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Perceptions of literary opinion in Don Quijote de la Mancha 2000

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PERCEPTIONS OF LITERARY OPINION IN DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA by HARRY LOUIS B.A., University of Victoria, 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of French, Hispanic and Italian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard Dr. R. M.^Flores, Supervisor (Department of French,.Hispanic and Italian Studies) ^^JSF^^T'Q.. Carr (Department of FrenprfTiHispanic and Italian Studies) DrVR. Holdawajy (Department of French, Hispanicyand Italian Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 2000 (c) Harry Louis, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. D e P a r t m e n t o f ^ 4, a ^ U _ ^ SfSfe The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ( ^ W ^ _ j g J l M * 2 - ^ > - < ^ 0 DE-6 (2/88) 11 ABSTRACT The thesis i s based on the premise that an author who provides expressions of l i terary opinion by the characters in his f ic t ional work wi l l also include his own views among the others—expl ic i t ly , v icar iously , or by demonstration. In Don Quixote, the purported attack on books of chivalry and the inclusion of poems and stories in variant styles provide just i f icat ion for extensive corrrnentaries on l i terary themes. To distinguish Cervantes' views among the diverse l i terary opinions expressed, such corrrnentaries are evaluated on the basis of the information provided by the author as to the background and interests of the speakers— the characters, chronicler or narrator. Specif ic qual i t ies carmended, condemned, or demonstrated are ident i f ied . Stories and serious poems inserted in the novel, and l i terary ccanrrnent in Cervantes' Galatea and Viaje del Pamaso, are examined for corroboration or contradiction of the findings. Relevant opinions of several generations of twentieth-century c r i t i c s are examined. Conclusions sunrnarize—for F ic t ion , Poetry and Drama—the features which sat isfy the stated requirement to "delight and instruct" and those to be avoided. A degree of ambivalence, between certain l i terary precepts which Cervantes promotes in Don Quixote and those demonstrated in his work, i s ident i f ied. Special requirements for History are noted. Whether or not, under the respectable guise of an attack on books of chivalry, Cervantes sought to elevate the public taste i n literature—an endeavour as quixotic as any undertaken by his protagonist—he claimed due recognition from the l i terary world for his perceptions of l i terary values and his competence as a writer. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables i v Introduct ion 1 CHAPTER I L i t e r a r y corrment i n Don Quixote 5 CHAPTER II Poems and s t o r i e s i n Don Quixote 32 CHAPTER III La Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso 46 CHAPTER IV Review of re levant c r i t i c s m 54 Conclus ion 71 Bib l iography 83 iv L I S T OF T A B L E S Page Table I Literary Characteristics Corrrnended 29 Table II Literary Characteristics Condemned 30 Table III Compliance, in Poems, with Characteristics Corrrnended 38 Table IV Compliance, in Stories, with Characteristics Corrrnended or Condemned 45 Table V Weighting of Characteristics Corrrnended and Characteristics Condemned 76 Louis 1 INTRODUCTION En la elaboracion de esta novela.. .hay un sistematico, consciente y calculado proposito de combinar la invencion creadora con la meditaci6n c r i t i c a . i The enormous body of ccmnentary written on Don Quixote includes re lat ive ly l i t t l e as to what Cervantes discloses in the text regarding his own tastes and standards in l i terature. Many c r i t i c s refer to the books of chivalry and to those passages in the novel in which they are discussed. In these cases, the ambiguities in Cervantes' attitude to the heroic romances popular in the sixteenth century have been the main objects of wide-ranging c r i t i c a l speculation. The relat ive place that Cervantes occupied in the l i terary world of his day, the probable content of his l ibrary , and his possible creation of a theory of the novel, have also been matters of investigation and corrrnent. A l l these c r i t i c a l views touch only f leet ingly on the ident i f icat ion of Cervantes' personal l ikes and d is l i kes . This seems surprising, in view of the fact that the scope of l i terary opinion expressed, and the variety of genres included in the text, suggest that the author was prepared to convey his ideas on an extraordinarily wide f i e l d of interaction between writers and readers. Cervantes' opinions on Spanish l i terature of his time would constitute a signif icant catrrnentary on the state of the arts in his country and, less d i rec t ly , on the environment affecting creative work. i Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i te rar ios de Cervantes" in Adas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp.3-4. Louis 2 It i s not d i f f i c u l t to f ind examples of authors, from antiquity to the present, who declare their own views on l i terary values in their f ic t iona l works (Plato, Dialogues; Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales; Borges, Ficciones). It seems probable that Cervantes, by the inclusion of variant styles of l i terary composition and of discourse expressing l i terary judgements, has shown that he was not irrrnune to such temptation. In this thesis, I propose to show that Cervantes' views may be distinguished among, or derived from, the opinions expressed by his characters and those stated by his several voices in Don Quixote. The findings wi l l be checked against examples of his writings and the ideas of twentieth-century c r i t i c s . In Don Quixote, diverse characters, people of different backgrounds and social levels , declare appreciation or distaste for l i terary works and practices familiar to sixteenth-century Spain. Expl ic i t and reasoned opinions constitute value judgements on the part of the speaker; other opinions may represent hearsay, personal prejudice or the conventional wisdom of certain sectors of society. The novel also contains numerous poems and stories in a variety of genres, some of which are only marginally related to the main narrative. While i t may be argued that the interpolation of extraneous material represents economical u t i l i za t ion of work on hand, the practice does serve to demonstrate the author's vir tuosity and to provide examples against which to compare his c r i t i c a l statements. There are, moreover, many examples—in c lassica l and Renaissance l i terature—of the use of such digressions. The approach taken in this thesis to the ident i f icat ion of the l i terary qual i t ies which Cervantes promotes in Don Quixote, and the Louis 3 contemporary practices which he decries, i s based on the following postulates: A. Authors who provide diverse opinions on l i terary topics in their works of f i c t ion may be expected to include their own views, whether vicariously or otherwise. B. The relat ive va l id i ty of the statements made by the various characters in a work, or the extent to which they represent or d i f fe r from the views of the author, may be inferred from information provided in the text as to the background, interests, character and irrrnediate motivation of the speaker. C. Literary material of different genres introduced into a text, other than in a burlesque vein, i s direct ly indicative or suggestive of the author's tastes.2 D. Literary values established by examination of one work should be ver i f iab le in other texts written by the same author. In Chapter I, spec i f ic statements of qualitat ive opinion on l i terary works and pract ices—in Don Quixote—are collected and reviewed. To f a c i l i t a t e evaluation, these are reported according to the speaker, for the individual characters and for Cervantes, including his friend of the prologue, narrators and chronicler. Information provided in the text concerning the or igins, education, occupation, status, predilections and character of each source or opinion i s recorded and the comments are 2 I exclude burlesque material , since the author may employ deliberate technical error or exaggerated affectations of style in mocking sense. Louis 4 evaluated accordingly. The principal l i terary qual i t ies corn-ended, and those condemned, are collated and charted. In Chapter II, the diverse stories and serious poems interpolated in Dan Quixote are examined for features demonstrating or at variance with the corrnended l i terary qual i t ies ident i f ied in the novel. In Chapter III, Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso are reviewed, s imi lar ly , for corroboration or contradiction of the ccmnended qual i t ies . Chapter IV presents a range of relevant twentieth-century l i terary c r i t i c ism touching on Cervantes' concepts of l i terary merit. The Conclusion surrrnarizes the patterns of preference—in l i terary values and practices—which Cervantes disclosed in Don Quixote, the degree to which examples of his own work are consistent with such patterns, and the relevant opinions expressed in the works of cr i t ic ism l is ted in the Bibliography. Louis 5 CHAPTER I Literary ccrrment i n Don Quixote En sus obras se habla frecuentemente de l ibros: de lo que contienen, de lo que deberian contener y no contienen, cuales leer y como escr ib i r mejores.3 In this chapter, relevant statements and data from the text of Don Quixote are ident i f ied for evaluation, in consideration of the authority indicated for each source by the author. Some sources, inherently related by sector or by tenor of corrment, are grouped for convenience. The results are consolidated into tables of posit ive and negative qual i t ies to fac i l i t a te ident i f icat ion of areas of agreement and of difference. The v i l lage pr iest , Pero Perez The origins of the v i l lage priest are unstated, although he i s ident i f ied i ronica l ly by the narrator as "docto", having graduated from Sigiienza (I, 1, 37),4 one of the least prestigious universit ies of Spain. He is the governing figure in the enforced return, to his home, of the caged knight-errant—late i n Part I of the novel. Obviously familiar with the books of chivalry, since he argues with Don Quixote and the barber, Nicolas, as to the preeminence of the various chiva l r ic heroes (I, 1, 37), the priest i s entirely in agreement with Don Quixote's niece when she says, before her uncle's return from his f i r s t venture as a knight-errant, that such books should be burned (I, 5, 65): 3 Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), p.11. 4 References for Don Quijote de la Mancha are to Volume, Chapter and Page of Martin de Riquer's edit ion (1955). Louis 6 hence, the scrutiny of Don Quixote's l ibrary of more than one hundred books (I, 6, 66) by the priest and the barber, and the condemnation of a l l but a few to the flames. The priest i s given much to say in l i terary matters, not only i n his management of the examination and destruction of Don Quixote's l ibrary. The f i r s t book considered in the scrutiny i s the i n i t i a l compilation, by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo, of four ear l ier versions of tales of Amadis de Gaula (1508), later expanded into a long, imitative ser ies. The barber, who rarely states a personal opinion, successfully opposes the pr ies t 's condemnation of this work, on the basis of having heard i t said that i t was the best-written in the genre (I, 6, 67). Later volumes of the Amadis ser ies , some by other authors, are a l l delivered to Don Quixote's housekeeper for burning. Other books condemned by the priest include Antonio de Torquemada's Don Olivante de Laura (1564), for i t s falsehoods and arrant nonsense; Melchor Ortega's Florismarte de Hircania (i.556), for i t s s t i f f , dry sty le ;5 the anonymous El Caballero Platir (1533), for lack of redeeming merit; and, despite i t s t i t l e , El Caballero de la Cruz (1521). Lopez de Santa Catal ina's Espejo de Caballerias (1533), a prose translation and adaptation of Boiardo's Orlando innamorato (1495), affords the priest an occasion for discourse on French and I tal ian works relating to the period of Charlemagne, such as Ariosto's Orlando furioso (1532). He maintains that only poems in their original language would be worth preserving (I, 6, 70) but, nonetheless, condemns the Spanish poems Bernardo del Carpio (1585) by Agustin Alonso, and Roncesvalles (1555) by Francisco Garrida Vicena. 5 Martin de Riguer notes that, i n this work, the unassisted hero i s described as putting to f l ight an army of one mi l l ion , s ix hundred thousand combatants (I, 6, 69). Louis 7 Returning to tales of chivalry, the priest condemns Francisco Vazquez's Palmerin de Oliva (1511), but keeps Francisco Moraes Cabral 's Palmerln de Inglaterra, translated from the Portuguese by Luis Hurtado (1547), for i t s excellence, i t s c la r i t y , circumspection in discourse, and well-contrived adventures (I, 6, 71), as well as for the legend of i t s more distinguished authorship, rumored to be the work of a king of Portugal. He i s prepared to have the rest of the books burned without further examination but the barber objects, saying that he has in hand the famous Don Belianis by Jeronimo Fernandez. The priest concedes that this work, with some emendation, could be kept. He permits the barber to take home the several volumes of the work but ins is ts that he i s not to allow anyone else to read them. While the housekeeper hastens to dispose of the remaining books, the barber picks up Johanot Martorel l 's Historia del famoso caballero Tirante el Blanco (1490; translated from the Catalan in 1511), which the priest takes excitedly, saying how much he had enjoyed i t : [H]e hallado en el un tesoro de contento y una mina de pasatiempos...por su e s t i l o , es este el mejor l ibro del mundo. (I, 6, 72) He corrrnends part icular ly the rational quotidian act iv i t ies of the characters, a feature lacking in other books of the genre. He suggests that the barber take i t to read. Opening La Diana (1558) by Jorge de Montemayor, the priest declares i t to be a work of great understanding, that such pastoral poems are harmless and do not deserve to be burned. Don Quixote's niece, however, i s Louis 8 concerned about her uncle turning into a shepherd or, even worse, a poet—a state she considers to be an infectious and incurable inf i rmity. The priest i s incl ined to agree but thinks that i f the fanciful bi ts and much of the poetry were eliminated, leaving only the prose, the work would be acceptable: [Q]ue se le quite todo aquello que trata de la sabia F e l i c i a y de la agua encantada, y casi todo de los versos mayores, y quedesele en hora buena la prosa. (I, 6, 73) Next considered are two versions of La Diana, segunda del Salmantino, (1564) by Alonso Perez and Gi l Polo, of which only the second i s to be. preserved, "como s i fuera del mesmo Apolo" (I, 6, 74). Of Los diez libros de Fortuna de amor (1573) by Antonio de Lofraso, the priest says, admiringly, taking i t for himself: [T]an gracioso ni tan disparatado l ibro como ese no se ha compuesto...es el mejor y el mas unico de cuantos deste genero han salido a la luz del mundo. (I, 6, 74)6 El Pastor de Iberia (1591) by Bernardo de la Vega, Ninfas de Henares (1587) by Bernardo Gonzalez de Bobadil la, and Desengahos de celos (1586) by Bartolome L6pez de Enciso, are condemned without further comment. Luis Galvez de Montalvo's El Pastor de Filida (1582) i s kept for i t s refined sty le and language, being termed "muy discreto y cortesano"(I, 6, 74). 6 This constitutes i ronic corrrnent on the pr ies t 's poor jugement or taste in endorsement of a discredited work, according to Riquer; (I, 6, 74, Note 28). Cervantes mocks the book and author in Viaje del Pamaso. (Cap.I l l v.247-54) Louis 9 The priest states that Pedro de Padi l la 's Tesoro de varias poesias (1580) requires some weeding out of material of a gross character, but instructs the barber to keep i t because the author i s a fr iend, as i s Gabriel Lopez Maldonado, author of El Cancionero (1586) and much admired for other talents. Coming to La Galatea (1585) of Miguel de Cervantes, whom the priest also claims as an old fr iend. He has no very high opinion of Cervantes' poetry, but he concedes the book to contain "algo de buena invencion", although somewhat inconclusive or unfinished. He t e l l s the barber to keep i t private in his house unt i l i t i s seen i f the premised second part i s more acceptable. Of La Araucana (1569) by Alonso de E r c i l l a , La Austriada (1584) by Juan Rufo, and El Monserrato (1588) by Cristobal de Virues, the priest i s most laudatory, declaring that "estos tres l i b r o s . . . s o n los mejores que, en verso heroico, en lengua castellana estan escri tos" (I, 6, 75); these works are to be kept as the richest jewels of Spanish poetry. Again wearying of the task, the priest wants the remainder of the books burned without examination. However, the barber is holding Luis Barahona de Soto's Las lagrimas de Angelica (1586), whose inadvertent burning would have caused the priest to weep, "porque su autor fue uno de los famosos poetas del mundo". S t i l l , the rest of the books are sent to the flames.7 i The narrator notes that among those burned without consideration were La Carolea (Jer6nimo Sempere, 1560), Leon de Espaha (Pedro de la Vec i l l a Castellanos, 1586) and Los Hechos del Emperador by Luis de Av i la , a l l of which might have been preserved had the priest seen them. Louis 10 In a later episode, at the inn, the priest proposes that Don Ciringilio de Francia (1545) by Bernardo de Vargas and Felixmarte de Hircania (1556) by Melchor Ortega—among books le f t by a travel ler and much enjoyed by patrons of the inn—be burned as vain and false (II, 32, 323). He ins is ts that he could say "cosas acerca de lo que han de tener los l ibros de caballerias para ser buenos" but awaits a time "en que lo pueda cornunicar con quien pueda remediallo" (I, 32, 325) .8 The priest conrnends, as well-written, the Novela del curioso impertinente—included in Don Quixote—but finds the situation described, and the plot , unconvincing and incompatible with family relationships in Spanish society (I, 35, 371). In discussion with the Canon of Toledo regarding books of chivalry, the priest blames their authors for not paying attention to "buen discurso, n i al arte y reglas por donde pudieran guiarse" (I, 48, 484). He also expresses a long-standing complaint against the degenerate character of contemporary comedias, describing them as "espejos de disparates, ejemplos de necedades e imagenes de lasc iv ia" and contrasting them unfavourably with the work and standards of Cicero, "espejo de la vida humana, ejemplo de las costumbres y imagen de la verdad" (I, 48, 486). He complains, further, of geographic dislocations in such plays, of absurd anachronisms and of public acceptance of gross errors; even plays on rel igious themes are marred by faulty understanding, to the shame of Spanish theatre, considering i t s great potential: 8 It seems most interesting that many of Cervantes' characters, including a number of those opposed to books of chivalry, have been keen readers and would-be writers of such l i terature, with ideas for i t s improvement. Louis 11 [Pjorque de haber oido la cornedia a r t i f i c i o s a y bien ordenada, sa ldr ia el oyente alegre con las burlas, ensenado con las veras, adrnirado de los sucesos, discreto con las razones, advertido con los embustes, sagaz con los ejemplos, airado contra el v ic io y enamorado de la vir tud. (I, 48, 487) The priest blames the alleged demands of the publ ic, rather than the poets who had previously produced superior work: [C]on tanta gala, con tanto donaire, con tan elegante verso, con tan buenas razones, con tan graves sentencias y, finalmente, tan llenas de elocucion y alteza de es t i lo . (I, 48, 488) He favors censorship prior to publication or production to impose higher standards, which should apply, as well , to books of chivalry. The concept of censorship which he proposes i s i l lust ra ted by his corrments regarding the desirable emendation of La Diana and Tesoro de varias poesias to remove fanciful and gross elements, and regarding the imposition of rules for the guidance of authors. The evaluation of the opinions of the priest requires consideration of his indifferent education, as noted by Cervantes, who depicts him unsympathetically as an irresponsible destroyer of books, a self-assured meddler in the af fa i rs of others, and an admirer of infer ior work.9 The author cannot be considered as endorsing the judgement of the pr iest , whose tendency to parrot the opinions of the Canon of Toledo (I, 48, 486) confirms his subservience to authority. The somewhat less zealous and more rational approach of the Canon seems relat ively enlightened and more 9. See Note 6, page 8, of the thesis. Louis 12 authoritative. This i s not to suggest, however, that a l l of the pr ies t 's opinions are to be set aside; most of Cervantes' characters share a very human mixture of sound judgement and personal bias, which readers must distinguish for themselves. In his summary review of Don Quixote's l ibrary , the priest was prepared to burn Los cuatro de Amadls de Gaula because, as the f i r s t of a substantial ser ies, i t set the pattern for tales of chivalry in Spain. His accusations against the genre include the terms nonsensical, arrogant, dull and mendacious. While the complaints against the contemporary comedias for anachronisms and gross errors are of unquestionable va l id i ty , his concentration on moral issues may be attributed to his posit ion and outlook. The few works which he corrrnends—such as Palmerin de Inglaterra and Tirante el Blanco—are characterized as logical and decorous, with well-planned adventures, written r e a l i s t i c a l l y and with understanding of human relationships. Some of these views are shared by other characters; others are contradicted. The pr ies t 's recorrrnendation of censorship (actually existing at the time) i s not, for example, repeated by the Canon or by others. The Canon agrees in his strong support of moral content in l i terature, but states' that the infer ior dramatic presentations are not the fault of the public but of ignorant or misguided producers (I, 48, 485). It seems s igni f icant , and perhaps prudent, that Cervantes should include this recatrnendation for censorship; however, he makes i t s source one of the least favoured characters. Cervantes consistently presents multiple viewpoints, ambiguities and inconsistencies in his writings, to be resolved by the reader. Louis 13 The Canon of Toledo While his background is unstated, the Canon's superior status in the Church gives his corrrnents considerable authority even though, by his own admission, his self-expression i s restr icted by his of f ice (I, 48, 484). He demonstrates thoughtful interest in l i terary matters. In his discussion with Don Quixote, the Canon declares himself knowledgeable on books of chivalry (I, 47, 478). To the pr iest , he says that he considers them decadent and harmful, and that he had been unable to complete reading most of them, "que atienden solamente a dele i tar , y no a enseflar" (I, 47, 481), i n sharp contrast to fables of a Christian apologetic character. He claims that there can be neither beauty or harmony in the nonsense of incredible feats of arms; that even f i c t i o n requires a semblance of veracity, coherence, and proportion. He surrmarizes his objections as follows: [S]on en est i lo duros; en las hazarias, increibles; en los amores, lasc iv ios; en las cortesias, mal miradas; largos en las batal las, necios en las razones, disparatados en las viajes y, finalmente, ajenos de todo discreto a r t i f i c i o , y por esto dignos de ser desterrados de la republica cr is t iana. (I, 47, 482) He f inds, in such books, one good poss ib i l i ty—a broad f i e l d for edifying l i terary exercise, "describiendo naufragios, tormentas, rencuentros y batal las, pintando un capitan valeroso con todas las partes que para ser tal se requieren" (I, 47, 482); the depiction of diverse characters, noble and base; of arts and sciences, statesmanship, and the qual i t ies of great men. He believes that such elements, in restrained Louis 14 sty le , ingeniously composed, adhering closely to truth, could create beauty and perfection, instruct and del ight—in epic, l y r i c a l , tragic or comic form (I, 47, 483). As might be expected from so detailed a corrmentary, the Canon confesses that he had been tempted to write a book of chivalry along such lines but desisted, considering i t incompatible with his posit ion (I, 48, 484). In addition, he did not wish to be exposed to cr i t ic ism by ignorant readers who prefer absurd extravagance. Speaking of the productions of contemporary theatre, the Canon complains that the serious plays of the past have been replaced by nonsensical matter, "asi las imaginadas como las de h is tor ia , todas o las mas son conocidas disparates" (I, 48, 484). He had once argued with an actor regarding the prevalence of such infer ior productions, which were claimed to represent the popular taste. He had pointed out that three tragedies, which were presented some time ago, were eminently successful and prof i table, "que admiraron, alegraron y suspendieron a todos cuantos las oyeron, asi simples como prudentes" (I, 48, 485). The actor recognized these as La Isabella (1581), La Filis and La Alejandra (a l l by Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola). The Canon had remarked, further, that serious plays presented in the past, such as Lope de Vega's La ingratitud vengada, Cervantes' La Numancia (1583), Gaspar de Agui lar 's El mercader amante, and Francisco Agustin Tarrega's La enemiga favorable brought renown to their authors and prof i t to the producers; therefore, the Canon continues, "no esta l a fa l t a en el vulgo, que pide disparates, sino en aquellos que no saben representar otra cosa" (I, 48, 485). Louis 15 The Canon t e l l s Don Quixote that the books of chivalry are f u l l of nonsense and falsehoods (I, 49, 493-94), f i t only to be burned, as confirmed by their malign effect on Don Quixote's mind and the sad condition to which he has been reduced. In reply to the knight-errant's art iculate defence of the veracity of his books, the Canon differentiates pointedly between history and f i c t ion and, for h is tor ica l f igures, between truth and legend (I, 49, 498). The Canon, who has been taken by some c r i t i c s , including Riley and Eisenberg, as the voice of the author on l i terary matters, represents a sophisticated social and intel lectual order. He sees the potential worth of books of high adventure in depicting the best of human qual i t ies , but deplores the fantastic exaggeration in accounts of the deeds of heroes of chivalry, as well as the deficiencies in language and style of most examples of the genre. As a c l e r i c , he emphasizes the need to promote Christian moral values in l i terature (I, 49. 494). Though dealing comprehensively with deficiency in l i terary qual i t ies and c red ib i l i t y of content, his c r i t ic ism of the books of chivalry i s most concerned with their lack of posit ive didactic value—not just in a narrow moral sense but in their fa i lure to l ive up to their potential for inspiration of readers through r e a l i s t i c examples of human conduct in tales of high endeavour. The innkeeper Juan Palomeque, his daughter, and the servant Maritomes At the other social extreme of that of the Canon, we encounter these three characters, a l l of whom are probably i l l i t e r a t e (I, 32, 321). L i t t l e i s stated as to their backgrounds; the innkeeper i s somewhat hasty and violent , associated with the Santa Hermandad, and most concerned—not Louis 16 unnaturally—about the interests of his business; his daughter has a malicious sense of humour (witness the entrapping of Don Quixote I, 43, 447) and a romantic disposit ion; this incl inat ion i s shared by Maritornes, who i s stated to be rather i l l - favored and of loose morals. Their acquaintance with l i terature i s limited to hearing someone read aloud the books lef t at the inn by a vanished t ravel ler . The books of chivalry have their appeal for a l l three, albeit for different reasons. Their interest in the tales of knight-errantry ref lects the extension of the popularity of the genre, long favoured by the nobi l i ty , to unsophisticated members of society. The innkeeper questions the pr ies t 's statement to the party at the inn that the books of chivalry had turned Don Quixote's mind. He says that he and many others had received great pleasure from hearing such books read in gatherings at the inn, "siempre hay algunos que saben l e e r . . . y rodeamonos de mas de tre inta, y estamosle escuchando con tanto gusto" (I, 32, 321). He part icular ly enjoys tales of combat. Maritornes emphasizes the appeal of the love scenes; the innkeeper's daughter says she does not care for the violent bi ts but i s deeply moved by the pathetic lamentations of the knights when absent from their lady-loves (I, 32, 322). The ccirrrnents of these three characters are limited to the appeal of d ist inct elements of content, rather than of l i terary features. When the priest proposed that the books of chivalry be burned as vain and false (I, 32, 323), the innkeeper offered a histor ica l work, Historia del Gran Capitin Gonzalo Hernandez de Cordoba, con la vida de Diego Garcia de Paredes (1580), to the f i r e instead. Other works found in the bag lef t Louis 17 by a travel ler include Cervantes' Novela del curioso impertinente (I, 33, 327) and Novela de Rinconete y Cortadillo (I, 47, 477). The author chooses to ca l l attention to stories of his own which he considers worthy of note. The opinions of the innkeeper, his daughter, and Maritornes provide r e a l i s t i c examples of the tastes of uncultured ci t izenry. Part icularly t e l l ing i s the innkeeper's rating of the knights-errant higher than the Gran Capitan, since their feats were incomparably more marvellous (I, 32, 324). The gatherings at the inn to hear someone read the tales of chivalry recal l popular gatherings to hear public declamations of epic poems by juglares of an ear l ier time. The implied comparison emphasizes the universal i ty and timelessness of the appeal of forms of l i terature that serve as re l ie f and recreation, regardless of verisimil i tude. Sanson Carrasco, the student guide, A l t i s idora , and a musician These diverse sources are grouped because their corrments have a corrmon focus, their negative views of speci f ic features of content and practice in contemporary l i terary production. Carrasco i s the son of a v i l lager ; twenty-four years of age; a graduate of the University of Salamanca; inte l l igent but of a s a t i r i c a l , somewhat malicious turn of mind (II, 3, 558). The student who guides Don Quixote to the Cave of Montesinos i s a se l f -s ty led humanist, reportedly fond of reading books of chivalry. He compiles and edits informative books, which are neither signif icant nor accurate in content, and writes burlesques of the c lass ics . Altisadora i s a young woman in the entourage of the Duchess. She i s most active in the elaborate arrangements devised Louis 18 for mocking Don Quixote and reacts vengefully to the knight's resistance to her blandishments. No background data i s given for a musician who sang and played during A l t is idora 's procession. In te l l ing Don Quixote about the published account of the f i r s t part of the knight's adventures, enti t led El Ingenioso Hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, Carrasco says, in words that echo the Aprobacion of Galatea by Lucas Gracian de Antisco: [L]a tal h istor ia es del mas gustoso y menos perjudicial entretenimiento que hasta ahora se haya v is to , porque en toda e l l a no se descubre, n i por semejas, una palabra deshonesta n i un pensamiento menos que cat61ico. (II, 3, 563) Carrasco unleashes a bi t ter attack on envious l i terary c r i t i c s , reminiscent of Sancho's complaint against the pr iest , "donde reina la envidia no puede v i v i r la virtud" ( I , 47, 479): Los hombres famosos por sus ingenios, los grandes poetas, los i lustres historiadores, siempre, o las mas veces, son invidiados de aquellos que tienen por gusto y por part icular entretenimiento juzgar los escritos ajenos, s in haber dado algunos propios a la luz del mundo...y asi digo que es grandisimo el riesgo a que se pone el que imprime un l ib ro , siendo de toda imposibilidad componerle t a l , que satisfaga y contente a todos los que le leyeren. (II, 3, 563-64) At the end of Part II, in the attempts of Don Quixote's neighbours to re-animate Alonso Quijano el Bueno during his f inal i l l n e s s , Carrasco urges him to commence the pastoral l i f e which he and Sancho had discussed as an alternative to knight-errantry. Carrasco had composed an eclogue for the Louis 19 purpose—claimed to r iva l Sannazaro's Arcadia (II, 74, 1062)—but i s unable to e l i c i t a posit ive response from the a i l ing Don Quixote. The student guide speaks with absurd sat isfact ion of his useless and irresponsible works (II, 22, 697), with their invented t r i v i a and pretended erudition. A l t i s idora , in her account of her temporary demise out of feigned unrequited love of Don Quixote, speaks of reaching the gates of H e l l , where a dozen devils were playing, using books instead of b a l l s , books f u l l of wind and stuffed with trash. Among these was Avellaneda's continuation of the adventures of Don Quixote, harshly condemned by one of the devi ls as, "Tan malo, que s i de prop6sito yo mismo me pusiera a hacerle peor, no acertara" (II, 70, 1043). Justifying the inclusion of a verse by Garcilaso de la Vega in his own song on the supposedly sad fate of A l t is idora , the poet-musician corrments: [Y]a entre los intonsos poetas de nuestra edad se usa que cada uno escriba como quisiere, y hurta de quien quisiere, venga o no venga a palo de su intento, y ya no hay necedad que canten o escriban que no se atribuye a l icencia poetica. (II, 70, 1045} He takes advantage of the contemporary mode of plagiarism, noting further that l i t t l e care i s taken regarding the su i tab i l i t y of the material appropriated or to the observance of tradit ional forms. Poetic licence i s taken to just i fy any ignorant, fool ish or presumptuous expression. The views of Carrasco and the student guide suggest somewhat cynical juvenile mentalit ies. The l i terary projects of the student are examples of vacuous hack-work, the compiling of pretentious inani t ies. Carrasco's Louis 20 mocking style serves as the vehicle for an attack against c r i t i c s who presume to denigrate in others talents and s k i l l s which they themselves lack. A l t is idora 's account of books as the playthings of devils suggests the proper fate of empty, trashy l i terature. While referring part icular ly to Avellaneda, i t reinforces the c r i t i c ism of works such as those of the student guide. The musician also describes irresponsible hack-work, careless mis-application of material stolen from others. The corrments of this group of characters are more polemical in style than those of the other characters, indicating emotional as well as c r i t i c a l content. Don Diego de Miranda, el Caballero del ^Verde Gaban Don Diego i s a well-to-do, land-holding gentleman of good family, the owner of a large and well-appointed home, with a l ibrary of some six dozen books—some in Lat in, none of chivalry. He involves himself in the recreations of the gentry: hunting, f ishing and soc ia l i z ing . He is hospitable and, by his own declaration, charitable. Hearing about the publication of the record of Don Quixote's feats as a knight-errant from the protagonist himself, Don Diego expresses his opposition to books of chivalry most tact fu l ly : iBendita sea el c i e l o ! , que con esa h is to r i a . . . de sus altas y verdaderas cabal ler ias, se habian puesto en olvido las innumerables de los fingidos caballeros andantes de que estaba lleno el mundo, tan en daflo de las buenas costumbres y tan en perjuicio y discredito de las buenas h istor ias . (II, 16, 646-47) Louis 21 Of his own reading, he says that he prefers works "que deleiten con el lenguaje y adrrdren y suspendan con la invencion, puesto que hay muy pocos en Espana" (II, 16, 647). He i s disappointed i n his son who, after s ix years at Salamanca, i s preoccupied with poetry instead of studying law. He cannot accept poetry as the principal occupation of a member of his family. Representing the worthy, comfortably established gentry, Don Diego i s completely respectable, well-informed and good-hearted, but utterly conventional in his ideas and interests. He values history and both serious and l ight l i terature but has no use for books of chivalry, which he considers mendacious and harmful. He deplores the rar i ty of good l i terature in Spain, books in which the sensible reader could enjoy f ine language while marvelling at the subtle invention of the author. Don Quixote, Alonso Quijano el Bueno The hero of the novel i s an hidalgo, of rural gentry (I, 21, 200), in an unnamed v i l lage of La Mancha. His education i s unstated but he i s clearly widely-read. Alonso Quijano i s a respected, i f somewhat impoverished, small landholder whose principal occupation—hunting—has been almost abandoned owing to his obsession for reading books of chivalry, in the acquisit ion of which he has been se l l ing parts of his patrimony (I, 1, 36). He i s good-hearted, i f somewhat i rasc ib le ; his good sense i s subdued only while overcome by his obsession with knight-errantry, in whose h istor ica l va l id i ty he seems to have complete fa i th , and whose precepts he i s ambitious to emulate. The f ic t ional characters of tales of chivalry Louis 22 appear to him to be as real as the heroes of history (I, 49, 496-97) and Cervantes declares him crazed on this topic, although eminently sensible on a l l others: [S]olamente disparaba en tocandole en la cabal ler ia , y en los demas discursos mostraba tener claro y desenfadado entendimiento. (II, 43, 843) Speaking of an ancient carrmunal Golden Age, Don Quixote emphasizes the value of honest, straight-forward language: Entonces se decoraban los concetos amorosos del alma simple y sencillamente del mesmo modo y manera que e l l a los concebia, s in buscar a r t i f i c ioso rodeo de palabras para encarecerlos. (I, 11, 105) This comment, although referring to the manners of a better time, may well be applied to conversation, public recitat ion in the oral t radi t ion, or to written material. It i s consistent with the corrective instructions given to the boy-narrator by both Don Quixote and Maese Pedro during the puppet show (II, 26, 731-732). However, on the many occasions in which Don Quixote recal ls or invents passages in tales of chivalry, or apostrophizes Dulcinea, the language i s elevated in s ty le , "siendo de caballero andante, [ la manera de expresarse] por fuerza habia de ser grandilocua, a l ta , insigne, magnifica" (II, 3, 558). In a discussion with Sanson Carrasco, Don Quixote declares that the basic requirements of l i terary composition are mature judgement and inventive imagination: Louis 23 [P]ara componer historias y l ibros , de cualquier suerte que sean, es menester un gran ju ic io y un maduro entendimiento. Decir gracias y escr ib i r donaires es de grandes ingenios.(I I , 3, 563) He refers admiringly to Garci laso's Eclogue III (II, 8, 591), which reinforces his concept of Dulcinea, and he advises Don Diego de Miranda to influence his son's poetic interest toward moral values, "al modo de Horacio, donde reprehenda los v ic ios" (II, 16, 651). With young Lorenzo, he discourses learnedly on the requirements of the poetic gloss (II, 18, 666). Don Quixote declares a long-standing interest in the theatre: [P]orque todos son instrumentos de hacer un gran bien a la republica, poniendonos un espejo a cada paso delante, donde se veen al vivo las acciones de la vida humana. (II, 12, 617) Later on, in the print-shop in Barcelona, he touches on the l imitations of translation of l i terature: [E]s como quien mira los tapices flamencos por el reves, que aunque se veen las f iguras, son llenas de hi los que la escurecen. (II, 62, 998) However, he corrrnends Batt ista Guarini 's Pastor Fido, as translated by Crist6bal de Figueroa (1602), and Torcuato Tasso's Aminta, translated by Juan de Jauregui (1607), as essential ly true to the originals (II, 62, 999). Louis 24 The corrrnents of Don Quixote on Avellaneda's spurious Segunda Parte del Ingenioso Hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha refute the slurs on his character and constancy (II, 69, 967), as well as noting factual errors. Since the author and a number of his characters corrrnend the knight's sound judgement on a l l subjects other than those based on his complete fa i th i n the truth of the books of chivalry, Don Quixote's corrrnents on other l i terary subjects merit consideration as expressing ideas which Cervantes wanted on record. In his glowing account of the features of the Golden Age, as delivered to the uncomprehending goatherds, Don Quixote praises the use of simple direct language, without elaboration or circumlocution. His advice to the budding poet, Lorenzo de Miranda, recorrrnends close attention to the exacting requirements of tradit ional l i terary forms and c lassica l moral values, as well as practical consideration of the interests of his intended publ ic. His deathbed recantation, a rejection of the absurdities and deceits to be found in "los detestables l ibros de las cabal ler ias" (II, 74, 1063), l imited as i t i s to those speci f ic features, may be considered a dramatic device, possibly expedient, rather than a f inal effort at l i terary cr i t ic ism. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the narrator, Cide Hamete Benengeli, the Moorish translator and the unidenti f ied, possibly imaginary, f r iend i n the Prologue, Part I The origins and education of the author are unstated in the text; Cervantes ident i f ies himself as an ex-soldier and writer, explorer of the annals of La Mancha (I, 2, 43) and finder of the chronicles—in Arabic--of Louis 25 the historian Cide Hamete (I, 9, 93). He orders the translation and compiles the Spanish text. Cide Hamete, variously ident i f ied as a member of an untrustworthy race and as a scholarly and punctilious histor ian, i s at once the chronicler of l i terary convention and one of several protective measures, distancing the author from the hazards of authorship. The fr iend, "gracioso y bien entendido", provides Cervantes with a modest role in a dialogue with s igni f icant , i f s a t i r i c a l , didactic and c r i t i c a l content. The author, and his friend as alter-ego, begin by identifying desired and objectionable l i terary practices. The Prologue i s primarily a sat i re on the custom of pretentious embellishment of a new work with epigrams and laudatory passages purportedly written by distinguished persons, pseudo-erudite annotations, and philosophical and b ib l i ca l references. It does include a strong recommendation from the author's fr iend for simplici ty and c la r i ty : [A] la l iana, con palabras insignif icantes, honestas y bien colocadas, saiga vuestra oracion...dando a entender vuestros conceptos s in in t r icar los y oscurecerlos. (I, Prologue, 25) In his i n i t i a l description of the protagonist's obsession with knight- errantry, the narrator mocks Don Quixote's admiration for elaborate locutions, with Fel iciano de S i lva 's often quoted passage: La raz6n de la sinraz6n que a mi raz6n se hace, de tal manera mi raz6n enloquece, que con raz6n me quejo. (I, 1, 37) Louis 26 In contrast, Don Quixote's example for the Canon of Toledo provides a model of simple dramatic imagery: iY que apenas el caballero no ha acabado de oir la voz temerosa, cuando, s in entrar mas en cuentas consigo, s in ponerse a considerar el peligro a que se pone, y aun s in despojarse de la pesadumbre de sus fuertes armas, encomiendose a Dios y a su senora se arroja en mitad del bullente lago, y . . . s e hal la entre unos f lor idos campos. (I, 50, 500) The Prologue contains, as wel l , a typical ly ambiguous reference to the declared attack on the books of chivalry, "caballerescos l ibros , aborrecidos de tantos y alabados de muchos mas" (I, Prologue, 25). Cervantes has his characters f ind much to corrnend, as well as to c r i t i c i z e , i n the books. S t i l l , the narrator says that the mind of Don Quixote, an addicted reader of such books, became clouded by "disparates imposibles" (I, 1, 38). In discourse regarding the veracity of Cide Hamete, the narrator indulges in rhetorical corrmentary on the role of historians, demanding accuracy and impartial i ty: [Djebiendo ser los historiadores puntuales, verdaderos y no nada apasionados, y que ni el interes ni el miedo, el rencor ni la a f ic i6n , no les hagan torcer del camino de la verdad, cuya madre es la h is tor ia , emula del tiernpo, dep6sito de las acciones, testigo de lo pasado, ejemplo y aviso de lo presente, advertencia de lo porvenir. (I, 9, 95) Cide Hamete's narration of events in precise detai l i s stated to be a model for professional improvement of h is tor ica l writing: Louis 27 [M]uy curioso y muy puntual en todas las cosas. . .con ser tan minimas y tan rateras, no las quiso pasar en s i lenc io ; de donde podran tomar ejemplo los historiadores graves, que nos cuentan las acciones tan corta y sucintamente...dejandose en el t i n t e r o . . . l o mas sustancial de la obra. (I, 16, 146) and even more eloquently, the c lar i ty of his expositions are corrrnended: Pinta los pensamientos, descubre las intenciones, responde a las tac i tas , aclara las dudas, resuelve los argumentos; finalmente, los atomos del mas curioso deseo manifiesta. (II, 40, 822) The narrator praises two authors of tales of chivalry for their careful ly comprehensive accounts: iBien haga mil veces el autor de Tablante de Ricamonte [1513] y aquel del otro l ibro donde se cuenta los hechos del conde Tcmillas [Enrique fi de Oliva, 1498] y con que puntualidad lo describen todo! (I, 16, 146) He refers to Don Quixote's books as " l ibros mentirosos" (I, 18, 165), yet speaks of the people of his era as requiring entertaining l i terature, as well as h istor ica l accuracy: [E]sta nuestra edad, necesitada de alegres entretenimientos, no s61o de la dulzura de su verdadera h is tor ia , sino de los cuentos y episodios del la que, en parte, no son menos agradables y ar t i f i c iosos y verdaderos que la misma h is tor ia . (I, 23, 275) Louis 28 In Part II of Don Quixote, there i s a summary dismissal of Avellaneda's continuation of the story of Don Quixote as trash, in Alt isadora's report of a dev i l ' s low opinion of the work, as well as a suggested negative public reaction to Avellaneda's version—in an enthusiastic onlooker's welcoming cr ies on Don Quixote's entry into Barcelona: Bien sea venido, digo, el valeroso don Quijote de la Mancha: no el fa lso, no el f i c t i c i o , no el apocrifo que en falsas historias estos dias nos han mostrado, sino el verdadero, el legal y el f i e l que nos describio Cide Hamete Benengeli, f lo r de historiadores. (II, 41, 987) Humour and hyperbole do not obscure the honour due to the true hero, nor the appreciation of superior l i terary merit in the work ascribed to Cide Hamete. Qualit ies recorrrnended for the work of historians included precise accuracy, dispassionate impart ial i ty, comprehensive de ta i l , explanatory exposition, and unfai l ing veracity. With some reservations regarding the ccrrrnents attributed to Cide Hamete, the l i terary opinions expressed by the author's variant forms must be given enhanced authority. Cervantes delegates most cr i t ic isms of contemporary l i terary practices to his characters, but he expands his announced cr i t i c ism of books of chivalry into a manifesto of l i terary values. The principal characterist ics commended for f i c t i o n , poetry and drama are l is ted in Table I, with sources ident i f ied . Characteristics condemned are l i s ted in Table II. TABLE I Louis 29 CHARACTERISTICS COMMENDED CHARACTERS COMMENTING Priest Canon Innkeeper Carrasco Don Diego Don Cervantes Daughter Guide Miranda Quixote Narrator Maritornes Altisidora Cide Hamete Musician Friend Translator Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot Imaginative concepts Suspense Language & style Elegance Clarity Verisimilitude Veracity Credibility Accessibility Simplicity Coherence x x x x x x Didactic value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement x x x x Traditional rules & forms x x TABLE II Louis 30 CHARACTERISTICS CONDEMNED CHARACTERS COMMENTING Priest Canon Lack of Entertainment Dullness x Pretentiousness Prolixity Lack of Verisimilitude Mendacity x Anachronisms x Geographic absurdity x Fantastic exaggeration x Lack of Accessibility Circumlocution Pseudo-erudition Poor translation x Innkeeper Daughter Maritornes Carrasco Guide Altisidora Musician Don Diego Don Cervantes Miranda Quixote Narrator Cide Hamete Friend Translator x x Lack of Didactic value Lasciviousness x Lack of edifying content Condemned, in addition, were a number of prevalent practices in the literary world such as plagiarism envious cnticism, scurrilous personal attacks, and pandering to vulgar tastes. Louis 31 Perceptions of worth and faults i n l i terature are interwoven with the account of the adventures of Don Quixote. C r i t i c a l conment—favourable or not, va l id or doubtful—is distributed among characters according to their background and interests, and among the several voices of the author, consistent with their functions, to be interpreted according to the understanding of the curiosos lectores. The errat ic distr ibut ion of conrnent on l i terary character ist ics, as observed in the Tables, reinforces the concept that each speaker represents a d ist inct c r i t i c a l posit ion. Recognition of the constituency, the sectors of interest for which they speak, constitutes a signif icant indicator i n determining the credit to be assigned to each corrment, the authority to be granted to each speaker, and the degree to which they may ref lect the ideas of Cervantes. L o u i s 32 CHAPTER II Poems and stories in Don Quixote [L]os estudios desta facultad [ la poesia] . . . t raen consigo .. .provechos, como son enriquecer el poeta considerando su propria lengua...descubriendo la diversidad de conceptos agudos, graves, sot i les y levantados.9 The examples of varied l i terary forms which Cervantes includes in Don Quixote are examined in this chapter to establish how they may i l lus t ra te or modify the findings of the previous chapter. Primary attention i s concentrated on what i s disclosed of the l i terary preferences of the author i n the works which he chooses to include in his novel. Considering the poems of a serious character, one model corrrnonly employed for popular song i s the tradit ional romance. Examples, at various levels of sophistication in language, rhyme schemes, imagery and rhetorical devices,, include fragments from the goat-herd Antorio's song , the plaint of a tormented lover seeking f inal resolution of his woes (I, 11, 107-109): Donde no, desde aqui juro por el santo mas bendito de no s a l i r destas t ierras sino para capuchino; the f i r s t love song, "Marinero soy de amor", of the pretended muleteer, Don Luis (I, 43, 440): 9 Cervantes, La Galatea, edit ion of Schevil l and Boni l la (1914). Prologue, p. x l v i i i . L o u i s 33 iOh clara y luciente es t re l l a , en cuya lumbre me apuro! Al punto que te me encubras, sera de mi muerte el punto; and Don Quixote's own composition (II, 46, 867), advising prudently moral behaviour and constancy in love: Las doncellas recogidas que aspiran a ser casadas, la honestidad es la dote y voz de sus alabanzas. Reviewing these romances, i t can be confirmed that, while a l l demonstrate c la r i ty of language and coherence, Don Luis adds a degree of elegance of expression, with imaginative concepts. Such elaboration as i s evident i n the romances appears to be within reasonable l imits for the hyperbolic terms appropriate to lovers. Another song form used i s the silva, in which quatrains or sextets with alternating l ines of seven and eleven syl lables introduce a rhythm more varied than that of the romance. The silva i s exemplified in the second song of Don Luis (I, 43, 442), on a lover 's hopes; and Don Quixote's song (II, 68, 1032), on a lover 's conmingled perceptions of l i f e and death.io Both songs exhibit c la r i ty and coherence; Don Quixote's offer ing, not original with Cervantes, presents universal concerns with dramatic emphasis: io A poem by Pietro Bembo, translated from the I ta l ian. L o u i s 34 Asl el v i v i r me mata, que la muerte me torna a dar la vida. iOh condicion no oida la que conmigo muerte y vida trata! An interesting variation in poetic form i s the copla real, which appears in a somewhat burlesqued version, with added estribillo, i n Don Quixote's poem to Dulcinea (I, 26, 252-3); and in more tradit ional manner and form at a masque celebrating Camacho's wedding (II, 20, 683-4), where figures representing Cupid, Wealth, Poesy and Liberal i ty declare their qual i t ies and powers, witness Cupid's grandiose phrases: Yo soy el dios poderoso en el aire y en la t ie r ra y en el ancho mar undoso, y en quanto el abismo encierra en su baratro espantoso. A l l of the above compositions, romances, silvas, and coplas reales, conform closely to tradit ional poetic forms. Less famil iar i s the Ital ian style of Grisostomo's song to Marcela (I, 14, 125-9), which consists of verses with sixteen l ines of eleven syl lables in a complex rhyme-scheme. The dark imagery employed by the despairing lover i s dramatic: iOh, en el reino de amor f ieros tiranos eelos! ponedme un hierro en estos manos. Dame, desden, una torcida soga. Mas, iay de mi ! , que, con cruel v i t o r i a , vuestra memoria el sufrimiento ahoga. This combination of simple language and imaginative concepts i s an effective example of the s t y l i s t i c elements corrrnended by Cervantes. L o u i s 35 Cardenio's song (I, 27, 261-2), a more contrived and less emotional lover's p la int , presents a complicated verse and l ine structures with sophisticated rhyme patterns, the ovillejo: iQuien mejorara mi suerte? La muerte. Y el bien de amor, iquien le alcanza? Mudanza. Y sus males, iquien los cura? Locura. De ese modo no es cordura querer curar la pasi6n cuando los remedios son muerte, mudanza y locura. This poem i l lust ra tes Cervantes' concern with the avoidance of obscurity and elaborate terminology. However, he i s ever ready with more august and even grandiloquent phrasing when i t suits the occasion; for example, in Merl in 's lengthy pronouncement (II, 3 5 , 7 9 7 - 9 8 ) , in which he declares his power and discloses the awesome authority for the measures that would rel ieve Dulcinea from enchantment: [D]espues de haber revuelto cien mil l ibros desta mi ciencia endemoniada y torpe, vengo a dar el remedio. The extravagance of the language, to match the Duke's elaborate mockery of Don Quixote, i s consistent with the stated remedy, three thousand and three hundred lashes to be self-administered by Sancho. Cervantes demonstrates here, and repeatedly in the text, his cormand of the use of the archaic, elevated language of chivalry. L o u i s 36 Lorenzo de Miranda's gloss on the uncertainty of Fortune and the unrelenting character of Time (II, 18, 666-8) i s a tradit ional poetic exercise of refined construction, i f uncertain effect . The rhetorical progressions in an expanded paraphrase under poetic rules represent s k i l l s highly conrnended by Don Quixote. No quiero otro gusto o g lo r ia , otra palma o vencimiento otro tr iunfo, otra v i t o r i a , sino volver al contento que es pesar en mi memoria. The development of the themes of the gloss has a simple, workmanlike quality and appropriate dignif ied restraint . The poetic form appearing most frequently in the text i s the sonnet, presumably the model most favoured by the author and by poets of his time. The I tal ian sonnet form was introduced into Spain in the f i f teenth century and attained i t s highest standard of perfection, according to most c r i t i c s , with Garcilaso de la Vega, early in the sixteenth century. Cervantes' admiration of Garcilaso i s made expl ic i t repeatedly in his works. Two examples: the shepherdess of the pretended Arcadia (II, 58, 958) t e l l s Don Quixote that her group has been preparing presentations of the eclogues of Garcilaso and Camoes; and the musician in A l t is idora 's t ra in plagiarized Garcilaso (II, 70, 1045). In Don Quixote, Cervantes provides six examples of the sonnet treating serious topics: on the anxieties of a despairing lover (Cardenio, I, 23, 217); on the uncertainty of friendship (Cardenio, I, 27, 262); the two heroic poems, stated to be by Pedro de Aguilar, on the loss (in 1573) of L o u i s 3 the Goleta and of a fort near Tunis (I, 40, 403-4); on courtly love (the Knight of the Wood, II, 12, 621); and on the fable of Pyramus and Thisbe (Lorenzo de Miranda, II, 18, 668). While a number of his other poems display some i r regular i t ies in rhythm and rhyme, Cervantes' sonnets are meticulously crafted in tradit ional form. The language, always clear i f rarely l y r i c a l , i s well-suited to the individual themes and moods. For the poetry in Don Quixote, compliance with qual i t ies corrrnended in Chapter I i s summarized in Table III. Louis 38 TABLE III CHARACTERISTICS POETIC F O R M C O M M E N D E D Romance Silva Copla Real Song Ovillejo Gloss Declamation Sonnets Entertainment Inventiveness11 Artful plot Imaginative concepts x 1 2 Suspense Language & style Elegance x Clarity x Verisimilitude Credibility x Accessibility Simplicity x x x Coherence x Didactic value Morality Propriety x Dignity x Judgement Traditional x rules & forms 1 1 4 H,18 11,35 1,23,27 1,40 II, 12 11,18 x x X X X X x X X x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x X x x x x x x x x x x x x 1 1 For the relatively brief poems, no indications are recorded for plot or suspense. 1 2 While the several romances are uneven in qualities, recognition is given for notable features in individual poems. L o u i s 39 The stories introduced into the text—variously integrated with the sequence of adventures of Don Quixote and Sancho—have been the subject of typical ly discordant c r i t i c a l corrrnent. They have been regarded as tota l ly appropriate provision of variety, dramatic re l ie f and suspense; al ternat ively, they have been c r i t i c i z e d as irrelevant interpolations, detracting from the principal narrative; Carrasco touches on this concept: Una de las tachas que ponen a la tal h i s t o r i a . . . e s que el autor pone en e l l a una novela int i tulada El curioso irrpertinente, no por mala ni por mal razonada, sino por no ser de aquel lugar, n i tiene que ver con la h istor ia de su merced del senor don Quijote. (II, 3, 562) While Cervantes appears to acknowledge the existence of unfavourable perceptions of his interpolated s tor ies , i t i s obvious that he regarded El curioso irrpertinente, a tota l ly independent narrative, as too good an example of his art to be lef t on the shelf.13 This exemplary ta le , with a strong psychological bias, does include signif icant aspects which paral le l basic themes in Don Quixote. The behaviour of Anselmo, l ike that of Don Quixote, demonstrates the way in which obsession subverts perceptions of rea l i ty . Cr i t ics , have offered a bewildering variety of explanations for Anselmo's destructive course.14 An approach which seems more appropriate to the tone of the story, and to the information which the author provides, suggests that Anselmo—conscious of his licentious history—is not able to tolerate his perception of Camila's relat ive moral superiority. He becomes 13 Arguments.for and against the inclusion of the story have been reviewed by Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1967 edit ion), pp.121-23. 14 Sunrnarized by R. M. Flores, "Una posible protofabula a El curioso irrpertinente de Cervantes", i n Cervantes 18 (1998), pp.134-43. L o u i s 40 fixated on destroying her virtue to establish dominant status. Like Don Quixote, Anselmo returns to a recognition of real i ty when death i s irrrrdnent. Cervantes' technique of leaving interpretation open to the reader i s amply demonstrated in Don Quixote. More exp l ic i t l y demonstrated, in the Italianate tale El curioso impertinente, i s the range of "characteristics ccrrrnended"—the artful plot ( i ts structure reminiscent of the theatre, with three phases— the development of the scheme, the conversion of Camila and Lotario into lovers, and the dramatic denouement of divine retr ibut ion) , imaginative concepts, suspense, and unassuming elegance in language. Despite the pr ies t 's unfavourable corrment regarding i t s unconvincing relationships in the context of Spanish family l i f e (I, 35, 371), less biased readers would be incl ined to grant i t ver isimil i tude. The story i s coherent, being stated and ordered with s impl ic i ty . It deals with e th ica l , as much as moral, considerations and does so with dignity and mature judgement. In trying to dissuade Anselmo from his scheme, Lotario says: Dime, Anselmo, s i el c ie lo , o la suerte buena, te hubiera hecho senor y legitimo posesor de un finisimo diamante, de cuya bondad y quilates estuviesen satisfechos cuantos lapidarios le v iesen . . .y tu mesmo lo creyeses a s i , s in saber otra cosa en contrario, i s e r i a justo que te viniese en deseo de tomar aquel diamante, y ponerle entre un yunque y un mart i l lo , y a l i i , a pura fuerza de golpes y brazos, probar s i es tan duro y tan f ino como dicen? (I, 33, 335) In the story of Grisostomo and Marcela (I, 12-14, 110 f f ) , Cervantes confirms his departures from the c lassica l pastoral model, with the presentation of human conf l ic t disturbing the Arcadian idea l , plus argument L o u i s 41 for ferninine independence. The distressed lover i s now deceased and the maiden eloquent in self-defence against imputations of cruelty: [E]l verdadero amor...ha de ser voluntario, y no forzoso. Siendo esto a s i . . .<i,por que quereis que rinda mi voluntad por fuerza, obligada no mas de que decis que me quereis bien? (I, 14, 130-31) In this episode, as in Galatea, Cervantes introduces passion and violence into the a r t i f i c i a l bucolic i d y l l . As an example of the genre, apart from his re-development of the tradit ional form, i t displays adherence to applicable elements of the "characteristics corrrnended" in l i terary production. With regard to ver isimi l i tude, i t i s a fresh and r e a l i s t i c presentation of reasoned feminine independence in l i eu of the tradit ion of capricious disdain. Eugenio's story of Leandra (I, 51, 505 f f ) i s a more conventional sentimental ta le , with pastoral background, of a young g i r l who is dazzled by the glamorous mil i tary style of Vicente de la Rosa, a showy deceiver, on his return to the v i l lage . She becomes infatuated, ignores her fa i thful rustic admirers and elopes with Vicente, only to be robbed and abandoned. A tradit ional moral i s pointed when the disgraced Leandra i s placed in a convent by her father; her v i l lage admirers seek consolation in a pastoral sett ing. This over-familiar theme is rescued by spare but eloquent and p ic tor ia l l y evocative narrative. The narrator of the story, one of the disappointed lovers, employs fresh sa t i r i ca l language in a description of the v i l l a i n ' s pretentious displays: L o u i s 42 Vino a nuestro pueblo un Vicente de la Rosa. . . vestido a la soldadesca, pintado con mil colores, lleno de mil di jes de cr is ta l y sut i les cadenas de acero. [E]ste bravo, este galan, este musico, este poeta. fue visto y mirado muchas veces de Leandra. (I, 51, 506-07) In another tale in pastoral s ty le , the disruption of the r ich Camacho's wedding, (II, 20-21, 678 f f ) , a poorer r i v a l , Bas i l io , acts out an ingenious scheme to prevent his beloved Quiteria from marrying the wealthy countryman. Cervantes weaves his plot around several sub-texts: the lavish l ibera l i ty of Camacho's preparations; the artful devices of Basi l io in his feigned suicide and consolatory marriage to Quiteria while seemingly dying; and the ultra-rat ional acceptance of the turn of events by Camacho. Some aspects of the story seem ethical ly unsound, unless "a l l i s f a i r i n love"; some stretch c red ib i l i t y , such as the mechanisms involved in B a s i l i o ' s self-stabbing; but other "characteristics ccrrmended" appear sa t is f ied . The mature dignity of Camacho's resignation adds an unusual human touch to a romantically acceptable ending. The complex sentimental involvements of Cardenio, Luscinda, Don Fernando and Dorotea (I, 23-24, 222 f f ; I, 27-29, 261 f f ; I, 36. 371-80) are more effect ively interwoven with the af fa i rs of Don Quixote than the short story of El curioso irrpertinente. Despite the emotional extravagance of Cardenio and Luscinda, and ambiguity i n the late reversion of Don Fernando to his connection to Dorotea, there i s a structural coherence in their tangled love a f fa i rs . Because of her bold part icipation in the plot to convey Don Quixote homeward, Dorotea emerges as the most v iv id character of the group, a fact to suggest that the hero's adventures interest the reader more than the unrelated elements of the interpolated story. L o u i s 43 The moral correctness—in very conventional terms—of the contrived resolution, i s less impressive than the effect of Cervantes' affirmation of the power of the form of words, unfai l ing throughout. The pr iest , referring to Don Quixote's ready acceptance of Dorotea as the Princess Micomicona, says: ino es cosa estrana ver con cuanta fac i l idad cree este desventurado hidalgo todas estas invenciones y mentiras, s61o porque llevan el es t i lo y modo de sus l ibros? (I, 30, 309) The recurrent Moorish theme, in the stories of the captive (I, 39-41, 395 f f ) and of Ricote and Ana Fel ix (II, 53, 929-936; II, 63, 1004-1009), carries with i t h istor ica l and auto-biographical information from Cervantes' time as a soldier and captive, as well as touching on the delicate issue, under the Counter-Reformation, of freedom of expression. The story of the captive, Ruy Perez de Viedma, and Zoraida—the young Moorish woman whose fa i th in the Virgin Mary, taught her by a Christian slave in her father's household, was the moving force in the escape—has two l i terary aspects. The f i r s t part of the captive's tale i s essential ly h i s t o r i c a l , ref lect ing Cervantes' f i rst-hand knowledge of the harsh conditions of captivity and of the mil i tary actions of the time. It embodies the precepts which the author puts forward for the writing of history—veracity, impart ial i ty, comprehensive detai l and explanatory exposition—though with the captive, not the novel's narrator, as expositor. The heroism of the Christians i s emphasized (Cervantes included) but the depiction of Moorish characters i s notably even-handed.' The second element of the story,, the escape, tends to the theatrical i n L o u i s 44 invention, akin to the author's comedias on the Moorish theme, Los tratos de Argel (1580) and Los banos de Argel (1582 ?; post 1605 ?) . The coherent and credible, i f elaborate, plot i s balanced by the r e a l i s t i c treatment of the interplay of diverse ideologies, as in the emotional pleading and argument between Zoraida and her father when he i s to be abandoned. The converging tales of Ana Fel ix and her father, Ricote, are strongly suggestive of ethical considerations. Cervantes does not preach, or even declare his views. The moriscos do not question the justice of their expulsion from Spain (Ricote goes so far as to corrmend the wisdom of the decree), yet the inherent presentation of the dangerous questions, in the Counter-Reformist environment of the time—of "freedom of conscience", and the disruption of human l ives by ethnical and rel igious b ias—is very p la in . Sancho goes so far as to place loyalty merited by a neighbour above s t r i c t legal i ty when he assures Ricote: "por mi no seras descubierto" (II, 54, 935). Ana's story of her enforced departure from Spain and the circumstances of her return i s , perhaps, the f l imsiest of the interpolated material in the novel (II, 43, 1005-09). It lacks the histor ica l features of the captive's account and i t employs less probable contrivances, such as Ana's Christian lover pretending to be a woman to avoid the homosexual enthusiasms of the King of Algiers . The most redeeming features of this episode are the concise and expressive language and the sympathetic treatment of human problems created by the expulsion of the Moors. For the stories in Don Quixote, demonstration of the qual i t ies corrrnended—and the presence of some qual i t ies condemned—in Chapter I i s surrrnarized in Table IV. TABLE IV CHARACTERISTICS C O M M E N D E D STORIES Italianate Entertainment Inventiveness Artful plot Imaginative concepts Suspense Language & style Elegance Clarity Verisimilitude Credibility Accessibility Simplicity Coherence Didactic value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement Traditional rules & forms Pastoral Moorish x x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sentimental x x x x CHARACTERISTICS C O N D E M N E D Prolixity Lack ofVerisimilitude x L o u i s 46 CHAPTER III Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso [N]o puede negarse que los estudios de esta facultad. . . t raen consigo mas que medianos prouechos, como son enriquecer el poeta considerando su propria lengua, y ensefiorarse del a r t i f i c i o de la eloquencia que en e l l a cabe.is These two works of Cervantes, Galatea and Viaje del Parnaso, were selected for review to establish whether the l i terary features ident i f ied in Don Quixote could be ver i f ied as consistent with concepts in Cervantes' other works that contain substantial ccrrrnent on l i terature. Cervantes' ear l iest major work, La Galateais (1585), was a pastoral romance with signif icant departures from tradi t ion. At the time, the pastoral genre was extremely popular in Spain; the author and many of his contemporaries were admirers of the eclogues of Garcilaso de la Vega and the poetry of Fray Luis de Le6n,i7 so that i t might be expected that an attempt to win recognition from the l i terary corrrnunity and the reading public should follow a popular pattern. The c lassical and Renaissance forms of the genre present amorous discourse of idealized and refined characters " l iv ing l i terature"!8 in i d y l l i c natural sett ings, abstracted from the real world. Into this calm bucolic picture, Cervantes introduces violent episodes of passion, deceit and vengeance, with tears and sighs mingled with "razones de f i l o s o f i a " (Prologo x l i x ) . These tales of high drama in prose, of tumultuous 15 Cervantes, La Galatea, edit ion of Schevil l and Boni l la , Vol.1 (1914), Pr61ogo p . x l v i i i . 16 References to Galatea are ident i f ied by Book, page and l ine numbers of Schevil l and Boni l la 's edit ion (1914). 17 Jose Montero Reguera, "La Galatea y el Persiles", in Cervantes (1995), p.157. is Dominick F ine l lo , "Shepherds at Play: Literary Conventions and Disguises" in Cervantes and the Pastoral (1986), p.115. L o u i s 47 conf l ic ts in human relationships, of love frustrated by authority, of jealousies, betrayal, and murder, are embellished with a l iberal admixture of poems in the pastoral convention. Colocada en la tradici6n pas tor i l , es de una novedad absoluta, que renueve el material de acarreo, al mismo tiempo que novela con aspectos de una realidad vedada por los canones.19 The poems are extremely varied, representing the melodious sufferings of lovesick shepherds: contests with verse r iddles, glosses, poetic dialogues, games of los propdsitos. The poetic forms include octavas reales, vii lancicos, liras, redondinos, sextinas, coplas reales, and sonnets. In Book IV, Lenio and T i r s i debate the nature of love, trading poems in a medieval, matched construction "question and answer" pattern. Cervantes offers ample evidence that he wishes to be considered versat i le , as well as competent, as a poet. He would do so again, in Don Quixote, some twenty years later . In the poems of Galatea, the control of meter and verse forms i l lus t ra tes technical competence: Con mas fac i l idad contar pudiese del mar los granos de la blanca arena, y las estrel las de la octaua esphera, que no las ansias, el dolor, la pena a qu'el f iero rigor de tu aspereza s in hauerte ofendido, me condemna. ( I l l , 167, 4-9) The fact that none of Cervantes' poetry appears in either of the two anthologies edited by Pedro Espinosa (Flores de poetas ilustres de Espana, 19 J . B. Avalle-Arce, in his edit ion of La Galatea (1987), pp.xxix-xxx. L o u i s 48 1605 and 1611) suggests that, despite Cervantes' declared enthusiasm, his verse was not highly regarded, even when his prose work had already gained an international reputation. In Galatea, the songs and poems tend to maintain the tradit ional aesthetic themes of neo-platonic love. The ambivalence—the tension between violent circumstance and the bucolic scene, whose denizens are talented musically, ar t iculate , and courtly in manner—constitutes an early indication of the author's much-noted incl inat ion to contrasting ideas in his presentation of events. The Eclogue of Book III provides a str ik ing contrast between pastoral and romance components of the work. So extreme is the dif ferent iat ion between the tradit ional displays of "danos de amor" and the "real i ty" of seriously troubled l i ves , that Cervantes may be accused of mocking the rather competitive expressions of torment and se l f -p i t y . The entertainment values of Galatea derive mainly from the intr icate interwoven stor ies , a complex structure of plots marked by coincidence and heavily charged with emotion. The interplay of interrupted stories represents a technique which recurs in Don Quixote. Familiar devices, such as coincidence, confusions of identi ty, conf l ict with parental authority, and despairing attempts at suicide, provide just i f icat ion for poetic expression of heightened sentiment in which the suffering of the speaker i s prominent. iO venturoso para mi este d ia , do puedo poner freno al t r i s te l lanto, ' y alegrarme de aver dado mi vida a quien darmela puede, o darme muerte! (I, 65, 31-34) Louis 49 The introduction of r e a l i s t i c elements of violence into the affairs of migrants into the pastoral l i f e may be regarded as an innovative departure from bucolic blandness for the genre. Suspense i s achieved in the interruption and proliferation of narratives, and of the problems that interfere with the amatory desires of the characters. One major problem i s Galatea's refusal to accept the role which the perceptions and interests of her pastoral admirers would impose on her, an independence eloquently expressed by Marcela i n Don Quixote. The language of Galatea i s elevated, with more rhetorical style than bucolic rusticity. Cervantes constructs harmonies, not invariably successfully, of image, sonority and thought—to which a reader may react with delighted recognition—to create effects akin to what Santillana called "invenciones sutiles". In Book VI, i n perhaps the least successful invention of the work, the muse Caliope appears at the graveside of Meliso (Diego Hurtado de Mendoza?)20 with her effusive tribute, comprehensive rather than discriminating, to some hundred poets contemporary with Cervantes. Caliope herself seems apologetic regarding the inadequacy and generality of her language. The fulsome flattery of literary lights, great and small, would appear to be a long-standing social custom. Since there are many similar passages i n Viaje del Parnaso, the laudatory sequences will not be considered here as literary criticism. The matter of verisimilitude i s d i f f i c u l t to deal with in a genre that i s a r t i f i c i a l by convention, since satisfaction on this point must depend 20 According to Mary Gaylord Randel (116-17), many of the characters represent historical persons. L o u i s 50 on the expectation and understanding of the readers. As Castro has noted, " la novela pastori l es genero idea l is ta , conscientemente i r r e a l . " 2 i Therefore, what seems improbable today—such as (in Book I) Lisandro's pouring out the f u l l tale of his af fa i rs to a vir tual stranger, E l i c i o , over the body of Carino (the victim of Lisandro's vengeance)—may then have been considered acceptable, an expedient convenient to author and reader; especially so, since the accessib i l i ty of the work would seem to be limited to an e l i te public that might appreciate i t s complex fabric and refined language and the talents of the author. In conclusion, the didactic content of La Galatea i s not prominent, leaning more to Stoic ethical concepts than to spec i f ica l ly Christian morality. An analogy to the question of verisimil i tude may be noted in the sty l ized manners and ideas of the shepherds and shepherdesses, their conformance to conventions of the genre in expression despite their violence in action. The included poems, while careful ly crafted, invariably clear and appropriate to the circumstances, cannot be termed inspired or inspir ing. The individual story l ines , l ike the language, are not i n themselves obscure but lack a central focus and posit ive resolution. In Viaje del Parnaso, Cervantes describes an imaginary voyage which ref lects his long journey " in search of his proper place in the l i terature of his country".22 As author, narrator, and protagonist, he presents himself as a poet whose signif icant achievements have been insuf f ic ient ly rewarded. In sustained terza rima and in sa t i r i ca l terms, Cervantes 21 Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), p.179. 2 2 James Y. Gibson, Prologue to his translation of Viaje del Parnaso (1883), p . i i i . L o u i s 51 declares his c r i t i c a l perceptions of the state of Spanish let ters , convinced of the superiority of his own l i terary values. His farewell to Madrid sets the tone: Adios, Madrid, adios tu Prado y fuentes , . . . Y a dos mil desvalidos pretendientes Adios, teatros publicos, honrados Por la ignorancia que ensalzada veo En cien mil disparates recitados. (I, 120-126)2 3 Setting off to change his lamentable status, the lack of recognition of his work and the resultant poverty, Cervantes expresses his intent and aspirations with typical irony—he wi l l go to Parnassus, taste the waters of the fountain of Aganipe, "y ser de a l i i adelante / poeta i lus t re , o al menos magnifico" (I, 35-36). Rejecting an unsatisfying rea l i ty , he sets forth—like Don Quixote--on his quest. Cervantes i s well received at Cartagena, by Mercury, and i s provided with transport to Parnassus in the god's fanciful ship constructed of poems in a great variety of forms. Mercury enl ists him to aid Apollo to resist the onslaught of a rabble of twenty thousand bad poets. Throughout the entertaining account of the whimsically imaginative and comic events of the journey, two recurring strains of c r i t ic ism predominate. F i r s t , the author l i s t s his grievances over broken promises linked to a hoped-for place in the augmented t ra in—vir tual ly a l i terary court—of the Viceroy at Naples, and the implications of his fa i lure , at the assembly on Parnassus, to obtain a seat—which should have been due him 2 3 References to Viaje del Parnaso are ident i f ied by Chapter and l ine number of the edition of Miguel Herrero Garcia (1983). L o u i s 52 considering the published works which he enumerates. Accordingly, Cervantes remains "en pie , que no hay assiento bueno / s i el favor no le labra, o la riqueza" (IV, 95-96). Second, Cervantes expresses his views of the merits and faults of contemporary l i terature, d i rect ly and indi rect ly , in discussing or presenting diverse genres, topoi, and motifs. To a l l this he adds a degree of polemic attack on unfriends. The conments on authors, favourable and otherwise, are rendered doubtful by the sheer number of names involved—some one hundred and forty persons are mentioned—and the repetit ive character of such cortment, suggesting a continuation of the amiable social custom noted regarding Caliope's song in Galatea. Both by example and by insistent speci f ic corrmentary, in Viaje del Parnaso the author makes a plea for clear , precise and elegant language, even when dealing with gross subject matter. He opposes pretentiousness, obscurity, pro l ix i ty and circumlocution. Verisimil i tude in outright fantasy may be equated to recognizable allegory. Some connections, such as disguised personalit ies and topical a l lusions, may fade from view with time and distance, but Viaje del Parnaso has maintained i t s relevance to societal attitudes and l i terary values over the centuries. However ar t fu l ly represented, with mythical f igures, dreams, c lassical para l le ls , and parodies, Cervantes' crit iques ca l l for simpl ici ty and coherence—and excoriate vainglory, pomposity and vulgarity. Didacticism i s disguised in this mock epic of conscious l i terary art . There i s l i t t l e attention to propriety but strong support for the dignity due to merit and mature judgement. As in Don Quixote, Cervantes seems eager to sweep away trashy works, offering aesthetic and ethical standards based on the classical concepts and values of Ar is tot le and Horace, and on L o u i s the poetic techniques of Petrarch and Tasso, as interpreted by Spanish poets l ike Garcilaso de la Vega—if not to re-educate public taste, to convince the l i terary world of the fundamental soundness of his own views and his work. Cervantes' motivation would appear to be the moral indignation which, according to Juvenal, i s the essential spur of poetry. Louis 54 CHAPTER IV Review of relevant literary criticism. That he [Cervantes] knew the fundamental [literary] doctrines of his epoch has been shown by Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, Marcel Bataillon, Americo Castro, Martin de Riquer...and others. On the other hand, attempts to determine what his position was to then-contemporary doctrines have failed to produce even the rudiments of consensus. 2 4 This review deals with twentieth-century c r i t i c a l corrrnentary on the literary values propounded and demonstrated in Don Quixote. The major phases of literary criticism, i n each of which one particular approach tends to dominate, reflect generational shifts in c r i t i c a l fashions on an international scale. The changes in bias or emphasis from historical romanticism, to corrmunications techniques and systems of meaning, to preoccupation with the properties and instruments of language and narrative, represent revision or transference of authority. The continuing search for a " s c i e n t i f i c " basis for criticism carries with i t an increasingly technical approach to works of art. The alternative c r i t i c a l approaches to literature, such as those based on dialectical materialism or on feminist orientation, have not enjoyed equivalent popularity or prominence. As an example of the apparent urge to declare a "difference", there is the alteration i n c r i t i c a l perception of Don Quixote himself—from the idea, dominant in the f i r s t part of the century, of a protagonist transformed by a heroic image of himself, to that of an egotistical butt of 2 4 Martinez-Bonati, "Don Quixote" and the Poetics of the Novel (1992), p.21. Louis 55 sat i re , r idiculously out of touch with real i ty ,25 a characterization more common in the middle years of the century. However, the great diversity of c r i t i c a l opinion on Cervantes' work has more fundamental causes than l i terary fashion or ideological orientation. The ambiguities stemming from the author's consistent presentation of multiple points of view, his various voices, his complex mixtures of irony, sat i re , parody and pathos in discourse and narrative, form a reasonable basis for divergent perceptions and interpretations. For the early years of the twentieth century, the predominant c r i t i c a l approach to Don Quixote was a histor ica l romanticism exemplified in Americo Castro's inf luent ia l work, El pensamiento de Cervantes. His approach may be considered a scholarly consolidation of the Romantic outlook, including the view that Cervantes expresses humanist yearning for a world less mundane and less corrupted by gross materialism. Literary cr i t ic ism published during that period tends to concentrate on interpretation of the significance of the major characters and the development of techniques of narration, but t e l l s re lat ively l i t t l e of Cervantes' values in l i terature. Unamuno, for example, enthuses over the principal characters of Don Quixote, as dist inct from the author,26 imbuing the novel with al legorical content and romantic national symbolism. He makes a character ist ical ly subjective declaration, stat ing: iQue me importa lo que Cervantes quiso o no quiso poner a l i i y lo que realmente puso? Lo vivo es lo que a l i i descubro. 2 7 25 A l len , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool? (1969), p.74. 26 Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 edit ion), p. 525. 27 Unamuno, Del sentimiento tragico de la vida (1983 edit ion), p.304. Louis 56 Relating the content of Don Quixote to the histor ica l conditions of Cervantes' time, Unamuno sees reflections of his own social consciousness: Cervantes . . .cr i t ica v ic ios y costumbres de su epoca y ensefia v ir tudes. . .aplicable tambien a los hombres y estados de cualquier tiempo y lugar .2 8 Such vices, customs and virtues may well include fa i l i ngs , practices and values in the l i terature of every period, as well as socio-economic and po l i t i ca l considerations. Casalduero remarks on the emphasis given in Don Quixote to the discussion and evaluation of l i terature: Es de notar que en el Quijote. . .no se leen unos versos o se cuenta una h is tor ia , s in que inmediatamente se pronuncia un ju ic io . 2 9 Nevertheless, scholars d i f fe r over the degree to which" corrrnents on l i terary matters, made by characters in the novel, express the views of the author. Moreover, reasoned exposition of the basis for judgement i s notably lacking. Schevil l accepts the opinions of v i r tua l ly a l l of Cervantes' characters as representing the views of the author. 3o Morel-Fatio states, "Cervantes takes advantage of the characters to set forth certain cherished l i terary theories".31 Riley considers that the comments of the Canon and priest on books of chivalry may be taken as one portion of the author's 28 Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 edit ion), p.33. 2 9 Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.60. 30 Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.106. 31 Morel-Fatio, "Social and Histor ical Background " in Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.124. Louis 57 ideas.32 For the drama, spec i f i ca l l y , he endorses the Canon's cr i t ic ism of the anachronisms and geographic improbabil i t ies, "se condena el abuso excesivo de las unidades de acci6n, tiempo y lugar".33 Nevertheless, he recognizes that a pervasive ambiguity impedes the ident i f icat ion of Cervantes' thoughts: Su propensi6n a ver las cosas de cualguier asunto, que hal la cauce de expresi6n en su ironia equivoca y su preferencia por el dialogo c r i t i c o mas que las afirmaciones directas, hacen que sea un problema delicado el f i j a r con prec is i6n sus propias opiniones personales.34 Batai l lon distinguishes ideas of the author from those of his characters: [Djueno de sus fabulas, s in ident i f icarse con ningun personaje convertido en narrador-moralizador, pero simpatizando con todas sus criaturas .35 Gilman, while objecting to bias in cr i t ic ism, "un tipo de c r i t i c a cuya violenta ceguera no distingue—o no quiere distinguir—entre la valoracion l i t e ra r i a y la valoracion moral," s t i l l takes speci f ic judgements on books, as in the pr ies t 's scrutiny of Don Quixote's l ibrary, to be those of the author.36 Al len maintains that the author's strategies of irony distinguish his views from the conf l ict ing ideas of his characters, including his chronicler, Cide Hamete.37 Eisenberg, noting the prevalence 32 Ri ley, "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" in Suma Cervantina (1973), p.304. 33 i b i d . , p.307. 34 Ib id . , p.293. 3 5 Batai l lon, "Relaciones l i te rar ias" in Suma Cervantina (1973), p.229. 3 6 Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i te rar ios de Cervantes" in Actas del Tercero Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp.6-7. 3 7 A l len , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool Part II (1979), p. 110. Louis 58 of l i terary discourse and opinion in Don Quixote and in other works of Cervantes,38 takes the posit ion that every character i s a mouthpiece for the author unless otherwise indicated in the text.39 His confidence in the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Canon's opinions i s complete, yet he states that the books of chivalry are c r i t i c i z e d as poor l i terature, not because they are morally dangerous.40 Lewis-Smith, who regards the Canon as an "alter-ego" of Cervantes in his l i terary assessments, makes the point that the author's l i terary recorrrnendations constitute an attempt to educate public taste .41 Flores examines the efficacy and limitations of certain c r i t i c a l techniques, proposing narratological methodology to overcome problems of perspectivism in approaching the text, and emphasizing the individual nature of each communicator and receiver of information. 4 2 Consequently, he stresses the need to consider subjective influences on both the material ccnrnunicated and the way in which i t may be understood.43 Parr, also basing his c r i t ic ism on a narratological approach, indicates the importance of the reader's recognition of who i s speaking, from what level of knowledge, and with what attitude to the circumstances. 44 Finel lo makes the point, as does Close, that i t i s the reader who must decide just who or what is being r idiculed in many of Cervantes' 38 Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), p.11. 39 Eisenberg, A Study of Don Quixote (1993), Preface xv. 40 i b i d . , p.40. 41 Lewis-Smith, "Cervantes y los l ibros de cabal ler ia: Los gustos del publico, el gusto cervantino y el proposito del Quijote" in Insula 538 (October 1991), pp.24-26. 42 F lores, "Don Quijote de la Mancha'. perspectivismo narrativo y perspectivismo c r i t i co" i n Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispanicos, Vol XXI,2 Invierno (1997), pp.273-93. 4 3 F lores, "Don Quijote y su defensa del infante Andres" in Romance Notes Vol.39 (1999), p.124. 44 Parr, "Some narratological problems in Don Quixote" in Studies in Honor of Donald W. Bleznick (1995), p.127. Louis 59 i ronic passages. He maintains that, with a number of the characters imitating f i c t i o n , the opinions on l i terature of the speakers in Don Quixote are part of Cervantes' character delineation, not necessarily what the author thinks.4 5 I had thought of the consideration of c r i t i c a l corrrnent by chronological period as a device to reduce confusion, much l ike the convention of distinguishing between "hard" and "soft" c r i t i c a l approaches to Don Quixote, an established dif ferent iat ion related to acceptance or rejection of the influences of romanticism or, perhaps s impl is t ica l ly , to admiring Don Quixote or considering him r idiculous. However, i t would appear that revisions of c r i t i c a l approach, involving pretensions to science and new vocabularies, have fa i led to produce more profound insights or more unanimity in perception and interpretation. The great divergence in c r i t i c a l opinions and interpretations creates d i f f i c u l t i e s in dealing with Cervantes' work. However, for the purposes of this thesis, attention wi l l be concentrated on what the c r i t i c s have to say regarding the speci f ic features ident i f ied in Chapter II as primary concerns of Cervantes in l i terary matters. My review of secondary material wi l l be presented thematically rather than chronologically under the following categories: Entertainment, Verisimil i tude, Access ib i l i ty , Didactic Value, and Traditional Forms. Entertainment The appeal of Don Quixote as enjoyable reading i s , arguably, universally recognized, although Cervantes' work has been termed 45 F ine l lo , Pastoral Themes and Forms in Cervantes' Fiction (1994), p.18. Louis 60 conventional, vulgar and mediocre by some early c r i t i cs . 4 6 Most commentators agree with the author's high opinion of his own inventive talent in offering compelling plots, imaginative concepts, and characters with whom the reader becomes increasingly engaged.47 For example, F ine l lo c i tes Don Quixote's brief spontaneous example of a tale of knight- errantry—the Knight of the Lake (I, 50, 499-501)—as a model of creative story t e l l i n g , for i t s visual qual i t ies , poetic intensity and imaginative concepts.48 Casalduero ident i f ies the same passage as an example of Cervantes' concept of style in a tale of knight errantry, evoking admiratio without extravagance or pedantry.49 A most generally admired aspect of Cervantes' prose is the f lex ib le and convincing adaptation of vocabulary and style to the great diversity of voices, from rustic to courtly, from underworld rogues to grandees of Spain. Navarro notes the inventiveness in lexical formation, as well as in plot-making: Es un hecho...que otros lectores 'discretos y simples' de entonces [siglo XVII] admiran tambien en el Quijote el copioso lenguaj'e y la ingeniosa invenci6n.5 0 Unamuno so valued the language of Don Quixote that he considered i t above the capabi l i t ies of Cervantes.51 46 c i ted by Carlos Varo, Genesis y evolucibn del Quijote (1968), p.82. 47 in Viaje del Parnaso, Mercury ca l ls him "raro inventor" (I, 223) and Cervantes says of himself, "Yo soy aquel que en la invenci6n excede / A muchos" (IV, 28-29). 48 F ine l lo , Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics (1998), p.73. 49 Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.187. so Navarro, in the Introduction to his edition (1988) of Unamuno's Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1905), p.21. 51 Unamuno, Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1988 edit ion), p.525. Louis 61 Hatzfeld corrrnents on the attractiveness of the frequent use of elements of folklore—popular sayings, proverbs, phrases from legend and song—of colourful , graphic description, plus the avoidance of cliches and pomposity.52 He corrrnends, while others oppose, the technique of narration involving interruptions and interpolations in story l ines for re l i e f , variety and suspense,53 and remarks on the matching of language to the social level of individual speakers. Castro praises the imaginative concepts of Cervantes' poetry, although he c r i t i c i zes technical inconsistencies and a lack of l y r i c qual i ty .54 Riley also corrrnends the poetry, for elevated and sonorous language, harmoniously ornamented and without affectat ion.55 Schevill notes approvingly Cervantes' consistent r id icule of pretentiousness, but complains of the tedious, perfunctory, and scarcely objective praise of long l i s t s of contemporary writers in Galatea and Viaje del Pamaso.ss In fu l l agreement, Morel-Fatio characterizes the "Canto de Caliope" in Galatea as " ins ip id , fulsome f lat tery in a shower of laudatory epithets, so promiscuous that they have no meaning."5 7 Rosenblat enumerates the characteristics cherished by Cervantes for his language, as stated in Don Quixote: "al to, fest ivo, l lano, c laro, elegante, discreto"; and features condemned: "vulgar, oscuro, afectado." He concludes: "Su ideal era una lengua liana s in vulgaridad y una lengua culta s in afectacion ."5 8 Rosenblat corrrnents at some length on the figures of 52 Hatzfeld, El Quijote como obra de arte del lenguaje (1949), p.80. 53 i b i d . , p.133. 54 Americo Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), p.173. 55 Ri ley, "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" i n Suma Cervantina (1973), p.298. 56 Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), pp. 98, 235, and 241. 5 7 Morel-Fatio, "Social and Histor ical Background" in Cervantes across the Centuries (1947), p.124. 58 Rosenblat, "La lengua de Cervantes" in Suma Cervantina (1973), pp.324-325. Louis 62 speech employed and notes Don Quixote's almost pedantic insistence on proper usage and clear understanding of words, even to' the frequent correction of others in conversation. There i s c r i t i c a l agreement on inventiveness and extraordinary cctrrnand of language—idiom and cadence—in Cervantes' work. L i t t l e is said—with Rosenblat's corrrnent above as an exception—about the author's standards for l i terary excellence. Verisimi1itude The discussion of ver isimi l i tude, prominent in Don Quixote, i l lust ra tes concern for poetic truth, a philosophical resolution of the val id i ty of imaginative f i c t ion against h is tor ica l rea l i ty . The objective indicated i s the augmentation of cred ib i l i ty in the fantastic and the introduction of the marvellous in stories based on real events. The Canon t e l l s the priest: Hanse de casar las fabulas mentirosas con el entendimiento de los que las leyeron.. .estas cosas no podia hacer el que huyere de la verosimilitud y la imitacion. (I, 47, 482) The Ar istote l ian l i terary precepts for poetry and f i c t ion prevalent in Cervantes' time ca l l for the avoidance of the miraculous and supernatural in favour of l i terature which imitates nature. This i s the posit ion taken by Boni l la y San Martin and Schevi l l .59 Schevill c r i t i c i zes inconsistencies in verisimil i tude in the presentation of the story of 59 Boni l la y San Martin, Cervantes y su obra (1916), p.88; Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.106. Louis 63 Cardenio and Don Fernando.60 Cervantes makes i t clear , however, that his concern i s c red ib i l i t y , or acceptance, by avoiding offence to the reader's intel l igence. The Canon corrments, "tanto la mentira es mejor cuando mas parece verdadera" (I, 47, 482) and, in Viaje del Parnaso, Cervantes concurs: Que entonces la mentira satisface cuando verdad parece, y esta escri ta con gracia, que al discreto y simple aplace. (VI, 61-63) Castro corrments on the author's treatment of the ambiguous nature of " la verdad" and Cervantes' selection of harmony in the mind of the reader as the cr i ter ion of verisimil i tude .61 Hatzfeld emphasizes the recurring conf l ic t in the text between influences of the imagination and the experience of real i ty.62 Casalduero observes the very serious concern with which Cervantes views the quality of contemporary f i c t i o n , as the author confronts the deformation of his ideals—in Don Quixote.63 According to Varo, the self-transformation of Don Quixote i s achieved by rejection of those parts of real i ty which oppose or restr ic t human hunger for love and glory—seen as the universal basis for l i terature.64 Allen suggests that the idea of verisimil i tude i s blurred by the uncertain nature ascribed to rea l i ty , but counts i t among the values promoted by Cervantes.65 Referring to the continuing influence of Erasmus 6 0 Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.241. 61 Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), pp.27 and 82. 6 2 Hatzfeld, " The Style of Don Quixote" i n Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.95. 63 Casalduero, Sentido y forma del Quijote (1949), p.344. 64 Varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.406. 6 5 A l len , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool, Part II (1979), pp. 45 and 53. Louis 64 in the seventeenth century, despite the intense opposition of the Church, Fuentes sees a resistance to monolithic dogmatism in Cervantes' concepts of uncertainty or duality of truth and the i l lusionary character of appearances.66 Eisenberg discusses verisimil i tude as the basis for latitude in concepts, with the acceptance of marvels governed by reader receptiveness.6 7 This point was made by Percas de Ponseti as well: "El lector constituye una variante en el grado de verosimilitud de la f icc i6n l i te ra r ia . " 6 8 Williamson states that verisimil i tude was a Renaissance requisite in l i terature, rather than an Ar istote l ian idea of mimesis. He notes that insistence on empirical poss ib i l i ty excludes the marvellous.69 Riley considers that Cervantes believed "invention should not conf l ic t with an intel l igent man's apprehension of real i ty",7 0 and that respect for probabil ity renders the marvellous credible. A l l of the above i s consistent with the ident i f icat ion of two aspects of ver isimi l i tude—histor ical probabil ity (podia ser) and poetic ideal (debe s e r ) , 7 1 essential ly in accord with Carrasco's exposition in Don Quixote (II, 3, 560). Accessib i l i ty Las obras de arte no son misterios solo accesibles a los iniciados, son expresiones de emociones comunes y corrientes .72 66 Fuentes, Cervantes o la critica de la lectura (1976), p.67. 67 Eisenberg, A Study of Don Quixote (1987), p.105. 68 Percas de Ponseti, Cervantes y su concepto de arte, Tomo I (1975), p.149. 69 Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), pp. 73 and 88. 7 0 Ri ley, Cervantes' Theory of the Novel (1992), p.198. 71 Ri ley, "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" in Suma Cervantina (1973), pp.316-317. 7 2 Ramiro de Maeztu, quoted by Castro in El p'ensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), p.19. Louis 65 Cervantes' concern that l i terature be attractive and accessible to simple readers, as well as to a sophisticated e l i t e , i s noted by Schev i l l , who remarks on the author's demand for simplicity and his r id icule of pedantry and pretentiousness.73 Many c r i t i c s register the latter point, but there i s l i t t l e corrment on his claim that simplicity and coherence in the work, and the avoidance of elaboration, are essential to public acceptance and reader enjoyment. Al len does c i te Cervantes' concern for craftsmanship, unity and coherence, plus the avoidance of pedantry and pseudo-scholarship.7 4 Touching indirect ly on the matter of elaboration, there i s considerable c r i t i c a l corrment on a related theme, the interruption of the principal narrative by subsidiary plots and the interpolation of other stor ies. Although corrrnon in c lassical and in'Renaissance works,75 and accepted by some c r i t i c s as a legitimate introduction of variety and re l i e f , the practice has been c r i t i c i zed by others as distract ing elaboration to the degree that the supplementary material i s not integrated fu l ly into the main story l ine . Schevill and Unamuno would agree on this criticism,76 part icular ly for El curioso irrpertinente. In contrast, Hatzfeld corrmends such techniques as suspension of a narrative and delayed ident i f icat ion of characters to heighten ant ic ipa t ion; 7 7 and Aguirre touches on the "sober re l ie f" from comic incidents that i s provided by 7 3 Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.171. 7 4 A l len , Don Quixote: Hero or Fool? Part II (1979), p.45. 7 5 For example, Ar iosto's Orlando furioso, which is mentioned several times in Don Quijote. 7 6 Schev i l l , Cervantes (1919), p.243. Unamuno, Vida de don Quijote y Sancho (1988 edit ion) , p.156. 7 7 Hatzfeld, El Quijote como obra de arte de lenguaje (1949), p.133. Louis 66 interspersed stories.78 F inel lo also treats of the advantages of interrupted story spans and mingled story l ines.79 Riley notes the Canon's condemnation of the abuse of the unities of action, time and place in the books of chivalry; such abuse, says the Canon, is destructive of structural coherence.so Riley remarks: La teoria l i t e ra r ia contemporanea habia heredado de la Antigiiedad y la Edad Media la nocion de que las digresiones epis6dicas embellecian y daban grandeza a la obra . . . El embellecimiento l i t e ra r io le inquietaba [a Cervantes].81 Williamson objects to the "loose, disorganized and often wearyingly digressive material" of the Spanish tales of knight-errantry .82 He observes that Cervantes "did not share the Canon's despair of writing l i terature that would appeal to the general public without losing the esteem of the cultivated minority."83 Didactic Value The c l e r i c s ' view of the instructive content appropriate to l i terature demands expl ic i t Catholic concepts of morality. The Canon expects Christian apologetics (I, 47, 481). Cervantes tends to promote the ethical concepts of c lassical writers. Cr i t i cs are, character ist ica l ly , far from unanimous as to the perceived depth and nature of his declared Catholic fa i th . That he favours "limpieza y decoro" and dignity in l i terature, 78 Aguirre, La obra narrativa de Cervantes (1976), p.179. 79 F ine l lo , Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics (1998), p.45. so Riley, ' "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" in Suma Cervantina (1973), p.307. si Ib id . , p.314. 82 Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), p.70. 83 Ib id . , p.78. Louis 67 demonstrating mature understanding of the human condition and human aspirations, i s expl ic i t i n Don Quixote. Unamuno maintains that the author teaches c lassica l concepts of vir tue, while Castro sees in Don Quixote lessons for manners of l i f e and for l i terature.84 Castro recognizes the existence of didactic l i terary cr i t ic ism as a prominent sub-text in the novel. He corrments on the respect shown for l i terary tradit ion and for moral values in Don Quixote's advice to Don Diego de Miranda for the guidance of his son's poetic endeavours (II, 16, 651). He considers Cervantes' rel igious ideas closer to those of Erasmus than to those of the Council of Trent, suggesting that morality can be separated from theology, that an individual experiences the result of higher conduct ("cada uno es a r t i f i c e de su ventura").8 5 Morel -Fatio corrments on the less-than-generous treatment accorded to churchmen and their ideas in Don Quixote. While the Canon, and even the pr iest—in Morel-Fatio'-s view—are depicted with respect, there is a dist inct lack of sympathy for the Duke's c l e r i c , for the hermit, and for the religious processions.8 6 Varo touches on the discord in c r i t i c a l opinion regarding the religious orientation of Cervantes, c i t ing Casalduero, who considered the author a conventional "contrarreformista", while Batai l lon cal led him an "erasmista", an adherent of Christian humanism.87 Varo perceives a social and moral object in the presentation of the ideals of knight-errantry,88 c i t ing one of Don Quixote's many professions of fa i th: 84 Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), p.173. 85 i b i d . , pp. 82, 250, and 332. 8 6 Morel-Fatio, "Social and Histor ical Background" in Cervantes Across the Centuries (1947), p.102. 87 varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.91. 88 i b i d . , p.384. Louis 68 [Cjaballero soy,...aungue en mi alma tienen su propio asiento las t r is tezas, las degracias y las desventuras, no por eso se ha ahuyentado del la la compasion que tengo de ajenas desdichas. (II, 12, 622) Referring to Viaje del Parnaso, Batai l lon notes a def ini te moral cast to Cervantes' c r i t ic ism of the work of bad poets, "inmoral, l icensioso . . .h i r ien te" , contrasted with the author's "amor...de la poesia . . .casta , no corrompida por la bajeza."8 9 Eisenberg maintains, l ike Lewis-Smith, that in writing of the deficiencies of existing l i terature, Cervantes attempts to elevate public taste; s p e c i f i c a l l y , . t o improve the readers' moral and l i terary standards.9 0 On the matter of the pr ies t 's recorrmendation of censorship, Gilman is emphatic that Cervantes disagrees; yet he contends that, as the author states, the objective of the novel is to make the reader recognize the unfitness and danger to society of the degenerate books of chivalry and of popular contemporary theatre.91 Williamson ident i f ies as didactic features in Don Quixote the insistence on unities of time and space in l i terature and the need for decorum, edif icat ion and moral u t i l i t y . 9 2 Redondo directs attention to the pervasiveness of the concept of justice presented in the novel, the recurring theme of defence against oppression.93 The differences in perception and emphasis in the c r i t i c s ' views are greatest in this category, unconsciously mirroring the mul t ip l ic i ty of 8 9 Batai l lon, "Relaciones l i te rar ias" in Suma cervantina (1973), pp. 220 and 222. 90 Eisenberg, Estudios cervantinos (1991), pp. 61 and 159. 91 Gilman, "Los inquisidores l i terar ios de Cervantes" in Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas (1970), pp. 23 and 25. 92 Williamson, The Half-way House of Fiction (1984), p.73. 93 Redondo, "El Quijote h is tor ico-soc ia l" in Cervantes (1995), p.281. Louis 69 viewpoints which Cervantes exploits so adeptly. Readers are lef t to synthesize the data according to their own formation and bias. Traditional Forms Cervantes combines an obvious respect for established l i terary rules and models with readiness to depart from convention, part icular ly in his prose. As Avalle-Arce and Riley put i t : "Como siempre con Cervantes, la tradici6n l i t e ra r i a ha proveido modelos para superar, mas que imi tar . "94 The formal rules reconmended in Don Quixote ref lect the ideas of Ar is to t le 's Poetics, and i t has been suggested that Cervantes must have been familiar with Alonso L6pez Pinciano's Filosophia antigua poetica [1596].95 Referring to the Persiles, Castro declares, "Es innegable que Cervantes aspiro a hacer.. .una obra conformada a los mas estr ictos canones poeticos . "96 Boni l la y San Martin considers that the author regards poetry as' a science, with expl ic i t rules and requirements.97 Varo includes adherence to tradit ional forms among the author's primary requirements for the guidance of writers.98 Riley notes the significance of rules in Cervantes perception of l i terary forms: "El arte, claro esta, era identificado con las «reg las» .99 These c r i t i c s recognize the importance which Cervantes gives to the concept that a writer 's imaginative individualism finds expression within the constraints of accepted l i terary forms. While speculation i s r i f e in most aspects of interpretation of the author's work, there seems minimal 94 Avalle-Arce and Ri ley, "Don Quijote" in Suma cervantina (1973), p.50. 95 Castro, El pensamiento de Cervantes (1972 edit ion), pp. 32 and 35. 96 i b i d . , p.42. 97 Boni l la y San Martin, Cervantes y su obra (1916), p.93. 98 Varo, Genesis y evolucion del "Quijote" (1968), p.82. 99 Ri ley, "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" in Suma Cervantina (1973), p.295. Louis 70 consideration of the apparent inconsistency of such conservatism from the "inventor of the novel". Forcione does refer to a dichotomy in the Cervantes-Aristotle relationship of ideas: on one hand, the acceptance of rules and precepts of the c lassica l ideal of l i terature and, on the other, the rejection of old patterns for the creative fantasy that distinguishes Don Quixote.too The principle areas of maximum agreement among c r i t i c s on the l i terary corrmentaries in Don Quixote include Cervantes' posit ive interest in the quality of language and of imaginative invention, and his expl ic i t condemnation of pretentious display. A surrmation of Cervantes' own perceptions and concerns with regard to literature—as disclosed in Don Quixote--is discussed in the following chapter, and i l lust rated in Table V . 100 c i ted by Montero Reguera, El Quijote y la critica contempoL'anea (1997), p.78. CONCLUSION Louis 71 Tu, letor, pues eres prudente, juzga lo que te pareciere. (II, 24, 713) Concentration on Cervantes' concerns with l i terature was intended to provide a single focus for this thesis. No pre-eminence of l i terary considerations over social or philosophic values to be found in Don Quixote i s implied. Rather, recognition i s given to the importance which the author accords to presenting perceptions of the l i terary arts, their objectives, and both posit ive and negative aspects of contemporary texts and practices. His ideas of what is worthwhile and what is to be deplored in the f i c t i o n , history, poetry and drama of his time—and of the way in which they are brought before the public—form a substantial component of his works. In Don Quixote, i t is consistently maintained that the aim of l i terature should be to entertain and instruct , "deleitar y ensenar", although readers and authorities may d i f fer from the writer as to what i s entertaining and what shall be taught. Don Quixote has been accepted as vastly entertaining—notwithstanding some few dissenters—throughout the world and across the centuries, but no comparable agreement has emerged on the didactic orientation or qual i t ies of Cervantes' master-work. Despite the mil l ions of words written in examination and interpretation of the narrative, and despite the signif icant number of sometimes conf l ic t ing l i terary opinions expressed in i t by the author, his surrogates and his characters, ident i f icat ion of the precepts and tastes that governed his own writing remains i l l -de f ined . Louis 72 A basic premise of this thesis i s that Cervantes' concepts of l i terary values may be derived, inductively, from the data provided in his text, from the corrrnents made and the characterizations of the sources. Conclusions may then be based on a close reading of Don Quixote and consideration of expressed opinions in the l ight of what the author t e l l s us about the individual speakers. I conclude that the major characters in the book speak for themselves—for who they are and the sector of society which they represent—in discussing the qual i t ies of l i terary works. These diverse voices, whether stating individual interest, imbued doctrine, class prejudice, or thoughtful corrment, present a cross-section of Spanish opinion. On the other hand, cr i t icisms of contemporary practices in the l i terary world—such as plagiarism, pseudo-erudition, pretentious display of praise from supposed or invented authorit ies, t r i v i a l i t y in content, and pandering to the lowest in public taste—may be considered val id reflections of Cervantes' concerns, even though he prudently distances himself by placing most of such cr i t ic ism in the mouths of minor characters. To review Cervantes' own perceptions and concerns with regard to l i terature, as disclosed in Don Quixote, a re-examination of the categories of qual i t ies corrrnended and those condemned is indicated. From Table I, i t would appear that, in the category of Entertainment, the characteristics most corrrnended are imaginative concepts and elegance of language; that c red ib i l i ty i s the key to Verisimil i tude; that simplicity fosters Access ib i l i ty ; that considerations of morality, notably the lack of edifying material are of most concern for Didactic Value; and that the concern for Traditional Rules and Forms is perhaps less generally fe l t than Louis 73 for other leading characterist ics. Table II, dealing with l i terary characteristics condemned in Don Quixote, suggests pretentiousness as a primary fault ; fantastic exaggeration as most damaging to Verisimil i tude; circumlocution as interfering with Access ib i l i ty ; and the lack of edifying content as l imit ing Didactic Value. The weight of individual corrments i s subject to evaluation, in view of what is known of the speaker and the circumstances under which the corrments are made. For example, when the priest i s disposing of Don Quixote's l ibrary, his corrments represent the views of a v i l lage c le r i c of indifferent education, in his conscious role as the moral and, perhaps, the intel lectual and cultural authority for the community; whereas, when he is discussing l i terature with the Canon, his comments are most l ike ly to conform to a position expected by an hierarchic and intel lectual superior. For this thesis, the evaluations of l i terary corrments have been i terat ive processes, assigning varying levels of credit to the opinions recorded in Chapter I, resulting in di f fer ing weighting factors for the opinions of the commentators. For example, the detailed evaluation process gives the opinions of the Canon approximately twice the authority allowed to those of the pr iest . While the total detail i s too laborious and repetit ive for presentation in the thesis, one comparison may i l lus t ra te the process: In discussion of the comedias, the Canon states that the infer ior contemporary dramatic productions are not the fault of the public (who had demonstrated ample support for better plays in the past), but the work of ignorant or misguided producers, including writers and actors. The pr iest , however, attributes the decadence of the theatre to depraved public taste and recommends censorship. In consideration of the data in the text Louis 74 about these characters, their backgrounds, interests, status, and the circumstances under which the statement i s made, d i f fer ing credits (values between 1 and 10) are assigned to these statements. Overal l , the ratios of the averaged credits determine the relat ive authority of the voices and the relat ive importance of the characteristics ident i f ied. The effect i s i l lust ra ted in Table V. TABLE V Louis 75 CHARACTERISTICS COMMENDED UNWHGHTEDi WEIGHTED2 Inventiveness Artful plot 3 8 Imaginative concepts 7 14 Suspense 2 6 Language and Style Elegance 5 12 Clarity 2 5 Entertainment CHARACTERISTICS CONDEMNED UNWEIGHTED WEIGHTED Dullness Pretentiousness Prolixity 3 5 2 Verisimilitude Veradty Credibility Simplicity Coherence 4 1 1 11 Accessibility Mendacity 3 5 Anachronisms 1 1 Geographic absurdity 1 1 Fantastic exaggeration 4 9 Circumlocution 3 Pseudo-erudition 2 Poor translation 2 9 5 4 Didactic Value Morality Propriety Dignity Judgement 4 2 2 3 10 3 6 9 Lasciviousness 2 Lack of edifying 3 content Traditional Rules and Forms Observance 7 1 The unweighted values represent the simple sum of the numbers of commendations and condemnations of particular characteristics recorded in Tables I and II. 2 Weighting factors for each character or group are derived from the ratios of numerical credits assigned to the literary opinions expressed in Chapter I of the thesis. These credits reflect the level of authority indicated by data which Cervantes provides regarding the speakers. Louis 76 It may be noted that the leading l i terary characteristics of Table I and Table II remain leaders after the weighting process is applied. However, a number of secondary features register gains in relat ive status, by virtue of greater authority assigned to their proponents. A clearer picture now emerges in examination of the individual categories. With regard to Entertainment, Cervantes writes: "Yo he dado, en Don Quijote, pasatiempo al pecho melancolico y mohino."ioi To accomplish th is , he considers " la invenci6n creadora" paramount.. He maintains that the readers' enjoyment of suspense, surprise and wonder constitute a primary objective and essential function of l i terature. Cervantes' pride in his own inventiveness and imaginative f l a i r is disclosed repeatedly in his works, emphasizing the essential character of intr icacy of plot , variety in theme and sty le , and uncorrrnon treatment of event and characterization. His approach i s consistent with El Pinciano's contention that the poet should be new and rare in invention. In the matter of language—the subject of much c r i t i c a l comment and admiration—he ca l ls for clear, simple elegance and expressive sonorit ies. He decries both pedestrian dullness and pretentious elaboration. Cervantes delights in the archaic phrasing and oratorical rhetoric of the books of chivalry, even when he mocks their convoluted hyperbole. A much-discussed feature of ar t is t ry in language is Cervantes' sensi t iv i ty to vocabulary styles and cadences of speech among people of di f fer ing origins or social levels. In Don Quixote, Sancho Panza delivers peasant bluntness and the proverbs of popular wisdom; the Biscayan speaks a tortured Cast i l ian; the utterances of the prisoners destined for the galleys are tinged with 101 Cervantes, Viaje del Parnaso (1983 edit ion, IV, 22-23), p.253. Louis 77 thieves' cant; Marcela expresses herself with eloquence and refinement appropriate to pastoral convention; Carrasco speaks in a flawed scholarly idiom; Ruy Perez de Viedma, escaped from Moorish capt ivi ty, sal ts his tale with Arabic words; while Don Quixote himself provides a treasure of chivalr ic phrase and manner. Beyond vocabulary and sty le , Cervantes' economical and evocative descriptive imagery enhances reader engagement and "delight". The entertainment value of Cervantes' works—though not reader interest in his personal i ty- - is marred only by his recurring expression of bit ter disappointment with the limited recognition and inadequate rewards which he experienced. Even when cast in humourous or ironic terms, the complaints often str ike a jarring note. They can be accepted as the expressed motivation for writing Viaje del Parnaso, but his statement of resentment at exclusion from the Duke of Lerma's following, on the Duke's relocation to Naples, seems remote from the s p i r i t he proposes for l i terary composition. The recorrrnended avoidance of envious cr i t ic ism and of personal attack would require that writers adopt constructive attitudes and professional courtesy. Cervantes' presentation of entertainment as a principal function of f i c t i o n , poetry and drama makes i t a catalyst for success in the other categories defined. To th is , Cervantes adds a requirement for c la r i ty with elegance in language, which he demonstrates with f l e x i b i l i t y and freedom well beyond the classical conventions. The treatment of Verisimil itude in Don Quixote i s more doubtful. In discussion of truth and fantasy, Cervantes aligns himself with the most Louis 78 authoritative and cultural ly prestigious l i terary standards of his time, espousing responsible treatment of "truth". Forcione states: The ambivalence marking Cervantes' engagement with neo-Aristotelian l i terary theory may remain ultimately irreducible.102 However, faced with the d i f f i c u l t y of reconciling l i tera l ism with effective ar t is t ry in f i c t i o n , Cervantes sett les for the promotion of c red ib i l i t y , the avoidance of insult to reader intel l igence. A corollary effect is demonstrated in the apparent var iab i l i ty of standards of verisimil i tude according to the accepted conventions of different l i terary genres. If the cr i ter ion for verisimil i tude were reader tolerance, famil iar i ty with the conventions of pastorals and books of chivalry might permit reader acceptance of material which, otherwise, would be considered a r t i f i c i a l , extravagant and incredible. The apparent confusion is not resolved by examination of the means employed by Cervantes in Don Quixote to achieve p laus ib i l i ty by establishing fami l iar i ty . He may describe a situation from the di f fer ing points of view of several characters, or give i t recognizable al legorical implications, an open-ended device whose effect would depend on the cultural backgrounds and bias of the readers. Riley touches on this theme: Cervantes describio con la prosa narrativa que el arte es un especie de la i lus ion en la que part icipa el lector, como un juego, con consciencia de su irrealidad .103 102 Forcione, Cervantes, Aristotle and the Persiles (1970), p.339. 103 Ri ley, "Teoria l i t e ra r ia" in Suma cervantina (1973), p.322. Louis 79 Similarly, the belief that Don Quixote must be mad may permit the reader to accept his strange adventures and the flawed perceptions in which they originate. There i s an implied acceptance of influences of the I tal ian Renaissance, notably an admiration for the freer work of Ariosto, consistent with further ambivalence on the subject of ver isimil i tude. Cervantes declares support for the appearance of truth in f i c t i o n , the closer the better, while obviously revel l ing in the fantast ic, in the "poetic truth" of strange events evoking admiratio. In Cervantes' writ ing, the appeal of the marvellous i s manifest. Verisimil i tude i s adapted to the requirement to engage the imaginations of the readers in grasping "poetic truth", in spite of the uncertainties and distortions of human perceptions. The concern with Accessib i l i ty ref lects the author's confidence in the potential of l i terature to influence society. Hence, the importance of reaching the broadest public, and of c la r i ty in ideas and expression, and of coherent development of theme—requirements with which Cervantes complies consistently, in both poetry and prose. Consideration of the expectations and interests of readers and audiences involves decision between the exploitation of vulgar tastes and the more responsible aim of encouragement and development of a discerning public with appropriate standards for l i terature. Less contentious i s Cervantes' condemnation of pseudo-erudition, of deliberate obscurity, and of elaboration of language and pretentious display—features inhibi t ing reader and audience involvement. Within the category of Didactic Values, morality emerges as a major concern. The priest and Canon both condemn lasciviousness in l i terature and the Canon emphasizes the potential lost for lack of edifying example: Louis 80 Puede mostrar las astucias de Ul ixes, la piedad de Eneas, la valentia de Aquiles, las desgracias de Hector, las traiciones de Sinon. la amistad de Eur ia l io , la l iberal idad de Alejandro, el valor de Cesar, la clemencia y verdad de Tra jano. . . la prudencia de Caton, y, finalmente, todas aquellas acciones que pueden hacer perfecto a un varon. (I, 47, 483) Cervantes—through his narrator, and through Don Quixote in his sanest moments—also expresses strong support for moral themes, "reprehending vice" (II, 16, 651), although he refers more to the ethics of c lassica l models than to the Christian apologetics favoured by the Canon. For a writer who seems to just i fy Don Quixote by putting forward the objective of extirpation of a pernicious l i terary genre to which the Church has been opposed, Cervantes has his characters f ind much to canrmend, as well as to c r i t i c i z e in the books. Much of Cervantes' work has exemplary implications, including several of the stories within Don Quixote. Moreover, in the matter of contemporary behaviour, he argues for propriety and dignity in l i terature, deploring tendencies to scurri lous personal attacks. He praises the constructive display of mature judgement as an effective mode of l i terary didacticism. In the observance of Traditional Rules and Forms, Cervantes' professions and performance i l lus t ra te a dichotomy similar to that noted for Verisimil i tude. In Don Quixote, he consistently declares support for adherence to established l i terary modes. His poetry demonstrates the most careful adherence to such forms. Moreover, in his prose, he makes his works showcases of his versat i l i ty in composition in a variety of styles and genres, even when c r i t i c a l of their def ic iencies. However, in abandoning the unities—or introducing innovative features in narrative development, he readily departs from tradi t ion. Forcione remarks: Louis 81 Cervantes is highly conscious of both the general and speci f ic aspects of l i terary theorizing in the Renaissance and generally sympathetic with i t s aims...On the other hand he i s suspicious about the burdens with which the c r i t i c a l movement saddled the creative artist. . .Consequently he does not hes i ta te . . . to assert openly his independence.io4 Comparison of the precepts favoured in the text of Don Quixote with the actual writing in this and other works of Cervantes confirms a degree of ambivalence. It would seem that his adherence to the more prestigious neo-Aristotelian l i terary standards of the time i s not consistent. Cervantes celebrates c lassical concepts of l i terature, as represented by the precepts of Ar is tot le and the works of V i rg i l and Horace. He would have been familiar with the Filosofia antigua poetica [1596] of Alonso L6pez Pinciano. Yet, in spite of his repeated recommendation of observance of tradit ional rules and forms, he is creating, simultaneously, a new form of narrative--the prose novel--which he ca l ls "prose epic". Inherent in the l i terary corrmentaries is the recognition of profound mutual influences between l i terature and society and the power of entertainment for deeper purposes. In Gogol's The Inspector General (1836), the discredited mayor of a corrupt Russian provincial town turns angrily on the audience of the play, demanding: "What are you laughing at? You are laughing at yourselves!" Azana wrote: "As the posterity of the Quijote we are debtors to i t for part of our spir i tual l i f e : somos criaturas cervantinas."105 Riley notes that Don Quixote ( l ike Hamlet) has been a more powerful figure in the minds of people—for centuries—than countless h istor ica l personalit ies.106 Amadis of Gaul has been described 104 Forcione, Cervantes, Aristotle and the Persiles (1970), pp.106-07. 105 Azana, Obras Completas Vol. I (1966), p.1100. 106 Ri ley, Don Quixote (1986), p.70. Louis 82 as the def in i t ive knight-errant, the source and pattern of the "code of honour" which governed generations of Spanish gentlemen.107 As Eisenberg puts i t , " la l i teratura nos ensena como v iv i r" . ios Cervantes' Don Quixote attempts to combine the chivalr ic ideal of protecting the oppressed with his ambition for personal fame. Cervantes himself—another addicted reader—devotes much of Don Quixote to identifying faults in existing l i terary works, contrasted with preferred characteristics and practices. He combines ambition for greater rewards, and for greater recognition in the l i terary world, with perceptions of a standard of l i terature that should restore Spanish letters to a worthier place in c i v i l i z a t i o n . 107 Menendez y Pelayo, Origenes de la novela (1943 edition) V o l . l , p.352. 108 Eisenberg, Cervantes y Don Quijote (1993), p.39. Louis 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources: Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. Don Quijote de la Mancha. Ed. Martin de Riquer, decima edicion, dos tomos, (1955). Barcelona: Edi tor ia l Juventud, 1985. —. La Galatea. Ed. Juan Bautista Avalle-Arce. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1987. . La Galatea. Ed. Rudolfo Schevil l y Adolfo Boni l la , dos tomos. Madrid: Bernardo Rodriguez, 1914. —. Viaje del Parnaso. Ed. Miguel Herrero Garcia. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient i f icas , Instituto «Miguel de Cervantes», 1983. —. Voyage to Parnassus. Tr. James Y. Gibson. London: Kegan Paul, 1883. Secondary Sources: Aguirre, Mirta. La obra narrativa de Cervantes. Havana: Edi tor ia l Arte y Literatura, 1976. Al len , John J . Don Quixote: Hero or Fool? A Study in Narrative Technique. Gainsvi l le , FL: UP of F lor ida , 1969. . Don Quixote: Hero or Fool, Part II. Gainsvi l le , FL: UP of F lor ida , 1979. . "The Narrators, the Reader and Don Quixote." MLN 91 (1976) 201-12. Avalle-Arce, Juan B. "Don Quijote" como forma de vida. Madrid: Fundaci6n Juan March/Castalia, 1976. Louis 84 Azana, Manuel. Obras Cowpl etas Vol . I. Ed. Juan Marichal. Mexico City: Ediciones Oasis, 1966. Batai l lon, Marcel. "Relaciones l i t e r a r i a s , " in Suma cervantina. Ed. Juan B. Avalle-Arce and Edward C. Ri ley. London: Tamesis Books, 1973. pp.215-32. Bleznick, Donald W. A Sourcebook for Hispanic Literature and Language. London: Scarecrow Press, 1995. Boni l la y San Martin, Adolfo. Cervantes y su obra. Madrid: Francisco Beltran, Librer ia Espanola y Extranjera, 1916. . Critica cervantina. Madrid: Ruiz Hermanos, 1917. Bonnycastle, Stephen. In Search of Authority, second edit ion. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1996. Casalduero, Joaquin. Sentido y forma del "Quijote" (1949). Madrid: Insula, 1975. Castro, Americo. Hacia Cervantes, tercera edicion. Madrid: Taurus, 1967. —. El pensamiento de Cervantes, novena edicion. Barcelona: Edi tor ia l Noguer, 1972. [First edition 1925] Chevalier, Maxime. Lectura y lectores en la Espana de los siglos XVI y XVII. Madrid: Ediciones Turner, 1976. Close, Anthony. The Romantic Approach to "Don Quixote": A Critical History of the Romantic Tradition in Quixote Criticism. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 1978. . "La c r i t i c a del Quijote desde 1925 hasta ahora", in Cervantes. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995. pp.311-34. Louis 85 Eisenberg, Daniel. "Did Cervantes Have a Library?" in Hispanic Studies in Honor of Alan D. Deyermond. A North American Tribute, Ed. John S. Mi let ich. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1986. pp.93-106. —. A Study of" Don Quixote". Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta, 1987. . Estudios cervantinos. Barcelona: Sirmio, 1991. . Cervantes y Don Quijote. Barcelona: Montesinos, 1993. F ine l lo , Dominick. 'Shepherds at Play: Literary Conventions and Disguises in the Pastoral Narratives of the Quijote", in Cervantes and the Pastoral. Ed. Jose J . Labrador Herraiz and Juan Fernandez Jimenez. Cleveland, Ohio: Perm State U. , 1986. pp.115-28. — . Cervantes: Essays on Literary and Social Polemics. London: Tamesis Books, 1988. . Pastoral Themes and Forms in Cervantes' Fiction. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknall UP, 1994. Flores, Robert M. "Don Quijote de la Mancha: perspectivismo narrativo y perspectivismo c r i t i c o " , Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hisp&nicos, 21 (1997), 273-93. . "Una posible protofabula a El curioso irrpertinente de Cervantes", Cervantes, 18 (1998), 134-43. — . "Don Quijote y su defensa del infante Andres", Romance Notes, 39 (1999), 123-35. — . "Formaci6n del personaje feminino en El curioso irrpertinente", Revista de Estudios Hispinicos, 34 (2000). Louis 86 Fuentes, Carlos. Cervantes o la critica de la lectura. Mexico: Joaquin Mortiz, 1976. Gilman, Stephen. "Los inquisidores l i terar ios de Cervantes", in Actas del Tercer Congreso Intemacional de Hispanistas. Ed. Carlos H. Magis. Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico (1970). pp. 3-25. Hatzfeld, Helmut. El "Quijote" como obra de arte del lenguaje. Madrid: Patronato del IV Centenario del Nacimiento de Cervantes, 1949. . "The Style of Don Quixote", t r . Edith Mead, in Cervantes Across the Centuries. Ed. Angel Flores and M.J. Bernadette New York: Dryden Press, 1947. pp.94-100. Lewis-Smith, Paul. "Cervantes y los l ibros de cabal ler ia: Los gustos del publico, el gusto cervantino y el proposito del Quijote." Insula, 538 (Oct. 1991), 24a-26b. Madariaga, Salvador de. Guia del lector del "Quijote", sexta edicion. Buenos Aires: Edi tor ia l Sud-Americana, 1967. [First edition 1926] Martinez-Bonati, Fe l ix . "Don Quixote" and the Poetics of the Novel. Tr. Dian Fox. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992. Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino. "Interpretaciones del Quijote". Discusi6n leida en la Real Academia Espanola, 1904. —. Origenes de la novela, Vo l .1 . Santander: Aldus, 1943. [First edition 1905] Louis 87 Montero Reguera, Jose. " L a Galatea y el Persiles", in Cervantes. Ed. AnthonyClose, et a l . Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995. pp.157-72. —. El "Quijote" y la critica contemporanea. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1997. Morel-Fatio, A. "Social and Histor ical Background", t r . Mary Campbell B r i l l , i n Cervantes Across the Centuries. Ed. Angel Flores and M. J . Bemadette. New York: Dryden Press, 1947. pp.101-27. Parr, James A. "Some Narratological Problems in Don Quixote: Five Instances," in Studies in Honor of Donald W. Bleznick. Ed. Delia V. Galvan, et a l . Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta, 1995. pp.127-42. Percas de Ponseti, Helena. Cervantes y su concepto de arte, Vol.1 and II. Madrid: Edi tor ia l Gredos, 1975. Randel, Mary Gaylord. "The Language of Limits and the Limits of Language: The Cr is is of Poetry in La Galatea", in Cervantes: Modern Critical Views. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. pp.115-34. Redondo, Agustin. "Acercamiento al Quijote desde una perspectiva h is tdr ico -soc ia l " , in Cervantes. Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, 1995. pp.257-94. Louis 88 Ri ley, Edward C. "Teoria l i t e ra r i a" , i n Suma cervantina. Ed. J . B . Avalle-Arce and E.C. Ri ley. London: Tamesis Books, 1973 pp.293-322. . Don Quixote. London: Al len & Unwin, 1986. —. Cervantes's Theory of the Novel. Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta, 1992. [First edit ion 1962] Riquer, Martin de. Cervantes y el "Quijote". Barcelona: Teide, 1960. Rosenblat, Angel. "La lengua de Cervantes", in Suma cervantina. Ed. J .B . Avalle-Arce and E.C. Ri ley. London: Tamesis Books, 1973. pp.323-56. Schevi l l , Rudolph. Cervantes. London: John Murray, 1919. Unamuno, Miguel de. Vida de don Quijote y Sancho, decimoquinta edicion Ed. Alberto Navarro. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1971. [First edition 1905] . Del sentimiento tragico de la vida. Madrid: Akal , 1983. [First edition 1913] Van Doren, Mark. Don Quixote's Profession. New York: U. of Columbia, 1958. Varo, Carlos. Genesis y evolucion de "Quijote". Madrid: Ediciones Alca la , 1968. Williamson, Edwin. The Half-way House of Fiction. Oxford: Oxford UP., 1984.


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