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Chu tesh ha timiux "he worked hard on the land" : the story of Joeyaska Joe, Mary Jane 1999-12-31

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Chu Tesh Ha Timiux "HE WORKED HARD ON THE LAND" THE STORY OF JOEYASKA by Mary Jane Joe (Nk-Xetko) B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1996 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES (TS'KEL PROGRAM) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard:  The University of British Columbia October 1999 © Mary Jane Joe  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  University  of  British  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  fulfilment  for  her  the  requirements  Columbia, I agree that the  study.  scholarly  or  of  I further  purposes  may  representatives.  financial  agree that  It  gain shall not  be is  permission.  Department  of  JzeXu-Ca-Jri ouxct I Sfu-cli  The University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (2/88)  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  e<{ -  for  an  advanced  shall make for  the that  allowed without  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s paper p r o v i d e s  a h i s t o r y of my g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r ,  Joeyaska; who he  was, where he came from, and how he came t o a c q u i r e 320 a c r e s o f l a n d i n 1878 near M e r r i t t , i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Stuwix.  Joeyaska was c o n s i d e r e d a  From a l l t h a t i s known, Joeyaska was a Stuwix from the Athapaskan  group. Joeyaska a w a r r i o r , a s u r v i v o r , a horseman, a f a m i l y man and p r o t e c t o r o f h i s r i g h t s passed on t o h i s c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n h i s l a n d .  Who a r e  the descendants o f Joeyaska and what a r e we doing today i n the t h r e a t o f encroachment by the c h i e f and c o u n c i l o f the Lower N i c o l a Band. defending  and c a r r y i n g on t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d r i g h t s and p r a c t i s e s .  How a r e we T h i s paper i  a c o m p i l a t i o n o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n and documented h i s t o r y on Joeyaska, our g r e a t grandfather.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Kuschemx (Thank You) t o Dr. M i c h a e l Marker, D i r e c t o r o f the T s ' k e l Graduate Program and t o my t h e s i s committee, Dr. Jean Barman and Dr. Sue Ann A l d e r s o n for  a l l o w i n g me the freedom t o pursue the s t o r y o f my g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r .  Many  thanks t o my mother Sophie S t e r l i n g f o r s h a r i n g knowledge and s t o r i e s w i t h me. I lift  my hands i n thanks t o my husband Wayne Campbell.  sisters,  To my b r o t h e r s and  n i e c e s and nephews, f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , your p r a y e r s s u s t a i n e d me  and your i n s i g h t s c a r r i e d me.  H i a en swowkuk (My h e a r t i s happy) because o f  you.  DEDICATION I am p l e a s e d t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o the memory o f Joeyaska and a l l t h e work t h a t he d i d on h i s l a n d . May h i s s p i r i t o f i n t e g r i t y , p e r s i s t e n c e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n l i v e on t o c a r r y us i n t o the f u t u r e  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i i i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  INTRODUCTION 1.1 Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 1. 2 O r a l T r a d i t i o n 1.3 L i f e a t Home  1 3 6 13  CHAPTER I 1.1 Names 1.2 The S t o r y o f Joeyaska' s Escape 1.3 Joeyaska S e t t l e d a t N i c o l a Lake  17 18 21 24  CHAPTER I I 2.1 S t o r y t e l l i n g and O r a l T r a d i t i o n 2.2 Land A l l o t m e n t s 2.3 Joeyaska Got H i s Land  31 34 40 43  CHAPTER I I I 3.1 S u b s i s t e n c e As A Way Of L i f e 3.2Cultural Traditions  44 48 56  CHAPTER IV 4.1 War V e t e r a n A l b e r t S t e r l i n g 4.2Joeyaska-Land I n D i s p u t e  61 65 72  CHAPTER V  77  5.1 F a m i l y Members CONCLUSION Bibliography  78 95 101  INTRODUCTION  Without a s t o r y you have not got a n a t i o n o r a c u l t u r e , or a c i v i l i z a t i o n . Without a s t o r y of your own t o l i v e you haven't got a l i f e o f your own. (Keepers of L i f e Caduto & Bruchac 1994, p.12)  In  J u l y 1999  my mother and my  I went home t o p i c k saskatoon b e r r i e s w i t h sisters.  "Home" i s a t Joeyaska I n d i a n  Reserve #2 near the town of M e r r i t t , B r i t i s h Columbia.  J u l i e Cruikshank  i n the i n t e r i o r of (1991) s t a t e s ,  "...indigenous p l a c e names l i n k people and t h e i r s t o r i e s t o place."  (p.110)  P i c k i n g saskatoons a t Joeyaska has been a  t r a d i t i o n f o r my mother s i n c e she f i r s t 1935  when she m a r r i e d my  Sterling,  moved t o Joeyaska i n  f a t h e r the l a t e A l b e r t  Frederick  son o f Sarah S t e r l i n g , nee Joeyaska, daughter o f  Joeyaska and Martha o r B u e l t k o . In  the month of J u l y e v e r y y e a r s i n c e anyone can  remember, someone has been p i c k i n g b e r r i e s on the l a n d of Joeyaska.  My mother's mother-in-law  Sarah Joeyaska p i c k e d  b e r r i e s as her p a r e n t s Joeyaska and B u e l t k o d i d b e f o r e h e r . T h i s i s the s t o r y of Joeyaska the man the  who  made i t h i s home i n  1880's d u r i n g those y e a r s of change and u n c e r t a i n t y f o r  I n t e r i o r S a l i s h F i r s t Nations.  Through p e r s i s t e n c e  and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n he sought a f t e r and a c q u i r e d the p l o t o f l a n d t h a t has come t o be known as Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2, of  the S t e r l i n g My  home  family.  s i s t e r s and I, our c h i l d r e n , and now  the  g r a n d c h i l d r e n c a r r y on t h i s t r a d i t i o n of p i c k i n g  1  saskatoon  b e r r i e s a t Joeyaska.  Our g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r i n i t i a t e d t h e  t r a d i t i o n o f occupying and l i v i n g o f f the l a n d , we i n that t r a d i t i o n .  Thomas Berger,  continue  author o f V i l l a g e  Journey  (1985) d e s c r i b e d s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s among A l a s k a n n a t i v e s t h a t v e r y c l o s e l y resemble our own. S u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s l i n k the g e n e r a t i o n s and the extended f a m i l y i n t o a complex network o f a s s o c i a t i o n s , r i g h t s , and o b l i g a t i o n s , (p.52) Saskatoon b e r r i e s have always been a v e r y important source f o r the Ntla'kapmux people.  food  They c o n t i n u e t o be  v a l u e d f o r t h e i r t a s t e , n u t r i e n t s , v i t a m i n s and i t i s j u s t p l a i n f u n t o go p i c k i n g w i t h f a m i l y .  I t i s during  these  f o o d - g a t h e r i n g times t h a t v i s i t i n g o c c u r s , c a t c h i n g up on what's happening and s h a r i n g good s t o r i e s and b e i n g  together.  We share f a m i l y t i e s and we share t i e s t o the l a n d as w e l l as t i e s t o our g r a n d f a t h e r s . harvesting  Berger e l a b o r a t e d f u r t h e r on  cycles,  T h i s network both r e f l e c t s and r e - c r e a t e s the s o c i a l o r d e r and g i v e s meaning and v a l u e t o each person's c o n t r i b u t i o n and rewards, (p.52) T h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r e s e n t the ways one f a m i l y , my f a m i l y , the S t e r l i n g s ,  s t a y i n touch w i t h each o t h e r .  I t describes  how those t r a d i t i o n a l and f a m i l y t i e s t h a t we have w i t h each o t h e r g i v e meaning and v a l u e t o those c o n n e c t i o n s which a r e s t r o n g l y l i n k e d t o our l a n d , and t o the man known as Joeyaska a f t e r whom the l a n d was named. I w i l l t r a c e the h i s t o r y o f Joeyaska  the w a r r i o r , o u r  g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r , and answer these q u e s t i o n s :  where d i d he  come from and how d i d he came t o a c q u i r e the 320 a c r e p l o t o f  2  l a n d named a f t e r him?  Who  are h i s descendants and how  c a r r y on i n h i s t r a d i t i o n s today? h i s t o r y passed on t o me Jan V a n s i n a  from my  My  do  we  thesis includes oral  parents  and  siblings.  (1985) s t a t e d .  The e x p r e s s i o n ' o r a l t r a d i t i o n ' a p p l i e s both t o a p r o c e s s and t o i t s product. The products are o r a l messages based on p r e v i o u s o r a l messages at l e a s t a g e n e r a t i o n o l d . The p r o c e s s i s the t r a n s m i s s i o n of such messages by word of mouth over time... (p.3)  I t i s a t r a d i t i o n among the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y t o w i t h each o t h e r through s t o r y t e l l i n g and o r a l u s u a l l y around the k i t c h e n t a b l e . d e s c r i b e s our experience  tradition  Pueblo o r a l  tradition  at f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s .  emphasis, tone, rhythm, f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s  relate  "Voice,  with  gesture,  atmosphere, and many o t h e r t h i n g s a l l convey meaning nuance."  (Peterson 1984,  p.44)  It i s a t r a d i t i o n  and  now  c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the f o u r t h and f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n from the time of Joeyaska.  Woven i n and among the s t o r i e s of  this  s t o r y t e l l i n g t r a d i t i o n comes a r e s t o r a t i o n p r o c e s s , i n c l u d e s the r e c l a i m i n g of s e l f - i d e n t i t y , h i s t o r y and  s t r o n g t i e s t o the l a n d .  family ties,  Those are the  t h i n g s t h a t past governmental p o l i c i e s attempted t o through a s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s and schools. now us  through the  which family  very destroy  residential  Connections to each o t h e r and t o our h e r i t a g e have  become the s t r e n g t h t h a t h e l p s us t o s u r v i v e and  brings  together. Information  w r i t t e n by h i s t o r i a n s , l a n d commissioners,  m i s s i o n a r i e s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s l o c a t e d at the UBC and  one  Archives,  i n f o r m a t i o n l o c a t e d at the I n d i a n Lands O f f i c e i n  3  Vancouver w i l l  form the documented h i s t o r y which  t o a major p a r t o f t h i s paper.  contributed  I w i l l g i v e an o u t l i n e o f t h e  p e o p l e who l i v e a t Joeyaska today because i t i s our home, our i n h e r i t a n c e from my f a t h e r , i n essence an i n h e r i t a n c e from the  man known as Joeyaska. There a r e two main reasons I'm g i v i n g v o i c e t o our  history.  The f i r s t  i s t h a t I am g i v i n g honor t o my  late  f a t h e r and t o h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , the two men who l i v e d and worked on t h e l a n d over an extended p e r i o d o f time.  They  v a l u e d the l a n d and p r o t e c t e d i t t o the b e s t o f t h e i r ability;  Joeyaska a c q u i r e d the l a n d and p e r s i s t e d i n  p r o t e c t i n g h i s r i g h t s on the land, and my f a t h e r c a r r i e d on i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of working on and p r o t e c t i n g the l a n d f o r o v e r 50 y e a r s . accounts.  My paper i s based on o r a l t r a d i t i o n and o r a l  I n the Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  i n 1997  DELGAMUUKW v s . HER MAJESTRY THE QUEEN, o r a l t r a d i t i o n was a c c e p t e d as e v i d e n c e .  F o r the f i r s t  time the c o u r t s gave  o r a l t r a d i t i o n r e c o g n i t i o n as b e i n g v a l i d e v i d e n c e . The second purpose i s t o s t r e n g t h e n the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y ' s c l a i m t o Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2. of  Indian A f f a i r s  The Department  (DIA) amalgamated Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve  #2 w i t h the Lower N i c o l a I n d i a n Band i n 1938.  The Lower  N i c o l a I n d i a n Band has p l a n s t o b u i l d a gambling c a s i n o on the  p o r t i o n c a l l e d Joeyaska N o r t h because they b e l i e v e  that  Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve i s p a r t o f the Lower N i c o l a Band, n o t S t e r l i n g p r o p e r t y , and as such i s a v a i l a b l e f o r development by the band without c o n s u l t a t i o n o r p e r m i s s i o n from t h e  4  Sterlings. belonging  DIA r e c o g n i z e s  a l l F i r s t N a t i o n s l a n d as  t o the Crown and l a n d i s s u e s on r e s e r v e a r e complex  because two d i s p a r a t e l a n d ownership concepts; p r i v a t e ownership and c o l l e c t i v e ownership are i n c o n f l i c t and need t o be r e s o l v e d .  In cases where l a n d d i s p u t e s a r i s e ,  oral  t r a d i t i o n c o u l d be used t o argue t h a t A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e exist. and  The o r a l accounts of our a n c e s t o r s  r e s o l v e these  w i l l help,  about Ntla'kapmux p e o p l e .  that.  serve  disputes.  The h i s t o r y I l e a r n e d i n s c h o o l d i d not i n c l u d e  or r e c o r d e d  does  Our s t o r i e s have been  i n someone e l s e ' s v o i c e .  anything  overlooked  I t i s time t o change  Today t h e r e i s an emphasis on t e l l i n g the s t o r i e s of  our p e o p l e .  As I peruse the l i s t  o f c o n f e r e n c e themes f o r  1999 I see t h a t s t o r y t e l l i n g , w r i t i n g t r i b a l h i s t o r i e s and g i v i n g v o i c e are i n c l u d e d as important t o p i c s , f o r example, Multi-Cultural Storytelling B.C.),  Who  1999 UBC),  (Education/Focus  '99 V i c t o r i a ,  Speaks For Whom? (EDST Re-Search Programme A p r i l R e s e a r c h i n g and W r i t i n g T r i b a l H i s t o r i e s (June  1999 Norman Oklahoma),  S t o r i e s Are Our Salmon (The  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l S o c i e t i e s J u l y 1999 SFU). In g i v i n g v o i c e t o the ways we c a r r y on Ntla'kapmux t r a d i t i o n s and our use of the l a n d a t Joeyaska I am not o n l y d e s c r i b i n g the v a l u e we p l a c e on the l a n d today by our present  a c t i v i t i e s , but emphasizing the important  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y we have i n t a k i n g care of the l a n d f o r the next g e n e r a t i o n .  I am g i v i n g v o i c e t o a t r a d i t i o n  e s t a b l i s h e d by our g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r ,  Joeyaska.  5  This  t r a d i t i o n has been passed on t o me by means of s t o r y t e l l i n g and  the example s e t by our e l d e r s and a n c e s t o r s , and now  become my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  I will  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by l e a r n i n g  a l l I can and by w r i t i n g  in this thesis  has  c a r r y out t h i s about i t  t o share w i t h o t h e r s and pass i t on.  Two types of o r a l t r a d i t i o n i n the Ntla'kapmux language are  "speta'kl," r e f e r r i n g to creation  stories,  "spilaxem," which means news o r i n f o r m a t i o n . Ntla'kapmux D i c t i o n a r y  and The Thompson/  (1996) d e f i n e s the word f o r t r u t h a s :  "pilex-m", a r o o t word "pelx" means t o t e l l o r t o i n f o r m . derivative  "xek" means t o f i n d out the t r u t h ,  "xe?-e" means, as you can see, or, the t r u t h (Thompson & Thompson p.1279) I w i l l  feature  the e x p r e s s i o n , i s obvious.  "spilaxem"  because the i n f o r m a t i o n I have r e c e i v e d r e p r e s e n t s history  and t r u t h  A  facts,  t o me.  My main source of "spilaxem" comes from my mother Sophie S t e r l i n g and from my s i b l i n g s who heard the i n f o r m a t i o n and p e r s o n a l memories from my f a t h e r .  I w i l l be u s i n g  related  l i t e r a t u r e and the testimony of e l d e r s who spoke about the man known as Joeyaska. Grandmother S t o r i e s : Culture  The work of S h i r l e y  Oral T r a d i t i o n  Sterling  The  and The T r a n s m i s s i o n of  (1997) i n s p i r e d my use of the n a r r a t i v e s and  stories  which have been passed on t o me from former g e n e r a t i o n s . stated,  "Oral T r a d i t i o n s  methods of Nlakapmux  are one of the most  effective  e d u c a t i o n and they can r e s t o r e  t o what and how we t e a c h Nlakapamux c l a s s r o o m today." S t e r l i n g  She  relevance  and o t h e r l e a r n e r s i n the  (1997) From o r a l t r a d i t i o n and  6  s t o r y t e l l i n g we g a i n knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n the f a m i l y and our r o l e s i n the community.  o f our r o l e s  T h i s awareness  h e l p s t e a c h r e s p e c t f o r each o t h e r and f o r the l a n d we l i v e on.  My hope i s t h a t o r a l t r a d i t i o n s can h e l p r e s t o r e  r e l e v a n c e w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l I n d i a n Band as w e l l .  framework o f the Lower N i c o l a  The Lower N i c o l a Band p o s s e s s e s  a c r e s compared t o 320 a c r e s a t Joeyaska  18,000  I n d i a n Reserve #2.  Some o f the main q u e s t i o n s many F i r s t N a t i o n s  educators  attempt t o answer r e g a r d i n g a s t a r t i n g p l a c e i n e d u c a t i o n have been v o i c e d by Ntla'kapmux educator, S t e r l i n g S r . i n 1985.  He asked  the l a t e  Robert  t h r e e q u e s t i o n s as f i r s t  s t e p s i n the g r e a t e r v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t e d i n e d u c a t i o n , 1.  Who am I?  2.  Where do I come from?  3.  Where am I going?  The p o l i c y paper p r e s e n t e d t o the M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development i n 1972 by the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n Brotherhood  stated,  U n l e s s a c h i l d l e a r n s about the f o r c e s which shape him: the h i s t o r y o f h i s people, t h e i r v a l u e s and customs, t h e i r languages he w i l l never r e a l l y know h i m s e l f o r h i s p o t e n t i a l as a human b e i n g . (p.9) When answering the q u e s t i o n o f who I am, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t I e s t a b l i s h my i d e n t i t y .  My name i s Nk Xetko, my  n a t i o n i s Ntla'kapmux, my f a m i l y a r e the S t e r l i n g s o f Joeyaska.  I come from t h e Joeyaska  I n d i a n Reserve #2.  My  h i s t o r y i n c l u d e s twelve y e a r s o f s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y , home, and time spent a t an I n d i a n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l .  7  There  my The  t r u e i d e n t i t y was  r e p l a c e d by a number and a new  p o l i c y paper about the I n d i a n c h i l d l e a r n i n g about h i s  h e r i t a g e adds, "The school experience  l e s s o n s he l e a r n s i n s c h o o l , h i s whole  should r e i n f o r c e and c o n t r i b u t e t o the  image he has of h i m s e l f . " i n school. years  (p9)  T h i s d i d not happen f o r  I had much t o l e a r n and much t o r e p a i r .  following graduation  from s c h o o l I have had  back t o t r a d i t i o n a l ways and s t e p s which h e l p e d  family teachings  such as the i d e n t i t y I was  c u l t u r e and  heritage.  The  i d e n t i t y and c o n n e c t i o n  r e s e a r c h i n g my  we  In  to  taking  the  journey those  born i n t o , my  and  name,  my  second q u e s t i o n , where do I come from, e s t a b l i s h e s  h i s t o r y of my  and  me  r e s t o r e t h a t which had been s e p a r a t e d  l o s t t o me,  my  name.  Tracing  home at Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 great grandfather  subsequently c a l l home.  t o f a m i l y and p l a c e .  Joeyaska, the  the l a n d named a f t e r him,  the  included individual,  the p r o p e r t y  T h i s i n q u i r y i n c l u d e d the means by which  that my  f a t h e r i n h e r i t e d t h i s p r o p e r t y and what he d i d t o prove t h a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 The  was  indeed h i s home.  t h i r d q u e s t i o n , where am  mother, b r o t h e r s ,  I going,  states that  s i s t e r s , n i e c e s , nephews and  myself  i n h e r i t e d the l a n d known as Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2, l i v e t h e r e , we set  by my  separate  call  i t home and  c a r r y on i n the  f a t h e r and h i s g r a n d f a t h e r and alone  i n my  something a p a r t from what my  I am  not  I do not want  f a m i l y wants, i t i s a  d e s i r e , the g o a l t o p r o t e c t the l a n d as best we  8  we  traditions  b e f o r e him.  l o v e f o r the l a n d .  my  collective  can l i n e s  up  w i t h our dad and h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  goals; to l i v e i n a safe  environment today and t o ensure t h a t i t i s a s a f e environment for future All  generations.  o f the q u e s t i o n s ; Who am I, where do I come from,  and where am I g o i n g have answers which can be d i r e c t l y t r a c e d back t o our g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r  Joeyaska.  How do I know what the r e s t o f my f a m i l y wants f o r Joeyaska?  I know because I keep i n touch w i t h them, we  thoughts and f e e l i n g s as w e l l as hopes and dreams. i n f o r m a t i o n I have about t h e l a n d g e t s p a s s e d on. our  Whatever We  take  ' d i s c o u r s e ' t o g e t h e r v e r y s e r i o u s l y and c o n s i d e r i t t o be  a v e r y powerful The  share  and e n a b l i n g form o f human communication.  Random House D i c t i o n a r y (1980) d e f i n e s d i s c o u r s e a s :  communication o f thought by words, a formal d i s c u s s i o n o f a s u b j e c t i n speech o r w r i t i n g , t o t a l k o r converse, s u b j e c t f o r m a l l y i n speech o r w r i t i n g .  (p250)  to treat a Riddington  (1990) wrote, "Human communication i s a c u l t u r a l accomplishment and a means o f d e f i n i n g c u l t u r a l  identity."  (p.189) I am a f f e c t e d by the powerful  discourse of others.  When  t r u t h i s spoken and I hear i t , something happens w i t h i n me and  t h a t power a c t s upon and r e g u l a t e s my forming  o f myself.  For example the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l system f o r c i b l y removed my v o i c e , my power and caused me t o f e e l shame about my heritage.  Through a g r a d u a l  r e g a i n i n g t h e important  s e r i e s o f steps I have been  t h i n g s t h a t once were l o s t such as  f a m i l y h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and language.  9  I g e t t o know the dad  who  was  t h a t my and  separated f a t h e r was  from me  f o r years.  I have s i n c e  not o n l y a w a r r i o r ,  learned  a rancher, a  veteran  an i n t e r p r e t e r , but he c a r r i e d on i n s p i r i t u a l t r a d i t i o n s  as w e l l .  My  late brother  a family gathering first  time had  i n 1982.  Hearing my  a transformative  f a t h e r ' s song was warrior.  Robert S t e r l i n g sang a drum song at f a t h e r ' s song f o r the  e f f e c t on my  life.  My  powerful, i t sounded l i k e the song of a  H i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m Powers (1986) wrote,  The O g l a l a medicine men c a l l t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ' b l e s s i n g ' a p r o c e s s whereby the s a c r e d s t a t e of one o b j e c t or b e i n g i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o the s a c r e d s t a t e of another through the p r o p e r r i t u a l , (p.23) I can  say t h a t the s a c r e d  s t a t e s found i n d i s c u r s i v e  t r a d i t i o n s of our Ntla'kapmux f a m i l y have had e f f e c t upon  me.  Where d i d my mother s a i d he the h i s t o r y and respect  and  a healing  f a t h e r l e a r n about s i n g i n g drum songs?  learned  from h i s g r a n d f a t h e r .  the t e a c h i n g s  To hear about  of Joeyaska i n an atmosphere of  t r u t h has been p a r t o f the r e s t o r a t i o n  I t becomes not  o n l y a p o s i t i v e impact but  I have l i v e d on the l a n d a c q u i r e d  emption.  I see the i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s , the fences, the barn, they are t h e r e today.  are e v i d e n t My  today, they serve  through  prethe  strengthen  me.  Albert Sterling's children  have a r i g h t t o occupy and u t i l i z e the l a n d known as I n d i a n Reserve #2.  one  Joeyaska's e f f o r t s  t o s u s t a i n and  t h e s i s statement i s t h i s .  process.  an empowering  as w e l l .  corral,  My  Joeyaska  Along w i t h t h a t r i g h t comes the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be good stewards of the l a n d t o do a l l we can  t o s a f e g u a r d and p r o t e c t the l a n d a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n .  10  In d i s c o u r s e I have the power t o a f f e c t o t h e r s and  in this  w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e I have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p r e s t o r e  the #2  emphasis t h a t t h i s l a n d known as Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve i s our home, i t i s a t r e a s u r e d i n h e r i t a n c e from our  great  grandfather. When I l e a r n my  h i s t o r y , r i g h t s and p r i v i l e d g e s I  f o l l o w i n the f o o t s t e p s and m a i n t a i n who  b l a z e d the t r a i l b e f o r e me.  t h a t my  t r a d i t i o n s s e t by  In doing  so I can  a c t i o n s are worthy of t h e i r a p p r o v a l .  s i g n i f i c a n t because i t s e t s a standard,  can those  ensure  This i s  a standard  that  combining o r a l t r a d i t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge,  by  one  f a m i l y , the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y can use the best of b o t h worlds to p r o t e c t a b i r t h r i g h t . standards  This thesis w i l l voice  those  which can best be d e f i n e d as, honoring  the  family,  becoming educated, l e a r n i n g the laws, e s t a b l i s h i n g s t r o n g work e t h i c s , promoting c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and By o u t l i n i n g who I going,  I am,  values.  where do I come from and where  I am making a statement which r e f l e c t s not o n l y  i d e n t i t y but my  p h i l o s o p h i c a l outlook  as w e l l .  My  i s a message t o the world  value family t r a d i t i o n . and we  will  Reserve #2  We  do e v e r y t h i n g we  t h a t I s t a n d w i t h my  #2.  family to  have a h i g h r e g a r d f o r our home can t o make sure Joeyaska  i s a safe place to l i v e ,  Indian  and t h a t our r i g h t s a r e  protected.  By p a i n t i n g a p i c t u r e of how  grandfather  l o v e d the l a n d I want t o show how  spirits  my  identity  i n c l u d e s s t r o n g f a m i l y t i e s on Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve It  am  my  f a t h e r and their  warrior  i n c l u d e d a commitment t o and the p r o t e c t i o n of  11  his  the  land.  By c a r i n g f o r the l a n d and by b e i n g good p r o v i d e r s f o r  t h e i r f a m i l i e s on the land, I want t o expose t h i s noteworthy trait  as having  s u r v i v e d to the s i x t h g e n e r a t i o n .  This  philosophy  of c a r i n g and committment p r a c t i s e d and  down by my  f a t h e r A l b e r t S t e r l i n g and h i s  Joeyaska are e s p e c i a l l y  grandfather  important.  Former d i s t o r t e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l t e a c h i n g s to  b e l i e v e t h a t my  respect.  handed  h e r i t a g e was  forced  me  not worthy of honor or  For example, J . S . F r i d e r e s  (1978) wrote,  These s c h o o l s attempted t o separate the c h i l d from h i s p a r e n t s and community because they were not 'good' i n f l u e n c e s on the c h i l d r e n w i t h r e g a r d t o p u r s u i n g 'academic' c a r e e r s , (p.32) I can a t t e s t t o the f o r c e d a l i e n a t i o n and trauma i n h a v i n g been cut o f f from f a m i l y and c u l t u r e i n the p u r s u i t of academic e d u c a t i o n loss.  and how  Loss of f a m i l y and  i t c r e a t e d the p e r s o n a l l o s s of i d e n t i t y .  crisis  I remember  c r y i n g myself t o s l e e p e v e r y n i g h t at the r e s i d e n t i a l d u r i n g my  first  four years there.  importance of a good e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l at age  However, my  classmates  who  or s t a y e d home w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s ' p e r m i s s i o n .  were  As He  hard,  and t h i n k i n g about the f a m i l y times  l i f e meaning at home.  I recall,  cut hay,  school  I endured the  times at r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l by working  t h a t gave my  the  and made sure I d i d n ' t q u i t  16 when so many of my  keeping busy r e a d i n g ,  school  f a t h e r saw  d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h l i f e at s c h o o l e i t h e r ran away from  difficult  of  my  f a t h e r ' s work on the l a n d was  continual.  hunted, mended fences, made horse shoes, r e p a i r e d  12  harnesses,  branded c a l v e s .  As c h i l d r e n , we h e l p e d o r  sometimes accompanied our dad.  One such o c c a s i o n was the  summer when I was t e n y e a r s o l d , my f a t h e r brought when he went t o check the water-flow  us a l o n g  f o r one o f h i s  i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s and t o check the s t a t e o f the w i l d raspberries.  Four of us rode two horses, my s i s t e r  Shirley  and  I rode D i x i e , my younger b r o t h e r A u s t i n rode w i t h Dad on  his  horse  Baldy.  L i f e a t home was d i f f e r e n t than a t s c h o o l . r e g i m e n t a t i o n a t home.  There was no  I t was n a t u r a l t o spend time  with  p a r e n t s as they worked d u r i n g the day and t o h e l p out.  It  was a l s o n a t u r a l t o check out t r a d i t i o n a l foods t h a t grew i n the w i l d , t h e r e were no formal l e s s o n s w i t h p e n c i l and paper, p a r e n t s modeled and showed by example t h e ways t o s u r v i v e . We observed and f o l l o w e d . In  the H i s t o r y o f the N i c o l a V a l l e y Indians  (1979) i t i s  written that. For c e n t u r i e s and even i n t o the p r e s e n t l o c a l N a t i v e Indians possessed a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g m e n t a l i t y . . . t r i b a l members were t r a i n e d i n t h e p r o f i c i e n c i e s o f r e c o g n i z i n g foods, t r a i l s , dangers and the need f o r c o o p e r a t i v e s h a r i n g . ( S t e r l i n g p.39) We spent our l i v e s t o g e t h e r doing the t h i n g s t h a t were necessary to stay a l i v e . food.  There was v e r y l i t t l e  money t o buy  My f a t h e r a s s e r t e d h i s a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and f i s h e d  and hunted when i t was a g a i n s t the law.  He c a r r i e d t h a t a  s t e p f u r t h e r and hunted f o r e l d e r s who needed meat.  My  mother t o l d me t h a t when a l l of us c h i l d r e n went back t o the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n the f a l l ,  my f a t h e r brought  13  a wagon  l o a d o f deer from the h i l l s f o r them. preserve  f o r those who had no one t o hunt  I n our f a m i l y , i t was expected t h a t we p i c k and our own foods.  We l e a r n e d about s u r v i v a l and f a m i l y  t i e s as opposed t o memorizing academic t e x t s i n i s o l a t i o n a t Indian School.  Oscar Kawagley  e f f e c t t h e imposed e d u c a t i o n  (1995) summarized t h e c o n f u s i n g  system has had upon N a t i v e  children. The r a t i o n a l e behind r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s was t o f a c i l i t a t e the s h i f t away from t h e i r languages and l i f e w a y s . . . a c a t a c l y s m i c experience from which N a t i v e people a r e s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g t o r e c o v e r , (p.37) When I r e s e a r c h f a m i l y h i s t o r y t o s a f e g u a r d  i d e n t i t y and  homeland, I am not o n l y making meaning o f my l i f e but I am shaping  my d e s t i n y .  Not t o o l o n g ago many freedoms o f F i r s t  Nations  had been f o r c i b l y taken from us, freedom t o p r a c t i c e  c u l t u r e , speak our languages as w e l l as r i g h t s such as v o t i n g , and the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . now  Many o f us a r e  aware o f what has happened and a r e t a k i n g s t e p s t o make  things better. Musqueam weaver Debra Sparrow s a i d t o me r e c e n t l y t h a t she was g l a d t h a t I am r e s e a r c h i n g my f a t h e r ' s l a n d . You a r e h o n o r i n g your f a t h e r and g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r by what you do. As a people we a r e waking up t o t h e t r u t h of what happened t o u s . When we wake up, i t ' s time t o do the r i g h t t h i n g . Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 has become 'land i n d i s p u t e ' by t h e Lower N i c o l a Band. Sterlings.  I t i s not l a n d i n d i s p u t e f o r t h e  We know who a c q u i r e d and worked on t h e l a n d , our  great grandfather,  and we know who has the r i g h t t o h a r v e s t  the hay f i e l d s and t o l i v e on and occupy the l a n d .  14  Deanna  S t e r l i n g wrote about the p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e o f the  1938  amalgamation of Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 w i t h the Lower N i c o l a Band whose members c h a f f e d a t a c c e p t i n g newcomers spoke d i f f e r e n t  who  languages.  The d i s p a r i t y i s p r e v a l e n t t o t h i s day. The band wants t o develop the Joeyaska l a n d s which are a d j a c e n t t o the newly c o n s t r u c t e d C o q u i h a l l a highway. The band i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p u t t i n g i n a complex i n c l u d i n g c a s i n o , shopping m a l l and gas s t a t i o n s , the l a t e s t of a l o n g l i s t o f o t h e r attempted developments over the decades on Joeyaska N o r t h and South. (1998 p.20) As a descendant  o f Joeyaska I can say no one has a r i g h t t o  the l a n d a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 except the of Joeyaska.  We weren't  descendants  j u s t born t h e r e , but we worked on  the l a n d and h e l p e d out w i t h r a n c h i n g and farming chores as well.  George Manual  (1979) s t a t e d ,  The lands t h a t b e l o n g t o us by n a t i v e t i t l e , and the compensation f o r our a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , are our b i r t h r i g h t as the a b o r i g i n a l peoples o f N o r t h America, (p.260) No one has the r i g h t t o s e t f o o t on Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 without the p e r m i s s i o n o f the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y . have g a i n e d t h i s knowledge through o r a l t r a d i t i o n  I  and  s t o r y t e l l i n g and through a r c h i v a l and l a n d a l l o t m e n t documents.  In answer t o the q u e s t i o n , where d i d the problem  of l a n d d i s p u t e begin?  In 193 8 the F e d e r a l Government took  over the a f f a i r s o f I n d i a n lands and r e s e r v e s from the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Agent  I t was  convenient f o r the I n d i a n  t o meet w i t h a s i n g l e c h i e f and c o u n c i l when Joeyaska  I n d i a n Reserve #2 was  amalgamated w i t h the Lower N i c o l a Band.  Formerly, Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 was was  the c h i e f o f h i s f a m i l y c l a n .  He was  15  s e p a r a t e , Joeyaska c o n s u l t e d by the  I n d i a n Agent.  With t h i s knowledge the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y can  "take up the burden of our h i s t o r y and s e t out on our journey,"  (Manuel 1979  p.261) t o c a r r y on i n the t r a d i t i o n o f  Joeyaska on the l a n d he l o v e d so w e l l . In J u l y 1995  my  a r t therapy i n s t r u c t o r Roberta Nadeau  t o l d us the s i l e n t statement  violinist  Isaac S t e r n makes t o  the audience b e f o r e he s t a r t s p l a y i n g . "I am here t o t e l l you the t r u t h . " language  In h i s mind he says,  In the Ntla'kapmux  I say " P e l p e e p l u x k i n t k spilaxem"  t e l l you my  truth.  T h i s i s the s t o r y of  16  I am g o i n g t o  Joeyaska.  CHAPTER ONE  Many o f Canada's Indigenous people d e f i n e themselves i n terms o f the homelands t h a t s u s t a i n e d t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . These a r e the p l a c e s where t h e i r s p i r i t u a l r o o t s l i e . (Arthur Ray, 1996 p . l )  En-jawa en-skwest  Nk'xetko.  (My name i s Nk'xetko).  come from the Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2. Sophie and the l a t e A l b e r t S t e r l i n g . A u s t i n S t e r l i n g a r e my b r o t h e r s .  My p a r e n t s a r e  F r e d S t e r l i n g and  Sarah Stewart, Deanna  S t e r l i n g and Seepeetza a r e my s i s t e r s . c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n .  I  There a r e numerous  We were a l l born i n M e r r i t t ,  have r e s i d e d a t Joeyaska and most o f those S t e r l i n g s named c o n t i n u e t o l i v e t h e r e and c a l l  i t home.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a n d a t Joeyaska.  The S t e r l i n g s a r e  A few of us have moved  elsewhere, however, we r e t u r n t o f a m i l y , and l a n d because we have s t r o n g t i e s and c o n n e c t i o n s ; i t w i l l always be home t o me.  This chapter w i l l  i n t r o d u c e Joeyaska, and h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o my name and I w i l l draw g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r and my name.  a l i n k between my  I w i l l p r e s e n t the h i s t o r y o f  t h i s man known as Joeyaska, who he was and why he chose t o s e t t l e a t N i c o l a Lake then move t o Godey Canyon, now Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 . Words and s t o r i e s from p a r e n t s and f a m i l y members h e l p e s t a b l i s h who I am i n r e l a t i o n t o my p l a c e i n the f a m i l y and where I come from. me "Nk'xetko"  I n essence, my i d e n t i t y .  at birth,  from the s t a t e s .  My f a t h e r named  a f t e r a r e l a t i v e he'd heard about  T h i s statement about my name i n t r o d u c e s a  p a r t o f my f a t h e r ' s h e r i t a g e .  Why d i d he have r e l a t i v e s i n  17  the  S t a t e s and who was he r e l a t e d t o ? I always f e l t t h a t my f a t h e r knew something funny about  the  name Nk'xetko because he u s u a l l y c h u c k l e d whenever he  spoke the name.  When I was a t e e n a t the r e s i d e n t i a l  school  one o f my Ntla'kapmux c l a s s m a t e s heard my name and t o l d me she thought the name meant "Water L i l y " . if say  I asked my mother  t h a t were t r u e , she laughed and s a i d no, t h a t ' s n o t how t o water  lily.  Whenever I asked my mother o r o t h e r e l d e r s what t h e name Nk'xetko meant, they always s a i d the same t h i n g ,  "We don't  know what i t means, i t comes from a language i n t h e S t a t e s . It's  your f a t h e r ' s r e l a t i v e s from a c r o s s the l i n e . " We don't know what t r i b e Joeyaska came from i n t h e  S t a t e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he was e i t h e r Okanagan o r Nez Perce from Washington  State.  A l l we know i s t h a t he f l e d t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s C a v a l r y and s e t t l e d a t N i c o l a  Lake.  The Handbook o f American I n d i a n s P a r t 2 (1960) on names states that, the  " P e r s o n a l names among I n d i a n s d e f i n e o r i n d i c a t e  s o c i a l group i n t o which a man i s born."  (Hodge p.16)  My  name would i n d i c a t e t h a t I was born i n t o Joeyaska's group. Other f a m i l y members have names from the Ntla'kapmux  language  and they c a n be t r a n s l a t e d , such as my s i s t e r Sarah's name, 1  T z u l - t z a - l i n e k , ' means ' h u c k l e b e r r y eyes'.  is  ' L h i - l h e t k o ' which means ' l i t t l e  My mothers name  s q u i r t o f water'.  goes on t o d e s c r i b e t h a t t i t l e s o r honorary names which  Hodge fall  i n t o a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y r e q u i r e ceremony and f e a s t s , b u t for  t h e sake o f b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f i c i e n c y ,  18  "...the o f f i c e o f  I n d i a n A f f a i r s has made an e f f o r t t o s y s t e m a t i z e  the names o f  some o f the Indians f o r the purpose o f f a c i l i t a t i n g a l l o t m e n t s e t c . " (p.18)  land  F o r t h e purpose o f b a p t i s m a l  r e c o r d s , r e g i s t r a t i o n w i t h the Department o f I n d i a n and b e i n g sent t o r e s i d e n t i a l b o a r d i n g  Affairs  s c h o o l as w e l l , our  names were changed t o C h r i s t i a n names. The The  Gage Canadian D i c t i o n a r y (1983) d e f i n e s a name a s :  word o r words by which an i n d i v i d u a l , person,  animal, about,  group,  p l a c e o r sometimes a t h i n g i s known and spoken t o o r (p.759)  My name was important  t o me because i t d e f i n e d my p l a c e  i n the f a m i l y u n i t and i t e s t a b l i s h e d my p l a c e w i t h i n the community.  A t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l the p o l i c y about names  sought t o remove those f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s  from me b y  r e p l a c i n g my name Nk'xetko w i t h a number, 39, and w i t h a new name, Mary Jane.  I had no way of knowing a t age s i x t h a t  b e i n g f o r c e d t o change my name from Nk'xetko t o Mary Jane was p a r t o f t h e Canadian Government's r u l e o f " E n g l i s h o n l y " a t r e s i d e n t i a l schools.  John Boyko (1995) d e s c r i b e d such a  rule. A l l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l l e s s o n s were taught i n E n g l i s h . I t was f o r b i d d e n f o r any student t o speak t h e i r language even i n p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , (p.187) The  r u l e a p p l i e d t o names as w e l l .  experience  I t was q u i t e a s h o c k i n g  h a v i n g t o g i v e up one's name and have i t r e p l a c e d  by a C h r i s t i a n name and a number, however, d e s p i t e a l l these new changes, I always c o n s i d e r e d myself grand daughter o f Joeyaska.  t o be Nk'xetko, g r e a t  I f e l t honored t o be r e l a t e d t o  19  him  and t o r e c e i v e the name t h a t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s  f a m i l y of o r i g i n . Who was Joeyaska and where d i d he come from?  These were  always t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e d mystery and wonderment among us g r a n d c h i l d r e n .  A l l I knew about him was b i t s and  p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o l d by my mother.  F o r example,  my f a t h e r was born i n 1896, "He l i v e d w i t h h i s  after  grandfather  because h i s mother Sarah worked w i t h h e r husband C h a r l i e S t e r l i n g on t h e wagon roads h a u l i n g f r e i g h t between settlements."  (Personal Communication)  B a i l l a r g e o n & Tepper  (1998) d e s c r i b e t h i s l i f e s t y l e change from the " f u r b r i g a d e t o the pack t r a i n " f o r many I n t e r i o r t r i b a l people  due t o t h e  demand f o r food, goods and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n brought about by the g o l d rush.  "The a r r i v a l o f so many new people began the  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the economic base o f N a t i v e people southern  i n the  i n t e r i o r from h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g t o r a n c h i n g ,  f a r m i n g and wage l a b o r . " (p.100) f o r our people,  Many changes came about  i t was n a t u r a l f o r grandparents t o p i t c h i n  and h e l p r a i s e t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n when n e c e s s a r y .  Extended  f a m i l y i s v e r y h e l p f u l i n times o f need, I remember my grandmother h e l p i n g r a i s e me because my own p a r e n t s were so busy working on t h e l a n d . I was t o l d t h a t my f a t h e r as a l i t t l e boy s t a y e d h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Joeyaska a t N i c o l a Lake.  with  They l i v e d i n a  w i n t e r lodge o r ' s h i - i s t k e n ' and my f a t h e r s l e p t between h i s grandparents because he d i d n ' t have h i s own b l a n k e t and i t was c o l d d u r i n g the w i n t e r .  ( F i e l d Notes)  20  Anglican  M i s s i o n a r y J.B. Good d e s c r i b e d g o i n g i n t o a p i t house i n 1867.  "These underground d w e l l i n g s f o r w i n t e r  occupation  were d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e s t o e n t e r on days when t h e wind was blowing 1958  f i e r c e l y from the n o r t h . "  (Ecclesiastical  Archives  p.98) The  s t o r y I heard my mother t e l l  about Joeyaska i s t h a t  he was an American I n d i a n , a w a r r i o r . Joeyaska, on horseback was b e i n g chased by t h e U.S. C a v a l r y i n the S t a t e o f Washington. H i s horse stumbled, Joeyaska f e l l o f f . He q u i c k l y covered h i m s e l f w i t h d i r t , d r i e d l e a v e s and p i n e n e e d l e s . The horse r a n o f f . C a v a l r y s o l d i e r s on t h e i r horses g a l l o p e d over and around Joeyaska, they d i d n ' t see him. When i t was dark, Joeyaska found h i s horse and rode n o r t h i n t o the s a f e t y of Canada. He s e t t l e d a t N i c o l a Lake.  It  i s n o t known e x a c t l y what year t h i s took p l a c e .  I  estimate  t h a t i t had t o be i n the l a t e 1850's o r the e a r l y  1860's.  I have come t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n because my f a t h e r was  b o r n i n 1896, he had a b r o t h e r Eddy who was 10 y e a r s  older  than h i m s e l f , h i s mother would have been born around 1868 a l l o w i n g t h a t she would have been a t l e a s t 18 y e a r s o l d when she m a r r i e d  Charlie Sterling.  Joeyaska would have taken up  to  t e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c a v a l r y chase t o make h i s way  to  N i c o l a Lake and g e t s e t t l e d w i t h wives and c h i l d r e n . The book Death S t a l k s the Yakima  of  (1997) g i v e s a p i c t u r e  t h e b i t t e r c l a s h e s and c o n f l i c t s between the p l a t e a u  t r i b e s o f Washington w i t h the U.S. C a v a l r y i n the 1850's. C l i f f o r d T r a f z e r wrote, When two Yakama men murdered I n d i a n Agent Andrew Jackson Bolon, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s sent t r o o p s i n t o t h e Yakima V a l l e y . Thus began a war which l a s t e d  21  i n t e r m i t t e n t l y from 1855-1858, ending i n d i s a s t r o u s consequences f o r Yakima p e o p l e , (p.29) One of those consequences was  b e i n g run out of one's  homeland  by the American s o l d i e r s when European s e t t l e r s began t o occupy the t e r r i t o r y and p r o s p e c t o r s mined the l a n d . book N a t i v e American Testimony of l a n d f o r I n d i a n "Between 1853  (1991) d e s c r i b e d such a l o s s  tribes. and 1857 Congress r a t i f i e d  t r e a t i e s by which t r i b e s l i v i n g Washington  lost  The  i n Idaho, Oregon  157 m i l l i o n a c r e s . "  r e f l e c t i o n upon governments  fifty-two  (p.119)  and  I t i s a sad  t o draw up t r e a t i e s w i t h t r i b e s  i n the appearance of s e t t i n g up p a r t n e r s h i p s when i n r e a l i t y i t was  a "call  f o r the I n d i a n s to move to the l e a s t  fertile  c o r n e r o f t h e i r e x i s t i n g lands, abandon t h e i r homes and move elsewhere."  (Nabakov p.118)  Joeyaska among many o t h e r s had no c h o i c e i n the m a t t e r . B a i l l a r g e o n & Tepper  (1998) p r e s e n t Nez Perce cowboy J a c k s o n  Sundown's s i m i l a r escape from American  soldiers.  Caught up i n the Nez Perce Wars of 1877 as a young teenager, Sundown s u r v i v e d the massacre at the B a t t l e of B i g Hole by h i d i n g under b u f f a l o robes i n a t i p i u n t i l the t i p i was s e t on f i r e . He escaped from the b a t t l e f i e l d a t Bear Paw Mountain by c l i n g i n g t o the s i d e of h i s horse, r e m a i n i n g out of the s o l d i e r s ' s i g h t . (P-191) The h o r s e i n t h i s i n c i d e n t i s f e a t u r e d as a v e r y important v e h i c l e f o r escape.  Many F i r s t N a t i o n s owned and p r i z e d  h o r s e s , which have been an important p a r t of the l i f e s t y l e f o r P l a i n s and P l a t e a u c u l t u r e s .  Horses made l i f e  easier  w i t h r e g a r d t o " t r a d i n g and h u n t i n g methods, expanding territorial  occupancy, a b o r i g i n a l people became superb  22  equestrians."  (p.24)  Horses enhanced the l i v e s of men  l i k e my  great  grand  f a t h e r Joeyaska, and Jackson Sundown among o t h e r s . cases horses  helped  save t h e i r l i v e s .  "Sundown t r a v e l e d wounded and without  In  these  I t i s documented t h a t , food, moccasins o r  b l a n k e t s through the l a t e autumn c o l d . " (pl91)  He made i t  t o C h i e f S i t t i n g B u l l ' s v i l l a g e e a s t of the Rocky Mountains i n Canada.  P r i o r t o 1870  two  c h i e f s among the Nez  Kamiahton and White B i r d , escaped and "The  t r i b e was  still  Perce,  f l e d t o Canada when  r e e l i n g from the c r u s h i n g d e f e a t o f C o l .  Wright.  T h e i r m i l i t a n t c h i e f s Owhi and Qualchen had  killed."  (Drury 1979  p.266)  One  can see why  Joeyaska f l e d t o Canada d u r i n g  v i o l e n t and u n c e r t a i n times i n the S t a t e s . questions  remain as t o why  P o s s i b l y i t was  been  those  Many unanswered  he chose t o l i v e at N i c o l a Lake.  because the f u r t r a d e r o u t e r a n a l o n g  the  p l a t e a u n o r t h from the Columbia R i v e r through the Okanagan V a l l e y up t o N i c o l a . was  a popular  ( B a i l l e r g e o n & Teppen 1998,  p.98)  This  r o u t e p r i o r t o the f u r t r a d e as w e l l f o r the  procurement of food.  H i s t o r i a n James T e i t d e s c r i b e d  I n t e r i o r t r i b e s gathered  how  at K e t t l e F a l l s f o r the summer f i s h  runs ; Many Lake (Okanagons) went down t o near Marcus, K e t t l e F a l l s and o t h e r p l a c e s a l o n g the Columbia on the c o n f i n e s of the C o l v i l l e . The c h i e f s a l m o n - f i s h i n g p l a c e s i n the t e r r i t o r i e s of the Okanagon t r i b e s appear t o have been i n the v i c i n i t y of K e t t l e F a l l s . (Smithsonian Report p.247) When my  mother s a i d t h a t Joeyaska spoke the Okanagan and  23  the  Stuwix languages, t h i s s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t he had a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Okanagans and Stuwix a l r e a d y l i v i n g i n the N i c o l a Lake a r e a .  I t opened the way f o r him t o s e t t l e i n  a p l a c e where he was f a m i l i a r w i t h the language o f t h e p e o p l e i n that v i c i n i t y .  I n any case, Joeyaska m a r r i e d i n t o and  adopted the languages and customs o f the people a t N i c o l a Lake,  some o f whom were Ntla'kapmux.  I heard t h a t  Joeyaska  had f o u r wives, one was Okanagan and one Ntla'kapmux, I'm u n c e r t a i n as t o which t r i b e and language t h e o t h e r s belonged to.  There i s documentation  i n a book about  Northwestern  T r i b e s b y Franz Boas t h a t suggests Joeyaska t o be "of t h e Thomson, T i n n e h and o f an Okanagan speaking branch o f t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h " when h i s a s s i s t a n t James T e i t went up t o N i c o l a Lake i n 1895 t o see, One o f t h e o l d men named T c u i e s k a o r S h e s u l u s h k i n , i s the f i r s t p e r s o n o f the NatlakyapamuQ whom I have seen t a t o o e d i n the body. He i s one q u a r t e r Stuwi'HamuQ one q u a r t e r Okanagan and h a l f Nkamtci'nemuQ. (p.32) How d i d I r e c o g n i z e t h i s i n d i v i d u a l as b e i n g my g r e a t grandfather? Stuwix. was  I know from o r a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t Joeyaska was  I immediately r e c o g n i z e d the name S h e s u l u s h k i n ,  i t  the name g i v e n t o my e l d e s t b r o t h e r , t h e l a t e Robert  William Sterling.  Names were g e n e r a l l y passed on from t h e  a n c e s t o r s t o b a b i e s and kept w i t h i n the f a m i l y u n i t , and these were f a m i l i a r t o everyone. In the Memoir o f American H i s t o r y  (1900) James T e i t gave  an account o f t h e " u n i t y o f t h e f a m i l y through h e r e d i t a r y names.  Each f a m i l y had c e r t a i n names, and no one b u t members  of t h e f a m i l y were p e r m i t t e d t o use them."  24  (p.290)  An example o f such a naming took p l a c e a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 i n J u l y 1997.  Four o f my n i e c e s r e c e i v e d names  from my f a t h e r ' s and mother's f a m i l y . Ntla'kapmux Naming Ceremony. grandmothers,  They c a l l e d i t an  A f t e r r e s e a r c h i n g our  and aunts' names and r e c e i v i n g the a p p r o v a l  from my mother t h a t t h i s was r i g h t and c o r r e c t , they c a l l e d f a m i l y and f r i e n d s t o g e t h e r t o w i t n e s s t h e account.  Opening  p r a y e r s were s a i d , g i f t s were g i v e n , the e l d e r s were acknowledged, the o c c a s i o n .  f o o d was shared, drum songs and s t o r i e s marked I now know L i s a S t e r l i n g as Powtan'maalks,  J a n e s s a i s Kwistaz -Yetko, J a c k i e i s K w i l - k w i l k o and so on. I t was a s p e c i a l and memorable o c c a s i o n .  Teit called i t  " p r o c l a i m i n g b e f o r e them the name by which the c h i l d i s t o be known."  (p.291)  I know my b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s by t h e i r I n d i a n names as w e l l , no one e l s e I know has the same names.  When I r e a d  t h a t James T e i t went t o see S h e s u l u s h k i n a t N i c o l a I r e c o g n i z e d Robert S t e r l i n g ' s name, and I knew the meaning, 'Red sun r i s i n g over the mountain.' T e i t wrote the name 'Tcuieska' which sounds l i k e an a n g l i c i z e d and e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f the name Joeyaska.  When  T e i t d e s c r i b e d t h a t Joeyaska was Stuwix and Okanagan, I knew t h a t was c o r r e c t because my f a t h e r spoke those languages as w e l l as Ntla'kapmux.  I asked my mother an Ntla'kapmux  speaker, how d i d my f a t h e r l e a r n so many languages.  She s a i d  t h a t my f a t h e r l e a r n e d Okanagan from h i s mother Sarah Joeyaska, he l e a r n e d Stuwix from h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Joeyaska,  25  and my  f a t h e r l e a r n e d Ntla'kapmux from h i s grandmother  Martha, o r B u e l t k o who  was  Ntla'kapmux.  I asked my mother i f  she know t h a t Joeyaska had been tatooed, her answer was, that's probably r i g h t .  Joeyaska had run away from  "Oh,  the  American army, he p r o b a b l y t a t o o e d h i m s e l f so no one would r e c o g n i z e him and make him go back t h e r e . " It Joeyaska  was  a great t h r i l l  from an encounter  f o r me  t o read something about  i n 1895.  In looking i n t o  s u b j e c t of t a t o o i n g i n the Smithsonian  the  Report by James T e i t ,  he wrote t h a t "Tatooing among the Thompson people,  although  done i n a l a r g e measure f o r ornament n e v e r t h e l e s s was  also  i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of the  people."  ( T e i t p404)  'custom  t h a t was  He went on t o say t h a t t a t o o i n g was  f a l l i n g i n t o d i s u s e and t h a t I n d i a n s were r e l u c t a n t  t o g i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s of t a t o o marks o c c u r r i n g on person.'  a  their  ( T e i t p.404)  I have no doubt t h a t Joeyaska about h i s t a t o o s .  Nothing  s a i d n o t h i n g t o James T e i t  i n t h a t book i s r e c o r d e d about i t .  I know t h a t my b r o t h e r s say v e r y l i t t l e about p e r s o n a l customs e s p e c i a l l y about r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l matters, don't  share t h a t k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n .  T e i t ' s b r i e f account  Now  we  However, on r e a d i n g  about T c u i e s k a o r S h e s u l u s h k i n , i t  h e l p e d v e r i f y some o f the o r a l h i s t o r y about.  they  I'd h e a r d f a m i l y t a l k  see i t i n p r i n t .  Another w r i t t e n account  about Joeyaska  i s found i n a  monthly n e w s l e t t e r c a l l e d the Kamloops Wawa V o l . IV, No. i n by F a t h e r J.M.Le Jeune  1,  (1895) C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y i n the  26  i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In the N i c o l a Country B.C. there a r e t h r e e o l d menTemlh-skool-han, Haap-kan and Shoo-yaska who a r e s t i l l pagans and who have spent t h e i r l i v e s i n the Similkameen or between the Similkameen and the N i c o l a . But they a r e n e i t h e r Similkameen n o r N i c o l a I n d i a n s . They b e l o n g t o another f a m i l y , o f which they a r e now the o n l y s u r v i v o r s , (p.98) Contrary  t o Father  Le Jeune, Joeyaska was not the o n l y  s u r v i v o r of h i s family.  He had many descendants.  t h i s statement shows t h a t Father Joeyaska's t r i b a l d i f f e r e n c e .  Le Jeune  However,  recognized  Our f a m i l y m a i n t a i n s t h a t  Joeyaska was Stuwix. The Stuwi'HamuQ (Stuwix) was a p a r t o f the Athapaskan language group r e l a t e d t o C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r i n c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n B.C. and the Apache and Navaho o f the American Southwest. ( S t e r l i n g 1998 p.8) I f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Father great grandfather  was a pagan.  LeJeune s t a t e d t h a t my  I b e l i e v e t h i s r e f e r s t o the  f a c t t h a t Joeyaska o r Shoo-yaska had f o u r wives, and t h i s p r a c t i c e was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the t e a c h i n g s missionaries.  F o r example B r e t t C h r i s t o p h e r s  about the 'savages' i n the L y t t o n d i s t r i c t , mission but  of the (1998) wrote  "From 1868  s t a t u t e s r u l e d not o n l y t h a t monogamy was e s s e n t i a l  t h a t a man was o n l y e l i g i b l e f o r baptism i f h i s p a r t n e r  was h i s f i r s t w i f e . " missionary  (p.122)  Reverend J.B.  Good,  a t t h e time s t r u g g l e d w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s  Anglican of the  church and t h e e n f o r c i n g o f such r e g u l a t i o n s among the Ntla'kapmux s p e l l e d Nlha7kapmx. In 1900 James T e i t documented the Thompson people and polygamy.  "For a man t o have s e v e r a l wives was i n d i c a t i v e o f  27  wealth."  (The Jesup Report p.326)  F a t h e r LeJeune's and Reverend J.B.  I t i s possible  that  Good's i n f l u e n c e  p r e v a i l e d because e v e n t u a l l y Joeyaska r e l e n t e d and chose t o marry one w i f e . Lytton area.  He chose Martha an Ntla'kapmux from the  S h i r l e y S t e r l i n g e l a b o r a t e d f u r t h e r on  Joeyaska's d e c i s i o n on ' p u t t i n g a s i d e the o t h e r wives.' "Joeyaska c a r e d about the o t h e r wives and c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t them."  ( S t e r l i n g 1997 p.3)  The t h i r d mention o f Joeyaska i n p r i n t happens t o be t h e e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n account which g i v e s a s u r v e y o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of  land.  The t i t l e ,  "Joeyaska's Reserve i n S l l T91" i s d a t e d  September 11, 1878 and s t a t e s t h a t i t i s "A Reserve near the j u n c t i o n o f the N i c o l a and Coldwater R i v e r s . "  This  p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s h a n d w r i t t e n by the Commissioner  G.M.  Sproat i n Volume 1 o f the Minutes o f D e c i s i o n .  A very  c u r i o u s n o t a t i o n e x i s t s on t h i s page, the t i t l e  i s preceded  by t h e words "Naweesistikun's t r i b e " , have never h e a r d o f . one o f the members. mentioned  and t h a t i s a name I  However, i t suggests t h a t Joeyaska i s The name "Naweeshistan"  i s also  i n P o s i t i o n i n g the M i s s i o n a r y 1998, a book  d e s c r i b i n g m i s s i o n a r y accounts w i t h Ntla'kapmux i n the L y t t o n and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . The f o u r t h w r i t t e n account about Joeyaska i s a l s o h a n d w r i t t e n by G.M. Sproat i n Volume 4 of h i s F i e l d of  an i n c i d e n t on October 19, 1878.  Minutes  In the l e t t e r he  d e s c r i b e d how Joeyaska, s p e l l e d J o - i - y a s - k a h , has met him i n the  town o f Hope, B.C. t o b r i n g a g r i e v a n c e about a p i e c e o f  28  land.  Sproat  (1878) s t a t e d i n h i s l e t t e r t h a t ,  I have d e c i d e d t o a l l o t t h e l a n d and t h a t J o - i - y a s - k a h s h a l l have a p i e c e o f l a n d a t the p l a c e he so much d e s i r e d , (p.279) T h i s p l a c e i s s i t u a t e d i n Township 91, M e r r i t t , B.C. S e c t i o n 11 on Godey Creek, 4 m i l e s south o f the town o f Merritt.  I t i s important  t o note here t h a t i n 1878,  There was c o n s i d e r a b l e B r i t i s h Columbian l a n d p o l i c y : Crown g r a n t s , pre-emptions t h a t were confirmed by c e r t i f i c a t e s o f improvement, m i n e r a l r i g h t s , water r i g h t s , g r a z i n g r i g h t s , as w e l l as N a t i v e r e s e r v e s . ( H a r r i s 1997 p.125) By  1870 much o f the l a n d had been surveyed  the Royal E n g i n e e r s .  My mother t o l d me t h a t the o l d p e o p l e  h e a r d t h a t t h e surveyors "Moi  and l a i d out by  were measuring out p a r c e l s o f l a n d .  Ees was sent t o i n q u i r e of the surveyors  bigger p o r t i o n of land." communication problem.  (Sophie  and ask f o r a  S t e r l i n g 1995)  There was a  The e f f o r t s of Moi Ees t o request  more l a n d was not heard and t h e r e was a g e n e r a l disappointment among the Coldwater I n d i a n s .  f e e l i n g of  However, the  name Joeyaska and Joeyaska's P l a c e was c l e a r l y documented. In 1878 Lands Commissioner Sproat  "assumed" N a t i v e  settlement  overrode any non-Native c l a i m s . Where t h e r e was u n c e r t a i n t y , the balance o f doubt s h o u l d f a v o r the N a t i v e s . ( H a r r i s 1997 p.126) Joeyaska got h i s l a n d . reason  I t i s w r i t t e n and r e c o r d e d .  t o b e l i e v e Joeyaska gave a f e a s t and sang h i s drum  songs l o n g i n t o the n i g h t i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h i s Joeyaska occupied,  made improvements and complied  r e g u l a t i o n s o f the day. one  I have  event. with the  He passed the l a n d t o h i s sons and  daughter who were f u l l b l o o d Indians having  29  ' s t a t u s ' and  b e i n g r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the DIA.  My f a t h e r was born  'status'  because h i s mother d i d not marry C h a r l i e S t e r l i n g u n t i l 1898. C h a r l i e was a h a l f - b r e e d ,  h i s f a t h e r was from the B r i t i s h  I s l e s , h i s mother was from the N i c o l a Lake a r e a .  Being  ' s t a t u s ' gave my grandmother Sarah Joeyaska the r i g h t t o occupy and use t h e l a n d and t o pass i t on t o my f a t h e r A l b e r t S t e r l i n g who i n t u r n occupied, and c o n s i d e r e d property. was  Because my f a t h e r had one-quarter white b l o o d he  c a l l e d a half-breed.  f l u e n c y i n Indian was  i t his  F i r s t Nations.  However, i n h i s l i f e s t y l e , h i s  languages, h i s s u b s i s t e n c e  t r a d i t i o n s , he  He put up b u i l d i n g s and made improvements  kept t h e l a n d s a f e and shared h i s h o s p i t a l i t y .  When he was  happy and c e l e b r a t i n g he sang h i s drum songs l o n g i n t o the night.  30  CHAPTER  TWO  S t o r y t e l l i n g may be the o l d e s t of the a r t s . We know t h a t e v e r y c u l t u r e on e a r t h has passed e s s e n t i a l i d e a s from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the next by word of mouth. (Cruikshank 1991 p.11) When I was  seventeen y e a r s o l d at s c h o o l , one  p r i e s t s brought me  from Kamloops t o N i c o l a Lake t o  some i n f o r m a t i o n about my requested  it.  e l d e r who  was  c u l t u r e because my  the  gather  teacher  I spoke w i t h N e l l i e G u i t t e r i e z , an Okanagan the main cook a t the Guichon Ranch.  at her k i t c h e n t a b l e she t o l d me  As we  many t h i n g s about  h i s t o r y of the Ntla'kapmux people. was  of  sat  the  For example, what  life  l i k e p r i o r t o European c o n t a c t , about food, s h e l t e r and  c l o t h i n g , the g e n e r a l s u b s i s t e n c e l i f e s t y l e common t o I n t e r i o r S a l i s h people. a f f i l i a t i o n was  Though N e l l i e ' s language and  tribal  Okanagan, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of language,  the  Okanagan and Ntla'kapmux shared many s i m i l a r i t i e s . In 1904  James T e i t c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n of  S a l i s h a n t r i b e s f o r the Smithsonian  Institute.  He  the  had  a l r e a d y completed an e x t e n s i v e study of the Ntla'kapmux o r Thompson t r i b e s i n 1900  f o r the Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y .  There were many items T e i t i n t r o d u c e d such as h a b i t a t , and bone implements,  "The  stone  t o o l s . . . appear t o have been the  same as those employed by the Thompson"  (p.217)  Numerous  examples of p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are comparable between the two  t r i b e s and  found t o be  similar.  A f t e r N e l l i e f i n i s h e d s h a r i n g her c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i c a l knowledge she t o l d me grandfather  about how  my  a c q u i r e d h i s l a n d at Godie Canyon,  31  and  great "Your  father's grandfather  Joeyaska got h o l d of 320 a c r e s of l a n d ,  i t was a pre-emption."  (Personal i n t e r v i e w 1968)  t h a t statement v e r y w e l l because N e l l i e repeated  I remember the word  'pre-emption' and I had no i d e a of what i t meant a t the time. N e l l i e ' s words t h a t day r e p r e s e n t e d the importance of o r a l t r a d i t i o n .  an important  l e s s o n on  Her statements have s i n c e  become a c r u c i a l source o f i n f o r m a t i o n not o n l y t o me but t o o t h e r members of my f a m i l y as w e l l i n our study of Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2. Jeannette verbal  Armstrong, an Okanagan author  (1992) d e s c r i b e s  testimony.  You not o n l y have t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r speaking those words, but you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e f f e c t o f those words on the person you are a d d r e s s i n g and the thousands of y e a r s of t r i b a l memory packed i n t o your u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f those words, (p.293) N e l l i e ' s words had a profound e f f e c t on me. testimony  was empowering and i t helped  Her  r e s t o r e some l o s t  knowledge t o a young r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l student.  What she  t o l d me was knowledge common t o most everyone i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y , but news t o me. about our h i s t o r y  F i r s t l y , my p a r e n t s  t o l d me  nothing  o r c u l t u r e t o save me from g e t t i n g p u n i s h e d  a t s c h o o l as they had been, and secondly, s c h o o l d i d not i n c l u d e l o c a l  history  learned at  information.  N e l l i e f u l f i l l e d her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s h a r i n g  oral  t r a d i t i o n t h a t day by t e l l i n g me another s t o r y about the history  of Joeyaska.  Before  Joeyaska moved up t o Godey Canyon, he f i s h e d a t  the Coldwater R i v e r .  He had many f i s h racks where he  32  d r i e d s t r i p s o f salmon. When t h e whitemen wanted t h a t l a n d near t h e r i v e r , they burned t h e f i s h r a c k s . This f o r c e d J o e y a s k a away from t h e r i v e r . ( P e r s o n a l notes 1968) N e l l i e ' s spilaxem F i r s t Nations  t h a t day s e r v e d t o g i v e v o i c e t o o u r  knowledge o f Joeyaska's l a n d pre-emption.  Subsequent l a n d r e c o r d s  show t h a t Joeyaska ' a c q u i r e d ' t h e  l a n d and i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t o know t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  up t o t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n .  I t g i v e s a more rounded p i c t u r e o f  the event and h e l p s r e - e n f o r c e the  that lead  the S t e r l i n g family's c l a i m to  land. I r e c e n t l y asked P a t Lean, h i s t o r i a n a t t h e M e r r i t t  A r c h i v e s , i f he c o u l d t e l l me a n y t h i n g  about J o e y a s k a .  He  said, J o e y a s k a had some f i s h r a c k s by t h e r i v e r ( C o l d w a t e r ) . Some w h i t e men burned those r a c k s because they considered that land t h e i r property. J o e y a s k a was so angry t h a t he f i r e d a t them w i t h h i s gun. He d i d n ' t k i l l anyone, j u s t shot a h o l e throught t h e h a t . ( P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w 1999) Again,  Mr.  Lean's v e r b a l t e s t i m o n y  helped  establish  J o e y a s k a ' s s i t u a t i o n and t h e u n f o l d i n g o f events l e a d i n g t o h i s l a n d a l l o t m e n t a t Godey Creek. I l e a r n e d by d i s c u s s i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t w i t h my f a m i l y and r e a d i n g my s i s t e r Deanna S t e r l i n g ' s G r a d u a t i n g t h a t i t was my mother's g r a n d f a t h e r was  shot a t .  Paper (1998)  W i l l i a m Voght Sr.  who  H i s pre-empted l a n d by t h e r i v e r was t r e p a s s e d  on by J o e y a s k a .  Voght's w i f e Klama, an Ntla'kapmux woman,  I n t e r v e n e d and spent hours i n d i a l o g u e w i t h J o e y a s k a i n t e r p r e t i n g f o r h e r husband (Voght) t h e r u l e s o f p r e emption, t r e s p a s s and p r o t e c t i o n o f law. J o e y a s k a was t o l d t o f i n d a n o t h e r f i s h i n g spot. He c o m p l i e d though most u n w i l l i n g l y .  ( S t e r l i n g p.24)  33  The h a r v e s t i n g o f food has always been a major a c t i v i t y among t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h p e o p l e , "The most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l foods was salmon which was caught by means o f spear, n e t , t r a p o r w e i r . " ( N i c o l a V a l l e y A r c h i v e s 1989 p.4) remains  t r u e today.  This  My b r o t h e r F r e d and h i s son R i c k a l o n g  w i t h my nephew Ron and h i s young son Corey spent two days salmon f i s h i n g w i t h a d i p n e t a t the Thompson R i v e r .  Despite  the r i g o r o u s camp-out, Corey s a i d they ' s l e p t on t h e r o c k s ' and t h e y caught 60 sockeye salmon d u r i n g t h e a l l o t e d f i s h i n g was open f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s food f i s h i n g .  time  As i n  Joeyaska's day, salmon i s a v a l u e d food source f o r our f a m i l y today. I n J u l y 1986 t h e Lower N i c o l a Band members had been c a l l e d t o a meeting r e g a r d i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t many bands were u n d e r t a k i n g w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments.  C h i e f Don Moses  i n t r o d u c e d t h e t o p i c o f l a n d c l a i m s by s t a t i n g , J o e y a s k a was among t h e f i r s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o g e t a l a n d s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e 1870's. He gave up l a n d a t N i c o l a Lake f o r a sack o f f l o u r and a pouch o f t o b a c c o . ( P e r s o n a l Remembrance 19 86) Deanna S t e r l i n g ' s G r a d u a t i n g Paper 1998, answered one o f my q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g Joeyaska.  What was he d o i n g a t t h e  C o l d w a t e r R i v e r when he was s a i d t o have l i v e d a t N i c o l a Lake.  Ms. S t e r l i n g  stated,  J o e y a s k a had l i v e d on t h e f l a t s where t h e N i c o l a R i v e r f l o w s from N i c o l a Lake. A r a n c h e r who pre-empted t h e l a n d gave Joeyaska a sack o f f l o u r and a pouch o f tobacco f o r each o f h i s c l a n ' s t e n t s as a l a n d t r a d e . J o e y a s k a was t o move t o t h e mountain t o l i v e as he was a h u n t e r and f i s h e r m a n and n o t a farmer. (1998 p. 20)  34  In speaking w i t h my land trade.  f a m i l y about t h i s  Joeyaska  'gift,'  i t was  not a  had been d i s p l a c e d .  In the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g European s e t t l e m e n t ,  Joeyaska  a l o n g w i t h many o t h e r s were a f f e c t e d by the changes which were sweeping the whole p r o v i n c e r e g a r d i n g l a n d s e t t l e m e n t s and r e s e r v e a l l o c a t i o n s . July  Brett Christophers stated that i n  1858, A company of Royal engineers surveyed p o t e n t i a l town s i t e s , b u i l t roads and b r i d g e s opening up l a n d f o r s e t t l e m e n t . (1998 p.141) C e r t a i n developments were t a k i n g p l a c e i n the N i c o l a  V a l l e y which f o r c e d change among many F i r s t N a t i o n s styles.  life  For example when F i r s t Nations gave up h u n t i n g  f i s h i n g as a way  of l i f e  i n order to trap f u r s ,  and  "this created  a dependency upon t r a d e goods when f u r s were d e p l e t e d . " ( N i c o l a V a l l e y A r c h i v e s 1989 off  the l a n d suddenly  p.14)  F i r s t N a t i o n s who  found themselves i n need.  F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r r i v e d w i t h ranchers who impressed area.  lived  were  by the n a t u r a l g r a s s e s and r o l l i n g h i l l s of the  They began the process of pre-empting l a n d t h a t  f o r m e r l y u t i l i z e d by l o c a l F i r s t N a t i o n s and g a t h e r i n g foods of the l a n d .  was  f o r grazing, hunting  What a d i f f e r e n c e between  l a n d a l l o t m e n t f o r Indians and l a n d a l l o t t e d t o Whites. book about the Douglas Lake C a t t l e Company, Nina  In a  Wolliams  (1979) i l l u s t r a t e s an example of those d i f f e r e n c e s , "By  1877  Douglas owned around 700  First  acres,"  (p.18) w h i l e the l o c a l  N a t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d t o a few a c r e s c a u s i n g an They r e a c t e d , "...becoming h o s t i l e and awaited  35  uproar.  o n l y the word  of C h i l l i h i t z i a , s c a l e war  the c h i e f of the Okanagans, t o s t a r t a  a g a i n s t the white s e t t l e r s . "  In 1871  (p.19)  when the p r o v i n c e became p a r t of the dominion of  Canada, l a n d commissioners under the Department' were a p p o i n t e d with allotment  'Lands and Works  t o r e s o l v e the a f f a i r s  and pre-emptions.  dealing  I t appears t h a t European  s e t t l e r s b e n e f i t e d when a d m i n i s t r a t o r Joseph T r u t c h the new  c o l o n i a l o r d e r and  ( C h r i s t o p h e r s 1998 yet  full-  pl42)  "shaped  i t s p o l i t i c s of d i s p o s s e s s i o n " T r u t c h a l l o t t e d v e r y few  reserves  "Nlha7kapmx t e r r i t o r y would be a v a i l a b l e f o r preemption."  (p.142)  T h i s a c t i o n caused f r i c t i o n and  hostilities. recognized made and  Peter O ' R e i l l y , a m a g i s t r a t e  the l a n d d i s p u t e s and  reserves set aside."  he p r o t e c t e d the onto poorer  fear leading to i n Yale,  "recommended t h a t surveys  ( C h r i s t o p h e r s p.143) However,  "European c l a i m s and  squeezed the  reserves  l a n d i n between."  Joanne Drake-Terry 1989,  d e s c r i b e d one  p o l i c i e s t o a f f e c t F i r s t Nations, dated March 21,  1873  a l l o c a t e d t o every  of the major  the " O r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l ,  recommending t h a t 80 a c r e s o f l a n d  be  I n d i a n f a m i l y of f i v e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia...the f i g u r e was  t o be amended t o 20 a c r e s  f a m i l y of f i v e . "  In some p l a c e s , the a l l o t m e n t  10 a c r e s .  be  (p.110)  per was  Such i n j u s t i c e c o u l d o n l y l e a d t o outrage among  F i r s t Nations  when a s i n g l e white was  times t h a t amount of  a b l e t o pre-empt many  land.  John Booth Good, A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y , h e l p the Nlha7kapmx, one  of whom was  made an e f f o r t  to  Nawheeshistan, a c h i e f  36  of  the t r i b e J o e y a s k a b e l o n g e d t o , a c c o r d i n g t o  Land Commissioner, the  (Vol.4/10 p.280)  angry r e a c t i o n ,  G.M.Sproat,  C h r i s t o p h e r s p o i n t e d out  "Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the N a t i v e s were  enraged and sought r e d r e s s , t o which end Naweeshistan, a c h i e f , approached Good, who u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r anger and wrote to Musgrove."  (p.143)  Columbia a t the t i m e .  Musgrove was the Governor of B r i t i s h Good drew up a p e t i t i o n from  N a w e e s h i s t a n r e q u e s t i n g t h a t " u n l e s s the r e s e r v e s were extended and p r e e m p t i o n was d e n i e d , w h i t e s e t t l e r s  would  c o n t i n u e t o t a k e l a n d and r e s o u r c e s t h a t belonged t o Natives."  ( O ' R e i l l y D i a r i e s , 21-3 August 1868 50-1)  When  t h e r e was no p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n , Good "Reeled o f f a second l e t t e r , t h i s time a f u r i o u s a t t a c k on the government i n g e n e r a l , and on O ' R e i l l y i n p a r t i c u l a r . "  (p.143)  Land Commissioner G i l b e r t M. Sproat was g i v e n power t o "make r e s e r v e l a n d a l l o c a t i o n s and t o f i n a l i z e h i s d e c i s i o n s "on the s p o t " w i t h i n the e x t e n s i v e d i s t r i c t of Y a l e . "  (Drake-  T e r r y 1989 p.127)  of not  Sproat r e c o g n i z e d the consequences  d e a l i n g w i t h F i r s t N a t i o n s and t h e i r l a n d r e d u c t i o n s , w a r n i n g of  ' I n d i a n Wars' and  'halting railway construction'.  In a  l e t t e r i n h i s f i e l d minutes, Sproat s t a t e d "the case of Joeyaska w h i c h was brought b e f o r e me by the i n d i a n s and a l s o by Mr.  C l a p p e r t o n , J.P., has i n v o l v e d much t r o u b l e and  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , but I f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t the I n d i a n s ought to have the p l a c e known as Joey-aska's p l a c e , near the mouth of  the c o l d w a t e r where t h e r e i s a b i g f i e l d fenced." (Sept.6,  187 8 p.8)  Former l a n d commissioner Joseph T r u t c h c a r r i e d out  37  a l a n d p o l i c y which reduced p r o t e c t e d non-Indian  Indian land reserves yet  l a n d ownership.  Author Robin F i s h e r  (1989) p o i n t e d out some of the u n f a i r p r a c t i c e s d u r i n g the 1870's. When Europeans owned l a n d they fenced i n the g r a s s and tended t o b r i n g t r e s p a s s e r s b e f o r e t h e i r c o u r t s . Areas c u l t i v a t e d by Indians, however, were not always s i m i l a r l y p r o t e c t e d , e i t h e r i n the c o u r t s o r from white encroachment, (p.273) When G i l b e r t Malcolm Sproat took over as Commissioner of I n d i a n lands he made an e f f o r t t o r e c t i f y and b r i n g about j u s t i c e to F i r s t Nations regarding t h e i r land matters. the F i e l d Minutes dated September 6, complaints  1878  Sproat  W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s brought t o him  In  detailed  regarding "his  r i g h t t o the water from "Mountain Creek" b e i n g s t r o n g e r Joeyaska s." 1  Joeyaska  (p.9)  However Sproat e x p l a i n e d t h a t "The  c l a i m s the p r i o r r i g h t t o h a v i n g y e a r s ago  old  the  i n t h i s d i s p u t e b e i n g named the "Joeyaska  (p.10)  Sproat  s t a t e d t h a t "the I n d i a n s r i g h t t o 20 i n c h e s  s h o u l d come f i r s t " because "Mr. f o r what he may Sproat  man  cut some  t h r e e d i t c h e s t o c a r r y water from s a i d stream," Creek"  than  stream  (water)  C h a r t e r s w i l l f i n d enough  reasonably claim."  (p.10)  c o n t i n u e d i n the F i e l d Notes making mention of  d i s p o s s e s s i o n which took p l a c e a t the Coldwater R i v e r ; The Indians as a l r e a d y s a i d f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y about t h e i r l e a v i n g without compensation a t the Coldwater b e i n g d i s p o s s e s s e d i n f a v o r of white s e t t l e r s , ( p l l ) T h i s appears t o be the i n c i d e n t of Joeyaska  losing his fish  r a c k s a t the Coldwater R i v e r when W i l l i a m Voght pre-empted that land.  Sproat c o n t i n u e d on about t h i s  38  outrage,  There would be g r e a t t r o u b l e were any attempt made t o d e p r i v e them of t h i s remnant c o n s i s t i n g of a s m a l l p r i v i l e d g e t o enable them t o c u l t i v a t e about 15 a c r e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . (p.11) F u r t h e r documentation by C h r i s t o p h e r s 1998, the  s p r i n g of 1872  states that i n  a V i c t o r i a paper p u b l i s h e d "a s t i n g i n g  c r i t i c i s m of Good, w r i t t e n by seven r e s i d e n t s of the l a n d c l a i m e d by Naweeshistan." for  (p.144)  The r e s i d e n t s blamed Good  meddling and i n c i t i n g the uproar. In  the l e t t e r dated Sept. 6, 1878,  c o n s i d e r a b l e f a v o r t o Joeyaska. l e t t e r d a t e d October 19, 1878,  Sproat g r a n t e d  In a d d i t i o n , i n a second Sproat mentioned  Joeyaska.  I met him y e s t e r d a y near Hope, but not h a v i n g an I n t e r p r e t e r w i t h me I d i d not know q u i t e what he s a i d . I t h i n k he s a i d t h a t Mr. C h a r t e r s has s a i d t h a t he would not l e t him have any water but I can h a r d l y t h i n k t h i s i s the case, as t h a t gentleman has too much good sense not t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t the whole I n d i a n adjustment i n N i c o l a i s e n t i r e l y a compromise on the g i v e and take p r i n c i p l e , (p.279, 280) What was  Joeyaska d o i n g i n the town of Hope?  Hope i s 6 9  m i l e s south o f M e r r i t t , an arduous j o u r n e y o f s e v e r a l days by horseback.  I t i s apparent t h a t o n l y the most urgent matter  c o u l d have brought Joeyaska t o Hope which i s nearby the town of  Y a l e where l a n d a l l o t m e n t s , l a n d matters and  c o u l d be f i l e d . was  pre-emptions  "A government o f f i c i a l , a revenue  l o c a t e d at Yale."  ( H a r r i s 1997 p.110)  collector  Sproat's l e t t e r  s t a t e s t h a t Joeyaska sought him out i n o r d e r t o l a y a complaint about h i s neighbor W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s who  was  a t t e m p t i n g t o l a y c l a i m t o a l l the water r i g h t s .  I t appears  t h a t Sproat was w e l l aware of the p o t e n t i a l l y s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d he not d e a l f a i r l y w i t h a man  39  volatile of Joeyaska's  warrior reputation.  The  matter of burnt  l o s s o f h i s w i n t e r food supply,  the  c a u s i n g Joeyaska t o d e a l  the i n c i d e n t by f i r i n g a shot, was memory i n c l u d i n g Sproat's  f i s h racks and  still  f r e s h i n everyone's  not t o mention those  Okanagans i n the N i c o l a Lake r e g i o n who  with  'hostile'  were ready t o go  to  war. In h i s l e t t e r ,  Sproat  noted t h a t , "the whole  Indian  adjustment i n N i c o l a i s e n t i r e l y a compromise on the g i v e take p r i n c i p l e , "  (p.280)  which goes a g a i n s t the g r a i n of  l a n d p o l i c y under Joseph T r u t c h whose own  r u l i n g s were  d e s c r i b e d as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l a n d p o l i c y t h a t "has as h a v i n g  caused the Indians  b o i l i n g point." for  and  ( F i s h e r 1980  been c i t e d  of the I n t e r i o r t o reach p.275)  T r u t c h was  a  responsible  c r e a t i n g dangerous s i t u a t i o n s , ones which Sproat  took  g r e a t e f f o r t t o d i f u s e as i t i s shown i n h i s h a n d l i n g  of  W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s ' demand of water r i g h t s from Joeyaska. p o i n t e d out the wrongful case of Mr.  He  Charters,  H i s own l a t e water r e c o r d would be i n v a l i d i f r i g h t s were p r o c e s s e d and the I n d i a n can o n l y want v e r y l i t t l e comparatively, (p.280) It  i s c l e a r t h a t Sproat  supported  Joeyaska because i n the  next l i n e he wrote of h i s d e c i s i o n . he had "It  a r r i v e d at i n h i s p r e v i o u s  I t i s the same d e c i s i o n  l e t t e r of September  i s d e c i d e d t h a t J o . i . y a s . k a s h a l l have a p i e c e of l a n d at  the p l a c e he so much d e s i r e s , and he may it."  1878.  proceed t o  cultivate  (p.280) It  is little  wonder t h a t Joeyaska was  so adamant about  b u i l d i n g and p r o t e c t i n g d i t c h e s on h i s l a n d .  40  Water  was  crucial for cultivation.  T h i s shows t h a t Joeyaska  had been  working f o r y e a r s t o c l e a r the l a n d and making s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o honor h i s l a n d pre-emption.  The t a s k o f h a r v e s t i n g one's  w i n t e r supply o f f o o d was important  e s p e c i a l l y i f white l a n d  owners c o u l d burn anyone's f i s h racks t o s u i t t h e i r These p o i n t s were e v i d e n t t o G i l b e r t Malcom Sproat p r e s e n t d a t a c t f u l approach t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r between Joeyaska  and W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s .  r e f l e c t i v e mood, Sproat  purposes. who  situation  I n a v e r y s e r i o u s and  r e v e a l e d h i s knowledge about the  whole l a n d s i t u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , and h i s own duty t o do what was r i g h t . I t s h o u l d be remembered i n N i c o l a t h a t u n t i l I v i s i t e d the v a l l e y , the Indians both by P r o v i n c i a l and Dominion law had s u p e r i o r c l a i m s t o a l l lands on which t h e y had s e t t l e m e n t s which they had not consented t o abandon and f o r which t h e y had n o t been compensated, (p.280) Sproat  r e c o g n i z e d the c o n s i d e r a b l e s a c r i f i c e made by the  F i r s t N a t i o n s who l o s t European s e t t l e m e n t . p r o t e c t o r of Indian  l a n d i n the name o f p o l i c y ,  law and  I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t Sproat was a rights.  I b e l i e v e t h a t these i n c i d e n t s a r e t h e ones r e f e r r e d t o by Sproat  i n h i s f i e l d minutes i n 1878 when the case o f Joey-  aska which was "brought b e f o r e me by the Indians, and a l s o by Mr.  C l a p p e r t o n , J.P., has i n v o l v e d much t r o u b l e and  correspondence."  Coming t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  w i t h o r without  an i n t e r p r e t e r would have been  enough, but Joeyaska across.  Sproat  o f the s i t u a t i o n difficult  was adamant about g e t t i n g h i s p o i n t  concluded,  "I f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e  I n d i a n s ought t o have the p l a c e known as Joey-aska's p l a c e ,  41  near t h e mouth o f t h e Coldwater." ( V o l .  4/10 p.8)  He  r e c o g n i z e d t h e urgency o f Joeyaska's case and he c o m p l i e d . I n t h i s same l e t t e r d a t e d 1878, Sproat o u t l i n e d a meeting o f t h e Ntla'kapmux  t h a t was t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g summer a t L y t t o n . The I n d i a n s among whom I have been w o r k i n g t h i s y e a r who c a l l themselves t h e N e k l a . kap. a muk N a t i o n w i s h t o have a g r e a t meeting o r c o n v e n t i o n a t L y t t o n t o t a l k over m a t t e r s , (p.280) H i s t o r i a n C o l e H a r r i s d e s c r i b e d t h i s meeting i n a book The R e s e t t l e m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1997.  " J u l y 17, 1879  ... a g a t h e r i n g o f 1200 Nlha7kapmx encamped a t L y t t o n w i t h t e n t s and f l a g s and 1500 h o r s e s . " (p.128)  Mr. Sproat made a  speech t o t h e assembled group then r e t i r e d , as needed as l e g a l a d v i s o r . "  " t o be a v a i l a b l e  The outcome o f t h a t meeting was  t h a t a head c h i e f was e l e c t e d , s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s were made r e g a r d i n g a s c h o o l , h i r i n g a d o c t o r and making regulations.  laws and  No doubt J o e y a s k a was i n a t t e n d a n c e h e r e .  document r e g a r d i n g c o a l r i g h t s , J o e y a s k a i s c a l l e d Deanna S t e r l i n g s t a t e d ,  In a  'Chief'.  "Old r e c o r d s o f I n d i a n Agent meeting  a t I n s h i s k t l a t e r t o be J o e a y s k a I n d i a n Reserve #2 a f t e r " C h i e f J o e y a s k a " i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e s e r v e was c o n s i d e r e d a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y from t h e Lower N i c o l a Band."  ( S t e r l i n g 1998  p.20) Christophers  (1998) d e s c r i b e d G i l b e r t Malcolm Sproat as  "by f a r and away t h e p i v o t a l and most e n e r g e t i c member o f t h e committee,"  (p.145)  i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l a n d commissioners.  The I n t e r i o r S a l i s h were so a p p r e c i a t i v e o f S p r o a t ' s work f o r  42  them t h a t "one o l d c h i e f , f o r example, who had r e s i s t e d m i s s i o n e t h i c s f o r many y e a r s , would s e t a s i d e one o f h i s t h r e e w i v e s now t h a t Sproat had come t o s o l v e t h e l a n d question."  (p.151)  T h i s statement shows S p r o a t s i n t e n t i o n , 1  "...he s h a r e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e N a t i v e s Columbia had p r i o r t i t l e t o t h e l a n d . "  i n British  ( H a r r i s 1997 p l l 8 )  When I s e a r c h e d t h r o u g h t h e r e c o r d s a t the Lands and T i t l e s O f f i c e a t t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n Vancouver, I overheard a f e l l o w researcher  comment on Sproat.  a c t e d l i k e he was a god back then."  "Sproat  I'm t h a n k f u l t h a t  Sproat had two y e a r s i n which t o make d e c i s i o n s on l a n d s . D u r i n g t h a t time my g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r ' s him.  l a n d was a l l o t t e d t o  J o e y a s k a indeed got t h e d e s i r e s o f h i s h e a r t , h i s l a n d . When N e l l i e G u i t t e r i e z worked i n the households o f w h i t e  ranchers,  i t i s apparent t h a t t h e l a n d c o n f l i c t between h e r  ancestors  and t h e r a n c h e r s  had been s e t t l e d .  It is  documented t h a t t h e government attempted t o smooth out some of t h e d i s p a r i t i e s among l a n d h o l d e r s w i t h t h e h e l p o f G i l b e r t M a l c o l m Sproat.  N e l l i e and the e l d e r s o f h e r time  were w e l l aware o f Joeyaska's s i t u a t i o n and t h e whole l a n d allotment  system o f t h e time.  c a r r i e d a l o t of weight.  Pre-emption was a b i g word, i t  J o e y a s k a earned h i s p r e - e m p t i o n , my  f a t h e r i n h e r i t e d t h e pre-empted l a n d .  That was common  knowledge i n t h e r e g i o n , a f a m i l i a r s t o r y i n t h e households of t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y .  That s t o r y reached my ears i n 1968, i t  t u r n e d out t o be an e s s e n t i a l p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r 1999.  43  CHAPTER THREE  I have worked h a r d on my l a n d so I s h o u l d not go round begging. ( X i t h a Gaxe, N a t i v e American Testimony 1991 p.238)  My mother, Sophie S t e r l i n g passed a l o n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o her by our dad and by the e l d e r s .  She t o l d  s i s t e r Deanna about Joeyaska's a r r i v a l i n the N i c o l a Sophie S t e r l i n g s a i d t h a t the Joeyaska l o o k e d when he f i r s t was c a r r y i n g a musket and had b a t t l e of some k i n d . No date a r r i v a l . ( S t e r l i n g 1998 p.19)  my  Valley.  o l d people remember how came t o the v a l l e y . He wounds as i f f r e s h from a was g i v e n f o r h i s  I t r y t o imagine the l o s s Joeyaska f e l t h a v i n g been chased from h i s v i l l a g e and away from h i s p e o p l e .  My p a r e n t  and s i b l i n g s e x p e r i e n c e d the l o s s of many t h i n g s , but not a t gunpoint as Joeyaska had.  These words w r i t t e n by an  anonymous a u t h o r d e p i c t such d i s p l a c e m e n t . I see the l a n d d e s o l a t e and I s u f f e r an unspeakable sadness. Sometimes I wake i n the n i g h t and I f e e l as though I s h o u l d s u f f o c a t e from the p r e s s u r e of t h i s awful f e e l i n g of l o n e l i n e s s . (Nabakov 1979 p.184) What g r i e f t o have been f o r c e d i n such v i o l e n t manner t o s t a r t a new  life.  I t i s no wonder t h a t Joeyaska d i d not  r e t u r n t o Washington, He made a new  life  he l e f t b e h i n d a d e v e s t a t e d homeland.  f o r h i m s e l f i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y .  Joeyaska s e t t l e d i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y a r e a by f o u r wives. was  taking  He a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r i b e s of the a r e a and  a b l e t o communicate i n the Okanagan language. James T e i t  1895,  wrote  " T c u i e s k a was Ntlakya'pamuQ, one q u a r t e r  Stuw'hamuq, one q u a r t e r Okanagan and one h a l f Nkamtci'nemuq. (p.32)  T h i s v i s i t by T e i t appears t o be a r a t h e r f o r m a l  44  o c c a s i o n i n which t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . y e a r Joeyaska came i n t o the v a l l e y .  I don't know what  The s t o r y i s t h a t  Joeyaska f l e d from a war and dangerous  encounter i n  Washington S t a t e .  'he was s c a r r e d  My mother s a i d t h a t  h e a v i l y i n the c h e s t a r e a . ' (Sophie S t e r l i n g )  I remember  N e l l i e G u i t t e r i e z t e l l i n g me t h a t Joeyaska came from Brewster, Washington.  ( P e r s o n a l Commnication 1968) The town  of Brewster b o r d e r s the C o v i l l e I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n i n Washington.  A l l I had was t h a t s t o r y of Joeyaska and the  l a n d t h a t was named a f t e r him, our home.  I n a c h a p t e r about  'newcomers' a r r i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i n the 1800's Joanne  D r a k e - T e r r y i n c l u d e d an i n c i d e n t o f warfare among the Cayuse and Yakima i n n o r t h e r n Oregon.  I n 1855 a d e c e i t f u l I n d i a n  agent l u r e d them t o cede a g r e a t p o r t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d t o t h e American  government.  The people found out, k i l l e d t h e agent  and were p u n i s h e d by the U.S.  m i l i t a r y which sent  of armed v i g i l a n t e s t o wage war a g a i n s t them.  hundreds  Missionaries  known as O b l a t e s who l i v e d and taught among t h e t r i b e s  were  powerless t o h e l p , they then " l e f t a l l I n d i a n t e r r i t o r i e s south o f the 49th p a r a l l e l and moved n o r t h . . . i n t o t h e Cariboo."  (p.79)  "Shoo-yaska"  When F a t h e r LeJeune  a pagan  c a l l e d Joeyaska o r  (Kamloops Wawa 1895) i t appears  that  Joeyaska had not c o n v e r t e d t o any one o f the C h r i s t i a n religions.  Joeyaska h e l d h i s own s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s .  I know  t h a t from i n f o r m a t i o n from my mother, "Your dad l i v e d w i t h h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , Joeyaska when he was a l i t t l e boy. taught him e v e r y t h i n g .  Joeyaska  How t o l i v e o f f the l a n d and how t o  45  pray."  (Personal Communication)  James T e i t documented p r a y e r  among the Thompson and Okanagan as " b e l i e f i n m y s t e r i o u s powers and the c h i e f o b j e c t s of p r a y e r were the  fulfillment  of t h e i r d e s i r e s , and the p r o t e c t i o n from harm." (The E x p e d i t i o n 1900  Jesup  p.344)  I n c i d e n t s where m i s s i o n a r i e s were i n e f f e c t i v e i n times of war  suggests one of the a v e r s i o n s Joeyaska had  their doctrine.  I t i s understandable t o see t h a t a man  Joeyaska's  s t a t u r e r e s i s t e d F a t h e r LeJeune's  1895.  of the main reasons why  was  One  because  toward  Catholicism i n  Joeyaska d i d not c o n v e r t  C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s forbade polygamy.  would not b a p t i z e men  who  t h a t Joeyaska had h i s own  of  had more than one w i f e .  Priests I trust  s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s which c a r r i e d  him  a l o n g b e s i d e s another reason f o r r e s i s t a n c e would have been a t t i t u d e s such as, I f we c o u l d e l e v a t e such people and s e t them on the Rock of our S a l v a t i o n we must be w i l l i n g t o go down t o the v e r y depths o f t h e i r d e g r a d a t i o n and p a t i e n t l y l i f t them up. ( M i s s i o n a r y John Booth Good, among the Ntla'kapmux i n L y t t o n . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A r c h i v e s 1958 p.98) Having come from an American  s t a t e where he e x p e r i e n c e d  l o s s of p a r e n t s and f a m i l y , r e l a t i v e s ,  f r i e n d s and  tribal  community as w e l l as homeland i n the b e t r a y a l by government and m i l i t a r y Joeyaska sought t o surround h i m s e l f w i t h a f a m i l y group.  Nabakov  new  (1979) summarized the i n j u s t i c e of  such displacement i n the l o n g h i s t o r y of Indian-white warfare. The m a j o r i t y of N a t i v e American " u p r i s i n g s " o c c u r e d when I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y was b e i n g encroached upon o r some l o c a l i n c i d e n t i g n i t e d a f r o n t i e r a l r e a d y tense w i t h  46  i n j u s t i c e towards the I n d i a n s , (p.94) I f the o l d people remember t h a t Joeyaska came i n t o the N i c o l a V a l l e y w i t h o n l y a gun t o h i s name, i t seems apparent t h a t had l o s t e v e r y t h i n g e l s e except h i s l i f e . G r a d u a t i n g Paper  of the Athapaskan  Deanna S t e r l i n g ' s  (1998) d e s c r i b e s two of Joeyaska's  names l i s t e d by T e i t .  "The Stuwi'Hamuq  tribal  (Stuwix) was  a part  language group r e l a t e d t o the C h i l c o t i n  C a r r i e r i n c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n B.C."  he  and  (p.18) Nkamtchi'nemuq  which means 'people of the e n t r a n c e ' o r 'where the c r e e k meets the r i v e r ' r e f e r s t o the Thompson p e o p l e around  Spences  Bridge.  and  The Okanagans ranged from c e n t r a l Washington  i n t o the c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. James T e i t ,  According to  the Okanagan t r i b e s i n c l u d e S a n p o i l and  Colville  and c a l l themselves " N s i - l i x t c e n which means S a l i s h - s p e a k i n g as i n S a l i s h o r F l a t h e a d t r i b e s . "  (Bureau of E t h n o l o g y 193 0  p.199) Joeyaska had wives from two of the t r i b a l mentioned,  the Ntla'kapmux and Okanagan.  t h a t he was  groups  I t i s most p r o b a b l e  a b l e t o communicate w i t h them and t o have l e a r n e d  t h e i r languages.  Keeping f o u r wives shows what an  e x c e p t i o n a l l y good hunter and p r o v i d e r Joeyaska had t o have been.  I heard t h a t Joeyaska was  o l d age. he was  I t i s s a i d that  a g i l e and l i v e l y even a t an  " i f anyone approached Joeyaska when  s e a t e d c r o s s - l e g g e d on the f l o o r o r ground,  l e a p t t o h i s f e e t i n one move."  Joeyaska  (Personal Communication)  My b r o t h e r A u s t i n S t e r l i n g t o l d me r e c e n t l y t h a t i n o r d e r f o r Joeyaska t o have been a c c e p t e d i n t o the community  47  of  the N i c o l a Lake r e g i o n , he f i r s t would have had t o p r o c e e d  i n c o r r e c t form, he had t o know how  t o conduct h i m s e l f and  p r a c t i s e p r o p e r p r o t o c o l i n the new  territory.  communication  J u l y 1999)  James T e i t  (193 0)  about p r o p e r t y among the Okanagans.  (Personal  made these notes  The t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y  was  common p r o p e r t y , and f r e e t o a l l the people f o r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , b e r r y i n g , and r o o t  digging.  But people of one band d i d not as a r u l e p i c k b e r r i e s o r d i g r o o t s i n the grounds near the headquarters o f another band without f i r s t o b t a i n i n g the consent of the c h i e f i n charge of the t e r r i t o r y and then o n l y a t the p r o p e r season. (Bureau of American Ethnology p.277) It  i s obvious t h a t Joeyaska complied w i t h the customs of h i s  hosts, f i r s t  of a l l f o r h a v i n g s u r v i v e d , and secondly, t o  become a good p r o v i d e r a l o n g w i t h h i s wives. One was  o f the main r o u t e s t o g a i n i n g peace amongst t r i b e s  by i n t e r m a r r i a g e . When Joeyaska i s r e p o r t e d t o have  s e v e r a l wives from d i f f e r i n g t r i b e s , p e a c e a b l y among those t r i b e s . because  t h a t means he  T h i s i s important t o note  t h e r e had been wars between the Stuwi'x,  Okanagan and Shuswap. wars w i t h the Thompson.  lived  Thompson,  "Long ago the Stuwi'x had f r e q u e n t T h i s was  had i n t e r m a r r i e d much w i t h them."  a t a time b e f o r e the ( T e i t 1930  p.257)  latter  Joeyaska  p l a c e d a g r e a t importance upon the forming of a l l i a n c e s through h i s wives and c h i l d r e n and t h e r e f o r e l i v e d a t peace i n t h e i r c o u n t r y and among t h e i r k i n . G i l b e r t Malcolm Sproat, l a n d commissioner, Joeyaska under 1878).  "Naweesistikun's t r i b e "  A c c o r d i n g t o James T e i t  (193 0)  48  listed  (Minutes of D e c i s i o n t h e r e were o n l y f o u r  r e a l c h i e f s i n the N i c o l a - S i m i l k a m e e n country, one of those he named was,  "Nawi'seq En which means ( r a i s e d h i g h head o r  a b l e t o be h i g h head) became r e c o g n i z e d i n the c e n t r a l of N i c o l a V a l l e y . "  part  (American Bureau of Ethnology p.262)  Sproat and T e i t appear t o have d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s f o r the same name.  spelling  As w e l l , a t h i r d v a r i a t i o n i s  found i n P o s i t i o n i n g the M i s s i o n a r y  (1997) . John Booth Good,  m i s s i o n a r y i n the L y t t o n a r e a among the Ntla'kapmux, attempted t o h e l p "Naweeshistan" when s e t t l e r s a t N i c o l a p e t i t i o n e d a g a i n s t him. i n Land Commissioner  ( C h r i s t o p h e r s p.150)  Lake  I t i s apparent  S p r o a t ' s n o t a t i o n t h a t Joeyaska i s  c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of Naweeshistan's group, which i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t because T e i t c l a i m e d t h a t he owned about 1,000  "at Nawi'seq En's death  head of h o r s e s . " (p.262)  I trust  that  had Joeyaska a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h Naweeshistan, as i s p o i n t e d out by Sproat, one of the ways he d i d so was p o s s i b l y by marriage t o one of Naweeshistan's r e l a t i v e s and another by h i s horsemanship t a l e n t s . I n 1867 m i s s i o n a r y John Booth Good remarked about the importance of the horse i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia.  " T h e i r most v a l u e d p o s s e s s i o n was  their  h o r s e s of which t h e y had some hundreds a l l t o l d . " ( E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A r c h i v e s 1958 p.103)  Joeyaska i s s a i d t o  have f l e d on horseback from American s o l d i e r s .  I t was not  mentioned t h a t he a r r i v e d w i t h a horse i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y . The s t o r y about Joeyaska's escape on horseback r e v e a l s t h a t the horse was h i s means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  He most  a c q u i r e d and t r a i n e d h i s own horse and brought t h a t  49  likely skill  w i t h him t o N i c o l a Lake where the F i r s t N a t i o n s owned many horses.  F a t h e r LeJeune wrote, "The  Indian e s p e c i a l l y i n  N i c o l a have v e r y f i n e horses owning some of the b e s t s t a l l i o n s i n the c o u n t r y . " p.5)  My  (Kamloops Wawa Vo.IX No.  I was  had told  f a t h e r rode h i s pony t o the s c h o o l house s e v e r a l  m i l e s south of the Joeyaska  I n d i a n Reserve  #2.  as a major p a r t of the l i v e s of my p a r e n t s and including  Horses  served  grandparents  Joeyaska.  Deanna S t e r l i n g d e s c r i b e d Joeyaska's white rancher because "Joeyaska was and not a farmer."  ( S t e r l i n g 1998  o r a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t Joeayska was land.  1900,  f a t h e r , A l b e r t S t e r l i n g , as a s i x y e a r o l d boy  a pony g i v e n t o him by h i s g r a n d f a t h e r Joeyaska. t h a t my  12  I t appeared  t o have been a  land trade with a  a hunter and  p.20)  fisherman  However, I know from  v e r y upset t o have l o s t  that  misunderstanding.  In any event he had f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and h a v i n g been f o r c e d o f f h i s l a n d a t N i c o l a Lake by white s e t t l e r s u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d another homestead p r o p e r t y f o r h i m s e l f and h i s family  group.  Joeyaska had a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d the l o s s of h i s t r i b a l homeland i n the S t a t e s . about  l o s i n g more.  The  He would have been extremely wary l a n d d e a l s b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n f a v o r  of the white s e t t l e r s i n the N i c o l a Lake r e g i o n w h i l e l a n d s shrunk would have a f f e c t e d Joeyaska.  tribal  He not o n l y  a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h but p e r s i s t e d w i t h h i s c h i e f t o g a i n s e c u r i t y i n the form of l a n d f o r h i s f a m i l y .  As a member o f  the community Joeyaska would have w i t n e s s e d the amassing of  50  g r e a t t r a c t s of l a n d among the s e t t l e r s compared w i t h shrinking t r i b a l t e r r i t o r i e s .  the  As an a s s o c i a t e of  Naweeshsitan, he would have known of and  supported  Naweeshistan s p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s to gain favor i n land 1  petitions.  Those s k i l l s helped  s e t t l e h i s own  land  allotment. C h r i s t o p h e r s r e f e r r e d t o Naweeshistan w i t h r e g a r d t o a l a n d d i s p u t e g o i n g on i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y between the c h i e f and white s e t t l e r s . L y t t o n was  Reverend John Booth Good s t a t i o n e d a t  c a l l e d upon t o h e l p Naweeshistan, however h i s  e f f o r t s proved f r u i t l e s s d e s p i t e s e v e r a l t a c t i c s t o t r y and b r i n g about some j u s t i c e f o r the Ntla'kapmux c h i e f from Nicola.  S e v e r a l c h i e f s became s u s p i c i o u s of g i f t s g i v e n i n  f r i e n d s h i p at meetings w i t h J . Powell Commssioner.  former  Indian  "They began r e f u s i n g the g i f t s f o r f e a r t h a t  a c c e p t i n g them, more of t h e i r l a n d would be g i v e n up.  by  It i s  documented t h a t Naweeshistan made t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n . " ( C h r i s t o p h e r s 1997,  p.145)  James T e i t d e s c r i b e d the Okanagans' wars about  1875.  Owing t o s t r o n g f e e l i n g engendered by the f a i l u r e of the Government t o p r o v i d e r e s e r v a t i o n s and make t r e a t y w i t h the I n d i a n s , the Okanagan and Shuswap t r i b e s made a compact t o a t t a c k the whites and d r i v e them out of t h e i r territories. T h i s was f r u s t r a t e d by the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of C h i e f T c e l a h i t s a of the Douglas Lake Band. (Bureau of Ethnology 1930 p.259) Joeyaska had e x p e r i e n c e d  treacherous  former home i n Washington. Lake by s e t t l e r s ,  l o s s of lands at h i s  When he was  d i s p l a c e d at N i c o l a  he moved t o the Godey Creek at the base of  I r o n Mountain i n the v i c i n i t y near the Coldwater R i v e r .  51  The  i n c i d e n t a t the banks of the Coldwater  R i v e r where he  lost  f i s h r a c k s and r e t a l i a t e d a g a i n s t such f l a g r a n t waste of w i n t e r f o o d s u p p l i e s showed Joeyaska's  i n t o l e r a n c e of  i n j u s t i c e s s u f f e r e d a t the hands o f white s e t t l e r s .  However,  when Klama, W i l l i a m V o g h t s w i f e , e x p l a i n e d the laws he 1  became knowledgeable acquisition.  Joeyaska  of the l e g a l p r o c e s s e s r e g a r d i n g l a n d had s e t t l e d h i s f a m i l y a t Godey Creek,  an a r e a t h a t i n c l u d e d a c c e s s i b l e wagon roads between the towns of M e r r i t t , Hope, and P r i n c e t o n .  I t was  land  a p p a r e n t l y not c l a i m e d o r pre-empted by anyone e l s e . W i t n e s s i n g l a n d a l l o t m e n t s i n nearby f i e l d s f o r o t h e r s would have hastened  Joeyaska's  r i g h t t o pre-empt and occupy the  l a n d a t Godey Creek. T h e r e f o r e he i n v e s t i g a t e d the system of homestead acreages  for himself.  Through h i s own  d e s i r e and  w i t h the h e l p of h i s c h i e f Naweeshistan the s u r v e y o r s i n the v a l l e y h e l p e d make h i s c l a i m and pre-emption v a l i d a t Godey Creek.  of 320  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t Joeyaska  l a i d c l a i m and o c c u p i e d the two homestead p l o t s .  acres  had a l r e a d y When he  searched f o r the l a n d commissioner t o f i l e h i s c l a i m and complain about the white s e t t l e r next door,  'William Charters  t a k i n g up the water supply i n the n e i g h b o u r i n g f i e l d ' , c l a i m and h i s complaint was  to  known t o Sproat who  his  subsequently  wrote, I do not mean t o exclude J o . i . y a s . k a h ' s p l a c e . I met him y e s t e r d a y near Hope, but not h a v i n g the I n t e r p r e t e r w i t h me I d i d not know q u i t e what he s a i d . ( L e t t e r s Vol.4/10 p.279) In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e Sproat had been made aware of Joeyaska's  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with William Charters taking a l l  52  the water supply.  "I t h i n k he s a i d t h a t Mr. C h a r t e r s had s a i d  t h a t he would not l e t him have any water."  (p279)  This  statement r e v e a l s t h a t Joeyaska had a l r e a d y f i l e d c l a i m s f o r the l a n d through the pre-emption p r o c e s s .  He had o c c u p i e d  the land, dug the d i t c h e s and had begun work on t h e l a n d . considered  i t h i s land.  for cultivation.  He  Water i s c r u c i a l f o r l i v e s t o c k and  W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s p r e v e n t i n g water  access  was a t h r e a t , an i n j u s t i c e Joeyaska would not t o l e r a t e .  For  wives, c h i l d r e n and l i v e s t o c k water was a n e c e s s i t y , i t was a life  t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r him.  Therefore,  Joeyaska's  urgency t o p r e s s the matter w i t h Land Commissioner Sproat  who  made t h e statement, "I d i d not q u i t e know what he s a i d " r e v e a l s Joeyaska's urgent cleared.  attempt a t g e t t i n g the matter  He d i d n o t g i v e up d e s p i t e t h e language b a r r i e r  between them. According  The lands commissioner r u l e d i n h i s  favour.  t o Sproat's d e c i s i o n ,  I t i s d e c i d e d t h a t J o , i , y a s k . k a h s h a l l have t h e p i e c e o f l a n d a t the p l a c e he so much d e s i r e d , and he may proceed t o c u l t i v a t e , (p.280) That day marked the ownership o f l a n d f o r Joeyaska. had been g i v e n  Sproat  "power t o make r e s e r v e l a n d a l l o c a t i o n s and t o  f i n a l i z e h i s d e c i s i o n s "on the spot  " w i t h i n the extensive  district  1989 p.127)  c a l l e d Yale."  (Drake-Terry  How d i d Joeyaska a c q u i r e 32 0 a c r e s , the e q u i v a l e n t o f two  homestead p l o t s when the r e s e r v e s a l l o t t e d f o r l o c a l  Nations  First  were v e r y minimal.  Deanna S t e r l i n g wrote t h a t a t the time o f Joeyaska's c l a i m , Whites and Mexicans c o u l d pre-empt 120 a c r e p l o t s o f  53  land,  "while Indians were a l l o t t e d 10 a c r e s p e r f a m i l y o f 5."  ( S t e r l i n g 1998 p.21) When Joeyaska p r e s e n t e d h i s case w i t h the l a n d commissioner, request.  a l l c r i t e r a had been s e t i n p l a c e t o g r a n t h i s  Joeyaska s 1  and c u l t i v a t i o n ,  i n i t i a l proceedings o f l a n d development  and J o e y a s k a s 1  p e r s i s t e n c e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  t o make a stand, the t h r e a t o f warfare a t N i c o l a Lake, S p r o a t ' s d e s i r e t o keep the peace,  a l l paid o f f .  Joeyaska  knew h i s r i g h t s , he proved t h a t he was a b l e t o t e n d the l a n d , he made a stand, t h e r e f o r e Sproat g r a n t e d him the pre-emption t h a t day.  I t appears  t h a t Sproat had been  v e r y c a r e f u l t o " a v o i d f u r t h e r t r o u b l e , he e l a b o r a t e d on why W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s ' c l a i m would f a i l  f o r 3 reasons;  1. Being c o n t r a r y t o the grand e q u i t a b l e r i g h t s o f t h e Indians. 2. Being r e c o r d e d by the A s s t . Comm i n e r r o r 3. Because i t i s not p r o p e r t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s t a k i n g water t h a t i s i n the creek a t the p o i n t he mentions namely "where the s a i d " "creek e n t e r s my" "pre emption c l a i m s " The creek a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e mountain, passes through Joeyaska's p l a c e b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the l a n d o f C h a r t e r s . ( F i e l d Minutes V o l . 4/10 Oct. 6, 1878 p.14, 15) The  t e n s i o n s about  l a n d i s s u e s were c o n s i d e r e d  i s s u e s ' i n the i n t e r i o r .  'burning  Drake-Terry 1989, d e s c r i b e d t h a t  Sproat was a f r a i d t o t r a v e l t o the i n t e r i o r i n 1877 because 'the Okanagan I n d i a n n a t i o n s were about  t o form a  c o n f e d e r a t i o n and d e c l a r e war on the white s e t t l e r s . " Joeyaska was d e a d l y s e r i o u s about providing f o r his family.  (p.124)  s e c u r i n g l a n d and  Lands Commissioner Sproat most  p r o b a b l y g r a n t e d him 'the l a n d he so much d e s i r e d ' i n hopes  54  of keeping the peace. g a i n t i t l e was  Land a l l o t m e n t  a new  concept,  a major v i c t o r y t h a t i n c l u d e d i t s own  responsibilities.  to  list  Ones t h a t Joeyaska a l r e a d y p r a c t i s e d .  American I n d i a n Handbook land  was  (1960) d e f i n e d the new  of The  concept of  tenure. I n s t e a d of depending on the spontaneous p r o d u c t s of the l a n d the I n d i a n began t o sow seeds and t o care f o r the plants. In order t o do t h i s he had t o remain on the s o i l he c u l t i v a t e d . Thus occupancy g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d a c l a i m or r i g h t t o possess the t r a c t from which a t r i b e o r an i n d i v i d u a l d e r i v e d food. (Hodge p.756)  I t i s apparent t h a t Joeyaska had Creek f o r some time. d i g g i n g d i t c h e s and a question  arose.  occupied  the l a n d at Godey  He had begun the arduous t a s k s c l e a r i n g land f o r c u l t i v a t i o n .  As p r e v i o u s l y noted, my  of However,  father Albert  S t e r l i n g s t a y e d a t N i c o l a w i t h Joeyaska i n the w i n t e r lodge or s h i ' i s t k e n , Father Joeyaska was places? lands  My  LeJeune and James T e i t documented t h a t  from N i c o l a .  T h i s l a n d was  horses t h e r e . i n 1941  c o u l d Joeyaska be  in  mother s a i d t h a t Joeyaska u t i l i z e d the  from h i s a l l o t m e n t  Lake.  How  at Godey Creek a l l the way  called  L a t e r when my  f a t h e r was  Joeyaska moved back and  Lake t o Godey Creek where he house, barn, c o r r a l s and  grazing to N i c o l a  'commonage' and he g r a z e d h i s a guard i n  t h i s l a n d became l e a s e d t o someone e l s e .  Communication)  two  Princeton (Personal  f o r t h from N i c o l a  finally settled.  fences y e t c o n t i n u e d  to  a  associate  w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e s and  f r i e n d s at N i c o l a .  grandmother on C h a r l e y  S t e r l i n g ' s s i d e l i v e d at N i c o l a Lake  and  he  s t a y e d w i t h them as w e l l .  55  My  He b u i l t  father's  Lands Commissioner  Sproat a l s o noted t h a t s i n c e Joeyaska  was a l l o t t e d the l a n d , "he must a b i d e upon the l a n d he  now  o c c u p i e s and upon which he has made g r e a t improvements." ( F i e l d Minutes Vol.4/10 Oct. 6, 1878 p.11, official.  12)  That made i t  Joeyaska h e l d favor w i t h Sproat.  I t was a f o r e i g n concept t o fence i n a p l o t of l a n d when, i n p a s t , the whole t e r r i t o r y had been c o n s i d e r e d home and s u s t e n a n c e .  Nabakov (1991) d e s c r i b e d the v e r s a t i l e  man.  The o r d i n a r y I n d i a n man a l t h o u g h p e r f e c t l y ready t o defend h i s l i f e o r community, was a t the same time f a m i l y man, p r o v i d e r , c r a f t s m a n and p a r t i c i p a n t i n h i s p e o p l e ' s demanding s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s s c h e d u l e . (P-91) J o e y a s k a p r o v e d t o be a l l t h e s e .  He taught h i s c h i l d r e n and  g r a n d c h i l d r e n s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s , t o be i n d u s t r i o u s and t o be d e f e n d e r s of t h e i r r i g h t s .  My f a t h e r was w e l l aware of t h e s e  t e a c h i n g s f o r he c a r r i e d on i n those t r a d i t i o n s .  He went  t h r o u g h v i s i o n q u e s t s and l a t e r b u i l t a sweat lodge f o r s p i r t u a l c l e a n s i n g and he p r a y e d i n the manner taught by h i s grandfather, Joeyaska.  My b r o t h e r A u s t i n S t e r l i n g w i t n e s s e d  our dad p r a y i n g a t dawn f a c i n g the e a s t .  He ended h i s p r a y e r  with,  "Hooh" which sounds v e r y much l i k e the L a k o t a who  "Hoh"  t o c l o s e the p r a y e r s . ( P e r s o n a l Communication).  say,  I n o r d e r f o r Joeyaska t o get h o l d of the t o o l s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n c l e a r i n g l a n d and d i g g i n g d i t c h e s , he had t o p r o c u r e a g r e a t s u p p l y of goods t o t r a d e f o r these implements. l a t e Robert S t e r l i n g  The  (1979) wrote,  For c e n t u r i e s and even i n t o the p r e s e n t l o c a l N a t i v e I n d i a n s p o s s e s s e d a h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g m e n t a l i t y . A l l t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s - t o o l s , food, s h e l t e r , myths and ceremonies, m e d i c i n e s , and b e l i e f s came from the n a t u r a l  56  environment. Joeyaska's land.  ( H i s t o r y o f t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n p.39)  s u r v i v a l depended upon h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e  H i s f a m i l y depended upon h i s knowledge o f h u n t i n g and  gathering.  Thomas Berger i n V i l l a g e Journey  the importance  (1985) speaks o f  o f ' s u b s i s t e n c e ' and l i v i n g o f f t h e l a n d .  " S u b s i s t e n c e l i v i n g was n o t o n l y a way o f l i f e , b u t a l s o a l i f e - e n r i c h i n g process."  (p.54)  Robert S t e r l i n g  summarized such p a t t e r n s o f s u r v i v a l ,  (1979)  "While t h i s was a  d i f f i c u l t existence, the l o c a l ancestors considered i t the ideal l i f e . " James T e i t  ( H i s t o r y o f t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y I n d i a n s p.39) (193 0) commented on t h e exchange of goods f o r  t r a d e items by t h e I n t e r i o r S a l i s h w i t h t h e Europeans. Indian-hemp t w i n e , and d r e s s e d s k i n s , c h i e f l y d e e r s k i n s , ...were i n demand c o n s t a n t l y because they were so much r e q u i r e d f o r manufactures and c l o t h i n g . A l l commodities c o u l d be bought w i t h them. (p.255) Joeyaska was a deer h u n t e r .  H i s w i v e s , c h i l d r e n and  g r a n d c h i l d r e n were e q u a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s . I have seen my g r e a t grandmother Martha's cedar r o o t b a s k e t s . t h a t Joeyaska's weaver.  I had heard  chosen w i f e Martha was a master basket  Our f a m i l y possesses  a few o f Martha's b a s k e t s and  c o n s i d e r them a t r e a s u r e beyond p r i c e . Teit  (1930) made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o i l e d r o o t b a s k e t r y  of t h e Thompsons as a p o p u l a r t r a d e i t e m . The Okanagan made c o m p a r a t i v e l y few b a s k e t s . . . t h e A t h a p a s c a n Stuwi'x were t h e o n l y people who made no c o i l e d b a s k e t s but p r o c u r e d them from t h e Thompsons, some Thompsons who i n t e r m a r r i e d and l i v e d w i t h them made b a s k e t s , (p.223) Martha c o n t i n u a l l y made b a s k e t s . was  My f a t h e r s a i d t h a t when he  a l i t t l e boy he would go up t h e h i l l s w i t h h i s  57  grandmother t o get cedar r o o t s so she c o u l d make b a s k e t s . One  time I took my mother t o the Museum o f Anthropology.  r e c o g n i z e d Martha's baskets by the p a t t e r n s . the donor of the baskets,  i t was  ( P e r s o n a l communication)  My  We  looked  s i s t e r S h i r l e y S t e r l i n g has i n  b e l o n g i n g t o and a c q u i r e d by our g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r I t was  s t o r e d i n the b l a c k s m i t h shop a t  I n d i a n Reserve #2. Teit  up  a judge from M e r r i t t .  her p o s s e s s i o n a stone hammer, one of the t o o l s most  trade.  She  probably  through  Joeyaska  These implements were mentioned by James  (1900) "Stone hammers and hand hammers were imported  the L i l l o o e t . " Joeyaska ownership by;  (Smithsonian  Papers p.183)  and h i s f a m i l y adapted t o the new  laws of l a n d  o c c u p a t i o n , making improvements and  cultivation  a t the same time p u r s u i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e as a way life  .  Thomas Berger  lifestyle,  from  (1985) summarized the  subsistence  "Subsistence i n a c t u a l f a c t i s a  complicated  of  economic system, and i t demands the o r g a n i z e d l a b o r of p r a c t i c a l l y every man,  woman and c h i l d i n a v i l l a g e . "  (p.56)  There were u n w r i t t e n laws which ensured proper game and  land  management, c o n s e r v i n g the r e s o u r c e s , never t a k i n g more than was  n e c e s s a r y and l e a v i n g some f i s h , game and p l a n t s f o r the  p e r p e t u a t i o n of the s p e c i e s .  I had l e a r n e d t h i s custom of  h a r d work and r e s p e c t of the l a n d from my it  from h i s p a r e n t s and grandparents.  remembers s i m i l a r t e a c h i n g s . c h i e f s l e a d i n g the people The men  f a t h e r , who  George Manual  "I r e c a l l our  learned 1979,  traditional  i n t o the f i e l d s t o tend the c r o p s .  would work a t the h a r v e s t i n g o r p l a n t i n g o r  58  clearing  the i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s a c c o r d i n g t o season." My mother's g r a n d f a t h e r Yapskin, She has o r a l accounts  was  a hereditary chief.  about the r o l e of c h i e f s ,  i n the p a s t , the c h i e f was  l i k e a servant.  c o u l d depend upon the c h i e f t o be honest of need.  (p.41)  she s a i d t h a t  That  the  people  and h e l p f u l i n times  However, the S t e r l i n g s have y e t t o witness  such  compassion from p a s t and p r e s e n t c h i e f s of the Lower N i c o l a Band.  T r i b a l C o u n c i l s have had the power t o s e t p o l i c i e s  r e g a r d i n g CP's CP's  o r C e r t i f i c a t e of P o s s e s s i o n .  were granted.  D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t my  A f t e r 1972,  no  father claimed  ownership, i n h a b i t e d and worked the whole o f the p r o p e r t y , was  g r a n t e d o n l y 16 a c r e s as CP l a n d .  The  chiefs  had  development p l a n s f o r the remainder of the Joeyaska  lands  because t h e y had knowledge t h a t the C o q h i h a l l a Highway b e i n g b u i l t a l o n g the p r o p e r t y known as Joeyaska Another f a c t o r which prevented my h i s l a n d was  North.  f a t h e r g a i n i n g CP f o r  from o t h e r r e s e r v e s f o r s e a s o n a l  temporary s h e l t e r .  Some of these  c l a i m t o the l a n d .  I n d i a n agents and c h i e f s supported  My  was  t h a t a number of vacant houses on h i s p r o p e r t y  were i n h a b i t e d by people  claims.  he  or  ' s q u a t t e r s ' began l a y i n g their  f a t h e r wrote l e t t e r s of p r o t e s t , however, h i s  l e t t e r s were i g n o r e d . DIA  and band p o l i c i e s have been i n c o n s i s t e n t r e g a r d i n g  Joeyaska's pre-empted l a n d .  A forum was  h e l d i n 1986  Lower N i c o l a Band t o determine i f l a n d a t Joeyaska Reserve #2 was  by  the  Indian  c o n s i d e r e d Band Land o r S t e r l i n g p r o p e r t y .  Deana S t e r l i n g attended the meeting.  59  She  remembers the words  of the l a t e H a r r i e t Paul,  descendant of C h i e f  Chillhitza.  The i n t e r p r e t e r was Okanagan speaker, Herb Manuel, Douglas  from  Lake.  No one has the r i g h t t o take the l a n d away from t h e Sterlings. Joeyaska gave the l a n d t o h i s sons and daughter. H i s daughter Sarah Joeyaska passed the l a n d t o h e r son A l b e r t S t e r l i n g . You young p e o p l e s h o u l d l e a v e them a l o n e . (Personal Communication) To date, past  and present  of e l d e r s r e g a r d i n g  c h i e f s have y e t t o heed t h e words  o r a l t r a d i t i o n and the r i g h t f u l  ownership  of Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2. Since  the mid 1980's the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y has r e t a i n e d  lawyers t o h e l p p o i n t out e r r o r s t o the c h i e f s . question  has never been s e t t l e d , however,  The l a n d  development  schemes have been put on h o l d . My mother, Sophie S t e r l i n g i s adamant about who owns t h e l a n d a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2.  She has never f a l t e r e d  i n h e r b e l i e f t h a t the l a n d belonged t o her husband, A l b e r t S t e r l i n g , my f a t h e r , and t h a t the l a n d now belongs t o h e r and her c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n .  60  CHAPTER FOUR The I n d i a n s were n a t u r a l r i d e r s , s t r o n g f e n c e r s and f i n e t e a m s t e r s but c a s u a l farmers. (Wooliams 1979, p. 63) Once J o e y a s k a secured  the l a n d he made a g r e a t e f f o r t a t  settling in. He took L o t 11 below I r o n Mountain which c o n s i s t e d of 320 a c r e s and which l a t e r became known as I n s h i s k t ( l i t t l e v a l l e y ) or J o e y a s k a I n d i a n Reserve Number Two, and s e t t l e d t h e r e w i t h h i s f a m i l y . ( S t e r l i n g 1998 p.20) F a m i l y h i s t o r y t e l l s t h a t J o e y a s k a worked v e r y h a r d c l e a r i n g b r u s h from the f i e l d s i n o r d e r t o c u l t i v a t e produce c r o p s f o r h i s l i v e s t o c k .  He u t i l i z e d the n a t u r a l  g r a s s w h i c h grew i n the swampy f i e l d s and he vegetable  gardens.  and  planted  He b u i l t a p i t house at f i r s t than l a t e r  b u i l t a wood frame house p a s t the road t h a t c u t s t h r o u g h the land.  T h i s r o a d l a t e r became the M e r r i t t - P r i n c e t o n Highway.  Occupying the l a n d and p u t t i n g up b u i l d i n g s shows t h a t J o e y a s k a c o m p l i e d w i t h the o r d e r of the day c o n c e r n i n g empting l a n d and making improvements.' 1862  Governor Douglas i n  answered the q u e s t i o n ; were I n d i a n people a l l o w e d t o  and pre-empt l a n d p r e c i s e l y as a w h i t e man was  'pre-  could?  buy  His r e p l y  t h a t " P r o v i s i o n s w i l l be made f o r p e r m i t t i n g I n d i a n s  to  h o l d l a n d under p r e - e m p t i o n on the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : First,  t h a t they r e s i d e c o n t i n u o u s l y on t h e i r  farms.  Second, t h a t they b u i l d t h e r e o n a house of squared l o g s , T h i r d , t h a t they c l e a r , e n c l o s e and ( D r a k e - T e r r y 1989  p.87)  cultivate..."  These c o n d i t i o n s were f o l l o w e d  61  by  Joeyaska.  H i s barn s t i l l  stands today, however the house he  had b u i l t burned down i n 1920.  The wooden r a i l  fences have  been r e p l a c e d w i t h barb wire and have been r e p a i r e d up kept over the y e a r s . harvested.  and  The hay f i e l d s c o n t i n u e t o be  Horses had always been important t o Joeyaska,  he  b u i l t a barn f o r the horses and the few c a t t l e he owned, as w e l l as a c o r r a l i n the v i c i n i t y of h i s wood frame house. (Personal Communication  1998)  Joeyaska and Martha had t h r e e c h i l d r e n . and Sarah were born a t I n s h i s k t As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  (Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve  Sarah worked on the wagon o r  t r a i n s w i t h her husband C h a r l i e S t e r l i n g , A l b e r t , my  S t l o o p a , Barnes  I heard  my mother Sophie S t e r l i n g t h a t Joeyaska taught my e v e r y t h i n g he knew f o r h i s f i r s t example, how  'pack'  t h e i r youngest  f a t h e r s t a y e d w i t h the grandparents.  #2).  son from  father  s i x y e a r s of l i f e .  For  t o l i v e a s u b s i s t e n c e l i f e s t y l e of s n a r i n g s m a l l  game, h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g r o o t s and b e r r i e s . shared c u l t u r a l knowledge and s p i r i t u a l t e a c h i n g s .  My  He father  f o l l o w e d i n many of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r . For  example, he b u i l t a sweat lodge t o 'cleanse' a l o n g one  the deeper d i t c h e s of running water among the p i n e t r e e s .  of He  went on a ' v i s i o n quest' where he f a s t e d and bathed i n the c o l d water.  He t o l d my  s i s t e r Deanna t h a t he d i d n ' t  'see  any  v i s i o n . ' However, we know t h a t e l d e r s do not speak about r e l i g i o u s o r s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s , these are kept t o oneself. song.'  My My  f a t h e r sang drum songs and  'received h i s  f a t h e r l e a r n e d the b a s i c s of horsemanship  62  own and  land  management from Joeyaska.  Joe G i r o n , Apache Range Manager  summarizes the F i r s t N a t i o n s d e s c r i b e s my "We  belong  by the way  f a t h e r and h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  t o the l a n d . we  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l a n d t h a t  We  One  as a c h i l d .  he had  day my  mother was  chuckling  f a t h e r t o l d her about h i s  "Your f a t h e r worked v e r y hard as a c h i l d ,  t o h e l p h i s grandparents everyday, a l l day  ate the same t h i n g s each day. h i s grandmother would put  Once i n a while  long.  some d r i e d saskatoon b e r r i e s i n h i s  j u s t wonderful."  and h i s f a m i l y were w e l l p r o v i d e d food,  s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g .  property  Joeyaska made sure t h a t  e t h i c he had  He b u i l t  fences a l o n g h i s  They l a c k e d f o r n o t h i n g .  My  l e a r n e d from h i s g r a n d f a t h e r  t o eat you have t o work."  he'd  father learned  was,  (Sarah Stewart 1999)  The  a t e a c h i n g my  how  work  " I f you want She  s a i d that  a t e a c h i n g he passed on t o her and her c h i l d r e n .  mother s a i d t h i s was  he  f o r r e g a r d i n g the b a s i c s of  t o l i v e o f f the land, t o make deer h i d e c l o t h i n g .  was  he  l i n e s to keep out o t h e r l i v e s t o c k otherwise  have no hay.  They  for a treat  mush ( d r i e d b i t t e r r o o t s were cooked l i k e mush) and thought t h a t was  land  are n a t u r a l s at l a n d  because she remembered something my life  stewardship  express our f e e l i n g s f o r the  take care of i t . We  management." (Video 1983)  land  My  f a t h e r l e a r n e d from h i s  grandfather. In 1903  at age  seven my  f a t h e r was  f o r the l o c a l c h i l d r e n , i t was  e n r o l l e d at a  school  l o c a t e d s e v e r a l m i l e s away.  Joeayska p l a c e d g r e a t importance upon e d u c a t i o n and gave a horse t o r i d e back and  f o r t h to school.  63  One  of  the  him  s t u d e n t s who was a classmate l a t e r became Judge Henry Costilliou. sent two  (Personal  communication)  t o St. Louis College  L a t e r my f a t h e r was  f o r boys i n New Westminster f o r  y e a r s u n t i l h i s t u i t i o n was no l o n g e r p a i d f o r .  school  l a t e r burned down.  was sent  t o St.  This  Because he was ' s t a t u s ' my f a t h e r  Mary's R e s i d e n t i a l School a t M i s s i o n ,  For s i x y e a r s he heard n o t h i n g f a m i l y v i s i t e d him.  B.C.  from home, no one from h i s  My s i s t e r S h i r l e y remembered some o f the  t h i n g s our dad t o l d h e r about l i f e a t s c h o o l . t h i n k o f t h e smart boy a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , because he i s A b o r i g i n a l .  She wrote, "I h e l d back  Dad had a c y n i c a l s i d e .  t h i s came o f l i v i n g i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l  Probably  f o r y e a r s without  g o i n g home o r h a v i n g v i s i t o r s and s e e i n g c h i l d r e n beaten so badly  they became c r i p p l e d . " I t was w h i l e my f a t h e r a t t e n d e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l  that  he e x p e r i e n c e d some o f the worst treatment and punishment by the C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s and b r o t h e r s .  C h i e f Simon Baker  r e c o u n t e d s i m i l a r treatment a t S t . George's R e s i d e n t i a l School i n L y t t o n where a s u p e r v i s o r named Mr. Timmins used extreme punishment f o r an o f f e n s e .  "Mr. Timmins h i t W i l f r e d  w i t h a g r e a t b i g l e a t h e r s t r a p t h a t he used t o t i e t h e cows' legs."  (Khot La Cha 1994 p.33) I t was such a shocking s i g h t  f o r Simon t o w i t n e s s t h a t he d e c i d e d that night.  the  school  L i t t l e d i d Joeyaska know t h a t when he sent h i s  grandson t o d i s t a n t s c h o o l s subjected  t o run away from  f o r an e d u c a t i o n  t h a t he would be  t o r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s drawn up " t o d i s s o c i a t e  I n d i a n c h i l d from d e l e t e r i o u s home i n f l u e n c e s . . . t o  64  r e c l a i m them from the u n c i v i l i z e d s t a t e . " ( F u r n i s s 1992 Unbeknownst t o most F i r s t Nations,  a p i e c e of  known as the I n d i a n A c t gave government agents m i s s i o n a r i e s powers t o c o n t r o l , e n f o r c e assimilation policy.  F o r t u n a t e l y , my  from an e a r l y age by h i s g r a n d f a t h e r When he was and  f o u r t e e n years  o l d my  a p r i e s t k i s s i n g , he was  I t was  then he and  two  p.22)  legislation and  and promote  an  f a t h e r had been t r a i n e d t o stand up  for himself.  f a t h e r had w i t n e s s e d a  caught and punished  nun  severely.  boys from the N e s k o n l i t h Band  decided  t o run away from s c h o o l . They packed raw v e g e t a b l e s i n a sack and t i e d sheets t o g e t h e r t o climb down the w a l l t o the ground. They ran at n i g h t and h i d d u r i n g the day f o l l o w i n g a p a t h a l o n g the r a i l r o a d t r a c k s . They saw the p r i e s t s and p o l i c e w a l k i n g a l o n g the t r a c k s l o o k i n g f o r them. (Sophie Sterling) I t was  the law  t o a t t e n d s c h o o l u n t i l the age  f a t h e r l i v e d i n h i d i n g f o r two  years.  He  of s i x t e e n .  My  changed h i s name  from F r e d e r i c k t o A l b e r t , he went t o h i s home at Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 i n 1906.  and  found out t h a t h i s g r a n d f a t h e r  H i s mother s a i d no one  t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s had  knew where he was  come l o o k i n g f o r him.  My  had  at,  died  but  father  t o l d everyone t h a t he would r a t h e r d i e than go back t o t h a t school.  He was  grandfather  who  deeply had  g r i e v e d at the l o s s of h i s  l e f t a w e l l - t r a i n e d pony complete  gear f o r h i s grandson.  Joeyaska must have had  humour, he named the pony 'Poopoolinek'. f a t h e r was  beloved with  a sense of  With h i s pony  my  a b l e t o r i d e t o i s o l a t e d ranches i n the N i c o l a  V a l l e y t o work.  I t i s at those ranches where he  t o do a l l the work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r a n c h i n g .  65  learned  how  Nina Wooliams  made note o f F i r s t N a t i o n s workers r e g a r d i n g ranches. riders,  farmers, f e n c e r s , teamsters and chore boys c a r i n g f o r  the c a t t l e a t Douglas  Lake were p r e d o m i n a t l y Indians from  Spahomin,- Okanagans, Athapaskans Ranch 1979 p.63)  and Thompsons."  (Cattle  My f a t h e r l e a r n e d t o 'break w i l d h o r s e s f o r  r i d i n g and f o r p u l l i n g wagons o r machinery.' 1999)  "The  (Austin  Sterling  He became a cowboy and e n t e r e d rodeos u n t i l he rode a  s k i n n y horse a t which time he chose t o be a rodeo announcer. Author Nina Wooliams (1979) summed up the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f cowboys.  " I n those days o f the west, a cowboy was an a l l  round man o f the range. g e n t l e , break,  He c o u l d r i d e any horse, mean o r  shoe, pack and c a r e f o r a horse."  When I was a l i t t l e g i r l  I l i k e d t o watch my f a t h e r make  horse shoes b y h e a t i n g a metal r o d t i l l s h a p i n g i t on the a n v i l , on t h e h o r s e ' s hoof.  (p.158)  i t was r e d hot,  then  c o o l i n g i t i n water and measuring i t  That b l a s t o f steam h i s s i n g i n t h e  water as t h e r e d r o d c o o l e d was f a s c i n a t i n g .  In order t o  p r e v e n t the h o r s e s ' f e e t from wearing down, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make horse shoes.  My f a t h e r c a r r i e d out the chores  important enough f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s horses and l i v e s t o c k as w e l l as t a k i n g c a r e o f a l l o t h e r d e t a i l s needed f o r the w e l l b e i n g o f h i s s t o c k . By the time my f a t h e r t u r n e d seventeen y e a r s o f age, he had been w e l l t r a i n e d and had become adept a t c a r r y i n g out all  t h e chores r e q u i r e d t o r u n a ranch.  When he was  e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d the F i r s t World War broke o u t i n Germany. I t i s t o l d t h a t he was so p l e a s e d t o s i g n  66  up f o r s e r v i c e  t h a t he  l e f t h i s horse and  gear at Douglas Lake where he  been a wrangler.  He  been t o l d t h a t my  f a t h e r was  up  for service.  never went back t o c l a i m them. still  l a r g e c a t t l e ranches as F i r s t World War.  "Canadian men (p.121)  who  On  had  scarce."  the  f a t h e r s t a t e d t h a t he had  Under t r a d e ; my  signed  the s t a t e o f  'having a s k e l t o n crew' d u r i n g  made l a b o u r army my  I have  i n h i d i n g when he  Wooliams (1979) d e s c r i b e d  had  gone i n t o the  the the  army  the a p p l i c a t i o n form t o  join  been born at N i c o l a .  f a t h e r wrote, "Teamster."  He  excelled with  horses. My  f a t h e r s e r v e d w i t h the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y  w i t h many F i r s t N a t i o n s who had  learned  marksmen.  l i k e himself  t o l i v e c l o s e t o the I t i s w r i t t e n i n one  were g r e a t  l a n d and war  (Summerby 1970  p.9)  journal that,  some i n f o r m a t i o n s a i d our  dad  My  brother  t o l d him  about how  f a t h e r was  w i t h the  121st  and  (Personal  impressed he was  My  with  the  even d u r i n g  the  Communication) 'Private' having  102nd B a t t a l i o n s .  (Army Records)  mother s a i d t h a t s h o r t l y b e f o r e he was  down.  He  l i s t e d i n rank as  f a t h e r f e l t alone and  the  Austin Sterling related  about h o r s e s i n the F i r s t World War.  gunfire.  My  drawing upon  f a t h e r a l i v e at  w e l l t r a i n e d horses because they stood s t i l l loudest  "Many  m i l i t a r y s k i l l s to deadly e f f e c t . "  Those s k i l l s kept my  B a t t l e of Vimy Ridge.  horsemen,  were e x c e l l a n t  N a t i v e s became s n i p e r s or r e c o n n a i s s a n c e scouts, t r a d i t o n a l h u n t i n g and  Force  desolate,  b l a c k e d out.  67  My  wounded at Ypres  everyone around him  f a t h e r s a i d a p r a y e r and  served  He  was  my shot  woke up  i n a h o s p i t a l and when the war was Joeayska I n d i a n Reserve #2.  over he r e t u r n e d home t o  Army r e c o r d s s t a t e t h a t he  i n a h o s p i t a l i n Seaford, England.  was  H i s u n c l e Barnes was  very  proud o f him and t h e r e f o r e gave him the l a n d a t Joeayska South, on the west s i d e of the M e r r i t t - P r i n c e t o n Highway and one f i e l d which extended a c r o s s the highway i n t o Joeyaska North.  When o t h e r Canadian s o l d i e r s r e t u r n e d from the  they were g i v e n l a n d .  Woolliams  (1979) s t a t e d ,  "Canada  rewarded h e r s o l d i e r s w i t h a f r e e l a n d g r a n t o f 160 ( C a t t l e Ranch p.125) However, my land.  He was  South.  war,  acres."  f a t h e r r e f u s e d t o take any  s a t i s f i e d t o i n h e r i t the l a n d a t Joeyaska  He m a r r i e d h i s f i r s t wife, Annie Simpson, an Okanagan  from Vernon,  B.C.  d i e d i n 1929, grandmother  She gave b i r t h t o a daughter Agnes.  t h e i r daughter Agnes was  Sarah Joeyaska.  (Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2)  Annie  r a i s e d by h e r  Agnes remembers l i f e a t I n s h i s k t as "working a l l the time."  She  s a i d her f a t h e r d i d a l o t of good work, he r a i s e d h o r s e s and cattle,  and had a l a r g e garden.  He b u i l t a g r a n a r y shed and  p l a n t e d o a t s , cut hay i n h i s f i e l d s and o t h e r s ' called  fields,  ' c o n t r a c t i n g hay' where he took a crew of men  to  someone e l s e ' s f i e l d t o 'put up hay' f o r a p o r t i o n of t h e i r c r o p o r a wage.  Her f u n time was horseback  riding.  Agnes m a r r i e d a r a n c h e r Tommy Hewitt and l i v e d i n W a l l a c h i n for  many y e a r s .  Bridge, My  She i s now  r e t i r e d and l i v e s i n Spences  B.C. f a t h e r d i d not immediately marry a g a i n but had a son  P a t r i c k who  was  a l s o r a i s e d by Sarah, the grandmother  68  at  Joeayska  (Inshiskt).  P a t r i c k remembers h i s f a t h e r  'working  b o t h s i d e s of the r e s e r v e ' J o e y a s k a N o r t h and South i n the summer p u t t i n g up the hay.  He s a i d t h a t A l a n C o l l e t t e ,  later  the mayor of M e r r i t t , l e a s e d the l a n d a t Joeyaska N o r t h f o r g r a z i n g h i s c a t t l e and f o r the hay. h i s grandmother  P a t r i c k was r a i s e d by  Sarah whose I n d i a n name was Pow Tan Maalks,  or Maalks f o r s h o r t .  He c a l l e d her Maalks and s a i d t h a t  Maalks took i n s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n and r a i s e d them. was  However he  s e n t t o the Kamloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l .  P a t r i c k has s i x sons, many g r a n d c h i l d r e n . P a t r i c k and Donna l i v e i n M e r r i t t .  Now  retired  He s e r v e s on the Lower  N i c o l a I n d i a n Band as e l e c t e d c o u n c i l o r . Deanna S t e r l i n g wrote t h a t , Joeyaska l e f t the r a n c h , To h i s sons, Barnes and S t l o o p a . Joeyaska South went t o Barnes who d i e d i n the 1918 f l u epidemic, the l a n d went t o Sarah then t o A l b e r t . J o e y a s k a N o r t h went t o J o e y a s k a ' s son S t l o o p a who l e f t i t to h i s daughter A n g e l i n e Bent. (1998 p.27) My f a t h e r m a r r i e d Sophie Voght, grand daughter of W i l l i a m Voght S r . i n 1935. was b o r n i n 1937.  T h e i r f i r s t c h i l d Robert W i l l i a m  My mother i s e i g h t y t h r e e y e a r s o l d , she  remembers, A l b e r t p u r c h a s e d a cedar frame house downtown. I t took two days and s i x teams of horses and twenty men to b r i n g the house up t o J o e y a s k a by r o l l i n g l o g s under the house. She has t o l d me t h a t when she moved t o her new home a t J o e y a s k a , Sarah, her m o t h e r - i n - l a w had a m i l k cow and s i x beef cows and s e v e r a l h o r s e s , and c h i c k e n s and t h a t she took g r e a t p r i d e i n her c u r r a n t and g o o s e b e r r y bushes.  69  There  was  a w e l l , a pond and a r o o t c e l l a r , shop and a c o r r a l . deer meat, my was  ploughed  A meat house o r shed was  f a t h e r was  a hunter.  and p l a n t e d by my  e v e r y summer.  a barn and a b l a c k s m i t h  A large vegetable  f a t h e r and had t o be  My mother m i l k e d the cow  b u t t e r w i t h the cream.  b u i l t t o hang  Saskatoon  everyday,  garden  tended  and made  b e r r i e s grew i n abundance  a l o n g the creeks and d i t c h e s i n summer.  She p i c k e d and  them f o r w i n t e r as w e l l as making jam and p r e s e r v e s . h e l p e d put up the hay and cooked h e l p e d my  dried  She  f o r the h a y i n g crew  who  She noted t h a t my  father  f a t h e r i n the summers.  purchased more beef c a t t l e which r e q u i r e d summer g r a z i n g pastures.  T h i s i n v o l v e d b r a n d i n g the c a l v e s i n s p r i n g  and  h e r d i n g them up t o Q u i l c h e n a Creek t o graze where o t h e r F i r s t N a t i o n s brought  their cattle.  She  s a i d t h a t w i t h the  right  amount of water from the i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s , they c o u l d get two crops of hay t o f e e d the cows d u r i n g the w i n t e r . summer t h e r e was too expensive.  One  no water, they had t o buy the hay which My  f a t h e r b u i l t a wooden flume hundreds o f  f e e t l o n g t o c a r r y water from another source up the  hill.  That flume has p a r t l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d but i t can be seen I t r e p r e s e n t s the c r u c i a l need f o r water t o i r r i g a t e fields,  was  today.  the  and i t meant a l o t of hard work on the p a r t of  my  dad. My b r o t h e r Robert was two y e a r s l a t e r . the Joeyaska  born i n 1937,  They were brought  I n d i a n Reserve  F r e d e r i c k was  born  up w i t h the f a m i l y a t  #2 u n t i l  s c h o o l age then t h e y  spent the summers w i t h the f a m i l y who  70  by t h a t time were  l i v i n g near P r i n c e t o n , 1941-1945. the  R.C.M.P  My f a t h e r was r e c r u i t e d by  t o be a guard a t a Japanese Internment camp f o r  men who were b u i l i n g a road from P r i n c e t o n t o Hope. T h i s camp was 60 m i l e s from M e r r i t t . V e t e r a n Guards o f Canada.  He s e r v e d i n Number "A" Company My mother remembered t h a t i t  wasn't so much t o guard the Japanese as i t was t o p r o t e c t them from an angry p u b l i c .  I t appears t h a t many o f the  v e t e r a n s who were r e c r u i t e d t o guard the Japanese were good men.  Many were l i k e my f a t h e r , v e t e r a n s from World War One.  A r a c i s t p o p u l a t i o n i n 1941 r e a c t e d i n mass h y s t e r i a and d i r e c t e d t h e i r government t o send the Japanese p e o p l e away from the c o a s t P80) the  " f o r t h e i r own p r o t e c t i o n . "  I asked my mother i f my f a t h e r f e l t Japanese.  She s a i d no.  (Broadfoot 1976  any anger  toward  " I t i s because A l b e r t was a  ' h a l f - b r e e d ' t h a t he harbored no h a t r e d o r b i t t e r n e s s the  Japanese.  He c o u l d sympathize w i t h the Japanese  toward because  he h i m s e l f s u f f e r e d under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s a t r e s i d e n t i a l school."  ( I n t e r v i e w 1997)  l a n d a t Joeyaska.  I asked why my f a t h e r l e f t h i s  There were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .  an army paycheck was a bonus.  For instance,  F r e d G a f f e n (1972)  remarked  about F i r s t N a t i o n s men who were w i l l i n g t o j o i n the s e r v i c e . "The war had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , u s u a l l y an improved income."  (p.68)  Another reason was the f a c t t h a t i n 1939  Sarah Joeyaska, my f a t h e r ' s mother, had been k i l l e d .  People  who wanted the l a n d a t Joeyaska s a i d my f a t h e r had murdered his  mother, as a r e s u l t my f a t h e r spent f o u r months i n j a i l .  He was not g u i l t y but had t o prove i t .  71  His childhood  friend  came t o the defense, him.  lawyer Henry C o s t i l l i o u won  the case f o r  Henry's "good work f o r the I n d i a n s " i s mentioned i n the  book The F o u r t h World, 1979  (Manuel p.116) Years l a t e r  my  f a t h e r i n t e r p r e t e d i n the c o u r t s f o r Henry C o s t i l l i o u . My b r o t h e r F r e d t o l d me very d i f f i c u l t  t h a t t h i s i n c i d e n t i n 1939  was  and d i s c o u r a g i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r our dad.  He  spent f o u r y e a r s as a guard a t the P r i n c e t o n internment coming home t o Joeyaska days o f f .  He l e f t  the h a y i n g and care of the c a t t l e t o h i s owned a ranch t o the south of  Eddie h a r v e s t e d the hay and grazed my  c a t t l e on the f i e l d s a t Joeyaska N o r t h as was f a t h e r depending  upon the water s u p p l y .  My  father's  customary by  father  p r e v i o u s l y seeded the h a y f i e l d s a t both Joeyaska North.  camp,  f o r a couple of days a month on h i s  b r o t h e r Eddie S t e r l i n g who Joeyaska.  a  my  had  South  and  He g r a z e d h i s c a t t l e t h e r e a l s o .  My mother d i d n ' t l i k e b e i n g i n a c a b i n near P r i n c e t o n because the camp was  a d e s e r t e d c o a l mine complete  t r a c k s and empty t u n n e l s t h a t s e r v e d as bear dens. a f r a i d of the bears and a f r a i d of the Japanese. warned her not t o t a l k t o any Japanese i f she them.  My  that  rail  She  felt  father  Japanese.  "The Japanese seemed t o sense t h a t we had  bad f e e l i n g s towards them.  There was  b a n t e r between them and our dad."  He  had  encountered  However my b r o t h e r F r e d had no f e a r of the  He t o l d me  with  no  always a f r i e n d l y recounted a s t o r y o f  the time when he and our l a t e b r o t h e r Robert were w a l k i n g near a t u n n e l w i t h our dad when they came f a c e t o f a c e w i t h a g r i z z l y bear.  Fred said that,  "Our  dad immediately p i c k e d up  72  a t r e e limb and gave a l o u d war whoop and charged bear.  The bear r a n o f f . "  toward the  F r e d s a i d t h a t he wasn't a f r a i d o f  anything a f t e r that. When Robert  and F r e d were of s c h o o l age they were sent  t o t h e Kamloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l School a l o n g w i t h Nations  c h i l d r e n who were 'Status' Indians r e g i s t e r e d  the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . boarding  with  The e s t a b l i s h i n g o f  s c h o o l s i s a p a i n f u l reminder about who was b e h i n d  the government's d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d and s t a f f these "The  First  schools.  b e l i e f s about N a t i v e i n f e r i o r i t y t h a t s e r v e d t o  l e g i t i m i z e church and government c o n t r o l over N a t i v e  people  m i r r o r e d p r e v a i l i n g b e l i e f s w i t h i n Euro-Canadian s o c i e t y . " ( F u r n i s s 1983 p.108)  However, my b r o t h e r s Robert  and F r e d  a t t e n d e d the s c h o o l f o r f o u r y e a r s when my f a t h e r took them out.  T h i s i s the s t o r y my mother t o l d me about why  and F r e d a t t e n d e d B.C.  Robert  the p u b l i c s c h o o l i n the town o f M e r r i t t ,  when the r e s t o f us c h i l d r e n had no c h o i c e but t o go t o  the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n Kamloops. One day we went t o v i s i t Robert and F r e d a t the I n d i a n School i n Kamloops. We asked the a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o g e t our boys so we c o u l d v i s i t them. He s a i d no, t h e y were p i c k i n g tomatoes i n the f i e l d . A l b e r t r e f u s e d t o accept t h a t , he demanded t h a t they be brought o u t . We took them out t h a t day and put them i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l . Robert  l i v e d w i t h h i s u n c l e Joe S t e r l i n g and aunt E l i z a b e t h  a t Joeyaska  I n d i a n Reserve #2 f o r one year o f s c h o o l when my  p a r e n t s were i n P r i n c e t o n a t the Japanese internment They o c c u p i e d one o f the vacant houses a t Joeyaska  camp  Indian  Reserve #2, however, they d i d not h e l p w i t h the care o f the ranch.  There was always extended f a m i l y l i v i n g t h e r e , my  73  grandmother  Shanny Voght,  l i v e d a t Joeyaska and f e d the  c h i c k e n s and tended the gardens. t h e i r home.  My p a r e n t s d i d not g i v e up  A f t e r the war my p a r e n t s and t h e i r  toddlers  Sarah and Deanna moved back home t o Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 t o s t a y . I t was d u r i n g the y e a r s between 1941 and 1945 t h a t the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s made d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the north f i e l d the  o f Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 because t h i s was  o n l y time t h a t my f a t h e r was away from h i s l a n d .  Upon  r e t u r n i n g t o Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 my f a t h e r saw the changes  t h a t were made without h i s knowledge.  Joeyaska N o r t h was l e a s e d out.  His f i e l d at  My mother s a i d t h a t  several  times my f a t h e r went t o the I n d i a n Agent's o f f i c e t o t r y and c l e a r up the matter o f h i s 'leased' f i e l d s o n l y t o be t o l d t h a t the o f f i c i a l outside.  was not a v a i l a b l e .  Deanna S t e r l i n g  Y e t h i s c a r was parked  wrote,  Joeyaska's granddaughter, A n g e l i n e from S t l o o p a , m a r r i e d N e i l Bent from Shulus. N e i l , i n t r o u b l e w i t h t h e law, f l e d t o Chopaka Reserve near Keremeos. A n g e l i n e and h e r c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d him l a t e r l e a v i n g Joeyaska N o r t h i n the c a r e o f h e r 'nephews' A n t o i n e and Jimmy Spahan, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f r e t u r n i n g a t a f u t u r e date. A n g e l i n e ' s daughter, Mary A l l i s o n (personal communication 1986), m a i n t a i n e d t h a t h e r f a m i l y had never f o r f e i t e d t i t l e t o Joeyaska North. ( S t e r l i n g 1998, p.21)  From 1945 t o today, Joeyaska's c h i l d r e n ,  l i v e d on,  worked on the l a n d d e s p i t e the s q u a t t e r s and i n c o r r e c t band policies. split  F o r example, i n 1939 the M e r r i t t - P r i n c e t o n Highway  t h e l a n d a t Joeyaska i n t o N o r t h and South.  This not  o n l y p a r t i t i o n e d the l a n d but i t d e s t r o y e d an important water  74  s u p p l y t o the f i e l d s a t Joeyaska North. That i s why i n some y e a r s my f a t h e r c o u l d not c u t hay i n h i s f i e l d a c r o s s t h e highway.  Another f a c t o r o f c o n f l i c t was t h a t i n 1953 I n d i a n  Agent A.E Sharpe l i s t e d s q u a t t e r s as owners of l a n d when the Trans Mountain Gas P i p e l i n e went through the l a n d a t Joeyaska.  T h i s agent d i d not c o n s u l t w i t h my f a t h e r , he  d e a l t w i t h the c h i e f and c o u n c i l o f the Lower N i c o l a Band. Joeyaska's g r a n d c h i l d r e n and now the g r e a t g r e a t know t h a t we have never f o r f e i t e d t i t l e  t o any o f the l a n d  N o r t h o r South a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2. r i g h t t o take the l a n d from u s .  grandchildren  No one has any  When my f a t h e r took over the  l a n d a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 he a s s e r t e d h i s r i g h t t o occupy and u t i l i z e the l a n d .  He made t h a t v e r y c l e a r .  I  h e a r d a s t o r y about an i n c i d e n t where my f a t h e r a s s e r t e d himself i n true warrior s p i r i t  i n the e a r l y 1970's.  The c h i e f o f the Lower N i c o l a Band came by t o i n f o r m your f a t h e r t h a t he had s o l d the timber on a l l band l a n d i n c l u d i n g Joeyaska. You dad d i d n ' t say anything, he went and got h i s gun and t o l d the c h i e f , "Get the h e l l o f f o f my l a n d . " The c h i e f jumped i n t o h i s c a r and sped o f f . (Personal Communication) The  timber  remains t o t h i s day.  d u r i n g snow and windstorms. trees.  The timber  Trees  s h i e l d the c a t t l e  Calves a r e born among t h e p i n e  now p r o v i d e s  a b u f f e r a g a i n s t the heavy  t r a f f i c o f the C o q u i h a l l a Highway. My f a t h e r a l s o took on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r e t a k e r of t h i s i n h e r i t a n c e and b i r t h r i g h t . maintenance o f f i e l d s , obligations.  fences,  He c a r r i e d on i n the  d i t c h e s as w e l l as f a m i l y  When he passed away i n 1973, my mother c a r r i e d  on as m a t r i a r c h and ' c u l t u r a l p r o f e s s o r ' o f the f a m i l y .  75  However, she has f e l t the brunt o f the d i s p a r i t y between the Lower N i c o l a Band and the S t e r l i n g s of Joeyaska.  My s i s t e r  Deanna wrote about i t . The f r u s t r a t e d t r i b a l c o u n c i l and l o c a l c o u n c i l have s u b j e c t e d the Joeyaskans t o a l l manner o f punishment from b o y c o t t i n g them from t r i b a l employment, band b e n e f i t s and g a i n i n g a c e r t i f i c a t e o f l a n d p o s s e s s i o n . Sophie S t e r l i n g has been d r i v e n v i r t u a l l y t o d i s t r a c t i o n by the harassment over the decades by the l o c a l t r i b a l leaders. Other l a n d owners a r e n o t s u b j e c t e d t o such treatment. ( S t e r l i n g 1998 p.20-21) Joeyaska knew and understood t h a t the 320 a c r e s were h i s property.  Sproat made t h a t c l e a r i n 1878.  were b i n d i n g . and  Sproat r e s p e c t e d  the courts..."  "Property  rights  them, so d i d the government  ( H a r r i s 1997 p.127)  My f a t h e r spoke the Ntla'kapmux and Okanagan languages, he was an i n t e r p r e t e r i n the c o u r t s f o r people who c o u l d n o t speak E n g l i s h .  He knew the laws and h i s words were t r u e .  mother s a i d t h a t he h e l p e d e l d e r s s e t t l e l a n d d i s p u t e s .  My She  s a i d many times an e l d e r would come i n a t a x i t o g e t my f a t h e r t o go and h e l p  s e t t l e people's l a n d problems.  S p r o a t ' s d e c i s i o n i n 1878 t o grant binding. The  Joeyaska t h e l a n d was  My f a t h e r knew t h a t and he l i v e d on t h a t  principle.  e r r o r s t h a t have been made by I n d i a n agents, c h i e f s and  claimants  regarding  l a n d ownership o f Joeyaska I n d i a n  #2 need t o be c o r r e c t e d .  76  Reserve  CHAPTER FIVE The I n d i a n p e o p l e s have a t r a d i t i o n and a c u l t u r e t o o f f e r to the world. (Manuel 1979 p . 2 6 5 )  When l o o k i n g a t t h e whole p i c t u r e o f t h e J o e y a s k a I n d i a n Reserve #2 i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t o go f u l l c i r c l e and t a k e n o t e o f  A l b e r t And Sophie S t e r l i n g ' s c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n . i s necessary  It  t o see t h e r o l e s and the p a r t s we p l a y today i n  the m a i n t a i n i n g o f t r a d i t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by our g r e a t grandfather  Joeyaska.  What has t h i s w a r r i o r ,  rancher,  s u r v i v o r , i n s p i r e d and i n s t i l l e d i n h i s descendants. Mother, Sophie S t e r l i n g Sophie S t e r l i n g has l i v e d a t Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 for  64 y e a r s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f o u r y e a r s spent a t  the Japanese Internment Camp i n P r i n c e t o n , B.C.  She has been  the h e a r t o f t h e S t e r l i n g C l a n , n o u r i s h i n g and n u r t u r i n g h e r c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n and now g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d r e n . age  83, she has a s t r o n g h e a r t though h e r a b i l i t y t o g e t  around has been slowed by a r t h r i t i s and d i a b e t e s . is  At  f u l l o f c a r e and c o n c e r n f o r h e r o f f s p r i n g .  memory i s keen and a l e r t y e t .  Her mind  Her l o n g term  The g r e a t e s t t h r i l l f o r my  mother i s t h a t we come t o v i s i t h e r o r c a l l h e r on t h e phone. P i c k i n g b e r r i e s i n t h e h i l l s o r f i e l d s comes second.  From my  e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n s I r a r e l y saw my mother s i t down.  She  was always busy from morning t i l l n i g h t and many times she  77  worked a l o n g s i d e my f a t h e r on the ranch.  What impressed  me  most was h e r c o o k i n g t a l e n t , such good food p r o b a b l y because i t was homegrown.  When we were c h i l d r e n on any Sunday o f the  y e a r one o f the m i s s i o n a r y p r i e s t s would s i t down t o d i n n e r w i t h us.  I t was n a t u r a l t o witness such h o s p i t a l i t y .  one who v i s i t e d our home r e c e i v e d the best t h a t my had t o o f f e r .  Any  parents  My mother l e a r n e d a t an e a r l y age t h a t i t i s  important t o have a t h a n k f u l h e a r t .  That i s where i t b e g i n s  f o r her and t h a t i s the most important l e s s o n she has taught me.  My mother i s v e r y much l i k e her own mother i n so many  ways f o r example, showing kindness, s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r s , g i v i n g time t o l i s t e n t o o t h e r s and v a l u i n g above a l l e l s e . survive  spirituality  Her h a r d work and l o v e i n s p i r e d me t o  the h a r d e s t times a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l .  She has  always been p a t i e n t w i t h me i n the t e a c h i n g s of our language and c u l t u r e .  Her d e v o t i o n has been u n c o n d i t i o n a l .  Over the  course of t h e i r 3 8 y e a r marriage my f a t h e r t o l d her e v e r y t h i n g he knew. t o ask.  Anytime I need i n f o r m a t i o n I j u s t have  My f a t h e r passed away a t the age of 77 i n 1973.  My  mother t e l l s me t h a t he v i s i t s her i n dreams. Robert W i l l i a m S t e r l i n g My b r o t h e r , the l a t e Robert W i l l i a m S t e r l i n g S r . was g i v e n Joeyaska's  I n d i a n name S h e s h u l u s k i n ' 1  Over the Mountain) a t b i r t h .  (Red Sun R i s i n g  He had r e d h a i r f o r which he  most p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e d a l o t o f a t t e n t i o n as w e l l as h i s name.  Because he was  ' s t a t u s ' I n d i a n he attended  I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l School i n 1943 f o r s i x y e a r s .  78  Kamloops In 1949 our  p a r e n t s took Robert and F r e d out and e n r o l l e d them i n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n the town o f M e r r i t t , B.C. I n the 1940's and 50's i f 'status' c h i l d r e n l i v e d w i t h i n walking distance t o a p u b l i c s c h o o l , they were a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d . run  Robert and F r e d would  the m i l e and a h a l f d i s t a n c e t o the s c h o o l .  One time  Robert t o l d me t h a t he and F r e d walked t o s c h o o l on a c o l d day but the s c h o o l was l o c k e d . hour t i l l  a woman came out t o s a y t h a t t h e r e was no s c h o o l  when t h e temperature hadn't  They w a i t e d around f o r an  reached 50 below z e r o .  What Robert  s a i d was t h a t he and F r e d were h e a l t h y rugged boys who  were used t o h a r d work and the outdoors, o u r dad made s u r e everyone o f h i s c h i l d r e n h e l p e d out w i t h the ranch a t Joeyaska no matter what the weather. was  any c o l d e r than u s u a l he s a i d .  They hadn't n o t i c e d i t They j u s t walked home  again. Robert accomplished many g o a l s i n h i s l i f e t i m e .  For  example i n 1956 he was the f i r s t Ntla'kapmux t o graduate h i g h s c h o o l i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y .  from  Both Robert and F r e d s e t  'Attendance Records' a t s c h o o l which have y e t t o be matched. They were remarkable s t u d e n t s .  Twenty y e a r s l a t e r Robert  graduated from UBC w i t h a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s Degree w i t h a major i n Psychology. Robert's l i f e , firsts several  In l o o k i n g over the accomplishments o f  t h e r e a r e words such as 'he p i o n e e r e d ' many  i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n and he was i n v o l v e d w i t h 'breakthroughs' i n F i r s t N a t i o n s e d u c a t i o n .  an a c t i v e member i n t h e B.C.  He was  N a t i v e Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n  (BCNITA) and i n t h e i r g e t t i n g o f f i c i a l  79  r e c o g n i t i o n from t h e  B.C.  Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n .  In the memorial  about  f r e e l a n c e j o u r n a l i s t Lynn Jorgensen wrote t h a t he  Robert, was  " i n t e g r a l t o the f o r m a t i o n of the N a t i v e I n d i a n Teacher E d u c a t i o n Program  (NITEP).  Robert c o u l d e a s i l y have become a  dominant l e a d e r on the p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l scene, but  such  was  born  h i s d e v o t i o n t o h i s f a m i l y and the l a n d where he was  t h a t i n 1977 Valley."  he opted t o r e t u r n t o h i s r o o t s i n the N i c o l a  (Memorial P u b l i c a t i o n  1983)  I remember Robert t a k i n g h i s c h i l d r e n t o the h i l l s p i c k i n g b e r r i e s , camping o v e r n i g h t w i t h the r e s t of us. They b u i l t a boat t o g e t h e r and l i k e d f i s h i n g at i s o l a t e d l a k e s f o r trout.  Robert donned o l d denims on weekends and h o l i d a y s ,  he  enjoyed the outdoors w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , e s p e c i a l l y when his  v e h i c l e got s t u c k i n the mud,  On Monday morning office.  Robert was  the more mud  the b e t t e r .  back i n a s u i t and t i e a t the  H i s e f f o r t s among s t u d e n t s were rewarded,  "when the  N i c o l a V a l l e y a t t a i n e d the h i g h e s t p e r c a p i t a r a t i o of n a t i v e h i g h s c h o o l graduates i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . " P u b l i c a t i o n 1983)  I remember when Robert worked t o i n c r e a s e  e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s and how  he was met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n when  he d i d not promote a 'rodeo s c h o o l . ' his  office.  That was  (Personal memory)  (Memorial  H i s opponents  a l o n e l y and d i f f i c u l t  Robert was  a f a m i l y man  picketed  time f o r him.  with strong  c o n n e c t i o n s t o p a r e n t s , b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , n i e c e s and nephews and r e l a t i v e s .  Christmas h o l i d a y s , f a m i l y b i r t h d a y s ,  i c e - f i s h i n g derbys, weddings and f u n e r a l s were the times and p l a c e s t h a t Robert would be a t .  Robert wrote of h i m s e l f ,  80  By t r a d i t i o n and u p b r i n g i n g I am a hunter and fisherman. I can t a n h i d e s , p i c k b e r r i e s , make b a s k e t s . I can break and t r a i n a horse. I l o v e the w i l d e r n e s s and seek out u n i n h a b i t e d areas f o r s p i r i t u a l s o l i t u d e and relaxation. When Roberts' son the l a t e Corey Owen S t e r l i n g went h u n t i n g for to  the f i r s t  time, he was  a l i t t l e b i t d i s a p p o i n t e d t o have  g i v e away a l l of the deer meat.  young boy's f i r s t , k i l l was keep any f o r h i m s e l f .  T r a d i t i o n required that a  t o be shared, he wasn't a l l o w e d t o  James T e i t 1900,  boy's p u b e r t y c e r e m o n i a l .  mentioned a  "He must become f a m i l i a r w i t h the  deer and salmon, the p u r s u i t of which w i l l occupy much of h i s time i n f u t u r e y e a r s and f u r n i s h him w i t h most o f h i s f o o d . " (The Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia  p.380)  I was  very  happy and t h r i l l e d t o have been a witness t o Ntla'kapmux t r a d i t i o n and t o Corey's f i r s t h u n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . s p a r k l e d w i t h p r i d e as he s h y l y handed me tenderloin.  (Personal Memory) Robert taught h i s son Corey i n l e a r n e d from h i s  Joeyaska.  Robert's daughter A l l y s o n has two one.  eyes  a p i e c e of  the t r a d i t i o n passed on from h i s f a t h e r who grandfather  His  l i t t l e boys ages t h r e e  In k e e p i n g w i t h f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n the o l d e r one named  Jack r e c e i v e d h i s g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r Jimmy Moses' name  "Shu-  shep" i n August 1997  Robert  William J r .  a t a g a t h e r i n g a t Lower N i c o l a .  r e c e n t l y graduated from Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y  w i t h a B a c h e l o r of A r t s Degree, m a j o r i n g i n A r c h a e l o g y . Robert J r . , o r Bob, his  l i v e s a t Joeyaska  I n d i a n Reserve  #2 i n  l a t e f a t h e r ' s house and i s an e l e c t e d Band C o u n s e l l o r f o r  the Lower N i c o l a Band.  He s t u d i e s the Ntla'kapmux  81  language  and i s working  on g e t t i n g a diploma as a language  teacher.  L i k e h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r , Bob i s a fisherman, b e r r y p i c k e r , deer hunter and grouse hunter.  These p r a c t i s e s o f  t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l n a t i v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n H i s t o r y o f the N i c o l a V a l l e y Indian.  "Going h u n t i n g and g o i n g h u c k l e b e r r y  p i c k i n g a r e extremely p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and p r i d e i s h i g h among those who go." ( S t e r l i n g 1979 p.125)  I have seen my  mother c l e a n i n g grouse o r t r o u t t h a t Bob dropped  off.  He  c o n t i n u e s the t r a d i t i o n o f h i s p a r e n t s and grandparents. "Traditional sharing i s s t i l l maintained."  (P126)  m e t i c u l o u s l y p r a c t i s e d and  Bob and h i s s i s t e r A l l y s o n have  i n h e r i t e d the l a n d b o r d e r i n g on the Hope-Princeton  Highway a t  the f o r k a l o n g the road t o Coldwater w i t h i n the 16 a c r e s o f 'CP'  l a n d d e s i g n a t e d from our dad t o Robert S r . Robert and h i s son Corey drowned when t h e i r boat  o v e r t u r n e d i n the Thompson R i v e r on February 26, 1983. Frederick Albert  Sterling  My b r o t h e r F r e d was born i n 1939.  H i s I n d i a n name i s  "Shnowt" meaning wind.  He t o l d me r e c e n t l y about  t h i n g s he l e a r n e d about  the t e a c h i n g s and p r a c t i s e s o f o u r  dad.  some o f t h e  He s a i d t h a t our dad " p r a c t i s e d the p r o p e r p r o t o c o l  about h u n t i n g i n h i s own t e r r i t o r y , he d i d n ' t go i n t o anyone e l s e ' s h u n t i n g grounds. ( I n t e r v i e w June 1999) a t Joeyaska  He was r e s p e c t f u l i n t h a t  light."  I was speaking t o F r e d b e h i n d h i s home  I n d i a n Reserve  #2.  The water flowed s w i f t l y i n  one o f the i n i t i a l d i t c h e s t h a t i r r i g a t e s the main hay fields.  The same d i t c h t h a t branches  82  o f f from Godey Creek  was  hewn out more than one hundred y e a r s e a r l i e r by our g r e a t  g r a n d f a t h e r Joeyaska.  F r e d has put up a hay barn near the  c o r r a l he r e c e n t l y b u i l t the  cattle.  so he can keep an eye on the hay  With the town o f M e r r i t t expanding around the  l a n d of Joeyaska t h i n g s go m i s s i n g . a l o t o f unseen up the h i l l of  and  He s a i d t h a t our dad d i d  t h i n g s around the ranch, f o r example  riding  on horseback t o check f o r water f o r a second c r o p  hay i n l a t e summe.  The book Legends of Our Times  (1998)  made note of the importance of hay. The l a n d on r e s e r v e s was not l e f t i d l e . Many f a m i l i e s who had a c c e s s t o i r r i g a t i o n systems o r a source of water put up hay t o f e e d t h e i r own s t o c k or t o s e l l t o the l a r g e r ranches. ( B a i l l a r g e o n & Tepper p.106) In my the  f a t h e r ' s case he was making a l i v i n g and c o n t i n u i n g i n  t r a d i t i o n of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r by working on the l a n d .  F r e d does not cut hay on Joeyaska North.  I t i s important t o  document t h a t our dad used t o c u t the hay t h e r e i n p r e v i o u s years.  That i s why  statement t h a t my  Joe Lauder r e c e n t l y s i g n e d a n o t a r i z e d  f a t h e r s o l d hay from the p r o p e r t y on  Joeyaska N o r t h d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n of the 1930's t o h i s f a t h e r who  owned a ranch a t Stump Lake.  note because or  i t c o n f i r m s t h a t our dad was  T h i s i s important t o not r e s t r i c t e d t o  l i m i t e d t o h a r v e s t i n g hay a t Joeyaska South.  over r u n n i n g the ranch i n the summer o f 1962 m a r r i e d and moved i n t o the new N i c o l a Band.  F r e d took  when he got  house b u i l t by the Lower  T h i s house i s s i t u a t e d b e s i d e the o l d cedar  frame house brought up t o the l a n d by s i x teams of h o r s e s i n 1935.  F r e d made changes such as h a y i n g w i t h  machinery,  b a i l e r s and s t a c k e r s r a t h e r than h i r e a h a y i n g crew who  83  did  the work by hand and w i t h horses as our dad had done.  Fred  worked f u l l time a t the l o c a l lumber m i l l f o r y e a r s and  with  the h e l p of our a g i n g f a t h e r looked a f t e r the ranch work. maintained to  f i f t y head of c a t t l e , which meant b r i n g i n g them up  summer g r a z i n g a t Q u i l c h e n a Creek f o r s i x months.  He  t h i s ranch can o n l y s t a n d a s m a l l h e r d otherwise the of  hay g e t s too expensive.  On one  o c c a s i o n I was  had r i d d e n the h e r d f o r two My  f a t h e r was  a f o u l mood. school."  said  purchase  a t home  from u n i v e r s i t y f o r T h a n k s g i v i n g weekend i n 1970.  ranch.  He  The  men  days b r i n g i n g them back t o the  74 y e a r s o l d a t the time and he was  "What are you doing home.  Shouldn't  you be i n  He had h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s of us and the c a t t l e  got h a r d e r w i t h age.  On a more r e c e n t v i s i t  weekend I s t a y e d w i t h my  in  on the May  drive 1st  s i s t e r Deanna S t e r l i n g and i n the  e a r l y morning we heard dogs b a r k i n g , the t h u n d e r i n g of cows t r a m p l i n g the ground, cowboys h o o t i n g and w h i s t l i n g . b r o t h e r Fred, age s u r g e r y was  60,  r e c e n t l y r e c o v e r e d from g a l l  on horseback  My  bladder  w i t h our r e l a t i v e s d r i v i n g the h e r d  i n c l u d i n g the c a l v e s up t o summer range.  Within a  few  minutes the n o i s e subsided, the cows had moved s w i f t l y . i s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d a t the summer range. of  my  f a t h e r i n so many ways.  F r e d reminds  When he s a i d t h a t our  i n h e r i t e d t h i s l a n d from h i s mother Sarah Joeyaska, t h a t i t was  a b i n d i n g agreement.  w i t h importance  and meaning.  My  The  me  dad I knew  spoken word i s packed  f a t h e r i n h e r i t e d the l a n d ,  he o c c u p i e d and worked on the l a n d . s u s t a i n e d him and h i s f a m i l y .  Hay  The  land i n turn  I see the homes, the out-  84  b u i l d i n g s , the hay f i e l d s ,  the fences and the d i t c h e s .  As  l o n g as I have known, F r e d has been a hard worker and an e a r l y r i s e r l i k e our dad.  He has t r a i n e d h i s share o f  h o r s e s , branded and i n n o c u l a t e d c a l v e s i n s p r i n g , s o l d and purchased  a number o f b u l l s .  H i s c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n  are t h e t r e a s u r e s o f h i s l i f e .  He has i n h e r i t e d the b u l k o f  the l a n d and l i k e our dad, F r e d o c c u p i e s , works and l o o k s a f t e r the l a n d making sure t h a t the p l a c e i s r u n i n keeping w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s o f our dad.  He takes h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s e r i o u s l y when m a i n t a i n i n g f i e l d s ,  d i t c h e s , fences, the herd.  He has a backhoe b u s i n e s s as w e l l and c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f v e r y fortunate t o partake  i n the b e s t o f s m a l l time  ranching.  In 1957 F r e d s e t a new t r a c k r e c o r d i n running the m i l e . I f e l t v e r y proud o f him.  The newspaper c l i p p i n g hung on t h e  w a l l o f our house f o r y e a r s .  The M e r r i t t H e r a l d news  c l i p p i n g s t a t e d t h a t he had r u n the m i l e i n under  five  minutes and showed h i s photo.  A t r a d i t i o n i n i t i a t e d no doubt  when he and h i s b r o t h e r Robert  r a c e d each o t h e r t o s c h o o l  e v e r y day. today.  T r a d i t i o n s c a r r i e d through  the y e a r s and c o n t i n u e  When we spoke t o g e t h e r i n June 1999 F r e d was working  on a deer h i d e t h a t was s t r e t c h e d and l a c e d on a frame.  He  s a i d t h a t h i s daughter J a c k i e wanted t o make a drum and he was happy t o prepare p a r t i c u l a r hide.  the deer h i d e f o r her, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t  I t had been a b i g buck and he had saved t h e  h i d e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e h a v i n g a good reason t o c l e a n it.  Memories came t o mind o f my f a t h e r who knew how t o t a n  deer h i d e s .  I had asked my mother t o ask my f a t h e r t o t e a c h  85  me.  She t o l d me h i s answer, "She b e t t e r prove t o me  can sew  that  she  first."  F r e d m a r r i e d Lorna Anderson of Spences B r i d g e .  They  have f i v e c h i l d r e n , t h e i r f o u r daughters r e c e i v e d Ntla'kapmux names i n 1997.  Rona i s m a r r i e d and l i v i n g near Godey Creek,  she has a son and a daughter and i s p r e s e n t l y c o m p l e t i n g Master's Degree i n S o c i a l Work.  J a c k i e l i v e s i n Vancouver  and works i n computer g r a p h i c s .  Angie i s m a r r i e d and  b u i l d i n g a home near Godey Creek.  a  She has a baby daughter  and i s a c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r (SFU) and p r e s e n t l y works f o r the Lower N i c o l a Band as C h i l d Care Worker. C o q u i t l a m and i s completing a Ph.D.  Lisa lives i n  T h e i r son F r e d e r i c k i s a  computer t e c h n i c i a n working w i t h the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n Vancouver.  L i k e Fred, he hunts and goes  fishing.  I n o t i c e t h a t he works a l o n g s i d e h i s f a t h e r , b r a n d i n g c a l v e s , haying, d r i v i n g the h e r d up t o g r a z i n g , o r i n the p u r c h a s i n g of a new  bull,  whenever he i s home from the c i t y .  Sarah Dorothy Stewart My  s i s t e r Sarah was born i n 1941.  our dad's mother Sarah Joeyaska.  She was named a f t e r  As a baby she r e c e i v e d the  name T z u l - t z u l - l i n e k from f r i e n d s i n the v i l l a g e of S h u l u s . Sarah l i v e s i n a double wide t r a i l e r next door t o the house my p a r e n t s moved i n t o i n 1967. t o our p a r e n t s .  Sarah has always l i v e d  close  She worked f o r 2 0 y e a r s f o r M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s  as a Community H e a l t h R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the Coldwater Lower N i c o l a Bands. spent w i t h e l d e r s who  Her f a v o r i t e time on the j o b was  and time  knew our p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s .  86  H e c t o r Stewart, an Okanagan from Douglas Lake, m a r r i e d Sarah 27 y e a r s ago.  For a s h o r t w h i l e they l i v e d a t Douglas  Lake,  but moved back t o Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 on l a n d t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the ' C e r t i f i c a t e of P o s s e s s i o n ' o r land  CP'd  ( s i x t e e n acres) which belongs t o our mother Sophie  Sterling.  Sarah and her c h i l d r e n spent a l o t of time w i t h  our p a r e n t s .  She s a i d our dad had a b i g i n f l u e n c e on h e r  sons, t e a c h i n g them good work e t h i c s and the importance o f b e i n g c a r e t a k e r s of the l a n d .  T h e i r l a n d i s f e n c e d o f f from  the r e s t of the f i e l d s because they r a i s e h o r s e s .  At the  time Sarah gave me her w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n about our dad, t o l d me  she  about the h o r s e s t h a t Hector and h e r son Ron were  b r e a k i n g i n the f i e l d near t h e i r p l a c e .  She s a i d t h a t the  mare which had j u s t r e c e n t l y g i v e n b i r t h t o a c o l t had come t o disown the c o l t because the 'dry' mare somehow got the afterbirth,  t h e r e f o r e the hungry c o l t f o l l o w e d the d r y mare  and was g e t t i n g k i c k e d away.  H e c t o r had t o hobble and t i e  the mother down t o s e t t h i n g s r i g h t .  Together they have  r a i s e d t h r e e sons and two grandsons, and they c o n t i n u e i n the Ntla'kapmux t r a d i t i o n s of f o o d g a t h e r i n g ; they p i c k mushrooms i n s p r i n g , b e r r i e s i n summer, the guys go salmon f i s h i n g  and  h e l p F r e d w i t h b r a n d i n g the c a l v e s i n s p r i n g and s t a c k i n g b a l e s i n summer.  hay  Sarah's o l d e s t son Greg i s i n the Canadian  A i r Force, s t a t i o n e d i n O n t a r i o .  Ron  i s a logger, i n f r e e  time he goes e l k hunting, salmon f i s h i n g and he smokes f i s h . He l i k e s t o take h i s son Corey i c e f i s h i n g i n w i n t e r . Sarah's youngest son Ted i s a c a r p e n t e r and c o n t r a c t o r  87  who  b u i l d s houses. meat c u t t e r . attack. Douglas  The o l d e r grandson L l o y d i s t r a i n i n g t o be a Sarah i s p r e s e n t l y r e c o v e r i n g from a h e a r t  Hector i s e l e c t e d on t h e Band Counsel f o r t h e Lake F i r s t N a t i o n s , and he works f u l l  Lower N i c o l a Band as c h i l d - c a r e worker.  time w i t h t h e  They a r e a f a m i l y  who l o v e p e o p l e and e n j o y s h a r i n g h o s p i t a l i t y . Deanna S t e r l i n g Deanna was born i n 1943. her baptism because  She was named by a p r i e s t a t  he r e f u s e d t o a l l o w h e r t o have t h e  I n d i a n name "La Allema" on h e r r e c o r d .  She was named a f t e r  our mother's mother who was godmother a t t h e baptism. Deanna taught p r i m a r y grades a t t h e Lower N i c o l a Band S c h o o l , she a l s o taught elementary and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n around the p r o v i n c e f o r twenty-four y e a r s b e f o r e completing a Master's Degree i n E d u c a t i o n (Ts'kel) a t UBC i n 1998. p r e s e n t l y t h e c a r e t a k e r o f our a g i n g mother, Sophie  She i s  Sterling.  Deanna used t o be known as the weekend v i s i t o r u n t i l she f i n a l l y h i r e d a c a r p e n t e r t o b u i l d h e r a house near Godey Creek i n t h e a r e a p i c k e d out f o r h e r by our b r o t h e r F r e d . When she was a l i t t l e g i r l from our dad about  Deanna l e a r n e d an important  respecting birds.  t i n y b i r d , o u r dad stopped h e r .  lesson  She t r i e d s n a r i n g a  A f t e r an i n i t i a l  s c o l d i n g he  impressed upon h e r t h e important r o l e t h a t song b i r d s p l a y i n the environment.  Years l a t e r the c h i l d r e n found a  f e a t h e r l e s s s t a r l i n g on the ground and brought  i t t o Deanna  who r a i s e d i t and c a r e d f o r i t f o r f i v e y e a r s t i l l In  i t died.  1998 a baby r o b i n was found and brought t o Deanna who p u t  88  a s i d e the w r i t i n g of her t h e s i s t o d i g f o r worms and bugs and moths.  The  r o b i n f l o u r i s h e d but Deanna  catch  was  exhausted, however i n each of the worm p i t s she t o s s e d i n a p o t a t o and by summer's end h a r v e s t e d spent  a good crop.  as much time as p o s s i b l e w i t h our p a r e n t s  Deanna  and  grandmother, she l o v e s b e i n g w i t h e l d e r s h e a r i n g s t o r i e s l e a r n i n g about our h i s t o r y . w r i t e a Graduating  I t was  n a t u r a l f o r Deanna t o  Paper on our f a m i l y h i s t o r y t i t l e d ;  Joyaska-Voght-Yepskin C l a n : A F a m i l y T i m e l i n e . reading mysteries, sense of humour.  and  The  Deanna l o v e s  she i s a good s t o r y t e l l e r and has  a good  Deanna a l s o takes our mother out t o  the  f i e l d s and h i l l s t o p i c k h e r b a l t e a s , mushrooms, b e r r i e s and medicines.  I l i k e t o f o l l o w Deanna when we  because she p i c k s o n l y the b i g g e s t ones and  pick berries leaves  the  s m a l l e r more abundant b e r r i e s behind. Shirley My  Sterling s i s t e r S h i r l e y or "Seepeetza" was  p r e s e n t l y teaches two  days a week at UBC.  born i n 1948. The  She  o t h e r days are  d i v i d e d between marking papers, t a k i n g c a r e o f h e r grandson K i e r a n i n Vancouver, then heading home t o the Joeyaska Reserve #2  to concentrate  on w r i t i n g another n o v e l .  f i r s t n o v e l My Name Is Seepeetza won Award i n 1993.  She  t o l d me  "The  Her  the c h i l d r e n ' s B.C.  name gave me  two  i n c l u s i o n among the  Nlakapamux, and the mythology by which I have been a b l e make meaning out of my  Book  t h a t the name Seepeetza, which  means 'white s k i n ' g i v e n t o her by our dad has s i g n i f i c a n t meanings.  Indian  l i f e when n o t h i n g  89  to  e l s e made sense."  (Personal Communication 1999) Seepeetza many g i f t s ,  B e s i d e s the name our dad gave  f o r example, the u p b r i n g i n g on the  Joeyaska Ranch, the t r i p s t o the mountains and r i v e r s t o l e a r n about our c u l t u r e , the examle of h a r d work and g e n e r o s i t y and the f e e l i n g of s a f e t y when he was  around.  What she has come t o understand a f t e r f i v e y e a r s of r e f l e c t i v e thought i s t h a t our dad must have seen the s a c r e d i n a l l t h i n g s , b l e s s i n g s as w e l l as c h a l l e n g e s .  The  i n s p i r a t i o n t o go f u r t h e r i n e d u c a t i o n and t o r e a c h f o r h i g h e r g o a l s accompanied  by s t o r y t e l l i n g  at i t s f i n e s t  as  w e l l as the sense of humor and imagery v o i c e d by our dad h e l p e d Seepeetza i n her w r i t i n g .  has  Another important t r a i t i s  the bond and c o n n e c t i o n t h a t l i n k s Seepeetza and h e r c h i l d r e n and grandson.  The deep l o v e t h a t flows t o l i t t l e  K i e r a n was  b o r n of the acceptance and a f f e c t i o n she r e c e i v e d from our parents.  When we were c h i l d r e n I was  aware of the p r i d e  f a t h e r had f o r Seepeetza, when she r a c e d and won y a r d dash on J u l y 1st i n 1960  he beamed w i t h p r i d e .  s p e c i a l terms of endearment l i k e ; s m i l e " and "You're affection.  the  my  hundred He  "You have a m i l l i o n  had  dollar  a r e a l square s h o o t e r " e x p r e s s e d h i s  " E v e r y t h i n g my dad d i d f o r me was  a labor of  l o v e and he c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e f o r me u n t i l h i s death without any hope of r e c i p r o c a t i o n . "  (Personal J o u r n a l 1999).  I can r e c o g n i z e a s i m i l a r l a b o r of l o v e t h a t Seepeetza f o r her two c h i l d r e n .  has  Her son E r i c completed a Diploma i n  F o r e s t r y and works i n N o r t h e r B r i t i s h Columbia.  Her  daughter  Haike r e c e n t l y completed a law degree and works w i t h F i r s t  90  Nations  students as A d v i s o r i n the F a c u l t y of Law  at  UBC.  Seepeetza l i v e s at Joeyaska and commutes t o Vancouver. Austin  Sterling  A u s t i n was  b o r n i n 1952.  He was  g i v e n the I n d i a n name  "Hepa-Lex-Keyn" by a r e l a t i v e of Sarah Joeyaska, an e l d e r wanted A u s t i n t o have the name. b r o t h e r A u s t i n i n J u l y 1999 I n d i a n Reserve #2 he was of  When I went t o v i s i t  knives.  h o i s t i n g up the f r e s h l y s k i n n e d body  of the way  A f t e r c l e a n i n g the t o o l s A u s t i n t o l d me l e a r n e d from our dad.  the  our dad took g r e a t  w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of meat and game, our f o o d  g r a i n and  He moved  c a u t i o u s l y when h a n d l i n g the meat and  I t reminded me  my  at h i s home on the Joeyaska  an e l k t o hang h i g h i n the t r e e near h i s house.  c a r e f u l l y and  care  supply.  many t h i n g s he  For example, he l e a r n e d how  had  to plant  seed f o r a h i g h q u a l i t y fodder i n the f i e l d s ,  l e a r n e d how  who  he  t o l o o k a f t e r the stock, he f e d the cows i n  w i n t e r and he hunted and  fished.  He  s a i d our dad b u i l t  c h i c k e n coop, he c l e a r e d i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s and was  a  very  t a l e n t e d i n the care and making of t o o l s needed f o r ranch work.  He p r a c t i c e d s e l e c t i v e hunting,  e v e r y deer he saw,  and he was  harm o r p a i n t o the animal, t h e r e were no harmful land. of  he d i d n ' t shoot  a p r e c i s i o n shooter,  and he l e f t  chemicals  at  causing  no  the l a n d i n t a c t ,  or sprays allowed on  the  Those a r e the t h i n g s t h a t s t a n d out i n A u s t i n ' s memory  our dad.  The  things I recognize A u s t i n doing  are,  c o n t i n u i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c l e a n s e i n the sweat lodge, i s p r e s e n t l y s t u d y i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l i n g p r a c t i c e s of  91  he  the Ntla'kapmux.  He p l a y s g u i t a r , w r i t e s and s i n g s drum  songs and c a r r i e s on i n the t e a c h i n g s of our dad. r e s p e c t f u l i n a l l h i s ways.  He i s  A u s t i n i s an e l e c t e d  Councillor  f o r the Lower N i c o l a Band, he makes h i s home on the 14 g i v e n t o him by our dad,  acres  he wants t o l i v e t h e r e , i t i s h i s  choice. Nk  Xetko I am the second youngest  c h i l d of A l b e r t and Sophie.  My  twelve y e a r s a t the Kamloops I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l School were a p a i n f u l testimony of b e i n g wrenched away from p a r e n t s , home and f a m i l y .  I have s i n c e become r e - a c q u a i n t e d w i t h  family, history, h e l p e d me 1996.  t r a d i t i o n s and t e a c h i n g s .  These  connections  a t t a i n a B a c h e l o r of E d u c a t i o n Degree a t UBC  I e n j o y t a k i n g some of the t e a c h i n g s from my  and d e v e l o p i n g l e s s o n s f o r classroom use Ntla'kapmux myth. When my  immediately  moccasins a t age  - recontextualizing  t o l e a r n how  w i t h my mother's guidance fifteen.  in  culture  I check t h i n g s out w i t h my mother  f a t h e r c h a l l e n g e d me  Southern  my  t o sew  first.  I s e t out  t o make a p a i r of  L a t e r I had m a r r i e d i n t o  the  Tutchone T r i b e i n the Yukon and l i v e d t h e r e f o r  f i f t e e n y e a r s and r a i s e d my  two  children there.  among a c u l t u r a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l people t h a t I had o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n how  I t was  there  the  t o cut and d r y salmon, moose meat,  t a n moose h i d e s and make b u c k s k i n c l o t h i n g complete w i t h beadwork. difficult  My  f a t h e r ' s c h a l l e n g e h e l p e d me  situations i n l i f e .  would always say.  "Do  t o s u r v i v e many  the b e s t you can,"  he  I took t h a t t o h e a r t and t r y t o l i v e up  92  to  that d i r e c t i v e .  My son Darren works as a heavy duty  equipment o p e r a t o r and i s a budding w r i t e r i n t h e Yukon.  My  daughter Nadia i s i n second y e a r s c i e n c e s a t UBC. I have r e m a r r i e d and l i v e a t Musqueam.  I teach a F i r s t  N a t i o n s S t u d i e s course and a seminar t o NITEP s t u d e n t s a t UBC.  I f e e l i t i s important t o p r a c t i s e t h e t e a c h i n g s o f my  p a r e n t s and grandparents students.  and some o f these I share w i t h my  F o r example, I do n o t k i l l  spiders.  In  Ntla'kapmux legend, i t was Skwok-We t h e s p i d e r who went up t o the sky and brought weaving back t o our p e o p l e . a n y t h i n g from t h e l a n d I g i v e something taught by my mother and grandmother.  When I take  back i n thanks as  Some o f my h a p p i e s t  times a r e spent a t f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s w i t h t h e S t e r l i n g s .  We  share s t o r i e s , swap j o k e s , p r a y t o g e t h e r , share good f o o d from t h e l a n d . Robert  I n an u n p u b l i s h e d document 1979, my b r o t h e r  wrote,  Through k i n s h i p and t h e extended f a m i l y system t h e people had t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n - t h e f a m i l y . When i n d i v i d u a l s had problems o r d i f f i c u l t i e s they t u r n e d t o their families f i r s t . Each f a m i l y was v e r y s e r i o u s about l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e i r own. ( S t e r l i n g 1979 p.80) Robert v o i c e d concerns t h a t i n modern times t h e f a m i l y u n i t was  becoming weakened through i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l  pursuits.  However, i n and among t h e S t e r l i n g f a m i l y , k i n s h i p  and t i e s t o t h e l a n d a t Joeyaska s t r o n g and i n t a c t .  I n d i a n Reserve  We c e l e b r t e b i r t h d a y s t o g e t h e r , we honour  the graduates and c o n s i d e r Joeyaska home.  #2 remain  I n d i a n Reserve  #2 our  Though my b r o t h e r s r e c e i v e d t h e b u l k o f t h e l a n d from  our dad, he made sure t h a t each o f h i s daughters  93  i s provided  f o r as w e l l .  He t o l d i*s many times when we were growing up  t h a t we had a home a t Joeyaska  Ranch.  He gave each of us  s i s t e r s one a c r e a p i e c e i f ever we want t o b u i l d a home.  We  have t o c o n s u l t w i t h the f a m i l y b e f o r e choosing the a c r e . c a n ' t be a hay f i e l d . traditions  T h i s i s what c a r r y i n g on i n  Joeyaska's  means, we have a home on h i s l a n d and we have a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t a k i n g care of each o t h e r and the l a n d . That i s a c u l t u r e and a t r a d i t i o n worth keeping and s h a r i n g w i t h the  world.  94  It  CONCLUSION  I n t h e documented h i s t o r y o f t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y J o e y a s k a ' s s t o r y and my f a t h e r ' s s t o r y w i l l n o t be among t h e written histories.  However, i n s p e a k i n g t o d i f f e r e n t  i n d i v i d u a l s from w i t h i n nearby F i r s t N a t i o n s communities and reserves,  according  t o o r a l t r a d i t i o n t h e name o f J o e y a s k a i s  known t o t h e e l d e r s , and A l b e r t S t e r l i n g i s q u i t e w e l l known. W e l l known i n t h e sense t h a t he i n t e r p r e t e d f o r p e o p l e who couldn't  speak E n g l i s h , and he was known f o r h i s a b i l i t y t o  s e t t l e land  disputes.  My f a t h e r was b o r n i n 1896,  h i s I n d i a n name was  "Inxwhup" which means 'snow on h i s b a c k s i d e . '  My  brother  F r e d t o l d me t h a t o u r dad must have been s l i d i n g d o w n h i l l i n the snow and t h a t name s t a y e d w i t h him. t a l k about "Inxwhup."  The e l d e r s  still  The name sounds l i k e a term o f  endearment g i v e n by a l o v i n g g r a n d f a t h e r ,  Joeyaska.  W r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s has p u t me i n touch w i t h t h e men b e h i n d t h e names.  When I l o o k a t Joeyaska's l i f e I see a  w a r r i o r , an i n d u s t r i o u s man o f i n t e g r i t y .  An example o f how  much work went i n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f one musket, James T e i t r e c o r d e d t h a t i t c o s t 600 d r i e d salmon f o r one musket i n trade  i n t h e 1800's.  (The Jesup Report 1900 P260)  My  mother s a i d t h e r e were no demeaning statements made about J o e y a s k a , she h e a r d none.  J u l i e C r u i k s h a n k (1991)  on o r a l t r a d i t i o n .  95  elaborates  Anyone who has spent time t a l k i n g w i t h e l d e r s about t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a s t knows t h a t o r a l accounts are d i s c u s s e d and debated i n communities, and t h a t o r a l t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f i s a l i v e l y , continuous, ongoing p r o c e s s , a way of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r e s e n t as w e l l as the p a s t . (p.141) I have l e a r n e d of the ways of Joeyaska by l o o k i n g at f a t h e r ' s l i f e and h e a r i n g b i r t h r i g h t my  the s t o r i e s .  my  In p r o t e c t i n g h i s  f a t h e r made every e f f o r t t o s a f e g u a r d h i s  for his children.  He wrote l e t t e r s of p r o t e s t when  began c l a i m i n g l a n d ,  t h e i r claims  f a l s e l y s i g n e d by  land  squatters chiefs  and  I n d i a n Agents.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t each of  the  f a l s e claimants  belong t o a d i f f e r e n t Band, they are  Joeyaska's descendants nor Lower Band members. my  f a t h e r was  a s t r o n g man,  work demanded i t .  horseback h o o t i n g , got o u t s i d e  I knew t h a t  p h y s i c a l l y strong,  ranch  I remember as a young g i r l h e a r i n g  a big  commotion near the barn.  he was  My  f a t h e r age  y e l l i n g and  of the fence.  72  was  alone  on  c u r s i n g h i s h e r d of cows which  S i n g l e handedly w i t h h i s v o i c e  a whip he managed t o get the 50 or so head back i n t o c o r r a l and  not  a v o i d e d unnecessary damage.  h i s c o n v i c t i o n s about h i s l a n d . w i t h the band p o l i t i c s ,  He may  He was  and  the  also strong  in  have been f r u s t r a t e d  however, he never wavered about h i s  ownership. When I say t h a t A l b e r t S t e r l i n g ' s c h i l d r e n have  the  r i g h t t o occupy and u t i l i z e the l a n d known as Joeyaska Reserve #2,  Indian  i t i s a r i g h t t o occupy without f e a r of  encroachment by s q u a t t e r s  and by the Lower N i c o l a Band c h i e f .  I t i s the r i g h t t o occupy the l a n d without  further  harrassment by Lower N i c o l a Band development.  96  In 1878  when  Joeyaska was f a c e d w i t h h i s neighbor W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s c l a i m i n g a l l h i s water r i g h t s , he made h i s case known t o the l a n d s commissioner. h i s new occupancy  H i s former displacement, the i n j u s t i c e ,  a t Godey Creek, h i s d i t c h e s and c u l t i v a t i o n  had a l l been documented: he was g i v e n f a v o r and g r a n t e d r i g h t s t o t h e 320 a c r e s he pre-empted. G i l b e r t Malcolm  We need a modern day  Sproat t o take note o f the evidence o f the  S t e r l i n g s ' c l a i m t o Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 and g r a n t my mother freedom  from the harassment  and g r a n t us freedom  from  the f a l s e c l a i m s o f the Lower N i c o l a Band. When I go home t o the l a n d a t Joeyaska I go t o t h e c o r n e r s o f each d i r e c t i o n , n o r t h , south, e a s t and west o f Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 t o p r a y f o r the s a f e t y o f the land.  Each f a m i l y member does t h i s as w e l l .  I t i s something  my f a t h e r d i d and we c a r r y on t h i s important s t e p . t h a t Joeyaska d i d as w e l l .  I believe  On Labor Day weekend I s t o o d a t  the n o r t h e r n most p a r t of Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2 and I must have d i s t u r b e d a coyote.  The coyote t r o t t e d o f f then  t u r n e d and watched me f o r the d u r a t i o n o f my s h o r t there.  time  A t t h a t time I r e c o g n i z e d my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o do my  b e s t t o ensure the s a f e t y and w e l l b e i n g o f the S t e r l i n g family.  I a l s o became aware t h a t the l a n d a t Joeyaska I n d i a n  Reserve #2 passed on t o us from our g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r Joeyaska i s s p e c i a l and s a c r e d .  I saw my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  b e i n g a good steward, t o make sure the environment life  i s p r o t e c t e d as w e l l .  T h i s i s something  and w i l d  t h a t appears t o  have been o v e r l o o k e d i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g a c a s i n o  97  and  shopping m a l l by the Lower N i c o l a Band. I have w r i t t e n , The  S t o r y of Joeyaska, a c h i l d r e n ' s  v e r s i o n of the s t o r y of my is  important t o share h i s s t o r y f o r two 1.  warrior, 2.  I f e e l that i t  reasons;  For F i r s t N a t i o n s c h i l d r e n t o see how Joeyaska, overcame d i f f i c u l t  one  obstacles  Stuwix  in his  life.  For n o n - F i r s t N a t i o n s c h i l d r e n t o see t h a t one  Joeyaska, a w a r r i o r and  great grandfather.  l o v e d h i s l a n d and  became a good p r o v i d e r  cared  for his family.  for his  man,  family  A s t o r y worth  t e l l i n g i n the h i s t o r y of the N i c o l a V a l l e y . The in  term w a r r i o r means; A man  w a r f a r e ; one  D i c t i o n a r y 1989 his  engaged i n or e x p e r i e n c e d  devoted t o m i l i t a r y l i f e . p.1513)  grandfather.  (Funk & Wagnalls  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n f i t s my  T h e i r l e g a c y of s a f e g u a r d i n g  b e f a l l s us today i s t h a t we  become the new  educator P i t a Sharpies challenged  us t o be  father  the l a n d  warriors.  and that  Maori  warriors.  W a r r i o r s of today p r o t e c t the c u l t u r e , the language and the l a n d because they are worth p r o t e c t i n g . Our w o r l d needs the t e a c h i n g s we have to o f f e r . (Voice of the Drum Conference 1998) Where do we brothers  and  freedom and  go from here?  sisters,  In t a l k i n g w i t h my  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e  the Lower N i c o l a Band.  One  under p r e s e n t  amalgamation w i t h  of the e r r o r s t h a t needs  c o r r e c t i n g i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by e l e c t e d c o u n c i l . of my  the  enjoyment of our i n h e r i t a n c e , the l a n d a t  Joeyaska I n d i a n Reserve #2  two  mother,  brothers  e i g h t members.  Any  and  one  Right  now  nephew are e l e c t e d on a c o u n c i l of  time t h a t b u s i n e s s about Joeyaska Reserve  98  #2  i s brought up t o c o u n c i l , my  brothers  and nephew are  t o l e a v e the room because i t i s c o n s i d e r e d interest.'  a  'conflict  of  What i t means i s t h a t the S t e r l i n g f a m i l y has  v o i c e , no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Lower N i c o l a Band. not t r u e democracy and I feel  i t needs t o be  t h a t the o r a l accounts combined w i t h  s t r o n g l y shows t h a t h i s l a n d was hope t o separate  Vancouver Sun  1999  That i s  historical  warrior,  once a separate  t o form our own  no  rectified.  documentation about the l i f e of Joeyaska the  we  asked  entity  band once a g a i n .  and  The  reported,  The Supreme Court of Canada i n the 1997 Delgamuukw d e c i s i o n made i t c l e a r t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s h o l d t i t l e l a n d i n B.C. S p e c i f i c s need t o be r e s o l v e d through n e g o t i a t i o n and i f necessary, l i t i g a t i o n . The  S t e r l i n g family holds  I n d i a n Reserve #2 us.  and we  title  are c o n s i d e r i n g the o p t i o n s  litigation  i s the second.  s t r o n g stand and got h i s l a n d . b e n e f i t s of p e r s i s t e n c e and taught me  Their t r a i t s  first  Joeyaska made a  determination.  e s t a b l i s h who  open t o  H i s e t h i c s have taught me  t o l a n d and t o a n c e s t o r s ,  t r a d i t i o n s helped community.  In 1878  the b e n e f i t s of making a stand.  re-connecting  me  t o the l a n d at Joeyaska  N e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the Lower N i c o l a Band i s the  option,  to  I am  My  father  has  This process  t o t h e i r ways  my  life  of and  i n the f a m i l y and  serve t o s t r e n g t h e n  the  i n the  and  help  t o be a s u c c e s s f u l and happy Stuwix/Ntla'kapmux woman  today.  T h e i r knowledge and  s t r e n g t h w i l l h e l p me  and  f a m i l y t o take up the cause as Joeyaska d i d i n 1878 s e c u r i n g the l a n d t o make i t a s a f e p l a c e t o T h i s i s the s t o r y of Joeyaska.  of  live.  Through my  99  our  research  and  reconnections  t o f a m i l y h i s t o r y , I have l e a r n e d  that i n h i s  f a m i l y c l a n and extended f a m i l y , Joeyaska has c l o s e t o one hundred descendants and many a r e a l i v e and e l i g i b l e t o l i v e on the l a n d a l l o t t e d him i n 1878. d i s t a n t ancestor.  Joeyaska i s no l o n g e r a  He has become 'en spopzuh' a term o f  endearment, which means 'my g r a n d f a t h e r ' .  Joeyaska  Indian  Reserve #2 i s our homeland and i t w i l l r e q u i r e much persistence  t o make i t s a f e and secure f o r t h e f u t u r e  generations.  100  BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, J e a n e t t e . 1992. "Across The C u l t u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia R e c o n s i d e r e d . Press Gang P u b l i s h e r s , Vancouver. B a i l l a r g e o n , Morgan & L e s l i e Tepper. 1998. Times. UBC Press, Vancouver, B.C. Berger, Thomas. 1985. Mclntyre.  Gap."  Legends of Our  Vi11age Journey. Vancouver: Douglas &  Boas, F r a n z . Ed. 1895. Northwestern T r i b e s of Canada. Report, Ipswich. B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of S c i e n c e .  Tenth  Boyd, D a v i d R. 1999, October 9. " F i r s t N a t i o n s and l o g g i n g r i g h t s : Toward a f i v e - p e r - c e n t s o l u t i o n . " The Vancouver Sun, p.A2 3. Boyko, John. 1995. Winnipeg.  L a s t Steps To Freedom.  Watson & Dwyer  B r o a d f o o t , Gary. 1977. Years o f Sorrow, Years o f Shame. Doubleday, Canada L i m i t e d , Toronto. Caduto, M i c h a e l & Joseph Bruchac. 1994. F i f t h House P u b l i s h e r s , Saskatoon. C h r i s t o p h e r s , B r e t t . 1998. 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N a t i v e S o l d i e r s , F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r o f Supply & S e r v i c e s , Canada.  T e i t , James A. 1930. The F o r t y - F i f t h Annual Report o f t h e Bureau o f Ethnology. U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington. 1928. The Middle Columbia S a l i s h . Washington P r e s s . Seattle.  U n i v e r s i t y of  1900. The Thompson I n d i a n s . ed. Franz Boas. The Jesup North P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n . Memoir o f t h e American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New York. Thompson, Laurence C. and T e r r y M. Thompson. 1996. Thompson R i v e r S a l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . O c c a s i o n a l Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s No. 12. L i b r a r y o f Congress C a t a l o g # 9660021. T i t l e y , B r i a n . 1986. A Narrow V i s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s . Vancouver. We Belong To The Land. 1983. Areata, C a l i f o r n i a .  Shenandoah F i l m P r o d u c t i o n s .  Vansina, J a n . 1985. O r a l T r a d i t i o n As H i s t o r y . Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin P r e s s .  The  Wickwire, W. C. 1998. 'We S h a l l D r i n k from the Stream and So S h a l l You': James A. T e i t and N a t i v e R e s i s t a n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1908-22. The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 79. The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press Incorporated.  103  

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