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Imaginative space and the construction of community : the drama of Augustine’s two cities in the English… Minton, Gretchen E. 1999

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I M A G I N A T I V E S P A C E A N D T H E C O N S T R U C T I O N OF C O M M U N I T Y : T H E D R A M A OF A U G U S T I N E ' S T W O CITIES IN T H E E N G L I S H  RENAISSANCE  by G R E T C H E N E. M I N T O N  B . A , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1992 M . A . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1995  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE D O C T O R OF  OF  PHILOSOPHY in  T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department o f E n g l i s h )  W e accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH August  COLUMBIA  1999  © Gretchen E . M i n t o n ,  1999  OF  In presenting this thesis  in partial fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  &V)li'sh~  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  11  Abstract  T h i s thesis traces the development o f A u g u s t i n e ' s p a r a d i g m o f the t w o cities (the C i t y o f G o d and the earthly c i t y ) i n the cultural poetics o f the E n g l i s h Renaissance. A l t h o u g h scholars have studied the impact o f A u g u s t i n e ' s m o d e l o n theology, h i s t o r i c a l consciousness, and p o l i t i c a l theories i n the M i d d l e A g e s and Renaissance, little attention has b e e n p a i d to the genealogy o f the more s p e c i f i c a l l y " l i t e r a r y " aspects o f the idea o f the t w o cities. M y l i n e o f i n q u i r y is the relationship between A u g u s t i n e ' s m o d e l o f the t w o cities and the idea o f drama. M o r e specifically, this project explores the w a y s i n w h i c h the i d e a o f the t w o cities spoke to various c o m m u n i t i e s — o f readers, o f w o r s h i p p e r s , and u l t i m a t e l y , o f playgoers. A u g u s t i n e ' s v i e w o f d r a m a is d i v i d e d ; o n the one hand, he speaks at length about the e v i l i n f l u e n c e o f R o m a n spectacles, but o n the other hand, he a c k n o w l e d g e s that the w o r l d i t s e l f is a theatre for G o d ' s c o s m i c drama. H o w e v e r , this e m p l o y m e n t o f d r a m a is l i m i t e d i n A u g u s t i n e ' s w r i t i n g , because his greater c o m m i t m e n t is t o the idea o f Scripture. T h i s interplay b e t w e e n drama and Scripture, I suggest, is an integral part o f the t w o - c i t i e s m o d e l that is related to his t h e o l o g y o f history. T h e tension b e t w e e n the idea o f d r a m a and the idea o f the b o o k is evident i n E n g l i s h R e f o r m a t i o n appropriations o f A u g u s t i n e ' s m o d e l , s u c h as those o f J o h n B a l e and J o h n F o x e , w h o changed the t e r m i n o l o g y to "the t w o churches."  T h e second section  o f m y thesis s h o w s h o w these R e f o r m e r s contained their o w n " d r a m a t i c " adaptations o f the t w o cities w i t h i n a n even n a r r o w e r theatre than A u g u s t i n e ' s — a theatre constituted and c o n t a i n e d b y the W o r d . S h i f t i n g the focus to secular drama, the final section concerns S h a k e s p e a r e ' s use o f s o m e facets o f the t w o - c i t i e s m o d e l i n his Jacobean plays, and e x a m i n e s the effects o f r e m o v i n g this construct f r o m its r e l i g i o u s context.  T h e result, I argue, is a theatre that  celebrates its o w n aesthetic p o w e r and flaunts its sheer p h y s i c a l i t y , resisting the p r e s u m e d stability o f the w r i t t e n w o r d .  Ill  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  Table of Figures  vii  Acknowledgements  viii  Dedication  ix  Introduction  1  The Word: Scripture and the Book Community: Imaginative Space and the Pilgrims of the mean time Drama: The Theatre of this World The Drama of Augustine's Two Cities in the English Renaissance  PART ONE Chapter 1  Augustine's Two Cities  3 6 9 12  16  A Theatre of the W o r l d  17  I. Setting the Stage: The Model and its Tropes The Impetus for the City of God Dualistic Cities Rome and the Earthly City The City of God: Pilgrimage and Citizenship The City of God as a Textual Community  23 24 27 29 34 39  II. The Interpretive Arena Exegesis: Theory and Practice Exegetical Principles in the City of God The Fall of Language and the Redemption of the Word Reading the World Exegesis as the Paideia of the Christian Community  44 45 47 52 56 61  III. History and Narratology: The Plot of God's Cosmic Drama Sacred versus Secular History Exemplary Stories God as Author  65 66 73 78  IV  IV. The Eschatological Spectacle Judgement Punishment Reward The Apocalyptic Ambiguity  PART TWO  82 84 89 92 101  The English Reformers  106  The City of God in the Middle Ages: Apocalypse, Community, and Drama The Continental Reformation: In Search of Authority The English Context  109 111 113  Chapter 2  A T h e a t r e o f t h e W o r d (1):  Bale's Apocalypse  a n d t h e Interpretive C o m m u n i t y  116  I. John Bale: Writer and Reformer Life and Works Bale and His Critics Literary History Bale and Augustine  119 119 122 124 127  II. Reformation Drama: Staging Protestant History in Three Laws History and Drama Exegesis: Baleus Prolocutor and His Book Drama: The Free Play of Infidelity The Congregation of Christian Faith  129 131 135 140 150  III. Civitas to Congregation: Augustine's Two Cities and John Bale's Image of Both Churches Bale Reading Augustine: The Textual Evidence A Spiritual Community: Civitas to Congregation The Two Churches as a Model for Historiography The Two Churches as a Model for Exegesis  156 157 163 169 174  IV. The Word as Spectacle The Drama of Martyrdom The Image and the Book  181 181 184  V  Chapter 3  A T h e a t r e o f t h e W o r d (2): F o x e ' s M a r t y r s and the Narrative C o m m u n i t y  189  I. Ecclesiastical History Christus Triumphans: The Drama of Ecclesiastical History Tradition, Authority, and the Reformation Debates Patristic Models for Historiography Luther's Place in Foxe's Ecclesiastical History The Emergence of the Protestant Hero  195 196 201 203 208 211  II. Martyrs Allegory and the Individual: Marking the Martyrs Naming the Martyrs Martyrs in Court and on Stage The Body and the Word  214 215 218 221 228  III. Apocalyptic Exegesis Apocalypse as Drama in Christus Triumphans Apocalyptic and Exegesis Naming the Antichrist The Body of Believers  232 234 237 239 245  IV. England Universal or Particular History? The Role of England and Its Monarch Other-worldly Kingdoms  249 250 254 258  V. Acts and Monuments Change and Rest The Invisible Church and the Protestant Aesthetic Generic Hybridization and the Space of the Text  261 261 266 270  PART THREE Chapter 4  Shakespeare  A Theatre of the B o d y  I. Shakespeare and the Two Cities/Churches Shakespeare's Augustinian Dimension Protestant Drama to Secular Drama Shakespeare and Foxe  275 276  279 280 282 284  vi  II. King Lear. An Image of National Apocalypse The Pilgrimage of the Community Inwardness and Absence Secularizing the Apocalypse The Post-apocalyptic Community  290 290 295 300 303  III. Antony and Cleopatra: Acts in the Monument New Heaven, New Earth Rome and the Classical Landscape Interpretaton and Role-playing Earning a Place in History  309 311 313 317 323  IV. Cymbeline: British History as Romance Romance and Tragi-comedy Reading Words and Bodies British History and the Apocalypse Providence and Authority The Aesthetic Space and Its Community  328 328 331 338 341 346  Epilogue  350  F i g u r e s 1-8  355  Bibliography  363  Table of Figures  F i g u r e 1: J o h n B a l e presenting h i s b o o k to E d w a r d V I ; F r o n t i s p i e c e f r o m B a l e ' s Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Britanniae... Summarium (1548) F i g u r e 2 : A L i t e r a l P i c t u r e o f the W o m a n i n the W i l d e r n e s s a n d the W h o r e o f B a b y l o n ; T i t l e P a g e f r o m the S e c o n d Part o f B a l e ' s Image of Both Churches (c. 1551) F i g u r e 3: T h e F r o n t i s p i e c e o f J o h n F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments (1563) F i g u r e 4: T h e b u r n i n g o f J o h n H o o p e r , B i s h o p o f G l o u c e s t e r ; F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments. F i g u r e 5: T h e b u r n i n g o f A n n e A s k e w w i t h J o h n A d a m s , J o h n L a c e l s , and N i c h o l a s B e l e n i a n ; F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments. F i g u r e 6: T h e I n i t i a l Letter " C " o f F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments, p i c t u r i n g E l i z a b e t h I F i g u r e 7: T h o m a s C r a n m e r thrusts h i s hand into the fire; F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments. F i g u r e 8: T h e b u r n i n g o f R o s e A l l i n ' s h a n d ; F o x e ' s Acts and Monuments.  Vlll  Acknowledgements  W h e n I w a s fourteen years o l d , I d e c i d e d that I w a n t e d to pursue a P h . D . i n E n g l i s h literature. M y a b i l i t y to stay o n this course was made p o s s i b l e b y