UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Perceptions of literary opinion in Don Quijote de la Mancha Louis, Harry 2000-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2000-0095.pdf [ 3.72MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0099486.json
JSON-LD: 1.0099486+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0099486.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0099486+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0099486+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0099486+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0099486 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0099486.txt
Citation
1.0099486.ris

Full Text

PERCEPTIONS OF LITERARY OPINION  IN  DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA  by HARRY LOUIS B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French, Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  Dr. R. M.^Flores, Supervisor (Department of French,.Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies) ^^JSF^^T'Q.. Carr (Department of FrenprfTiHispanic and I t a l i a n Studies) DrVR. Holdawajy (Department of French, Hispanicyand I t a l i a n Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 2000 (c) Harry Louis, 2000  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  freely available for copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference and study.  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  scholarly  or  her  for  I further  purposes  gain shall  requirements that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  the  It not  be is  the  that  for  Library  permission  granted  by  advanced  shall for  the  understood be allowed  an  that  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  without  my  written  permission.  D  e  P  a  r  t  m  e  n  t  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  4, a  ^  o f  Columbia  (^W^_jgJl  M  *2-^>-<^0  ^  U  _  ^  SfSfe  11  ABSTRACT The thesis i s based on the premise that an author who provides expressions of l i t e r a r y opinion by the characters i n h i s f i c t i o n a l work w i l l also include h i s own views among the o t h e r s — e x p l i c i t l y , v i c a r i o u s l y , or by demonstration.  In Don Quixote, the purported attack on books of chivalry  and the i n c l u s i o n of poems and s t o r i e s i n variant s t y l e s provide j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r extensive corrrnentaries on l i t e r a r y  themes.  To d i s t i n g u i s h Cervantes' views among the diverse l i t e r a r y opinions expressed, such corrrnentaries are evaluated on the basis of the information provided by the author as to the background and i n t e r e s t s of the speakers— the characters, chronicler or narrator.  S p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s carmended,  condemned, or demonstrated are i d e n t i f i e d . inserted i n the novel, and l i t e r a r y  Stories and serious poems  ccanrrnent i n Cervantes' Galatea and  Viaje del Pamaso, are examined f o r corroboration or contradiction of the findings.  Relevant opinions of several generations of twentieth-century  c r i t i c s are examined. Conclusions sunrnarize—for F i c t i o n , Poetry and Drama—the  features  which s a t i s f y the stated requirement to "delight and i n s t r u c t " and those to be avoided.  A degree of ambivalence, between certain l i t e r a r y  precepts  which Cervantes promotes i n Don Quixote and those demonstrated i n his work, is identified.  Special requirements f o r History are noted.  Whether or  not, under the respectable guise of an attack on books of c h i v a l r y , Cervantes sought to elevate the public taste i n literature—an  endeavour as  quixotic as any undertaken by h i s protagonist—he claimed due recognition from the l i t e r a r y world f o r his perceptions of l i t e r a r y values and h i s competence as a w r i t e r .  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract  i i  List  iv  of T a b l e s  Introduction  1  CHAPTER I  L i t e r a r y corrment i n Don Quixote  CHAPTER II  Poems and s t o r i e s i n Don Quixote  32  CHAPTER I I I  La Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso  46  CHAPTER IV  Review of r e l e v a n t  criticsm  5  54  Conclusion  71  Bibliography  83  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  Page Table I  L i t e r a r y Characteristics Corrrnended  29  Table II  L i t e r a r y Characteristics Condemned  30  Table III  Compliance, i n Poems, with Characteristics Corrrnended  Table IV  Compliance, i n S t o r i e s , with Characteristics Corrrnended or Condemned  Table V  38  45  Weighting of Characteristics Corrrnended and Characteristics Condemned  76  Louis 1  INTRODUCTION  En l a elaboracion de esta novela...hay un sistematico, consciente y calculado proposito de combinar l a invencion creadora con l a meditaci6n c r i t i c a . i  The enormous body of ccmnentary written on Don Quixote includes r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e as to what Cervantes discloses i n the text regarding h i s own tastes and standards i n l i t e r a t u r e .  Many c r i t i c s refer to the books of chivalry  and to those passages i n the novel i n which they are discussed. In these cases, the ambiguities i n Cervantes' attitude to the heroic romances popular i n the sixteenth century have been the main objects of wide-ranging c r i t i c a l speculation.  The r e l a t i v e place that Cervantes  occupied i n the l i t e r a r y world of h i s day, the probable content of h i s l i b r a r y , and h i s possible creation of a theory of the novel, have also been matters of investigation and corrrnent.  A l l these c r i t i c a l views touch only  f l e e t i n g l y on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Cervantes' personal l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . This seems s u r p r i s i n g , i n view of the fact that the scope of l i t e r a r y opinion expressed, and the variety of genres included i n the t e x t , suggest that the author was prepared to convey h i s ideas on an extraordinarily wide f i e l d of i n t e r a c t i o n between writers and readers.  Cervantes' opinions on  Spanish l i t e r a t u r e of h i s time would constitute a s i g n i f i c a n t catrrnentary on the state of the arts i n h i s country and, less d i r e c t l y , on the environment a f f e c t i n g creative work.  i  Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i t e r a r i o s de Cervantes" i n Adas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp.3-4.  Louis 2 It i s not d i f f i c u l t  to f i n d examples of authors, from antiquity to the  present, who declare t h e i r own views on l i t e r a r y values i n t h e i r  fictional  works (Plato, Dialogues; Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales; Borges, Ficciones). It seems probable that Cervantes, by the i n c l u s i o n of variant s t y l e s of literary  composition and of discourse expressing l i t e r a r y  shown that he was not irrrnune to such temptation.  judgements, has  In t h i s t h e s i s , I propose  to show that Cervantes' views may be distinguished among, or derived from, the opinions expressed by his characters and those stated by h i s several voices i n Don Quixote.  The findings w i l l be checked against examples of  h i s writings and the ideas of twentieth-century  critics.  In Don Quixote, diverse characters, people of different backgrounds and s o c i a l l e v e l s , declare appreciation or d i s t a s t e f o r l i t e r a r y works and practices f a m i l i a r to sixteenth-century Spain.  E x p l i c i t and reasoned  opinions constitute value judgements on the part of the speaker; other opinions may represent hearsay, personal prejudice or the conventional wisdom of certain sectors of s o c i e t y . The novel also contains numerous poems and s t o r i e s i n a variety of genres, some of which are only marginally related to the main narrative. While i t may be argued that the interpolation of extraneous material represents economical u t i l i z a t i o n of work on hand, the practice does serve to demonstrate the author's v i r t u o s i t y and to provide examples against which t o compare h i s c r i t i c a l statements.  There are, moreover, many  examples—in c l a s s i c a l and Renaissance l i t e r a t u r e — o f  the use of such  digressions. The approach taken i n t h i s thesis to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s which Cervantes promotes i n Don Quixote, and the  Louis 3 contemporary practices which he d e c r i e s , i s based on the following postulates: A.  Authors who provide diverse opinions on l i t e r a r y topics i n t h e i r works of f i c t i o n may be expected to include t h e i r own views,  whether  v i c a r i o u s l y or otherwise. B.  The r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y of the statements made by the various characters i n a work, or the extent to which they represent or d i f f e r from the views of the author, may be i n f e r r e d from information provided i n the text as to the background, i n t e r e s t s , character and irrrnediate motivation of the speaker.  C.  L i t e r a r y material of d i f f e r e n t genres introduced into a t e x t ,  other  than i n a burlesque v e i n , i s d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t i v e or suggestive of the author's tastes.2 D.  L i t e r a r y values established by examination of one work should be v e r i f i a b l e i n other texts written by the same author.  In Chapter I, s p e c i f i c statements of q u a l i t a t i v e  opinion on l i t e r a r y  works and p r a c t i c e s — i n Don Quixote—are c o l l e c t e d and reviewed.  To  f a c i l i t a t e evaluation, these are reported according to the speaker, f o r the individual characters and f o r Cervantes, including h i s f r i e n d of the prologue, narrators and c h r o n i c l e r .  Information provided i n the text  concerning the o r i g i n s , education, occupation, status, predilections and character of each source or opinion i s recorded and the comments are  2 I exclude burlesque m a t e r i a l , since the author may employ deliberate technical error or exaggerated affectations of s t y l e i n mocking sense.  Louis 4 evaluated accordingly.  The p r i n c i p a l l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s corn-ended, and  those condemned, are c o l l a t e d and charted. In Chapter II,  the diverse s t o r i e s and serious poems interpolated i n  Dan Quixote are examined f o r features demonstrating or at variance with the corrnended l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the novel. In Chapter III,  Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso are reviewed,  similarly,  f o r corroboration or contradiction of the ccmnended q u a l i t i e s . Chapter IV presents a range of relevant twentieth-century c r i t i c i s m touching on Cervantes' concepts of l i t e r a r y  literary  merit.  The Conclusion surrrnarizes the patterns of preference—in  literary  values and practices—which Cervantes disclosed i n Don Quixote, the degree to which examples of h i s own work are consistent with such patterns, and the relevant opinions expressed i n the works of c r i t i c i s m l i s t e d i n the Bibliography.  Louis 5 CHAPTER I  L i t e r a r y ccrrment i n Don Quixote  En sus obras se habla frecuentemente de l i b r o s : de l o que contienen, de l o que deberian contener y no contienen, cuales leer y como e s c r i b i r mejores.3  In t h i s chapter, relevant statements and data from the text of Don Quixote are i d e n t i f i e d f o r evaluation, i n consideration of the authority for each source by the author.  indicated  Some sources, inherently related by sector  or by tenor of corrment, are grouped f o r convenience.  The r e s u l t s are  consolidated into tables of p o s i t i v e and negative q u a l i t i e s to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of areas of agreement and of difference.  The v i l l a g e p r i e s t , Pero Perez The origins of the v i l l a g e p r i e s t are unstated, although he i s i d e n t i f i e d i r o n i c a l l y by the narrator as "docto", having graduated from Sigiienza (I, 1, 37),4 one of the least prestigious u n i v e r s i t i e s of Spain. He i s the governing figure i n the enforced return, to his home, of the caged knight-errant—late  i n Part I of the novel.  Obviously f a m i l i a r with the books of c h i v a l r y , since he argues with Don Quixote and the barber, N i c o l a s , as to the preeminence of the various c h i v a l r i c heroes (I, 1, 37), the p r i e s t i s e n t i r e l y i n agreement with Don Quixote's niece when she says, before her u n c l e ' s return from h i s venture as a knight-errant,  first  that such books should be burned (I, 5, 65):  3 Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), p.11. 4 References f o r Don Quijote de la Mancha are to Volume, Chapter and Page of Martin de Riquer's e d i t i o n (1955).  Louis 6 hence, the scrutiny of Don Quixote's l i b r a r y of more than one hundred books (I,  6, 66) by the p r i e s t and the barber, and the condemnation of a l l  but a few to the flames.  The p r i e s t i s given much to say i n l i t e r a r y  matters, not only i n h i s management of the examination and destruction of Don Quixote's  library.  The f i r s t book considered i n the scrutiny i s the i n i t i a l  compilation,  by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo, of four e a r l i e r versions of tales of Amadis de Gaula (1508), l a t e r expanded into a long, i m i t a t i v e s e r i e s .  The barber,  who rarely states a personal opinion, s u c c e s s f u l l y opposes the p r i e s t ' s condemnation of t h i s work, on the basis of having heard i t s a i d that i t was the best-written i n the genre (I,  6, 67).  Later volumes of the Amadis  s e r i e s , some by other authors, are a l l delivered to Don Quixote's housekeeper f o r burning. Other books condemned by the p r i e s t include Antonio de Torquemada's Don Olivante de Laura (1564), f o r i t s falsehoods and arrant nonsense; Melchor Ortega's Florismarte de Hircania (i.556), f o r i t s s t i f f , dry s t y l e ; 5 the anonymous El Caballero Platir  (1533), f o r lack of redeeming merit; and,  despite i t s t i t l e , El Caballero de la Cruz (1521). C a t a l i n a ' s Espejo de Caballerias  Lopez de Santa  (1533), a prose t r a n s l a t i o n and adaptation  of Boiardo's Orlando innamorato (1495), affords the p r i e s t an occasion f o r discourse on French and I t a l i a n works r e l a t i n g to the period of Charlemagne, such as A r i o s t o ' s Orlando furioso (1532).  He maintains that  only poems i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l language would be worth preserving (I,  6, 70)  but, nonetheless, condemns the Spanish poems Bernardo del Carpio (1585) by Agustin Alonso, and Roncesvalles (1555) by Francisco Garrida Vicena.  5 Martin de Riguer notes t h a t , i n t h i s work, the unassisted hero i s described as putting to f l i g h t an army of one m i l l i o n , s i x hundred thousand combatants (I, 6, 69).  Louis 7 Returning to tales of c h i v a l r y , the p r i e s t condemns Francisco Vazquez's Palmerin de Oliva (1511), but keeps Francisco Moraes C a b r a l ' s Palmerln de Inglaterra,  translated from the Portuguese by Luis Hurtado  (1547), f o r i t s excellence, i t s c l a r i t y , well-contrived adventures (I,  circumspection i n discourse, and  6, 71), as well as f o r the legend of i t s more  distinguished authorship, rumored to be the work of a king of Portugal. He i s prepared to have the rest of the books burned without  further  examination but the barber objects, saying that he has i n hand the famous Don Belianis by Jeronimo Fernandez.  The p r i e s t concedes that t h i s work,  with some emendation, could be kept. He permits the barber to take home the several volumes of the work but i n s i s t s that he i s not to allow anyone else to read them. While the housekeeper hastens to dispose of the remaining books, the barber picks up Johanot M a r t o r e l l ' s Historia del famoso caballero  Tirante  el Blanco (1490; translated from the Catalan i n 1511), which the p r i e s t takes e x c i t e d l y , saying how much he had enjoyed i t :  [H]e hallado en el un tesoro de contento y una mina de pasatiempos...por su e s t i l o , es este el mejor l i b r o del mundo. (I, 6, 72)  He corrrnends p a r t i c u l a r l y the rational quotidian a c t i v i t i e s of the characters, a feature lacking i n other books of the genre.  He suggests  that the barber take i t to read. Opening La Diana (1558) by Jorge de Montemayor, the p r i e s t declares i t to be a work of great understanding, that such pastoral poems are harmless and do not deserve to be burned.  Don Quixote's niece, however, i s  Louis 8 concerned about her uncle turning into a shepherd o r , even worse, a poet—a state she considers to be an infectious and incurable i n f i r m i t y .  The  p r i e s t i s i n c l i n e d to agree but thinks that i f the f a n c i f u l b i t s and much of the poetry were eliminated, leaving only the prose, the work would be acceptable:  [Q]ue se l e quite todo aquello que t r a t a de l a sabia F e l i c i a y de l a agua encantada, y casi todo de los versos mayores, y quedesele en hora buena l a prosa. (I, 6, 73)  Next considered are two versions of La Diana, segunda del Salmantino, (1564) by Alonso Perez and G i l Polo, of which only the second i s to be. preserved, "como s i fuera del mesmo Apolo" (I, 6, 74). Of Los diez libros de Fortuna de amor (1573) by Antonio de Lofraso, the p r i e s t says, admiringly, taking i t f o r himself:  [T]an gracioso n i tan disparatado l i b r o como ese no se ha compuesto...es e l mejor y e l mas unico de cuantos deste genero han s a l i d o a l a luz del mundo. (I, 6, 74)6  El Pastor de Iberia (1591) by Bernardo de l a Vega, Ninfas de Henares (1587) by Bernardo Gonzalez de B o b a d i l l a , and Desengahos de celos (1586) by Bartolome L6pez de Enciso, are condemned without further comment. Galvez de Montalvo's El Pastor de Filida  (1582) i s kept f o r i t s refined  s t y l e and language, being termed "muy discreto y cortesano"(I,  6  Luis  6, 74).  This constitutes i r o n i c corrrnent on the p r i e s t ' s poor jugement or taste i n endorsement of a discredited work, according to Riquer; (I, 6, 74, Note 28). Cervantes mocks the book and author i n Viaje del Pamaso. ( C a p . I l l v.247-54)  Louis 9 The p r i e s t states that Pedro de P a d i l l a ' s Tesoro de varias poesias (1580) requires some weeding out of material of a gross character, but i n s t r u c t s the barber to keep i t because the author i s a f r i e n d , as i s Gabriel Lopez Maldonado, author of El Cancionero (1586) and much admired f o r other talents. Coming to La Galatea (1585) of Miguel de Cervantes, whom the p r i e s t also claims as an o l d f r i e n d .  He has no very high opinion of Cervantes'  poetry, but he concedes the book to contain "algo de buena invencion", although somewhat inconclusive or unfinished.  He t e l l s the barber to keep  i t private i n h i s house u n t i l i t i s seen i f the premised second part i s more acceptable. Of La Araucana (1569) by Alonso de E r c i l l a , La Austriada (1584) by Juan Rufo, and El Monserrato (1588) by Cristobal de Virues, the p r i e s t i s most laudatory, declaring that "estos tres l i b r o s . . . s o n los mejores que, en verso heroico, en lengua castellana estan e s c r i t o s " (I,  6, 75); these works  are to be kept as the richest jewels of Spanish poetry. Again wearying of the task, the p r i e s t wants the remainder of the books burned without examination.  However, the barber i s holding Luis  Barahona de Soto's Las lagrimas de Angelica (1586), whose inadvertent burning would have caused the p r i e s t to weep, "porque su autor fue uno de los famosos poetas del mundo".  S t i l l , the rest of the books are sent to  the flames.7  i The narrator notes that among those burned without consideration were La Carolea (Jer6nimo Sempere, 1560), Leon de Espaha (Pedro de l a V e c i l l a Castellanos, 1586) and Los Hechos del Emperador by Luis de A v i l a , a l l of which might have been preserved had the p r i e s t seen them.  Louis 10 In a l a t e r episode, at the i n n , the p r i e s t proposes that Don Ciringilio  de Francia (1545) by Bernardo de Vargas and Felixmarte de  Hircania (1556) by Melchor Ortega—among books l e f t by a t r a v e l l e r enjoyed by patrons of the inn—be burned as vain and f a l s e (II,  and much  32, 323).  He i n s i s t s that he could say "cosas acerca de l o que han de tener los l i b r o s de caballerias para s e r buenos" but awaits a time "en que l o pueda cornunicar con quien pueda remediallo" (I, 32, 325) .8 The p r i e s t conrnends, as w e l l - w r i t t e n , the Novela del curioso impertinente—included  i n Don Quixote—but finds the s i t u a t i o n described,  and the p l o t , unconvincing and incompatible with family relationships i n Spanish society (I, 35, 371). In discussion with the Canon of Toledo regarding books of c h i v a l r y , the p r i e s t blames t h e i r authors f o r not paying attention to "buen discurso, n i al arte y reglas por donde pudieran guiarse" (I, 48, 484). He also expresses a long-standing complaint against the degenerate character of contemporary comedias, describing them as "espejos de disparates, ejemplos de necedades e imagenes de l a s c i v i a " and contrasting them unfavourably with the work and standards of Cicero, "espejo de l a vida humana, ejemplo de l a s costumbres y imagen de l a verdad" (I, 48, 486). He complains, further, of geographic dislocations i n such plays, of absurd anachronisms and of public acceptance of gross errors; even plays on r e l i g i o u s themes are marred by faulty understanding, to the shame of Spanish theatre, considering i t s great p o t e n t i a l :  8 It seems most interesting that many of Cervantes' characters, including a number of those opposed to books of c h i v a l r y , have been keen readers and would-be writers of such l i t e r a t u r e , with ideas f o r i t s improvement.  Louis 11 [Pjorque de haber oido l a cornedia a r t i f i c i o s a y bien ordenada, s a l d r i a e l oyente alegre con las b u r l a s , ensenado con las veras, adrnirado de los sucesos, discreto con l a s razones, advertido con los embustes, sagaz con los ejemplos, airado contra e l v i c i o y enamorado de l a v i r t u d . (I, 48, 487)  The p r i e s t blames the alleged demands of the p u b l i c , rather than the poets who had previously produced superior work:  [C]on tanta g a l a , con tanto donaire, con tan elegante verso, con tan buenas razones, con tan graves sentencias y , finalmente, tan llenas de elocucion y alteza de e s t i l o . (I, 48, 488)  He favors censorship p r i o r to publication or production to impose higher standards, which should apply, as w e l l , to books of c h i v a l r y .  The concept  of censorship which he proposes i s i l l u s t r a t e d by his corrments regarding the desirable emendation of La Diana and Tesoro de varias poesias to remove f a n c i f u l and gross elements, and regarding the imposition of rules f o r the guidance of authors. The evaluation of the opinions of the p r i e s t requires consideration of his indifferent  education, as noted by Cervantes, who depicts him  unsympathetically as an irresponsible destroyer of books, a s e l f - a s s u r e d meddler i n the a f f a i r s of others, and an admirer of i n f e r i o r work.9 The author cannot be considered as endorsing the judgement of the p r i e s t , whose tendency to parrot the opinions of the Canon of Toledo (I, 48, 486) confirms his subservience to authority.  The somewhat less zealous and more  rational approach of the Canon seems r e l a t i v e l y enlightened and more  9. See Note 6, page 8, of the t h e s i s .  Louis 12 authoritative.  This i s not to suggest, however, that a l l of the p r i e s t ' s  opinions are to be set aside; most of Cervantes' characters share a very human mixture of sound judgement and personal b i a s , which readers must d i s t i n g u i s h f o r themselves. In h i s summary review of Don Quixote's l i b r a r y , the p r i e s t was prepared to burn Los cuatro de Amadls de Gaula because, as the f i r s t of a substantial s e r i e s , i t set the pattern f o r tales of chivalry i n Spain. His accusations against the genre include the terms nonsensical, arrogant, and mendacious.  dull  While the complaints against the contemporary comedias f o r  anachronisms and gross errors are of unquestionable v a l i d i t y , h i s concentration on moral issues may be attributed to h i s p o s i t i o n and outlook.  The few works which he corrrnends—such as Palmerin de Inglaterra  and Tirante el Blanco—are characterized as l o g i c a l and decorous, with well-planned adventures, written r e a l i s t i c a l l y and with understanding of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Some of these views are shared by other characters; others are contradicted.  The p r i e s t ' s recorrrnendation of censorship (actually  existing  at the time) i s not, f o r example, repeated by the Canon or by others. The Canon agrees i n h i s strong support of moral content i n l i t e r a t u r e , but states' that the i n f e r i o r dramatic presentations are not the f a u l t of the public but of ignorant or misguided producers (I, 48, 485).  It seems  s i g n i f i c a n t , and perhaps prudent, that Cervantes should include t h i s recatrnendation f o r censorship; however, he makes i t s source one of the least favoured characters.  Cervantes consistently presents multiple  viewpoints, ambiguities and inconsistencies i n h i s writings, to be resolved by the reader.  Louis 13  The Canon of Toledo While his background i s unstated, the Canon's superior status i n the Church gives his corrrnents considerable authority even though, by h i s own admission, his s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d by his o f f i c e (I,  48,  484).  He demonstrates thoughtful interest i n l i t e r a r y matters. In h i s discussion with Don Quixote, the Canon declares himself knowledgeable on books of chivalry (I,  47, 478).  To the p r i e s t , he says  that he considers them decadent and harmful, and that he had been unable to complete reading most of them, "que atienden solamente a d e l e i t a r , y no a enseflar" (I,  47, 481),  apologetic character.  i n sharp contrast to fables of a C h r i s t i a n He claims that there can be neither beauty or  harmony i n the nonsense of i n c r e d i b l e feats of arms; that even f i c t i o n requires a semblance of v e r a c i t y , coherence, and proportion.  He surrmarizes  h i s objections as follows:  [S]on en e s t i l o duros; en las hazarias, i n c r e i b l e s ; en los amores, l a s c i v i o s ; en las c o r t e s i a s , mal miradas; largos en las b a t a l l a s , necios en las razones, disparatados en las viajes y, finalmente, ajenos de todo discreto a r t i f i c i o , y por esto dignos de ser desterrados de l a republica c r i s t i a n a . (I, 47, 482)  He f i n d s , i n such books, one good p o s s i b i l i t y — a broad f i e l d for edifying l i t e r a r y exercise, "describiendo naufragios, tormentas, rencuentros y b a t a l l a s , pintando un capitan valeroso con todas las partes que para ser t a l se requieren" (I,  47, 482);  the depiction of diverse  characters, noble and base; of arts and sciences, statesmanship, and the q u a l i t i e s of great men.  He believes that such elements, i n restrained  Louis 14 s t y l e , ingeniously composed, adhering c l o s e l y t o t r u t h , could create beauty and p e r f e c t i o n , instruct and d e l i g h t — i n e p i c , l y r i c a l , t r a g i c or comic form (I, 47, 483). As might be expected from so detailed a corrmentary, the Canon confesses that he had been tempted to write a book of chivalry along such lines but desisted, considering i t incompatible with h i s p o s i t i o n (I, 48, 484).  In addition, he d i d not wish to be exposed to c r i t i c i s m by ignorant  readers who prefer absurd extravagance. Speaking of the productions of contemporary theatre, the Canon complains that the serious plays of the past have been replaced by nonsensical matter, "asi l a s imaginadas como l a s de h i s t o r i a , todas o l a s mas son conocidas disparates" (I, 48, 484). He had once argued with an actor regarding the prevalence of such i n f e r i o r productions, which were claimed to represent the popular taste.  He had pointed out that three  tragedies, which were presented some time ago, were eminently successful and p r o f i t a b l e ,  "que admiraron, alegraron y suspendieron a todos cuantos  las oyeron, a s i simples como prudentes" (I, 48, 485). The actor recognized these as L a Isabella (1581), La Filis Leonardo de Argensola).  and L a Alejandra ( a l l by Lupercio  The Canon had remarked, further, that serious  plays presented i n the past, such as Lope de Vega's L a ingratitud vengada, Cervantes' L a Numancia (1583), Gaspar de A g u i l a r ' s El mercader amante, and Francisco Agustin Tarrega's L a enemiga favorable brought renown to t h e i r authors and p r o f i t to the producers; therefore,  the Canon continues, "no  esta l a f a l t a en e l vulgo, que pide disparates, sino en aquellos que no saben representar otra cosa" (I, 48, 485).  Louis 15 The Canon t e l l s Don Quixote that the books of chivalry are f u l l of nonsense and falsehoods (I,  49, 493-94), f i t  only to be burned, as  confirmed by t h e i r malign effect on Don Quixote's mind and the sad condition to which he has been reduced.  In reply to the  knight-errant's  a r t i c u l a t e defence of the veracity of his books, the Canon d i f f e r e n t i a t e s pointedly between history and f i c t i o n and, for h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , between truth and legend (I,  49,  498).  The Canon, who has been taken by some c r i t i c s , including Riley and Eisenberg, as the voice of the author on l i t e r a r y matters, a sophisticated s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  order.  represents  He sees the potential worth  of books of high adventure i n depicting the best of human q u a l i t i e s , but deplores the f a n t a s t i c exaggeration i n accounts of the deeds of heroes of c h i v a l r y , as well as the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n language and s t y l e of most examples of the genre.  As a c l e r i c , he emphasizes the need to promote  C h r i s t i a n moral values i n l i t e r a t u r e (I,  49. 494).  Though dealing  comprehensively with deficiency i n l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s and c r e d i b i l i t y of content, his c r i t i c i s m of the books of chivalry i s most concerned with their lack of p o s i t i v e d i d a c t i c value—not just i n a narrow moral sense but i n t h e i r f a i l u r e to l i v e up to t h e i r potential  for i n s p i r a t i o n of readers  through r e a l i s t i c examples of human conduct i n tales of high endeavour.  The innkeeper Juan Palomeque, h i s daughter, and the servant Maritomes At the other s o c i a l extreme of that of the Canon, we encounter these three characters, a l l of whom are probably i l l i t e r a t e (I,  32, 321).  Little  i s stated as to t h e i r backgrounds; the innkeeper i s somewhat hasty and v i o l e n t , associated with the Santa Hermandad, and most concerned—not  Louis 16 unnaturally—about the interests of h i s business; h i s daughter has a malicious sense of humour (witness the entrapping of Don Quixote I, 43, 447) and a romantic d i s p o s i t i o n ; t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n i s shared by Maritornes, who i s stated to be rather i l l - f a v o r e d and of loose morals. Their acquaintance with l i t e r a t u r e i s limited to hearing someone read aloud the books l e f t at the inn by a vanished t r a v e l l e r .  The books of  chivalry have t h e i r appeal f o r a l l three, a l b e i t f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Their interest i n the tales of knight-errantry r e f l e c t s the extension of the popularity of the genre, long favoured by the n o b i l i t y , to unsophisticated members of s o c i e t y . The innkeeper questions the p r i e s t ' s statement to the party at the inn that the books of chivalry had turned Don Quixote's mind.  He says that he  and many others had received great pleasure from hearing such books read i n gatherings at the i n n , "siempre hay algunos que saben l e e r . . . y rodeamonos de mas de t r e i n t a , y estamosle escuchando con tanto gusto" (I, He p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoys tales of combat.  32, 321).  Maritornes emphasizes the appeal  of the love scenes; the innkeeper's daughter says she does not care f o r the violent b i t s but i s deeply moved by the pathetic lamentations of the knights when absent from t h e i r lady-loves (I, 32, 322).  The ccirrrnents of  these three characters are limited to the appeal of d i s t i n c t elements of content, rather than of l i t e r a r y  features.  When the p r i e s t proposed that the books of chivalry be burned as vain and f a l s e (I,  32, 323), the innkeeper offered a h i s t o r i c a l work,  Historia  del Gran Capitin Gonzalo Hernandez de Cordoba, con la vida de Diego Garcia de Paredes (1580), to the f i r e instead.  Other works found i n the bag l e f t  Louis 17 by a t r a v e l l e r include Cervantes' Novela del curioso impertinente (I, 33, 327) and Novela de Rinconete y Cortadillo (I, 47, 477). The author chooses to c a l l attention to s t o r i e s of h i s own which he considers worthy of note. The opinions of the innkeeper, h i s daughter, and Maritornes provide r e a l i s t i c examples of the tastes of uncultured c i t i z e n r y .  Particularly  t e l l i n g i s the innkeeper's rating of the knights-errant higher than the Gran Capitan, since their feats were incomparably more marvellous (I, 32, 324).  The gatherings at the inn to hear someone read the tales of chivalry  r e c a l l popular gatherings to hear public declamations of epic poems by juglares of an e a r l i e r time.  The implied comparison emphasizes the  u n i v e r s a l i t y and timelessness of the appeal of forms of l i t e r a t u r e that serve as r e l i e f  and recreation, regardless of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e .  Sanson Carrasco, the student guide, A l t i s i d o r a , and a musician These diverse sources are grouped because t h e i r corrments have a corrmon focus, t h e i r negative views of s p e c i f i c features of content and practice i n contemporary l i t e r a r y production. Carrasco i s the son of a v i l l a g e r ; twenty-four years of age; a graduate of the University of Salamanca; i n t e l l i g e n t but of a s a t i r i c a l , somewhat malicious turn of mind (II,  3, 558). The student who guides  Don Quixote to the Cave of Montesinos i s a s e l f - s t y l e d humanist, fond of reading books of c h i v a l r y .  He compiles and edits  reportedly  informative  books, which are neither s i g n i f i c a n t nor accurate i n content, and writes burlesques of the c l a s s i c s . of the Duchess.  Altisadora i s a young woman i n the entourage  She i s most active i n the elaborate arrangements devised  Louis 18 f o r mocking Don Quixote and reacts vengefully to the knight's resistance to her blandishments.  No background data i s given f o r a musician who sang and  played during A l t i s i d o r a ' s procession. In t e l l i n g Don Quixote about the published account of the f i r s t  part  of the knight's adventures, e n t i t l e d El Ingenioso Hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, Carrasco says, i n words that echo the Aprobacion of Galatea by Lucas Gracian de Antisco:  [L]a t a l h i s t o r i a es del mas gustoso y menos perjudicial entretenimiento que hasta ahora se haya v i s t o , porque en toda e l l a no se descubre, n i por semejas, una palabra deshonesta n i un pensamiento menos que cat61ico. (II, 3, 563)  Carrasco unleashes a b i t t e r attack on envious l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , reminiscent of Sancho's complaint against the p r i e s t ,  "donde reina l a  envidia no puede v i v i r l a v i r t u d " ( I , 47, 479):  Los hombres famosos por sus ingenios, los grandes poetas, los i l u s t r e s historiadores, siempre, o las mas veces, son invidiados de aquellos que tienen por gusto y por p a r t i c u l a r entretenimiento juzgar los escritos ajenos, s i n haber dado algunos propios a l a luz del mundo...y a s i digo que es grandisimo e l riesgo a que se pone el que imprime un l i b r o , siendo de toda imposibilidad componerle t a l , que satisfaga y contente a todos los que l e leyeren. (II, 3, 563-64)  At the end of Part II,  i n the attempts of Don Quixote's neighbours to  re-animate Alonso Quijano e l Bueno during h i s f i n a l i l l n e s s , Carrasco urges him to commence the pastoral l i f e which he and Sancho had discussed as an a l t e r n a t i v e to knight-errantry.  Carrasco had composed an eclogue f o r the  Louis 19 purpose—claimed to r i v a l Sannazaro's Arcadia  (II,  74, 1062)—but i s unable  to e l i c i t a p o s i t i v e response from the a i l i n g Don Quixote. The student guide speaks with absurd s a t i s f a c t i o n of his useless and irresponsible works (II,  22, 697),  with t h e i r invented t r i v i a and pretended  erudition. A l t i s i d o r a , i n her account of her temporary demise out of feigned unrequited love of Don Quixote, speaks of reaching the gates of H e l l , where a dozen d e v i l s were p l a y i n g , using books instead of b a l l s , books f u l l wind and stuffed with trash.  of  Among these was Avellaneda's continuation of  the adventures of Don Quixote, harshly condemned by one of the d e v i l s as, "Tan malo, que s i de prop6sito yo mismo me pusiera a hacerle peor, no acertara" (II,  70, 1043).  J u s t i f y i n g the i n c l u s i o n of a verse by Garcilaso de l a Vega i n h i s own song on the supposedly sad fate of A l t i s i d o r a , the poet-musician corrments:  [Y]a entre los intonsos poetas de nuestra edad se usa que cada uno escriba como q u i s i e r e , y hurta de quien q u i s i e r e , venga o no venga a palo de su intento, y ya no hay necedad que canten o escriban que no se atribuye a l i c e n c i a poetica. (II, 70, 1045}  He takes advantage of the contemporary mode of plagiarism, noting  further  that l i t t l e care i s taken regarding the s u i t a b i l i t y of the material appropriated or to the observance of t r a d i t i o n a l  forms.  Poetic licence i s  taken to j u s t i f y any ignorant, f o o l i s h or presumptuous expression. The views of Carrasco and the student guide suggest somewhat cynical juvenile mentalities.  The l i t e r a r y projects of the student are examples of  vacuous hack-work, the compiling of pretentious i n a n i t i e s .  Carrasco's  Louis 20 mocking s t y l e serves as the vehicle for an attack against c r i t i c s who presume to denigrate i n others talents and s k i l l s which they themselves lack. A l t i s i d o r a ' s account of books as the playthings of d e v i l s suggests the proper fate of empty, trashy l i t e r a t u r e .  While referring p a r t i c u l a r l y  Avellaneda, i t  reinforces the c r i t i c i s m of works such as those of the  student guide.  The musician also describes irresponsible hack-work,  to  careless mis-application of material stolen from others. The corrments of t h i s group of characters are more polemical i n s t y l e than those of the other characters, i n d i c a t i n g emotional as well as critical  content.  Don Diego de Miranda, el Caballero del ^Verde Gaban Don Diego i s a w e l l - t o - d o ,  land-holding gentleman of good family,  the  owner of a large and well-appointed home, with a l i b r a r y of some s i x dozen books—some i n L a t i n , none of c h i v a l r y .  He involves himself i n the  recreations of the gentry: hunting, f i s h i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g . hospitable and, by his own declaration,  He i s  charitable.  Hearing about the publication of the record of Don Quixote's feats as a knight-errant  from the protagonist himself, Don Diego expresses h i s  opposition to books of chivalry most  tactfully:  iBendita sea el c i e l o ! , que con esa h i s t o r i a . . . d e sus altas y verdaderas c a b a l l e r i a s , se habian puesto en olvido las innumerables de los fingidos caballeros andantes de que estaba lleno el mundo, tan en daflo de las buenas costumbres y tan en p e r j u i c i o y d i s c r e d i t o de las buenas h i s t o r i a s . (II, 16, 646-47)  Louis 21 Of h i s own reading, he says that he prefers works "que deleiten con el lenguaje y adrrdren y suspendan con l a invencion, puesto que hay muy pocos en Espana" (II,  16, 647).  He i s disappointed i n h i s son who, a f t e r s i x  years at Salamanca, i s preoccupied with poetry instead of studying law. He cannot accept poetry as the p r i n c i p a l occupation of a member of h i s family. Representing the worthy, comfortably established gentry, Don Diego i s completely respectable, well-informed and good-hearted, but u t t e r l y conventional i n his ideas and i n t e r e s t s .  He values history and both  serious and l i g h t l i t e r a t u r e but has no use for books of c h i v a l r y , which he considers mendacious and harmful.  He deplores the r a r i t y of good  l i t e r a t u r e i n Spain, books i n which the sensible reader could enjoy f i n e language while marvelling at the subtle invention of the author.  Don Quixote, Alonso Quijano el Bueno The hero of the novel i s an hidalgo, of rural gentry (I, an unnamed v i l l a g e of La Mancha. c l e a r l y widely-read.  21, 200),  in  His education i s unstated but he i s  Alonso Quijano i s a respected, i f somewhat  impoverished, small landholder whose p r i n c i p a l occupation—hunting—has been almost abandoned owing to his obsession for reading books of c h i v a l r y , i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of which he has been s e l l i n g parts of h i s patrimony (I,  1, 36).  He i s good-hearted, i f somewhat i r a s c i b l e ; h i s good sense i s  subdued only while overcome by h i s obsession with knight-errantry,  i n whose  h i s t o r i c a l v a l i d i t y he seems to have complete f a i t h , and whose precepts he i s ambitious to emulate.  The f i c t i o n a l characters of tales of chivalry  Louis 22 appear to him to be as real as the heroes of history (I,  49, 496-97) and  Cervantes declares him crazed on t h i s t o p i c , although eminently sensible on a l l others:  [S]olamente disparaba en tocandole en l a c a b a l l e r i a , y en los demas discursos mostraba tener claro y desenfadado entendimiento. (II, 43, 843)  Speaking of an ancient carrmunal Golden Age, Don Quixote emphasizes the value of honest, straight-forward  Entonces simple y e l l a los palabras  language:  se decoraban los concetos amorosos del alma sencillamente del mesmo modo y manera que concebia, s i n buscar a r t i f i c i o s o rodeo de para encarecerlos. (I, 11, 105)  This comment, although r e f e r r i n g to the manners of a better time, may well be applied to conversation, public r e c i t a t i o n i n the oral t r a d i t i o n , written material.  It  or to  i s consistent with the corrective instructions given  to the boy-narrator by both Don Quixote and Maese Pedro during the puppet show (II,  26, 731-732).  However, on the many occasions i n which Don  Quixote r e c a l l s or invents passages i n tales of c h i v a l r y , or apostrophizes Dulcinea, the language i s elevated i n s t y l e , "siendo de caballero andante, [ l a manera de expresarse] por fuerza habia de ser grandilocua, a l t a , insigne, magnifica" (II,  3,  558).  In a discussion with Sanson Carrasco, Don Quixote declares that the basic requirements of l i t e r a r y composition are mature judgement and inventive imagination:  Louis 23 [P]ara componer h i s t o r i a s y l i b r o s , de cualquier suerte que sean, es menester un gran j u i c i o y un maduro entendimiento. Decir gracias y e s c r i b i r donaires es de grandes i n g e n i o s . ( I I , 3, 563)  He refers admiringly to G a r c i l a s o ' s Eclogue III  (II,  8, 591),  which  reinforces h i s concept of Dulcinea, and he advises Don Diego de Miranda to influence h i s son's poetic interest toward moral values, "al modo de Horacio, donde reprehenda los v i c i o s " (II,  16, 651).  With young Lorenzo,  he discourses learnedly on the requirements of the poetic gloss (II, 666). Don Quixote declares a long-standing i n t e r e s t i n the theatre:  [P]orque todos son instrumentos de hacer un gran bien a l a republica, poniendonos un espejo a cada paso delante, donde se veen al vivo las acciones de l a vida humana. (II, 12, 617)  Later on, i n the print-shop i n Barcelona, he touches on the limitations of t r a n s l a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e :  [E]s como quien mira los tapices flamencos por el reves, que aunque se veen las f i g u r a s , son llenas de h i l o s que l a escurecen. (II, 62, 998)  However, he corrrnends B a t t i s t a G u a r i n i ' s Pastor Fido, as translated by Crist6bal de Figueroa (1602), and Torcuato Tasso's Aminta, translated by Juan de Jauregui (1607), as e s s e n t i a l l y true to the o r i g i n a l s (II,  62,  999).  18,  Louis 24 The corrrnents of Don Quixote on Avellaneda's spurious Segunda Parte del Ingenioso Hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha refute the s l u r s on h i s character and constancy (II,  69, 967), as well as noting factual  errors.  Since the author and a number of h i s characters corrrnend the k n i g h t ' s sound judgement on a l l subjects other than those based on his complete f a i t h i n the truth of the books of c h i v a l r y , Don Quixote's corrrnents on other l i t e r a r y subjects merit consideration as expressing ideas which Cervantes wanted on record.  In his glowing account of the features of the  Golden Age, as delivered to the uncomprehending goatherds, Don Quixote praises the use of simple d i r e c t language, without elaboration or circumlocution.  His advice to the budding poet, Lorenzo de Miranda,  recorrrnends close attention to the exacting requirements of t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y forms and c l a s s i c a l moral values, as well as p r a c t i c a l consideration of the interests of h i s intended p u b l i c . His deathbed recantation, a rejection of the absurdities and deceits to be found i n "los detestables l i b r o s de l a s c a b a l l e r i a s " (II,  74, 1063),  limited as i t i s to those s p e c i f i c features, may be considered a dramatic device, possibly expedient, rather than a f i n a l e f f o r t at l i t e r a r y criticism.  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the narrator,  Cide Hamete Benengeli, the  Moorish t r a n s l a t o r and the u n i d e n t i f i e d , possibly imaginary, f r i e n d i n the Prologue, Part  I  The origins and education of the author are unstated i n the text; Cervantes i d e n t i f i e s himself as an e x - s o l d i e r and w r i t e r , explorer of the annals of La Mancha (I, 2, 43) and finder of the c h r o n i c l e s — i n A r a b i c - - o f  Louis 25 the h i s t o r i a n Cide Hamete (I, compiles the Spanish text. of an untrustworthy  9,  93).  He orders the translation and  Cide Hamete, variously i d e n t i f i e d as a member  race and as a scholarly and punctilious h i s t o r i a n , i s  at once the chronicler of l i t e r a r y convention and one of several  protective  measures, distancing the author from the hazards of authorship. The f r i e n d , "gracioso y bien entendido", provides Cervantes with a modest role i n a dialogue with s i g n i f i c a n t , i f s a t i r i c a l , d i d a c t i c and c r i t i c a l content.  The author, and h i s f r i e n d as alter-ego, begin by  i d e n t i f y i n g desired and objectionable l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e s .  The Prologue i s  primarily a s a t i r e on the custom of pretentious embellishment of a new work with epigrams and laudatory passages purportedly written by distinguished persons, pseudo-erudite annotations, and philosophical and b i b l i c a l references.  It does include a strong recommendation from the author's  f r i e n d f o r s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y :  [A] l a l i a n a , con y bien colocadas, entender vuestros oscurecerlos. (I,  palabras i n s i g n i f i c a n t e s , honestas saiga vuestra oracion...dando a conceptos s i n i n t r i c a r l o s y Prologue, 25)  In h i s i n i t i a l description of the protagonist's obsession with knighterrantry,  the narrator mocks Don Quixote's admiration f o r elaborate  locutions, with F e l i c i a n o de S i l v a ' s often quoted passage:  La raz6n de l a sinraz6n que a mi raz6n se hace, de t a l manera mi raz6n enloquece, que con raz6n me quejo. (I, 1, 37)  Louis 26 In contrast, Don Quixote's example for the Canon of Toledo provides a model of simple dramatic imagery:  iY que apenas el caballero no ha acabado de o i r l a voz temerosa, cuando, s i n entrar mas en cuentas consigo, s i n ponerse a considerar el peligro a que se pone, y aun s i n despojarse de l a pesadumbre de sus fuertes armas, encomiendose a Dios y a su senora se arroja en mitad del bullente lago, y . . . s e h a l l a entre unos f l o r i d o s campos. (I, 50, 500)  The Prologue contains, as w e l l , a t y p i c a l l y ambiguous reference to the declared attack on the books of c h i v a l r y , "caballerescos l i b r o s , aborrecidos de tantos y alabados de muchos mas" (I,  Prologue,  25).  Cervantes has h i s characters f i n d much to corrnend, as well as to c r i t i c i z e , i n the books.  S t i l l , the narrator says that the mind of Don Quixote, an  addicted reader of such books, became clouded by "disparates imposibles" (I,  1,  38).  In discourse regarding the veracity of Cide Hamete, the  narrator  indulges i n rhetorical corrmentary on the role of h i s t o r i a n s , demanding accuracy and  impartiality:  [Djebiendo ser los historiadores puntuales, verdaderos y no nada apasionados, y que n i el interes n i el miedo, el rencor n i l a a f i c i 6 n , no les hagan torcer del camino de l a verdad, cuya madre es l a h i s t o r i a , emula del tiernpo, dep6sito de las acciones, testigo de lo pasado, ejemplo y aviso de lo presente, advertencia de l o porvenir. (I, 9, 95)  Cide Hamete's narration of events i n precise d e t a i l i s stated to be a model for professional improvement of h i s t o r i c a l  writing:  Louis 27 [M]uy curioso y muy puntual en todas las c o s a s . . . c o n ser tan minimas y tan rateras, no l a s quiso pasar en s i l e n c i o ; de donde podran tomar ejemplo l o s historiadores graves, que nos cuentan las acciones tan corta y sucintamente...dejandose en e l t i n t e r o . . . l o mas sustancial de l a obra. (I, 16, 146)  and even more eloquently, the c l a r i t y of h i s expositions are corrrnended:  Pinta l o s pensamientos, descubre l a s intenciones, responde a l a s t a c i t a s , aclara l a s dudas, resuelve los argumentos; finalmente, los atomos del mas curioso deseo manifiesta. (II, 40, 822)  The narrator praises two authors of tales of chivalry f o r t h e i r c a r e f u l l y comprehensive accounts:  iBien haga mil veces e l autor de Tablante de Ricamonte [1513] y aquel del otro l i b r o donde se cuenta los hechos del conde Tcmillas [Enrique fi de Oliva, 1498] y con que puntualidad l o describen todo! (I, 16, 146)  He refers to Don Quixote's books as " l i b r o s mentirosos" (I,  18, 165),  yet speaks of the people of h i s era as requiring entertaining l i t e r a t u r e , as well as h i s t o r i c a l accuracy:  [E]sta nuestra edad, necesitada de alegres entretenimientos, no s61o de l a dulzura de su verdadera h i s t o r i a , sino de los cuentos y episodios del l a que, en parte, no son menos agradables y a r t i f i c i o s o s y verdaderos que l a misma h i s t o r i a . (I, 23, 275)  Louis 28 In Part II  of Don Quixote, there i s a summary dismissal of  Avellaneda's continuation of the story of Don Quixote as trash,  in  A l t i s a d o r a ' s report of a d e v i l ' s low opinion of the work, as well as a suggested negative public reaction to Avellaneda's version—in an enthusiastic onlooker's welcoming c r i e s on Don Quixote's entry i n t o Barcelona:  Bien sea venido, digo, el valeroso don Quijote de l a Mancha: no el f a l s o , no el f i c t i c i o , no el apocrifo que en f a l s a s h i s t o r i a s estos dias nos han mostrado, sino el verdadero, el legal y el f i e l que nos describio Cide Hamete Benengeli, f l o r de historiadores. (II, 41, 987)  Humour and hyperbole do not obscure the honour due to the true hero, nor the appreciation of superior l i t e r a r y merit i n the work ascribed to Cide Hamete.  Q u a l i t i e s recorrrnended for the work of historians included precise  accuracy, dispassionate i m p a r t i a l i t y , comprehensive d e t a i l , exposition, and u n f a i l i n g  explanatory  veracity.  With some reservations regarding the ccrrrnents attributed to Cide Hamete, the l i t e r a r y opinions expressed by the author's variant forms must be given enhanced authority.  Cervantes delegates most c r i t i c i s m s of  contemporary l i t e r a r y practices  to h i s characters, but he expands h i s  announced c r i t i c i s m of books of chivalry i n t o a manifesto of l i t e r a r y values.  The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s commended for f i c t i o n , poetry and  drama are l i s t e d i n  Table I,  condemned are l i s t e d i n Table  with sources i d e n t i f i e d . II.  Characteristics  Louis 29 TABLE I CHARACTERISTICS COMMENDED  CHARACTERS COMMENTING  Priest  Canon  Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot Imaginative concepts Suspense  Innkeeper Daughter Maritornes  Carrasco Guide Altisidora Musician  Don Diego Don Miranda Quixote  Cervantes Narrator Cide Hamete Friend Translator  x x  x x  Language & style Elegance Clarity  x x  Verisimilitude Veracity Credibility Accessibility Simplicity Coherence Didactic value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement Traditional rules & forms  x x  x x x  x  Louis 30 TABLE II CHARACTERISTICS CONDEMNED  CHARACTERS COMMENTING  Priest  Canon  Innkeeper Daughter Maritornes  Carrasco Guide Altisidora Musician  Don Diego Don Miranda Quixote  Cervantes Narrator Cide Hamete Friend Translator  Lack of Entertainment Dullness x Pretentiousness Prolixity Lack of Verisimilitude Mendacity x Anachronisms x Geographic absurdity x Fantastic exaggeration x Lack of Accessibility Circumlocution Pseudo-erudition Poor translation x  x x  Lack of Didactic value Lasciviousness x Lack of edifying content  Condemned, in addition, were a number of prevalent practices in the literary world such as plagiarism envious cnticism, scurrilous personal attacks, and pandering to vulgar tastes.  Louis 31 Perceptions of worth and faults i n l i t e r a t u r e are interwoven with the account of the adventures of Don Quixote.  C r i t i c a l conment—favourable or  not, v a l i d or doubtful—is d i s t r i b u t e d among characters according to t h e i r background and i n t e r e s t s , and among the several voices of the author, consistent with t h e i r functions, to be interpreted according to the understanding of the curiosos  lectores.  The e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of conrnent on l i t e r a r y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as  observed i n the Tables, reinforces the concept that each speaker represents a distinct c r i t i c a l position.  Recognition of the constituency, the sectors  of interest f o r which they speak, constitutes a s i g n i f i c a n t indicator i n determining the credit to be assigned to each corrment, the authority to be granted to each speaker, and the degree to which they may r e f l e c t the ideas of Cervantes.  L o u i s 32  CHAPTER II  Poems and s t o r i e s i n Don Quixote  [L]os estudios desta facultad [ l a p o e s i a ] . . . t r a e n consigo ...provechos, como son enriquecer e l poeta considerando su propria lengua...descubriendo l a diversidad de conceptos agudos, graves, s o t i l e s y levantados.9  The examples of varied l i t e r a r y forms which Cervantes includes i n Don Quixote are examined i n t h i s chapter to e s t a b l i s h how they may or modify the findings of the previous chapter.  illustrate  Primary attention i s  concentrated on what i s disclosed of the l i t e r a r y preferences of the author i n the works which he chooses to include i n his novel. Considering the poems of a serious character, one model corrrnonly employed f o r popular song i s the t r a d i t i o n a l  romance. Examples, at various  l e v e l s of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n language, rhyme schemes, imagery and rhetorical devices,, include fragments from the goat-herd A n t o r i o ' s song , the p l a i n t of a tormented lover seeking f i n a l resolution of h i s woes (I, 11, 107-109):  Donde no, desde aqui juro por e l santo mas bendito de no s a l i r destas t i e r r a s sino para capuchino;  the f i r s t  love song, "Marinero soy de amor", of the pretended muleteer,  Don Luis  (I, 43, 440):  9 Cervantes, La Galatea, e d i t i o n of S c h e v i l l and B o n i l l a (1914). Prologue, p. x l v i i i .  L o u i s 33 iOh c l a r a y luciente e s t r e l l a , en cuya lumbre me apuro! Al punto que te me encubras, sera de mi muerte e l punto;  and Don Quixote's own composition (II,  46, 867), advising prudently moral  behaviour and constancy i n love:  Las doncellas recogidas que aspiran a ser casadas, l a honestidad es l a dote y voz de sus alabanzas.  Reviewing these romances, i t can be confirmed that, while a l l demonstrate c l a r i t y of language and coherence, Don Luis adds a degree of elegance of expression, with imaginative concepts.  Such elaboration as i s evident i n  the romances appears to be within reasonable l i m i t s f o r the hyperbolic terms appropriate to lovers. Another song form used i s the silva,  i n which quatrains or sextets  with alternating l i n e s of seven and eleven s y l l a b l e s introduce a rhythm more varied than that of the romance. The silva i s exemplified i n the second song of Don Luis ( I , 43, 442), on a l o v e r ' s hopes; and Don Quixote's song (II,  68, 1032), on a l o v e r ' s conmingled perceptions of l i f e and  death.io  Both songs exhibit c l a r i t y and coherence; Don Quixote's o f f e r i n g ,  not o r i g i n a l with Cervantes, presents universal concerns with dramatic emphasis:  io  A poem by Pietro Bembo, translated from the I t a l i a n .  L o u i s 34 Asl e l v i v i r me mata, que l a muerte me torna a dar l a v i d a . iOh condicion no oida l a que conmigo muerte y vida t r a t a !  An interesting v a r i a t i o n i n poetic form i s the copla real, which appears i n a somewhat burlesqued v e r s i o n , with added estribillo,  in  Don Quixote's poem to Dulcinea (I, 26, 252-3); and i n more t r a d i t i o n a l manner and form at a masque celebrating Camacho's wedding (II,  20, 683-4),  where figures representing Cupid, Wealth, Poesy and L i b e r a l i t y declare t h e i r q u a l i t i e s and powers, witness Cupid's grandiose phrases:  Yo soy e l dios poderoso en e l a i r e y en l a t i e r r a y en e l ancho mar undoso, y en quanto e l abismo encierra en su baratro espantoso.  A l l of the above compositions, romances, silvas, conform c l o s e l y to t r a d i t i o n a l  poetic forms.  and coplas reales,  Less f a m i l i a r i s the I t a l i a n  s t y l e of Grisostomo's song to Marcela (I, 14, 125-9), which consists of verses with sixteen lines of eleven s y l l a b l e s i n a complex rhyme-scheme. The dark imagery employed by the despairing lover i s dramatic:  iOh, en e l reino de amor f i e r o s tiranos eelos! ponedme un hierro en estos manos. Dame, desden, una torcida soga. Mas, iay de m i ! , que, con cruel v i t o r i a , vuestra memoria e l sufrimiento ahoga.  This combination of simple language and imaginative concepts i s an e f f e c t i v e example of the s t y l i s t i c elements corrrnended by Cervantes.  Louis Cardenio's song (I,  35  27, 261-2), a more contrived and less emotional  l o v e r ' s p l a i n t , presents a complicated verse and l i n e structures with sophisticated rhyme patterns, the  ovillejo:  iQuien mejorara mi suerte? La muerte. Y el bien de amor, iquien le alcanza? Mudanza. Y sus males, iquien los cura? Locura. De ese modo no es cordura querer curar l a pasi6n cuando los remedios son muerte, mudanza y locura.  This poem i l l u s t r a t e s Cervantes' concern with the avoidance of obscurity and elaborate terminology.  However, he i s ever ready with more august and  even grandiloquent phrasing when i t s u i t s the occasion; for example, M e r l i n ' s lengthy pronouncement (II,  in  3 5 , 7 9 7 - 9 8 ) , i n which he declares h i s  power and discloses the awesome authority for the measures that would r e l i e v e Dulcinea from enchantment:  [D]espues de haber revuelto cien mil l i b r o s desta mi c i e n c i a endemoniada y torpe, vengo a dar el remedio.  The extravagance of the language, to match the Duke's elaborate mockery of Don Quixote, i s consistent with the stated remedy, three thousand and three hundred lashes to be self-administered by Sancho.  Cervantes demonstrates  here, and repeatedly i n the t e x t , h i s cormand of the use of the archaic, elevated language of c h i v a l r y .  Louis  36  Lorenzo de Miranda's gloss on the uncertainty of Fortune and the unrelenting character of Time (II,  18, 666-8) i s a t r a d i t i o n a l  exercise of refined construction, i f uncertain e f f e c t .  poetic  The rhetorical  progressions i n an expanded paraphrase under poetic rules represent s k i l l s highly conrnended by Don Quixote.  No quiero otro gusto o g l o r i a , otra palma o vencimiento otro t r i u n f o , otra v i t o r i a , sino volver al contento que es pesar en mi memoria.  The development of the themes of the gloss has a simple, workmanlike quality and appropriate d i g n i f i e d  restraint.  The poetic form appearing most frequently i n the text i s the sonnet, presumably the model most favoured by the author and by poets of h i s time. The I t a l i a n sonnet form was introduced into Spain i n the f i f t e e n t h century and attained i t s highest standard of p e r f e c t i o n , according to most c r i t i c s , with Garcilaso de l a Vega, early i n the sixteenth century.  Cervantes'  admiration of Garcilaso i s made e x p l i c i t repeatedly i n his works. examples: the shepherdess of the pretended Arcadia (II,  58, 958)  Two tells  Don Quixote that her group has been preparing presentations of the eclogues of Garcilaso and Camoes; and the musician i n A l t i s i d o r a ' s t r a i n p l a g i a r i z e d Garcilaso (II,  70, 1045).  In Don Quixote, Cervantes provides s i x examples of the sonnet treating serious t o p i c s : 217);  on the anxieties of a despairing lover (Cardenio, I,  on the uncertainty of friendship (Cardenio, I,  27, 262);  23,  the two  heroic poems, stated to be by Pedro de A g u i l a r , on the loss (in 1573)  of  Louis the Goleta and of a f o r t near Tunis (I, Knight of the Wood, II, (Lorenzo de Miranda, II,  40, 403-4); on courtly love  3  (the  12, 621); and on the fable of Pyramus and Thisbe 18, 668).  display some i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  While a number of his other poems  i n rhythm and rhyme, Cervantes' sonnets are  meticulously crafted i n t r a d i t i o n a l  form.  The language, always clear  if  rarely l y r i c a l , i s w e l l - s u i t e d to the individual themes and moods. For the poetry i n Don Quixote, compliance with q u a l i t i e s corrrnended i n Chapter I i s summarized i n Table  III.  Louis 38 TABLE III CHARACTERISTICS  POETIC FORM  COMMENDED  Romance Silva Copla Real Song Ovillejo Gloss Declamation Sonnets 1  Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot Imaginative concepts Suspense  1  H,18  4  11,35  1,23,27  1,40  II, 12  11,18  11  Language & style Elegance Clarity  x  x x  Verisimilitude Credibility  x  Accessibility Simplicity Coherence  x x  Didactic value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement  12  x x  Traditional x rules & forms  x x  x x  x  x  X x  x  x  x  x  x  X  X  x X  x  x X  x  x  X  x  x x x  x  x  x  x  X x  x  x  x  x  x  x  For the relatively brief poems, no indications are recorded for plot or suspense. While the several romances are uneven in qualities, recognition is given for notable features in individual poems. 1 1  1 2  L o u i s 39 The s t o r i e s introduced into the text—variously integrated with the sequence of adventures of Don Quixote and Sancho—have been the subject of t y p i c a l l y discordant c r i t i c a l corrrnent.  They have been regarded as t o t a l l y  appropriate provision of v a r i e t y , dramatic r e l i e f and suspense; alternatively,  they have been c r i t i c i z e d as irrelevant  interpolations,  detracting from the p r i n c i p a l n a r r a t i v e ; Carrasco touches on t h i s concept:  Una de l a s tachas que ponen a l a t a l h i s t o r i a . . . e s que e l autor pone en e l l a una novela i n t i t u l a d a El curioso irrpertinente, no por mala n i por mal razonada, sino por no ser de aquel lugar, n i tiene que ver con l a h i s t o r i a de su merced del senor don Quijote. (II, 3, 562)  While Cervantes appears to acknowledge the existence of unfavourable perceptions of h i s interpolated s t o r i e s , i t i s obvious that he regarded El curioso irrpertinente, a t o t a l l y independent n a r r a t i v e , example of h i s a r t to be l e f t on the shelf.13  as too good an  This exemplary t a l e , with a  strong psychological b i a s , does include s i g n i f i c a n t aspects which p a r a l l e l basic themes i n Don Quixote.  The behaviour of Anselmo, l i k e that of Don  Quixote, demonstrates the way i n which obsession subverts perceptions of reality.  C r i t i c s , have offered a bewildering variety of explanations f o r  Anselmo's destructive course.14  An approach which seems more appropriate  to the tone of the s t o r y , and to the information which the author provides, suggests that Anselmo—conscious of h i s l i c e n t i o u s h i s t o r y — i s not able to t o l e r a t e h i s perception of Camila's r e l a t i v e moral s u p e r i o r i t y .  He becomes  13 Arguments.for and against the i n c l u s i o n of the story have been reviewed by Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1967 e d i t i o n ) , pp.121-23. 14 Sunrnarized by R. M. F l o r e s , "Una posible protofabula a El curioso irrpertinente de Cervantes", i n Cervantes 18 (1998), pp.134-43.  L o u i s 40 fixated  on destroying her v i r t u e to e s t a b l i s h dominant status.  Like Don  Quixote, Anselmo returns to a recognition of r e a l i t y when death i s irrrrdnent. Cervantes' technique of leaving interpretation open t o the reader i s amply demonstrated i n Don Quixote.  More e x p l i c i t l y demonstrated, i n the  Italianate t a l e El curioso impertinente, i s the range of " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ccrrrnended"—the a r t f u l plot ( i t s structure reminiscent of the theatre, with three phases— the development of the scheme, the conversion of Camila and Lotario into l o v e r s , and the dramatic denouement of divine  retribution),  imaginative concepts, suspense, and unassuming elegance i n language. Despite the p r i e s t ' s unfavourable corrment  regarding i t s unconvincing  relationships i n the context of Spanish family l i f e (I, 35, 371), less biased readers would be i n c l i n e d to grant i t v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . coherent, being stated and ordered with s i m p l i c i t y .  The story i s  It deals with e t h i c a l ,  as much as moral, considerations and does so with dignity and mature judgement.  In trying to dissuade Anselmo from his scheme, Lotario says:  Dime, Anselmo, s i e l c i e l o , o l a suerte buena, te hubiera hecho senor y legitimo posesor de un finisimo diamante, de cuya bondad y quilates estuviesen satisfechos cuantos lapidarios l e v i e s e n . . . y t u mesmo l o creyeses a s i , s i n saber otra cosa en contrario, i s e r i a justo que te viniese en deseo de tomar aquel diamante, y ponerle entre un yunque y un m a r t i l l o , y a l i i , a pura fuerza de golpes y brazos, probar s i es tan duro y tan f i n o como dicen? (I, 33, 335)  In the story of Grisostomo and Marcela (I, 12-14, 110 f f ) , Cervantes confirms h i s departures from the c l a s s i c a l pastoral model, with the presentation of human c o n f l i c t disturbing the Arcadian i d e a l , plus argument  Louis for ferninine independence.  41  The distressed lover i s now deceased and the  maiden eloquent i n self-defence against imputations of  cruelty:  [E]l verdadero amor...ha de ser voluntario, y no forzoso. Siendo esto a s i . . .<i,por que quereis que rinda mi voluntad por fuerza, obligada no mas de que decis que me quereis bien? (I, 14, 130-31)  In t h i s episode, as i n Galatea, Cervantes introduces passion and violence into the a r t i f i c i a l  bucolic i d y l l .  As an example of the genre,  apart from his re-development of the t r a d i t i o n a l  form, i t  displays  adherence to applicable elements of the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s corrrnended" i n l i t e r a r y production.  With regard to v e r i s i m i l i t u d e ,  it  i s a fresh and  r e a l i s t i c presentation of reasoned feminine independence i n l i e u of the t r a d i t i o n of capricious d i s d a i n . Eugenio's story of Leandra (I, sentimental  51, 505 f f )  i s a more conventional  t a l e , with pastoral background, of a young g i r l who i s dazzled  by the glamorous m i l i t a r y s t y l e of Vicente de l a Rosa, a showy deceiver, on h i s return to the v i l l a g e .  She becomes infatuated,  ignores her f a i t h f u l  r u s t i c admirers and elopes with Vicente, only to be robbed and abandoned. A traditional  moral i s pointed when the disgraced Leandra i s placed i n a  convent by her father; setting.  her v i l l a g e admirers seek consolation i n a pastoral  This over-familiar  theme i s rescued by spare but eloquent and  p i c t o r i a l l y evocative narrative.  The narrator of the s t o r y , one of the  disappointed lovers, employs fresh s a t i r i c a l the v i l l a i n ' s pretentious d i s p l a y s :  language i n a description of  L o u i s 42 Vino a nuestro pueblo un Vicente de l a R o s a . . . vestido a l a soldadesca, pintado con mil colores, lleno de mil d i j e s de c r i s t a l y s u t i l e s cadenas de acero. [E]ste bravo, este galan, este musico, este poeta. fue v i s t o y mirado muchas veces de Leandra. (I, 51, 506-07)  In another t a l e i n pastoral s t y l e , the disruption of the r i c h Camacho's wedding, (II,  20-21, 678 f f ) , a poorer r i v a l , B a s i l i o , acts out  an ingenious scheme to prevent h i s beloved Quiteria from marrying the wealthy countryman. the l a v i s h l i b e r a l i t y  Cervantes weaves h i s plot around several sub-texts: of Camacho's preparations; the a r t f u l devices of  B a s i l i o i n his feigned suicide and consolatory marriage to Quiteria while seemingly dying; and the u l t r a - r a t i o n a l Camacho.  acceptance of the turn of events by  Some aspects of the story seem e t h i c a l l y unsound, unless " a l l i s  f a i r i n love"; some s t r e t c h c r e d i b i l i t y , such as the mechanisms involved i n B a s i l i o ' s s e l f - s t a b b i n g ; but other " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ccrrmended" appear satisfied.  The mature dignity of Camacho's resignation adds an unusual  human touch to a romantically acceptable ending. The complex sentimental involvements of Cardenio, Luscinda, Don Fernando and Dorotea (I, 23-24, 222 f f ; I,  27-29, 261 f f ; I,  36. 371-80)  are more e f f e c t i v e l y interwoven with the a f f a i r s of Don Quixote than the short story of El curioso irrpertinente.  Despite the emotional  extravagance  of Cardenio and Luscinda, and ambiguity i n the late reversion of Don Fernando to h i s connection to Dorotea, there i s a structural coherence i n t h e i r tangled love a f f a i r s .  Because of her bold p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the plot  to convey Don Quixote homeward, Dorotea emerges as the most v i v i d character of the group, a fact to suggest that the hero's adventures interest the reader more than the unrelated elements of the interpolated story.  Louis  43  The moral correctness—in very conventional terms—of the contrived r e s o l u t i o n , i s less impressive than the effect of Cervantes' affirmation the power of the form of words, u n f a i l i n g throughout.  of  The p r i e s t ,  r e f e r r i n g to Don Quixote's ready acceptance of Dorotea as the Princess Micomicona, says:  ino es cosa estrana ver con cuanta f a c i l i d a d cree este desventurado hidalgo todas estas invenciones y mentiras, s61o porque llevan el e s t i l o y modo de sus libros? (I, 30,  309)  The recurrent Moorish theme, i n the stories of the captive (I, 395 f f )  and of Ricote and Ana F e l i x (II,  53, 929-936; II,  39-41,  63, 1004-1009),  c a r r i e s with i t h i s t o r i c a l and auto-biographical information from Cervantes' time as a s o l d i e r and captive, as well as touching on the d e l i c a t e issue, under the Counter-Reformation, of freedom of expression. The story of the captive, Ruy Perez de Viedma, and Zoraida—the young Moorish woman whose f a i t h i n the V i r g i n Mary, taught her by a C h r i s t i a n slave i n her father's household, was the moving force i n the escape—has two l i t e r a r y aspects.  The f i r s t part of the c a p t i v e ' s t a l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y  h i s t o r i c a l , r e f l e c t i n g Cervantes' f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of the harsh conditions of c a p t i v i t y and of the m i l i t a r y actions of the time.  It  embodies the precepts which the author puts forward for the writing of history—veracity,  impartiality,  comprehensive d e t a i l and explanatory  exposition—though with the captive, not the novel's narrator, expositor.  as  The heroism of the Christians i s emphasized (Cervantes  included) but the depiction of Moorish characters i s notably even-handed.' The second element of the story,, the escape, tends to the theatrical  in  L o u i s 44 invention, akin to the author's comedias on the Moorish theme, Los tratos de Argel (1580) and Los banos de Argel (1582 ? ; post 1605 ? ) . The coherent and c r e d i b l e , i f elaborate, plot i s balanced by the r e a l i s t i c treatment of the interplay of diverse i d e o l o g i e s , as i n the emotional pleading and argument between Zoraida and her father when he i s to be abandoned. The converging tales of Ana F e l i x and her father, Ricote, are strongly suggestive of ethical considerations. declare h i s views.  Cervantes does not preach, or even  The moriscos do not question the j u s t i c e of t h e i r  expulsion from Spain (Ricote goes so f a r as to corrmend the wisdom of the decree), yet the inherent presentation of the dangerous questions, i n the Counter-Reformist environment of the time—of  "freedom of conscience", and  the disruption of human l i v e s by ethnical and r e l i g i o u s b i a s — i s very plain. strict  Sancho goes so f a r as to place loyalty merited by a neighbour above l e g a l i t y when he assures Ricote: "por mi no seras descubierto"  (II,  54, 935). Ana's story of her enforced departure from Spain and the circumstances of her return i s , perhaps, the f l i m s i e s t of the interpolated material i n the novel (II,  43, 1005-09).  It lacks the h i s t o r i c a l features of the  c a p t i v e ' s account and i t employs less probable contrivances, such as Ana's C h r i s t i a n lover pretending to be a woman to avoid the homosexual enthusiasms of the King of A l g i e r s .  The most redeeming features of t h i s  episode are the concise and expressive language and the sympathetic treatment of human problems created by the expulsion of the Moors. For the s t o r i e s i n Don Quixote, demonstration of the q u a l i t i e s corrrnended—and the presence of some q u a l i t i e s condemned—in Chapter I i s surrrnarized i n Table IV.  TABLE IV CHARACTERISTICS  STORIES  COMMENDED  Italianate Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot Imaginative concepts Suspense Language & style Elegance Clarity  Pastoral  Moorish  Sentimental  x x  x x  X  X  X  X  X  X  Verisimilitude Credibility Accessibility Simplicity Coherence Didactic value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement  X  X  X  X  X  X  x x  X X  Traditional rules & forms  CHARACTERISTICS CONDEMNED  Prolixity Lack ofVerisimilitude  x  L o u i s 46 CHAPTER III  Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso  [N]o puede negarse que los estudios de esta f a c u l t a d . . . t r a e n consigo mas que medianos prouechos, como son enriquecer e l poeta considerando su propria lengua, y ensefiorarse del a r t i f i c i o de l a eloquencia que en e l l a cabe.is  These two works of Cervantes, Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso, were selected for review to e s t a b l i s h whether the l i t e r a r y  features i d e n t i f i e d i n Don  Quixote could be v e r i f i e d as consistent with concepts i n Cervantes' other works that contain substantial ccrrrnent on l i t e r a t u r e .  Cervantes'  earliest  major work, La Galateais (1585), was a pastoral romance with s i g n i f i c a n t departures from t r a d i t i o n .  At the time, the pastoral genre was extremely  popular i n Spain; the author and many of h i s contemporaries were admirers of the eclogues of Garcilaso de l a Vega and the poetry of Fray Luis de Le6n,i7 so that i t might be expected that an attempt to win recognition from the l i t e r a r y pattern.  corrrnunity and the reading public should follow a popular  The c l a s s i c a l and Renaissance forms of the genre present amorous  discourse of idealized and refined characters " l i v i n g l i t e r a t u r e " ! 8 i n i d y l l i c natural s e t t i n g s , abstracted from the real world.  Into t h i s calm  b u c o l i c p i c t u r e , Cervantes introduces violent episodes of passion, deceit and vengeance, with tears and sighs mingled with "razones de f i l o s o f i a " (Prologo x l i x ) .  These tales of high drama i n prose, of tumultuous  15 Cervantes, La Galatea, e d i t i o n of S c h e v i l l and B o n i l l a , Vol.1 (1914), Pr61ogo p . x l v i i i . 16 References to Galatea are i d e n t i f i e d by Book, page and l i n e numbers of S c h e v i l l and B o n i l l a ' s e d i t i o n (1914). 17 Jose Montero Reguera, "La Galatea y el Persiles", i n Cervantes (1995), p.157. is Dominick F i n e l l o , "Shepherds at Play: L i t e r a r y Conventions and Disguises" i n Cervantes and the Pastoral (1986), p.115.  L o u i s 47 c o n f l i c t s i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , of love frustrated by authority, of jealousies, betrayal,  and murder, are embellished with a l i b e r a l  admixture  of poems i n the pastoral convention.  Colocada en l a t r a d i c i 6 n p a s t o r i l , es de una novedad absoluta, que renueve e l material de acarreo, a l mismo tiempo que novela con aspectos de una realidad vedada por l o s canones.19  The poems are extremely v a r i e d , representing the melodious sufferings of lovesick shepherds: contests with verse r i d d l e s , glosses, poetic dialogues, games of los propdsitos.  reales, vii lancicos, liras, sonnets.  The poetic forms include octavas  redondinos, sextinas, coplas reales, and  In Book IV, Lenio and T i r s i debate the nature of love,  poems i n a medieval, matched construction "question and answer"  trading pattern.  Cervantes offers ample evidence that he wishes to be considered v e r s a t i l e , as well as competent, as a poet. some twenty years l a t e r . verse forms i l l u s t r a t e s  He would do so again, i n Don Quixote,  In the poems of Galatea, the control of meter and technical competence:  Con mas f a c i l i d a d contar pudiese del mar los granos de l a blanca arena, y l a s e s t r e l l a s de l a octaua esphera, que no las ansias, e l d o l o r , l a pena a qu'el f i e r o rigor de t u aspereza s i n hauerte ofendido, me condemna. ( I l l , 167, 4-9)  The fact that none of Cervantes' poetry appears i n either of the two anthologies edited by Pedro Espinosa (Flores de poetas ilustres  19 J . B. A v a l l e - A r c e , i n h i s e d i t i o n of La Galatea (1987),  de Espana,  pp.xxix-xxx.  L o u i s 48 1605 and 1611)  suggests that, despite Cervantes' declared enthusiasm, h i s  verse was not highly regarded, even when h i s prose work had already gained an international  reputation.  In Galatea, the songs and poems tend to maintain the t r a d i t i o n a l aesthetic themes of neo-platonic love.  The ambivalence—the tension  between violent circumstance and the bucolic scene, whose denizens are talented musically, a r t i c u l a t e ,  and courtly i n manner—constitutes an early  i n d i c a t i o n of the author's much-noted i n c l i n a t i o n to contrasting ideas i n his presentation of events.  The Eclogue of Book III  provides a s t r i k i n g  contrast between pastoral and romance components of the work. i s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and the " r e a l i t y "  between the t r a d i t i o n a l  So extreme  displays of "danos de amor"  of seriously troubled l i v e s , that Cervantes may be  accused of mocking the rather competitive expressions of torment and self-pity. The entertainment  values of Galatea derive mainly from the i n t r i c a t e  interwoven s t o r i e s , a complex structure of plots marked by coincidence and heavily charged with emotion.  The interplay of interrupted s t o r i e s  represents a technique which recurs i n Don Quixote. as coincidence, confusions of i d e n t i t y ,  Familiar devices, such  c o n f l i c t with parental  authority,  and despairing attempts at s u i c i d e , provide j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r poetic expression of heightened sentiment i n which the suffering of the speaker i s prominent.  iO venturoso para mi este d i a , do puedo poner freno a l t r i s t e l l a n t o , ' y alegrarme de aver dado mi vida a quien darmela puede, o darme muerte! (I, 65, 31-34)  L o u i s 49 The introduction of r e a l i s t i c elements of violence into the a f f a i r s of migrants into the pastoral l i f e may be regarded as an innovative departure from bucolic blandness f o r the genre.  Suspense i s achieved i n the  interruption and p r o l i f e r a t i o n of narratives, and of the problems that i n t e r f e r e with the amatory desires of the characters.  One major problem i s  Galatea's refusal to accept the role which the perceptions and i n t e r e s t s of her pastoral admirers would impose on her, an independence eloquently expressed by Marcela i n Don Quixote. The language of Galatea i s elevated, with more r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e than bucolic r u s t i c i t y .  Cervantes constructs harmonies, not invariably  successfully, of image, sonority and thought—to  which a reader may react  with delighted r e c o g n i t i o n — t o create e f f e c t s akin to what S a n t i l l a n a c a l l e d "invenciones s u t i l e s " . In Book VI, i n perhaps the least successful invention of the work, the muse Caliope appears at the graveside of Meliso (Diego Hurtado de Mendoza?)20 with her e f f u s i v e t r i b u t e , comprehensive rather than discriminating, to some hundred poets contemporary with Cervantes.  Caliope  herself seems apologetic regarding the inadequacy and generality of her language.  The fulsome f l a t t e r y of l i t e r a r y l i g h t s , great and small, would  appear to be a long-standing s o c i a l custom.  Since there are many s i m i l a r  passages i n Viaje del Parnaso, the laudatory sequences w i l l not be considered here as l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . The matter of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s d i f f i c u l t to deal with i n a genre that i s a r t i f i c i a l by convention, since s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h i s point must depend 20 According to Mary Gaylord Randel (116-17), many of the characters represent h i s t o r i c a l persons.  L o u i s 50 on the expectation and understanding of the readers.  As Castro has noted,  " l a novela p a s t o r i l es genero i d e a l i s t a , conscientemente i r r e a l . " 2 i Therefore, what seems improbable today—such as ( i n Book I) Lisandro's pouring out the f u l l t a l e of h i s a f f a i r s to a v i r t u a l stranger,  Elicio,  over the body of Carino (the v i c t i m of Lisandro's vengeance)—may then have been considered acceptable, an expedient convenient to author and reader; e s p e c i a l l y so, since the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the work would seem to be limited to an e l i t e public that might appreciate i t s complex f a b r i c and refined language and the talents of the author. In conclusion, the d i d a c t i c content of La Galatea i s not prominent, leaning more to Stoic ethical concepts than to s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n morality.  An analogy to the question of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e may be noted i n the  s t y l i z e d manners and ideas of the shepherds and shepherdesses, t h e i r conformance to conventions of the genre i n expression despite t h e i r violence i n a c t i o n .  The included poems, while c a r e f u l l y  crafted,  invariably clear and appropriate to the circumstances, cannot be termed inspired or i n s p i r i n g .  The individual story l i n e s , l i k e the language, are  not i n themselves obscure but lack a central focus and p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n .  In Viaje del Parnaso, Cervantes describes an imaginary voyage which r e f l e c t s h i s long journey " i n search of h i s proper place i n the l i t e r a t u r e of h i s country".22  As author, narrator,  and protagonist, he presents  himself as a poet whose s i g n i f i c a n t achievements have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y rewarded.  In sustained terza rima and i n s a t i r i c a l  terms, Cervantes  21 Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , p.179. 2 2 James Y. Gibson, Prologue to his t r a n s l a t i o n of Viaje del Parnaso (1883), p . i i i .  Louis  51  declares his c r i t i c a l perceptions of the state of Spanish l e t t e r s , convinced of the superiority of h i s own l i t e r a r y values.  His farewell to  Madrid sets the tone:  Adios, Madrid, adios tu Prado y f u e n t e s , . . . Y a dos mil desvalidos pretendientes Adios, teatros publicos, honrados Por l a ignorancia que ensalzada veo En cien mil disparates recitados. (I,  120-126)2 3  Setting off to change his lamentable status, the lack of recognition of his work and the resultant poverty, Cervantes expresses his intent and aspirations with typical irony—he w i l l go to Parnassus, taste the waters of the fountain of Aganipe, "y ser de a l i i menos magnifico" (I, forth—like  35-36).  adelante / poeta i l u s t r e ,  Rejecting an unsatisfying r e a l i t y ,  o al  he sets  Don Quixote--on his quest.  Cervantes i s well received at Cartagena, by Mercury, and i s provided with transport to Parnassus i n the god's f a n c i f u l ship constructed of poems i n a great variety of forms.  Mercury e n l i s t s him to aid Apollo to r e s i s t  the onslaught of a rabble of twenty thousand bad poets. Throughout the entertaining account of the whimsically imaginative and comic events of the journey, two recurring strains of c r i t i c i s m predominate.  F i r s t , the author l i s t s h i s grievances over broken promises  linked to a hoped-for place i n the augmented t r a i n — v i r t u a l l y  a literary  court—of the Viceroy at Naples, and the implications of his f a i l u r e ,  at  the assembly on Parnassus, to obtain a seat—which should have been due him  2 3 References to Viaje del Parnaso are i d e n t i f i e d by Chapter and l i n e number of the edition of Miguel Herrero Garcia (1983).  L o u i s 52 considering the published works which he enumerates.  Accordingly,  Cervantes remains "en p i e , que no hay assiento bueno / s i e l favor no l e labra, o l a riqueza" (IV, 95-96).  Second, Cervantes expresses h i s views of  the merits and f a u l t s of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , i n discussing or presenting diverse genres, t o p o i , and motifs. he adds a degree of polemic attack on unfriends.  To a l l t h i s  The conments on authors,  favourable and otherwise, are rendered doubtful by the sheer number of names involved—some one hundred and forty persons are mentioned—and the r e p e t i t i v e character of such cortment, suggesting a continuation of the amiable s o c i a l custom noted regarding C a l i o p e ' s song i n Galatea. Both by example and by i n s i s t e n t s p e c i f i c corrmentary, i n Viaje del Parnaso the author makes a plea f o r c l e a r , precise and elegant language, even when dealing with gross subject matter.  He opposes pretentiousness,  obscurity, p r o l i x i t y and circumlocution. V e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n outright fantasy may be equated to recognizable allegory.  Some connections, such as disguised p e r s o n a l i t i e s and topical  a l l u s i o n s , may fade from view with time and distance, but Viaje del Parnaso has maintained i t s relevance to s o c i e t a l attitudes and l i t e r a r y values over the centuries.  However a r t f u l l y represented, with mythical f i g u r e s ,  dreams, c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s , and parodies, Cervantes' c r i t i q u e s c a l l f o r s i m p l i c i t y and coherence—and excoriate vainglory, pomposity and v u l g a r i t y . Didacticism i s disguised i n t h i s mock epic of conscious l i t e r a r y a r t . There i s l i t t l e attention to propriety but strong support f o r the dignity due to merit and mature judgement.  As i n Don Quixote, Cervantes seems  eager to sweep away trashy works, offering aesthetic and ethical standards based on the c l a s s i c a l concepts and values of A r i s t o t l e and Horace, and on  Louis the poetic techniques of Petrarch and Tasso, as interpreted by Spanish poets l i k e Garcilaso de l a Vega—if not to re-educate public t a s t e ,  to  convince the l i t e r a r y world of the fundamental soundness of h i s own views and his work.  Cervantes' motivation would appear to be the moral  indignation which, according to Juvenal, i s the essential spur of poetry.  Louis 54 CHAPTER IV  Review of relevant l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m .  That he [Cervantes] knew the fundamental [ l i t e r a r y ] doctrines of his epoch has been shown by Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, Marcel B a t a i l l o n , Americo Castro, Martin de Riquer...and others. On the other hand, attempts to determine what h i s p o s i t i o n was to then-contemporary doctrines have f a i l e d to produce even the rudiments of consensus. 2 4  This review deals with twentieth-century c r i t i c a l corrrnentary on the l i t e r a r y values propounded and demonstrated i n Don Quixote.  The major  phases of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , i n each of which one p a r t i c u l a r approach tends to dominate, r e f l e c t generational s h i f t s i n c r i t i c a l fashions on an international scale. The changes i n bias or emphasis from h i s t o r i c a l romanticism, to corrmunications techniques and systems of meaning, to preoccupation with the properties and instruments of language and narrative, represent r e v i s i o n or transference of authority.  The continuing search f o r a " s c i e n t i f i c " basis  for c r i t i c i s m carries with i t an increasingly technical approach to works of a r t .  The alternative c r i t i c a l approaches to l i t e r a t u r e , such as those  based on d i a l e c t i c a l materialism or on feminist orientation, have not enjoyed equivalent popularity or prominence. As an example of the apparent urge to declare a "difference", there i s the a l t e r a t i o n i n c r i t i c a l perception of Don Quixote h i m s e l f — f r o m the idea, dominant i n the f i r s t part of the century, of a protagonist transformed by a heroic image of himself, to that of an e g o t i s t i c a l butt of  2 4 Martinez-Bonati, "Don Quixote" and the Poetics of the Novel (1992), p.21.  Louis satire,  r i d i c u l o u s l y out of touch with r e a l i t y , 2 5  a  55  characterization more  common i n the middle years of the century. However, the great d i v e r s i t y of c r i t i c a l opinion on Cervantes' work has more fundamental causes than l i t e r a r y fashion or ideological orientation.  The ambiguities stemming from the author's consistent  presentation of multiple points of view, h i s various voices, h i s complex mixtures of irony, s a t i r e , parody and pathos i n discourse and n a r r a t i v e , form a reasonable basis f o r divergent perceptions and interpretations. For the early years of the twentieth century, the predominant  critical  approach to Don Quixote was a h i s t o r i c a l romanticism exemplified i n Americo Castro's i n f l u e n t i a l  work, El pensamiento de Cervantes.  His approach may  be considered a scholarly consolidation of the Romantic outlook, including the view that Cervantes expresses humanist yearning f o r a world less mundane and less corrupted by gross materialism. L i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m published during that period tends to concentrate on interpretation  of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the major characters and the  development of techniques of narration, but t e l l s r e l a t i v e l y Cervantes' values i n l i t e r a t u r e .  l i t t l e of  Unamuno, f o r example, enthuses over the  p r i n c i p a l characters of Don Quixote, as d i s t i n c t from the author,26 imbuing the novel with a l l e g o r i c a l content and romantic national symbolism. He makes a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y subjective d e c l a r a t i o n , s t a t i n g :  iQue me importa l o que Cervantes quiso o no quiso poner a l i i y l o que realmente puso? Lo vivo es l o que a l i i descubro. 2 7  25 A l l e n , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool? (1969), p.74. 26 Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 e d i t i o n ) , p. 525. 27 Unamuno, Del sentimiento tragico de la vida (1983 e d i t i o n ) , p.304.  Louis  56  Relating the content of Don Quixote to the h i s t o r i c a l conditions of Cervantes' time, Unamuno sees r e f l e c t i o n s of h i s own s o c i a l consciousness:  C e r v a n t e s . . . c r i t i c a v i c i o s y costumbres de su epoca y ensefia v i r t u d e s . . . a p l i c a b l e tambien a los hombres y estados de cualquier tiempo y lugar.2 8  Such v i c e s , customs and virtues may well include f a i l i n g s , practices and values i n the l i t e r a t u r e of every period, as well as socio-economic and political  considerations.  Casalduero remarks on the emphasis given i n Don Quixote to the discussion and evaluation of l i t e r a t u r e :  Es de notar que en e l Quijote. . .no se leen unos versos o se cuenta una h i s t o r i a , s i n que inmediatamente se pronuncia un j u i c i o . 2 9  Nevertheless, scholars d i f f e r  over the degree to which" corrrnents on l i t e r a r y  matters, made by characters i n the novel, express the views of the author. Moreover, reasoned exposition of the basis f o r judgement i s notably lacking.  S c h e v i l l accepts the opinions of v i r t u a l l y  characters as representing the views of the author. o 3  a l l of Cervantes' Morel-Fatio  states,  "Cervantes takes advantage of the characters to set f o r t h c e r t a i n cherished l i t e r a r y theories".31  Riley considers that the comments of the Canon and  p r i e s t on books of chivalry may be taken as one portion of the author's  28 29 30 31  Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 e d i t i o n ) , p.33. Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.60. S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.106. M o r e l - F a t i o , "Social and H i s t o r i c a l Background " i n Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.124.  Louis ideas.32  57  For the drama, s p e c i f i c a l l y , he endorses the Canon's c r i t i c i s m of  the anachronisms and geographic i m p r o b a b i l i t i e s ,  "se condena e l abuso  excesivo de l a s unidades de a c c i 6 n , tiempo y lugar".33  Nevertheless, he  recognizes that a pervasive ambiguity impedes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Cervantes'  thoughts:  Su propensi6n a ver l a s cosas de cualguier asunto, que h a l l a cauce de expresi6n en su i r o n i a equivoca y su preferencia por e l dialogo c r i t i c o mas que l a s afirmaciones d i r e c t a s , hacen que sea un problema delicado e l f i j a r con p r e c i s i 6 n sus propias opiniones personales.34  B a t a i l l o n distinguishes ideas of the author from those of h i s characters:  [Djueno de sus fabulas, s i n i d e n t i f i c a r s e con ningun personaje convertido en narrador-moralizador, pero simpatizando con todas sus c r i a t u r a s . 3 5  Gilman, while objecting to bias i n c r i t i c i s m , "un t i p o de c r i t i c a cuya v i o l e n t a ceguera no distingue—o no quiere d i s t i n g u i r — e n t r e l i t e r a r i a y l a valoracion moral," s t i l l  takes s p e c i f i c judgements on books,  as i n the p r i e s t ' s scrutiny of Don Quixote's l i b r a r y , author.36  l a valoracion  to be those of the  A l l e n maintains that the author's strategies of irony  d i s t i n g u i s h his views from the c o n f l i c t i n g ideas of h i s characters, including h i s c h r o n i c l e r , Cide Hamete.37  Eisenberg, noting the prevalence  R i l e y , "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.304. i b i d . , p.307. I b i d . , p.293. B a t a i l l o n , "Relaciones l i t e r a r i a s " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.229. Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i t e r a r i o s de Cervantes" i n Actas del Tercero Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp.6-7. 3 7 A l l e n , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool Part II (1979), p. 110. 32 33 34 35 36  Louis  58  of l i t e r a r y discourse and opinion i n Don Quixote and i n other works of Cervantes,38 takes the p o s i t i o n that every character i s a mouthpiece f o r the author unless otherwise indicated i n the t e x t . 3 9 reliability  His confidence i n the  of the Canon's opinions i s complete, yet he states that the  books of chivalry are c r i t i c i z e d as poor l i t e r a t u r e , morally dangerous.40  not because they are  Lewis-Smith, who regards the Canon as an "alter-ego"  of Cervantes i n h i s l i t e r a r y assessments, makes the point that the author's l i t e r a r y recorrrnendations constitute an attempt t o educate p u b l i c t a s t e . 4 1 Flores examines the e f f i c a c y and l i m i t a t i o n s of c e r t a i n  critical  techniques, proposing narratological methodology to overcome problems of perspectivism i n approaching the t e x t , and emphasizing the individual nature of each communicator and receiver of i n f o r m a t i o n . 2 4  Consequently,  he stresses the need to consider subjective influences on both the material ccnrnunicated and the way i n which i t may be understood.43  Parr, also  basing h i s c r i t i c i s m on a narratological approach, indicates the importance of the reader's recognition of who i s speaking, from what level of knowledge, and with what attitude to the circumstances. 4 4  F i n e l l o makes the point, as does Close,  that i t i s the reader who  must decide just who or what i s being r i d i c u l e d i n many of Cervantes'  38 39 40 41  Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), p.11. Eisenberg, A Study of Don Quixote (1993), Preface xv. i b i d . , p.40. Lewis-Smith, "Cervantes y los l i b r o s de c a b a l l e r i a : Los gustos del publico, e l gusto cervantino y e l proposito del Quijote" i n Insula 538 (October 1991), pp.24-26. 42 F l o r e s , "Don Quijote de la Mancha'. perspectivismo narrativo y perspectivismo c r i t i c o " i n Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos, Vol XXI,2 Invierno (1997), pp.273-93. 4 3 F l o r e s , "Don Quijote y su defensa del infante Andres" i n Romance Notes Vol.39 (1999), p.124. 44 Parr, "Some narratological problems i n Don Quixote" i n Studies in Honor of Donald W. Bleznick (1995), p.127.  Louis i r o n i c passages.  59  He maintains that, with a number of the characters  imitating f i c t i o n , the opinions on l i t e r a t u r e of the speakers i n Don Quixote are part of Cervantes' character d e l i n e a t i o n , not necessarily what the author thinks.4 5 I had thought of the consideration of c r i t i c a l corrrnent by chronological period as a device to reduce confusion, much l i k e the convention of distinguishing between "hard" and " s o f t " c r i t i c a l approaches to Don Quixote, an established d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  related to acceptance or  r e j e c t i o n of the influences of romanticism or, perhaps s i m p l i s t i c a l l y , to admiring Don Quixote or considering him r i d i c u l o u s .  However, i t would  appear that revisions of c r i t i c a l approach, involving pretensions to science and new vocabularies, have f a i l e d to produce more profound insights or more unanimity i n perception and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The great divergence i n c r i t i c a l opinions and interpretations d i f f i c u l t i e s i n dealing with Cervantes' work.  creates  However, f o r the purposes of  t h i s t h e s i s , attention w i l l be concentrated on what the c r i t i c s have to say regarding the s p e c i f i c features i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter II as primary concerns of Cervantes i n l i t e r a r y matters. w i l l be presented thematically following categories:  My review of secondary material  rather than chronologically under the  Entertainment, V e r i s i m i l i t u d e , A c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  Didactic Value, and Traditional Forms.  Entertainment The appeal of Don Quixote as enjoyable reading i s , arguably, u n i v e r s a l l y recognized, although Cervantes' work has been termed  45 F i n e l l o , Pastoral Themes and Forms in Cervantes' Fiction  (1994), p.18.  Louis conventional, vulgar and mediocre by some early c r i t i c s . 4 6  60  Most  commentators agree with the author's high opinion of h i s own inventive talent i n offering compelling p l o t s , imaginative concepts, and characters with whom the reader becomes increasingly engaged.47  For example, F i n e l l o  c i t e s Don Quixote's b r i e f spontaneous example of a t a l e of knighterrantry—the  Knight of the Lake (I, 50, 499-501)—as a model of creative  story t e l l i n g , concepts.48  f o r i t s visual q u a l i t i e s , poetic i n t e n s i t y and imaginative  Casalduero i d e n t i f i e s the same passage as an example of  Cervantes' concept of s t y l e i n a t a l e of knight errantry,  evoking admiratio  without extravagance or pedantry.49 A most generally admired aspect of Cervantes' prose i s the f l e x i b l e and convincing adaptation of vocabulary and s t y l e to the great d i v e r s i t y of voices, from r u s t i c to c o u r t l y , from underworld rogues to grandees of Spain.  Navarro notes the inventiveness i n l e x i c a l formation, as well as i n  plot-making:  Es un hecho...que otros lectores 'discretos y simples' de entonces [ s i g l o XVII] admiran tambien en el Quijote el copioso lenguaj'e y l a ingeniosa invenci6n.5 0  Unamuno so valued the language of Don Quixote that he considered i t above the c a p a b i l i t i e s of Cervantes.51  46 c i t e d by Carlos Varo, Genesis y evolucibn del Quijote (1968), p.82. 47 i n Viaje del Parnaso, Mercury c a l l s him "raro inventor" (I, 223) and Cervantes says of himself, "Yo soy aquel que en l a invenci6n excede / A muchos" (IV, 28-29). 48 F i n e l l o , Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics (1998), p.73. 49 Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.187. so Navarro, i n the Introduction to h i s e d i t i o n (1988) of Unamuno's Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1905), p.21. 51 Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 e d i t i o n ) , p.525.  Louis  61  Hatzfeld corrrnents on the attractiveness of the frequent use of elements of folklore—popular sayings, proverbs, phrases from legend and song—of c o l o u r f u l , graphic d e s c r i p t i o n , plus the avoidance of c l i c h e s and pomposity.52  He corrrnends, while others oppose, the technique of narration  involving interruptions and interpolations i n story l i n e s f o r r e l i e f , variety and suspense,53 and remarks on the matching of language to the s o c i a l level of individual speakers. Castro praises the imaginative concepts of Cervantes' poetry,  although  he c r i t i c i z e s technical inconsistencies and a lack of l y r i c q u a l i t y . 5 4 R i l e y also corrrnends the poetry, f o r elevated and sonorous language, harmoniously ornamented and without a f f e c t a t i o n . 5 5 Schevill notes approvingly Cervantes' consistent r i d i c u l e of pretentiousness, but complains of the tedious, perfunctory, and scarcely objective praise of long l i s t s of contemporary writers i n Galatea and Viaje del Pamaso.ss  In f u l l agreement, Morel-Fatio characterizes the "Canto de  Caliope" i n Galatea as " i n s i p i d , fulsome f l a t t e r y i n a shower of laudatory epithets, so promiscuous that they have no meaning."5 7 Rosenblat enumerates the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cherished by Cervantes f o r h i s language, as stated i n Don Quixote: " a l t o , f e s t i v o , l l a n o , c l a r o ,  elegante,  d i s c r e t o " ; and features condemned: "vulgar, oscuro, afectado." He concludes: "Su ideal era una lengua l i a n a s i n vulgaridad y una lengua c u l t a s i n afectacion."5 8  52 53 54 55 56 57  Rosenblat corrrnents at some length on the figures of  Hatzfeld, El Quijote como obra de arte del lenguaje (1949), p.80. i b i d . , p.133. Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , p.173. R i l e y , "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.298. S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), pp. 98, 235, and 241. M o r e l - F a t i o , "Social and H i s t o r i c a l Background" i n Cervantes across the Centuries (1947), p.124. 58 Rosenblat, "La lengua de Cervantes" i n Suma Cervantina (1973), pp.324-325.  Louis  62  speech employed and notes Don Quixote's almost pedantic insistence on proper usage and clear understanding of words, even to' the  frequent  correction of others i n conversation. There i s c r i t i c a l agreement on inventiveness and extraordinary cctrrnand of language—idiom and cadence—in Cervantes' work.  L i t t l e i s said—with  Rosenblat's corrrnent above as an exception—about the author's standards f o r l i t e r a r y excellence.  Verisimi1itude The discussion of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , prominent i n Don Quixote, i l l u s t r a t e s concern f o r poetic t r u t h ,  a philosophical resolution of the  v a l i d i t y of imaginative f i c t i o n against h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y .  The objective  indicated i s the augmentation of c r e d i b i l i t y i n the f a n t a s t i c and the introduction of the marvellous i n s t o r i e s based on real events.  The Canon  t e l l s the p r i e s t :  Hanse de casar l a s fabulas mentirosas con e l entendimiento de los que l a s l e y e r o n . . . e s t a s cosas no podia hacer e l que huyere de l a verosimilitud y l a imitacion. (I, 47, 482)  The A r i s t o t e l i a n l i t e r a r y precepts f o r poetry and f i c t i o n prevalent i n Cervantes' time c a l l f o r the avoidance of the miraculous and supernatural i n favour of l i t e r a t u r e which imitates nature. by B o n i l l a y San Martin and S c h e v i l l . 5 9  This i s the p o s i t i o n taken  Schevill c r i t i c i z e s  inconsistencies i n v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the presentation of the story of  59 B o n i l l a y San Martin, Cervantes y su obra (1916), p.88; S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.106.  Louis Cardenio and Don Fernando.60 concern i s c r e d i b i l i t y , intelligence.  63  Cervantes makes i t c l e a r , however, that h i s  or acceptance, by avoiding offence to the reader's  The Canon corrments, "tanto l a mentira es mejor cuando mas  parece verdadera" (I, 47, 482) and, i n Viaje del Parnaso, Cervantes concurs:  Que entonces l a mentira s a t i s f a c e cuando verdad parece, y esta e s c r i t a con g r a c i a , que a l discreto y simple aplace. (VI, 61-63)  Castro corrments on the author's treatment of the ambiguous nature of " l a verdad" and Cervantes' s e l e c t i o n of harmony i n the mind of the reader as the c r i t e r i o n of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . 6 1  Hatzfeld emphasizes the recurring  c o n f l i c t i n the text between influences of the imagination and the experience of r e a l i t y . 6 2  Casalduero observes the very serious concern  with which Cervantes views the quality of contemporary f i c t i o n , as the author confronts the deformation of h i s i d e a l s — i n Don Quixote.63 According to Varo, the self-transformation of Don Quixote i s achieved by rejection of those parts of r e a l i t y which oppose or r e s t r i c t human hunger for love and glory—seen as the universal basis f o r l i t e r a t u r e . 6 4 A l l e n suggests that the idea of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s blurred by the uncertain nature ascribed to r e a l i t y , but counts i t among the values promoted by Cervantes.65  Referring to the continuing influence of Erasmus  6 0 S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.241. 61 Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , pp.27 and 82. 6 2 Hatzfeld, " The Style of Don Quixote" i n Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.95. 63 Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.344. 64 Varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.406. 6 5 A l l e n , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool, Part II (1979), pp. 45 and 53.  Louis 64 i n the seventeenth century, despite the intense opposition of the Church, Fuentes sees a resistance to monolithic dogmatism i n Cervantes' concepts of uncertainty or duality of truth and the i l l u s i o n a r y character of appearances.66  Eisenberg discusses v e r i s i m i l i t u d e as the basis f o r  l a t i t u d e i n concepts, with the acceptance of marvels governed by reader receptiveness.6 7  This point was made by Percas de Ponseti as w e l l : " E l  l e c t o r constituye una variante en e l grado de v e r o s i m i l i t u d de l a f i c c i 6 n literaria."6 8  Williamson states that v e r i s i m i l i t u d e was a Renaissance  r e q u i s i t e i n l i t e r a t u r e , rather than an A r i s t o t e l i a n idea of mimesis. He notes that insistence on empirical p o s s i b i l i t y excludes the marvellous.69 R i l e y considers that Cervantes believed "invention should not c o n f l i c t with an i n t e l l i g e n t  man's apprehension of r e a l i t y " , 7 0 and that respect f o r  p r o b a b i l i t y renders the marvellous c r e d i b l e . A l l of the above i s consistent with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of two aspects of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e — h i s t o r i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y (debe s e r ) ,  7 1  (podia ser) and poetic ideal  e s s e n t i a l l y i n accord with Carrasco's exposition i n  Don Quixote (II, 3, 560).  Accessibility Las obras de arte no son misterios solo accesibles a los i n i c i a d o s , son expresiones de emociones comunes y corrientes.72  66 Fuentes, Cervantes o la critica de la lectura (1976), p.67. 67 Eisenberg, A Study of Don Quixote (1987), p.105. 68 Percas de Ponseti, Cervantes y su concepto de arte, Tomo I (1975), p.149. 69 Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), pp. 73 and 88. 7 0 R i l e y , Cervantes' Theory of the Novel (1992), p.198. 71 R i l e y , "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), pp.316-317. 7 2 Ramiro de Maeztu, quoted by Castro i n El p'ensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , p.19.  Louis  Cervantes' concern that l i t e r a t u r e  be a t t r a c t i v e  simple readers, as well as to a sophisticated e l i t e ,  65  and accessible to i s noted by S c h e v i l l ,  who remarks on the author's demand f o r s i m p l i c i t y and h i s r i d i c u l e of pedantry and pretentiousness.73  Many c r i t i c s r e g i s t e r the l a t t e r p o i n t ,  but there i s l i t t l e corrment on h i s claim that s i m p l i c i t y and coherence i n the work, and the avoidance of elaboration, are essential to public acceptance and reader enjoyment.  A l l e n does c i t e Cervantes' concern f o r  craftsmanship, unity and coherence, plus the avoidance of pedantry and pseudo-scholarship.7 4 Touching i n d i r e c t l y on the matter of elaboration, there i s considerable c r i t i c a l corrment on a related theme, the interruption of the p r i n c i p a l narrative by subsidiary plots and the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of other stories.  Although corrrnon i n c l a s s i c a l and in'Renaissance works,75 and  accepted by some c r i t i c s as a legitimate introduction of variety and relief,  the practice has been c r i t i c i z e d by others as d i s t r a c t i n g  elaboration to the degree that the supplementary material f u l l y into the main story l i n e . criticism,76  i s not integrated  S c h e v i l l and Unamuno would agree on t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r El curioso irrpertinente.  In contrast,  Hatzfeld corrmends such techniques as suspension of a narrative and delayed i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of characters to heighten a n t i c i p a t i o n ; touches on the "sober r e l i e f "  7 7  and Aguirre  from comic incidents that i s provided by  7 3 S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.171. 7 4 A l l e n , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool? Part II (1979), p.45. 7 5 For example, A r i o s t o ' s Orlando furioso, which i s mentioned several times i n Don Quijote. 7 6 S c h e v i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.243. Unamuno, Vida de don Quijote y Sancho (1988 e d i t i o n ) , p.156. H a t z f e l d , El Quijote como obra de arte de lenguaje (1949), p.133. 7 7  Louis interspersed s t o r i e s . 7 8  66  F i n e l l o also treats of the advantages of  interrupted story spans and mingled story l i n e s . 7 9 R i l e y notes the Canon's condemnation of the abuse of the u n i t i e s of a c t i o n , time and place i n the books of c h i v a l r y ; such abuse, says the Canon, i s destructive of structural coherence.so  Riley remarks:  La t e o r i a l i t e r a r i a contemporanea habia heredado de l a Antigiiedad y l a Edad Media l a nocion de que las digresiones epis6dicas embellecian y daban grandeza a l a o b r a . . . El embellecimiento l i t e r a r i o l e inquietaba [a Cervantes].81  Williamson objects to the "loose, disorganized and often wearyingly digressive material" of the Spanish tales of knight-errantry.82  He  observes that Cervantes "did not share the Canon's despair of writing literature  that would appeal to the general public without  losing the  esteem of the c u l t i v a t e d minority."83  Didactic Value The c l e r i c s ' view of the i n s t r u c t i v e content appropriate to l i t e r a t u r e demands e x p l i c i t Catholic concepts of morality.  The Canon expects  C h r i s t i a n apologetics (I, 47, 481). Cervantes tends to promote the ethical concepts of c l a s s i c a l writers.  C r i t i c s are, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , f a r from  unanimous as to the perceived depth and nature of h i s declared Catholic faith.  78 79 so si 82 83  That he favours "limpieza y decoro" and dignity i n l i t e r a t u r e ,  Aguirre, La obra narrativa de Cervantes (1976), p.179. F i n e l l o , Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics (1998), p.45. R i l e y , ' "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.307. I b i d . , p.314. Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), p.70. I b i d . , p.78.  Louis  67  demonstrating mature understanding of the human condition and human a s p i r a t i o n s , i s e x p l i c i t i n Don Quixote. Unamuno maintains that the author teaches c l a s s i c a l concepts of v i r t u e , while Castro sees i n Don Quixote lessons f o r manners of l i f e and for l i t e r a t u r e . 8 4  Castro recognizes the existence of d i d a c t i c  c r i t i c i s m as a prominent sub-text i n the novel. shown f o r l i t e r a r y  literary  He corrments on the respect  t r a d i t i o n and f o r moral values i n Don Quixote's advice  to Don Diego de Miranda f o r the guidance of h i s son's poetic endeavours (II,  16, 651). He considers Cervantes' r e l i g i o u s ideas closer to those of  Erasmus than to those of the Council of Trent, suggesting that morality can be separated from theology, that an individual experiences the result of higher conduct ("cada uno es a r t i f i c e de su ventura").8 5 Morel - F a t i o corrments on the less-than-generous treatment accorded to churchmen and t h e i r ideas i n Don Quixote.  While the Canon, and even the  p r i e s t — i n Morel-Fatio'-s view—are depicted with respect, there i s a d i s t i n c t lack of sympathy f o r the Duke's c l e r i c , f o r the hermit, the r e l i g i o u s processions.8 6  and for  Varo touches on the discord i n c r i t i c a l  opinion regarding the r e l i g i o u s orientation of Cervantes, c i t i n g Casalduero, who considered the author a conventional  "contrarreformista",  while B a t a i l l o n c a l l e d him an "erasmista", an adherent of C h r i s t i a n humanism.87  Varo perceives a s o c i a l and moral object i n the presentation  of the ideals of knight-errantry,88  c i t i n g one of Don Quixote's many  professions of f a i t h :  84 Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , p.173. 85 i b i d . , pp. 82, 250, and 332. 8 6 M o r e l - F a t i o , "Social and H i s t o r i c a l Background" i n Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.102. 87 varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.91. 88 i b i d . , p.384.  Louis  68  [Cjaballero soy,...aungue en mi alma tienen su propio asiento las t r i s t e z a s , las degracias y las desventuras, no por eso se ha ahuyentado d e l l a l a compasion que tengo de ajenas desdichas. (II, 12, 622)  Referring to Viaje  del Parnaso,  B a t a i l l o n notes a d e f i n i t e moral cast  to Cervantes' c r i t i c i s m of the work of bad poets, "inmoral, l i c e n s i o s o ...hiriente",  contrasted with the author's "amor...de l a p o e s i a . . . c a s t a , no  corrompida por l a bajeza."8 9  Eisenberg maintains,  l i k e Lewis-Smith, that  i n writing of the d e f i c i e n c i e s of existing l i t e r a t u r e , Cervantes attempts to elevate public taste; s p e c i f i c a l l y , . t o improve the readers' moral and l i t e r a r y standards.9  0  On the matter of the p r i e s t ' s recorrmendation of censorship, Gilman i s emphatic that Cervantes disagrees; yet he contends that, as the author s t a t e s , the objective of the novel i s to make the reader recognize the unfitness and danger to society of the degenerate books of chivalry and of popular contemporary theatre.91 i n Don Quixote  Williamson i d e n t i f i e s as d i d a c t i c  features  the insistence on u n i t i e s of time and space i n l i t e r a t u r e  and the need for decorum, e d i f i c a t i o n and moral u t i l i t y . 9 2  Redondo d i r e c t s  attention to the pervasiveness of the concept of justice presented i n the novel, the recurring theme of defence against oppression.93 The differences i n perception and emphasis i n the c r i t i c s ' views are greatest i n t h i s category, unconsciously mirroring the m u l t i p l i c i t y  of  B a t a i l l o n , "Relaciones l i t e r a r i a s " i n Suma cervantina (1973), pp. 220 and 222. 90 Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), pp. 61 and 159. 91 Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i t e r a r i o s de Cervantes" i n Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp. 23 and 25. 92 Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), p.73. 93 Redondo, "El Quijote h i s t o r i c o - s o c i a l " i n Cervantes (1995), p.281. 89  Louis viewpoints which Cervantes exploits so adeptly.  69  Readers are l e f t to  synthesize the data according to t h e i r own formation and b i a s .  Traditional Forms Cervantes combines an obvious respect f o r established l i t e r a r y rules and models with readiness to depart from convention, p a r t i c u l a r l y prose.  i n his  As Avalle-Arce and Riley put i t : "Como siempre con Cervantes, l a  t r a d i c i 6 n l i t e r a r i a ha proveido modelos para superar, mas que i m i t a r . " 9 4 The formal rules reconmended i n Don Quixote r e f l e c t A r i s t o t l e ' s Poetics,  the ideas of  and i t has been suggested that Cervantes must have  been f a m i l i a r with Alonso L6pez Pinciano's Filosophia antigua poetica [1596].95  Referring to the Persiles,  Castro declares, "Es innegable que  Cervantes aspiro a hacer...una obra conformada a los mas e s t r i c t o s canones poeticos."96  B o n i l l a y San Martin considers that the author regards poetry  as' a science, with e x p l i c i t adherence to t r a d i t i o n a l  rules and requirements.97  Varo includes  forms among the author's primary requirements f o r  the guidance of w r i t e r s . 9 8  Riley notes the s i g n i f i c a n c e of rules i n  Cervantes perception of l i t e r a r y forms: " E l a r t e , c l a r o esta, era i d e n t i f i c a d o con l a s « r e g l a s » . 9 9 These c r i t i c s recognize the importance which Cervantes gives to the concept that a w r i t e r ' s imaginative individualism finds expression within the constraints of accepted l i t e r a r y forms.  While speculation i s r i f e i n  most aspects of interpretation of the author's work, there seems minimal  94 95 96 97 98 99  Avalle-Arce and R i l e y , "Don Quijote" i n Suma cervantina (1973), p.50. Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 e d i t i o n ) , pp. 32 and 35. i b i d . , p.42. B o n i l l a y San Martin, Cervantes y su obra (1916), p.93. Varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.82. R i l e y , "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.295.  Louis  70  consideration of the apparent inconsistency of such conservatism from the "inventor of the novel".  Forcione does refer to a dichotomy i n the  Cervantes-Aristotle relationship of ideas: on one hand, the acceptance of rules and precepts of the c l a s s i c a l ideal of l i t e r a t u r e and, on the other, the rejection of old patterns f o r the creative fantasy that distinguishes  Don Quixote.too  The p r i n c i p l e areas of maximum agreement among c r i t i c s on the l i t e r a r y corrmentaries i n Don Quixote include Cervantes' p o s i t i v e interest i n the quality of language and of imaginative invention, and his e x p l i c i t condemnation of pretentious display. A surrmation of Cervantes' own perceptions and concerns with regard to literature—as  disclosed i n Don Quixote--is discussed i n the following  chapter, and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table V .  100 c i t e d by Montero Reguera, El Quijote y la critica contempoL'anea (1997), p.78.  Louis  71  CONCLUSION  Tu, l e t o r , pues eres prudente, juzga l o que te pareciere. (II,  24, 713)  Concentration on Cervantes' concerns with l i t e r a t u r e was intended to provide a single focus f o r t h i s t h e s i s .  No pre-eminence of l i t e r a r y  considerations over social or philosophic values to be found i n Don Quixote i s implied.  Rather, recognition i s given to the importance which the  author accords to presenting perceptions of the l i t e r a r y  arts,  their  objectives, and both p o s i t i v e and negative aspects of contemporary texts and p r a c t i c e s .  His ideas of what i s worthwhile and what i s to be deplored  i n the f i c t i o n , h i s t o r y , poetry and drama of h i s time—and of the way i n which they are brought before the public—form a substantial component of his works. In Don Quixote, i t i s consistently maintained that the aim of l i t e r a t u r e should be to entertain and i n s t r u c t , "deleitar y ensenar", although readers and authorities may d i f f e r from the writer as to what i s entertaining and what s h a l l be taught. vastly entertaining—notwithstanding  Don Quixote has been accepted as  some few dissenters—throughout the  world and across the centuries, but no comparable agreement has emerged on the d i d a c t i c orientation or q u a l i t i e s of Cervantes' master-work.  Despite  the m i l l i o n s of words written i n examination and interpretation of the narrative, literary  and despite the s i g n i f i c a n t number of sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g  opinions expressed i n i t by the author, h i s surrogates and h i s  characters, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the precepts and tastes that governed his own writing remains i l l - d e f i n e d .  Louis  72  A basic premise of this thesis i s that Cervantes' concepts of l i t e r a r y values may be derived, i n d u c t i v e l y , from the data provided i n his t e x t , from the corrrnents made and the characterizations of the sources. Conclusions may then be based on a close reading of Don Quixote and consideration of expressed opinions i n the l i g h t of what the author us about the individual speakers.  tells  I conclude that the major characters i n  the book speak for themselves—for who they are and the sector of society which they represent—in discussing the q u a l i t i e s of l i t e r a r y works. diverse voices, whether stating individual i n t e r e s t ,  These  imbued doctrine, class  prejudice, or thoughtful corrment, present a cross-section of Spanish opinion.  On the other hand, c r i t i c i s m s of contemporary practices i n the  l i t e r a r y world—such as plagiarism, pseudo-erudition, pretentious display of praise from supposed or invented a u t h o r i t i e s , t r i v i a l i t y i n content, and pandering to the lowest i n public taste—may be considered v a l i d r e f l e c t i o n s of Cervantes' concerns, even though he prudently distances himself by placing most of such c r i t i c i s m i n the mouths of minor characters. To review Cervantes' own perceptions and concerns with regard to l i t e r a t u r e , as disclosed i n Don Quixote,  a re-examination of the categories  of q u a l i t i e s corrrnended and those condemned i s indicated. would appear that, i n the category of Entertainment,  From Table I,  it  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  most corrrnended are imaginative concepts and elegance of language; that c r e d i b i l i t y i s the key to V e r i s i m i l i t u d e ; that s i m p l i c i t y fosters A c c e s s i b i l i t y ; that considerations of morality, notably the lack of edifying material are of most concern for Didactic Value; and that the concern for Traditional Rules and Forms i s perhaps less generally f e l t than  Louis for other leading c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Table II,  73  dealing with l i t e r a r y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s condemned i n Don Quixote, suggests pretentiousness as a primary f a u l t ; fantastic exaggeration as most damaging to V e r i s i m i l i t u d e ; circumlocution as i n t e r f e r i n g with A c c e s s i b i l i t y ; and the lack of edifying content as l i m i t i n g Didactic Value. The weight of individual corrments i s subject to evaluation, i n view of what i s known of the speaker and the circumstances under which the corrments are made.  For example, when the p r i e s t i s disposing of Don Quixote's  l i b r a r y , h i s corrments represent the views of a v i l l a g e c l e r i c of indifferent education, i n h i s conscious role as the moral and, perhaps, the i n t e l l e c t u a l and cultural authority f o r the community; whereas, when he i s discussing l i t e r a t u r e with the Canon, h i s comments are most l i k e l y to conform to a p o s i t i o n expected by an h i e r a r c h i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l superior. For t h i s t h e s i s , the evaluations of l i t e r a r y corrments have been i t e r a t i v e processes, assigning varying levels of credit to the opinions recorded i n Chapter I,  resulting i n d i f f e r i n g weighting factors f o r the  opinions of the commentators.  For example, the detailed evaluation process  gives the opinions of the Canon approximately twice the authority allowed to those of the p r i e s t .  While the total d e t a i l i s too laborious and  r e p e t i t i v e f o r presentation i n the t h e s i s , one comparison may i l l u s t r a t e the process:  In discussion of the comedias, the Canon states that the  i n f e r i o r contemporary dramatic productions are not the fault of the public (who had demonstrated ample support f o r better plays i n the past), but the work of ignorant or misguided producers, including writers and actors. The p r i e s t , however, attributes the decadence of the theatre to depraved public taste and recommends censorship.  In consideration of the data i n the text  Louis  74  about these characters, t h e i r backgrounds, i n t e r e s t s , status, and the circumstances under which the statement i s made, d i f f e r i n g credits (values between 1 and 10) are assigned to these statements.  O v e r a l l , the r a t i o s of  the averaged credits determine the r e l a t i v e authority of the voices and the r e l a t i v e importance of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d . i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table V.  The effect  is  Louis 75  TABLE V CHARACTERISTICS COMMENDED UNWHGHTEDi WEIGHTED2  CHARACTERISTICS CONDEMNED UNWEIGHTED WEIGHTED  Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot 3 Imaginative concepts 7 Suspense 2 Language and Style Elegance 5 Clarity 2  8  Dullness Pretentiousness  14 6  3 5 2  Prolixity  12 5 Verisimilitude  Veradty Credibility  1 11  Mendacity Anachronisms Geographic absurdity Fantastic exaggeration  3 1  5 1  1  1  4  9  Circumlocution 3 Pseudo-erudition 2 Poor translation 2  9 5 4  Accessibility Simplicity Coherence  4 1  Didactic Value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement  4 2 2 3  10 3 6 9  Lasciviousness 2 Lack of edifying 3 content  Traditional Rules and Forms Observance  7  1 The unweighted values represent the simple sum of the numbers of commendations and condemnations of particular characteristics recorded in Tables I and II. 2 Weighting factors for each character or group are derived from the ratios of numerical credits assigned to the literary opinions expressed in Chapter I of the thesis. These credits reflect the level of authority indicated by data which Cervantes provides regarding the speakers.  Louis It may be noted that the leading l i t e r a r y and Table II  76  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Table I  remain leaders after the weighting process i s applied.  However, a number of secondary features register gains i n r e l a t i v e by v i r t u e of greater authority assigned to their proponents.  status,  A clearer  picture now emerges i n examination of the individual categories. With regard to Entertainment,  Cervantes writes: "Yo he dado, en Don  Quijote, pasatiempo a l pecho melancolico y mohino."ioi he considers " l a invenci6n creadora" paramount..  To accomplish t h i s ,  He maintains that the  readers' enjoyment of suspense, surprise and wonder constitute a primary objective and essential function of l i t e r a t u r e .  Cervantes' pride i n h i s  own inventiveness and imaginative f l a i r i s disclosed repeatedly i n h i s works, emphasizing the essential character of i n t r i c a c y of p l o t , variety i n theme and s t y l e , and uncorrrnon treatment of event and characterization. His approach i s consistent with E l Pinciano's contention that the poet should be new and rare i n invention. In the matter of language—the subject of much c r i t i c a l comment and admiration—he c a l l s f o r c l e a r , simple elegance and expressive s o n o r i t i e s . He decries both pedestrian dullness and pretentious elaboration.  Cervantes  delights i n the archaic phrasing and o r a t o r i c a l rhetoric of the books of c h i v a l r y , even when he mocks t h e i r convoluted hyperbole.  A much-discussed  feature of a r t i s t r y i n language i s Cervantes' s e n s i t i v i t y to vocabulary s t y l e s and cadences of speech among people of d i f f e r i n g origins or s o c i a l levels.  In Don Quixote, Sancho Panza d e l i v e r s peasant bluntness and the  proverbs of popular wisdom; the Biscayan speaks a tortured C a s t i l i a n ; the utterances of the prisoners destined f o r the galleys are tinged with  101 Cervantes, Viaje del Parnaso (1983 e d i t i o n , IV, 22-23), p.253.  Louis  77  thieves' cant; Marcela expresses herself with eloquence and refinement appropriate to pastoral convention; Carrasco speaks i n a flawed scholarly idiom; Ruy Perez de Viedma, escaped from Moorish c a p t i v i t y , s a l t s h i s t a l e with Arabic words; while Don Quixote himself provides a treasure of c h i v a l r i c phrase and manner.  Beyond vocabulary and s t y l e , Cervantes'  economical and evocative descriptive imagery enhances reader engagement and "delight". The entertainment  value of Cervantes' works—though not reader  interest i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y - - i s marred only by h i s recurring expression of b i t t e r disappointment with the limited recognition and inadequate rewards which he experienced.  Even when cast i n humourous or i r o n i c terms,  the complaints often s t r i k e a jarring note. expressed motivation f o r writing  They can be accepted as the  Viaje del Parnaso, but h i s statement of  resentment at exclusion from the Duke of Lerma's following, on the Duke's relocation to Naples, seems remote from the s p i r i t he proposes f o r l i t e r a r y composition.  The recorrrnended avoidance of envious c r i t i c i s m and of  personal attack would require that writers adopt constructive attitudes and professional courtesy. Cervantes' presentation of entertainment  as a p r i n c i p a l function of  f i c t i o n , poetry and drama makes i t a catalyst f o r success i n the other categories defined.  To t h i s , Cervantes adds a requirement f o r c l a r i t y with  elegance i n language, which he demonstrates with f l e x i b i l i t y  and freedom  well beyond the c l a s s i c a l conventions. The treatment of V e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n Don Quixote i s more doubtful. discussion of truth and fantasy, Cervantes aligns himself with the most  In  Louis authoritative  78  and c u l t u r a l l y prestigious l i t e r a r y standards of h i s time,  espousing responsible treatment of "truth".  Forcione states:  The ambivalence marking Cervantes' engagement with neo-Aristotelian l i t e r a r y theory may remain ultimately  irreducible.102  However, faced with the d i f f i c u l t y of reconciling l i t e r a l i s m with e f f e c t i v e artistry  i n f i c t i o n , Cervantes s e t t l e s f o r the promotion of c r e d i b i l i t y ,  the avoidance of i n s u l t to reader  intelligence.  A corollary effect i s demonstrated i n the apparent v a r i a b i l i t y of standards of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e according to the accepted conventions of different  l i t e r a r y genres.  If the c r i t e r i o n f o r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e were reader  tolerance, f a m i l i a r i t y with the conventions of pastorals and books of chivalry might permit reader acceptance of material which, otherwise, would be considered a r t i f i c i a l ,  extravagant  and i n c r e d i b l e .  The apparent  confusion i s not resolved by examination of the means employed by Cervantes i n Don Quixote to achieve p l a u s i b i l i t y by establishing f a m i l i a r i t y .  He may  describe a s i t u a t i o n from the d i f f e r i n g points of view of several characters, or give i t recognizable a l l e g o r i c a l implications, an open-ended device whose effect would depend on the cultural backgrounds and bias of the readers.  Riley touches on t h i s theme:  Cervantes describio con l a prosa narrativa que el arte es un especie de l a i l u s i o n en l a que p a r t i c i p a e l l e c t o r , como un juego, con consciencia de su i r r e a l i d a d . 1 0 3  102 Forcione, Cervantes, Aristotle and the Persiles (1970), p.339. 103 R i l e y , "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " i n Suma cervantina (1973), p.322.  Louis  79  S i m i l a r l y , the b e l i e f that Don Quixote must be mad may permit the reader to accept his strange adventures and the flawed perceptions i n which they originate. There i s an implied acceptance of influences of the I t a l i a n Renaissance, notably an admiration for the freer work of A r i o s t o , consistent with further ambivalence on the subject of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . Cervantes declares support for the appearance of truth i n f i c t i o n ,  the  closer the better, while obviously r e v e l l i n g i n the f a n t a s t i c , i n the "poetic truth" of strange events evoking admiratio. the appeal of the marvellous i s manifest.  In Cervantes'  writing,  V e r i s i m i l i t u d e i s adapted to the  requirement to engage the imaginations of the readers i n grasping "poetic truth",  i n s p i t e of the uncertainties and d i s t o r t i o n s of human perceptions.  The concern with A c c e s s i b i l i t y r e f l e c t s the author's confidence i n the potential  of l i t e r a t u r e to influence s o c i e t y .  Hence, the importance of  reaching the broadest p u b l i c , and of c l a r i t y i n ideas and expression, and of coherent development of theme—requirements with which Cervantes complies consistently, i n both poetry and prose.  Consideration of the  expectations and interests of readers and audiences involves decision between the exploitation of vulgar tastes and the more responsible aim of encouragement and development of a discerning public with appropriate standards for l i t e r a t u r e .  Less contentious i s Cervantes' condemnation of  pseudo-erudition, of deliberate obscurity, and of elaboration of language and pretentious display—features i n h i b i t i n g reader and audience involvement. Within the category of Didactic Values, morality emerges as a major concern.  The p r i e s t and Canon both condemn lasciviousness i n l i t e r a t u r e  and the Canon emphasizes the potential  lost for lack of edifying example:  Louis  80  Puede mostrar l a s astucias de U l i x e s , l a piedad de Eneas, l a valentia de Aquiles, l a s desgracias de Hector, l a s traiciones de Sinon. l a amistad de E u r i a l i o , l a l i b e r a l i d a d de Alejandro, el valor de Cesar, l a clemencia y verdad de T r a j a n o . . . l a prudencia de Caton, y , finalmente, todas aquellas acciones que pueden hacer perfecto a un varon. (I, 47, 483) Cervantes—through his narrator,  and through Don Quixote i n his sanest  moments—also expresses strong support f o r moral themes, "reprehending v i c e " (II,  16, 651), although he refers more to the ethics of c l a s s i c a l  models than to the C h r i s t i a n apologetics favoured by the Canon.  For a  writer who seems to j u s t i f y Don Quixote by putting forward the objective of extirpation of a pernicious l i t e r a r y genre to which the Church has been opposed, Cervantes has h i s characters f i n d much to canrmend, as well as to c r i t i c i z e i n the books. Much of Cervantes' work has exemplary implications, including several of the s t o r i e s within Don Quixote.  Moreover, i n the matter of contemporary  behaviour, he argues f o r propriety and dignity i n l i t e r a t u r e , deploring tendencies to s c u r r i l o u s personal attacks.  He praises the constructive  display of mature judgement as an e f f e c t i v e mode of l i t e r a r y didacticism. In the observance of Traditional Rules and Forms, Cervantes' professions and performance i l l u s t r a t e for V e r i s i m i l i t u d e .  a dichotomy s i m i l a r to that noted  In Don Quixote, he consistently declares support f o r  adherence to established l i t e r a r y modes. careful adherence to such forms.  His poetry demonstrates the most  Moreover, i n his prose, he makes h i s  works showcases of h i s v e r s a t i l i t y i n composition i n a variety of s t y l e s and genres, even when c r i t i c a l of t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s .  However, i n  abandoning the u n i t i e s — o r introducing innovative features i n narrative development, he readily departs from t r a d i t i o n .  Forcione remarks:  Louis  81  Cervantes i s highly conscious of both the general and s p e c i f i c aspects of l i t e r a r y theorizing i n the Renaissance and generally sympathetic with i t s aims...On the other hand he i s suspicious about the burdens with which the c r i t i c a l movement saddled the creative a r t i s t . . . C o n s e q u e n t l y he does not h e s i t a t e . . . t o assert openly h i s independence.io4  Comparison of the precepts favoured i n the text of Don Quixote with the actual writing i n t h i s and other works of Cervantes confirms a degree of ambivalence.  It would seem that h i s adherence to the more prestigious  neo-Aristotelian literary  standards of the time i s not consistent.  Cervantes celebrates c l a s s i c a l concepts of l i t e r a t u r e ,  as represented by  the precepts of A r i s t o t l e and the works of V i r g i l and Horace. have been familiar with the Filosofia L6pez Pinciano. of t r a d i t i o n a l  He would  antigua poetica [1596] of Alonso  Y e t , i n s p i t e of h i s repeated recommendation of observance rules and forms, he i s creating, simultaneously, a new form  of n a r r a t i v e - - t h e  prose novel--which he c a l l s "prose e p i c " .  Inherent i n the l i t e r a r y  corrmentaries i s the recognition of profound  mutual influences between l i t e r a t u r e and society and the power of entertainment  f o r deeper purposes.  In Gogol's The Inspector General  (1836), the d i s c r e d i t e d mayor of a corrupt Russian provincial town turns angrily on the audience of the play, demanding: "What are you laughing at? You are laughing at yourselves!"  Azana wrote: "As the posterity of the  Quijote we are debtors to i t f o r part of our s p i r i t u a l criaturas cervantinas."105  l i f e : somos  Riley notes that Don Quixote ( l i k e Hamlet) has  been a more powerful figure i n the minds of people—for centuries—than countless h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 1 0 6  Amadis of Gaul has been described  104 Forcione, Cervantes, Aristotle and the Persiles 105 Azana, Obras Completas V o l . I (1966), p.1100. 106 R i l e y , Don Quixote (1986), p.70.  (1970),  pp.106-07.  Louis as the d e f i n i t i v e knight-errant,  the source and pattern of the "code of  honour" which governed generations of Spanish gentlemen.107  As Eisenberg  puts i t , " l a l i t e r a t u r a nos ensena como v i v i r " . i o s Cervantes' Don Quixote attempts to combine the c h i v a l r i c ideal of protecting the oppressed with his ambition f o r personal fame.  Cervantes  himself—another addicted reader—devotes much of Don Quixote to i d e n t i f y i n g faults i n existing l i t e r a r y works, contrasted with preferred c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r a c t i c e s .  He combines ambition f o r greater  rewards,  and f o r greater recognition i n the l i t e r a r y world, with perceptions of a standard of l i t e r a t u r e that should restore Spanish l e t t e r s to a worthier place i n c i v i l i z a t i o n .  107 Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes de la novela (1943 edition) V o l . l , p.352. 108 Eisenberg, Cervantes y Don Quijote (1993), p.39.  82  Louis 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources: Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote de la Mancha. Ed. Martin de Riquer, decima e d i c i o n , dos tomos, (1955). Barcelona: —.  Editorial  Juventud, 1985.  E d . Juan Bautista A v a l l e - A r c e .  La Galatea.  Madrid:  Espasa-Calpe, 1987. Ed. Rudolfo Schevill y Adolfo B o n i l l a , dos  . La Galatea. tomos. —.  Madrid: Bernardo Rodriguez, 1914.  Viaje del Parnaso.  Ed. Miguel Herrero Garcia.  Madrid:  Consejo Superior de Investigaciones C i e n t i f i c a s ,  Instituto  «Miguel de Cervantes», 1983. —.  T r . James Y. Gibson.  London:  La obra narrativa de Cervantes.  Havana:  Voyage to Parnassus. Kegan Paul, 1883.  Secondary Sources: Aguirre, M i r t a .  E d i t o r i a l Arte y L i t e r a t u r a , 1976. A l l e n , John J .  Don Quixote: Hero or Fool?  A Study in Narrative  Technique. G a i n s v i l l e , FL: UP of F l o r i d a , 1969. . Don Quixote: Hero or Fool, Part II.  Gainsville, FL:  UP of F l o r i d a , 1979. . "The Narrators,  the Reader and Don Quixote." MLN 91  (1976) 201-12. A v a l l e - A r c e , Juan B.  "Don Quijote" como forma de vida.  Fundaci6n Juan March/Castalia, 1976.  Madrid:  Louis 84 Azana, Manuel.  Obras Cowpl etas V o l . I.  Ed. Juan Marichal.  Mexico C i t y : Ediciones Oasis, 1966. B a t a i l l o n , Marcel.  "Relaciones l i t e r a r i a s , "  i n Suma cervantina.  Ed. Juan B. Avalle-Arce and Edward C. R i l e y .  London:  Tamesis Books, 1973. pp.215-32. Bleznick, Donald W.  A Sourcebook for Hispanic Literature and  Language. London: Scarecrow Press, 1995. B o n i l l a y San Martin, Adolfo.  Cervantes y su obra.  Madrid:  Francisco Beltran, L i b r e r i a Espanola y Extranjera, 1916. . Critica  cervantina.  Bonnycastle, Stephen.  Madrid: Ruiz Hermanos, 1917.  In Search of Authority, second e d i t i o n .  Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1996. Casalduero, Joaquin.  Sentido y forma del "Quijote" (1949).  Madrid: Insula, 1975. Castro, Americo.  Hacia Cervantes, tercera edicion.  Madrid:  Taurus, 1967. —.  El pensamiento de Cervantes, novena e d i c i o n . Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Noguer, 1972. [ F i r s t edition 1925]  Chevalier, Maxime. XVI y XVII. Close, Anthony. A Critical Criticism.  Lectura y lectores en la Espana de los siglos Madrid: Ediciones Turner, 1976.  The Romantic Approach to "Don Quixote": History of the Romantic Tradition in Quixote Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 1978.  . "La c r i t i c a del Quijote desde 1925 hasta ahora", i n Cervantes. pp.311-34.  Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995.  Louis 85 Eisenberg, Daniel.  "Did Cervantes Have a Library?" i n Hispanic  Studies in Honor of Alan D. Deyermond. A North American Tribute,  Ed. John S. M i l e t i c h .  Madison: Hispanic  Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1986. pp.93-106. —.  A Study of" Don Quixote". Newark, DE: Juan de l a Cuesta, 1987. . Estudios cervantinos.  Barcelona: Sirmio, 1991.  . Cervantes y Don Quijote. F i n e l l o , Dominick.  Barcelona: Montesinos, 1993.  'Shepherds at Play: Literary Conventions  and Disguises i n the Pastoral Narratives i n Cervantes and the Pastoral.  of the Quijote",  Ed. Jose J . Labrador  Herraiz and Juan Fernandez Jimenez.  Cleveland, Ohio: Perm  State U . , 1986. pp.115-28. — .  Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics. London: Tamesis Books, 1988. . Pastoral Themes and Forms in Cervantes'  Fiction.  Lewisburg, PA: Bucknall UP, 1994. F l o r e s , Robert M.  "Don Quijote de la Mancha: perspectivismo  narrativo y perspectivismo c r i t i c o " ,  Revista Canadiense de  Estudios Hisp&nicos, 21 (1997), 273-93. . "Una posible protofabula a El curioso irrpertinente de Cervantes", — .  Cervantes, 18 (1998), 134-43.  "Don Quijote y su defensa del infante Andres", Romance Notes, 39 (1999), 123-35.  — .  "Formaci6n del personaje feminino en El curioso irrpertinente", Revista de Estudios Hispinicos,  34 (2000).  Louis 86 Fuentes, Carlos. Mexico:  Cervantes o la critica  de la  lectura.  Joaquin Mortiz, 1976.  Gilman, Stephen.  "Los inquisidores l i t e r a r i o s  de Cervantes",  i n Actas del Tercer Congreso Intemacional de Hispanistas. Ed. Carlos H. Magis.  Mexico C i t y :  E l Colegio de Mexico  (1970). pp. 3-25. Hatzfeld, Helmut. Madrid:  El "Quijote" como obra de arte del lenguaje.  Patronato del IV Centenario del Nacimiento de  Cervantes, 1949. . "The Style of Don Quixote", t r . Edith Mead, i n Cervantes Ed. Angel Flores and M.J.  Across the Centuries.  Bernadette  New York: Dryden Press, 1947. pp.94-100. Lewis-Smith, Paul.  "Cervantes y los l i b r o s de c a b a l l e r i a : Los  gustos del publico, el gusto cervantino y el proposito del Quijote."  Insula, 538 (Oct. 1991), 24a-26b.  Madariaga, Salvador de.  Guia del lector del "Quijote", sexta edicion.  Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sud-Americana, 1967. [ F i r s t edition Martinez-Bonati, Novel.  Felix.  "Don Quixote" and the Poetics of the  T r . Dian Fox.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992.  Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino.  "Interpretaciones del Quijote".  Discusi6n l e i d a en l a Real Academia Espanola, 1904. —.  Origenes de la novela, V o l . 1 . [ F i r s t edition 1905]  Santander: Aldus, 1943.  1926]  Louis 87 Montero Reguera, Jose.  " L a Galatea y el Persiles",  i n Cervantes.  Ed. AnthonyClose, et a l . Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995. —.  pp.157-72.  El "Quijote" y la critica  contemporanea. Madrid: Centro de  Estudios Cervantinos, 1997. Morel-Fatio, A.  "Social and H i s t o r i c a l Background", t r . Mary  Campbell B r i l l , i n Cervantes Across the Centuries. E d . Angel Flores and M. J . Bemadette. 1947.  New York: Dryden Press,  pp.101-27.  Parr, James A .  "Some Narratological  Problems i n Don Quixote:  Five Instances," i n Studies in Honor of Donald W. Bleznick. Ed. Delia V. Galvan, et a l . Newark, DE:  Juan de l a  Cuesta, 1995. pp.127-42. Percas de Ponseti, Helena.  Cervantes y su concepto de arte, V o l . 1 and II.  Madrid: E d i t o r i a l Gredos, 1975. Randel, Mary Gaylord.  "The Language of Limits and the Limits of  Language: The C r i s i s of Poetry i n L a Galatea", i n Cervantes: Modern Critical House, 1987. Redondo, Agustin.  Views. Ed. Harold Bloom.  New York: Chelsea  pp.115-34. "Acercamiento a l Quijote desde una perspectiva  h i s t d r i c o - s o c i a l " , i n Cervantes. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995. pp.257-94.  Louis 88 R i l e y , Edward C.  "Teoria l i t e r a r i a " , i n Suma cervantina.  Ed. J . B . Avalle-Arce and E . C . R i l e y .  London: Tamesis Books, 1973  pp.293-322. London: A l l e n & Unwin, 1986.  . Don Quixote. —.  Cervantes's Theory of the Novel. 1992.  [First edition  Riquer, Martin de.  Newark, DE: Juan de l a Cuesta,  1962]  Cervantes y el "Quijote". Barcelona: Teide, 1960.  Rosenblat, Angel.  "La lengua de Cervantes", i n Suma cervantina.  Ed. J . B . Avalle-Arce and E . C . R i l e y .  London: Tamesis Books, 1973.  pp.323-56. S c h e v i l l , Rudolph.  Cervantes.  Unamuno, Miguel de.  London: John Murray, 1919.  Vida de don Quijote y Sancho, decimoquinta  Ed. Alberto Navarro.  edicion  Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1971.  [ F i r s t edition 1905] . Del sentimiento tragico de la vida.  Madrid: A k a l , 1983.  [ F i r s t edition 1913] Van Doren, Mark.  Don Quixote's Profession.  New York: U. of Columbia,  1958. Varo, Carlos.  Genesis y evolucion de "Quijote". Madrid: Ediciones  A l c a l a , 1968. Williamson, Edwin. 1984.  The Half-way House of Fiction.  Oxford: Oxford UP.,  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 26 5
Germany 24 75
China 17 4
United Kingdom 9 0
France 8 0
Russia 4 0
Sweden 2 0
Poland 2 0
Romania 1 0
Turkey 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 36 80
Shenzhen 13 4
Tamworth 8 0
Lewes 8 0
Ashburn 7 0
West Covina 4 0
Saint Petersburg 4 0
Atlanta 3 0
Stockholm 2 0
Plano 2 0
Guangzhou 2 0
Choisy-le-Roi 2 0
Beijing 2 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099486/manifest

Comment

Related Items