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The protestant church as a factor in secondary education in Canada Nuttall, Thomas Herbert 1926

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THE PROTESTABT CHUBGH A3 A FACTOR I N THE SECONDARY EDUCATION OF CANADA BY THOMAS HERBERT NUTTALL  •B8BBBBKK  CAT. NO. She  2R0T3STAHT  CHURCH  AS  3DUCAII0H  IN  A  FACTOi  CAHADA.  by Thomas  Herbert  Nuttall.  &&&&&&&&&&&&&  A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MA3T3R  OF  ARTS  in  the department of PHILOSOPHY.  &&&&&&&&&&&&&&  fhe  University  of British  April 1926. &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&  Columbia  LZ}fa-{l><**-N*p?  Table  of  Contents.  X. Introductory Chapter. Limitation of subjeot - Pour main denominations A unified outlook. 2. Historical and Statistloal. Anglican Ohuroh - Baptist Ohuroh - Methodist Ohuroh - Presbyterian Ohuroh. J. Eolations of Ohuroh Secondary Sohool and the State. Ohuroh , a fifty per oent faotor - Compulsory Secondary Education - That the State now provides State officially ignorant of the Ohuroh Sohool State to Inspeot Ohuroh Schools - State Aid not a neoessary oorollary to Inspection - Churoh Sohools not Inadequate in equipment and Staff - Timetable more elastlo in Churoh Sohool - Ohuroh Sohool is religious but not Sectarian - Common platform shown by Citations of Common Polioy - Churoh Sohool as Complementary to the State Sohool. 4. features of Ourrioulum, Staff, and liftnagement of Churoh Sohools. Ituoh in oomtnon in both Churoh and State Sohool State should insist on minimum requirements for the Churoh Sohool - Private normal Sohool considered Bible as Text Book par exoellenoe in Ohuroh Sohool A suggested Reason for the Laok of Respect of this particular era - formal Discipline - Authority and Discipline Easily maintained where Scripture is Basic - Perversion of German morality in Great War • Biblical Instruction to be more than Appeal to the Intellect - Biblical Instruction and Constitutional Difficulty - Sucoess as Interpreted by State and By Churoh Sohool - Personality a Supreme Faotor in Ohuroh Sohool. 5. Churoh Sohool and Changing Conditions of Home Life. Age of Transition - Spheres of Home and Sohool in Educational Aotivity - Age of Almost Unrestricted freedom - Ohuroh School and Protecting Care. 6. Contribution of Ohuroh Sohool to the State. Insuffioienoy of Government 3ohools - A Different Type of Education Offered - Heeds of Special Class of Pupil - Experimental freedom in Churoh Sohool The faotor of Culture in National Life - This Greater Idealism Possible only in Ohuroh Sohool. 7. Appendix. ^salifications and successes of Church Sohools.  The proteetant Church aa a Faotor in Secondary Bduoatlon in Oanada.  Chapter I : Introduction. All subjects must be limited; some by their epeoifio ohareotere, others in a more arbitrary fashion.  This  thesis oonfinea Its attention to a sphere of Secondary Bduoatlon in Oanada whioh has not received any adequate attention, Til., that direotly governed by the Protestant (I) Churoh. Under this title there are many divisions. However, aa all educational work is confined to the several denominations known aa Anglican, Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches, the data submitted here has been (2) selected from these religious bodies. These four, representing aa they do half the total papulation of the Dominion,  (3)  de faoto, oust present a  prima fade oaae at least for serious consideration if they (X) Canada Year Book, 1924, lists 240 dlstinot soots In all, of whioh 64 may be thought of aa the "Major* denominations. Of this 64, 50 are Protestant. (2) The Union of the Congregational, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churohes in Canada, was consummated in 1925. for the purposes of historloal data the two latter are treated here as individual units; the former body had no epeoifio policy for aecondary eohools, but now has, as part of the United Churoh of Canada. (?) Oanada Tear Book, J.924. On page 112, the total population is stated as 8,788,483. The four denominations hare considered represent 4t390,590 of this total. If the  - 2 have any oomraon polioy in eduoational matters. The faot that to a greater or less extent they have thought it worth while to foster Secondary Institutions hearing the Imprimatur of the " Ohuroh", testifies to a somewhat unified outlook in this oonneotion.  figures for the erstwhile Congregational Churoh he now included as representing part of the United Churoh of Canada the denominational figures would read 4,429,320 - more than half the total population.  •  *  - 3Chapter 2. Historical and Statistical. This ohapter will confine itself largely to summaries of the educational activities of the Protestant Church in Canada, and the necessary statistics. She divisions as outlined in the introductory chapter are maintained. (A), The Anglican Church. The Established Church of Sngland always has stood for Church Schools ; and, as might be expeoted, the Anglioan Church of Canada is a worthy daughter of a grand sire. Unfortunately, for purposes of correlating facts and figures covering the Dominion, not only is each diooese a law unto itself, but each parish as well.  Thus reports  of all such institutions as the Private Schools belonging to the Church are not necessarily presented at any official gathering representing the Anglican Church of Canada. Indeed the relationship is so democratic - despite titles and appearances - that in only a few cases are the schools direotly controlled by the Diocese. Of the Private Schools in Canada as listed In the "Araerioan Private Schools" (1923) eighteen are officially Church of England; while many more have affiliations with that Church. This list, again, is notoriously incomplete; many well-known schools do not appear. Communication with fourteen of the Secondary Institutions of this Churoh reveal the fact that suoh schools are  - 4becoming increasingly popular; that individual staffs are highly qualified ; and that hoys and girls trained in such an atmosphere enter Canadian manhood and womanhood wellqualified to become leaders in national endeavour. A few brief summaries of some of the leading schools of this type are here presented:Church School for Girls, Windsor, N.S. This was incorporated in 1891 and is under the patronage of the Synods of Nova Sootia and Prederioton. The Matriculation course is for King's College and some other Universities. Registration of resident students for  1924-1923 was 88. Rothesay Collegiate School, U.B. Opened in 1877 * B a day school and became a resident Churoh School in 1891, under patronage of the Synod of New Brunswick. Boys are accepted at nine years and are prepared for all State examinations up to Matriculation. Registration 1924-1925 was 90. Bishop's College School, Lennozville, Que. In I845 Bishop's College was founded and then took under its wing a Grammar School which a few years previously had been opened by the Anglican Vicar. Hence the School is an older foundation than the College which gave it its name. The claim that it has the finest school buildings in Canada seems to be well-established. Courses are offered covering requirements for Matriculation at MoGill and at  -5Bishop'8 College Universities* The total enrolment last year was 104. this "being being divided into an Upper School of 69 hoys and a Lower School registering 35 boys* The Bishop Straohan Sohool (Girls). Toronto* Founded in 1867* Curriculum provides complete courses of instruction from kindergarten to University entrance. Matriculation classes oover four years. The Upper and Middle Schools registered an attendance for 1924-1925 of 194. Ridley College, St. Catherines, Ont. Established 1689 as a residential sohool for boys* Upper Sohool is composed of three separate houses, eaoh containing about fifty boys, together with the Bean's house and Gooderham House providing accomodation for a further one hundred students* The courses offered in the Upper Sohool prepare for State Matriculation. Attendance is about 240. Trinity College Sohool, Port Hope, Ont* This school was opened in 1865 and was founded specifically to furnish boys with a first olass education on the general lines of the great Public Schools of England. The forms covering Secondary work are the Middle and Upper Schools. Registration in this department last year was 117. St. John's College School, Winnipeg, Man. In 1820 the chaplain to the Hudson's Bay Company began a sohool for the people of the Red River District. This  P3W 0mm  s  SSSSsfc^  DOORWAY. SCHOOL HOUSE I OWFR sr.HOOl  GOODERHAM HOUSE  ARCHWAY. DEAN'S HOUSE _XbLELSCHOOUHC  - 6was the seed of an institution which, after a somewhat chequered oareer, finally assumed the proportions of an established Collegiate School in 1866.  There are six  forms in the School, the four higher oovering the usual requirements for Matriculation, fotal school enrolment for 1925-X926 is 237. (B). The Baptist Church. This Integral part of Protestantism in Canada has a vary definite polioy in educational matters, which is promulgated by the Baptist Convention.  As a Churoh it  stands for definite Christian teaching as one of the main planks of a rational system of education.  To quote (I) from a personal letter from Br. Archibald , Registrar  of the Acadia University; "She polioy of the Baptist Convention respecting education is to furnish the foundations of a thorough education under highest Christian auspices, and according to Christian ideals, -this at a minimum oost consistent with efflolenoy". •»  The Baptist Churoh - the smallest of the denominations (2) considered here - provides three collegiate centres; one each in Bova Scotia, Ontario, and Manitoba.  From these  it wields a great influence as may easily be seen from (1) Letter dated, "Wolfeville, U.S. Jan 27, 1926." (2) Canadian Tear Book I924, gives figures as 421,731. Page 110.  ACADIA B U I L D I N G S A N D G R O U N D S  Graham P h o t o  - 7a consideration of the following statistical data :Aoadia Collegiate, (Formerly Horton Academy) ll'.S. This was opened in Wolfeville in March 1829, and has been in continuous operation sinoe that date. The numbers enrolled 1924-1925 were 122.  If to these are added  outside and part-time students the numbers would be 187. Woodstock College, Ontario. This provides for a preparatory class, presumably corresponding to Grade 8 of the Public Sohool ; two years in a Lower Sohool and a Middle Sohool ; and one year in an Upper Sohool, corresponding to our Senior Matriculation. In all, the students 1923-1924 numbered 12$) - the totals for each section are not given. Brandon Baptist College, Manitoba. Here instruction is provided in both Arts and Academic courses. The Academic Department was organised in 1900; and the highest attendance was in 1920 when the enrolment numbered 133.  This present year shows that the number  in the Academy has fallen to 60, while the Arts Department (I) exceeds 200 students* Private information states :"In accordance with a policy definitely adopted by the College Board last year an attempt will be made to increase the registration, in the Academy with the next few years. (I). Letter signed by Registrar C.P.Richards, dated "Brandon College, Feb.9,1926".  - 8To this end the Faculty has "been much strengthened;and oolleglate privileges under the Manitoba Department of Bduoation have been obtained. A high quality of work is being done". These details support the claim that the Baptist Ohuroh is a vital factor in the realm of Secondary Uduoation in Canada. (0). The United Ohuroh of Canada. Under this heading reference will be made to the late Methodist Ohuroh and the late Presbyterian Ohuroh - the Congregational body not possessing an official Seoondary Sohool. The Methodist Ohuroh. That the erstwhile Methodist Ohuroh was interested in education may be gathered from the offioial statement that the total value of its eduoatlonal institutions in 1925 was $8,826,247.  It brought into union seventeen  ID oolleges  . of whioh twelve offered instruction in (2) Seoondary work. The earliest of these, as can be noted from the following statement, was Mount Allison Academy founded in l843» The following are the oolleges:-  Mt. Allison Academy. Sackville, II.B. 1843. Enrolment 130 Mt. Allison Ladies do 1854 312 Methodist College, St. John'8 I'Fd I8b2 407 Albert College Belleville Ont 1857 175 Wesleyan College, Stanstead, Que I872 2§§ (1) Quadrennial Report, College Property, May 15, 1925. (2) Alberta South this year (1926) funotions as a Theological College only.  • Q _  Alma Collage,Ladles, Ontario, Ladles Alberta South Alberta North Hegina Oollege Mt. Royal College Columbian College  St Thomas, Ont. Enrolment 310 Whitby Ont 140 Bdraonton Alt 108 Edmonton Alt 175O Regina Sask 55I Oalgary Alt 283 Hew i?est. B.C. 115  The8e oolleges represent a total enrolment of 45&0 students and if to these be added those of Wesley College, Winnipeg, who there take Matriculation work the number would be Increased probably by another 100 students; this oollege has a total enrolment Arts and Matriculation of 298. the official educational policy as taken from the report of the last General Conference, after stating that the "State is quite unable to meet the needs of the present situation", goes on to give reasons for the rapid increase in attendance at private secondary schools; and then declares;" We are firmly convinced of the wisdom of our Methodist policy in organizing and the development of a chain of secondary residential colleges from St. John's Newfoundland to New Westminster; we believe that any work undertaken in our Church Institutions should be well done; that the buildings should be dignified and ample, the equipment adequate, the course of study broad and worthy, and that the teachers should be able, scholarly, and of high oharaoter. All study should have as its foundation the substance of a liberal education* •  and that  religious instruction should constitute a recognised subject of the curriculum".  10 the Presbyterian Ohuroh. One of the many notable things of the land of the heather is its interest in eduoation.  However, the  tendenoy of the Presbyterian Churoh in Oanada has been to specialize particularly in University and Theological Instruction, relegating Secondary Work largely to the State. It is therefore all the more interesting to note the following excerpt from the biography of the late Rev. (I) Thomas MoCullooh, £.£. ;- nIn l8ll the Government passed the Grammar School act which provided schools in seven counties of Nova Scotia and in the three districts of Oolohester, Piotou, and Yarmouth. Mr MoOullooh was appointed trustee*  Of the Pictou school She object was very  evident to himself and his friends* Having already an excellent school In operation his educational standing could not be overlooked. On the other hand he being a Trustee would scarcely persist in keeping up one which would be antagonistic.  A strong desire had, however,been  expressed that he should have charge of the New Institute and appointed him head teacher." Thus it can be seen that Presbyterian influence had an academy in operation before I8II - "an excellent school"even before the old Piotou Aoademy commenced. (I) Life of Thos. MoOullooh, D.D.  WM. MoOullooh, Truro 1920.  - II Today there are two Secondary Institutions which were directly the property of the Presbyterian Ohuroh, and subject to the authority of the General Assembly.  It also  has secured a site for a further oollege for girls at Moose Jaw. fhe Ottawa ladies' Oollege, Ottawa. This institution opened in 1869 and offers several courses. It has both a Lower and an Upper School, the latter covering-Secondary work.  Total enrolment for last  year was 196. The Character of the school can be gathered from the following, taken from the 1925-1926 Calendar;"We believe that no education is adequate in which religion has not its full place.  The College is a Christian school.  Every effort is made to maintain a genial, wholesome, religious atmosphere through the household". Moose Jaw College,  Moose Jaw.  Was founded in 1913 and is an institution for boys. During the first twelve years of its history IIOO boys have been in attendance, and the registration last year was 101. The courses offered cover academic and commercial. The 1925-1926 Calendar contains the following;-" The Oollege was founded by men who accept the decision which modern science has reached, that every child has a religious as well as an intellectual nature, and that he is therefore capable of receiving religious truth. He has a religious instinct because he is human, in the same sense that he  - 12 has reason, memory and imagination because he is human* file eduoation, therefore, is not complete unless the religious faculty has ltB appropriate share of culture". fhus the United Ohuroh of Canada now has fourteen schools offering instruction in Seoondary Education, and its general eduoational policy and responsibility is stated (I) as follows:- "©ixr fathers believed in Christian education and as a result of their faith, vision and sacrifice, the United Ohuroh has a splendid heritage in her oolleges representing over $15,000,000, in real estate and endowments* But there is something more Important than buildings* Personalise our colleges* See that inspiring picture of 5000 adolescents crowding our Seoondary Institutions whloh provide both a home and a school in an atmosphere mads definitely Christian by the high ideals of resident teachers." (X). Maintenance and Extension Fund Pamphlet, "Across Oanada8 1925. Page 27.  - 13 Chapter 3» She Relation of the Ohuroh Secondary School to the State. In a discussion of the relationship of the Church Secondary School to the State, it may he of value to point out that by the term "Ohuroh Secondary School", the type of private sohool to be considered is directly and severely limited. As indicated in the introduction, the sphere of argument is oonfined to schools directly governed by the Protestant Ohuroh.  This eliminates what  may be called the " Personal private sohool " - sohools oonduoted perhaps by someone with a distinct denominational affiliation, but which are operated for personal profit, the type Of sohool then to be considered is that which is represented by those enumerated in the preceding chapter, whioh are oonduoted by and for the Ohuroh as suoh. These have behind them whatever weight, authority, and influence the Protestant Ohuroh of Canada may possess; and represent the oontribution of that Church in the realm of Seoondary Sduoation. It is worth while to reiterate that the Protestant Ohuroh in Canada is a fifty per oent factor in the life of the Dominion; and that merely to enumerate the leading seoondary institutions referred to in the preceding chapters is to oell attention to numerous residential  -14 - .'.. sohools eoattered from the Atlantio to the Paoifio. last year there passed through such institutions some eight thousand boys and girls, of whose education the State offioially knows nothing* Perhaps the time for compulsory secondary education has not arrived fully.  The failure of the Fisher Bill  in Sngland to funotion in this respect after attempts to enforce it, at least in certain areas, e.g. London, Birmingham, is one of the tragio episodes in educational advance*  She English Continuation Schools, where the  attendance has been voluntary, in many oases have been highly successful. The Adolescent Act of Ontario, whereby am adolescent who has not attained university matriculation standing has the alternative of full time attendance up to sixteen or full time attendance to fourteen plus part time attendanoe to eighteen, has greatly increased the numbers of students in the Ontario Secondary Sohools, and appears to be the finger of Destiny pointing out an ultimate direction. However, In this era, the State does provide High School accomodation to a reasonable extent, and has outlined a required curriculum.  On the basis, presumably,  that the State is responsible for the eduoation of its citizens, it insists upon oertain requirements, and demands that Buoh sohools be adequate in equipment and properly staffed. To secure these ends it provides High  - 15 sohool Inspectors, as in oompulsory Public echoola. Officially what goes on in many Church Secondary Sohools is unknown to the State; its only criterion is the last week in June, or whenever the Matriculation examinations may be held.  This surely is a condition of affairs  whioh ought not to be.  In the opinion of the writer - an  instructor in a Churoh Sohool - the State is oulpably negligent to allow her future citizens to pass oertain years of training in a walled-off exolusivenese.  The  State should say to the Secondary Institution of the Protestant Church ; "If you desire to educate some of my future oitiaens in your own institutions, you must allow ms to have the right to see that my future oitiaens do not suffer loss in the process** .In other words the State should insist upon the right to inspect these Protestant Schools, and to be able to report adversely or favourably as the case may be. In any event to absolutely (I) ignore such institutions , as at present, in the yearly educational Provincial reports, is to give a false impression of educational activities within the State. As against this proposal, it might be argued that the Roman Oatholio Church would not agree to a similar jurisdiction; and that therefore an unfsir limitation would be placed upon the Protestant Churoh Sohool. In answer to this objection, one would have to admit the (I) Alberta is the only Provinoe whioh reports Private Sohools.  - 16 regrettable hereditary attitude of the Roman Oatholio Ohuroh in this respeot; hut this is a Constitutional difficulty which seems inherent in our national life.  To try to  remedy this relationship after so many years of acceptance would he to invite catastrophic revolution.  Possibly , if  it oan he accomplished at all, it will he done by means of persistent reiteration on the part of the State ; perhaps it would necessitate the iron hand of a Fascist Government. However, it is not an hereditary attitude of the Protestant Ohuroh; and the fact that State Inspection was in operation in one branch of the Christian Ohuroh would not weaken the State claim to inspect the other. half a loaf is better than no bread at all*  In any oase, After all,  this antipathy of the Roman Oatholio Ohuroh to inspection is a logical position for the Church to adopt; it claims to have unquestioned right to limit or guide the mental and moral outlook of its adherents.  It would not be a  logical position for the Protestant Ohuroh, as it stands as the great exponent of freedom in thought and action. Moreover such inspection could only be advantageoue-rwhere conditions are as they should be.  To be able to state that  suoh-an-suoh a Sohool is up to government standard, would be one of the finest of advertisements that any private sohool could exhibit; and thus the Protestant Ohuroh Sohool in submitting to inspection would have an advantage over the Roman Catholic Sohool in this respeot. Again, the objection might be raised that State Inspection  - 17 involves State Aia.  One is referred to the great Publio  Sohools of England,(these correspond mainly to whet are oonsidered in this theBis as Ohuroh Secondary Sohools), and to the Hon-Provided Council Sohools, as understood in the Aot of 1902.  In the former oase s grant is made  directly from the government, and in the latter it is raised by looal rates as for the ordinary Counoil Sohool. I venture to suggest that State Aid is not a necessary corollary to State Inspeotion.  That it is so in England  does not constitute a valid argument that it must be so In Canada.  As a matter of faot the writer can point out  from personal knowledge that some Borough Councils in England, e.g. Southend and Leigh, Essex, are insisting that all private sohools within their Jurisdiction be inspected (I) by the looal Direotor of Education, the result being favourable advertisement for those that measure up to the standard in equipment, teaohing staff, etc., and unfavourable for those that fail to do this.  Along similar lines  there could be State Inspection of Protestant Church Sohools in Canada. (Appendix A points out that this is being done in many Ohuroh Sohools at the insistence of those Sohools). As far as a grant is oonoerned, the only justifiable olaim whioh a Church Seoondary Sohool oould have upon a State grant would be where the Churoh oould rightly insist that it was providing adequate High Sohool facilities where the (I) Authority is given by the Fisher Bill.  - 18 State was not sufficiently functioning. Moreover, the writer is of the opinion that inspection of some, at least, of the institutions referred to in the seoond chapter of this thesis would do much to dispel the idea of poor equipment and meagre staff whioh rather unintelligently prevails in a vague sort of way in the minds of many people.  Most Church Institutions limit  the size of the class; e.g. Trinity College School seldom allows a class to consist of more than fourteen hoys; while in Columbian College, Westminster, the largest classroom seats but eighteen.  This would be hailed with delight  by most High School teachers.  In laboratory and manual  apparatus, the State School may be granted on the whole a priority; but some of the Church Institutions named are second to none even in this respect.  The State should  insist on a minimum for successful experimental work in Church as in its own High Schools.  As far as the staffing  of the Ohuroh Schools is conoemed, the fact that there is a fair percentage of success on the State?s own ground, the Provincial examinations - which, by the way, is not considered as the highest realm of success by the Church School,is evidence in itself that members of the various staffs can suooessfully compete with the instructors in the ordinary High School. An inspection would reveal teachers of (I) Aoademio and Professional standing. However, the basic (I) See Appendix A.  The Class Rooms which can be Shut into Five or less Units,  Trinity Oollege .  - 19 ground of aooeptanoe by the Ohuroh is that of Oharaoter* fnere must be explioit evidence of good character and Ohuroh association plus a gift for leadership; without these diplomas and certificates have little value in the eyes of principals and boards*  ^his, at least, is claimed  by the Ohuroh and under existing conditions cannot be disproved officially by the State* Further,the time-table of the Ohuroh School is sufficiently elastic to allow for definite and regular periods of oounsel and instruction in the all-important realm of oonduct.  Tffhile no would seek to deny that character and  oulture are often well represented by the teaohers in the Secondary Institutions of the State, it would be a bold claim that any very adequate expression of these qualities i« determinedly established.  The modern State time-table  nay be nesessary; it certainly is very distressing in its limitations. they cannot-  What public school teachers would do that 3Jhe State should recognise surely that her  citizens are more and more turning to the Private Residential Schools of the oountry seeking for what they cannot find in the Striotly State School. It is well to bear in mind the statement that there would be no private school if the (I)' public schools were all that could be desired. Again a oommonly aocepted opinion is that the relation{I) American Private Schools. (Sargent) 1916  P.16  - 20 ship which the Church Sohool occupies to the State in the matter of religion is largely that of seotarian narrowness4 that Ohuroh Schools are mainly a reoruiting ground for Anglioans, Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterains, - as the case may be. There was a time, and not so very far baok , when the offering of a Ohuroh institution to the State was that of a narrow sectarian influence; the faot that in this thesis the four leading Protestant bodies can be oitefi in one ever-oonourring outlook is proof that that day has passed. The Protestant Ohuroh, then, offers Canada,boys and girls, young men and young women, trained in a religious outlook rather than a sectarian dogmatism.  It claims it is doing  for the State what the State has left undone, educating not Barely the head, not merely for the specific purpose of economic return; but an all-round education leading to an appreciation of the larger values of life. The common platform of the Protestant Private Schools of Canada may be gathered from the following extracts taken from sources as indicated. (I) Woodstock Baptist College. "Woodstock College is designed to be a Christian school of learning.  Its aim is to surround the student  with Christian influences; to guide him sympathetically in the pursuit of knowledge; and to teach him the Christian  - 21 way of looking at things ; to keep before M m Christian ideals, and by word and life oommend the knowledge of God *#a (2)  Chrietlike character as the highest possible attainments'.' Presbyterian College, Moose Jaw. "While the College shall be atriotly undenominational  in the life of the individual and of the world, our aim is to develop the sooially-minded oitiaen, the person who will oarry the spirit of the Great Master into the oourse of study, treatment of students and general management, yet it shall always endeavour to bring eaoh boy under the direct influenoe of an earnest and manly Christianity, so that he may oarry a sturdy, practical Christianity into his everyday life. As a help to secure this end the Bible as literature, will have an honoured place in the courses of study •long with the other subjects of the curriculum'.' (3)•  Sidley Church of England College, Ontario. "Che purpose of this College is to afford a sound  education on reasonable lines; to secure for its pupils adequate religious and moral instruction, the only basis of Character. It is the aim of the School to develop manly and earnest Christian Character". (4-)« Columbian College, New Hestminster, B.C. "We prepare students for examinations and have a goodly measure of success in this respect. We believe, however, that true education involves more than this,- it  - 22 aims at the development of a true and noble spirit, of insight and appreciation, of right attitudes and worthy loyalties, of social understanding and helpfulness. The broad, basic prinoiples of Christianity are our ohief as oonoern. Religion is interpreted notia dootrinal system i  but as related to praotloal issues in the life of the individual and of the world*  Our aim is to develop the  sooially-minded oitizen, the person who will oarry the spirit' of the Great Master into the varied aotivities of the present day world." This outlook of oourse is in acoord with the trend of modern times, and should be expected.  Yet the fact  remains that where seotarianism oould be taught unhampered Christian idealism is presented in broad and comprehensive measure. Evidently, then, the Ohuroh Seoondary School has nothing to fear in comparison with the State High School; and a greater knowledge of its values might be even advantageous to the State. It, moreover, is able to offer in many respeots, more than the ordinary Seoondary Institution. It is more elastic than a State School can be; and perhaps it greatest contribution is that of insistence upon the religious point of view as the sanest approach towards a oomplete conception of education, a matter wherein at present grave difficulty exists for the State. Surely  •  ••• t $  -  then, ©a th# Ohuroh Sohool oan be shown to be complementary to the educational efforts of the State* a rauoh oloser relationship to the State than at present exists is eminently desirable. Without it there oan be no true estimate of the educational activities of Canada.  I  LOWER SCHOOL  DINING HALL  Woodstock College  UPPER SCHOOL  - 24 Chapter 4. features of Curriculum, Staff, and Management of Ghuroh Sohools. Of necessity the curricula of the State and the Ohuroh Secondary Sohools must have muoh in oommon.  The require-  ments for matrioulation are the minimum in eaoh case. While these requirements usually constitute the maximum for the State Sohool, the Churoh Institution generally provides further optional courses in business training, vocal and instrumental musio, elocution, and sometimes in such studies as current history. oourses in Scripture.  It always provides  Thus Doth State and Churoh Sohools  cover largely the same ground. This being so, the State in the interests of its own welfare should interpose the same requirements upon the teaohers in the Churoh Sohool as it insists upon for the teaohers in the State School.  Suoh minimum requirements  would not in any way destroy the distinctive character of the Ghuroh School,' for the majority of teaohers in the latter type of sohool already hold their professional certificatesl the point is that the State should be sufficiently interested to make this a sine qua non. In these days of a surplusage of teaohers there is no reason why eduoational institutions of whatever character should employ unqualified instructors. With the State Normal Sohools persistently wasting government money in the dis-  - 2| regard of supply and demand, oertifioated teachers are on hand to more than fill all positions. This leads to the question, sometimes presented, of a normal School for Private Sohool teachers. In the writer's judgment such an institution would be unworkable; its existence would certainly be unwarranted. It would be unworkable,for one thing, owing to the comparative fewness of such schools.  One such Normal Centre  would have to serve so much territory that its usefulness would be curtailed severely.  Moreover, the authority of  such a Uormal training would always be questioned unless it were operated by the State; and if this latter course were adopted, what need for a further type of institution when the State is over-equipped already?  If the Protest-  ant Church is desirous of sustaining Secondary Institutions whiah offer more than the corresponding State type, the onus of further qualifications rests entirely with the Ohuroh - not with the State.  And as training schools  already exist for all the subjects covered by the Ohuroh and which are not taken by the State, e.g., religious instruction, music, elocution; further duplication of such educational machinery not only is undesirable, but would be useless. Turning specifically to the question of the differences in curricula of the State and of the Church Sohool, the outstanding distinction is that in the former religious  - 26 instruction ie ignored, and in the latter, the Bible is the (I) Text Book par excellence. One of the tendencies of the present age, is an increasing lack of respeot for authority which is accounted for in great measure "by the larger lack of reverenoe towards God and Divine things ; that the one hinges upon the other is well established.  This tendency is reflected in the more  artificial environment of the school as well as in the truer atmosphere of outside life; and since the State makes little provision for inculcation of respeot and reverenoe save only in so far as these may be asides to the pursuit of knowledge, the neoessary oorreotive cannot be found in the ordinary Secondary Institution. Eae "Special faculty " idea, giving it the teohnioal aontent involved in the doctrine of formal discipline, has probably passed forever with the passing of dualism; although many subjects are still taught on the"formal discipline" lines. At the same time, whether religion be an instinct or but the result of certain blending of specifio emotions, the fact remains that most people - certainly most adolesoents - respond to the high ehtical and moral values of religion.  A personal referenoe may be in order.  (I) The Protestant Publio Schools of Quebec seem to be alone in making Soripture a compulsory subject. This does not extend to the High SohoolB of the Province. "Memoranda of Publio Instruction, 1925".  tn.  i  -  - 27 fhe writer has had a fair experience in public school work from Winnipeg to the Paoifio.  The Period 1921 - 1923 was  spent in post-graduate teaohing in England under the London County Counoil and under one of the Borough Councils. The outstanding memory of this work ie the marked respeot for authority and the ease with whioh disoipline was maintained. In these Sohools Biblioal teaohing usually ranks as the first subject in the daily time-table. It has been advanced that while Pre-War Germany made religion a great plank in its school system in both the elementary and secondary sohools, that the character of young Germans as exhibited during the war was not more moral than that of young Canadians; therefore Bible Teaching is ineffective in the realm of practioal morality. However, thm wartime exhibitions of morality and culture furnish no criterion of values whatever. War conditions, while perhaps of use in past ages in the evolution of oharacter, have now reached the stage where they are destruotive of it. War as between nations is totally opposed to the high teachings of Jesus Christ, and it is time that Christian nations so realised it, The perversion of character during the war was not ourious at all; it is a necessary corollary when looal patriotism is exalted by the State above Christianity - whioh is essentially international. The Bible with its disciplinary effeot, must not minister to the glorification of the State; it must remind the State of its subservience to  - 28 humanity. Perhaps it is well to recognise that intellectual assent does not necessarily govern character} hut if Biblical instruction is given with the idea of merely gaining intellectual assent its value is discounted at its very source. What Christ came to reveal was the "Kingdom of Sod" and this He described variously; sometimes as "seed" and sometime as "leaven", hut always in terms of growth and of life.  If the  Bible is to be treated in a manner differing from that of other Texts the prime essential is that the instructor should be one who has experienced the close intimacy of the fifteenth of John.  This, perhaps, would lead to a disrup-  tion of staffs by an invasion of clergy - a not altogether desirable thing.  It might be a wise policy to have a spec-  ialist in religious education attached to each school. This of oourse was the policy of the Methodist Church as regards its own Secondary Institutions. In the Protestant Church Schools of Canada time is found wherein the study of the Bible is ranked as of equal importance with the requirements for the State Matriculation. The method of teaching is as scientific as that required for other subjects; and associated with the Bible itself there are usually a number of other texts, such as "Life of Christ" (Stalker); "Social Teachings of the Prophets and •I  •  • *  Jesus"(Kent). "Heroes of Israel" (Soares), etc. The State insists that /'Knowledge grow from more to More?  - 29 the Ohuroh Sohool adds the further line, B And more of reverenoe in us dwell." The writer is well aware that the introduction of Biblioal teaching into the State Schools of Canada is beset with oonetitutional difficulties under section 93 British Horth America lot; at the same time he does not consider a discussion of these difficulties to be germane to this thesis.  Presumably they can be overeome, else the fourth  recommendation of the Commissioners in the recent Sohool Survey for British Columbia is beside the point. (See page 70, Sohool Survey, wherein the commissioners under oertain conditions recommend Biblioal instruction in schools). The faot remains that if there be any value in Biblioal instruction; and, on the authority of the most reoent pronouncement of our leading educationalists in British Columbia, there la; at the moment the Church Sohool is the main institution in the realm of Secondary Education which offers such a course. The writer, however, cannot free himself from the conviction that the Protestant (and other) Denominations as represented in Canada, probably are more firmly entrenched in conservative England than here; and yet the Bible is studied there in the Council Schools without undue recrimination » even though taught by the regular professional teacher in the ordinary oourse of the time-table. Another distinction of importance between the State and the Church Secondary Schools, is that the one places  - 30 supreme emphasis upon suooess in examinations within an allotted period; the other, while not despising this, makes it rank seoond to securing at least a fair grounding in some subjects even at the cost of a much longer period of probation.  It is certainly a well recognised fact  that the competency of a teacher in the State School is reckoned generally by his ability to get his pupils to disgorge upon an examination paper a certain amount of knowledge more or lees digested.  With this in view the  teaoher often advises a pupil who appears likely to fail In this process to cease attendance; for he knows that with the large olasses in the State High School, he cannot give sufficient personal attention to secure success in the aeyvoua or backward pupil.  Ihe majority of the  Calenders of the Ohuroh Schools indicate a desire for a longer period wherein to cover the requirements of the State, usually planning for an extra year in whioh to aov#r the matriculation period.  Even where this is not  B O , the fact that social engagements of the pupil are severely regulated; that they are not considered competent to decide when they will or will not Indulge in private study; that all such private study is done under the watohful eye and with the helpful assistance of a housemaster or mistress,as the case may be, at specific and orderly times; that physical development is oonsidered of  9 3" r»  PI  4 a  a 3  H- & 0  o  a> o  I 03 o o  3  -31 prime Importance; these all tend toward an attitude of mind and body superior to that of merely preparing for suooessful mental gymnastics. Anything short of complete success judged by the results of one weary week in the hot month of June, is regarded with a jealous, if not Jaundioed , eye by the officialdom of the State. But the Ohuroh Sohool, while prepared to look for the best results, has the right to assume the more gracious outlook of the patient mother who, regretting failure in one direotion, osn rejoice in developed character and higher outlook.  Some of the  biggest suooesses of the Private School whioh deals with adolescents oould never be scheduled in an inspector's report• In the question of the management of the Churoh Secondary Sohool, this can be said to depend almost entirely upon personality.  From the Principal to the youngest  teaoher this must necessarily be so. The ooeroion whioh Is the prerogative of the State can be sustained by force; and, in the ultimate, by public expulsion . It may be argued that this applies also to Churoh Schools; but if it does, it certainly is In a much more limited way. Any ooeroion rests, not on the power of the State, but on personality. The Reformatory looms behind the State School; the Church Sohool dealing with adolescents feels it has a special mission in the realm of forgiveness and long-suf-  - 32 fering - a dlfferenoe in point of riew. The Churoh School carries a special responsibility in character building and beers much that would be rejeoted instantly in the Public Sohool.  The insistence upon  authority may be lees immediately eeoured in the residential Sohool in Canada; but the closer, more intimate life of the tutor and scholar leads to a basis of gooff fellowship which must undermine all but the most stubborn. The State seeks to guide away from the sirens of danger by limitation; the Church prefers the way of Jason to Ulysses, and would have Orpheus on board - the melodies of the Gods rather than the ropes and wax of men.  - 33 Chapter  5.  flit Ohuroh Sohool and the Changing Conditiont of Home Life. Of the "boon the Ohuroh Sohool le In homes bereaved of the mother; or where divorce he8 cast its blighting shadow, nothing need he steted here.  jro dleoupeion or  but little is neoeessry to show itp value in its super* intendency of the baokward student or of the adolesoent from the oountry where High Sohool and oultural privileges (1) are exceedingly soant. The question here oonsidered is whether the Ohuroh Secondary Sohool has a contribution of worth to make to the State in view of the changed conditions of home life. It it a platitude to remark that we live in an age Of transition.  However, the last three or four decades  a»rk a period of ohange perhaps the most remarkable the world has ever manifested; certainly incomparable to any other period in history.  The standards of living have  baen almost oompletely revolutionized; snd nowhere if this more noticeable than in the home. In the Victorian age in general it was prdably true that a man's home waa his castle; it is now merely his dormitory - an adjunct to his garage. The few people who really oonslder home as a dwelling-plaoe rather then a mere house; a oultural envir(I) fhe succeeding chapter touches this aspect of the oase.  - 34 onment rather thaaa mere bricks and mortar; are almost remarked for that faot alone. It is a hectic age in whioh amusement and insatiety in the realm of pleasure have destroyed almost in toto the ideals of home life.  The ease  of travel, the greater liberty of womanhood, deliberate and soientifio birth-control, are some of the factors whioh, in this age, tend to unrestricted freedom. In the days when home was really home, a recognised sphere in eduoational outlook was within the hands of parents, espeoially education distinctly cultural. The type of person evolved under those conditions is reoalled today by the phrase,"A gentleman of the old school". The phrase itself indicates that that era has passed. This can be confirmed by any observant visitor in the realm of "The Great Society".  Very few parents assume personal  responsibility in educational matters other than to insist that paid instructors attend to the needs of their children. Biblical instruction has travelled the same way, largely. The family altar, one of the mightiest instruments for good the world has ever known, is not even labelled "The Unknown God", - it is almost an "Unknown Altar". Speaking in broad measure, there is no limit that marks off the spheres of the State and Parental activities in education, for there are no\ parental activities to be considered. Of oourse, daily intercourse and example are contributed  - 35 by parents, when present; but suoh direotion in educational outlook aa is afforded by these ohannels is haphazard ; seldom the result of oonsoious effort. Again, the only limit that there oan be as between the Bphere of the State and of the Ghuroh Sohool, is to be found in the endeavour of the Ghuroh Sohool to supply the laok of oultural outlook in the home.  Education  oannot be defined in terms of subjeots - it is mainly an attitude towards life, an attitude constantly in the prooess of formation.  The great olaim of the Ghuroh  institution is that it is better adapted to direct this growth than the State Sohool can be, owing to the limitation plaoed upon the latter by the constitutional ban Of religious instruction. While good conduct may be inouloated by the Indirect method of example during the taaoaing of "bread and butter" subjects, it is largely true that morals and ethios are dependant for inspiration mainly upon the teaching of History and Languages. The •Atmosphere" most favourable to the finest ethioal growth oannot be found where the Bible - the essential element of oultural life - is not present in proper proportions. The Ghuroh Sohool claims all the adjuncts found in the State Sohool whloh are there used to help the immaturity of the adolescent to expand into a proper fitness for life, and then adds the exquisite atmosphere of the  '. - 3 6 teachings of some of the greateet leaders of the most religious nation the world has known - the Jews; and then crowns the fabric with the matchless instruction given by the Han of Galilee. Here then the Seoondary Residential Institutions of the Qhuroh have a large responsibility.  Such sohools,  well recognising their inability to completely supply the ideal home, can offer a protecting oare; 8 supervision and an intelligent cultural outlook, whioh is far beyond that exerted even in many of the best homes today.  It may  he said that this attitude of aooepted responsibility may have a tendency to aooenuate the parental flabbiness of the era; so efficient a nurse is all that is required. Perhaps there is en element of truth in this assertion; yet the feot remains that the Church Secondary School not only did not create the position; but by its essential oleim is one of the great opponents to the relaxed morality of this period.  It insists that the boy and girl should  he trained, not only to pass examinations; but also to live well.  It can then disregard the aoousation in the  conscious reotitude of its intentions.  Canada will be  infinitely poorer in the next generation if, for example, the five thousand adolescents in charge of the United Church be hand over to the less moral responsibility of the State.  - 37 Chapter  6.  the Contribution of the Churoh School to the State.  The purpose of this concluding ohapter is to gather together together some of the claims already made and to give greater emphasis to that whioh the writer believes to be the real peculiar contribution of the Churoh in the realm of eduoation. In 1920 the Massey Foundation Committee made a survey of all the educational institutions of the Methodist Churoh of Canada.  The first ohapter of Part one  (I) of the report  deals with the argument for Church Second-  ary Schools, and suggest four main reasons for the continuance of suoh centres of education.  Summarised these  are:(a) The Insufficiency of Government Schools. The reference here is to sparsely settled communities in whioh inadequate, or entire absenoe of, provision by the State authorities necessitates the leaving home of boy8 and girls at the most critical age in life. (b) Advantages of Residential School. Many parents rightly and wisely desire for their children a type of eduoation different from that furnished by, or prescribed for, the State Sohools; an eduoation (I) Massey Foundation Commission, I920:Pages 3»4t5«  - 38 with perhaps a different content, and at any rate, combined with the advantages generally recognised as coming from the oomraon life and oareful supervision of a good residential school* (o) Heeds of Special Class of Pupil. Many oases exists of boys and girls whose education has been retarded, who have been deprived of many educational facilities while young; and now that they are nearing the borders of manhood and womanhood seek to repair their losses.  Suoh persons it is seldom advisable to send back  to the eompanionship of muoh younger pupils with whom their backward education would necessarily oause them to be placed; and moreover while uneducated they have a maturity whis>, combined with their new resolves and ambitions, carries them forward at a greater speed than is possible for the younger ohildren. Shis aspeot of the Churoh as a Factor in the education of students who for some reason are advanced in age before commencing High School studies, is strongly supported by (I) the Eegistrar of Toronto University in a letter to the Principal of Albert College, Belleville*  The following  is a quotation:-" I am very glad indeed to have the opportunity of bearing testimony to the valuable contribution which Albert College has made to seoondary education. (I) Letter is dated 14th, December, I925.  - 39 The unique feature of this contribution, In ay opinion, has been the eduoation of young nen and women of mature age, who after having been out of school for some years, wish to prepare themselves for Matriculation or Teachers' Examination.  These students find that they are muoh  older than the average and are unwilling to spend the time required by the High Sohool curriculum for the desired examination.  Of these mature students I have known  four who have oome under my own personal notice through their later connection with the University.  These were  all well over twenty yeeri? of age when they went to Albert College and had had no eduoation beyond the Public Sohool. Bach student obtained his Matriculation in two years st albert and oame on to the University.  One took a brilliant  degree in English and History and is now a Professor on the University Staff. One has completed a four yeer  term  In a large Toronto Church; another was heed of a large Seoondary Sohool; the fourth graduated in medioine and became a medical missionary in China." (d). Experimental Value. It can be argued with muoh force that these and similar privately controlled institutions can be made to serve as valuable laboraties of experiment in eduoation. True educational experiment finds too small a plaoe in the overly rigid mechanism of a centralised state-controlled  - 40 system. Onoe again the writer would insist that the teaohers in the Ohuroh type of school are in no way seoondary to the teaohers in the State Seoondary Institution; that they are quite oapable of directing growth in knowledge; and that they indeed have the advantage over the State Teacher in that the system under whioh they work is less rigid and therefore capable of greater adaptation. The ourse of the State School in Canada is that its saps all origination. The Snglish School is muoh better off in this regard in that the Headmaster is allowed to choose his own textbooks for his own school and in general has greater freedom than is allowed to our Canadian Principals. Is instances of originality on part of the Church Schools of Canada, one may read by referring to appendix A thattfoodstookCollege established the first Manual Training Department in Canada , and in every way".  which "is up-to-date  Columbian College specializes in "Current  History" and allows periods for the perusal of newspapers and first-class magazines; olaimlng that education should include present world movements as well as past events. The examinations in these subjeots show that the students are interested to a fair degree; but that speoifio instruction is necessary to rightly evaluate events. "The earle"y efforts toward the higher education of girls  WOODSTOCK COLLEGE  _.,«f ,. .  ....  - -  21  1  —  ,  \7ff  ^Bll H Z UJ  f-  a:  BSPte  u. D < z < i  oL o X  •J-:  g u < 5  Ml , ., . '.Li  ^  _ Y 1 U i '••  9  - 41 the first kindergartens, the introduction of manual training, were horn of personal conviction, fostered hy private assooiations, and only gradually won public reoognition and support.  The first art schools and  museums, the first gymnasiums, the first technical sohools, were all the result of individual initiative and private cooperation.  Generally speaking, the  higher education in musio, art, expression, physical training, and the household arts, is still largely > (I) dependent upon private institutions*" To the writer, however, the peouliar contribution of greatest intrinsio worth in the Church Secondary Institution is hast understood hy the word "Culture". This perhaps underlies the second reason suggested in the above report; personally it is pre- eminent. (2) In "The Clash11, Mr Moore quotes Peter of Blois re the founding of Cambridge University:"From this small fountain "-{ there were hut four lecturers ) •" we see large flowing streams making glad the oity of God". The following excerpts fromThe Clash" are pertinent to the -  +  point at issue:"In Canada and the U.S.A. the education mills are designed and equipped to turn out produots tongued to fit the country's industrial grooves.....The emphasis (I)Amerioan Private Sohools, Sargent, Pages 23-25. (2) The Clash, WU.Moore. Page 101.  - 42 is upon that which makes for effioienoy in factory and (I) shrewdness in office." "Many have interpreted the growing attendance at sohools that are not under State direotion as a growing desire of parents for exolusiveness, whereas in reality it is a desire of parents that their children should he "taught to form tastes", as Goethe expressed it, rather than hare knowledge communicated to them.  They want their children  to be eduoated, not merely instructed. The plain truth is that the State schools have shown a limited capacity for education; they have failed entirely to do the work in oharaoter building that is being done by the preparatory (2) sohools under private and Church direotion." •The State has put the emphasis in its school on the tangible things of the inside world; the Ghuroh has put the emphasis in its school on the intangible things of the inside world* The State is instructing us to control nature* and the Ohuroh is educating us to oontrol our-  <3>  solves.  •8 against Mr Moore's statement that "Emphasis is put upon that which makes for effioienoy in factory and shrewdness in office", many employers in factory and office would point out the exaot opposite, insisting that the ,1 2) 13)  The Clash, do do  Moore, Page IOA. 106 121  - 43 type of eduoation received does not help in their particular requirements.  There iB truth , probably,in both view-  points; but the greater truth is with Mr Moore.  If an  employer of labour is seeking for technical detail from a general course he is bound to be disappointed. He should not expect too rauoh in the short time at the disposal of the State,  On the other hand, the subjeots in the curric-  ulum of the State Secondary Institution do make for "shrewdness11 and for "efficiency" rather than a general ~i  -*  -»  -*  cultural outlook - which is Mr Moore's main contention. It is, of course, the revival in part of the old question of the humanities versus technical subjects.  From the  standpoint of the writer our State Schools are getting too vocational. In the recent School Survey in this Province of British Columbia there is an underlying note of criticism; but the suggestion is that our State Schools are reasonably sffialent for the work they have in hand. Unfortunately Drs* Putnan and Weir point out that the work in hand is strictly limited;- "When we come to examine the Secondary Schools of B.C., we think we easily disoover why they are not wholly popular. The truth is they have a narrow rigid curriculum  these schools are meeting the  genuine or fancied needs of at the most two olasses of (I) Survey of Sohool System,  Putman and Weir, 1925.  - 44 students - those who expect to enter a University and those who wish to teach.  In the natural order of things  these two classes put together form an insignificant portion of the total number of pupil in High School'1. On this authority it would appear quite rational to claim that our High School training is not only too limited, hut almost entirely vocational. Then, however effioient, the cultural elements is essentially, "Cabin1d and oonfined". As has been previously pointed out the Church Secondary School makes the element of culture its predominant note. All the leading schools of this type have their traditions which demand an all-round development. They insist that the greatest man of all the ages can give the key-note in life better than others studied in ordinary (I) history.  Ehey stand for the study of the world's great-  est Text-Book - the Bible, not merely as literature, where indeed it has an honoured place; but as exhibiting a realm of moral oulture unmatched elsewhere.  There sucoess in  examination is not insignificant, yet this is not termed the highest success. Achievement for the ChurSh Seoondary (I). Chas. M. Sheldon, writing in the Atlantic Monthly, Ootober 1925 states:- "If it had not been for the religious instruction given me in^my home and church, so far as the public school and university courses were concerned I might as well have studied in Peking or Constantinople the sciences and histories I was oompelled to take. I hope I am not hypercritical about our educational system, but I  - 45 Sohool is the production of adolesoents who lead their community in sane thinking, in balanced outlaok, and in integrity of character; adolescents who enter manhood and womanhood, clear-eyed and whole-souled - true representatives of "Culture, Sweetness and Light*. The claim of the Ohuroh seems to "be well-founded that the currioulum of the State High Sohool does not promote this conception of eduoation; perhaps should not be expeoted to do so for it must considered its future oltlzens from the standpoint of fitness for cash return for advantages received. Hence the Protestant Ohuroh of Canada offers this contribution of greater idealism to Canadian education.  am sure that the students of my time were more familar with, and those of the present time are more influenced by, the lives of pagen men and women than the life of the Best Person who ever lived. I should not like to say how many books I was obliged to read about the scoundrels and liars and depraved personalties of the human raoe in the different oenturies, beginning with Nero and coming on down to Benedict Arnold. I had to study them and their abnormal careers - but not a word about Jesus or His matchless teaching".  - 46 Appendix A. She following questionnaire was sent out to sixteen of the leading Protestant Church Schools of Canada:1. 2. 3.  "How many instmotors are on staff ? What University qualifications are held? How many hold teaching oortlfioateB ?  4*  How many hold any special qualifications?  5»  Is your sohool well-equipped for work ?  6»  Has any experimental work teen done along any speoial lines? If so, what? 7. ff What percentage of suooess have you had in reoent examinations (State Kxams)?  8.  fould you weloome State Inepeotion ?  Ehe following are the replies received:Ottawa ladies College, (United Ohuroh). TT" Si even instructors. 2. One M.A. , fwo B.A. 3. All hold teaching certificates. 4. Six &ave ©peol&l quailfloations. 5. fall equipped for work. ». So experimental work specially.  g.  State inspection weloomed.  Ladiesf College. Y/hitby. (United Churoh ) . ntaity' in ill. 2. five High Sohool Teaohers, all graduates. 3 • four. 4. All speoialistB in their departments. fairly well equipped for work, nothing speoial. 80$ in Hon.Matriouiation. frequently have State inspection and would weloome it regularly.  I: I:  Moose Jaw College, (United Churoh). Tl four on staff. 2. All university graduates. 3. All four. 4. Saoh man a speoial^in boys* work 5. nothing exceptional. b. 80$ to 85$ 7* Sohool well equipped for work. o. State inspection is part of our Provincial Aot of InoArporation. Have it regularly.  - 47 Bishop's College Sohool.  (Anglioan) S t r i o t l y speaking  Undenominational. 1. line on Staff. 2. Upper Sohool ,6 graduates* Lower Sohool, 3 "English Public Sohool" Men. 3* Hone. 4. Four Honors'men. (Eurppean). 5. Well equipped for work. Ordinary Laboratory work. Over 80$ at last MoGill Matrio. State inspeotion not welcomed.  I  Alberta College Uorth* (United Church). 1. Ten on JDay Staff; Four on Evening Staff. 2. Sight graduates. 3. All oertifioated. 4.(Mo answer) 5. At present not very well eqlipped; but oontract has been let for new unit to oost $80,000. fill give five additional class rooms and a laboratory for ohemistry and physios. 6. Each year a new Canadian Glass. Last year 33 distinct nationalities represented. College makes a great oontribution to the assimilation of these new comers* Successes oompare very favourably with State schools. State Inspeotion weloomed.  I  Wesley College.  (United Ohuroh).  I. Six on staff. 2* Five B.A. and One B*A. & B.D. 3. Four and one with 3 months Faculty of Education Chioago. 4. (lot answered) 5. fell equipped. o. JSreerimental work in Mental Testing. 7. Wfi And over. 0. State inspeotion welcomed if it would give added prestige, . and provided inspection was more than a mere formality. But ffankly fail to see at present where we would be helped in any way by such inspeotion. We do a type of work that does riot lend itself to State Inspection. Woodstock College. (Baptist). 1. 2. 3« |. 5* 6# 7»  Seven instructors on staff. Four with university qualifications. Five hold teaching oertifioates; other two have many years experience. Two have speoialist standing. Excellent equipment. Manual Training department is up-to-date in every way and was the first established in Canada 75$ to 9<$ suooess in State examinations.  - 46 foodatook College. Cont'd. 8.  Question of State Inspection would rest entirely with the Board* Being a denominational school the problems are somewhat different from the other schools.  St. John*a College School. (Anglioan). I.Fourteen on Academic Staff. 2. Six graduates. 3. IHot answered) 4* All hold speolal qualifications for sohool work. 5* fell equipped for work. Ho speolal experimental work. We aim at developing man not gaining prizes. I am not sure that we have a very high regard for the opinion of State Inspectors onwthe subjeot of College or sohool efficiency.  I  Reglna College. (United Ohuroh). I. Ten on Aoademio Staff. 2* All graduates and all but one are Honors' Men. 3. Six have Normal Training. 4. Nine honors1 men. 5. Thoroughly equipped for work. 0. Speolal olass for young men and women whose early eduoation was negleoted. 67$ last June exams. At our urgent request about five years ago the Department of Sduoation began an annual inspection. It took about three years before we oould persuade the Department to undertake it, but it is now regularly aooepted as routine work of the Department. We oonslder the inspections well worth while.  I  Brandon College. (Baptist). 1. 2. 3. 4.  Twentytwo instructors in all. lh.D.-2: M.A.-7; B.A.-6* B.D.-2. Musio and Bxp-j5« four hold teaching certificates in Aoademio dep. Degress as above. Well equipped. (Wot answered) Tory good success. Yes, we have state inspection of our aoademio work under speolal arrangement with the Kducatlon Department of Manitoba Provinolal Government.  Albert College. (United Churoh). 1. five in Aoademio depat of fifty. 2. One-M.A.Ph.D. Two-B.A. One - 2 years in University.  - 49 Albert College, Cont'd. 3. One 4.Language teaoher-one year in Surope. Qlassios teaoher has poet graduate work. Soienoe teaoher is Fellow of Oan. Inst, of Chemistry. 5. Laboratory work muoh above Provincial average. 6. HO research work published. 7» 70$ June 1925. Note: Our students write their Matrioulation at the end of three years, while the students in provincial schools spend four years. 8. State inspection weloomed gladly. Mount Royal College. I. £. 3. 4. 5. 5.  I  (United Church).  Hine in Aoademio Department. One-M.A. Five-B.A. iBne-D.D. Five hold certificates. One honours in JSnglish. Wall equipped for work. (Hot answered) Better than State School. Yes, and we are regularly inspeoted.  Columbian College. (United Church). I. 2* 3. 4. $. 5. f•  8.  Sight on Academic Staff. Five University Graduates. Six hold certificates. One, not a university graduate but studied studied French in Paris for a number of years. We have experimented in Current history. Newspapers and first-olaes magazines are studied. Wall equipped for work. Escorts vary grestly from year to year. Have reached 80$ in Matriculation. Our polioy is to 1st all students write whether we think they are fylly prepared or not, hence we are prepared to accept a fair percentage of failure. State inspection heartily weloomed.  Ridley College, (Anglican Churoh). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  I  Sixteen on staff. B.A.'s and M.A.'s Practioally all. Hearly all. Well equipped for work. Physical Science and Manual Training. 80$ State inspection weloomed.  -50Bibliography. Atlantic Monthly. Ootober 1925. Aaerioan Private Schools, (Sargentfr Boston I9l6, 1923. Calendars;Aoadia Collegiate. Bishop's Collage Sohool. Bishop-Straohan Sohool. Brandon Baptist College. Ohuroh Sohool for Girls, Windsor. Columbian College. Moose Jaw College. Ottawa Ladies' College. Ridley College. Rothesay Collegiate. St. John's College Sohool. Trinity College Sohool. Wesley College. Woodstock College. Canada Tear Book , 1924 Bureau, Ottawa. Clash, The. lm. H. Moore. aduoational Report 1924, Methodist Book Room, Toronto. Life of Thos. MoCullooh, D,D.  Wm.MoCullooh, Truro, 1920.  Maintenance and Extension fund Pamphlet,"Across Canada*. Methodist Book Room, Toronto. Maseey foundation Commission on Methodist Aduoational Institutions, 1921 Book Room, Toronto. Memoranda of Publio Instruction for Teachers, Bapartment of Public Instruction,  Quebec  Qaadrsnnisl Report of College Property, 1925 Ryerson Press, Toronto. Survey of Sohool System, Putnam and Weir, King's Printer, Victoria, 1924.  &jj^&'fi^&JA&&&&(lj^&&&S&&&&&&&&  


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