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Seeing green in cyberspace : dynamic environmental information systems to support planning Morgan, Katherine Elizabeth 2000

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SEEING GREEN IN CYBERSPACE: DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT PLANNING by Katherine Elizabeth Morgan B . A . , Barnard College/Columbia University, 1987 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E (PLAN) In T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A December, 2000 © Katherine Elizabeth Morgan, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of Vancouver, Canada Department of DE-6 (2/88) Abstract This thesis examines an emerging class or category of w e b si tes, termed dynamic environmental information systems (DEIS), and h o w they might support and enhance planning in general and environmental planning in particular. It descr ibes the current planning context as planning in the face of complexity. Literature f rom c o m p l e x adaptive s y s t e m s theory and communica t ive planning theory is used to character ize the qualities and strategies suggested for communica t ion in this context of complex i ty . A DEIS should incorporate diversity, share and build knowledge through discurs ive interaction, promote learning and change , emphasize the local over the global , and break d o w n barriers between public and private. T w o interrelated strategies a DEIS should support are gatherings and group p r o c e s s e s , and relationships and relationship building. T h e s e factors should both guide and be reflected in the deve lopment of an information s y s t e m to support communica t ive planning in the face of complex i ty . Emerg ing , W e b - b a s e d information s y s t e m s offer capabilit ies and features that can c o m p l e m e n t these theoretical factors . T h e features of database support , remote contr ibution and administrat ion, and integration with other c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s , media and technologies are examined . With this theoretical case for ef fect ively exploit ing new technology for planning purposes , the idea is explored f rom a practical perspect ive by undertaking a series of web-si te deve lopment cont rac ts . Th is combinat ion of theoretical and experiential understanding of DEIS is used to create a f ramework to characterize elements of this approach . T h e f ramework is used to s h o w readers examples of DEIS in practice and descr ibe the sites in a systemat ic and consistent manner . Finally, I return to the theoretical factors to summar ize the apparent state-of- the art for DEIS in pract ice. I conc lude that this tool does serve to enhance and support the qualities and strategies of planning in the face of complexi ty and its d e m a n d for more communica t ive p r o c e s s e s . This finding is qualified though by recommend ing further research on marketing to diverse target aud iences , learning and c h a n g e , and the organizational sustainabil ity of DEIS themse lves . T h e impl icat ions of DEIS for planners and other environmental change agents are a chal lenge to the profession to act ively engage in developing this tool 's potential and helping shape it to serve the goals of planning. ii T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Abstract ii Table of Contents /// List of Tables and Boxes v List of Figures v Abbreviations vi Acknowledgements vi Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 Overview 1 Thesis Goals and Objectives 1 Scope 3 Limitations 4 Organization of Chapters 4 Summary 5 Chapter 2 - Planning in the Face of Complexity 7 Introduction 7 Planning 7 Focus on the Environment 8 Complex Adaptive Systems 8 Communicative Planning Theory 11 Planning in the Face of Complexity - Supporting Communication 13 Qualities and Characteristics 14 Strategies 16 Emerging Communication Technology 17 Database Support 20 Remote Contribution and Administration 21 Integration with Other Communication Systems 22 Issues 22 Summary 25 Chapter 3 - Putting Theory into Practice: Action Projects to Develop a Working DEIS 26 Introduction 26 Action Research in Information Systems Development 27 Stages in Action Projects 28 Client-System Infrastructure 28 in First Iteration - ECC (http: / /www.vcn.bc.ca/ecc) 29 Second Iteration - LPRV, C H S , S C A R P (http:/ /www.chs.ubc.ca/ lprv; h t tp : / /www.chs.ubc.ca; http:/ /www.scarp.ubc.ca) 32 Summary of Learning Outcomes and Reflection on Action Projects 34 DEIS Framework 35 1. Content 36 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 38 3. Organization and Administration 38 Chapter 4 - DEIS Examples in Practice 40 Introduction 40 Format 40 DEIS Examples 40 EnviroOne.com - ht tp: / /www.enviroone.com 42 SD On-line - http://susdev.eurofound.ie 51 SD Gateway - http://sdqateway.net 56 SDInfo, Ecolnfo - ht tp: / /www.sdinfo.gc.ca and http: / /www.ecoinfo.org 59 The Land Centre - http:/ /www.landcentre.ubc.ca 63 The Stewardship Centre - http:/ /www.stewardshipcentre.org 67 Ecological Communities Connect - h t tp : / /www.vcn.bc.ca/ecc 71 Summary 74 Chapter 5 - Summary and Conclusions 76 Summary 76 Qualities of "Planning in the Face of Complexity" 77 Strategies for "Planning in the Face of Complexity" 80 Functional Capabilities of Dynamic Web Sites 80 Areas for Further Research 81 Market Research on Audience/Participants 81 Learning and Change 82 Site Sustainability, Development and Use 84 Conclusions and Implications for Further Development 84 References 86 Appendix A - What Makes a Good Webpage? 90 iv List of Tables and Boxes Box 2.1 "Places to intervene in a system: (in increasing order of effectiveness)" 9 Box 2.2 Internet Usage Trends and Programs to Promote Access 24 Table 3. 1 Action Projects, 1998-1999 26 Table 3.2 DEIS Framework Elements 36 Box 4. 1 Vortal Definition 50 Table 4. 1 Summary of DEIS Elements in Examples 75 List of Figures Figure 1. 1 Thesis and Chapter Organization 6" Figure 2.1 Web Architecture. (Adapted from Feller, 1999, p. 38) 20 Figure 3.1 Generic Information Structure for DEIS 37 Figure 4.1 EnviroOne.com Homepage 42 Figure 4.1 EnviroOne.com Homepage, cont 43 Figure 4.2 EPA Surf Your Watershed 44 Figure 4.2 EPA Surf Your Watershed, cont 45 Figure 4.3 URLs showing Active Server Page Use 46 Figure 4.4 EnviroOne Membership Form 47 Figure 4.5 EnviroOne Customization Options 48 Figure 4.6 My EnviroOne Homepage 48 Figure 4. 7 SD Online Hompage 51 Figure 4. 7 SD Online Hompage cont. 52 Figure 4.8 SD Online Themes, Networks 53 Figure 4.9 SD Online Themes, Tools 54 Figure 4.10 FileMaker Pro Code 54 Figure 4.11 SD Online E-mail Notice Sign Up 55 Figure 4.12 SD Gateway Homepage 56 Figure 4. 12 SD Gateway Homepage, Cont 57 Figure 4.13 SDInfo Homepage 59 Figure 4.14 Ecolnfo Homepage 60 Figure 4.15 Organization of SDInfo Content 61 Figure 4.16 Organization of Ecolnfo Indicators 62 Figure 4.17 Cold Fusion Code 62 Figure 4.18 Land Centre Homepage 63 Figure 4.18 Land Centre Homepage, Cont. 64 Figure 4.19 Land Centre Subject Index 65 Figure 4.20 Cold Fusion Calendar Link 66 Figure 4.21 Stewardship Centre Splash Page 67 Figure 4.22 Stewardship Centre Homepage 68 Figure 4.23 Stewardship Centre Directory Organization 69 Figure 4.24 Active Server Page Code 69 Figure 4.25 Ecological Communities Connect Prototype Homepage 71 Figure 4.26 EcoCity Topics 72 Figure 4.27 ECC Organizations 73 v Abbreviations A R - A c t i o n Resea rch B C - Br i t ish C o l u m b i a C H S - Cent re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts , Un ivers i ty of Bri t ish C o l u m b i a DEIS - D y n a m i c Env i ronmenta l Informat ion Sys tem(s ) E C C - Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t E P A - U . S . Env i ronmenta l Pro tec t ion A g e n c y ISP - Internet Se rv i ce Prov ider L P R V - Loca l i zed Pover ty Reduc t ion in V i e t n a m , a research program of C H S S C A R P - S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lann ing , Un ivers i ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a SDRI - Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t Research Inst i tute, Un ivers i ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a U N E P - Un i ted Nat ions Env i ronment Program Acknowledgements I w o u l d like to thank my superv isor , T o n y Do rcey , for his t ime and gu idance , part icular ly in tack l ing a comp le te redraft . Sugges t i ons on l i terature, and s t ruc tur ing a c learer , h igher- level organ izat ion and f o c u s to the f inal thes is we re espec ia l l y app rec ia ted . I a lso w a n t to express my apprec ia t ion to all the people w h o w o r k e d w i th me on the ac t ion pro jec ts , espec ia l ly Chr is t ine Evans and V i n c e Ve r l aan at C H S , Peter R o y c e at the V C N , and all the organ iza t ions in the E c o C i t y Ne two rk w h o shared their ins ights w i th me . F inal ly , I w a n t to thank my parents and f r iends w h o gave me their suppor t and encou ragemen t for these many years . vi Chapter 1 - Introduction Overview Dur ing the twi l ight of the 2 0 t h cen tu ry , p lanning theory has increas ing ly recogn ized the impor tance of c o m m u n i c a t i o n and in format ion e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n p lanners and non-p lanners in address ing cr i t ical deve lopmen t i ssues (Sager , 1 9 9 4 , Innes, 1 9 9 5 ) . There is a g row ing impetus to address comp lex local and global env i ronmenta l c o n c e r n s regard ing land and resource use pat terns . N e w app roaches to broaden the d ia logue in formal po l icy and plan mak ing have e m e r g e d , inc lud ing par t ic ipatory and negot ia t ive mul t i -s takeholder p r o c e s s e s . A s w e l l , there is recogn i t ion of the role of in formal p r o c e s s e s , or s imp ly the on-go ing s o c i o - e c o n o m i c behav iour of people and organ iza t ions , in shap ing the p laces where they l ive and their e f fec t on the env i ronment . A n addi t ional body of theory that fur ther undersco res th is chang ing con tex t , is comp lex i t y theory (Innes and Booher , 1 9 9 9 a , b, A l lmend inge r and C h a p m a n , 1 9 9 9 ) . N e w unders tand ings of the unique qual i t ies of c o m p l e x , adap t i ve , self-organiz ing s y s t e m s prov ide a broader f r amework for unders tand ing w h y these c o m m u n i c a t i v e , in teract ive p rocesses are vi tal to address ing current cha l l enges . No t ions of e m e r g e n c e , d is t r ibuted in te l l igence and adapt ive learning shed light on w h y these p r o c e s s e s can s t rengthen ef for ts to create l ivable, eco log ica l l y and econom ica l l y sus ta inab le h u m a n p laces and act iv i t ies . Dur ing the 1 9 9 0 s , n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n techno log ies , part icular ly compu te r -based and ne twork ing techno log ies , have exper ienced exp los ive g r o w t h and deve lopmen t . T h e s e too ls of fer intr iguing capabi l i t ies to aid in the c o m m u n i c a t i o n and in format ion e x c h a n g e that suppor ts both fo rmal and informal p lace mak ing and planning p r o c e s s e s (Cas te l l s , 1 9 9 6 , De r touzos , 1 9 9 7 , M i t c h e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) . T h e Internet m a k e s avai lab le in format ion managemen t capabi l i t ies that we re once rest r ic ted to s ingle o rgan iza t ions us ing local area n e t w o r k s . N o w inter-organizat ional g roups or c o m m u n i t i e s of interest are able to share da tabases and ne twork ing too ls , regard less of their loca t ion or abi l i ty to meet face - to - face on a regular bas is . T h e fundamen ta l impetus for this thes is w a s to invest igate h o w these emerg ing c o m m u n i c a t i o n capabi l i t ies cou ld suppor t the in format ion e x c h a n g e needed in th is evo lv ing p lanning con tex t of c o m m u n i c a t i o n and comp lex i t y . Theo ry s u g g e s t s that p lanning in the f ace of comp lex i t y needs the exchange of d iverse in fo rmat ion t y p e s f rom d iverse sou rces to build and share k n o w l e d g e . Th is thes is exam ines h o w d y n a m i c w e b s i tes can enhance and suppor t th is approach to p lann ing. Thesis Goals and Objectives T h e thes is sugges t s that a n e w c lass of mul t i - func t iona l , digi tal or e lec t ron ic p lanning too ls has emerged that can suppor t and enhance in format ion e x c h a n g e . T h e spec i f i c goal of the thes is is to charac ter ize and i l lustrate w h a t I te rm dynamic environmental information systems (DEIS) and a s s e s s their potent ia l role in p lann ing . In the c a s e of th is t hes i s , DEIS refer to w e b si tes us ing dynam ic p rog ramming language 1 and features to del iver in format ion to suppor t env i ronmenta l p lann ing , par t i c ipa t ion , learn ing, ac t ion and dec i s i on -mak ing . T h e f irst ob jec t ive is to e laborate on : a) the evo lv ing p lanning con tex t that s u g g e s t s a need and use for n e w in format ion shar ing too ls , and b) the fea tures that d y n a m i c w e b s i te t echno logy of fers to suppor t th is con tex t . L i terature on c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning and comp lex s y s t e m s descr ibes a p lanning con tex t that cal ls for more par t i c ipa t ion , in format ion shar ing , and invo lvement of d iverse pe rspec t i ves , in te res ts , and sou rces of know ledge in fo rmal p lanning p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e bod ies of theory a lso sugges t that many p lace-mak ing or p lanning t asks are a c c o m p l i s h e d ou ts ide of t radi t ional p lanning m e c h a n i s m s , in other w o r d s , they emerge f rom the co l lec t i ve in terac t ions of soc ie t y . Th is ind icates a need for p lanners to f ind w a y s to cont r ibu te more e f fec t i ve ly to publ ic a w a r e n e s s and c iv i c d i scou rse , beyond the t radi t ional boundar ies of p lanning prac t ice . T h e s y s t e m s not ion of harness ing distributed intelligence cap tu res these needs and n e w Internet-based c o m m u n i c a t i o n t echno log ies are un ique ly su i ted to co l lec t and c i rcu la te many of the in format ion resources that represent the env i ronmenta l k n o w l e d g e d is t r ibuted th roughout soc ie t y . I then desc r ibe a spec i f i c t e c h n o l o g y , d y n a m i c or data-dr iven w e b t echno logy , and d i s c u s s impor tant capabi l i t ies and i ssues assoc ia ted w i th its use . The comb ina t ion of qual i t ies and s t ra teg ies that are sugges ted by theory and the techn ica l c o m m u n i c a t i v e capabi l i t ies of d y n a m i c w e b t echno logy , ind icates a spec i f i c appl icat ion of these capab i l i t ies , d y n a m i c env i ronmenta l in format ion s y s t e m s , to suppor t the current p lanning con tex t . A s e c o n d ob ject ive is to gain a more real wor ld unders tand ing and prac t ica l exper ience w i th th is n e w too l . I under took severa l ac t ion projects in the fo rm of con t rac ts to deve lop d y n a m i c w e b s i tes . The f irst w a s for a ne twork of c o m m u n i t y env i ronmenta l g roups in V a n c o u v e r , beginn ing in 1 9 9 8 . The s e c o n d w a s a su i te of related s i tes , deve loped f rom 1 9 9 8 unti l we l l into 1 9 9 9 . The f irst w a s for a mul t i -year capac i t y bui ld ing project address ing pover ty in V i e t n a m , then for the Cen t re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts ( C H S ) , w h i c h hos ts it, and f inal ly the S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Reg iona l P lann ing ( S C A R P ) , of w h i c h C H S is a d i v i s ion . T h e s e projects serve t w o pu rposes in th is thes is : a) to unders tand h o w theoret ica l possib i l i t ies evo lved in p rac t i ce , and b) to deve lop a p ro to type of a DEIS to i l lustrate the idea. A n o t h e r ob ject ive of th is thes is is to s h o w examp les of DEIS in use . T o address th is ob jec t ive , I r ev iewed severa l examp les of DEIS s i tes that have c o m e on- l ine over recent yea rs , a long w i t h the act ion project s i te. I c reated a f r a m e w o r k of DEIS e lements by comb in ing theory and prac t ice and use it to descr ibe the examp le s i tes in a s y s t e m a t i c and cons is ten t manner . Th is a l l ows for a more s t ruc tured d i s c u s s i o n of the s ta te of the art. T h e f inal ob jec t ive , t hen , is to ref lect on and d i s c u s s the evo lv ing deve lopmen t and use of DEIS . It is sti l l too early in their deve lopmen t and use to truly a s s e s s the cont r ibu t ion they make to p lann ing . T h e fac t that there are ef for ts around the wor ld to harness the p o w e r of n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n techno log ies to suppor t env i ronmenta l change is ev i dence that many pract i t ioners sense its appeal and p romise . Def in ing DEIS as a n e w c lass of t echno logy too l may cont r ibute to their fur ther s tudy and examina t ion as a g roup, m u c h like the at tent ion that has been g iven to geograph ic 2 i n fo rmat ion s y s t e m s , or G IS . Based on deve lop ing a DEIS and sys tema t i ca l l y rev iew ing examp les current ly in use , I d i s c u s s h o w they ref lect the theore t ica l qual i t ies and st ra teg ies of c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing , and capabi l i t ies of the t echno logy . Final ly , I d i s c u s s areas for fur ther research , and impl ica t ions for fur ther deve lopmen t and use in p lann ing . Scope T h e s c o p e of th is thes is war ran ts c lar i f icat ion of t w o top ics that are not d i s c u s s e d at length in the thes is body . The first is t echno logy and the s e c o n d is the term env i ronment . The f ield of in format ion t echno logy , or even Internet-based app roaches is ex t reme ly broad and chang ing rapidly. D y n a m i c w e b s i tes cha l lenge the use of st r ic t def in i t ions because they con ta in var ious too ls , for e x a m p l e , the capabi l i ty of au tomat i ca l l y send ing or p rocess ing e-mai l . In th is thes i s , I t reat Internet too ls like e-mai l and d i s c u s s i o n l is ts , w h i c h p rogrammers can incorporate into a w e b si te as d y n a m i c and in teract ive fea tures . S imi lar ly , other compu te r -based too l s , s u c h as GIS map genera t ion , or s imula t ion too ls , can work on- l ine and blur the def in i t ional boundar ies b e t w e e n the w e b and the other internet app l ica t ions and med ia it con ta ins . Th is thes is there fore f o c u s e s on d y n a m i c w e b s i tes as an integrated p a c k a g e of d iverse in format ion m a n a g e m e n t too ls and techno log ies , and cons iders other spec i f i c Internet t echno log ies as con ten t del ivery or in teract ive fea tures . Sub jec ts like d i s tance learning or on- l ine cou rses are not expl ic i t ly addressed in any dep th , but aga in , cou ld appear as a DEIS feature . T h e s e c o n d c lar i f icat ion is the env i ronment and env i ronmenta l i n fo rmat ion , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and educa t i on . D y n a m i c in format ion s y s t e m s are be ing dep loyed to address c o m m e r c i a l and soc ia l pu rposes as s h o w n by the dot com mania of recent years as the W o r l d W i d e W e b evo lves n e w uses and promotes inc reased a c c e s s . Ma jor w e b s i tes , whe the r for on-l ine t rading of goods or secur i t ies (e.g. E-bay and E-Trade), or for shar ing n e w s and in format ion (e.g. M ic roso f t Ne two rk or M S N and many o thers) , use the a d v a n c e d capabi l i t ies of fered by n e w da tabase dr iven s o f t w a r e . In the con tex t of p lann ing , the very emergence of this virtual wor ld has impl ica t ions for the m e a n i n g , deve lopmen t and use of p lace (Mi tche l l , 1 9 9 5 ) . Th is is not , h o w e v e r , my f o c u s . Rather it is the g row ing imperat ive to address cha l lenges of env i ronmenta l degradat ion and c h a n g e , w h i c h fall under the purv iew of p lann ing. It is impor tant here to expla in w h a t the term environment inc ludes or e m b r a c e s . Depar t ing f rom the W e s t e r n t radi t ion of a separat ion b e t w e e n human be ings and nature, I see human organ iza t ions and needs as a part of nature and the evo lu t ion of life on ear th . Th is percept ion undermines both the need and my abi l i ty to make a c lear d is t inc t ion b e t w e e n p lanning and env i ronmenta l p lann ing . A f fo rdab le hous ing , for e x a m p l e , is t radi t ional ly t reated in p lanning as a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c rather than an env i ronmenta l i ssue , but it is tan tamoun t to prov id ing habitat for an econom ica l l y d iverse popu la t ion , or a human eco logy issue . I see susta inabi l i ty and sus ta inab le deve lopmen t as ef for ts to bring s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and env i ronmenta l i ssues toge ther in an a t tempt to f ind ba lance and t ranscend the ou tda ted , yet pe rvas ive , not ion of human soc ie t y as comp le te l y d is t inct and separate f rom the natural w o r l d . P lann ing , env i ronment , and susta inabi l i ty for my purposes are s y n o n y m o u s , hence mak ing d is t inc t ions b e t w e e n them is u n n e c e s s a r y . The emerg ing con tex t of p lanning 3 s u b s u m e s the need for env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion , as the env i ronment in th is broader sense is a cr i t ica l fac to r in every p lanning issue . Thus I descr ibe not on ly the p lanning con tex t , but a lso the env i ronmenta l con tex t of p lann ing. I a lso point to severa l W W W si tes as i l lust rat ions of DEIS that use the term sustainability to descr ibe their f o c u s or pu rpose , w h i c h paral lels a broader concep t of the env i ronment as inc lus ive of human soc ie t y and its needs and act iv i t ies . Limitations T h e research w a s l imited pr imari ly in pursu ing the ac t ion pro jects and in us ing t h e m to sa t i s fy the research ob jec t i ves . Ve ry l imited f unds , and hence a c c e s s and cont ro l over the use of soph is t i ca ted compu te r so f twa re and ha rdware , rest r ic ted my abi l i ty to deve lop a wo rk i ng examp le that sa t is fac tor i l y i l lustrated the c o n c e p t of a DEIS as init ial ly c o n c e i v e d . A further l imi tat ion w a s my o w n level of c o m p u t e r exper t i se . Learn ing h o w to actua l ly use and imp lement th is kind of t echno logy enta i led a s teep learning cu rve . Des ign ing and p rogramming da tabases and w e b pages is a great deal of wo rk but d i f f icul t to capture in the presenta t ion of a thes is d o c u m e n t . A comb ina t i on of pe rcep tua l , f i nanc ia l , and ski l l f ac to rs l imited both m y , and the c l ient g roups ' abi l i ty to imp lement a d y n a m i c s i te. L imi ted p rogramming and des ign ski l ls kept me f rom spend ing more t ime on negot ia t ing organizat iona l and f inanc ia l i s sues . Percep tua l fac to rs inc luded the at t i tudes of c l ients t o w a r d s organ izat ions of fer ing techn i ca l a s s i s t a n c e and the long term plans (or lack thereof) for the s i te . Th is p rec luded tak ing ful ler advan tage of a broader techn ica l ski l l base . It a lso created f rus t ra t ion over de lays and uncer ta in ty on my part because of the need to f in ish a thes is d o c u m e n t . It is di f f icul t to de termine if these fac to rs we re purely s i tuat ional or may be typ ica l in any g roups ' ef fort to deve lop a DEIS. A f inal l imi tat ion is s imply the speed at w h i c h the Internet and the W o r l d W i d e W e b are g r o w i n g . The sheer number of n e w si tes and resources is one aspec t of th is , but the deve lopmen t of n e w app l ica t ions to enhance and expand in format ion shar ing and the mul t i -med ia exper ience is another . The deve lopmen t of server -s ide s o f t w a r e , l ike the da tabase features I wi l l be d i scuss ing is one m e a n s , but there are a lso b rowser -s ide too ls like p lug- ins (e.g. F lash , J a v a , Real Aud io ) , that prov ide fea tures to enhance the W e b ' s capab i l i t ies . The techno logy that w a s cut t ing edge w h e n I s tar ted th is project severa l years ago is n o w w ide l y used and increas ing ly c o m m o n p l a c e . Organization of Chapters Chap te r 2 desc r ibes the con tex t and backg round for env i ronmenta l in format ion shar ing in p lanning and the features that d y n a m i c w e b techno logy of fers to suppor t it. I d i s c u s s the emerg ing p lanning app roaches wi th in c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing theory , and its re lat ionship to comp lex i t y theory . I then descr ibe the d is t inc t ions b e t w e e n d y n a m i c and s ta t ic w e b s i tes , and the issues assoc ia ted both w i th the Internet as a c o m m u n i c a t i o n med ium in genera l , and w i th the more techn ica l l y soph is t i ca ted dynamic or da tabase-d r i ven techn iques for creat ing w e b si tes spec i f i ca l l y . I h ighl ight the compat ib i l i t y b e t w e e n needs and capabi l i t ies to link the con tex t and too l s . Chap te r 3 desc r ibes t w o ac t ion projects and their cont r ibu t ion to the ob jec t i ves of deve lop ing a f r a m e w o r k and demons t ra t i ng a DEIS. I desc r ibe and use a f r amework f rom l i terature on ac t ion research in in format ion s y s t e m s deve lopmen t to present t hese pro jects and 4 their results. This chapter concludes with the framework of DEIS elements suggested by the literature and experience. Chapter 4 uses this DEIS framework to describe several examples of DEIS, including the project prototype. Chapter 5 returns to the qualities, strategies and capabilities brought out in Chapter 2 to discuss the extent to which DEIS examples reflect them. I then discuss areas for further research. Finally, I recommend how planners and other change agents might engage this technology to support their effort to communicate effectively in the face of complexity. The diagram in Figure 1.1 illustrates the thesis components and the organization. Summary New planning concepts and approaches suggest the need for enhanced capabilities for sharing information and capitalizing on distributed intelligence among the diverse stakeholders or members of society with an interest in environmental sustainability. New Internet-based communication tools offer significant capabilities to address this need. Through an experiential approach, this thesis investigates the current state of developing such tools. The results are a framework for describing and characterizing these tools, collectively termed dynamic environmental information systems. The thesis presents current examples that demonstrate this approach, as well as recommendations for further study and their use in planning. 5 Figure 1.1 Thesis and Chapter Organization Communicative Qualities and Strategies' for Planning in the Face of Complexity A Qualities Incorporate diversity. Share and build knowledge through discursive interaction. Promote learning and change. Emphasize the local over the global. Break down barriers between public and private. Strategies Gatherings and group processes, forums for co-operation, consensus, collaboration and conflict. Relationships and relationship building. Conclusions Chapter 5 How do DEIS examples reflect theoretical qualities, strategies and capabilities? What are areas for further research? What are the implications for planning? Functional Capabilities of Dynamic Web Sites Database Support. Remote Contribution and Administratic Integration With Other Communicatic Systems. Action Projects Developing Dynamic Web Sites Support and interest in practitioner community. Inter-organizational and collaborative issues require on-going negotiation. Example DEIS, technical skills and an understanding of the information content and organization from the inside. Chapter 3 DEIS Framework Elements 1. Content. 1.1 Diversity of Audiences & Types of Information. 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance. 1.3 Organization of Information. 2. Technical Capabilities and Features. 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP). 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage. 2.3 Interface, page design. 2.4 E-mail notification. 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites. 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution. 3.0rganization and Administration. 3.1 Institutional support, organization type. 3.2 Financial base. 6 Chapter 2 - Planning in the Face of Complexity Introduction In th is chap te r , I e laborate the p lanning con tex t that sugges t s a need for a too l that can fac i l i ta te env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , and educa t i on . I then desc r ibe the capabi l i t ies that d y n a m i c w e b site t echno logy of fers to suppor t th is task . I use t w o theore t ica l founda t ions to suppor t my d i scuss ion of th is con tex t , c o m p l e x s y s t e m s theory and c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing theory . C o m p l e x i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning theor ies c o m p l e m e n t each other in their f o c u s on d y n a m i c in terac t ions . The former does it in a general and ma thema t i ca l app roach wh i le the latter is spec i f i c to the planning con tex t . C o m p l e x i t y is a b ranch of s y s t e m s theory that po ints to a general mode l for charac ter iz ing the doma in and prac t ice of p lanning (A l lmendinger , 1 9 9 9 , Innes and Booher , 1 9 9 9 a , 1 9 9 9 b ) . T h e mode l cap tu res p h e n o m e n a whe re there are a large number of ongo ing in te rac t ions ( feedback , feed f o r w a r d , the f l ow of in fo rmat ion , mat ter and energy) a m o n g a large number of agen ts or ac to rs . C o m p l e x adapt ive s y s t e m s are highly c o m m u n i c a t i v e n e t w o r k s that exhib i t unpred ic tab le behav iour , ye t reveal under l y ing , or emergen t order based on the shared learning and change of the indiv idual ac to rs w i th in it (Wa ld rop , 1 9 9 2 ) . C o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning theory f o c u s e s on a range of n e w app roaches and prac t i ces in p lann ing , w h i c h emphas ize shared learning and c o m m u n i c a t i o n a m o n g d iverse ac to rs . Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 a , 1999b ) a lso link these t w o s t reams of theory to charac te r i ze met ropo l i tan deve lopmen t and c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing p r o c e s s e s . I desc r ibe b e l o w the planning con tex t of c o m p l e x s y s t e m s and the s t ream of p lanning theory that f o c u s e s on c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I then summar i ze the major charac te r i s t i cs and st ra teg ies sugges ted by both theor ies that might in form in format ion s y s t e m deve lopmen t . Planning T o unders tand the impl ica t ions of comp lex i t y for p lann ing , it is n e c e s s a r y to s tep back and clar i fy w h a t p lanning m e a n s . A n impor tant d is t inc t ion is b e t w e e n p lann ing wr i t large -- the genera l , co l lec t ive human p rocess of shap ing and d e v e l o p i n g , us ing and dis t r ibut ing soc io -b iophys i ca l resources -- and the inst i tu t ional ized p ro fess ion that dom ina tes w e s t e r n , capi ta l is t , democra t i c s o c i e t y ' s app roach to this task . P lann ing is at once a s ta te - sponso red , wes te rn pro fess iona l p rac t ice and a un iversa l h u m a n behav iour w i t h m a n y man i fes ta t ions w i th in d i f ferent cu l tura l c o n t e x t s . A l lmend inge r (1999) m a k e s th is d is t inc t ion w h e n he d i s c u s s e s severa l t rends that wi l l a f fec t p lann ing , and part icular ly notes that increas ing comp lex i t y cha l lenges both no t ions of p lanning - "p lann ing for comp lex i t y " and "p lann ing as c o m p l e x i t y " . Innes and Booher (1999a) a lso point to comp lex i t y as the founda t ion for a n e w approach to susta inab i l i t y in met ropo l i tan deve lopmen t . Informat ion e x c h a n g e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n under l ie the imp l ica t ions they sugges t for p lanning in the face of comp lex i t y . In their cr i t ique of 7 c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning theory , Hux ley and Y i f t ache l (2000) make the d is t inc t ion b e t w e e n p lanning as a soc ia l sc i ence and as theory on pro fess iona l p rac t i ce . T h e y are reac t ing to sugges t i ons that c o m m u n i c a t i v e theory is a n e w paradigm for p lann ing , argu ing that it is but one of many theor ies of p lanning and part icular ly f o c u s e s on W e s t e r n practice. There is little d i sagreement h o w e v e r , that p lanning prac t ice and the planning doma in are highly c o m m u n i c a t i v e in the W e s t e r n con tex t and that n e w app roaches and s ty les ref lect th is . Focus on the Environment A s ind icated in the in t roduct ion , the d is t inc t ion b e t w e e n env i ronment and p lanning rests on a modern is t not ion of a separat ion b e t w e e n man (reasonable) and nature (not gove rned by l a w s of reason) . P lann ing is fundamenta l l y a spat ia l or p lace-shap ing endeavour . Wh i l e it is deep ly in terd isc ip l inary, th is aspec t is w h a t d is t ingu ishes it f rom the other soc ia l p ro fess ions , s u c h as law or soc ia l wo rk (Huxley and Y i f t a c h e l , 2 0 0 0 ) . Th is phys ica l f ocus alone must necessar i l y e n c o m p a s s the env i ronment . A s human popula t ion sp reads , the line b e t w e e n w i l de rness and human p laces has been lost — there is little terr i tory on the planet that remain u n t o u c h e d by h u m a n s . There is a c lear recogni t ion by soc ie ty that human ac t iv i ty is a f fec t ing the rest of the b iophys ica l w o r l d , w i th both shor t - term undesi rab le e f fec ts (e .g. pol lut ion) , and the l ike l ihood of addi t ional long term undes i rab le e f fec ts (e.g. c l imate c h a n g e , loss of b iod ivers i ty ) . T h e s e env i ronmenta l i ssues fal l square ly into the p lanning and po l icy realm w i th s o m e of the long te rm, unpred ic tab le and int ractable p rob lems tak ing cent re s tage , (e.g. e c o s y s t e m al terat ion and loss , energy produc t ion and use , wa te r qual i ty and avai labi l i ty) . Complex Adaptive Systems C o m p l e x i t y theory , or s c i e n c e , is a g row ing branch of s y s t e m s theory . S y s t e m s theory is a meta- theory in that it t r anscends t radi t ional wes te rn d isc ip l inary boundar ies . S y s t e m s theory is a w a y of descr ib ing and s tudy ing p h e n o m e n a charac te r i zed by agents or ent i t ies in teract ing w i th each other and their env i ronment . A s y s t e m s f r a m e w o r k can desc r ibe a lmost any th ing , ei ther l i terally or metaphor ica l l y , as it emerged in the abst rac t wo r l ds of ma themat i cs and compu te r s c i e n c e s , as we l l as in p h y s i c a l , b io log ica l , and soc ia l s c i e n c e s . Others point to its s imi lar i t ies even to eas tern m y s t i c i s m , s u c h as T a o i s m and Buddh i sm (Capra , 1 9 8 4 , ' W a l d r o p , 1 9 9 2 ) . On the s imp les t leve l , it is a w a y of unders tand ing and looking at any part icular th ing by examin ing it in re lat ionship to other th ings and as a co l lec t ion of internal re la t ionsh ips , rather than as an unchang ing or s tat ic object . O n e fac to r that d i f ferent ia tes s y s t e m s is the state of order or the w a y a s y s t e m behaves over t ime. H o w dynamic is it? W h a t t ype of d y n a m i c is it? Is there f requent in teract ion b e t w e e n agen ts , or has the s y s t e m set t led into a pat tern or s tas is? P lann ing is c lear ly conce rned w i th qui te dynam ic s y s t e m s . T h e s e soc i a l , e c o n o m i c , pol i t ical and eco log ica l s y s t e m s are of ten comp lex adapt ive s y s t e m s ( C A S ) , a fo rm of d y n a m i c s y s t e m s , that have a large number of agents and in terac t ions . W h a t par t icu lar ly d i s t ingu ishes c o m p l e x adapt i ve s y s t e m s is the abi l i ty of the agen t s to adapt and learn, to co -evo l ve as they respond to in teract ions ( feedback / feed fo rward ) . Sel f -organ izat ion is the s y s t e m s term for th is p rocess . Emergence is another fea ture of 8 c o m p l e x adapt i ve s y s t e m s . It cap tu res the abi l i ty or qual i ty of t hese s y s t e m s to p roduce n e w ent i t ies , or w h o l e s . Out of the in teract ions of the par ts , d is t inc t and unpred ic tab le w h o l e s f o rm , w h i c h cou ld not have been determined or cont ro l led by look ing at the parts a lone (Waldrop, 1 9 9 2 ) . P lann ing itself is a d y n a m i c s y s t e m . D raw ing on the metaphor ic qual i ty of s y s t e m s , Innes and Booher (1999a) d is t ingu ish t w o w o r l d v i e w s of the p lanning d o m a i n . T h e f irst is the " w o r l d as m a c h i n e c o m p o s e d of separab le parts that can be ana lyzed and u n d e r s t o o d . " T h e s e c o n d is the "wo r l d as o rgan i sm , w i th all the consequen t imp l ica t ions of g r o w t h , f eedback , and evo lu t i on . " T h e proper t ies of se l f -o rgan iza t ion and e m e r g e n c e are cent ra l to the idea of p lanning in the f ace of comp lex i t y . T h e p lanning realm is an in te rconnec ted set of c o m p l e x adapt i ve s y s t e m s - po l i t ics , marke ts , med ia a t ten t ion , ind iv idual behav iour , e c o s y s t e m s , c i t ies - as are the p lanning p rocesses and p rocedures used to gu ide s ta te-embod ied publ ic interest . In addi t ion to the p o w e r of se l f -o rgan iza t ion , M e a d o w s (1997) l ists eight other " p l aces to in tervene in a s y s t e m , " and desc r i bes s y s t e m s charac te r i s t i cs by captur ing them as leverage po in ts . Box 2.1 l ists t hese leverage points ident i f ied by M e a d o w s . Box 2.1 "Places to intervene in a system: (in increasing order of effectiveness)" 9 . Numbers (subs id ies , t a x e s , s tandards) . 8 . Mater ia l s t o c k s and f l o w s . 7 . Regula t ing negat ive f eedback loops . 6 . Dr iv ing pos i t ive feedback loops . 5 . In format ion f l o w s . 4 . The rules of the s y s t e m ( incent ives, pun i shmen ts , cons t ra in ts ) . 3 . T h e p o w e r of se l f -o rgan iza t ion . 2 . The goals of the s y s t e m . 1. s t ruc ture T h e mindset or parad igm out of w h i c h the goa ls , ru les, f eedback ar ise. S o u r c e : M e a d o w s (1997) T h e y are sub t i t led : " in increas ing order of e f f ec t i veness " and numbered in reverse order to sugges t that goals for i ns tance , are more power fu l than numbers . M e a d o w s l isted t h e m th is w a y in response to a d i scuss ion at a meet ing on g lobal t rade reg imes w h e r e she s a w the par t ic ipants as just t inker ing w i th w e a k con t ro l s , wh i le c reat ing a huge n e w comp lex s y s t e m . In the con tex t of comp lex i t y , p lanning prac t ice seeks to use these leverage points to m o v e the s y s t e m t o w a r d s a n e w ba lance to address soc ia l and eco log ica l impera t ives . 9 In his o v e r v i e w of p lanning theory s ince 1 9 4 5 , Tay lo r ( 1 9 9 8 , p. 61 -2 ) c red i ts Br ian M c L o u g h l i n for in t roduc ing a s y s t e m s v i e w of p lanning in his 1 9 6 9 tex t " U rban and Regiona l P lann ing : A S y s t e m s A p p r o a c h . " He quo tes M c L a u g h l i n descr ib ing that in the s y s t e m s v i e w of p lann ing : " the c o m p o n e n t s of the [urban] s y s t e m are land uses and loca t ions w h i c h interact th rough and w i th the c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k s . " Th is early s y s t e m s approach w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by the emergence of w h a t Tay lo r (1998) cal ls rat ional p r o c e s s e s . Tay lo r ( 1 9 9 8 , p. 68) presents th is bas ic rat ional mode l as inc lud ing : 1) def in i t ion of p rob lems and/or goa ls ; 2) ident i f icat ion of a l ternat ive p lans /po l i c ies ; 3) eva lua t ion of a l ternat ive p lans /po l i c ies ; 4) imp lementa t ion of p lans /po l i c ies ; 5) mon i to r ing of e f fec ts of p lans /po l i c ies ; and 6) f eedback f rom the moni tor ing to each of the prev ious s tages . T h e s e rat ional p rocesses stil l domina te current p rac t ice . Innes ( 1 9 9 8 , p. 3) cap tu res the prob lem we l l : T h e t idy p rocess spec i f i ed for ana lys i s , w i th its s teps (goal and p rob lem ident i f i ca t ion , generat ion of ana lys is and a l te rnat ives , eva lua t i on , c h o i c e , and imp lementa t ion) , is s imp ly not a good descr ip t ion of the reality of p lann ing , in w h i c h all t hese s teps are so merged as to be ind is t ingu ishab le . T h e rat ional mode l is l imited in that it ref lects a mechan is t i c s y s t e m s v i e w rather than an organ ic v i e w . The s y s t e m s that M e a d o w s (1997) is address ing are adapt i ve s y s t e m s - they m o v e t o w a r d s more d ivers i ty , on-go ing deve lopmen t and co -deve lopmen t , they are open and evo l v ing . In cont ras t , the earl ier s y s t e m s approach in p lanning f o c u s e d on techn ica l ana lys is founded on an impl ic i t a s s u m p t i o n that urban s y s t e m s c a n be c l o s e d or b o u n d e d , and s impl i f ied for ana lys is and mode l i ng . Rather than embrac ing the inherent i r reducible comp lex i t y , the app roach is more based on the a s s u m p t i o n of a def inab le and manageab le s y s t e m . Wh i l e c o m p u t e r mode l ing has evo l ved to address comp lex i t y and adapt ive s y s t e m s , the earlier i ncomp le te no t ions of s y s t e m s d y n a m i c s have been s lower to evo lve in p rac t ice , w h e r e a cont ro l -ab le eng ineer ing app roach is still s t rong ly roo ted . Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 a , p. 8) sugges t " four ideas f rom comp lex i t y theory that wi l l help us th ink in n e w w a y s about h o w to improve the met ropo l i tan deve lopmen t s y s t e m : 1. S imp l i f i ca t ion resul ts in fundamenta l l y w r o n g a n s w e r s , and f o c u s on ind iv idual sec to rs separate ly wi l l be coun te rp roduc t i ve . 10 2. Effects cannot be directly linked to causes because an intervention reverberates through the system in ways that can be only partially traced. 3. Even small changes introduced into the system may produce discontinuous, unpredicted effects. 4. Adaptive changes within a system can grow from learning generated by the individual interactions in the networks of system participants." New planning practices have evolved as the complexity of the planning realm was recognized, along with new insights into the behaviour of adaptive systems enabled by computers. The rational planning system is evolving to incorporate participatory and consultative process and findings from studies on the experiences of planners dealing with complex land use negotiations and interests. Communicative planning theory reflects a systems approach and goes beyond the rational processes of planning to address the communicative and informational aspects of these processes and modifications to them. I summarize below the major aspects of communicative systems based on both complexity theory and communicative planning theory, as explained in the next section. Communicative Planning Theory Communicative planning theory substantially draws from the works of Jurgen Habermas, the German social philosopher, and his theories of an ideal exchange of information in the social context, or communicative rationality (e.g. Innes, 1999b, Healey, 1993). Foucault, a French historian of the same period, is often used as a basis for critique of communicative theory. Yet he is also cited by many communicative planning theorists and there are areas for agreement, particularly in an emphasis on the "organization of discourse" (Fischler, 2000). Fischler (2000, p. 359) captures their distinctions: For Foucault, like Habermas, discourse must be understood first and foremost as a practice. But the two thinkers mean different things when they refer to discursive practices. Where Habermas focuses on utterances, Foucault highlights discursive systems; where the former sees universal conditions of communication, the latter sees the construction of intellectual structures that shape and are shaped by non-discursive practices (Habermas, 1979; Foucault 1991a). Both are interested in the strategic use of language, but Foucault wants to "study the strategy of discourse in a more genuine historical context" (Foucault quoted and translated by Davidson, 1997, 5); that is, he wants to analyze discourses as traces of historically specific frameworks of thought and action. This appreciation of both historical context and the subtleties of information and understanding are not at odds with other communicative theorists in my reading, though they are not a central focus. Recent planning theory has built upon these philosophical roots that emphasize communication and information exchange in social 11 p r o c e s s e s . A representa t ive sample of wr i ters in this vein inc ludes : H o c h , Innes, Forester , F r i edmann , and Hea ley , w h o were, cons is ten t l y ident i f ied by cont r ibu tors in a " S y m p o s i u m on the l imits to c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning theory " in Journal of Planning Education and Research, S u m m e r 2 0 0 0 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n is not an ent i rely n e w top ic in p lanning as it has a l w a y s been an impor tant aspec t of p lanning p r o c e s s e s , but mos t l y or iented t o w a r d p resenta t ion . T h e s e authors f ocus on its rami f ica t ions in p ro fess iona l p rac t i ce , and the n e w and chang ing p lanning p rocesses and s ty les it s u g g e s t s . A lens that f o c u s e s on the e x c h a n g e of ideas and in fo rmat ion , c o m m u n i c a t i o n broad ly , has severa l key charac te r i s t i cs : 1. Face - to - f ace and verbal c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , gather ings and p r o c e s s e s that a l l ow for the deve lopmen t of in terpersonal re la t ionsh ips . 2 . D ivers i ty , both in w a y s of k n o w i n g and par t ic ipants in po l i cy , plan and dec i s i on - mak ing . 3 . T h e role and nature of in format ion w i th in the c o m m u n i c a t i v e s y s t e m . Face- to-face and verbal communications, gatherings and processes that allow for the development of interpersonal relationships. F r i e d m a n n ' s (1973) t ransac t i ve s ty le of p lann ing , " c h a n g e s k n o w l e d g e into ac t ion th rough an unbroken s e q u e n c e of in terpersonal re la t ions" (p. 171 ) . Bui ld ing on the gap he perce ived b e t w e e n the rat ional p lanning p rocess and the ac t ion or imp lementa t ion phase , Fr iedmann emphas i zed the ne two rk i ng , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and negot ia t ion ski l ls the p lanner must have to integrate k n o w l e d g e and ac t i on , or p lans and imp lementa t ion (Taylor, 1 9 9 8 , F r i edmann , 1 9 7 3 ) . Th is emphas i s on the re la t ionsh ips and c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n p lanning ac to rs , or p lanners and their c l ients (Fr iedmann, 1973 ) is a cons tan t t heme in this body of l i terature. Other authors (e.g. Hea ley , Innes) have f o c u s e d more on the co l labora t ive and c o n s e n s u s or iented p rocesses that have deve loped to fos ter more c o m m u n i c a t i v e in teract ion in plan and pol icy mak ing . T h e s e p rocesses t hemse l ves help fos te r the in terpersonal re la t ionships and ne two rks that are cr i t ical to a t ransac t i ve s ty le . Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 b , p.4) d i s c u s s the intangible p roduc ts of c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing p r o c e s s e s : "In every p rocess w e o b s e r v e d , par t ic ipants con tended that they es tab l i shed n e w or s t ronger personal and pro fess iona l re lat ionships and built up t rust , w h i c h a l l owed genu ine c o m m u n i c a t i o n and joint prob lem so lv ing . W i t h this soc ia l capi ta l they felt less host i le to o thers ' v i e w s , we re more l ikely to share k n o w l e d g e , and we re l ikely to negot ia te other potent ia l ly conf l i c t ing i s s u e s . " T h e y go on to note that there w a s bui ld ing of shared inte l lectual capi ta l as we l l as the inc reased l ike l ihood that t hese s takeho lders w o u l d work together outs ide the formal p r o c e s s . Diversity, both in ways of knowing and participants, in policy, plan and decision-making. Fr i edmann ' s a rgument for t ransac t i ve p lanning w a s founded in part on address ing the d i f f icu l t ies in c o m m u n i c a t i n g b e t w e e n p lanners and c l ien ts . He cap tu res th is d i f f icu l ty s ta t ing : " T h e barriers to e f fec t ive c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n those w h o 12 have a c c e s s pr imari ly to p rocessed k n o w l e d g e and those w h o s e k n o w l e d g e rests ch ie f l y on persona l exper ience are r is ing" ( 1 9 7 3 , p. 172 ) . T h e abi l i ty to in tegrate a var ie ty of k n o w l e d g e sources is centra l to e f fec t ive p lann ing . F r iedmann e m p h a s i z e s the in terpersonal re lat ionships needed for th is , as descr ibed above . T h e larger point --recogn iz ing the impor tance of d iverse sou rces of k n o w l e d g e and the inc lus ion of par t i c ipants that represent t h e m in the organ izat ion of d i scu rs i ve p rac t i ces -- is a t h e m e th roughou t c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing. Hea ley ( 1 9 9 3 , p. 242) p icks up on this need for d ivers i ty and d i f fe rence in her p ropos i t ions that summar i ze th is " n e w " p lann ing d i rec t ion . "W i th in the a rgumenta t ion of t hese c o m m u n i c a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , all d imens ions of k n o w i n g , unders tand ing , apprec ia t ing , exper ienc ing and judging may be brought into p lay . " Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 b , p. 9) cap ture th is e lement as we l l in their cr i teria for good c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing p r o c e s s e s that inc lude " representa t i ves of all re levant and s ign i f icant ly d i f ferent in te res ts . " Bo th of t h e m base their a rguments largely on Habermas ian ideals of c o m m u n i c a t i v e rat ional i ty. The role and nature of information within the communicative system. Forester and Innes part icular ly address the theme of in format ion in c o m m u n i c a t i v e p rac t i ces . Forester ( 1 9 8 2 , 1989) f o c u s e s on the t ypes of p lanning in format ion and the possib i l i t ies for d is tor t ion of in format ion in the f ace of p o w e r s t ruc tu res and re la t ionsh ips . He s e e m s less c o n c e r n e d in this init ial work w i t h the f l o w of in format ion to p lanners than w i th the w a y s planners and others can manipu la te in format ion g iven to the publ ic . A f l o w of mis in fo rmat ion serves to main ta in ex is t ing p o w e r s t ruc tu res and the progress ive p lanner might coun te rac t th is by ant ic ipat ing m is in fo rma t ion and a t tempt ing to avo id , mi t igate or cor rec t it. Innes ( 1 9 9 8 , 1996 ) f o c u s e s rather, on the va lue of many k inds of in format ion in c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e t ypes inc lude: " t echn i ca l , fo rma l or sc ien t i f i ca l l y va l ida ted in fo rmat ion ; the par t i c ipants ' o w n exper ience ; s tor ies the par t ic ipants to ld ; images and representa t ions ; and intu i t ion, the par t i c ipan ts ' persona l sense of the s i tuat ion and of the other par t i c ipan ts " (Innes, 1 9 9 6 , p. 1 0 - 1 1 ) . Par t i c ipants in d i scu rs i ve p rocesses bring in and intermingle all of t hese in fo rmat ion t y p e s . In compa r i ng F r i edmann ' s p r o c e s s e d v s . exper ient ia l k n o w l e d g e and Innes' in fo rmat ion t y p e s , it s t r ikes me that little d is t inc t ion is made b e t w e e n in format ion and k n o w l e d g e . Informat ion is perhaps the embod imen t of k n o w l e d g e for the pu rposes of d i s c u s s i o n and e x c h a n g e . Bui ld ing on this o v e r v i e w of comp lex i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e theory , I p ropose be low a f r a m e w o r k of s t rategies and charac te r i s t i cs for in format ion s y s t e m s to suppor t p lanning in the f ace of comp lex i t y . Planning in the Face of Complexity - Supporting Communication Plann ing for /as comp lex adapt ive s y s t e m s requires br inging f o rwa rd and exchang ing in format ion b e t w e e n d iverse interests and pe rspec t i ves . S u c c e s s f u l , adap t i ve p rob lem so lv ing d e p e n d s , a m o n g other th ings , on in format ion f l o w s th rough l inked n e t w o r k s ( M e a d o w s , 1 9 9 7 , Innes and Booher , 1 9 9 9 b ) . T h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e turn 13 in soc ia l and p lanning theory can be charac te r ized as a response to inc reased comp lex i t y in both soc ie ty and wes te rn p lanning prac t ice (Healey, 1 9 9 3 ) . C o m m u n i c a t i v e theory is usefu l ly comb ined here w i th comp lex i t y theory to ident i fy the face ts of the c o m p l e x p lanning con tex t that sugges t a role for n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n t echno log ies . Severa l charac te r i s t i cs and s t ra teg ies that might be enabled by d y n a m i c env i ronmenta l in format ion s y s t e m s (DEIS) are sugges ted by bo th c o m p l e x s y s t e m s and c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning theor ies . Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 b) link comp lex i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e rat ional i ty in their f r amework to eva luate c o n s e n s u s p r o c e s s e s . Wh i l e the def in i t ion and meri t of c o n s e n s u s is debated (A l lmendinger , 1 9 9 9 ) , the cr i ter ia for both the p rocess and the o u t c o m e s is largely compat ib le w i th both au thors ' broader emphas i s on a d y n a m i c exchange of in format ion to deal w i th comp lex i t y . Four cr i ter ia for c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing f rom Innes and Booher (1999b) inc lude: " T h e inc lus ion of d ivers i ty ; re la t ionsh ips and re lat ionship bu i ld ing; shar ing and bui ld ing k n o w l e d g e ; and learning and c h a n g e . " Innes and Booher ( 1999a ) , address ing met ropo l i tan deve lopmen t genera l ly , sugges t three s t ra teg ies : "deve lop ing and us ing ind icators for se l f -o rgan iz ing urban s y s t e m s ; co l labora t ion and c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing a m o n g met ropo l i tan s takeho lde rs ; and metropo l i tan leadersh ip . " From A l lmend inge r ( 1 9 9 9 , p. 269 ) I w o u l d add t w o points not suf f ic ient ly captured above : "an emphas i s and pre fe rence for the loca l ove r g loba l ; and the break ing d o w n of the pub l ic and the pr iva te . " A l l of t hese s t ra teg ies and charac te r is t i cs for p lanning in the f ace of comp lex i t y u l t imate ly rely on a robust f l ow of d iverse in fo rmat ion . I pull f rom and integrate these sugges t i ons into f ive qual i t ies and t w o s t ra teg ies that in form a f r a m e w o r k for a DEIS. A DEIS shou ld incorpora te d ivers i ty , share and build k n o w l e d g e th rough d i scu rs i ve in te rac t ion , p romote learning and c h a n g e , emphas ize the local over the g loba l , and break d o w n barriers b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate. T w o interrelated s t ra teg ies a DEIS shou ld suppor t are gather ings and group p r o c e s s e s , and re la t ionsh ips and re la t ionship bu i ld ing. I d i s c u s s these be low in their theoret ica l con tex t . In the c o n c l u s i o n , I use these seven po in ts , a long w i th three techn ica l capabi l i t ies , to ref lect on the samp le of DEIS in p rac t i ce . Qualities and Characteristics Incorporate diversity. Divers i ty f r om a c o m m u n i c a t i v e pe rspec t i ve means inc lud ing d iverse sou rces and t ypes of k n o w l e d g e . Th is emphas is on d ivers i ty is centra l to the unders tand ing of h o w c o m p l e x adapt ive s y s t e m s wo rk as we l l . W i t h the wor ld as o rgan i sm v i e w , the p r o c e s s e s of evo lu t ion and eco log ica l s u c c e s s i o n i l lustrate the impor tance of d ivers i ty . Soc ia l and d i scu rs i ve s y s t e m s thr ive on d iverse ideas , in terpretat ions, in terests and pe rspec t i ves in the s a m e w a y that eco log ica l s y s t e m s thr ive on genet ic and spec ies d ivers i ty . A d ivers i ty of f eeds tock in format ion and ac tors are more l ikely to generate innovat ive so lu t ions and n e w app roaches . 14 Share and build knowledge through discursive interaction. A d ivers i ty of in format ion and k n o w l e d g e means noth ing if it is not sha red , e x c h a n g e d a m o n g d iverse indiv idual ac to rs and g roups . D iscu rs i ve p r o c e s s e s e n c o m p a s s the full range of act iv i t ies and prac t ices that p romote shar ing and bui ld ing k n o w l e d g e by integrat ing n e w in format ion and mean ing . Wh i l e t hese act iv i t ies mus t inc lude a great deal of in teract ion and shar ing that is not compu te r med ia ted , in fo rmat ion t e c h n o l o g y can suppor t many shar ing act iv i t ies w h e r e the k n o w l e d g e is cap tu red in d o c u m e n t s , images and other med ia . It can also help point peop le to l ive d i scu rs i ve oppor tun i t ies , gather ings and p r o c e s s e s , and thereby inc rease a w a r e n e s s and par t ic ipa t ion . Promote learning and change. T h e purpose of d iverse d i scuss i on is to a l l ow agents or ac to rs in the s y s t e m to integrate n e w k n o w l e d g e w i th exper ience and prior unders tand ing . Th is p rocess of adapt i ve learning is at the core of c o m p l e x s y s t e m s -- it is the me thod of self-o rgan iza t ion and emergence . The abil i ty to learn and adapt is w h a t se ts c o m p l e x , l iv ing s y s t e m s apart f rom mechan ica l s y s t e m s . Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 b , p. 4) in their d i s c u s s i o n of the intangib le p roduc ts of c o n s e n s u s p rocesses sugges t that " learn ing and c h a n g e can be the mos t far - reach ing e f fec ts of c o n s e n s u s bu i ld ing . " Emphasize local over global. Whi l e A l lmend inge r (1999) does not e laborate on this r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , it is impor tant on t w o b a s e s . P lann ing 's unique f o c u s on a spa t ia l /env i ronmenta l pe rspec t i ve s u g g e s t s the impor tance of local con tex t , ac to rs and g roups , h is tory , legal and g o v e r n a n c e f r a m e w o r k , and eco log ica l cond i t ions in the p lanning p r o c e s s . T h e local d ivers i ty of k n o w l e d g e and par t ic ipat ion is more mean ing fu l and d y n a m i c than the g lobal d ivers i ty . Th is does not imply that g lobal in format ion e x c h a n g e is not use fu l , but that it mus t be relevant and adaptab le to the spec i f i cs of the p lace w h e r e it is app l ied . Other ve ins of p lanning theory f o c u s spec i f i ca l l y on p lace and the impor tance of the local and regional sca les in address ing i n te rwoven env i ronmenta l , soc ia l and e c o n o m i c deve lopmen t i ssues (e.g. The Ecology of Place, Beat ley and M a n n i n g , 1 9 9 7 ) . T h e s e c o n d bas is for th is qual i ty is the impor tance of ga ther ings , group p r o c e s s e s and re lat ionship bui ld ing in comp lex c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing . P lace -spec i f i c in format ion may link people to local gather ings that they might feas ib ly a t tend . Even in a reg iona l / loca l con tex t , but espec ia l l y w i th nat ional and internat ional ga ther ings , d i s tance and t ravel t imes are barriers to the face- to - face in teract ions that shou ld a c c o m p a n y the d i scu rs i ve p r o c e s s e s . If used to arch ive the d o c u m e n t a t i o n that a c c o m p a n i e s these p rocesses a DEIS may help to mi t igate th is barrier. Break down public private barriers. A l lmend inge r (1999) does not e laborate on this point ei ther. In one respec t , it re f lects an impor tant aspec t of d ivers i ty , the e c o n o m i c sec to r and in terests of g roups , bus iness and agenc ies . N e w fo rms of wo rk ing together , pub l ic -pr ivate par tnersh ips , and other coal i t ion bui ld ing and consu l ta t i ve ac t iv i t ies , build br idges b e t w e e n the publ ic and pr ivate sec to r , and open n e w oppor tun i t ies and app roaches . Th is arose as a 15 dis t inc t i ssue in one of the ac t ion pro jects . S o m e barriers b e t w e e n the publ ic and pr ivate are impor tan t , but as n e w re lat ionships and par tnersh ips evo l ve , they shou ld str ive to remove barriers to co -evo lv ing and co- learn ing . In addi t ion to represent ing d iverse in teres ts , and par tnersh ip oppor tun i t ies b e t w e e n sec to rs for deve lop ing an in format ion-shar ing in f ras t ruc ture , o ther in terpretat ions of public and private may point to barriers that w e b - b a s e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s can o v e r c o m e , but these did not ar ise in the f r a m e w o r k of the l i terature r e v i e w e d . Strategies Relationships and relationship building. Th is s t ra tegy d r a w s f rom the w o r k s of Forester ( 1 9 8 2 , 1 9 8 9 ) , F r iedmann (1973 ) , and Innes and Booher ( 1 9 9 9 a , 1999b ) c i ted earl ier. A ne twork of in terpersonal re la t ionsh ips is cent ra l to F r iedmann 's t ransac t i ve s ty le . He m a k e s the point that even w i th in an organ izat iona l or inst i tut ional f r amework , in teract ions or k n o w l e d g e shar ing are fundamenta l l y b e t w e e n ind iv iduals . He notes that "a l though these ind iv idua ls behave pr imari ly acco rd ing to their fo rmal role p rescr ip t ions , each role m a s k s a s ingular persona l i t y " (Fr iedmann, 1 9 7 3 , p. 171 ) . Each human being is a c o m p l e x adapt ive s y s t e m unto itself and the mos t bas ic level of soc ia l s y s t e m is a ne twork of t hese in te rconnec ted indiv idual s y s t e m s . On top of th is are the soc ia l l y cons t r uc ted and i n te rwoven ro les, h ierarch ies, and pos i t ions of ac to rs in the larger soc ia l s y s t e m s . A c lose ly related s t ra tegy is gather ings and group p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e are oppor tun i t ies to c reate and deve lop re la t ionsh ips. Gatherings and group processes: collaboration and consensus building among metropolitan stakeholders Col labora t ion and c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing p rocesses are the f o c u s of m u c h of the c o m m u n i c a t i v e theory on p lanning p rac t i ce . Mu l t i - s takeho lder p r o c e s s e s , negot ia ted dec i s i on -mak ing , and par t ic ipatory p lanning represents a range of p rac t i ces for co l labora t ion and c o n s e n s u s bui ld ing. T h e y are in tended to fos te r d ia logue , cons idera t ion of d iverse v i e w s , c o n s e n s u s or agreement on ac t i ons , cons idera t ion of d i f ferent s o u r c e s of k n o w l e d g e , and e m p o w e r m e n t of sys temat i ca l l y d i sadvan taged in terests (Sager , 1 9 9 7 , Forester , 1 9 8 9 , F r iedmann , 1 9 7 3 ) . Tak ing into a c c o u n t A l l m e n d i n g e r ' s (1999) point that conf l ic t and compet i t i on are also impor tant in terac t ions in comp lex i t y , I w o u l d restate this s t ra tegy more broadly as a need for f o rums for con f l i c t , co l labora t ion , co-opera t ion and c o n s e n s u s . M a n y of these c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t ra teg ies have a s t rong emphas i s on face - to - face in te rac t ion , but f e w w o u l d d ispute that many fo rms of in format ion and c o m m u n i c a t i o n too ls are needed to suppor t these p rocesses (e.g. Innes, 1 9 9 8 ) . Th is po ints to the need to exp lore n e w too ls for c o m m u n i c a t i o n suppor t in fo rmal p lanning or p lanning p rac t i ce , as we l l as the larger c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s of the p lanning d o m a i n . Bo th of t hese s t ra teg ies ref lect the qual i t ies of local over g loba l , reduc ing barriers b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate, k n o w l e d g e shar ing , and learning and change . A DEIS might suppor t and enhance these s t ra teg ies ; it does not rep lace t h e m . 16 Emerging Communication Technology C o m m u n i c a t i o n t echno logy , co -evo lv ing in the con tex t of W e s t e r n capi ta l is t d e m o c r a c y , o f fers n e w oppor tun i t ies to s t rengthen in format ion shar ing for both p ro fess iona l p lanners and other change agents in the larger soc ia l s y s t e m . T h e Internet, after al l , emerged f rom U . S . mil i tary and a c a d e m i c research on s t ra teg ic c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s . It has s ince sp read , th rough a c a d e m i a , and into bus iness , h o m e s , and broader soc ie t y . Th is thes is exp lorat ion f o c u s e s on a spec i f i c t e c h n o l o g y too l , d y n a m i c w e b s i tes . Th is too l is in fac t a w a y to bring a sui te of t e c h n o l o g y too ls -- d a t a b a s e , e-mai l , wo r l d w i d e w e b and mul t imed ia -- to d is t r ibuted persona l c o m p u t e r s c o n n e c t e d to the Internet. The concep tua l premise is that us ing th is too l can suppor t p lanning in the f ace of comp lex i t y , and spec i f i ca l l y c o m m u n i c a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . In c o m p l e x i t y l ingo, I p ropose that by f ocus ing on env i ronmenta l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , educa t ion and in fo rmat ion , a dynam ic in format ion s y s t e m can e m b o d y d is t r ibuted env i ronmenta l in te l l igence. In c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning te rms , the shar ing of unders tand ing and k n o w l e d g e of our env i ronment and in teract ions w i th it and the inc lus ion of d iverse pe rspec t i ves can s t rengthen p lanning p rac t i ces . In popular t e rms , I w o u l d say that an Internet porta/ s i te , w i th an env i ronmenta l and geograph ica l l y re levant s lant (a vortal, or ver t ica l portal) , is a t imely and intr iguing idea for p lanners to exp lo re . A portal s i te is one like Y a h o o or Exc i te that pr imari ly aggrega tes and organ izes l inks to other s i tes , a vortal does this for a spec i f i c indust ry or interest . B e l o w , I desc r ibe w e b s i tes as a part icular t echno logy too l us ing d y n a m i c scr ip t ing and p rog ramming app l ica t ions in more deta i l , and d i s c u s s key func t ions and capabi l i t ies they of fer to suppor t c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning in the face of comp lex i t y . Technology Tool - Dynamic vs. Static Web Sites T h e Wor l d W i d e W e b alone w i th its numerous search eng ines , and bas ic H T M L pages can meet many of the ob jec t ives of the sugges ted c o m m u n i c a t i o n too l . The more soph is t i ca ted capabi l i t ies of d y n a m i c or data-dr iven w e b si te too ls can of fer capabi l i t ies that s t rengthen and enhance its fit w i th the p lanning con tex t d e s c r i b e d . O n e w a y to see the d i f fe rence is at the code level for t hose fami l iar w i th H T M L . A s ta t ic w e b page is a text fi le w i th H T M L s ty le codes and hyper l inks wr i t ten in that tell the w e b b rowse r of the reader h o w to d isp lay the text and images . D y n a m i c w e b pages con ta in addi t ional code that d i rects the w e b server to a c c e s s in format ion in a da tabase and d isp lay that da ta , usual ly embedded in s tandard html fo rmat t i ng . In other w o r d s , the server , rather than s imply send ing a f ixed page of tex t c rea tes the page you v i e w in your b rowse r on the f ly. T h e chart be low i l lustrates this d i s t i nc t ion . Static Coding T h e link c o d e wou ld look l ike: < B > < A H R E F = "gcc.htm" > V i e w resources on climate c h a n g e < / A > < / B > T h e b rowse r w o u l d d isp lay this as : View resources on climate change 17 The result code (gcc.htm) w o u l d look l ike: <B>Resources on climate change: < /B> < P > < l>Cl imate Change and You : Strategies to reduce emiss ions< / l> , (1997) - An excellent compendium of simple steps to reduce energy use and pollution in the home and o f f i ce< /P> < P > < l>Carbon Sequestration by Urban Species and Ecosys tems</ I> , (1996) - Useful reference for maximizing the climate change impact of urban greenspace. < /P> A n d it w o u l d d isp lay as : Resources on climate change: Climate Change and You: Strategies to reduce emissions, (1 997) - An excellent compendium of simple steps to reduce energy use and pollution in the home and office. Carbon Sequestration by Urban Species and Ecosystems, (1996) - Useful reference for maximizing the climate change impact of urban greenspace. Dynamic Coding T h e link code w o u l d look l ike: (Example uses i ta l ic ized descr ip to rs rather than actua l code w h i c h var ies by di f ferent s o f t w a r e p rograms) : < B > <A HREF = "database server/database, keyword = global climate change, display page = issuesummary.htm, sort = date" >V\e\N resources on climate change </A > </B> T h e b rowse r w o u l d d isp lay th is as : View resources on climate change T h e result code (issuesummary.htm) w o u l d look l ike: <B>Resources on (topic term}:</B> < P > <\> (title) <l\>, ({dateofpublication}) - {description} <IP> A n d it w o u l d d isp lay as : Resources on climate change: Climate Change and You: Strategies to reduce emissions, (1997) - An excellent compendium of simple steps to reduce energy use and pollution in the home and office. 18 Carbon Sequestration by Urban Species and Ecosystems, (1 996) - Useful reference for maximizing the climate change impact of urban greenspace. T h e d i f fe rence is that the server host ing the w e b page sends a request to the da tabase server (on the s a m e or a di f ferent computer ) for the data records that con ta in global climate change in their k e y w o r d f ie ld . The w e b host then d isp lays that da ta us ing fo rmat t ing in the " i s s u e s u m m a r y " fi le and sor ted in ch rono log ica l order, as ind icated in the i ta l ic ized search c o d e . The advan tages of d y n a m i c p rog ramming in this examp le are pr imari ly for the admin is t ra tor or person respons ib le for updat ing con ten t , t hough th is of cou rse makes it more ef f ic ient to mainta in a v ibrant s i te . T h e y can enter a n e w resource on c l imate change into a da tabase , ei ther on- l ine th rough a w e b fo rm or of f - l ine, and the gcc d isp lay is immedia te ly upda ted . If a resource has addi t ional k e y w o r d s , for e x a m p l e , the s e c o n d resource i tem cou ld be indexed as urban eco logy as we l l as c l imate change , the page d isp lay ing resources for that te rm w o u l d a lso be au tomat i ca l l y upda ted w i thou t hav ing to enter it in t w o di f ferent f i les. Th is is a s imple examp le of a s ta t ic page link ve rsus a d y n a m i c sea rch link. D y n a m i c too ls a l l ow the des igner to p rogram scr ip ts for a w i d e var ie ty of in fo rmat ion m a n a g e m e n t t a s k s . Examp les inc lude: send ing e-mail or f a x e s , rece iv ing da ta into a da tabase or a l l ow ing an author ized user to edit ex is t ing data th rough w e b b r o w s e r f o rms , organ iz ing and index ing in format ion based on d iverse in terests and del iver ing the data th rough a w e b b rowse r or other digital m e a n s . I wi l l d i s c u s s spec i f i c f unc t i ons fur ther under three fea tu res and capabi l i t ies head ings : da tabase suppor t , remote cont r ibu t ion and admin is t ra t ion , and integrat ion w i th other med iums and m o d e s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A graphic i l lustrat ion (Figure 2.1) might help c lar i fy the arch i tec ture of d y n a m i c and sta t ic w e b s i tes before exp la in ing these func t i ons . In the i l lust rat ion, it is the " e x e c u t a b l e c o d e " in the w e b pages and the abil i ty to c o n n e c t to a da tabase th rough t h e m tha t g ives d y n a m i c s i tes more in format ion m a n a g e m e n t capab i l i t ies . In the f igure , I use logical rather than actua l scr ip t ing code . C o m p u t e r language and da tabase logic w o u l d be largely unintel l ig ible to the non- techn ica l reader. 19 Figure 2.1 Web Architecture. (Adapted from Feiler, 1999, p. 38) z user computer 25 user s service provider (ISP) Web site host provider (ISP) Domains -www.name.com Directories -/ s i t e l Stat ic pages • *** .htm or html possible satell i te computer to host database files Dynamic pages with executable code (scr ipts and commands that can manipulate data) e.g. From an administrat ion page: find all organizat ion records with area code 604, send e-mail e.g. In the resource search above: find al resources with keyword gcc, sort in reverse chronological order and display using the formats in the file issuesummary. Database Support T h e f irst feature of dynam ic w e b s i tes is the abi l i ty to in tegrate w i th d a t a b a s e s . Th is a l l ows large amoun ts of data to be s t ruc tu red , ca tegor i zed , and c r o s s - i n d e x e d . It a lso a l l ows da ta to change and yet retain a s t ruc ture and organ izat ion that con t i nues to 20 prov ide mean ing to it. Da tabase func t ions -- like sor t ing , f i l ter ing or sea rch ing out a subse t , and f lex ib le f o r m des ign fea tures (e.g. pop up menus) ~ make it a power fu l too l for present ing c o m p l e x arrays of da ta va lues to meet d i f ferent use rs ' in teres ts . Further capabi l i t ies are to s tore user -spec i f i c in fo rmat ion . Th is enables secur i ty fea tures like p a s s w o r d p ro tec t ion , s tores p re fe rences for cus tom iz ing the h o m e p a g e and other persona l i za t ion d a t a , and sends m o d e m / b r o w s e r appropr ia te pages , (e .g . not send ing s t reaming audio to s o m e o n e logging in w i th a 1 4 . 4 m o d e m and N e t s c a p e 3). Th is abi l i ty to index and arch ive many t ypes of in format ion and to present t hem as reques ted in a fo rm meaningfu l to un ique needs can create a fo rm of soc ia l m e m o r y . Us ing c o m p l e x i t y ' s metaphor ic qual i ty , memory is cer ta in ly cr i t ical to in te l l igence, learning and c h a n g e in a human mind . A co l lec t ive s to rehouse of d iverse t ypes of in format ion and k n o w l e d g e might suppor t better co l lec t ive in te l l igence, learning and change in the p lanning d o m a i n . For examp le , hav ing a da tabase that indexed a ser ies of agendas , m inu tes and reports of a co l laborat ive p rocess , perhaps inc lud ing n e w s reports and c o m m e n t a r y f rom par t ic ipants , w o u l d help future ac tors to unders tand the h is tor ica l con tex t of a part icular issue or phys ica l s i te . Th is is i l lustrated by the B C Prov inc ia l G o v e r n m e n t s Land Use Coord ina t ing Of f i ce (LUCO) w e b s i te , w h i c h a rch ives the d o c u m e n t a t i o n of the regional Land and Resou rce M a n a g e m e n t P lans ( L R M P ) . T h e s e mul t i -s takeho lder p rocesses to def ine bas ic land use guide l ines on a regional sca le have a s t rong f o c u s on soc ia l learn ing. S o m e of the m e m o r y of that learning is avai lab le at h t t p : / / w w w . g o v . b c . c a / l u c o / . The rest, of cou rse , is in the minds of par t i c ipan ts , a f fec ted pub l i cs and e c o s y s t e m s . A da tabase that is a meta-d i rec to ry of act iv i t ies and mul t i -med ia resources w i th index ing (keywords) based on in tersec t ing c o m m u n i t i e s of interest and p lace w o u l d seem to suppor t the qual i t ies and s t ra teg ies out l ined above . T h e da tabase too ls are integrated into the w e b us ing scr ip t ing and c o d e s . Th i s a l l ows d is t r ibuted a c c e s s (across t ime and space) to d ive rse users and the abi l i ty to ex t rac t and fo rmat data f rom a large s t ruc tured pool to meet their ind iv idual in teres ts . Remote Contribution and Administration A n ex tens ion of the da tabase too ls descr ibed above (st ructured s to rage , sea rch ing , sor t ing , formatt ing) is the abi l i ty to a d d , edit and delete da ta va lues . W e b pages can enable data input and managemen t to a l low d iverse input as we l l as a c c e s s to in fo rmat ion . S o m e o n e at an organizat ion that w a s mak ing a n e w resource ava i lab le cou ld fill in an on- l ine fo rm to add a descr ip t ion and link f rom the c o m m o n s i te . Th is abi l i ty i l lustrates the potent ia l for d is t r ibuted con ten t deve lopmen t and ma in tenance . A digi tal ve rs ion of the actua l resource , or more in format ion about a p roduc t or ac t iv i ty cou ld be loca ted on the source o rgan iza t ion 's w e b s i te , but it w o u l d be c o n n e c t e d in a more mean ing fu l w a y to other related in fo rmat ion . Th is might result in inc reased d is t r ibut ion of the know ledge con ta ined in a resource . S imi lar ly , it might p romote inc reased a w a r e n e s s or par t ic ipat ion in even ts , p r o c e s s e s , e tc . by l inking a larger pool of i n fo rmat ion . L ike the secur i t y and personal iza t ion fea tu res , admin is t ra t ive func t i ons can be p rog rammed for remote , on- l ine a c c e s s . For examp le , the admin is t ra tor does not have to be w i t h t he ha rdware of the s i te to approve n e w even ts submi t ted t o a ca lendar to make sure there is noth ing c lear ly inappropr ia te. He /she can log into the s i te , gain 2 1 access to new listings (or receive e-mail notification that data was entered and what it was), and edit the records to mark them for display, or contact the source for clarification. Integration with Other Communication Systems A final capability of dynamic programming is the ability to deliver multimedia content, and to integrate with other communication systems, technologies, and tools. For example, a regular reminder notice can be sent by fax or e-mail to content providers. Asynchronous (not at the same time) discussions on Listerv's and other electronic discussion formats are very useful for dialogue and information sharing on specific topics. A web site can host an archive of the postings to these discussions as an on-going resource, though direct e-mail is an important and widely accessible tool. Newsletters and other print and broadcast media are important resources. A cooperative site can help publicize and share information between these sources. The information service proposed here is not intended to replace but rather to augment current means of communication and information sharing through both electronic and other means. Hypothetical users can pass information between discussion lists, e-mail, and newsletters. Calendar features point to face-to-face events and activities in which people can participate. In many respects, the line between print and broadcast information blurs as the web grows. There is a redundancy of information, as print and broadcast materials are on-line as well as being available through traditional formats. Most news organizations are beginning to archive their content on-line, enhance it with additional on-line features, content and links, and make it freely available. Sites can share content using dynamic programming tools. For example, an environmental news feature in a DEIS could link to a listing or index of local media coverage of environmental affairs. One facet of integration is simply the ability of the web to link between sites. This does not rely on dynamic programming. The other facet depends on the users and particularly information providers. A DEIS challenges them to collaborate, to explore new forms of media and communication, to contribute their voices and knowledge to the system, and to take information from different sources and synthesize and redistribute it. This human/user aspect of dynamic information systems, environmental or otherwise, is an important area to study and understand further in the development of this kind of tool. Issues In describing the problems that arose with the first boom in land use modeling systems in the 1960 's , Batty (1980, p. 8-9) asserts that: "There was considerable confusion over how resources were to be used. In many applications, the data required, the time available, the related computer technology, general cost, expertise and ability, all proved insufficient." This is probably a common response to the introduction of new technology tools into a social system. It accurately describes my experience in trying to introduce a new technical approach in the action projects described in the next chapter. Software, hardware, and programming options raise system compatibility, technical skill and cost concerns, as well as concerns about 22 a c c e s s to and unders tand ing of th is t echno logy by wou ld -be users . A c c e s s to and use of the w e b by the broader in tended aud ience is a lso a potent ia l l imi t ing fac to r in its use fu l ness . A n essent ia l d i f fe rence f rom the deve loper or host pe rspec t i ve ar ises b e c a u s e hypertext mark up language or H T M L is un iversa l and not propr ietary (nobody o w n s the language) , wh i le mos t w e b languages and da tabase programs for c rea t ing d y n a m i c pages are c o m m e r c i a l p roduc ts . Examp les inc lude Cold Fusion, Active Server Pages, SQL Server, Access, Oracle, FileMaker Pro, Lasso, Java and Visual Basic Scripts. L ike any c o m m e r c i a l s o f t w a r e , they are des igned to run on part icular p la t fo rms (e.g. Unix/Linux, MacOS, Windows/NT and their a s s o c i a t e d ha rdware requi rements) and th is can be a cons t ra in t to its use and integrat ion w i th ex is t ing compu te r resou rces . S o m e c o m m e r c i a l p a c k a g e s are integrated w i th the operat ing s y s t e m and server so f twa re (e.g. Microsoft has an integrated package of Internet server and deve lopmen t too ls for NT) . Free and l ow cos t too ls , like Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and PERL scr ip t , can handle m a n y da ta and scr ip t ing t asks . The chief d i f fe rence f rom the deve lopers or p rog rammers pe rspec t i ve is ease of use . S o m e commerc ia l so f twa re prov ides graphic user in te r faces (e.g. a Windows or M a c - b a s e d w e b editor program like HomePage or FrontPage) that make it easier to create pages w i thou t necessar i l y learning the p rog ramming language in dep th (at least in theory) . Mo reove r , c o m p u t e r Internet app l i ca t ions are one of the mos t rapidly evo lv ing techno log ies and desc r ip t i ons are soon da ted . Re fe rences are scan t - a w e b search on d y n a m i c w e b s i tes (June 2 0 0 0 ) pul ls up mos t l y se rv ice prov iders , w e b si te deve lopers and so f twa re vendors (and the abs t rac t of a thes is done in Croat ia!) A cent ra l t h e m e here is commerc ia l v s . non -commerc ia l deve lopmen t too ls . C o m m e r c i a l app l i ca t ions can be cos t l y and can require cos t l y equ ipmen t to suppor t t h e m . Both c o m m e r c i a l and non -commerc ia l op t ions are usual ly p la t fo rm spec i f i c and mus t w o r k w i t h the hos t server s y s t e m . In t e rms of usabi l i ty , there is a d is t inc t and s teep learning curve to use any of the too ls avai lable to create d y n a m i c s i tes relat ive to s ta t ic o n e s . A m o n g these too ls , s o m e of the commerc i a l op t ions do prov ide a g raph ic user in ter face that can make it easier to integrate d y n a m i c fea tures in w e b ed i t ing . There is an in terest ing pol i t ical and organizat iona l d imens ion to this seeming ly techn ica l and f inanc ia l c o n c e r n . A s the Internet b e c a m e a more commerc i a l enterpr ise than its or iginal roots in a c a d e m i a , there we re conce rns that the greater publ ic w o u l d lose a c c e s s to this n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n resource . C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d Internet prov iders emerged to ensure a p lace for publ ic in terests and a c c e s s in cyberspace. One of t hese c o m m u n i t y Internet se rv i ce prov iders w a s the hos t c l ient for the f i rst ac t ion project I under took . W h e n a pr ivate ISP c o m p a n y that hos ted s i tes for s o m e of the par t ic ipant g roups of fered techn ica l ass i s tance and s p a c e on their server to hos t d y n a m i c fea tures of the s i te it w a s seen as a threat by the c o m m u n i t y group to their publ ic m iss ion to partner w i th a pr ivate sec to r o rgan iza t ion . Th is perceptua l barrier l imited the techn ica l op t ions avai lab le for deve lop ing a d y n a m i c w e b s i te . T h e resources to imp lement soph is t i ca ted Internet app l i ca t ions are not avai lab le to many g roups . Th is l imited a c c e s s to deve lopmen t too ls is potent ia l ly qui te p rob lemat i c , par t icu lar ly g iven the impor tance of c o m m u n i t y g roups in env i ronmenta l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , in format ion and educa t i on . A DEIS may we l l be a co -opera t i ve 2 3 under tak ing , in that it br ings together in format ion f rom d iverse s o u r c e s . Crea t ing par tnersh ips to prov ide the phys ica l resources is one app roach to address ing the techn ica l resource a c c e s s i ssue . But , as desc r ibed above , this exace rba tes cha l lenges like main ta in ing organ izat iona l ident i ty , in format ion o w n e r s h i p , and con t ro l , i ssues that f ace any kind of in ter-organizat ion project . Ideological res is tance to par tnersh ips b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate sec to rs , as we l l as be tween spec i f i c or c o m p e t i n g o rgan iza t ions or g roups , m a y be one of the barr iers A l lmend inger ( 1999 ) w o u l d have r e m o v e d . T h e Internet is cer ta in ly not universa l ly used or even ava i lab le , w h i c h ra ises the ques t ion about i ts uti l i ty as a publ ic c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e d i u m . Th is is an a rgument for pay ing at tent ion to integrat ion w i th other channe ls of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The number of peop le us ing the Internet is g row ing rapidly, h o w e v e r , and there are publ ic a c c e s s termina ls ava i lab le th roughout m u c h of C a n a d a (See Box 2 .2 ) . T h e s e t rends suppor t the deve lopmen t of n e w Internet-based too ls . M u c h of the l i terature on t e c h n o l o g y and pover ty dea ls w i t h the e c o n o m i c deve lopmen t a s p e c t s of t echno logy a c c e s s (e.g. S c h o n , S a n y a l and M i t che l l , 1 9 9 9 ) . T h e y f ocus more on train ing and ski l ls in the w o r k f o r c e rather t han the impac t of the w e b on d issemina t ing and co l lec t ing in format ion to and f rom d isen f ranch ised pub l i cs . In s o m e measure this is c o n n e c t e d to the role d iverse users play in integrat ing DEIS into other c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s as d i s c u s s e d above . Th is array of t echno logy too ls wi l l con t inue to g r o w and evo lve into a subs tan t ia l segmen t of the media mix through w h i c h people e x c h a n g e in fo rmat ion . P rograms like the Federal G o v e r n m e n t ' s C o n n e c t i n g Canad ians (see B o x 2.2) p lay an impor tant role in enabl ing a c c e s s to the Internet by d iverse aud iences . Box 2.2 Internet Usage Trends and Programs to Promote Access A s of 1 9 9 9 , there are 9 2 . 2 mil l ion Internet users over the age of 1 6 in U S / C a n a d a . S i n c e 1 9 9 7 , w e see a 5 9 % increase in Internet use rs . A s of 1 9 9 9 , there are 7 3 . 3 mil l ion W W W users over the age of 16 in the U S / C a n a d a . S i n c e 1 9 9 7 , w e see a 4 6 % increase in W W W users . Th is in format ion has been upda ted w i t h latest da ta f r om the Spr ing 1 9 9 9 C o m m e r c e N e t / N i e l s e n Internet Demograph i c Su rvey . The pro jected g row th has been adjusted to ref lect th is n e w da ta , h t t p : / / w w w . c o m m e r c e . n e t / r e s e a r c h / s t a t s / w w w p o p . h t m l a c c e s s e d N o v . 1 3 , 2 0 0 0 . Connecting Canadians, h t t p : / / c o n n e c t . g c . c a / e n / 1 0 0 - e . h t m , th is Federa l p rogram f o c u s e s on local internet capac i t y bu i ld ing. " W e ' r e help ing connec t Canad ians to each other - and the wor ld - by es tab l i sh ing up to 1 0 , 0 0 0 publ ic Internet a c c e s s s i tes in rural, remote and urban c o m m u n i t i e s . W e ' v e a lso helped to connec t C a n a d a ' s publ ic s c h o o l s and libraries to the Internet. W e ' r e even wo rk ing on mak ing C a n a d a ' s Internet s y s t e m the fas tes t in the w o r l d . P rograms inc lude: C a m p u s Work l i nk : N G R | C a n a d a ' s S c h o o l N e t | C a n a d a ' s S c h o o l N e t G r a s s R o o t s Program | C A N A R I E | C a n C o n n e c t | C o m m u n i t y A c c e s s Program | C o m p u t e r s for S c h o o l s | First Na t ions S c h o o l N e t | Genera t ions C a n C o n n e c t | L ibraryNet | N e t w o r k to S a v i n g s | S c h o o l S i te Bui lders | Sk i l lNe t . ca | S tuden t C o n n e c t i o n Program | V o l N e t | " 2 4 Summary In s u m m a r y , the l i terature on comp lex i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing sugges t qual i t ies and s t ra teg ies that an in format ion s y s t e m shou ld suppor t and enhance . Emerg ing d y n a m i c w e b si te t echno logy sugges t s capabi l i t ies and fea tures that can s t reng then s u c h an in format ion s y s t e m . I list these qual i t ies , s t ra teg ies and capabi l i t ies b e l o w . T h e next chapte r desc r ibes my exper ience deve lop ing a DEIS , based on these theore t ica l and techn ica l f ounda t ions . Qualities of "Planning in the Face of Complexity" • Incorporate d ivers i ty . • Share and bui ld k n o w l e d g e th rough d iscurs ive in terac t ion. • P romo te learn ing and change . • E m p h a s i z e the loca l over the g loba l . • Break d o w n barr iers b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate. Strategies for "Planning in the Face of Complexity" • Ga the r i ngs and group p r o c e s s e s , f o rums for co -opera t i on , c o n s e n s u s , co l labora t ion and con f l i c t . • Re la t ionsh ips and re lat ionship bu i ld ing. Functional Capabilities of Dynamic Web Sites • Da tabase suppor t . • R e m o t e Con t r ibu t ion and Admin i s t ra t i on . • Integrat ion. 25 Chapter 3 - Putting Theory into Practice: Action Projects to Develop a Working DEIS Introduction In th is chap te r , I descr ibe severa l ac t ion projects that prov ided an exper ient ia l unders tand ing of a DEIS to comp lemen t the theoret ica l part of the thes i s . I under took severa l w e b si te deve lopmen t con t rac ts dur ing 1 9 9 8 - 1 9 9 9 that p rov ided an oppor tun i ty to gain s o m e real wor ld perspec t i ve . M y original goal in the pro jects w a s to c reate a wo rk i ng e x a m p l e , or p ro to type , of a d y n a m i c s y s t e m to co l lect and organ ize da ta to a s s e s s env i ronmenta l educa t ion in p rac t i ce , an earlier f o c u s of my thes is . T h e resul ts w e r e less s u c c e s s f u l than I had hoped in te rms of the f inal p roduc t , but the p rocess w a s usefu l in fur ther ref ining a f r amework of DEIS e lements . Tab le 3.1 b e l o w l ists the pro jects , their f o c u s in relat ion to the thes is and respec t i ve resul ts . I t hen desc r ibe the me thodo logy of ac t ion research in in format ion s y s t e m s , and use th is l i terature to s t ruc ture m y d i scuss i on of the ac t ion projects used to invest igate DEIS in p rac t i ce . F inal ly , I p resent the DEIS f r amework of e lements that arose f rom the in tegrat ion of theory and p rac t i ce . Table 3.1 Action Projects, 1998-1999 Project: Focus: Results: Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t (ECC) w e b si te deve lopmen t con t rac t . S u m m e r 1 9 9 8 , f o l l ow up rev is ions th rough 1 9 9 9 Techn i ca l ski l ls and exper ience . Interests and in format ion about a segmen t of users /p rov iders . P ro to type deve lopmen t . P roduced d y n a m i c w e b si te p ro to type . Techn i ca l ski l ls deve loped -data dr iven w e b s i tes . P r o c e s s exper ience ob ta ined . Loca l i zed Pover ty Reduc t i on in V i e t n a m , Cen t re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts , and S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lann ing , w e b si te deve lopmen t con t rac t s . Fall 1 9 9 8 th rough 1 9 9 9 Further techn ica l skil l deve lopmen t . Ref inement of dynam ic vers ion of p ro to type . Informat ion s y s t e m deve lopmen t p rocess . L ink ing E C C to a poss ib le home and par tnersh ip . Rev ised E C C pro to type w i th re f inements f rom other s i tes ' deve lopmen t . Techn i ca l ski l ls d e v e l o p e d . P rocess exper ience ob ta ined . 26 Action Research in Information Systems Development A c t i o n research is a qual i ta t ive me thod of inquiry w i th a t radi t ion in severa l d isc ip l ines . It has its roots in the 4 0 ' s in the wo rk of Kurt Lew in and the T a v i s t o c k Insti tute (Baskerv i l le , 1 9 9 9 , N e w m a n , 2 0 0 0 , D a s h , 1 9 9 7 ) . It has appeared as a research me thod in d iverse f ie lds inc lud ing : "agr icu l tura l deve lopmen t , b iomed ica l eng ineer ing , bus iness managemen t , c o m m u n i t y deve lopmen t , educa t iona l re fo rm, env i ronmenta l s tud ies , organisat iona l deve lopmen t , soc ia l po l i cy /p lann ing , e t c . " (Dash , 1 9 9 7 , pp. 1). Th roughou t the seven t ies and e ight ies , but part icular ly in the late n inet ies , it has ga ined w ider use in invest igat ing in format ion s y s t e m s (Baskerv i l le , 1 9 9 9 , N e w m a n , 2 0 0 0 , D a s h , 1 9 9 7 ) . There are t w o th reads to the purpose or func t ion of ac t ion resea rch . One is the researcher /par t i c ipant as learner. The other is the more t radi t ional pu rpose of a c a d e m i c research and s c i e n c e , the generat ion and tes t ing of publ ic or g lobal k n o w l e d g e . In the f irst t h read , par t ic ipant learn ing, the f ocus is on the examina t ion of par t i c ipan ts ' a s s u m p t i o n s and perspec t i ves in prac t ice dur ing the change p rocess they are imp lement ing ( N e w m a n , 2 0 0 0 ) . The degree of co- learn ing is a var iable in th is me thod depend ing on the expl ic i t i nvo lvement and goals of the cl ient o rgan iza t ion as par t ic ipants and co- inves t iga to rs . It is in the s e c o n d thread that ac t ion research d r a w s the m o s t c r i t i c i sm f rom proponents of pos i t iv is t or t radi t ional sc ien t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s . The abi l i ty in s u c h a nar row exper imenta l f ield to d raw broader c o n c l u s i o n s that can cont r ibu te to the body of theory in a part icular d isc ip l ine is ques t ioned (Kock et a l , 1 9 9 7 ) . K o c k et al (1997) summar i ze that " three main poss ib le w e a k n e s s e s emerge f rom the d i s c u s s i o n by Or l i kowsk i and Baroudi (1991) about the c lash b e t w e e n pos i t iv is t and non-pos i t i v is t a s s u m p t i o n s . " T h e s e w e a k n e s s e s are the c o n t i n g e n c y of research f ind ings , l ow cont ro l of the env i ronment , and personal ove r - i nvo l vemen t . A c t i o n research expl ic i t ly puts the researcher and their ac t ions into the f ield of s t udy , usua l ly a c o m p l e x soc ia l s y s t e m . T h e s e potent ia l w e a k n e s s e s in the sc ien t i f i c rigor of ac t ion research for generat ing theory con ta in the seeds of its s t rength as a learning exper ience for the researcher and the c l ient . A lack of cont ro l of the research env i ronment put another w a y is the oppor tun i ty for surpr ise. In the researcher / learner m o d e , w h i c h s e e m s more prevalent in ac t ion research in educa t ion and other f ie lds more than in in format ion s y s t e m s , surpr ise is seen as a centra l learning too l . A related e lement w h o s e s t rength lies in l ow cont ro l is te rmed critical incidents w h i c h are " t hose m o m e n t s w h i c h a l low you to s tand back and examine your bel iefs and your t each ing cr i t i ca l ly " ( N e w m a n , 2 0 0 0 ) . N e w m a n quo tes S c h o n ( 1 9 8 7 , p.28) to cap ture this point . Surpr ise leads to ref lect ion w i th in an ac t ion-present . Ref lec t ion is at least in s o m e measure c o n s c i o u s , a l though it need not o c c u r in the m e d i u m of w o r d s . W e cons ide r both the unexpec ted event and the know ing - i n -ac t ion that led up to it, ask ing ou rse lves , as it we re , " w h a t is t h i s ? " and , at the s a m e t ime, " H o w have I been th ink ing about i t? " Our though t turns back on the surpr is ing p h e n o m e n o n and , at the s a m e t ime , back on i tself . 2 7 Severa l au thors point to an accep ted cyc l i ca l p rocess for do ing ac t ion research (Kock et a l , 1 9 9 7 , Baskerv i l le , 1 9 9 9 , D a s h , 1 9 9 7 ) . A f ive s tage p rocess - d i agnos ing , ac t ion p lann ing , ac t ion tak ing , eva lua t ing , spec i f y ing learning - p roposed by S u s m a n and Evered (1978) is used be low to present the research p rocess (Kock et a l , 1 9 9 7 , Baskerv i l le , 1 9 9 9 ) . K o c k et al (1997) argue that s u c c e s s i v e i terat ions th rough this c y c l e have the potent ia l to mit igate the three potent ia l w e a k n e s s e s in this me thod (from a pos i t iv is t v i ew) . I wi l l t ouch on these three issues in the ref lect ion d i s c u s s i o n at the end of the chapter . A f inal aspec t of th is f i ve-s tage research mode l that Baskerv i l le (1999) part icular ly br ings fo rward is the client-system infrastructure, " the spec i f i ca t ion and agreement that cons t i tu tes the research env i ronmen t . " T h e cl ient-s y s t e m in f ras t ruc ture is descr ibed f irst for the t w o projects l isted in Tab le 3 . 1 . I f o l l ow th is w i t h a descr ip t ion of t w o i terat ions th rough th is c y c l e . P ro to typ ing is a f o rm of ac t ion research in in format ion s y s t e m s . It i nvo lves p roduc ing wo rk i ng examp les of an app l ica t ion in deve lopmen t . Working can imply a func t iona l demons t ra t i on too l or a fu l l -sca le mode l that can s tand as the real th ing w i th the unders tand ing that fur ther tes t ing and deve lopmen t is p lanned . In th is respec t , w h a t is a p ro to type for the purposes of a research project can be the f inal p roduc t for the c l i en t ' s pu rposes . V e r y f e w in format ion s y s t e m s are or can ever be e x p e c t e d to be abso lu te ly f i n i shed . Rapid ly chang ing t echno logy and s o f t w a r e , a long w i th c o m p l e x d y n a m i c bus iness and soc ia l /o rgan iza t iona l con tex t s , keep dr iv ing the need to upgrade , upda te , rev ise , re-engineer and redef ine wo rk p rocesses and related in format ion m a n a g e m e n t too ls . In .all l i ke l ihood, the entire w e b as w e k n o w it t oday is on ly a p ro to type of w h a t it wi l l be in 5 -10 years . Stages in Action Projects Client-System Infrastructure Severa l ac t ions in di f ferent set t ings (different cl ients) cons t i tu ted the i terat ive c y c l e s . I w i l l desc r ibe each project br ief ly then descr ibe each s tage in the i terat ion b e t w e e n t h e m . Further in format ion about the pro jects b e c o m e s ev ident as they are d i s c u s s e d in re ference to their w e b s i tes . Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t (ECC) w a s a w e b si te deve lopmen t con t rac t for the V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y N e t ( V C N ) , par tnered w i t h the E c o C i t y N e t w o r k (ECN) , an umbre l la group of 2 0 V a n c o u v e r nonpro f i ts . It adver t i sed the fo l l ow ing job desc r ip t i on : T h e E c o - C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t Project , a par tnership b e t w e e n the V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y N e t and f i f teen nonprof i t g roups of the E c o C i t y N e t w o r k , is seek ing an indiv idual to co-ord inate the des ign and imp lementa t ion of a shared w e b s i te on sus ta inab le urban deve lopmen t in the Lower Ma in l and . (Note the d i sc repancy in g roup numbers is due to par t ic ipat ion by other g roups not of f ic ia l ly af f i l iated w i t h E C N ) . Th i s goal comp l imen ted my research f o c u s at the t ime. I made c lear dur ing the hir ing p rocess that I had thes is research in terests in the project and th is w a s accep tab le to the project m a n a g e m e n t commi t t ee , t hough there w a s never a spec i f i c ag reement deta i l ing the te rms of this joint under tak ing . One spec i f i c ac t ion w a s to br ing the 2 8 S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lanning in as a partner to ident i fy l inkages b e t w e e n s tudent in terests and research , and c o m m u n i t y group needs and in teres ts . I a lso deve loped three w e b s i tes for p rograms and depar tmen ts at the Un ivers i ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a us ing dynam ic fea tures . Loca l ized Pover ty Reduc t i on in V i e t n a m (LPRV) is a mul t i -year capac i t y bui ld ing project , funded by the Canad ian Internat ional Deve lopmen t A g e n c y (CIDA) , and based at the Cent re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts ( C H S ) , a research inst i tute under the S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lann ing ( S C A R P ) . T h e s e uni ts share facu l t y and in format ion resources . Fur thermore , the L P R V project w a s a par tnersh ip b e t w e e n t w o Canad ian univers i t ies and f ive V i e t n a m e s e un ivers i t ies . T h e s e interrelated projects of fered the oppor tun i ty to further deve lop and ref ine a pro to type and to explore its scalabi l i ty and adaptabi l i ty to other in ter -organizat ional educa t iona l se t t ings . A g a i n , the dual goal of deve lop ing a pro to type for my thes is and a produc t for the cl ient w a s expl ic i t but not spec i f i ca l l y d o c u m e n t e d . First Iteration - ECC (http://www.vcn.bc.ca/ecc) Diagnosing T h e Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t project had been u n d e r w a y for severa l mon ths before I b e c a m e invo lved . In add i t ion , a grant proposa l had been submi t ted to and part ial ly funded by the prov inc ia l government so the problem had been d i a g n o s e d . T h e sheer d ivers i ty of c o m m u n i t y g roups , their resources and f o c u s , a long w i th a belief that they w e r e " fac ing di f f icu l ty shar ing in format ion and k n o w l e d g e " prov ided the rat ionale for the project . The joint under tak ing to deve lop a shared w e b si te w a s expec ted to "con t r ibu te t o w a r d s br inging c o m m u n i t y g roups and publ ic par t ic ipants toge ther . . .by prov id ing the access ib l e g a t e w a y s into a g row ing body of in fo rmat ion , r esou rces , and g rass roo ts p rocesses (Project p roposa l , 1 9 9 7 ) . " C lear ly there w a s a c o m m o n a l i t y of purpose w i th my thes is goa l . Action Planning Severa l p lanning meet ings had been held in the mon ths prior to m y hir ing as a w e b deve loper . I rev iewed the minutes of these meet ings a long w i th the project p roposa l . I had severa l meet ings w i th project coord ina tors and commi t t ee m e m b e r s . I a lso met indiv idual ly w i th par t ic ipant group representa t ives to get more in format ion about w h a t they did and had avai lable to the publ ic , the s ta tus of their o w n w e b s i te , and their in terests in the c o m m o n w e b s i te. Project documen ta t i on is a rch ived on- l ine at the project wo rk ing s i te , h t t p : / / w w w . v c n . b c . c a / e c o v a n . Initially, I set as ide the dynam ic t echno logy c o m p o n e n t of m y interest and f o c u s e d on the des i red func t ions and ideas the group had deve loped in mee t ings prior to my hir ing. I though t I wou ld at least use the data f rom the project to create a mode l of f - l ine, just us ing a da tabase p rog ram, and use this as a pro to type for my thes i s . A s I rev iewed the des i red features and in format ion in terests , I s a w that they cou ld be usefu l ly c ross - i ndexed by us ing a da tabase format and that this w o u l d a l l ow for add ing and edi t ing in format ion by par t ic ipants th rough on-l ine fo rms . There w a s an a s s u m p t i o n in the project , as p r o p o s e d , that g roups w o u l d all learn H T M L and keep their o w n and the co l lec t i ve si te up- to-date . Severa l t ra in ing w o r k s h o p s had been held 2 9 to help s o m e groups put up a bas ic w e b site at the V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y N e t . (VCN) Th is site ma in tenance approach s e e m e d to underes t imate the interest and t ime of the groups that had to learn H T M L and keep up not only their o w n si te but a co l lec t i ve one as we l l . Vo lun tee rs run many of the groups and they have l ow budge ts . Represen ta t i ves exp ressed simi lar reservat ions regarding th is ma in tenance app roach and an interest in t ry ing to make use of too ls to integrate a da tabase w i th the s i te . A local pr ivate Internet c o m p a n y that deve lops env i ronmenta l w e b s i tes w a s run by people ac t i ve w i th s o m e of the par t ic ipant g roups . They host the doma in " s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . c o m " and prov ide pro bono serv ices to env i ronmenta l g roups and organ iza t ions to put their s i tes there, inc lud ing s o m e part ic ipant g roups . T h e y had a number of d y n a m i c s i tes running and we re wi l l ing to prov ide th is se rv ice and techn ica l a s s i s t a n c e in adapt ing their ex is t ing coded pages to serve the E C C ' s pu rposes . A t a f inal p lanning mee t ing , I p resented th is as the best opt ion based on par t i c ipan ts ' input in the preced ing meet ings and d i s c u s s i o n . Th is had been d is t r ibuted in a working project proposal before the mee t ing , though the spec i f i c techn ica l par tner had not been addressed expl ic i t ly (it had been in the p roceed ing d i s cuss i ons ) . Severa l c o n c e r n s w e r e ra ised, part icular ly by the project coord ina to rs . T h e s e c o n c e r n s cou ld be add ressed in any potent ia l par tnership agreement w i th another se rv ice prov ider . The C o m m u n i t y N e t is a not- for-prof i t Internet serv ice prov ider w i th a m iss ion to enhance a c c e s s to the t echno logy in the publ ic rea lm. There we re a lso addi t ional t echn ica l cons ide ra t ions raised regarding future c h a n g e s , secur i ty and log-in a c c e s s cont ro l and ma in tenance . There w a s general (and quite s t rong in s o m e cases) ag reement by par t ic ipants to explore these issues fur ther and a t tempt to incorpora te more soph is t i ca ted si te fea tures . A f te r the mee t ing , the V C N coord inator laid out t hese c o n c e r n s in a letter add ressed to me (Royce , 1 9 9 8 ) . In add i t ion , there we re c o n c e r n s about the uti l i ty of da tabase fea tu res , based on a look at one on- l ine c o m m u n i t y arts ca lendar . In a subsequen t mee t ing , it w a s made clear that , in par t icu lar , a par tnersh ip w i th a pr ivate sec to r c o m p a n y w a s felt by the V C N Board to con f l i c t w i th the publ ic realm m iss ion of the C o m m u n i t y N e t . O ther techn ica l opt ions inc luded the incorporat ion of s o m e of these fea tures us ing the V C N ' s resources . Th is wou ld require substant ia l ly more w o r k be ing done by the V C N ' s techn ica l staf f because I w a s n ' t fami l iar enough w i th the so f twa re they use and it is not part icular ly user- f r iendly. Th is d idn ' t s e e m to fit in the t ime line for p roduc ing a f irst s i te ve rs ion . A n o t h e r opt ion w a s to bor row server s p a c e f rom a c a m p u s o rgan iza t ion . T h e Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t Research Insti tute (SDRI) had an A p p l e server that w o u l d run the desk top so f twa re I w a s us ing to organ ize the g roups ' da ta . Th is so f twa re (F i leMaker Pro 4 .0) has a built in feature that a l l ows it to serve da ta th rough a w e b in ter face. It is substant ia l ly cheaper than mos t other c o m m e r c i a l da tabase and w e b integrat ion app l i ca t ions . T h e appl icat ion inc ludes a bas ic w e b server ex tens ion and a c u s t o m i z e d , s t reaml ined vers ion of the program Lasso. The V C N w a s amenab le to the sugges t ion that I deve lop a d y n a m i c vers ion w i th th is partner as a thes is project , and conver t it to a s tat ic vers ion for poster i ty , shou ld the par tnersh ip end w i th m y thes i s . A n a c a d e m i c partner w a s also less of a conce rn than w o r k i n g w i t h the pr ivate sec to r . 3 0 A f inal issue w a s that a major feature of interest w a s a da tabase of even ts and ac t iv i t ies , an on- l ine ca lendar where they cou ld submi t their even ts and k n o w w h a t each other is do ing . One par t ic ipant group pub l ishes a print b i -month ly ca lendar that is inser ted in f ree c o m m u n i t y pub l i ca t ions . They are run by vo lun teers and w e r e not at the t ime qui te ready to make dec is ions or act on deve lop ing an on- l ine p resence . There w e r e c o n c e r n s about los ing editor ial cont ro l and hav ing the t ime to deve lop and admin is te r a w e b si te at al l , m u c h less a more techn ica l l y comp lex one . A t the s a m e t ime , deve lop ing th is key feature w i thou t their par t ic ipat ion w o u l d conf l i c t w i th their intent to eventua l l y go on- l ine. Events f rom their latest ca lendar we re a resource for the p ro to type si te con ten t . Action Taking I deve loped a wo rk ing si te that used da tabase features on the SDRI server , and used th is to c rea te a s ta t ic s i te for the E C C to announce as p lanned at the C o m m u n i t y Deve lopmen t Insti tute con fe rence held in V a n c o u v e r that year . Shor t l y a f t e rwards , the server at SDRI w a s s to len in a c a m p u s break- in . The d y n a m i c p ro to type w a s later re-es tab l i shed on a back up s y s t e m , wh i le SDRI wa i ted for a grant to c o m e th rough to buy n e w equ ipmen t . Evaluating T h e bas ic ob jec t ive of get t ing a si te up that brought together in fo rmat ion f rom the d iverse g roups and i ssues w a s a c h i e v e d . The si te w a s themat ica l l y o rgan ized by: V i s i o n s and Def in i t ions , Init iat ives and P rog rams , R e s o u r c e s , and Organ iza t i ons , w i th each sec t i on sor ted by issue (e.g. urban eco logy , energy and w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t , c o m m u n i t y par t ic ipat ion) . S o m e feedback f rom the project coord ina to r ind ica ted that organ iz ing by i ssues more expl ic i t ly might be more compe l l ing and th is w a s incorpora ted in later ve rs ions . T ime and resources did not a l l ow for eva luat ing user react ion to the s i te , and th is w a s p o s t p o n e d in the hopes that the pro to type of the d y n a m i c vers ion cou ld be ref ined and then used to get f eedback into a f inal des ign . Specifying Learning T h e project itself s h o w e d the broader recogni t ion in the pract i t ioner c o m m u n i t y of the need and oppor tun i ty to use the w e b to bring together in ter -organizat ional env i ronmenta l in format ion resources . There w a s suppor t f rom many of the d iverse groups consu l ted in the p rocess to create a more techn ica l l y soph is t i ca ted w e b s i te . T h e on-go ing admin is t ra t ion plan for the project had a s s u m e d an over - re l iance on groups keep ing sec t i ons up- to-date , w h e n in reality mos t we re s t rugg l ing to deve lop and mainta in their o w n s i tes . W e b fo rms and a da tabase app roach s e e m e d usefu l in address ing th is i ssue . T e c h n i c a l and organizat iona l i ssues emerged as more c lose ly i n te rwoven than I had an t i c ipa ted . Others perce ived w h a t had appeared to me as an in-k ind dona t i on , as a threat to their publ ic interest m iss ion . Y e t , the t echno logy avai lable for publ ic and c o m m u n i t y in terests w a s comp lex to learn to use and l imited in its capab i l i t ies . T h e i ssues in th is project may have been con tex t spec i f i c , but th is is l ikely to be a conce rn 31 in any in ter -organizat ional under tak ing , part icular ly w i th publ ic interest and c o m m u n i t y g roups . T h e learning curve w a s quite s teep for me to des ign and imp lement a relat ional da tabase and program w e b pages to a c c e s s it. It w a s still a c o m p l e x under tak ing , even us ing the least expens i ve , user- f r iendly so f twa re w i th these capab i l i t ies , w i th a s s i s t a n t s / w i z a r d s to do s o m e of the p rog ramming . M a n y pro fess iona l p rog rammers s e e m to spec ia l i ze in one part icular so f twa re so lu t ion and th is learning cu rve induces a re t i cence to relearn another w a y of do ing th ings . Both the cos t and the skil l to use these so f twa re too ls (or the m o n e y to hire a specia l is t ) l imit their access ib i l i t y to c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d ef for ts . Us ing one s y s t e m , h o w e v e r , can make it d i f f icul t to t ransfer to a di f ferent host s y s t e m . T h e techn i ca l learning in th is ac t ion project is not adequate ly re f lec ted in this thes is due in part to the i l l- fated future of the p ro to type s i tes that I built (descr ibed in the next i terat ion). It is a lso due to the fac t that d y n a m i c w e b s i tes are server dependen t and canno t be captured on a portable med ium (a disk of s o m e sort ) , m u c h less in print. A U R L or a co l lec t ion of da tabase and w e b page f i les does not su f f i ce . Second Iteration - LPRV, CHS, SCARP (http://www.chs.ubc.ca/lprv; http://www.chs.ubc.ca; http://www.scarp.ubc.ca) Diagnosing Whi l e con temp la t i ng h o w to f in ish the thes is and refine a p ro to type e x a m p l e , an oppor tun i ty arose to wo rk on s o m e w e b deve lopmen t projects at the S c h o o l . T h e Loca l i zed Pover ty Reduc t ion in V i e t n a m (LPRV) project required in fo rmat ion-shar ing suppor t that had a s imi lar func t ion and organizat ional f r amework as the E C C s i te. Features like a ca lendar , resource index, con tac t d i rec tory , and project updates we re needed to coord ina te in format ion shar ing be tween severa l geograph ica l l y d i spersed ins t i tu t ions. A d y n a m i c arch ive of p rogram act iv i t ies and resources w o u l d suppor t the learning-by-doing approach of the project . Features , like a facu l ty d i rec tory , and in-house pub l ica t ions da tabase , we re integrated into a redes ign of the w e b s i tes , f i rst for the Cen t re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts ( C H S ) , the organizat ion that hos ts the L P R V project , and later, the S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lanning ( S C A R P ) , w h i c h hos ts the C H S . T h e potent ia l t ransferabi l i ty of the e lements des igned for the E C C si te w a s appea l ing to all par t ies. I w a s in terested in t ry ing to ref ine the p ro to type DEIS for the E C C s i te . Th is s e e m e d l ike a good oppor tun i ty to improve it techn ica l l y , by app ly ing it to s imi lar app l i ca t ions . It a lso held the possib i l i ty of creat ing a home for it to keep being u s e d , s ince S C A R P w a s a l ready an E C C partner, and in the more pub l ic - in teres ted wor ld of a c a d e m i a . Action Planning I met w i th staf f and facu l ty invo lved in these related pro jects , and par t icu lar ly the L P R V coord ina to r and the C H S c o m m u n i c a t i o n s coord inator . T h e s e mee t ings prov ided bas ic in format ion to set up the da tabases and feedback on needs and 32 in teres ts . W e deve loped plans to guide rev is ions to the pro to type to inc lude the n e w project needs . A n o t h e r p lanning s tep that unfor tunate ly did not c o m e to f ru i t ion w a s related to on-go ing con ten t deve lopmen t for the E C C s i te. The Planning S c h o o l w a s d i s c u s s i n g h o w to s t rengthen l inkages to the c o m m u n i t y . I p roposed that s tuden ts cou ld do in ternsh ip , wo rk , or independent s tudy projects help ing c o m m u n i t y g roups to expand their realm of the E C C content and their o w n on-l ine p resence . A p roposa l to suppor t s u c h an effort w a s submi t ted to a c a m p u s program for s tudent project f und ing , but w a s dec l i ned . Action Taking I w a s able to rev ise and use the s a m e da tabases to a c c o m m o d a t e the n e w project da ta . I res t ruc tured the w e b pages and w o r k e d w i th the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s coord ina to r on des ign and g raph ics . W e were able to run all four s i tes f rom one set of data f i les , and share bas ic e lements of the w e b pages ( templates, or c o m m o n c o d e e lements ) . M e a n w h i l e , the g y p s y host server saga con t i nued . SDRI w a s sti l l get t ing their n e w equ ipmen t ins ta l led. A n o t h e r un ivers i ty unit invo lved in the L P R V project , w a s s o m e w h a t open to host ing the da tabase and cou ld run the p rogram. T h e y w e r e not happy , h o w e v e r , about hav ing other con ten t hos ted on their server that w a s not d i rect ly or ent i rely related to their f ie ld . A s SDRI got their n e w equ ipment ins ta l led , they w e r e open to cont inu ing to prov ide server s p a c e for the pro jects and es tab l ish a fo rma l par tnersh ip . W e instal led a deve lopmen t si te on their server to use as w e w o r k e d on rev is ions and des ign . Even tua l l y , the C H S managemen t commi t t ee dec ided that they d idn ' t w a n t a par tnersh ip w i th SDRI and the p ro to types we re m o v e d to a P C in the C H S o f f i ce that w a s c o n n e c t e d to the U B C server . Th is w a s a s l o w but func t iona l inter im so lu t i on , t hough the c o m p u t e r cou ld not handle fo rms to a l l ow edi t ing con ten t (i.e. ones that d isp lay ex is t ing da ta and make changes rather than addi t ions.) The Facu l t y of Dent is t ry prov ides w e b si te se rv i ces to the Facu l ty of Gradua te S tud ies , w h e r e S C A R P be longs . C H S and S C A R P dec ided to hire t hem to host their w e b s i tes as we l l . Dent is t ry ind ica ted at f irst that they wou ld be able to run the appl icat ion w e we re us i ng , but later d i scove red a conf l i c t w i th their s y s t e m and w a s unable to suppor t it. Th is required re-do ing the s i tes in another so f twa re p rogram. W o r k - s t u d y s tuden ts we re subsequen t l y hired to under take th is work for the L P R V , C H S and S C A R P s i tes and the d y n a m i c vers ion of the E C C site w a s essent ia l ly left home less (and out of date) . Evaluating T h e dec i s ion to re-do the s i tes but to s tay w i th the s a m e c o n c e p t ind ica tes s o m e measure of s u c c e s s in in t roduc ing a n e w techno logy too l . A lack of s tab le operat ing t ime for all of the s i tes prec luded more ex tens ive user eva lua t ion . T h e bas ic t echn i ca l des ign proved to be capab le of sca l ing and adapta t ion to d i f ferent o rgan iza t iona l c o n t e x t s . 33 Specifying Learning Again, the challenges of collaborating on technical projects between different organizations led to issues of turf and a desire not to work with particular partners undermined the development of a prototype for my purposes and timeline. As indicated in the discussion of issues around technology implementation in the previous chapter, inter-organizational challenges can arise when there are limited resources or a partnership approach. I discuss this further below in the reflections. The idea of developing a student research content development partnership between university programs and community groups took shape during this iteration. This cooperative learning approach is taking root in one of the DEIS examples, the Stewardship Centre, described in Chapter 4. Another learning outcome, on the technical end, was that the data structure model (shown below as part of the DEIS framework) and the databases and web page templates were applicable in several different contexts. Summary of Learning Outcomes and Reflection on Action Projects In summary, there were three broad learning outcomes from the action projects: • There is support by practitioners for DEIS. • Multi-stakeholder negotiations are central to successful information system development. • I acquired technical skills and understanding and produced prototypes. I found that there is support and interest in the practitioner community to explore how emerging state-of-the-art computer technologies can support their work to educate, inform, and interact with diverse planning actors. The basic idea of a geographically specific, dynamic environmental information resource is transferable to other regions. The diversity of practitioners that have expressed interest in such resources in this region might imply that it would similarly appeal to others. Inter-organizational and collaborative issues require on-going negotiation. Information system development is itself a collaborative, adaptive learning process, relying on an on-going discursive interaction to determine what to implement and how. This is an even more important factor when groups are collaborating and when many of them have limited access (skills, money, and equipment) to technology resources. Political dynamics can have technical ramifications. Issues arise around defining, differentiating and maintaining organizational identity and prior institutional arrangements. Changes in service providers clearly affects the technical programming considerations in ways that non-technical managers may not grasp. Likewise one technical approach may be unsuitable for entirely non-technical reasons. Developing and implementing information systems, particularly in an inter-organizational context, is a people-oriented task as much as a technical task. This finding is supported in the literature on information systems development. Checkland's Soft Systems 34 M e t h o d o l o g y and a m o v e f rom an engineering approach to a socio-technical approach ind icate ef for ts in the f ield to address this f o c u s on people (Avgerou and C o r n f o r d , 1 9 9 8 , C h e c k l a n d , 1 9 8 1 , A v g e r o u , 1 9 9 5 ) . In te rms of the research p r o c e s s , this f ind ing mos t echoed the three weaknesses of ac t ion research c i ted earl ier. T h e in f luence of pol i t ical d y n a m i c s may be con t ingent on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the part icular ac t ion pro jects . The fac t that it a rose in both pro jec ts , and that other wr i ters in the in format ion s y s t e m s f ield point to th is evo lv ing unders tand ing of people-or iented t echno logy imp lementa t ion , bo ls ters its va l id i ty . Persona l i nvo lvement is inherent in ac t ion research . Emot iona l r esponses to s i tuat ions can more f i rmly e tch the lessons in the researcher ' s m ind . The dec i s i on -mak ing p r o c e s s e s regard ing the techn ica l ' h o m e ' for the s y s t e m s took m u c h longer than an t ic ipa ted and b e c a m e a source of f rus t ra t ion , s t ress and burn-out for me . Th is is cer ta in ly w h y th is e lement of in ter-organizat ional pol i t ics s tood out as a dominan t f ind ing f rom the p r o c e s s . Persona l i nvo lvement w a s unavo idab le in that I had persona l thes is research ob jec t i ves . It in f luenced the p rocess in a pos i t ive w a y in that it in t roduced n e w techno logy too ls to peop le . H o w e v e r , my interest in us ing th is t e c h n o l o g y pushed it on to organ izat ions that did not have adequate preparat ion and resources to ser ious ly adopt it. L o w cont ro l of the research env i ronment is a s t rength of ac t ion research in many respec ts , in that it in t roduces surpr ise and g ives rise to n e w f ind ings not expl ic i t ly sough t in the initial research f r amework . I w a s perhaps naive in underes t imat ing the impor tance of ful ly unders tand ing var ious par t ic ipants pe rspec t i ves and potent ia l c l a s h e s . I did not expec t so many d i f f icu l t ies in fo rming techn ica l par tnersh ips , espec ia l l y w h e n they we re f inanc ia l ly advan tageous . Wh i l e l o w cont ro l w a s a s ign i f icant barrier in deve lop ing a sa t i s fac to ry f inal DEIS e x a m p l e , it re in forced the lessons of real wor ld co l labora t ion , its p romises and pi t fa l ls . T h e third o u t c o m e w a s a w e b si te product (and severa l p redecesso r p ro to types) , and an in-depth unders tand ing of the t echno logy too ls and h o w they are imp lemen ted at the des ign and p rogramming leve ls . A da tabase requires break ing in format ion d o w n into its smal les t c o m p o n e n t s . In this c a s e , I had to take the c o m m u n i c a t i v e s y s t e m , break it d o w n and s t ruc ture its c o m p o n e n t s , and then re- integrate and cross- l ink it into usefu l w e b pages for d iverse users to a c c e s s the da ta in a mean ing fu l w a y . Th is exerc ise of d is in tegra t ion , or s y s t e m s ana lys is , and re- in tegrat ion, gave me a r icher unders tand ing of the arch i tec ture of in format ion about d i scu rs i ve env i ronmenta l k n o w l e d g e shar ing . DEIS Framework Th is chap te r has desc r ibed an ac t ion project to deve lop a p ro to type of a d y n a m i c env i ronmenta l in format ion s y s t e m in the con tex t of a real c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d project . Wh i l e this approach w a s not as s u c c e s s f u l as I had hoped in c reat ing a p ro to type s i te , the learning o u t c o m e s comb ine usefu l ly w i th the theore t ica l qual i t ies , s t ra teg ies and capabi l i t ies that I d i s c u s s e d in Chap te r 2 . The f r a m e w o r k of DEIS e lements b e l o w in tegrates the theoret ica l and exper ient ia l learning to charac te r i ze impor tant var iab les , qual i t ies and features of these too ls . I list and desc r ibe each e lement s h o w i n g ques t ions used to rev iew examp le s i tes in the next chap te r . T h e ques t ions cou ld a lso be used to guide the concep tua l i za t ion and deve lopmen t of a s i te . 3 5 Table 3.2 DEIS Framework Elements 1. Content 1.1 Divers i ty of A u d i e n c e s & T y p e s of Informat ion 1.2 Geog raph i c Refe rence and Re levance 1.3 Organ iza t ion of Informat ion 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and p lat form of s y s t e m (ISP) 2 . 2 Ab i l i t y to cus tom ize user homepage 2 . 3 Inter face, page des ign 2 . 4 E-mai l no t i f i ca t ion 2 .5 Integrat ion w i th other c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s and s i tes 2 .6 R e m o t e , d is t r ibuted conten t cont r ibu t ion 3. Organization and Administration 3.1 Inst i tut ional suppor t , organ izat ion t ype 3 .2 F inancia l base 1. Content 1.1 Diversity of participants and types of information A s I emphas i zed in Chap te r 2 , d ivers i ty is a corners tone of both comp lex i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e theory . In the con ten t of a DEIS, d ivers i ty is re f lected by the par t ic ipants , aud iences and conten t cont r ibu tors , as wel l as the t ypes of in fo rmat ion . In format ion types e n c o m p a s s a number of th ings — a range of t op i cs , i s sues and ca tegor ies ; a range of media fo rmats and s t y les ; resources to prov ide b a c k g r o u n d , n e w s , research f ind ings , po l icy , peop le , too ls , suppor t , a s s i s t a n c e , and gather ings and even t s . D ivers i ty can inc lude oppor tun i t ies to share and bui ld k n o w l e d g e , learn and c h a n g e th rough di f ferent k inds of gather ings and d iscu rs i ve oppor tun i t ies (e.g. c o u r s e s , w o r k s h o p s , on- l ine con fe rences , p rograms, and meet ings) . D ivers i ty of Par t i c ipants : W h o is the target aud ience for the s i te? Do they exp l ic i t ly ident i fy aud iences? W h o prov ides con ten t? C a n prov iders be c o n t a c t e d ? C a n n e w users submi t con ten t? D ivers i ty of T y p e s of In format ion: Does the conten t ref lect a range of d i f ferent c o m m u n i t i e s of in terest (e.g. i s sues , top ics )? Does the con ten t inc lude : n e w s , s to r ies , p lans , repor ts , m inu tes , agendas , c a s e s tud ies , ac t ion a ler ts , b a c k g r o u n d , v i s i ons , desc r ip t i ons , art, m u s i c , poet ry , v ideo , aud io , images , char ts , g raphs , da ta , p roduc t s , 3 6 b o o k s , se r v i ces , a s s i s t a n c e , ca lendars , event and gather ing schedu les , c o n t a c t s and backg round on peop le , organ izat ions and agenc ies , ind ica tors , e tc .? 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance Th is e lement c lear ly relates to the qual i ty of emphas iz ing the local over the g loba l . It can be cap tured in a DEIS by both the geograph ic s c o p e of the s i te , as we l l as by mak ing in format ion access ib le by p laces wi th in the larger da ta poo l . Does the site ref lect an emphas i s of the local over the g lobal? Is in format ion geograph ica l l y re ferenced for re levance? Is it indexed and l inked to p lace-spec i f i c in fo rmat ion? 1.3 Organization of Information C l o s e l y related to d ivers i ty , th is e lement looks at h o w all the d i f ferent t ypes of in format ion and aud iences are presented to the user and wha t the under ly ing s t ruc ture is . W h a t entry points are there for d iverse users w i th di f ferent in teres ts? W h a t is e m p h a s i z e d on the home page as major in format ion t ypes? H o w does the s i te organ ize and s t ruc ture the in format ion to ref lect the aud iences , commun i t i es of in terest and p lace , and in format ion t ypes? A v i e w e r can d iscern s o m e aspec t s of the under ly ing s t ruc ture by sur f ing a s i te . Deve lop ing a si te requires look ing at th is aspec t in detai l to s t ruc ture da ta f i les and w e b pages to a c c e s s t h e m . Figure 3.1 i l lustrates a meta-s t ruc ture of the in format ion for the project s i tes . Figure 3.1 Generic Information Structure for DEIS ACTIVITIES events, courses, metings, w o r k s h o p s P R O G R A M S , P R O J E C T S , ON-GOING INITIATIVES R E S O U R C E S publ icat ions, reports, d o c u m e n t s PLACES neighbourhoods, cit ies, regions, countr ies, communi t ies of place ORGANIZATIONS contacts, support, sector, mission ROLES titles, affiliations S U B J E C T S topics, issues, themes, communi t ies of interest P E O P L E name, contact info, biographical info 3 7 2. Technical Capabilities and Features T h e f o l l ow ing e lements relate spec i f i ca l l y to the t echn i ca l capabi l i t ies desc r ibed in the prev ious chapter . 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) W h a t ha rdware and so f twa re conf igura t ion is hos t ing the s y s t e m ? 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage A r e there fea tures that a l low users to cus tom ize the h o m e p a g e they v i e w by spec i f y ing in teres ts , l oca t ion , e tc .? 2.3 Interface, page design Is the w e b si te des ign graphica l ly appeal ing? A r e di f ferent des ign s ty les used for d i f ferent aud iences? Does the des ign fac i l i ta te nav igat ion th rough the s i te and ease of use? Is the des ign compat ib le w i th s l owe r modem/o lde r b rowse r users? 2.4 E-mail notification C a n v is i tors rece ive e-mail not i f icat ion of c h a n g e s , add i t ions and upda tes? 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites Is the s y s t e m l inked we l l to other resources , med ia and c o m m u n i c a t i o n channe ls? 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution Does the si te a l l ow v is i to rs , d iverse organ iza t ions and ind iv iduals to cont r ibu te in format ion? A r e d i scuss i ons and pos t ings modera ted? 3. Organization and Administration A s the d i f f icu l t ies in the ac t ion projects i l lustrate, the organ iza t iona l and on-go ing admin is t ra t i ve and techn ica l suppor t for a DEIS is cr i t ica l . T h e hos t o rgan iza t ion con f igura t ion p lays a role in w h a t con ten t is i nc luded , h o w the se rv i ces are f u n d e d , if there is a cos t to use s o m e or all of the resources , (i.e. the overal l or ientat ion and viabi l i ty of the si te) . 3.11nstitutional support, organization type W h o hos ts or admin is ters the si te? Is the si te pr ivate, non-prof i t , or gove rnmen t based? Is the g o v e r n a n c e p rocess open to par t ic ipat ion f r om users? A r e hos t s and s p o n s o r s t ransparent? C a n they be con tac ted? A r e these aspec t s c o m m u n i c a t e d in the s i te? 38 3.2 Financial base Do par t icu lar o rgan iza t ions suppor t or sponso r the si te? A r e these c red i ted? Is there adver t is ing? A r e there other " e - c o m m e r c e " features to the s i te? In the next chapte r I use th is f r amework to present an o v e r v i e w of severa l DEIS examp les to s h o w the var iabi l i ty w i th in these e lements . 39 Chapter 4 - DEIS Examples in Practice Introduction Th is chapte r uses the f ramework deve loped in the prev ious chap te rs to rev iew examp les of dynam ic env i ronmenta l in format ion s y s t e m s . V i e w i n g real examp les can help i l lustrate the e lements of the f r amework more e f fec t i ve ly than descr ip t i ve tex t . In Chap te r 5 , I inc lude d i scuss ion and ana lys is of the e x a m p l e s , par t icu lar ly as the e lements relate to the con tex tua l and operat ional backg round e laborated in Chap te rs 2 and 3 . Th is chapte r is primari ly descr ip t i ve and i l lustrat ive. Format V i e w i n g real examp les presents a cha l lenge howeve r . W e b s i tes c h a n g e over t ime and s o m e d isappear , so it wou ld be desi rab le to arch ive t hem s o m e h o w for the purposes of th is thes is . D y n a m i c w e b s i tes use scr ip ts and codes that on ly operate on the server w h e r e the si te is hos ted , so d o w n l o a d e d examp les can lose m u c h of their func t iona l i t y and con ten t w h e n v i e w e d off - l ine. To i l lustrate examp les to the reader, I have inc luded sc reen sho ts w h e r e appropr ia te as the homepages t h e m s e l v e s c o n v e y a great dea l , part icular ly w h e n laid out next to each other. I prov ide U R L s for the s i tes and the reader is encouraged to explore the s i tes t hemse l ves to get a r icher unders tand ing of the w a y it p resents and layers in format ion . The reader can vis i t the si te and exp lore fur ther wh i le reading the descr ip t ions in the thes is tex t . A c k n o w l e d g i n g the danger that a later reader may f ind s o m e re ferenced s i tes or l inks w i th in t h e m to have changed or d i sappeared , th is is still the mos t su i tab le op t i on . C h a n g e s ref lect the dynam ic nature of the s i tes t hemse l ves and may prov ide an i l lustrat ion in t h e m s e l v e s of s i tes being adapted to serve their users . If a w h o l e si te has d i sappea red , it may ref lect a site that did not have a sui tab le admin is t ra t i ve plan to mainta in the s i te . DEIS Examples Clear l y , the f r amework deve loped in this thes is is descr ip t i ve rather than prescr ip t i ve . I have c h o s e n examp les to present that I have b e c o m e a w a r e of it in the course of m y s tud ies and work . For the purposes of this thes i s , I make little d is t inc t ion b e t w e e n environmental and sustainability c o n c e p t s , as d i s c u s s e d in earl ier chap te rs . A s d i s c u s s e d in the Introduct ion and Chap te r 2 , a broad , hol is t ic in terpretat ion of env i ronment e n c o m p a s s e s human s o c i o e c o n o m i c ac t iv i ty . A susta inab i l i t y f r amework genera l ly impl ies an integrated approach to env i ronmenta l , e c o n o m i c and soc ia l t o p i c s , and so the te rms are largely compa t ib le in a planning-re lated c o m m u n i c a t i o n con tex t . T h e pr imary s i tes used in this Chap te r are l isted b e l o w . The E C C si te deve loped as a p ro to type , as desc r ibed in Chap te r 3 , is inc luded as we l l . A s d i s c u s s e d , the f inal d y n a m i c vers ion of the E C C site ended up hav ing no sui tab le home server and no c lear fu ture. It con ta ins out of date in format ion and wi l l not be opera t iona l . T h e f inal E C C s i te , h o w e v e r , is a stat ic h tml s i te . 40 Env i roOne - h t t p : / / w w w . e n v i r o o n e . c o m E n v i r o n O n e . c o m is a U . S . based commerc ia l s i te w i th a very b road , " o n e s t o p " f o c u s . S D Onl ine - h t tp : / / susdev .eu ro found . ie S D Onl ine is a co l lec t ion of da tabases hos ted by the European Founda t ion for the Improvement of L iv ing and W o r k i n g Cond i t i ons . S D G a t e w a y - h t t p : / / sdga teway .ne t S D G a t e w a y is an array of susta inabi l i ty resources hos ted by the Internat ional Insti tute for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t . SDIn fo , Eco ln fo - h t t p : / / w w w . s d i n f o . g c . c a and h t t p : / / w w w . e c o i n f o . o r g SDIn fo and Eco ln fo are Canad ian Federal Gove rnmen t S i tes . T h e Land Cent re - h t t p : / / w w w . l a n d c e n t r e . u b c . c a T h e Land Cent re is a joint of fer ing f rom the Real Esta te Founda t ion and U B C ' s C o m m e r c e Depar tmen t and inc ludes a w i d e var iety of land use and real es ta te in fo rmat ion . T h e S t e w a r d s h i p Cen t re - h t t p : / / w w w . s t e w a r d s h i p c e n t r e . o r g T h e S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re is a n e w si te put together by an in te r -agency c o m m i t t e e represent ing Federal and Prov inc ia l agenc ies and pr ivate organ iza t ions w i th c o n c e r n s about habi tat and wi ld l i fe . Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t i e s C o n n e c t - h t t p : / / w w w . v c n . b c . c a / e c c Eco log ica l C o m m u n i t y C o n n e c t is the site deve loped dur ing the f irst ac t ion project . 41 EnviroOne.com - http://www.enviroone.com Figure 4.1 EnviroOne.com Homepage • Addres j * jht tp / A * w . v , e t i v r o o n e . c o m / e n v s e a r c h 7 ~ /iPnviroOne Vour one .s7o;> center for all yout environmental nerds! father - enter zip cote Advanced Search H ' J F E E E . . ! Join BsviroQaja Joitx Our ListServs Find Job/Post Resume Add URI E-Mail Adwctise So^are/Daiabases Real-tim? Air Quality Browofiilds Reports Children Mb CmmtNews mere... Pert & Chrt..! Post Jobs/Search, Resumes Bulletin Boards/Lire Chat Ataicnjncmifrx*/ffwnt Become an EnviroOne Merober/Affiliate Become a £ « r E n v i r o Member/Affiliate I C u s t o m i z e you r web page ; f ree e - m a i l ; p o s t & rev iew p r e s u m e s ; p o s t 6t rev iew a v a i l a b l e j o b s ; r e c e i v e job & p r e s u m e a l e r t s ; p romote you r s i te & b u s i n e s s ; s u b m i t your \ e n v i r o n m e n t a l news , p r e s s r e l e a s e s , e v e n t s . S e l l / b u y e n v i r o n m e n t a l p roduc t s & s e r v i c e s ( B 2 B and B 2 C ) j pa r t i c i pa te in on- l i ne a u c t i o n s ; on - l i ne c o n t r a c t m a n a g e m e n t ; f ree e - m a i l ; a c c e s s wor ld -w ide m a r k e t s ; p romote your b u s i n e s s . EmvirolHcTs Heifllius for OctoJer 31, 2000 $5.2 Mi l l ion Appropriated for Pelican Island and Archie Carr National Wildlife refuges - O n November 3, 2000. at 1 p.m. at the Treasure Shores Park in, Indian River Comity. Florida, the U . S . Fish arid Wildlife Servic... rn o P a * Green Energy Parte Initiative Receives Whits House Awaid - The Green Energy Parks program, a joint program with the Department of the Interior's (DOI) National Park Service (NPS) and t... mo Re * EnvirolLocal M y Watershed M y B e a c h e s Rea l - t ime Moni tor ing Data Rea l - t ime Ai r Qual i ty Enviro Fac ts Env i r oMappe r Reports EmTiro !C*f «$rories A g e n c i e s US Federal. The World ... A g r i c u l t u r e Ag Biotech, Organic Farming... A i r Po l l u t i on Global Warming, Smog... B i o t e c h n o l o g y Biotechnology. HumsnGenome.. . Laws & Ftenulationa Tnbai Lams/Programs, federal.. . Mininci Acid Mine Drainage, Safety... Crqant za t ' ons Art N a m . Ai imal Rights... Ftanninci Transportation. Urban Sprart... Hot F-Togrsma/laauea A m b i e n t Ai r Qual i ty Super fund Brownf ie lds Ch i ld ren Business .Assistance Urban Sprawl G l o b a l Warm ing EnvirolForuma : jjfr Internet zone 42 Figure 4.1 EnviroOne.com Homepage, cont. Address: | hit p:77'wvw"enivi'roone .com/envsearch/ '•'•"•"•'•"dJa"Vlgoierai. i n e uuona .. . A g r i c u l t u r e B i o t e c h . O r g a n i c F a r m i n g . . . . A i r F o i l u t i o n G l o b a l W a n n i n g . S m o g . . . E J o t e c h n o l o g y B i o t e c h n o l o g y . H u m a n G e n o m e . . . E u a i n e a a e a A s s i s t a n c e . In te rna t iona l T r a d e . . . C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n & C a n c e r . G a m e s / Q u i z e s . . . C l e a n u p / R e m e d i a t i o n Oil S p i l l s . R e m e d i a l T e c h n o l o g i e s . . . C M m a t e A i d L a n d s , W e a t h e r , . . C o n s e r v a t i o n / R e e l a m a t o n L a n d R e s o u r c e s . W a t e r R e s o u r c e s . . . D a a a t e r a F l o o d s . F o r e s t F i r e s . . . E c o a y a t e m a B i o d i v e r s i t y . W e t l a n d s . . . E d u c a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n , F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . . . E n e r g y . B i o m a s s , R e n e w a b l e E n e r g y . . . E n v i r o n m e n t a l J u a t i c e E J G r a n t s . G I S . . . G r a n t s / F e l l o w a h i p a G r a n t s . G ran t M a k i n g F o u n d a t i o n s . . . H a z a r d o u s W a s t e I nc ine ra t i on M e d i c a l , W a s t e . P C B s . . . H e a l H i a S a f e t y E n d o c r i n e D i s r u p t e r s . H u m a n H e a l t h . . J o b R e s o u r c e s R e s u m e P r e p a r a t i o n . N e u w r t i n g . . . I nba l U w s / P r o g r a m s . f e d e r a l . " M n i n c ] A s i d M n e D r a i n a g e . S a f e t y . . . O c i a n i z a t i o n s A ^ i y i s m , A i i m a i R i g h t s . . . R a n n i n c i T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , U r b a n Spraud . . . P o p u l a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n C o n t r o l . . . P r o d u c t s / S e r v i c e a / A L C o n s u l t i n g . . . D e s a l i n a t i o n . , , F r o d u c t a / S e r v i c e a / M Z N u c l e a r W a s t e . . . P a p e r . . . Pub\ i c a t i o n a A b s t r a c t s . T e s t M e t h o d s , . . R a d i a t J o n F c l l u t i o n D u m p i n g , N u c l e a r W a s t e , , . R e c r e a t i o n E c o t o u r i s m . P a r k s / C a v e s . . . R e s e a r c h R e s e a r c h C e n t e r s , F u n d i n g . . . R i a k A a a e a a m e n t E c o l o g i c a l . H u m a n H e a l t h . . . S e c u r i t y U n i t e d S t a t e s . Trie W o r l d . . . S o c i a l & C u l t u r a l E n e r g y , P o l i c y . T r e a t i e s . . . S o f h f t B r e S D a t a b a a e a F & T . N a t u r a l .A t t enua t i on . . . S o l i d W a s t e C o m p o s t i n g . R e c y c l i n g . . . S u a t a i n a b i l i t y S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t . . . W a t e r l a a u e a Non -po in t S o u r c e s . . . B u s i n e s s . A s s i s t a n c e U r b a n S p r a w l . ^J . . ! - l . . b . a lWar rn ing . EnwrplForuma R e s e a r c h e r s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o f e s s i o n a l s C o n c e r n e d C i t i z e n s S t u d e n t s & T e a c h e r s B o o k / S o f t w a r e R e v i e w s • b u y E n v i n o ' • E n v i r o ! M a r k e t H o m e p a g e ' C l e a n i n g & D e c r e a s i n g C h e m i c a l s ' E q u i p m e n t R e n t a l ' P r i n t i n g W i r i n g B o a r d E q u i p m e n t • W a s t e R e d u c t i o n E q u i p m e n t ' B o o k s / M a g a z j n e s f J o u rn a i s M o r e I t e m s . . . S ign up for o u r F r e e n e w s g r o u p Oannfoffcl tf» WsaitTGfEuQ F r e e S e a r c h | A d d Y o u r S i t e | S h o p p i n g \Ian*sc im EMTJroOjt*' | C o n t a c t U s | C a r e e r C e n t e r l ^ o V e r f f s e YourEkssin&s-3 | N e w s | F r e e E - M a i l | A n n o u n c e m e n t s | F e e d b a c k | N e w s g r o u p / L i s t S e r v | A b o u t U s Copyright InviraOin 1999, 2000 ^ Internet zone 1. Content 1.1 Diversity Severa l aud ience and part ic ipant g roups are re ferenced on the h o m e p a g e . Under " E n v i r o F o r u m s " , w h i c h l inks to a N e w s g r o u p / L i s t S e r v sec t i on , severa l g roups are ident i f ied inc lud ing researchers , env i ronmenta l p ro fess iona ls , c o n c e r n e d c i t i zens , and s tuden ts and teachers . Other aud iences inc lude job seekers and emp loye rs , and bus inesses and organ iza t ions w i th env i ronmenta l p roduc ts and se rv i ces . Informat ion is l inked to gove rnmen t , N G O s and c o m m u n i t y g roups , b u s i n e s s e s , and un ivers i t ies cove r ing a range of sou rce par t ic ipants . T h e in format ion is qui te d iverse in the sub jec ts , i ssues and t y p e s ava i lab le , as seen in the ex tens i ve list of ca tegor ies . The presenta t ion of all of the ca tegor ies up f ront p rov ides users w i th di f ferent points of entry into the wor ld of env i ronmenta l i n fo rmat ion . A bus inesspe rson can f ind indust ry related in fo rmat ion , wh i le a s tuden t or researcher can app roach the in format ion f rom an issue or sub ject head ing , and a parent can app roach f rom conce rns about their ch i ld ren 's heal th . 43 1.2 Geographic Reference T h e s i te is c lear ly U . S . based (e.g. a zip code search for the wea the r ) . Loca l or p lace -spec i f i c in format ion is prov ided primari ly th rough l inks to d y n a m i c s i tes at the Env i ronmen ta l P ro tec t ion A g e n c y (EPA) to a l l ow users to z o o m in on their region for wea the r , w a t e r s h e d , and beaches and other federal ly held da ta . T h e s e l inks prov ide an entry into w h o l e other DEIS s i tes that have a s o m e w h a t more spec i f i c f o c u s . Canad ian examp les of gove rnmen t in format ion s i tes are d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , but t hese l inks prov ide an oppor tun i ty to compare them to U . S . coun te rpar ts . Users can a lso sea rch the da tabase by geograph ic te rms . Fo l low ing the link under " E n v i r o L o c a l " for " M y W a t e r s h e d " goes to the E P A - Surf Y o u r W a t e r s h e d s i te . Sc reen sho ts i l lustrate the d iverse in format ion prov ided for a search on the Skag i t River in ne ighbour ing W a s h i n g t o n S ta te . The live si te must be v i e w e d to ac t iva te the m e n u s under "Env i ronmen ta l In format ion, " " P l a c e s Involv ing Th is S t a t e , " and " H o w to Par t i c ipa te . " Th is si te is a r ich examp le of a DEIS itself. Figure 4.2 EPA Surf Your Watershed • Surf your Wa»erftc~4 " Wafterrtied Morwation I ] B| ^ Address: [JE| if http://ww.epa.qoWsurf3/hucs/i 7110007/ 44 Figure 4.2 EPA Surf Your Watershed, cont. -Sort Voor Watershed •- Watershed Information —.. Address: igm | http:/ /www.epa.gov/surf3/hues/17110007/ H.BT a*1 . 1 Sin*-. 9 - Seattle—Belle vug-Everett?.-Ho miA&t el •: AM t r i c » iHtntag* Rivers: QrvFTOt Sound-. '•doWLStrtHIl • TrUts , i;None:Knxiwii Environmental Profile ; Find general information integrated for Diis specific watershed Assesaiteuts of Watershed Health Ii?de>:pf JvV^s'Sil^JiU'featoi^ (provided by EPA) Unified Watershed Assessments (LTWA) (provided by S tates and Tribes) 1998 Impaired Water (provided by EPA /State partnership) Eiivuramieiital Ii don tin Hon * > i < uMds 1 Hi.1 ve*l L l * !rjt ifjUi FiTgi*:?. EnvuTjimientei Web Sites: • Real Time Facilities regulated by EPA (provided by Envnnfftcts) • Toxic releases i£omte:TRI - Toxic Release Inventory) Q Hazardous 'Wastes (Source: R C R A - Resource CansBivauon Recovery Act) a Supeiftrnd Sites Source: C E K C L A -Comprehensive Envuonmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) Enyii'oMapper for Watersheds- (interactive lapping tool) Water : Find information focused on Mss^for Vii; specific watersSied Rivers and Streams in trus Watershed; Cprovidfidby EPA's first Fiver Reach File) Lakes in the watershed: N/A Total number of watershed acres: N/A River and stream miles: o No data available :total river miles • No date available :peremual liver miles • No data available :% of total rivers and streams lave been surveyed • No data available :miles meet all designated uses The following aquifer's are in tliis hue: (Source: USGS Principal Aquifers of the 4S Contiguous United States 1998) s Aqnifer iPuget- Willamette Lowland aquifer system '258 Square : Miles RockTyj)e iUnconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers ; } Internet zone | ^ Address: 1 ]http7/vww.epa.gov/surf3/riucs/l7110007/ Sarf Your Watershed " Watershed MforMo+ion a .HonrKaovra. '..Large {Ecosystems: i Miles iPuget- wairaeiS Lowland aquifer system :2S8 (UnctaisoSfflid sand and g W i aquifers iNa Principal Kqiiiftr 1178 ' N/A Facilities regulated by EPA. (piovirled by EoiyMScta) • Commimity Water Sources (Source: SDWIS Safe Drinking Water Infonuation System) a Water Dischargers (Smure: PCS - Permit Compliance System) Information provided by the United Slates Geological Survey (USGS) 'BaTB"*|i'H • Water Momtorim S tatian o SJjeamJPtow (Source: USGS) • Science in Youi Watershed a Historical Water Data o Water use (1990): Information about the amount of water used and how it is used o Selected USGS Abstracts Land Fmd watershed iyiformaticn focused on land characteristics Area: +51.7 sqmi: perimeter: H6.39 nu Habitat: Forest Riparian Habitat ftgicultural/Urhan Riparian Habitat. People Fmd out about local actions in tfiis watershed: Citizen-based^ (Provided by .Adopt Your Wateislted) join now (Adopt Your Wateislied) Matronal Wateished Nehvorl; (provided bv Conseivation 1^chnoloe,v luromiation Centgi) Air Fmd mfinnation focused on air for this watcrslied: Facilities regulated by EPA (provided by Envirofacts) o Ajr (Source: AIRS) MT IIAXOMII COMTAi:IS I MSCLATrtlK | AJOBTI K i l l I C0MHIHTS 45 1.3 Organization of Information T h e information in the Envi roOne site is organized with a s o m e w h a t traditional 'portal ' style (examples include Y a h o o , Exci te , e tc . , sites that index and organize other sites primarily). T h e s e sites typically put a lot of information and categor ized links up front. N e w s is featured along with links to major site areas like d i s c u s s i o n / f o r u m s , and a career center. T h e E P A watershed site illustrates another approach to organizing informat ion. O n c e a v iewer has z o o m e d in on their wa te rshed , resources and links to other da tabases , si tes, and organizations are organized by e c o s y s t e m medium (air, water , soi ls, etc.) as well as by w a y s to participate, d i s c u s s i o n s , local c o m m u n i t y groups , and agenc ies . It also highlights an essential information type , listing indicators at the top. A s authors like Innes and Booher (1999a , b) point out, indicators and feedback are a critical part of the information f low. Indicators can take many fo rms , f rom anecdota l observat ions to formal measures of condit ions over t ime. T h e list illustrated above includes monitoring and a s s e s s m e n t results as well as reports of progress in restoration and planning. 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) A v iewer cannot usually d iscern the hardware from v iewing , but you can often tell what sof tware they are using by looking at the address string in the deeper links. For example , this one uses "Act ive Server Pages" which runs on W i n d o w s N T s y s t e m s Th is is indicated by the .asp suffix on my search for information related to the state of Missour i . T h e s e c o n d image s h o w s that a similar search is done for the linked category and subcategory topics (the Energy category in this case) . Figure 4.3 URLs showing Active Server Page Use • p r i v i r w w r i c « n ) m % % © Q A % ® & 4t £ m Sack Forward Stop Refresh Home Search Mail Favorites Larger Smaller Preferences Address: http: / / www .env iroone .com /en vsearch /SearohResu Its .asp ? ID=m issour i "^SisJlSf *^*ll^ ls ^Jll^ip SS555fli E^sP^ S,, Forward Stop Refresh Home Search Mail Favorites Larger Smaller F'refe ess I j _ J j http : / / w w w .enviroone.com/envsearch/CategoryMa in.asp?ID=Energy wm 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage This feature is emphasized in a prominent posit ion on the h o m e p a g e . Env i roOne al lows users to register and then make use of several features, including customiz ing the h o m e p a g e they see when logging in to Env i roOne. I registered with the site to 46 create m y o w n h o m e p a g e and i l lustrate this p rocess b e l o w . In the f irst image , I s h o w the fo rm used to register myse l f as a user . Figure 4.4 EnviroOne Membership Form • — -' -- r — -"~ - Myrenvii-o-ypur one-rt?<> environfwentateenter n. ' i l |j. Address: (i^ g) ihttp://wvw.enviroongxorn/envsearch/PersonalizationNewuser asp [: EnviroOne Your one atop center foinalb your environmenitif needs'. ... .., . <iss Yoir Boss Goodbye. i M m l l l F ' ' > s " - h & W $1,000,000*'!'! Membership Entry Form Please enter tlie following mrbrmation to become a number of the EnviroOne community including the ability to personalize your Web page, receive free e-mail; post & review resumes: post & review available jobs; receive job & resume alerts; promote your site & business; and submit yoiu' environmental news, press releases, events. (* denotes a required field). Al l information you provide will remain completely confidential! Choose a User Name * k " , o r 9 a n Ir:n * P.'isii-i.c'. 1 Confirm Your Passwords*:tI7?«• • • First Name * Katherine Ldsrr.'f-r 1 Morgan C c: "-any . - -Address! City. Vancouver State/Province jBC Postal/Zip Code*V5T 2B~ ~ Tin —.j- i iinrmnrn.—m-i rnn-t tm Inlprnct fnno , =1 .lrr\ Jr*»;i . Jracv lira. \em. Ir-i : .I^ lj.. I<c,.. Iter. Ul >sz T h e next image s h o w s the opt ions I had to cus tom ize my page v i e w , based on a 'de fau l t ' layout . I c h o s e severa l opt ions and features to d isp lay . The next t w o images s h o w my n e w homepage at E n v i r o o n e . c o m , based on the cho i ces I s e l e c t e d . 47 Figure 4.5 EnviroOne Customization Options EnviroOneiEnv/Irontoentat Personalization Address. h^m 1 http ://w¥.enviroone.com/envsearoh/PersonaIizatlonCustomize asp sPleMBiSebct aiiopbD 11 fxom each list to:cu^ sspace ifsyaudo ^ Please do not select multiple featmes Fenlunes for Left Side t'tatiura lor Right Side [ My Watershed *) (Featured Jobs t ] [ Weather *J f Wews Headline i] (fnvito!'.Search *) [Tof> Announcements ;1 : Envtro.'Categories t ) { *) I 1*1 I a) ( ( t) ^) (Save)" Figure 4.6 My EnviroOne Homepage D EnWroOno-fns'IronMerital Personalization Address: j htp .7/www.enviroone.com/envsearch/PersonalizationMainMenu.asp tiPnviroOne ; Cystoma-MyiEimro; < Customise MyEaJULtr:. sEJU'Mv Personal Info a; -(Watershed fori/gf •My-We other--from >Fhe WeatKer Channel Entergy our, t i p code or.city v:-V5T 2J A Hot Jols ^ • • • Restoration Ecologrst H.L. Yoh Company LLC is currently recruiting for a Restoration Ecotogist to work in Indianapolis. IN on a contract position that is expected to last a : Area Managers You wil  be required to identity and establish Aquasure Water Testing ' Centers in your area through existing retail outlets. You wil  be responsible io Distributors Required Internationaly To introduce and make available to water providers in . your area Aquasure's Testing Equipment. Wil consider exclusive distribution for various . interna Development Director Water Environment Research Foundationals vision is to be the most trusted water environment research organization, using good science to provide info 013 Manager. Brandywine Conservancy Our non-profit conservation organization, focusing on Southeastern Pennsylvania and Northern Delaware, has an immediate opening for an experienced pro : Native Fish Still Common in Natural Streams, Scarce in Canals- Native resident fish species. : such as the Sacramento sucker andtule perch, are still commonly found in streams of the : Sacram - rnc-Kis • : Reading Brick Maker to Pay Penalty for Lax Chemical Reporting • PHILADELPHIA • Glen-Gery Corp. a Reading. Pa.-based brick and concrete manufacturer, wilpay a $93,295 penalty to settle an - mon&»-Toj|EmTiro!A»iLO*meem*als-.. • ' " ' V ^ } ^ : ' ! \ v Land Transfer and Long-term Stewardship ofConiaminated Federal Facilities The U.S. Department of Energyao™s Oakland Operations Ofice and Ofice of Science and Technology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9. as wel as other federal agencies, wil sponsor a workshop on land transfer and long-term stewardship of contaminated federal facilities on December 13-15. 2000. at the Argent Hotel in San Francisco. With a focus on the unique policy and technical issues that affect federal facilities, the workshop wil engage a wide range of players in the environmental field: .—^ Jntftr.ne.t.zflQe-- . 48 Address: sggsai | Mip'':'//wvv 1 UOUL^HiHlJiyo ItJUIjlJI IJUIIILI^  Oil LH=J0tj>11U^ I \6- IU, 2uUU, JI U\U Highl i t HUlMi III aJM ' Franc isco . With a focus on the unique po l icy .and t e c h n i c a l issues that affect federal : faci l i t ies, the workshop will e n g a g e a wide range of players in the envi ronmenta l f ie ld: federal and state project managers and regulators; private sector contractors: t e c h n o l o g y researchers and vendors; insurance and f i n a n c e representatives who work on redeve lopment projects; and publ ic interest groups and stakeholders. Date:12/13/00 : Watson international S c h o l a r s of the i Eny|tonm i ent i r^/J i SE') Invitation for Fai l Te rm 2000 Object ive: Rapid expansion of environmental research, m a n a g e m e n t and po l icy c a p a c i t i e s a m o n g deve lop ing nations in wh ich m u c h of the world's b i o l o g i c a l diversity is at risk within : imperi led ecosystems. S c o p e : A n intensive postgraduate curr iculum linking relevant a p p r o a c h e s of ecosystem : assessment, biodiversity conservat ion, environmental resolution, app l ica t ions of geograph ic information systems(GIS) . g lobal c l imate c h a n g e and regional po l icy , coastal resource m a n a g e m e n t , watershed d y n a m i c s , e c o l o g i c a l e c o n o m i c s , participatory rural appra isa l , and environmental health. Sponsor: Watson Institute for International Studies. Brown University in co l laborat ion with the United Nations Env i ronment Programme ( U N E P ) Participants: 10-12 mid-career environmental leaders from university facult ies, non-governmenta l organizat ions and government a g e n c i e s of deve lop ing nations. Cert i f icate: Certif icate in Integrated Envi ronmenta l M a n a g e m e n t . Date:1/23/01 f\ R e g i o n a l Soiencg-Policy..Cojifere, ,nc i e A con fe rence for researchers, business leaders, po l icy analysts and decision-makers, natural resource managers and others c o n c e r n e d : about sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t pathways in Southeast A s i a . Date:2/17/01 A n n u a l Writers' C o n f e r e n c e and Workshop in honor of R a c h e l Carson T h e event will be a b lend of scholar ly presentations, readings, informal discussions and creative writing workshops. In addi t ion, there will be many opportunit ies to enjoy the outdoor activities avai lable in one of the most beautiful locat ions a long the Northern At lant ic coast l ine . New and exper ienced writers, instructors and interested individuals are w e l c o m e to part ic ipate. : D ate :6/12/01 Industrial Wastes T e c h n i c a l and Regulatory Confe rence This con fe rence will provide industry representatives, consultants, regulatory officials, researchers and a c a d e m i a a targeted forum to obtain t imely regulatory, t e c h n i c a l and app l ied research informat ion. W e are seeking abstracts on t e c h n i c a l and regulatory topics involving industrial wastewater : treatment, site remediat ion and the fol lowing s p e c i a l focus areas: C h e m i c a l manufactur ing - organic c h e m i c a l intermediates and plastics; textile - dye removal , synthetic fibers; food processing - meat and poultry processing, dairy and beverage product ion; and automotive and metal products - machinery , metal fabricat ion and f inishing, e lectronics, and tire manufactur ing . T h e con fe rence will feature a strong regulatory focus with a thud of the : program on regulatory top ics affecting the focus industries. Date:8/12/01 EmTiroECalegorics > : Agencies Education . Agncultvre Energy Businesses Enforce ro.ent. , ffl Intfrnpt rnnp _ _ _ _ 2.3 Interface, page design Th is is an ent irely sub jec t ive e lement of the f r amework , as graphic appea l is a mat ter of t as te , and navigabi l i ty may be var iable as we l l . Severa l app roaches are i l lustrated by the examp les . A w e b site eva luat ion fo rm (Append ix A) o f fered to teache rs to help t hem cr i t ique w e b con ten t for s tudent use s h o w s the bas ic qual i t ies of a we l l -des igned si te (Lanius, 1 9 9 7 ) . Based on my pre fe rences this is a very n ice ly des igned s i te . It is not graph ic-heavy so it loads qu ick ly on my m o d e m - c o n n e c t e d compu te r . It is easy to read w i th a f e w graph ic ads , a s imp le , co lor fu l logo, and n e w s p a p e r co l umn fo rmat , albeit the font is smal l and might be hard for s o m e readers. M o s t b rowse rs a l low font d isp lay to be en larged h o w e v e r . I l ike hav ing all the in format ion up front on the f irst page , I can immed ia te ly go whe re I wan t and I k n o w wha t is there and h o w it is o rgan ized qui te qu ick ly . 2.4 E-mail notification Severa l L is tservs are hos ted and the general list s e e m s to con ta in upda tes on n e w in fo rmat ion added to the s i te . h t t p : / / w w w . e n v i r o o n e . c o m / e n v s e a r c h / E n v i r o L i s t . a s p l inks to the page that a l l ows users to s ign up for the L is tse rvs . T h e modera t ion po l icy for each of the l ists is desc r i bed , and mos t s e e m to have s o m e superv i s ion . 4 9 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites Vor ta l D e v e l o p m e n t . c o m inc ludes a def in i t ion of vor ta l s i tes that s h o w n b e l o w in Box 4 . 1 . Th is gener ic descr ip t ion is very s imi lar to the idea of a d y n a m i c in format ion s y s t e m , w i th environment being the industry. T h e s e si tes are part icu lar ly t ied in to a large n e t w o r k of d iverse in format ion prov iders and med ia . T h e degree of in tegrat ion u l t imate ly depends on the par t ic ipat ion of di f ferent aud iences and in fo rmat ion , p roduc t and se rv i ce prov iders to pass in format ion b e t w e e n t hemse l ves th rough a vor ta l . For e x a m p l e , a c o m m u n i t y n e w s p a p e r cou ld use a DEIS to a c c e s s a broader pool of n e w s and resou rces and u s e these to enr ich the s tory con ten t for readers w h o migh t not o the rw i se seek out env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion . It might a lso help t hem ident i fy local r esou rces , o rgan iza t ions and con tac t s for people w h o are mot i va ted by a n e w s p iece to get more invo lved in the issue local ly . Box 4.1 Vortal Definition "Ve r t i ca l Industry Por ta l , or vor ta l , is a portal W e b si te that p rov ides in format ion and resou rces for a part icular indust ry . Vo r ta l s are the Internet 's w a y of ca ter ing to c o n s u m e r s ' f ocused -env i ronmen t p re fe rences . Vor ta l s typ ica l ly prov ide n e w s , research and s ta t i s t i cs , d i s c u s s i o n s , news le t te rs , onl ine too ls , and many other se rv i ces that educa te users about a spec i f i c indust ry . A s the W e b b e c o m e s a s tandard too l fo r bus iness , vor ta ls wi l l jo in and m a y b e rep lace genera l por ta l s i tes like A O L and Y a h o o ! as c o m m o n g a t e w a y s to the Internet." S o u r c e : W e b o p e d i a : Onl ine C o m p u t e r D ic t ionary for Internet T e r m s and T e c h n i c a l Suppor t , h t t p : / /weboped ia . i n te rne t . com/ 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution T h e home page clear ly invi tes people to join the Env i roOne c o m m u n i t y , con t r ibu te d i s c u s s i o n pos t ings , and add l inks to their s i tes and resources to the d i rec tor ies . Adve r t i s i ng oppor tun i t ies also a l low people to pay for a more v is ib le w a y to get their m e s s a g e to aud iences . A d v e r t i s e m e n t s s e e m to be p laced in con tex t , (i.e. energy conse rva t i on se rv i ces are d i sp layed in the energy ca tegory and s o on) . 3. Organization and administration E n v i r o O n e is a c o m m e r c i a l , for-prof i t c o m p a n y based in N e w J e r s e y . Adve r t i s i ng s e e m s to be the main f inanc ia l base or means of i ncome . By cater ing to a broad and d iverse aud ience n iche portal and vortal s i tes hope to generate enough th rough t raf f ic to suppor t adver t is ing and con ten t cont r ibu t ion by its use rs . A n o t h e r link on the h o m e p a g e desc r ibes oppor tun i t ies for inves to rs . Th is is the only si te rev iewed that is not suppor ted by government or founda t ion fund ing . It wi l l be in terest ing to see if it s u c c e e d s . Wh i l e there are many n o n c o m m e r c i a l l inks, there is a lso a c lear p lace for the env i ronmenta l indust ry and their c l ien ts to reach each other . Incorporat ing or ca ter ing to the needs of the bus iness c o m m u n i t y is probably necessa ry for c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s . 50 SD On-line - http://susdev.eurofound.ie Figure 4.7 SD Online Hompage • :European Foundation | SustainableOeve(oj>Ment |„ //susd*v:eurofound;ie/^  Censer AS E U R O P E A N F O U N D A T I O N for the improvement of Living and Working Conditions themes SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Context ®» Smirch con^Ct K?;J. sf*£ .•*.<•< r. Evropeaj, Conference: gitttaiaalU Development, SMEs and New Enterrrises. October 12-13 Dublin The report Crops for Sustainable Enterprise is now freely available flam SD ONLINE BJ^^ (548)0. Sustainable development is the acluevement of continued economic and social development witliout Detriment to the environment and natural resources. The quality of future human activity and development is Increasingly seen as being dependent on mainlining this balance. This Sustainable Development homepage has been specifically designed to support the needs of the social partners at all levels in their activities to promote sustainable development from a practical company level to a policy level. In particular, it is hoped that employers and employees at small and medium sized enterprises (S MEs) will benefit from the information and tools provided. The resources here may also assist public policy makers and non-governmental oiganisatinns working in the area. In addition to providing infonnation about the Foundation's past and current research in the area, these pages also host S D Online. This special infomiation initiative currently comprises four online databases with listings of siislamabihty-oriented conferences, networks, tools, baining courses and SME support initiatives. Objectives The objectives are to: • to promote awareness of the issues and changes in behaviour by industry. SMEs and consumers • to analyze the impact of new instalments to balance competitiveness and employment goals with sustainable production and consumption policies, and with improved hving and working conditions 51 Figure 4.7 SD Online Hompage cont. o Eorofrean Foundation I Sortainabie £>eve(oMvient |. Address I v ^ |http7/susdev eurofound la/ - " m • to analya tlie mipact of new instruments to balance competitiveness and employment goals with sustainable production and consumption policies, and with improved living and worldng conditions • to contribute to tlie development of the concept of shared responsibility of the main actors for policies and actions Projects / information initiatives The content Df tlie homepage is defined by the current Working Programme (1997-20QD) of tlie European Foundation. Tlie starting point is sustainable production rather than sustainable consumption although of course there is a high level of interlinkage between the two concepts. The focus is on practical and innovative instruments for improvements rather than on monitoring while tlie approach is holistic and is integrated in particular with issues such as health and safety at tlie workplace. Currently, there are three ongoing research projects: • Design for Sustainable Development • Economic and Fiscal Instruments for Sustainable Development • Professional Education and Ti^iraa mi Sustainable Development relating to SMEs Click here to find out more about S D Online. I publications I projects I conferences I netaorts I tools I training I SMEsupport I signup, | 1. Content 1.1 Diversity T h e d ivers i ty in this site is not as expl ic i t . Severa l major t ypes of in fo rmat ion are h igh l igh ted: the pub l ica t ions and projects of the European Foundat ion as we l l as the da tabases that make up S D Onl ine . T h e s e da tabases inc lude c o n f e r e n c e s , n e t w o r k s , t oo l s , t ra in ing, and S M E suppor t . S M E refers to Sma l l and M e d i u m S i zed Enterpr ises . T h e Founda t i on recogn izes that th is s ign i f icant e c o n o m i c sec to r needs spec ia l i zed a s s i s t a n c e w h e r e a s larger corpora t ions have more resources at their d i sposa l ( t ime, m o n e y , etc.) to address env i ronmenta l conce rns and susta inabi l i ty t rans i t ions . The bus iness sec to r , inc lud ing wo rke rs , emp loyers and c o m p a n i e s is the target aud ience re f lec t ing the o rgan iza t i on ' s broader m iss ion of be ing " for the imp rovemen t of l iv ing and wo rk i ng cond i t i ons . " A u d i e n c e s are ident i f ied for the da tabase l is t ings and used to organ ize in format ion further for b rows ing (see 1.3 be low on organ izat ion of in format ion) . There is a s ign i f icant f o c u s on face- to - face gather ings and more ex tens ive learn ing oppor tun i t ies t han s imp ly d o c u m e n t s (e.g. c o n f e r e n c e s , n e t w o r k s and t ra in ing) . 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance In format ion prov ided perta ins to Europe general ly . S o m e da tabases have coun t ry spec i f i c in format ion and can be sea rched by p lace n a m e s . T h e si te does not highl ight a geograph ic or spat ia l pe rspec t i ve . 52 1.3 Organization of Information There is a very func t iona l or operat ional or ientat ion to the in format ion in th is s i te . T h e si te map ind icates s o m e more top ica l con ten t in the Founda t i on ' s s i te , but the S D Onl ine c o m p o n e n t is organized expl ic i t ly around learning act iv i t ies or d i scu rs i ve p r o c e s s e s that are compat ib le w i th the c o m p l e x , c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning con tex t desc r ibed in Chap te r 2. It lies more s t rong ly in the p lanning doma in than in p lann ing prac t ice by f o c u s i n g on the w o r k p l a c e and l i festy le realms rather than s ta te- run p r o c e s s e s , t h o u g h the Founda t ion i tself is a program of the mul t i -nat ional Eu ropean U n i o n . T w o sc reen sho ts of the " n e t w o r k s " and " t oo l s " da tabases s h o w the fur ther o rgan iza t ion of the in format ion w i th in each da tabase , and the fur ther op t ions to do an open sea rch or submi t in fo rmat ion . Di f ferent op t ions are avai lable for each da tabase and th is s i te has one of the more interest ing s c h e m a of categor ies and subca tego r ies (e .g . status and scope b e l o w are a un ique w a y to c lass i f y " n e t w o r k s " ) . Th is k ind of in format ion might help people f ind l ike-minded co l l eagues . Figure 4.8 SD Online Themes, Networks ] European Foundation | Sortainafrle Development |. Address ; fei?J I http ://susdev,eurofound.ie :591 /susd?v/ngWorks/fmpro?-db=neWorks_.fp5&-format=brows?.htm&-lay=veblist§.-op=eq E U R O P E A N F O U N D A T I O N for the improvement of Living and Working Conditions themes SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - 3 1 © — & Xtj" i i rn>ii.ii...'r. i i i 1 in' •'imin' ill networks tools f training Browse networks O v e r v i e w New e n t r i e s AH e n t r i e s A u d i e n c e B u s i n e s s C o m m u n i t y Po l i cy R e s e a r c h S c o p e Ho l i s t i c B r o a d S p e c i a l i s t S t a t u s P i o n e e r P r o g r e s s i v e S u p p o r t i v e 53 Figure 4.9 SD Online Themes, Tools European Foundation I So ita?n a tte develop r«ent |. ^ Addres  : | htp :/susdev.eurofound"ie :591 /susdev/tools/frnpro?-db=tools_.fp5&-forrrijt=brovse.h<rri&-viev ^ i « > l r ^ f e 1 W R 0 P E A N F 0 u N DATION for tte improvement of Living and Working Conditions themes SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ,'->rH« -\;-r.--,r' • browse networks ) towli, } training ) |p search ^ submit gv .;/} O v e r v i e w iS n e w e n t r i e s I TUT, sign up t* i Browse tools P l e a s e n o t e , t h e c a t e g o r i s a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n will b e d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r a s m o r e n t r i e s a r e s u b m i t t e d . a l l e n t r i e s T y p e of too l E c o d e s i q n E n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t L i f e C y c l e A n a l y s i s P o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t P o l l u t i o n p r e v e n t i o n O t h e r 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) S D Onl ine runs its da tabases in F i l eMaker Pro , as ind icated by the " f m p r o ? " at the beg inn ing of the search s t r ing. Th is can operate on either a W i n d o w s , N T or M a c opera t ing s y s t e m . Figure 4.10 FileMaker Pro Code Address: j^ D 1 http7/susdev eurofound.ie-591 /susdev/networks/fmpro?1db=networksC!fp5&^ format'=index(htiTi^ -view'^  2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Not offered 2.3 Interface, page design T h e page layout is at t ract ive and nav igat ion is s imp le , c lear and fast load ing . T h e si te is p romoted as a set of da tabases or d i rec tor ies , and e-mail no t i f i ca t ions and pos t ings to L is tservs report on substant ia l add i t ions , so these users can c lear ly f ind w h e r e they are go ing on the nav igat ion bar. T h e home page c lear ly s ta tes w h a t is there and for w h o m , w h o is of fer ing it and w h y . It is c o n v e y e d in tex t rather than the a lmos t sitemap, or impl ic i t approach of the prev ious examp le , Env i r oOne . Env i roOne 54 s h o w s w h a t is there w i th lots of l inks, wh i le S D Onl ine tel ls w h a t is there in text w i th more layered l inks to a c c e s s it. 2.4 E-mail notification Users can qu ick ly add t hemse l ves to a list to rece ive n e w s of upda tes . I learned of th is si te and rece ive updates th rough the U N E P L is tServ Infoterra. The sc reen shot b e l o w s h o w s the fo rm for users to get S D Onl ine up-dates w h e n n e w da tabases have been added or old ones updated and e x p a n d e d . Figure 4.11 SD Online E-mail Notice Sign Up European F o u n d a t i o n | So&oitiabie D e v e t o f r w o n t I-. > Address | v j ]http /susdev.eurofound.ie :591 /susdev/siqnup/fmpro?-db=sionup_.fpZcWormat=index htm&-view E U R O P E A N F O U N D A T I O N for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions themes SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT .search contact help site roar [CESESZBjl Sign up to stay in touch SME support Sign up for the SD Onl ine i n f o r m a t i o n service. Send your ema i l address with the f o r m below and we will i n fo rm you a b o u t new susta inab le d e v e l o p m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on this site. I f you want to s ign of f in t he fu tu re come back here. Your e - m a i l : Organ isa t ion : Sector: S e t e ' t a s e c t o r c o u n t r y : ( S e t e c t a c o u n t r y [Sign ut> n o w ) [ R e r e t + n i r f o r m ) 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites T h e d i rec tor ies of con fe rences and ne two rks are t hemse l ves l inkages to other c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s and gather ings . The other da tabases general ly desc r ibe and link to the s i tes or con tac t in format ion for a w ide var ie ty of o rgan iza t ions , pro jects and programs prov ided by di f ferent agenc ies and organ iza t ions . 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution Figures 4 . 9 and 4 . 1 0 s h o w a prominent link encourag ing users to submi t in fo rmat ion into the da tabases . 55 3. Organization and administration " T h e European Foundat ion for the Improvement of L iv ing and W o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s w a s es tab l i shed by a Regu la t ion of the C o u n c i l of M in i s te rs in 1 9 7 5 . " h t t p : / /www.eu ro found . i e / gene ra l / i ndex .h tm l The admin is t ra t ive board m e m b e r for each of the E U count r ies is l isted on the si te a long w i th staff and exper ts . The degree to w h i c h the people behind a si te is made expl ic i t is a d is t inc t ion b e t w e e n DEIS s i tes . T h e y all have e-mai l to con tac t the admin is t ra t ion , but there is some th ing more persona l abou t be ing able to get in fo rmat ion about w h o is there beh ind a s i t es ' v i r tual p resence that might encourage re lat ionship bui ld ing and in terpersonal c o m m u n i c a t i o n . There is no spec i f i c in format ion about the f inanc ia l suppor t for th is s i te . I w o u l d p resume it is funded th rough an e n d o w m e n t f rom the European C o m m i s s i o n . SD Gateway - http://sdqatewav.net Figure 4.12 SD Gateway Homepage • :S£> Gateway (Surtainafrte £>evetof>rt»ent G a t e w a y J : % Address ljvj] 1 http, / /sdgate way .net/ SD Gateway English i Francais : Espanol llmlitl SiyllSllfurllu MK S •ftwww i f i f i s i i nun •".Hi Welcome to the SD Gateway .Q SD In-Pepth B SDJopjcs O SD Directories O SD Web works 11 About the Netxvork The SB Gateway integrates the on-line information developed by members of the Sustainable Development Communications Network. In addition to over 1,200 documents available in SD Topics. we provide services such as a calendar of extents, a job bank. the Sustainability Web Ring .a roster of mailing lists (listservs) and news sites dealing with sustainable development. i& Internet zone current tventi Firrt Horth American symposium on underrtanding the Linkages between Trade and the Environment (11-12 October) The symposium will bring together the leading institutions and organizations in North America to discuss the linkages between environment and trade in the NAFTA context and, in particular, to encourage further analysis in light of the methodology developed by the CEC in its "Analytical Framework for Assessing the Environmental Effects of NAFTA" Hew Book from USD "An International Investment Regime? imiei of Suit a inability" " by Konrad von Moltke, IISO Trade and investment Senior Fellow, asks, SldquovVhat would international investment rules look like if they aimed to achieve both • r^mif nrmrth ir,A amfi 'mnmanUl n rMflrTiftnTftrrlfli in Tn SD TopiCI Buiineu and Trade Find out what 5DCN members are doing to address the issues associated with trade and sustainable Development. From the Suitainability Web Ring The international centre for Trade and Sustainable Development fltTSD) was established in Geneva in September n w to contribute to a better understanding of development and environment concerns in the context of international trade. 56 Figure 4.12 SD Gateway Homepage, Cont. ^^tewavJS^a^able&ev'elo/.Ment Gateway.) "An International Investment Regime? Issues of Sustainability"" by Konrad iron AAoltke, BSD Trade and Investment Senior Fellow, asks, adquowhat would international investment rules look like if they aimed to achieve both economic growth and environmental protectionT&rdquo To answer this critical question, the book examines the many attempts to draft investment rules and takes an innovative approach. The proposed solution is radically different from any pursued to date. SP In Depth Investigate the fundamentals of sustainable development ideas and applications. SP Directories Find current sustainable development news, jobs upcoming meetings and more. SD Topics Explore over 1,100 online documents on key sustainable development issues. SP Webworki Learn how to better communicate sustainable development on the Web. C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y A y VIM <• Canad ian n a tJe d e v e l o p p e m e n t i n te rna t iona l IB 11 IA TOP OF PAGE I I Internet zone 1. Content 1.1 Diversity Dive rse in format ion t y p e s are c lear and inc lude d o c u m e n t s , n e w s , j obs , even ts and mee t i ngs , and d i s c u s s i o n l is ts . T o p i c s and i ssues are not fea tu red p rominent ly in the open ing p a g e s . A layer fur ther in , by c l i ck ing on the S D T o p i c s link there are a w i d e var ie ty of sub jec ts p resen ted to b r o w s e the d o c u m e n t s . D ive rse aud iences aren ' t as c lear. Bus iness is c lear ly one sec to r but o the rw ise in format ion is not ta i lored to target aud iences or par t i c ipants , though language l inks (F rench /Eng l i sh /Span ish in th is case) address another aspec t of part ic ipant d ivers i ty . 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance Place is not fea tu red prominent ly in the in t roductory pages as a re ference point for the in fo rmat ion . T h e p lace of the host is C a n a d i a n - b a s e d w i t h an in ternat ional f o c u s . " R e g i o n " is an opt ion in the " t o p i c s " d o c u m e n t sub jec t f r a m e w o r k . Th i s part ial ly re f lec ts the regional susta inab i l i ty cen t res that co l labora te to p rov ide con ten t to t he s i te th rough the Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t C o m m u n i c a t i o n s N e t w o r k ( S D C N ) . 57 1.3 Organization of Information T h e in format ion is organized at the h ighest level in a s o m e w h a t func t iona l or operat iona l o r ien ta t ion . T y p e s of in format ion and c o m m u n i c a t i o n too ls are prominent . Th is is not a data-dr iven site so the in format ion s t ructure is not i n te rconnec ted or c ross i ndexed , in o ther w o r d s , you w o u l d n ' t f ind a d i s c u s s i o n list on a par t icu lar t op i c l is ted under that top i c , on ly the on-l ine d o c u m e n t s . The d i scuss i on list is on ly on the page l ist ing all the susta inabi l i ty - re la ted L i s tSe rvs , and l i kew ise sub ject - re la ted c o n f e r e n c e s w o u l d on ly c o m e up under the con fe rence ca lendar page. The S D Onl ine si te has a s imi lar l imi ta t ion. Wh i l e it does uti l ize onl ine da tabases to organ ize in fo rmat ion , they are not c ross - i ndexed by any c o m m o n t h e m e s , sub jec ts , or p laces . S D G a t e w a y is a s ta t ic s i te and s e a r c h e s are f i xed . 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) A s men t ioned above , there does not appear to be any da tabase dr iven d y n a m i c fea tures in th is s i te . It d o e s c o n n e c t we l l to the in teract ive e lemen ts of the W e b itself , s u c h as d i s c u s s i o n l ists and d i rector ies w i t h l inks to other o rgan iza t ions and s i tes . It i l lustrates that the more soph is t i ca ted dynam ic W e b techno logy is not n e c e s s a r y to have a robust in format ion resource . It l ikely entai ls more ma in tenance th rough t radi t ional W e b p rogramming (manual ly updat ing H T M L fi les) and does not a l l ow for the aud iences to cont r ibu te in format ion di rect ly t h e m s e l v e s . 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Not offered 2.3 Interface, page design T h e layout and nav igat ion is fair ly c lear and s imp le . W h a t the si te is and w h o is behind it, and the major sec t ions and resources avai lable are prominent . 2.4 E-mail notification Not offered A spec i f i c se rv ice to not i fy people about updates and c h a n g e s to the site is not o f fe red . There are l ikely severa l d i scuss ion l ists that rece ive upda tes . I have seen job pos t ing upda tes on the infoterra d i scuss ion l ist. 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites T h e n e w s l inks spec i f i ca l l y go to med ia out let s i tes that carry env i ronmenta l n e w s . T h e S D G a t e w a y si te itself is the project of a ne twork organ iza t ion (the S D C N ) and p romotes in format ion shar ing at an internat ional leve l . It is a part of the Sustainability Web Ring. W e b rings are another too l for connec t i ng b e t w e e n s i tes on related t op i cs . A ' r ing ' is created that has a list of related s i tes . A c u s t o m i z e d nav iga t ion panel is p laced on any part ic ipant s i tes and a l l ows readers to link to other s i tes in the r ing. Th is is i l lustrated on the bo t tom of the S D G a t e w a y page. 58 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution Th is opt ion does not appear to be a feature. Users can e-mail sugges t i ons to the si te admin is t ra tor at any s i te , they all prov ide a feedback e-mai l l ink, but there is no direct so l ic i ta t ion of con t r ibu t ions . Con ten t is generated by the S D C N m e m b e r o rgan iza t ions . 3. Organization and administration In format ion about the host o rgan iza t ions and sponso rs is prominent - the Canad ian Internat ional Deve lopmen t A g e n c y (CIDA) and its research arm the Internat ional Deve lopmen t Resea rch C o u n c i l (IDRC) are sponso rs and the Internat ional Inst i tute for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t (USD), in W i n n i p e g , C a n a d a is the hos t . T h e S D C N , Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t C o m m u n i c a t i o n s N e t w o r k , is a co l labora t ive project to share sus ta inab le deve lopmen t k n o w l e d g e in the internat ional deve lopmen t c o m m u n i t y . T h e USD and S D C N are N G O (non-governmenta l organizat ion) in i t iat ives w i t h subs tan t ia l gove rnmen t fund ing it appears . SDInfo, Ecolnfo - http://www.sdinfo.gc.ca and http://www.ecoinfo.org Figure 4.13 SDInfo Homepage : Environment Canada: St>'mfo Howe :EQ! j htp /7WV SDINFO GC CA/SPinfo/enq/default ctm • Government Gouvornomont of Canada du Canada Ir fe 1 Hi info* ® •AIM Sustainable Development Information System What is SDinfo? What is Sustainable Development? Search the SDinfo Site Submit information to the SDinfo Site What's New Feedback • Links • Site Map • Help • Franpajs Disclaimer @ Her Majesty in Rijnt of Canada (1998 - 2000) As represented by the Minister of tlie Environment, Canada. g-*\ 1 \& Hfr Internet zone 59 Figure 4.14 Ecolnfo Homepage Eeosy**eM Information - Reriretonernenti tor let. Address jfhttp / / v w eooinfo org/ B*3 Environment Canada Enwronnement Canada Pacific and Yuton Region Region du Ractficjueetdu Yukon ecosystem informat ion renseignements sur les ecosystem es A.t this site you will find information related to ecosystems in tlifi Pacific and Yukon Region. This includes state of the environment reporting, enviramental indicators, and progiams and reports on ecosystem science, monitoring and research. Vous trowerci clam cc site des renseignements sur les ecosystemes de la region du Padfique et du Tuton. y comptis ties donne'es sur I 'etas de 1 'em irotmement, sur les indicateurs cnivvnnementait.K, sur ies radons de recherche mant les ecosystemes de nieme que sur les rapports et les programmes de science e! de suneSUmcc des ecosysteir.es. A dynamic set of environmental indicators on priority issues for which Environment Canada measures the health and sustainability of the Pacific and Yukon Region's ecosystems. Ensemble dyTiainique crmdicaleurs cmij'onncinentaux se rattachant a des questions prioritaircs] a Vaide desqiiels Emirormetnenl Canada c\atuel'etaletlaperennitcdcs ecosystemes de la re'gian du Padfique el du Yithm. \ Internet zone 1. Content 1.1 Diversity T h e S D i n f o and Eco in fo s i tes are presented together here b e c a u s e they are both Canad ian Env i ronment Depar tment in i t ia t ives. T h e aud iences are of cou rse the publ ic genera l ly , and aud iences that are more spec i f i c are not ident i f ied at th is top leve l . SDIn fo represents in format ion f rom the Federal government as a w h o l e and represents a broader con ten t prov ider pool than the Eco ln fo s i te . Eco ln fo f o c u s e s more spec i f i ca l l y than the prev ious examp les on e c o s y s t e m s and an eco log ica l f rame of re fe rence for in fo rmat ion . T h e con ten t is pr imari ly f rom the federal env i ronmenta l a g e n c y . Th is is fur ther f o c u s e d on an impor tant t ype of env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion . F e e d b a c k s , cap tu red th rough ind ica tors , moni tor ing and report ing we re s t rongly e m p h a s i z e d in the comp lex i t y f r a m e w o r k for p lann ing . P lanne rs ' , pub l i cs ' and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ' abi l i ty to perce ive c h a n g e s in eco log ica l s y s t e m s and interpret their s ign i f i cance and the risk they pose to the stabi l i ty of eco log ica l s y s t e m s is cr i t ica l . 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance SDIn fo d o e s not reference p lace in its in fo rmat ion . T h e resources c o m e f rom the Canad ian federa l gove rnmen t and are relevant to this geograph ic a rea . Spec i f i c 60 resources or an open search may ind icate p lace- re levance . Eco ln fo is s l ight ly more p lace spec i f i c as it f o c u s e s on the Pac i f i c Y u k o n region of Env i ronment C a n a d a , but does not get more spec i f i c beyond l inking to prov inc ia l in fo rmat ion . 1.3 Organization of Information SDIn fo has a highly s t ruc tured array of in format ion and presents a number of sea rch op t ions . A cl ip of part of the page is s h o w n b e l o w , but it is best to v i e w th is onl ine to ful ly a c c e s s the scro l l ing menus of op t ions . h t t p . 7 / w w w . s d i n f o . g c . c a / S D i n f o / E n g / S e a r c h / S e a r c h R e q u e s t . c f m T h e Eco ln fo si te l ists a f e w major in format ion resources on the h o m e p a g e . A s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , ind icators are a cr i t ical part of in format ion f l o w in p lanning in the face of c o m p l e x i t y . T h e organizat ion of the e c o s y s t e m ind icators th is si te c o m m u n i c a t e s is s h o w n b e l o w . Wh i l e it does not appear to be organ ized us ing a da tabase , their intent to keep updat ing and adding to it is c lear ly no ted . Indicators are o f ten represented as t rends , or the change in a cond i t ion over t ime , so t ime l iness and cont inu i ty in report ing t h e m is impor tant to c o m m u n i c a t e . A n issues and top ics f r amework is used to organ ize the ind ica tors . Figure 4.15 Organization of SDInfo Content EnvIronMent Canada: Seari'h toe SDinfo Site |i Address I http 7 /ww sdinfocjc:oa/SDinfo/Ena/Search/Seai-chRequestcfmlii WHAT do you want to search? la . Sustainable development issues Enviionmental Economic Air and atmosphere Air quality Aquatic resources Atmospheric science Social Competitiveness Cost benefit analysis Ecoefficiency Ecolabelling Behavioural change ; Children I Citizen engagement ! Conmruiuty initiatives lb . Sectors lc . Types of action All sectors Agricnlture BanWngffhiance Biotechnology Action plan Agreement Assessment Business plan ! Id. Free text search Note: Please use quotation marks to search for phrases (e.g. "citizen engagement"). s i r M I .01 isl} Internet zone /Ss Programs and activities 61 Figure 4.16 Organization of Ecolnfo Indicators • Pacific 4 Yukon Region Environmental Indicators = 0 1 % Address , I http //www eooinfo org/env_ind/default htm Frangais I Eco Info The following is a dynamic set of environmental indicators on priority i s s u e s for which Environment C a n a d a maintains monitoring programs. The indicators descr ibe the state of the environment for particular i s s u e s in a scientifically conc ise and easily understood manner. Indicators without links are under construction. MgnnQiEeosvatemai Shellfish C CT.::.-,-; "Fi>>.Tec-"aSeabirdsfW"-To'jciC: Conta mi nanta PCBs in Cormorant r , 3 ; , . U P D A T E D « • RE J i Oioxin/Furan Levels i.H§ Pesticide Poisonings in Raptois N E W : Toxt Ins in Heron Egg$!UPDATED Bald Eagle % ^ ^ " B , i c k B , a n i Oeese %f *4 Great Blue Heron ' ^ ^ J Lesser Snow - , j e e s e iUPOiTED pi Urban Water Use 8 « Wa ate Tnatar Treatment --^ffl Water Use PorcupineCaribou UPCaiED Waterfowl Species UPDATED Trumpeter Svuan e v Urfcan Ajr <^ jslity Temperature/Precipitation ^ ^ % ^ ^ m o g -NEW^ :i; Frsatimater C&jali fj WIsmM•ililll! Nitrate Levels in Oiound Water UPDATED] Stratoaphenc Ozone K%3«gfj Stratospheric Ozone T|. cknw; •"•l>"EI> The indicators are descr ibed by answering the four state of the environment quest ions ofwhat's happening, why is it happening, why is it significant and what is being done. ^ Internet zone 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) T h e SDIn fo site uses a da tabase fo rmat . The so f twa re app l ica t ion they use is Co ld F u s i o n , as ind icated by the .cfrm suf f ix . Figure 4.17 Cold Fusion Code ! E n v i r o n m e r i t C a n a d a ; S e a r e d t f r e SD duress: http: / / w w ,sd info .gc .ca /SD info /Eng / S e arch / S e archReque^t.cfrn i <• h i m Eco ln fo is not da tabase-d r i ven . 62 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Not offered. 2.3 Interface, page design Both sites are simple, clear and easy to navigate. 2.4 E-mail notification Not offered. 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites Not offered. 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution Federal emp loyees can register to submi t in format ion to the SDIn fo si te us ing fo rms l inked to the da tabase . 3. Organization and administration T h e s e s i tes are both hos ted and funded by the Federal env i ronment Depar tmen t , Env i ronment C a n a d a The Land Centre - http://wvvw.landcentre.ubc.ca Figure 4.18 Land Centre Homepage a The Land Centre — Lam) life and Real Ertate Inf.. Address : \ry.,.\ jhttpi/^wvr'Jarid&gf.tre.ca/ ; i lend us feedback or ask a question T H E L A N D C E N T R E October 31, 2000 Education Programs Member Sites —.id I Industiy Cvuuls Fui: S u r r e y , B .C . T h e A f f o r d a b l e Housing D e v e l o p m e n t Guide: A l b e r t a a s s e m b l e s knowledge f rom around Alberta and around the web on affordable housing issues. N E W Land Centre Publ ica t ion! T h e Aboriginal Population of British C o l u m b i a ; A Comparat ive Analysis of 1996 C e n s u s Data on Demographic and Housing Characteristics CMHC's V a n c o u v e r Housing Out look Publications Real Estate foundation of BC ;» Alberta Real Estate Foundation • Featured Events • Ins tant Traf f ic Ca lming: The " P a c e Car P r o g r a m " a n d O t h e r Ideas t h a t Will Change the Wor ld s p o n s o r e d by the SFU City P r o g r a m • B e y o n d Traff ic Ca lming , B e y o n d St ree t Rec la iming: The Creat ive J o u r n e y Cont inues s p o n s o r e d by the SFU City P r o g r a m • Land Use Regulat ion Toolki t s p o n s o r e d by the SFU City P r o g r a m • A n a t o m y o f a Zoning Bylaw s p o n s o r e d by the SFU City P r o g r a m • B C N P H A ' S 8th Annua l M M sffi Internet zone 63 Figure 4.18 Land Centre Homepage, Cont. The Lan4 Centre Lat\4 Ose and Real Estate Inf.. I http://www.landcentre.ca/ T h i s y e a r ' s c o n f e r e n c e will l o o k a t h o u s i n g m a r k e t s i n t h e n e w e c o n o m y . S e e o u r E v e n t s C a l e n d a r f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , V i s i t B C ' s S t r a t a P r o p e r t y A c t I n f o r m a t i o n S i t e . T h e G o v e r n m e n t R o l e i n H o u s i n g A l l C a n a d i a n s : P a s t , P r e s e n t , F u t u r e A s u m m a r y o f D a v i d H u l c h a n s k i ' s l e c t u r e a t t h e W o m e n a n d H o u s i n g C o n f e r e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r i s a v a i l a b l e t o L a n d C e n t r e m e m b e r s o n t h e i r M e m b e r H o m e p a g e . 12 3 4 5 6 7 1213*14 192021 2627*28 8 .9 10-11 15/I6 1718 22 23 2425 29 30 Become a Member A s a p e r s o n a l m e m b e r , y o u will r e c e i v e y o u r o w n L a n d C e n t r e p a g e wi th y o u r h a n d - p i c k e d w e b l i b r a r y a n d a u t o m a t i c u p d a t e s a s s o o n a s n e w d o c u m e n t s b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e . V i s i t t h e S a m p l e M e m b e r ' s H o m e p a g e . T h e n , e m a i l o r c a l l ( B C 6 0 4 - 6 8 8 - 1 1 5 0 o r A B 4 0 3 - 5 1 9 - 2 6 8 7 ) u s f o r d e t a i l s . F o r o t h e r o p t i o n s , c h e c k o u t t h e M e m b e r I n f o r m a t i o n p a g e . W e a l s o h a v e s p e c i a l p a c k a g e s f o r s t u d e n t s . S t a n d a r d s p o n s o r e d b y H i e B C N P H A - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N o n - P r o f i t H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n • A l t e r n a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t S t a n d a r d s s p o n s o r e d b y t h e S F U C i t y P r o g r a m • I n t r o d u c t i o n t o D e m o g r a p h i c F o r e c a s t i n g s p o n s o r e d b y t h e S F U C i t y P r o g r a m Alberta Resources • K e y P a r t n e r s h i p s i n A f f o r d a b l e H o u s i n g : R e a l E s t a t e I n i t i a t i v e s i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a . T h i s d o c u m e n t is o n l y v i e w a b l e with M S - I n t e r n e t E x p l o r e r 5 . K • A f f o r d a b l e H o u s i n g D e v e l o p m e n t G u i d e : A l b e r t a Alberta Hot Topics: Cohousinq Hog Farms National Parks & Development Issues JtW CtM-v forB. C. Ijmd/mdfori'£sfjtft Studies. Internet zone 1. Content 1.1 Diversity T h e Land Cent re has a d ivers i ty of in format ion t ypes , inc lud ing i ssues and top i cs fea tured on the home page. N e w s , even ts , educat iona l p rograms and a resource index are h igh l igh ted. Par t ic ipants are not d is t ingu ished by part icular aud ience g roups , but there are c lear ly l inks to features that cus tom ize the si te or get addi t ional in format ion or se rv i ces (e.g. subsc r ibe r log- in, join us l ink). Th is ind icates the oppor tun i ty to d iverse par t ic ipa t ion . Target aud iences ind icated are p lanners , deve lopers and o thers in the real es ta te and land use deve lopmen t sec to rs . L inks are ev ident to s tudent m e m b e r s h i p s , and educa t iona l p rograms and events at un ivers i t ies . 1.2 Geographic Reference T h e geograph ic f ocus is on the p rov inces of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a . In format ion in the resource cent re is ex tens ive ly i ndexed , inc lud ing p lace n a m e s . 64 1.3 Organization of Information T h e sc reen shot be low i l lustrates the beginn ing of the sub jec t k e y w o r d index for the digi tal l ibraries that the Cent re hos t s . It g ives an idea of the breath of mater ia l and the level of index ing s t ruc ture g iven to it. The extent and degree of sub jec t index ing may ref lect the C e n t r e ' s par tnership w i th a c a d e m i a , as they are hos ted by the Un ivers i ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a ' s C o m m e r c e Depar tment . T h e nav igat ion bar to the left ind ica tes the major sec t i ons of the si te featured th roughout . Figure 4.19 Land Centre Subject Index E L Sufe/eet Lit* -Thenar) J Centre Address: j http://www.landoentre.ca/fullsubjeots.cfro?letter=A i j g CSflflH Below is a list of subjects that tlie Land Centre 'uses in its library. Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) • r Use foi Native Indians # Use foi Fiist Nations ^ Use foi Indians ^ Use foi Native peoples Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Demographics Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Economic development Aboriginal peoples CPiist Nations) - Fisheries - Congresses Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Government policy Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Housing Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Land claims Aboriginal peoples (Tint Nations) - Law and legislation Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Periodicals Aboiiginal peoples (First Nations) - Place names Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Rights Aboriginal peoples (Fiist Nations) - Self-government Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Statistics Aboriginal peoples (First Nations) - Taxation Aboiiginal peoples (Firat Nations) - Treaty critics Accessible transportation Acts AffoKiable housing ^Nai iowei Topic Secoiirtniv suites Related Topic Rental housing Affordable housing - Women Agency disclosure # Related Topic Real estate - Bnvei agency Agricultural land piescnmtion Agricultural Land Keseive Agricultuial policy ^Naiiowei Topic Agiiciiltuial Land Reseive Agricultural sciences - UBC Agrictiltural workers Agriciilture ^Nai iowei Topic Agiiailtmal land pieseivatiou i^Nniinwffi Tnnir Apiimltmnl iinlirv «3 Internet zone 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) T h e link be low ind ica tes that they are us ing Co ld Fus ion to del iver d y n a m i c con ten t , l ike an even ts ca lendar . 65 Figure 4.20 Cold Fusion Calendar Link j Events Catett4ar -The Latt4 Cen+r« j': Address: jffla): http : / / V w w . landcentre.ca/ca len link. cfnn?week=225 i Event Calendar Search List 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage T h e m e m b e r sec t i on at the bo t tom ind icates that users do have the oppor tun i ty to c u s t o m i z e the in format ion they see in a personal homepage at the Land Cen t re . There is a fee h o w e v e r for membersh ip . 2.3 Interface, page design In format ion about the resources the si te con ta ins are prominent a long w i th h igh l ighted i tems. The page is co lor fu l and easy to nav iga te . 2.4 E-mail notification Pay ing m e m b e r s rece ive e-mail not ice of si te updates and c h a n g e s . 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites T h e Land Cent re br ings together a c c e s s to severa l digi tal l ibraries or resource cen t res / s i t es . T h e y a lso of fer s i te or resource co l lec t ion host ing se rv i ces for m e m b e r s w h i c h represents a connec t i on to other o rgan iza t ions . The level of in tegrat ion is pr imar i ly f o c u s e d on the pro fess iona l and a c a d e m i c partners in the area of land use and real es ta te . 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution T h e pr imary means of present ing d is t r ibuted con ten t is th rough fo rma l membe rsh i ps and par tnersh ips , s u c h as si te or resource co l lec t ion hos t ing . T h e user c o m m u n i t y can submi t even ts to the ca lendar . A broad and open w a y for users to bui ld their o w n l inks and con ten t into the si te is l imi ted. 3. Organization and administration T h e Land Cent re is a unique par tnersh ip , a non-prof i t agency s p o n s o r e d by U B C C o m m e r c e Depar tmen t -Real Estate D iv i s ion , Real Estate A s s o c i a t i o n and T h e Real Es ta te Founda t ion of B C and A lbe r ta Real Esta te Founda t ion . A s we l l as f inanc ia l and in-kind suppor t f rom the sponsor ing agenc ies , the Land Cent re charges fees for membersh ip se rv i ces , though anyone can search many of the d a t a b a s e s . Th is con t ras ts w i th the Env i roOne s i te , w h i c h sel ls at tent ion or high numbers of page v i e w s by a s o m e w h a t spec i f i c aud ience to adver t isers . T h e Land Cen t re charges the user aud ience d i rect ly and rel ies on addi t ional c o m m u n i t y suppor t . 66 The Stewardship Centre - http://www.stewardshipcentre.org Figure 4.21 Stewardship Centre Splash Page • :- =L-=jyistotheStewar<jshil> Centre forBritirh Coluwfr... c i y 67 Figure 4.22 Stewardship Centre Homepage • ED! g' Address: @ I http: / / w .y v/ stew ardsh ipoentre org /code /ma iri/cs-frset Mm Ceiltre Enter Text" Search In Slrirartl&kip . c - • -y fnipjernenr 11 ion Tcxjfe Advanced Search This site is designed to help landowners, developer volunteers, :professionals,:localgovemments:and agencies.whose everyday decisions affect habitat. The sitewill provide;accessito:a;vanety;Of.resourcesiincludingthe.widely . acclaimed Stevvanfcft/p Series.Moreimportantlyit will provide an: opportunity for the decisionmakers described above to share their own : experiences through real world case studyexamples. As people begin to share these case study experiences, the Stewardship Centre will change and evolveovertime.Weiencourage you to:check back often to find out about new and interestmgideas. siflliilliiiiiilP 1111 • Visitthe Links &Resources;librarv.tO:find:Currentstewardship;resources. Visit these recent additions.:. Centre for Community Enterprise . Discovery Coast Greenways-Land Trust or Environmental ConnectionsforCanada . You mav-alsowanttocontribute some relevant links thatyouhave found. 1. Content 1.1 Diversity T h e h o m e p a g e s h o w n in the s e c o n d image ident i f ies the d iverse aud iences for th is s i te : " l a n d o w n e r s , deve lopers , vo lun teers , p ro fess iona ls , loca l g o v e r n m e n t . " T h e in format ion t ypes that are p romoted are a pub l ica t ion ser ies , " T h e S t e w a r d s h i p S e r i e s , " c a s e s tud ies of s tewardsh ip pro jects , l inks and resources , and too l s . Fur ther index ing top i cs are of fered in the L inks and Resou rces sec t i on . 1.2 Geographic Reference T h e S t e w a r d s h i p Cen t re is pr imari ly f o c u s e d on the prov ince of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a . Th is is on ly ind ica ted on the sp lash page , not the home page. Further geograph ic f ocus is not ind ica ted on the homepage . A n open search for a p lace name can f ind l inks and resou rces , as we l l as c a s e s tud ies re levant to that p lace . 1.3 Organization of Information In addi t ion to the main in format ion t ypes l is ted, the l inks and resources sec t i on of fers fur ther top ic b r e a k d o w n s . The image be low s h o w s the general ca tegor ies on the 68 nav iga t ion bu t tons on the left. On the right it s h o w s the fur ther subca tego r ies for " o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " Figure 4.23 Stewardship Centre Directory Organization iStev/ardiMpcrnti'aor^ centre t n t s n e x t Links K Resources Advanced Search • All ofths ImkSibelowate provided bymembers of the Stewardship Centre You are ' invited to coirtribtrte new l inks for inclusion in the Stewardship Centre library as well Academic Institution! Community Conservat ionCentres I Crown Corporations I • . Federal Government I Local Government! N G O s I Other I ProvincialOovernment i Regional Government • . ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s > A c a d e m i c Institution The most recent addition(s) Category: Organizations ^ub -Ca tego ty : Academic Institution Centre for Environmental-Studies and U r b a n E c o l o d V i : ' W e area^acornmunity^based institute that promotes a better understanding of nature in thecity:and works toenhance^naturalenvironments in urban areas. J a m e s Taylor Chai r in Landscape and Liveable Env. ••The site Is to the region, whatthe cents to the body.' The J T C I sa Landscape ... . . : 'Archi tecturaTesearch organization at U B C which focuses on sustamableccommunity . design Malasmna University Col lege Malaspina offers a wide variety ol programs inF ishenes iand Aquaculture including : D ip loma in Technology.Bachelor of Sc ience, and Extension (short-term or specia l .contract) courses. t& Internet zone :3B 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 P rog ram and p la t fo rm of system (ISP) T h e S t e w a r d s h i p Cen t re is organ ized w i th in a frameset (wh i ch d i sp lays severa l W e b f i les w i th in one page) so it is harder to see wha t s y s t e m is be ing u s e d . By d i rec t ing a link to open in a n e w b rowse r w i n d o w h o w e v e r , the under ly ing c o d e is d i sp l ayed . T h e image be low i l lustrates that this si te is also us ing Active Server Pages, . asp . Figure 4.24 Active Server Page Code bitfiiov AH Core Studies bv User % Address: §iii Ihttp :/^ www:stewardshipc&ntr;e:orq/code/resources/II^ igplay;'asp:?category~5&sub=Coast%20lands^  All.ofthe links below, are provided by members of the Stewardshipeentre::You: are invited to . contribute new links for inclusion in the Stewardship Centre library as well. . Aquatic:! Coast lands! Enhancement I EstuaryJF.oreshore/Manne I Forest Lands I impacts I Interior Grasslands! Inventory LMountainfAlumelOtherl WatercoursefRipanan t Wetlands : Habitat > Coast lands The most recent addition(s): Category; Habitat Sub-Category: Coast lands Tidepool ... News forthe rainforest coast 69 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Not offered. 2.3 Interface, page design T h e S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re is fair ly c lear to nav iga te , though in format ion is layered . T h e page des ign is graphic in tens ive, for examp le , each of the nav iga t ion l inks on the left are bu t tons , or images , rather than s imply l inked tex t . The sp lash page as we l l m a k e s the si te a little s l ower and more c u m b e r s o m e than o thers , par t icu lar ly on a m o d e m c o n n e c t i o n . 2.4 E-mail notification Not offered. 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites T h e l inks and resources sec t ion is in s o m e measure a vortal and f o c u s e s on l inks to other s i tes and resource o rgan iza t ions . Beyond th is there is no c lear l inkage to n e t w o r k s , par tners , e tc . 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution M e m b e r s are encouraged to submi t l inks to the d i rector ies of l inks and resou rces . There are also oppor tun i t ies to sugges t case s tudy top i cs or submi t a c a s e s tudy wr i te up . The l inks page above s h o w s the prominent inv i tat ion to cont r ibu te on every page . 3. Organization and administration T h e organ izat iona l background behind the si te is not p rominent . I have w o r k e d w i th the si te organ izers to a s s e s s the needs and interests of the bus iness c o m m u n i t y in B C so I am a w a r e of its current s ta tus in this w a y . The Cent re is an ini t iat ive of a inter-a g e n c y c o m m i t t e e , pr imari ly of prov inc ia l and federal government agenc ies , that co l labora ted to p roduce the publ icat ion ser ies that is the ' ancho r ' resource of the s i te . The organ izers are explor ing di f ferent gove rnance and admin is t ra t ive app roaches to the long te rm ma in tenance and deve lopmen t of the s i te. Their hope is to bui ld a par tnersh ip of suppor te rs f rom var ious sec to rs (government , c o m m u n i t y g roups , b u s i n e s s e s , and academic ) to opera te the s i te , w i th gove rnmen t fund ing prov id ing the s tar t -up, or seed m o n e y . Cur ren t l y , fund ing has c o m e f rom a var ie ty of gove rnmen t , bus iness and founda t ion s o u r c e s . Long term fund ing app roaches are stil l under cons ide ra t i on . 70 Ecological Communities Connect - http://www.vcn.bc.ca/ecc T h e d y n a m i c vers ion of the si te deve loped under the ac t ion project por t ion of th is t hes i s , desc r ibed in Chap te r 3, is i l lustrated here. The n e w s ta t ic s i te that is rep lac ing it is under cons t ruc t i on . Figure 4.25 Ecological Communities Connect Prototype Homepage • E«o(oj»rca( CoiMMunrtief Connect A d d r e s s : kw4 j h t t p : / / w w . v c n . b e . c a / e c o / Communit ies Connect -Overview* P r o g r a m * £CO1O51CA1 Communities Connect Creating ecologically responsible and socially just communities m Greater Vancouver British Columbia is a common goal of a large number of local oiaarazaoons and lnshtnnoiis. Tlus web site, developed jointly by the Vancouver CommunityNet and the EcoCity Network, is a colaborative effort to share lnfoiuahon with each other and the public about the variety of protects and resources available that tanget mterrelated ecological and social issues. T D alow you to folow tlie linkages between organizations, issues, current projects, and tlie resources available to help make Vancouver an EcoCity. the information is available through a database diven web site. Tlus was developed m conjunction with a thesis protect m community and regional planning at UBC. To find out more about the Ecological Comimuubes Connect project visit om' working site. Utsnno&fieddn Siriio 1999' -"thissuehas beiiivuuiit'673cran j • "WhaTs Ne*? at VCN jo Event Listings i oSeareh 1. Content 1.1 Diversity Part icu lar aud iences are not prominent ly ident i f ied. Severa l op t ions are of fered for v i ew ing the in fo rmat ion , and this can serve to address aud iences w i th d i f ferent in teres ts . T h e in format ion inc ludes backg round and con tac t in fo rmat ion , resources and ac t iv i t ies , and l inks to on-l ine in fo rmat ion , inc lud ing severa l searchab le resource ind ices that par t ic ipant g roups ' host . I k n o w this because I built it, though. . . i t is not abundant l y c lear f rom the h o m e p a g e . Earlier ve rs ions made the in format ion t ypes more p rominent , but f eedback f rom the program coord inator ind icated that i ssues and t op i cs are more g rabb ing , and th is is h igh l ighted. Informat ion t ypes are then ind icated under the " E c o C i t y T o p i c s " page , as s h o w n b e l o w . 71 Figure 4.26 EcoCity Topics : £e © to jie a t Co WMO n itier Co n n ect A d d r e s s : g^gj | h t t p : / / v w .yen.be .ca / e o c / Communities Connect Overview „ i E c o C i t y T o p i c s E a c h top ic l i n k s to a l is t o f act ivi t ies a n d resources related to that s u b j e c t f r o m a n y o f tlie o i g a n i z a t i a n s . Affordable Housing Ecological Building Globalization Industrial Ecology Participation & Empowerment! Permaculture Urban Ecology Waste Management , mm • i — . ...uj • i »....,.........,.....»... j , !;tost modeledbn^JmslQ, 1999 - ' ms sae has be&tvsaed 198tunes Smart Transportation Social Sustainability Sustainable Agriculture Sustainability - General! Sustainable Planning a W h a f s H e w a f V C M n E v e n t L i s t m a s • • S e a i c h 1.2 Geographic Reference and Relevance T h e da tabase w a s s t ruc tured to prov ide geograph ic in fo rmat ion , but there w a s not enough da ta to war rant p rogramming a v i e w f rom a geograph ic pe rspec t i ve . I h o p e d that fur ther co l labora t ion w i t h Ne ighbour - to -Ne ighbour , a ne two rk of ne ighbourhood- leve l g roups wou ld build th is aspec t . 1.3 Organization of Information In addi t ion to " E c o C i t y T o p i c s , " users are of fered l inks to o rgan iza t ions and prof i les summar i z i ng the data on their resources and act iv i t ies , as we l l as on -go ing p rog rams . T h e y can a lso link to the V C N ca lendar of even ts . In the f inal s i te , the A c t L o c a l l y Ca lendar , w h i c h has c o m e on-l ine in the in tervening years wi l l be a p rominent n e w feature . In the f inal s i te , the in format ion is organ ized in more of a classified ads s ty le , and is broken d o w n by top ic on ly . 72 Figure 4.27 ECC Organizations • . 5 Ecfttojieat CoMMunlties Connect ?X Address :• •*>• ) j http://www.vcn.bc.ca/ecc/ ] C o m m u n i t i e s P a r t i c i p a t i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n s s C o n n e c t i , The groups listed below are participants ill the project. Their name links to their own wet | site where applicable. The arrow links to a one-page profile of the group including any \ information records in the database. t if Overview , - • ActLocally Calender Profile EcoClttj To|He» " f \ Better Environmentally Sound Transportation Profile "A 1 1 m 1 Coocerative Auto Network Profile 1 EcoDesian Resource Society Profile Everett Crowlev Park Committee Profile Everareen Foundation Profile I' FarmFolk/CltvFolk Profile - 11 Institute of Urban Ecology Profile i l t l l l l l l l r . Neiqhbourto Neiahbour Profile New City West Magazine Profile P f Recvchna Council of British Columbia Profile • iti- School of Community and Reaional Plannina -UBC Profile tjj} Internet zone 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) T h e d y n a m i c vers ion of the E C C si te uses F i l eMaker Pro , w i t h its bui l t- in ex tens ion to put da tabases on- l ine. The f inal s i te is s tat ic H T M L . Like the S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re examp le above , I used a f rame set to keep the b rowse r at the C o m m u n i t y N e t , wh i le l ink ing to da tabase con ten t that is hos ted on a P C at the Cen t re for H u m a n Se t t l emen ts at U B C , so the search l inks are h idden , but w o u l d appear s imi lar to the ones s h o w n for S D Onl ine . 2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Not offered. 2.3 Interface, page design It is hard to cr i t ique o n e ' s o w n w o r k ! I t r ied to use a s imp le d e s i g n , w i t h s o m e graph ics to make it more a t t rac t ive. In the d y n a m i c vers ion this f o c u s e d on the nav iga t ion bu t tons , b a c k g r o u n d , and logo. In the f inal ve rs ion , a classifieds d isp lay is used and the o rgan iza t ions ' o w n graph ics add v isua l appea l . 73 2.4 E-mail notification Not offered. 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites Both s i tes f ocus on c o m m u n i t y env i ronmenta l g roups in V a n c o u v e r , B C and pr imari ly o rgan ize l inks to E c o C i t y member s i tes . 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution In the or iginal d y n a m i c p ro to type , pages we re des igned to a l low data entry on -l ine. T h e P C running the da tabases h o w e v e r w a s not power fu l enough to ful ly run these fea tu res . T h e decreas ing l ikel ihood that it wou ld con t inue as a d y n a m i c si te made it a l o w prior i ty to con t inue deve lopmen t and sort out secur i ty and other i ssues . In the f inal s i te , par t ic ipants wi l l be encouraged to send upda tes to the C o m m u n i t y N e t to have pages c h a n g e d . The V C N cou ld also d is t r ibute the log-in p a s s w o r d s for g roups to a c c e s s and update the pages t h e m s e l v e s . 3. Organization and administration E C C is hos ted by the V a n c o u v e r C o m m u n i t y N e t , a non-prof i t , in par tnersh ip w i th o ther c o m m u n i t y g roups . Server s p a c e is avai lable indef in i te ly . No immed ia te p lans to deve lop or main ta in . Summary I summar i ze these site examp les in the next Chap te r us ing the theore t ica l cha rac te r i s t i cs f rom Chap te r 2 . T h e qual i t ies and st ra teg ies relate mos t s ign i f i cant ly to the Con ten t e lements of the f r amework used in this Chap te r . T h e s e e lements w o u l d be di f f icul t to s u m m a r i z e succ inc t l y in a table a n y w a y , but the Techn i ca l and Organ iza t iona l e lements can be usefu l ly p resented this w a y (see Tab le 4 .1 ) . 7 4 Table 4.1 Summary of DEIS Elements in Examples Site DEIS Framework Element EnviroOne SD Online SD Gateway SDInfo/Ecolnfo Land Centre Stewardship Centre Ecological Communities Connect 2. Technical Capabilities and Features 2.1 Program and platform of system (ISP) Active Server Pages FileMaker Pro Cold Fusion/ Cold Fusion Active Server Pages FileMa ker Pro/ -2.2 Ability to customize user homepage Yes No No No Yes No No 2.3 Interface, page design Vortal Inst. Inst. Inst. Vortal Inst. Inst./V ortal 2.4 E-mail notification Yes Yes No No Yes No No 2.5 Integration with other communication systems and sites Strong Strong Strong Weak Strong Strong Weak 2.6 Remote, distributed content contribution Yes Yes No Yes/No Yes Yes No 3. Organization and Administration 3.1 Institutional support, organization type Private, for profit Q N G O Q N G O Govt. Partner ship, non profit Partne rship, non profit Comm unity, non profit 3.2 Financial base Investm ents and ads European Commissi on Govt. Govt. Membe rs, Suppor ters Govt., suppor ters Inst. = Inst i tut ional , more of an organizat iona l des ign , based on the hos ts p rog ramming areas . Vor ta l = A meta-d i rec tory format . Q N G O = Quas i -non -gove rnmen ta l o rgan iza t ion , large inst i tu tes w i th pr imari ly gove rnmen t fund ing and suppor t . 7 5 Chapter 5 - Summary and Conclusions In th is chap te r , I f irst summar i ze the thes is f ind ings by us ing the f r a m e w o r k of qual i t ies , s t ra teg ies and capabi l i t ies deve loped in Chap te r 2, to d i s c u s s the examp les of DEIS app roaches presented in Chap te r 4. I then d i s c u s s areas for fur ther research , inc lud ing s o m e i ssues that are not add ressed in the thes is research . In c o n c l u s i o n , I d i s c u s s imp l i ca t ions for fur ther use and deve lopmen t of DE IS , par t icu lar ly for p lanners and other env i ronmenta l change agen ts . Summary In Chap te r 2, I summar i zed severa l impor tant t hemes in p lanning fo r /as c o m p l e x i t y , and c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lann ing , w h i c h shou ld be re f lec ted in d y n a m i c env i ronmenta l in format ion s y s t e m s . T h e s e qual i t ies, s t ra teg ies and capabi l i t ies are l is ted b e l o w and then used to d i s c u s s DEIS in p rac t ice . Qualities of "Planning in the Face of Complexity" • Incorporate d ivers i ty . • Share and bui ld k n o w l e d g e through d iscurs ive in terac t ion . • P romo te learning and change . • Emphas i ze the local over the g loba l . • Break d o w n barriers be tween publ ic and pr ivate. Strategies for "Planning in the Face of Complexity" • Ga ther ings and group p r o c e s s e s , f o rums for co -opera t ion , c o n s e n s u s , co l labora t ion and conf l i c t , and • Re la t ionsh ips and re lat ionship bu i ld ing. Functional Capabilities of Dynamic Web Sites • D a t a b a s e suppor t . • R e m o t e Cont r ibu t ion and admin is t ra t ion . • Integrat ion w i th other c o m m u n i c a t i o n too ls and s y s t e m s . 76 Qualities of "Planning in the Face of Complexity" Incorporate diversity. Th is qual i ty inc ludes d iverse sou rces and t ypes of k n o w l e d g e . D iverse sou rces w o u l d inc lude the di f ferent s takeho lder g roups that are in terested or c o n c e r n e d about a part icular i ssue or p rocess . T h e s e s takeho lders can be ca tegor ized by sec to r , inc lud ing gove rnmen t , bus iness , c o m m u n i t y g roups , a c a d e m i c s , and indiv idual c i t i zens and res idents that might be a f fec ted by or conce rned w i th a land use or env i ronmenta l d e c i s i o n . S a n d e r c o c k (1998) d r a w s part icular a t tent ion to the mul t i -cu l tura l d imens ions of the current p lanning d o m a i n . Th is cha l lenges p lanners to broaden ca tegor ies of sou rces to ref lect cul tural d i f fe rences as we l l as sectora l d i f fe rences . T h e s e d i f fe rences or d ivers i ty e n c o m p a s s qual i t ies s u c h as age, race, e thn ic i ty , l anguage , gender , l i festy le , and rel ig ion. T h e d ivers i ty of sectora l sou rces is qui te we l l addressed by a DEIS , t hough there w a s va r iance in the samp les . M o s t s i tes , even whe re the con ten t w a s genera ted mos t l y by a ne twork of research cent res and inst i tutes (e.g. S D G a t e w a y ) , con ta in l inks to s i tes w i th v i e w s and resources f rom all of these part ic ipant g roups . A high degree of l inkage b e t w e e n d iverse in format ion prov iders is intr insic to the W e b itself . S o m e s i tes are intent ional ly nar rower . For examp le , the Env i ronment C a n a d a s i tes , S D Info and Eco ln fo f o c u s so le ly on gove rnmen t in fo rmat ion . In the c a s e of SDIn fo , it is usefu l to remember that federal agenc ies and programs are di f ferent and have their o w n un ique inst i tu t ional cu l ture and manda te . Other s i tes link more prominent ly to d iverse sou rces of in fo rmat ion . The si tes that of fer the abil i ty to add l inks and l is t ings of fer a more robust w a y of inc lud ing in format ion f rom d iverse sou rces . S o m e s i tes have an internat ional f o c u s and offer l inks to s i tes in other languages bes ides Engl ish (usual ly F rench or Span i sh ) . Th is is the only aspec t of cul tural d ivers i ty that is readi ly apparent . Th is lack of cul tura l d ivers i ty po ints to the need to cons ider other d imens ions of d ivers i ty that market research shou ld address , as d i s c u s s e d in areas for fur ther research b e l o w . Innes ( 1 9 9 8 , 1996 ) f o c u s e s on the va lue of many k inds of in format ion in c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanning p r o c e s s e s . T h e s e t ypes inc lude: " t e c h n i c a l , fo rma l or sc ient i f i ca l ly va l ida ted in fo rmat ion ; the par t i c ipants ' o w n exper ience ; s tor ies the par t ic ipants to ld ; images and representa t ions ; and intu i t ion, the par t i c ipan ts ' persona l s e n s e of the s i tuat ion and of the other par t i c ipants" (Innes, 1 9 9 6 , 1 0 - 1 1 ) . F r iedmann (1973) d i f ferent ia tes only " p r o c e s s e d k n o w l e d g e and exper ient ia l k n o w l e d g e " to cap tu re the d i f fe rence b e t w e e n p lanner 's k n o w l e d g e and that of their c l ien ts . Th is d is t inc t ion is m u c h fuzz ier in real i ty, w i th both part ies l ikely d raw ing on both t ypes of in fo rmat ion and k n o w i n g . Innes and Booher (1999a) inc lude indicators as a spec i f i c t ype of k n o w l e d g e that is impor tant to p lanning comp lex met ropo l i tan areas . Neg ropon te ( 1 9 9 5 , p. 154) po ints to another aspec t of in format ion t y p e : " T h e fac t that TV Guide has been k n o w n to make larger prof i ts than all four n e t w o r k s c o m b i n e d sugges t s that the va lue of in format ion about in format ion can be greater than the va lue of the in fo rmat ion i tsel f . " Th is ind ica tes the fundamen ta l va lue of a DEIS a p p r o a c h is the organ iza t ion of me ta -da ta , in format ion about the t ype , sub jec t , s o u r c e , and avai labi l i ty of in format ion resources and ac t iv i t ies , the organ izat ion and presenta t ion of the in format ion ava i lab le , is as impor tant as the actua l in format ion o f fe red . 7 7 Whi l e sou rces may be less d iverse in s o m e c a s e s , the t ypes of in format ion are d iverse w i th in all of the s i tes . T h e y present a d ivers i ty of t ypes and fo rma ts for in format ion p roduc ts as we l l as t op i cs . T w o broad t ypes that are w o r t h d i f ferent ia t ing are resou rces , or packaged in format ion that carr ies or ho lds knowledge or s o m e o n e ' s unders tand ing , and in format ion about oppor tun i t ies to par t ic ipate in f ace - t o - f ace , in te rac t ive , or exper ient ia l p r o c e s s e s . S ince she w a s referr ing to p r o c e s s e s , Innes' (1996) in format ion t ypes do not d is t ingu ish the med ium of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P resumab l y , m u c h is exchanged face - to - face and verbal ly , but severa l t ypes are a lso o f ten embod ied in d o c u m e n t s , or co l lec t ions of text and images , and th is is eas i ly cap tu red and e x c h a n g e d on the W e b . Gather ings and face - to - face e x c h a n g e are fac i l i ta ted by s i tes that have even ts ca lendars and l ist ings of n e t w o r k s , educa t iona l and t ra in ing p rog rams , w o r k s h o p s , e tc . D o c u m e n t e d k n o w l e d g e can represent many d i f ferent t ypes of in fo rmat ion . S i tes con ta in n e w s , ind ica tors , c a s e s tud ies w h i c h share expe r ience , sc ien t i f i c and techn ica l da ta , maps and images , repor ts , op in ions , in fo rmat ion about p roduc ts , too ls and se rv i ces , and backg round on organ iza t ions and peop le . Fo l l ow ing on S a n d e r c o c k ' s (1998) cal l for more at tent ion to the mul t i -cu l tura l con tex t of the p lanning d o m a i n , in format ion t ypes (as we l l as sources) shou ld ref lect cu l tura l d ivers i ty . A report look ing at the Cultural Dimensions of Environmental Information, Education and Communication in the Philippines (Flor and M a t u l a c , 1 994 ) s u g g e s t s that more at tent ion shou ld be paid to us ing the t radi t ional folk s o n g s , s to r ies , radio d ramas to c o m m u n i c a t e env i ronmenta l e th ics and i ssues rather than s imp ly parrot ing these f o rms w i th a n e w m e s s a g e . There is substant ia l ly less p reva lence of more art ist ic and creat ive m o d e s of exp ress ion , like art, v ideo , m u s i c , poet ry , as we l l as spir i tual and rel ig ious d imens ions of env i ronmenta l i ssues , at least in the s i tes e x a m i n e d . Other s i tes and in i t ia t ives, w i th a s t ronger cul tural f o c u s , like First Na t i ons , or c o m m u n i t y g roups us ing publ ic art to create a s t ronger sense of p lace- ident i ty , might bring more of th is t ype of in format ion into the on- l ine d iscurs ive rea lm. Prac t i ca l i n fo rmat ion , soc io - techn i ca l in fo rmat ion , and narrat ive are the dominan t general t ypes . Th is is (perhaps unfor tunate ly) cons is ten t w i th the in format ion preva lent in w e s t e r n p lanning p rac t i ce . Share and build knowledge through discursive interaction. DEIS app roaches ref lect three degrees of discursive interaction. T h e s t ronges t is s i tes that e m p h a s i z e l inks to gather ings and even ts that a l l ow real t ime , in terpersonal in te rac t ion . Ca lendars and n e t w o r k s , l inks to organ iza t ions and people in t h e m , and educa t ion and tra in ing oppor tun i t ies all fac i l i ta te a s t rong degree of d i scu rs i ve in te rac t ion . For examp le , S D On l i ne ' s da tabase of n e t w o r k s , c o n f e r e n c e s , and t ra in ing, and the Land C e n t r e ' s ca lendar and educa t ion p rograms. On- l ine in teract ion represents the next s t ronges t degree . D i s c u s s i o n l ists (e.g. L i s tSe rvs ) , on- l ine con fe rences and s y m p o s i a , and d is tance learning p rograms fac i l i ta te d i scu rs i ve in teract ion as we l l . L inks to p roduc ts and serv ices fac i l i ta te a potent ia l ly s t ronger degree of e c o n o m i c in teract ion. Wh i l e di f ferent in nature than d i scu rs i ve dec is ion m a k i n g , market fo rces do exert an in f luence on and are in f luenced by 7 8 env i ronmenta l s y s t e m s . Examp les inc lude S D G a t e w a y ' s list of d i s c u s s i o n l ists and E n v i r o O n e ' s Env i r o lFo rums and bus iness in format ion (products and se rv i ces ) . T h e next degree of in teract ion is the exchange of d o c u m e n t e d k n o w l e d g e or unders tand ing . Resou rce d i rec tor ies , repor ts , n e w s and so on are the meat and po ta toes of the W e b in a p lanning or env i ronmenta l con tex t . D o c u m e n t d i rector ies and pub l ica t ions are c o m p o n e n t s of all the s i tes . Promote learning and change. T h e abi l i ty of a DEIS to p romote learning and change is d i f f icul t to a s s e s s by s imp ly look ing at t h e m . A high level of d ivers i ty in in format ion t y p e s , i s s u e s / t o p i c s , and s o u r c e s , a long w i th a var ie ty of w a y s to par t ic ipate in d i scu rs i ve in teract ion are c o n d u c i v e to learning and change in a comp lex s y s t e m . W h e t h e r that t akes p lace is hard to measure or at t r ibute. W h e t h e r it is adapt ive (i.e. makes it more s tab le and l ikely to surv ive) for the s y s t e m is imposs ib le to d iscern g iven their unpred ic tab le nature. I d i s c u s s th is qual i ty fur ther be low under " A r e a s for Further R e s e a r c h " . Emphasize the local over the global. DEIS examp les vary w ide l y in the degree to w h i c h they emphas i ze the local over the g loba l . T h e E P A "Sur f Y o u r W a t e r s h e d , B e a c h . . . " s i tes , and by e x t e n s i o n , E n v i r o O n e . c o m , w h i c h l ists these op t ions prominent ly on their h o m e p a g e under " E n v i r o l L o c a l " are the best examp les of emphas is on this aspec t of env i ronmenta l i n fo rmat ion . A s i l lustrated in Chap te r 4, "Sur f You r W a t e r s h e d " of fers d iverse t ypes of local ly re fe renced in format ion on o rgan iza t ions , ind icators , p lanning p r o c e s s e s , and env i ronmenta l m e d i u m (air, land, water ) . M o s t s i tes have a more in ternat ional f o c u s and p lace re levance can only be found us ing i the si te search eng ine . Break down barriers between public and private. A s ind icated in the d i scuss ion of the point in the l i terature, there are severa l in terpretat ions of publ ic and pr ivate. The aspec t that emerged f rom the ac t ion pro jects and the si te rev iews w a s par tnersh ips b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate sec to r o rgan iza t ions in deve lop ing and imp lement ing in format ion s y s t e m s . T w o s i tes that mos t c lear ly blur barriers b e t w e e n publ ic and pr ivate sec to rs are the Land Cen t re and Env i roOne . T h e s e t w o mos t c lear ly have a m e c h a n i s m for s o m e kind of revenue generat ion f rom the s i te , membersh ips / subsc r i p t i ons and adve r t i semen ts respec t ive ly . Env i roOne is an interest ing c a s e in that it cer ta in ly makes ful l use of a gove rnmen t funded resource , as in the E P A examp le a b o v e , but is i tself a for-prof i t enterpr ise. M o s t s i tes are funded as a publ ic serv ice by gove rnmen ta l and quas i -gove rnmen ta l ins t i tu t ions, s u c h as the European Founda t i on , Internat ional Inst i tute for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t (USD) and the Env i ronment C a n a d a s i tes . A s the ac t ion pro jects demons t ra ted , publ ic pr ivate co l laborat ion can c rea te a cha l lenge in s o m e inst i tu t ional con tex t s . Perce ived conf l i c t of interest b e t w e e n a publ ic internet se rv ice prov ider (ISP), the C o m m u n i t y N e t , and a pr ivate ISP of fer ing to prov ide resources and ass i s tance w a s a barrier to imp lementa t ion . 79 Strategies for "Planning in the Face of Complexity" Gatherings and group processes, forums for co-operation, consensus, collaboration and conflict; and Relationships and relationship building. Of all the aspec t s descr ibed in the l i terature, re lat ionships and re la t ionship bu i ld ing, is perhaps the w e a k e s t aspec t of DEIS app roaches . A s desc r ibed above under k n o w l e d g e shar ing and d iscurs ive in terac t ion , ca lendars and n e t w o r k s c a n fac i l i ta te gather ings and group p rocesses by point ing people to live even ts and on- l ine d i s c u s s i o n s . T h e s e can in turn fac i l i ta te re lat ionship bu i ld ing, as found by authors like Innes and Booher (1999b) and Hea ley ( 1993 ) . One aspec t of the W e b that can suppor t re la t ionsh ips and re lat ionship bui ld ing is the pos t ing of b ib l iographic in format ion about c o n t a c t s , wr i te rs , researchers and other prov iders and pract i t ioners . Persona l W e b pages , par t icu lar ly w h e n part of a p ro fess iona l s i te , o f ten inc lude e-mai l , phone and other con tac t in fo rmat ion . Th is a l l ows people to meet and learn about each other in a n e w w a y . W e b - b a s e d serv ices can fac i l i ta te gather ings and group p r o c e s s e s , both by d i rec t ing peop le to live even ts and by exper iment ing w i th on- l ine c o m m u n i c a t i o n too ls , l ike W e b - c o n f e r e n c i n g . I descr ibed these aspec ts above . S imi lar to the sparse examp les of l inking in format ion to p lace , l inking it to p rocesses is not as prevalent as it cou ld be . O c c a s i o n a l or even annual c o n f e r e n c e s , covered in the samp les are arguably not as cr i t ica l as local ly or iented dec i s ion -mak ing p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h are less we l l rep resen ted . T h e E P A "Sur f your W a t e r s h e d " si te is a good examp le of h o w both of t hese qual i t ies (place and process) can be usefu l ly in tegrated in a DEIS. Functional Capabilities of Dynamic Web Sites Database support Al l of the s i tes presented in Chap te r 4 use da tabases to help del iver d y n a m i c con ten t , excep t for Eco ln fo and S D G a t e w a y . A s i l lustrated in the desc r ip t i ons , three major s o f t w a r e op t ions are used to connec t s i tes to da tabases : A c t i v e Se rve r P a g e s , Co ld F u s i o n , and F i l eMaker Pro. Da tabases are used to suppor t ca lendar , resource and d o c u m e n t l is t ings, e-mai l , page cus tom iza t i on , remote cont r ibu t ion of con ten t l inks, and d i rec tor ies of too ls , n e t w o r k s , t ra in ing and techn ica l ass i s tance p rog rams . Remote contribution and administration Al l of the data-dr iven examp les prov ided s o m e oppor tun i ty for users to submi t l inks to n e w con ten t and to c o m m u n i c a t e w i th the si te admin is t ra to rs . T h e degree to w h i c h th is is encou raged var ies b e t w e e n examp les . On one end , the S t e w a r d s h i p Cen t re and S D Onl ine have a link to cont r ibute on every da tabase search and d isp lay page , on the other S D G a t e w a y s imp ly has a " F e e d b a c k " bu t ton . Integration with other communication tools and systems DEIS integrate c o m m u n i c a t i o n med ia and s y s t e m s by l inking to s i tes l ike n e w s ou t le ts , that prov ide t imely in fo rmat ion , and potent ia l ly avai lable in audio and v ideo fo rma ts . P rev ious ly hard to f ind resources like pub l ica t ions f rom gove rnmen t , 80 a c a d e m i c s , and research and po l icy inst i tu tes are cer ta in ly more readi ly ava i lab le and easi ly shared on the W e b . B e y o n d l inkages on the W e b , and l inkages to real t ime even ts and ga ther ings , in tegrat ion rel ies on users to share in format ion f rom the W e b th rough their other digi tal and non-dig i ta l channe l s , like organizat iona l news le t t e rs , mee t ings , e tc . Th is user-dependen t aspec t is the centra l f o c u s of the areas for fur ther research d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . Areas for Further Research Col labora t i ve issues in ini t iat ing deve lopmen t of in format ion s y s t e m s , s u c h as t hose that a rose in the ac t ion pro jects , are an obv ious area for fur ther research . It w o u l d be use fu l to engage in a d ia logue b e t w e e n people in the in format ion s y s t e m s deve lopmen t and p lanning (human s y s t e m s deve lopment ) f ie lds. I th ink there w o u l d be s o m e frui t ful in terd isc ip l inary k n o w l e d g e shar ing on nego't iat ive p r o c e s s e s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . There is a larger negot ia t ion happen ing , t h o u g h , b e t w e e n the si te and the users that it c o n n e c t s . A fundamenta l s t rength of a DEIS app roach is its abi l i ty to cap ture and relay distributed intelligence in the soc io -eco log i ca l s y s t e m . If the d is t r ibu ted in te l l igence isn ' t par t ic ipat ing by a c c e s s i n g , shar ing , us ing and cont r ibu t ing their d iverse k n o w l e d g e then not m u c h is ga ined . Th is means that a DEIS mus t se rve the needs and sui t the p re fe rences of a d iverse array of people w i th in tersect ing in teres ts . Unders tand ing these peop le , and h o w c o m m u n i c a t i v e p lanners can shape techn ica l capabi l i t ies to serve their shared publ ic interest , are the cha l lenges that DEIS holds for p lanners . Th is thes is has been a prel iminary exp lorat ion of a n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n too l in p lann ing . T h e f o c u s has been on def in ing bas ic charac te r i s t i cs i l lustrated by examp les f rom p rac t i ce . Th is ef fort to def ine and di f ferent iate a n e w too l , and h o w it re f lects the evo l v i ng , c o m p l e x p lanning doma in and p rac t i ce , is a necessa ry f irst s tep to fur ther resea rch . Three broad areas for fur ther research sugges ted by th is pre l iminary exp lora t ion are: market research on aud ience /par t i c ipan ts ; learning and c h a n g e ; and si te sus ta inab i l i t y , deve lopmen t and use . Market Research on Audience/Participants In order to better p romote a DEIS and deve lop it to best serve users o n c e they are there, it w o u l d help to k n o w more about t h e m . A l l o w i n g users to c u s t o m i z e the in format ion they see on the s i te ' s h o m e p a g e , as in the Env i roOne e x a m p l e , is one w a y to a l l ow users to exp ress their p re ferences and in terests . W e b user (or c u s t o m e r in mos t cases) research is a n e w area of market research and everyone get t ing into e-c o m m e r c e or any on- l ine enterpr ise wou ld like to k n o w h o w to do it best . D y n a m i c fea tures enab le one app roach by g iv ing the si te con tac t in format ion w h e n they register . Use rs can be su rveyed to prov ide input and gu idance into si te deve lopmen t and upg rades . For e x a m p l e , the S D Onl ine fo rm asks about the sec to r and coun t r y of the user w h e n they s ign up for e-mail se rv i ce . Th is kind of da ta can a lso help t h e m unders tand w h o is us ing their si te and has an exp ressed interest in fu ture use . A DEIS tends to get a round the need to k n o w the user by mak ing the in format ion a c c e s s i b l e 81 f r om d iverse pe rspec t i ves and in terests , and mak ing these pathways easy to f ind and unders tand by anyone . Admin is t ra to rs shou ld incorporate market research on users into the on-go ing eva luat ion and i terat ive deve lopmen t of the s y s t e m . W a y s to ident i fy and measure ind icators of the s i te ' s e f fec t i veness is an area for fur ther research that c o n n e c t s to the area of learning and change d i s c u s s e d be low . A more cha l leng ing market ing ques t ion br ings back the issue of a c c e s s . W e b -s a v v y researchers are cer ta in ly mak ing good use of this n e w med ium to e x c h a n g e p a c k a g e d , p r o c e s s e d k n o w l e d g e qu ick ly . But , one mus t ques t ion the broader impac t and uti l i ty of a DEIS . S o m e ques t ions that cou ld be pursued fur ther inc lude: 1. H o w e f fec t i ve is the si te in at t ract ing and retaining n e w users? 2 . Do they rely on the W e b search eng ines and d i scuss ion l ists to c o m p e t e for the ex is t ing pool of W e b users? 3 . Do they use other med ia to reach n e w aud iences that might not real ize w h a t a DEIS has to of fer? 4 . H o w do they craf t a m e s s a g e and f ind the appropr ia te out le ts to reach all of the di f ferent stakeholder aud iences? 5 . A r e there barriers to use by target aud iences and h o w can these be removed or mi t iga ted? 6. A r e the poor or a d v o c a t e s for the poor adequate ly represented in the vir tual d i s c u s s i o n ? Does the in format ion f i l ter d o w n th rough advoca tes in a usefu l manner? T h e abi l i ty to unders tand the needs and in terests of target users is n e c e s s a r y for s o m e of the s i tes to ex is t f inanc ia l ly . Th is aspec t of market research relates to the third research a rea , susta inabi l i ty of the s i te , and on-go ing deve lopmen t . Th is is part icular ly t rue for a si te like E n v i r o O n e . c o m that l ikely relies on usage da ta and c l ick-th roughs (people fo l l ow ing an ad link) to at t ract adver t i sers . T rack ing usage pat terns can prov ide use fu l f eedback on wha t sec t i ons are of mos t interest and guide s t ra teg ic deve lopmen t of n e w content for any s i te . A f inal aspec t of market research , as ind icated above , shou ld address S a n d e r c o c k ' s (1998) mul t i -cul tural c i t y / reg ion . The unders tand ing of target aud iences shou ld address d i f fe rences in age, gender , language, e thn ic i ty , race, and re l ig ion, and h o w these fac to rs in f luence their use of the w e b and of env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion t y p e s , and the k n o w l e d g e they represent . Learning and Change Learn ing and change are the hal lmarks of comp lex adapt ive s y s t e m s . Th is p rocess a l l ows a s y s t e m to change in response to changes wi th in i tself and f rom its env i ronmen t . It is f racta l and can be stud ied at the ind iv idua l , g roup , ins t i tu t iona l /o rgan iza t iona l , and soc ie ta l leve ls . The point raised above that 8 2 unders tand ing the rote of a DEIS in enabl ing d i scu rs i ve in te rac t ions , can be app roached f rom a marke t ing pe rspec t i ve . Th is w o u l d f o c u s on the p re fe rences , in te res ts , and needs of use rs , as we l l as " se l l i ng " it to organ iza t ions as a good p lace to link their s i tes and resou rces . I a lso sugges ted that th is might be part of a broader m a n a g e m e n t app roach to the s i te . Bes ides sa t is fy ing c u s t o m e r s and at t ract ing enough of t h e m (and representa t ive d ivers i ty ) , many of the s i tes are conce rned w i th soc io -env i ronmen ta l c h a n g e . T h e y inc lude in their m iss ions an expl ic i t ob jec t ive of c reat ing c h a n g e th rough learning and in format ion e x c h a n g e . A n impor tant area for research , t hen , is h o w to eva luate the cont r ibu t ion of a DEIS to learning and change . They cont r ibute to learning and change th rough their abi l i ty to fac i l i ta te and enable d iverse in format ion exchange and d i scu rs i ve in te rac t ion . H o w cou ld this be examined in p rac t ice? One research approach bui lds on the theore t ica l f ounda t ions and another inves t iga tes users and potent ia l users more deep ly . A t heo ry -based invest igat ion of learning and change might look at: 1. T h e t ypes of in format ion in a DEIS (and the c o m m u n i t y it represents) relat ive to t y p e s and d ivers i ty ind icated by the l i terature. 2 . H o w in format ion t ypes and DEIS are used in p r o c e s s e s . 3 . H o w DEIS ref lect on-go ing p rocesses and the learning that takes p lace . 4 . H o w we l l DEIS cove r d i f ferent top ics and i ssues and learning s t y les . A recent s tudy for the S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re per formed a " G a p A n a l y s i s " of s t e w a r d s h i p educa t ion and ou t reach . The da ta co l lec ted for the s tudy , a l ist ing of resources and p rog rams , indexed by p lace , in format ion t ype and top i c , and organ iza t ion wi l l be added to the d i rectory l ist ings in the S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re s i te . Th is p rocess s u g g e s t s that the Cent re da tabase cou ld be used in the fu ture to ident i fy t rends and c h a n g e s in the supp ly of env i ronmenta l educa t ion and ou t reach se rv i ces . T h e s e c o n d research approach to learning and change is c lose ly related to marke t ing and ou t reach and ref lects the need for co- learn ing a m o n g d iverse par t ic ipants . Da tabases behind a DEIS, part icular ly ones that co l lec t user in format ion and sol ic i t their con t r ibu t ions , can be used to ident i fy the aud ience of pract i t ioners and prov iders of env i ronmenta l in format ion and k n o w l e d g e . Th is is an impor tant user group to inves t iga te fur ther to unders tand the role the DEIS p lays in their on-go ing learning and c h a n g e . T h e broader user g roup /aud ience of the d iverse publ ics invo lved in env i ronmenta l dec i s ion -mak ing are harder to ident i fy and invest igate their learning and the role of a DEIS resource in it. One advan tage of emphas iz ing the local over the g lobal aud ience is that it na r rows the poo l . Fo l low ing a t radi t ional marke t ing app roach of ident i fy ing part icular aud ience segmen ts or n i ches , bas ic marke t ing in format ion shou ld be coup led w i th an effort to better unders tand h o w di f ferent peop le use in fo rmat ion and h o w they use the Internet to get it. 8 3 Site Sustainability, Development and Use A n impor tant issue is the abi l i ty of a si te to suppor t itself f inanc ia l l y , keep the con ten t up- to -da te , engag ing , and use fu l , and g r o w and deve lop . T h e s e fac to rs arose as barriers to creat ing a c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d si te us ing d y n a m i c w e b t e c h n o l o g y as desc r ibed in the ac t ion project in Chap te r 3 . There we re insuf f ic ient resources to suppor t th i s t e c h n o l o g y and its imp lemen ta t i on . Di f ferent mode l s w e r e apparen t in the DEIS e x a m p l e s . A p p r o a c h e s ranged f rom str ict government fund ing to a c o m m e r c i a l ven ture that rel ies on pro jected t raf f ic to at t ract adver t isers and inves to rs . O thers like the Land Cen t re and the S t e w a r d s h i p Cent re are seek ing to deve lop pub l ic /pr iva te par tnersh ips , or co l labora t ive non-prof i t o rgan iza t ions to suppor t the admin is t ra t ion and d e v e l o p m e n t of the s i te . Fur ther inves t iga t ion may require t ime to de te rm ine the e f f ec t i veness of d i f ferent fund ing and admin is t ra t ion mode ls in c reat ing a robust in fo rmat ion e x c h a n g e s y s t e m . A n o t h e r aspec t of s i te deve lopmen t is the w a y it uses the inherent ne twork of in format ion prov iders to create a si te w h o s e des ign and con ten t evo l ves in response to user needs and in terests . Conclusions and Implications for Further Development A s a n e w tool in a n e w m e d i u m , d y n a m i c env i ronmenta l in fo rmat ion s y s t e m s appear to have the potent ia l to suppor t and enhance learning and change needed to add ress the impac ts of human act iv i ty on the env i ronment and v ice v e r s a . T h e y of fer n e w w a y s to suppor t c o m m u n i c a t i o n in p lanning as comp lex i t y and p lann ing for c o m p l e x i t y . W h a t does this def in i t ion and rev iew of a n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n too l sugges t to p lanners and other env i ronmenta l change agents in the soc ia l s y s t e m ? First is that they use t h e m . A DEIS can cont r ibute more s t rongly to the p lanning task if p lanners and their coun te rpar ts are ac t i ve in cont r ibut ing con ten t f rom their realm of wo rk and l inks to their o rgan iza t ions ' s i te . A fur ther sugges t ion is that they make good use of s u c h resources to gather in format ion about each other, and wha t d iverse ac to rs are do ing , th ink ing , organ iz ing and p lann ing . P lanners shou ld exper iment w i t h n e w med ia and c o m m u n i c a t i o n m o d e s to c o n v e y in format ion to d iverse aud iences and pub l ics in the p lanning d o m a i n . Par t ic ipat ion in DEIS can help p lanners address Fores te r ' s (1982) c o n c e r n s about m is in fo rmat ion by cont r ibut ing accu ra te , t imely in format ion and respond ing to m is in fo rmat ion found in a DEIS. A DEIS may a lso aid p lanners in ident i fy ing potent ia l co l labora to rs , both suppor te rs and de t rac to rs , by g iv ing them an insight into the pos i t i ons , in terests and conce rns of these g roups . Potent ia l ly , p lanners cou ld ident i fy a bas is for d ia logue and debate in reso lv ing comp lex p lanning i s sues , as we l l as the ind iv idua ls and organ iza t ions w i t h w h o m they shou ld be deve lop ing re la t ionsh ips . A f inal w a y for p lanners to par t ic ipate, beyond cont r ibut ing and mak ing use of the con ten t in a DEIS, is to suppor t their admin is t ra t ion and deve lopmen t th rough adve r t i semen ts , membersh ips , grants , and par tnersh ips . The f lexib i l i ty of d y n a m i c W e b s y s t e m s a l l o w s t h e m to be adapted and expanded to serve n e w aud iences . P lanners d o not have to bui ld their o w n s i te to ha rness a DE IS ' capab i l i t ies for o rgan iz ing and del iver ing con ten t ; they can work w i th ex is t ing hosts to integrate con ten t resou rces . 8 4 S a n d e r c o c k (1998) sugges ts f ive l i terac ies, or k n o w l e d g e areas for p lann ing educa t ion us ing the a c r o n y m T A M E D : T e c h n i c a l , A n a l y t i c a l , Mu l t i - cu l tu ra l , Eco log i ca l , and D e s i g n . C o m p u t e r t echno logy is o f ten re legated as a ski l l in the techn i ca l and ana ly t ica l rea lms of p lanning prac t ice . A DEIS app roach cha l lenges p lanners to exp lore the use of c o m p u t e r networking t echno log ies espec ia l l y , to suppor t mul t i -cu l tura l , eco log ica l and des ign aspec t s of the p lanning rea lm. C o m p u t e r s as a c o m m u n i c a t i o n too l are arguab ly less we l l unders tood and s tud ied than compu te rs as an ana ly t ica l too l . O n a cau t ionary no te , par t ic ipants shou ld be aware that in fo rmat ion s y s t e m deve lopmen t is a negot ia t ive p rocess (much like d iscurs ive p lanning p rocesses ) . The s t ronger a person or o rgan iza t ion 's i nvo lvement , responsib i l i ty and i nves tmen t in the in fo rmat ion s y s t e m , the s t ronger the role they may wan t in the deve lopmen ta l dec i s i on -mak ing for the DEIS . There is an interest ing parallel in the p lanning and in fo rmat ion s y s t e m s deve lopmen t (ISD) l i terature. Negot ia t i ve p r o c e s s e s , w i th d iverse v i e w s represented and i terat ive co -deve lopmen t , are chang ing the t radi t ional eng ineer ing app roach in ISD (e.g. A v g e r o u and C o r n f o r d , 1 9 9 8 , A v g e r o u , 1995 ) s imi lar to c o m m u n i c a t i v e p rac t i ces impact on p lann ing 's rational p r o c e s s e s . B e c a u s e of its re l iance on a negot ia t ive p r o c e s s , ISD can c o m p l e m e n t and suppor t the s t ra teg ies of re la t ionship bui ld ing and gather ings by creat ing a n e w venue for d iverse pract i t ioners to co l labora te in c reat ing a co l lec t ive resource . Th is ISD co l labora t ion can bui ld and share k n o w l e d g e on local i ssues in the p lanning d o m a i n , in a di f ferent con tex t than typ ica l p lanning ac t iv i t ies . T h e inst i tu t ional f r amework of a si te can impose an editor ial cont ro l over the con ten t that they do not a l w a y s make expl ic i t . T h e host may legi t imate ly p lace l imits on the d ivers i ty of par t ic ipants , k n o w l e d g e or pe rspec t i ves . It shou ld be expl ic i t to the reader, h o w e v e r , that there is a va lue s y s t e m govern ing the s i te , w h a t it is , w h o en fo rces it, and h o w . T ranspa rency is perhaps more s ign i f icant than sheer d ivers i ty . In the a b s e n c e of a c lear editor ial po l i cy , the impetus is on the reader to accep t in fo rmat ion and sou rces cr i t ica l ly . F ina l ly , p lanners may cont r ibute by keeping the broader qual i t ies and s t ra teg ies for p lann ing in the f ace of comp lex i t y in m ind , and explor ing w a y s to make n e w t e c h n o l o g y serve larger soc ia l and eco log ica l pu rposes . T h e y shou ld par t ic ipa te , co l labora te , and negot ia te to help steer the deve lopmen t of th is n e w too l to suppor t learning and c h a n g e , and the robust (discursive) exchange of d iverse in format ion at the local and regional leve ls . In c o n c l u s i o n , DEIS offer p lanners power fu l n e w c o m m u n i c a t i o n capabi l i t ies and sugges t a role for th is approach to enhance p lanning in the con tex t of comp lex i t y and c h a n g e . DEIS ' abi l i ty to fulf i l th is role relies on p lanners and other env i ronmenta l c h a n g e agents ac t i ve ly us ing and exper iment ing w i th these too l s , and exp lor ing the areas s u g g e s t e d for fur ther s tudy , market research , learning and c h a n g e , and s i te sus ta inab i l i t y . A c t i v e engagemen t and exper imenta t ion is necessa ry to shape th is too l to se rve the broader manda te of the p lanning enterpr ise. 8 5 R e f e r e n c e s A l lmend inge r , Phi l ip . 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To ron to : Cu l tu re C o n c e p t s , Inc.. M e a d o w s , Done l la . (1997) " P l a c e s to in tervene in a s y s t e m . " Whole Earth Review, N o . 9 1 , W in te r 1 9 9 7 , pp. 7 8 - 8 4 . h t t p : / / w w w . w h o l e e a r t h m a g . c o m / Mi lb ra th , Les ter W . (1989) Envisioning a Sustainable Society: Learning Our Way Out. A l b a n y : S ta te Univers i ty of N e w York ( S U N Y ) Press . h t t p : / / w w w . s u n y p r e s s . e d u / s u n y p / b a c k a d s / h t m l / m i l b r a t h e n v i s i o n i n g . h t m l Mi t che l l , W i l l i am J . (1995) City of Bits: space, place and the infobahn. C a m b r i d g e , M A : MIT P ress . 8 8 Negropon te , N i cho las . (1995) Being Digital. N e w York : A l f red A Knop f . h t t p : / / w w w . o b s - u s . c o m / o b s / e n g l i s h / b o o k s / n n / b d i n t r o . h t m N e w m a n , Jud i t h M . (2000) " A c t i o n R e s e a r c h : A Brief O v e r v i e w . " Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/ Forum: Qualitative Social Research [On-line Journal], 1(1). Ava i l ab le at: h t tp : / /qua l i ta t i ve- research .ne t / fqs [ 2 0 0 0 , J a n u a r y 26] O r l i k o w s k i , W . J . and Baroud i , J . J . (1991) " S t u d y i n g Informat ion T e c h n o l o g y in Organ iza t i ons : Resea rch A p p r o a c h e s and A s s u m p t i o n s . " Information Systems Research, 2 : 1 , pp. 1-28. Orr, Dav id W . (1992) Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. A l b a n y : S U N Y Press . h t t p : / / w w w . s u n y p r e s s . e d u / s u n y p / b a c k a d s / h t m l / o r r e c o l o g i c a l l i t e r a c y . h t m l P res iden t ' s C o u n c i l for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t (1994) Education for Sustainability: Agenda for Action, f rom the Nat iona l Forum on Par tnersh ips Suppor t i ng Educa t i on about the Env i ronment a demons t ra t i on project of the P res iden t ' s C o u n c i l for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t , h t t p : / / w w w . g c r i o . o r g / e d u / p c s d / t o c . h t m l P res iden t ' s C o u n c i l for Sus ta inab le Deve lopmen t (1997) From Classroom to Community and beyond: Educating for a Sustainable Future, Report of the Publ ic L inkage , Dia logue , and Educa t ion T a s k Force h t t p : / / w w w . w h i t e h o u s e . g o v / P C S D / P u b l i c a t i o n s / T F Repor ts / l i nkage- top .h tm l R o y c e , Peter (1998) Persona l c o m m u n i c a t i o n by e-mai l . Sage r , To re (1994) Communicative Planning Theory. N e w c a s t l e upon T y n e : A t h e n a e u m Press L td . Sage r , Tore (1997) "P lann ing and the l iberal paradox : A democ ra t i c d i l emma in soc ia l c h o i c e . " Journal of Planning Literature, A u g 9 7 , V o l . 1 2 , Issue 1, p. 16 . S a n d e r c o c k , Leonie (1998) Towards Cosmopolis. Ch i ces te r : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , L td . S c h o n , Dona ld (1 983 ) The.Reflective Practitioner: how professionals think in action, N e w Yo rk : Bas ic B o o k s . S c h o n , Dona ld (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. S a n F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y -B a s s Pub l i shers . S c h o n , D o n a l d , S a n y a l , B i s h , and M i t che l l , W i l l i am J . (eds.) (1999) High technology and Low-Income Communities: Prospects for the Positive use of Advanced Information Technology. C a m b r i d g e , M A : MIT Press . S u s m a n , Gera ld I. and Evered , Roger D. (1978) " A n A s s e s s m e n t of the Sc ien t i f i c Mer i t s of A c t i o n R e s e a r c h . " Administrative Science Quarterly, 2 3 , D e c e m b e r , pp. 5 8 2 - 6 0 3 Tay lo r , Nigel (1998) Urban Planning Theory Since 1945, L o n d o n : S a g e Pub l i ca t ions . W a c k e r n a g e l , Ma th i s and Rees , W i l l i am. (1996) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, N e w Soc ie t y Pub l ishers : Gabr io la , B . C . , C a n a d a . h t t p : / / w w w . n e w s o c i e t y . c o m / o e f . h t m l W a l d r o p , M . M i t che l l (1 992) Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos, N e w York : T o u c h s t o n e . 8 9 Appendix A - What Makes a Good Webpage? T o sco re a w e b p a g e , a s s e s s each cr i ter ion b e l o w as Poor , G o o d , or Exce l len t . Then ass ign each Poor rat ing 0 po in ts , each G o o d 1 point , and each Exce l len t 2 po in ts . URL of page a s s e s s e d : Title of page a s s e s s e d : Criteria Description SCORE Format is Well Organized. S i t e ' s s t ruc ture makes sense and it is easi ly nav iga ted . Mu l t i -pages exhibi t c o n s i s t e n c y . Format is Easy to use. The page is qu ick ly d o w n l o a d e d . Graph i cs are in terest ing and relevant. Tex t is easy to read. Format is Aesthetically Pleasing The page demons t ra tes an at t ract ive use of g raph ics , co lor , and page layout . Backg round coord ina tes w i th tex t co lors and g raph ics . An ima t i on (if any) is just i f iab le. Con ten t is Reliable. Informat ion is accu ra te , comp le te , and current . Con ten t is Useful Con ten t is mean ing fu l and impor tant . C o n t a c t in fo rmat ion ! is inc luded. Con ten t is Rich Informat ion is in terest ing and l ikely to be rev is i ted . Additional Criteria For Teaching Materials Only Con ten t is Interdisciplinary. Integrates severa l con ten t areas or d isc ip l ines . Learn ing requires Higher-order Thinking. Cha l lenges learners to th ink, ref lect , d i s c u s s , hypo thes i ze , c o m p a r e , c lass i f y , e tc . Lesson is Engaging. Learner is ac t ive ly invo lved in the p rocess . L e s s o n engages Multiple Intelligences ( language, m a t h , in te rpersona l , spa t ia l , m u s i c a l , phys ica l ) . E f fec t ive ly in tegrates at least 3 in te l l igences or ta len ts . 9 0 Lesson inc ludes Evaluation of Learning. Uses mult ip le a s s e s s m e n t techn iques to eva lua te learn ing. Lesson inc ludes Teacher Plans. Gives adequate ins t ruc t ions to teachers on its use and inc ludes pr intouts w h e r e appropr ia te . T O T A L Return to Eva luat ing W e b p a g e s as A d a p t e d f rom Blue W e b ' n h t t p : / / w w w . c r p c . r i c e . e d u / C R P C / W o m e n / G i r l T E C H / M a t e r i a l s / r u b r i c . h t m l Evaluating Webpages by Cynthia Lanius T h e s e pages we re deve loped through G i r l T E C H ' 9 7 , a teacher t ra in ing and s tuden t t e c h n o l o g y counc i l p rogram sponso red by the Cen te r for Resea rch on Paral lel C o m p u t a t i o n ( C R P C ) , a Nat iona l S c i e n c e Founda t ion S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y Cen te r . Copy r i gh t 1 9 9 7 C y n t h i a Lanius 91 

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