. While demand continued good for such labour, the war time wages in industrial plants proved more appealing than the wages paid for housework. While no adequate material is available to stud; properly the racial origin of immigrants from the United States to Canada during the period, certain truths may perhaps be shown. In the first place, the movement is to a lesBer degree European hy birth. In the previous period, the slackening of the immigration laws had allowed many general labourers of Southern European origin to enter. The War caused * tightening of these laws, and put in force new ones regarding the entry of aliens. In the second place, several thousand Canadians, who were permanent residents of the United States, cant to Canada to join the Canadian Expeditionary forces. Thirdly, a return movement of Frencb.-Canadians is noted during the War period. During the inter-com sal period from 1910 to 1920, the number of French-Canddians in the United States wai reduced by twenty per cent, showing almost conclusively A large movement back to Canada. On the whole, then, we may say that the movement to Canada from the United States during this period was largely what ^ ^ ' W J I R W ? * ? ! - . - 66 -wo c a l l Anglo-Saxon, with another large mcreaent cf French Canedians to Quebec. Interest ing, and Important i s that It •hove to What a large extent the Canadian prairies were populated by peoples born i s the United States , ie the table compiled from the Censte of the Prairie Provinces taken in 1916, recording origins of the people domiciled there: £ U. S. Bom. 11.0 it.t £4.0 8.5 1.1 tt.t 19.7 6.6 1*0 8.£ 1.6 St .7 a.t 5.1 £2.4 16.0 11.7 Qriffr-Brltlih French German Belgian Austrian Danish Dutch Icelanders Indian Italian Hebrew Norwegian PoleB Russian Swede UJtrenians Others Total Total. 971620 69967 126966 9064 1Z6250 9566 £2262 15600 29147 5246 E2261 47449 £?780 62725 87880 86102 £6£19 1696E20 U. S. 3crn. 106266 10972 22662 221 1526 2574 4411 681 299 £78 647 16664 81£ 2££7 6702 «M0» 4T21 19766ft The large percentage of Germans, Denes, Dutch, * 67 -Korwegian, and Swedes, born in the United States, is strikingly contrasted to the very small percentage of Austrians and Italians. Again a knowledge of the immigration movement to the United States from Europe is convenient. About the year 1890, the European influx to the States changed in character, and became predominantly Southern European. Some of this population afterwards moved north to Canada, just as many Swedes, Germans, Poles, and the like, had moved into Canada after a stay in the States. The above table does not include the latter, which must be added to the American born in order that a proper estimate of the movement from the United States to Canada may be made. If to the numbers of American born resident in the Canadian prairies is added an equal number of these people who had entered Canada by way of the States, the importance of the United States as a labour supply for Canada may be realized. The only naturalization statistics available during the period are those found in the prairie census of 1916, as shown in the following table: Total. Naturalized. Alien. Total. 197855 124185 73670 Male. 110081 66078 44005 Female. 87774 58107 29667 These figures put in percentages, reveal that of the American born on the prairie provinces in 1916, 62.8 per cent were naturalized, and 37.2 per cent were alien. The - 68 -percentage of males naturalized was 60, and alien 40, and percentage of naturalized females 64.E and alien 32.6. These percentages are rather higher than those for the whole of Canada in 1911. Tv/o reasons may be given, first the more permanent population had moved to the prairies and secondly, as the huge wave had come some five or six years before, the people had had ample opportunity to fulfill the residence clause required for naturalization. ov -(Chapter 5.) PART FIVE. (1920-1924) The period last discussed, closed with a low point in the number of entries from which it was expected would start a movement of something like pre-.var propor-tions. As forecasted, the numbers of entrants from the United States did increase in the following year, 1920, hut this number has declined yearly until a new low level was reached for the fiscal year 1924. i/hile it has been expec-ted that every year would see the upturn in the movement, the revival has so far failed to materialize. Meanwhile, the movement cf Canadians going to the United States has assumed enormous proportions. . V/hile it will be our purpose later to show why Canada is losing her population, it may be well to find first the reason why Canada is attracting some new entrants from the country to which thousands of her pre-sent population are leaving. In 1919 the movement from the United States to Canada reached a low ebb of 40715. In the next year, the expected increase cf Immigration took place, but in much less than the hoped-fcr numbers. Since that year, there has been a decline, slow during 1921, but more rapid in the following years until in 1924, the total number of immigrants from the United States was less than twenty thousand. Meanwhile Canadian agents are tapping the United 70 -States with the same rigour shown in 1910 and 1911, but the results have proved very different. The methods used include the same advertising, the sane pamphleteering, the saw kinds of exhibitions of products. Expenses involved in this actirity have increased, rathsr than lessened. Despite these efforts to attract a population, Canada remains particular as to those she permits to enter, as shown in the actirity of her border inspectors. The fact that in the Eastern division a much larger percentage of those desiring entry were rejected than Sa the Western division does not naoessarily mean that the inspectors of the latter division were slacker in the application of the lav. It means rather that the desirable elassee, farm labourers, farmers, and female servants, constituted a much larger percentage of the total number of applications in the West than in the Bast. Such rigid application of laws that 52 per cent of those desiring entry were refussd, goes to show that Canada still holds strictly to her theory as to the unde sir ability of certain classes of labour. Division^ Admitted. Rejected. East 22478 16563 West 28300 1741 Total 4»7T8 16324 Per Cent R. 34/£ 7* •.%••• •• « 71 -Division. East West Pacific Total East West Pacific Total • Bast West Pacific TotaL Admitted 25754 18628 3927 46319 16495 10619 £232 29345 11332 8738 1827 22007 • 1921. 1922. 1923. Rejected. 17121 1460 1494 20095 15210 2246 1141 16597 12203 854 870 13927 P e r Cent E . 40/b 27> 4.8/0 18,0 35/b 52/<3 9^ 32/0 During the present period, the movement has slowed almost to a stop and unless some impetus can be found to start the movement going more rapictly t it will cease altogether. The number of males still predominates in the existing movement. The numbers of females and children entering from the Republic has been very even since 1919, tending-, however, to decrease. The male influx rose in 1920 and 1921, but has fallen rapidly since. In 1919, special inducements by - 72 -way of cheap fares were offered to farm labourers if they would come to Canada from the States. Some 1400 entered in the spring under this scheme, and about 1100 in the fall. This movement is not recorded in the immigration statistics, Since 1919 the demand for such labour has been supplied in Canada. - 72 -Tha Maritime Provinces remainad unattractire tc Amarican immigrants during the period. The numbers entail-ing these prorlnceB seem to rapresent the smallest pcseibla number one would normally expect between districts so closely related geographically and economically. There must alwayt be a increment of business men to look after there capital investments in tha iwaritimes; there will always be a mcwa* ment of former Canadians to their old home. Thia influanca of the "home" tie is parhaps stronger in old established places like the Aiaritimes than in tha Western prorinces. We have here, than, a level of numbers below which the numbers cenact well go. The number of immigrarjts entering Quebec from the United States rose slightly In the year 1920, but has decreased steadily since. The provincial government of Quebec has put forth conalderable efforts tc repatriate her former citizens, going so far aa to offer free lani, fraa house, and free barn to such Canadians la tha Bew England States who desire to go back on tha land in Quebec. Despita these efforts, the moement remains strictly limited. Before the Quota law of tba Unlt#4 States came into force there seemed to be a movement In tha l*aw 2nglan4 States 1 "4? 4K *'*? 41 by whiali the French Canadian was being pushed out by inccming Southern Europeans. It is doubtful it this factor is present today. American Industrie* In their «cpacsicn used to depend on the influx of immigrant labour; today th#tj industries seam to be expanding, but the incoming labour 74 supply is ng> longer unlimited. Thus it might he expected that French Canadian labourers would be in greater demand than in the years when European immigration was at its peak. Because this is so, it makes it difficult for the Provincial Government of Quebec to repatriate her former citizens. Immigration from the United States to Ontario grew in eitent in 19EO and 1921, until those entering this province outnumber the entrants to any other part of the Dominion. We have already referred to the more solid foun-dation on which the prosperity cf Ontario is based, for with her protected indixstries and greater balance between in-dustry and agriculture, she sxiffers less from the ups and downs cf industrial depression than the prairies or British Columbia, l*crecver, such benefit which Canada receives from her policy of protection must accrue to Ontario or other manufacturing provinces. Ontario, too, enjoys lessened distribution costs because of her more closely knit popu-lation. While other provinces must wait for their unpro-ductive capital investments to begin to pay, Ontario, with less capital "sunk" unprcductively in non-paying railroads, and like undertakings, is able now to build anew. Because of these reasons, Ontario is able to attract new population, whereas other provinces, which formerly overshadowed her as an attraction for immigrants, now induce far fewer numbers from the Republic to the South. The prairie provinces have not proved attractive • 75 -of late years to Americans largely because cf chaotic agricultural conditions on both sides of the boundary. American industry has received a stimulus from high pro-tective policies, and from the influx of the world's gold. Caaadian industries receive similar stimulus from protec-tion. Meanwhile, the agriculturist competes with the world production in his products. The farmer too is suffering from tec liberal credit given in the prosperous days of the War boon. Thus, as a general rule the farmer is suffering and while perhaps this suffering is less severe in Canada than in the States, the difference is not sufficiently great to induce a movement of large proportions, from a class which could only move new with great effort and financial loss. The American government to remedy agricultural conditions has erected a high tariff harrier in favour cf the farmer, While this may improve the lot of the American farmer, it will be at the expense of the American consumer, and moreover it will leave mere of the world market to Canada by eliminating the United States as a factor of supply. The development of mixed farming on the prairies has grown of late years. A continuation of this development would in-crease the ability of the Western plains to support a greater population. Two factors may prevent such development—con-tinued high prices for wheat, and a confined shortage of rural credit. However, there is the possibility that, if land values increase as they did on the American prairie, that the farmer would be forced into a more intensive cultivation, or - 76 -to diversified farming, in order that he might make his investment profitable. This development along the lines of more varied agriculture has been prevented by lack of credit and poor prices, and as the development itself has not progressed so the people to do the developing have not entered. Present available land in the Canadian prairies, while cheap, is no longer altogether free of cost. In the days of the "great trek", wany farmers were able to start with mere nothing, and by hard work were able to make the free lands pay huge dividends on their toil. Today, the newcomer needs capital for an original investment and such is not to be had easily. There are a few pioneers entering tha Canadian prairie from the United States, and taking up homesteads. Such homesteads, now available, are so far away from rail-roads and transportation costs from them are so .high, that profitable undertakings of this pioneering class are few in number. To be classed with these pioneering undertakings is the Peace River district. That this district with its great stretches of fertile soil has not proved a lure is largely due to the lack of transportation. Future possibili-ties of this locality, if transportation were provided, it will be our purpose to deal with later. While the prairie provinces possess great potential ability for wealth making, the depressing agricultural conditions have made farming unattractive and unprofitable. Any population-influx has, moreover, been prevented by the sheer inability of the American farmer to sell without great loss. - 77 -British Columbia continues tc suffer from the low prices of lumber and mineral products. This far wes-tern province is consolidating after the disastrous pros-perity, idnes were then opened that were prolitaole only at the prevailing hi^h prices for gold, copper, or other minerals. Similarly, the lumber industry was constructed on * high price basis. Until, tl en, prices reach the old le-vels, mines, smelters, sew and lumber mills, discarded when prices fell, will not be "worked". In the long years of consolidation, 3ritish Columbia has been operating only those mines and timber resources which were nest profitable, and because of the limited number of such, she has barely found employment for her own population, and has not been able to attract newcomers irons the States. While the prosperity of British Columbia depends on the precarious basis of the prices of her important products, she will be able in the future, by utilizing those resources which are richer than those of the world level, to prevent such tremendous de-pression after a period cf prosperity. Perhaps more than in any other Canadian province, British Columbia offers opportunities to the capitalists who will exploit those resources which are workable at a cost below the average throughout the world. - 78 -Occupation statistics during the period 1919-1924 remain o«l©urless. While the entrants of the farming classes are by far the most numerous, their coming-, after a slight increase in 1920, has steadily lessened. As noticed before, the oombination of low prices of farm products and lack of rural credits continues to make farming unattractive. The mechanics entering Canada are the second most numerous class of immigrants from the United States. Although their numbers increased slightly In the year 1920, they have de-creased sinoe. In fact, the year 1920 seems to have been a kind of false boom during which great hopes were held for Canada's growth* Immigrants entering Canada found that their hopes did not materialize, and the incoming moveuBnt grew less. The numbers of general labourers entering from the United States rose in 1921. Canadian capitalists, over-confident cf the approaching prosperity, demanded first skilled labour, and later the unskilled, hut when their confidence was shown to be unjustified, the demand for help of both classes fell* The entrants of the other classes are of such small proportions that little can be said of them, - 79 -(Chapter S.) PART SIX. (Summary) It has been our purpose to try to demonstrate the fact that the movement from the United States to Canada was fundamentally economic In motive. There have been those pioneering spirits who like tc wander Into new parts of the earth; there are those whose "itch of the wandering foot" has led them to explore the Canadian wilds; but even with these there is often the dream of the discovery of &n "Eldorado". Social causes played their part in the move-ment Of the slavtB to Canada, political causes brought the United Empire Loyalists, and a few thousand of Canada's Expeditionary Force to Canada from the Republic©. Certain crossflow of the French Canadians movement may have been caused by religion, as was the case with the movements of kormons and kenncnites to the prairies. Part of the return movement of both French Canadian and English Canadian may-have been caused by the call of home ties and old associations. The vigcurous climate of Care.da may have lured a few north-wards. With all. these causes, however, the fact remains the predominant motive with the individual in moving to Canada has been Economic . Onee upon a time Americans came to Ontario to farm. They ©eased to do so when the more easily cultivated lands of their own West were opened. Later, when it was the Canadian prairies which ofiarad the greatest advantages, the - 60 -population movement came North and ceased to go further West. With a growth of the Canadian population, the pro-tected industries of Ontario grew prosperous, and again Americans entered to take advantage of the prosperity. When Canada enjoys good times, Americans, if their own industrial or agricultural conditions are less good, will come to Canada. British Columbia, in the days of her greatest expansion, drew enormous numbers to her borders, but when the boom fell, the movement was outwards and not inwards. When Canada desired agriculturists, such came; when these people prepared the way for urban development, thereupon entered skilled labourers, builders, and ccastruction workers. The first demand was more adequately supplied by native born Americans or northern Europeans; the latter development increased the call for workers from Southern Europe . In the movements to and fro, the United States, the international boundary line has proved a minor impediment which halts the feeble minded, the morally unlit, and in some cases, undesired classes of labour. In the main, however, the boundary line has been of little importance in impeding the free and easy movement between the United States and Canada. The two countries have in reality one labour market. Governmental action may, by making economic oon-ditione more or less favourable, alter the numbers and direct the flow to some extent. Governments may induce a certain amount of immigration with a staff of immigration officials stationed in the countries from which she expects to draw. - 61 -Such assisted immigration, however, must hare some basis of attraction; the country receiring the Immigrants must have something to offer, or these immigrants she receives will return to their point of emigration, or move on once more to greener fields. - 6£ -C B A P T B B f Q T R . PART PES In the last chapter we sought to study the American movement to Canada, and noticed its dwindling in the later years. Meanwhile, another great population movement has been taking place from Canada to the United States. This has been increasing of late years so rapidly that Canadians have come to consider this exodus as their "greatest problem". In this study of population motanents between the United States and Canada we are seeing through Canadian eyes. Our ultimate aim is to find whether Canada's loss in numbers is a real economic loss, and the, if it prove to be so, to find a policyto be adopted that would pre-vent further outflow. First we have seen the Mesons why Canada proved an attraction to American immigrants. |cw we shall try to point out why the Republic is proving such a magnet. These studyies may enable us to find remedies that will make Canada more attractive, and we may also find examples in the United States which might ©T sight not be followed in Canada. In demonstrating the reasons why the United Statee is attracting such a large population from Canute., it is easier to study first the actual movement and then to seek causes for the ebb and flow therein, show*. The best available statietlce for tke actual movement are to be found - 83 -in the American Censuses. The figures there supplied, however, only give the number of Canadian born residents of the United States by decades. In this wa y the number of immigrants who finally arrive in the United States after a first residence in Canada is not shown, nor are the yearly movements within the decennial periods given. That there have always been a certain number of Canadians domiciled in the United States is to be expected. The actua 1 numbers prove startling. In 1860 there were in the United States 147711 Canadian born citizens, and this number haft increased to the considerable total of 1,117,878 in 1920 whioh was a drecrease from the high mark of 1,204,637, reached in 1910. The discussion and disagreements that featured the life of Upper and Lower Canada may bave been an element causing some of the early immigration from Canada to the States. It was, however, the growth of the mills and manufactures after the Civil War that induced thousands of Hova Scotians and -French Canadian* to move into tfce Bepublic. Next the opening of the American West attracted thousands of Canadian farmers to the Western prairie of the East and West North Cent*»l States. The development of the Pacific States also drew a number of Canadians. The South attracted less than two per cent of the Canadian born who chose to live in the States. Since the turn of the century, the total number of Canadians living in the Hepublic has been practically stationary. There was , however, much crossflow, but for the first time the returning Canadians approximately equalled the - 84 -number of those emigrating from the Dominion. There has been, however, a great exodus from Canada of population ether |han of flative Born. -Figures based on census repor t s ant estimated increases1 showed an emigration of from Canada, most of whioh went to the United States. Yet the American oensus shows an actual, decrease in tha number of native Canadians Bince the century commenced. We are led then to the natural conclusion that Canada lost a huge percentage of the ir.migrants Bhe received from Europe. T© show tht great loss in numbers of Dative born Canadians to the United States, the following table may not be out of place: fiative Born Canadians Resident in: 1671. 1661. 1891. 1901. 1 9 1 3S1 1921. Canada. 2,892,768 5,746,492 4,185,877 4,671,816 £,619,662 6,882,747 United States. 1870. 498,464 1680. 717,167 1890. 980,988 1900. 1,181,266 1910. 1,204,617 1920. 1,117,878 For a country the size of Canada in 1870 to lose 250,000 native born, or some 25,000 a year was equally as great a disaster as the present exodus constituted to a con-siderable extent of European immigrant who have fcuhd Canada ensuitable to them or themselves uBBUited to Canada. Since Chapter 1, page he 45 per cent increase of Canadians shown in the census of 1890, there has been a slowing down in the movement until very recent years, duringwhich the exodus has been given fresh impetus. This gradual dwindling is shown in the lesser relative increases, namely, 26.8 per cant in the decade be-tween 1880 and 1890; 20.3 per cent in the census period 1890-1900; a still smaller increase of but 2.5 per cent in e iSLiowing ten years, and an actual decrease of 5.9 per oeiit between the years 1910 and 1920, Another set of figures gives similar results. Out of eveey hundred native born Janadlans living in Morth America, the United States ,r icixeu in 1880, 14.5; In 1690, 19.2; in 1900, 20.05; and 1* 1910, 17*9, and tils peroentage fell to a new low level in 1920, when approximately 14 er cent of native born Canadians iiv'. in i.crth .America were residents of the United States of ^ merica. - it the Canadian contribution to the American population has kept pace with the huge influx of foreigners entsriag the Hepnblio is shown by the figures giving the percentages that Canadian born citizens in the United States bear to the total fireign born population of that country. This ratio was 6.6 in 1850, fell to 6.0 in 1860, which meant that a sixty per cent increase in the numbers of Canadians failed to keep pace with the greater proportionate increase increase of immigrants from Europe. Census figures then ** ^ show an increase in this peroentage to 8.9 in 1870, 10.7 in 1880, 10.6 and 11.4 in 1890 and 1900 respectively. The next 86 -two decades, when the number of Canadians was practically stationary, and the influx from Europe continued, the percentage of native born Canadians to the total foreign born population of the States was lowered to 9.0 and 8.S in 1910 and 1920 respectively. The earty loss ol Canadian population was to the New England states. While the French Canadians sought the mill towns, the other Canadians plunged themselves into the life of Boston and Portland. This movement lasted from the Civil War to 1690, when it Seems to have reached a peak. Meanwhile, a new direction had been given the flow which now moved to the West. The Central States attraeted increasing numbers especially between 1876 and 1885. This exodus, how-ever, was an agricultural one, and the numbers Were less than the movement to the urban centres of New England. As might be expected, the French Canadians in their overflow from Quebec, had sought few places in which to dwell. Just as their distribution in Canada is narrowed to Quebec, and its borders, and a few in Manitoba,settlements, so their distribution in the States is confined to Mew England and the bor-der States, with a sprinkling in the farms of the Western plains and a few in the woods of the Pacific district. The french Canadian seems to be even less desirous of living in the Southern States than his fellow Canadians. The latter are distributed more evenly throughout the length and breadth of the oountry. While the East North Central States in 1890 and 1900 had greater numbers of Canadians resident there - 87 -than any other geographical division, the return movement to the Canadian prairies reduced their numbers, and thus allowed New England, to which there had been an inflow, to regain her former position as leader in the number of othtT Canadians resident there. The Viiest Morth Central division ranked third in 1890, but here too, the return movement caused a decrease in numbers while the business life of the Middle AHantic States had attracted increased numbers and thus by 19S0 this division replaced the prairie division as the third most attractive division to Canadians. The Pacific States had attracted the adventurous in the"Gold2 days, but of latt years attracted because of their mild climate and business development. The mountain states have attracted some hardy Canadians Just as they induced some French Canadian woodsmen to their borders, but the numbers of both races that have made entry there remain comparatively small. The Southern section because of its warm olimate, sufficiency of negro labour, and the greater distanoa, fails to draw many Canadians. An except!©* perhaps, ia Florida, which attracts the wealthy and tha health-seeking of the Eastern Provinces. - 88 -(Chapter 4.) PABT TWO (1870-1900) Until very recently, the year 1907, the American system of registering immigrants was open to grave cfciticism. From 1920 to I860 the United States immigration statistics gave the number of alien passengers arriving; from the year 1662 $o 1903 the immigrants admitted (which included European immigrants arriving at Quebec and other Canadian ports destined for the States), during the three years 1904 tc 1906 the figures shewed the "number of aliens admit-ted" , and it was not until 1907 that entrants were classified under the heading "immigrant aliens from the country of last permanent residence". Another, factor present is the inahlity on the part of immigration officials to measure all the move-ment. A news item of recent date stated that Of the 67,867 visiters departing from Montreal for a temporary visit to the United States during the past five months, 40,197 did not return" according to J. ?• Bixoon, U. S. Immigration Commissioner, who in an address here (Montreal) declared that 76 per cnet of those crossing fehe line for this district, employed subterfuge to enter and remain in the United States." The Canadian government compiles no figures for this movement out of Canada. Because, then,of this lack of figureB, we will not be able to divide our discussion of the movement from Canada to the United States ^>aily Province, Vancouver, B. C , November 291 1924. - 89 -into what might be called "natural" divisions of time, but Instead , we must depend on the deoennial divisions provided by the census reports of the American governaent. The numbers of Canadian born oitieens resident in the United States show an Increase of 686,462, being from 498,464 in 1870 to 1,179,926 in the year 1900. While the actual increase each decade was approximately the same, the percentage increase, (due to the larger and increasing base) grew less, falling from 45 per cent for the decade 1670*1660 to 27 per cent daring the next ten years and to the low level of 20 per cent during the censiss period 1890-1900. while Canada was losing much the same numbers per rfear the proportion of the lows to her total population grew let>8 to her Immigration from -Europe and a high birth rate among the Prench Canadians. The fact is, however, that the la-crease of native born Canadians was proportionately faster, during these thirty years, in the United States than in Canada. This is shown in the following figures. In 1860 some 16 per cent of Canadian born people, resident in lerth America, lived in the Republic; by 1890 this percentage rose to 19.2; and at the beginning of the cen-tury, one Canadian out cf every five was domiciled in the JS Republic. The strength of the numbers of Canadian entrants is shown in the increasing ratio of the Canadian born to the total numoer of foreign citizens of the States, the said ratio increasing from 8*9 per cent In 1870 to 11.4 per cent In the year 1900. Canada's contribution to the popu~ - 9 0 -lation of the United States more than kept pace with the enormous influx from Europe. Taking Canadians oolleotivOly, Frenoh and "other" Canadians together, the New England States are shown by census figures to be the mcfib popular destination. Canadian born population of these states grew in numbers by some 80,000 in the decade 1870-1880, by 137,000 in the following ten years, and by 150,000 in the last ten years of the century. She oidale Atlantic States grow relatively more attractive throughout the period as shown by the increasing numbers of Canadians living there. The high water mark of the movement cf Canadians to the East Nofcth Central States was reached In the decade 1870-1880 when Us numbers of Canadian bcrn resident there increased hy 68,000. The increases of the next two decades were 42,000 and 22,000 respectively. The West Berth ftentral States attraoted in-creased cumbers to the extent of 40,000 and 35,000 between the years 1870 sad I860 and the period 1880-1890. In the next decade, IicweYar, an aotual decrease took place, seeming to show that it was from these states that the first influx to the Canadian prairies started about the year 1897. The mountain states drew from Canada some 8,000 per decade. The attraction of the Pacific States, California in particular, it shown by increases of12,000, 25,000, and 7,000* Tha census figures as before noted, study only the Canadian bom citizens resident in the States, and five no due as to tha numbora of other nationalities who have come -> 91 -to the Republic by way of the Dominion. It perhaps would not be unreasonable to suppose, however, that the census figures up to the year 1900, reveal tht movement from Canada to the United States almost in totality, as the Canadian population was in 1900, 79 per cent natire bom. Thus it is perhaps permissible to conclude that up to 1900 the movement from Canada to the United States was very largely made up of Canadian horn people of either French or other origin. Since 1690, the American census has classified Canadian born residents under two heads, those of French origin and those of "other" origin. Perhaps a comparison of the two movements may retfeal something of value. There seem to hare always been a few French Canadian resident in the Republic. ilacDcnald* ole>ims that a few French Canadians fought with the American forces in the War of Independence. it any rate, many of this race fled to the hills of Vermont after the rebellion of 18S7. The first great movement, how-ever, took place after the Civil \7ar. In that period, the growth of the textile mills in the Hew England States caused a tremendous increase is the demand for labour. Quebec was looked upon as a good source of supply. Thus, this took place before "contract labour" legislation was established. Lany French Canadians entered the Republic under oontract. To secure them, the factories employed immigration agents and "kacDcnald, Wm. "French Canadians in Hew England"—Quarterly Journal oi Soonomios, Volume 18. - 98 -advertised widely throughout the province of Quebec. The wages paid seemed fabulous to the poor peasant of Quebec. Despite the objections of church and state, the movement went on, and the presence of a solid element of French Canadians soon forced the church to activity in New England , rather than to an activity of useless forbiddence. The state, toe soon gave up its ineffective attempts to stop the flow t southward. About 1895, the flow seems to have ceased. In the year 1880 the railroads reported a movement in carload lotB; by 1897 the movement had become limited to a family and individual outflow. The attraction was largely indus-trial. In the occupation statistics of the Census of 1890 , 58 per cent of the French Canadians were shown to be in manufacturing activities, 18 per cent in domestic occupa-tions, 14 per cent in agriculture, and about 1 per cent in the professions. As the French Canadian element of the population In Mew England grew, the feeling of the native Americans becarie aroused at the clannishness of these people , their religion, their refusal to change their language, but most of all because of their lower economic standards, for they became termed "the Chinese of Mew England", The fact that many sent their money to Canada also caused a certain amount of antagonism. Perhaps it was because of this antagonism or because of the entrance of still cheaper labour from Europe, or perhaps because of the eclipse of Mew England industries by those of other divisions, but at any rate, the influx to Mew England had certainly grown less by the beginning - 95 -of the oentury. While the French Canadian was domiciled chiefly in the New England States, considerable numbers lived in tha East North.Central, JLiddle Atlantic, and West North Central divisions, with a few in the Mountain and Pacific States, and a very few in the South. While the numbers resident in " all divisions increased in the decade 1690 to 1900, of the total increase.of 95,000, 70,000 of this was in the New England States. In 1890, of the French Canadians in the United States, 68 per cent lived in New England, 7.8 per cent in the kiddle Atlantic, 16.5 and 6.3 per cent in the iast a; d West North Central States, respectively, with slightly over one per cent in each cf the Pacific and Mountain divisions. The census of 1900 showed a slight increase in the percentage of the total numbers resident in the New England States, with small increases in the percentages of this race Using in the far West, and very small decreased in other divisions. The English Canadians ennstituted 68 per cent of the Canadian born population of the United States, and about 71 per cent of the native born population of Canada in 1890. Thus, the two races maintained, approximately the same . proportion in the two countries. The actual numbers of the "other" Canadians increased from 678442 in 1890 to 784796 in the year 1900. Of these numbers we find among the English Canadians more even distribution than in the French Canadian race. Of the total number of English Canadians resident in #• 04 *» the United States In 1890, 25.7 per cent lived in New England, and 12.7 in the Middle Atlantic division. These proportions rose to SO and 14 per cent respectively by 1900. Meanwhile the percentage decreased in the East Berth Central States from SS.7 to 50.8, and in the '.feet forth Central division from 15.8 to If.2 per cent.. In other divisions the ratio remained much the saiae. Time'there was once more a change in the direction of the movement, not great, but at least noticeable. Canadians were in the first place attracted b,v the Eastern divisions, a little later they had sought the West, but about 1900 the movement westward was decreasing and again <.he Canadians headed for the l»ew .England or Mddle Atlantic States. The occupation statistics.supplied by the Censuses ft the United States have, since 1890, failed to give the origin cf the pecple tabulated. In that year, however, the census shewed that of the Canadians in the United States, 3.7.7 per cent secured a living from agricultural pursuits, 40.7 per cent in manufacturers, and mechanical occupations, 19,6 in various domestic and personal serfices, 17.6 in trade and transport pursuits, and 4.2 per cent in the professional services. Llcrley »ic.ir:etlFclairr.s that-the belief that Canadians "head for the huge commercial centres" is false. *»ickett, Lcrley. "Canadians in the United States". Political Science Quarterly. Vol. £1, 1906. - 95 -In proof of his contention, he uses the census figures of 1900, which show that only 40 per cent of the English Canadians, and but 57.7 per cent of the French Canadians live in cities of over 25,000 population. He neglects, however, to show tjsfc the Canadians movement to the small town and to the farm was already slowing down by 1900. luring the decade 1890-1900 the number of Canadian born residents in cities of over 25,000 population increased bv 1557S5 while the increase in small towns and rural communities way only 45521. While the percentage c'f total Canadian born residents of the United States in the larger centres had been in 1890 so$e 31 per cent, this percentage increased to 57 per cent by 1900. This corresponds with our previous discussion of destination, which showed that while a great movement had taken place to the agricultural states up to 1890, that move-ment was slowing down, and. being sperseded by a flow to the industrial states cf leva England, and the business centres of the Liddle Atlantic division. •That this movement from Canada to the United States was permanent, to a large degree, is shown by the naturalisation figures of 1900. These statistics shew that 90.8 per cent ci the hnglish Canadians were naturalized, and approximately 84 per cent of the French Canadians. While citizenship was relatively easy of accomplishment, this huge percentage shows that most of the immigrants from Canada had little intention of returning to the Dominion. Among the French Canadians, however, v.ere a few who came to the States «•» j7 O "• to acquire a few hundred dollars, and having obtained this "stake", their intention was to return. The large percentage of natizralizea citizens a:r.ong tlieir numbers, however, seems to point out that the percentage of these having the above intention was small. - 97 -(Chapter 4.) PART TERSE. (1900-1910) The American census figures of the year 1910 sho» that 1,804,637 Canadian born citizens were domiciled ia the United States, an increase of 2.5 per cent over the figures of 1900. that the movement was raally greater than this may be assumed from the figures of immigration which were put on a proper basis in the year 1907. These show that entries from Canada to the United States numbered 110,786 for the three years 1907, 1908, 1909. These immigration figures, differing from the census statistics, measure the total movement of both native born Canadians and aliens across the border. It is likely, however, that there was also a greater movement of nativo born Canadians than the slight increase represented in the census. As we noticed in Chapter 3, there was during this period, a movement of Canadians back to the Dominion. There must also have been a certaih number of deaths among those Canadians who had been resident in the United States in 1900. Thus, to balance this return movement and the deaths that had taken place and she* an increase of 2.6 per cent, there must have been a cross-flew of population of Canadian born people and in this ©ross-flow Canada lost seme thousands of her native citizens. As we shall notice later, the Dominion also lost during the period ccnsiderablo numbers of her immigrants through "lack of - 98 -retention", which was only to be expected in a country that is building rapidly by means of immigration. To return to the main argument, however, we may say that while there was a larger movement of native born population out of Cam da, than the 2.5 per cent increase the American figures show, this immigration loss by Canada was much less than in former decades. Out of every hundred Canadian born residents in North America in 1900, 20.2 were domiciled in the United States. This percentage had decreased in 1910 to 17.9. Moreover, Canada's contribution to the foreign born population of the United States decreased from 11.4 per cant %Q 9.0 per cent in the same decade, and the relation of Canadian born citizens to the total American population fell from 1.6 to 1.3 per cent. . While the Canadian born residents of the Republic inortased by 24715 in the decade 1900-1910, this addition was mot Spread evenly over the various geographical divisions of Canada's southern neighbour. The Hew England and Middle Atlantic States increased in the numbers of their Canadian citizens by 18 and 16,000 respectively, but the Central States decreased by 46,500. To counteract this loss, the states of the mountain district increased by 4,500, and the Pacific division for the second time in its history proved a great lure to Canada's population, drawing some 39^000 of the Dominion's citizens, during the decade. The decrease of the Canadian bom population of the American prairie states is to be accounted for by two movements, the first northward - 99 -to the Canadian provinces, and the second westward to California. Just as the Canadian born population increase was unevenly spread over the geographical divisions of the country, so was it unevenly divided between the two Canadian races. The population of French Canadians actually showed a decrease, the first for at least half a century. The decrease of this race took place in all the geographical divisions except New England, and the Pacific Tha de-creases were in most cases small enough to he considered at due to deaths. The French movement had become stabilized, centering in two places,—the industrial East and the new attraction, the Pacific. It seems certain that no new population was going fj/em Quebec to any other divisions but the above two. In fact, it might he that the Pacific attracted only those French Canadians resident in the Hepublic. The French Canadian element of the American foreign horn population decreased relatively during the period, dropping from 3.8 per cent to 2.6 per cent, for while ue actual decrease in numbers was small, the influx from Europe had made the proportion of the French Canadians relatively less. How far it was true that European im-migration was replacing French Canadian labour is difficult to ascertain. It seems, however, that one of two things was happening, or perhaps both, one that Quebec with its increasing urbanization was growing more alluring to the French Canadian, the second that the United States was - 100 -becoming less attractive, possibly because of the in-creasing European immigrant, who, with still lower standards of living than the French Canadian, was able to oust the latter from his oocupation. To show the distribution of the Canadian born population, the following table perhaps will serve: Distribution. Canadian Born Population., 1910. French Canadians . Other Canadians. The Berth 96.0 82.1 Lew S. 78.2 30.3 L. A. 7.0 14.8 X. W. C. 12.1 27.6 I. h. C. 4.7 10.4 The South 0.6 S. A* 0.2 £. S. C. 0.1 #. S. C. 0.3 2 14 .3 1, 0, 0. . 6 S, 10, >o .4 .9 .8 .8 The A'eet 3-4 Hta. 1*4 P a c . l- :•••• • -•*•" £ . 1 ''••-•' >' ' ' • The above table shows the greater degree of dis-persion throughout the States of the English Canadian than the French Canadian. While the Hew England States domicile 78 per cent of the Canadians of French origin, only ZO per cent of the other Canadians reside there. The South is unpopular with - 101 -both races. The West attracts some French Canadian lumber-men, but comparatively few. With the English Canadian the agricultural attraction of the Central States has grown less and in its place the raoific division has grown in popularity. The statistics available for a study of racial origin of the immigrants from Canada to the United States are limited to reports of the Commissioner General of Immigration for the years 1908 and 1909. We conoluded in the previous period that the movement from Canada to the United States had been comparatively "pure", that is, made up of a population mainly at Canadian birth. A new element is present in the decade under discussion. No longer was the Canadian population so homogeneous, for Canada, like her neighbour to the south, was attracting a huge population from Europe. Some of this influx left for the United States after a comparatively short stay. The figures of the United States Commi8sioner General of Immigration reveal that in 1906, of the 42605 im-Igrants from Canada, 15502 were native born Canadians and $0752 were foreign born residents c£ Cat*da. In the year 1909, of the 52488 immigrant aliens having their last permanent residence in Canada before entering the Republic £4H8 were native born Canadians and 29220 were born outside the Dominion. Thus, we must add a new element to the census figures, namely, that of the foreign born population of Canada, who, although first destined for Canada, eventually moved into the United States. In 1910 the - 102 -XS. S. Immigration Commissioner declared that nc less than 40 per cent of the immigrants entering that country left within a comparatively short time. IJJ Canada with the huge labour market of the United States at her elbow, the loss might be even greater. The following' table fives the racial origin (larger contributions only), of the immigrant aliens admitted into the United States from British hcrth America during the years 1908, .1909, 1910; 1908. 1909, 1910, Bulgarian Croats Dutch East Indian English IPimalander French German-Greei: Jew Irish Italian Japanese Magyar Boles 594 452 473 598 10296 350 4205 2468 433 2393 3038 3348 645 426 1057 144 97 176 8 1747 371 237 3445 355 246 511 2639 31 309 370 190 288 191 17 1828 550 207 1296 184 405 498 1993 15 284 371 ^Quoted in "Round Table" for L^ arch, 1925, Ho. 58 in article "The Results of the 1921 Census". - 105 -1908. 1909. Russians £62 1017 1157 Scandinavians 1759 4179 2405 Scotch 4122 740 782 The above table,while by no means complete, does show the diversified character of the people Canada was now losing. While the English, Scotch, Scandinavian, French and German elements, were largest, there was also an exo-dus of Italians, Greeks, Jews, Magyars and Slovaks. Tha Canadian population was growing less homogeneous, but not because the newly arrived immigrant was farcing the native Canadian born population across the border. Instead, there was a constant crossflow to and from the two countries. We have seen that in the exchange of native born Canadians the Dominion lost greater numbers than she gained. In the exchange of American born citizens the Republic lost. Besides this there were movements of European born immigrants to whom the international boundary line meant nothing. To them the countries were one labour market. They came and went wherever opportunity offered. Occupation statistics of tha Canadian imigrants to the United States are likewise limited to the; reports of the U. S. Commissioner General of Immigration for the years 1908 and 1909. In these two years there entered from Canada 51357 common labourers, 22768 skilled labourers, 6654 farmers, and farm labourers, 5181 servants, 1666 professional people, 27887 of miscellaneous occupations, and 26819 of no given - 104 -oceupation. the latter being mostly women and children. The email numbers of farmers and farm labourers, so different from earlier movements, coiicides with the destination statistics which showed an loss of Canadian born residents in the agricultural states. The numbers of skilled and unskilled labourers is considerable, the latter being largely made up of Europeans who moved into the -Republic after a short stay in Canada. During the period it is certain that Canada exchange* business men and mechanics as well as professional men for farmers. The numbers were in her favour, but the exchange was doubtless advantageous in other ways, also. Canada with a surplus of mechanics and professional people and a need for farmers may be compared with a boy who has an extra top, but needs a knife . Canada may exchange an extra mechanic or doctor for a farmer just as the boy might to advantage "trade" a top for a knife. The exchange night well be of advantage to both countries. To show the increasing urbanization of the Canadian bora population in the United States, the following figures may be presented. Of the Trench Canadians resident in the United States in 1910, 313814, or 81.3 per cent lived in urban districts, and but 18»T per ceat lived in rural com-munities or OB fans. Of the English Canadians 567801, or 09.3 per cent lived in urban localities and but 251753, or 30.7 per cent in the rural sections. Ho longer oould it be - 105 -said that the movement out of Canada was not tc the commercial centres, ./hile the English Canadians, farming in the Central States, kept the urban percentage of that race lower than that of the French Canadians, the recent movement had been, to a tremendous degree, to the larger cities. Even in the States formerly agricultural, the Canadian residents were being urbanized very rapidly, as shown in the following table: Percentage Urban. Others. Division. Kew England. Mid. Atl. E. E. C. W. B. C. Mtn. Pac French. 91.0 62.1 58.2 44.5 59.8 60.5 85.5 77.8 65.5 45.1 45.5 64.6 In contrast to this, the urbanization in the United States as a whole for 1900 and 1910 is interesting; 1900. 1910. Urban. 40.5 46.5 Rural. 59.5 55.5 Still further protf of the growing attraction of the cities is shown in the growth of numbers of Canadians in the larger American centres, the cities of over 25,000 population. The number of Canadians in these centres rose - 106 -from 464,716 in 1900 to 570,446 in 1910. Meanwhile, the numbers of Canadian born citiser.18 in the smaller cities, rural districts ami on farms, decreased from 715E06 to 629271. This movement to the American cities agrees vith our proposition that the flow across the border is caused by economic demands . The commercial centres of the Republic created a demand which drew from Canada, labour which her fewer cities could net absorb. - 107 -(Chapter 4.) PART FOUR. 1910-1920 During the decade 1910-1920, the numbers of Canadian born residents in the United States shewed an actual decrease of 6.9 per cent, the actual numbers falling from 1,B09,71? to 1,128,174, a reduction of 71,642. Ihia decrease was slightly larger,far the above figures include Newfoundlanders, whose numbers increased by 6169. Again we must note, however, that the census figures do not necessarily reveal the true extent of the population flow between Cauada and the United States during the decade. They fail to show the extent of the movement of Canada's foreign born residents to the Republic. That this movement was huge, it shall be our purpose to shew later. Bor Ac the census figures giTe a true picture of the movement within the decade. There may have been a considerable return movement of Canadian born citizens before and during the War, which was nearly counterbalanced by an exodus from Canada after the War. Such an ebb and flow could not show in the hart figures supplied by the census. It seems, how-ever, permiaalble to sa y^that the Canadian "exodus" to the United States was gradually lessening. Ihereas in 1910, 17.9 per cent of Canadian born people residing in Borth America lived in the United States, in 1920 this percentage had been reduced to 14,0. Likewise, Canada's contribution to the foreign born population of the United States fell from 9.0 - loe -per cent to 8.2 per cent, and tha ratio of the Canadian born to the total American population foil from 1.2 to 1.1 per cent. The decrease was not spread equally oyer tht various geographical divisions. lor the first life* in our study, tho numbers in Lew England decreased to the extent Of 50,000. Ths number of Canadian born residents in tot Middle Atlantic States was redaoed by 10,000, in ths East i.otth Central StatOs by 19,500, ths -Vest North Gentral States by 22,000. The dsoreass in the Licuntain division was slight. At the same time, ths Pacific States showed an increase of some 20,000 divided between California and Washington. Kor was the decrease equal, between the Canadians of English and French origin. Ths number of tht latter decreased by 20.1 per cent, whlls the reduction in tat numbers of the other Canadians was but 0.3 per cent. The French Canadians percentage to the foreign born population of the Republic fell from 2,8 to 8.8 per cent. Ths loss thus represented totalled 77,000, distributed over the different geographical divisions as follows: Kew England, 58,000; liiddle Atlantic 10,000; Central States 24,000; and in each of the two far Western divisions, by 2,000, Ths other Canadians fell in proportion to total foreign from 7.6 per cent to 5.9 per cent. The less here shown took place in the fiew England States, and. in the Central divisions, 12,000 in the former and 16,000 in the latter. - 109 -The number of Canadian born citizens in the Middle Atlantic and Mountain divisions remained practically stationary, and the Pacific and South Atlantic States gained by 22,000 and 5,000 respectively. The changes in distribution of Canadians throughout the States may be shown in the following tables: Distribution of Canadians in the IT. S. H o r t h . B . E . M. A. E . H. .W. E . Wes t . P a e . Mtn. 0 . C IPrenc m l 9 2 0 . 9 1 , <L .5 7 5 . 1 5 . 5 9 . 5 5 . 4 tl 1.8 1 . 1 h . 1 9 1 0 . 9 6 . 0 7 2 . 2 7 . 0 1 2 . 1 4 . 7 5 . 4 2 . 1 1.4 Others. 1920. 1910. 79.8 28.9 14.8 27.5 8 . 6 17.5 15.6 5 .7 85 14 . 1 50.5 14.8 27.6 10.4 . 6 10.8 5 . 8 The census figures, as we have had occasion to note, reveal only the movement of Native born Canadians. In the decade 1900-1910, a foreign element entered into the movement. During the next decade the flow to the United States contained still larger proportions of foreigners. Dr. Peter H. Boyd, in an address to a Hew York Canadian Club, asserted that in the ten years from 1910 to 1920 Canada lost at least one million of the two and one half million immigrants who had come to the Dominion between 1900 and 1920. - no -ffcat this is true seems to be demonstrated by the fact that the Canadian year bock estimated the emigration during 1910-1980 to be 1,297,740. That this was largely to the neighbour to the South seems likely. Yet the American census figures show a decrease in the number oi Native born Canadians resident in the Republic. Therefore, it is permissible to say that the emigration was largely of foreign born residents of Canada who left Canada because of her inability to retain all her entrants, many of whom appear to hare come as a short term loan oi labour, loaned to Canada that she might complete her vast undertakings of the pre-War period. The figures of the United States government for immigrants from British north America are as follows: 1911, 56650. 1916, 101551. 1912, 55990. 1917, 105599. 1915, 75520. 1918, 52452. 1914, 66159. 1919, 57782. 1915, 82215. 1920, 90025. Yet the total number of Canadians in the United States decreased. Again figures seem to demonstrate the great proportion of foreign bom among the emigrants from Canada to the adjoining country. Three years reports of the U. S. Immigration Commissioner also serve to show the varied origin of the population the Republic was receiving from its northern neighbour during the period. - Ill -Racial Origin Immigrant Aliens, Admitted from B. African Bohemian Bulgarian Groats Dutcht English Finns French German Greek Hebrew Ifcish Italian, South Italian, North Magyar Poles Russian Ruthenian Scandinavian Scotch Welsh M.fi. to U. 1911. 504 226 555 491 621 14574 710 10472 5898 410 2420 6147 725 2519 544 1109 415 509 2646 6640 443 S. A.. 1911-1912. 529 135 467 525 699 14857 816 11044 4041 400 1896 5618 529 1158 261 1159 487 528 5545 6401 558 -1914. 1915. 538 226 1445 1259 955 16898 1455 12562 5406 946 1467 6765 1070 2439 558 2226 1981 656 5595 7712 414 One notices in the above the growing relative numbers of Southern Europeans who were by this time entering Canada in quite large numbers, but Canada seemed unable to - 112 -retain all the immigrants of this class, v/hile the English, Scolrfc, and Irish, together, with the Germans, Scandinavians, and Butch, still predominated the outflow from Canada, there is a belief that Canada was gaining in numbers by tha cross-flow of these races. With the French, there was a definite gain of numbers by Canada. In the three years 1911 to 1913, 5400 people of French origin sought employment in the States, but the Canadian figures showed that there was a far greater number of French Canadians who returned to Canada. This continued crossflow of races, as well as of. individuals, has become a feature of the population movement across the international boundary line between the United States and Canada. It was pointed out in Part III that the Canadian born residents of the United States were becoming increasing-ly urbanized. This urbanization continued among the English Canadians during the period 1910-1920. The number of urban dwellers of Canadian birth increased from 567,801 to 591,81S during the decade. At the same time, the number of rural citizens claiming Canadian birth decreased from 251,755 in 1910 to 225,327 in 1920. The percentage of urban dwellers among the Canadian born population grew from 69.5 per cent to 72.4 in the ten years. Meanwhile, the French Canadian slightly varied this process. There took place a greater relative decrease in the city dwellers of French origin than among the rural citizens of that race. The loss effiong the rural residents was from 71899 to 64050, but the urban - U S -population w as reduced from 61.2 per cent tc 79.2 while the percentage of rural population rose from 18.7 to 20.6. The difference here represented might he explained by the relative-ly greater difficulty of the Rural French Canadian to dispose of his holding's, and thus a greater inability to return to Canada. Of the total population of the Republic, 51.4 per cent are urban dwellers, of the total Canadian bora popula-tion resident in the United States, 74.5 per cent are urban, comparing closely with the percentage of the total foreign born population of that country, 75.4 per cent of whom dwell in urban localities. CaraLians, just as the European immi-grants to the United States, sought their economic opportuni-ty in the commercial centres of the Republic. $ho followiHg table shews tho movement tretvreen- tho urban and rsn'isfr-^tfti'ti-esHa. of the -9-smadian born population during thn p^ -yjod nndex tUfinnflRlna-* - 114 -The outstanding fact revealed by the above is the "return to the land" movement in the Hew England States. In both races there le an inorease in the rural population, and considerable loss in the number of urban dwellers. In the Middle Atlantio States a gain in the urban centres is n;ade up for by a loss in the rural districts. In tht Pacific division both rural andurban population of Canadian birth grew, but the latter showed by far the greatest increase, ffith the exception of the New England States there was a continued urbanization among the Canadian born.residents of the Hepublic. The exception was caused in New England by the increased prices for agricultural products, and the comparatively small capital needed to "work" the abandoned farms of those states. In the country as a whole, however, the movement to the cities, noticed in previous decades, continued, for the census of 1920 shows that 584,101 Canadians lived in cities of over 25,000 population as compared to the 570,446 in 1910, while the Canadian born population in small cities and rural communities had decreased from 629,271 in 1910 to 540,624 in 1920. There are no occupation statistics for the period, but it is seemingly permissible to believe that despite the growth in New England, the numbers of Canadian born farmers £rew 1MB because of the trek from the Central States to the prairie* during the years 1910-1912, and during the agricul-tural boom of the War years. Meanwhile, American industry received tremendous impetus in the War activity. While Canada - 115 -doubtless offered greater agricultural opportunities than the United States, in manufacturers the reverse was the case. While protection, bounties, aid like schemes tend to keep a certain proportion of Canada's population engaged in industries, it seems that Canada's natural advantages lie in other directions. Unless a sudden development of her manufacturers takes place, and such is unlikely in an already industrial world, Canada may continue to lose a certain percentage of her population that prefer city and industrial life. On the other hand, if Canada pursues those arts in which she is at an advantage with the rest of the world, she ma^ continue to attract a population ready and willing to exploit them. - 116 -(Chapter 4.) PART FIVE (1920-1924) Of the exodus from Canada during the last four years, a great deal has been written. Iviany have undertaken to compile figures and make estimates of the true extent of the movement. Prom the numerous compilations nothing very clear has been evolved. The statistics of the American Immigration Bureau have been supposed to err on the side of exaggeration, but such figures as given in the Wixoori speech already quoted , many reports of successful "quota beaters", and finally the figures of the National Bureau of Economic Research**, seem to indicate that the government fi-gures are incomplete. On the other hand, membersof the Canadian government, like Iv^ acienzie King, dispute the figures of the American "statistic mongers", and Canadian newspapers disclaim vigorously the Washington figures. The much disputed American figures are as follows: Immigration from Canada and Kewfoundland: 1921, 72,217. 1922, 46,810. 1923, 117,011. 1924, 200,690. The above figures include only these who pay the ^Chapter 4, Part 1. iJew York. - 117 -American "head tax", and do not include those who, on returning to Canada, have had that tax returned. Canadian papers claim that many return who do not claim the head tax. To venture a personal opinion, however, I should doubt if such cases were numerous. To more than counter-balance these few are the people who take advantage of the long unprotected border to slip into the United States from Canada. Thus, to give a personal view, once more, I should consider that the American immigration figures, if anything, underestimate the actual movement. As in the oast three decades, the flow is largely industrial. American agriculture remains unattractive while American industry continues, rather unexpectedly, to boom. To avoid the income tax, it is said, American industries continue to expand and undertake large construc-tional programs. Meanwhile, Canadian agriculture fails to prosper, and Canadian industry remains inactive. Canada, in fact, still suffers from the enormous expenditure of capital in unproductive (for the time at least), \mdertak-ings. Then toe, there is the 'effect of the American quota law, which cuts off the accustomed labour supply of many American industries. Thus a certain "drag" in the Canadian labour force is created. Canada then is losing to the Republic to the South a certain amount of her agricultural labour which seeks employment, not on American farms, but in American industry, also a considerable number of workers of her building trade's labour force, and a few of the employees - lie -of her mamif actures . The outflow of recent years has once more become predominantly of Canadian birth. The new immigration law of the United States prevents much movement from Canada of the races to which the quota law applies. Such of these that enter the United States from Canada are the so-called "quota beaters", who by means of subterfuge or human smuggling, are able to enter the Republic. While there is this element, the extent of which it is impossible to estimate, the bulk of the movement, shown in the Immigration Statistics, is of Canadian born. The immigration figures do not enable one to tell the proportion the French Canadians near to the total exodus. It is likely, however, that the need of the Sew England Industries for labour which had been supplied in increasing numbers from Southern Europe, is now being filled to a greater extent by French Canadians. While Quebec is likely losing some population, some writers are of the opinion that much of the exodus is from the prairie pro-vinces. Doubtless this is true. The prairie oities were made to prosper during pre-War boom by their very construc-tion. The subsequent shrinkage of their populations has led tc unexpected hardships for merchants who new find that they have but to supply the requirements of the neighbouring settlers. British Columbia, because of her continued stag-nation, has lost many of her citizens to California, which has seemingly boomed. It seems, however, that the advancing - 119 -price of minerals, which is causing a certain amount of new mineral development, may soon cause an inflow to the far Western province. Ontario, perhaps, is losing least of all the provinces. Her own cities have attracted the iraral surplus, and while the industries of Lichigan and Northern tiew York have exerted a "pull", the growth of her own manufacturers has proved a counter-attraction. To sum up, the present move-ment is as large, if not larger than any exodus in Canadian history. It is in the main caused "by the depression in Canada, while the Dominion strives to strike a balance between production and overhead; together with the comparative prosperity of the country to the South-. To stop this out-ward flow, it will he necessary for Canada again to become highly prosperous, or the United States to experience a period of industrial inactivity. The chances for sucli, it will he our purpose tc look into in the concluding chapter. - 120 -(Charter «!.) PART SL*. Summary Of late years, the movement of population from Canada to tat United States has been attracting the atten-tion of most Canadians* The exodus has been serious, but cut study has shown that other great movements from Canada have taken place, and that in each case Canada overcame the lose and in the end was able to prosper. In looking over the movement historically, we see various causes working* first perhaps, was the desire to explore, the instinct of the pioneer as seen in the move-ment of the French "ccureur-de-beis" down the Mississippi, ss seen in the movement of Canadians to the California gold fields, and Texss ell fields. Social causes have been unimportant; as there has been no religious persecution there has been no movement from Canada on that account; political causes ma* have caused a few French Canadians to flee after the rebellion of 1827; geography and climate may hews caused the movement of a few health seekers* In the main, however, the economic active hss transcended all others. Cllaate as a cause is largely econosAo. It ia not the ssrmer atmosphere present in the Hepuhllo, but rather the greater diversity of economic opportunity offered by the wider range of climate. the French Canadian left his home to take advantage - 121 -of the high wages offered by the industries of flew England, andis now returning because of the industry, development of Quebec. With the Irene*. Canadian the factors of race and religion, while stronger than in the English Canadian, were unable to prevent a movement to land of greater economic opportunities. The English Canadian first sought the American Central States in which to farm, not because cf any preference for the American flag, but because of the opportunities offered under it. This former came north again, when the call of the Canadian prairie meant more ..ealth to him. American factories, larger than the Canadian plants, and more numerous, have called the Canadian worker. Professional men, after having secured good educations in Canada, find in the United States a greater demand for their skill, and there they go* The United States has drawn from Canada, a country of like language and similar institutions, because of the greater economic development of the country to the South. The seasonal industries and the greater dependence of the Dominion on the fluctuating market prices of a few products, have ever rendered Canada at a disadvantage.to her great neighbour. The international boundary line is an unimportant impediment to the movement of population between the two countries. While the present quota law restricts to some extant, the number of aliens who cross the Canadian line to enter the Republic, am while it may in future be applied to the Canadian born, the diffioulty of administration - 122 -will make complete restriction in.jxssible except at prohibitive cost. The most effective way to keep Canadians in Canada is to offer superior advantages there. - 122 -C B A P T S R F I V £ . Our explanations of the population movements between the United States and Canada have been chiefly economic. Io go further, however, la our study of the Canadian loss of numbers, we should seek an ticplanation of why Canada is economically inferior to her neighbour. Kow, to answer this fully is not our intention or within our ability. Briefly, however, we shall endeavour to examine the early development of the twc countries and also to study why Canada has failed to maintain her pre-War prosperity. The Kepuelio reoeived the advantage cf a start, and as a consequence much new population came her way at a time vhaa much European population was able to and desirous of leafing their homes. The United States received this first influx, rather than Canada, because of her greater range of climate and consequent greater diversification. Once the population started it was like a runaway train, It grew in force, and like the runaway train it has proved to step. As the successful immigrants, and they aaro successful because of the natural advantages of the coun-try, wrote home or sent Indications of their success in the way of money, there was induced a further and increasing movement. In the early years of her history the United States was allowed to gain a larger population than Canada, lav it seei.s inevitable that, when a small population lies side by side a greater neighbour speaking the tame language, diffleult - 184 m and having similar institutions, that the larger population draws from the smaller. Levassetir has termed this phenomenon a "law" of population, stating that "the digger the mass the greater the attraction". The truth of this law is doubtful. China, for example, with its huge mass does not exert much "pull" on surrounding populations. The statement is true, however,in so far as the larger popula-tion of the United States proved economically more effi-cient* This it mseemingly was on account of the lessened distribution oosts, ability to build up industries be-cause of a large heme market and other advantages aecnuing from a large population. This growing effioienoy left Canada far behind and as a consequence she was Agncred. This lack of knowledge about Canada remained a prominent factor in Canada1s backwardness. Geography, besides endowing the United States with warmer temperatures, and ability to produce more diversified products, also gave the Republic another great advantage ever the Dominion. In Canada there are at least four olear cut geographical divisions, the Maritime provinces, Ontario and wuebec, the Prairies, and lastly British Columbia. 1*0 such sharp demarcation into geographical divisions occurs in the Republic. Thus there has always been in Canada greater sectional riwalry and internal strife than in the southern country. Further, the division of Canada into sections draws closer the connections between those parts of Canada and the oantiguoub sections Of the United otates. The ilaritimes look to New England., Ontario to JfcUhigan, the - 125 -prairies to Chicago, aid British Columbia to California. In fact, British Columbia sought markets in the Pacific States, in Europe, and in Australia before she attempted to become a distributor for the Canadian prairies. This close connection between the contiguous parts of the united States ana Canada has made easier the flow of population between them, than between the different sections of Canada. Because of the extreme ease witfh which one can cress the boundary Una, Canada haB lost millions of her population, which, If they were added to her present population might enable her to solve her most pressing problems, railways, taxes, and national debt. At time8 during her history, Canada has pro-gressed mora rapidly than her. neighbour. Onf of these periods was tht decade 1903 to 1918. Why has she not been able tc maintain this progress, and thus prevent the present excdus? In order to explain the present depression it may be well to go back to the days of the great Canadian ex-pansion, and investigate the basis of her former prosperity. The War did not strike Canada in the midst of a great period of expansion, but rather at the close of one. The popu-lation had increased between the years 1901 and 1911 from 5,871,000 to 7,206,000, an increase of 1,885,000, or 150,000 more than during the three previous decades. largely because of the influence of the huge influx of foreign capital, -imports increased by 287 per cent during Hi ten years from ifOB to 1918. During the same 4tcade railroad mileage increased - 126 -by 54 per cent. In the tremendous development of the prairies , a huge labour force was imported. Foreign capitalists, knowing that all booms must come to an end, sooner er later, and that speculation had its limits, began in time to withdraw their capital or at least to refrain from further investment. Thus came a shrinkage of the prosperity. As building and construction ceased, the buil-ders and construction workers left. This led to unexpected hardships for the Canadian merchants, who now found they had but the requirements of the neighbouring settlers to fill, and the urban businesses in the larger centres soon found their distributing trade declining. Canada had continued to build, thinking that this temporary labour force would be permanent. Thus the prosperity left Canada with a house too large far the population remaining after the workmen had left. The unproductive enterprises left by this boon have tended to prolong Canada's backwardness. In her railways, huge investments were made which must remain for the present unproductive . Bhe government found itself in the unenviable situation of having to take over a system which could not be made to pay by efficient administration merely. Thus the prodigious cash advances which have boon made to the railways since the government operation was inaugurated have really been "sunk" in the hope of a future gain, the rail-way systems are an inheritance of the age when Canada over-stepped herself. Mor are the railroads the only unproductive enterprises from which Canada auffers. The very size of her - 1S7 -cities, on the prairies especially, the hugeness of many constructional undertakings, and the scale of her manu-factures are examples of undertakings which expanded over-much. In the construction of these railways and the building of thw towns much population was used. In fact, the pros-perity of the urban centres prevented many who would have otherwise gone on the land from doing so. Thus there was a loss in the actual energy expended unproductively and a potential loss of profit which might have taken place if some of these people had entered immediately productive enterprises. That Canada still suffers from this too rapid growth seems to be shown by the fact that ten per cent of the national income goes to pay interest on the huge government debt and on the unproductive undertakings of the boom period. The tariff is one of Canada's great national policies, applauded as the greatest harbinger of prosperity and condemned as the greatest crime perpetuated by poli-ticians. The Canadian tariff over a long period has built up many industries which otherwise would be unable to compete with the cheap labour products of the European continent , or the mass produced goods of the United States. In the mani-pulation of this tariff there have been continued changes in poliey and in administration. If Canada is to have a protective tariff, and it seems to be so, that protection should be stable and not made the plaything of party patronage. Without intending to enter into the free trade argument, it is a matter of fact that the Canadian tariff along with - 1S8 -high transportation costs, is a heavy burden on the extractive industries. How it is the products of these industries which Canada produces most advantageously, and if they are to prosper, the burden of protection must not be made too high. If protected industries are needed as a stabilizing influence, the industries to be protected should be chosen from those things which Canada produces effective-ly. By protecting such, the Dominion may be able to develop an efficiency which would enable them to compete with world production in Canada without the tariff, and also in foreign countries. Thus, if instead of a fluctuating tariff schedule on a huge variety of articles, Canada adopted a stable tariff scale on a few industries which, while not now able to compete with the world production, might perhaps develpp this ability^ &rTtf W*rt * ^ \*1 It Bfi^cTep' Canadian taxes are today a relatively greater bur-den than are the American taxes. In fact, they have a tendency to stifle industry. Canada must ever be able to compete with her neighbour. She can not do so with a tax sohedul® which is out of proportion with that of the Rapuolic. In Canada are some 5500 taxiing authorities, enough to collect revenue from a population of one hundred million. These authorities, it has been estimated, take about one seventh of the annual gross production of goods or about one quarter of the annual net revenue. With a national production of two and three quarter billion dollars, the taxes are close to #550,000,000. Such high proportion - 1*9 • are necessary for the expansion of a new country. Canada should encourage development by making the Dominion attac-tive to live in, and advantageous in which to do business in. An income tax of higher schedule; than that dictated by Washington, a series of conflicting jurisdictions, high rates of sales tax, and corporations' taxes which involve most unjust double taxation, are not in the best interests of Canadian development. It will be argued, however, that a reduction of taxes is impossible as the present revenue is barely sufficient to maintain the government. A fallacy in the above reasoning is evident when it is shown that a reduction of the tax rate by no means signifies a similar reduction of revenue. In the three years 1922, 1925, 1924, the English government reduced their income tax rate by 25 per cent, yet receipts fell but 17 per cent. In Canada, there was a de-crease in receipts with no reduction of rate. In the efforts of the American taxing authorities to get 55 and 68 per cent of the large incomes, they reduced the number of such taxable incomes from 206 in 1916 to 21 in 1921. Again it is by no means certain that the Federal, Provincial, and Municipal governing bodies economize to the extent that is possible. If by spending less the Canadian taxing authorities can re-duce the taxes, they will do much to encourage capital in-vestment and immediately productive enterprises which in turn might encourage an inflow of population and a consequent - 130 -reduction of the per capita taxation. It is noticed, however, that Canada's lack of prosperity is only relative. When compared with economic conditions in Europe, Canada is in an excellent position. Unfortunately, it is not with Europe that the Dominion is compared. In fact, no matter how great the activity in the northern country, if the Republic is enjoying a period of still greater prosperity, both capital and people will be directed there. It is the old choice between the; better and the best, and the latter is always chosen. Oflate years the United States has seemingly offered competition with which Canada is unable to cope. We have seen in explanation of this that Canada is suffering from her pre/War expansion, from overcapitalization, and over-taxation. The question still remains as to why the United States is not suffering similarly. In the first place, American business activity was already on a firm foundation by the turn of the twentieth century. This when the business cycle swing:.• into a period of prosperity, the American industries had a foundation on which to build. Meanwhile the Canadian industries expanded so rapidly that they failed to make sure their foundation was secure. As to be expected, it was not, and as a consequence Canada has lost valuable years in making that foundation secure. Again Canadian industries are extractive, and as a consequence are dependent on a world market, and world prices. American industries, agriculture and extractive enterprises were less dependent on world dictation because of the huge 131 -home market which their tariff helped provide. Extractive industries from their nature are the first to suffer from a depression and are the last to recover. All of which tended to make Canada suffer to a greater extent and for a longer period of time than her neighbour. In many ways the size of American industry and population aided in their greater ability to absorb the shock of a depression. A small firm can bear only a proportionately less shock than a large firm, a large population is able to absorb a proportionately greater influx than a small one. In this wgy the United States felt the shock less, ani. as a eonsequence was sooner at arriving at an equilbrium. Another factor that may have had an influence was that by 1912 the United States was ready to become a lending rather than a borrowing country. Certain advantages result from capital invested within the country. For one thing the supply is cut off less sharply in time of depression, for & second it is renewed more easily when business picks up* Canada, dependent largely for development on increased "doses" of foreign capital, found herself after the War, in an unfortunate position. The War had rendered Great Britain "hors de combat" for the time being, as a money lender. The United States was using her newly discovered ability to lend, to develop her own industry. Canada suffered then from a lack of capital, not that enough had not been expended unproductively, but there was now a need for investment in immediately productive enterprises. The War proved more advantageous, or less ** 4fcWP"-'*-;': ;o the United States than to Canadian industries may have been stimulated, and their efficiency increased, such gain was relatively less than that given to the more highly developed industries of the Bepublic, which became the world's supply. There is little doubt either, that the earlier participation of Canada with the greater expense and greater disruption promoted thereby, caused greater suffering than was experienced by her neigh-bour. Moreover, the influx of gold was a stimulus of great importance. The world, at least economists, believed the after effects off this huge importation of metal would be worse than the previous gain. That this has not been so as yet, at least, has been due largely to the wise policy of the government and the considerhale extent of gold exports to countries impoverished of this metal. How far the at-tempts to evade the income tax have stimulated construction work and expansion of business undertakings is a matter of personal opinion. It seems, however, that because the number of million dollar incomes has decreased from 206 to El in five years, while the country has continued to enjoy prosperity that profits have been diverted into channels where the expected returns will be received when there is either no income tax or an income tax with a less high scale of rates. Meanwhile, in Canada there have not been many great incomes to tax, and thus little development has been caused by the diverting of such. Thus briefly we have attempted to show why Canada has not enjoyed as great a degree off prosperity as has the •* xss «• United States. If this is true of today what of the near future? What are the chances of Canada becoming prosperous in the next few years? What would bring such prosperity about? In Canada today there is much less of the false optimism that once prevailed; a long period of hard times has pierced this bubble. There is a belief, however, that Canada is about to enjoy better times; there is also the belief, the "whisper of death" that Canada will hot develop much beyond her present status. Which belief is true? Canada has undergone a long period of consoli-dation, at least, Canadians like to consider it as such. From this consolidation some expect that there will arise a great Internal trade by which the Dominion will reach a state of affluence. Certain things prevent this; one, the limited numbers, and second, the need of Canada to pay interest on the huge capital investments of foreigners within the country. To pay this interest Canada must export more than she imports. The question then becomes, what has she to export? The answer seems to be manufactures, agricultural products, timber products, and minerals. To export the first, Canada must compete with the cheap labour products of Europe, and the mass produced goods of the United States, and moreover, be able to force these products over high tariff walls. It seems doubtful if Canada will in the near future be able to compete successfully except in her own protected market, along such lines. - 184 -Agriculture in Canada is in a more favourable position. While for the past few years agricultural pro-ducts have been priced very low, the change has seemingly arrived. For some years the agriculturists of Canada, com-peting with world prices, were forced to sell their pro-ducts at relatively lower prices than the Canadian manu-facturers who had a protected market. A shange has seemingly taken place within the past year. Official figures1 show that agricultural prices have been rising while manufac-tured goods have become lower priced. This means that the farmer will be able to buy more with his dollar, and in that way be more prosperous himself, and also add to the general prosperity of the country as a whole. In the long agricul-tural depression the Canadian farmer has learned economical methods. With prices sufficiently high, the Canadian farmer is able to call into cultivation millions of acres of productive land. Will the demand allow it? The United States is no longer a competitor of Canadian wheat exports. Europe, recovering, it is hoped, after a disastrous, period will once more be able to pay for these products. To supply this demand are Australia, Argentina, Russia, India, and Canada. Australia's supply is limited, because of tremendous areas of totally useless land; Argentine is growing to be an industrial country; India has a tremendous population of her own, which, if her standard of living rose, she would find American Monthly Review. Canadian Labor Gazette. - 155 -herself unable to feed. A large population of her own limits Russia's export possibilities. The demand then, for Canada's agricultural products seems to be assured. A huge percentage of Canada's present exports is made up of timber and forest products. Canada, in so far as these are not being replaced, is living on capital. Fire destroys every year, approximately as much timber as is exported. Reforestration schemes are as yet insigni-ficant. Canada, if she is to learn from the United States, should put her forestry export dn a long run basis, planting as they reap and by eliminating to a far greater extent the fire waste. Such methods might add to the present cost, and perhaps for a time cause hardship, but in the longrun it would prove highly beneficial. The fourth class of Canadian exports is that of minerals and mineral products. Canada possesses in this a potentially great wealth. The ores, however, are very large-ly low grade, but with better methods of refining and smelting, could be made to pay substantial dividends, es-pecially as the richer ores of Europe and the United States are being exhausted. In developing these resources, Canada should be able to prosper, but it might pay to go slower than was done in the United States. In that country, the immediate advantages to be secured caused the sacrifice of long run benefits. Thus her forests are gone, her richer deposits of minerals have been exploited, her farms no longer produce sufficient 1*6 -iooa wtppiiea. Thus the Bepublic sees* deetined, fer better or worse, to industrial activity. As a isanufaeturer, she must compete with European countries who ims% export to pay their debts. The absolute necessity fer thet; to export will cause them to cut wages, if necessary, in order to lower the price of their product. Thus, it would seem that the stan-dard of living of the rnanufactoring countries is in greater danger than ie the standard cf those countries who produce the food and raw materials. Canada, then, should be able, if she proceeds slowly, without allowing overhead expenses to exceed the profit, to prosper. With prosperity she should be able to stoc the exodus to the United States, and more-over, be able to attract population as never before. It will be for her to state how ?nany, and whom. • IS? -C H A P T 1 R S I X . Two theories are held as regards the most de-sirable size of a country's population. One states that there is no necessary advantage in mere magnitude of num-bers; the second holds that the prosperity of a country is reflected in the numbers of its peoples. Likely the true doctrine in to be found somewhere between the two extremi-ties. Both theories are to be found prevailing in the ©©minion. Some citizens believe that en influx of great numbers would be the best thing for the prosperity of the Dominion; others hold that immigration should; be held to the strictest possible limits. Which, if either, polioy should Canada adopt? To what end, if a nation is able con-sciouBly to direct its energies in any direction, should Canada endeavour to strive for? Canada, because there is little fear of foreign invasion, has never come under the influence of the nationalists' plea for larger population, the "food for cannon" principle, "more men more power" idea. Such theories of population as are present in the Dominion are motivated from belief that they would prove to be economica lly ad-vantageius to the country. Thus it is a question whether a larger, a smaller, or the present population would be best for Canada. The question of numbers resolves itself now into 4 question of what sized population gives the maximum per capita returns, whether an increase in population would raise 1&8 -or lower the general standard of living. With some idea, then, as to the best numbers, Canada would be able to de-termine whether attempts should be made to stop the exodus to the United States, or whether the influx of new popula-tion should be stimulated. It is doubtful if many Canadians believe in a population of less than the present dimensions. While in certain countries fewer numbers are advocated, one does not find this theory in coiinection with Canada's population. A reduction of numbers would make Canada's already heavy burden of taxes and debt charges greater, and her railways more unprofitable than at present, flor is a population of the present Bize favoured by many. It runs counter to the ideas of ultimate prosperity held by most of the citizens of the Dominion. Thus, Canadian public opinion believes that the population of the country is too small; the question resolves itself into how much too small. An influx to Canada would ameliorate some of the pioneer conditions now present in Canada, and make the Dettinlon more attractive to live in, by creating settlements where now there are but solitary homesteads. An increased population would bring the boan burden to a position similar to that of the United States. Taxes too, could be reduced to the. American level. Moreover, Canada built her railroad structure with an expectation of a larger population. If this population fails to come, a great deal of expenditure mast go to waste. With a larger population, railroad rates 1S9 -could be reduced, giving the farmer more money for hie products, the manufacturer higher prices for his goods, and also result in lowered costs to the consumer. If the** Canada needs more population, will it be possible for her to absorb the needed newcomers? To look at the exodus now going to the Republic, the answer would seem to be No; to look at Canada&s huge vacant spaces, and untouched natural resources the answer would seem to be Yes. We have seen the movement to the United States to have been industrial in very large part. It appears doubt-ful if Canada could profitably allow the entrance of this class of immigration. If such entered, they could not drift over the line as immigrants of this class did in the past, because of the guota law. They might instead, drive out the native Canadians, take their places, and thus force the Canadian born into the Republic. It might be argued that an influx of a million or two immigrants might by increasing the demand for agriculturaliproducts, stimu-late in turn increased demand for manufactured goods, cause construction and expansion that would draw in Still more.new-comers. If such an unclassified immigration took place, it could only work out beneficially after a considerable period of years, years in which suffering might be intense. The cost might be toe great. Canada has waited a long time for prosperity. If some such cause as the above, delayed the good times era still further, it might ruin the country's spirit, and cause an unprecedented flow to her great neighbour. - 140 -If, then, we have reason to believe that Canada could not absorb an industrial inflow, can we be permitted to say that an agricultural influx could prosper? Canada undoubtedly has the needed land. The prairies are far from full, and the Peace River District offers possibili-ties that can only be estimated. The development of diversified farming would permit a much greater population. Such filling up of Canada's spaces would automatically cause a growth of the towns and urban centres. This form of development took place on the Canadian prairie after 1908. It might well take place again, and on a more secure and lasting basis. Hot only in agriculture, but also in the other extractive industri®s are there great possibilities.for development and expansion. To exploit the mineral, timber and power resources of the Dominion a great deal of capital is required. It becomes esseniial that the entrance of this commodity be encouraged, '-i-'he United States, Great Britain, and Canada herself, can supply abundance of capital if suitable terms are given. With the entrance of capital, the labour force will not be far behind. We have seen then, that Canadian prosperity was possible, that theoretically an increased population would be a good thing, and lastly, that such an increase could be absorbed. We have yet to find out of what class of immigrant are desired, and what methods should be used to obtain their entrance to Canada. The first question has been partly answered. Canada meeds farmers and workers for her - 141 -extractive industries; she does not need industrialjsts. Of the first class, Canada offers opportunities for the wheat farmer, the mixed farming specialist, the fruit grower, and also to the producer of livestock. For her extractive industries Canada needs loggers, miners, and the class of labour able to work in pulp mills, lumber mills, and smelters which might grow up with the development of the mining and logging industries. Where is this labour force to be secured? First the development might take up the "slack" in the present Canadian supply. Secondly, the huge population of the United States, one third of which is made up of British stock, is an evident source of supply. While the Republic enjoys an advantage over the Dominion in most manufactures, Canada is gaining marked advantages in agriculture and some extractive occupations. With this economic advantage, Canada should be able to draw from the United States some of this class of labour. Horthern Europe may also be considered as a possible recruiting ground for a Canadian population. If the Canadian prairies are to be more intensively cultivated, the Northern European is adequately fitted for the job. If opportunities present themselves in Canada, the labour supply is ample. The methods to be used to attract a; population differ with the nature of advantages to be offered. Assisted immigration fails if it dies not bring the immigrant some advantage, but if advantage offers, governments are unable to stop an outflow. The province of Quebec tried to retain 142 -the French Canadian in Canada after 1860, and in this attempt received the support of the Church, but this com-bination failed to prevent tha movement to Quebec. Immi-gration officers employed by Canada to seek immigrants in the United States have failed because they have enough to offer. Laws made by governments, attempts to induce immi-gration, or impede emigration seem to be secondary to the force of opportunity. Thus, if Canada is to stop the pre-sent exodus, or movement outwards, and change it into a move-ment inward, favourable laws and active immigration agents will not be sufficient. Instead, she must offer tc her citizens and to any newcomers, opportunities as good if not better than those® offered by her great neighbour at her elbow.. That she is able to do this along certain lines has already been stated to be the writer^s belief. How to do it perhaps has not. First there is a need in Canada for capital directed to immediately productive enterprises. To encourage this the taxes must not be so high as to rob the surplus and make reinvestment impossible. If capital is allowed to flow into proper channels it will make profits, allow for reinvestment and further development with a consequent greater ability to pay taxes. To attract to Canada the needed capital a certain amount of advertising is necessary, and the best advertisement is to show that Canadians are alive to their country's advantages. The United States is within very close reacji; her capitalists are seeking - 143 -profitable openings for their money. Once capital to exploit Canada's resources began to enter in sufficient quantity, one can imagine further development of smelters, pulp mills, lumber mills, and power plants. Agriculture too, needs capital. Many incoming farmers would bring suf-ficient to start for themselves; a proper system of rural credits, not too free, might aid the others. Agriculture, like the mining industry, awaits better prices. Indications seem to point out that these are on the way. The index number of agricultural products has steadily risen in the United States since 1921 while the index number for non-agricultural products has decreased since that date. In Canada a recent article States that the agricultural priees index had actually passed thgr§£for manufactured articles. To insure the maintenance of stable prices, it might prove advantageous to develop further cooperative marketing organi-zations. The experience already gained and the measure of success attained by such organizations seems to assure that further development along proper lines would prove success-ful. Immigration officials, are seemingly necessary to attract and to direct properly any incoming movement. The payment, however, of these officials at so much for every person brought to Canada does not seem to be in the best InAgriculture and Industry"—C. J. Brand in "Proceedings Academy of Political Science", Vol. 11, Ho. 2. Jan., 1925. "Round Table, March, 1925. - 144 -interests of the country. Such payment, of necessity tends to bring to Canada numbers of people regardless of their fitness for life in Canada and regardless of Canada's need for them. If this zeal could be motivated by feelings that Canada was able to offer superior advantages to the immi-grant, and that the Dominion needed the newcomer, rather than from selfish desire for monetary gain on the part of the agent, the numbers of immigrants resulting from the activity of immigration officers might be lessened but the quality of those coming would be better. Another need is for officials to see that the newcomer may find satisfactory conditions in the coxmtry of his choice. There is no greater tragedy than to have unemployment in one part of the country and a crying need for workers in another. Canada, with a little judicious expenditure along these lines, might change the opinion off many of her newcomers from regarding the Dominion as a land of disappointment to a land of success. The present immigration law of the Dominion of Canada is satisfactory, having a flexibility which permits changes in enforcement according to the economic conditions of the country. While the law of itself is good, this flexibility puts a great burden on the head of the Immigration and Colonization Department. That the man chosen for this post be highly capable is essential. There is, however, great need for caution. Tha population of a country cannot be suddenly increased without preparatory organization. Failure to realize this led to - 145 -boom which led to disorganization, and then collapse. Canada's disaster has checked her recent development. There is a definite rate at which a country can absorb population. If the incoming movement is porced beyond this point, the result will be crisis and loss of numbers such as Canada has witnessed in the past few years. This crisis and loss will discredit the country and retard settlement later. What this rate is, exactly, is impossible to determine, but it is proportionate to the population.to which the addition is made, and depends also on the stage of the arts. Thus Canada should make haste slowly. While she debates today, the problem of increasing her population, she must remember that the United States is trying to prevent further increase in her numbers. In some ways, Canada is showing the impatience and hopefulness of youth; the United. States the disillusion of old age. While the latter has achieved some splendid successes, she has made many deplorable mistakes, Canada did not heed in the years 1910 to 1914, the lesson taught wb.y the past experiences of the great Republic. Will she in the future? Canada should not sacrifice for im-mediate profit such resources as her timber nor allow the im-poverishment of her land. Furthermore, Canada should not sacrifice her standard of living by allowing unrestricted im-migration. One writer has said that "there is no more damning indictment of our lopsided materialistic civilization than the way in which throughout the nineteenth century, the immigrant was almost universally regarded from a material point - 146 -of view, being viewed not as a creator of race values, but as a mere vocal tool for the production of material wealth". Canada should not thrust upon the future great social problems for the sake of monetary gain in the next few years. The danger is that by opening the door too wide, the continuous inflow of newcomers will prevent the shutting of it again. Canada must remember that "the towering heights of progress mean abysmal depths, while the very possibility of supreme success implies the possibility of supreme failure." o o o 0 o o o • B I B L I O G R A P H Y . (CANADIAN GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS.) Sessional Papers. Departments of Interior and Immigration and Colonization. Published yearly, 1893 to 1922. Labor Gazette. Issued monthly by Department of Labour, 1900 to 1924. Censuses for Canada, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1921. Censuses for Prairie Provinces, 1906, 1916. Canada Year Book. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1912 to 1924. Special Report on Foreign Born Population, abstracted from Census of 1911. (UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS) Censuses. 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920. Reports of U. S. Commissioner General of Immigration. 1905, 1908, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1917, 1919. Secretary of Labor Reports. 1913 to 1924. Statistical Abstract of United States. 1919, 1923. Monthly Labor Review. 1915-1925. Report on Immigration Situation in Canada, by Immigration Commission of W. S., 1910. o o o 0 o o o B O O K S . Ooman. &.. "Industrial History of the United States, New York,1905. Hough. Emerson. "The Sowing," Vanderson Gunn Co. ltd., Winnipeg, 1909. Mavor. James. "Report on 'Immigration' to the Canadian Government, Ottawa, 1897. Bossiter. Wm., "Increase in Population in the United States'' 1910-20; A Study of Changes in Population by Divisions and in Sex, Color, Nativity." W. S. Govt. Press, Washington, 1922. J t> Shortt. Adam. "Early Effects of the Erjippean War on Canada", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace series, Washington, 1918. Smith, W. J., "The Immigration Problem for Canada", the Hyerson Press, Toronto, 1920. Stoddard. L.. "The Rising Tide of Color", Chas. Scribner & Sons, New York, 1923. Whittor,. C.. "A Study in Canadian Immigration", Queens University Publication, Kingston, Ontario, 1924. o o o 0 o o o P E R I O D I C A I S . Annals of t h e American Academy of P o l i t i c a l Sc ience , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Peim. P o l i t i c a l Science Q u a r t e r l y , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New I c r k . Proceed ings of the Academy of P o l i t i c a l Sc ience , Columbia U n i v e r s i t Kew York. Quarterly Jou rna l of Economics, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Camb r i d ge, Mass . Round Tab le , MacMillan & Co. L t d . , London, England. H E W S P A P E R S . Sew York Times. Vancouver Province. Vancouver Sun. Victoria Colonist. Victoria Times. :-.-.•-- 0 0 0 0 O 0 ooo.-•-•--- ' 

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