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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The moral content in adolescent behaviour Rae, Hugh McConnell

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THE MORAL CONTENT IN ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOUR By Hugh M c C o n n e l l Rae T H E M O R A L C 0 N T E N T IN A D O L E S C E N T B E H A V I O U R by Hugh McConnell Rae A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. APRIL, 1927. C O N T E S T S pages. CHAPTER I 1-10 SPIRITUAL VA1UBS Morals & Re l ig ion - Moraliam, i t s a b s t r a c t i o n - Mora l i t y i n Re l ig ion - F o n a a l i t y n o t enough - Mora l i t y w i thou t Re l ig ion Re l ig ion i n Hature - M o r a l i t y fused w i t h Emotion - A Un ive r sa l Ethic - i t s inwardness , dynamic power, permanent v a l i d i t y , h i s t o r i c i t y and v i t a l i t y . CHAPTER I I 11-31 PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 1. General f e a t u r e s 11-16 Psychology in Re l ig ion - the formative P e r i o d , i t s t r a n s i t i o n f e a t u r e s - Mental and Emotional changes - Phys ioa l and Mental Balance - Growth and Ref lexes - Per iod of Adjustment - Sex i n s t i n c t and i t s c o n t r o l - Male and Female - Mutual Debtors . 2 . T r iun i t y 18-26 Three- fo ld n a t u r e , Thinlring, F e e l i n g , Wi l l ing - the Mental Complex - I n s t i n c t and Habit - the Place of I n t e l l e c t , i t s Doubts - the Place of F e e l i n g , i t s complexity - the Place of Wi l l , i t s complexity, h a b i t s , laws, and t e n d e n c i e s . 3 . Unity 26-31 Se l f - consc iousness - Soc ia l consc iousness - ado le scen t Mora l i t y , V a r i a b i l i t y , and Immaturi ty 4- Conscience and Imper fec t ions - Dangers in sex - Del inquenc ies - the Gang -I d e a l s - God-consciousness , the focus of p e r s o n a l i t y . * page CHAPTER I I I 32-48 PRACTICAL COUSIDERATIOJSS The p e r f e c t human,- Environmental F a c t o r s - Home - P a r e n t s and Children - School, i t s ooiaptmionsnipa - Church, i t s Atmosphere and Customs - Readjustments wi th S c i e n t i f i c Bearing - P l ay and Playgrounds - Work - The Booial S p i r i t -Amusement - P r o v i s i o n and Superv i s ion - t he Fou r - fo ld Charac te r - A Saved L i f e . CHAPTER IT 43-54 SPECIAL CASES The S o c i a l Mind and Pub l i c Enactments - Delinquency and I n t e l l i g e n c e - P reven t ion b e t t e r than Cure, formation r a t h e r than r e fo rma t ion , Hered i ty and Environment -Commercialized Amusement - Motion P i c t u r e s and Sea, Vicious Menta l i ty and Disease - Co-education - I n s t i t u t i o n a l P rophy lax i s , The Juven i l e Court , the De ten t ion Home, the Court P s y c h i a t r i s t , the P roba t i on System, t h e Court of Domestic R e l a t i o n s , the I n d u s t r i a l School , " P l a c i n g Out", Applied Psychology t o b a s i c f a c t o r s i n b u i l d i n g i d e a l c h a r a c t e r . • Chapter I. SPIRITUAL VALUS3. The basis of the education of a generation ago was religious* It oooupied dogmas so absolute and ultimate as to bt above oontroversay; It began with God and a well meaning universef and it was a good beginning. The education of today is Boientifio, and it takes for granted electrons and the ether, lot that it is sure of these, but it simply oannot get on without them. Since dogmatic religious instruction has been excluded from the public sohools and universitiea, the problem of relating the teaching of definite religion to the education of the day-schools is very great. It is an utterly impossible thing to keep them entirely separate. Many are exercised as to the value of bringing the minds of children and young people into oontaot with a definitely religious message. Instructors do not want to teaoh what it would hurt their own consciences to tetany or what the ohild in after years may have painfully to unlearn; and they do not want to tear town the altars of trust, whereby faith would be made difficult or impossible rather than reasonable and instinctive. Parents, too, are concerned about methods of suggestion and environment for the moulding of individual character. The increasing importance of the individual through popular government, the massing of the population through industrial expansion, the increasing complexity of forces that pliy upon society tend to turn our attention to fundamental things. What kind of a world do we live in? How do we want to live in society? Is therea better and worse? -1 --•-3ome tell us that it is the business of society as organl£ed to produce good citizens. But, we may ask, "good" for what? And why "good"? Before we can be agreed about What good citizens are we must have a working agreement as to what good citizenship means. In other words, are we here as Calvinism asks. To glorify God? Or, as Eneraon puts it, "only to wear our boots out". Of course that is quite another thing. Moral instruction and religious education are every day tearms, but they should imply not only a common understanding as to what morals and religion oonstitute, but also a common understanding as to the ultimate meaning of life. While morals and religion are not mutually exclusive terms, an adequate religion would exclude no human good, and it is therefore proposed to show the plaoe of morals in religion and of religion in morals before making specifio application of the study to the young life of today. 9 2. The following far reaching c r i t i c i sm has been made on Moralism: "The weakness of moralism i s i t s abs t rac t ion ; the s t rength of r e l i g ion i s i t s ' concreteness". How moralism i s an e th ic which professes to have no bas i s in r e l ig ion , a morality untouched by emotion. The r a t i o n a l i s t i c press loudly proclaims such"a theory, and many unattached t h e o r i s t s f u i e t l y ins inuate t h a t the full-orbed moral i ty of the fature w i l l be untrammelled with t he swaddling c lo thes of r e l i g i o n . Morality, i t i s sa id , w i l l walk without a s s i s t ance , and tha t which has hindered i t s pace i n the past wi l l no more be a matter t o be reckoned with. Thus many fr iends of r e l i g i o n , not competent to give a phi losophical defense of i t s necess i ty , are disturbed about i t s r e a l i t y , and are looking for a r i f t i n the cloud of doubt. When the Union of Ethical Socie t ies met under the presidency of Frederick" Harrison in 1897 t h e i r aim was to intardduoe "systematic moral i n s t r u c t i o n without theologica l coloring in to the Board Schools in place of the present r e l ig ious teaching" in England. In 1909 t h e i r aim was modified t h u s , - "to urge the introduct ion of systematic moral and c iv ic in s t ruc t ion in to a l l the schools, and to make the formation of character the chief aim in education". On the face of the abs t rac t ion i s mot apparent. I t must be looked for in the method, the programme, in the nature of the standard of e t h i c s . I f i t be In tu i t ionism, wherein the r ightness or wrongness of an act ion is perceived by looking at the action not the end, i t ends in abs t rac t ion.^ I f i t be Ut i l i t a r i an i sm, t h i s leads to a reckoning of v a l u e s , quant i t i es and q u a l i t i e s of p leasure , and thus far might be sa id to be concrete. I f the view of development be maintained, however, i t would na tu ra l ly be expected tha t the concrete process of development would be outl ined in the ideal p r inc ip le involved. Nevertheless what i s important i s no t the concrete process but our standard, and in t h i s regard Moralism cannot avoid being abs t rac t . The standard cannot be t rea ted as a separate compartment of l i f e . I t enlarges into a discussion of 1he nature of good and e v i l , of duty, of r i gh t and wrong, of tha t in our nature which enables us to make moral judgments against a moral c r i t e r i o n . This discussion i s so re la ted to r e a l i t y tha t i t i s hardly poss ible to keep the subjects apart despite attempts of the "Ethical Society to e s t ab l i sh the "independence of e t h i c s " . Certain metaphysical views are poss ib le , however, which hardly admit of moral ob l iga t ion . The theory t h a t knowledge i s derived from sensible experience leaves no bas i s for moral obl igat ion "for no amount of what i s can prove an ought". M a t e r i a l i s t i c automatism cannot e s t ab l i sh a r igh t and wrong. I f the moral obl igat ion be pos tu la ted , i t s implicat ions are a free s p i r i t u a l se l f , and the personal control of conduct. (£) E.R.E. Art. "Ethies" (Muirhead) 3-I s a be l i e f in God necessary t o morali ty? There are those t o whose thinking a moral obl igat ion comes as a phase of universa l th inking, but they are not prepared t o th ink t h e i s t i ^ ca l ly . "I do not bel ieve tha t for such a person", says Hastings Rashdall, "our moral judgments can carry wi th them the same kind of ob jec t iv i ty tha t they do for the t h e i s t " . Morality, however, is necessary in re l ig ion . Antinomian and l i b e r t i n e taadeneies are a t a discount; f a i t h without works i s dead. Bowne says, " I t i s the one human mind which founds e th ica l systems and r e l i g ious systems. And what t he mind may do in the moral f i e l d w i l l c e r t a in ly hage signif icance for i t s work in the re l ig ious f i e ld" . While tha t i s t r u e , r e l ig ious p rac t ice has not always been cons is ten t ly moral. History i s deeply marred by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l oppression which ground down human freedom, enforoed nameless c r u e l t i e s and v indic t ive revenge. And every age has had i t s profession without p r a c t i c e . Eeligion t o l i ve must teach men to l i v e . I f i t s source of in sp i ra t ion i s merely the powers of na tu re , men could not be expected t o r i se above the morals of Greece; but i t has not been discovered tha t the worship of nature has i nc i t ed to the highest v i r t u e . Heligion and morals become progress ively r ea l i s ab le when they are incarnate in a person. This i s the ground of a l l universal r e l i g ions . formality i s not enough. Where there i s an over-emphasis on r e l ig ion for i t s own sake, i t s ceremonies become p rac t i ces shut off from v i t a l experience, and the r e l ig ious person a monastic excluding h i s l i f e and r e l i g ion from the concerns of the world. Eeligion must mix with ordinary l i f e to be of value. I t has both an inner and an outer phase. "Men imagine they can communicate t h e i r v i r tue or vice only by overt ac t ions , and do not see that v i r tue or vice emit a breath every moment". To have a pure dynamic mind is the important th ing, or in the poe t ' s words, "The h e a r t ' s aye the par t aye, That mak's us r igh t or wrang". That i s one s ide; a man's habi tual motives are important, but one cannot always be absorbed in motives. Act ivi ty takes on a character because of the p r inc ip le s in l i f e , and re l ig ious idea ls are wrought out in the ambition to serve, the growth of t o l e r a t i o n , and the consecration of a b i l i t y and means u n t i l these become the p la ines t e t h i c a l dut ies in sooie ty . Were i t poss ib le to have morali ty without r e l i g ion , i t would be preferable to re l ig ion without moral i ty . There are good husbands and fa the r s , worthy statesmen and honorable business men who make no claim to a r e l i g i o u s mind. Undoubtedly they are debtors to r e l i g ion , but touching soc ia l requirements they have observed these from the i r youth up. Such men have become the f 4-. advocates and pa t t e rn of Moralism. They have weighed the r e l i g ious hypocrite in the balance and found him wanting, hut t h i s i s not to find re l ig ion wanting. Many a moral is t has t r i e d hard and found i t "unnatural to separate e th i ca l teaching from ins t ruc t ion about the ul t imate r e l a t i on of the universe" . So i t happened tha t e t h i c a l soc i e t i e s in England had, l i k e Gomte, to invent prayers and adopt r e l ig ious forms, and the school in America under Felix Adler was forced back t o the same expedient. We a l l recognise with F. W. Robertson tha t " i f there were no Sod and no future s t a t e , yet iven i t i s b e t t e r to be generous than s e l f i s h , b e t t e r t o be chaste than l i c e n t i o u s , b e t t e r to be ta?u#> than fa l se , b e t t e r to be brave than a coward". This, however, does not go far enough. Deliverance from self-ishness , l i cen t iousness , f a l s i t y , and cowardice are demanded. J. S. Mackenzie says, "Man's l i f e i s not a simple s t ruggle towards v i r tue and ho l iness ; i t i s quite as often a lapse into vice and s in" . A cure for sin i s required t o make our l i f e complete, to a t t a i n a r a t iona l end and r e l a t e a l l our experiences i n t e l l i g e n t l y to ourselves. The moral l i f e i s incomplete in i t s e l f , and we tu rn to r e l i g i o n t o complete i t . By re l ig ion we do not men merely emotion. P o l i t i e s may arouse emotions; they do not make us r e l i g i o u s . Religion i s what we regard as the g rea te s t experience in t h e realm of personal r e l a t i o n s , or of u l t imate worth in the realm of idea l s which cannot ex is t apart from persons. Religion must be t r u e , the g rea tes t t r u t h , the g rea tes t r e a l i t y ; i t must be deep-rooted in convictions t h a t make us a t home in the universe , and such convictions are a neoess i ty of man's l i f e - a necess i ty p e r t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and p a r t l y moral". The study of science a r i s e s out of the wonder of na tu re , but imagination goes beyond science and crea tes explanations for i t s e l f ; and,when a l l i s done, there ia mystery. In our moral world there i s a sense of the inadequacy of ordinary experience, an incompleteness of v i s ion , and what we demand i s an explanation which does not mock our i n t e l l e c t . To help us t o be moral we must i n t e rp re t the universe as moral and r a t iona l with an adequate place for t he self . The heaven within l inks I t s e l f to a harmonious and r a t i o n a l universe without. We l ive in an i n f i n i t y witnessed by a moral law within, but to worship nature in i t s highest Pantheism i s to end in materialism or Hirvana. To a t t a i n t o a legalism which i n t e r p r e t s God as the great king and lawgiver leads to dualism. But to see God as the power in nature and the end of the moral (1) H.Rashdall, "Elements of Psychology". (2) Mackenzie, "Manual of Eth ics" , p.393. s. ideal is to approach Christianity. Thereby we come to relate what is going on all around us as a moral experience, to see things 'sub specie aeternitatis', not to hold that "whatever is, is right", but "whatever is right, is". All high religions have helped to this; in some it is fundamental, and in the Hew Testament we "see how a great personality creates a moral standard by what He does and suffers, and how He illustrates it in His words".® Here is God measured in time and space. He "Wrought With human hands the creed of creeds In lov l iness of perfec t deeds 4 More strong than a l l poet ic thought." ® A personal example i s eloquent beyond the power of words and i d e a l s , and has proved the mightiest of h i s t o r i c motives for t rue and noble l i v i n g . In a l l high and pure moral i ty r e l ig ion i s p resen t , but not always consciously. A morality fused with emotion and touched wi th imagination i s not a th ing which vaunteth i t s e l f or i s puffed up. I t i s the eonviotion tha t what i s e s sen t i a l to re l ig ion i s t he r e a l i t y of the moral l i f e , and t h a t i t i s worth l i v ing . I t s manner i s f u l f i l l e d in the duty to one's neighbour and the se l f . I t implies tha t duty i s done from a r ight motive, and the purer and l o f t i e r motive becomes the c learer when i t i s seen to be r e l i g i o u s . Apparent or concealed, conscious or unconscious, i t i s doing the wi l l of God. Indeed, to admit the moral obl igat ion in a l l i t s length and breadth, and depth and hiighfc, i s t o admit God. The f a i t h we see in science i s rooted in the consciousness of an i n t e l l i g i b l e system, so the f a i th we have in a moral l i f e gives us the bas is for re l ig ion . The proof of t h i s l i e s in metaphysics, but "without some such be l i e f moral i ty i s hardly possible a t al l" .® Green wrote, "We present to ourselves the objects of moral loya l ty which we should be ashamed to forsake for our p leasures , in a far g rea te r v a r i e t y of forms than did the Greek, and i t i s a much l a rge r se l f -denia l which loya l ty to these objects demands of u s / Ttiis i s l a rge ly owing to the p r inc ip le s of v i r t u e being universa l iaed owing t o the Christ ian conception of man's nature and dest iny, r e a l i s i n g the i n f i n i t e issues at stake in the moral regeneration of the world, and the imperative obl igat ion to make i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral education universa l ly access ib l e . " © Philosophers and wr i te rs s ince Plato have emphasised the moral danger of i n t e l l e c t u a l scepticism, and the experience tha t morality without r e l ig ion i s not able to maintain i t s e l f . Ei ther moral i ty degenerates or makes an a l l i ance with r e l ig ion . Frederick Harrison, Coit, and Fel ix Adler have busied themselves (1) D. C.G. art "Ethics". (2) Tennyson, "In Memoriam" (3) Mackenzie. "Manual of Ethics" p. 451. (4) Green, "Prolegomena" p. £64. &. establishing ethical societies which profess to have no belief in a Supernatural, a personal God or a personal immortality. Human agency, forethought, and the will of organised society take the place of a God who is"above all and in all and through all I' They go on, however, to adopt prayer, sacraments, and the ceremonies of the Christian church. God becomes an abstraction, though their devil may be very real, and some have even advooated preaching hell that people may be saved "so as by fire". Ooit even comes back to the necessity for incarnation - in reality establishing "irresistibly that morality, to be living and permanent, must have religious sanctions and inspiration, that we need to be delivered from the awful thraldom of evil; that the supreme realities are the things which are unseen; that prayer is the life of the soul; that public worship is a necessity, that in Christ the greatest redemptive power has been embodied, and the purest vision of the Sternal has been granted; and that in its adaptation to human needs, its fostering of human aspirations, its ministering to human sorrows, its renewal of human penitence, its consecration of life and its hope in death, no ethical society yet devised gives any symptom of being able to supplant the church of Him who said, 'Come unto Me, and I will give you rest'". Abram looked for a city whose builder and Maker was God. The Apocalyptic writer saw the Efew Jerusalem coming down out of heaven. And we see a universe, which, to produ'oe men with a moral ideal, must have a moral Thinker behind it; and if that moral ideal does not apply to ourselves "the claim for an objective validity of the moral consciousness cannot be satisfactorily accounted for". We would then be left to support one of the many systems finding it hard to maintain essential distinctions between moral and immoral, human and inhuman, virtue and vice, sympathy and insensibility. When such distinctions are lost, evil would show itself without shame. If a time were to oome when men would openly commit deeds that have always been regarded as sinful, with no voice of conscienoe to speak, they would chose with readiness anything that was vile, so long as it was pleasant; the unseen bonds of society would be broken, and destruction attained. Goldwin Smith said, "Shadows and figments as they appear to us to be in themselves, these attempts to provide a substitute for religion are of the highest importance as showing that men of great powers of mind, who have thoroughly broken loose, not only from Christianity but from natural religion, and in some cases placed themselves in violent antagonism to both, are still unable to divest themselves of the religious sentiment or to appease its craving for 7. satisfaction". This is a craving moralism cannot get away from, and without recognising whioh it will fail. Religion has pervaded all peoples and established its sacred sanctions, and to say that morality would be unaffected by the decay of religion is an unfounded speculation. Let ethical societies not merely imagine such, but let morality prove its own power in a world whioh has doffed the old clothes of religion -churches, doctrines, religious literature and devotion, put man in the place of God, and make propriety the categorical Imperative; then we may have laws as before whioh prohibit murder, theft and false witness, but none that carry the searchlight of the divine into the innermost motives. It is possible to kill the murderer, but who can kill murder? It is possible to imprison the thief and compel restoration, but what law on earth - where we have no divine sanction -can operate to kill envy and hatred, indifferenoe and impurity? Grand the divine order, and, while men keep out of the oluthhea of national law, they are condemned, self-condemned, and condemned by the innate judgment of their fellows as well as the whole moral order of the universe. This is because there is a law higher than that which is written.® "Whatever is not of faith is sin". An external law can only hope for external obedience. Through it the difference between the widow's mite and the bags of silver is a difference of ourrenoy. The man who supports his party enthusiastically to the extent of a few dollars he can afford is muoh less to be commended than the representative of the 'big interests' who contributes thousands of dollars to have the protection of the legislature. If there be none but our fellow creatures to whom we give an account, and none to search the heart, what an incentive to high aspiration and purity of motive is taken awayJ But the inwardness of morality has so impressed men that actions whioh wre outwardly good may now be judged evil because of the motive. "He who seeth in secret shall reward openly". Agnosticism, materialism, or naturalistic religion do not impress us with an authoritative morality. The believer in God makes a real claim for the objective validity of the moral consciousness. He believes in God, and holds that his moral judgments are based upon ideas which are eternally true, proceeding, as they do, from the Source of all reality. "The theistic explanation of the universe does seem to be logically demanded by our consciousness of duty when the implications of that consciousness are fully thought out". Morality, however, is not statio. Moral progress is going on leading us past the habits and institutions of a particular time and place, and enabling us to transcend the ideals of the past. As Miss Wodgwood says, "The dominant influence of life lies ever in the unrealised - not the criminal code, but the (1} cf. Sidgwiok, History of Ethics, p.114 f. (2) Wedgwood, "The Moral Ideal". 8. counsel of perfect ion shows us what a nat ion i s becoming." I f our sense of moral obl igat ion i s most completely s a t i s f i e d and j u s t i f i e d by a b e l i e f in God, i t i s a strong reason for accepting i t and helping us to understand why there i s any moral consciousness a t a l l . Today there i s an undertone of pessimism expressed in the loosening of the bands of organised r e l i g ion . In the extreme i t i s accompanied by a Daack l u s t r e view of human l i f e . Instead of man having as an end to g lor i fy God, he i s a plaything, a sport of an id le dream. Life i s a melancholy introspect ion, "The good Lord Jesus has had his day", as the doctor sa id , and many profess to get on very well without a r e l i g i o n . Honor to those who have kept to moral goodness even in t he per iod of "Everlast ing Hay". Ifc?i&not -mainly because of the undying hope tha t somehow, somewhere the Divine w i l l show His face and the benignity of His government? Were i t not fo r such a hope the cultured would repeat "Vanity of v a n i t i e s , a l l i s vani ty" , and the mob cry out, "Let us ea t , drink and be merry for tomorrow we die" . "When work lo ses i t s sense of s p i r i t u a l connection", says Eucken, " i t loses a t t h e same time i t s independent standing 079T against human l i k e s and fancies ; i t loses a l l power to l i f t and transform man's inward l i f e , and ne i t he r shrewdness nor dexter i ty can save i t from sinking to a mere sham and parody of cu l tu re" . No matter how absolute and peremptory duty i s held t o be, morali ty tends t o become a matter of convenience and p leasure , custom and publ ic opinion. A powerful dynamio i s needed to develope a l t ruism and oontinu4 ously up l i f t the mind of the time. Without i t moral i ty would sink t o the l eve l of despair ing conventional i ty . Without r e l i g i o n , who i s to be our guide? I s i t that man who th inks he i s s t rong because he breaks the laws of his country? To one who lacks the sense of duty or denies i t s v a l i d i t y , we are very much a t a loss t o prove i t to him. There can be no such thing as a permanent and unrival led code of moral i ty t o regulate t h e workd's conduct unless society be s t a t i c . Systems degenerate in to casu is t ry with a de ta i l ed irksomeness too grevious t o be borne. How high are we to aim, or how low? People wi l l be slow to approve a morality which i s merely oonventional and a r b i t r a r y , and may be discarded to su i t the whim of a class or age. An age of non-re l ig ion i s hopefully an t i c ipa ted in some quar te r s , but i t ought t o be careful ly considered i f such an age would not be marked by the diffusion of a non-morality in a manner unparal le led in the h i s t o r y of the world. I s i t not untrue to the past to say tha t founders of r e l i g i o n s with t h e i r teachers and prophets have lacked in moral impulse? They have been the most potent means of imparting i t to others.* I s i t not reasonable to assume tha t the r e l ig ious man wi l l 7. away the sceptre of the long fu ture , and, as in the pas t , s a t i s fy the moral i n s t i n c t s as well as the re l ig ious asp i ra t ions of the race? The r e l ig ious mind bases the moral idea l upon a moral law coming from the hear t of the universe , from the throne of God, and i s bound to command more respect than a moral ideal based upon the uncer ta in re f l ec t ions of past or contemporary minds. Religion has ever been a more compelling powej; than morali ty. I t places moral conduct in r e l a t i o n to God and immortality, emphasising the s p i r i t u a l above the na tura l and the universal above the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . I t places t h i s l i f e in r e l a t i o n to an i n f i n i t e evolution with the promise of boundless attainment in the l i f e that now i s and tha t which i s to come. The r e l i g ious experience has been un iversa l , and now the grea t r e l i g ions aim to become universal* Their organisat ions embody a moral i d e a l , propagate moral p r i nc ip l e s , and i t i s reasonably and hope-fu l ly assumed t h a t "the most powerful influences w i l l be exercised in the future as in the past by s o c i e t i e s which represent some def in i te view of man's r e l a t i on t o the universe as well as some def in i te presenta t ion of the e th i ca l i d e a l ^ Says Eucken, "That i t s metaphysical should be e t h i c a l , and i t s e th i c s metaphysical cons t i tu t e s the pecu l i a r i t y and greatness of Chr i s t i an i ty , and gives i t a l so i t s l a s t i ng i n t e r e s t " . I t s g rea tes t evidence i s a l i f e of genuine s impl ic i ty l ived among men fo r the purpose of helping by word and deed. Taking men and a f f a i r s as they were, Jesus made theser the background of His teaohing, and, because he r e l a t ed every-day l i f e to the ever-present God, and spoke the r igh t word to His fellows, He became the true insp i ra t ion of morals and r e l ig ion . Hot tha t He wrote a book, or devised a code, but tha t He r e l a t e d the common-place and the common l i f e t o the profound and the e t e rna l , and pointed t o the Highest for i n sp i r a t i on . Thus He made moral i ty and re l ig ion the warp and woof of r e l i g ion showed God in e^ery duty and opportunity. Both moral i ty and re l ig ion existed before He came, but to Him they were "simply two aspects or s ides of the one l i f e of man, inseparable and co-e ternal" His ideal i s a growing perfect ion working out in each pe r sona l i ty , not something transcendent and abs t r ac t , but immanent and personal according to a new law wri t ten upon the hear t . The Church has had much t o say about creeds and codes, but Jesus seems to have dea l t with p r i n c i p l e s ; and Paul fought legalism within and without. Example i s g rea t , but i t i s not the g rea t e s t mat ter . Mill wrote, "The complexity of the e th i ca l end i s so great tha t i t can often be best represented by a concrete example".® But the v e r y . (1) Clarke, "Outline of Christian The (2) Mil l , J . S . , »Util i tarianism"T 10. nature of goodness forbids slavish reproduction. The red blood of Christian character issues in "love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, generosity, trustfulness, gentleness and self-control", and its symmetrical proportions are more to be desired than the anaemic systems of colorless negation so much applauded by well meaning moralists. Dewey puts it thus, "The habit of identifying moral characteristics with external conformity to authoritative prescriptions may lead us to ignore the ethical value of these intellectual attitudes, but the same habit tends to reduce morals to a dead and machine-like routine". Some strive for qualities of mind,- "Open-mindedness, singlemindedness, sincerity, breadth of outlook, thoroughness, assumption of responsibility for developing the consequences of ideas which are accepted", but religion aims at a spirit. It is a bold ideal to make every man a law unto himself, but the appeal is founded upon an ethical spirit distinctive, absolute and universal, what Paul called, "the true and living Way". It is necessary that Christianity should adapt itself to real life if it is to be anything else than a sublime, ephemeral dream, if it is to become a reality. Life includes science and art, philosophy, politics, literature, worship, in a word all the natural and traditional forms of human activity, and a universal religion should prove superior to every form and age. When it came into the Soman world represented by an alien minority, it would have perished but for an infinite vitality. It immediately came to close grips with the requirements of real life in every shape and form, social and political, material and moral. In the Middle Ages it became the common principle of both temporal and spiritual life. At the reformation, it set moral perfection and spiritual independence above dogmatic orthodoxy and works of legalism. It took the Renaissance with its apotheosis of nature, end made it its own, clothing itself therewith as with a mantle of glory. It possessed itself of a literature and an art radiating classic splendour - painters, musicians, poets, orators and philosophers were its manservants. Such vitality and power of adaptation without abjuring itself, can be explained only by its distinctive nature, which is essentially a principle of life, whilst its roots penetrate to the very depth of the soul and will. The Greek ideal ennobles human life by making it beautiful and harmonious. Science allows us to form moral conceptions compatible with the truth it presupposes or establishes: it supplies us with the instruments of morality. The Christian is not satisfied with mere beauty and harmony and exactitude of mathematics, he gives 8 welcome to the ethics of intention and spirit, or love and sacrifice, which orders him, by means of his will, to do what nature in her loftiest instinct and force could not do: to* create within oneself an invisible, superior nature: in a word to aim at that indefinable perfection which is the dream and aspiration of human consciousness. CHAPTER I I PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS //, Our s tudy so f a r has he en t o determine in a "broad way t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t of the h e a r i n g of a r e l i g i o u s theo ry upon l i f e . I t has been s a i d t h a t psychology has been most complete i n i t s a n a l y t i c p a r t , and t h a t j u s t where t h e e d u c a t i o n i s t wants i t most i t f a i l s him most, which i s t he " s y n t h e t i c or g e n e t i c p a r t " . I f the moral and r e l i g i o u s end of l i f e i s under s tood , then the s i g n i f i c a n c e of educa t ion i s seen. , to be not mere ly the a c q u i s i t i o n of a mental gymnas t ic , but t he development of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , and t h e e x p o s i t i o n of the means by which mental and moral t r a i n i n g can con t r i bu t e i s most v a l u a b l e . P ro fes so r James Ward says , "What the new century demands of us i s the development of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of average men and women, the people who have h i t h e r t o been supposed t o have no i n d i v i d u a l i t y a t a l l " . I t i s proposed to d e a l w i th the average i n d i v i d u a l i n the Adolescent p e r i o d , and t o march forward along t h e broad highway of modern psychology in the a n a l y t i c sense . The p r o c e s s e s of f e e l i n g , w i l l i n g , and d e s i r i n g must be observed. Psychology and Biology have shed a g r e a t dea l of l i g h t upon the development of the moral consc iousness , and. i n so f a r as a l l l i f e i s s t u d i e d from t h e p sycho log ica l p o i n t of view, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to n o t e the l e a d i n g f a c t s of modern r e s e a r c h in r e l a t i o n of ado lescence . There i s no n e e d / t o dea l w i t h the p h y s i c a l f a c t s of b r a i n -c e n t r e s , n e r v e - c e l l s and ends , bu t r a t h e r t o take knowledge of the genera l f e a t u r e s of t h e growth of i n d i v i d u a l consc iousness in the average youth and maiden fo r the p r a c t i c a l purposes of r e l i g i o u s educa t ion . 1. The c h i l d i s bo rn , n o t made. I t has been the province of ch i ld -psycho logy t o s tudy t h e c h i l d in the order of p e r i o d s , which a re a ve ry convenient dev i ce , bu t they do not s tand apa r t from one a n o t h e r . As development proceeds from the unfolding from w i t h i n by dynamioal s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s a re observed, but they a re d i f f e r e n c e s of degree r a t h e r than of k i n d . "The c h i l d i s f a t h e r of the man". The d i f f e r e n c e s a re d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mature and the immature; they are i n c i d e n t a l to t h e s t ages of l i f e , b u t the whole human family by fundamental l i k e n e s s i s bound t o g e t h e r i n t o a u n i f i e d whole, and whether the s t u d y i s i n ch i ldhood, boyhood, adolescence or manhood, t h e r e i s only one psychology. The course of l i f e f a l l s n a t u r a l l y i n t o s e v e r a l s t a g e s wi th t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n each s t a g e . Adolescence i s a p a r t of t h e t o t a l l i f e ; i t looks before and a f t e r . "There i s no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of adolescence whose germ may n o t be found in ch i ldhood, and whose consequence may n o t be t r a c e d in m a t u r i t y and old age" . , "Psychology and Educa t i on" . . .James Ward. n. The period of adolescence oommenoes j u s t a t the close of childhood, and may extend to the twenty-fourth year covering about twelve years . I t s advent i t heralded in the experience of puberty, "the most s ign i f ican t c r i s i s between b i r t h and death", and t h i s c r i s i s general ly comes between twelve and fourteen. Childhood has led up t o i t , and adulthood i s affected permanently by i t s many-sided expression and develop-ment. I t i s not a per iod which can be studied by charted figures and mechanical fac ts merely. JTorman Richardson makes t h i s claim, "To one who appreciates i t , adolescence i s a great challenge. I t i s so p l a s t i c , so s p i r i t u a l , so sacred that i t i s the very stuff, the raw mater ia l out of which the Kingdom of heaven i s made". Some would divide adolescence in to three sub-periods. There i s an asser t ive period s trangely coupled with t i m i d i t y from about twelve to s ixteen when the sexes are s t rangely repe l len t t o each other. The next period - s ix teen to eighteen - has more of sentiment beoause of "increased emotional capacity7 ' , and i s remarkable for the number of emotional conversions which belong to t h i s time of l i f e . The period from eighteen years upwards marked by the maturing of reason and wi l l , the consideration of earning a l iv l ihood , and the recognition of one 's place in socie ty should culminate in "years of d i sc re t ion" a t about twenty-four. Young people are general ly in a hurry to grow up, and a va l id c r i t i c i sm of the West in p a r t i c u l a r i s tha t adolescence i s not fu l ly rounded out in the average experience. Pioneer condit ions have th rus t mature r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s upon young l i v e s , war turned boys into men in a day, and the sh i f t ing fortunes of families have so shor t -o i tou i ted the periods of development tha t i t i s not always wise to depend upon years as the simple measure of l i f e . The fac t s of t r a n s i t i o n from childhood to youth, and from youth to maturi ty are before a l l eyes. The v i s i t o r a t school running h is f ingers through the twwsy head of a boy did not require t o be a prophet to say, " I t won't be long t i l l t ha t i s brushed t i l l every ha i r i s in p lace" . Margaret S l a t t e ry t e l l s the intimate s tory of g i r l l i f e from a t eacher ' s viewpoint by the ordinary case of Edith. At one time Edith did not care how she looked because she was never in the l ea s t self-conscious. The change came, and the mirror was the a l l important th ing . "Her ha i r ribbons are always p r e s e n t . . . .She spends a good deal of time in school arranging her h a i r . Sometime spel l ing suf fe rs , sometimes algebra. Before standing to r e c i t e , she care-fully arranges her b e l t . Contrary to her previous custom, she ra re ly volunteers , although her scholarship i s very good. cf. , a r t . "Education in re l ig ion and morals" E.R.E. p.2$0f. / i . I f unable t o g ive t h e eorrect answer, or when obl iged to face the school , she blushes pa in fu l ly . One day recent ly , when the c l a s s were reading "As Tou Like I t " , she s a t with a dreamy look upon her sweet face , far , far away from t h e eighth-grade c l a s s room; could not f ind her p lace when c a l l e d upon t o read, and although confused and ashamed, l o s t i t again within t en minutes". She adolescent i s not a new creat ion , but i s the focal centre for new and crude emotions sometimes expressed in r e l i g i o u s fervour. Mental energy and rapid growth mark the f i r s t part of the per iod, and in the l a t t e r part adjus t -ments take p lace towards symmetry and p o i s e and power. She soultdemands new i n t e r e s t s , the future demands a v i t a l p lace in thinking, and the minds,twines around i d e a l s and goes wool-gathering. Introspect ion begins , and thought and f e e l i n g become more c l o s e l y re la ted than heretofore . She merely imi ta t ive s p i r i t f a l l s away, o ld tasks no longer s u f f i c e , act ion becomes v o l i t i o n a l , ambitions, pass ions and yearnings sweep through the soul u n t i l "the ra t iona l powers gradually overtake the emotional, and e s t a b l i s h that balance and control which i s the mark of maturity". To achieve that balance there must be a sound mind in a sound body. The body i s the instrument of the mind, l e do not need to d i scuss the u l t imate r e l a t i o n of body and mind. I t i s assumed there i s "no psychos is without neuros i s" , and that the re la t ions are of the most c o n s i s t e n t and intimate kind. In childhood the dominant feature i s growth, and the ear ly period of adolescence (twelve to eighteen) i s a period of marked acce lera t ion i n growth, whi le the l a t e r per iod i s marked by the parts of t h e body k n i t t i n g themselves together in preparation for the exact ing funct ions of fee mature l i f e . The healthy mind cannot be at ta ined without the healthy body; the nervous system cannot work properly u n l e s s the blood be well aerated by ac t ive lungs and d i s tr ibuted by a healthy heart . The modern emphasis upon phys ica l culture has done marvellous th ings in free ing the world from i r r a t i o n a l modes of dress , from the unnatural c o n s t r i c t i o n of abdominal par t s in the habit of mid-Victorian women t o the r e l e a s e of the bound f e e t of the Chinese. There i s , however, an extreme t o be avoided; the whole emphasis in some quarters i s placed upon the phys ica l . We have many f lour i sh ing schools of physical culture s ince San&ow s e t the fashion in London, and some of them hold t o the monstrous anachwonism that bone and muscle are s t i l l paramount. Mankind has long ago, we t r u s t , M. Slatterm i n "Girl in her Teens" p . 3 . / * -staked i t s a l l upon mindt The only physical development t ha t i s r e a l l y worth anything to the human race i s that which educates in te l l igence and morali ty and serves for t h e i r expression. Herbert Spencer's remark tha t i t i s necessary to be a good animal has an element of t r u t h in i t which was u t t e r l y ignored and needed proclamation at t h a t t ime , but i t i s necessary to be a good animal only in so far as that s t a t e makes for being a good man, and not any fur ther . I f we are in danger in some quar ters of the Spartan s p i r i t - the worship of the physical - i t i s time to consider how to put the emphasis upon the moral and s p i r i t u a l v i r tues ins tead. We have remarked upon the growth period; both sexes grow t i l l by eighteen years g i r l s have reached t h e i r fu l l height; boys continue growing for a few years more. Then by the close of the teen years the normal adult weight i s near ly reached. The brain "in the matter of s t r u c t u r a l and functional development, the organization of i t s convolutions, and the l inking up of i t s associa t ive neurones" i s very busy developing during t h i s period. The hear t doubles i t s s i z e , the process of medullation in the nervous system i s brought almost t o completion, the lungs expand i n capaci ty and power, and the organs tha t are concerned p a r t i c u l a r l y in the work of the reproduction of the species enter upon that prooess of growth which i s to culminate a t matur i ty in t h e i r perfec t f i t ness to exercise these funct ions. I t should therefore be the duty of parents to explain to t h e i r ohildren the meaning of these changes and how v i t a l l y they are r e l a t ed to the f luc tua t ions of f ee l ings , the ebb and flow of physical des i res , and the general r e s t l e s sness so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period. I t i s of great value to the youth to know t h a t these strange feel ings are not uncommon or unnatural , and that discourage-ment i s unwarranted. At these crucial periods of unfolding the body should be well fed, well worked or d isc ip l ined tha t the mind may have unhindered opportunity for i t s own free expression and s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n . After adolescence nothing v i t a l i s added t o the height or weight of the body or the s i ze of the organs; the equipment of the individual i s complete. Man i s the sovereign being in c rea t ion , and as the most philosophic anatomists point out , the body of man ac tua l ly represents the goal of physical evolution. I t may be the medium of a l l t ha t i s good and moral, or of a l l tha t i s bad and immoral. " I t may be the pest-house of in iqu i ty , or a temple of the Holy Ghost". Certain organic functions are non-vol i t iona l such as the c i rcu la t ion of the blood and the digest ion of food, but a l l physical prooesses may be stimulated by wholesome a c t i v i t i e s . Health may become a permanent possession through the bui lding up of hab i t s /* whereby every power and faoulty, every organ and pa r t , en ters into a olose and v i t a l r e l a t i o n with every other. There are des i rable habi ts of breathing, walking, s leeping, ea t ing, working, recrea t ion , bathing, excretion which can be firmly fixed upon l i f e a t such a time as t h i s i s . Extremes are always t o be avoided as e s s e n t i a l l y dangerous. Young people should be content to do the reasonable t h i n g without mortgag-ing the future of body or mind tha t the laws of t h e i r na tu ra l development may produce vigorous, e f f i c i en t , and beaut i ful young men and women equal to every duty and task in a worthy soc ie ty , f i t t e d for the incomparable functions of fatherhood and motherhood, and f o r t i f i e d by a cons is ten t human nature against a l l the forces of d i s in tegra t ion in the modern world. She l a s t few years have witnessed a breaking down of the pol icy of s i lence in the discussion of the sexual elements In humanity. Where God has seen f i t in designing our human nature to make the sex i n t e r e s t so oen t ra l , permanent and powerful, He must have had some great and wise design. The i d e a l i s t i c conception i s the proper s t a r t i n g -place for a discussion of t h e s t ruc tu res and functions tha t cons t i tu te the nature of sex. They are as na tu ra l end normal as any other, and once understood and properly handled, make for the enrichment of human l i f e , f o r t he increase of heal th and eff ic iency, and the heightening of the enjoyment of l i f e . 5o man or woman a t t a i n s to fulness or harmony of l i f e i f the sexual nature be e i t he r neglected or mismanaged. No soc ie ty i s s t rong unless these elements are cont ro l led and d i rec ted , and for t h e l ack of understanding c i v i l i z a t i o n s have been discomfited and the world strewn wi th t ragedies and disease . Reference has been made to physical development, and one of the most important features of adolescent development i s in the physical pa r t s that are connected with procreat ion. But th i s i s something more than physical . Up t i l l t h i s time the sex system has l a i n p r a c t i c a l l y doimant, but now there i s both an in t e rna l and external development, and i t has become a matter of profound inqui ry how the na tu ra l and normal development may t ransp i re without the i r r e g u l a r and unhealthy features of excessive excitements, emotions and ideas which should belong only to the adult l i f e . rhe ideal s t i l l l i nge r s in some minds tha t boys and g i r l s , young men and women, should be kept in complete ignorance of the t r u t h s about thse lves u n t i l they marry and discover them from the inexorable law of experience. But in order to keep children in the dark i t would be necessary for them to l i v e a fiobinson Crusoe kind of existence without books, papers, or fr iends of any kind. Responsible p a r t i e s ought to be prepared to give t o the young on the bas i s of reverence, the clean, c lear f a c t s . We are in a world humming /(,. with conversation, ornamented with p i c tu re s , and r e s t l e s s with experience; the danger i s tha t children wi l l receive p a r t i a l , d i s to r t ed and unhealthy ideas from the school-ground, the s t r e e t , and from persons sexually depraved and ignorant of the rea l f ac t s . When i t i s recognised tha t a l l the wealth of powers with which the body i s endowed has significance and worth, t h i s subject wi l l be t r ea ted in a t r u e r l i g h t . Lust wi l l be conceived of as t h e v i l e s t thing on ear th , and pure love the most beaut i fu l . There i s no grea te r need for society today than to recognise tha t education must include, must culminate in , preparat ion for the supreme duty of parenthood. This involves in s t ruc t ion regarding those bodily functions which e x i s t not for t h e body, not for the present at a l l , but for the future l i f e of mankind. The exercise of these functions depends upon an i n s t i n c t which has been termed the " rac ia l i n s t i n c t " . Here i s a name which wi l l suggest to t h e adolescent a something the s a t i s -fact ion of which i s not an end in i t s e l f - tha t i s the fa lse and degrading asser t ion which wi l l be made by the teachers whom youth wi l l ce r t a in ly f ind i f we f a i l in our duty - but as ex i s t ing for what i s immeasurably higher than any se l f i sh end. Youth must be taught tha t i t i s for man the self-conscious to deal with h i s i n s t i n c t s in terms of t h e i r purpose, as no creature but man can do. The boy and g i r l must l e a m that the r a c i a l i n s t i n c t ex i s t s for the highest of ends - the continuance and ul t imate elevat ion of the l i f e of mankind. I t i s a sacred t r u s t for the l i f e of t h i s world t o come. To be manly t s to be master of t h i s i n s t i n c t . And the higher etduoation of girlhood must serve and conserve the future mother, both by teaching her how to care for and guard her body, which i s the temple of l i f e t o come, and how af te r -wards to be a r igh t educator of her chi ldren. I f passion be t r u l y handled i t provides a driving force for a l i f e t ha t i s e f fec t ive , courageous, and joyous; and the key to that l i f e i s t o be found in the conception of the r a c i a l i n s t i n c t as ex i s t ing for parenthood, and to be guarded, reverenced, educated for that purpose and supreme end. Woman i s Nature ' s supreme instrument of the fu ture . Many people seem incl ined to think that woman i s j u s t the same sor t of being as a man, except for the one specia l function - tha t of motherhood which can o£ly be exercised occasionally, and need not be exercised a t a l l . Now i t i s t rue that the sexes have ^BTJ much in common, but they are "opposite and complementary phases of one and the same complex phenomenon". Tracy says, "The normal woman i s e s s en t i a l l y female from head to foot, in bearing and conduct, insentiment and expression, in feel ing,thought and act ion, and from the beginning of girlhood to the end of l i f e . So, a l so , with the normal man. He i s e s s e n t i a l l y and v i t a l l y • "The Psychology of Adolescence".. .Tracy, p.134. n male, throughout the whole range of h i s toeing". , Ho doubt there are many men with feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and woman with many masculine ones; tout woman i s not only phys ica l ly different from man, she i s d i f fe ren t mentally, emotionally, and s p i r i t u a l l y . And that i s why we need her so much in a l l l i f e ' s departments. At t he time, then, when idea l s are most insp i r ing - toetween f i f t een and twenty-five - there ought t o toe room for happy, f ree, wholesome companionships that help to broaden and deepen. Male and female elements are to toe found everywhere, and they are not to toe defined in merely physiological terms. They concern the en t i r e psycho-physical toeing. Everywhere the male i s the aggressor, the defender, the inventor. Women are more aes the t i c and l e s s commercial, l e s s disposed to c r imina l i ty , more disposed to orthodoxy than men. A teacher of amtomotoile driving in our c i t y claims tha t women learn more readi ly than men; women want t o know how to dr ive , while men want to know the "how" of everything. A professor who has observed the sexes for years s t a t e s that the female mind i s reproductive ra ther than productive. He wr i t e s , "The work of the male s tudent , in comparison with he r s , i s l i k e l y to appear untidy and sl ipshod; tout i t i s a lso more l i k e l y than hers to toe c rea t ive , productive, l o g i c a l , j u d i c i a l , discr iminat ing and c r i t i c a l . . . .He toetrays more independence of judgment, i s more impatient of au thor i ty , and does not he s i t a t e to d i f fer , not only from h i s professor in the c lass room, tout from Kant, from Thomas Aoquinas, and even from • P la to" . The question to toe asked in view of the complement-ary natures of the sexes and the des i re of each to find sa t i s f ac t ion in the other, in view a lso that "In the beginning God made them male and female" how are we to regulate the new freedom of sooiety and educational l i f e ? Mrs. Grundy has not toeen atole to keep the sexes apar t , and the prospect of doing so i s fur ther off than ever. A popular c r i t i c i sm i s offered, espec ia l ly toy those who were t ra ined in separate schools for tooys and g i r l s , t ha t a l l the unrest of today i s due to co-education. On the other hand i t may toe shown tha t the mutual re la t ionaship of the sexes has toeen helpful a l l round. As long ago as Cicero's time the acquaintance of the lad ies of Rome was cul t iva ted for the enrichment of tha t f e r t i l e mind. The th ings a man gets on h i s Journey from h i s mother, s i s t e r s , and h i s g i r l f r iends-from his wife, his daughters, and the c i r c l e of good women of h i s acquaintance, are among the golden things of l i f e . A s imi lar t r i bu t e can toe paid from the other side ao t h a t the arrangement of having divided mankind in to male and female i s among the most resplendant of divine thoughts. We need women in p o l i t i c s , education, a r t , and also in science to « supplement and st imulate human object ives , and by companion-ship make a bigger and b e t t e r thing of l i f e than would be otherwise poss ib le . That opportunity i s given to t h i s / * . generation, and it is for the young people of the university and college circles who meet in the freest way, to discover how to make the To est of new circumstances. Mere rules and regulations are not going to do it for them; the habits of other days give small guidance. THrough blundering silliness and frequent mistakes it is more than possible that young folks will establish for themselves the right standards and conventions, and thereby do an immense service to the whole social structure. 2. Triunity. Having given our attention to the broad general basis of physical unity, the way is open to discuss the universe of mental experience in its variety. It is usual to analyse a complete condition of mind into the time-honored three elements, Thinking, Feeling and Willing. "Thinking11 is used to cover all the ways of having knowledge of awareness of an object. By an object is meant an abstract idea as well as a material object. The raw materials are colors, sounds, etc., aa they occur in our sensuous consciousness whereby we are led to a knowledge of a real or, as Kant oonceived it, a phenomenal world. And knowledge may be regarded as the content of consciousness descriptive of fact, and the objective of knowledge is truth. The processes of thinking may appear in some such order as the following; sensation, perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment and reasoning. Sensation is the beginning and reasoning the end of knowledge. "Feeling" is used in widely different senses. We feel hungry, and the term feeling is used of an organic sensation. But feeling has a place in all states of consciousness,- e.g., when we speak of anger, pleasure, disappointment. It appears to be the primordial element in conscious life; practically all mental processes are saturated with feeling. "Willing" is also an active element in our consoious life. Its function is the mental side of voluntary movements in the adjustment to environment, and the production of volumtary changes in the chain of ideas. The will is the activity of the self; it is the self functioning, the self moving, and this is the unifying principle for the self is a unity more in function than in structure. /?, These three elemeits are not d i s t i n c t s t a t e s of consciousness which may ex i s t in the mind in i s o l a t i o n . They are const i tuents of s t a t e s of mind in which a l l three ex i s t together. Every complex s t a t e of mind cons is t s of thinking, fee l ing , and wi l l ing , and any t r a i n i n g or experience to he adequate must appeal to eTexy pa r t of the se l f . Uot only are there waves of physical development, hut there are §lso waves of mental development during adolescence, which i s the most o r i t i o a l mental period in experience. The conditions out of which mental soundness or weakness a r i s e have now arr ived, and usua l ly are such as y ie ld t o the influences which paren ts , leaders and teachers can control . The mind "begins to expand more rapidly than heretofore . Moods come and go. E x c i t a b i l i t y i s a t s i t s height . The past i s forgotten in the increasing i n t e r e s t of the future. The senses are unusually keen, and lend themselves to appreciat ive s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . The i n t e l l e c t becomes the potent force driving the youth on t o th ink and know t i l l the ul t imate goal of the knowledge of the s e l f i s sought. And the w i l l becomes more dynamic and progressive in the r ea l i s a t i on of i t s power. "The wear and t e a r of opinion-at iveness and in to lerance upon the mind i s g rea t " , says one who understands the asser t iveness of the boy who knows more than h i s fa ther . The "shades of the prison-house" are the new i n s t i n c t s coming into play and the new i n t e r e s t s being developed. The mind i s tossed h i the r and th i the r . "The young adolescent ' scarcely knows what to do with h i s powers of mind and body, with the surging t i d e s of f ee l i ng , with the prooession of images and ideas , and with the vigorous currents of muscular and nervous force". The mature jud ic i a l mind i s fa r off, and Uie supreme achievement of manhood - se l f -cont ro l ) has not yet been fu l ly r ea l i s ed . The nature of i n s t i n c t i s l a r g e l y involved in obscurity. I t i s general ly acoepted tha t t he r e are suoh disposi t ions in the mental organisat ion of man which determine very l a rge ly the influence of experience in the development of h is mind. These are ca l led i n s t i n c t s . They are the innate mental d isposi t ions which are common to a l l the members of any one species . They play a large par t in the determining of the behavior of the lower animals; and so far as man i s influenced by i n s t i n c t s they are an inheri tance from his animal ancestry in pa r t , and to some extent appear t o be aoguired in the l i f e time of the individual for as Pr inc ipa l Morgan points out in "Habit and In s t i nc t " , the young of the species learn by imi ta t ion of the more mature. The i n s t i n c t s have been divided in to three o l a s ses , -"Habit and I n s t i n c t " , O.L.Morgan (1896) AP 1. Self-preservation, e.g., the inatinot to flee from danger. 2. Preservation of the raoe, e.g. , the se.* instinct. 3. Preservation of the group, e.g., the instinot to protest the young. From suoh a division a parallel might readily be drawn between the lower animals and human beings. There is the uneasiness of an isolated horse as well as the uneasiness of the isolated human being. It is upon the gregarious instinct on which the safety and well being of social groups depends very largely. And from this root also comes a large part of his altruistic impulses, for it has been shown by McDougall and others that the instincts by sublimation may be redirected to other and higher ends. The sex instinct may urge a man to marry a wife and devote himself to his matrimonial affairs, but it is the distinctive power of the human species to direct his energies in another direction. The frustrated lover may write poetry, or paint a picture, throw himself into scientific research or religious service, or engage in some other form of activity thereby consuming the energy of his instinct and directing it to a purpose satisfying to the individual and of value to the community. While sublimation may not be considered as satisfying as the natural use of the instinct, it need not destroy the instinct. A woman need not make any the less a good wife for having thrown her energies into business for a time, and work in a hospital ward need not make her any less tender as a mother. Sublimation may be another word for consecration. i Some attempts have been made recently to explain life in terms of one or other of the instincts. The Freudian School have placed the whole emphasis upon the sex-instinct. Biologists of last century insisted so strongly upon the law of "survival of the fittest" and the "struggle for existence" that self-preservation was regarded as the paramount instinct, different emphasis has been placed by different schools making it necessary for them to prove their case by exagger-ation of some one instinct and distorting facts to fit the theory. The truth seems to be that instincts differ in force in individuals and sexes, but the story of human development is the story of the transformation "of purely instinctive behaviour by behaviour of the same kind determined by habit, and modified by mentalr.processes of the complex kind which we may describe as intelligent thinking". And the same may be said about religion. It has been described as a sentiment based upon instinct. Starbuck speaks of religion as "a deep-rooted instinct". Others speak of sajdgion as an expression of the sex-instinct, or as self-preservation, but it is not any one specified instinct. It is rather a complex growth from a variety of instincts whereby thinking, feeling, "An Intro, to the Psychology of Religion".,.Thouless, P.123. "Psychology of leligion", Starbuck. jcr and willing in the highest way and about the highest objects, and whereby the personality is focussed upon a worthy object of love, viz., a Person who is the Source and End of the moral ideal. While we accept the primacy of the intellect, the merely intellectual is t notion of man has been outgrown. "Man was given dominion over the beasts of the field" is a primitive assertion of perceived superiority. Ever/since he has been demonstrating a growing dominion over the forces of nature. This is a voluntary activity acquired late in evolution. It has been contended that a purely intellectual conviction about theological dogmas means very little until it has become associated with feelings and with experience. It may be contended that when the feelings and will demand a religious expression it will amount to anthing but an incoherent glosalalia unless the activity is kept under control of rational ideas. Sow the function of the intellect is to know the truth, to correlate, and to consolidate it. The intellect has been growing through childhood. A naive conception of the world expresses itself in Animism in primitive man, and in the poetical companionship illustrated in Wordswftrth's first period,- the only period which Shelley ever knew. During adolescence, however, changes are taking place: SBBse perception is becoming keener: definite tastes are being formed in food and clothes; while the demands upon active life are performed with greater deliberation than among little children. A very important development in early adolescence is memory. "Memory combinations and associations are developed in great abundance and variety from the twelfth year, boys having rather better memories than girls for relations and connections of impressions, while girls as a rule possess better memories for isolated impressions". The mind is becoming more of a unit, less of an atomic mass of unrelated experiences. That most import4 an% of human gifts, the imagination, strives to pay outside of the bounds set by commerce and utility in a world of idealising. The future is gilded withe the glory of the setting sun, while the more generous ideals of human nature are seeking realisation in life. It is the period of romance and adventure, of fiction and history, of the growth of the cognitive faculty with the thirst for knowledge and and increasing demand for a logical system. A debating propensity is aroused, scientific facts are readily absorbed, mathematical subtilties intoxicate, and, lest we forget, the abounding trivialities of the playground help to keep a sound mind in a sound body. "The Psychology of Adolescence"...Tracy, p.90. » A2. It is not surprising that intellectual growing pains in the form of doubts are manifest at this period. This is not a thing to be altogether deplored for it is an evidence of the keen young intellect trying things for itself, and is to be considered a perfectly natural phenomenon. Of course there are oases where the mind is thrown completely off the balance, but the average doubt of the young person makks a process of evolution rather than revolution. Where the foundations have been carefully laid, and the doubt is met in an atmosphere of sympathy and patience, the period will leave the youth stronger and better. The real danger is where a child has been brought up in an environment of narrow dogma and creed and practice, and he is obliged to throw it all overboard and pass into the period of "Everlasting Hay". When he begins over again it may not be possible to rid himself of the narrowness bred into him. A book, such as Welsh's "In Eelief of Doubt", that has a strong grip upon the fundamentals rather than upon "Fundamentalism", or an older person who understands the growth of revelation may be of invaluable service in directing the adolescent along the dubious path from childhood's external authority to his natural inheritance,- the right of Private Judgment. Psychology makes a difference between sensation and feeling. Feelings are the result of sensations which come through the sense organs of the body or through the intellectual content of ideas and beliefs. While feeling is subjective, it is intimately oonnected with the sympathetic nerve system. Many sensations may come at one time, only one feeling oan be dominant. When feelings develope in complexity they are termed emotions, the more complex of which, such as reverence, grief pity, are not possible in a well developed form in early childhood. Young children are moved by primary instincts. They eat, play, laugh, cry instinctively. If they cannot get what they want they scream. Every object that excites an instinct excites an emotion, and a child left to do rexy much as he pleases soon becomes a creature of emttion, a young savage. The youth with a greater capacity for complex feelings much lack neither culture nor expression for the emotional cravings which are as real as hunger. Emotions arise through the deepening of intellectual powers, through the unfolding of the sex functions, through changing experiences and social attachments, through the appeal of nature and the tendency to worship the beautiful, and every emotion has the tendency to express itself in activity. Indeed certain psychologists say the feeling comes because of the action.' It is at least true that physical A 3. attitudes induce certain emotions. We often think that the work of education is completed when the intellect is trained. But what of these volcanio forces that arise so easily, that scatter destruction, and increase in force with such incalculable rapidity? Many a life has heen ruined because the emotions were neglected in youth. Many a crime is committed in moments of emotional tension, and nothing is more contagious than an emotion. Herein lies the need of boys and girls to have vigowotJB and well-organised expression of emotional energy especially in group action. There is less extreme emotional fluctuation in a team of young people than in any one member. If the ideals of the team are consistent with the ideals of the individuals, rapid progress may be expected in the direction of emotional control. The you|fli may become a "genuine Kantian in morals", and his duty to the team initiate him into more permanent phases of duty. Then from the hero-love and devotion to human friends may be produced the element of personal attach-ment to the Ideal Person, which "is the cardinal feature of religious experience". The intellectual executive authotrty is the will. The other powers of mind and body would be useless without a will. Perception and attention would be haphazard affairs; imagination would turn to fancy; and thought would be governed only by<impulse and chance. This describes what would be the utter slave of circumstances. The roots of will are very much deeper down in the psychic and neural system that we generally imagine. To be psychologically and philosophically adequate in definition it could be said that will is consciousness in action. The will is not any distinct organ like the heart or the stomach. It is not some inner creature which says "Yes" or "JKTO". When the whole organised self is functioning we call it "will". It is not, however, the whole personality for it logically cannot include repressed complexes and suppressed instincts, and so a state of antagonism must exist where these are not taken up into the purpose of the self. "Every form of mental experience tends to be expressive, to focus and utter itself in some sort of response or reaction". When we see a beautiful object we have an impulse to possess it; when we hear a harsh sound we desire to shut it off. We soon learn that all impulses are not to be obeyed. "The burnt child dreads the fire". He checks the impulse with the new-found will. He shrinks from disagreeable tasks, but may learn that it is to his advantage to do them. If you create in a child a lively sense of duty he will perform •» Osh-. actions that are really difficult. Mucin of the hard, unpleasant work of the world is done because men have caught the true idea of lofty things; having seen the heavenly vision they will be true. Habitual reaction is the index to the oharaoter of the man. Children more generally act from impulse than do adults. This is called ideo-motor action. The higher form of behavior, which is marked by control and purposive consider-ation is called ideational. All oonscious action passes through the impulsive age or stage; some folks never get far from this; but between the child and the adult are all manner of degrees of oonative action. The high type is where reason governs and feelings obey, sinoe feelings are blind and fitful, and uncontrolled passion is dangerous. The desirable thing in a healthy mind is control and action, but this canlaoarcely be looked for in teenage boys and girls in the way an adult might be expected to be the master of his fete. Interests are vacillating, the physical condition variable, and, because of the inability to approve the practical relations of training to life, the oonsoious functioning of the will is the story of adolescent turmoil. We are dealing with a creature who is Just getting up speed under his own motive power, and training for self-mastery. The horse is made useful by "breaking"; but horse-breaking is instinctively kindly and intelligent even with stubborn animals. If a boy is to be a man, it will depend upon what la done with his will. If a boy is simply "broken", he^bomes a weakling for life. Where it is not merely a case for neural pathology, the appeal to duty, to interest, to fair play, to love, to imitation of the best by intelligent counsel and assistance will produce a stability which is based upon the controlled will. This is the real end and aim of all education. Will hardens into habit; so life with its culture and skill is but the sum-total of our past willing. Sinoe James has inspired thousands of writers and teachers to discuss "Habit", which is the utilization of the instinots, this most familiar and universal form of behavior may be mentioned but briefly. Its importance for us is that adolescence is a formative period when the psycho-physical organism is plastic and susceptible. When any function, mental or physical, has once taken place, there is a change of bodily or mental structure, an opening of the synapse, which facilitates the recurring of the action. By the time maturity is reached there are tendencies to fixidy of habit with definite modifications of structure. We noticed in a graveyard how the ants had worn paths in particular directions by travelling regularly along these routes. "It n A*. i s t h i s tendency to repeat tha t gives laws to na ture , i n s t i n c t s to the animals, and habi t s of mind and act ion to man". All our reac t ions become habi tua l . Our manner of s i t t i n g down, the mental a t t i t u d e to l i f e , the system of study a l l tend to become fixed. And i f these ordinary habi t s are the expression of l a t e n t des i res of the emotional d i spos i t ion , or i f they are looked upon merely as "pure h a b i t s " , we ought to seize time by the forelock at the golden age of habi t -forming. Youth i s the time when habi t s are formed consciously, when the arousing complex may be se l f d i rec ted , when the whole area of l i f e may be organised in to a system of habi ts for the motor discharges of the nervous system. Habits stand in close r e l a t ion to one another, for l i f e i s one, and i t i s desirable to form good habi t s upon the v i rg in so i l of the nervous system for unless the whole order of cont inui ty i s destroyed, what a man shal l be i s what the youth i s determining. "Destiny i s the harvest of character; character i s t h e summation of hab i t ; habit i s the r epe t i t i on of deed; deed i s the expression of thought; and thought i s the spring of life1*. A good habit i s a friend in need. A bad habit i s the worst possible enemy to character ; i t throws i t down and keeps i t the re . Psychology has done a great service today in that i t has explored the emotional complexes which perpetuate our habi t s of thought, and shown tha t i t i s poss ib le for "the cynic and the s inner , the roue and the se l f - r igh teous , the drug fiend and the in to l e ran t " to be completely cured by the powerful embtional disturbance known as "conversion" in tha t i t removes the l a t en t morbid complex. We have knwwn the drunkard of t h i r t y years hard drinking to be made into a sober man. We knew of the case of Phi l W. from Powell St. who had his whole emotional l i f e reorganised a f t e r being two years in bed consuming drugs? Medical treatment and r e l i g ious f a i th swept away the craving fbr the habi t and readjustment followed. I f that i s possible fo r ' t he hardened sinner'! as he i s ca l led , what bounds should be set to a s c i e n t i f i c psychological t r a in ing far those young people of exceptional vigor and self-wi l l who have been d i f f i c u l t to keep within the bounds of good conduct? Zing says regarding the adolescent , "He may be said to be hypersensit ive to a l l forms of socia l suggestion".® Every individual belongs to a sooial order, and our idea l s must be embodied in a sooial order; in other words "the t rue se l f i s the sooial self". As we have been taught, "We are members one of another." The moral ideal therefore must be Home: "Psychological Pr inc ip les of Education", p.302. , F i r s t Ohuroh RecoxflS (Vancouver) King: "The Psychology of Child Development", p.226. Xlo-not only the perfect ing of one 's own l i f e , hut also the perfect ing of sooiety or the r e a l i s a t i o n of a r a t i ona l universe . Sex, heal th, profession, soc ia l p leasures , sport and worship a l l suggest a la rger world than the one of s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and the impressiveness of these i n t e r e s t s make the self-conscious-ness of the adult and the youth and the ch i ld qui te d i f fe ren t . The chi ld of twelve r e c i t e s without concern at a Christmas entertainment; a t f if teen he i s a t the awkward stage when he i s a l l hands and fee t , and i t i s cruel ty to make him take par t in the program s o l i t a i r e . The g i r l i s also awkward, r e s t l e s s and afraid to speak in publ ic . She i s much concerned about appearance and opinion, can blush, laugh, and cry within the same minute, and the reason i s tha t the se l f - idea i s in t h e forefront of consciousness. Youth, too , i s the age of idealism when the s e l f i s so organised as to seek de f in i t e ly for tha t ideal through whioh i t may be complete. Hot being a c i t izen and parent the need for psychological completeness i s projected and objec t i f ied in a l l those soc ia l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and r e l i g ious idealisms so cha rac t e r i s t i c of l a t e r adolescence. The way to self-mastery i s t o measure s trength with s t rength, to harmony i s through friendship ad infinitum, and when he cannot find h i s idea l , h is impulses are l e f t chaot ic , and from the height of idealism he may f a l l to the depth of despondent pessimism and untimely se l f - in jury . / i / /The true expression of adolescence i s a widening of the individual r e spons ib i l i t y in r e l a t ion to the social u n i t s such as the family, the school, the s t a t e , socie ty , and that hardly definable a l l - i n c l u s i v e social r e la t ionsh ip cal led "The Kingdom of God". 3. Unity. The essence of moral i ty i s to apprehend i t and seek i t on i t s own account. low th i s may not be poss ible for the chi ld , but the attainment of moral i d e a l s , motives and conduct i s possible by development, by enter ing the promised land of independent and responsible act ion. Prior to years of r e spons ib i l i ty , the chi ld i s guided by disc ip l ine through pain and pleasure, by example and au thor i ty , but by the time he reaches the teen-age conceptions of r i gh t and duty come to have a detached s ignif icance for the individual . There i s a r igh t which is r ight in i t s e l f ; there i s a good whioh i s good i n i t s e l f , and the inner moral sanct ions begin to produce ideals and judgments to which the most passionate devotion i s poss ib le in those years . The moral sense i s not fully matured, but some of the highest asp i ra t ions are possible a t such a time as adolescence i s ; and from the records of our King: "The Psychology of Child Development", p.226. n r i sons i t i s p la in t ha t "scarcely any surrender to the lower a s t e s and passions i s poss ib le" . In a word the adolescent " i s sue r l a t ive ly good or supremely wicked" to t h e u n c r i t i o a l observor, when the rea l s i tua t ion i s that the adolescent i s capable of a l l goodness, but lacks the balance and control wJaich i a the prorogative of completely r a t i o n a l beings. Ho two children are al ike in t h e i r moral development. Ho two are born equal in respect of inher i t ed tendencies. Uo two have the same t r a in ing and associa t ions in ea r ly years . Qnathe one hand i s found an extreme sens i t iveness about t r u th and honor; on the other hand w i l l be found those who have no •very c lear conception of the rea l meaning and l i m i t s of the word. Moral t ra in ing must often deal wi th very crude mater ia l , with varying i n s t i n c t i v e tendencies , wi th d i f fe r ing powers of appreciation of t h e value of morals, and with a l l kinds of immature ideas and tendencies. Int rospect ion has i t a d isas terous p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and i s induced where the young are too secluded. Too much se l f -ana lys i s has a s imi lar effect as reading too many patent medicine advertisements, -one has a l l the symptoms. The cure for th i s moral hypocondria or ^yperconsoientiousnesa i s j u s t ordinary work and play in large dozes. Psychologists have varied widely in the treatment of the conscience. Some have ignored i t ; some have analysed i t in to several elements; others have based i t e n t i r e l y upon re f l ec t ive analys is . So far as the purely psychological mechanism i s concerned, i t i s the voice of suppressed desire and d ispos i t ion . Ififhen the s e l f exercises i t s judgment upon i t s e l f and detects i t s own f au l t s , the repressed wrong r i s e s into consciousness; i t i s performing the function of conscience. This function i s more frequently performed by those who are sa id to have a " sens i t ive" conscience, and however we may explain i t conscience s i t s as judge in our moral world. In ohildren i t i s feeble or uns tab le ; i t gains with experience and use, and, l i k e everything e l s e , i f exercised r i gh t ly , i t becomes a habi t . I t i s a cal l l towards what i s true and high, and i s a guide towards peace and joy. I t must express i t s e l f in a determined effor t to do good. In many oases there seems to be a laok of moral conscience. At t h i s immature s t a t e there a r i se powerful impulses to s ins and crimes which were never known in the period of childhood. One never knows how far he i s on the way to the overt act u n t i l i t i s performed. Sweeping temptations enter the mind, and the adolesoent discovers not merely the heights of idealism but also the depths of moral tu rp i tude ; and i t has to be admitted tha t "many crimes are committed by adolescents , more, indeed between the ages of fourteen and eighteen than in any other period of equal length up to maturi ty". 9 of. G. S.Hall, "Adolescence", Tracy, Richardson, &c. tf The promise of imperfection i s in every ch i ld born, and we have no reason to expect every boy to be six feet in moral s t a tu r e . There do happen an t i soc i a l displays of anger, bickerings, rea l f i gh t s , and pro tec t ive l i e s in l i t t l e children. But the problem i s more ser ious with older ones. The tendency to crime i s very grea t a t t h i s period. President Hall says "Between twelve and f i f teen thef t leads a l l other forms of crime". Truancy i s common; f ru i t orchards are considered legi t imate pray for the gang. In such groups boys learn to smoke, to swear, to scoff, and to drink and s t e a l . The s t rongest w i l l with possibly the most prwerful physique i s the leader , and where the child has been brought up among low standards of morals and r e l ig ion the problem i s grave. We are dealing with a more responsible mind than tha t of the child, whose mind may be the sport of imagination. Lies are told for the sake of s e l f - i n t e r e s t , t o be thought well of, or t o arouse jealousy. Motives and conduct get badly mixed. A g i r l appropriated money from her people to surpr ise them with l i t t l e g i f t s . The heroic s p i r i t wi l l cause some to suffer for others by a re fusa l to t e l l the t ru th ; i t i s eon4 sidered to be a sign of t rue nobl i ty of character in the exercise of the martyr s p i r i t . There are crimes that effect pe r sona l i ty in more intimate and v i t a l ways, and some we should prefer to pass ovdr in s i lence . Offences against sexual moral i ty in the teens stand upon a different footing from such offences in ohildhood, for the child knows not what i t does. The child has no sex conceptions, but the youth i s growing in to a consciousness of sexual functions, and must be learning about these r e l a t ions from some source. Generally motives are pure and love unse l f i sh , but environments d i f fe r and things happen espec ia l ly under abnormal s t r e s s whioh can only be character ised as the most degraded sensua l i ty . Several notable oases have been deal t with in the courts here l a t e ly . " I t i s exceedingly fortunate from the standpoint of social moral i ty , tha t modesty i s a conspicu4 ous qual i ty of youth, and tha t qual i ty becomes more highly developed in tha t very period of l i f e when i t i s most needed, to balance and to hold in check the growing passions of our nature" . All meeting of the sexes ought to be properly supervised, the wearing apparel of refined s impl ic i ty , and the young people kept from the sensuous excitements of playhouses whioh suggest or give dramatic representat ions of criminal a c t s . The new humanizing s p i r i t of today i s represented in our Juvenile Courts and Schools for del inquents , and we intend to deal with t h i s more a t length in another chapter. I t has been recognised tha t crime i s not quite the same to» a juvenile as to a ful ly matured person. The boy runs away from home and immediately finds himself penni less . The *<?. s p i r i t of adventure leads him on from one mistake t o another heoause of the lack of forethought and the love of excitement. A g i r l p&sing as a hoy went to work in the Fraser Valley. Fortunately two weeks were enough to s a t i s fy the s p i r i t of curious adventure, and she returned home none the worse fo r her experience. Such r i sks have unspeakable p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Boys will s t e a l money and squander i t as r eck less ly as Brewster 's Mil l ions . For the sheer del ight of having a p len t i fu l supply of Hallowe'en l an te rns a car of pumpkins was broken into near lew Westminster. I t was the prank without the suspicion of a s i n i s t e r motive, and bore no evidence of depravity i n the boys; and the judge showed they could not be dealt with by the ordinary standards of driminal prosecution. A gang of boys i s a power house of pent up energies . They want to do something object ive. They know nothing of sel f - r ighteousness and moral self-complacency; they care nothing tot the peace that floweth as a r i v e r ; they detes t feminine cha rac t e r i s t i c s in a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s . They want something speci f ic t o do to re l ieve t h e i r pent-up fee l ings , and they wil l respond to sympathetic d i rec t ion readier than to exhortat ion. The leader who plays with the boys during the week, c a l l s on them when they are sick, takes them walks and p icn ics , harnesses them in to a c t i v i t i e s and expeditions wi l l save many a boyffrom crime and earn the reward of consecrated determination. He wi l l win confidence, r e l i s h t he i r boasts , be an example of f a i r -p l ay , discover to them the morals of a squarely played game, of a s ac r i f i ce h i t , and wield the magic wand tha t changes the enthusiasm of youth in to the consecration of manhood. There i s , never the less , a consecration of youth. What of the asp i ra t ions of youth, the yearnings to do great th ings , to achieve fame, to wield influence, to benefi t others , to advance one or a l l of the professions? There i s recklessness, the same f i t fu lness , the same lack of control and co-ordination in youthful v i r t u e s as in t h e i r v ices . The body is growing, the physic forces developing, the s e l f seeking some ideal of s table value for completeness, and in a b r ie f space of time wi l l s e t t l e down to an e f for t to a t t a i n i t . At the teen age the s t a b i l i t y of character i s in the making, where every i n s t i n c t plays i t s p a r t , and while for a time the phantas t ic idealism of youth holds sway, the ra t iona l insight and the mastery of motive are on the way. Such i s the importance of t h i s idealism tha t i t must be t rea ted with d igni ty and reverence. The prac t ice of youth wi l l not r i s e far above our every day ideals as expressed in word and deed. Poise and balance may not be looked for, 30 hut the offshoots of moral conduct will he expressed in self-respect, courtesy, bravery, honesty, truthfulness, and purity as youth goes about to do good and get good. It was in his youth that Abraham went out looking "for a city whioh hath foundations, whose Builder and Maker is God". The spirit of man, in its moral growth, looks continually for such a city. This recognition of the consciousness of an unattained ideal, leads us into the region of poetry and religion, supplies a relief from the inadequacy of the moral life as such, raises us to the sphere of attainment through convictions that are the necessity of an intellectual and moral existence. "Man's unhappiness", says Garlyle, "comes of his greatness. It is beoause there is an infinite in him which, with all his cunning, he cannot quite bury under his finite". All great peoples have imbedded in their literature a religious philosophy; all of them but the Greeks and Romans have Sacred Writings. Among them it has been left to poets and philosophers to discuss the ultimate significance of all experience. It is a universal experience to be impressed by the two great objects of reverence whioh moved Kant to write, Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the oftener and more steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above and the moral law within". Taken alone the former leads to Pantheism or Agnosticism, and the latter to Theism and the absolute authority of the moral law. Taken together we are led into the mystery of immanence and the greater mystery of transcendence, and rather distant from the experience of the child. Froebel said, "The child's worship is the feeling and practice of love". It has nothing to do with theologies and "experiences'; its expression snould be consonant with development, and its psychology will not differ from any other psychology. That is to say it will express itself in the knowledge, love, and service of the best. The plant does not sing about the sun, it grows toward it. That is the test of young life: Is it growing by absorbing the highest in thought, action, emotion? This is growing Godward. "To love the lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy mind, and thy neighbour as thyself"is good adolescent psychology, for the religion of the young is intensely personal. The religion of the mature tends to be doctrinal. Being "personal" it is enough. The religion of emotion without the guidance of reason, is super-stition and emotional intoxication. The religion of the intellect, with no mixture of emotion, is mere religious philosophy. As life progresses from phase to phase, the emotions are transferred from one ideal to another, and character is gradually built up by each successive development. AS'ieaoh phase passes the old must be sacrificed to the new. Garlyle, "Heroes and Hero-Worship", Lect.III •a/. be transformed into the new that we may achieve a higher self-realisation. The religion of a child is natural, and the religion of youth is spiritual, but retaining the natural or without oeasing to be natural. It is natural to this extent that childhood's naiwete gives way to youth's idealism when "every common bush is aflame with God", and such a reverent attitude to nature being instinct with life k;eeps the vitality of religion afloat on the turbulent cataract of adolescent experiences, and carries it safely down to the wider reaches of thoughtful interpretation in the placid stream of reflect-ive maturity. Before theBe are reached, however, may be seasons of doubt as with Arthur Henry Hallam when "There lives more faith in honest doubt, Believe me, than in half the creeds". To adjust the mind to the science of the schools after a dogmatic religion has been taught is bound to shiver the timbers of the adolescent ship in the sea of mental distress. A new certitude is required, and no one is able to define its course. Prof. Jackson says, "There is but one Father's house, but it is reached by many roads; each man must travel as he can, and no man can dictate the going of his neighbour". Some experience the volcanic outburst of a lifetime, such as was the experience of Garlyle in Leith Walk when he took the devil by the nose. To Wordsworth it came in the opening of the chrysalis,- "It excited a movement and a growth which went on till by degrees all the systems which enveloped me like a body gradually decayed from me and fell away into nothing". Convictions, feelings, decisions are likely to come to youth; in this way life is unified, focussed and made purposeful in the great positive field of moral religion. Physical gifts, intellectual gifts, magnetic emotions are all harnessed to the work of life and radiate in an intelligent appeal through social and organised spiritual endeavours, and when youth is lost in wonder, love and praise, the passions and heroisms which might easily spend tneiuseives in futility and folly are free to pursue and achieve the ideal. The artist pursues the beautiful, the philosopher truth, and all men seek God. One man takes for his motto, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity; another Frightfulness by Blood and Iron, and another Love of God and Man. "Psychologically the right ideal is one that can, by attracting all the instinctive emotions, bring harmony to the soul; by stimulating the will to a common purpose, weld the whole psychological individual into an organism; and by satisfying and craving for complete-ness, secure self-realisation and happiness".® The lew Testament puts it thus, "To love Him who first loved us". ° Hadfield, J.A. "Psychology and Morals" p.65. CHAPTER I I I PRACTICAL QOISIDBRATIOBS. The s tudy of the b a s a l f o r ce s of human n a t u r e has been sugges t ive of the p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which now remain t o be summarized. While the c o n t i n u i t y of human development, and the i d e n t i t y of the s e l f have been borne in mind, these have not been uppermost. I t i s we l l t o say here t h a t p r i o r t o adolescence are t h e i n t e r e s t i n g p e r i o d s of boyhood and ch i ldhood , and back of t he se and around them are the forces of h e r e d i t y and environment . In f ront a re m a t u r i t y , decay and d e a t h , and s ince we hold t h a t a l l exper ience c o n t r i b u t e s something t o l i f e , the importance of the formative i n t e r e s t s and p r a o t i o e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o be exaggerated. A complete educa t ion must be p h y s i c a l , emot ional , i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and r e l i g i o u s . To grow in favor wi th Sod and man; to l e a r n t h e t r u t h and pursue i t ; t o f e e l t h e b e a u t i f u l and love i t ; t o de s i r e the good and w i l l i t ; t o b e l i e v e i n God the l a t h e r and dwell i n love of Him, such should be the n a t u r e of t h e growing perfect l i f e . Our idea of p e r f e c t i o n i s the i d e a l fu l f i lmen t of the func t ions of l i f e . The purpose of childhood i s t o l i v e i t complete ly , of adolescence i s to enjoy i t s growing f u n c t i o n s , and of ma tu r i ty to f u l f i l t he i d e a l s of h e a l t h , beau ty , and goodness. But t h e r e i s a p e r f e c t i o n which i s mediated t o u s . There a r e some school boards which w i l l no t employ a homely t e a c h e r . , A handsome woman sugges t s v igorous h e a l t h , and h e r t each ing w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e when c lo thed in beauty and graoe than i t would be w i t h o u t t h e s e accompaniments. And the re i s a p e r f e c t i o n which i s c o n t i n u a l l y i n s p i r i n g those who have s e t before them the r e l i g i o u s i d e a l of the love of God as revea led in the Son of Man. The home i s the n a t u r a l and primal cen t r e of man-making. I f the f o r c e s t h a t surround the home,- h e r e d i t y , environment, growth, could be c o n t r o l l e d fo r i d e a l ends, t h e work of the church and schoo l , s o c i e t y and s t a t e would be immeasurably s i m p l i f i e d . I f i s t h e r e t h a t boys and g i r l s get t h e i r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s i n regard to the va lue of l i f e and mora ls . I t i s t he re t h a t "fundamental s o c i a l assumptions and h a b i t s - those t h a t concern the v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , pe rsona l l i b e r t y , s o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and r e l a t i o n s of the s exes , the r i g h t of p r o p e r t y , the n a t u r e and law and the sphere of the government - flow from the l a r g e s o c i e t y i n t o t h e small family s o c i e t y , and thenoe back in to the l a r g e society". '® Whatever the v i r t u e s of i r r e v e r e n c e may b e , t h e r e has been an emphasis upon r i d i c u l e r a t h e r than upon r e s p e c t , upon p o s s e s s -ions r a t h e r than upon p e r s o n s , upon l a x i t y r a t h e r than upon f i d e l i t y , and which a re subvers ive of t h e moral and s o c i a l i d e a l s of s a c r i f i c e and s e r v i c e . -COB: "A Soc ia l Theory of x te l ig ious Educat ion" . Ch.XV. 35-What the family needs i s a comprehensive motive adapted to every need of the child. I t i s useless to bore children to death with r e l ig ious penances tha t do not su i t t h e i r years and experiences, with long prayers and adul t catechisms bel ieving that these cons t i tu te the needful t r a in ing . The good man general ly comes from the good home, the home that i s good in essence ra ther than in form, good in i t s permanent s p i r i t ra ther than in i t s spasmodic expression, and where t he sense of the divine rad ia tes from the kitchen to the pa r lo r . The medieval idea ls of p r iva te goodness, and the morbidity of evangelical individualism are par t ly t o blame for the loosening of the family from i t s old moorings. The semi-patr iarchal p r inc ip l e s of l a s t century do not meet the needs of today. I t has been worth while to improve methods of cooking, heat ing, and furnishing. I t wi l l be more worth while, and perhaps so much the more ©ostly, to improve the a r t of family l i v i n g to susta in high ideals in an age of rush, and pleasure , and economic t r a n s i t i o n . I t will cost money and time and labor; i t must have thought, study, and inves t iga t ion . I t wi l l include a knowledge of eugenics, and give a spec i f i c preparat ion for marriage and for parenthood on the basis of the highest e th ica l considerat ions. External re l ig ious "means" are to have t h e i r p lace , but not for dogmatic i n t e r e s t s . The l i f e that we now l ive makes i t imperative tha t the content and the method of the family be revised and reconstructed from the foundations. We can no longer sing, "Doing ends in death". I t i s t h i s very matter of doing, in so far as the fa ther and mother are equipping t h e i r children for l i f e ' s business , equipping them with p r inc ip les and habi t s which wi l l stand t h e t e s t of social r e l a t ionsh ips , tha t r ea l ly matters . The modern home must be democfcatic. We think of one in the Chilliwack va l ley where every child did some work in the bui ld ing of a fine house, and where the ef for t was la rge ly made in the s p i r i t of play with a social purpose raised to the level of worship as they worked with the Great Worker. For t ha t family home beoame the sweetest , s t rongest , h o l i e s t , and happiest place on ear th , and the high character of the home i s an index to the place the children have taken in the school, Universi ty, and l i f e of the Province. The home was the f i r s t environmental factor in the making of manhood; i t s inc iden ta l cha r ac t e r i s t i c s have changed and wil l change, but i t s s a c r i f i c i a l pre-eminence cannot be surpassed. The fa ther belongs to the home more than to anything else in the world. The boy needs h i s p®rsonal contact ; he needs t h e i r s . The boy drinks in the masculine s p i r i t from h i s father. He loves to t a l k over h i s games and h i s work with an understanding fa ther , and where the father does not • 34-. care, there are thpgangs on the s t r e e t , the poolroom at the corner, and the back a l l e y ever competing for the a c t i v i t y of youth. The same p r inc ip l e s also apply to g i r l s . The expression of i n t e r e s t in the adolescent g i r l i s feminine. Girls want to express t h e i r idea ls as much as boys, and to feel they have as rea l a place in the home. I t i s the business of the mother to guide them in the way of social pur i ty , to st imulate the conscience on social condit ions, and to show how i t i s possible for them to find l i f e for themselves as they betwow l i f e upon others . I t i s probably t rue t h a t mothers have been more in earnest about parenthood than the f a the r s . Quality does not come by accident. Why should fa thers not study and cu l t iva te the i r own sons Just as mothers study child psychology, domestic sc ience, infant hygiene and eugenics. The occasional stimulus and review of a Father and Son Banquet i s not enough. Men wi l l s i t for hours in places of cost ly amusement, spend time and money in games l ike golf, in commendable hobbies l i k e cu l t iva t ing flowers and f r u i t to win pr izes a t the exhibi t ion. What about studying t h e i r boys and g i r l s , and playing with them, and going in to a l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s wi th s c i e n t i f i c pat ience? I f they would have ideal chi ldren , they must have ideal fa thers . "We can never give any more than ourselves or any other than ourselves, and t h i s pathway of s a c r i f i c e , t h i s cost ly way of home-making, i s a man's chance to become Godlike". The mother's i s a sacred por t ion. Her success i s not in word alone, but in deed also. She ef fec ts the t rue s t education of the family in keeping the springs of water pure in the home r a the r than in f i l t e r i n g the muddy pools in the s t r e e t , in giving herself in a l l the household a c t i v i t i e s as a re l ig ious and moral person. What i s t rue of the home i s also t rue of the school regarding the character of the adul t . We do not propose to discuss whether Spripture and Prayer should have a se t place in sohool, but what we need are r e l i g ious teachers . Our plea is not for a course in graded r e l i g ious ins t ruc ted , but for teaching r e l i g i o u s l y , - a more fundamental p lea . The former introduces the s t a t e in to matters r e l i g ious where the denominational d i f f i cu l ty s t i l l e x i s t s . Experience has been tha t s t a t e re l ig ion in schools tends to secular iza t ion where the profession i s in the hands of the secular powers. The most tha t can be hoped for i s t h a t teachers and professors in t he i r l i v e s wil l possess the re l ig ious perspect ive, r e a l i s e the importance of the re l ig ious element* 36'. and base their work upon the importance of these universal human aspirations. The young student is devoted to the teacher of attractive personality; they adore; they flatter; they imitate. And so it would seem that the important factor in school teaching is the factor of personality as it bears upon the student, and the desirable solution is to have the highest type of fctu&e'n'fc, and whether or not there is room for the mere letter of Bible teaching, there is bound to be an increasing capacity for the free spirit of a religious and moral life. Around the school are a group of new relation-ships which ought to enrich the ideas of social conduct gained in the home. Mass games, social action and reaction, the quality of classes in themselves, and the mixing with others of different beliefs and social status. Leadership is developed in games, codes of ethics are necessary for the playground and the schoolroom, and all the newer situations which are experienced tend to make application of the moral principles involved. The sum of home influance is tested in the crucible of a wider society. The young person who does the right, and consistently adheres to it, reaches a place of habitual immunity to wrong doing, a place which is for ever being tried and tested by the new powers and consciousness that are his, but a plaoe which may be made the more secure by an increasing loyalty to his ideals and the best example he knows. The force of example in the adolescent mind has another side to it. Henry Drummond tells of a Church official who had made the young men of his town agnostics and atheists. The official has been the personification of inconsistency, and everybody knew it. A Church elder and leader used to require his employees to assist in certain practices connected with his business, which they regarded as dishonest. Young- i'olks get very severe shooks to- their idealism until they come to know that "Faith without works is dead". An extreme situation is "Case 1" in Dr. Hamilton's "Objective Psychopathology" showing how wrongdoing may set up a chronic nervous state. fo provide a sooial environment made up of young people whose fidelity to moral ideals is inquestioned, guided by leaders and teachers whose influence is spiritually whole-some is vital to the education of youth. It is a tragic condition where there is an environment lacking moral integrity among leaders, and where it becomes difficult for the youth to maintain a circle of friendship ideals and loyalties around which wholesome sentiments and visions can be built up. 3i, The law that Christianity insists upon is love, and the Church beoomes neoeaaary aa a fellowship of those who, desir ing ideal goodness, need the support of like aapiring souls, and as an educator of children in these ideals and practices. It is the only institution in tne world that exists for the promotion of morals and religion. Munroe speaking on this point says, "One most important phase of education is left to the ohuroh and the home, neither of whioh id doing much to meet the demand". It is a reproach to the church that through all these centuries it has made so little of the pedagogy of love, and that it has left to the modern social movements the development of the spirit of brotherhood. But this implioit acknowledgment of the supremacy of her ideals indicates some-thing different from failure. The Church was founded by a Teacher. It has always had a ministry of ideas to interpret the ends of life. The modern school has evolved largely through the church's attempt to work out these ideas. All over the world there is a distinctly new emphasis on religious eduoation to facilitate the normal development of the human mind and body. lessons are being graded according to the most approved psychological methods. The Bible is being taught from the evolutionary not from the static point of view. Organized classes are extending their work from Sunday to week nights in the Canadian Standard Efficiency Tests to overcome the ridiculously insufficient time allotted to the important work of reiiftwai'iZ.r education. Serious minds are busy seeking to conjure new methods to ripen the spiritual qualities of young people before the killing frosts of irreligion touch the growing plants. One increasing difficulty we meet everywhere is the number of interests to engage the mind and time of young people that the culture of personal religion is neglected. If we wish the world to be a warmer and more loving plaoe, only of our first duties will be the promotion of play and sooisl.c'-ili.'.• of the right kind, but it is hard to keep first things first. There is no inherent antagonism between social and religious interests, between physical and spiritual benefits. But there is a balance, and the affairs of the body ought not to crowd out the things of the spirit. Instead of the pandemonium of excitement that is too often fostered by the activities to whioh the church contributes not a few, there ought to be a greater power of selection and exercise of co-operation. Great art has very simple lines. The greatest art is the building of moral structures in the midst of so many competing and varied interests. The 3imple lines of spiritual life need to be affirmed and controlled in these years. It is not enougji that man should have dominion over the beasts of the Munroe: "Brief Course in the History of Education" n f i e ld . He should have dominion over h i s i n s t i n c t s , fee l ings , passions and des i res of h is na tu re , developing them in r ich f ru i t fu lness , and at the same time holding them under perfect cont ro l . He should have dominion over a l l h i s ac t ions , so that h is conduct i s always d i rec ted "by h i s i n t e l l i gence" . This means time for the "means of grace", for s p i r i t u a l f r i end l iness , for s i nce r i t y of hear t in response to a consis tent and i n t e l l i g e n t l eadersh ip . Youth would have the mercies of Sod mediated by clean hands and pure hea r t s , and a l l the p r ac t i ce s of re l ig ion be a r i c h and meaningful expression of a luxur iant f a i t h and fervent devotion. Whatever system wi l l be found most in favor in the days t o come, i t w i l l be one in which the church and school are wi l l ing to co-operate, one which wi l l i n t e l l i g e n t l y combine Kk* voluntary and the compulsory features in these i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t wi l l ca l l for a sympathetic effor t and much expense for we are in the process of examining the very foundations of organized society. The l a s t word in secular education and public school procedure must be taken and examined experimentally in the labora tory of conduct-control, for the f ie ld of r e l ig ious education i s l a rge r and more inclusive than tha t of secular education. Special college currieulums may be required so tha t no untrained leader may be sent for th to do a work which demands a thorough profess-ional t r a i n i n g based upon broad general education. Build-ing, equipment, t ra ined teachers , qual i f ied supervision -these are a l l required. Athearn complains tha t the g rea tes t d i f f i cu l ty i s one of finance. I t was ever thus ; the prophets were poor. But we have a r i c h people, and "no one who knows the genius of the Christ ian re l ig ion wi l l imagine that the love tha t loves t o the ut termost can be otherwise than costly e i t h e r t o God or t o those who would be Godlike". No one who has seen the fur ther horizon of democratic re l ig ious ins t ruc t ion f a i l s to r ea l i se tha t the ca l l of the church i s to provide r e l i g ious in s t ruc t ion for the children of the whole people. I f we are to expect the Hew Jerusalem to come down from heaven among men, there ought to be preparat ion of the r i s ing c i t i z e n s . I t wi l l be no foo l ' s paradise . I t wi l l be as idea l , as s c i e n t i f i c and aes the t i c as man can conceive. I t will be ideal in the sense that i t w i l l be the best tha t can be thought. We need not be afraid of t r u t h , and of teaching i t . Science has a scorn of consequence. In h i s search for fac t3( the t ru th can be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y or phi losophical ly ver i f i ed) unless the Bible i s in te rp re ted dynamically, with a proper h i s t o r i c a l perspective regarding Athearn: Maiden Leaflet 3. 3F-i t s clash of movements and controvers ies , the youth i s l i ab l e to become cynical or doubtful. We have come to the sense tha t i t contains a record of the time in which the idea of God was gradually evolving i t s e l f in the midst of many pagan influences and l inger ing misconceptions. There i s no more fascinat ing study than t h i s growth for young people. The method tha t was thought to be dangerous some years ago, i s now the only safe course. lew and radica l views are adopted by adolescents more readi ly than by a d u l t s , but they are-not so apt t o d i s t ingu i sh the e s sen t i a l from the non-essen t ia l . They have to be helped to be f a i r and judicious in t h e i r reasoning. They need to know the findings of or i t io ism; but more than tha t they need to submit t h e i r re l ig ion to a frank, thorough-going, r a t iona l t e s t , and to appreciate the construct ive elements and pos i t ive values . Ho matter how we emphasise the good wil l and the good deed, i t i s a pos i t ive v i r tue to have young people grounded in the f a i t h . I t becomes ea s i e r for them to co-operate in Christ ian work; i t i s very important for workers to th ink together , to bel ieve together, to hold to the h i s t o r i c cont inui ty of moral values , and to be able t o give a reason for the hope tha t i s i n them. Today there are many winds of d io t r i ne . "A universa l bond of commonly accepted be l i e f i s necessary to the un i ty and s o l i d i t y of l i v i n g Chr i s t i an i ty" . In v i s i t i n g a Christ ian Science Church we asked i f they had any equipment for physical development, and was informed they onlyi-.appealed to the inner mani Ho school i s complete without a playground a t l e a s t , and perhaps a gymnasium. The same i s coming to be t rue of the church. Our fa thers buried t h e i r dead in the church-yard, and any noise was an unseemly disturbance; the l iv ing church echoes with the voices of children every day in t he week. In the growing boy the senses are more keen than ever before, and there i s a mental awakening almost every day unhindered by the chi ld labor tha t dwarfed body and mind, and shortened the working years of so many in past generat ions. That ev i l i s not quite dead, but there i s the evi l of inact ion and in t rospect ion . I t does not matter so rexy much tha t we keep children away from temptation, i f t h e i r minds are pursuing them. The organized play on the playground, the schedule of games, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a place in the team are among the strongest influences t o hold a boy 's thoughts, and to keep him from dwelling on morbid fancies . Psychology has taught us the meaning of play. There are d i f fe ren t theor ies as to play, but a l l agree as to i t s value. Spencer considered i t an out le t for surplus energy. Gross held that play was an i n s t i n c t * tha t came in to the world to serve the purpose of education. if. Kit tens and puppies f r isk and chase and tumble over one another in an excess of animal s p i r i t s . Boys shottt, wrest le and run, and (i. Stanley Hall in observing the p a r a l l e l supplemented the theory of Groos with the recap i tu la t ion theory tha t a l l games are the remnants of ihe e a r l i e r a c t i v i t i e s of the raoe. We have to deal with the fact ra ther than the theory. Play i dea l i s e s experiences, and has the signif icance of wider and matuare* a c t i v i t i e s in i t . I t i s the most ser ious th ing the chi ld can do. I t ce r t a in ly i s not the invention of the devi l . I t i s a way of l ea rn ing l i f e ' s l e s sons , and espec ia l ly the a r t of l i v i n g with o thers . I t s physical and educational potencies are so great we dare not leave i t s a c t i v i t i e s to chance. The period of accelerated growth of the hea r t , d igest ive organs and lungs begins at about the fourteenth year. Some form of exer t ion, not over-exertion, i s needed to counter-act the physical burden of growth with i t s d i s t r a c t i n g r e s t l e s s -ness . Exercise should be frequent, regular , and i s possible outdoor. The need of good food and hygienic condit ions, of clothes that allow perfect freedom, and of hab i t s of personal c leanl iness may a l l be associated with t he play s p i r i t and eventual ly with l i f e ' s work. There i s no r e a l difference between work and play except in the s p i r i t in which i t i s done. S ta r t ing a t f i r s t a3 mere a c t i v i t y , the play s p i r i t assumes order l iness and complexity u n t i l i t shades off in to work so na tu ra l l y t ha t one may not be able to detect the dividing l i n e , fte remember how Tom Sawyer got h i s chums to bel ieve there was no game so enjoyable as pa in t ing the fence that they traded in t he i r tops and knives for the p r iv i l ege of paint ing. Boy Scouts are playing, but i t i s more than half work, and the born leader wi l l assume a place in play that may help him to lead in business and a f f a i r s . Care must be exercised t h a t the body be not overtaxed at i t s growing period, and so we have 3tudent medical examinations., I t i s only in l a t e r adolescence that the muscular system i s possessed of i t s full power, tha t reoords are made in spo r t s , and the whole system responds readi ly and accurately to the mind. Plato has declared that "Play has the might ies t influence on the maintenance and the non-maintenance of laws; and i f ch i ldren ' s play are conducted according to laws and ru le s , and they always pursue t h e i r amusements in conformity with order, while finding pleasure therein, i t need not be feared that when they grow up they w i l l break laws whose objects are more ser ious" . Well d isc ipl ined play developes the social s p i r i t , s e l f -den ia l , the s p i r i t of protect ion and co-operation. The game that demands fine q u a l i t i e s creates P la to : "Republic". o ItO. them. A boy i s what he i s on the playground. Gates wr i t es , "Ho boy can be allowed to play dishonest ly without becoming l e s s trustworthy in other respects . No g i r l can spend her time at excessive attendance upon the thea t re or moving p ic tu re show, or in reading of sentimental novels , without becoming more or l ess f r ivolous and shallow". The youth of today need not only to be supervised in play, but also to be inspi red to express the highest ideals in play. Given spaces large enough to run in , organization to make the play i n t e r e s t i n g , and play tha t will use the brain and limbs we may assure ourselves of the digni ty and secur i ty of physical s t rength , of super io r i ty a b i l i t y and spontaneity of the mind, of an obedience to law and a democratic loya l ty to an ideal e t h i c and philosophy of l i f e . There comes a time when a youth wants to move out in to a l a r g e r world. By t h i s time he should be a t reasure house of good h a b i t s , family customs, school l o y a l t i e s , and s p i r i t u a l i dea l s . But he begins to enter the era of deeper personal r e l a t i o n s . The sooial outlook i s enlarged. An independence springs up refeuriing personal d e t a i l s , which i s not to be deplored as some parents do. They never seem to want t h e i r children to grow up. Youth wants to explore the realms of pe r sona l i ty , and every c i r c l e of environment ought to take th i s se r ious ly by making provision for the wider f r iendships of youth. This may be hard on furni ture and the "bes t" in the house, but there wi l l be fewer clandest ine escapades with t h e i r dangerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The home i s the place where fr iends can be brought, and more espec ia l ly those friends who, for the time being, count for more than anything e lse in the world. This ru le should apply iifoere the fascinat ion OQt^&en the sexes e x i s t s , and tha t i s everywhere. Parents should aim to know in a sympathetic, unobtrusive way those whom the children l i k e ; and where the acquaintance i s unwholesome i t i s not l i k e l y to withstand the scrut iny of wise parents . They wi l l be in a place to put these mat ters in a r i g h t l igh t by kindly, simple advioe, or s e t t i ng them over against more worth while f r iendships . The chumships of these days may enrich l i f e for a l l t ime, and prec ip ices may eas i ly be passed by wise parenta l guidance. An acute problem for a l l responsible p a r t i e s i s tha t of amusements. There seems to be a general lack of consistency throughout the community regarding the standard of amusements. Home and Church and School have no uniform plan, and the s i t ua t ion general ly resolves i t s e l f in to our youth being exploi ted by those who have a love no higher than money. The Presbyterian Church in America invest igated • moving p ic tu res and found t h a t , with some honorable exceptions tf-l-p ic tu re s are imp»rving a r t i s t i c a l l y and s t ead i ly growing worse morally. A Jewish Rabbi refuses to go where p ic tu res are frequently put on the screen "which are an i n s u l t and an in jury to common dedency, and where they frequently teach t r i c k e r y , robbery, i n f i d e l i t y and l i cen t iousness" . Moving p i c tu re s rank fourth among the monied i n t e r e s t s of the U.JS.A. , and i t becomes a matter of grave concern since i t i s reaching the people and imparting idea l s and sentiments and ins t ruc t ion more e f fec t ive ly , perhaps, than any other agency. The whole minis t ry of socia l recrea t ion has been thoroughly commercial-ized. The do l l a r has no conscience, and those who are "out for the do l la r" offer amusements that debase the i n t e l l e c t , blunt the moral s e n s i b i l i t i e s , and appeal to the baser pass ions . The evenings are the most dangerous t o youth. I t i s then tha t the t h e a t r e s , pool rooms, dance h a l l s are patron-ized chief ly , and i t i s then tha t temptations most a s s a i l s the boys and g i r l s . The only useful purpese tha t some amusements serve i s to remind us of l e i su re time and the necess i ty of planning for soc i a l needs. The evening centre of soc i ab i l i t y i s needed much more than the day cent re . ITow there i s a place for the drama and the p i c t u r e ; there should be a large place for music in many of i t s forms; i t might be said there i s a place fo r harmless t r i v i a l i t i e s . The home, the church, and a l l soc ia l leaders much know what the young folk a r e ' g e t t i n g , and i n s i s t on provision in the community and by the community for the cleansing of socia l amusement. " I f the demand for clean drinking water i s a proper one, i s the demand for heal thful food for the l i f e of idea l s l e s s so?" Young people are i d e a l i s t s . They want to enjoy the highest poss ib le condition of eff iciency. The aim of modern education i s not to f i t for a future we cannot grasp, but to enable us to think and feel and aot^in the l i v i n g present . Every period i s preparatory for the next , but to think of i t merely as preparatory i s to degrade i t . We have conceived of t he end of l i f e as e th i ca l and r e l i g i o u s . Beauty has i t s p lace , but t h i s i s not a l l we need to know; the highest p r i nc ip l e s of i n t e l l i gence must play t h e i r p a r t , but not that the a f fec t ive an i n s t i n c t i v e powers may be crowded out, but ra ther t h a t they be guided and control led and exercised by ra t iona l self-development. " I t may be taken as an axiom of a l l moral education that prohib i t ion of what i s bad should never be resor ted to where i t i s possible to meet the s i t u a t i o n by suggestion of what i s good". To enter in to maturi ty with low ideals and unworthy motives i s to endanger both moral character and vocational success , Cope: "Eeligious Education in the Family", P. 190. fa-and to change what should be an asse t of grace into a s p i r i t u a l l i a b i l i t y . The worst in us i s the perversion of the best in us . I t i s the business of t rue pedagogy, psychology and r e l ig ion to conserve the r ea l balance and un i t y of t h e whole man. The l i f e of man i s very complex and his needs are many. But he has a r e l i g ious idealism tha t he never outgrows. I t has i t s adjust-ments for a l l ages and temperaments. I t has a br ight and cheerful aspect for childhood and youth; i t has an i n t e l l e c t u a l and deep-toned character for l a t e r yea rs . I t has kindergarten exerc ises for l i f e ' s morning, a g lor ious l i f e - t a s k for i t s noon-day, and vesper songs for i t s even-t ide. Work and play, prayer and contemplation, asp i ra t ion and comradeship a l l mix and mingle in the complex experience of s p i r i t u a l fellowship; and everywhere i s the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of obedience of the hea r t . Ours i s "the realm of the ideal when we w i l l to do the Highest w i l l . Conduct and thought are a t t h e i r best in love of the bes t , which i s a synthesis of re f lec t ion and conviction and devotion issuing in t h e t r u e s t emotion and service of God and man. To the young i t i s a glad thing to l i v e , and i t should n o t be otherwise. I t i s the naive optimism tha t makes l i f e buoyant, and any philosophy tha t would detract from the heal thy s p i r i t of youth i s unworthy. The youth 's optimism, h i s readiness to accept the standard of honesty and develope a sense of j u s t i c e are values to be conserved. Our i n s t i t u -t ions have no more important duty to perform than to conserve the beauty, and force , and joy of adolescence. More appl ica t ions of psychological ins ight and educational methods are needed than heretofore to modify delinquent tendencies and oppor tuni t ies . Prophylactic measures are the s c i e n t i f i c methods of today. These have need to be applied in r e l ig ion and morals as well as in medicine and hea l th . Beginning with an atmosphere of home p ie ty , not pie t ism, the formation and cu l t iva t ion of r e l ig ious habi t s of thought and act ion, a l l reenforced by l i v i n g example and judicious d i rec t ion , would go far to make a rea l Christendom. Then as t h e blossom of youth ripened in to the f ru i t of maturi ty, r e f l ec t ive consciousness would confirm the s p l e a d i l i v i a i s a ; the soul would decide i t s upward d i r e c t i o n by ra t i fy ing what had already been done, and go on without break or j a r into the fulness of s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . This means the over-coming of the socia l indifference and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in the modern c i t y . I t may mean a concentration of public socia l u t i l i t i e s to engender an atmosphere of fr iendly i n t e r e s t and sympathy such as we knew i n the small town and v i l l a g e . I t i s mostly a question of co-operation and locat ion to prevent the dupl icat ion of f a c i l i t i e s tha t a l l need in places where they wil l be access ib le to a l l . The twentieth century needs a twent ie th century method a t a twentieth century p r i c e , and , nothing l e s s w i l l s a t i s f y . CHAPTER IV SPECIAL GASES In the Dec l a r a t i on of the Rights of the Child, commonly known as the "Dec la ra t ion of Geneva", and which was s igned by The Canadian Council on Child Welfare on June 24, 19S4, the second a r t i c l e r e a d s , "The c h i l d t h a t i s hungry must he fed, the c h i l d t ha t i s s i c k must be nu r sed , the c h i l d t h a t i s backward must be he lped , t h e d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d must be reo la imed, and t h e orphan and the waif must be s h e l t e r e d and succoured" . I t i s p robab ly t r u e t h a t such a s ta tement r e p r e s e n t s the e f f o r t s of a smal l group of workers who are t r y i n g to atone for the wrong t h a t has been done to the c h i l d , and does n o t r e p r e s e n t any oonseBsas of e f f o r t among t h e n a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . In l a t e y e a r s Canada has not been wholly wi thout unders tand ing and l e g i s l a t i o n in these m a t t e r s . The p r i n c i p l e s of t h e C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n Ac t s , or such l e g i s l a t i o n , th roughout the p rov inces have embodied the b r o a d e s t pe rmiss ive c l a u s e s cover ing c h i l d ca r e , bu t i n many cases t h e r e has been no p r o v i s i o n made fo r o f f i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A broad concept has been e s t a b l i s h e d in the Criminal Code, Canada, 22QA ( l ) whereby t h e a d u l t i s he ld r e s p o n s i b l e f o r neg l igence towards c h i l d l i f e . This i s s l e g a l s ta tement embodying the most advanced s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s of p r e s e n t day t h o u g h t , and i s probably unsurpassed as a l e g a l s ta tment of t he advanced sf tcial consc ience . Count r ies such as F in l and , Germany, Russ ia , and the Kingdom of the Serbs , Croats and Slovenes , have enacted l e g i s l a t i o n somewhat s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e t o our C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n Ac t s . Our Dominion Juven i l e De l inquen t s Ac t ,pas sed i n Canada i n 1906, i s one of the most d e s i r a b l e enactments i n e x i s t e n c e . Sec t ion 31 has a v e r y f ine i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t a t e i n loco p a r e n t i s t o every e r r i n g c h i l d , t o w i t : "That the care and custody and d i s c i p l i n e of a j u v e n i l e de l inquen t s h a l l approximate as n e a r l y as may be t h a t which should be g iven by i t s p a r e n t s , and t h a t as f a r a s p r a c t i c a l l s , every j u v e n i l e de l inquen t s h a l l be t r e a t e d , n o t a s a c r i m i n a l , bu t as a m i s d i r e c t e d and misguided c h i l d , and one needing a i d , encouragement, he lp and a s s i s t a n c e " . The dep lo rab le f e a t u r e i n c a r r y i n g out t he law i s the g r e a t l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y i n p r a c t i c e and of i n s t i t u t i o n a l equipment. Pub l i c op in ion must educated to the use of the c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t the j u v e n i l e cour t i s one of the most impor tan t agenc ies for c i v i c w e l l - b e i n g has been a p p r e c i a t e d by B r i t i s h Columbia and Manitoba in ex tend ing the use of t h e Act i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n up t o the age of e i g h t e e n . I t i s ev iden t t h a t t h e n a t i o n s are h-h-tending towards an in t e rp re t a t i on of r e spons ib i l i t y of graduated merit whereby chi ldren and juveni les wi l l remain subject to the ch i ld ren ' s services of the s t a t e u n t i l they a t t a i n t h e i r lega l majority. I t but remains for the c i t i zens of the Dominion, within t h e i r respect ive provinces, to agree upon uniform act ion along the l i n e s of p r inc ip l e s already accepted, tha t Canada may enjoy among the na t ions of the world,by a t t e n t i o n t o the fundamental pos i t ion in na t iona l l i f e of her social resources, a rank: and reputat ion p a r a l l e l to tha t which the conditions of her i ndus t r i a l and ag r i cu l t u r a l l i f e j u s t l y e n t i t l e her . The l ega l protec t ion of the chi ld against the consequences of i t s own acts i s d i r ec t l y r e l a t ed to the quest ion, when i s a human being responsible? The minor lacks the r equ i s i t e degree of i n t e l l e c t u a l maturi ty and of business experience to enable i t to ac t independently tirft l ega l mat ters without injury to i t s own i n t e r e s t s . In England a boy cannot take care of h i s property u n t i l he i s 21, but he can take care of himself from the age of 14. Under 14 he i s a "chi ld" ; from 14 to 16 a "young person", and between 16 and 21 "a juvenile adul t" ; and with varying degrees of r e spons ib i l i t y . The f i r 3 t two groups may be dea l t with in a juvenile court; t he rea f t e r in the ordinary courts adu l t s . There i s small doubt but that the benefioient clauses of the Juvenile DelizpqoBAta' Act in Canada and the appl icat ion of the Children Act of 1906 in Great Br i t a in should be applied up to eighteen years of age (as in B.C. ). The psychological d ivis ions are not clean cut chronological ly, and since the tendency i s to r a i se the age called " juveni le" in i t s connection with delinquency, i t might be well to give a l l under 21 years of age in to the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Juvenile Court. The work done by these courts as i n s t i t u t e d in America has commended them to other pa r t s of the world as a very necessary i n s t i t u t i o n . The rea l meaning of t he word delinquency i s f a i l u r e in the way of duty, and i t i s s ign i f ican t that a t one time i t was only applied to the adul t . Delinquency has been conceived of as mal-adjustment or defense react ion towards those who have lacked a sympathetic understanding of t he chi ld . "From the standpoint of the feeble-minded ind iv idua l" , wr i tes Florence Mateer, "delinquency i s an accidenta l expression of h is condit ion". H.J.Williams has pointed out t ha t "Any leve l of in t e l l igence lower than tha t of the average-normal accounts in par t for delinquency, the extent t o which i t i s responsible depending upon the Mateer: "The Unstable Child" p.42. •> H-fr degree of " intel l igence, which may be best expressed by the in t e l l i gence quot ient" . This, however, i s no t the most subt le phase of the problem, but i t demands a t t en t ion and diagnosis . Most people wi l l r ead i ly agree, t h a t , where the abnormal behabiour of insane people i s concerned one should look upon i t as an i l l n e s s for which the insane person i s not respons ib le , but the same people are slow to appreciate the suggestive anomaly in Samael B u t l e r ' s "Erewhon" of providing h o s p i t a l s for the criminal . Many who show abnormal behaviour have been subjected to cer ta in handicaps and inf luences t ha t have made them act as they have, j u s t as much as t he individual who has developed German measles, has become sick because cer ta in germs and poisons have entered in to h i s body. When society has a j u s t estimate of a l l the f ac to r s tha t have played a par t in producing abnormal behaviour i t s react ion wil l be conceived not so much in terms of g u i l t and punishment as in those of responsible treatment. A very average youth, however, may s l i p over the almost imperceptible l i n e between delinquency and non-delinquency. Everyone has an t i - soc i a l tendencies, and in youth the nature i s s t i l l p l a s t i c . How i s i t possible to reach a desirable normality in soc ia l l i f e for those who have gone in to the c l a s s i f i ed l i s t s of juveni le offenders? Hospitals and benevolence have dea l t with disease and d e s t i t u t i o n . "delinquency i s p la in ly a bigger p e r i l than e i t h e r ; i t shadows tJoe l i f e of the c i ty chi ld with f a r more pers is tence and frequency than e i the r bodily i l l n e s s or economic want. By s c i e n t i f i c research, by organised soc ia l e f fo r t , by ear ly detect ion and treatment, the burden of sickness and poverty has been progressively l ightened. What has thus been done for obstacles to hea l th and happiness must now be attempted for the wider and profounder e v i l s tha t beset the growing soul".® This, of course, ind ica tes one very important th ing - the contag4 ious element in behaviour. In the same sense as we look upon such a disease as tuberculos is as contagious, we must look upon the demoralizing influences in the home, such as an alcoholio and dishonest parent , an immoral brother or s i s t e r , or an i r responsible a t t i t u d e on the par t of parents t o chi ldren, as dangerous to social welfare. Society must do more than eure. I t s answer must be the same as science has given to many chronic physical d iseases , such as tubercu los i s , syph i l i s , e tc . , and tha t i s prevention. We know very well there are a great many physical diseases which cannot be cured, a f t e r they are fully developed. The r ea l slogan for the socia l psychologist i s in terms of prevention ra ther than cure. Hot u n t i l t h i s idea of prevention sha l l have entered to s tay in the minds of socia l workers sha l l they be functioning properly and adequately with a problem whose magnitude " i s beyond a l l question". ©Burt : "The Young Delinquent", p . 2 1 . U-During the past few decades i t has become more and more evident t ha t a great many people who are d i rec t ly or i n d i r e c t l y concerned wi th socia l service are showing an ever-growing i n t e r e s t in the so-cal led s c i e n t i f i c understanding of soc ia l problems. Hence the revulsion against the older method of deal ing with the child in the t o i l s of the law. At the beginning of l a s t century over a hundred crimes were punishable by death. In England in 1833 a boy of nine was sentenced to death for s tea l ing a l i t t l e pa in t . Some years ago a boy of eleven in the s t a t e of Iowa was sentenced to imprisonment for l i f e on the charge of murder. We remember a ease of a youth of s ixteen being sentenced to ten years in our loca l pen i t en t i a ry for murder, and,despite the fact he was cont inual ly in associa t ion with experienced adult cr iminals , we lea rn tha t h i s conduct throughout was very s a t i s f a c t o r y . The c l a s s i ca l theory of orime made the penalty f i t the crime regardless of age and condition. A survey of Juvenile of fense^ i s tabulated under i n s t i n c t i v e reac t ions , and we consider^method e s s e n t i a l to a t rue under-standing of the subject a t l a r g e . The law i s groping a f t e r the age of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and about t h i s there i s no uniform opinion or l ega l category. I t i s observed tha t the age l imit i s being continually ra ised . If delinquency could be regarded as an a t t i t u d e of mind and of morals ratJoar than an overt ao t i v i t y , i t would lead to a special study of the chi ld who does not "concentrate" e i t h e r because he i s dull or br,ight, of the r e s t l e s s troublemaker who does h i s work and more, of the lazy ohild who i s general ly a sick ohild, of the in t rospect ive genius and the p o t e n t i a l l y feeble-minded - a l l of which indicate the need for psychological aid and special ized education of a refinement beyond tha t of merely t e s t i n g the mental age. "Only care-ful refinement of methods of observation wi l l enable us to extend a statement of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y now as indicated by teatw, in to a prognostic evaluation of h i s fu ture" . The law fur ther i s tak ing precaution by prohib i t ing minors from frequenting pool-rooms, beer -par lours , associa t ing with immoral persons, wandering aimlessly about the s t r e e t s , using v i l e and obscene language, t respass ing upon railway, &c , in an endeavour to reach the embryo delinquent before he ac tua l ly becomes so wayward tha t reform i s impossible. In general use the term delinquency i s s t i l l confined to d i rec t v io l a t i on of law, but the general pr inoiple tha t the law of cause and ef fec t applies equally as well t o human behaviour as i t does to any of the physical sciences i s being applied to i t s treatment. The grea tes t success depends upon the lega l r ight t o d i rec t and control the prospective offender. Back of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Juvenile Court and the Indus t r i a l School i s t ha t the child i s l e ss in need of reformation than of formation of character; and since we 9 Mateer: "The Unstable Child", p.54. A* accept the evolution of the moral conscience and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the individual to external forces, we bel ieve tha t socie ty as well as parents and guardians should accept r e spons ib i l i t y for wisely d i rec t ing the psychical energy and con t ro l l ing the morals of youth. Heredity i s a general phenomenon of na tu ra l l i f e . Children resemble t h e i r parents on the average more than they resemble o thers , but the degree of resemblance i s indeterminate and there i s no general agreement as to the prec ise l imi t3 between inher i ted and acquired c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f acquired character-i s t i c s are not inhe r i t ed , r a c i a l improvement must be looked for through the s t ruggle for exis tence, and the v i g i l a n t el iminat ion of the weaker elements of the species . Thus the lombroso school would regard cer ta in c lasses as Incurable , and wouid have a l l of them "confined for l i f e in a criminal asylum, or relegated to a penal colony, or e lse condemned t o death". Having examined numerous delinquents concludes ' tneix x'ainiiy h i s t o r i e s t e l l why they are as they are. They merely r e f l e c t the condit ion of the i r parents in many ins tances . Feeble-mindedness, i n san i ty , neuropathic d ia theses , and a l l they imply have had an important share in furnishing these chi ldren. They are not wilful ly del inquents . They are psychopaths, the unstable children of the un f i t " . Eugenic measures of a pos i t ive type would be the reasonable procedure i f crime were heredi ta ry , and by t h i s means society would make an end, but i t i s not so simple. As Burt poin ts out the problem i s too complex "for any one panacea". Segregation i s useful for t he sake of a l l concerned in the ease of the feeble-minded, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i rect ion has saved mult i tudes from the e r ror of t h e i r ways even when they were classed as i nco r r i g ib l e s , but as theye are var ie ty of cases there must be va r i e ty of treatment. We find no agreement in what to do about the feeble-minded. The Women's Council of Vancouver has endeavoured to create public opinion in favor of s t e r i l i z a t i o n . The whole country i s dubious of the proposal since i t savors of c lass l e g i s l a t i o n as dealing only with inmates; i t does not find ready support in medical associa t ions since i t would not hinder the spread of disease or abolish the defect ive , and where such a p rac t ice has been legal ized i t has general ly remained inopera t ive . The discovery of the Mendeliaa law has complicated the problem, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s are further increased when one considers the mental and moral q u a l i t i e s of man as wel l as the physical and pathologica l . I t i s s igni f icant tha t congenital fac tors were found 249 times per cent among delinquents h&. as compared to 72 times per cent among the non-delinquents, and non-congenital factors 666 times per cent among delinquents compared to 254 times among the non-delinquents showing tha t "the share in the innate conditions of juven i le delinquency-i s beyond doubt considerable", and tha t heredi ty appears to unfold in a criminal menta l i ty but "through such cons t i tu t iona l condit ions as a dull or defective i n t e l l i gence , an exci table and unbalanced temperament, or an over-development of some s ingle pr imit ive i n s t i n c t " . The character of the t r a in ing offered the child from the e a r l i e s t moments of self-conscious l i f e i s a matter of grea t socio logica l importance. The home i s the most potent i n s t i t u t i o n a l factor . The outside assoc ia t ions , playmates, conditions of school, s t r e e t , a l l e y , or workshop,-a l l are considerat ions affect ing the physique and character of the indiv idual . The knowledge t h a t a bad environment has a d i rec t undesirable soc ia l outcome paves the way for a more th»(TOughgoing treatment of the subject than i f we were discussing a doubtful heredi ty . I s home a t t r a c t i v e ? Do the parents understand children? Does the family rub shoulders with decency or indecency? The answers to such questions are the why and wherefore of the most p i t i f u l s t o r i e s of juveni le delinquency. Some years ago the Sage foundation appropriated $10,000 for a study of juvenile delinquency in the c i ty of Chicago. 'fhe inves t iga to rs studied the re la t ionsh ip of a r r e s t s to the nature of the area. A decrease of 28$> in the number of children a r res ted was observed over an area of one half mile in radius about the South park playgrounds, and tha t the re had been such a success in dealing with delinquents in the same neighbourhood tha t the problem was cut in two. I t has been further observed that the number of a r r e s t s of children increases as soon as school closes and the children are turned out on the s t r e e t , but tha t when playgrounds are opaned the conditions come back to normal. Undoubtedly a great proportion of delinquency, and the consequent cost of reformatories, would be prevented with adequately supervised playgrounds. The schoolroom cramps the motor effect ive s ide of chi ld l i f e , and the act ive s p i r i t rebels against the benumbing curriculum If youth can find in a t h l e t i c s a vent for motor i n t e r e s t s and desireB c i v i l i z a t i o n wi l l leap forward; otherwise delinquency must be expected to remain much as a t present . A l e c t u r e r addressing a meeting of men said , "If there, i s any one in t h i s audience who has never done anything tha t would have brought him before the juveni le court i f he had been caught a t i t , wi l l he please ra ise h i s hand?" Each was too modest to draw a t t en t ion to himself. Much t h a t we ca l l delinquency i s the expression of the law of childhood in opposition t o the law H of the c i ty , and woe to the c i t y and the c i t y ' s children where there i s no attempt t o make i t s laws harmonize with the law of childhood. The centres of population afford many f a c i l i t i e s for commercialized entertainment. There i s a tremendous fascinat ion to the young in Coney Island and i t s junior im i t a to r s , in the b r igh t l i g h t s of a modern broadway with i t s camp-followers making a precar ious l i v i n g , in the hole4 and-corner gambling dens and questionable cafe's and road-houses which offer the zest of meeting those daring souls who respect not the laws of God and man. The dangerous unregulated p l en t i fu l amusement of the c i ty i s more to be feared than the more l imited f a c i l i t i e s of na tura l surroundings in ru ra l d i s t r i c t s . As a general rule the incidence of crime i s high in areas most remote from parks and playgrounds with the a f t e r school hours aaJf danger hours and the weekend as the season of d i s s i pa t i on . She s t r e e t offers more oocasion for delinquency than any other plaoe, but i t may be doubted i f the s t r e e t offers the i n sp i r a t i on for the overt ac t . Much of t h i s comes from the moving p ic tu re show. The matter i s su f f ic ien t ly serious to warrant a Royal Commission. The Child Welfare Committee of the League of Hations has taken up the effect of the Cinema in r e l a t i on to the mental, moral and physical well-being of the chi ld , and the discussion brought out a ^ rea l juon^ensus of opinion and approval of what Canada has Hone as being eminently f i t t e d for the woUld as a whole. All the Provinces, with the exception of Prince Edward Is land , have a censorship, but that i s not enough. I t was recommended that pena l t i e s be fixed for any attempt to exhib i t demoralizing films and " that a l l possible means should be employed to encourage the exhibi t ion and the in te rna t iona l exchange of f i lms calculated to promote the i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and physical eduoation of children and young people". The subject of films i s so important i t cannot be ignored or neglected. A corporation in America controls more than 90jf of the motion p ic ture business, and exports 40,000 miles of films annually to 100 dif ferent countr ies . Capital invested i s #1,600,000,000 as a minimum figure with over 15,000,000 persons in dai ly attendance. These people see more in an hour than they could read in many hours. The p ic tu res appeal through the most impressionable sense. They appeal to a l l the great passions such as love, ha te , fear , f a i th , s a t i r e , and when they are l u r i d , v ic ious and monstrous the moral damage i s inca lcu lab le . By common consent the character of many p i c tu re s , not a l l , i s such that they are detrimental to morals, r e l ig ion , pa t r io t i sm, So. domestic happiness and a crime against public chas t i ty . Some of t h e most obscene and suggestive books pr in ted have been filmed. Dr. Davis for the Bussell Sage Foundation gave evidence that the burlesque and vaudeville shows were more v ic ious and Immoral in t h e i r inf luence, but i t has to be borne in mind that the p ic tu res make a wider appeal, and more espec ia l ly among the youth of the land. Professor Burgess of the Universi ty of Ohicago , found from a survey of 400,000 children of t h e public schools in that c i ty that the motion p ic ture gave near ly a l l of them wrong views of l i f e . In view of the almost unlimited appeal of t h i s most e f fec t ive means of i n s t ruc t ion and amusement, i t i s v i t a l to our educational system tha t the films presented should not only be moral, but tha t they should also be accura te , so far as they attempt to represent l i f e . Dr. Burt holds t ha t the main source of harm i s not the danger of imi ta t ing "crook films" as some do, or p i l f e r i n g to see the next p ic ture in a s e r i a l , but " i t i s in the general and more elusive influences tha t the real danger of the cinema l i e s " , "in the atmosphere of thoughtless f r i v o l i t y and fun" playing upon the mind which lacks the correc t ive of experience, and in creating "a. yearning for a l i f e of gayety - a craze for fun, f r o l i c , and adventure, for personal admiration and extravagant s e l f -d i sp l ay - to a degree tha t i s general ly unwholesome and almost invariably unwise". The same qua l i ty of in te l l igence that remedied the mechanical defects of the moving p ic ture machine i f di rected against v ic ious influences in the films would Just as e f fec t ive ly remedy the dangers of motion p ic tu re amusement. I t would also be a s tep in t he r i g h t direct ion i f Canada would acdept the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p i c t u r e s , for general and juvenile showing, which preva i l s in Bngland and has recent ly been adopted by I t a l y . Then when schools and social centres make a p rac t ice of using decent, a r t i s t i c , and educational productions on the screen, the young folks can find there in innocent pleasure and happiness without the so i l ing of the mind. The moving p ic tu re with i t s indispensible love i n t e r e s t has daringly and consis tent ly exploited the sexual i n s t i n c t s and i n t e r e s t s with exaggerated r epe t i t i ons of "the intimate de t a i l s of courtship, coquetry, and married l i f e " . How far t h i s tends to premature p r e c o s i t y j _ i t ls_ » impossible to say, but those who deal with lads a^id~girls~ ~^-recognise a rea l danger from a tendency to imi ta t e . But as one says, "More frequently there i s f i r s t of a l l a fur t ive pe rp lex i ty and mental conf l ic t ; then an intolerance of the s t r a i n ; and f ina l ly a burs t of violence or adventure, which on the surface may have nothing t o do with sex, but i s SL calculated to relieve the deeper tension, and to drown the hidden promptings, by some wave of desperation, more turbulent, perhaps, but less ruinous and degrading". Of course there are other environmental influences which may-tend to an over-valuation of sexual responses with undesirable mental complexes. Just as one individual runs all to sport, another to gambling, and another drinking, others become a prey to sex imaginings seeking dysteleologic variations of sex stimulation. The concrete danger is in the misdemeanours between the sexes resulting in disgrace to the individuals (more frequently the girl) and the inevitable spreading of loathsome diseases. Florence Mateer sums up this phase of it thus: "One thing must be emphasized. Syphilis is present in many delinquents. Its presence seems to mean a certain type of psychopathy. Nevertheless, syphilis does not cause delinquency. It causes psychopathy. The aftermath of that psychopathy is delinquency when there is not sufficient constantly alert supervision". For such unfortunates there must be treat-ment and supervision. It is significant that practically all the older girls who are sent to correctional institutions are suspected of being immoral whether or not the fact has been determined. Psychiatric studies were fully developed during the war in the extra-oantonment zones of the United States, and are adquately treated in the Public Health Reports upon the conditions at the State Industrial Farm at Lansing, Kans. , and other places* It may be noted that although the women examined were relatively young, "Gonorrhea was found in 93.6 per cent of these delinquent women". It is plainly evident that moral and scientific instruction is absolutely necessary because of the gravity of the dangers, and because that which is half-suggested and half-oonoealed is far more stimulating than that which is revealed, and because sensible confidence between children and guardians is only maintained upon a basis of truth and reality and not upon lies and fables. It is unquestionable the tendency of evolution that the sexual enlightenment of children up to a certain point should be effected in the school, and this is valuable since many parents lack the requisite ability and the requisite biological knowledge for the task. It is the business of the guardian of social forces to use them to generate light rather than heat. "Without such provision short circuiting is inevitable and a conflagration must ensue". The question of co-education is not one for us to elaborate upon. In the public elementary schools it is the general practice all over the world, with England following afar off. It appears to be an acoepted condition Mateer: "The Unstable Child", p.459. • Weekly Public Health Reports, Vol.35, I. p.lglO. si. of i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a in ing that the sexes must he separated in work and play. Freuqently the i n s t i t u t i o n s are so far apart tha t no opportunity i s given the delinquent child to associa te with the other sex as the non-delinquent children are permitted to do throughout the world. Delinquency i s not enough to j u s t i f y the hard and fast separat ion, and we bel ieve the same reasons tha t j u s t i f y co-education in public schools would j u s t i f y i t in reformatories. More speoif ic reference may be made to the Various i n s t i t u t i o n s which seek to cope with delinquency. a. TEE JUYBMLE COURT. In addit ion to the usual magistrate and c lerk , there are probation off icers who t rave l the d i s t r i c t s assigned to them inspecting t h e a t r e s , pool , rooms, dance h a l l s , e t c . to mate sure there were no children in attendance contrary to law, warning children oa t h e s t r e e t a f te r curfew hour, and dealing with parents . I t i s the duty of the probation department to furnish the h i s to ry of t h e ch i ld , of the parents , of t he environment, and other circumstances. I f these fac t s are incomplete, h a s t i l y gathered from unre l i ab le sources, the order of the court must necessa r i ly f a i r to meet the case. The aim of the oourt i s to stop the descent, point out the chasm jus t ahead, face the lad in the r i g h t d i rec t ion , bid him walk in the sunl ight and not in the shadow, and then turn him over to the probation off icer or the i n d u s t r i a l school where a new re spons ib i l i t y begins. In the Juvenile Oourt a l l t e chn i ca l i t y , a l l formality, and moat of t h e digni ty of the oourt i s abandoned in order to ar r ive sympathetically a t the t r u t h . This i s as i t should be, and the judge need not break through a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s to become a friend and counsellor. b . THE DBTMTIOa HOMB. We have in t h i s c i ty (Vancouver) a modern, f i re-proof D e t e c t i o n Home with f a c i l i t i e s for a cer ta in degree of segregation of juveni le offenders, so that boys or g i r l s of eleven may not have to associa te respect ive-ly with boys and g i r l s of s ix teen, seventeen and eighteen years of age, and ss tha t the chi ld who i s in the detention home simply through misfortune or neglect may not have to come into contact with those who have oommitted an offence. This i s an enormous advance upon the prison l i f e of a few years ago, and of incalculable advantage to the s t a t e as well as the child. o» The Oourt Psych ia t r i s t . In the report of Judge Mott of the Toronto Juvenile Court the work of the Psych ia t r i s t was credi ted with the marked decrease in the percentage of repea te rs . The r e s u l t of the diagnoses might be quoted,-lormal 39.2 per cent Subnormal 16.9 " " Mental Defectives 23.6 per cent Psychopathic 12.4 per cent (Deferred) 7.7 " " &'3 The Judge suggested that an i n s t i t u t i o n was necessary to deal with the higher grade defect ives and retarded chi ldren to allow the court to do i t s normal work. Suoh i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment might in due course become sel f -support ing. d. THB PROBATION SYS IBM. This i s t he keystone of the Juvenile Court; i t makes success poss ib le . I t began in Massachusets in 1899; i t r e - e s t ab l i shes about 7 5% of the casea observed. Through e f f i c i e n t use in the c i t y of Toronto of the Probation system as low as 1-33$ of the oases have been committed to the i ndus t r i a l school. e. THS COURT OF DOMESTIC RELATIONS. While the Juvenile Court looks a f t e r the delinquent, t h i s new departure in court* looks af te r the people who allowed the child to become delinquent. Adult probation i s associated with t h i s court . I t was the judges of the Municipal Court in Chicago (on Domestic Relations) who drafted the Adult Probation B i l l which i s now law. This court not only reaches the pa ren t s , but a l l those who commit an offense or a crime against chi ldren, deals wi th oases of abandon4 ment, i l l eg i t imacy , truancy, and, in fact , a l l s ta te laws dealing wi th women and children exclusively. Old lega l delays were pushed as ide , and the effect was to reduce crime in a marked degree. f. THB IffBJSTRIAL SCHOOL. The introduct ion of i n d u s t r i a l t r a in ing becomes the l og i ca l outcome of t he attempt to use ef fec t ive reformatory measures. The l a s t step in the evolution of i n s t i t u t i o n a l treatment cons i s t s in the attempt to r e a l i s e the advantages which a good home affords. The Superintendent of the Gi r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School in Burnaby i n s i s t s upon ca l l ing i t "The Gi r l s ' Home". To further advance t h i s idea the "Cottage System" has been introduced in Hamburg In 1833, l a t e r a t Bridge of Allan among the dependent children from Scot t i sh slums, but t h i s desirable system has not become general as i t e n t a i l s much wider supervision than the single dwelling. In Truro, U.S. a t the Maritime Home for Girls which i s under the School Board of Truro the cot tage system i s being adopted. Gir ls are prepared for High School examinations, agr icu l tu re i s taught and prac t i sed on the farm, the school runs i t s own s t o r e , specia l ized t ra in ing i s given to promising s tudents , and, as in most modern ins t i t a t ions a measure of Student Government i s granted and i t makes for the r a i s i n g of the standard of the i n s t i t u t i o n . g. PLACING OUT. One of the most important p a r t s of t h i s work i s the placing and follow up a c t i v i t i e s of the supervisors . This i s int imately connected with the probation system. Parole and probation are successful through adequate v i s i t i n g alone* and can be handled only by a wise, s trong, sympathetic v i s i t o r who knows how to pardon, how to br ing s t rength in weakness, help over hard p laces , to steady the purposes and passion for righteousness* «6'4-. to insp i re to congenial, strenuous endeavour since "the chief enemy of v i r tue i s not v ice , hut l a z ine s s " . "Every por t ion of h i s mind", wr i tes Cyril. Burt, "every inmate of t h a t menagerie we ca l l h i s soul - each appe t i t e , each passion, each p o t e n t i a l i t y - must he called out of i t s cage in to the open; hunted down i f i t he r e s t i v e ; harnessed in a ful l team and forced to draw i t s share. To r e i t e r a t e the useful words of t h e psychoanalyst, sublimation, not repression, must he the invar iab le aim." Our common human emotions are rep le te with staggering p o s s i b i l i t i e s for upon the pedestal of ind iv idua l human oharaoter i t i s possible t o se t up " e i t h e r a Priapus or a chaste Diana". The hope and help of the delinquent i s along the new highway of applied psychology. * I t i s u t t e r l y impossible to deal e f fec t ive ly wi th juvenile delinquency by adding a few paragraphs to our Criminal Code, and organizing add i t iona l soc i e t i e s with patronage to d i s t r i b u t e for a season. We must not regard neglected childhood and juvenile delinquency as i so la ted phenomena, hut must consider them in associa t ion with economic, moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l neglect of society. Social condit ions form the s t a r t i n g point for our knowledge of negleot of childhood and consequent delinquency. P o l i t i c a l ' care i s inadequate; what i s required i s a general scheme of soc ia l and p o l i t i c a l reconstruct ion whereby the sources of negleot wi l l he dri»d up. Poverty and the f lagrant c lass cont ras t s must he ended. The hest means for the prevention of crime i s not punishment, but removal of the causes of crime. Juvenile delinquency wi l l not completely disappear u n t i l i t s causes have "been removed. Whatever l e g i s l a t i o n i s required must be s c i e n t i f i c , based upon the findings of d i s i n t e r e s t ed exper ts , so demonstrably f i t t i n g tha t the league of Nations or any modernized de l ibera t ive assembly would no more think of declaring i t uncons t i tu t ional than i t would think of declaring uncons t i tu t iona l the law of g rav i t a t ion . Gradually the s o l i d a r i t y of the race i s being acknowledged, and wi th i t comes the subordination of each for a l l . Social work has i t s body, i t s machinery of r e l i e f , i t s method of inves t iga t ion and co-operation, a l l of which ex i s t to convey from one human being to another the essence of persona l i ty . The r e su l t i s a deepening moral conscience i ssu ing in grea ter r i g h t s and opportuni t ies fbr a l l , a more s tahle socie ty b u i l t upon consecrated workman ship tha t plans a world for the complete expression of youth, and the upbuilding of ideal manhood. Burt: "The Young Delinquent", p.463. r L I O G R A P H Y . Addams, Jane. "She Spirit of Youth & the City Streets", lew York, 1909. Burt, Cyril. "The Young Delinquent", D. Appleton & Co., New York 1925. Coe, G. A. "A Soeial Theory of Religious Education", Charles S o r i b n e r ' s Sons,flew York, 1921. Cope, H. F. "Re l ig ious Educat ion in the Family" , The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1917. Bowne, B. P. "Theory, of Thought and Xnowl edge :T, The American Book Go., Hew York 1697. Clopper, E. fl. "Child Labor i n the Ci ty S t r e e t s " , The I&acmillan Co. , Sew York 1913. C u r t i s , H. 3. "Educat ion Through P l a y " , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1916. Clarke , W. fl. "An Out l ine of C h r i s t i a n Theology", Charles S o r i b n e r ' s Sons, flew York, 1916. Dewey, J . "Democracy & Educa t ion" , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1925. Sngel , Sigmund. "The Elements of Child P r o t e c t i o n " , The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1912. Green, T. "Prolegomena to E t h i c s " , Clarendon P r e s s , Oxford, 1906. H a l l , G. S tan ley . "Adolescence", D. Appleton & Co., flew York, 1905. Hamilton, G.V. "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Objec t ive Psychopathology" C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1925. Hadfield, J. A. "Psychology & Morals", R. M. McBride & Co., flew York, 1923. Home, H. H. "Psychological Principles of Education", The Macmillan Co., flew York. King, I. "The Psychology of Child Development", The University of Chicago Press, 1917. James, W. "The Principles of Psychology", TSm. Holt b Co., flew York, 19o5. Mangold, G. 3. "Problems of Child Welfare", The Macmillan Co., flew York, 1914. Mateer, F. "The Unstable Child", D. Appleton & Co., flew York, 1924. Markham, E. ) Lindsey, B. B. ) "Children in Bondage", Hearst's International Creel, G. )} Library Co,, flew York, 1914. Mill, J. 3. "Utilitarianism". M i l l e r , H. C. "The flew Psychology & the P reache r " , J a r r o l d s , London. 1924. , /' Mackenzie, J. 3. "Manual of Ethics", Hinds & Noble, New York, 1901. McDougall, W. "An Outline of Psychology", Charles Scribner's Sons, Hew York, 1923. McDougall, W. "Introduction to Social Psychology", Methuen & Co., Ld. , London, 1924. McCunn, J. "The Making of Character, The Macmillan Co., lew York, 1916. McKeever, W. A. "Training the Boy", The Macmillan Co., lew York, 1913. Munroe, P. "Brief Course in the History of Education, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1917. Rashdall, H. "Elements of Psychology" (Home University Lib.) Slattery, M. "The Girl in her Teens" & "The American Girl & Her Community", The Pilgrim Press, Boston, 1918. Sidgwick, H. "History of Ethics", Macmillan & Co. London, 1692-Starbuck, B. D. "Psychology of Religion", Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1911. Spencer, H. "Essays in Education", J. M. Dent & Sons, Ld. , London 1914. Tharrndyke, E. L. "The Original Nature of Man", Teachers' College, Columbia University, 1921. Tracy, F. "The Psychology of Adolescence", The Macmillan Co. New York, 1920. Thouless, R. H. "An Introduction to the Psychology of Religion", Cambridge University Press,1923. Wedgwood, J. "The Moral Ideal", K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., London, 1907. Dealey, J. Q. "The Family in its Sociological Aspects", Houghton, Mifflin Co.New lork, 1912. "The Child in the City" (Report on Chicago Child Welfare Exhibit) 1912. "Boyhood & Lawlessness" & "The Neglected Girl", Survey Associates, Inc., New York, 1914. Reports by Canadian Council on Child Welfare, " " The Social Service Council of Canada, Maiden Leaflets by Atheam. E.R.E. Arts. "Ethics" and "Education in Religion & Morals". D. C.G. " "Ethics". * 


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