UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ore deposits of southeastern British Columbia Price, Peter 1926

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4s  i  s  ORE DEPOSITS OF SOUTHEASTER'S BRITISH COLUMBIA •v.,,^.1.•;,;;...-„ '...JS;,;!,,&.:',:::,,,;. •flff..TflniTi.'.iii;:,a;:;1  , ,••'•• ,„• -;—•• '.. •';: ;: : ,iu-  '•• A,Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Master of Applied Science At the University of British Columbia WWfcl. ) W.i» l l i<. B ».  .-^wn W  W  W  n...—JfawMH,.,.!!,  ;, i • »  n, - i . - — I I . W —  .iini..  mwrn  Bg Peter Price.  ^  April, 1926,  U.B.C. LIBRARY CAT. m. LE* &!•*>* *7 • h Qt ACC. NO.  ORE DEPOSITS OF 30OTIHKAST131N BRITISH COLIJMBIA tarns  rrri'.M  ' v.r.,!1. ••*,,., •••:.' „ v.,,  -  . •• ,  ••.,:•, vr, •• ,T-. ,••'-•  A diesis  Submitted for tne Degree of Master of Applied Solonoe At the University of British Columbia 3y Peter Price  April, 1926,  INDEX »• i  •  Introduction General Topographic Statement Mining Status Physiographic Considerations General Geology Introduction General Statement Igneous Rocks 8a?an©di©rite Stage Granite  Stage  Syenite  Stage  ffe#. Ore Og&agits Classification Ore Deposits (1) Granodiorite Period (1) Segregations (2) Contact Deposits (a)Contact letamorphic Deposits (b) Deposits lot Distinctly Related to Igneous Contacts (c) Replacements (5) Fissure Veins in Igneous Hocks (m\ Gold Oonper CRossland) (©} Gold Quarts (Kelson} {4} Mineralized Fault and Shear Zones  (a)(1) Gold Quart*  40  (2) Auriferous Galena (Ymir)  43  (©) SIlvey~Lead~Zine Veins (1) SloeanType  44 4*7  (2) Ainsworth type  50  (3) Lardeau Type  51  (II) Granite Period  53  (1) Contact Deposits  53  {2} Fissure Veins in Igneous Hocks  54  {•> Copper Gold Veins  54  |li) Geld Quartz Veins  53  (e) Sliver Lead Veins  55  |d) Silver Tetrahedrite Veins  56  (3) Mineralized Fault and Shear Zones 53 (a) Arsenopyrlte-Gold-Quarts Veins (Poplar type)  59  (e) Horiaal Gold Quarts Veins  60  (e) Silver Lead-Zinc Veins  61  (IH) Syenite Period  62  (1) Segregations and Contact Deposits  62  (2) Fissure Veins in Igneous Rods 63 (3) Mineralised Fault and Shear Zones Conclusions  64 66  X Relations of Ores and Igneous Rocks  66  (a) Source of Veis Material  66  (h\ Comparison of the Igneous Stages  67  (e) Development of Vein Formation within an Igneous Stage  68  XT Progression of Mineralisation  68  TSX Preferential habit of Intrusion with Regard " to Smaller Forms of Intrusion TV Oeographlc Distribution and Variation V Zonal Arrangement of Deposits  69 70 75  vY Vertical Variation In Deposits (a) Primary  78  (b) Secondary  79  fflT Stapuofcural R e l a t i o n s of Deposits Country &o«k Associations l i t Producing Mines  80 32 84 86  Bibliography  (X) Deposit Bap (2) Structure Mae (5) Phoenix Map (4) Roasland Map (5) Slocan Map (6) Producing Mines Map (7)  .WW.-...-II-,U.VM>''^-' ,'; «n..ii,,j.iT.;t.i^.^-i.ni-ii.'-.M-i»wj..tiij.. . " i i ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ m m m e ^ m m i * m i m m ! m m  Introduction.  i  The purpose of this paper ie to prose it a genetic comparison of the or© deposits associated with the igneous rocks of the South Eastern Cordllleran region of British Columbia, Occurrences of economically important bodies of ore are extrexaely numerous in this area, and when viewed separately, present a bewildering array as regards their distribution and character. The complexity of their geographical, geological, and mineralogical characters, apparently precludes the existence of any fundamental laws governing their occurrence. However, It is believed that if all the controlling factors be considered, much of this seeming confusion will disappear; thereby reaching a fuller understanding of the mode of occurrence, past and future development of known and worked deposits, which can be used to effect in the location and development of the, as yet,  undiscovered ore bodies of the district* As explained below, a genetic comparison is desirable.  Essentially, this must be based on a detailed knowledge of the individual mines with respect to their geographical position, mineralogical character and - most important the derivation and natural history of their ores.  I  i  With this object in view the author has accumulated a mass of widely assorted information bearing on the  2 subject, and which has formed a basis, for this paper. Published information and description, particularly those of the Canadian and United States Geological Surveys, have been used, acknowledgement being given in each Instance*  Much material has been gained from the Annual  Reports of the Minister of Mines for British Columbia, particularly on the smaller and less known deposits. Cogent data has thus been assembled on the six hundred principal mines and prospects located in the region, forming in the main, the material on whieh the following notes are based* Publication of this mass of detail and supporting evidence, would, la the author's opinion obscure the more important points and deductions. He has, therefore, endeavoured to present a condensation of it in the appendices and to represent It graphically on the maps and diagrams which accompany the paper* Sincere thanks for helpful criticism and large contribution of facts are due to Dean Brock of the University of British Columbia, and also Dr.S.J.Schofield under whose supervision this paper was written and presented.  For  assistance and helpful material particular thanks are also due Messrs. 0.G.A.Jackson, E.Gillanders, and D.C.McKechnie, general Topographic Statementt The area under consideration lies in South Eastern British Columbia and is bounded roughly north and south by the  3 51°30« and 49°00» parallels of latitude and, east and west, by the 115°30»W, and 120°00«W. meridians of longitude. It thus comprises an area of roughly 50000 square miles. Geographically the area includes five major mountain systems which here are the representatives of the North American Cordillera*  These are the Rookies (in part), Purcell,  Selkirk, Columbia and the eastern portion of the Interior Plateau.  Occupying the Intermentane trenches and valleys  is a drainage system which la characteristie of this portion of British Columbia* It consists of long narrow lakes* having a general north and south trend, which form en integral pert of the four major river systems draining the area, namely the Columbia, Kootenay, Horth Thompson end Siallkameen*  The lakes are long and narrow with steep  mountain walls enclosing them*  They are easily navigable  end ss such form a connecting link between the short stretches of railroad which use them as a part of their 1 transportation system* The larger lakes are the Kootenay, Okanagan, Lower and Tipper Arrow. Slocan and the Shuswap* Typically the district Is rough and mountainous, sharply dissected by the drainage systems*  In general the average  elevation Is about 6,000 feet above sea level, the Selklrks occupying the higher central portions*  Bast of this  range the general level is somewhat lower until the abrupt 1.  See Map 1.  I  •  wall of the Rocky Mountains is reached.  To the west the  average elevation drops across the Columbia aystea to that of the Eastern Interior plateau region. Mining Statusi In such a mountainous area large tracts of good farming land are necessarily scarce, so that in its development and settlement, agriculture has played a rather secondary part - especially to the east* Lumbering, though important is not carried on in a large scale*  Thus the district has and will continue to be one,  which, from its earliest settlement is largely dependent • on its mineral industries for Its future development.  The  growth of such towns as Helson. Rossland, Trail, Cranbrook, and Grand Forks Illustrates this point.  The area ranks as  probably the^most important from a mining point of view as any other district In the Province. A number of old classical camps are located within its borders*  Instances  of these are the Rossland, Phoenix, Slocan, Klraberley, Moyle and TOslr districts, each responsible for sen Imposing 'production of mineral wealth. Some of these have reached what apparently is their closing stages from a productive point of view*  Oti»era, such as the Kimberley and  Slocan Camps, have revived sad are at present experiencing boom conditions. Apparently the old, easily discoverable and accessible deposits hare been thoroughly developed,  future production then will depend largely on  5  more intensive prospecting of unproduclng area© and a more scientific development of the old ones.  The conclusions  drawn from this paper will, it is hoped, be of some use in presenting a resume of the information and knowledge pertaining to the respective areas already developed, and will perhaps serve some purpose in stimulating and guiding the opening up of the undeveloped ones* Physiographic Consider at ions:  The physiography  of the  region is complicated and much additional field work is required before safe inferences can be drawn, and a connected account given of the probable origin and physiographic history of the present landscape*  The physiographies of the Selkirk,  Purcell and Columbia systems appear to have many points in o  a  common ** but more detailed work is required before the^ife 1. 2*  Uglow, V..L. 'Undiscovered Mines of B.C.' Trans.Can.Inst.Min.& Met.Vol.XXVI,1923. For descriptions and tentative conclusions regarding the physiography of these systems see:* Schofield, S.J.  Geology of Cranbrook Map Area, Mem*76, Geol. Sur. Can.,1915,pp.160-169.  also Schofield, S*J, Tran.Roy.Soe* Sect.lV,192Q, pp.61-97. also ftpysdale, 0«?« Mem*77, Geol. Sur. Can*,1915,pp,175-188. also Relnecke, L. Geology and Ore Deposits of Beaverdell Map Area, Mem* 79,Geol* Sur. Can.,1915 pp*63-7Q* also Schofield,S.J. Tran.Roy.Soc.Sect.IV, 1923, pp.79-102.  wmqmmim  WP-'-"  history of this section of the Cordillera and Its relation to that of bordering provinces can be mad© clear• Theoretical problems of this kind do not fall within the •cope of this paper which la devoted primaroly to a study of ore deposits; but a wider knowledge of physical c ndltions which have prevailed over the area should throw some light on the characters and occurrence of the ore bodies, particularly as regards the present character of their outcrops*  7  (SEBERAL GEOLOGY*  Introductions  From the earliest development of the mining industry in British Columbia, the  close association of or® deposits with the rooks forming the major intrusions has been noted and the areas adjacent to these reeks have been thoroughly prospected on the store accessible localities* The growth and position of the more important mining camps enumerated above illustrates the correctness of the above hypothesis as a guide in the search for workable ore bodies* Especially is this the case with respect to the intermediate and granitic intrusivea* A more detailed study of the several deposits reveals t2tt© fact that they have genetic connections with ore or other of the main igneous periods of the district* This suggests a method of attack in classifying them* Their  1. Garlyle, W*A* AmwRepts* Minster of Mines B*C*1894-97, also  B»G*Bur*of Mines, Bulls* 2 and 5, 189? »  8  grouping under tills system would bring out their similarities and also their main Intergroup differences thus pointing the way to an understanding of the main factors governing their formation.  A proper Interpretation  of these facts should bring out the following points: !•  A comparison of the differentraetallogenieepochs by means of their several deposits*  2*  The succession of mineral deposition in one metallogenlc period*  3«  Structural and form relations between the lntruaivea and their associated deposits*  4*  The factors governing the geographic and vertical distribution of the economic minerals*  Xt will be seen that a detailed knowledge of the major lntrusives is of fundamental importance in such a comparison. Their natural history reveals that they are mlneralogically complex In character, are products of different Intrusion periods and are widely distributed ovor the area* Recent work on the location, correlation and history of the different igneous outcrops* reveals the fact that they are the surface expression of a great composite mass of igneous rod: underlying the whole district*  It forms  a unit of that great belt of plutonles which extends nearly  9  unbroken from Southern Montana to Alaska; including the several batholiths of Idaho, Montana and Washington, the complex Igneous bodies of the southern British Columbia and the great Coast Range batholith*  To the main portions  of this unit exposed in the area the name 'Kootenay Composite Batholith* la here applied*  A wider  significance to the term la thus implied, the name being adopted from the area in which It is most extensively developed* General Statement; the igneous complex which is here given the name 'Kootenay Composite Batholith* is the outcome of three distinct periods of intrusive activity*  It represents the several phases of a major  igneous cycle that, from Middle Mesosoic to Tertiary times, was the dominating geologic event in this portion of the Eastern Cordilleran region. A review of the rock types associated with these intrusions shows that in the main they follow a normal differentiation sequence; first, gabbro, granodiorite, monzonite; second, quarts monzonite granite, aplite; and third, chiefly an alkaline syenite (pulaskite) to granite. These ^uod their numerous smaller associates are here grouped under the terms granodiorite, granite and syenite*  it is found that this succession  wherever fully worked out, is constant over the area, so  10 that in general th© later phases of th© igneous cycle were of a mope acidic nature than those with which it opened. Intimate relations, between the great erogenic epochs of the Cordillera© and the several eruptions and intrusions are shown by reference to the following chronological 1 tables 1* ffpper Jurassic; (Jurasside Revolution) Period of main Selkirk region folding, and formation of large e arth folds in a general northwesterly direction. Zm  Late Upper Jurassic;  Intrusion of Granodiorite  phase of Seefcensy Composite Batholith approxfosately contemporaneous with Coast Range Batholith. 3*  Lower Cretaceousi Extensive and rapid erosion* ttoroofing of batholith and bevelling of earth folds*  4«  Bpper Cretaceousi  Peneplanation of central  (Selkirk) highlands.  1*  Adopted from *fhe West Kootenay Composite Batholith* a thesis submitted as part requirement for a Masters Degree by C C A . Jackson, University of British Columbia. See also, Schofield, S.J. Tran.Roy.Soc.Can.Sect.IV,1923,pp.79-102.  •*•  '•  • . ! . . .  ,,  . • • » ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  H  M  |  M  ^ ^ ^  W  W  M  M  B  H  a  a  ^ ^  B  i  11 5.  Late Upper Cretaeeoua and Early Eocene: (Laramide Revolution)  Period of  main Rock Mountain erogenic movements. Uplift of Selkirk peneplain and partial uplift of Interior Plateau* 6.  Late Upper Cretaeeoua and Early Eocenes Intrusion of Granite Phase (Valhalla) of Kbotenay Composite Bathollth*  7*  Late Eocene and Oligocene: Local intense erosion. and continental deposition* Volcanic activity and deposition of tuffs*  ft* Late Oligocene and Early Miocene; Intense and widespread volcanic activity* Extrusion of great flows to west and south of area (Interior Plateau and Columbia Lava Plain) 9*  Middle Mioceneg Qrogenlo movements*  Crustal  deformation in Western portion* 10,  Middle Miocene: Intrusion of Syenite Phase of Kootenay Composite Batholith.  11*  Late Miocene;  Crustal stability*  Vigorous  erosion and removal oi much  12 sediment end large portion of Tertiary volcanics. 12«  Pliocene and Early Pleistocene; General uplift and rejuvenation of drainage,  IS*  Pleistocenes  Two or more glacial stages,  A study of the above table emphasizes the close succession between the more violent teetonic disturbances of the region and the major igneous stages;- granodiorite granite and syenite*  Also the most important and wide-  spread of the three - the granodiorite - followod the more Intense of these movements which during the Jurasside Revolution folded and tilted the older rocks into somewhat their present position*  Thus the dependence of igneous  activity upon crustal weaknesses Induced by the changing stresses and pressures accompanying erogenic movements is clearly indicated* Igneous Rocks* Oranodiorite Stage; The granodiorite stage of igneous activity, which is here assigned provisionally to Late Jurassic times, Is mainly represented by rocks of a very constant mlneralogical composition* It includes, however, a diversified group of satellitlc phases some of which ushered in the period of batholitliic invasion while others represent  the last products of the  15 •lowly cooling parent mass* ^he firat or baaic phase includes the following rock types:- gabbro, diorite, augite and diorite parphyrites, pyroxemites and serpentine. They appear in Six main localities, Slocan (Kaslo schists), Lardeau (diabase schist*)? Christina Lake (Baker and Fife gabbros)? Rossland (diorite ^orphyrite), North Thompson (mioropegmtlte~pyroxenlte)? and the pyroxenites of the Roaaland ami Ysdr dlatriets. They are varied in form appearing as large end saall dikes, stocks, chonolltha, sills and tongue-like offehoote bordering their parent Intrusivea. Their ajre te Jurassic or Pest Juraealc antedating the main batholith of the granodiorlte stage by a short tine. They reached their present position with regard to the intruded sediaentarles and voleanies by taking advantage  1*  Bancroft, M»F# Geol.3ur.Can.S\un.Rep.l920,Pt .A, p.99A.  8*  Brock, R.KU Vol.XV, Ueol.Sur.Can. 1902-3, p.50A.  3.  Daly, iUA« *em.3G,G©ol.3ur.Can. 1912,p«537.  4.  Drysdale, C.W. Hem.77, 0eol.3ur.Can, 1915,p.202.  6.  Uglow, V»*L. Stsaeary heport, Geol.3ur.Can.1921, p.80A.  6*  Drysdale, C.«» Meu.77, Oeol.Sur.Can. 1915  p.211.  14. of lines of weakness set up by the Jurassic orogenlc movements of which they themselves are a part. The main granodiorite phase followed shortly after the baaic, and as shown on the accompanying maps has a very large areal distribution*  As noted above the rock is  mainly granodioritic in composition* the different variables closely associated and following one another with nearly imperceptible breaks. A monzonlte typically occuring in the Rossland Garagr also in the Rossland and Helson Ranges2 la th© earliest type* Thi© is fbllowed by the main intrusive rock, a graaodiorlte, variable in texture but as noted above essentially uniform in ©©imposition throughout the extent of the IGaofcenay CcMqpoalte Bathollth*  Typical  exposures are expressed in the following bathollthlc arut crops* Trail Bathollth Cascade BaTholith )  Byksrfc Bathollth  > Daly, R..A*  Bayonne Bathollth  Mem* 58, Geol. Sur. Can* 1909*  Osoyoos Bathollth Cathedral Bathollth Westkettle Bathollth - Reineeke, R*L* Mera*79, Geol. SI»#§MU*4Sl5*p.41 Baldy Satholith - % l o w , «*&# Sua. Rep* Geol. Sur.Can*,1921,pt.A p.81A. —>-^J...r  •• rr ^.- r -„-^TTrTTTirnS'twwiiwwBiiirttSiiMim..j.,«ii  •miijii. • ..] . r  .j mi-in  r  .n.i  ..m  'n PIJUL  . 'in I M I I n m . i . . . -  u i .... .. . •  1. Drysdale, C*VJ* Mom*77» Geol. Sur* Can*1915, p*29 2. Drysdale, G*W. SSem*94» Geol* Sur* Can* 1917, p*86.  ini  ....i  im  15 In some localities, particularly In the Uelson District It has received the type name of Helsoi granite. Brock  This rock ^1  as a • representative of the monzonite group of  rocks, intermediate between the alkali and the lirao soda series of rocks, and about on the boundary line, between granite and diorlte*. This main mass was Intruded at a fairly low temperature but under great pressure*  This is evidenced  by its present position, high up in the sedimentary rocks, itself in a state of deep erosion, and the general conformation of tike strike of the aedlraentarlea to the contact  o of the batholitb?  The frequence of roof pendants and  shatter sones show that the main Intrusion methods, magmatle stoping and marginal assimilation, were both in evidence* The cooling stages of the granodiorlte magma were accompanied by local intrusions of complementary lam* prophyric and aptite dikes* These are small and no attempt to map them has been made.  In composition they  are mainly basic only a minor part being aplltic. They are typically developed in the Ainswortn  Slooan and Lardeatf"  1*  Brock, R.W, Geol.Sur.Can. Vol.XV,Sum.Rep.l902,p.l01A.  2.  See Map 2.  2U  Schofield, S.J. Mem.ll7,0eol.Sur.Can.1920, p.23.  4*  Bancroft, M.P.  Geol.Sur.Can.Sura.Rep.l920,p.99A.  16 ares (oamptonite) Rossland (minettos, keraantitea, 2 spesaartltes), Beaverdcll  (hornblende andeaite porphyries)  and in the Rossland Mountains  (Dunitea).  In form they are mainly dikes of inferior size, cutting both the older sedlmentarles and the granodlorite bathollth Itself* Following and in some places accompanying these later phases* widespread local intrusions of a siliceous residue make their appearance. A moderate amount of pegmatitic injection also took place passing in some eases to large bodies of pure quartz ('blow outs*}* Sometimes later* in other places contemporaneous with the a bove phases large quantities of metalliferous quartz made their appearance, Therefore the magma which had successively crystallized as gabbro, monzonite, * •' granodlorite,has as it»a last product the source of moat of the great ore deposits connected with the bathollth. Granite Staget The granodlorite stage was followed by an Interval of geologic quiescence and cruatal stability* Active erosion over a long period, resulting in a condition approaching peneplanatlon occupied a major portion of Cretaceous times. Toward the close however the erogenic movements connected with the Laramide Revolution* not only built the Rocky Mountains to the east. 1* Drysdale, C*W# Mem.77,Geol.Sur.Can.l915,p.212. 2* Reineeke, L* Hem* 79, Oeol. Sur. Can. 1915, p.43* 3* Daly, R*A«  Hem* 38, Oeol* Sur. Can* 1909, p.336.  17 but effected a profound Impression on the rocks of the district. In the main was one of uplift but a buckling and folding of sediaents and previous Igneous rooks (granodiorite) occurred through the centre of the area over A  a belt whose main usual extent is North to North East (Grand Forks to Trout Lake)*  This deformation, as before  resulted In a weakening of the crust and a setting up of strong coiopressional and tensional stresses* Into this disturbed portion the reeks of the granite stage were intruded* This stage of the igneous cycle is In the main represented by ems type of igneous reek, a granite* to which the name *Valhalla* has been ascribed. Xt is described by Breejk as a 'medium light colored very quertsose granite** Feldspars present include erthoclase* e  mleroellne and plstgioclase (albite to andesite). Mlcropertbitie structure is also common. The more acid portions are often miarolltic in texture* In this stage no distinct baste fades of any slse are present* **ut the Beaverdell Quarts Moneonite batholith  and an area of  granodiorite are probably more basic differentiates of the main mass, proceeding its intrusion* Typically however* the rock possess a large number of later pegmatltlc 1* Explanatory notes* West Eootenay Sheet Map 792* Geol* Sur. Can* 1904* 2* Reineeke* L* Hea*79, Geol* Sur* Can* 1915,p*48  18 associates, together with dikes of apllte and edenlte* The major mineralising activity associated with this stage was probably contemporaneous or later than these later phases* The stage as a whole can be assigned to no definite age* It is older than the syenite period but younger than the granodiorlte which it cuts* These serve then as a upper end lower time limit* As previously stated in this paper, orogenic movements, are in general closely succeeded and accompanied by intrusion of igneous rocks of bathollthlc dimensions* It would seem to adjucate the intrusion of the granite phase to a period of orogenic igneous activity which occurred between the above two time limits* It is highly probable then that the Laramide Revolution* which occurred during this mid period was the geologic event ia which the stage ooeurred* That, the older granodiorlte has hemn. subjected to severe mountain building movements is evidenced by the frequent occurrence of very gnelsslc fades, together with a large amount of complex faulting and jointing* Similar gnelsslc occurrences are unknown on a large scale in the younger stages and the amount of faulting and jointing which they have suffered is orach less intense* Further* at no locality, so far reported, have the rocks of these two later stages been found to be mineralised along fault and shear zones but en the other hand the grano4iorite is  19 mineralized in numerous localities, sometimes twenty miles from its outer contact as in the Slocan City area* However it has been suggested that the gnelssic fades mentioned above may ,»et be the result of major earth movements but are orthogneissic in character, resulting from a squeezing and strainage set up in the viscous mass during the cooling stages of the granodlorite*  This is hardly  likely since in some placed indications of no less than three distinct folding movements have been observed, a result with difficulty associated with a conception of flow in the rock. Again it has been objected that the granite stage may represent a later differentiate of the granodlorite, the whole being the product of one major intrusion accompanying the Jurnaoide Revolution* So distinct basic fades, such as one would expect from a batholith of the size of the granito intrusion,, have been reported* r£he rock is essentially acidic in composition and thus may represent the near completion of differentiation in the granodlorite• Also with the exception of the so far imperfectly surveyed area in the Lardeau the main areas of ^ranlte occur intrusive into areas of granodlorite* 1 Considering this Sehofield has put forth the objection that a rock such as the granite would experience 1. Personal communication*  20 much difficulty in assuming itts present position by means of marginal assimilation and magmatic stoping  of a rook  so essentially alike in composition as the granodiorlte* He considers rather that the granite ate it f sway through the comparatively thin granodiorit© shell of the bathollthic chamber mainly by means of zones of weakness set up by cooling and crystallization stresses* These objections are serious and need to be further considered in the light of more detailed knowledge of the dietrlet, together with a deeper knowledge of the mechanics of igneous intrusion than is yet available. Therefor© It appears to the writer that the most logical assumption as to the age of the granite is one based on the previously stated and more easily observed facts. The {p»anit© stage is then provisionally placed as accompanying the Laramid© devolution* with an attendant query which mast always be placed on an assumption based on other than fossiliferous evidence*  It*s place* then* in the genetic  classification* together with its apparent attendant mineralizing activity, must also be considered in the light of the above statement. Syenite Stage; During Lat© Eocene to Middle Miocene times a normal erosion sequence took place over the area with a great recrudesenc© of volcanic activity at the beginning of the Miocene*  During Middle Miocene  times erogenic movements again took place, particularly in the western portion of the area. As usual these were the forerunners of another igneous stage sshich resulted in the last major intrusion of batholithlc dimensions. Hie group is here named the Syenite stage after the chief type rock the Rossland Alkaline Syenite* A more basic phase was the forerunner of the main intrusion however, 'This is represented chiefly in a porphyritie monzonite and is developed in the following localities:- Rossland (small porphyritie monzonite stocks) 2 "Smir (Salmon River porphyritie monzonite stock), Monzonite 3 stocks of the franklin Camp* and the monzonite porphyries and small dikes of auglte porphyrit© of the Boundary 4 in form, these several basic phases are small district, and assume the form of stocks and dikes. Their age in general Is thought to be Oligocene* Following this the main intrusive, a hornblende biotite syenite (pulaakite) was advanced into place* i'he rock is reddish to pale pink, the predominating minerals being pink and greyish feldspar* It is even textured and fresh looking and shews little or no evidence of having been subjected to any major crustal movements* This is ««WWII'i.i»»nl • « • • * — • • • • ! ! «l I I  Mil M l C l I  i II  I-lllliWMWWWWWIWWNWWWili  MiiiHWPi.  .1 . •  WWW n II*  • n i l I II Willi  iiiiill-iliPiiiii iimiili »l urn. ii. r • • • i — • — •I.H.WIili  • .1 • • •  1* Drysdale, C*S« Mem*??* Geol. Sur. Can., 1917, p.233. 2*  Drysdale* C*W* fffem#94, Geol* Sur* Can.* 1917, p# 58.  5* Drysdale* C.W* Mem,56, Geol, Sur. Can** 1915* p.105. 4» Brock, R*W»  Vol.15, Geol. Sur* Can.* p.104A.  22 in direct contrast to the rocks of the granodiorite stage* In sise and form the intrusions vary from small dike like to batholith. The more well recognized members, placed in their approximate age order are:* 1* Coryell Batholith  ) Daly, E.A* Hem*38, ) Geol. Sur. Can., 2. Rerarael Batholith ) 1909, p.308. S« Dower Arrow Lake Batholith ~ West Kootenay Map Sheet* In general they were intruded at high temperatures, contact metamorphism b eing quite intense* A still later phase is typified by the Sheppard 1 granite described by Daly, fhls intrusion was probably a forerunner of the main mineralizing activity for which this stare is r esponsible. This intrusion of raetaMferous residue was accompanied or proceeded by a final b asic phase typified by the following rock types*- Shonkenlte pyroxenite 2 and augite syenite of Franklin and the lamprophyres 5 of Rossland. la form they are generally stock or dike like and are small in size. These last phases represent the youngest igneous rocks appearing in the area and brings to a close the major igneous cycle which affected the region. The age of this last phase can be more definitely affixed than either of the two proceeding ones. It is 1* Daly* R-A* Mem. 38, Goal. Sur. Can. 1909, p.308. 2*  Drysdaie, G*W* Mem.56, Geo. Sur. Can. 1915, p.105.  3*  Drysdaie, C.W. Me.77, Geol. Our* Can* 1917, p.242.  23 definitely known that these intrusions are Middle Miocene In ag© since their monbers cut and are overlain by frequent Tortiary sedimentary and volcanic horizons. Table 1, based mainly on analysis of the Canadian Oeological Survey will indicate the variation in composition of the several igneous stages together with the differentiation with the periods.  %  Stag*  Type  "U— PttgOJ PeO  SlOg  I  %  "I ""  HgO  OeO  IftgO  V  Augite Porpnyrifce  50.30  17,00  •97 7*60  5.41  9.82  3»35  1*31  Monzonlte  54.49  16*61 8*79 6.20  3.66  7.06  3*50  4*36  Nelson Oranlte  66.46  15.34 1*68 1*83 1*11  3*43  4*86  4*68  Oranodlorlte  62.08  16.61  5.20  3*18  3*29  • 60  2*00  4.58  4*67  Monzonite 50.66 (Salmon Rive J J  16.91 1*71 6*17 5.50  3*26  bf O V  4.46  Pulasklte  62,59  17. 23 1*51 2*02 1*30  1*99 I 5.50  6.74  Shoppard Oranlte  77.09  15.04  •63 3.11  4*50  Oranodlorlte  Beatrerdoll Qts.Mon«onit< 7 0 . SO  1*53 3.72 2.44  15*40 1*00 1*02  Oranlte Valhall Oranlte  Syenite  • 86  •26  •12  26 THE ORE DEPOSITS. mmmtmrnHmmmmmmu i i urn m—mmmm  • m - w i  Classification; Each of the three main igneous stages was responsible for a wave of aietalization which stimulated the formation of ore deposits in a greater or less degree*  A classification should then bear three  major subdivisions corresponding to the separate stages* In all of these it is found that the ore deposits show evidence of a eonmon successlont which roughly is as follows:-raagmatiesegregations and disseminations, contact deposits in the intruded rock, fissure veins in the igneous roele responsible for the mineralization and lastly lm Compare Brysdale**-*Classification of Ore Deposits Of British Columbiat Mesu94, 0eol*Sur*Can«1917, p.62. also Sehofield*s!~'Mineral Deposits of British Columbia* Meia»l32, Geol«Sur»Can. 1922. also tJglow*s and Sfichol'sj-*British Columbia as a Mineral Province1* Mining Magazine(London)August,192S. also Billlngsley»P* and SrimeSjJ.A^Qre Deposits of the Boulder Bathelith of Montana*. Trans«Am»Inst •Min»Eng.?ol .LVIII ,291.3. also Knopf,J.-Bull.527,U.S.Geol.Sur. 191S. also Quirke»T.T*~*Classification of Ore Deposits based upon origin deformation and enrichmentI Ee.Geol#Vol.XII, 1917, p*6Q7.  .•.•'•"•*•.••  "•--.".  !  .#; > « : • ; -  - ' ; • : •  •¥,+"•••*>••  26 mineralized fault and shear zones* The classification vill therefore be baaed on this order together with the main subdivisions outlined in the three major igneous stages* 1* Qranodiorlte Period* (1) Segregations. (2) Contact Deposits. (a) Contact Metamorphic Deposits* (b) Deposits due to Igneous metasomatism not distinctly related to igneous contacts• (e) Replacements* (S) fissure veins in igneous rocks* (4) Mineralized fault and shear zones* 11* Granite Period* (1) Contact Deposits* (2) Fissure Veins in igneous rocks* (5) Mineralised fault and shear zones* 111*Syenite Period* (1) Contact deposits* (2) Fissure Veins in Igneous rooks* (5) Mineralized fault eaaxl shear zones*  fgr^-w"- ••' '•"••'  „mmuv^'-  j'ij'^5'nmHw,niii.j|4i < x  i<mir^rm™m^~~^^^^~>^mmmm  27 A consideration of the above table shows that in each of the three perioda the ore depoaita tend to arrange themselves in a sequence which is characterized by less extreme conditions of temperature and pressure as the dying stages of the igneous activity is reached.  Further  it will be noticed that no attempt ia here made to classify the ore bodies with regard to their form, nature of vein filling or host rock* A more detailed comparison of intensity and distribution of the separate stages reveals the fact that ore deposition reached arosirfnmmdiversity in the granodlorlte period*  In size, economic worth and widespread distribution  the ore bodies of this period are foremost*  Segregations,  disseminations and particularly contact deposits - all types indicative of strong igneous activity - are less strongly developed In the later stages*  This, is  evidence toward a belief that variety, large distribution and consequently worth of a metalogenic epoch bears a directly proportional relation to the size and importance of the Igneous activity to which it bears genetic connection* Ore Depositsi 1* (1)  granodlorlte Period,  Segregationst There is only one authentic occurrence of this type and class known in the area.  this la the Molly Mine on Lost Creek 15 miles from Salmo. It is associated with the upper border of a large granodiorite cupola stock* This rock is cut by pegmatite dikes, which appear to be in a direction parallel to that of the ore zone* The molybdenite ore zone lies beneath a hard chilled capping of fine grained granite in a series of platy joints -risEiing the contact* The ore la probably a metaaomat ic replacement of the parent rock accompanying the later pegmatltlc phase of differentiation* (2) Contact Depositsi (a) Contact Metamorphlc Deposits 8 The ©res deposits belonging to the contact me tamerphic type are not extremely numerous In their occurrence. They occur typically in the Franklin Camp and a type description will be given of these* Other occurrences are noted in the appendix* The Franklin deposits lie in a mineralized zone, about rudely lenticular shaped masses of marble (Gloucester) of Carboniferous age* The marble la barren but the basal tuff and altered greenstone (Franklin) is very much altered and In the mineralized boundary is largely commercial* Chalcopyrlte. pyrlte, magnetite are the chief ore minerals occurring in a gangue of garnet, epidote tremollte and diopslde. The deposits as a whole are not very large carrying .01 os.of 1* Drysdale, G*W* Jour .Can.Minin ' Inst.Vol .XV111 1916, pp.247-255. 2* Drysdale, C.W. Mera*56, Oeol* Sur* Can* 1915. p.154.  29 gold, $1*10 sliver and 2,70$ copper*  The only plu tonic  Igneous rock In the vicinity of the ore bodies appears as dikes of granodiorite porphyry.  These are intimately  associated with the ores and are believed to be of the underlying granodiorite batholith which outcrops in most cases, not more than one-*quarter of a mile away#  The  localisation of the mineralized zones and Included ore bodies is due to the pre batholithlc shearing and mashing of the two Palaeozoic formations especially along the contact which afforded a favorable place for ore deposition by the nftaovjAiaiflg: solutions which were given off under great pressure from the parent granodiorite magma. The Franklin contact mefcaraorphie ere® resemble those of Pnooistx end Greenwood closely in their alneraXoglcal characters both belonging to the same magnetite enaieopyrtfc© class* However the latter represent a somewhat different group and are described below* (b) Deposits due to Igneous Metasomatism, not distinctly  x related to igneous eontaoto.i The deposits described above lie close to a well defined contact of an intrusive roek with a sedimentary or extrusive series* There are deposits however in whicn their mineralogical characters and association indicate a similar mode of origin, i.e# igneous metasomatism but which are net distinctly related to an intrusive contact* 1.  Lindegren, W.  Mineral Deposits, p.750.  Conditions  such as these may result from the near approach to the surface of the irregular roof or contact of a large batholith, the presence of which has not been e xposed by sufficient erosion* Or it is possible that erosion has out away the parent igneous mass so that it»s genetic relations to the deposit is no longer plain. This class la typically d eve loped in the Boundary district at Phoenix end Greenwood•  Here, numerous large  low grade ore bodies have yielded 3ome 150,000 tons of t 2 copper. The geology according to Brock and Lo Roy la complex*  A series of volcanic rocks mostly porphyrltea  (Knob Hill) crystalline limestone (Brooklyn) and argillltis (Rawhide) which are all of Upper Palaeozoic age is intraded by a phase of the granodiorlte stage• also by later small masses of pulasklte which In some places cut the mineralized zones. These latter are considered to be Miocene la ago being one of the late differentiates of the Syenite Stage* The ore bodies are large masses or lenses lying la a mineralized zone which is a portion of the limestone replaced by epldote, garnet and other so called contact motamorphic silicates*  Chalcopyrite, pyrite,  hematite and magnetite are the chief ore minerals together  1.  Brock. R.W. Geol* Sur. Can* Vol.XV p.92A-l38A*1902-3.  2.  LeRoy. O.E. Mom.21, Geol. Sur* Can* 1912. Mem.19. Geol. Sur. Can. 1914. See also Map 3*  such em these »ay result from the near approach to the surface of the irregular roof or contact of a large bathollth, the presence of which haa not been axpoeed by sufficient erosion*  Or It is poselble that erosion has  out sway the parent igneous miss so that itfs genetic relations te the deposit is no longer plain. This class is typically developed* in the Boundary district at Phoenix end Oroenwood.  Here, numerous lprge  low grade ore bodies have yielded some 150,000 tons of 1 2 copper. The geology according to Brock and Le Hoy is complex.  A series of volcanic rooks mostly porphyrites  (Knob Hill) crystalline limestone (Brooklyn) end arglllitis (Rawhide) which ere all of Upper Palaeozoic age is intruded by a phase of the granodlorlte stage, also by later siaall meases of pulaskite which in some pieces cut the mineralised zones*  These latter are considered to be  Miocene in age being one of the late differentiates of trie Syenite Stage*  The or© bodies arc large masses or lenses  lying in e mineralised zone which la a portion of the limestone replaced by epldote, garnet and otiter so called contact metamorphic silicates*  Chaleopyrlte, pyrlte,  hematite and magnetite are the chief ore minerals together  1. Brock, K«£« (tool. Sur. Can. Yol*XV P.92A-13BA.. 1902-3. 2*  LeRoy, O.E. Kem*21# Oeol. Sur* Can. 1912. Mem.19, Oeol. Sur. Cam* 1914. See alee Sep 3*  51 with andradite actinolite and epidote.  Calcite and quarts  fill the interstices between the above silicates*  Average  smelter returns give 1*2 to 1*6 percent copper, *04 oz. gold and #5 oz* silver per ton*  Le Roy gives the following  paragenesis:- Magnetite, epidote, garnet formed first followed by, but sometimes overlapping, the introduction of ohalcopyrite pyrite and haematite*  Jasperold is a product  of alteration of the limestone formed previous to the development of the ore. There is no definite distinct evidence enabling a conclusion to be drawn as to the origin of the raetal bearing solutions or emanations which were responsible for the formation of these large important deposits* Then their age and consequently their place in a genetic classification must remain largely a matter of inference from structural anil mineralogical associations* types of intrusive rocks which  Of the two  are found in the district  the granodiorite has the more obvious connections*  It  outcrops at a number of points within one or two miles of the main ore bodies, and should underlie the larger part of the area at no great depth*  However deep drilling  at the mines has failed to disclose any such occurrence* Le Hoy from geological reasoning has ascribed these deposits to contact action resulting from the intrusion of the granodiorite magma of Upper Jurassic(?) age* Previously Brock in a survey of the tioundary district as  a whole had put forward the suggestion that these deposits might be related to the Syenite (pulasklte) stage. lie based his conclusions on the frequent occurrence of the ore bodies In close association with the alkaline syenite porphyry dikes of the district*  The fact that in some  eases the dikes cut the ore bodies was ascribed to the Injection of a number of systems of dikes, separated by time Intervals of similar occurrence to the dikes of 'the Lower Arrow Lake district*. It Is thought by the writer that the ore deposits of the Boundary district are the products of two periods of mineralisation*  The first producing the large contact  deposits described above, and the second the smaller deposits, to be described later, generally showing more moderate temperature and pressure characteristics. It is a significant fact that the large lew grade deposits occupy the higher portions of the area, while the smaller higher grade deposits lie at a lower elevation in general occupying areas between the carape in which the first are common and also to the south of the district*  In the  smaller types we have a closer association with the pulasklte. The boundaries are sharply defined (fissures)* It is probable* then, that the erosion of the granodiorite has been more profound and in this area the irregular roof approaches more nearly to the surface than does that of  33 the later syenite stage* Shis vw>uld explain the apparent anomaly of the ©ore moderate temperatur© deposits occupying a lower horizon in general than the higher ones, (c) Replacementst In this class are included those ore bodies which exhibit certain igneous metasomatie characteristics, hut which, so far as geographical and geological reasoning can go, occur well removed from an igneous contact* Type examples of this class are the well known Sullivan and St.Eugene mines 1 £ of the Granbrook Are® and Hunter ¥ Mine of Imir camp m This class Include some very rich large producers especially in the first named area* they occur in sedimentary rocks chiefly in quartsite or limestone (Hunter ?)*  The ores generally consist of an intimate  mixture of the sulphides pyrite, pyrrhotlte galana and sphalerite* 'llie silver content is low hut fairly constant averaging 4 ess* per ton* Garnet, diopside, calcite and quarts are the chief gangue minerals and are usually present in small amount, The deposits occur either as replacement deposits © *g* Sullivan and Hunter V, or as true fissure veins (St*Bugene)* Diagnostic minerals, such as garnet, dlopslde actinolite and museovite, suggest that the deposition of la Sehofield, S*J* ltem*76, Geol*Sur*Gan* 1917, p*112* ft* Dryadal©, G«W* Mem#94# Geol*Snr*Gan, 1917, p#116.  34 the ore took place in the deeper vein zone, under conditions of temperature and pressure comparable to those of the contact deposits* Ho such igneous intrusion, which could supply solutions of such iimnense size, outcrop with miles of these deposits*  It is thought then that the source of  the ore was a basement of granodiorite existing under the areas and which was the source of the ore solutions which resulted in the fox-mat Ion of the Sullivan and St .Eugene ore masses*  fheir age then is placed in this class of the  granodiorite stage* The St*Eugene type represents a condition of formation less extreme than that of the Sullivan*  Garnets are less plentiful, the galena is coarse  grained and more abundant and the vein holds smaller quantities of zinc blende and pyrrhotite*  In all likeli-  hood the St*Bugene represents a transitional type between the high temperature deposits and those formed at intermediate depth* **•> Pleaure Vetaw in Igneous Rocks; $he deposits described above probably represent the first morti intense stages of igneous activity*  In the  present section however are included a diversified group of deposits whose common characteristic is that they occupy fissure veins in igneous rocks*  It Is thought that these  deposits represent the initial stages of the later and closing mineralising activity that resulted from products derived from the magma by successive differentiation and  55 crystallization. In temperature and pressure characteristics they range from deposits slightly less intense than the contact deposits, to ore bodies characteristic of the intermediate zone. Their presence in the already solidified bathollthic crust gives a rough approximation as to their relative age* The main types to be discussed are, (l))Qold copper deposits of the Rossland type* (2\ Sold Quartz veins of the Nelson type* (1) gold Copper Deposits^ The Rossland district has been producing smelting ores since 1390 and has yielded a total of 070,OCX)#000*00 in gold. copper and silver. An average ore contains about $5.00 to #10*00 in gold and *3 oz* silver per ton as well as .5 to •3$ copper* Deep mining has been prosecuted* some mines 1 descending over 2,000 feet* Dryadale classifies the deposits aa *epigenetic replacements along shear or sheeted fissure zones in monzonite and augite porphyrite*• The sheared and brecciated  country rock has been slowly  transformed Into ore through the action of metal rich magmatie solutions and gases* Chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite with seme pyrite arsenopyrite and molybdenite are the chief ore minerals* c^aartz magnetite and calcite comprise the gangue. Garnet actinollte and vollastonite also occur.  1*  Dryadale, 0*W* Mem*77, Geol* Sur. Can* 1917* p.86*  S6 a aetsomatic action ©n ttie country rock has resulted In much secondary biotit©• Granodiorite appears in some places and is thought to 1 b© upward extensions of the frail Batholita * This great intrusion of molten magma is thought to have furnished the deep seated soure© from which th© Mineralizing solutions were derived*  tongues of diorite porphyrit© are closely related  with th© ©res and appear to have originated from the same source out represent an earlier phase of the batholithl© invasion*  Structurally these tongues represent an injection  under intense pressure into tension fractures which formed in the cover rocks as a result of doming during the intrusion*  lb© ©r© solutions however represent the later  self atari© action ©f the same intrusion, and were forced into the younger shear sones and fissure fractures formed by temperature variation and ©ompresaional stresses in the rock ©over* The general character* relationship of the vein minerals, structural formations and intimate association of th© veins with Intrusive tongues of diorite porphyrlt© and grwnodiorite cupola stocks points to the main period of mineralization in this district as being contemporaneous with th© later stages of the dranodlorite period* mmmfm  i mil  i  I rn i • • • m i l  »••»»»»—•  i« i mmm~-m—>in.\  n !••—»»—«  Mini  n  i  i  i ii i  ,  Dryedal© ...  ii  i.;i  1*  See l a p 4*  2*  B r y s d a l e , G.W* Cleol* S u r . Can*, Mem.77,1915,p.90.  i •  ..-.--• —  37 however produces evidence that these deposits are the result of more than one period of mineralization*  He bases his con-  elusions mainly on the manner in which the gold values are distributed through the sulphide veins*  In some of these  the gold values cease abruptly at the intersection of Ismprophyre dikes or slip planes in the vein* whereas the sulphides, too low grade to mine* continue without interruption beyond the dike*  "This is explained by considering that  the dike played the part of an impervious d am* preventing the younger gold bearing solutions from circulating further* High gold values in the Jumbot Giant, Velvet and Spitzer mines are closely associated with dikes of alkaline syenite (pulaskite)• H© therefor® infers, that there were at least two periods of mineralization*  The first and main period  {described above) following the intrusion of the Trail bathollth (granodiorit© and monsonite) and a second in which alkaline solutions containing gold following Intrusions of the Coryell bathollth which is of Miocene age* While no definite evidence can be advanced to disprove this theory it is thought by the author that the gold values of Bossland probably represent a resurgence of i  mineral gold bearing solutions through the partially solidified or gel-like sulphide veins and as such were a product of the Granodiorite stage*  That the gold values are  disseminated and disappear in bands or streaks supports this conclusion*  It is also difficult to account for the selection  58 by the gold bearing solution of the older vein filled fissure In preference to any others after such a long lapse of time as would ensue between these two periods of mineralising activity. The deposits which are considered to 1 be of Syenite age are discussed later in that section. (b) Gold Quarta Veins; Shortly following and in some oases contemporaneous with the deposition of the gold copper deposits described above, ore bodies of pyrtfclc gold-quarts type were formed* The deposits centering In the Nelson and (in part) "fflalr camps are typical of these* In general they occur in the form of shoots In joints and fault fissures which cut the intrusive rock (granodiorite). The ore consists mainly of pyrite with minor amounts of ehalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and soraetimes a little galena and sphalerite* Gold occurs chiefly In the free state, but may often be associated with the pyrite* Hative gold is discernible In some of the ore* The deposits are tabular in shape and vary In size from 2-20». Values to the order of $20*00 to &30*Q0 per ton are common* The vein walls are well defined and have in general cross cutting relations with the Intrusive*contact* However in some oases as in the Athabasca Mine on Morning Mountain the vein may issue 1* See also Maps 3 and 4« 2*  Le Hoy* 0*E* Geol. Sur. Can* Sum*Rep«1911« p*121.  S* Bryadale, G*K« Mem*94* Geol. Sur* Can* 1917. p*53.  39 from the granodlorite and may conform to the contact between It and the overlying or flanking extrusive or sedimentary* Faulting has disturbed nearly all of the veins and is associated with the Intrusion of a series of basic dikes which eut the veins, Thla fact dates the comparative age of these ore bodies. The cross cutting relations of the basic ales dikes suggest that they were formed prior to the intrusion of the last phase of complementary dikes mentioned in the deserlption of the Granodlorlte Stage-  This would  then place their age as being somewhat previous to those deposits formed contemporaneously or after the dike In* truslon as exemplified by the Alnsworth or Sloean deposits. The presetioe la the granodlorlte Itself places them in the later stage when the batholith had partially solidified in the c rustal portions, and which forced a retreat of the centre of mineralization to a more deep seated location. This Is evidenced by their lack of high-temperature minerals end characteristics and the predominance of quartz  as a  gangue mineral* The presence of the faulting and accompanying dike Intrusion is an indication that they were formed at a time when a relief from crystallisation and structural •tresses {eompresslonal and tenslonal) was i eing sought by the newly solidified bathollthlc crust* These forces afforded the channels of circulation for the mineralising solutions and were also the factor of disruption after the formation of the deposit*  40 (4) Mineralized Fault and Shear Zones; There remains to be considered the large number of deposits which were the products of the last phase of the Granodlorlte stage. They are probably somewhat later in formation than the deposits described Immediately above but their origin ©an be traced to the same parent magma. The reins, as exposed are extremely varied, but a consideration of their several characteristics groups them into three fairly well defined classes*  As in the preceoding groups  the probable time of formation of the deposit with regard to the event of intrusion of the parent magma has been the main consideration.  Furthermore a study of their physical  characters, especially those bearing on the depth and temperature of their formation is illuminating, The main classes which result ares* (a) Gold Quarts Veins in the intruded rocks, (to) Silver-Lead-Zine Veins (unconformable) (o) Silver-Lead-zinc Veins (conformable) (a) (1) Oold Quartz, Veins: This group in most cases is a continuation the Gold Quartz group found la fissures and major joint planes in igneous rocks*  la this group however the mineralizing  solutions rich in silica and Iron with associated gold found their way out beyond the intrusive contact, and traversed fissures formed In the overlying or surrounding sediments. In general these fissures trend radially or occupy a  41 position -which is comparable to the major structural features of the ore deposits of the whole of British Columbia in their 1 B.E.-S.W* or U.W*~S.E* trends. They represent the relief from doming and excessive temperature stresses set up during the first and later periods of igneous invasion. The best example of this type are to he found in the "Stair District such as the Porto Rico • The veins, -which belong to the true fissure vein type, have in general a filling of quartz scattered through with iron pyrlte* The main values, as in their related type® found in the igneous rocks are in gold and some silver, the former being chiefly in the free state. Sative gold may be seen. The ore shoots are tabular and are generally regular and continuous is dip and strike* They cut across the enclosing formation at various angles and may, in some eases, follow along the contact of a dike. The relations vary here; the dike may cut as a dam, in which the vela occurs along t&e contact the dike being continuously In the hanging wallf or It may have followed the zone of weakness along which the older dike was intruded in which ease it occurs on both sides of the dike* 8© preference can *  be traced between the ore and any on© type of country rock* All t; pes apjTear and in most of the cases replacement of the country rock has played a very small part* The influence of 1* Sehofield, S*J, Tran.Koy.Soc.Can. Sec.IV, 1925. 2*  Drysdale, 0»W, lem»04, Seol. Sur. Can* 1917, p.128*  the wall rock has not been sufficiently studied to form any clear conception of its role in the precipitation of the metal bearing solutions*  V/here the rock is suitable for re-  placement carbonates and sericite appear with pyrite in the altered rocks* It remains then to decide at what temperature and pressure these deposits were probably formed*  They lack  the distinguishing gangue minerals of the gold quartz veins formed at high temperatures such as tourmaline apatite garnet, blotite etc*  They certainly are not of the low  temperature adularla type formed at shallow depths* But they present geological relations which point to their formation at considerable depth; even while their mineral associations point to moderate temperatures - perhaps 200 -300 fi# fhe preponderance of milky  coarsely  crystalline quarts-* sometimes drusy - the free gold and auriferous simple sulphide mineralsj together with these occurrence in or surrounding tntrusives of monzonite to granodlorite are all characteristic of that type of gold1 quarts veins which Llndegren has named the Califomlan and Victorian type* These he classifies as deposits formed at intermediate depths*  I t Is probable that the gold-quarts veins of the present d i s t r i c t are a result of a retreat of the focus a* «IWWN»Mi. L •wii«i»lw»««pwg^  1*  LIndegren, W*  u w ni«in i c w p . ^ i m .  ii  •"•"•••'"  'Mineral Deposits* p*564*  • "••••  wmmnmim  m w n  43 the ascending mineral bearing solutions. Further consideration of this subject will be found later under the discussion of Geographical Distribution and Vertical Succession which appears later* (a) (8) Auriferous Galena Type (Ymir Type);  Closely related to the gold-  quarts veins described above, though presenting some unique characteristics are a group of deposits which are found 1 typically developed in the Iftslr District • in this type the ores consist of auriferous galena (both steel and cube) pyrite, some sphalerite in a gangue of quarts of varying color and texture* Copper minerals are practically absent though chaloopyrite may occur sparingly* The deposits occur In the form of shoots In fault fissures which cut the sedlmentaries or intruded igneous rocks* The tabular ore bodies or s hoets generally have their greatest diameters pitching steeply toward the centre of the intrusion* The gangue Is principally silicified country rock and quarts of a bluish friable nature* The principal values are in gold of which 70$ Is in the free state* Silver occurs in minor awHsmts* Both the pyrite and galena are auriferous the latter being invariably a sign of good values* In the "Smir district these veins are responsible for meat of the production of gold and silver* Trie ores average 1* Drysdale, C.W* Mem*94f Geol. 3ur. Can* 1917* p.53.  44 $10*00 to $20.00 in gold and silver and production of over 600f000 tons has resulted from mines of this class. As a group they are economically important. These pyritie-galena-quarts veins present a certain confusion of mineral associations and geological occurrence which tends to make their classification difficult. Geologically they are very similar to the gold-quarts veins described above*  The presence of a greater proportion of  base metals however v.ould point to a somewhat lower temperature and pressure in formation. The auriferous galena is somewhat of an anomaly.  Possibly they represent a transition  from the higher temperature gold-quartz veins to the sllverlead-zlnc veins formed under slightly more moderate condltlom The age relations of the gold-qu rtz and the pyrltic galena quarts veins can be assigned definitely to the later phases of the Qraaodiorlte Stage. This c an be deduced from their geological occurrence in or close to the intrueIves. Their upper age limit is fixed since they are all cut by persistent laaprophyre dikes. In none of these deposits ore the dikes pre-mineral, which indicates an earlier age of formation than the deposits of Slocan and Ainsworth which both cut and are cut by dikes of this nature. (b) The Silver Lead Zinc ¥eins: This group, which Includes — » — — > «  I  II  I  Ml  II  Ml  II  I I  ii  |l  l|  •  t  J  ^  r  »  by far the largest number of mines in the area naturally embraces many types between which so many transitions exist that a classification is difficult.  45 Thus in them we find ores of silwer-lead^zine* silver-lead* and silver-tetrahedrite-leadj each class possessing a variety of mineral associations and geological occurrences* One method of attack which presented itself was to divide these deposits into the Silver-Lead and Silvers-Lead* Zinc types, with a view to determining possible zonal and age relations by means of the relative proportions of sphalerite in the ores* Tills however was found impracticable* The geologies! knowledge was found insufficient in most cases to effect this properly* Furthermore in reports of earlier date any sins content in the ore was likely to be somewhat ignored* Particularly so la this the case in the earlier Sinister of Mines Eeports* It was found necessary to abandon this method and group all these deposits under the one type*' It was found however that a classification of the deposits of this type with respect to their structural occurrences in the enclosing country rocks was of value* Two sub groups were made* (1> Those which occupy cross cutting fissures and shear' zones* (2\ Those which are conformable In their relations to strike and dip of the enclosing beds* A consideration of the characters of these two subgroups reveals that in general those deposits which occupy cross cutting fissures and shear sones contain a somewhat  46 higher sine content than those which are conformable* The gangue minerals change* Thus they range from a fairly silicic pyritic type closely related to t&e gold-quartz and Yrair type, to a aider!te type, and finally to am& in which the gangue Is predominately calcic or barit© (such as the Giant )« naturally a considerable number of exceptions exist in such an arbitrary division but on the whole the separation is fairly definite* The zonal significance of this classification seems to be in the fact that the cross cutting veins occur more closely to Igneous contacts and the conformable veins at a greater dlstane®* Xn. the first vs. have the veins occupying the major Joint planes and fissures that are a r esult of the several strains and stresses set up consequent upon crustal readjustments following bsfchollthle intrusion and consolidation* The breaking points of the Intruded rocks were reached and the various conjugate systems of fissnring formed* Into these the mineral bearing solutions found their way* In the rocks more distant from the actual Intrusive contact the stresses and necessary relief were not so great* The readjustments took place along zones more conformable on a large scale to the general line of the igneous contact* So that the main lines of weakness which were formed followed more closely the formatlonai contacts and schist 1* Annual Report, B*G*Bureau of Mines, 1021, p»184*  47 zones. The mineral solutions which found their way into thia type of fissure and shear zone, had travelled a greater distance through colder roeks* They were in general devoid of their higher temperature constituents* The zinc content .^pifc.lever, silica and iron were scarcer and the solutions were more calcic. The two groups are herewith described in more detail. (©) (1) True Fissure Volna (Slocan Type)* The Slocan area contains a number of deposits which are typical of this class* Silver lead and Ein© ores occur in fissure veins in rocks of the Slocan  X S«ri#*# The majority of the fissure veins follow the lines of master Jointing in the stratified rocks with a trend varying from S2S°S to WQ\*  with high dips to the S*E» and  H.W* These are shown on the accompanying maps  as well as  a few of fee more important replacement deposits. Generally fee replacement veins earry lower values in silver and lead and higher values in sine than the fissure veins. Examples of this type are the Cork Province and Lucky Jim both of which conform to the replaced formation which is limestone. The ores oceur in a series of lenses generally composite in character, which when high la lead content 1« LeKoy, G*E» Annual Keport, Geol. Sur* Can* 1910,p.123. Brysdale, G*W# Annual Report, Geol*Sur*Qan* 1916,p* 66* 2*  See Map &«  48 generally favor the hanging wall*  Tetrahedrlte is the most  important silver bearing mineral present, galena and sometimes sphalerite also giving good values*  Hative silver has a  limited distribution and in general is thought ta be secondary in character*  Proustite and pyrargyrlte also occur*  Pyrrhotit© and pyrlte are more abundant as the contact to the igneous rock is approached, increasing in quantity as the vela becomes poorer in lead.and zinc*  Siderite is the  predominate gangue mineral with occasionally subordinate calcite and quarts*  Occasionally the quartz predominates  to the almost total exclusion of the siderite especially where the veins approach and enter the Igneous rocks* The area presents one of the best examples In the district of the influence of structure and deformation of the cover rocks on the ocoarrenee of ore bodies in them* The broad belt of Slocan series in which the veins occur, lie in a trough like depression whose axial extent is east and west, and which is bounded north and south by two large areas of igneous rooks* Considerable folding and ©rushing of the series resulted from vertical and horizontal dlfferntial movements set up by at least two periods of major batholithic invasion and crustal readjustment. Widespread faulting with offsetting of vein fissures and master joint planes took place both before and after mineralization*  In form these movements  are normal and follow a system Indicative of the nature and  49 soured of 1&e torsional stresses which formed them. Their location and position Indicate that the major effects were due to the large granodlorlte intrusion to the south of the area* Resulting therefrom a great variety of deposits have been formed. True fissure veins with well defined walls grade into series of s hoots and lenses arranged in step-like formations. Shoots may beeome stock like or pass into a series of connected veins between the bounding fissures. The place of these deposits in the genetic scheme can be ascertained by a consideration of their relation to the different igneous intrusions of the district* Genetically connected to the main batholith are dikes* sills and stocks of quarts porphyry* fine grained granite and quartz diorite. Gutting all the above reeks is a widespread series of basic mica and hornblende dikes and sills which form the last evidence of igneous activity in the district. The age relations of these latest dikes and the ore deposits suggest that they were post mineral. Le Roy has found no exception 1 to this rule and further work by Gairnes has further substantiated this* It would appear then that the Sloean deposits represent a phase of mineralisation that accompanied the last stages  1* Season of 1925*  <  50 of the granodiorite period.  As will be shown later they  antedate the Alnsworth and Lardeau deposits by a short while, (b) (2) Ainaworth Districts The ore deposits of the Alnsworth camp are thought by the author to be slightly later in formation than those of the Slocan, but are either contemporaneous or slightly older than those of the Southern* Lardeau district*  Their structural and mineral-  ogical associations seem to point to the latter; but the two dietrlets are widely separated, and the relations of the Lardeau deposits to the igneous rocks of that area are not yet thoroughly worked out*  Thus, an exact statement is  impossible, but the place assigned to them both is the result of conclusions drawn from the existing evidence. Mineralegically the Alnsworth deposits present many similarities to those of the Slooan with, however, the following exceptions*  Tefcraaedrifce Is comparatively rare  and pyrrhotifce more eemmdtt - Siderite la not so predominant^ calcite and fluorite being the chief gangue minerals. The latter points to an association with a later phase in which the mineral bearing solutions were more fluid due to the content of so called *rainerallzers* like fluorine and which represent the last products of differentiation in the dying stages of mineral forming activity* Both conformable replacement deposits and true fissure veins occur .sometime* within the same mine as in the Ayesha. The fissure system in general has liorth West trend  51 approxiraa ely at right angles to that of the Slocan. While the replacement deposits strike Horth and South with the enclosing formations* 1 Evidence produced by Sehdfield  shows that the fissure  veins and the replacements are contemporaneous.  It is also  thought that the fissure provided the main avenue of travel for the mineral solutions which on reaching the contact of the replaceable limestone with the overlying impervious argilliteB and aehlets formed replacement ore bodies by spreading laterally* It is seen, then, that the above deposits represent a gradatlonal type between the true fissure vein type of the Slocan and the conformable fissure type such as occur in the Southern Lardeau and Duncan River districts. (b) (3) Lardeau Typet The lower temperature silver-lead and silver-lead-sin© veins of the Southern lardeau area represent typically the last phase of mineral forming activity of the granodlorite stages* Most of the deposits occur along the Lardeau-Buncan Biver divide, which 2 has been named the Central belt by Brock • The veins occur largely in phyllitea, sometimes in limentone and in some eases in rusty weathering dikes of diabase schist*  The veins  characteristically occur along or withlu these dikes and have largely the character of the composite fissure type* 1.  Sebofield, S.J* Mem*117, Geol. Sur. Can* 1920,pt35*  2*  Brock, R.W*  Vbl*XV, Geol* Sur* Can. 1905,p»58A,  52 la general the bedding pianos of the country rock have been utilized by the mineral bearing solutions as channels of ingression. Replacement has also been an important process in addition'to fissure filling especially in the limestone bands* Galena and sphalerite carrying some tetrahedrlte are the chief ore minerals. Gold values are low. Quartz and caleite are the commonest gangue minerals* The relations between the diabase schist and the ore seem to have been largely physical in which the schist. occupying an old sons of weakness, determined the direction of circulation of the eolations* It should bo restated here that the inclusion of this group in the Granodiorite phase is based largely on structural sad physical relations*  It is thoi^ht that they  represent a lover temperature type than the cross cutting gold-quarts veins typically developed to the North and South of the L.rdeau.  Possibly they may have a relationship to  the pegmatites accompanying the granite phase as hnve the latter veins, but it la considered from structural relations and mineraloglcal associations that they are probably of older and deeper origin.  So that in this classification they  are tentatively placed in the Granodiorite stage as representing the last and shallowest formed deposits associated with that period of igneous activity*  \  53 TT. Oranlte Period! The extent of the Vnlhalla type of intrusive is shown on the accoraponlng maps and the general fades and age relations have been discussed in the section on Igneous Hocks. An account will now be given of the mineral deposits which are genetically connocted with this sta^e of igneous activity. (1) Contact Deposits: Only one known deposit of this class can be found*  This is the Lottie F  Ulne on Copper Creek a tributary of the main Kettle Elver. The deposit is not truly a contact deposit but is similar to the Phoenix typo in not being directly related to igneous contacts. The ore occurs in an area of brecciated liraentone hornblende diorlte and Tertiary lava flows.  Chalcopyrite  bornlte* pyrito are the chief ore minerals occurring in a gangue of garnet woliaston! te, quarts and calclte. Both the limestone and hornblende diorlte are mineralised the ore replacing them in irregular shaped masses* The Beaverdell quarts monzonlte bathollth outcrops three miles to the east and a few miles to the wect and is thought to underlie the area at no great depth*  The deposit,  then, can be olsssed as « oontaot deposit of this phase of too granite stage* 1*  Relneoke* L*  Kem*79, Oeol. Sur. Can* 1916* p.157.  54 (2) Fissure Veins in Igneous Kocka; (a) Popper Gold; Curiously enough very few representatives of this class, belonging to the high temperature type of ore deposit, are known in genetic connee1 tion with the Granite Phase, The Copper Cliff of the Poplar district, sorae deposits of Beaverdell, and the Pingston Creek deposits posses characteristics which places then in class but of which no definite evidence exists to allow for their definite allocation*  However from geological  and structural considerations they are here classified as being la genetic Association with the granite* The best example of the type occurs at the Carmi mine g ill the Beaverdell Map Area * The ore lies in an Eaat and lest vela occupying a shear son© in a somewhat gnelssio qu rts dlorlte(weat Kettle) representative of the granodlorlte stage in the district* The ore consists of Chalcopyrlte, sphalerite, pyrite with some galena and molybdenite in a gangue of qu Ttz  and ankerIte. Accompany-  ing the vein is a dense grey dike of andesite which is thought to be a forerunner of the Beaverdell Quarts Monzonlte in* truslon. The Beaverdell Bathollth has been considered by Reineoke as being responsible for this mineralization, hence it's position in the genetic scheme. It poasesses fairly high temperature characteristics, but not comparable with 1*  Brock, B.V-. SunuRep. Geol. Sur. Can. 1903, p.73A,  2*  Relnecke, L. Mem.79, Geol* Sur. Can. 1915, p*A26.  66 those of the ^ossland deposits* (2) (b) Gold Quarts Veins; Typical representatives of this class are found In the Solcan City district where they occur in close association with the Slocan fDry Ores'* In general the veins occupy fissures in the HeIson granodlorite, which structurally are not in accordance with the other fissure systems to the East and 8orth~Kast of this are**  Typically the veins strike East and West dipping  toward the Horth at high angles, itineralegically they are equivalent to the ores of the Poplar Creek district, arsenopyrlfce being generally present and the quarts of a somewhat watery character.  Gold occurs in the free state and also  with the sulphides* Values are fairly high averaging $2Q»~ $30*  Associated with some of these deposits are light  coloredftplltiedikes which in some cases have controlled the fissures In which the ore is deposited*  The ore bodies  are In most cases quite small the chief producers being the Arlington and Ottawa* (2) (c). Silver Lead Velnst Veins of this type occurring in igneous rocks are typically re1 presented on Wallace Mountain at Beaverdell of which the Sally Is a well known example*  1*  Reinecke, L.  Mera»79# Geol* Sur» Can* 1915, p. 101*  56 The veins occur in shear zones in the quarts* diorite, (V.est Kettle)*  The ores consist of galena pyrite sphalerite  tetrahedrite and primary pyrargyrite in a gangue of sericit© quarts and altered country rock*  Secondary native silver  ia present* Reinecke puts forward the hypothesis that these are a lower temperature product of the same mineralizing activity responsible for the gold-copper zinc ores at Carmi and Arlington Mountains* Their association with the andeslte dikes previously mentioned Is similar and it is possible that they are nearly contemporaneous in formation with the Carmi deposits, though formed under less extreme conditions* tetrahedrite in conjunction with galena is taken by him to imply formation at moderate temperatures and this view is adopted here in classifying the Slocan *dry» ores to be described below* The age of these silver lead veins is then referred to later phases of the granite stage* <2) Jd) Silver Tetrahedrite ?©inss In the Slocan City area *  lim-Am.!  ir i.iiji i  ii  i  i ..in  i .i  mi » urn ii  itm-^Smm-m—»  •  occur a number of deposits of this class which are nearly almost restricted to this one areal occurrence*  These so called *dry* ores occur in the  granodiorite to the Bast of Slocan Lake, where a number of mines are located* Typically the veins occupy fault fissures Joint planes and shatter zones in the granodiorite*  The ore occurs  57 mostly in siliceous stringers ranging in width from four inches to several feet. It consists principally of native silver, galena, grey copper and argentite. The sulphide content is proportionately low hence the term dry ore. Stringers of or© vein in an irregular manner through the fissured and altered granodiorite. The veins occupy a conjugate system of fissures trlking H»E, and 5,W* the first being the more important in ore content, Apparently these are of somewhat later origin than the E, andft*striking type mainly occupied by the gold quarts veins in the same district* The classification of these deposits as well as the gold qprrtz of the same area is based on no indisputable facts. The large areas of granite (Valhalla) outcropping to the West are considered to be responsible for the mineralisation mainly en hypothetical grounds, which are here outlined. The deposits occur many miles inside the granodiorite batholith. Geographically they occupy an anomalous position with regard to the Slocan and Alnsworth areas. Both of these districts are characterized by ores intermediate between the two main types of the Slocan City area. Thus there is an overlapping of zones and a confusion of types which points to a later period of mineralization. Previous mention has been mad© of the large number of light colored aplitic dikes ahleh are so characteristic of the Southern  58 Slocan Lake Area*  Thest dikes are thought to be a phase of  the granite intrusion which probably underlies the granodiorlte at no great depth* mineral characteristics.  Structurally the dikes show pre-  It is therefore adopted here as a  working hypothesis that these deposits are genetically connected with the granite stage* The occurrence of the gold qunrts veins in close juxtaposition with the lower temperature dry ores is probably due to a recedence of the centre of mineralisation resulting from crystallization and downward extension of solidification of the parent magma* It should be noticed that none of the deposits Included in the •Fissure we ins In Igneous Rock1 section occur in the igneous rock which is here presumed to be responsible for their mineralization*  This is in direct contrast to the  previous granodlorite stage* (3> Mineralized Fault and Shear Zones: In genoral this class are typically developed In the Lardeau Area which as far as is known represents the main occurrence in the district*  Other deposits thought to  be related to this phase are to. be found in the Appendix* A consideration of them* groups them naturally in to three main classes:(a) Pyritie * Quartz veins with auriferous aiseno-pyrite occupying true fissures*  59 (b) Hormal gold pyrite quarts fissure veins, and (e) Sllver-lead»slne veins both conformable and unconformable to the bedding pianos of the country rock. •l  (3) (a) This class occur typically in the Poplar Creek area . The rocks of this lower part of the Lardeau Basin are similar to the main area comprising greenstones, green schists, slatea phyllltea, with a few limestone bands and dike of yellow weathering diabase schists* The veins occur in what Is probably an extension of the main mineral zone to the north l*e. the Central Belt* They are numerous and in moat oases small, conforming to two principal directions. One s#t has an approximate strike of north-west conforming nearly to the formation* though with different dip; and the second eats the strata and have a north and south trend* The ores are typically arsenical occurring in a gangue Of qpsrts of watery appearance* The arsenopyrite carries free gold* Pyrite and galena occur* Gold Is developed in the pure ou rts> in the sulphides and surrounding the sulphides la Inclusions of country rock* High values are conmon* The age of these deposits Iswsaaewhat hazy* Ho definite statement can be made from structural reasoning* They occupy the same relation to the dikes of the diabase schist as do 1* Brock. R.W* Vol*XV. Geol. Sur* Can. 1905, p*72A.  60 the other deposits In the Lardeau*  However, from their  number, cross cutting relations, high temperature characteristics, and nearness to the large batholithie intrusion of the Valhalla granite to the S.W, they are thought to be genetically associated with the granlt© phase*  They are  Glass1fled here as representing the higher temperature of fissure and shear zone veins*  The class is well developed  In the LaekyJack, Goldsmith, Calument and flecla of the Poplar Greek Basin, and others to be found in the Appendix, (3) (b) this group comprises the normal gold-quartz veins, whieia are found occurring plentifully in Fish Kiver and Lar.jeau Creek areas.. Spotted phyllltes consisting of sertcite, calelte, qu rts and Iron mm,  cut by a diabase  schist highly altered, form th© country rock. fee veins occupy fait planes e sitting the formation. Quartz, ealcite, feldspar siderlte and serlcite comprise the chief portion of the vein matter,  The sulphides are  principally pyrtte with a little galena and sphalerite. Gold occurs in the free state, being visible to the naked eye in the solid quarts, also as siaall seams In the quarts and along the vein selvage. The qu rtz Is milky pointing to more moderate conditions of temperature and pressure than those of the Poplar Greek district. This is further substantiated by the absence of arsenopyrite, Mo chemical relation has been found betwee ; the diabase schist and the ores, the action being rather more physical and controlling the circulation  61 of the solutions*  A genetic association between these  deposits and the numerous pegmatites accompanying the granite phase is quite possible*  The distance from the parent con-  tact was probably fairly large, the solutions being more acid and fluid*  This is evidenced by the abundance of feld-  spar as well as quarts in souse of the veins. It is considered that these veins represent a type intermediate between the Poplar Greek type and the lower temperature Silver-tead-zinc veins accompanying them,  lines  typical of this group are the Eva and the Oyster Creterion* (35 (a) Piseure veins containing ores of the silver-leadsine type occur estensively in the belt to the south of Lardoffti Oreek*  the veins occupy independent fissures  cutting the country roek composed chiefly of carbonaceous phyllite*  Diabase schist dikes also occur*  The ores con-  sist of (parts heavily mineralised with tefcrahedrlte, galena, sphalerite and some chaleopyrite and pyrite*  The tetrahe-  drlte is previous in deposition to the galena and chaleopyrite but is later than the zinc blende. The silver is chiefly carried by the grey copper* Humorous reticulating stringers which here and there form a solid mass of ore is the usual mode of occurrence* Replacement of the country rocks has also occurred*  The  regional strike of the enclosing formation her© is northwest but the fissures have a more northerly trend excepting in places where they travel strikes fissures replacing the  68 limestone* Typical of this class are the Settle L. and Silver Cup* and others (see Appendix)* As in the previous two groups no definite statement can be made as to the age of the deposits* They are here classified tentatively as belonging to the period of the granite stage, but this has no real foundation on fact. The relationship of groups (b) and (c) are not clear. The silver lead vein occurring in the Criterion of Pish River is later than one quarts vein but it may be older than the second. So that, it is assumed from structural and mineraloglcal reasoning that the deposits were formed soon after or contemporaneous with the pegraatltic faciea which are characteristic of the large granites (Valhalla) intrualves to the south-west. YtT Syenite Period: This last period of the igneous cycle did not perhaps stimulate such widespread mineralisation, but in restricted areas mines of this class have produced very rich high grade ores. The particular types will be discussed below* (1) Segregation and Contact Deposits; Definitely known deposits belonging to this class are scarce, the Columbia, Averill, and Buffalo (segregations) 1 and the Maple Leaf (contact) of the Franklin camp being the only ones found. The mines of the Qllela Caiap (in part) the St.Thoraas Mountain and on© of the Burnt Basin deposits, probably belong here* 1. Drysdale, C.W. Mem.56, 6@ol.Sur.Can. 1915.  65 (2) Fissure Veins In Igneous frocks; There are not very extensively developed in this stage being for the most part small. The Providence, 1 01ty of i'arls and other mines of the Boundary district , for reasons explained in the description of the Phoenix and Greenwood deposits, are probably typical of this class. The ores occur in close association with pulaskite and lamprophyrlo dikes of the Syenite ata^e, in a country rock of granodiorits or granite porphyry.  Galena, pyrite,  ehaleopyrite, tetrshedrit© and blend© are the chief ore minerals together with rich silver bearers such as ruby silver, argentlte and native silver. The galena and tetrahedrite are both rich in silver and also carry good gold values*  Sericitisation is evident especially in the quarts  gangue. Secondary enrlehment is also prevalent but to what depth is unknown* The structural relations of these deposits indicate that the dikes were a controlling feature in their formation* In the Providence the vein turns sharply and foUows the dike while in the City of Faris the lamprophyre dike of probable Syenite age is followed by the ore* It seems safe then to assign these deposits and similar ones listed in the Appendix to this class, although the evidence is by no means conclusive* Xm Brock, B.V*  Vol*X?, Geol. Sur. Can. 1903, p«129A*  64 (3) Mineralized Fault and Shear Zones: As in the previous stages this class eiabraces the largest percentage of deposits associated with the period*  Representatives occur in the Kossland district  g  Burnt basin  A  *  Sophie Mountain  and Phoenix ,  the chief being  the Rossland and Sophie Mountain deposits* They are replacement fissure veins occupying true fissures hut impregnating the wall rock to a considerable extent*  Cutting through the ore bearing ground are many  dikes, chiefly pulasklte, which are probably apophyses  of  the underlying Coryell (syenite) batholith* The dikes have exerted a controlling Influence with regard te the formation of the ore shoots; all the enrichments occurring either alongside such dikes or at the Intersection of slif> planes*  the dikes themselves, may be enriched at  certain plaees*  Pyrrohotlte# pyrite, ehaleopyrite, bismuth-  Inite and free gold ore the chief ore minerals, occurring in a gangue of altered siliceous wall roefct tournaline, and epidote with secondary chlorite and  mica*  The veins sometimes are exceptionally rich in gold, ore frora th© Jumbo at Rossland having run up to f?700. In gold. •HiWlMMilli.iilWWiliKWWIi  II »m i. ¥ym»»wm>"mm^-wmm.wmmmmm$mu<«m$»t  «ui wvn,]l i W « i i l W i l l i  I I M I urn  m ii i - ' '  •»•  '"  •"«—••  "•••• " •'  1*  Drysdale, C*S* Mem*77* Qeol*3ur*Can*1915, p*90  2*  Broek, R.*W* Vol*XIXI, Seol* Sur.Can. 1900, p.764*  S*  Brysdale, C.W* Henu77, Geol.Sur *Gan»  4.  Brock* fe«H* Vol*XV, Geol. Sur* Can* 1903, p.l29A.  p,154.  i——»*—  66 This 1 B thought by Jrysd&ie to be characteristic of the syenit© stag© mineralisation* in which alkaline solutions containing gold were responsible for the enrichment of the older deposits of the granodioritc stage  as well as tiie formation  of the ore bodies described In the section.  As pointed out  previously* this theory does not appear feasible v.ith respect to the older deposits. The evidence rather points in their ease to a resurgence of rainfalls in  ctivlty through  partially solidified veins during the closing stages of metallogenesls of the granodioritc stage. These deposits, and soiae other doubtful ones noted in the Appendix., are representative of the last stage of primary mineralising activity that occurred In the area.  Vhla then  concludes the description of the several groups and classes. k discussio i of socae of the obvious conclusions to be drawn from the classifieation appears below.  66 Conclusions In this section a statement of new conclusions arrived at and in some eases a restatement of old ones, will be made as a result of the work done* T  Relations of Ores to Igneous Rockst (a) Source of Vein Material;  The ores bear distinct genetic relations to the  intrusive rather than to the widespread extrusives present in the district. ¥/ith the exception of the few secondarily enriched deposits the Kitchener iron ore deposits and the manganese (wad) deposits of Kaslo, the mineral wealth of the area described has been produced by intrusive phases. Structural and min<ralogleal associations point to the fact that the ore bodies are products of differention and fractional crystallisation resulting in the formation of magmatic residues in deep seated locations. Further, providing channels to tap such residues, fissuring has taken place through shrinkage. Ihese properties are peculiar to intruslves, especially those of large dimensions and plutonie habit.  Farther corroboration of this fact can be seen in the  distribution of the deposits with regard to the igneous outcrops, a point «hich is more fully discussed in the following section on Geographic Distribution. Description of the few secondarily enriched deposits will also follow.  ;;lth the exception of these, there is  67 nothing in the whole area to indicate concentration by lateral secretion, so that a plutonic igneous source for the ore bodies seems to be surely indicated* Cb) Comparison of the Igneous Stages; Prom the foregoing description of the type mineral ©ecurreneea it should be obvious that the large bulk of the ©re deposits owe their formation to one phase or other of the Oranodlorite Stage of Igneous activity* is also born out in sheer weight of numbers*  This  Out of appro*  atlmately 60© m£*ies sad prospects, the different stages rang© as follows in genetic responsibility•*— Granodlorite 63$, granite d0^» and Syenite %2$*  It is realized that quite a  number of these are doubtful and that further field work may change this relation considerably*  It represents, however,  & fail* statement eonformtng to the facts w Ich so far have been procured* Ife appears then, that widespread occurrence of deposits and diversity of type are directly proportional to the intensity of igneous activity and the size thereof*  With re-  gard to areal distribution of the parent intrusive a similar relation might be s tated. Hence the granodiorlt© leads in mineralizing activity* while the granite is aemeishat ahead of the syenite* The types vary as one stage follows the other«  Thus,  in, a general way, the solutions tend to become more acidic* The granodiorlt© is characterized by deposits of gold, silver  Y.  68 copper lead and slncj the granite, by gold, silver,lead, some zinc, and copperj and the syenite chiefly by gold, (c) Development of ¥eln Formation'Within An Igneous Stages As each stage progresses an increasing amount of vein formation Is induced, Thus at the beginning of the granodiorite period the ores are not, in the bulk, as numerous or as economically important as those which resulted from the later phases* The peak of deposit forming activity Is apparently reached very close to the dying stages, of intrusion*  These considerations suggest  a differentiation in th© parent magma* involving increasing concentration© of metal bearing, highly fluid residues, as a result of successive crystallization in the magma chamber, Jbllowing a period of crustal and sub crustal fissuring, we have & wave ©f metallization Imposed on the intrusive itself as well as on the jm*eh fractured cover and wall rocks of the batholithic chamber* 1X_ .Progression of Mineralizationt k review of the classification of the ore deposits will ©how that th© three stages possess similar characteristics with regard to tb© order of ore formation within themselves*  The common order is as follows: Segregations*  contact deposits, fissure veins in igneous rock, and mineralized fault and shear zones* The first two represent an 1*  See also Bancroft, H*  Bull^SSO, U,s. Geol*Sur*1914,p«2S  69 active eontoet action, or settling out in the outer margin of the intrusive,  The contoct deposits represent a very  active interchange of material "between the very hot intrusive and the rocks of the magma chamber.  Ro segregations ore  known in the area at long distances from the border of an intrusive.  By transitional stages we reach the products of  slower cooling with resulting difierentlotion* This succession is also shown in the vein materials. The nigh iron deposits come first.  Quarts is scarce. Hagnotite,  hematite (specularite) pyrrhotlte, pyrlto and chaloopyrito ere plentiful*  The gold-quarts represents the next stage. (luarts  and pyrite (gold bearing) are predominant. veins high in silver, lead and sine.  Lastly come the  Iron has sunk to a  acre insignificant place. The hlg ly siliceous stares toward the end follow the same progression* t t t Preferential Habit of Deposits with regard to Smaller Portai ef Intrusion: A study of Maps 1 find 2 shov/a a very significant feature with regard to the distribution of tho ore bodies, especially with referenoe to those occurring in sedlmentarles at longer distance from igneous outcrops* The deposits tend to bunch and group in certain localities while ot/ er large areas are apparently more sparsely mineralised*  Such concentrations generally  mean the location of a •camp1 embracing any one of such bunches*  Maturally a partial explanation of this could be  made by reasoning on structural lines and locating the areas  70 in which the structures of the rock afford easy access to as* cending mineral bearing solutions, for example the Central Belt of the Lardeau* However for certain areas such as the Viindermere District this explanation is insufficient. It is thought that such a concentration of deposits is due to a near approach of a cupola stock to the surfact protruding from the irregular roof of the underlying batholith. This concentration is particularly noticeable in the camps of Rosaland, Phoenix, and Ymir, ishere the clustering of deposits around the cupolas, peninsulars antf. outliers lith is ftxite pronounced* these protuberances  of the batho-  V^here erosion has obliterated  as la the central batholithic region  (Lciwer A«roff lata* * Sloesn divide}* mineral deposits are ;p&aj»«»».  fhese considerations indicate a preference for the  nighef portions of the batholith by the hot ascending mineral solutions. These protruding cupolas and stocks would suffer a higji relative amount of fissuring due to rapid cooling, affording an easy outlet for the ascending s olutlons* Fissures veins in such a district would be extremely plentiful a supposition well borne out in the occurrence of such deposits in the area* W  Geographic Pistrlbution and Variations The geographic variation of the  vein filling is extremely Interesting,  With a ?* aw *•  illustrating this more clearly a graphical method has been adopted*  In lap 1 accompanying this paper the several  71 deposits have been plotted with regard to their different vein fillings.  For simplicity the deposits have been divided 1 into six broad groups$ (1) Large low grade copper deposits (Phoenix type) (2) Gold-coppet? deposits (Rossland type) (3) GoId-silver-quarta deposits (Selson type) (4) Aurlferous-argentlferous-lead-zlnc deposits(Ymir typ>) (5) Silver-lead-zinc deposits (Kimberley-Slocan types) (6) Silver-tetrshedrite deposits (Slocan *dry* ore type) Each type has been given a characteristic color as indicated on the map* A certain asKrimt of geological and mineraloglcal overlapping Is inherent in such a grouping*  Ho account has been  taken of probable age of formation and one group such as Bos* 5 or 6 may include deposits of wide variation as to structure and vein filling.  It has, however, the advantage  of being based on the chief economic minerals mined, together with a rough deseendlng order of temperature and pressure conditions at the time of formation* The map reveals one broad generalization at once, namely, the prevalence of the higher temperature and pressure deposits {group l t 2 , and 3) to the south of the area, as opposed to the frequence of deposits of more moderate eon1.  See also 'British Columbia as a Mining Province' by H.G.Nichols and W.L.Uglow, Mining Mag. London, August 1923.  72 dItIons of formation (Groups 5 and 6) to the north* Table 2 given below further substantiates this.  Here  the deposits have bven divided Into their several groups and plaeed In the mining districts In which they occur.  The  southern mining districts appoar to the left, the raore northern ones to the right, i'he figures are self-evident*  Table XT  -1' —  !*©PX©G ©3fO$St@A@M @3f&i  ©  ^  tO-  1  o  to  U0 03  1  o  01 *»  o  t  I  %no<i&  i  tNBBpJC&l  tO  03  01  CO  03  ©  t  1  O  SO  i  »  O  t-i  ©3  *  1  Hi  t  ID  B®%W1  to  <&  «0  <^jt  to  to H  o  r*  to  JO CD  i  ©  to H  CO  *  ©  to  co  to  "#  ca © to  |Wf  s  to  to  CD  o  »  SQJi&j?  *  tS©©Of g  ©^srauapu-jtt ©T©©3S $.<*»£ J^|S  ©  *  x^tio&strpif  t  r-t  ais»OfS  •  :|  *  ;©•  :  i  to  i (Q  •  *  *  o  ©  »» ; CO  04  to  t  o  tO  s  «#  © 03  t  ©  *  t.  *  SO  9.  ©  :  t  (0 ©3  *~l  *  «-t  edootaraa  *  -  *  o  •  10 <0 to 03 to H to 03  to ,1#  9  • *  o  t  ©  i  o  *"  ©  fti  o  to ©  t  o  *  f  6-  o  ©  i  ©  i-4  s  <sff  <# «*  to «-4  to *-<  03 03  03 03  CD  GO CO  r-4  03  eo CD  »-i  to  to  i  CO 03  to  «o UOUdlOA tXOSTSH 3*©©«i0  ©  t  IT««i£  **"i  H  02  to  «o © «0  83f«t€yi ptlBtZf)  co  •goQtm®®j®  o oa £-  sooJioso^  ©  n  CO  GO  £~  o  © : ^  03  o  .4*  3  teR.  o  © M  ft  ':  * z is ©  ftt o ft  o  CO  Of  03  O *k © ft ft O  o a  ©  to to £0 ©  to  •••.  ••-*»•  CO  03  o  V?.  *  *  '  •  03  O S3 ftt a> $> I 1 t> N t €  •  «*  CO  o  H  <#  t  0  a"¥t 3 I J3 «a jU  © 4* N 3 * «rt <D ' d S3 a) & 'k © «3j <  ha  eo SO  r-l  i  © 03  0>  ©  ;  o  # ;  1  t  O  1©  53  t*  •H  i ©  • H S3  1  u  ©  >  •a  l-t  •rt © 03 E*  74 This is a further proof of the generalization put forward by Schofleld  as to the prevalence of copper and £old  deposits to the south of the Belt, while the sllvor-leadsine deposits wore found mainly in the north. In a region where the Igneous geology is so complex, together with the occurrence of no less than three major metallogenie epochs, the above generalization cannot be expected to hold strictly. However it is useful in a broad way not only as an economic guide for further explanation, but as a means of arriving at some knowledge of the main intrusion methods*  (see below)  Since all the ore deposits are of primary origin such a variation can only be explained by reference to their position as regards the batholith* g and south-eastern contact  A study of the southern  of the main bathollth shows that  it la very irregular In form, sharp embayments and peninsulars being prevalent*  Hoof pendants are also numerous* The  northern and north-western contact is much more regular and flowing in outline*  Large cupola stocks are not so prevalent*  The southern contact shows many roof characteristics, the northern, on the other hand, shov/s many flank ones*  Therefore  it is considered that the International Boundary section represents what might be called a roof pendant on a grand scale* 1* Sehofield, S.J. 2*  Mea*132,(Jeol. 3ur* Can* 1922.  See Maps 1 and 3*  75 Large batholithic outcrops again appear to the south in Idaho and Washington *  So that trie district represents a great  trough In the irregular roof of the bathollth and whose main axial extent is East and West* It is well known that mineralisation is much more intense toward the roof of a bathollth than on the flanks. Here are all the conditions capable of producing deposits under conditions of high temperature and pressure.  In such an area  then, it Is to be expected that such deposits will be numerous provided they have not been removed by erosion* In the north, however, the conditions point to a more profound erosion of the bathollth* 00 that the deposits grouped around the contact resemble those normally found bordering the steeply dipping flanks of an igneous body of large also* The significance of these facts wit 1 reference to the structure of the ore deposits Is discussed below* J  Zonal Arrangement of Deposits; It is difficult to locate a horizontal zoning of  deposits in such a complex Igneous reason*  Successive waves  of metallisation have imposed their products on the rocks, producing a confusion of types with respect to their position and that of the parent contact. In certain camps a rough 4 zoning exists as described in Phoenix * The 'South Belt* 1. Llndegren,v;. Prof.Paper No.27, U.S.a©ol*5ur.l904,p*17. 2* Bancroft,11* & Lindegren,\V* Bull*550,U*S.Geol*Sur*1914,p*15 3* DeLury, Trans.Can.Inst.Min* & Met. May 1925* 4* See Map 3*  76 1 ores (silver-lead-zinc) of Rossland  grade through a more  pyrltic sone (white Bear, Spitzee) to t)ie normal gold-copper ores north of Kossland, showing an increase of temperature and pressure characteristics as the cont.ct to the parent frail batholith is approached.  Confusion exists as a result  of the later Syenite •wave*. Some evidence in the matter of higher temperature gold ores exists to point an increase of temperature and pressure to the north-west as the Coryell batholith is approached* Considering these facts, and taking into account the uncertainty of parent ore source In some of the districts, It will be seen that no well defined zones or belts of minerals exist*  With this difficulty in view it was thought  that a generalization regarding the distance from igneous contact of the several deposits would be of some value. Table TXTia  the result of such a generalization. The deposits  are listed according to the six groups enumerated above and the weighted average taken of their distance from the nearest intrusive*  I—wo  1*  mmm  Kimmimm1m*ma*^mmmmmm*m*mmmmmummmuMmmmm*mmB*mmmmmmmmm**^  See Map 4«  »" •"  -  •••"•• "• i wm • * • • • • ' i  •— •-—•-«^——  \ >WI*IWJ^»IIJ^A.WI'  Type Copper Miles*  TO! -inT  Miles  o  e  itrusive  T "ff "9 TO Iff  ir  W L[ WWW i « W — « — • * •  Average 18 e 1 mile  6  4  1  0  8  3  80  4  6  29 40 18 86 14 5 6  30 3 10  16  0 14 10 18 12 60  218  Gold Copper Miles Gold Silver Qt8,  .ii.K.^AhvjBKwiK'iiJ^iMfc.y>JKi  igi * 2 miles 2  2  80  24  2§4 = 3 mixes  M M  Au-Ag-Fb-Zn,(Ymir) Miles Silver-Lead-Zinc Miles Silver Tetrahedrite Miles  6  2  0  10  10 32 32 26  S i « 1*5 miles  8 20  38  27  5  0 32 64 78 32 1QD  296  270  76  18 0  2  1  2  3  10  gJ7 s 4.7 miles 193 30 s x,5 miles 23  79 TIi© succession of Copper,  -  Gold Copper -  1 mllo 2 alios  Gold Silver Quarts 3 miles Sliver Lead zinc 4.7 miles, distant from igneous outcrops la normal aa one would expect from the rough temperature characteristics of tho groups. The figure X«5 miles for the silver tetrahedrlto is largely affected by the 18 deposits occurring within the Intrusive In the Sloean City area.  In the description of these deposits It vmu  stated that probably thesecfeposlts are genetically associated with the Oranlte stage. Revising the above figures for this area, the average changes to 5.5 miles which is significant* The place of the Yoir type Is hardly sufficiently characteristic to judge, ^he group Is anomalous with regard to mineralogloal association and the chief occurrences confined to one ares* While It is not necessarily true that the transitory, accidental horizon which is the present day surface, bear no relation to a fundamental zoning of deposits, the above 1 generalization is fairly significant vT Vertical Variation in Ore Deposits? ^a^ Primary; Pacts, data and criteria relative to thle section are very meagre. In only one district - Kossland 1*  See also 'Zonal Distribution of Gold Sliver Lead and Copper Ores* by P.A.Thomson and F.McGonigle. Eng.Hin.Journal Press Vol.120, 1925, p.216.  79 has deep mining been prosocutod to any extent. IJo information of a sufficiently detailed nature la avallablo allo-.inr for any definite statement as to change In depth or vertical zoning of the vein fillings. can be stated.  So that only a few generalizetins  Personal knowledge of some of the 3ilvcr-  lead-zinc deposits of the Slocnn and Fast Kootenay districts confirms the opinions of other observers  as to a general  increase of alnc content as greater depth is obtained. Siderite quartz and pyrite also become more plentiful. Silver values decrease, but this may not bo of a primary nature. 2 The Homeland deposits show little variation in value even wore depths of 2,000* have been reached* ^  Secondary; As la general In such a recently glaciated  country little evidence of secondary enrlehment is available* Reported occurrences are fev/ and In general the ore can be considered with few exceptions as primary. Some enrichment 3 4 5 has taken place in the Slocan , Ainsworth, Yfflir, Sheep Greek, and Phoenix districts. iShere protective lava cap pings, such as covered the 1.  LeRoy, Sum.Rep.for 1909, Geol.Sur.Can.1910, p.131-135. Drysdale, C.VV. Suo.Rep.for 1916,Oeol.Sur.Can. 1917,p.l21.  2*  Drysdale, C.W. Mem»77, Oeol. Sur. Can. 1915, p.71  3*  LeRoy, 0*E« Sua.Rep.1910, Geol.Sur.Can.1911, p.125.  4* 5. 6. 7.  Schofield, S.J. Mem.117, Geol.Sur.Can.1920, p.51. Drysdale, C.V.. Mem. 94, Geo l.Sur. Can. 1917, p.52. Drysdale, C.W. Mem. 94, Geol.Sur.Can.1917, p.52. Brook, h.„. Vol.XV, Geol*3ur.Can. 1903, p.l25A.  80 Phoenix district, were absent, continental and mountain glaoiation and scouring has been quite intense. So that the zone of oxidation is shallow as compared to districts farther south beyond the border of continental glaoiation.  It is  how ver, some what deeper in the southern veins, such as Sheep Cree <# than in the deposits farther north, showing an increase In intensity of glacial erosion as the gathering centres of the Cordllleran ice sheet are approached. Vll, Structural Relations of Deposits; A glance at Hap 2, which shows the strike and dip of the several veins, is sufficient to bring forth the fact that no sharply defined system of fracturing or major vein structure is general over the  whole area. A  brief tabulation however shows that, of the 450 veins plotted 40J5 have a strike varying between H V 5 0 ° - 6 0 ° E , 35$ between I»30°-6Q°W, and the remainder in various intermediate directions with approximately 1G$ striking almost due north and south* ^hla result conforms to Schoflelds generalisation that the ore deposits of British Columbia are chiefly confined to two major fracture systems (1) 1I.E.-S.W. and (2) H.C.-S.E. Ho confirmation of a difference In mineralization between the two fracture systems was obtained, both groups being mineralized with all classes of deposits. Hie application of the »atraln ellipsoid* theory to the fracture system, while generally satisfactory, does not explain the detailed various systems to be found in the several  81 camps.  When examined more closely the fracture and fissure  systems of any one area present a confusing array*  When it  is remembered that the rocks of some areas have been subjected to three major erogenic epochs with accompanying intrusion on batholithie scale, this is not surprising. Kepeated im» pressions of temperature, compression and tensional stresses on the rooks have all left their mark. A detailed discussion of the several fracture systems typically developed in the several camps is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is of interest to note the position of the fracture system® with regard to the batholithie contact and alee the influence of the main structural features in the formation- of veins, la general, while the cover and surrounding rock were locally much twisted and faulted by tSie successive intrusions  the main structural trends of the  country reek were not amen disturbed.  A certain amount of  wrapping and hewing around the batholithie contact is evidenced especially on the South Eastern and Eastern contacts , fhis would result naturally, if the batholith were intruded under pressure. However, in the main the sodimentaries and extrusives do not vary a great deal from their original north and souths northeast » southwest trends. In the location and position of the ore bodies especially those formed at greater distances from the intrusion* these trends 1*  See Map 5»  g*  Sehofleld, S.«T* lSsm.117, Geol.Sur.0an. 1920, p.63.  have had a controlling effect. typical examples of this*  The veins of the Lardeau are  Closer in to the contact these  trends have had little or no effect. Here the veins conform very little to the general trend. Rather, they have a somewhat radial position cutting the formations at all angles. Within the bathollth Itself not enough evidence Is at hand to determine which are the general joint systems. Attention Is called to the manner In which focli of mineralisation are suggested by the dips of the several deposits. These give the appearance of a number of centers of mineralization from which concentration points the various solutions rose to fill their present fissures. Yj^  Country hock Associations; The favorable host rocks are indicated in Table TV  which appears below* Ho classification is attempted as a result of this summary*  Xt Is merely included to show the  association of the ores and country rook, together with the structural relations regarding the several types of deposits as a substantiation of the above section.  Table 17  Country or Host Rook  Percentage of Deposits*  Lluostonoa  29j£  Intrualvea (unclassified a* to eooBqpoaltlon or rock typo)  23*  Sen1st  17%  Alatoo  16%  Extrusive*  *%  quarttltes  *r% ,  Sedimentary or Volcanic  Structure  Oopper  Limestones  Conformable Unconformable  1 18  Slates  Conformable •Unconformable  Schists  Conformable Unconformable  Quartzites  Conformable Unconformable  ooid Au-Ag Oopper  Ymir  11 18 3 18  1  .6 5  13 21  3  1 8  6 4  Conformable Unconformable  4  3 15  2 6  Totals  Conformable Unconformable  2 23  21 44  20 54  6 6  Percentage  Conformable Unconformable  27#  50^  Volsanies  $2$  68$  8-L-Z  Sil-Tetr  68 24  5 5  17 37  6 3  19 11  4  11 10  1 2  115 89  16 11  42$  60# 40^  84 Table W  shows the frequency of limestone as compared to  the other statifled rocks as a host, Table V shows the increasing number of conformable, and the decreasing number of unconformable veins as the more moderate temperature and pressure types of deposit are reached* It should be also noted that the deposits occur In all types of rock*  The predominance of limestone Is probably  due to the ease with which it is replaced* TX  Producing Miness On lap 6 are shown th© location and type of what are here termed the *Produeing  Mines' of the district, T&sder this heading are groups d those mines which have in the past and are at present producing steadily*  Sufficient data was not at hand to draw a distinct  dividing lino as to tonnage mined or value of ore produced* Th© names included represent the well known producers of th© district which have been In the past and are at present responsible for the major portion of mineral production In the area* A comparison between this map and Map 1 reveals a startling disparity of numbers* shown on the first, only  Of the 600 mines and prospects  73 appear on the latter.  In some districts it is clearly seen that one or two mines are responsible for the huge total production of that particular province*  Other districts contain, no representa-  tives. The map then gives a graphic representation of mining conditions past and present in the several districts.  86 The small percentage of producers might possibly be discouraging to one concerned with the future of the district. If these represent the last word and if no new discoveries are likely to be made, then t.ia is truly so. However the resuscitat&n of camps like the Slocan, Phoenix, Kimberley and Beaverdell show that even in these comparatively well known areas the end has not been readied. This is encouraging when one considers the vast amount of territory which has not been so thoroughly explored aa these older districts* It has been the object of this paper to formulate some conclusions which may be of use in the future intensive geologic exploration which must follow, if the district Is t« retain its economic life* below*  A summary of these is given  36 Suamary The conclusions given above represent the sain results from a CHSPrelation and genetic classification of the ore deposits of South Eastern British Columbia* Much additional data needs to be assembled and will be as time progresses* The present state of geological knowledge is only good with regard to a few widely scattered small areas, The delimitation of the various Igneous bodies has been accomplished in part, but, from the nature of the surveys so far carried on, much work still remains to be done, before the Kootenay Composite.batholith Is fully mapped and its anatomy understood* therefore ^b& following summary is* of necessity, tentative and subject to change and /revision as mine developraent and geological field work progresses* The conclusions* briefly recapitulated are as follows?(1\  the ores owe their origin to a plutonie Igneous  source* <2> Value, diversity of type and superiority In number of ore deposits are associated with the major stage of the igenous cycle, l*e* the Granodiorite» (S> Increasing proportions of vein forming solutions result as a product of magmatie differentiation during a single stage of the igneous cycle* <4| The following is thought to have been the sequence  of ore deposition la each of the stages:- (I) Contact Deposits (2) Fissure veins la igneous rocks, and (3) Mineralized fault and shear zones filled from a deeper source. (5) A steady decrease in the proportion of iron formed is typical during a stage, The reverse Is true in the ease of quartz* (6) Preference of deposits to protruding quickly-cooled masses of igneous roek is apparent, mineralizing activity being especially Intense above the high portions of the parent Intrusives. (?) & geographic -variation exists which is explainable by genetic and structural reasoning. (8) Little evidence Is at present available for a primary vertical zoning in,the fissure veins* (9$ Evidence points a horizontal zoning of minerals, t&e following succession outward from the contact being indicated:- copper* gold* zinc, lead, silver* (10$ Secondary enrichment is not very frequent or Important in the district. (11} The main fracture system conform in general to those of the remainder of the Province but no clear cut difference of vein filling Is evidenced. (12) Limestone is the most frequent host rock* (13) The veins of more moderate conditions of formation are In general more nearly conformable to enclosing formations than those which present asore extreme characteristics*  tf'Wn* Hepresentati»«  t y p e s of o r e b o a l a s c l a s s i f i e d  t h e i r g e n e t i c a s a o o l a t l o n and, i n p a r t , tribution,  geologloal  a r e t o be found In t h e f o l l o w i n g  oard i n d e x l i s t  of n i n e s g i v e s  characteristics,  the f u l l  as to dis-  table.  detail  t o g e t h e r with the remaining  The  as to  their  unimportant  ones* I  firajaoftlorite  Period  M o l l y t i n e . - L o s t Creek. K e l s o n , (2)  Districts,  C o q u e t Pe, p o s i t s .  (•>) C o n t a c t Metamor >hlo d e p o s i t s . F r a n k l i n Camp, i n p a r t . (MoKlnley T y p e ) . Vueen V i c t o r i a . ( B e a s l e y ) . Lord R o b e r t s , (Murphy Creek, K o s s l a n d Distriot) (•)  pepofiiti  not d i s t i n c t l y  related  to  AgnVo<HLJ>PBs*Otij  hoeni*. Camp (Knob H i l l - I r o n s i d e s , B r o o k l y n , btemwinder. Gold Drop, S n o w s h o e ) . Summit Camp (Emma & Oro Denoro.J ttludp&s* Mine, Dunn Lake. Mother Lode & S u n s e t M i n e s , Greenwood. U ) ftep landmen t e K l m b s r l e y Camp ( S u l l i v a n , North S t a r , Stemwlnder) Moyla Lake ( S t . Eugene, Aurora) Ymir Camp, i n p a r t (Hunter 7 . ) Eiondel ( B l u e b e l l ) .  Appendix.••••,2. ( 3 ) F i s s u r e V e i n s i n Igneous B o o k s . ( a ) Gold Copper D e p o s i t s . Bossland Camp in part. (Le j.oi, Centre Star, War Eagle, Josie, eto.) Kelson Camp in part. (Eureka Franklin Ca&p in part. (Copper & Riverside ) (b) Gojq ^Har^s Deposits Kelson Camp in part (Athabasca - Granite Poorman) Tmir Camp in part (Tamarao - Good Rope) Bayonne Camp Fairviow Camp in part (4) mnoraJU*** Fau.it » £.he»r Zones, (a) GoJU - qpppef Veins Bos siand Camp in part (C 4 C A City of Spokane ) Copper Camp (King Solomon, Big Copper) Summit Camp (B.C. Kathmullen) Windermere (Ptarmigan & Dragon) Skookumohuok Creek Big Bend, Merel stoke (Eureka, Montgomery) (b) G Q 1 4 HHart*, Veins Tmir Camp in part (Porto nlco, Tmir) Sheep Creek (Hugget - Motherlode) Perry Creek, Fort Steele (Sunning Wolf, Homes take j Spillimucheen (Flying Dutchman. Balrath) McKinney Camp (Cariboo - Amelia)  (•» *T»jr« Typo, Ve^as Ymlr Camp i n p a r t ( . . i l c o c k , Tmir B e l l e , Canadian P a c i f i c ) Long Lake ( J e w e l , K t h l o p l a ) Boboie Burns B a s i n , S ^ i l i i m a c h e o n I - l r e r . (d) Sllvor-Lead-Zlno Veins U ) Cross fissures - Slocan Camp all reins. Kossland Camp (South Belt) Ainsworth Camp in part. (Highland, »yesha, Florence).  Appendix.,,••••,3 ( 4 ) S i l v e r - L o a d Zlno Vein* c o n t ' d ( 2 ) 3g4.ded, f jLspurea A i n s w o r t h Camp ( H o . l Krao ) Windermere ( P a r a d i s e , D e l p h l n e ) Spllllmacheen (Giant) Dunoan E l v e r ( Bannockburn, Wagner ) Hovel s t o k e (Lanark) S t . Mary i U v e r (Welcome, Gt. Dane, Silver Hill) Pend d ' O r e i l l e E l v e r ( E l o Grande) Sheep Creek (Kmerald) (°i  II  Silver  Tetrahedrlte S l o o a n Camp (Van E o i , H e w i t t ) Windermere Camp (Banyan, Dragon) K e l s o n Camp ( S l i v e r King)  ftffrttUf g » f e » 4 ( I ) fafttfrflfc P?Pgffi^  Lottie P. Claim. Kettle Elver. (a) Fissure Veins in Irneous Eoek ( a ) fioJU Cppper B e a v e r d e l l Camp ( C a r o n ! ) (b)  GflA  m»nr|a  Sloean C i t y (Chapleau K i l o ) l c ) SUyeff, Lea4 gjyie  Lightning Peak Beaverdell Camp (Sally) (d) 8 U ? f f  yotffrfrgftfUe  T»A)M  S l o o a n C i t y (Annf. A r l i n g t o n ,  Ottawa)  ( 8 ) MjneraAiUefl JUBkJJt 1 Sfre&f Zones U)  gfcaa Q<*PP«* P o p l a r Creek (Copper C l i f f ) ( b ) Gold ( m a r t s ( 1 ) High tempera t a r e P o p l a r Creek ( G o l d s m i t h . Lucky J a c k ) Honashee Mountain Plre Valley ( 2 ) Lower t e m p e r a t u r e F i s h E l v e r ( O y s t e r , Eva)  Appendix.....4  F i a h K i * e r ( S e t t l e L, T r i u n e ) Trout Lake ( S i l v e r C»p} U)  SUT9f IftUftbodfi^ Slooan (McAllister,  i-uoky Boy)  xix gy«i*»« P«rloft (1) (•)  Sffirafia-UQa* F r a n k l i n Camp ( C o l u m b i a , A v o r i l l , 9eft|e>fl| atHJMLUi F r a n k l i n Camp (Maple S t . Thomas Mountain l a r n t Basin O l l a l a Camp i n p « r t ,  Leaf)  ( 3 ) yief.HfQ TfJLftf .Itt lfln«Qtt,» &ftgfcl Greenwood ( P r o v i d e n o e , E l k h o r n ) C e n t r a l Camp ( C i t y of P a r i s ) F r a n k l i n Camp ( f i o y a l . Tin to ) ( 4 i M l a a r a A l a e d F a u l t & Shear Zones S o p h i e Mountain ( V e l v e t . P o r t l a n d ) Burnt B a s i n Kossland (Jumbo,Giant, S p i t z e s )  Buffe  BIBLIOGRAPHY  SOTS:  A c o n d e n s a t i o n of t h e f a i l  bibliography  c o n t a i n s some two hundred r e f e r e n c e s i s h e r e A grouping aader the on Hap 6 I s made,  references for each d i s t r i c t .  The f u l l  outlined  the  chief  bibliography  l a to be found accompanying the c a r d i n d e x of  appended.  several mining d i s t r i c t s  The l i s t o n l y i n c l u d e s  which  classification  she o r e d e p o s i t s .  Hatwgftft Dawson, G.M., G e o l . S u r v . C a n , , An, Kept. 1 8 8 8 - 9 , p * . B.  Vol.IV.  H o O o a a e l l , E . G . , G a o l . S u r v . C a n , , Sum, K e p t , 1894-5 G a r l y l e , W.A., B . C , Bur. of M i n e s , Brock, & . ! , ,  iull.  3,  G e o l . S u r v , , C a n . , Sum. S e p t .  1897, 1898-9  L a n g l e y , A , J . , An. S e p t . M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , B.C. 1 9 1 8 . Sehofield, krrow  S.J.,  Hem. 1 1 7 , G e o l . 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S u r r , Can, 1915. Le Boy, O . S . , Hen, 2 1 , Geol. S u r v . Can. 1912. Men. 1 9 , Geol, S u r v , Can. 1914,  Bibliograpny,..,.»» 5  R o b e r t s o n , W , » # , An* S e p . M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s ,  B.O.1699.  A l l e n , J . A . , Hon, 5 5 # G e o l . S u r v . Can. 1 9 1 4 . D a l y , E . A . , Mea, 6 8 , G e o l . S u r v . Can. 1 9 1 5 . G a l l o w a y , J . D . , An. Rep. M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , B.C. 1 9 1 5 . L a a g l e y , A . G . , An. B e p . M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , B . C . 1 9 1 8 19 2 4 . ftamloono Dawooa, G.M.,  G e o l . S u r v . Can. Sun. E e p t .  Evan*, H . F . , M i n i n g World, V o l . Daiy, a . A . , Uglow, S . L . .  23, 1905,  1894. p.464,  Men. 6 8 , G e o l , S u r v . Can. 1 9 1 5 . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Sum. i l e p t . 1 9 2 1 , P t . A .  D a v i s , A.W., An. E e p t . B . C . M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s ,  1922.  Brook* B . W . , G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ. S e p t . 190? G a o l . 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