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Ethnic identification and ethnic identity of immigrant Chinese families Kester, Karen 2001

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ETHNIC IDENTIFICATION AND ETHNIC IDENTITY OF IMMIGRANT CHINESE FAMILIES by K A R E N KESTER B.A., The University of Guelph, 1998  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (School of Social Work and Family Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 2001 © Karen Kester, 2001  ABSTRACT This study explores the ethnic identification and ethnic identity of immigrant Chinese mothers (n = 56) and adolescents (n = 55) living in the Greater Vancouver Area, British Columbia, Canada. Survey methods were used to assess: (a) measures of ethnic identification and ethnic identity, (b) intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification, and (c) intergenerational similitude of ethnic identity. Findings contribute to the conceptualization and measurement of both ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Most noteworthy, results support (a) that the Ethnic Identification Scale is an adequate measure of ethnic identification, (b) the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale (Phinney, 1992) contains a single component with two theoretical dimensions, and (c) ethnic identification and ethnic identity are distinct constructs. In addition, the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity was examined according to the goodness-of-fit and exploration/perspective-taking models. Contrary to expectations, no support was found for the similitude of ethnic identification between mothers and their adolescent children. On the other hand, there was evidence for the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identity, supporting the exploration/perspective-taking model for understanding ethnic identity development within the family context. Adolescents were more likely to explore issues related to their ethnic group membership if their mother engages in the exploration process.  ii  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Abstract  ii  List of Tables  v  Acknowledgments  vi  Introduction  1  Review of the Literature Identification and Ego Identity Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Ethnic Identification, Belonging, Commitment, and Exploration Intergenerational Similitude of Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity: Goodness-of-fit Versus Exploration/Perspective-Taking The Goodness-of-Fit Perspective The Exploration/Perspective-Taking Model Revisiting the Goodness-of-fit Perspective  2 3 5 7 9 10 11 13  Research Questions  15  Method Sample Procedure Measures  17 17 19 21  Results  22  Discussion Ethnic Identification Ethnic Identity Ethnic Identfication and Ethnic Identity Intergenerational Relation of Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Summary Limitations Recommondations for Future Research  33 34 35 38 40 42 44 44  References  46  Appendix A Parent and Adolescent Consent Forms  52  Appendix B Demographic Measure  56  Appendix C Ethnic Identification Scale  58  Appendix D Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure  59  Appendix E Intercorrelations of EIS and MELM items  60  Appendix F  61  Means and Standard Deviations of EIS and METM Items  iii  Appendix G Correlation Matrix of Ethnic Identification, Ethnic Identity and Demographic Variables Across Generations  62  Appendix H Frequency Chart for MELM Items  63  iv  LIST OF T A B L E S Table 1  Intercorrelations of the EIS Items  23  Table 2  Component Structure of the EIS (n = 111)  24  Table 3  Component Structure of the Revised EIS (n = 111)  25  Table 4  Component Structure of the M E M (n = 111)  26  Table 5  Component Structure of M E I M Affirmation/Belonging Subscale and EIS (n= 111)  27  Table 6  Correlations Among Revised Belonging Subscale and EIS  28  Table 7  Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale and EIS for Mother Sample (n = 56)  29  Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale and EIS for Adolescent Sample (n = 54)  30  Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale and EIS for Total Sample (n = 110)  30  Standardized Regression Coefficients From Analyses Testing the Relation Between Belonging, Exploration and Ethnic Identification (n =110)  31  Summary of Correlations Among Mother and Adolescent Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity  32  Table 8 Tabel 9  Table 10  Table 11  Table 12  Correlation Matrix for the Intergeneratinal Relation of the Exploration and Affirmation/Belonging Dimensions of Ethnic Identity 33  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are a number of individuals whose assistance has enabled me to complete this phase of my academic ambitions. I would particularly like to thank Dr. Sheila Marshall, my advisor, for her invaluable support and encouragement every step of the way. Her constant availability and her persistence were instrumental in enabling me not only to complete but also to begin my research. Her continuing enthusiasm regarding this project was truly an inspiration. Thank you Dr. Johnson for your excellent editing remarks and helping me reach the end. I would like to express my appreciation to Sing Mei and Pansy for their dedicated time, prompt translations, and enduring my many complaints and frustrations. I am grateful to the many Chinese families who had the courage to participate Xie xie! To my family, I send a heartfelt thank you across the country. Your endless encouragement has helped me through the lowest moments of this project. And Jamie, I thank you, not only for many of the aforementioned reasons but also for reminding me that there is a world beyond ethnic identity.  vi  Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity of Immigrant Chinese Families The growing literature on ethnic identity and ethnic identification is predominately driven by the notion that these components of self-definition are central to the psychological functioning of ethnic group members (Nesdale, Rooney, & Smith, 1997; Phinney, 1990; Rumbaut, 1994). Several studies (e.g. Phinney & Kohatsu, 1997; Roberts, Phinney, Masse, Chen, Roberts, Romero, 1999) have examined how ethnic identification and ethnic identity are related to psychological well-being, showing a positive relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem, personal mastery, and psychological adjustment.  Typically, these studies report more favourable outcomes for  individuals who interact with members not only of their own group, but also members of other groups, and the larger society (Phinney, 1990; Rotheram-Borus & Phinney, 1990; Verkuyten, & Lay, 1998). In view of the suggested importance of ethnic identification and ethnic identity for psychological well-being among ethnic group members (Nesdale et al., 1997; Roberts et al., 1999), an understanding of ethnic identification and ethnic identity is critical. Some attention has been given to factors facilitating the development of these two processes, including the family (Kinket & Verkuyten, 1996; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992). The limited research available suggests that there is an association between family variables and ethnic identification (Kvernmo & Heyerdahl, 1996; Rumbaut, 1994) and ethnic identity (Knight, Bernal, Garza, Cota & Ocampo, 1993; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Historically, identification has been viewed as developing between parent and child (Freud, 1933/1976). There is very little research, however, on the similarity and dissimilarity between ethnic identification of parents and ethnic identification of their children. Likewise, the association between parental identity and adolescent identity is understudied. This is particularly true for ethnic identity.  1  In addressing the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity a major problem emerges. In the existing literature, there are blurred distinctions between ethnic identification and ethnic identity (e.g., Ichiyama, McQuarrie & Ching, 1996; Gee, 1999). The ambiguity of defining the two concepts is amplified in assessment devices (e.g., Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992; Rumbaut, 1994). The primary purpose of the present study is to clarify the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identification and ethnic identity. A secondary objective is exploring the similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity between parents and their adolescent children in one ethnic group, immigrant Chinese families living in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. The decision to focus on the Chinese population was based on the availability of this ethnic group. With a majority of British Columbia's recent immigrants coming from Hong Kong, Taiwan, India, the Philippines and China, the Chinese population has nearly doubled in the past decade (BC Council for Families, 1997). In 1986, there were 148 280 Chinese residing in British Columbia (Statistics Canada, 1988) and by 1996 the number had jumped to 312 330 (Statistics Canada, 1999). These Chinese are geographically concentrated with 68% living in the Lower Mainland region in 1986 (Statistics Canada, 1988) and 92% living in the Lower Mainland region in 1996 (City of Vancouver, 1999). REVIEW OF LITERATURE The term ethnic identity has often been used synonymously with ethnic identification (e.g., Ichiyama et al., 1996; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992) but the two terms should be distinguished from one another. The endeavor to separate ethnic identification from ethnic identity requires an understanding of the concepts identification and identity. Before preceding, it should be noted that identity has been defined from a number of different perspectives and consequently, has a wide range of definitions. This study relies on Marcia's (1966) concept of ego identity as a basis for defining ethnic identity. Ego identity is employed since it emphasizes an individual's unique construction of identity based on interpersonal differentiation and interpersonal integration (Adams & 2  Marshall, 1996), two processes critical to ethnic identity (Phinney & Kohatsu, 1997). Interpersonal differentiation refers to the distinctiveness between individuals while interpersonal integration involves social interaction leading to communion and connectedness with others (Adams & Marshall, 1996). Optimal identity development involves a balance between a sense of individual distinctiveness and sense of communion with a group (Marcia, 1994). Identification and Ego Identity The roots of psychological identification lie in psychoanalytic theory, specifically the work of Sigmund Freud (Kinket & Verkuyten, 1997). Freud (1933/1976) originally introduced the concept of identification to explain sex-role development. The basic postulate of his theory is that children develop sex roles by identifying with the same-sex parent. Accordingly, a boy internalizes masculine attitudes and behaviours by identifying with his father and a girl internalizes feminine attitudes and behaviours by identifying with her mother. Building on Freud's (1933/1976) concept of identification, scholars of psychoanalytic theory have expanded the concept of identification rather than limiting the concept to sex-role development. Identification between parent and child refers to a child copying his or her parent's behaviour with the desire to be as much like his or her parent as possible (Kamler, 1994). It is similar to imitation in that it involves emulating the behaviour of others, however, imitation involves copying very specific behaviours while identification is more interested in the adoption of general styles of behaviour and the child becoming like their parent (Malim & Birch, 1998). For identification, it is not enough for the child to behave in similar ways as their parent to seek approval but rather there needs to be some private attitude change in order to adopt their parent's feelings and beliefs. Stated in another way, identification is more than compliance; it is adopting behaviours and acting in ways consistent with feelings and beliefs. Through this process of identification the attributes ascribed to the parent 3  are extended to the identifying child. These attributes are believed to be anchored to the parent (Millward, 1998). The principles of identification also apply to identification with a social group. Similar to a child adopting their parent's behaviours, an individual identifying with a social group adopts the feelings, attitudes and behaviours of that social group. A distinguishing feature of group identification is the perception of oneness with a social group based on the shared characteristics (Mael & Tetrick, 1992). Group identification, then, is not only adopting the attributes of a social group to be like that group but also the perception that the identifying individual and social group are intertwined. The socialization process of identification is both central and significant in the process of ego identity development. Ego identity refers to the synthesis of previous and present identifications. This synthesis leads to a meaningful sense of self. The synthesis of identifications involves two primary processes, namely exploration and commitment (Marcia, 1966). Exploration involves searching for and experimenting with alternative identifications. Commitment is viewed as the meaningful choice individuals make that guides their behaviour. The construction and reconstruction of identity occurs through a dynamic process of testing, selecting and integrating past and present identifications. It is important to recognize the distinction between the two terms identification and ego identity. To recap, identification refers to modeling the behaviour of group members in order to be like that group and the adoption of beliefs and attitudes (Kamler, 1994). Individuals are classified as members of different social groups based on the context that surrounds the individual. This social categorization provides individuals with an identification that is assigned (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Individuals then use these assigned identifications, at least in part, to self-construct identity. Ego identity refers to the balance between differentiation and integration of the self (Marcia, 1994). In contrast to the passive nature of identification processes, the configuration of ego identity is achieved through active synthesis of identifications. Through the active processes of 4  exploration and commitment, an individual encounters and resolves new challenges presented to him or her (Marcia, 1994). Identity, therefore, is distinct from identification in that identity, but not identification, involves an individual making choices from a number of alternatives. Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Parallel to identification and ego identity, ethnic identification and ethnic identity are related but conceptually distinct terms. Ethnic identification is a type of group identification in which individuals perceive themselves and their ethnic group as intertwined. When identifying with an ethnic group, the individual defines himself or herself by the same attributes and characteristics that define the ethnic group. Since ethnic attitudes and behaviours are believed to be attached to the ethnic group, exposure to the group is required for identification. Ethnic identification is a necessary precondition for ethnic identity; however, it needs to be conceptually separated from ethnic identity. The most noteworthy distinction is that ethnic identity involves conflict, questioning andfinallyresolution (McCoy, 1992; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992). Consistent with the model of ego identity development (Marcia, 1966), ethnic identity formation, based on the differentiation between one's own ethnic group and other ethnic groups and integration within one's own ethnic group, involves the active resolution of identifications through processes of exploration and commitment (Phinney, 1990). In other words, the development of ethnic identity progresses, via exploration, from an unexamined ethnic identification to ethnic identity commitment. Notice here the role of ethnic identification. Prior to the active processes of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, is the passive process of ethnic identification. An individual explores their ethnic identification to achieve their ethnic identity. Confusion between the two terms is common and as a result misuse of the terms ethnic identification and ethnic identity is abundant in the relevant literature (e.g. Gee, 1999; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Perhaps the most common error is equating ethnic 5  self-identification with ethnic identity. For example, Rumbaut (1994) discusses the relationship between ethnic identity and psychosocial adaptation of children of immigrants from several ethnic groups; however ethnic self-identification alone was used to measure ethnic identity. Rumbaut's study, therefore, examines the influence of ethnic identification rather than ethnic identity. Ichiyama et al. (1996) make a similar error in their study of ethnic identity among Hawaiian students attending university in the mainland United States. Attempting to focus on ethnic identity, these researchers relied on ethnic self-identification as the main component of ethnic identity. Even more confusing, the terms ethnic identity and ethnic identification were used interchangeably throughout the study with little regard to the difference between them. It is unclear which construct, ethnic identity or ethnic identification, Ichiyama et al. (1996) were interested in. To their credit, the limitation of their definition of ethnic identity was briefly discussed, acknowledging that self-identification is only one component of ethnic identity. Synonymous use of ethnic identification and ethnic identity also occurs when the assessment of ethnic identity is based solely on ethnic behaviours. For instance, many studies have used language use as the sole measure of ethnic identity (see Phinney, 1990). Recall, the definition of ethnic identification is adopting the attributes (attitudes, feelings, and behaviours) of an ethnic group to be like that group together with the perception that the identifying individual and ethnic group are intertwined. From this definition, it is more accurate to conclude that ethnic behaviours are a reflection of ethnic identification rather than ethnic identity. The examples presented here, which illustrate the existing confusion surrounding ethnic identification and ethnic identity, highlight the importance of establishing a clear definition of a concept prior to developing a reliable measure. According to the principles of logical analysis, the items in the assessment instrument should match the construct being measured (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991). The current lack of consensus 6  on a definition of ethnic identification and a definition of ethnic identity has resulted in methodological ambiguity. The confusion attached to both definitions is in part due to researchers' interest in components unique (for example, language) to specific ethnic groups and their attempt to assess these aspects of different ethnic groups rather than assessing the process of ethnic identification or ethnic identity. In response to the growing number of measures of ethnic identity, Phinney (1992) suggests that ethnic identity is a general phenomenon with common characteristics across ethnic groups. Building on this argument, ethnic identification can also be viewed as a general phenomenon with commonalties across ethnic groups. Further clarification of the terms ethnic identification and ethnic identity can be accomplished by dissecting each construct into its fundamental components. This involves examining the relationship between belonging, exploration, and commitment and their relationship to ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Ethnic Identification. Belonging, Commitment, and Exploration Much of the research on ethnic identity has been conducted within one of two theoretical frameworks, social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and identity developmental theory (Erikson, 1968). Taking a closer look at these two guiding perspectives reveals some overlap between ethnic identification and ethnic identity, particularly in terms of measurement. For instance, a widely used measure of ethnic identity, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Roberts et al., 1999), incorporates two dimensions; one dimension is based on social identity theory (affirmation/belonging subscale assessing attachment, pride, good feelings about one's ethnic group, and commitment) and one dimension is based on identity developmental theory (exploration subscale assessing exploration). When the construct ethnic identification is considered, a question of interest is whether belonging, as measured by the affirmation/belonging subscale of the MEIM (Phinney, 1992), is a function of commitment or is belonging, as used in this measure, ethnic identification? 7  According to social identity theory, identification with a group prescribes appropriate behaviour and defines the individual's place in society (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Ethnic identity research conducted within this framework generally measures self-identification, a sense of belonging to a group, attitudes about group membership and involvement in ethnic practices and attitudes (see Phinney, 1990). With a focus on identification with or belonging to an ethnic group, it may be more appropriate to say that social identity theory, as employed in the ethnic identity literature, describes ethnic identification. For instance, most research adopting a social identity perspective has been concerned with the relationship between identification with an ethnic group and self-concept (see Phinney, 1990). This research is based on the assumption that being a member of a group provides individuals with a sense of belonging that contributes to a positive self-concept. Belonging develops on the basis of similarities between the identifying individual and the social group. This proposition of the social identity perspective suggests that belonging is a component of ethnic identification that, in turn, is one of the foundations of ethnic identity. Specifically, the shared attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours that accompany ethnic group membership operate as an unifying force within an ethnic group (Hogg & Vaughan, 1998). In other words, a feeling of oneness with an ethnic group based on the perception of shared characteristics evokes a sense of belonging. As a component of ethnic identification, a sense of belonging is required for individuals to make a personal investment in their ethnic group which is achieved through a decision-making process, also known as commitment (Marcia, 1994; Phinney, 1990). Belonging, therefore, involves sharing beliefs, attitudes and behaviours with an ethnic group and commitment refers to the decision to accept and follow these beliefs, attitudes and behaviours. This relationship between belonging and commitment makes distinguishing these two concepts difficult. In addition to commitment, identity developmental theory (Erikson, 1968) focuses on exploration processes, or the search for the meaning of one's ethnic group 8  membership (Phinney, 1990). Beginning with a lack of awareness or understanding of their ethnic group membership, individuals actively seek knowledge about their ethnic group and other ethnic groups, making comparisons between groups. Ideally, this knowledge leads to an achieved ethnic identity; which is defined as a clear, confident sense and commitment to one's ethnic group membership. Ethnic identification can and should be separated from the exploration component of ethnic identity. To reiterate, exploration involves actively seeking information to learn more about one's ethnic group (Roberts et al., 1999) while ethnic identification simply involves adopting the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours of an ethnic group. In summary, the conceptual confusion that surrounds ethnic identification and ethnic identity is heightened in the measurement of the two concepts. Furthermore, the current lack of effort to segregate ethnic identification from ethnic identity has led to a limited understanding of ethnic identity development. In particular, the influence of context on the ethnic identity development is not well understood. The synthesis of previous and present identifications has been debatefromtwo perspectives; the goodness-of-fit model (Lerner, 1998) and the exploration/perspective-taking model (Marcia, 1966; Markstrom-Adams, 1992). This debate is useful for examining ethnic identity development within the family. Intergenerational Similitude of Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity: Goodness-of-Fit Versus Exploration/Perspective Taking It has been argued that the family, in its various structures, is the fundamental unit of every society (McCoy, 1992). It is through the family that children make their first identifications (Freud, 1933/1976). For children, family members, especially parents, are often the primary sources of ethnic information. Phinney and Chavira (1995) point out several major tasks parents face in socializing their children. With respect to the present discussion, the most noteworthy of these tasks is teaching and promoting their own ethnic knowledge to their children. By teaching and promoting their ethnic knowledge to their  children, parents may aim to pass on ethnic heritage to succeeding generations. There is some evidence that suggests the family environment plays an influential role in adolescents' ethnic identification and ethnic identity development (Knight et al., 1993; Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992), however, the impact of parental ethnic identification and ethnic identity on adolescent ethnic identification and ethnic identity is not well understood. Addressing ethnic identity development, specifically, the family context that facilitates adolescents' ethnic identity can be debatedfromtwo opposing theoretical positions, the goodness-of-fit model and the exploration/perspective-taking model. The Goodness-of-Fit Perspective. In general terms, the goodness-of-fit perspective addresses the degree to which an individual's characteristics conform to or coordinate with the characteristics of the individual's social context (Lerner, 1998). According to this view, "effective psychological and social functioning is most likely to occur when people's characteristics match (or "fit") the demands of a particular setting" (Ford & Lerner, 1992, p. 86). In order to ensure positive psychological functioning, the individual relies on adaptation skills. When the individual's characteristics are incongruent with the demands of the setting, the individual uses his or her skills to adapt the self to match the characteristics of the context or alternatively, he or she alters the context to better match the characteristics of the self (Markstrom, Berman & Brusch, 1998). With respect to the family context, supporters of the goodness-of-fit model would argue that ethnic identity development would be enhanced if adolescents adopt ethnic characteristics (such as ethnic beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours) that resemble ethnic characteristics of other family members. For example, adolescents would adopt the same ethnic knowledge and behaviours and adhere to the same ethnic practices. This match of ethnic characteristics would lead to a committed form of ethnic identity. In the case where the adolescent's ethnic characteristics were dissimilar to the family's ethnic characteristics, such as adolescents with bicultural heritage or in instances of 10  immigration to a different culture, the adolescent must either modify the expression of their ethnic characteristics to fit the ethnic characteristics of their family or attempt to change the ethnic characteristics of the family to fit their own ethnic characteristics (Ford &Lerner, 1992). As described above, a central assertion of the goodness-of-fit perspective is the bi-directional interaction of the individual and the family context. To reiterate, the individual possesses personal characteristics that he or she brings to a family which place demands on family members. At the same time, the characteristics of family members place demands on the individual (Ford & Lerner, 1992). This theoretical conception of a bi-directional relationship is supported by the work of Rosenberg (1962) who emphasized the importance of the relationship between the characteristics of an individual and the social context. In short, based on this interpretation of the goodness-of-fit perspective (Lerner, 1998), adolescents sharing ethnic characteristics with their parents, would receive support for participation in and expression of ethnic behaviours and attitudes from their family. Theoretically then, it is anticipated that ethnic identity development for adolescents would be enhanced when they adopt and adhere to the same ethnic characteristics as their parents. Likewise, ethnic identity would be inhibited when adolescents adopt and adhere to ethnic characteristics that differ from their parents. The Exploration/Perspective-Taking Model. The exploration/perspective-taking model draws a very different picture of ethnic identity formation within the family context. Initially introduced for studying ego identity development (Marcia, 1966), the model has been extended to account for ethnic identity development (Rotheram & Phinney, 1987). This theoretical framework is based on two aforementioned components critical to identity formation: exploration and commitment. Since exploration involves exposure to a variety of different ideas and opportunities, this model contends that ethnic identity development is heightened in a 11  family context that encourages dialectical processes. Dialectical processes involve a process of contradiction followed by resolution (Adams & Marshall, 1996). To explain further, inconsistency, incongruities, confrontation, and mild distress experienced by an individual are resolved through an active search for information. The adolescent then uses this information to synthesize and resolve incongruities and to find congruity, unity and purpose, or an achieved ethnic identity. An essential part of exploration is ethnic knowledge. Ethnic knowledge involves the understanding of one's own ethnic group and other ethnic groups with respect to relevant attributes, characteristics, history, and customs (Knight et al., 1993). In addition to understanding ethnic groups, ethnic knowledge encompasses the ability to differentiate ethnic groups, especially being able to decipher one's own ethnic group from other ethnic groups. Understanding the difference between oneself and others provides the foundation for commitment to an ethnic group (Kvernmo & Heyerdahl, 1996). Applying this last proposition to the family context, research supports that children's exploration is determined by the family's level of differentiation and connectedness (Bartle-Haring, 1997). For example, Grotevant and Cooper (1985) demonstrated that parents' differentiation was positively related to their adolescent childrens' exploration. Interpretation of these findings suggest that parents who explore alternative opportunities may introduce contradictions to their adolescent children, thereby exposing their children to dialectical processes. As a result of this exposure, children may be more inclined to explore themselves. The work of Grotevant and Cooper (1985) focused on how family interaction influences development of identity among adolescents rather than examining how an adolescent's identity is related to his or her parent's identity. Nonetheless, their findings, in addition to the finding that parental ego identity development is a positive predictor of adolescent ego identity development (Adams, 1985), supports the possibility of an association between parental ethnic identity and their adolescent's ethnic identity. 12  In a manner similar to exploration, high levels of perspective-taking likely enhance the development of ethnic identity. According to this view, an adolescent begins to understand the self only after understanding others. The individual relies on processes of comparison to determine similarities and differences between the self and others. Then using perspective-taking, in conjunction with dialectical processes, the individual is able to reflect upon the self from the perspective of others or explore alternative options (Markstrom-Adams, 1992). In terms of ethnic identity within the family, adolescents exposed to dialectical processes through their parents' exploration of ethnic group membership may engage in processes of perspective-taking enhancing ethnic identity formation. Presumably, parents low in exploration fail to introduce dialectical processes to their children resulting in low exploration among adolescents and consequently restricting ethnic identity formation. In contrast, ethnic identity formation would be heightened for adolescents who are exposed to exploration via their parents' exploration. Revisiting the Goodness-of-fit Perspective From the above discussion on ethnic identity formation in the family context, it is clear that the goodness-of-fit model and the exploration/perspective-taking model would predict contrary results of ethnic identity based on parental socialization patterns. This contradiction may be minimized by introducing ethnic identification to the equation. It is suggested that one model (the goodness-of-fit perspective) may actually describe ethnic identification rather than ethnic identity. The main proposition of the goodness-of-fit perspective is that congruency of individual and contextual characteristics leads to positive social functioning (Lerner, 1986). Relating this proposition to identification within the family context, identification leads the child to think, feel and behave as though their parent's characteristics belong to him or her. This identification with a parent provides the child with a self-definition (Kinket & Verkuyten, 1997) which has been shown to be related to a positive self-concept (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). A key component of this proposition is the match 13  or fit of individual characteristics and contextual characteristics, in this case parents' ethnic characteristics. This congruency of characteristics can be applied to the act of a child copying their parent's behaviour in order to be like their parent that conceptualizes identification (Kamler, 1994; Malim & Birch, 1998). The central proposition of the goodness-of-fit perspective, congruency of ethnic characteristics between an individual and their environment, fails to incorporate dialectical processes. As previously mentioned, dialectical processes involve the resolution of contradictory knowledge about ethnic characteristics. These processes are generally associated with ethnic identity development rather than ethnic identification. Accordingly, it would seem that the goodness-of-fit model provides a theoretical framework for ethnic identification. Based on this alternative interpretation of the goodness-of-fit perspective, it is expected that ethnic identification, not necessarily ethnic identity, would be strongest when adolescents adopt the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with their ethnic group that are similar to other family members. In summary, it is apparent that more research needs to be conducted to explore the development of both ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Confusion between the two related but conceptually distinct constructs in the extant literature has inhibited the understanding of both ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Furthermore, there is a tendency for ethnic identification and ethnic identity research to focus on adolescent children of immigrant adults rather than the adult immigrants themselves. In fact, ethnic identification and ethnic identity research focuses almost exclusively on the childhood and adolescent years, respectively (Nesdale et al., 1997; Rotheram & Phinney, 1987). Adulthood, especially middle adulthood, has received considerable less attention. Also, exploration of the degree of similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity between generations has generally been overlooked, contributing to the lack of understanding of ethnic identification and ethnic identity within the family.  14  The goal of this present study, therefore, is to address the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Specifically, the relation between ethnic identification and ethnic identity will be explored. In addition, building on the claim that family is a powerful and pervasive influence on children's acquisition of ethnic knowledge (Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992), the exploration of the relationship between ethnic identification and ethnic identity will be extended to include generation status. This quest for clarification of ethnic identification and ethnic identity has led to the following research questions: Research Question 1:  Is the Ethnic Identification Scale (EIS) an adequate measure of ethnic identification? Although the importance of the construct ethnic identification has been recognized (e.g., Kinket & Verkuyten, 1997), development of an appropriate scale has received little attention. Measurement of ethnic identification is often limited to a single item. For example, Rosenthal and Feldman (1992) measured ethnic identification with a single item asking people to rate themselves on a five-point scale ranging from totally Chinese to totally American or Australian. Other studies have relied on a multiple choice item or an open-ended question (see Phinney, 1990) to assess ethnic identification. Single item measures restrict internal consistency testing (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1992), thereby, limiting validation. The Ethnic Identification Scale used in the present study includes an open-ended question to assess self-identification and is supplemented with a multi-item scale. The original scale items assessing work group identification have been validated on several sample groups resulting in high internal reliability. The original authors (Mael & Tetrick, 1992) and subsequent users (Riordan & Weatherly, 1999) reported acceptable reliability coefficients of .76 and .78 respectively. The question at hand is, will a modified version will provide an adequate measure of ethnic identification?  15  Research Question 2: Does the affirmation/belonging subscale of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEEVI) tap into ethnic identification or ethnic identity? The previous discussion of the relationship between ethnic identification and ethnic identity has raised the question whether belonging is a function of commitment (indicative of ethnic identity) or is belonging a dimension of ethnic identification? Research Question 3. How does ethnic identification relate to ethnic identity? The number of studies addressing either ethnic identification or ethnic identity continues to increase (Kvernmo & Heyerdahl, 1996; Phinney, 1990; Phinney, 1992; Rumbaut, 1994), however, the need to address both ethnic identification and ethnic identity remains. Studies tend to measure ethnic identification or ethnic identity, and therefore, have not used a single sample to measure ethnic identification and ethnic identity. As a result, the relationship between ethnic identification and ethnic identity remains theoretical. The question of interest is how do these two concepts relate to one another empirically? Research Question 4: Is there a relationship between ethnic identification and ethnic identity of immigrant parents (Gj) and ethnic identification and ethnic identity of their immigrant adolescents ( G 2 ) ? On several occasions, differences in ethnic identity among multiple generations of immigrants has been examined (Keefe & Padilla, 1987; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). However, virtually no attention has been given to generation differences or similarities among two generations immigrating at the same time. Likewise, research on ethnic identification has generally focused on childrens' ethnic self-identification (see Phinney, 1990) and overlooks adolescent and parental ethnic identification. The relationship between parental and adolescent ethnic identification, especially two generations migrating at the same time, has received even less attention. As a result, there is a need  16  to address ethnic identification and ethnic identity between generations of immigrants migrating together. Research questions pertaining to the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity were formulated based on the two opposing models of identity development. Specifically, is the goodness-of-fit model (Lerner, 1998) an appropriate description of identity formation or does it more accurately describe ethnic identification? Is ethnic identity development among adolescents inhibited by their parents' lack of exploration and heightened through their parents' exploration as interpretation of the exploration/perspective-taking model may suggest (Marcia, 1966; Markstrom-Adams, 1992)? It is important to keep in mind that many factors influence the immigrant resettlement process and consequently ethnic identification and ethnic identity formation. These factors include gender, age, and socio-economic status (Phinney & Chavira, 1995). For example, an adolescent from a professional family from Hong Kong will have a different resettlement experience than an adult from an impoverished family from mainland China. Although these possible confounding variables will be identified and acknowledged, the exploration of these variables will be minimal. METHOD  Sample The sample consisted of 55 Chinese immigrant families living in the Greater Vancouver Area, British Columbia. Participants were volunteers who responded to flyers sent to families of adolescents enrolled in local Chinese schools or referrals from other sources, including participating families. Families with an adolescent child who had immigrated to Canada after the birth of the participating adolescent were included in this study. A n attempt was made to collect data from mothers, fathers and one adolescent  17  child, however, only 20 fathers returned completed questionnaires so fathers were excluded from the study . 1  The mother sample (n = 56) ranged in age from 36 to 51 years with an average age of 43.7 years (s.d. = 3.5). A large majority of the mothers self-identified as Chinese (67.9%, n = 38), followed by Taiwanese (19.6%, n = 11), and Chinese-Canadian (7.1%, n = 4). Single responses included Asian, Canadian, and Hong Kong. All of the mothers reported themselves as married, with 56% (n = 30) married and living with partner and 44% (n = 24) married and living in an astronaut family. An astronaut family is defined as a family in which one member of the marital dyad works in the home country and the family unit lives in the host country (Mak, 1991). One adolescent was born in Canada, therefore, dropped from the study. The final adolescent sample (n = 55) included 30 females and 25 males ranging in age from 12 to 19 years with an average age of 15.5 years (s.d. =2.0). In response to the question "in terms of ethnic group, I consider myself to be", 13% (n = 7) of the adolescent sample failed to respond. O f those who did respond, a majority self-identified as Chinese (46%, n = 26), followed by Taiwanese (18%, n = 10) and Asian (7%, n = 4). The remainder of  The low response from fathers may be attributed to two factors. First, it may be that fathers were not interested in participating in the present study. Another reason for the low response rate may be due to living circumstances. Thirty-two families reported themselves married, living with partner (assessed by mothers' marital status). More than half of the father sample (56%, n = 16) fell into the married, living with partner category. Two fathers were married, living in an astronaut family, and two not currently married. This suggests that a significant portion of the fathers were out of the country at the time of data collection. 1  Pearson product-moment correlations were conducted to test the appropriateness of combining the father sample with the mother sample. Results showed a significant relationship between mothers' response and fathers' response to items of the EIS and MEIM. These results suggest that it would be inappropriate to combine the mother sample and father sample. Combining the mother sample and father sample would produce repeated measures in the principal component analysis. Furthermore, the size of the total father sample was insufficient for individual analysis of the relation between fathers and their adolescent children. 18  the sample listed Canadian, Chinese-Canadian, Hong Kong, Taipei, Taiwanese-Canadian, or none. Canadian residency for the mother sample ranged from 1 to 14 years, with an average of 5.1 years (s.d. = 3.2). Canadian residency for the adolescent sample ranged from 1 to 13 years, with an average of 4.7 years (s.d. = 2.8). Fifty-seven percent of the families (n = 32) immigrated from Taiwan, 36% (n = 19) from Hong Kong, 7% (n = 4) from Mainland China, and one family from Macau. Socioeconomic status of the families was assessed by mothers' response to a modified version of Hollingshead's socioeconomic status rating (Hollingshead & Redlick, 1965). The mean rating for the sample was 3.3 (range = 1.1 to 5.5). Thirty-seven percent (n = 20) of the families fell within the upper range of the rating scale, 57% (n = 31) in the middle range, and 6% (n = 3) in the lower range. Procedure With the help of the Chinese Language Association of British Columbia and the Chinese Community Advisory Committee of Options, request for participants was made through advertisements in Chinese language newspapers, television programs, radio broadcasts, and flyers at Chinese language schools. Referrals from other participants was also welcomed. The use of snowball sampling is justified in this case since immigrant Chinese families represent a difficult population to identify and recruit as participants (Neuman, 1997). During the first phases of data collection, potential participants left a telephone message to signify their interest in the study. For those interested, families were telephoned to make final arrangements for administration of measures. Parents and adolescents concurrently completed their respective questionnaires in their home with the investigator or a trained interviewer present. The role of the investigator was to ensure independent completion of each questionnaire and to clarify any questions. Upon  19  completion, the questionnaires were sealed in an envelope with a family code number, only to be used to trace family questionnaires (mother to adolescent). Due to the insufficient recruitment of participants, a second method was implemented. This method involved attending various Chinese schools throughout the Greater Vancouver Area and, with permission from the school principal, individually informing parents of the current study. Interested participants meeting the requirements were given a questionnaire package for the family, including a questionnaire for the target family members, consent for adolescent participation, and a self-addressed stamped return envelope. Passive consent for all participating family members and written consent from parent(s) or guardian(s) for children under the legal age of eighteen, was obtained before administration of measures (see Appendix A). All participants were reminded that (a) their participation is voluntary, (b) they may refuse to answer any item without facing any consequences, and (c) their responses will be confidential. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect data from consenting participants. Questionnaires were translated into both Simplified and Traditional Chinese characters. Back translation was used to ensure equivalence of the two forms. Participants were able to complete the questionnaire in the written language of their choice: English, Simplified Chinese characters, or Traditional Chinese characters. A pilot test with volunteer young adults was conducted to help assess the validity of the translated questionnaire. Analysis of the pre-test included checking for variation in responses (e.g.. varying levels of ethnic identification and varying levels of ethnic identity), ensuring that participants understood the questions being asked, and assessing appropriateness of questionnaire length. Pre-test participants were asked to make suggestions for confusing wording or questions and changes were made accordingly.  20  Measures Demographics. Demographic information on age, gender, ethnic background, country of origin and length of Canadian residency was gathered from all participants using single item questions (see Appendix B). Mothers were asked additional questions assessing living circumstances and socio-economic status (SES), also shown in Appendix B. Socio-economic status was assessed using a modified version of the Two Factor Index of Social Position (Hollingshead & Redlick, 1965). Mothers were asked to respond to questions pertaining to their and their partner's occupation and education both prior to and after immigration. Answers were coded in a scale format ranging from 1 (high) to 7 (low). Scores on the occupation scale and education scale were combined and an average computed to obtain an overall level of socioeconomic status. Ethnic Identification Scale (EIS). Identification with one's ethnic group was assessed using a modified version of Mael and Tetrick's (1992) Identification with a Psychological Group Scale (see Appendix C). The original identifying group (work organization) was replaced with ethnic group. The EIS contains seven of the original nine statements. One item ("I'm interested in what others think about my ethnic group" ) was eliminated prior to data collection based on the principles of logical analysis. Logical analysis includes scrutinizing the definition of the construct and examining the appropriateness of instrument item content to generate counterhypotheses as alternative explanations regarding the construct assumed to be measured (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991). A second item ("I don't act like a typical person from my ethnic group") was eliminated based on verbal reports from participants that the item was difficult to understand. Items were rated on a five-point scale in which degree of identification was indicated, ranging from "not at all" to "extremely". Scores were calculated by summing across items and computing a mean. Mael and Tetrick calculated a Cronbach's alpha of 0.76, indicating good internal consistency.  21  Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. The revised version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) consists of 12 items reflecting two factors of ethnic identity: affirmation/belonging (7 items) and exploration (five items) (see Appendix D). Items were rated on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The use of a 5-point scale is an adjustment from the original 4-point scale. The change to a 5-point scale was implemented for consistency with the metric of other scales in the questionnaire. Three scores were obtained, one for each subscale and an overall score. All scores were calculated by summing across items and computing the mean. Using the original M E I M (14 items), Phinney (1992) calculated internal consistency coefficients of .81 for a high school sample and .90 for an university sample, indicating good internal consistency. Comparable scores were found using the revised M E I M with Cronbach's alphas ranging from .81 to .89 for an adolescent sample from diverse backgrounds (Roberts et al., 1999). In the present study, Cronbach's alphas for the two subscales and the total score ranged from .83 to .94 for the mother sample, .78 to .90 for the adolescent sample, and .73 to .92 for the total sample. RESULTS Despite considerable effort to recruit participants, the final sample consisted of only 55 families. This small sample size is problematic for assessing the structure of the Ethnic Identification Scale (EIS) and Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MELM). Preliminary analyses involved examining the relationship between mothers' and adolescents' response to items from the ethnic identification and ethnic identity scales. The analyses were carried out to ascertain the degree of homogeneity of response to items between mother and adolescent, thereby, testing the feasibility of combining the mother sample and adolescent sample. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to determine whether it would be appropriate to combine the two samples for the assessment of the structure of the EIS and the MEIM.  22  Results of the Pearson product-moment correlations (see Appendix E) were predominantly non-significant. In fact, only four items of the M E I M were found to be significant at the p<.05 level. These results suggest that the mother sample and the adolescent sample are independent, therefore, can be compiled into a single sample group. Furthermore, results from a series of Mests conducted on the means of individual scale items for the EIS and M E I M show that mothers' response pattern is not statistically different than adolescents' response pattern. The failure to find significant differences between mother and adolescent reponses to scale items, with a few exceptions confirms that it is appropriate to combine the mother and adolescent samples. The means and standard deviations of individual scale items for the EIS and M E I M for the mother sample, adolescent sample and the two samples combined are displayed in Appendix F. Research Question 1 The first research question proposed to examine the viability of using the Identification with a Psychological Group Scale (Mael & Tetrick, 1992) to assess ethnic identification. As shown in Table 1, item intercorrelations were modest, although in most cases statistically significant. Table 1 Intercorrelations of the EIS Items  Item  1  1. Share insults with ethnic group  2  3  __  2. Act like ethnic group member  .21*  3. Share embarrassment with ethnic  .38**  .21*  4. Connected with ethnic group 5. Have typical qualities  .35** .17  .23* .53**  6. Share compliments with ethnic group  .38**  7. Share successes with ethnic group  .33**  34** 43**  *p<05  4  5  .46**  .35** 32**  32**  34**  42**  .42**  6  —  37** .22*  **p<.01  Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency of the EIS. These coefficients were calculated for the mother sample, adolescent sample, and total sample.  23  .69**  Internal consistency coefficients were .80 for the mother sample, .80 for the adolescent sample and .79 for the combined sample, indicating moderate to high internal consistency. The samples (mother and adolescent) were combined and principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to examine the component structure of the EIS. Two components emerged with eigenvalues greater than 1. Component loadings for the two component structure are displayed in Table 2.  Table 2 Component Structure of the EIS (n = 111) Item  Component 1  Component 2 x_  Share embarrassment with ethnic group Share insults with ethnic group  .75 .74  .03 .00  Connected with ethnic group Share compliments with ethnic group Share successes with ethnic group Act like ethnic member  .61 .58 .53 .06 .05  .26 .53 .61  Have typical qualities of ethnic group  .82 .81  An inspection of the scree plot, however, suggested a single component. Interpretation of an unified construct of ethnic identification was supported by the small correlations between residuals, with 100% of the absolute values falling below .05. The second component was defined by four variables, with half of the variables loading on both components leaving the second component with only two strong variables. According to Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) a component defined by less than three variables is unstable. Furthermore, the item intercorrelations (Table 1) show the two items with high structural coefficients on the second component inconsistently correlate with the other variables. Taking a closer look at the wording of the items, one item ("I have a number of qualities typical of my ethnic group") is vague and possibly more difficult to  24  understand and the other item ("I act like a person from my ethnic group to a great extent") reflects behaviour while all other items of the scale reflect attitudes. Based on the empirical interpretation and theoretical justification, the two items were eliminated and a single component solution was obtained accounting for 30% of the variance in the data. The revised 5-item scale was used in subsequent analyses. Component loadings for the revised EIS are represented in Table 3. It is important to note that the small sample size limits the interpretation of the results obtained by the PCA. At the same time, the results provide some insight to the structure of the EIS. Table 3 Component Structure of the Revised EIS (n= 111) Item  Component 1  Share compliments with ethnic group Share successes with ethnic group Share embarrassment with ethnic group Connected with ethnic group Share insults with ethnic group  .80 .79 .68 .67 .66  Internal consistency for the revised EIS scale was .77 for the mother sample, .78 for the adolescent sample, and .77 for the total sample. Research Question 2 The second research question explored the relation between belonging, ethnic identification, and commitment. It was proposed that belonging may be a component of ethnic identification rather than a component of commitment. Preliminary analyses involved examining the structure of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). According to Phinney and her colleagues (Roberts et al., 1999), the structure of the M E I M reflects two theoretical approaches. One dimension of the M E I M , measured by the affirmation/belonging subscale, corresponds to social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and the other dimension, measured by the exploration subscale,  25  corresponds to developmental theory (Erikson, 1968). The correlation between the two theoretical dimensions of ethnic identity (affirmation/belonging and exploration) was found to be statistically significant (r = .75, p < .01) in this study. To examine the structure of the MELM proposed by Phinney and her colleagues (Roberts et al., 1999; Phinney, 1992), a principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the items in the MEIM. Inspection of the eigenvalues suggested two components, but a break in the scree plot suggested that there may be only one component. Table 4 contains the component loadings for the two component structure. Table 4 Component Structure of the MELM (n=l 11) Item  Component 1  Component 2  Clear sense of ethnic background Understand group membership  .89 .79  -.02 .33  Sense of belonging to group  .70  .50  Happy to be a member  .69  .48  Spend time to learn  .65  .34  Feel good about culture  .59  .57  Think about group membership  .53  .27  Active in ethnic organizations  .48  .35  Pride in ethnic group  .46  .66  Strong attachment to group  .37  .78  Talked to others about group  .33  .77  Participate in cultural practices  .07  .85  The items loading on the second component were not easily interpretable. A l l items were combined into a single-component solution. The single component accounted for 32% of the variance. As shown in Table 4, results of the P C A fail to confirm the two theoretical dimensions proposed by Phinney (Roberts et al., 1999). Indeed, nearly all of the items of the M E I M sufficiently load on the first component. An exception, which  26  deserves attention, is the item assessing participation in cultural practices. This item has an extremely low structure coefficient suggesting that it is statistically a poor indicator of ethnic identity. The low structure coefficient found in this study is inconsistent with previous studies (e.g., Phinney, 1992; Worrell, 2000), therefore, the item will be included in subsequent analyses. Once again, it should be noted that the results obtained from the PCA are tentative due to the small sample size. Next, analyses exploring the relation between ethnic identification and belonging, as measured by the MELM (Roberts et al., 1999), was conducted. First, a principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the items in the affirmation/belonging subscale and revised EIS. Interpretation of the eigenvalues and scree plot suggested there were two components. Component loadings are shown in Table 5. Table 5 Component Structure of the M E I M Affirmation/Belonging Snhscale and FJS (n= 111i Item  Component 1 .87 .85  Happy to be a member Sense of belonging to group  Component 2 .03 .18  Feel good about culture  .83  Understand group membership Pride in ethnic group  .83 .74  Strong attachment to group Clear sense of ethnic background  .73 .69  .36 .31 .01  Share successes with ethnic group Share compliments with ethnic group  .20 .32  .75 .73  Share embarrassment with ethnic group Connected with ethnic group Share insults with ethnic group  .03  .72  .02 .13  .70 .65  .02 .07  The first component consisted of items representing belonging and the other component consisted of items representing ethnic identification. The results from the PCA suggest that belonging and ethnic identification are distinct constructs. The rotated  27  two-component solution explained 62% of the total variance with Component 1 and Component 2 explaining 45% and 17% of the total variance, respectively. The items of the Affirmation/Belonging subscale were further divided into two separate subscales. It was purported that conceptually one subscale represents belonging and the other subscale represents commitment. Items were selected by judgment of the researcher for correspondence to the definition of belonging and commitment. Recall that belonging is defined as sharing the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours with an ethnic group and commitment is the decision to accept and follow the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours of an ethnic group. The new belonging subscale included items e, f, k and 1 from M E I M and the new commitment scale included items c, g, i from the M E I M (see Appendix D for M E I M items). Internal consistency reliability coefficients were calculated for the revised Belonging subscale (alpha = .89) and the Commitment subscale (alpha = .77). Pearson product-moment correlations among the subscales and the Ethnic Identification Scale were calculated (see Table 6). Correlations between belonging (as measured by the revised scale), commitment and ethnic identification were all statistically significant. The correlation between the two newly created subscales was extremely high (r = .89) supporting the original structure of the subscale. The original 7-item Affirmation/Belonging subscale was used in subsequent analyses. Table 6 Correlations Among Revised Belonging Subscale and EIS Variable 1. Belonging (revised) 2. Commitment 3. Ethnic Identification **p<.01  1  2  —  g3** 37**  .38**  28  Research Question 3 The third research question proposed to explore the relation between ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Pearson product-moment correlations among the two dimensions of the MELM and the EIS were calculated for the mother sample, the adolescent sample, and the total sample. As shown in Tables 7 to 9, correlations among the two dimensions of ethnic identity (affirmation/belonging and exploration) and ethnic identification were statistically significant for the mother sample, adolescent sample, and the total sample. In each case, a positive correlation was found between both ethnic identification and belonging and between ethnic identification and exploration. The level of significance was higher for the correlation between adolescents' belonging and ethnic identification than the correlation between mothers' belonging and ethnic identification. However, there was no significant difference between these two sets of correlations (Fisher's z = .74). It was not surprising that the correlation between belonging and exploration was stronger than the correlation between belonging and ethnic identification. Results from both the PCA conducted on the items from the Affirmation/Belonging subscale and the EIS and the PCA conducted on the items from the MELM together inferred a stronger relationship between belonging and exploration than between belonging and ethnic identification. Table 7 Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale, and EIS for Mother Sample (n = 56) Variable  1  1. Belonging  ~  2. Exploration 3. Ethnic Identification  2  .78**  —  .36*  38**  29  Table 8 Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale, and EIS for Adolescent Sample (n= 54) Variable 1. Belonging 2. Exploration 3. Ethnic Identification ** p < .01  1  2  .68** .48**  . 43**  Table 9 Correlations Among Affirmation/Belonging Subscale, Exploration Subscale, and EIS for Total Sample (n= 110) Variable 1. Belonging 2. Exploration 3. Ethnic Identification **p<.01  1  2  .76** .39**  . 39**  Further analysis of the relation between ethnic identification and ethnic identity was conducted using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression. In model one, identification was predicted from two independent variables, belonging and exploration. Recall, past research (Markstrom et al., 1998; Roberts et al., 1999) suggests that belonging and exploration assess ethnic identity. Table 10 shows that there was a significant association between belonging and identification but no significant association between exploration and identification. Together, belonging and exploration accounted for 17% of the variance in identification. In the second and third regression models, the two independent variables were entered in steps. For the second regression model, belonging was entered in Step 1 and exploration was entered in Step 2. For the third regression model, exploration was entered in Step 1 and belonging was entered in Step 2. The analyses were carried out to examine whether belonging and exploration independently account for a portion of the variance in ethnic identification. The findings are summarized in Table 10.  30  Table 10 Standardized Regression Coefficients From Analyses Testing the Relation Between Belonging and Exploration and Ethnic Identification fn = 11 Oi Model 1  Model 2  Model 3  B  B  B  Belonging  29*  29*  29*  Exploration  .15  .15  .15  R2  .17  .17  .17  -  0.01  .04  R2 Change * p<.05  In the second regression model, a significant univariate effect was found between belonging and identification. A significant univariate relation was not found between exploration and identification. Addition of exploration to the regression equation had little effect on the association between belonging and identification (r changed from .40 to .41). It is important to note that when exploration is entered into the regression equation, belonging remains significant. This point is critical in that it suggests that belonging is not spuriously related to identification. Exploration explained only an additional 1% of the variance in identification. A significant change in the F value was not found. Exploration, therefore, when entered in Step 2 after controlling for belonging in Step 1, did not significantly add to explaining the variance in identification. In the third regression model, a significant univariate relation was found between exploration and identification and a significant univariate effect was found between belonging and identification. As expected, the association between exploration and identification disappeared when belonging was added to the regression equation. A significant change in the regression model F value was found. Thus, belonging when entered in Step 2 after controlling for exploration in Step 1, added significantly to explaining the variance in identification. Comparing the results from the second model  31  and the third model, it is possible to conclude that belonging, but not exploration, independently accounts for a portion of the variance in ethnic identification. Research Question 4 The fourth research question proposed to explore the intergenerational correlation of ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Bivariate correlations were conducted to test the possible relationship between mothers' and their adolescents' ethnic identification and mothers' and their adolescents' ethnic identity. The original bivariate correlation matrix included adolescents' ethnic identification and ethnic identity, mothers' ethnic identification and ethnic identity, age of adolescent, length of Canadian residency for mother and for adolescent, gender of adolescent, and socio-economic status (see Appendix G). From this correlation matrix, there were no significant correlations between adolescents' ethnic identification and ethnic identity and the five demographic variables mentioned above. Table 11 shows a summary of the correlations between mothers' ethnic identification and ethnic identity and their adolescents' ethnic identification and ethnic identity. There was no significant difference between the correlation between mothers' ethnic identity and adolescents' ethnic identity and the correlation between mothers' identification and adolescents' ethnic identification (/-value = 1.57). Table 11 Summary of Correlations Among Mother and Adolescent F.thnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Variable  2  3  1. Mothers' Ethnic Identification 2. Mothers' Ethnic Identity  .34*  3. Adolescents' Ethnic Identification 4. Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  .23  .22  .23  .36*  * p < 05  ** p<.01  32  47**  Further examination of the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identity involved exploring the relationship between the two dimensions of ethnic identity (belonging and exploration) outlined by Phinney (Roberts et al., 1999) across generations. Analyses were conducted using Pearson product-moment correlations. Findings are summarized in Table 12. Table 12 Correlation Matrix for the Intergenerational Relation of the Exploration and Affirmation/Belonging Dimensions of Ethnic Identity Variable  1  1. Mothers' Exploration  ~  2. Mothers' Belonging  .78** .29*  3. Adolescents' Exploration 4. Adolescents' Belonging  49**  2  .15 .33*  3  .68**  A significant relationship was found in five of the six correlations. Of particular interest is the significant positive relationship between mothers' exploration and adolescents' exploration. This finding offers support for the exploration/perspective-taking model (Markstrom-Adams, 1992). Specifically, it suggests that adolescents are more likely to explore issues related to their ethnic group membership if their mother engages in exploration processes. An interesting finding was the strong relationship between mothers' exploration and their adolescents' belonging. Adolescents with mothers who explore, compared to adolescents with mothers who do not explore, had stronger feelings of belonging. DISCUSSION This three-part study involved an: (a) examination of the Ethnic Identification Scale (EIS) as an adequate measure of ethnic identification, exploration (b) of the relation between ethnic identification and ethnic identity and (c) of the similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity between two generations. The findings for each facet of the study will be discussed in turn. The results of this study present some initial  33  and important findings about the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identification and ethnic identity and the relationship between the two constructs. Furthermore, this study is unique because it explores the relationship of ethnic identification and ethnic identity across generations of Chinese family members immigrating at the same time. Ethnic Identification Exploratory analyses of the Ethnic Identification Scale support that the EIS, adapted from the Identification with a Psychological Group Scale (Mael & Tetrick, 1992) is a viable and reliable measure of ethnic identification. Results from the principal component analysis indicate a single factor, confirming that scale items measure an unified construct as intended. Ethnic identification can be understood in terms psychoanalytic theory (Freud, 1933/1976), which proposes that the process of identification involves adopting the feelings and beliefs of another individual or group with the desire to be like that individual or group. Ethnic identification, then, is identification with an ethnic group involving a perception of oneness with that ethnic group. In terms of reliability, scale scores showed acceptable levels of internal consistency for each generation and the two generations combined. Examination of the EIS contributes to the clarification and understanding of ethnic identification. In the past, research interested in ethnic identification generally relied on single item questions (e.g., Neto, 1995; Rosenthal & Feldman, 1992). Extrapolating from the racial identification literature, this strategy of using a single assessment instrument to measure ethnic identification is unsuccessful. Burlew and Smith (1991) in their review of racial identification and racial identity measures reported that a single item measure assessing racial identification is likely to yield discrepant and erroneous findings. Due to the similarity between ethnic identification and racial identification (Boatswain & Lalonde, 2000), it is plausible to assume single-item measures assessing ethnic identification would reveal similarfindings.Furthermore, 34  single-item measures, compared to multi-item measures, are a poor representation of the domain of a construct (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991). In light of the present findings, development and assessment of a multi-item measure of ethnic identification has begun. Before fully accepting the EIS as an adequate measure of ethnic identification, however, further use and testing is required. Ethnic Identity Since the introduction of the M E I M (Phinney, 1992) nearly a decade ago, only three additional studies have examined the factor structure of the instrument (see, Reese, Vera, & Paikoff, 1998; Roberts et al., 1999; Worrell, 2000) with mixed results. In the present study, results from the principle component analysis of the 12-item MELM reveal a single component structure. Confirmation for a single component of ethnic identity, as assessed by the MELM, comes from factor analyses by Phinney (1992) and Worrell (2000). It should be noted that the original study by Phinney (1992) and Worrell's (2000) study of ethnic identity among academically talented adolescents both found a two factor structure. In each case, the second factor reflected items assessing other-group orientation, which were not included in the present study. Taking this selection of items into consideration, the above studies also show a single component structure of ethnic identity. A second structural pattern of the MELM was obtained in a study examining ethnic identity among inner-city African American children (Reese et al., 1999). A single component was obtained which contained items reflecting both ethnic identity and other-group orientation. It has been previously noted, however, that Reese et al.'s findings may be problematic because items were reworded for use with a pre-adolescent sample (Worrell, 2000). The age of their sample may have also contributed to the emergence of a single component structure. Previous research has proposed that the development of ethnic identity begins in mid-to late adolescence (Phinney & Rosenthal, 1992; Markstrom et al, 1998). The sample in Reese et al.'s study was a pre-adolescent 35  sample with a mean age of 9.7 years. The M E I M may not be an appropriate measure for younger samples. In contrast to the single component structure, Robert et al. (1999) reported a two component structure of the items assessing ethnic identity from the MEIM. Their analyses included only those items designed to measure ethnic identity excluding the items proposed to assess other-group orientation. The two component structure confirmed their theoretical conception of ethnic identity, with one component reflecting exploration and the other reflecting belonging and commitment. The two component structure was individually analyzed using three ethnic groups (European American, African American and Mexican American). The fit of the structure varied depending on the ethnic group. Since Chinese, or any Asian ethnic groups were not included in their analysis, it is unknown whether a similar structure would emerge from a Chinese sample. The variation in component structure across ethnic groups found by Robert et al. (1999) is important as it may provide an explanation for the discrepancy between findings in studies examining the structure of the MEIM. It is the only study, to date, that examines the structure across individual groups. Both Phinney (1992) and Worrell (2000) included several ethnic groups, however, in each case the different ethnic groups were clumped into a single sample. The present study included only one ethnic group. It may be that the structure of the M E I M varies according to ethnic group or alternatively, the items of the M E I M elicit different responses from various ethnic groups. The discrepancy between the structure found in this study and other studies may also be due to the response scale employed. Previous studies have used a 4-point scale (Phinney, 1992; Roberts et al., 1999) that forces participants to either agree or disagree and rates the level of agreement or disagreement. In this study, a 5-point scale was used to maintain consistency to facilitate principal component analysis with the EIS items. This alternative response scale gave participants a "neutral" option, allowing participants to neither agree nor disagree. This additional option may have influenced the structure 36  obtained in this study. Support for this explanation comes from the values of the structure coefficients. Specifically, the.items with high structure coefficients on the second component had an overwhelming number of neutral responses whereas items with high structure coefficients on the first component showed a more equal distribution across response categories, as indicated by the frequency of response choice (see Appendix H). Understanding the structure of the MELM has important implications for scoring the MELM. A question of interest is whether the scoring of the MELM should be a single total score, as suggested by the results of the principal component analysis in this study or two scores reflecting the two dimensions, exploration and commitment, of ethnic identity, as suggested by theory and empirical evidence (Roberts et al., 1999). Since the separate dimensions are of conceptual interest and researchers have found different correlation patterns among the subscales of ethnic identity and self-esteem (Markstrom et al., 1998), as well as differences between scores on the subscales across age groups (Phinney, 1992), it is advised that the scoring of the M E I M should involve two scores, one reflecting exploration and the other reflecting commitment. It is clear from the results of this study, along with previous studies, that acceptance of the MELM as an adequate measure of ethnic identity is premature (Worrell, 2000). The high internal consistency values reported by the original author (Phinney, 1992) and subsequent users (Bachay, 1998; Markstrom et al., 1998; Phinney & Chavira, 1995; Torres, 1999) appears to have distracted researchers from examining and reporting the validity of the MELM, including the underlying structure and the relationship of the structure to theory. The high internal consistency coefficients obtained in this study were consistent with previous studies (Markstrom et al., 1998; Phinney, 1992; Roberts et al., 1999). It is interesting to note that the internal consistency coefficients for the mother sample were  37  comparable to the internal consistency coefficients for the adolescent sample. This finding provides evidence for the reliability of the M E I M across different age groups. Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Phinney (1990, 1992) hypothesized that identification as a member of a particular ethnic group is central to the development of an achieved ethnic identity. Measurement of ethnic identification, however, has generally been limited to ethnic self-labeling by Phinney and other researchers interested in ethnic identity development. Rather than addressing ethnic identification, previous measures of ethnic identification have asked respondents to report their ethnic self-identification or label. This ethnic self-identification provides a distinction between the way individuals label themselves and the way an observer labels that individual, however, provides little information about the process of ethnic identification. Findings from the present study offer some insight into the process of ethnic identification, making an important contribution to the conceptualization of both ethnic identification and ethnic identity. The low correlation found between ethnic identification and ethnic identity provides some evidence that these constructs are distinct. Furthermore, the lack of a statistically significant relationship between the exploration (theoretical) dimension of ethnic identity and ethnic identification suggests that this dimension of ethnic identity is separate from ethnic identification. As anticipated there was a significant positive association between the belonging (theoretical) dimension of ethnic identity and ethnic identification. This finding was not surprising in light of the earlier discussion on the relation between belonging and identification within the social identity model (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). The relationship between belonging and ethnic identification was surprising, however, in that the relation was weak, particularly in comparison to the relation between belonging and exploration. A possible reason for the low correlation between belonging and ethnic identification is the conceptual distinction between ethnic group and ethnic category. 38  McKay and Lewins (1978) made a distinction between ethnic group and ethnic category using social interaction as the distinguishing characteristic. They argue that social interaction is an essential requirement for an ethnic group but not an ethnic category. Also, a sense of belonging among members emerges in an ethnic group. On the other hand, members of an ethnic category, developed on the basis of shared ethnic characteristics without interaction, do not have a sense of belonging to a particular group. In this study, the level of participants' interaction with individuals sharing common ethnic characteristics is unknown. One item of the M E I M ("I am active in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of my own ethnic group") could potentially address this issue. In the present case, however, there was an impressive number of neutral responses to this item ( M = 3.1). It is unknown whether the participants of this study are members of an ethnic group or an ethnic category. This distinction would have significant implications for finding a strong relationship between belonging and ethnic identification. An unexpected finding was the two component structure that emerged from the items of the belonging subscale of the M E I M and the EIS. Based on an interpretation of the social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), it was expected that there would be some overlap between the belonging and ethnic identification items. The results of the principal component analysis, however, showed a distinction between the two scales. Quite clearly, one component reflected belonging and the other ethnic identification. This finding may be explained by the difference between ethnic group and ethnic category as described above. Alternatively, the apparent distinction between belonging and ethnic identification may be explained by the inability to distinguish between belonging and commitment. Contrary to the prediction that belonging, as used in the MEIM, is a component of ethnic identification, the findings suggest that belonging is a function of commitment. It may be that the items of the affirmation/belonging subscale are tapping into both commitment and belonging. This finding is consistent with Robert 39  et al.'s (1999) conclusion that belonging is indistinguishable from commitment. Psychosocial theory (Marcia, 1994) also supports the close association between belonging and commitment. Commitment, referring to the decision made to follow a particular way of being a member of a specific ethnic group, coexist with a sense of belonging. Theoretical interpretations of ethnic identity formation that deviate from the psychosocial interpretation (e.g. Ichiyama et al., 1996; Nesdale et al., 1997; Verkuyten & Lay, 1998) of ethnic identity formation have resulted in confusing ethnic identification and ethnic identity. For example, in her most recent examination of the structure of the MELM, Phinney and her colleagues proposed that "for some purposes, the affirmation and belonging scale could be used as an indicator of strength of identification" (Roberts et al., 1999, p. 317). The findings from this study clearly show that although there is a significant positive association between belonging and ethnic identification, the two concepts are distinct statistically. It would be misleading, then, to equate scores obtained from the affirmation/belonging subscale of the MELM with a measure of ethnic identification. Perhaps the items of this subscale need to be reconsidered, returning to a psychosocial view of ethnic identity focusing on the process of commitment. Intergenerational Relation of Ethnic Identification and Ethnic Identity Looking first at ethnic identification, the results from the present study provide little evidence of intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification. It was observed that mothers' ethnic identification has no significant relationship with their adolescents' ethnic identification. This finding fails to confirm the alternative interpretation of the goodness-of-fit perspective. To support the goodness-of-fit perspective, which addresses the congruency of ethnic characteristics between an individual and their environment, a statistically significant relationship between mothers' ethnic identification and adolescents' ethnic identification should have been observed. It must be mentioned that this study did not examine the identification between mother and child but rather 40  explored the pattern of ethnic identification for mothers and their children. It is possible, therefore, that the statistically non-significant association between maternal ethnic identification and adolescent ethnic identification is due to the impact of contexts other than the family. For instance, consideration of both the school and the neighbourhood context may produce different results from those found in this study. Indeed, it has been noted that family, school, and friends are the most important sources of ethnic identification for Jewish adolescents (Markstrom et al., 1998). It is not unreasonable to extend this logic to Chinese adolescents. Accordingly, support for the goodness-of-fit perspective (Lerner, 1998) as a model for understanding the development of ethnic identification may emerge if additional environments, in conjunction with the family context, are considered. On the other hand, there was some support for the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identity, with the observed positive association between mothers' ethnic identity and their adolescents' ethnic identity. Closer examination of the (theoretical) dimensions of ethnic identity between generations provided support for the exploration/perspective-taking model (Marcia, 1966; Markstrom-Adams, 1992). Specifically, mothers' exploration was positively associated with their adolescents' exploration. The association between mothers' and adolescents' exploration is important for understanding the factors that facilitate adolescent ethnic identity development. This finding provides evidence in favour of the exploration/perspective-taking perspective (Marcia, 1966; Markstrom-Adams, 1992) compared to the goodness-of-fit model (Lerner, 1998) in explaining ethnic identity development among Chinese adolescents. Support for the exploration/perspective-taking model is further provided by the association between mothers' commitment (as measured by the affirmation/belonging subscale of the MEIM) and their adolescents' commitment.  41  An unexpected finding was mothers' exploration was positively associated with adolescents' commitment yet there was no association between mothers' commitment and adolescents' exploration. It would appear from these findings that mothers engaging in exploration had adolescents who exhibit a strong sense of belonging and commitment to an ethnic group yet mothers' sense of belonging and commitment to an ethnic group had no effect on their adolescents' exploration. The reason for the inconsistency of these findings is not entirely clear. A possible explanation may be that mothers' exploration provides a secure environment for adolescents to make a choice, thereby committing to an ethnic group. Alternatively, adolescents' commitment to an ethnic group may prompt mothers to explore issues related to their ethnic group membership. Since the direction of the relationship between mothers' exploration and commitment and adolescents' exploration and commitment are not known, future studies should include path analysis. Knowing the direction of the association of the dimensions of ethnic identity between mothers and their adolescent children would contribute to understanding the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identity. A word of caution is worthy of mention here. It is advised that when interpreting the results of this study, findings should be considered tentative. The small sample has reduced the confidence of the results. This said, the findings are important and offer valuable knowledge in the area of ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Summary Taken together the results found in this study add important information to the ethnic identification and ethnic identity literature. The results demonstrated that ethnic identification is a valid construct that is distinct from ethnic identity. Results showed that the Ethnic Identification Scale provides a reliable measure of ethnic identification across different age groups for Chinese immigrants. This is an important initial step towards developing a multi-item measure of ethnic identification.  42  In addition, this study showed that the MELM is a reliable measure of ethnic identity for a middle adulthood sample, indicating that ethnic identity is a valid construct for adolescents, young adults, and, at a minimum, middle age adults. Further, this study provided some clarification on the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity. Specifically, the data presented evidence that the MELM provides a single score for ethnic identity which is based on two theoretical dimensions (exploration and commitment) borrowed from psychosocial theory (Marcia, 1966). The theoretical dimensions are of conceptual interest, and despite the single factor, this study demonstrated the importance of analyzing separately the two dimensions of ethnic identity. Examination of ethnic identification and ethnic identity using a single sample has revealed that, although associated, ethnic identification and ethnic identity are distinct. The data from this study support that ethnic identification is a form of group identification that involves adopting the attributes of an ethnic group together with the perception that the identifying individual and ethnic group are intertwined. This identification process is one of the foundations to the development of ethnic identity, referring to the balance between the difFerentiation between one's own ethnic group and other ethnic groups and integration within one's own ethnic group obtained through processes of exploration and commitment. For the first time, the intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity has been explored. This study revealed that mothers' ethnic identity is associated with their adolescents' ethnic identity. More specifically, adolescents' level of exploration was positively related to their mothers' level of exploration. The findings support the exploration/perspective-taking model (Markstrom-Adams, 1992) for understanding ethnic identity development within the family context.  43  Limitations In evaluating the present results, some limitations of this study warrant attention. One inhibiting feature of this study was the cross-sectional rather than longitudinal design. Since ethnic identity is developmental (Phinney & Kohatsu, 1997) a longitudinal approach is preferred. The use of a cross-sectional design here limits the assessment of ethnic identification, and particularly development of ethnic identity. Instead, it provides a "frozen" look at ethnic identification and ethnic identity development among immigrant Chinese families. Second, the parent sample was limited to mothers. As previously mentioned, an attempt was made to gather data on both mothers and fathers. Unfortunately, the response rate among fathers was extremely low, therefore, fathers were excluded from the study. The small sample size among fathers reflects both disinterest in participating in this study and that a significant portion of the families (44%) were astronaut families, suggesting that fathers may have been out of the country at the time of data collection. Finally, the generalizability of the results are restricted to the immigrant Chinese population in the Greater Vancouver Area, and even then, caution should be observed. Different findings may emerge if one studied other ethnic groups. Several attempts have been made by researchers (Feldman, Mont-Reynaud & Rosenthal, 1992; Phinney & Chavira, 1995; Rosenthal, 1984) to show that family patterns such as child-rearing practices echo the values of the family's culture. These different patterns of socialization are bound to have a significant influence on the processes of ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Recommendations for Future Research Several recommendations for future research in the area of ethnic identification and ethnic identity have been made throughout the discussion. Another issue that will be important to consider in future research regards bridging the gap between the ethnic identification and ethnic identity research to include adolescents and adults of various 44  ages. Examination of ethnic identity beyond the adolescent years is important as many adulds may be confronted with ethnic issues for the first time with immigration. Furthermore, longitudinal data collected using cross-sequential designs to control for cohort differences would provide a more complete and accurate understanding of the process of identity development across the life span. There is also a need to consider the social context when designing future studies. Most researchers agree that ethnic identification and ethnic identity is related to social context yet only a handful have addressed this relationship empirically (Markstrom et al., 1998; Rosenberg, 1962). In addition to the family context, researchers should consider other environments in which individuals participate, such as the work or school environment, the neighbourhood environment and the community environment. The human ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) may provide an useful framework for this type of investigation because it proposes that social development, including ethnic identification and ethnic identity, is a product of the interaction between an individual and his or her environment. Perhaps most importantly, future research should address the conceptual and methodological confusion surrounding ethnic identification and ethnic identity. Particular attention should be given to examining the relationship between these two constructs while distinguishing the difference between them. This involves dedicating considerable effort to the establishment of ethnic identification and ethnic identity instruments that are both reliable and valid. 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A validity study of scores on the multigroup ethnic identity measure based on a sample of academically talented adolescents. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 60. 439-448.  51  APPENDIX B Demographic Measure (Mother) The following are general questions about you. 1. Your date of birth: 2.  19  (year)  Your gender/sex (Please circle)  (month)  Female  (day)  Male  3. What is your current marital status? (Please check one response that best fits circumstance) Never married Common law Married, living with partner Married, not living with partner Legally separated, widowed, divorced 4.  Country you come from:  5. Date you left your country of origin:  19  6. Date of your arrival in Canada:  (year) 19  (month) (year)  7. Five years from now, which country do you see yourself living in? 8. Before you immigrated to Canada, a) what was your highest level of education? b) if applicable, what was your partner's highest level of education? 9. After you have immigrated to Canada, a) what was your highest level of education? b) if applicable, what was your partner's highest level of education? 10. Before you immigrated to Canada a) what was your occupation? b) if applicable, what was your partner's occupation? 11.In Canada a) what is your current occupation? b) if applicable, what is your partner's occupation? 12. In terms of ethnic group, you consider yourself to be  56  (month)  Demographic Measure (Adolescent) 1. Your date of birth:  19  (year)  2. Your gender/sex (Please circle):  (month) Female  (day)  Male  3. Country you come from: 4. Date you left your country of origin:  19  5. Date of your arrival in Canada:  (year) 19  6. In terms of ethnic group, you consider yourself to be  57  (month) (year)  (month)  APPENDIX C Ethnic Identification Scale For each of the following statements please circle the appropriate response number to indicate how much you feel the statements apply to you.  a) When someone criticizes my ethnic group, it feels like a personal insult  Not at AH  Somewhat Extremely 2  3  4  3  4  5  b) I don't act like a typical person from my ethnic group c)When I talk about my ethnic group, I usually say "we" rather than "they" d) The successes of my ethnic group are my successes e) When someone praises my ethnic group, it feels like a personal compliment f) I act like a person from my ethnic group to a great extent g) If a story in the media criticized my ethnic group, I would feel embarrassed h) I have a number of qualities typical of my ethnic group  4  58  5  APPENDIX D Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure Every person is born into an ethnic group, or sometimes two groups, but people differ on how important their ethnicity is to them, how they feel about it, and how much their behaviour is affected by it. The following statements are about your ethnicity or your ethnic group and how you feel about it or react to it. Please circle the appropriate response number to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each item.  Strongly Neutral Disagree a) I have spent time trying to find out more about my own ethnic group, such as its traditions, customs.... b) I am active in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of my own ethnic group... c) I have a clear sense of my ethnic background and what it means for me d) I think a lot about how my life will be affected by my ethnic group membership e) I am happy that I am a member of the group I belong to f) I have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group g) I understand pretty well what my ethnic group means to me h) To learn more about my ethnic background, I have often talked to other people about my ethnic group i) I have a lot of pride in my ethnic group and its accomplishments j) I participate in cultural practices of my own group, such as special food, music, or customs k) I feel a strong attachment towards my own ethnic group  2  3  4  1) I feel good about my cultural or ethnic background.  2  3  4  59  Strongly Agree  ro fN  O  fN  oo  o o o  te-  VO ON  * oo fN  rn  o fO  -a fN  ©  ON O  vo  O  *f N  CO  ro fO  o  ro  co  E CU NO  fN  3 co  ©  CO  CO ©  ca IT)  o  fN  ro O  *  >/->  ro  a, o  ex  a,  I Mcu  rv  11 ^S" <6uS  -a  £  •SI c Ixs CU  T3 0)  > CJ co co 0) O CJ  o  55  i  ^  °  Xi  •cr < 3 CO  G  cu| HH  ca X! 00 H  1  o  ok  1  CD  IN  m  a  Sh  *&  S « vi  o  -2 ca  +->  C  N  CO CU  co co  eg 3  2  °1  UO  co C  ca  Iff O  1 o o  ex  V \o  CD  2 _ § cu  cu  .§ « -+-»  C  • £  cL o  oo <  («H  60  5b  o  xi  CX  CO  VH  CU  (N  <+H  o  cu co  ex S  , ca  > H  cu U rn  *i J J  o  cu  60  2  c  3  B  CU  T3  _I  So ca X> • a cu <4H O  X) ca  3 O  t-  o  a  i t  '5b ST <u c o  c § -° cu co  3 O  5b g 6b  o X> ca  5 * E 5 cu  cu Xi  -4-»  oo <; t  13.  <L)  j  E "5  CO CU  3 O  O  B  s  W  o  5b  3  C ca  II  oo  .1 &  co  5b  cu o  J3  O  cu  K  ci  3  o 3 O  cu  cu ca  ca  t; 0 0  JE; oo D  vo  ^  cu .CX o 00 o c • I-H o „ cu  cu  ^' iri  3  o  5b ~  V  ca  co' O N  2  o CX  !H  APPENDIX F Means and Standard Deviations of F.TS and MF.TM Ttems. hv Sample Mother  Adolescent  Total  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  3.72  0.62  3.48  3.60  1.20  Mean  SD  0.64  3.71  3.87  1.17  3.75  0.80 1.18  Item Ethnic Identification Share insults with ethnic group  Share embarrassment with ethnic group 3.43  1.19  3.38  1.05  3.97  1.13  Connected with ethnic group  4.02  1.35  3.87  0.95  3.64  1.17  Share compliments with ethnic group*  4.02  1.11  3.54  1.12  3.81  1.11  Share successes with ethnic group*  3.85  1.18  3.37  1.17  3.44  1.10  Spend time to learn  3.31  1.01  3.22  1.23  3.29  1.12  Active in ethnic organization  2.98  0.97  3.21  1.23  3.10  1.67  Clear sense of ethnic background  3.90  0.96  3.71  1.10  3.80  1.03  Think about group membership  3.29  1.24  3.04  1.28  3.17  1.26  Happy to be a member  3.86  0.87  3.92  0.99  3.89  0.93  Sense of belonging to group  3.78  0.94  3.52  0.90  3.65  0.93  Understand group membership* Talked to others about group Pride in ethnic group  3.98 3.14  0.88 1.15  3.60 2.89  0.96 0.89  3.78 3.00  0.94 1.03  3.80  1.05  3.77  0.98  3.70  1.01  Participate in cultural practices Strong attachment to group  3.55 3.55  1.08 1.06  3.40 3.50  0.93 0.96  3.40 3.50  1.00 1.01  Feel good about culture  3.92  1.06  4.08  Ethnic Identity  0.94 4.00 0.99 Statistically significant difference between mother and adolescent scores (p < .05)  61  APPENDIX G Correlation Matrix of Ethnic Identification. Ethnic Identity and Demographic Variables Across Generations Adolescent Identification Adolescent Identification Adolescent Identity Mother Identification Mother Identity Adolescent Age Adolescent Canadian Mother Canadian Residency Adolescent Gender Socio-economic Status *p<.05 **p<.01  1.00  47** .23 .22 .07 -.17 -.14 -.04 -.23  62  Adolescent Identity  47** 1.00 .23 .36* .09 -.00 .02 -.03 -.08  APPENDIX H Frequency (in percentage) of Responses to M F J M Ttems  Item Clear sense of ethnic background Understand group membership Happy to be a member Sense of belonging to group Spend time to learn Feel good about culture Think about group membership Active in ethnic organizations Pride in ethnic group Strong attachment to group Talked to others about group Participate in cultural practices  Strongly Disagree Disagree 1.0 10.6 1.0 4.8 1.0 2.9 1.0 6.7 4.8 18.3 1.9 4.8 10.6 19.2 5.8 24.0 1.0 7.7 1.0 13.5 3.8 29.8 1.0 13.5  63  Neutral 26.0 34.6 33.7 39.4 36.5 23.1 30.8 38.5 33.7 38.5 38.5 44.2  Agree 29.8 29.8 29.8 30.8 20.2 31.7 18.3 16.3 25.0 25.0 17.3 20.2  Strongly Agree 30.8 26.0 31.7 21.2 18.3 38.5 19.2 14.4 31.7 21.2 10.6 21.2  

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