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The moral content in adolescent behaviour Rae, Hugh McConnell 1927

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THE MORAL CONTENT IN ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOUR By Hugh M c C o n n e l l Rae  THE  M O R A L  C 0 N T E N T  IN A D O L E S C E N T  B E H A V I O U R  by Hugh McConnell Rae  A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PHILOSOPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. APRIL, 1927.  C  O  N  T  E  S  T  S  pages. CHAPTER I  1-10 SPIRITUAL VA1UBS  Morals & R e l i g i o n - Moraliam, i t s a b s t r a c t i o n - M o r a l i t y i n R e l i g i o n - F o n a a l i t y n o t enough - M o r a l i t y w i t h o u t R e l i g i o n R e l i g i o n i n Hature - M o r a l i t y fused w i t h Emotion - A U n i v e r s a l E t h i c - i t s i n w a r d n e s s , dynamic power, permanent v a l i d i t y , h i s t o r i c i t y and v i t a l i t y . CHAPTER I I  11-31 PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS  1.  General f e a t u r e s  11-16  Psychology i n R e l i g i o n - the formative P e r i o d , i t s t r a n s i t i o n f e a t u r e s - Mental and Emotional changes - P h y s i o a l and Mental Balance - Growth and R e f l e x e s - P e r i o d of Adjustment - Sex i n s t i n c t and i t s c o n t r o l - Male and Female - Mutual D e b t o r s . 2.  Triunity  18-26  T h r e e - f o l d n a t u r e , Thinlring, F e e l i n g , W i l l i n g - the Mental Complex - I n s t i n c t and Habit - t h e P l a c e of I n t e l l e c t , i t s Doubts - the P l a c e of F e e l i n g , i t s complexity - the P l a c e of W i l l , i t s complexity, h a b i t s , l a w s , and t e n d e n c i e s . 3.  Unity  26-31  Self-consciousness - Social consciousness - adolescent M o r a l i t y , V a r i a b i l i t y , and Immaturity 4- Conscience and I m p e r f e c t i o n s - Dangers in sex - D e l i n q u e n c i e s - t h e Gang I d e a l s - God-consciousness, t h e focus of p e r s o n a l i t y .  *  page CHAPTER I I I  32-48 PRACTICAL COUSIDERATIOJSS  The p e r f e c t human,- Environmental F a c t o r s and Children - School, i t s ooiaptmionsnipa Atmosphere and Customs - Readjustments w i t h Bearing - P l a y and Playgrounds - Work - The Amusement - P r o v i s i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n - t h e C h a r a c t e r - A Saved L i f e . CHAPTER IT  Home - P a r e n t s Church, i t s Scientific Booial S p i r i t Four-fold  43-54 SPECIAL CASES  The S o c i a l Mind and P u b l i c Enactments - Delinquency and I n t e l l i g e n c e - P r e v e n t i o n b e t t e r than Cure, formation r a t h e r than r e f o r m a t i o n , H e r e d i t y and Environment Commercialized Amusement - Motion P i c t u r e s and Sea, Vicious M e n t a l i t y and D i s e a s e - Co-education - I n s t i t u t i o n a l P r o p h y l a x i s , The J u v e n i l e Court, the D e t e n t i o n Home, t h e Court P s y c h i a t r i s t , t h e P r o b a t i o n System, t h e Court of Domestic R e l a t i o n s , the I n d u s t r i a l School, " P l a c i n g Out", Applied Psychology t o b a s i c f a c t o r s i n b u i l d i n g i d e a l character.  •  Chapter I. SPIRITUAL VALUS3. The basis of the education of a generation ago was religious* It oooupied dogmas so absolute and ultimate as to bt above oontroversay; It began with God and a well meaning universef and it was a good beginning. The education of today is Boientifio, and it takes for granted electrons and the ether, lot that it is sure of these, but it simply oannot get on without them. Since dogmatic religious instruction has been excluded from the public sohools and universitiea, the problem of relating the teaching of definite religion to the education of the dayschools is very great. It is an utterly impossible thing to keep them entirely separate. Many are exercised as to the value of bringing the minds of children and young people into oontaot with a definitely religious message. Instructors do not want to teaoh what it would hurt their own consciences to tetany or what the ohild in after years may have painfully to unlearn; and they do not want to tear town the altars of trust, whereby faith would be made difficult or impossible rather than reasonable and instinctive. Parents, too, are concerned about methods of suggestion and environment for the moulding of individual character. The increasing importance of the individual through popular government, the massing of the population through industrial expansion, the increasing complexity of forces that pliy upon society tend to turn our attention to fundamental things. What kind of a world do we live in? How do we want to live in society? 1Is therea better and worse? - --•3ome tell us that it is the business of society as organl£ed to produce good citizens. But, we may ask, "good" for what? And why "good"? Before we can be agreed about What good citizens are we must have a working agreement as to what good citizenship means. In other words, are we here as Calvinism asks. To glorify God? Or, as Eneraon puts it, "only to wear our boots out". Of course that is quite another thing. Moral instruction and religious education are every day tearms, but they should imply not only a common understanding as to what morals and religion oonstitute, but also a common understanding as to the ultimate meaning of life. While morals and religion are not mutually exclusive terms, an adequate religion would exclude no human good, and it is therefore proposed to show the plaoe of morals in religion and of religion in morals before making specifio application of the study to the young life of today.  9  2.  The following far reaching c r i t i c i s m has been made on Moralism: "The weakness of moralism i s i t s a b s t r a c t i o n ; the s t r e n g t h of r e l i g i o n i s i t s ' concreteness". How moralism i s an e t h i c which professes to have no b a s i s in r e l i g i o n , a morality untouched by emotion. The r a t i o n a l i s t i c p r e s s loudly proclaims such"a theory, and many unattached t h e o r i s t s f u i e t l y i n s i n u a t e t h a t the full-orbed m o r a l i t y of the fature w i l l be untrammelled with t h e swaddling c l o t h e s of r e l i g i o n . Morality, i t i s s a i d , w i l l walk without a s s i s t a n c e , and t h a t which has hindered i t s pace i n the p a s t w i l l no more be a matter t o be reckoned with. Thus many friends of r e l i g i o n , not competent t o give a philosophical defense of i t s n e c e s s i t y , are disturbed about i t s r e a l i t y , and are looking for a r i f t i n the cloud of doubt. When the Union of Ethical S o c i e t i e s met under the presidency of Frederick" Harrison i n 1897 t h e i r aim was t o intardduoe "systematic moral i n s t r u c t i o n without t h e o l o g i c a l coloring i n t o the Board Schools i n place of the present r e l i g i o u s teaching" in England. In 1909 t h e i r aim was modified t h u s , - "to urge the introduction of systematic moral and c i v i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o a l l the schools, and to make the formation of character the chief aim i n education". On the face of the a b s t r a c t i o n i s mot apparent. I t must be looked for i n the method, the programme, in the nature of the standard of e t h i c s . I f i t be I n t u i t i o n i s m , wherein the r i g h t n e s s or wrongness of an action is perceived by looking at the action not the end, i t ends in a b s t r a c t i o n . ^ If i t be U t i l i t a r i a n i s m , t h i s leads to a reckoning of v a l u e s , q u a n t i t i e s and q u a l i t i e s of p l e a s u r e , and thus far might be s a i d to be concrete. I f the view of development be maintained, however, i t would n a t u r a l l y be expected t h a t the concrete process of development would be outlined i n the i d e a l p r i n c i p l e involved. Nevertheless what i s important i s n o t the concrete process but our standard, and in t h i s regard Moralism cannot avoid being a b s t r a c t . The standard cannot be t r e a t e d a s a separate compartment of l i f e . I t enlarges into a discussion of 1he nature of good and e v i l , of duty, of r i g h t and wrong, of t h a t i n our n a t u r e which enables us t o make moral judgments against a moral c r i t e r i o n . This discussion i s so r e l a t e d to r e a l i t y t h a t i t i s hardly p o s s i b l e t o keep the subjects apart despite attempts of the "Ethical Society to e s t a b l i s h the "independence of e t h i c s " . Certain metaphysical views are p o s s i b l e , however, which hardly admit of moral o b l i g a t i o n . The theory t h a t knowledge i s derived from s e n s i b l e experience leaves no b a s i s for moral o b l i g a t i o n "for no amount of what i s can prove an ought". M a t e r i a l i s t i c automatism cannot e s t a b l i s h a r i g h t and wrong. I f the moral obligation be p o s t u l a t e d , i t s implications are a free s p i r i t u a l s e l f , and the personal control of conduct. (£)  E.R.E.  Art. "Ethies" (Muirhead)  3-  I s a b e l i e f i n God necessary t o morality? There are those t o whose thinking a moral obligation comes as a phase of u n i v e r s a l t h i n k i n g , but they are not prepared t o t h i n k t h e i s t i ^ cally. "I do not believe t h a t for such a person", says Hastings Rashdall, "our moral judgments can c a r r y w i t h them the same kind of o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t they do for the t h e i s t " . Morality, however, is necessary i n r e l i g i o n . Antinomian and l i b e r t i n e taadeneies are at a discount; f a i t h without works i s dead. Bowne says, " I t i s the one human mind which founds e t h i c a l systems and r e l i g i o u s systems. And what t h e mind may do in the moral f i e l d w i l l c e r t a i n l y hage significance for i t s work i n the religious field". While t h a t i s t r u e , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e has not always been c o n s i s t e n t l y moral. History i s deeply marred by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l oppression which ground down human freedom, enforoed nameless c r u e l t i e s and v i n d i c t i v e revenge. And every age has had i t s profession without p r a c t i c e . Eeligion t o l i v e must teach men to l i v e . I f i t s source of i n s p i r a t i o n i s merely the powers of n a t u r e , men could not be expected t o r i s e above the morals of Greece; but i t has not been discovered t h a t the worship of nature has i n c i t e d to the highest v i r t u e . Heligion and morals become p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e a l i s a b l e when they are incarnate in a person. This i s the ground of a l l u n i v e r s a l r e l i g i o n s . formality i s not enough. Where there i s an overemphasis on r e l i g i o n for i t s own sake, i t s ceremonies become p r a c t i c e s shut off from v i t a l experience, and the r e l i g i o u s person a monastic excluding h i s l i f e and r e l i g i o n from the concerns of the world. Eeligion must mix with ordinary l i f e to be of value. I t has both an inner and an outer phase. "Men imagine they can communicate t h e i r v i r t u e or vice only by overt a c t i o n s , and do not see t h a t v i r t u e or vice emit a breath every moment". To have a pure dynamic mind i s the important t h i n g , or in the p o e t ' s words, "The h e a r t ' s aye the p a r t aye, That mak's us r i g h t or wrang". That i s one side; a man's habitual motives are important, but one cannot always be absorbed in motives. Activity takes on a character because of the p r i n c i p l e s i n l i f e , and r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s are wrought out in the ambition to serve, the growth of t o l e r a t i o n , and the consecration of a b i l i t y and means u n t i l these become the p l a i n e s t e t h i c a l duties i n s o o i e t y . Were i t p o s s i b l e t o have morality without r e l i g i o n , i t would be preferable to r e l i g i o n without morality. There are good husbands and f a t h e r s , worthy statesmen and honorable business men who make no claim to a r e l i g i o u s mind. Undoubtedly they are debtors to r e l i g i o n , but touching s o c i a l requirements they have observed these from t h e i r youth up. Such men have become the f  4-.  advocates and p a t t e r n of Moralism. They have weighed the r e l i g i o u s hypocrite i n the balance and found him wanting, hut t h i s i s not t o find r e l i g i o n wanting. Many a moralist has t r i e d hard and found i t "unnatural to s e p a r a t e e t h i c a l teaching from i n s t r u c t i o n about the u l t i m a t e r e l a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e " . So i t happened t h a t e t h i c a l s o c i e t i e s in England had, l i k e Gomte, to invent prayers and adopt r e l i g i o u s forms, and the school in America under Felix Adler was forced back t o t h e same expedient. We a l l recognise with F. W. Robertson t h a t " i f there were no Sod and no future s t a t e , y e t iven i t i s b e t t e r to be generous than s e l f i s h , b e t t e r t o be chaste than l i c e n t i o u s , b e t t e r to be ta?u#> than f a l s e , b e t t e r t o be brave than a coward". This, however, does not go f a r enough. Deliverance from selfi s h n e s s , l i c e n t i o u s n e s s , f a l s i t y , and cowardice are demanded. J. S. Mackenzie says, "Man's l i f e i s not a simple struggle towards v i r t u e and h o l i n e s s ; i t i s quite a s often a lapse into vice and s i n " . A cure for sin i s required t o make our l i f e complete, to a t t a i n a r a t i o n a l end and r e l a t e a l l our experiences i n t e l l i g e n t l y to ourselves. The moral l i f e i s incomplete i n i t s e l f , and we t u r n to r e l i g i o n t o complete i t . By r e l i g i o n we do not men merely emotion. P o l i t i e s may arouse emotions; they do not make u s r e l i g i o u s . Religion i s what we regard as the g r e a t e s t experience i n t h e realm of personal r e l a t i o n s , or of u l t i m a t e worth i n the realm of i d e a l s which cannot e x i s t apart from persons. Religion must be t r u e , the g r e a t e s t t r u t h , the g r e a t e s t r e a l i t y ; i t must be deep-rooted i n convictions t h a t make us a t home i n the u n i v e r s e , and such convictions are a n e o e s s i t y of man's l i f e - a n e c e s s i t y p e r t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and p a r t l y moral". The study of science a r i s e s out of the wonder of n a t u r e , but imagination goes beyond science and c r e a t e s explanations for i t s e l f ; and,when a l l i s done, there ia mystery. In our moral world there i s a sense of the inadequacy of ordinary experience, an incompleteness of v i s i o n , and what we demand i s an explanation which does not mock our i n t e l l e c t . To help us t o be moral we must i n t e r p r e t the universe as moral and r a t i o n a l with an adequate place for t h e self. The heaven within l i n k s I t s e l f t o a harmonious and r a t i o n a l universe without. We l i v e in an i n f i n i t y witnessed by a moral law within, but t o worship nature in i t s highest Pantheism i s t o end in materialism or Hirvana. To a t t a i n t o a legalism which i n t e r p r e t s God as t h e g r e a t king and lawgiver leads to dualism. But t o see God as the power in nature and the end of the moral (1) (2)  H.Rashdall, "Elements of Psychology". Mackenzie, "Manual of E t h i c s " , p.393.  s. ideal is to approach Christianity. Thereby we come to relate what is going on all around us as a moral experience, to see things 'sub specie aeternitatis', not to hold that "whatever is, is right", but "whatever is right, is". All high religions have helped to this; in some it is fundamental, and in the Hew Testament we "see how a great personality creates a moral standard by what He does and suffers, and how He illustrates it in His words".® Here is God measured in time and space. He "Wrought  With human hands the creed of creeds In l o v l i n e s s of p e r f e c t deeds 4 More strong than a l l p o e t i c thought." ® A personal example i s eloquent beyond the power of words and i d e a l s , and has proved t h e mightiest of h i s t o r i c motives for t r u e and noble l i v i n g . In a l l high and pure morality r e l i g i o n i s p r e s e n t , but not always consciously. A morality fused with emotion and touched w i t h imagination i s not a t h i n g which vaunteth i t s e l f or i s puffed up. I t i s t h e eonviotion t h a t what i s e s s e n t i a l to r e l i g i o n i s t h e r e a l i t y of the moral l i f e , and t h a t i t i s worth l i v i n g . I t s manner i s f u l f i l l e d in the duty t o one's neighbour and the s e l f . I t implies t h a t duty i s done from a r i g h t motive, and the purer and l o f t i e r motive becomes the c l e a r e r when i t i s seen t o be r e l i g i o u s . Apparent or concealed, conscious or unconscious, i t i s doing the w i l l of God. Indeed, to admit the moral obligation i n a l l i t s length and breadth, and depth and hiighfc, i s t o admit God. The f a i t h we see i n science i s rooted in the consciousness of an i n t e l l i g i b l e system, so the f a i t h we have in a moral l i f e gives us the b a s i s for r e l i g i o n . The proof of t h i s l i e s in metaphysics, but "without some such b e l i e f morality i s hardly possible a t all".® Green wrote, "We present to ourselves the objects of moral l o y a l t y which we should be ashamed t o forsake for our p l e a s u r e s , in a f a r g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of forms than did the Greek, and i t i s a much l a r g e r s e l f - d e n i a l which l o y a l t y t o these objects demands of u s / Ttiis i s l a r g e l y owing to the p r i n c i p l e s of v i r t u e being u n i v e r s a l i a e d owing t o the Christian conception of man's nature and destiny, r e a l i s i n g the i n f i n i t e i s s u e s at stake in the moral regeneration of the world, and the imperative obligation to make i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral education u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e . " © Philosophers and w r i t e r s since Plato have emphasised the moral danger of i n t e l l e c t u a l scepticism, and the experience t h a t morality without r e l i g i o n i s not able t o maintain i t s e l f . E i t h e r morality degenerates or makes an a l l i a n c e with r e l i g i o n . Frederick Harrison, Coit, and F e l i x Adler have busied themselves (1) D. C.G. art "Ethics". (2) Tennyson, "In Memoriam" (3) Mackenzie. "Manual of Ethics" p. 451. (4) Green, "Prolegomena" p. £64.  &.  establishing ethical societies which profess to have no belief in a Supernatural, a personal God or a personal immortality. Human agency, forethought, and the will of organised society take the place of a God who is"above all and in all and through all I' They go on, however, to adopt prayer, sacraments, and the ceremonies of the Christian church. God becomes an abstraction, though their devil may be very real, and some have even advooated preaching hell that people may be saved "so as by fire". Ooit even comes back to the necessity for incarnation - in reality establishing "irresistibly that morality, to be living and permanent, must have religious sanctions and inspiration, that we need to be delivered from the awful thraldom of evil; that the supreme realities are the things which are unseen; that prayer is the life of the soul; that public worship is a necessity, that in Christ the greatest redemptive power has been embodied, and the purest vision of the Sternal has been granted; and that in its adaptation to human needs, its fostering of human aspirations, its ministering to human sorrows, its renewal of human penitence, its consecration of life and its hope in death, no ethical society yet devised gives any symptom of being able to supplant the church of Him who said, 'Come unto Me, and I will give you rest'". Abram looked for a city whose builder and Maker was God. The Apocalyptic writer saw the Efew Jerusalem coming down out of heaven. And we see a universe, which, to produ'oe men with a moral ideal, must have a moral Thinker behind it; and if that moral ideal does not apply to ourselves "the claim for an objective validity of the moral consciousness cannot be satisfactorily accounted for". We would then be left to support one of the many systems finding it hard to maintain essential distinctions between moral and immoral, human and inhuman, virtue and vice, sympathy and insensibility. When such distinctions are lost, evil would show itself without shame. If a time were to oome when men would openly commit deeds that have always been regarded as sinful, with no voice of conscienoe to speak, they would chose with readiness anything that was vile, so long as it was pleasant; the unseen bonds of society would be broken, and destruction attained. Goldwin Smith said, "Shadows and figments as they appear to us to be in themselves, these attempts to provide a substitute for religion are of the highest importance as showing that men of great powers of mind, who have thoroughly broken loose, not only from Christianity but from natural religion, and in some cases placed themselves in violent antagonism to both, are still unable to divest themselves of the religious sentiment or to appease its craving for  7. satisfaction". This is a craving moralism cannot get away from, and without recognising whioh it will fail. Religion has pervaded all peoples and established its sacred sanctions, and to say that morality would be unaffected by the decay of religion is an unfounded speculation. Let ethical societies not merely imagine such, but let morality prove its own power in a world whioh has doffed the old clothes of religion churches, doctrines, religious literature and devotion, put man in the place of God, and make propriety the categorical Imperative; then we may have laws as before whioh prohibit murder, theft and false witness, but none that carry the searchlight of the divine into the innermost motives. It is possible to kill the murderer, but who can kill murder? It is possible to imprison the thief and compel restoration, but what law on earth - where we have no divine sanction can operate to kill envy and hatred, indifferenoe and impurity? Grand the divine order, and, while men keep out of the oluthhea of national law, they are condemned, self-condemned, and condemned by the innate judgment of their fellows as well as the whole moral order of the universe. This is because there is a law higher than that which is written.® "Whatever is not of faith is sin". An external law can only hope for external obedience. Through it the difference between the widow's mite and the bags of silver is a difference of ourrenoy. The man who supports his party enthusiastically to the extent of a few dollars he can afford is muoh less to be commended than the representative of the 'big interests' who contributes thousands of dollars to have the protection of the legislature. If there be none but our fellow creatures to whom we give an account, and none to search the heart, what an incentive to high aspiration and purity of motive is taken awayJ But the inwardness of morality has so impressed men that actions whioh wre outwardly good may now be judged evil because of the motive. "He who seeth in secret shall reward openly". Agnosticism, materialism, or naturalistic religion do not impress us with an authoritative morality. The believer in God makes a real claim for the objective validity of the moral consciousness. He believes in God, and holds that his moral judgments are based upon ideas which are eternally true, proceeding, as they do, from the Source of all reality. "The theistic explanation of the universe does seem to be logically demanded by our consciousness of duty when the implications of that consciousness are fully thought out". Morality, however, is not statio. Moral progress is going on leading us past the habits and institutions of a particular time and place, and enabling us to transcend the ideals of the past. As Miss Wodgwood says, "The dominant influence of life lies ever in the unrealised - not the criminal code, but the (1} cf. Sidgwiok, History of Ethics, p.114 f. (2) Wedgwood, "The Moral Ideal".  8.  counsel of p e r f e c t i o n shows us what a nation i s becoming." I f our sense of moral obligation i s most completely s a t i s f i e d and j u s t i f i e d by a b e l i e f in God, i t i s a strong reason for accepting i t and helping us to understand why there i s any moral consciousness a t a l l . Today t h e r e i s an undertone of pessimism expressed in the loosening of t h e bands of organised r e l i g i o n . In the extreme i t i s accompanied by a Daack l u s t r e view of human life. Instead of man having as an end to g l o r i f y God, he i s a plaything, a sport of an i d l e dream. Life i s a melancholy introspection, "The good Lord Jesus has had his day", as the doctor s a i d , and many profess to get on very well without a r e l i g i o n . Honor to those who have kept t o moral goodness even i n t h e p e r i o d of "Everlasting Hay". Ifc?i&not mainly because of the undying hope t h a t somehow, somewhere the Divine w i l l show His face and the benignity of His government? Were i t not f o r such a hope the cultured would repeat "Vanity of v a n i t i e s , a l l i s v a n i t y " , and the mob cry out, "Let us e a t , drink and be merry for tomorrow we d i e " . "When work l o s e s i t s sense of s p i r i t u a l connection", says Eucken, " i t l o s e s a t t h e same time i t s independent standing 079T against human l i k e s and f a n c i e s ; i t l o s e s a l l power to l i f t and transform man's inward l i f e , and n e i t h e r shrewdness nor d e x t e r i t y can save i t from sinking to a mere sham and parody of c u l t u r e " . No matter how absolute and peremptory duty i s held t o be, morality tends t o become a matter of convenience and p l e a s u r e , custom and p u b l i c opinion. A powerful dynamio i s needed to develope a l t r u i s m and oontinu4 ously u p l i f t the mind of the time. Without i t m o r a l i t y would sink t o the l e v e l of despairing conventionality. Without r e l i g i o n , who i s to be our guide? Is i t that man who t h i n k s he i s strong because he breaks t h e laws of his country? To one who l a c k s the sense of duty or denies i t s v a l i d i t y , we are very much a t a l o s s t o prove i t to him. There can be no such thing as a permanent and unrivalled code of morality t o regulate t h e workd's conduct unless society be s t a t i c . Systems degenerate i n t o c a s u i s t r y with a d e t a i l e d irksomeness too grevious t o be borne. How high are we t o aim, or how low? People w i l l be slow t o approve a morality which i s merely oonventional and a r b i t r a r y , and may be discarded to s u i t the whim of a class or age. An age of n o n - r e l i g i o n i s hopefully a n t i c i p a t e d in some q u a r t e r s , but i t ought t o be c a r e f u l l y considered i f such an age would not be marked by the diffusion of a non-morality in a manner unparalleled i n the h i s t o r y of the world. I s i t not untrue to the past t o say t h a t founders of r e l i g i o n s with t h e i r teachers and prophets have lacked in moral impulse? They have been the most potent means of imparting i t t o others.* I s i t not reasonable to assume t h a t the r e l i g i o u s man w i l l  7. away the sceptre of the long f u t u r e , and, as i n the p a s t , s a t i s f y the moral i n s t i n c t s as well as the r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s of the race? The r e l i g i o u s mind bases the moral i d e a l upon a moral law coming from the h e a r t of the u n i v e r s e , from t h e throne of God, and i s bound t o command more respect than a moral ideal based upon the u n c e r t a i n r e f l e c t i o n s of past or contemporary minds. Religion has ever been a more compelling powej; than morality. It places moral conduct in r e l a t i o n to God and immortality, emphasising the s p i r i t u a l above the n a t u r a l and the universal above the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . I t places t h i s l i f e i n r e l a t i o n to an i n f i n i t e evolution with the promise of boundless attainment in the l i f e that now i s and t h a t which i s to come. The r e l i g i o u s experience has been u n i v e r s a l , and now the g r e a t r e l i g i o n s aim t o become universal* Their organisations embody a moral i d e a l , propagate moral p r i n c i p l e s , and i t i s reasonably and hopef u l l y assumed t h a t "the most powerful influences w i l l be exercised in the future as in the p a s t by s o c i e t i e s which represent some d e f i n i t e view of man's r e l a t i o n t o the universe as well as some d e f i n i t e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e t h i c a l i d e a l ^ Says Eucken, "That i t s metaphysical should be e t h i c a l , and i t s e t h i c s metaphysical c o n s t i t u t e s the p e c u l i a r i t y and greatness of C h r i s t i a n i t y , and gives i t also i t s lasting interest". I t s g r e a t e s t evidence i s a l i f e of genuine s i m p l i c i t y l i v e d among men f o r the purpose of helping by word and deed. Taking men and a f f a i r s as they were, Jesus made theser the background of His teaohing, and, because he r e l a t e d every-day l i f e to the ever-present God, and spoke the r i g h t word to His fellows, He became the true i n s p i r a t i o n of morals and r e l i g i o n . Hot t h a t He wrote a book, or devised a code, but t h a t He r e l a t e d the commonplace and the common l i f e t o the profound and the e t e r n a l , and pointed t o the Highest for i n s p i r a t i o n . Thus He made morality and r e l i g i o n the warp and woof of r e l i g i o n showed God in e^ery duty and opportunity. Both morality and r e l i g i o n existed before He came, but to Him they were "simply two aspects or s i d e s of t h e one l i f e of man, inseparable and c o - e t e r n a l " His ideal i s a growing p e r f e c t i o n working out in each p e r s o n a l i t y , not something transcendent and a b s t r a c t , but immanent and personal according to a new law w r i t t e n upon the h e a r t . The Church has had much t o say about creeds codes, but Jesus seems to have d e a l t with p r i n c i p l e s ; Paul fought legalism within and without. Example i s but i t i s not the g r e a t e s t matter. Mill wrote, "The complexity of the e t h i c a l end i s so great t h a t i t can be b e s t represented by a concrete example".® But the (1) (2)  Clarke, "Outline of Christian The M i l l , J . S . , »Utilitarianism"T  and and great, often very.  10.  nature of goodness forbids slavish reproduction. The red blood of Christian character issues in "love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, generosity, trustfulness, gentleness and self-control", and its symmetrical proportions are more to be desired than the anaemic systems of colorless negation so much applauded by well meaning moralists. Dewey puts it thus, "The habit of identifying moral characteristics with external conformity to authoritative prescriptions may lead us to ignore the ethical value of these intellectual attitudes, but the same habit tends to reduce morals to a dead and machinelike routine". Some strive for qualities of mind,- "Openmindedness, singlemindedness, sincerity, breadth of outlook, thoroughness, assumption of responsibility for developing the consequences of ideas which are accepted", but religion aims at a spirit. It is a bold ideal to make every man a law unto himself, but the appeal is founded upon an ethical spirit distinctive, absolute and universal, what Paul called, "the true and living Way". It is necessary that Christianity should adapt itself to real life if it is to be anything else than a sublime, ephemeral dream, if it is to become a reality. Life includes science and art, philosophy, politics, literature, worship, in a word all the natural and traditional forms of human activity, and a universal religion should prove superior to every form and age. When it came into the Soman world represented by an alien minority, it would have perished but for an infinite vitality. It immediately came to close grips with the requirements of real life in every shape and form, social and political, material and moral. In the Middle Ages it became the common principle of both temporal and spiritual life. At the reformation, it set moral perfection and spiritual independence above dogmatic orthodoxy and works of legalism. It took the Renaissance with its apotheosis of nature, end made it its own, clothing itself therewith as with a mantle of glory. It possessed itself of a literature and an art radiating classic splendour - painters, musicians, poets, orators and philosophers were its manservants. Such vitality and power of adaptation without abjuring itself, can be explained only by its distinctive nature, which is essentially a principle of life, whilst its roots penetrate to the very depth of the soul and will. The Greek ideal ennobles human life by making it beautiful and harmonious. Science allows us to form moral conceptions compatible with the truth it presupposes or establishes: it supplies us with the instruments of morality. The Christian is not satisfied with mere beauty and harmony and exactitude of mathematics, he gives 8 welcome to the ethics of intention and spirit, or love and sacrifice, which orders him, by means of his will, to do what nature in her loftiest instinct and force could not do: to* create within oneself an invisible, superior nature: in a word to aim at that indefinable perfection which is the dream and aspiration of human consciousness.  CHAPTER PSYCHOLOGICAL  II  IMPLICATIONS  //,  Our study so f a r has he en t o determine i n a "broad way t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t of t h e h e a r i n g of a r e l i g i o u s t h e o r y upon l i f e . I t has been s a i d t h a t psychology has been most complete i n i t s a n a l y t i c p a r t , and t h a t j u s t where t h e e d u c a t i o n i s t wants i t most i t f a i l s him most, which i s t h e " s y n t h e t i c or g e n e t i c p a r t " . I f the moral and r e l i g i o u s end of l i f e i s u n d e r s t o o d , t h e n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of e d u c a t i o n i s seen. ,to be n o t m e r e l y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of a mental g y m n a s t i c , but t h e development of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , and t h e e x p o s i t i o n of the means by which mental and moral t r a i n i n g can c o n t r i b u t e i s most v a l u a b l e . P r o f e s s o r James Ward s a y s , "What the new c e n t u r y demands of us i s the development of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of average men and women, t h e p e o p l e who have h i t h e r t o been supposed t o have no i n d i v i d u a l i t y a t a l l " . I t i s proposed t o d e a l w i t h t h e average i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e Adolescent p e r i o d , and t o march forward along t h e b r o a d highway of modern psychology i n t h e a n a l y t i c sense. The p r o c e s s e s of f e e l i n g , w i l l i n g , and d e s i r i n g must be o b s e r v e d . Psychology and Biology have shed a g r e a t d e a l of l i g h t upon the development of the moral c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d . i n so f a r as a l l l i f e i s s t u d i e d from t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e the l e a d i n g f a c t s of modern r e s e a r c h i n r e l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n c e . There i s no n e e d / t o d e a l w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l f a c t s of b r a i n c e n t r e s , n e r v e - c e l l s and e n d s , b u t r a t h e r t o take knowledge of t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s of t h e growth of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e a v e r a g e y o u t h and maiden f o r the p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s of r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n . 1. The c h i l d i s b o r n , n o t made. I t h a s been t h e p r o v i n c e of c h i l d - p s y c h o l o g y t o s t u d y t h e c h i l d i n the o r d e r of p e r i o d s , which a r e a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t d e v i c e , b u t t h e y do n o t s t a n d a p a r t from one a n o t h e r . As development p r o c e e d s from the u n f o l d i n g from w i t h i n by dynamioal s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s a r e observed, b u t t h e y a r e d i f f e r e n c e s of degree r a t h e r than of k i n d . "The c h i l d i s f a t h e r of t h e man". The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m a t u r e and the immature; they are i n c i d e n t a l to t h e s t a g e s of l i f e , b u t the whole human family by fundamental l i k e n e s s i s bound t o g e t h e r i n t o a u n i f i e d whole, and whether t h e s t u d y i s i n c h i l d h o o d , boyhood, a d o l e s c e n c e or manhood, t h e r e i s only one psychology. The course of l i f e f a l l s n a t u r a l l y i n t o s e v e r a l s t a g e s w i t h t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n each s t a g e . Adolescence i s a p a r t of t h e t o t a l l i f e ; i t l o o k s b e f o r e and a f t e r . "There i s no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a d o l e s c e n c e whose germ may n o t be found i n c h i l d h o o d , and whose consequence may n o t be t r a c e d i n m a t u r i t y and old a g e " . , "Psychology and E d u c a t i o n " . . .James Ward.  n. The period of adolescence oommenoes j u s t a t the close of childhood, and may extend t o the twenty-fourth year covering about twelve y e a r s . I t s advent i t heralded in the experience of puberty, "the most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i s i s between b i r t h and death", and t h i s c r i s i s generally comes between twelve and fourteen. Childhood has led up t o i t , and adulthood i s affected permanently by i t s many-sided expression and development. I t i s not a period which can be studied by charted figures and mechanical f a c t s merely. JTorman Richardson makes t h i s claim, "To one who appreciates i t , adolescence i s a great challenge. I t i s so p l a s t i c , so s p i r i t u a l , so sacred t h a t i t i s the very stuff, t h e raw m a t e r i a l out of which the Kingdom of heaven i s made". Some would divide adolescence i n t o t h r e e sub-periods. There i s an a s s e r t i v e period strangely coupled with t i m i d i t y from about twelve to sixteen when the sexes are s t r a n g e l y r e p e l l e n t t o each other. The next period - s i x t e e n to eighteen - has more of sentiment beoause of "increased emotional capacity 7 ', and i s remarkable for the number of emotional conversions which belong to t h i s time of l i f e . The period from eighteen years upwards marked by the maturing of reason and w i l l , the consideration of earning a l i v l i h o o d , and the recognition of one's place in s o c i e t y should culminate in "years of d i s c r e t i o n " at about twenty-four. Young people are generally in a hurry to grow up, and a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m of the West in p a r t i c u l a r i s t h a t adolescence i s not f u l l y rounded out in the average experience. Pioneer conditions have t h r u s t mature r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon young l i v e s , war turned boys into men i n a day, and the s h i f t i n g fortunes of families have so s h o r t - o i t o u i t e d the periods of development t h a t i t i s not always wise to depend upon years as the simple measure of l i f e . The f a c t s of t r a n s i t i o n from childhood to youth, and from youth to maturity are before a l l eyes. The v i s i t o r at school running h i s fingers through the twwsy head of a boy did not require t o be a prophet to say, " I t won't be long t i l l t h a t i s brushed t i l l every h a i r i s in p l a c e " . Margaret S l a t t e r y t e l l s the intimate s t o r y of g i r l l i f e from a t e a c h e r ' s viewpoint by the ordinary case of Edith. At one time Edith did not care how she looked because she was never in the l e a s t self-conscious. The change came, and the mirror was the a l l important t h i n g . "Her h a i r ribbons are always p r e s e n t . . . .She spends a good deal of time in school arranging her h a i r . Sometime s p e l l i n g s u f f e r s , sometimes algebra. Before standing to r e c i t e , she carefully arranges her b e l t . Contrary to her previous custom, she r a r e l y v o l u n t e e r s , although her scholarship i s very good. cf. , a r t . "Education in r e l i g i o n and morals" E.R.E. p.2$0f.  /i. I f unable t o g i v e t h e eorrect answer, or when o b l i g e d to face the s c h o o l , she b l u s h e s p a i n f u l l y . One day r e c e n t l y , when the c l a s s were reading "As Tou Like I t " , she s a t w i t h a dreamy look upon her sweet f a c e , f a r , f a r away from t h e eighth-grade c l a s s room; could n o t find her p l a c e when c a l l e d upon t o read, and although confused and ashamed, l o s t i t again within t e n minutes". She a d o l e s c e n t i s n o t a new c r e a t i o n , but i s the f o c a l centre f o r new and crude emotions sometimes expressed i n r e l i g i o u s fervour. Mental energy and rapid growth mark the f i r s t part of the p e r i o d , and i n the l a t t e r part a d j u s t ments take p l a c e towards symmetry and p o i s e and power. She soultdemands new i n t e r e s t s , the future demands a v i t a l p l a c e i n thinking, and the minds,twines around i d e a l s and goes wool-gathering. I n t r o s p e c t i o n b e g i n s , and thought and f e e l i n g become more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d than h e r e t o f o r e . She merely i m i t a t i v e s p i r i t f a l l s away, o l d t a s k s no l o n g e r s u f f i c e , a c t i o n becomes v o l i t i o n a l , ambitions, p a s s i o n s and yearnings sweep through the soul u n t i l "the r a t i o n a l powers gradually overtake the emotional, and e s t a b l i s h that balance and control which i s the mark of maturity". To achieve t h a t balance t h e r e must be a sound mind i n a sound body. The body i s the instrument of the mind, l e do not need t o d i s c u s s the u l t i m a t e r e l a t i o n o f body and mind. I t i s assumed there i s "no p s y c h o s i s without n e u r o s i s " , and that the r e l a t i o n s are o f the most c o n s i s t e n t and intimate kind. In childhood the dominant feature i s growth, and the e a r l y period of adolescence (twelve to eighteen) i s a p e r i o d of marked a c c e l e r a t i o n i n growth, w h i l e the l a t e r p e r i o d i s marked by the p a r t s of t h e body k n i t t i n g themselves t o g e t h e r i n preparation f o r the e x a c t i n g f u n c t i o n s of fee mature l i f e . The h e a l t h y mind cannot be a t t a i n e d without the healthy body; the nervous system cannot work properly u n l e s s t h e blood be well aerated by a c t i v e lungs and d i s t r i b u t e d by a h e a l t h y heart. The modern emphasis upon p h y s i c a l culture has done marvellous t h i n g s i n f r e e i n g the world from i r r a t i o n a l modes of d r e s s , from the unnatural c o n s t r i c t i o n of abdominal p a r t s i n the h a b i t of mid-Victorian women t o the r e l e a s e of t h e bound f e e t of the Chinese. There i s , however, an extreme t o be avoided; the whole emphasis i n some quarters i s p l a c e d upon the p h y s i c a l . We have many f l o u r i s h i n g s c h o o l s of p h y s i c a l culture s i n c e San&ow s e t the f a s h i o n i n London, and some of them hold t o t h e monstrous anachwonism t h a t bone and muscle are s t i l l paramount. Mankind has long ago, we t r u s t , M. Slatterm i n "Girl i n her Teens" p . 3 .  /*-  staked i t s a l l upon mindt The only physical development t h a t i s r e a l l y worth anything to the human race i s that which educates i n t e l l i g e n c e and morality and serves for t h e i r expression. Herbert Spencer's remark t h a t i t i s necessary to be a good animal has an element of t r u t h in i t which was u t t e r l y ignored and needed proclamation at t h a t t i m e , but i t i s necessary to be a good animal only in so f a r as that s t a t e makes for being a good man, and n o t any f u r t h e r . I f we are in danger in some q u a r t e r s of t h e Spartan s p i r i t - the worship of t h e physical - i t i s time to consider how to put the emphasis upon the moral and s p i r i t u a l virtues instead. We have remarked upon the growth period; both sexes grow t i l l by eighteen years g i r l s have reached t h e i r f u l l height; boys continue growing for a few years more. Then by the close of the teen years the normal adult weight i s n e a r l y reached. The brain "in the matter of s t r u c t u r a l and functional development, the organization of i t s convolutions, and the l i n k i n g up of i t s a s s o c i a t i v e neurones" i s very busy developing during t h i s period. The h e a r t doubles i t s s i z e , the process of medullation in the nervous system i s brought almost t o completion, the lungs expand i n capacity and power, and the organs t h a t are concerned p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e work of the reproduction of the species enter upon that prooess of growth which i s to culminate a t maturity in t h e i r p e r f e c t f i t n e s s to exercise these functions. I t should therefore be the duty of parents to explain to t h e i r ohildren the meaning of these changes and how v i t a l l y they are r e l a t e d to the f l u c t u a t i o n s of f e e l i n g s , the ebb and flow of physical d e s i r e s , and the general r e s t l e s s n e s s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period. I t i s of great value to the youth to know t h a t t h e s e strange feelings are not uncommon or u n n a t u r a l , and that discouragement i s unwarranted. At these crucial periods of unfolding the body should be well fed, well worked or d i s c i p l i n e d t h a t the mind may have unhindered opportunity for i t s own free expression and s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n . After adolescence nothing v i t a l i s added t o the height or weight of the body or the s i z e of the organs; the equipment of the individual i s complete. Man i s the sovereign being i n c r e a t i o n , and as the most philosophic anatomists point out, the body of man a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the goal of physical evolution. I t may be the medium of a l l t h a t i s good and moral, or of a l l t h a t i s bad and immoral. " I t may be the pest-house of i n i q u i t y , or a temple of t h e Holy Ghost". Certain organic functions are n o n - v o l i t i o n a l such as t h e c i r c u l a t i o n of the blood and the d i g e s t i o n of food, but a l l physical prooesses may be stimulated by wholesome a c t i v i t i e s . Health may become a permanent possession through t h e b u i l d i n g up of h a b i t s  /*  whereby every power and faoulty, every organ and p a r t , e n t e r s into a olose and v i t a l r e l a t i o n with every other. There are d e s i r a b l e h a b i t s of b r e a t h i n g , walking, sleeping, e a t i n g , working, r e c r e a t i o n , bathing, excretion which can be firmly fixed upon l i f e a t such a time as t h i s i s . Extremes are always t o be avoided as e s s e n t i a l l y dangerous. Young people should be content to do the reasonable t h i n g without mortgaging the future of body or mind t h a t the laws of t h e i r n a t u r a l development may produce vigorous, e f f i c i e n t , and b e a u t i f u l young men and women equal to every duty and task in a worthy s o c i e t y , f i t t e d for the incomparable functions of fatherhood and motherhood, and f o r t i f i e d by a c o n s i s t e n t human nature against a l l the forces of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n in the modern world. She l a s t few years have witnessed a breaking down of the policy of s i l e n c e in the discussion of the sexual elements In humanity. Where God has seen f i t in designing our human nature to make the sex i n t e r e s t so o e n t r a l , permanent and powerful, He must have had some g r e a t and wise design. The i d e a l i s t i c conception i s the proper s t a r t i n g place for a discussion of t h e s t r u c t u r e s and functions t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the nature of sex. They are as n a t u r a l end normal as any other, and once understood and properly handled, make f o r the enrichment of human l i f e , f o r t h e increase of h e a l t h and e f f i c i e n c y , and the heightening of the enjoyment of l i f e . 5o man or woman a t t a i n s t o fulness or harmony of l i f e i f the sexual nature be e i t h e r neglected or mismanaged. No s o c i e t y i s s t r o n g unless these elements are c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d , and for t h e l a c k of understanding c i v i l i z a t i o n s have been discomfited and the world strewn w i t h t r a g e d i e s and d i s e a s e . Reference has been made to physical development, and one of the most important features of adolescent development i s in the physical p a r t s that are connected with p r o c r e a t i o n . But t h i s i s something more than p h y s i c a l . Up t i l l t h i s time the sex system has l a i n p r a c t i c a l l y doimant, but now there i s both an i n t e r n a l and external development, and i t has become a matter of profound i n q u i r y how the n a t u r a l and normal development may t r a n s p i r e without the i r r e g u l a r and unhealthy features of excessive excitements, emotions and ideas which should belong only to the adult l i f e . rhe i d e a l s t i l l l i n g e r s i n some minds t h a t boys and g i r l s , young men and women, should be kept in complete ignorance of the t r u t h s about t h s e l v e s u n t i l t h e y marry and discover them from the inexorable law of experience. But in order to keep children i n the dark i t would be necessary for them to l i v e a fiobinson Crusoe kind of existence without books, papers, or friends of any kind. Responsible p a r t i e s ought t o be prepared to give t o the young on the b a s i s of reverence, the clean, c l e a r f a c t s . We are i n a world humming  /(,.  with conversation, ornamented with p i c t u r e s , and r e s t l e s s with experience; the danger i s t h a t children w i l l receive p a r t i a l , d i s t o r t e d and unhealthy ideas from the school-ground, the s t r e e t , and from persons sexually depraved and ignorant of the r e a l f a c t s . When i t i s recognised t h a t a l l the wealth of powers with which the body i s endowed has significance and worth, t h i s subject w i l l be t r e a t e d in a t r u e r l i g h t . Lust w i l l be conceived of as t h e v i l e s t thing on earth, and pure love the most b e a u t i f u l . There i s no g r e a t e r need for society today than to recognise t h a t education must include, must culminate i n , preparation for the supreme duty of parenthood. This involves i n s t r u c t i o n regarding those bodily functions which e x i s t not for t h e body, not for the present at a l l , but f o r the future l i f e of mankind. The exercise of t h e s e functions depends upon an i n s t i n c t which has been termed the " r a c i a l i n s t i n c t " . Here i s a name which w i l l suggest to t h e adolescent a something the s a t i s faction of which i s not an end in i t s e l f - t h a t i s the f a l s e and degrading a s s e r t i o n which w i l l be made by the teachers whom youth w i l l c e r t a i n l y f i n d i f we f a i l in our duty - but as e x i s t i n g for what i s immeasurably higher t h a n any s e l f i s h end. Youth must be taught t h a t i t i s for man the s e l f conscious to deal with h i s i n s t i n c t s i n terms of t h e i r purpose, as no creature but man can do. The boy and g i r l must l e a m t h a t the r a c i a l i n s t i n c t e x i s t s for the highest of ends - the continuance and u l t i m a t e elevation of the l i f e of mankind. I t i s a sacred t r u s t for t h e l i f e of t h i s world t o come. To be manly t s to be master of t h i s i n s t i n c t . And the higher etduoation of girlhood must serve and conserve the future mother, both by teaching her how to care for and guard her body, which i s the temple of l i f e t o come, and how a f t e r wards to be a r i g h t educator of her c h i l d r e n . I f passion be t r u l y handled i t provides a driving force for a l i f e t h a t i s e f f e c t i v e , courageous, and joyous; and the key to that l i f e i s t o be found in the conception of the r a c i a l i n s t i n c t as e x i s t i n g for parenthood, and to be guarded, reverenced, educated for that purpose and supreme end. Woman i s N a t u r e ' s supreme instrument of the f u t u r e . Many people seem i n c l i n e d to think that woman i s j u s t the same s o r t of being as a man, except f o r the one s p e c i a l function - t h a t of motherhood which can o£ly be exercised occasionally, and need not be exercised a t a l l . Now i t i s true t h a t the sexes have ^BTJ much in common, but they are "opposite and complementary phases of one and the same complex phenomenon". Tracy says, "The normal woman i s e s s e n t i a l l y female from head to foot, i n bearing and conduct, insentiment and expression, i n feeling,thought and action, and from the beginning of girlhood to the end of l i f e . So, a l s o , with the normal man. He i s e s s e n t i a l l y and v i t a l l y • "The Psychology of Adolescence".. .Tracy, p.134.  n male, throughout the whole range of h i s toeing". , Ho doubt there are many men w i t h feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and woman with many masculine ones; tout woman i s not only p h y s i c a l l y different from man, she i s d i f f e r e n t mentally, emotionally, and s p i r i t u a l l y . And that i s why we need her so much in a l l l i f e ' s departments. At t h e time, then, when i d e a l s are most i n s p i r i n g - toetween f i f t e e n and twenty-five - t h e r e ought t o toe room for happy, free, wholesome companionships t h a t help to broaden and deepen. Male and female elements are to toe found everywhere, and they are not to toe defined in merely physiological terms. They concern the e n t i r e psycho-physical toeing. Everywhere the male i s t h e aggressor, the defender, the inventor. Women are more a e s t h e t i c and l e s s commercial, l e s s disposed to c r i m i n a l i t y , more disposed to orthodoxy than men. A teacher of amtomotoile driving i n our c i t y claims t h a t women l e a r n more r e a d i l y than men; women want t o know how to d r i v e , while men want to know the "how" of everything. A professor who has observed the sexes for years s t a t e s t h a t the female mind i s reproductive r a t h e r than productive. He w r i t e s , "The work of the male s t u d e n t , in comparison with h e r s , i s l i k e l y t o appear untidy and slipshod; tout i t i s also more l i k e l y than h e r s t o toe c r e a t i v e , productive, l o g i c a l , j u d i c i a l , discriminating and c r i t i c a l . . . .He toetrays more independence of judgment, i s more impatient of a u t h o r i t y , and does not h e s i t a t e to d i f f e r , not only from h i s professor i n the c l a s s room, tout from Kant, from Thomas Aoquinas, and even from • Plato". The question t o toe asked i n view of the complementary n a t u r e s of the sexes and the d e s i r e of each t o find s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the other, i n view a l s o that "In the beginning God made them male and female" how are we to regulate the new freedom of sooiety and educational l i f e ? Mrs. Grundy has not toeen atole to keep the sexes a p a r t , and the prospect of doing so i s f u r t h e r off than ever. A popular c r i t i c i s m i s offered, e s p e c i a l l y toy those who were trained in separate schools for tooys and g i r l s , t h a t a l l the unrest of today i s due t o co-education. On the other hand i t may toe shown t h a t the mutual r e l a t i o n a s h i p of the sexes has toeen helpful a l l round. As long ago as Cicero's time the acquaintance of the l a d i e s of Rome was c u l t i v a t e d for the enrichment of t h a t f e r t i l e mind. The t h i n g s a man g e t s on h i s Journey from h i s mother, s i s t e r s , and h i s g i r l friendsfrom his wife, his daughters, and t h e c i r c l e of good women of h i s acquaintance, are among the golden things of l i f e . A s i m i l a r t r i b u t e can toe paid from the other side ao t h a t the arrangement of having divided mankind i n t o male and female i s among the most resplendant of divine thoughts. We need women in p o l i t i c s , education, a r t , and also i n science to « supplement and stimulate human o b j e c t i v e s , and by companionship make a bigger and b e t t e r thing of l i f e than would be otherwise p o s s i b l e . That opportunity i s given to t h i s  /*.  generation, and it is for the young people of the university and college circles who meet in the freest way, to discover how to make the To est of new circumstances. Mere rules and regulations are not going to do it for them; the habits of other days give small guidance. THrough blundering silliness and frequent mistakes it is more than possible that young folks will establish for themselves the right standards and conventions, and thereby do an immense service to the whole social structure.  2.  Triunity.  Having given our attention to the broad general basis of physical unity, the way is open to discuss the universe of mental experience in its variety. It is usual to analyse a complete condition of mind into the time-honored three elements, Thinking, Feeling and Willing. "Thinking11 is used to cover all the ways of having knowledge of awareness of an object. By an object is meant an abstract idea as well as a material object. The raw materials are colors, sounds, etc., aa they occur in our sensuous consciousness whereby we are led to a knowledge of a real or, as Kant oonceived it, a phenomenal world. And knowledge may be regarded as the content of consciousness descriptive of fact, and the objective of knowledge is truth. The processes of thinking may appear in some such order as the following; sensation, perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment and reasoning. Sensation is the beginning and reasoning the end of knowledge. "Feeling" is used in widely different senses. We feel hungry, and the term feeling is used of an organic sensation. But feeling has a place in all states of consciousness,- e.g., when we speak of anger, pleasure, disappointment. It appears to be the primordial element in conscious life; practically all mental processes are saturated with feeling. "Willing" is also an active element in our consoious life. Its function is the mental side of voluntary movements in the adjustment to environment, and the production of volumtary changes in the chain of ideas. The will is the activity of the self; it is the self functioning, the self moving, and this is the unifying principle for the self is a unity more in function than in structure.  /?, These three elemeits are not d i s t i n c t s t a t e s of consciousness which may e x i s t i n the mind in i s o l a t i o n . They are c o n s t i t u e n t s of s t a t e s of mind in which a l l three e x i s t together. Every complex s t a t e of mind c o n s i s t s of thinking, f e e l i n g , and w i l l i n g , and any t r a i n i n g or experience t o he adequate must appeal to eTexy p a r t of the s e l f . Uot only are t h e r e waves of physical development, hut there are §lso waves of mental development during adolescence, which i s the most o r i t i o a l mental period in experience. The conditions out of which mental soundness or weakness a r i s e have now a r r i v e d , and u s u a l l y are such as y i e l d t o the influences which p a r e n t s , leaders and teachers can control. The mind "begins to expand more rapidly than heretofore. Moods come and go. E x c i t a b i l i t y i s a t s i t s height. The past i s forgotten i n the increasing i n t e r e s t of the future. The senses are unusually keen, and lend themselves to appreciative s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . The i n t e l l e c t becomes the potent force driving the youth on t o t h i n k and know t i l l the ultimate goal of the knowledge of t h e s e l f i s sought. And the w i l l becomes more dynamic and progressive i n the r e a l i s a t i o n of i t s power. "The wear and t e a r of opinionativeness and i n t o l e r a n c e upon the mind i s g r e a t " , says one who understands the a s s e r t i v e n e s s of the boy who knows more than h i s f a t h e r . The "shades of t h e prison-house" are the new i n s t i n c t s coming into play and the new i n t e r e s t s being developed. The mind i s tossed h i t h e r and t h i t h e r . "The young a d o l e s c e n t ' s c a r c e l y knows what to do w i t h h i s powers of mind and body, with the surging t i d e s of f e e l i n g , with the prooession of images and i d e a s , and with t h e vigorous currents of muscular and nervous force". The mature j u d i c i a l mind i s f a r off, and Uie supreme achievement of manhood - s e l f - c o n t r o l ) has not yet been f u l l y r e a l i s e d . The nature of i n s t i n c t i s l a r g e l y involved in obscurity. I t i s g e n e r a l l y acoepted t h a t t h e r e are suoh d i s p o s i t i o n s in the mental organisation of man which determine very l a r g e l y the influence of experience in the development of h i s mind. These are c a l l e d i n s t i n c t s . They are the innate mental d i s p o s i t i o n s which are common t o a l l the members of any one s p e c i e s . They play a large p a r t in the determining of the behavior of the lower animals; and so f a r as man i s influenced by i n s t i n c t s they are an inheritance from h i s animal ancestry in p a r t , and to some extent appear t o be aoguired i n the l i f e time of the individual for as P r i n c i p a l Morgan p o i n t s out in "Habit and I n s t i n c t " , the young of the species l e a r n by i m i t a t i o n of the more mature. The i n s t i n c t s have been divided i n t o three o l a s s e s , "Habit and I n s t i n c t " , O.L.Morgan (1896)  AP 1. Self-preservation, e.g., the inatinot to flee from danger. 2. Preservation of the raoe, e.g. , the se.* instinct. 3. Preservation of the group, e.g., the instinot to protest the young. From suoh a division a parallel might readily be drawn between the lower animals and human beings. There is the uneasiness of an isolated horse as well as the uneasiness of the isolated human being. It is upon the gregarious instinct on which the safety and well being of social groups depends very largely. And from this root also comes a large part of his altruistic impulses, for it has been shown by McDougall and others that the instincts by sublimation may be redirected to other and higher ends. The sex instinct may urge a man to marry a wife and devote himself to his matrimonial affairs, but it is the distinctive power of the human species to direct his energies in another direction. The frustrated lover may write poetry, or paint a picture, throw himself into scientific research or religious service, or engage in some other form of activity thereby consuming the energy of his instinct and directing it to a purpose satisfying to the individual and of value to the community. While sublimation may not be considered as satisfying as the natural use of the instinct, it need not destroy the instinct. A woman need not make any the less a good wife for having thrown her energies into business for a time, and work in a hospital ward need not make her any less tender as a mother. Sublimation may be another word for consecration. i Some attempts have been made recently to explain life in terms of one or other of the instincts. The Freudian School have placed the whole emphasis upon the sex-instinct. Biologists of last century insisted so strongly upon the law of "survival of the fittest" and the "struggle for existence" that self-preservation was regarded as the paramount instinct, different emphasis has been placed by different schools making it necessary for them to prove their case by exaggeration of some one instinct and distorting facts to fit the theory. The truth seems to be that instincts differ in force in individuals and sexes, but the story of human development is the story of the transformation "of purely instinctive behaviour by behaviour of the same kind determined by habit, and modified by mentalr.processes of the complex kind which we may describe as intelligent thinking". And the same may be said about religion. It has been described as a sentiment based upon instinct. Starbuck speaks of religion as "a deep-rooted instinct". Others speak of sajdgion as an expression of the sex-instinct, or as self-preservation, but it is not any one specified instinct. It is rather a complex growth from a variety of instincts whereby thinking, feeling, "An Intro, to the Psychology of Religion".,.Thouless, P.123. "Psychology of leligion", Starbuck.  jcr and willing in the highest way and about the highest objects, and whereby the personality is focussed upon a worthy object of love, viz., a Person who is the Source and End of the moral ideal. While we accept the primacy of the intellect, the merely intellectual is t notion of man has been outgrown. "Man was given dominion over the beasts of the field" is a primitive assertion of perceived superiority. Ever/since he has been demonstrating a growing dominion over the forces of nature. This is a voluntary activity acquired late in evolution. It has been contended that a purely intellectual conviction about theological dogmas means very little until it has become associated with feelings and with experience. It may be contended that when the feelings and will demand a religious expression it will amount to anthing but an incoherent glosalalia unless the activity is kept under control of rational ideas. Sow the function of the intellect is to know the truth, to correlate, and to consolidate it. The intellect has been growing through childhood. A naive conception of the world expresses itself in Animism in primitive man, and in the poetical companionship illustrated in Wordswftrth's first period,- the only period which Shelley ever knew. During adolescence, however, changes are taking place: SBBse perception is becoming keener: definite tastes are being formed in food and clothes; while the demands upon active life are performed with greater deliberation than among little children. A very important development in early adolescence is memory. "Memory combinations and associations are developed in great abundance and variety from the twelfth year, boys having rather better memories than girls for relations and connections of impressions, while girls as a rule possess better memories for isolated impressions". The mind is becoming more of a unit, less of an atomic mass of unrelated experiences. That most import4 an% of human gifts, the imagination, strives to pay outside of the bounds set by commerce and utility in a world of idealising. The future is gilded withe the glory of the setting sun, while the more generous ideals of human nature are seeking realisation in life. It is the period of romance and adventure, of fiction and history, of the growth of the cognitive faculty with the thirst for knowledge and and increasing demand for a logical system. A debating propensity is aroused, scientific facts are readily absorbed, mathematical subtilties intoxicate, and, lest we forget, the abounding trivialities of the playground help to keep a sound mind in a sound body. "The Psychology of Adolescence"...Tracy, p.90.  »  A2. It is not surprising that intellectual growing pains in the form of doubts are manifest at this period. This is not a thing to be altogether deplored for it is an evidence of the keen young intellect trying things for itself, and is to be considered a perfectly natural phenomenon. Of course there are oases where the mind is thrown completely off the balance, but the average doubt of the young person makks a process of evolution rather than revolution. Where the foundations have been carefully laid, and the doubt is met in an atmosphere of sympathy and patience, the period will leave the youth stronger and better. The real danger is where a child has been brought up in an environment of narrow dogma and creed and practice, and he is obliged to throw it all overboard and pass into the period of "Everlasting Hay". When he begins over again it may not be possible to rid himself of the narrowness bred into him. A book, such as Welsh's "In Eelief of Doubt", that has a strong grip upon the fundamentals rather than upon "Fundamentalism", or an older person who understands the growth of revelation may be of invaluable service in directing the adolescent along the dubious path from childhood's external authority to his natural inheritance,- the right of Private Judgment. Psychology makes a difference between sensation and feeling. Feelings are the result of sensations which come through the sense organs of the body or through the intellectual content of ideas and beliefs. While feeling is subjective, it is intimately oonnected with the sympathetic nerve system. Many sensations may come at one time, only one feeling oan be dominant. When feelings develope in complexity they are termed emotions, the more complex of which, such as reverence, grief pity, are not possible in a well developed form in early childhood. Young children are moved by primary instincts. They eat, play, laugh, cry instinctively. If they cannot get what they want they scream. Every object that excites an instinct excites an emotion, and a child left to do rexy much as he pleases soon becomes a creature of emttion, a young savage. The youth with a greater capacity for complex feelings much lack neither culture nor expression for the emotional cravings which are as real as hunger. Emotions arise through the deepening of intellectual powers, through the unfolding of the sex functions, through changing experiences and social attachments, through the appeal of nature and the tendency to worship the beautiful, and every emotion has the tendency to express itself in activity. Indeed certain psychologists say the feeling comes because of the action.' It is at least true that physical  A 3.  attitudes induce certain emotions. We often think that the work of education is completed when the intellect is trained. But what of these volcanio forces that arise so easily, that scatter destruction, and increase in force with such incalculable rapidity? Many a life has heen ruined because the emotions were neglected in youth. Many a crime is committed in moments of emotional tension, and nothing is more contagious than an emotion. Herein lies the need of boys and girls to have vigowotJB and well-organised expression of emotional energy especially in group action. There is less extreme emotional fluctuation in a team of young people than in any one member. If the ideals of the team are consistent with the ideals of the individuals, rapid progress may be expected in the direction of emotional control. The you|fli may become a "genuine Kantian in morals", and his duty to the team initiate him into more permanent phases of duty. Then from the hero-love and devotion to human friends may be produced the element of personal attachment to the Ideal Person, which "is the cardinal feature of religious experience". The intellectual executive authotrty is the will. The other powers of mind and body would be useless without a will. Perception and attention would be haphazard affairs; imagination would turn to fancy; and thought would be governed only by<impulse and chance. This describes what would be the utter slave of circumstances. The roots of will are very much deeper down in the psychic and neural system that we generally imagine. To be psychologically and philosophically adequate in definition it could be said that will is consciousness in action. The will is not any distinct organ like the heart or the stomach. It is not some inner creature which says "Yes" or "JKTO". When the whole organised self is functioning we call it "will". It is not, however, the whole personality for it logically cannot include repressed complexes and suppressed instincts, and so a state of antagonism must exist where these are not taken up into the purpose of the self. "Every form of mental experience tends to be expressive, to focus and utter itself in some sort of response or reaction". When we see a beautiful object we have an impulse to possess it; when we hear a harsh sound we desire to shut it off. We soon learn that all impulses are not to be obeyed. "The burnt child dreads the fire". He checks the impulse with the new-found will. He shrinks from disagreeable tasks, but may learn that it is to his advantage to do them. If you create in a child a lively sense of duty he will perform •»  Osh-.  actions that are really difficult. Mucin of the hard, unpleasant work of the world is done because men have caught the true idea of lofty things; having seen the heavenly vision they will be true. Habitual reaction is the index to the oharaoter of the man. Children more generally act from impulse than do adults. This is called ideo-motor action. The higher form of behavior, which is marked by control and purposive consideration is called ideational. All oonscious action passes through the impulsive age or stage; some folks never get far from this; but between the child and the adult are all manner of degrees of oonative action. The high type is where reason governs and feelings obey, sinoe feelings are blind and fitful, and uncontrolled passion is dangerous. The desirable thing in a healthy mind is control and action, but this canlaoarcely be looked for in teenage boys and girls in the way an adult might be expected to be the master of his fete. Interests are vacillating, the physical condition variable, and, because of the inability to approve the practical relations of training to life, the oonsoious functioning of the will is the story of adolescent turmoil. We are dealing with a creature who is Just getting up speed under his own motive power, and training for self-mastery. The horse is made useful by "breaking"; but horse-breaking is instinctively kindly and intelligent even with stubborn animals. If a boy is to be a man, it will depend upon what la done with his will. If a boy is simply "broken", he^bomes a weakling for life. Where it is not merely a case for neural pathology, the appeal to duty, to interest, to fair play, to love, to imitation of the best by intelligent counsel and assistance will produce a stability which is based upon the controlled will. This is the real end and aim of all education. Will hardens into habit; so life with its culture and skill is but the sum-total of our past willing. Sinoe James has inspired thousands of writers and teachers to discuss "Habit", which is the utilization of the instinots, this most familiar and universal form of behavior may be mentioned but briefly. Its importance for us is that adolescence is a formative period when the psycho-physical organism is plastic and susceptible. When any function, mental or physical, has once taken place, there is a change of bodily or mental structure, an opening of the synapse, which facilitates the recurring of the action. By the time maturity is reached there are tendencies to fixidy of habit with definite modifications of structure. We noticed in a graveyard how the ants had worn paths in particular directions by travelling regularly along these routes. "It n  A*. i s t h i s tendency t o repeat t h a t gives laws t o n a t u r e , i n s t i n c t s to the animals, and h a b i t s of mind and action to man". All our r e a c t i o n s become h a b i t u a l . Our manner of s i t t i n g down, the mental a t t i t u d e t o l i f e , the system of study a l l tend to become fixed. And i f these ordinary h a b i t s are the expression of l a t e n t d e s i r e s of the emotional d i s p o s i t i o n , or i f they are looked upon merely as "pure h a b i t s " , we ought to seize time by the forelock at the golden age of h a b i t forming. Youth i s the time when h a b i t s are formed consciously, when the arousing complex may be s e l f d i r e c t e d , when the whole area of l i f e may be organised i n t o a system of h a b i t s for the motor discharges of the nervous system. Habits stand in close r e l a t i o n to one another, f o r l i f e i s one, and i t i s desirable to form good h a b i t s upon the v i r g i n s o i l of the nervous system for unless the whole order of c o n t i n u i t y i s destroyed, what a man s h a l l be i s what the youth i s determining. "Destiny i s the harvest of character; character i s t h e summation of h a b i t ; habit i s the r e p e t i t i o n of deed; deed i s the expression of thought; and thought i s the spring of life 1 *. A good habit i s a friend in need. A bad habit i s the worst possible enemy t o character; i t throws i t down and keeps i t t h e r e . Psychology has done a great service today in t h a t i t has explored the emotional complexes which perpetuate our h a b i t s of thought, and shown t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e for "the cynic and the s i n n e r , the roue and the s e l f - r i g h t e o u s , the drug fiend and the i n t o l e r a n t " to be completely cured by the powerful embtional disturbance known as "conversion" in t h a t i t removes the l a t e n t morbid complex. We have knwwn the drunkard of t h i r t y years hard drinking to be made into a sober man. We knew of the case of P h i l W. from Powell St. who had h i s whole emotional l i f e reorganised a f t e r being two years in bed consuming drugs? Medical treatment and r e l i g i o u s f a i t h swept away the craving fbr t h e h a b i t and readjustment followed. I f that i s possible f o r ' t h e hardened sinner'! as he i s c a l l e d , what bounds should be set to a s c i e n t i f i c psychological t r a i n i n g far those young people of exceptional vigor and selfw i l l who have been d i f f i c u l t to keep within the bounds of good conduct? Zing says regarding the adolescent, "He may be said t o be hypersensitive to a l l forms of s o c i a l suggestion".® Every individual belongs to a s o o i a l order, and our i d e a l s must be embodied i n a sooial order; in other words "the t r u e s e l f i s t h e sooial self". As we have been taught, "We are members one of another." The moral i d e a l therefore must be Home: "Psychological P r i n c i p l e s of Education", p.302. , F i r s t Ohuroh RecoxflS (Vancouver) King: "The Psychology of Child Development", p.226.  Xlo-  not only the p e r f e c t i n g of o n e ' s own l i f e , hut also the perfecting of sooiety or the r e a l i s a t i o n of a r a t i o n a l u n i v e r s e . Sex, health, profession, s o c i a l p l e a s u r e s , sport and worship a l l suggest a l a r g e r world than the one of s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and the impressiveness of these i n t e r e s t s make the self-consciousness of the adult and the youth and the c h i l d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The child of twelve r e c i t e s without concern at a Christmas entertainment; a t fifteen he i s a t the awkward stage when he i s a l l hands and f e e t , and i t i s c r u e l t y t o make him take p a r t in the program s o l i t a i r e . The g i r l i s also awkward, r e s t l e s s and afraid to speak in p u b l i c . She i s much concerned about appearance and opinion, can blush, laugh, and cry within the same minute, and the reason i s t h a t the s e l f - i d e a i s in t h e forefront of consciousness. Youth, t o o , i s the age of idealism when the s e l f i s so organised as to seek d e f i n i t e l y for t h a t i d e a l through whioh i t may be complete. Hot being a c i t i z e n and parent the need for psychological completeness i s projected and o b j e c t i f i e d in a l l those s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and r e l i g i o u s idealisms so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l a t e r adolescence. The way to self-mastery i s t o measure strength with s t r e n g t h , to harmony i s through friendship ad infinitum, and when he cannot find h i s i d e a l , h i s impulses are l e f t c h a o t i c , and from the height of idealism he may f a l l t o the depth of despondent pessimism and untimely self-injury./ i /  /The true expression of adolescence i s a widening of the individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in r e l a t i o n to the social u n i t s such as the family, the school, the s t a t e , s o c i e t y , and t h a t hardly definable a l l - i n c l u s i v e social r e l a t i o n s h i p c a l l e d "The Kingdom of God". 3. Unity. The essence of morality i s t o apprehend i t and seek i t on i t s own account. low t h i s may not be p o s s i b l e for the c h i l d , but the attainment of moral i d e a l s , motives and conduct i s possible by development, by entering the promised land of independent and responsible action. Prior to years of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e child i s guided by d i s c i p l i n e through pain and pleasure, by example and a u t h o r i t y , but by t h e time he reaches the teen-age conceptions of r i g h t and duty come to have a detached significance for the i n d i v i d u a l . There i s a r i g h t which i s r i g h t in i t s e l f ; there i s a good whioh i s good i n i t s e l f , and the inner moral sanctions begin to produce ideals and judgments to which the most passionate devotion i s p o s s i b l e in those years. The moral sense i s n o t fully matured, but some of t h e highest a s p i r a t i o n s are possible a t such a time as adolescence i s ; and from t h e records of our King:  "The Psychology of Child Development", p.226.  n  r i s o n s i t i s p l a i n t h a t "scarcely any surrender to t h e lower a s t e s and passions i s p o s s i b l e " . In a word the adolescent " i s s u e r l a t i v e l y good or supremely wicked" t o t h e u n c r i t i o a l observor, when the r e a l s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t the adolescent i s capable of a l l goodness, but lacks the balance and control wJaich i a the prorogative of completely r a t i o n a l beings.  Ho two children are alike in t h e i r moral development. Ho two are born equal in respect of i n h e r i t e d tendencies. Uo two have the same t r a i n i n g and a s s o c i a t i o n s in e a r l y y e a r s . Qnathe one hand i s found an extreme s e n s i t i v e n e s s about t r u t h and honor; on the other hand w i l l be found those who have no •very clear conception of the r e a l meaning and l i m i t s of the word. Moral t r a i n i n g must often deal w i t h very crude m a t e r i a l , with varying i n s t i n c t i v e tendencies, w i t h d i f f e r i n g powers of appreciation of t h e value of morals, and with a l l kinds of immature ideas and tendencies. I n t r o s p e c t i o n has i t a d i s a s t e r o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and i s induced where the young are too secluded. Too much s e l f - a n a l y s i s has a s i m i l a r effect as reading too many patent medicine advertisements, one has a l l the symptoms. The cure for t h i s moral hypocondria or ^yperconsoientiousnesa i s j u s t ordinary work and play in large dozes. Psychologists have varied widely in the treatment of the conscience. Some have ignored i t ; some have analysed i t i n t o several elements; others have based i t e n t i r e l y upon reflective analysis. So far as the purely psychological mechanism i s concerned, i t i s the voice of suppressed d e s i r e and d i s p o s i t i o n . Ififhen the s e l f exercises i t s judgment upon i t s e l f and d e t e c t s i t s own f a u l t s , the repressed wrong r i s e s into consciousness; i t i s performing the function of conscience. This function i s more frequently performed by those who are s a i d to have a " s e n s i t i v e " conscience, and however we may explain i t conscience s i t s as judge in our moral world. In ohildren i t i s feeble or u n s t a b l e ; i t gains with experience and use, and, l i k e everything e l s e , i f exercised r i g h t l y , i t becomes a h a b i t . I t i s a callltowards what i s true and high, and i s a guide towards peace and joy. I t must express i t s e l f in a determined effort to do good. In many oases there seems to be a laok of moral conscience. At t h i s immature s t a t e there a r i s e powerful impulses to sins and crimes which were never known in the period of childhood. One never knows how far he i s on the way to the overt act u n t i l i t i s performed. Sweeping temptations enter the mind, and the adolesoent discovers not merely the heights of idealism but also the depths of moral t u r p i t u d e ; and i t has t o be admitted t h a t "many crimes are committed by adolescents, more, indeed between the ages of fourteen and eighteen than in any other period of equal length up to maturity". 9 of. G. S.Hall, "Adolescence", Tracy, Richardson, &c.  tf The promise of imperfection i s in every c h i l d born, and we have no reason to expect every boy to be six feet in moral s t a t u r e . There do happen a n t i s o c i a l displays of anger, bickerings, r e a l f i g h t s , and p r o t e c t i v e l i e s in l i t t l e children. But the problem i s more serious with older ones. The tendency to crime i s very g r e a t a t t h i s period. President Hall says "Between twelve and f i f t e e n t h e f t leads a l l other forms of crime". Truancy i s common; f r u i t orchards are considered l e g i t i m a t e pray for the gang. In such groups boys l e a r n t o smoke, t o swear, to scoff, and t o drink and steal. The strongest w i l l with p o s s i b l y the most prwerful physique i s the l e a d e r , and where t h e child has been brought up among low standards of morals and r e l i g i o n the problem i s grave. We are dealing with a more responsible mind than t h a t of the child, whose mind may be the sport of imagination. Lies are told for the sake of s e l f - i n t e r e s t , t o be thought well of, or t o arouse jealousy. Motives and conduct get badly mixed. A g i r l appropriated money from her people t o s u r p r i s e them with l i t t l e g i f t s . The heroic s p i r i t w i l l cause some to suffer for others by a r e f u s a l to t e l l the t r u t h ; i t i s eon4 sidered to be a sign of true n o b l i t y of character in the exercise of the martyr s p i r i t . There are crimes that effect p e r s o n a l i t y in more intimate and v i t a l ways, and some we should p r e f e r to pass ovdr in s i l e n c e . Offences against sexual morality i n the teens stand upon a different footing from such offences in ohildhood, for the child knows not what i t does. The child has no sex conceptions, but the youth i s growing i n t o a consciousness of sexual functions, and must be l e a r n i n g about these r e l a t i o n s from some source. Generally motives are pure and love u n s e l f i s h , but environments d i f f e r and things happen e s p e c i a l l y under abnormal s t r e s s whioh can only be characterised as the most degraded s e n s u a l i t y . Several notable oases have been d e a l t with in the courts here l a t e l y . " I t i s exceedingly fortunate from the standpoint of social morality, t h a t modesty i s a conspicu4 ous q u a l i t y of youth, and t h a t quality becomes more highly developed in t h a t very period of l i f e when i t i s most needed, to balance and t o hold in check the growing passions of our n a t u r e " . All meeting of the sexes ought to be properly supervised, the wearing apparel of refined s i m p l i c i t y , and the young people kept from the sensuous excitements of playhouses whioh suggest or give dramatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of criminal a c t s . The new humanizing s p i r i t of today i s represented in our Juvenile Courts and Schools for delinquents, and we intend to deal with t h i s more a t length in another chapter. I t has been recognised t h a t crime i s not quite the same to» a juvenile as t o a fully matured person. The boy runs away from home and immediately finds himself p e n n i l e s s . The  *<?. s p i r i t of adventure l e a d s him on from one mistake t o another heoause of the lack of forethought and the love of excitement. A g i r l p&sing as a hoy went to work i n the Fraser Valley. Fortunately two weeks were enough to s a t i s f y the s p i r i t of curious adventure, and she returned home none the worse f o r her experience. Such r i s k s have unspeakable p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Boys will s t e a l money and squander i t as r e c k l e s s l y as Brewster's M i l l i o n s . For the sheer delight of having a p l e n t i f u l supply of Hallowe'en l a n t e r n s a car of pumpkins was broken into near lew Westminster. I t was the prank without the suspicion of a s i n i s t e r motive, and bore no evidence of depravity i n t h e boys; and the judge showed they could not be dealt with by the ordinary standards of driminal prosecution. A gang of boys i s a power house of pent up energies. They want to do something objective. They know nothing of s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and moral self-complacency; they care nothing tot the peace that floweth as a r i v e r ; they d e t e s t feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s . They want something s p e c i f i c t o do t o r e l i e v e t h e i r pent-up f e e l i n g s , and they will respond to sympathetic d i r e c t i o n r e a d i e r than to exhortation. The l e a d e r who plays with t h e boys during t h e week, c a l l s on them when they are sick, takes them walks and p i c n i c s , harnesses them i n t o a c t i v i t i e s and expeditions w i l l save many a boyffrom crime and earn the reward of consecrated determination. He w i l l win confidence, r e l i s h t h e i r b o a s t s , be an example of f a i r - p l a y , discover to them the morals of a squarely played game, of a s a c r i f i c e h i t , and wield the magic wand t h a t changes the enthusiasm of youth i n t o t h e consecration of manhood. There i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a consecration of youth. What of the a s p i r a t i o n s of youth, the yearnings to do great t h i n g s , to achieve fame, to wield influence, to benefit others, to advance one or a l l of t h e professions? There i s recklessness, the same f i t f u l n e s s , the same lack of control and co-ordination in youthful v i r t u e s as in t h e i r v i c e s . The body i s growing, the physic forces developing, the s e l f seeking some ideal of s t a b l e value for completeness, and in a b r i e f space of time w i l l s e t t l e down to an e f f o r t to a t t a i n it. At the teen age the s t a b i l i t y of character i s i n the making, where every i n s t i n c t plays i t s p a r t , and while for a time the p h a n t a s t i c idealism of youth holds sway, the r a t i o n a l insight and the mastery of motive are on the way. Such i s the importance of t h i s idealism t h a t i t must be t r e a t e d with d i g n i t y and reverence. The p r a c t i c e of youth w i l l not r i s e far above our every day i d e a l s as expressed i n word and deed. Poise and balance may not be looked for,  30  hut the offshoots of moral conduct will he expressed in selfrespect, courtesy, bravery, honesty, truthfulness, and purity as youth goes about to do good and get good. It was in his youth that Abraham went out looking "for a city whioh hath foundations, whose Builder and Maker is God". The spirit of man, in its moral growth, looks continually for such a city. This recognition of the consciousness of an unattained ideal, leads us into the region of poetry and religion, supplies a relief from the inadequacy of the moral life as such, raises us to the sphere of attainment through convictions that are the necessity of an intellectual and moral existence. "Man's unhappiness", says Garlyle, "comes of his greatness. It is beoause there is an infinite in him which, with all his cunning, he cannot quite bury under his finite". All great peoples have imbedded in their literature a religious philosophy; all of them but the Greeks and Romans have Sacred Writings. Among them it has been left to poets and philosophers to discuss the ultimate significance of all experience. It is a universal experience to be impressed by the two great objects of reverence whioh moved Kant to write, Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the oftener and more steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above and the moral law within". Taken alone the former leads to Pantheism or Agnosticism, and the latter to Theism and the absolute authority of the moral law. Taken together we are led into the mystery of immanence and the greater mystery of transcendence, and rather distant from the experience of the child. Froebel said, "The child's worship is the feeling and practice of love". It has nothing to do with theologies and "experiences'; its expression snould be consonant with development, and its psychology will not differ from any other psychology. That is to say it will express itself in the knowledge, love, and service of the best. The plant does not sing about the sun, it grows toward it. That is the test of young life: Is it growing by absorbing the highest in thought, action, emotion? This is growing Godward. "To love the lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy mind, and thy neighbour as thyself"is good adolescent psychology, for the religion of the young is intensely personal. The religion of the mature tends to be doctrinal. Being "personal" it is enough. The religion of emotion without the guidance of reason, is superstition and emotional intoxication. The religion of the intellect, with no mixture of emotion, is mere religious philosophy. As life progresses from phase to phase, the emotions are transferred from one ideal to another, and character is gradually built up by each successive development. AS'ieaoh phase passes the old must be sacrificed to the new. Garlyle, "Heroes and Hero-Worship", Lect.III  •a/. be transformed into the new that we may achieve a higher selfrealisation. The religion of a child is natural, and the religion of youth is spiritual, but retaining the natural or without oeasing to be natural. It is natural to this extent that childhood's naiwete gives way to youth's idealism when "every common bush is aflame with God", and such a reverent attitude to nature being instinct with life k;eeps the vitality of religion afloat on the turbulent cataract of adolescent experiences, and carries it safely down to the wider reaches of thoughtful interpretation in the placid stream of reflective maturity. Before theBe are reached, however, may be seasons of doubt as with Arthur Henry Hallam when "There lives more faith in honest doubt, Believe me, than in half the creeds". To adjust the mind to the science of the schools after a dogmatic religion has been taught is bound to shiver the timbers of the adolescent ship in the sea of mental distress. A new certitude is required, and no one is able to define its course. Prof. Jackson says, "There is but one Father's house, but it is reached by many roads; each man must travel as he can, and no man can dictate the going of his neighbour". Some experience the volcanic outburst of a lifetime, such as was the experience of Garlyle in Leith Walk when he took the devil by the nose. To Wordsworth it came in the opening of the chrysalis,- "It excited a movement and a growth which went on till by degrees all the systems which enveloped me like a body gradually decayed from me and fell away into nothing". Convictions, feelings, decisions are likely to come to youth; in this way life is unified, focussed and made purposeful in the great positive field of moral religion. Physical gifts, intellectual gifts, magnetic emotions are all harnessed to the work of life and radiate in an intelligent appeal through social and organised spiritual endeavours, and when youth is lost in wonder, love and praise, the passions and heroisms which might easily spend tneiuseives in futility and folly are free to pursue and achieve the ideal. The artist pursues the beautiful, the philosopher truth, and all men seek God. One man takes for his motto, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity; another Frightfulness by Blood and Iron, and another Love of God and Man. "Psychologically the right ideal is one that can, by attracting all the instinctive emotions, bring harmony to the soul; by stimulating the will to a common purpose, weld the whole psychological individual into an organism; and by satisfying and craving for completeness, secure self-realisation and happiness".® The lew Testament puts it thus, "To love Him who first loved us". ° Hadfield, J.A.  "Psychology and Morals" p.65.  CHAPTER PRACTICAL  III  QOISIDBRATIOBS.  The s t u d y of t h e b a s a l f o r c e s of human n a t u r e has been s u g g e s t i v e of the p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which now remain t o be summarized. While the c o n t i n u i t y of human development, and the i d e n t i t y of the s e l f have been borne i n mind, t h e s e have n o t been uppermost. I t i s w e l l t o say here t h a t p r i o r t o adolescence are the i n t e r e s t i n g periods of boyhood and c h i l d h o o d , and back of t h e s e and around them a r e the forces of h e r e d i t y and environment. In f r o n t a r e m a t u r i t y , decay and d e a t h , and since we hold t h a t a l l e x p e r i e n c e c o n t r i b u t e s something t o l i f e , the importance of t h e formative i n t e r e s t s and p r a o t i o e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o be exaggerated. A complete e d u c a t i o n must be p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and r e l i g i o u s . To grow in favor w i t h Sod and man; to l e a r n t h e t r u t h and p u r s u e i t ; t o f e e l t h e b e a u t i f u l a n d l o v e i t ; t o d e s i r e the good and will i t ; t o b e l i e v e i n God the l a t h e r and dwell i n l o v e of Him, such should be the n a t u r e of t h e growing perfect l i f e . Our i d e a of p e r f e c t i o n i s t h e i d e a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e f u n c t i o n s of l i f e . The purpose of childhood i s t o l i v e i t c o m p l e t e l y , of a d o l e s c e n c e i s t o enjoy i t s growing f u n c t i o n s , and of m a t u r i t y t o f u l f i l t h e i d e a l s of h e a l t h , b e a u t y , and goodness. But t h e r e i s a p e r f e c t i o n which i s mediated t o us. There a r e some school b o a r d s which w i l l n o t employ a homely t e a c h e r . , A handsome woman s u g g e s t s v i g o r o u s h e a l t h , and h e r t e a c h i n g w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e when c l o t h e d i n b e a u t y and graoe t h a n i t would be w i t h o u t t h e s e accompaniments. And t h e r e i s a p e r f e c t i o n which i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n s p i r i n g t h o s e who have s e t before them t h e r e l i g i o u s i d e a l of the l o v e of God as r e v e a l e d i n t h e Son of Man. The home i s the n a t u r a l and primal c e n t r e of manmaking. I f the f o r c e s t h a t surround t h e home,- h e r e d i t y , environment, growth, could be c o n t r o l l e d f o r i d e a l e n d s , t h e work of the church and s c h o o l , s o c i e t y and s t a t e would be immeasurably s i m p l i f i e d . I f i s t h e r e t h a t boys and g i r l s get t h e i r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n r e g a r d to t h e v a l u e of l i f e and morals. I t i s t h e r e t h a t "fundamental s o c i a l assumptions and h a b i t s - t h o s e t h a t concern t h e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y , s o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , a n d r e l a t i o n s of t h e s e x e s , the r i g h t of p r o p e r t y , the n a t u r e and law and t h e sphere of the government - flow from the l a r g e s o c i e t y i n t o t h e small family s o c i e t y , and thenoe back i n t o t h e l a r g e society".'® Whatever the v i r t u e s of i r r e v e r e n c e may b e , t h e r e has been an emphasis upon r i d i c u l e r a t h e r t h a n upon r e s p e c t , upon p o s s e s s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n upon p e r s o n s , upon l a x i t y r a t h e r t h a n upon f i d e l i t y , and which a r e s u b v e r s i v e of t h e moral and s o c i a l i d e a l s of s a c r i f i c e and s e r v i c e . COB:  "A S o c i a l Theory of x t e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n " . Ch.XV.  35-  What the family needs i s a comprehensive motive adapted to every need of the child. I t i s u s e l e s s to bore children to death w i t h r e l i g i o u s penances t h a t do not s u i t t h e i r years and experiences, with long prayers and a d u l t catechisms believing t h a t these c o n s t i t u t e the needful training. The good man generally comes from t h e good home, the home that i s good i n essence r a t h e r than i n form, good in i t s permanent s p i r i t r a t h e r t h a n in i t s spasmodic expression, and where t h e sense of the divine r a d i a t e s from the kitchen to the p a r l o r . The medieval i d e a l s of p r i v a t e goodness, and the morbidity of evangelical individualism are p a r t l y t o blame for the loosening of the family from i t s old moorings. The semi-patriarchal p r i n c i p l e s of l a s t century do not meet the needs of today. I t has been worth while to improve methods of cooking, heating, and furnishing. I t w i l l be more worth while, and perhaps so much the more ©ostly, t o improve the a r t of family l i v i n g t o sustain high ideals in an age of rush, and p l e a s u r e , and economic transition. I t will cost money and time and labor; it must have thought, study, and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t will include a knowledge of eugenics, and give a s p e c i f i c preparation for marriage and for parenthood on the basis of the highest e t h i c a l considerations. External r e l i g i o u s "means" are t o have t h e i r p l a c e , but not for dogmatic interests. The l i f e that we now l i v e makes i t imperative t h a t the content and the method of t h e family be revised and reconstructed from the foundations. We can no longer sing, "Doing ends i n death". I t i s t h i s very matter of doing, in so far as t h e f a t h e r and mother are equipping t h e i r children for l i f e ' s business, equipping them with p r i n c i p l e s and h a b i t s which w i l l stand t h e t e s t of social r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t r e a l l y matters. The modern home must be democfcatic. We t h i n k of one in the Chilliwack v a l l e y where every child did some work i n the b u i l d i n g of a fine house, and where the e f f o r t was l a r g e l y made i n the s p i r i t of play with a social purpose raised to the level of worship as they worked with the Great Worker. For t h a t family home beoame the sweetest, strongest, h o l i e s t , and happiest place on e a r t h , and the high character of the home i s an index to the place the children have taken in the school, University, and l i f e of the Province. The home was the f i r s t environmental factor in the making of manhood; i t s i n c i d e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have changed and will change, but i t s s a c r i f i c i a l pre-eminence cannot be surpassed. The f a t h e r belongs to the home more than to anything else i n the world. The boy needs h i s p®rsonal c o n t a c t ; he needs t h e i r s . The boy drinks in the masculine s p i r i t from h i s father. He loves to t a l k over h i s games and h i s work with an understanding f a t h e r , and where the father does not •  34-.  care, there are thpgangs on t h e s t r e e t , the poolroom at the corner, and the back a l l e y ever competing for the a c t i v i t y of youth. The same p r i n c i p l e s also apply to g i r l s . The expression of i n t e r e s t i n the adolescent g i r l i s feminine. Girls want to express t h e i r i d e a l s as much as boys, and to feel they have as r e a l a place in the home. I t i s the business of the mother to guide them in t h e way of social p u r i t y , to stimulate the conscience on social conditions, and to show how i t i s possible for them to find l i f e for themselves as they betwow l i f e upon o t h e r s . I t i s probably true t h a t mothers have been more in earnest about parenthood than the f a t h e r s . Quality does not come by accident. Why should f a t h e r s not study and c u l t i v a t e t h e i r own sons Just as mothers study child psychology, domestic s c i e n c e , infant hygiene and eugenics. The occasional stimulus and review of a Father and Son Banquet i s not enough. Men w i l l s i t for hours in places of costly amusement, spend time and money in games l i k e golf, in commendable hobbies l i k e c u l t i v a t i n g flowers and f r u i t to win p r i z e s a t t h e e x h i b i t i o n . What about studying t h e i r boys and g i r l s , and playing with them, and going i n t o a l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h s c i e n t i f i c patience? If they would have ideal c h i l d r e n , they must have i d e a l f a t h e r s . "We can never give any more than ourselves or any other than ourselves, and t h i s pathway of s a c r i f i c e , t h i s c o s t l y way of home-making, i s a man's chance to become Godlike". The mother's i s a sacred p o r t i o n . Her success i s not in word alone, but in deed also. She e f f e c t s the t r u e s t education of the family in keeping the springs of water pure in the home r a t h e r than in f i l t e r i n g the muddy pools in the s t r e e t , in giving h e r s e l f i n a l l the household a c t i v i t i e s as a r e l i g i o u s and moral person. What i s t r u e of the home i s also true of the school regarding the character of the a d u l t . We do not propose to discuss whether Spripture and Prayer should have a s e t place in sohool, but what we need are r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r s . Our plea is not for a course in graded r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t e d , but for teaching r e l i g i o u s l y , - a more fundamental p l e a . The former introduces the s t a t e i n t o matters r e l i g i o u s where the denominational d i f f i c u l t y s t i l l e x i s t s . Experience has been t h a t s t a t e r e l i g i o n in schools tends to s e c u l a r i z a t i o n where the profession i s i n t h e hands of the secular powers. The most t h a t can be hoped for i s t h a t teachers and professors in t h e i r l i v e s will possess the r e l i g i o u s perspective, r e a l i s e the importance of the r e l i g i o u s element*  36'.  and base their work upon the importance of these universal human aspirations. The young student is devoted to the teacher of attractive personality; they adore; they flatter; they imitate. And so it would seem that the important factor in school teaching is the factor of personality as it bears upon the student, and the desirable solution is to have the highest type offctu&e'n'fc,and whether or not there is room for the mere letter of Bible teaching, there is bound to be an increasing capacity for the free spirit of a religious and moral life. Around the school are a group of new relationships which ought to enrich the ideas of social conduct gained in the home. Mass games, social action and reaction, the quality of classes in themselves, and the mixing with others of different beliefs and social status. Leadership is developed in games, codes of ethics are necessary for the playground and the schoolroom, and all the newer situations which are experienced tend to make application of the moral principles involved. The sum of home influance is tested in the crucible of a wider society. The young person who does the right, and consistently adheres to it, reaches a place of habitual immunity to wrong doing, a place which is for ever being tried and tested by the new powers and consciousness that are his, but a plaoe which may be made the more secure by an increasing loyalty to his ideals and the best example he knows. The force of example in the adolescent mind has another side to it. Henry Drummond tells of a Church official who had made the young men of his town agnostics and atheists. The official has been the personification of inconsistency, and everybody knew it. A Church elder and leader used to require his employees to assist in certain practices connected with his business, which they regarded as dishonest. Young- i'olks get very severe shooks to- their idealism until they come to know that "Faith without works is dead". An extreme situation is "Case 1" in Dr. Hamilton's "Objective Psychopathology" showing how wrongdoing may set up a chronic nervous state. fo provide a sooial environment made up of young people whose fidelity to moral ideals is inquestioned, guided by leaders and teachers whose influence is spiritually wholesome is vital to the education of youth. It is a tragic condition where there is an environment lacking moral integrity among leaders, and where it becomes difficult for the youth to maintain a circle of friendship ideals and loyalties around which wholesome sentiments and visions can be built up.  3i, The law that Christianity insists upon is love, and the Church beoomes neoeaaary aa a fellowship of those who, desir ing ideal goodness, need the support of like aapiring souls, and as an educator of children in these ideals and practices. It is the only institution in tne world that exists for the promotion of morals and religion. Munroe speaking on this point says, "One most important phase of education is left to the ohuroh and the home, neither of whioh id doing much to meet the demand". It is a reproach to the church that through all these centuries it has made so little of the pedagogy of love, and that it has left to the modern social movements the development of the spirit of brotherhood. But this implioit acknowledgment of the supremacy of her ideals indicates something different from failure. The Church was founded by a Teacher. It has always had a ministry of ideas to interpret the ends of life. The modern school has evolved largely through the church's attempt to work out these ideas. All over the world there is a distinctly new emphasis on religious eduoation to facilitate the normal development of the human mind and body. lessons are being graded according to the most approved psychological methods. The Bible is being taught from the evolutionary not from the static point of view. Organized classes are extending their work from Sunday to week nights in the Canadian Standard Efficiency Tests to overcome the ridiculously insufficient time allotted to the important work of reiiftwai'iZ.r education. Serious minds are busy seeking to conjure new methods to ripen the spiritual qualities of young people before the killing frosts of irreligion touch the growing plants. One increasing difficulty we meet everywhere is the number of interests to engage the mind and time of young people that the culture of personal religion is neglected. If we wish the world to be a warmer and more loving plaoe, only of our first duties will be the promotion of play and sooisl.c'-ili.'.• of the right kind, but it is hard to keep first things first. There is no inherent antagonism between social and religious interests, between physical and spiritual benefits. But there is a balance, and the affairs of the body ought not to crowd out the things of the spirit. Instead of the pandemonium of excitement that is too often fostered by the activities to whioh the church contributes not a few, there ought to be a greater power of selection and exercise of co-operation. Great art has very simple lines. The greatest art is the building of moral structures in the midst of so many competing and varied interests. The 3imple lines of spiritual life need to be affirmed and controlled in these years. It is not enougji that man should have dominion over the beasts of the Munroe:  "Brief Course in the History of Education"  n feelings,  field. He should have dominion over h i s i n s t i n c t s , passions and d e s i r e s of h i s n a t u r e , developing them in rich f r u i t f u l n e s s , and at t h e same time holding them under perfect control. He should have dominion over a l l h i s a c t i o n s , so t h a t h i s conduct i s always d i r e c t e d "by h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e " . This means time for the "means of grace", for s p i r i t u a l f r i e n d l i n e s s , for s i n c e r i t y of heart in response to a c o n s i s t e n t and i n t e l l i g e n t l e a d e r s h i p . Youth would have the mercies of Sod mediated by clean hands and pure h e a r t s , and a l l the p r a c t i c e s of r e l i g i o n be a r i c h and meaningful expression of a l u x u r i a n t f a i t h and fervent devotion.  Whatever system w i l l be found most in favor in the days t o come, i t w i l l be one in which the church and school are w i l l i n g to co-operate, one which w i l l i n t e l l i g e n t l y combine Kk* voluntary and the compulsory features in these institutions. I t will c a l l for a sympathetic e f f o r t and much expense for we are in the process of examining the very foundations of organized society. The l a s t word in secular education and public school procedure must be taken and examined experimentally in the l a b o r a t o r y of conduct-control, for the f i e l d of r e l i g i o u s education i s l a r g e r and more inclusive than t h a t of s e c u l a r education. Special college currieulums may be required so t h a t no untrained l e a d e r may be sent f o r t h to do a work which demands a thorough professional t r a i n i n g based upon broad general education. Building, equipment, t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s , q u a l i f i e d supervision these are a l l required. Athearn complains t h a t the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i s one of finance. I t was ever t h u s ; the prophets were poor. But we have a r i c h people, and "no one who knows the genius of the Christian r e l i g i o n w i l l imagine t h a t t h e love t h a t loves t o t h e uttermost can be otherwise than costly e i t h e r t o God or t o those who would be Godlike". No one who has seen the further horizon of democratic r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n f a i l s to r e a l i s e t h a t the c a l l of the church i s to provide r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n for the children of the whole people. I f we are to expect the Hew Jerusalem to come down from heaven among men, t h e r e ought to be preparation of the rising citizens. I t w i l l be no f o o l ' s p a r a d i s e . I t will be as i d e a l , as s c i e n t i f i c and a e s t h e t i c as man can conceive. I t will be i d e a l in the sense that i t w i l l be the b e s t t h a t can be thought. We need not be afraid of t r u t h , and of teaching i t . Science has a scorn of consequence. In h i s search for f a c t 3 ( t h e t r u t h can be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y or p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y v e r i f i e d ) unless the Bible i s i n t e r p r e t e d dynamically, with a proper h i s t o r i c a l perspective regarding Athearn:  Maiden Leaflet 3.  3Fi t s clash of movements and c o n t r o v e r s i e s , the youth i s l i a b l e to become cynical or doubtful. We have come to the sense t h a t i t contains a record of the time i n which the idea of God was gradually evolving i t s e l f in the midst of many pagan influences and l i n g e r i n g misconceptions. There i s no more f a s c i n a t i n g study than t h i s growth for young people. The method t h a t was thought to be dangerous some years ago, i s now the only safe course. lew and r a d i c a l views are adopted by adolescents more r e a d i l y than by a d u l t s , but they a r e - n o t so apt t o d i s t i n g u i s h the e s s e n t i a l from the n o n - e s s e n t i a l . They have t o be helped t o be f a i r and judicious in t h e i r reasoning. They need to know the findings of o r i t i o i s m ; but more than t h a t they need t o submit t h e i r r e l i g i o n to a frank, thorough-going, r a t i o n a l t e s t , and to appreciate the constructive elements and p o s i t i v e v a l u e s . Ho matter how we emphasise the good will and the good deed, i t i s a p o s i t i v e v i r t u e t o have young people grounded i n the f a i t h . I t becomes e a s i e r for them to co-operate i n Christian work; i t i s very important for workers to t h i n k t o g e t h e r , to believe together, to hold to the h i s t o r i c continuity of moral v a l u e s , and t o be able t o give a reason for the hope t h a t i s i n them. Today there are many winds of d i o t r i n e . "A u n i v e r s a l bond of commonly accepted b e l i e f i s necessary to the u n i t y and s o l i d i t y of l i v i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y " . In v i s i t i n g a Christian Science Church we asked i f they had any equipment for physical development, and was informed they onlyi-.appealed to the inner mani Ho school i s complete without a playground a t l e a s t , and perhaps a gymnasium. The same i s coming to be t r u e of the church. Our f a t h e r s buried t h e i r dead in the churchyard, and any noise was an unseemly disturbance; the l i v i n g church echoes with the voices of children every day in t h e week. In the growing boy the senses are more keen than ever before, and there i s a mental awakening almost every day unhindered by the child labor t h a t dwarfed body and mind, and shortened the working years of so many in past generations. That e v i l i s not quite dead, but there i s the e v i l of inaction and i n t r o s p e c t i o n . It does not matter so rexy much t h a t we keep children away from temptation, i f t h e i r minds are pursuing them. The organized play on the playground, the schedule of games, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a place in the team are among the strongest influences t o hold a b o y ' s thoughts, and to keep him from dwelling on morbid fancies. Psychology has taught us the meaning of p l a y . There a r e d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s as to play, but a l l agree as to i t s value. Spencer considered i t an o u t l e t for surplus energy. Gross held that play was an i n s t i n c t * t h a t came i n t o the world t o serve the purpose of education.  if. K i t t e n s and puppies f r i s k and chase and tumble over one another in an excess of animal s p i r i t s . Boys shottt, wrestle and run, and (i. Stanley Hall in observing the p a r a l l e l supplemented the theory of Groos with the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n theory t h a t a l l games are the remnants of ihe e a r l i e r a c t i v i t i e s of the raoe. We have to deal with the fact r a t h e r than the theory. Play i d e a l i s e s experiences, and has the significance of wider and matuare* a c t i v i t i e s in i t . I t i s the most serious t h i n g the child can do. I t c e r t a i n l y i s not the invention of the d e v i l . I t i s a way of l e a r n i n g l i f e ' s l e s s o n s , and e s p e c i a l l y the a r t of l i v i n g w i t h o t h e r s . I t s physical and educational potencies are so great we dare not leave i t s a c t i v i t i e s to chance. The period of accelerated growth of the h e a r t , d i g e s t i v e organs and lungs begins at about the fourteenth year. Some form of e x e r t i o n , not over-exertion, i s needed to counteract the physical burden of growth with i t s d i s t r a c t i n g r e s t l e s s ness. Exercise should be frequent, r e g u l a r , and i s p o s s i b l e outdoor. The need of good food and hygienic conditions, of clothes that allow perfect freedom, and of h a b i t s of personal c l e a n l i n e s s may a l l be associated with t h e play s p i r i t and eventually with l i f e ' s work. There i s no r e a l difference between work and play except in t h e s p i r i t i n which i t i s done. S t a r t i n g a t f i r s t a3 mere a c t i v i t y , the play s p i r i t assumes o r d e r l i n e s s and complexity u n t i l i t shades off i n t o work so n a t u r a l l y t h a t one may not be able to detect the dividing l i n e , fte remember how Tom Sawyer got h i s chums to believe there was no game so enjoyable as p a i n t i n g t h e fence t h a t they traded in t h e i r tops and knives for the p r i v i l e g e of p a i n t i n g . Boy Scouts are playing, but i t i s more than half work, and the born leader w i l l assume a place in play t h a t may help him to lead in business and a f f a i r s . Care must be exercised t h a t the body be not overtaxed at i t s growing period, and so we have 3tudent medical examinations., I t i s only i n l a t e r adolescence t h a t the muscular system i s possessed of i t s full power, t h a t reoords are made in s p o r t s , and the whole system responds r e a d i l y and accurately to the mind. Plato has declared that "Play has t h e mightiest influence on the maintenance and the non-maintenance of laws; and i f c h i l d r e n ' s play are conducted according to laws and r u l e s , and t h e y always pursue t h e i r amusements in conformity with order, while finding pleasure therein, i t need n o t be feared t h a t when they grow up they w i l l break laws whose objects are more s e r i o u s " . Well d i s c i p l i n e d play developes the social s p i r i t , s e l f - d e n i a l , the s p i r i t of p r o t e c t i o n and co-operation. The game that demands fine q u a l i t i e s c r e a t e s Plato:  "Republic".  o  ItO.  them. A boy i s what he i s on the playground. Gates w r i t e s , "Ho boy can be allowed to play dishonestly without becoming l e s s trustworthy in other r e s p e c t s . No g i r l can spend her time at excessive attendance upon the t h e a t r e or moving p i c t u r e show, or in reading of sentimental novels, without becoming more or l e s s frivolous and shallow". The youth of today need not only t o be supervised in play, but also to be i n s p i r e d to express the highest ideals in play. Given spaces l a r g e enough to run i n , organization to make the play i n t e r e s t i n g , and p l a y t h a t will use the brain and limbs we may assure ourselves of the d i g n i t y and s e c u r i t y of physical s t r e n g t h , of s u p e r i o r i t y a b i l i t y and spontaneity of the mind, of an obedience to law and a democratic l o y a l t y t o an i d e a l e t h i c and philosophy of l i f e . There comes a time when a youth wants t o move out i n t o a l a r g e r world. By t h i s time he should be a t r e a s u r e house of good h a b i t s , family customs, school l o y a l t i e s , and spiritual ideals. But he begins to enter the era of deeper personal r e l a t i o n s . The sooial outlook i s enlarged. An independence springs up refeuriing personal d e t a i l s , which i s not to be deplored as some parents do. They never seem to want t h e i r children to grow up. Youth wants to explore the realms of p e r s o n a l i t y , and every c i r c l e of environment ought to take t h i s s e r i o u s l y by making provision for the wider friendships of youth. This may be hard on furniture and the " b e s t " in the house, but there w i l l be fewer clandestine escapades with t h e i r dangerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The home i s the place where friends can be brought, and more e s p e c i a l l y those friends who, for the time being, count for more than anything e l s e i n the world. This r u l e should apply iifoere the fascination OQt^&en the sexes e x i s t s , and t h a t i s everywhere. Parents should aim to know in a sympathetic, unobtrusive way those whom the children l i k e ; and where the acquaintance i s unwholesome i t i s not l i k e l y t o withstand the s c r u t i n y of wise p a r e n t s . They w i l l be in a place to put these m a t t e r s in a r i g h t l i g h t by kindly, simple advioe, or s e t t i n g them over against more worth while friendships. The chumships of these days may enrich l i f e f o r a l l time, and p r e c i p i c e s may e a s i l y be passed by wise p a r e n t a l guidance. An acute problem for a l l responsible p a r t i e s i s t h a t of amusements. There seems to be a general lack of consistency throughout the community regarding the standard of amusements. Home and Church and School have no uniform plan, and the s i t u a t i o n generally resolves i t s e l f i n t o our youth being exploited by t h o s e who have a love no higher than money. The Presbyterian Church in America i n v e s t i g a t e d • moving p i c t u r e s and found t h a t , with some honorable exceptions  tf-l-  p i c t u r e s are imp»rving a r t i s t i c a l l y and s t e a d i l y growing worse morally. A Jewish Rabbi refuses to go where p i c t u r e s are frequently put on the screen "which are an i n s u l t and an i n j u r y to common dedency, and where they frequently teach t r i c k e r y , robbery, i n f i d e l i t y and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s " . Moving p i c t u r e s rank fourth among the monied i n t e r e s t s of the U.JS.A. , and i t becomes a matter of grave concern since i t i s reaching the people and imparting i d e a l s and sentiments and i n s t r u c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y , perhaps, than any other agency. The whole m i n i s t r y of s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n has been thoroughly commercialized. The d o l l a r has no conscience, and those who are "out f o r the d o l l a r " offer amusements t h a t debase the i n t e l l e c t , blunt the moral s e n s i b i l i t i e s , and appeal t o the baser passions. The evenings are the most dangerous t o youth. It i s then t h a t t h e t h e a t r e s , pool rooms, dance h a l l s are patronized c h i e f l y , and i t i s then t h a t temptations most a s s a i l s the boys and g i r l s . The only useful purpese t h a t some amusements serve i s to remind u s of l e i s u r e time and the n e c e s s i t y of planning for s o c i a l needs. The evening centre of s o c i a b i l i t y i s needed much more than the day c e n t r e . ITow t h e r e i s a place for t h e drama and the p i c t u r e ; there should be a large place f o r music in many of i t s forms; i t might be s a i d there i s a place f o r harmless t r i v i a l i t i e s . The home, the church, and a l l s o c i a l l e a d e r s much know what the young folk a r e ' g e t t i n g , and i n s i s t on provision i n the community and by the community for the cleansing of s o c i a l amusement. " I f t h e demand f o r clean drinking water i s a proper one, i s the demand for h e a l t h f u l food for the l i f e of i d e a l s l e s s so?" Young people are i d e a l i s t s . They want to enjoy the highest p o s s i b l e condition of efficiency. The aim of modern education i s n o t to f i t for a future we cannot grasp, but to enable us to think and feel and a o t ^ i n t h e l i v i n g present. Every period i s preparatory for t h e n e x t , but to think of i t merely as preparatory i s to degrade i t . We have conceived of t h e end of l i f e as e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s . Beauty has i t s p l a c e , but t h i s i s not a l l we need to know; the highest p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e l l i g e n c e must play t h e i r p a r t , but not that the a f f e c t i v e an i n s t i n c t i v e powers may be crowded out, but r a t h e r t h a t they be guided and controlled and exercised by r a t i o n a l self-development. " I t may be taken as an axiom of a l l moral education t h a t p r o h i b i t i o n of what i s bad should never be r e s o r t e d to where i t i s possible to meet the s i t u a t i o n by suggestion of what i s good". To e n t e r i n t o maturity with low i d e a l s and unworthy motives i s to endanger both moral character and vocational success, Cope:  "Eeligious Education in t h e Family", P. 190.  faand to change what should be an a s s e t of grace into a s p i r i t u a l liability. The worst in us i s the perversion of t h e best in u s . I t i s the business of t r u e pedagogy, psychology and r e l i g i o n to conserve the r e a l balance and u n i t y of t h e whole man. The l i f e of man i s very complex and h i s needs are many. But he has a r e l i g i o u s idealism t h a t he never outgrows. I t has i t s adjustments for a l l ages and temperaments. I t has a b r i g h t and cheerful aspect for childhood and youth; i t has an i n t e l l e c t u a l and deep-toned character for l a t e r y e a r s . I t has kindergarten e x e r c i s e s for l i f e ' s morning, a g l o r i o u s l i f e - t a s k for i t s noonday, and vesper songs for i t s even-tide. Work and play, prayer and contemplation, a s p i r a t i o n and comradeship a l l mix and mingle i n the complex experience of s p i r i t u a l fellowship; and everywhere i s t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of obedience of the heart. Ours i s "the realm of the i d e a l when we w i l l to do t h e Highest w i l l . Conduct and thought are a t t h e i r best in love of the b e s t , which i s a synthesis of r e f l e c t i o n and conviction and devotion i s s u i n g i n t h e t r u e s t emotion and service of God and man. To the young i t i s a glad thing to l i v e , and i t should n o t be otherwise. I t i s the naive optimism t h a t makes l i f e buoyant, and any philosophy t h a t would detract from the healthy s p i r i t of youth i s unworthy. The y o u t h ' s optimism, h i s readiness to accept the standard of honesty and develope a sense of j u s t i c e are values to be conserved. Our i n s t i t u t i o n s have no more important duty to perform than to conserve the beauty, and f o r c e , and joy of adolescence. More a p p l i c a t i o n s of psychological insight and educational methods are needed than heretofore t o modify delinquent tendencies and opportunities. Prophylactic measures are the s c i e n t i f i c methods of today. These have need t o be applied in r e l i g i o n and morals as well as in medicine and h e a l t h . Beginning with an atmosphere of home p i e t y , not pietism, the formation and c u l t i v a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s h a b i t s of thought and action, a l l reenforced by l i v i n g example and judicious d i r e c t i o n , would go far to make a r e a l Christendom. Then as t h e blossom of youth ripened i n t o the f r u i t of maturity, r e f l e c t i v e consciousness would confirm the s p l e a d i l i v i a i s a ; the soul would decide i t s upward d i r e c t i o n by r a t i f y i n g what had already been done, and go on without break or j a r into the fulness of s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . This means the overcoming of the s o c i a l indifference and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in the modern c i t y . I t may mean a concentration of public s o c i a l u t i l i t i e s to engender an atmosphere of friendly i n t e r e s t and sympathy such as we knew i n the small town and v i l l a g e . It i s mostly a question of co-operation and l o c a t i o n to prevent the duplication of f a c i l i t i e s t h a t a l l need in places where they will be a c c e s s i b l e to a l l . The twentieth century needs a t w e n t i e t h century method a t a twentieth century p r i c e , a n d , nothing l e s s w i l l s a t i s f y .  CHAPTER SPECIAL  IV  GASES  I n t h e D e c l a r a t i o n of t h e Rights of t h e Child, commonly known a s the " D e c l a r a t i o n of Geneva", and which was s i g n e d by The Canadian Council on Child Welfare on June 24, 19S4, t h e second a r t i c l e r e a d s , "The c h i l d t h a t i s hungry must he fed, t h e c h i l d t h a t i s s i c k must be n u r s e d , t h e c h i l d t h a t i s backward must be h e l p e d , t h e d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d must b e r e o l a i m e d , and t h e orphan and t h e waif must be s h e l t e r e d and s u c c o u r e d " . It is p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t such a s t a t e m e n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e e f f o r t s of a s m a l l group of workers who a r e t r y i n g t o atone for t h e wrong t h a t h a s been done to the c h i l d , and does n o t r e p r e s e n t any oonseBsas of e f f o r t among t h e n a t i o n s i n general. I n l a t e y e a r s Canada has not been wholly w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e s e m a t t e r s . The p r i n c i p l e s of t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n A c t s , or such l e g i s l a t i o n , t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e s have embodied the broadest permissive clauses covering child care, but in many c a s e s t h e r e h a s been no p r o v i s i o n made f o r o f f i c i a l administration. A broad concept has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Criminal Code, Canada, 22QA ( l ) whereby t h e a d u l t i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r n e g l i g e n c e towards c h i l d l i f e . This i s s l e g a l s t a t e m e n t embodying the most advanced s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s of p r e s e n t day t h o u g h t , and i s p r o b a b l y u n s u r p a s s e d a s a l e g a l s t a t m e n t of t h e advanced sftcial conscience. C o u n t r i e s such a s F i n l a n d , Germany, R u s s i a , and t h e Kingdom of t h e S e r b s , C r o a t s and S l o v e n e s , have e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n somewhat s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e t o our Children's Protection Acts. Our Dominion J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , p a s s e d i n Canada i n 1906, i s one of the most d e s i r a b l e enactments i n e x i s t e n c e . S e c t i o n 31 has a v e r y f i n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t a t e i n l o c o p a r e n t i s t o every e r r i n g c h i l d , t o w i t : "That t h e care and custody and d i s c i p l i n e of a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s h a l l approximate a s n e a r l y as may be t h a t which should be g i v e n by i t s p a r e n t s , and t h a t a s f a r a s p r a c t i c a l l s , every j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s h a l l be t r e a t e d , n o t a s a c r i m i n a l , b u t a s a m i s d i r e c t e d and misguided c h i l d , and one n e e d i n g a i d , encouragement, h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e " . The d e p l o r a b l e f e a t u r e i n c a r r y i n g out t h e law i s the g r e a t l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y i n p r a c t i c e and of i n s t i t u t i o n a l equipment. P u b l i c o p i n i o n must e d u c a t e d t o the u s e of t h e c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t the j u v e n i l e c o u r t i s one of the most i m p o r t a n t a g e n c i e s f o r c i v i c w e l l - b e i n g has been a p p r e c i a t e d by B r i t i s h Columbia and Manitoba i n e x t e n d i n g the u s e of t h e Act i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n up t o the age of e i g h t e e n . I t i s evident t h a t the n a t i o n s are  h-h-  tending towards an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of graduated merit whereby children and j u v e n i l e s w i l l remain subject to the c h i l d r e n ' s s e r v i c e s of the s t a t e u n t i l they a t t a i n t h e i r l e g a l majority. I t but remains for the c i t i z e n s of the Dominion, within t h e i r respective provinces, t o agree upon uniform action along the l i n e s of p r i n c i p l e s already accepted, t h a t Canada may enjoy among the n a t i o n s of the world,by a t t e n t i o n t o the fundamental p o s i t i o n in n a t i o n a l l i f e of h e r social resources, a rank: and r e p u t a t i o n p a r a l l e l t o t h a t which the conditions of her i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e j u s t l y e n t i t l e her. The l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n of the child against t h e consequences of i t s own acts i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the question, when i s a human being responsible? The minor l a c k s the r e q u i s i t e degree of i n t e l l e c t u a l maturity and of business experience to enable i t to a c t independently tirft l e g a l m a t t e r s without injury to i t s own i n t e r e s t s . In England a boy cannot take care of h i s property u n t i l he i s 2 1 , but he can take care of himself from the age of 14. Under 14 he i s a " c h i l d " ; from 14 to 16 a "young person", and between 16 and 21 "a juvenile a d u l t " ; and with varying degrees of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f i r 3 t two groups may be d e a l t with in a juvenile court; t h e r e a f t e r in the ordinary courts a d u l t s . There i s small doubt but that the benefioient clauses of t h e Juvenile DelizpqoBAta' Act in Canada and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Children Act of 1906 in Great B r i t a i n should be applied up to eighteen years of age (as in B.C. ). The psychological d i v i s i o n s are not clean cut chronologically, and since the tendency i s t o r a i s e the age called " j u v e n i l e " in i t s connection with delinquency, i t might be well to give a l l under 21 years of age i n t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Juvenile Court. The work done by these courts as i n s t i t u t e d in America has commended them t o other p a r t s of the world as a very necessary i n s t i t u t i o n . The r e a l meaning of t h e word delinquency i s f a i l u r e in the way of duty, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that at one time i t was only applied to t h e a d u l t . Delinquency has been conceived of as mal-adjustment or defense reaction towards those who have lacked a sympathetic understanding of t h e c h i l d . "From the standpoint of the feeble-minded i n d i v i d u a l " , w r i t e s Florence Mateer, "delinquency i s an a c c i d e n t a l expression of h i s condition". H.J.Williams has pointed out t h a t "Any l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e lower than t h a t of the average-normal accounts in p a r t for delinquency, the extent t o which i t i s responsible depending upon the Mateer:  "The Unstable Child" p.42.  •>  H-fr degree of "intelligence, which may be best expressed by the intelligence quotient". This, however, i s n o t the most subtle phase of the problem, but i t demands a t t e n t i o n and diagnosis. Most people w i l l r e a d i l y agree, t h a t , where the abnormal behabiour of insane people i s concerned one should look upon i t as an i l l n e s s for which the insane person i s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e , but the same people are slow to appreciate the suggestive anomaly in Samael B u t l e r ' s "Erewhon" of providing h o s p i t a l s for the criminal. Many who show abnormal behaviour have been subjected to c e r t a i n handicaps and influences t h a t have made them a c t as they have, j u s t as much as t h e individual who has developed German measles, has become sick because c e r t a i n germs and poisons have entered i n t o h i s body. When society has a j u s t estimate of a l l the f a c t o r s t h a t have played a p a r t i n producing abnormal behaviour i t s reaction will be conceived not so much in terms of g u i l t and punishment as in those of responsible treatment. A very average youth, however, may s l i p over the almost imperceptible l i n e between delinquency and non-delinquency. Everyone has a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies, and in youth the nature i s s t i l l p l a s t i c . How i s i t p o s s i b l e t o reach a desirable normality in s o c i a l l i f e for those who have gone i n t o t h e c l a s s i f i e d l i s t s of juvenile offenders? Hospitals and benevolence have d e a l t with disease and d e s t i t u t i o n . "delinquency i s p l a i n l y a bigger p e r i l than e i t h e r ; i t shadows tJoe l i f e of the c i t y child with f a r more p e r s i s t e n c e and frequency than e i t h e r bodily i l l n e s s or economic want. By s c i e n t i f i c research, by organised s o c i a l e f f o r t , by e a r l y detection and treatment, the burden of sickness and poverty has been progressively lightened. What has thus been done for obstacles to h e a l t h and happiness must now be attempted f o r the wider and profounder e v i l s t h a t beset the growing soul".® This, of course, i n d i c a t e s one very important t h i n g - the contag4 ious element in behaviour. In the same sense as we look upon such a disease as t u b e r c u l o s i s as contagious, we must look upon the demoralizing influences in the home, such as an alcoholio and dishonest p a r e n t , an immoral brother or s i s t e r , or an i r r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of parents t o c h i l d r e n , as dangerous to social welfare. Society must do more than eure. I t s answer must be the same as science has given to many chronic physical d i s e a s e s , such as t u b e r c u l o s i s , s y p h i l i s , e t c . , and t h a t i s prevention. We know very well there are a great many physical diseases which cannot be cured, a f t e r they are fully developed. The r e a l slogan for the s o c i a l psychologist i s in terms of prevention r a t h e r than cure. Hot u n t i l t h i s idea of prevention s h a l l have entered to stay in the minds of s o c i a l workers s h a l l they be functioning properly and adequately with a problem whose magnitude " i s beyond a l l question". ©Burt:  "The Young Delinquent", p . 2 1 .  UDuring the past few decades i t has become more and more evident t h a t a great many people who are d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h s o c i a l service are showing an evergrowing i n t e r e s t in the so-called s c i e n t i f i c understanding of s o c i a l problems. Hence the revulsion against the older method of dealing with the child i n t h e t o i l s of the law. At the beginning of l a s t century over a hundred crimes were punishable by death. In England in 1833 a boy of nine was sentenced to death for s t e a l i n g a l i t t l e p a i n t . Some years ago a boy of eleven in the s t a t e of Iowa was sentenced to imprisonment for l i f e on the charge of murder. We remember a ease of a youth of sixteen being sentenced to ten years in our l o c a l p e n i t e n t i a r y for murder, and,despite the fact he was c o n t i n u a l l y in a s s o c i a t i o n with experienced adult c r i m i n a l s , we l e a r n t h a t h i s conduct throughout was very satisfactory. The c l a s s i c a l theory of orime made the penalty f i t the crime regardless of age and condition. A survey of Juvenile o f f e n s e ^ i s tabulated under i n s t i n c t i v e r e a c t i o n s , and we consider^method e s s e n t i a l to a t r u e understanding of t h e subject a t l a r g e . The law i s groping a f t e r the age of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and about t h i s there i s no uniform opinion or l e g a l category. I t i s observed t h a t the age l i m i t i s being continually r a i s e d . If delinquency could be regarded as an a t t i t u d e of mind and of morals ratJoar than an overt a o t i v i t y , i t would l e a d to a special study of the child who does not "concentrate" e i t h e r because he i s dull or br,ight, of the r e s t l e s s troublemaker who does h i s work and more, of the l a z y ohild who i s g e n e r a l l y a sick ohild, of the i n t r o s p e c t i v e genius and the p o t e n t i a l l y feeble-minded - a l l of which i n d i c a t e the need for psychological aid and specialized education of a refinement beyond t h a t of merely t e s t i n g the mental age. "Only careful refinement of methods of observation w i l l enable u s to extend a statement of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y now as indicated by teatw, i n t o a prognostic evaluation of h i s f u t u r e " . The law f u r t h e r i s t a k i n g precaution by p r o h i b i t i n g minors from frequenting pool-rooms, b e e r - p a r l o u r s , a s s o c i a t i n g with immoral persons, wandering aimlessly about the s t r e e t s , using v i l e and obscene language, t r e s p a s s i n g upon railway, &c , in an endeavour to reach the embryo delinquent before he a c t u a l l y becomes so wayward t h a t reform i s impossible. In general use the term delinquency i s s t i l l confined to d i r e c t v i o l a t i o n of law, but t h e general p r i n o i p l e t h a t the law of cause and e f f e c t applies equally as well t o human behaviour as i t does to any of the physical sciences i s being applied to i t s treatment. The g r e a t e s t success depends upon the l e g a l right t o d i r e c t and control the prospective offender. Back of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Juvenile Court and the I n d u s t r i a l School i s t h a t the child i s l e s s in need of reformation than of formation of character; and since we 9 Mateer:  "The Unstable Child", p.54.  A*  accept the evolution of the moral conscience and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the individual to external forces, we believe t h a t s o c i e t y as well as parents and guardians should accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for wisely d i r e c t i n g the psychical energy and c o n t r o l l i n g the morals of youth. Heredity i s a general phenomenon of n a t u r a l life. Children resemble t h e i r p a r e n t s on the average more than they resemble o t h e r s , but the degree of resemblance i s indeterminate and there i s no general agreement as to the p r e c i s e l i m i t 3 between i n h e r i t e d and acquired c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f acquired characteri s t i c s are not i n h e r i t e d , r a c i a l improvement must be looked for through the s t r u g g l e for e x i s t e n c e , and the v i g i l a n t elimination of the weaker elements of the species. Thus the lombroso school would regard c e r t a i n c l a s s e s as I n c u r a b l e , and wouid have a l l of them "confined for l i f e in a criminal asylum, or relegated to a penal colony, or e l s e condemned t o death". Having examined numerous delinquents concludes 'tneix x'ainiiy h i s t o r i e s t e l l why they are as they are. They merely r e f l e c t the condition of t h e i r p a r e n t s in many i n s t a n c e s . Feeble-mindedness, i n s a n i t y , neuropathic d i a t h e s e s , and a l l they imply have had an important share i n furnishing these c h i l d r e n . They are not wilfully delinquents. They are psychopaths, the unstable children of the u n f i t " . Eugenic measures of a p o s i t i v e type would be the reasonable procedure i f crime were h e r e d i t a r y , and by t h i s means society would make an end, but i t i s not so simple. As Burt p o i n t s out the problem i s too complex "for any one panacea". Segregation i s useful for t h e sake of a l l concerned in the ease of the feeble-minded, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n has saved multitudes from the e r r o r of t h e i r ways even when they were classed as i n c o r r i g i b l e s , but as theye are v a r i e t y of cases there must be v a r i e t y of treatment. We find no agreement in what to do about the feeble-minded. The Women's Council of Vancouver has endeavoured to create public opinion in favor of s t e r i l i z a t i o n . The whole country i s dubious of the proposal since i t savors of c l a s s l e g i s l a t i o n as dealing only with inmates; i t does not find ready support in medical a s s o c i a t i o n s since i t would not hinder the spread of disease or abolish the d e f e c t i v e , and where such a p r a c t i c e has been l e g a l i z e d i t has generally remained i n o p e r a t i v e . The discovery of the Mendeliaa law has complicated the problem, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s are further increased when one considers the mental and moral q u a l i t i e s of man as w e l l as the physical and p a t h o l o g i c a l . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t congenital f a c t o r s were found 249 times per cent among delinquents  h&. as compared t o 72 times per cent among the non-delinquents, and non-congenital factors 666 times per cent among delinquents compared to 254 times among the non-delinquents showing t h a t "the share in the innate conditions of j u v e n i l e delinquencyi s beyond doubt considerable", and t h a t h e r e d i t y appears to unfold in a criminal m e n t a l i t y but "through such c o n s t i t u t i o n a l conditions as a dull or defective i n t e l l i g e n c e , an e x c i t a b l e and unbalanced temperament, or an over-development of some single primitive i n s t i n c t " . The character of the t r a i n i n g offered the child from the e a r l i e s t moments of self-conscious l i f e i s a matter of g r e a t s o c i o l o g i c a l importance. The home i s the most potent i n s t i t u t i o n a l factor. The outside a s s o c i a t i o n s , playmates, conditions of school, s t r e e t , a l l e y , or workshop,a l l are considerations affecting the physique and character of the i n d i v i d u a l . The knowledge t h a t a bad environment has a d i r e c t undesirable s o c i a l outcome paves the way for a more th»(TOughgoing treatment of t h e subject than i f we were discussing a doubtful h e r e d i t y . I s home a t t r a c t i v e ? Do the p a r e n t s understand children? Does the family rub shoulders with decency or indecency? The answers t o such questions are the why and wherefore of t h e most p i t i f u l s t o r i e s of j u v e n i l e delinquency. Some years ago the Sage foundation appropriated $10,000 for a study of juvenile delinquency in the c i t y of Chicago. 'fhe i n v e s t i g a t o r s studied the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r r e s t s to the nature of the area. A decrease of 28$> in t h e number of children a r r e s t e d was observed over an area of one half mile in radius about the South park playgrounds, and t h a t t h e r e had been such a success in dealing with delinquents in the same neighbourhood t h a t the problem was cut in two. I t has been further observed that the number of a r r e s t s of children increases as soon as school closes and the children are turned out on the s t r e e t , but t h a t when playgrounds are opaned the conditions come back to normal. Undoubtedly a g r e a t proportion of delinquency, and the consequent cost of reformatories, would be prevented with adequately supervised playgrounds. The schoolroom cramps the motor effective side of child l i f e , and the active s p i r i t r e b e l s against the benumbing curriculum I f youth can find in a t h l e t i c s a vent for motor i n t e r e s t s and desireB c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l leap forward; otherwise delinquency must be expected to remain much as a t p r e s e n t . A lecturer addressing a meeting of men s a i d , "If there, i s any one in t h i s audience who has never done anything t h a t would have brought him before the juvenile court i f he had been caught a t i t , w i l l he please r a i s e h i s hand?" Each was too modest to draw a t t e n t i o n to himself. Much t h a t we c a l l delinquency i s the expression of the law of childhood in opposition t o the law  H of the c i t y , and woe to the c i t y and the c i t y ' s children where t h e r e i s no attempt t o make i t s laws harmonize with the law of childhood. The centres of population afford many f a c i l i t i e s for commercialized entertainment. There i s a tremendous fascination to the young in Coney Island and i t s junior i m i t a t o r s , in t h e b r i g h t l i g h t s of a modern broadway with i t s camp-followers making a precarious l i v i n g , in the hole4 and-corner gambling dens and questionable cafe's and roadhouses which offer the zest of meeting those daring souls who respect not t h e laws of God and man. The dangerous unregulated p l e n t i f u l amusement of the c i t y i s more t o be feared than the more l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s of n a t u r a l surroundings in r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . As a general rule the incidence of crime i s high in areas most remote from parks and playgrounds with the a f t e r school hours aaJf danger hours and the weekend as the season of d i s s i p a t i o n . She s t r e e t offers more oocasion for delinquency than any other plaoe, but i t may be doubted i f the s t r e e t offers the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the overt a c t . Much of t h i s comes from the moving p i c t u r e show. The matter i s s u f f i c i e n t l y serious to warrant a Royal Commission. The Child Welfare Committee of the League of Hations has taken up the effect of the Cinema i n r e l a t i o n to the mental, moral and physical well-being of the c h i l d , and the discussion brought out a ^ r e a l juon^ensus of opinion and approval of what Canada has Hone as being eminently f i t t e d for t h e woUld as a whole. All the Provinces, with t h e exception of Prince Edward I s l a n d , have a censorship, but t h a t i s not enough. It was recommended t h a t p e n a l t i e s be fixed for any attempt to e x h i b i t demoralizing films and " t h a t a l l possible means should be employed to encourage the e x h i b i t i o n and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange of films calculated to promote the i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and physical eduoation of children and young people". The subject of films i s so important i t cannot be ignored or neglected. A corporation i n America controls more than 90jf of the motion p i c t u r e business, and exports 40,000 miles of films annually to 100 d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . Capital invested i s #1,600,000,000 as a minimum figure with over 15,000,000 persons in d a i l y attendance. These people see more in an hour than they could read in many hours. The p i c t u r e s appeal through the most impressionable sense. They appeal to a l l the great passions such as love, h a t e , f e a r , f a i t h , s a t i r e , and when they are l u r i d , v i c i o u s and monstrous the moral damage i s i n c a l c u l a b l e . By common consent the character of many p i c t u r e s , not a l l , i s such t h a t they are detrimental to morals, r e l i g i o n , p a t r i o t i s m ,  So. domestic happiness and a crime against public c h a s t i t y . Some of t h e most obscene and suggestive books p r i n t e d have been filmed. Dr. Davis for t h e Bussell Sage Foundation gave evidence t h a t the burlesque and vaudeville shows were more v i c i o u s and Immoral in t h e i r influence, but i t has to be borne in mind that the p i c t u r e s make a wider appeal, and more e s p e c i a l l y among the youth of t h e land. Professor Burgess of the University of Ohicago , found from a survey of 400,000 children of t h e public schools in that c i t y t h a t the motion p i c t u r e gave n e a r l y a l l of them wrong views of life. In view of the almost unlimited appeal of t h i s most e f f e c t i v e means of i n s t r u c t i o n and amusement, i t i s v i t a l t o our educational system t h a t t h e films presented should not only be moral, but t h a t they should also be a c c u r a t e , so far as they attempt to r e p r e s e n t l i f e . Dr. Burt holds t h a t the main source of harm i s not the danger of i m i t a t i n g "crook films" as some do, or p i l f e r i n g to see the next p i c t u r e in a s e r i a l , but " i t i s i n t h e general and more elusive influences t h a t the real danger of t h e cinema l i e s " , "in t h e atmosphere of thoughtless f r i v o l i t y and fun" playing upon the mind which lacks the c o r r e c t i v e of experience, and in creating "a. yearning for a l i f e of gayety - a craze for fun, f r o l i c , and adventure, for personal admiration and extravagant s e l f - d i s p l a y - to a degree t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y unwholesome and almost invariably unwise". The same q u a l i t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t remedied the mechanical defects of the moving p i c t u r e machine i f directed against v i c i o u s influences in the films would Just as e f f e c t i v e l y remedy the dangers of motion p i c t u r e amusement. I t would also be a step in t h e r i g h t direction i f Canada would acdept the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p i c t u r e s , for general and juvenile showing, which p r e v a i l s i n Bngland and has r e c e n t l y been adopted by I t a l y . Then when schools and social c e n t r e s make a p r a c t i c e of using decent, a r t i s t i c , and educational productions on the screen, the young folks can find t h e r e i n innocent pleasure and happiness without the s o i l i n g of the mind. The moving p i c t u r e with i t s indispensible love i n t e r e s t has daringly and c o n s i s t e n t l y exploited the sexual i n s t i n c t s and i n t e r e s t s with exaggerated r e p e t i t i o n s of "the intimate d e t a i l s of courtship, coquetry, and married life". How f a r t h i s tends to premature p r e c o s i t y j _ i t ls_ » impossible to say, but those who deal with lads a^id~girls~ ~^recognise a r e a l danger from a tendency to i m i t a t e . But as one says, "More frequently t h e r e i s f i r s t of a l l a f u r t i v e p e r p l e x i t y and mental c o n f l i c t ; then an intolerance of t h e s t r a i n ; and f i n a l l y a b u r s t of violence or adventure, which on t h e surface may have nothing t o do with sex, but i s  SL calculated to relieve the deeper tension, and to drown the hidden promptings, by some wave of desperation, more turbulent, perhaps, but less ruinous and degrading". Of course there are other environmental influences which maytend to an over-valuation of sexual responses with undesirable mental complexes. Just as one individual runs all to sport, another to gambling, and another drinking, others become a prey to sex imaginings seeking dysteleologic variations of sex stimulation. The concrete danger is in the misdemeanours between the sexes resulting in disgrace to the individuals (more frequently the girl) and the inevitable spreading of loathsome diseases. Florence Mateer sums up this phase of it thus: "One thing must be emphasized. Syphilis is present in many delinquents. Its presence seems to mean a certain type of psychopathy. Nevertheless, syphilis does not cause delinquency. It causes psychopathy. The aftermath of that psychopathy is delinquency when there is not sufficient constantly alert supervision". For such unfortunates there must be treatment and supervision. It is significant that practically all the older girls who are sent to correctional institutions are suspected of being immoral whether or not the fact has been determined. Psychiatric studies were fully developed during the war in the extra-oantonment zones of the United States, and are adquately treated in the Public Health Reports upon the conditions at the State Industrial Farm at Lansing, Kans. , and other places* It may be noted that although the women examined were relatively young, "Gonorrhea was found in 93.6 per cent of these delinquent women". It is plainly evident that moral and scientific instruction is absolutely necessary because of the gravity of the dangers, and because that which is half-suggested and half-oonoealed is far more stimulating than that which is revealed, and because sensible confidence between children and guardians is only maintained upon a basis of truth and reality and not upon lies and fables. It is unquestionable the tendency of evolution that the sexual enlightenment of children up to a certain point should be effected in the school, and this is valuable since many parents lack the requisite ability and the requisite biological knowledge for the task. It is the business of the guardian of social forces to use them to generate light rather than heat. "Without such provision short circuiting is inevitable and a conflagration must ensue". The question of co-education is not one for us to elaborate upon. In the public elementary schools it is the general practice all over the world, with England following afar off. It appears to be an acoepted condition Mateer: "The Unstable Child", p.459. Weekly Public Health Reports, Vol.35, I. p.lglO.  •  si. of i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t h a t the sexes must he separated in work and play. Freuqently the i n s t i t u t i o n s are so far apart t h a t no opportunity i s given the delinquent child to a s s o c i a t e with the other sex as the non-delinquent children are permitted t o do throughout the world. Delinquency i s not enough to j u s t i f y the hard and fast separation, and we b e l i e v e the same reasons t h a t j u s t i f y co-education in public schools would j u s t i f y i t in reformatories. More speoific reference may be made to the Various i n s t i t u t i o n s which seek t o cope with delinquency. a. TEE JUYBMLE COURT. In addition to t h e usual magistrate and c l e r k , t h e r e are probation officers who t r a v e l the d i s t r i c t s assigned to them inspecting t h e a t r e s , pool, rooms, dance h a l l s , e t c . to mate sure there were no children in attendance contrary to law, warning children oa t h e s t r e e t a f t e r curfew hour, and dealing with p a r e n t s . I t i s the duty of the probation department t o furnish the h i s t o r y of t h e c h i l d , of the p a r e n t s , of t h e environment, and other circumstances. I f t h e s e f a c t s are incomplete, h a s t i l y gathered from u n r e l i a b l e sources, the order of the court must n e c e s s a r i l y f a i r t o meet the case. The aim of t h e oourt i s to stop the descent, point out the chasm j u s t ahead, face the lad in the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , bid him walk in the sunlight and not in the shadow, and then turn him over to the probation o f f i c e r or t h e i n d u s t r i a l school where a new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y begins. In the Juvenile Oourt a l l t e c h n i c a l i t y , a l l formality, and moat of t h e dignity of the oourt i s abandoned in order to a r r i v e sympathetically a t the t r u t h . This i s as i t should b e , and the judge need not break through a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s to become a friend and counsellor. b. THE DBTMTIOa HOMB. We have in t h i s c i t y (Vancouver) a modern, f i r e - p r o o f D e t e c t i o n Home with f a c i l i t i e s for a c e r t a i n degree of segregation of j u v e n i l e offenders, so that boys or g i r l s of eleven may not have to a s s o c i a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y with boys and g i r l s of s i x t e e n , seventeen and eighteen years of age, and s s t h a t the child who i s in the detention home simply through misfortune or neglect may not have to come i n t o contact with those who have oommitted an offence. This i s an enormous advance upon the prison l i f e of a few years ago, and of i n c a l c u l a b l e advantage to the s t a t e as well as the child. o» The Oourt P s y c h i a t r i s t . In the report of Judge Mott of t h e Toronto Juvenile Court the work of t h e P s y c h i a t r i s t was credited with the marked decrease in the percentage of repeaters. The r e s u l t of the diagnoses might be quoted,lormal 39.2 per cent Subnormal 16.9 " " Mental Defectives 23.6 per cent Psychopathic 12.4 per cent (Deferred) 7.7 " "  &'3  The Judge suggested that an i n s t i t u t i o n was necessary to deal with the higher grade defectives and retarded children to allow the court to do i t s normal work. Suoh i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment might in due course become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . d. THB PROBATION SYS IBM. This i s t h e keystone of the Juvenile Court; i t makes success p o s s i b l e . I t began in Massachusets in 1899; i t r e - e s t a b l i s h e s about 7 5% of the casea observed. Through e f f i c i e n t use in the c i t y of Toronto of the Probation system as low as 1-33$ of the oases have been committed t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l school. e. THS COURT OF DOMESTIC RELATIONS. While the Juvenile Court looks a f t e r t h e delinquent, t h i s new departure in court* looks a f t e r t h e people who allowed the child to become delinquent. Adult probation i s associated with t h i s court. I t was the judges of the Municipal Court in Chicago (on Domestic Relations) who drafted the Adult Probation B i l l which i s now law. This court not only reaches the p a r e n t s , but a l l those who commit an offense or a crime against c h i l d r e n , deals w i t h oases of abandon4 ment, i l l e g i t i m a c y , truancy, and, in f a c t , a l l s t a t e laws dealing w i t h women and children exclusively. Old l e g a l delays were pushed a s i d e , and the effect was to reduce crime in a marked degree. f. THB IffBJSTRIAL SCHOOL. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g becomes the l o g i c a l outcome of t h e attempt to use e f f e c t i v e reformatory measures. The l a s t step in the evolution of i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment c o n s i s t s in the attempt to r e a l i s e the advantages which a good home affords. The Superintendent of the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School in Burnaby i n s i s t s upon c a l l i n g i t "The G i r l s ' Home". To further advance t h i s idea the "Cottage System" has been introduced in Hamburg In 1833, l a t e r at Bridge of Allan among the dependent children from S c o t t i s h slums, but t h i s desirable system has not become general as i t e n t a i l s much wider supervision than the single dwelling. In Truro, U.S. at the Maritime Home for Girls which i s under the School Board of Truro the cottage system i s being adopted. Girls are prepared f o r High School examinations, a g r i c u l t u r e i s taught and p r a c t i s e d on the farm, the school runs i t s own s t o r e , s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i s given to promising s t u d e n t s , and, as in most modern ins t i t a t ions a measure of Student Government i s granted and i t makes for the r a i s i n g of the standard of the i n s t i t u t i o n . g. PLACING OUT. One of t h e most important p a r t s of t h i s work i s the placing and follow up a c t i v i t i e s of the supervisors. This i s intimately connected with the probation system. Parole and probation are successful through adequate v i s i t i n g alone* and can be handled only by a wise, strong, sympathetic v i s i t o r who knows how to pardon, how to b r i n g s t r e n g t h in weakness, help over hard p l a c e s , to steady the purposes and passion for righteousness*  «6'4-.  t o i n s p i r e to congenial, strenuous endeavour since "the chief enemy of v i r t u e i s not v i c e , hut l a z i n e s s " . "Every p o r t i o n of h i s mind", w r i t e s Cyril. Burt, "every inmate of t h a t menagerie we c a l l h i s soul - each a p p e t i t e , each passion, each p o t e n t i a l i t y - must he called out of i t s cage i n t o the open; hunted down i f i t he r e s t i v e ; harnessed in a full team and forced t o draw i t s share. To r e i t e r a t e the useful words of t h e psychoanalyst, sublimation, not repression, must he the i n v a r i a b l e aim." Our common human emotions are r e p l e t e with staggering p o s s i b i l i t i e s for upon the pedestal of i n d i v i d u a l human oharaoter i t i s possible t o s e t up " e i t h e r a Priapus or a chaste Diana". The hope and help of the delinquent i s along the new highway of applied psychology. * I t i s u t t e r l y impossible to deal e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h juvenile delinquency by adding a few paragraphs to our Criminal Code, and organizing a d d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s with patronage to d i s t r i b u t e for a season. We must not regard neglected childhood and juvenile delinquency as i s o l a t e d phenomena, hut must consider them in a s s o c i a t i o n with economic, moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l neglect of society. Social conditions form the s t a r t i n g point for our knowledge of negleot of childhood and consequent delinquency. Political ' care i s inadequate; what i s required i s a general scheme of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l reconstruction whereby t h e sources of negleot w i l l he dri»d up. Poverty and the f l a g r a n t c l a s s c o n t r a s t s must he ended. The hest means for the prevention of crime i s not punishment, but removal of t h e causes of crime. Juvenile delinquency w i l l not completely disappear u n t i l i t s causes have "been removed. Whatever l e g i s l a t i o n i s required must be s c i e n t i f i c , based upon the findings of d i s i n t e r e s t e d e x p e r t s , so demonstrably f i t t i n g t h a t the league of Nations or any modernized d e l i b e r a t i v e assembly would no more think of declaring i t u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l than i t would think of declaring u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l the law of gravitation. Gradually the s o l i d a r i t y of t h e race i s being acknowledged, and w i t h i t comes the subordination of each f o r a l l . Social work has i t s body, i t s machinery of r e l i e f , i t s method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and co-operation, a l l of which e x i s t to convey from one human being to another the essence of p e r s o n a l i t y . The r e s u l t i s a deepening moral conscience i s s u i n g in g r e a t e r r i g h t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s fbr a l l , a more s t a h l e s o c i e t y b u i l t upon consecrated workman ship t h a t plans a world for the complete expression of youth, and the upbuilding of i d e a l manhood.  Burt:  "The Young Delinquent", p.463.  r  L I  O G R A  P H Y .  Addams, Jane.  "She Spirit of Youth & the City Streets", lew York, 1909. Burt, Cyril. "The Young Delinquent", D. Appleton & Co., New York 1925. Coe, G. A. "A Soeial Theory of Religious Education", C h a r l e s S o r i b n e r ' s Sons,flew York, 1921. Cope, H. F. " R e l i g i o u s Education i n the F a m i l y " , The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1917. Bowne, B. P. "Theory, of Thought and Xnowl edge :T , The American Book Go., Hew York 1697. Clopper, E. fl. "Child Labor i n the C i t y S t r e e t s " , The I&acmillan Co., Sew York 1913. C u r t i s , H. 3. "Education Through P l a y " , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1916. C l a r k e , W. fl. "An O u t l i n e of C h r i s t i a n Theology", C h a r l e s S o r i b n e r ' s Sons, flew York, 1916. Dewey, J . "Democracy & E d u c a t i o n " , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1925. S n g e l , Sigmund. "The Elements of Child P r o t e c t i o n " , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1912. Green, T. "Prolegomena to E t h i c s " , Clarendon P r e s s , Oxford, 1906. H a l l , G. S t a n l e y . "Adolescence", D. Appleton & Co., flew York, 1905. Hamilton, G.V. "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o O b j e c t i v e Psychopathology" C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1925. Hadfield, J. A. "Psychology & Morals", R. M. McBride & Co., flew York, 1923. Home, H. H. "Psychological Principles of Education", The Macmillan Co.,flewYork. King, I. "The Psychology of Child Development", The University of Chicago Press, 1917. "The Principles of Psychology", TSm. Holt b Co., flew York, 19o5. Mangold, G. 3. "Problems of Child Welfare", The Macmillan Co.,flewYork, 1914. Mateer, F. "The Unstable Child", D. Appleton & Co., flew York, 1924. Markham, E. ) Lindsey, B. B. ) "Children in Bondage", Hearst's International Creel, G. )} Library Co,, flew York, 1914. James, W.  Mill, J. 3. M i l l e r , H. C.  "Utilitarianism". "The flew Psychology & the P r e a c h e r " , J a r r o l d s , London. 1924.  ,  /'  Mackenzie, J. 3.  "Manual of Ethics", Hinds & Noble, New York, 1901. McDougall, W. "An Outline of Psychology", Charles Scribner's Sons, Hew York, 1923. McDougall, W. "Introduction to Social Psychology", Methuen & Co., Ld. , London, 1924. McCunn, J. "The Making of Character, The Macmillan Co., lew York, 1916. McKeever, W. A. "Training the Boy", The Macmillan Co., lew York, 1913. Munroe, P. "Brief Course in the History of Education, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1917. Rashdall, H. "Elements of Psychology" (Home University Lib.) Slattery, M.  "The Girl in her Teens" & "The American Girl & Her Community", The Pilgrim Press, Boston, 1918. Sidgwick, H. "History of Ethics", Macmillan & Co. London, 1692Starbuck, B. D. "Psychology of Religion", Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1911. Spencer, H. "Essays in Education", J. M. Dent & Sons, Ld. , London 1914. Tharrndyke, E. L. "The Original Nature of Man", Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1921. Tracy, F. "The Psychology of Adolescence", The Macmillan Co. New York, 1920. Thouless, R. H. "An Introduction to the Psychology of Religion", Cambridge University Press,1923. Wedgwood, J. "The Moral Ideal", K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., London, 1907. Dealey, J. Q.  "The Family in its Sociological Aspects", Houghton, Mifflin Co.New lork, 1912.  "The Child in the City" (Report on Chicago Child Welfare Exhibit) 1912. "Boyhood & Lawlessness" & "The Neglected Girl", Survey Associates, Inc., New York, 1914. Reports by Canadian Council on Child Welfare, " " The Social Service Council of Canada, Maiden Leaflets by Atheam. E.R.E. D. C.G.  Arts. "Ethics" and "Education in Religion & Morals". "  "Ethics".  *  

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