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Musical composition, Wonder, with document Steenhuisen, Paul Brendan Allister 1998

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M U S I C A L C O M P O S I T I O N , WONDER,  WITH DOCUMENT  By PAUL B R E N D A N ALLISTER STEENHUISEN Bachelor of Music Master of Music Certificaat Cursus de Composition  University of British Columbia University of British Columbia Koninklijk Conservatorium IRCAM  1987 1990 1991 1997  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF D O C T O R OF MUSICAL ARTS (Composition) in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (School of Music) W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard/  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A December 1997 © 1997 Paul Brendan Allister Steenhuisen  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or her representatives.  It is understood that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of fl\ LlS) The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  11  ABSTRACT  Wonder  is a dense, complex and unconventional sixteen minute  composition for orchestra, tape and soprano voice. The tape component is divided into fourteen segments and runs almost continuously throughout the piece, concurrent with the orchestra and the soprano voice. It consists primarily of processed instrumental timbres, but also contains concrete timbres and computer-generated sounds. The soprano voice figures prominently in one section and appears infrequently elsewhere in the music, in brief episodes. The role of the voice is similar to that of the other instruments in the orchestra - it is an important contributor to the articulation of the form through its content and orchestration, but does not function dominantly as a soloist throughout the entire composition. The texts (sung by the soprano and sung/chanted by choir on tape) are passages selected from the poetry ofJalal al-Din Rumi (1207-73), Henri Michaux (1899-1984), and Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861). Each poetic fragment is concerned with love, magnification, and resonance.  The concept of  resonance  informs every aspect of Wonder, including the  derivation of the prime material, the battery of compositional techniques, the form, the content and function of the tape part and the choice of texts. Material for the music was gathered by performing a s p e c t r a l a n a l y s i s on unique, short fragments of recorded sound produced on a crotale, a violoncello, a bass trombone and by a soprano voice. The resulting groups of frequencies (one array from each of the four analyzed source timbres) were interpreted in a variety of ways and amplified out of their originally small scale into the raw material on which Wonder is based. Each set of material is presented in its own section of  iii the music, with its original orchestration and characteristic gestural iconography, and is subjected to a plethora of developmental operations, including v i b r a t i o n , m o v a b l e p o i n t s o f t r a n s p o s i t i o n / i n v e r s i o n and  Some rhythmic figures are notated within  addition,  time-points.  metriproportional brackets  identifying their contents as unsynchronized and ad libitum, performed with reference to the barline and active time signature. The  interference f o r m  manifest in Wonder consists of three distinct strata, each layer mapping related sectional orderings. Formal layers are distinguished by their contrasting durations, and may be active simultaneously or articulated in discontinuous, isolated blocks.  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  11  Table of Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  v  I.  Introduction  1  II.  Spectral Analyses  9  III.  Compositional Techniques  16  IV.  Electroacoustics  26  V.  Notation  33  VI.  Form  36  VII.  Texts  45  VIII.  Conclusion  47  IX.  Quotations Glossary  49  X.  Bibliography  55  XI.  Score: Wonder  57  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Thank-you to: nathan w i l k e s laura, mcpheeters d a v i d Simpson bob pritchard diane loomer d a v i d jaeger larry lake dieter p i l t z michaela lawrence ian crutchley elektra women's choir the university of british Columbia choral u n i o n karen w i l s o n the cbc Vancouver orchestra owen u n d e r h i l l Vancouver new music bob tonge fredrik h e d e l i n tristan m u r a i l brian ferneyhough I am especially indebted  to:  m y parents, for their support of m y music throughout m y life, m y son brendan, for his love, humour, and kindness, keith hamel, for sharing his deep knowledge of music, and quietly to nib.  wonder is dedicated to elizabeth skillings, whose presence, warmth, and insight inspired the music.  1  In 1543, Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-64) published the first of two volumes entitled De Humani Corporis Fabrica, which showed cadavers stripped of their skin to reveal their bone, muscle, arterial and nerve structures. Vesalius' goals were to learn how components of the body interact and to study the complex relations necessary for movement and circulation; looking beneath the surface unlocked medical mysteries and offered a seemingly infinite variety of explanations and avenues for further study. Musically, it seems that in this aesthetically transitional time, rather than looking outward and drawing upon other musics (the unsophisticated and crude language of popular music and/or colonized ethnic music (l) 1 ) into art music or anachronistically adopting an historical musical language, an endless array of new possibilities is afforded by looking within sound, within form and within parametric relations. Just as De Humani Corporis Fabrica was Vesalius' manifestation of his interest in kinetics and the blending of the scientific and the creative, Wonder is the result of intuitively and mechanically applying the analyses of fragments of complex instrumental sounds and multifarious compositional techniques to achieve a new music. Single numbers in parentheses are references to the Quotations Glossary found on page 49, and are not to be confused with example numbers which refer to structural diagrams and musical examples within the body of the document. The inclusion of a Quotations Glossary (containing fragments of text relating to the material discussed in the main section of the document) affords the written portion of the thesis a structure somewhat loosely related to the form of the music itself. 1  2 Wonder  contributes to the repertoire by expanding upon the  foundation of knowledge gathered from the study of western art music; by its unusual inclusion of tape with orchestra, with the addition of voice which does not dominate throughout the piece; by its radical approach to form; and through its development and implementation of an arsenal of compositional techniques. The dividends of the music are also to be found in part in the degree to which the parameters have been sculpted and drawn together. Wonder is an attempt to shatter the received "wisdom" of normative boundaries that hinder the freedom of musical thought and compositional activity. By aiming to destroy the enclave of perceived constraints and boundaries of musical imagination (conventional guidelines for what should and should not occur in music), new paths are afforded, emancipating radically fresh environs in the domains of form, colour, density, structural configuration and generative procedures for the extension of materials. This does not imply, however, that given the attempted infinite range of possibilities, everything available must be included in the final work, but rather that the scope of elements can be enlarged to enable more breadth when artistic decisions are made (2). In avant-garde music there can and should be greater range regarding colour, density, combinations of material, and rates of change, and the more extreme of these are chosen in Wonder. The goal is to breathe life into the stale and decaying genre of late twentieth century music for orchestra (3).  The avant-garde nature of Wonder was determined intuitively in the initial sonic imprint of the piece and then honed over an extended gestation period. First the orchestration (acoustic and electroacoustic) was firmly established, then the form, and finally the barrage of compositional techniques necessary for the realization of this sound-world. The goal of each facet is to assist in creating a complex and colossal sound arena hosting a mine of  3 connections based on the concept of resonance (4). N e w ways of composing, orchestrating and generating material are added to traditional methods. Colouristically, this entails the variation of conventional orchestral forces by elimination (clarinets and bassoons) and expansion (added percussion, tape and soprano). Resonance was also the catalyst for the development of a multi-layered approach to form, in which a hierarchy of three levels articulate fundamentally similar structures, resulting in a circuitous, labyrinthine, and discontinuous path through the music. Additionally, the work achieves its primary goals using the spectral analyses of instrumental timbres, swelling the small unit of source timbre into the basic material, and by building and accumulating tightly knit lines with multiple developments of the initial material. The totality of material is amassed into a rich sound document with polyvalent levels of interpretation (5).  The duration of the piece is sixteen minutes. It is scored for an orchestra (lightly amplified for balance with the tape) comprised of two flutes (both doubling on piccolo), two oboes (one doubling on cor anglais), two trumpets, two horns, trombone, bass trombone, tuba, strings, four percussionists (consisting of a full complement of drums, including rute drum, log drum, rototoms, snare drum and bass drum, as well as tubular bells, two sets of crotales, vibraphone, a variety of cymbals, woodblock and wooden temple blocks, claves, whips, ratchet, bamboo and brass wind chimes, flexatones, slide whistle, sleigh bells and tam-tam), soprano and stereo electroacoustic tape2. The tape part is divided into fourteen cues, each played back alternately from two The terms electroacoustic, tape, concrete and CD are interchangeable herein, ultimately referring to the material contained on the compact disks from w h i c h the part is performed. Electroacoustic refers to the aesthetic and technology used to create the part. Tape refers to the digital media on w h i c h some material resided during the compositional process and is the conventional term for compositions or elements of a composition fixed i n time as a sound document played back over speakers. Concrete is the conventional and historic term for recorded environmental sounds and acoustic non-instrumental timbres. C D is the final storage media of this aspect of the composition. 2  4 identical compact disks over a powerful, minimum six-channel acousmatic diffusion system. The monitors are placed within the percussion section and around the orchestra, and the tape part is performed from a mixing console situated in the concert hall. The electroacoustic component consists of synthetic and varied, massed presentations of the instrumental material as well as rich musique concrete timbres. The purpose of these timbres is to amplify and dilate the musical and extra-musical ideas of the composition. The overall effect of the tape is the expansion of the dimension of the music, the colouristic boundaries of the instrumental timbres and perspectival fields in which their sonic extensions are placed, and the addition of tempi and rates of change (spatially and between types of material) impossible in acoustic music.  Wonder  is influenced by a number of different pieces, composers, and  aesthetics, and how they are absorbed into the piece makes it synthetic and give it a number of different perspectives from which it can be approached in the post-1950 repertoire. The two most important well-known precedents for orchestra and tape are Deserts (1949-54) by Edgard Varese, and Laborintus  II  (1965) by Luciano Berio. In the case of the Varese, the orchestra and tape perform separately, with the tape interpolated between instrumental movements. Deserts is similar in that the timbres on tape are primarily rapidly changing prerecorded musique concrete sounds, the primary difference being the responsorial or concerto-like nature of the electroacoustics. Berio's Laborintus  II  is for a smaller ensemble, contains a chorus, strong references to jazz music, and doesn't incorporate the tape in more than twenty-five percent of the piece. A t times, Berio reaches a high density and extremely broad timbral colour, although the dramatic direction of the music is primarily determined by the narrator. Wonder, on the other hand, has the tape part running almost continuously throughout the piece, and the tape part is in itself orchestral in scope, density,  5 timbre, and function. In Wonder, the direction and impetus of the music is in some places determined by the tape part, whereas in others the electroacoustic part is secondary to the orchestra; this variability and breadth of function establishes a balance between the orchestra and tape.  Another aspect of Wonder which bears the influence of other composers work is that of s p e c t r a l  analysis.  Spectral analysis is a process  integral to the composers involved in writing spectral music, most notably Tristan Murail and Gerard Grisey. For them, spectral analysis is one process among many with which they write a music poetically representing the physics of the sounds (primarily instrumental) on which the music is based. For Murail and Grisey, spectral music is an aesthetic, a complete approach to composing which rejects postwar and Germanic precedents; they use their studies of the interiors of sounds to determine the voicings of chords, harmonic progressions, orchestration, rhythm, and their approach to time and form. In Wonder, I use only one aspect of the spectral approach, the spectral analysis, to gather the basic material, which in combination with a host of other non-spectral processes derived from other musics and aesthetics is sculpted into the music.  Technically, Wonder is a mine of mechanical and free procedures applied intuitively in an organized manner that addresses all aspects of the music, as opposed to a fully systematized approach that potentially asphyxiates any of the parametric energies (6). The techniques applied in the music are free, extended serial techniques, as well as basic techniques commonly used by composers of non-tonal and tonal music for the extension, relation, and generation of material. W h a t makes Wonder individual is in part the degree to which these techniques are applied, the varied sources from which these techniques originate, and their  6 application with reference to the basic concepts of resonance, interference, and multiplicity.  Just as the timbre of a violoncello is given greater presence by resonating within the body of the instrument, the derivations and developments of materials are given integrity and vibrancy through analogously reverberant techniques. Spectral analyses of four rich timbres (a crotale, violoncello, bass trombone and soprano voice) provide the raw material on which the music is based. The analysis of the four grains of sound reveals the unique hierarchy of frequencies that shapes the colour o f each, and these are in turn interpreted and sculpted to ensure contrast between the garnered returns. The primary gestural icons of the four source materials are then subjected to a number of internally generative and binding techniques for meaningful prolongation that ensures the progress of the music. Vibration is a procedure by which small units of a line are cumulatively grafted back onto itself. Movable points of transposition/inversion affect the axis on which a figure is inverted or transposed. Time-points are plotted on a rhythmic grid after having been converted from pitch class numbers, the grid being varied and expanded according to basic duration units. Addition generates vast quantities of material by adding a set of pitch class numbers to itself and rotations of itself (all mod 12).  Notationally, the metriproportional notation used in Wonder is influenced by the approaches to rhythmic notation in the work of W i t old Lutoslawski and Luciano Berio, among others. Their precedents for directing non-synchronized playing were a starting-point for the development of metriproportional notation, but their solutions were unsatisfactory for the specific  7 needs of Wonder, hence their extension into the metriproportional notation used in Wonder. Lutoslawski developed perhaps the most effective solution, and used it very effectively and to varying degrees in the majority of his music, including Venetian  Games, the Third Symphony, and the Preludes and Fugue for 13 solo strings.  Berio also offered good solutions in his Folk Songs, Sinfonia, and Laborintus  II.  Lutoslawski's method is separate from meter and dependent upon series of cues from the conductor which determine entry-points and end-points for material to be performed; instrumentalists are given individual tempi and play without regard for one another's attack-points. Lutoslawski's approach provides maximal desynchronization with some general ensemble control, but at the expense of the possibility of maintaining some metered parts or regular synchronization between other active parts. Berio's method calls for either continued desynchronization of the parts based on a verbal instruction, or for repeat boxes, within which materials are played continuously until the notated termination point. The disadvantage of using a verbal direction to play without synchronization is that the composer requires meeting-points (usually fermati) for the instruments to play ensemble again or to regain some local unity. The drawback of repeat boxes is that material is resultantly more limited and functions more statically in a texture, deprived of ongoing harmonic and melodic development. Metriproportional notation is an extremely efficient way of arriving at very dense, unsynchronized textures from one or more lines while at the same time maintaining the possibility of having synchronized, beat-dependent music in other active parts.  The above-mentioned types of dense, unsynchronized textures can indeed be meticulously notated using conventional notation, as Brian Ferneyhough has done in almost all of his works (save for Transit and Sieben Sterne  8 which contain some imprecise pitch and rhythmic notation) and as Iannis Xenakis has done to a less complicated degree in works such as Metastasis Pkhoprakta,  and  but the conventional notation required to accurately represent the  desired results would be counter-productive to achieving the desired rhythmic complexity afforded by metriproportional notation. As well, exact rhythmic notation would add a tension in the approach to the material which is not desired at the metriproportionally notated moments in the music.  Interference form is dependent upon multiple levels of activity working contrapuntally or disruptively, by severing one level in favor of another. The application of interference form may be realized in a number of ways, in this case emphasizing the non-linear possibilities. In Wonder, three distinct levels articulate similarly ordered presentations of the sections; the lowest level is the material which determines the primary direction of the music and main area of the musical discourse; the middle and high-level references independently interfere with the lowest level and one another. Short spasms of high-level references summarize the primary gestural icon or highlight the contingent progress of the lowest formal level. Mid-level references function similarly, as prowesses or "sampled" kernels of fragments selected from the basic, lowest level. The high and mid-level references fore- and post-shadow the contents of their low-level counterparts and (individually) actively reflect the low-level ordering, such that all three levels present the same configurations, each in its own "scale" and at a different rate of progression through their sectional ordering. In this sense the form, while being based on interference, may be simultaneously heard as resonant and reflective, given the consistently similar aims of each level. Several quirks in the application of the form impede its inevitability and closure, maintaining maximum variability and recognizing the directed linear needs of the composition.  9  The connections between levels of the music (between the general aesthetic ideas and the makeup of the orchestra and the compositional techniques) are extended further with the inter-connection of timbre and material (7). The harmonic characteristics of each instrumental timbre leave their individual spectral stamps on the qualities and colours of the pitch materials through mapping the frequency hierarchy into the prime material; the results of each spectral analysis are swollen into the raw material from their original scale as grains of sound (8). A l l basic linear and harmonic pitch materials are derived from the elementary spectral analysis (by Fast Fourier Transform) of short fragments of sound made by four solo instruments selected from within the orchestration of the piece (one each from the percussion, string, brass, and voice families). Fast Fourier Transforms represent isolated audio signals as a collection of sine waves showing the frequency contents of the timbre, the amplitude strengths of those frequencies, and how the amplitudes develop over the duration of the soundfile (9). In this case, the results are presented in a three-dimensional graphic form. The temporally graphed harmonic contents of each of the four source fragments were examined to determine the frequencies present and the amplitude of each frequency. The pitch materials of the music are then gathered by selecting the frequencies with the highest amplitudes from the masses of partials present in each of the sounds. These frequencies are those most crucial  10 in determining the character of the instrumental timbre.  The results of each of the analyses are interpreted according to differing criteria, though with a number of constants. Each frequency is rounded to the nearest semitone and is then treated with reference to only the pitch class number, freely displaced from the octave in which it originally appears following the Fast Fourier Transform. A t times the material from the complete spectrum will be articulated and prolonged in the music, and in addition will be used as both short-term surface material and local harmonic crystallizations. The crude spectral results are not simply accepted as valuable, but are tailored with octave displacements and tones are altered or new tones added to make the material more useful than that offered by the initial spectral analysis, acheiving the balance, direction, and character desired in the basic material. Above their conceptual link and the relations sculpted into the material, the order of presentation of the spectral analyses outlines the lowest level of form in the composition.  The analyzed instruments were chosen because of their rich spectral potential. The analyses are of a crotale (sounding pitch D , struck loudly with a brass mallet to increase the number of partials in the sound), a violoncello performing a sul ponticello, natural harmonic glissando in the upper region of the C-string, a pedal D on a tenor trombone modulated with a Harmon mute (stem out), and a vigorous soprano voice event (on an abrasive consonant, followed by a brief vowel sustain). The overall result of the transformation of the digital soundfile into a graphic/numerical representation is that the scale of each instrument's physical reality is amplified out of its original position as timbral determinant to inform multiple levels of the music. Working against a literal  11 representation of the results of the analyses, the spectral contents are then treated objectively and pushed through a barrage of developmental techniques, some of which are systematic, others of which are intuitive responses to and filtrations of the raw results.  The first collection of eleven pitches is gathered from a crotale (Example i). The selected pitches are the nine most prominent frequencies at the moment of attack. Two others are added (ten and eleven) in recognition of their sustain throughout the 4.5 seconds of decay. Theoretically, the second of the added tones should be the frequency 2580 H z , but it is avoided given the importance of pitch class 4 in material gathered from the other spectral analyses. Another variation i n the collection occurs in the A i sections of Wonder. Throughout all A i sections, the eleven pitch set is expanded to seventeen notes (the twelfth through seventeenth notes being D # , A # , D # , E, D and G#). The additional pitches were selected based on their strength in sustaining over the course of the analyzed fragment, similar to criteria for the initial pitch selection from the crotale F F T . The crotales material is articulated throughout the first large section of the piece (to letter B).  The second large section (letters B through C) is based on material derived from the first 1/2 second of the violoncello sample (Example 2). In this case the eleven frequencies are ordered from strongest to weakest; in the given example, when two pitch-class names are provided, the first is the pitch-class the frequency has been rounded to, and the second is the pitch-class to which it has been altered.  Material which is active between rehearsal letters C through D was  12 taken from the analysis of the recorded bass trombone event. The pitches used are the eleven most prominent in the upper range of the spectrum throughout the first 100 milliseconds. The pitch ordering is from the lowest to the highest frequency, resulting in an ascending pitch collection. The final analysis offers material for the vocal sections (the main one occurring between rehearsal letters D and D2). The eleven most prominent frequencies on the first i / i o o o t h of a second are (as with the violoncello sample) presented according to strength, from strongest to weakest.  13  Example  II,  Violoncello  FFT  *m 13.76 kHz J g  0.00  0.00  1.72 3.44 5.16 6.88 8.60 10.32  1.87 3.74 5.61  7.48 9.35 11.22  12.04  13.09  , 14.96 kHz  10 = 3612 11 =4472  10 = 6732 11 =7293  A C#  G# A  The four pitch-class collections resulting from the spectral analyses are subsequently approached either as raw and malleable arrays of numbers without conventional motivic consequence, or as fixed gestures, significant to the identity of the segment of the music and therefore crucial in identifying and understanding the form of the piece. Both the free array and the gestural icon are developed and extended using similar techniques, but the icons don't shed their totemic nature; instead, they vary throughout the piece with the growth or recession of any of their identifying characteristics. The icons are dependent upon material gathered from the spectral analysis and are linked to the orchestration of the section as well.  The crotales icon is formed with the ninth, tenth and eleventh pitches of the crotales spectrum taken in retrograde, which fold onto the other notes of the set. The first instances of this icon are performed by the winds, with the crotales accompanying. Every instance of these intervals (in this  15 particular order, and all three pitches always in the same octave), is a direct reference to the section based on the crotales material, and is a cue to listen to the subsequent development of the material in the current section and compare it with the main crotales section. Similarly, the use of crotales in any section of the work is another sign of activity based on this spectrum. A jagged string figure based on the cello spectrum signifies activity using cello spectrum at each occurrence. The first implementation of this icon is at measure 56, a mid-level reference foreshadowing the large string area which begins at B (measure 106). A l l brass-dominated sections of the piece are based on the original trombone pedal-tone spectrum. Two icons operate independently in stating the brass material (active consecutively between measures 236 and 284). The first brass icon is constituted by having all of the lower brass instruments play in their lowest registers. This icon is connected to the character and timbre of the source recording moreso than the spectrum itself, although the implemented material is generated from the bass trombone spectrum. The second brass icon is ari ascending figure comprising the exposed statement of material derived from the bass trombone collection.  The basis of the vocal icon is melodic figuration based on the collection gathered from the soprano spectrum, yet it's application is informed by the absorption of the second brass icon. W i t h each entrance of the voice, the music shifts to the material derived from the vocal spectrum. The only exception to this practice (including all spectral collections) occurs following F2 (measure 434), when the orchestration which triggers signification of each spectral collection is rotated and shifted by one icon, so that the voice articulates the first crotales icon, the strings present the first brass icon, etc.  16  COMPOSITIONAL  TECHNIQUES  In addition to traditional serial operations and conventional motivic development, numerous other transformation techniques are realized in Wonder, each technique relating to the concept of resonance that permeates all levels of the piece. These techniques are often extensions of conventional techniques, and the names I have given them is a combination of description and metaphor. Just as a violoncello timbre is amplified from the string to the bridge and into the resonating body of the instrument, and a piano tone is enriched with vibrations from other pitches when the pedal is depressed, the material of the music is developed and dilated, ultimately resonating with and affected by its own characteristics and/or those of the other materials in the music. In most cases, the result of this polyphony of techniques and stages of construction is a structural palimpsest, the surface of which is the sediment of the interacting generative techniques.  The first method of achieving the desired resonant multiplicity is through the quasi-fractal building of tree-structures transformed by v i b r a t i o n with the same material. Rather than simply proceeding directly through the primary pitch collection, small pitch cells extracted from the basic material are grafted onto the primary collection, such that the basic material vibrates selfreferentially. W i t h i n the material, restatements or fragments of the original are  17 absorbed into subsequent forms.  Example V - A 3 shows violoncello-derived spectral material presented as the violin one solo from measure 307 through 308. A small number of pitches and intervals vibrate in a number of ways, following the basic direction of the gestures. Figure N (three-fourths of Figure B) is reiterated at N i , without the E. A t B3, the four-note unit from B is merged with other pitches from the original material. Transposed vibrations also assist with the limited integral development of a line. Figure B i (in itself connected with Figure N ) is transposed up a minor second at B2. Figure N is also transposed up a minor second at N 2 ; the melodic contour is identical to that of B, although the first pitch of B is removed and replaced with an E, the sixth pitch from the original set (also the first pitch of the entire set). The active interval of transposition (a minor second) is determined by the interval between the first and second pitches from the basic material. As the lines proceed and similarly develop, the transposition level varies according to the consecutive intervals from the source material. Another uncluttered example of vibration (Example V - B , in this scenario affecting larger groups of pitches), occurs in Section C i (spread amongst the parts between measures 261 and 277). The incipit of each scale (derived from the original brass spectral material) is transposed upward according to pitches from the original pitch collection, while at the same time the intervals within are rotated.  Though the examples are brief and specific, the techniques demonstrated therein are not exclusive to this segment of the music; the techniques are present in varying combinations with other techniques throughout the composition. 3  18  Many lines are enriched and polyphonically strengthened with the a b s o r p t i o n and i n t e r f e r e n c e of other (contrasting) materials. For example,  19 both a prime form and it's inversion are joined, with registral stratification (see Example VI). Between measures 248 and 256 pitches from the soprano spectrum are stated in prime and inverted forms, and the two sets of pitches freely interfere with or are absorbed into one another. The pitches in common between the sets enrich the complexity of their binding. Presented in context, the other wind parts are generated through the transposition of this line, augmented with the insertion of pitches from the main line. The transposed line in Example V I contains selected notes from the prime form transposed down a major third (first three pitches) followed by a transposition down a major second of notes four through seven from the combined line, concluded with untransposed pitches absorbed from the combined line. Another prominent example of absorption and interference is the woodwind surface material between measures 51 and 55, and measures 74 through 85.  Example  VI,  Absorption/Interference  prime form: inversion:  combined:  transposed:  A more literal absorption of material occurs when two types of material from opposing sources are merged into one line. Interference is most clearly achieved when the opposing material detracts from the smooth course and identity of the material which is supposed to dominate. The best example of this is the surface melodic material in the soprano part between measures 285 and 295. Varied forms of the concluding ascending figure from Section C i (282-283)  20 resonate beyond the boundaries of C i and into Section D , interfering with the vocal spectral material while at the same time giving the segment direction and a sense of transition as the interfering gesture recedes.  Another important resonant technique active throughout the piece is  movable points of transposition/ inversion,  demonstrated in Example  V I I (taken from Violin i , measure i n ) . It is similar to the techniques of vibration and absorption/interference, but in this case the secondary area of transposition is more prominent over a larger span of the music, in contrast to the fleeting nature of the before-mentioned techniques. The other difference between movable points of transposition/ inversion and vibration and absorption/interference is that the transposition/inversion levels usually develop throughout the segment, with the potential of reflecting (on a lower level), the characteristics of another set of pitches, be they prime or inverted forms. In order to understand the implementation of movable points of transposition/ inversion, one must first rationalize the conventional practice of inversion. W h e n a pitch collection is inverted, the process is not a matter of inverting consecutive intervals, but rather one of inverting pitches about a central axis (e.g. the first pitch in the series), which remains active as a virtual pedal-point throughout the material. The simplest method of achieving this inversion is by inverting consecutive intervals, but in actuality one is measuring the distance between the axis-pitch and the pitch to be inverted. The axis-point shifts to another pitch in  the midst of the material, altering the results of the inversion (effectively transposing then inverting the subsequent material to the scale degree of the newest affecting pedal-point). The axis-point may shift any number of times and the axis may be present or latent, with the intervals folded around it. This allows the material to interfere with or be absorbed by the primary material, a long-term contributor to the multiplicity of the music.  21  Example  VII, Movable points of  transposition/inversion  prime form:  transposed:  The process of a d d i t i o n is another by which large arrays of pitches can be garnered from a single collection. New materials are gathered by compounding sequentially rotated forms of the same pitch numbers and adding the results (mod 12) to the basic form. C is considered as 1 rather than o in order that it be effective on the pitches to which it is added and so that o is not present when pitch class numbers are converted into t i m e - p o i n t s . W i t h addition, one transposes a pitch from the initial set by the value of the pitch from the second, rotated set. One set of rotated additions facilitates as many new forms as there are pitches in the original set minus one (see Example V I I I ) . The additions shown in Example V I I I are those generated from the crotales spectrum and are active throughout each A i section, large or small. The raw results are subsequently involved with other processes, such as being affected by harmonic concerns (transposed to other pitch levels); in a mass of inclusion the addition results are affected by the repetitions of those tones relevant to the operative aggregate such that the harmonically important tones (the last four pitches from the crotales spectrum) are statistically more prominent than any other tones in the section. Another example in which the technique of addition figures prominently occurs in Section C. The harmonized low brass pitches in each  22 different part presents a linear statement gathered by addition. As the section proceeds, the brass parts embark on more distant (additions generated by incrementally more rotated forms) addition sets. The section begins with primarily homorhythmic statements of addition sets one and two, and develops fluidly through to the fourth, fifth and sixth addition sets.  Example  VIII,  PRIME FORM: FIRST ROTATION: ADDITION A R R A Y :  Addition  8 12 4 7 8 4 9 8 5 7 6 4 10 4 5 3 4 12 4 7 8 4 9 8 5 7 6 4 10 4 5 3 4 8 8 4 11 3 12 1 5 1 12 1 10 2 2 9 8 7 12  C O M P L E T E SET OF A D D I T I O N ARRAYS BASED O N CROTALES SPECTRUM: i.  2.  3.  |  p  4.  5  6.  7.  *  «  1 1 i .  u .  *  u  ^ »^  #  Ii  23  Time-points, as demonstrated by Example I X , are related to basic techniques of multiplying and augmenting rhythmic values to alter durations, commonly found in the music of Milton Babbitt, etc. In Wonder, however, they are not used as concrete values determining length of sustain. The attack-points of the material are plotted onto the pre-compositional sketch and used as event triggers, be they brief points of articulation or sustains. In keeping with the intent to build the music from combinations of materials and through  24 multiple levels of construction using varying developmental techniques, the attack points of similar or contrasting duration sources are merged and synthesized to form a single line acting as time-point triggers. One implementation of time-points occurs between measures 274 and 281, with the primarily pointillistic attacks in the woodwinds and percussion. Numerical data was taken from the brass spectral collection and subjected to the process of addition. The fourth and fifth addition sets were plotted as rhythmic events based on units of a triplet sixteenth and a sixteenth (fourth addition), and a thirty-second and a triplet sixteenth (fifth addition). This material was then absorbed into two parts, with the two triplet parts merging and the sixteenth and thirty-second unit parts joined. Percussion one and four perform reordered and realigned fragments of these results, while the woodwinds perform short attacks based on the fifth addition (in this presentation the values are those of the percussion parts multiplied by two). Similarly punctuating textures occur throughout the piece, with either the winds, strings, brass, percussion or tape drawing upon time-point grids for rhythmic statements of material transferred from the spectral analyses of each instrument. Another prominent example of time-points occurs between measures 383 and 416. In this case, the overall progression in the percussion parts is from one voice to four independent voices, interrupted by a brief two-voice segment, and followed by a increasingly driven transition from three separate voices solidifying into one unit played by all four performers.  Example  IX,  Time-points  \te  1  A.  N U M E R I C A L D A T A F R O M BRASS S P E C T R U M 4th A D D I T I O N SET: 5th A D D I T I O N SET:  6 10 12 5 9 12 2 11 3 5 9 8 1 12 7 10 1 9 1 4 8 11  25 B.  FOUR-VOICE TIME-POINT SCHEME  4th add.  «h+|-[ 1 — r — ^ f-fi 10  12  6  4th add.  10 _ l 112  '1 8  5th add.  y_  '1  r3i  v  1—jj  y  r  7  — f  l —  *  (3)  * 10  V  1  '^  nr* -  1 19  >  14  8  1^ 19  5th add.  C.  1  ABSORPTION INTO T W O PARTS (percussion) -upper stave is first and fourth lines from IX-B combined -lower stave is second and third lines from LX-B combined  Ah D.  "  Pff r r ^ y 7 — y r y y 5  "  j  —  7  r7 p  —r  y y PPT^  •-5-  f f f i ~ f — 7 — — f  f-flpf  •*/  i^M  7—ff^—^fT-  VALUES MULTIPLIED BY TWO (woodwinds)  r  "a  ff-J  r  -v-r-  £  fP*f  £  if-p7  f-  1T  26  While the amount and type of material on the tape alone is comparable to if not exceeding that of most solo electroacoustic music, the relative density of orchestra and tape is roughly the same i f not dominated by the electroacoustics. The function of the tape is primarily to expand the depth of field and the instrumental dimension of the textures directed by the orchestra music (10). Although the majority of the electroacoustic material is derived from acoustic instrumental sources, there is scarcely a moment in the tape part that could be reproduced by an instrumental or vocal ensemble. The speed of events, rapid change of timbres, types of processing, movement of sound in stereo space, density, depth of field and amplification of scale celebrate the unique possibilities of electroacoustic music (11), avoiding a banal and redundant representation of orchestral sounds yet maintaining a sonic union with the live parts. Aurally, the orchestra and tape are sympathetically unmetered and mutually not downbeat dependent, such that reasonable lack of synchronization is acceptable. Performance variations between events on tape and those played by the orchestral component are the result of conductors' interpretation (variation of tempi, etc.) expanding or contracting the orchestral segment timing compared with the fixed duration of the active tape cue. Division of the tape part into fourteen individually indexed cues enables realignment of the two forces, while playback from two identical compact disks solves overlap difficulties if orchestral  27 tempi are too quick.  Material on tape is primarily the processed extension of the recorded acoustic sources from which the spectral analyses are taken. Other material is computer generated, though developed using the same combination of processing techniques (all in the digital domain), while a small amount is sampled from a variety of digital sound sources or recorded at close range from a variety of rich concrete sources specially for this piece. The recorded non-orchestral sound sources include the crumpling and tearing of paper, the sound of firm molded-plastic packaging, the sound of a record needle scratching an L P record, and the sound of dust and dirt as it affects the sound-quality of an L P record (no music or material from the record itself is used in the composition, only the noise on the surface of the record). Aside from the consonant "k" soprano soundfile, the bulk of the sung vocal source material is extracted from my composition On a  pin's point my love is spinning, a. short work for women's choir. This piece was composed with the intent of using a recording of the performance as concrete material i n Wonder and is based on the same vocal sample from which all other vocal material is derived. A l l of the vocal sustains in the electroacoustic part (active only in the sections referencing the soprano spectral material) were taken from On a pin's point my love is spinning, and used after transposition, reverberation, filtering, amplitude shifting, and multi-tracking. Other vocal material was taken from recordings made of a 75-voice choir reciting the texts of the piece, which then too were subject to compression, filtration, and minimal amounts of multitracking before mixing with other materials to comprise the soundfiles used in the piece.  Hardware used to process the electroacoustic material i n Wonder  28 includes Macintosh and N e X T computers, a Lexicon 300 digital signal processor, and an A K A I S-900 sampler. The software used for transforming the source timbres includes CSound (for the computer-generated timbres), Soundworks (processing), Sound Designer (processing and Fast Fourier Transforms), Alchemy (short sample processing), TurboSynth (the resonator and pitch fluctuation functions), Qio parametric equalizer (for filtering), and ProTools (in 4 tracks, but dependent upon many levels of "bouncing" to achieve the density required). ProTools was also used for combining, layering, panning and amplitude shifting of sound files. As with the processing of pitch material, the surface electroacoustic textures are most often the accumulation of multiple timbral, pitch and rhythmic processes. Methods of digital transformation of both the pitched and unpitched electroacoustic material are similar in concept to those of the material in the orchestral part, including transposition, time scaling, filtering, amplitude shifting, panning, digital signal processing and octave shifting.  Soundfile transposition and time compression and expansion processes are applied in a plethora of ways. Pitched soundfiles are tuned to the active harmonic field of the current spectrum, so that both orchestra and tape are bound together by similar pitches, as is most clearly demonstrated in the section of the music dominated by the soprano (Section D , beginning at measure 285). Another excellent example of similarities between orchestral and electroacoustic pitches occurs throughout cue 7 (measure 154), the section dominated by orchestral strings; in this area, an artificial harmonic violoncello soundfile is transposed to pitches from the violoncello spectral analysis and then articulated as processed (filtered and transposed) and elongated (by expansion of the soundfile) sustains set in the background supporting the more prominent articulation of similarly violoncello-based spectral material in the live string parts.  29 Subsequent to the "tuning" of soundfiles, rich textures are often constructed by layering processed copies of the same sound files, or by terracing duplicate files displaced in time. The file may be transposed to another scale degree, with or without time compression, or alternately may be compressed or expanded without pitch transformation. A clear example of this occurs at the beginning of Section B (cue 5, measure 106), whereby the electroacoustic part was formed by layering many varied, elongated, and transposed forms of the original violoncello soundfile (the same one used for the spectral analysis), thus creating an alliance between the active electroacoustic timbre, the most prominent orchestral timbre (strings) and the material performed by the orchestra (derived from the spectral analysis of the sounding violoncello sample).  Multiples of transposed and time-scaled files are sometimes gathered by playing the digital sampler (S-900), though they are most often achieved using Sound Designer, as with all other compression and expansion techniques. One of many examples which contains music developed using this improvisatory element takes place at cue 4 (measure 85 in the score), where thousands of extremely short events derived from the recorded crotale soundfile are layered by playing the sample and then transposing and overdubbing the plethora of attacks. Compression and expansion of audio files is similar to the manner in which time-points are applied, the ratio of compression performing an operation with a similar result as the rhythmic figures derived from time-points multiplied by the basic rhythmic unit. Dense textures are compiled through multiple "isorhythmic" combinations which themselves are subsequently processed like the initial soundfiles from which they were constructed. These textures are then accumulated into a single file, polyphonically combined with other sound sources or noticeably different forms of the same source.  30 W i t h i n the consistently dense textures of Wonder, timbral differentiation between electroacoustic materials (as well as between the electroacoustics and tape) is facilitated using filtration and panning. Despite the similarities of sound sources between the two media, subtle electroacoustic orchestration through frequency control and spatialization is used to either maintain clarity or leave room for even more information. In general, the sound of the electroacoustic material is always moving in stereo space, often very rapidly shifting from the left channel to the right, or vice versa. The result, i n concert performance or in listening to a recorded performance, is that the sound takes hold of the space in which it is heard, moving constantly in a manner further heightened with sensitive live diffusion in a concert situation. By filtering (primarily with Qio), important frequency regions are exaggerated to direct attention, or minimized to leave room for the orchestra. The majority of filtration applied to timbres boost the highest (most often) and lowest (less often) frequencies, artificially augmenting the electric and depth characteristics of the sound while also increasing the opportunity for the filtered timbres to be projected more vibrantly in the concert hall. In the case of high frequency augmentation the middle to low range is sometimes virtually eliminated. Other forms of filtration are the intentional byproduct of other processes: lowering or raising pitch by one octave with the Lexicon 300 transforms the frequency content as well as adding a characteristic phasing, while similar processes in Sound Designer and Alchemy filter timbres with idiosyncrasies determined by software inaccuracies in compression and expansion procedures. Examples of filtration occur everywhere in the electroacoustic component, where, in the process of composition, filtered soundfiles were mixed with unfiltered soundfiles, or transposed files were mixed with untransposed soundfiles. A n example of a fully filtered soundfile occurs within the confines of cue 8 (following the vocal reference material approxiamtely between measures 189 and 208 i n the score), in  31 which compressed, string-based electroacoustic soundfiles have been filtered and are present in the texture on a very separate level due to their limited frequency range and contrasting speed of activity in relation to the increasingly slow string lines.  Two of the most significant moments in the tape part are quotations (12). Both quotations are present to serve as mnemonic triggers for the listener and otherwise have no significance to the music itself and the materials of the music. Each quoted fragment (see skies of blue, and Ithink to myself) occurs only once, at the opening of the piece, and in Section E respectively. Both quotes are extracted from What a Wonderful World, sung by Louis Armstrong. It can be safely assumed that most listeners familiar with Western popular music will recognize these monumental fragments and seek to complete the information regarding the source. The two brief segments radiate with information in a manner distinctly different from all other events and relations within the electroacoustic and orchestral parts. While the majority of the musical content achieves its integrity by its relation to other events within the piece, the two fragments from What a Wonderful World are enlivened by relations beyond j  the confines of Wonder. The only general significance attributable to the quotations being derived from popular music is that they have a wide audience, which increases the possibility of it being recognized (during a listening session, or after the work has been heard). Given this significance, the reference to the Louis Armstrong song is made slightly more subtle by the choice of which lines are extracted from the song. The desired result is that the source of the quotation not be immediately apparent, and that the fragment remains present in the listener's memory of the piece. After subsequent thought, the identity of the  32 source will reveal itself and its connection with the title of the work 4 . The fragmentation of the quotations, coupled with our natural inclination to identify that which is obviously referential, is akin to the form of the music and potential approach to listening, in which the disjunct phrases and segments are suitably related as to encourage the confirmation of connections between them, albeit formally manifest in a much more vast and complex, internal and non-linguistic, material-oriented group of relations than the two brief Armstrong quotations.  The outlined sequence of memory processes is speculative, and varies from listener to listener based on individual experience with the source material and the desire to pursue such connections in the music. Immediate recognition of the source of the quotations does not dilute the value of their presence. The inability to make the connection does, however, mean that a detail of the music is lost, at least temporarily. Given the constantly developing bond between listener and piece, the relation may eventually emerge as significant and more profound. 4  33  NOTATION  Frequently, segments of the music are surrounded by twoline brackets, which motivate m e t r i p r o p o r t i o n a l n o t a t i o n , a type of notation which demarcates a slightly unconventional type of rhythmic interpretation aimed at desynchronizing orchestral events and increasing density and fluidity through limited and efficient means. Events within the brackets are performed somewhat freely with reference to their spatial placement in the measure. Conventional rhythmic notation is used and for the most part adhered to within the metriproportional markers. Rests, however, are not always present, therefore enabling the events to be placed approximately within the confines of the metric/metriproportional boundaries.  A number of factors affect the metriproportionally notated figures. A t times, rests occur within the measure but prior to the initial metriproportional bracket. In this case it is important not to begin the metriproportional material until the specified place in the measure. Rests following the closing bracket simply complete the measure, and are to be considered less specific in value than those preceding the initial bracket. In some cases, metriproportional measures intentionally contain a total rhythmic sum which exceeds the value of the active meter. Given that the barline acts as a pillar of reference, individual rhythmic values are to be compressed to fit within the measure or allowed to slightly  exceed the provided end boundary (or a combination of rhythmic compression  34  and bracket extension). Longer durations are often followed by a horizontal line extending the approximate length of the notated value.  Metriproportionally representing events in the piece is an efficient method (13) for combining free material with metered music, of creating complex cumulative rhythms without maximizing the difficulty of the individual parts, and of generating thick heterophonic string textures by having an entire section perform metriproportionally from a single line. Each performer approaches the metriproportional events as ad libitum solos (in spirit, not in amplitude and function). N o effort should be made to synchronize with other performers, as this would minimize the purpose of the metriproportional notation.  Example X demonstrates how a line (the uppermost line) could  35  potentially be distributed amongst a section of instrumentalists reading from the same metriproportionally notated material. This hypothetical rendering, translated from Violin 2, measure 26 into multiple string parts, shows how metriproportional notation is useful in maintaining a general rhythmic density and contour, while still directing the pitch contour and maintaining melodic and harmonic control. In some instances, only the synchronization between the parts is distorted, while in others a degree of local rhythmic variation is acceptable within the line. As is possible with metriproportional notation, the total duration of the rhythmic figures present in the example measure exceeds that of the active meter, and in performance some values are adjusted to generally compress the material into the measure or to slightly vary (by expansion or compression) the contained rhythmic figures in a way which doesn't necessarily alter the overall duration but some figures within the measure.  In keeping with the ad libitum and soloistic nature of the metriproportional sections, each performer is free to interpret the type and placement of the slight rhythmic variations. As shown in the representational example, the two uppermost parts perform identical though unsynchronized interpretations of the top line, while the lower three parts perform unsynchronized, rhythmically varied forms of the top line. The result is a texture that is both dense, complex, and refined, presented to the performer in the most efficient and simple notation possible in order to achieve the desired fluidity and desynchronization.  36  Formally, Wonder is an extreme demonstration of the premise that the alliance of parameters (the confluence and inter-relation of techniques, pitch and rhythmic materials, gestures and timbres), their repetition, and the significant introduction of new materials, constitute major formal signals in music. Compositional parameters work together with regard to their similar spectral material-generating sources in a unified, unsystematic manner or divide and operate as independent layers articulating an exuberant and varied i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r m , an approach to musical structure based on the premise of superposition and discontinuity, whereby three related formal strands proceed on clearly differentiated levels. W i t h the planned disalignment of parameters and varying scales of operation, multiple levels of formal activity are undertaken simultaneously when parameters overlap, interfere with, or are absorbed within the primary textures of the music, setting off waves of similarity in other components, or decaying, parameter by parameter. In these ways the form of the music more closely resembles phenomena like the resonance of sound, the reaction of fluids to the passage of a solid object, links between muscles necessary for physical action, and premonitory/contemplative thought processes. The musical goal of this multiplicity is a hierarchy of functions akin to harmonic progression and motivic development. The resulting formal palimpsest offers a larger array of perceptive possibilities to the listener (14).  37 As shown in the colour diagrams (Examples X I and X I I on pages 38 and 41), the work is divided into four continuous sections. Graphic reduction is effectively a betrayal of the musical intent (since the additional formal layers of spectra and gestures somewhat complicate basic simplification of the desired resonant multiplicity) yet doing so facilitates discussion of the strands of activity. Each section of Wonder, however, begins at a clear and significant point in the music. For example, Section II is marked by the end of the registral descent into low brass pedal tones. Section III is the beginning of the tape solo section, and Section I V is the commencement of the "sampled scrolling" through all of the previously stated material.  The next most basic formal level of Wonder is articulated with the presentation of pitch material derived from the four harmonic spectra (crotales, violoncello, trombone and soprano voice - see Example X I , active spectra). A t the beginning of the piece (to the end of the orange triangle representing the soprano material), each spectrum is realized once. Following this is an allinclusive segment central to Section II, in which the material derived from each of the spectra is active simultaneously. After the mid-section of II, the spectra are separately restated in retrograde order (voice, trombone, violoncello), minus the initial percussion spectrum and inclusive of an electroacoustically dominated non-pitch-oriented section at the beginning of Section III. The fourth and final section of the piece is a hyper-progression through material from each spectrum, a climactically rapid and rapidly changing movement through previously heard materials.  39 O n the lowest level, the form is more than simply palindromic. The spectrally all-inclusive central segment of Section II (also the fold-over point of the quasi-retrograde process) presents the first of three interruptions in a potentially endless series of progressions through the material (note as well that the direction, rate, degree of overlap and amount of each spectra presented also varies with each statement in the fundamental palindrome). The first interruption is the simultaneous, multi-streamed use of all materials introduced thus far. The second interruption is for tape (virtually solo), in which a spectrum is theoretically not actively stated, while the electroacoustic material consists of increasingly more compressed steps through previously stated concrete material. The third interruption is Section I V of the piece, a climactic and disjunct array of fragments. "Missing" from the form is the restatement of the crotales spectrum which would inevitably have occurred following the string spectrum to render the retrogradation process complete. Theoretically the piece could continue forever, with the transient interruptive sections varying the independently developing palindrome, but rather than continuing, once the climactic final vocal entry at measure 460 (with its final brief reference to "a" material) has been stated, the metallic percussion instruments ring, and with the conclusion of their resonance the potentially ongoing form is abandoned.  The orchestration chart above the spectra in Example X I simply shows the dominant instruments) within the various sections of the work. It establishes, among other things, that the active spectrum (which determines the material of each area) is usually colouristically supported by the instrument analyzed for the derivation of that material. The three uppermost segments of Example X I are primarily descriptions of the drama of the music, outlining climactic large-scale and sectional directions/intensities. The top segment of Example X I depicts a generally arching registral contour moving from very high to  40 very low and back to high over the course of the piece, including two sections of erratically shifting range. Example X I I outlines the g e s t u r a l structure and its series of and m i d - l e v e l  gesturalreferences.  high  The gestural map shows that the primary  gestural content is aligned consistently with the spectra present at its first appearance, with few differences. Variation occurs when one gesture absorbs significant elements of another gesture. Section I V marks the separation and disalignment of spectra and gesture. Mid-level gestural references mark the second level on which gesture assists in the articulation of form. These gestural statements are short-term micro-reflections of activity occurring in the gestural and spectral levels over the course of the complete piece. High-level gestural references are the shortest and most fleeting references to materials in the other levels and serve a similar purpose as the middle level, of performing exact and permutated micro-presentations of the global formal development.  The methods by which mid and high-level references contribute to the basic textural progress include interruption, interference, and absorption. Interruptions are pockets of contrasting materials where the older gesture subsides or bluntly resigns to its temporary successor. Interferences are episodic gestures working in textural counterpoint with the leading gesture. Unlike interruptions, interferences collide with the dominant idea, without reconciliation or elimination, and they function as references to other areas of the music. Absorption takes place when the initial surface accommodates foreign ideas within, yet without the violence of the aforementioned methods.  41  42 Mid-level gestural references in Section I foreshadow a varied form of lower-level gestural contents ( A i B C (A A i ) C C i D) in the order they appear. High-level gestural references to C and C i emerge as brief bursts of unknown material. In the midst of the first low-level statement of B in Section i , high-level references take on brief statements of ordered known mid-level references (A A i B C C i and the first actual D statement to complete Section i). The first unit of Section II presents an abbreviated form (B D with the mediary C section present as the low-level gesture) prior to the temporary disappearance of intralevel interferences. After the gesturally cumulative middle section of II, midlevel references reappear in ordered form as A A A i B leading to C as low-level operator. N e w lower-level material commences Section III, while the interferences begin in ordered retrograde form, followed by a forward increment and retrograde back prior to the completion of the section. After having remained dormant through much of Section II, high-level gestural references emerge again in a statement of the original order of low-level gestures (A A i B C C i D). The primary gestural progress which comprises Section I V is contradicted by retrograde interferences, at which point the form is abandoned and the work is stopped.  As evinced by Example X I I I , a process of time-scale diminution is also active. Above varying low-level sectional timings, a general process of diminution occurs in the mid and upper levels of reference. The mid-level references gradually diminute from the initial 21 second duration down to 5.5 seconds at the end Meanwhile, the upper level references diminute from 8 seconds to 2.5. Worthy of note is that within the second low-level statements of C and C i (at the end of Section II), the durations of mid-level gestural references have decreased to the point whereby they are similar to the original timings of the high-level gestural references. By the time the ensemble reaches Section I V ,  43 there is effectively no longer a low level of activity and the durations of levels have folded over, in the sense that the high-level references could be heard as an even higher level of reference/material statement, since the mid-level content has infected the scale of the high-level durations from the opening. Conceivably, were the piece to continue, the timings would continue to diminish until the rapidity of change is so fast that the sections would synthesize in the manner of elements in granular synthesis timbres 5 .  The overall result of multiple formal levels of activity is that the course of the work is continually interrupted with pockets of content from contrasting sections. This anti-linearity is a sort of "composing-out" of a music which is closer to I think and experience time, along with a poetically genetic and premonitory progress encoded within. While one music proceeds, its relation to another section might be thought of or hinted at, or earlier material might be remembered. A high-level reference can introduce material prior to its fruition as a low-level statement, and it can also later function as a memory of what occurred previously. In keeping with mnemonic realities (the smoothing over and loss or emergence of details) and the conventional compositional propensity toward varied restatements, sectional alliances between low, mid, and high-level materials are rarely unaltered. That these resonances are organized gives the formal development multiple levels of perceptive possibility.  The progression from increasingly quick statements of contrasting material to the point of fusion of timbres into pitch is anticipated and the process is mildly approached in the electroacoustic section at the beginning of Section III, where compressed forms of previously heard electroacoustic material reach speeds high enough that they lose definition of individual detail in favour of a blur of excessive speed almost reaching the point of synthesis into a pitch. 5  44  Example  SECTION I LOW-LEVEL A/Al 3:42  XIII,  Segment  timings  MID-LEVEL Al :21 B :20 C :17 A :15 Al :12  4:58  SECTION II C/Cl 1:28 D :41 central 1:05 D/B :46 Cl/C 1:01  SECTION III E 1:10 SECTION IV F 1:19  c  :20  CI D  :24 :25  13 D  :14 :12  A A Al B  :10 :09 :09 :07  HIGH-LEVEL C :08 CI :06.5  A Al B C  :06 :06 :06 :03.5  CI D  :11 :09.5  B  :04.5  :05 A Al  :05.5 :06  B C CI D E  :06.5 :04 :05 :05.5 :05.5  CI D B C Al A A A  01.5 01 01 01 01 01.5 01.5 02.5  JALAL  AL-DIN RUMI (1207-1273) from Mystical Poems:  Our desert has no bounds, our hearts and souls know no rest World upon world took shape and form Every instant love shatters a thousand bowls into fragments Every moment stitches and rends a thousand garments Love inside my heartLike a thousand souls in one body A thousand harvests in one sheaf of wheat A thousand whirling heavens in the eye of a needle  The lover's heart is filled with an ocean And in its rolling waves the cosmos gently turn Like a wave my body is here and gone Look closely, a million waves, one sea HENRI  MICHAUX  (1899-1984)  from Days of Silence: One lone ship will answer everything (1978)  Folding, folding A suffering h e a d  Opening A swelling of the seeds Shivers, radiance E L I Z A B E T H B A R R E T T BROWNING (1806-1861) from Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850)  To the depth and breadth and height sung by soprano choral chanting on tape  sung by soprano and chanted by choir on tape  46 The extremely expressive texts in Wonder were collected from literature by three authors whose lifetimes span seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and were chosen in part because they synthetically reflect the concerns of the composition as a whole. Each fragment, aside from its obvious amorous nature, projects a sense of inner or outer space, often analogously imposing one theatre of description onto another to dislocate the scale and heighten the intensity of the observation (e.g. "The lover's heart is filled with an ocean "; "Like a thousand souls in one body/ A thousand harvests in one sheaf of wheat"). Other fragments propagate the idea of growth and expansion, and are used in combination with those directly involved with scale to further support the concerns with magnification and looking within small and meaningful fragments (grains of sound, etc.) and expanding or amplifying (e.g. "World upon world  took shape and form"; "Opening/A swelling of the seeds"; "To the depth and breadth and height";  "Look closely"). Other lines can also function as referring to  the form of the music, using the text on the surface of the music to vibrate with formal intentions, or vice versa (e.g. "World upon world took shape and  form"; "a million waves, one sea"; "Folding"; "Opening"; "Shivers, radiance"). N o t only does the presence of the voice indicate the prolonged statement of spectrally-derived soprano material, but as well the texts are ordered with regard to the interests in resonance and interference that permeate all areas of the composition. The second large vocal section distributes fragments of lines, reordering units selected from the Rumi texts in a manner similar (though not exactly akin) to the way in which sectional units are presented i n the form of the music (e.g. "Folding"; "Love inside my heart/ thousand souls (bowls) souls i n one body/ A thousand whirling (whirling) heavens in (a sheaf of) the eye (of a wheat) needle"). Similarly, as represented by the varied type-faces in the text list, lines and fragments of lines are stated by the soprano alone, chanted by the large choir on tape alone, or are shared between the two vocal media.  47  CONCLUSION  Wonder is the result of my long-standing desire to contribute a beautifully dense, rich, and variegated composition to the repertoire, a work which in many ways goes beyond unwritten limits (both personal and global) in the domain of western art music. It is successful in attaining these goals with its use of new compositional techniques, the organic and mechanical extension of conventional techniques, with its extreme synthesis of many intersecting generative procedures and the resultant density of musical expression. Every aspect of the music is affected by the concept of resonance, the material expansion outward from an originally small source and the constantly self-referential nature of the accumulated large units of pitch, rhythmic, timbral, and formal information.  Brief and complex sonic events were spectrally analyzed and expanded/dislocated from their fragmentary primary scale to resonate significantly throughout the piece, and each segment, phrase, and unit of the music is the accumulation of detailed developmental techniques. This collection of procedures includes vibration, absorption/interference, movable points  of transposition/inversion, addition, and time-points. The colourful electroacoustic environ adds a density and dimension which further confirms the  48 innovative nature of Wonder. The discontinuity of the music is the byproduct of the beguiling interference form, a labyrinth which operates on three similarly integral levels.  Wonder  is an extremely detailed and consuming composition that was  difficult to write, is difficult to play, and consequently should on some level be difficult for the listener to deal with. The work expended in accessing the true nature of the music during its composition is by necessity transposed i n part onto the listener, requiring that the receiver work to access the music, rather than diluting the music to facilitate its accessibility.  49 QUOTATIONS GLOSSARY The quotations presented herein function as elaborations and clarifications of the ideas in the body of the document. They are selected from a wide variety of sources and eras in order to give clues to the genealogy of the musical ideas, or to act as poetic conceptual and aesthetic links between Wonder and other arts and intellectual arenas, confirming some commonality of intent or identifying an inspirational difference, [bracketed words are my own, added to assist in applying the quoted material to the music or to clarify context].  INTRODUCTION  O A.  Simplicity, when so very artless, unsophisticated as to seem to evade the very difficulties of art, is a very suspicious virtue. (Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourse VHP  B.  There is another bogus postmodernism which is perfectly adapted to the contemporary monocultural prevalence of free market capitalism... eclectic or junk postmodernism. Eclecticism is the degree zero of contemporary general culture... and it's the same in art - kitsch, confusion, and "anything goes." In the absence of any aesthetic criteria, money is the only yardstick. All "tastes," like all "needs," are attended to by the market. Qean-Francois Lyotard, as presented in Appignanesi, Postmodernism For BeginnersV  C.  Rock is a corruption of rhythm and blues which was a dilution of the blues, so that today's mass-marketed noise is a vulgarization of a vulgarization. (Benny Green, musicologist, notes for a loe Turner record album)  D.  You just pick a chord, go twang and you've got music. (Sid Vicious, former bassist for the Sex Pistols, VancouverSun)  E.  Third World postmodernism parallels the condition of colonial or neo-colonial dependency on shop-worn and out-of-fashion goods, irrelevant or useless technology, expensive or banned drugs, exported to [or from] the developing countries where they enjoy a profitable second life. (Richard Appignanesi, author, Postmodernism For Beginners)  o o A.  If you want everything in a work of art, what you're left with is: everything. (Ad Reinhardt, painter, Art as Art: The Writings of Ad Reinhardtl  One of the problems one faces, when one has become aware of the interconnectedness of the art world and the social world at large, is how to function without, in effect, affirming power relationships with which one does not agree. (Hans Haacke, artist, Art Talk: The Early 80's)  50 B.  The people do not need music which they cannot understand. (Andrei A. Zhdanov, politician, Decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Partyof the Soviet Union.)  C.  The public doesn't want new music, the main thing it demands of a composer is that he be dead. (Arthur Honneger, composer, I Am A Composer)  D.  A real musical culture should not be a museum culture based mainly on music of past ages; nor should it be, like most commercial music, a drug. It should be the active embodiment in sound of the life of a community... (Wilfrid Mellers, musicologist, The Tender Tyrant: Nadia Boulanger)  E.  Because it is difficult to make, it should be difficult to deal with. I think that its role is elite in the way that it's like any academic work-that it is available to anybody who has the equipment to deal with it. But it is a difficult thing and it needs to be. You can't just expect to come in and like it. The idea of art is appealing on one level, but on another it is, in and of itself, an idea of art as entertainment. That is what a lot of folk art is. It is a way of passing time and it is not a bad thing. But as the role of the artist has developed in this society, we're involved in this much more rarefied activity that is extremely elite. But it is not an elitism that is necessarily economic. Otherwise it becomes easy art and easy art serves some kind of propaganda for left or right, or becomes some kind of entertainment. (Thomas Lawson, artist, Art Talk: The Early 80's)  F.  I never try to degrade my ideas to make them more accessible. (Jeff Koons, artist, The leff Koons Handbook)  G.  You're really serving the [your] society better by writing something that is striking and original and unusual than by writing something that is immediately accessible to the public. (Elliott Carter, composer, Composer to Composer)  H.  I don't want to make art that will pat you on the back and tell you everything is going to be okay. I want to make something that's much more confronting, you don't look at it, it looks at you as much as you look at it. I want there to be a real physical presence to the work... (Robert Longo, artist, Men in the Cities)  I.  I would rather set down the musical ideas as they are, and accept a certain amount of indeterminacy from the players, than say T can't do this' and then not do it and thus produce a work which, to an even greater extent, is a betrayal of the musicality behind it. (Richard Barrett, composer, Complexity Festival Program Book)  J.  The notion is of making something, not for an audience, but with an awareness of the audience... The artist is necessarily involved with the idea of history, past and future. It is this chain of life, of objects made by artists, that I believe to be the artist's confidante and consolation... (Julian Schnabel, artist, Julian Schnabel)  51  e  I see the world as amazingly intricate and amazingly successful. [Colville's paintings relay] a perception of life as a dangerous and in some ways inexplicable entity. (Alex Colville, painter.The Vancouver Sun)  A.  Complexity is a prerequisite of any great art wishing to satisfy not only the senses, but also the mind. (Harry Halbreich, musicologist, Complexity Festival Program Book)  B. .  You don't need to seek complexity; it's all around you! If my music is complex in intention, it is not because its structure is necessarily more inherently complex than any other music, but simply because the fact of complexity is treated as one of the objects of the discourse itself. (Brian Ferneyhough, composer. Composer to Composer)  C.  Perceived complexity is a function of perspective - that is to say, the greater the distance your 'mental ear' adopts to the sonic object, the less 'complex' (the more general in effect, the greater the discrepancy between contributory detail and overall image) that object is perceived to be. ibid.  o  Great art is deeply ordered. Even if within the order there may be enormously instinctive and accidental things, nevertheless I think that they come out of a desire for ordering and returning fact onto the nervous system in a more violent way. Why, after great artists, do people ever try to do anything again? Only because, from generation to generation, through what great artists have done, the instincts change. (Francis Bacon, painter, Francis Bacon)  SPECTRAL ANALYSES Q The universe is infinitely organic because every organic thing is constituted ad infinitum of other organisms. (Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy)  o A.  ...sound has always been primarily an extension of physical presence, or else physical presence has always been strongly inferred by sound. I assume that sonic contouring is, among other things, a metaphor for bodily comportment and its associated aura of emotive  52 connotations: this makes the grain of sound a tremendously powerful compositional tool. (Brian Ferneyhough, composer. Composer to Composer) B.  ...the outward and audible signification of inward and spiritual realities. (Peter Warlock, Wordsworth Dictionary of Musical Quotations.)  C.  I  Music never expresses the phenomenon, but only the inner nature, the in-itself of all phenomena, the will itself. (Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher, Wordsworth Musical Quotations)  e A.  r  Giving long life to short-lived, unique moments. (Karl Lagerfeld, designer for House of Chanel, photographic hobbyist, VH1 Fashion Awards Show)  B.  The ultimate pornography - analytic activity whose... aim is to isolate objects from their contexts in time and space. (J.G. Ballard, writer, Atrocity Exhibition)  C.  To penetrate into the heart of a thing, even a little, a blade of grass, as Walt Whitman said, is to experience a kind of exhilaration that, it may be, only human beings of all the beings on this planet can feel... (Carl Sagan, scientist/author, The Sacred Beetle and Other Great Essays in Science)  D.  Music is the arithmetic of sounds as optics is the geometry of light. (Claude Debussy, composer, Penguin Dictionary of Musical Quotations)  E.  F.  There is... a violent disruption, a forcible disengagement from the rest of life, as thefigureis , wrenched from context... and stopped in mid-action with the jarring quality of a motion picture brought to a dead halt. (Howard N. Fox, art historian, Men in the Cities) It seems like the gestures of Men in the Cities are very much about the time we live in, that jerking into now. If you took the clothes off the people in my drawings and you wanted to see what was underneath them, you wouldn't see flesh, you'd see lines. Notations of movements, abstract tensions. (Robert Longo, Men in the Cities)  ELECTROACOUSTICS  To me, working with electronic music is composing with living sounds... I think of musical space as open rather than bounded. (Edgar Varese, composer, Perspectives of New Music)  53 A.  To excite and exalt our sensibilities, music developed towards the most complex polyphony and the maximum variety. (Luigi Russolo, composer/inventor, The Art of Noises)  B.  [on time spent, care taken, detail in the electroacoustics] I would like my pictures [pieces] to look [sound] as if a human being had passed between them, like a snail, leaving a trail of the human presence and memory traces of past events, as the snail leaves its slime. (Francis Bacon, painter, Francis Bacon)  C.  Television, movies and the media in general present you with a highly edited product and there's something behind the product I want people to think about in relationship to my art. There are people behind the media. (Robert Longo, artist, Men in the Cities')  © A.  Part of the concept of the trans-avant-garde endorses the ransacking of art history for images digesting and reanimating art of the past (Francesco Clemente, painter, Art Talk: The Early 80's)  B.  The deliberate adoption of existing modes... can be a powerful signifying tool. (Hans Haacke, Art Talk: The Early 80's)  C.  Cliches can be monumental; they become icons. (Robert Longo, Art Talk: The Early 80's)  NOTATION  Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. (Albert Einstein, scientist, Complexity Festival Program Book)  F O R M  © A.  The Organization of Energies: Any product whose quality is not of the very "easy" sort exhibits dislocations and dissociations of what is usually connected. (Francis Bacon, painter, Francis Bacon)  B.  It is a landscape that the western urban subject now inhabits and that the art... now reflects. (Richard Appignanesi, author, Postmodernism For Beginners)  54 [on Jackson Pollack] the individual identity of a part is submerged beneath the massive broken statement of the process as a whole... separate entities momentarily form out of the flux of images, then break apart... broken first, fluid second. Figures seen upon it are fragmented by the underlying brokenness of the ground of being. (Thomas Mcevilley, art historian, lulian Schnabel) [on Foucault, but related to thoughts on form in Wonder] ...upsets our conventional expectations of history as something linear - a chronology of inevitable facts that tell a story which makes sense. Instead, [he] uncovers the underlayers of what is kept suppressed and unconscious in and throughout history - the codes and assumptions of order, the structures of exclusion... (Richard Appignanesi, author, Postmodernism For Beginners) Here clock-time is no longer valid... these images are the residues of a remembered moment of time... (J.G. Ballard, author, Atrocity Exhibition) Muscles, nerves, intestines, blood-vessels, all that makes the coil and spring of our being, the unconscious hum of the engine, as well as the dart and flicker of the tongue, functioned superbly. Opening, shutting; shutting, opening; eating, drinking; sometimes speaking - the whole mechanism seemed to expand, to contract... (Virginia Woolf, author, THE WAVES) By denying the viewer access to any narrative, yet suggesting that something of profound dramatic significance has taken place... deliberately attempts - even seduces - the viewer into the pursuit of "ordering" the "unordered" picture. (Robert Longo, artist, Men in the Cities)  55  BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Douglas. Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. London: Ballantine Books, 1979. Appignanesi, Richard. Postmodernism for Beginners. New York: Writers/Readers Publishing, 1997. Ballard, J.G. Atrocity Exhibition. San Francisco: Subco, 1990. Barrett, Richard, et al. Complexity Festival Program Book. Amsterdam: Stichting Gaudeamus, 1990. Blinderman, Barry. "Men in the Cities: Robert Longo." Art Talk: The Early 80's. Ed. Jeanne Siegel. New York: Da Capo Press, 1988. Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. "Sonnets from the Portugese". Poetical Works of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Complete Edition. New York/Boston: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1891. Carter, Elliott. "Gentility and Apocalypse." Composer to Composer: Conversations About Contemporary Music. Ed. Andrew Ford. St Leonard's: Pty Ltd, 1993. Colville, Alex. "Saturday Review: Alex Colville." Vancouver Sun, Aug. 1995. Davies, Hugh, and Sally Yard. Francis Bacon. Modern Masters Series. New York: Abbeville Press, 1986. Ferneyhough, Brian. "Socratic Faxes." Composer to Composer: Conversations About Contemporary Music. Ed. Andrew Ford. St Leonard's: Pty Ltd, 1993. Haacke, Hans. "What Makes Art Political." Art Talk: The Early 80's. Ed. Jeanne Siegel. New York: Da Capo Press, 1988. Honneger, Arthur. I A m A Composer. Trans, by Wilson O. Clough. London: Faber, 1966. Horfield, Kate, and Lyn Blumenthal. " O n Art and Artists: Thomas Lawson." Art Talk: The Early 80's. Ed. Jeanne Siegel. New York: Da Capo Press, 1988. Kendall, Allan. The Tender Tyrant: Nadia Boulanger. London: MacDonald and Jones, 1976. Koons, Jeff. The Jeff Koons Handbook. London: Anthony d'Offay, 1992. Longb, Robert, and Howard N . Fox. Men in the Cities. New York: Abrams, 1986. McEvilley, Thomas. Tulian Schnabel. Paintings: 1975-86. London: Trustees of the Whitechapel Gallery, 1986. Michaux, Henri. "Days of Silence". Selected Writing: The Space Within. New  56 Directions Series of Selected Writings. New York: New Directions, 1951. Penguin Dictionary of Musical Quotations. London: Viking Penguin Publishers, 1971. Politi, Giancarlo, and Helen Kontova. "Franceso Clemente." Art Talk: The Early 80's. Ed. Jeanne Siegel. New York: Da Capo Press, 1988. Reinhardt, Adolph Frederick. Art as Art: The Writings of A d Reinhardt. New York: Viking Press, 1975. Reynolds, Sir Joshua. Discourses. London: Penguin Books, 1992. Rumi, Jalal Al-Din. A Garden Beyond Paradise: the Mystical Poetry of Rumi.New York: Bantam Books, 1992. Russolo, Luigi. The Art of Noises. Trans, by Barclay Brown. New York: Pendragon Press, 1986. Sagan, Carl. "Can We Know the Universe? Reflections on a Grain of Salt." The Sacred Beetle and Other Great Essays in Science. Ed. Martin Gardner. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Schnabel, Julian. Tulian Schnabel. London: Tate Gallery Publications Department, 1982. Varese, Edgard. Perspectives of New Music. Princeton: Princeton University Press, for the Fromm Music Foundation, 1965. Viscious, Sid. "The Sex Pistols." Vancouver Sun. Oct. 1976. VH1 Fashion Awards Show. London: VH1,1993. Woolf, Virginia. T H E WAVES. Oxford: Oxford University Press, World Classics, 1992. Wordsworth Dictionary of Musical Quotations. 1975.  London: N T C Contemporary Publications,  Zhdanov, Andrei. Decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.  58 C  SCORE INSTRUMENTATION 2 flutes (both doubling on piccolo) 2 oboes (oboe 1 doubling cor anglais) 2 horns 2 trumpets in C trombone bass trombone tuba soprano tape strings 4 percussionists  (  PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTATION -all drums to be dry and unresonant (roto-toms and bass drum may be dampened with a cloth). -some percussion instruments are shared between two players (specified below). -while sharing of instruments is encouraged between members of the percussion quartet (in order to minimize the amount of space required by the ensemble) and while possibilities for instrument sharing are listed below, sharing is optional. PERCUSSION 1 crotales vibraphone flexatone suspended cymbal temple blocks bass drum (shared with perc. 2) rute drum (bass drum struck with twig mallets) roto-toms (shared with perc. 2) PERCUSSION 2 tubular bells (shared with perc. 4) flexatone sleigh bells sizzle cymbal triangle tam-tam (shared with perc. 3) bamboo wind chimes woodblock temple blocks ratchet snare drum  59 bass drum (shared with perc. 1) roto-toms (shared with perc. 1) P E R C U S S I O N  3  tambourine suspended cymbal (shared with perc. 4) brass wind chimes triangle (shared with perc. 2) tam-tam (shared with perc. 2) slide whistle claves temple blocks rute drum (shared with perc. 1) log drum (shared with perc. 4) roto-toms (shared with perc. 4) bass drum (shared with perc. 4) P E R C U S S I O N  4  crotales tubular bells (shared with perc. 2) slide whistle suspended cymbal (shared with perc. 3) temple blocks claves log drum (shared with perc. 3) roto-toms (shared with perc. 3) bass drum (shared with perc. 3) whip  E L E C T R O A C O U S T I C  P L A Y B A C K  -the electroacoustic part is to be played back from 2 C D players containing duplicate copies of the electroacoustic part, -the second playback device is a backup in case of either the failure of the first unit, or in case of tempo variation in the orchestra part (which would necessitate the overlapping of tape cues) the second unit should be advanced one index further than the first, ready for playback at the next cue. -the tape segments are indexed into 14 cues, each cue marked in the score. -each cue is followed by a substantial amount of silence, meaning that the tape part cannot simply be allowed to run - each cue must be placed individually, -tape cues are placed in the score at the point where playback should begin, -if the playback equipment has a brief delay between the time play is touched (or when pause is released) and the first audio signal, this time must be factored into the performance and the tape cue in the score placed earlier in time (taking the active tempo into consideration when calculating the updated cue placement), -markings within the tape part signify the following: -the total duration of sound per cue is notated at the beginning of each cue, e.g. T = 3' 30" -at each score rehearsal letter, the time-point within the current cue is listed, in order that the C D can be fast-forwarded to the correct location in time,  60 e.g. A = 45" -the above type of time demarcation is exact as it applies to the progress of the electroacoustic part, but is considered approximate in live performance (due to potential tempo variation), the tape part must be playback over a minimum of 8 speakers (onstage), in order to ensure proper distribution of the sonic environment (as compared with the orchestra). -there are two recommended loudspeaker configurations (of which the second is preferred), dependent upon room size and staging possibilities (see diagrams below). -SPEAKER C O N F I G U R A T I O N O N E : -1 large cabinet (with sub-woofer) should be placed on either side of the orchestra, at the front of the stage. -6 speakers should be distributed equidistantly within the percussion set-up, raised above the heads of the orchestral players, and between the individual percussionists' collection of instruments. -SPEAKER C O N F I G U R A T I O N T W O : -1 large cabinet (with sub-woofer) should be placed on either side of the orchestra, at the front of the stage. -between 6 and 12 speakers should be suspended from the lighting rigs, above the orchestra (but not too high), thus producing better balance between the orchestral and electroacoustic sound projection. -it is necessary for each section of the orchestra to be lightly amplified. -in order to avoid feedback, the amplified orchestral sound should only be projected through the speakers at the front of the stage (the large monitors on either side of the orchestra, and those on either side of the conductor), -do not, under any circumstances (regardless of how "dead" the performance space is) add any reverberation or processing to the electroacoustic part, -do not add any reverberation or processing to recordings of the music. -orchestra, tape, and soprano should be balanced and equal, the tape is not an accompaniment but an integral part of the content and direction of the music. - a direct feed of the tape part should be taken, unprocessed, from the mixing board.  S P E A K E R C O N F I G U R A T I O N O N E - distributed between percussionists  perc  1  perc  o  r  c  2  h  e  perc  s  t  s o p r a n o c o n d u c t o r  3  r  a  perc  4  61 SPEAKER CONFIGURATION  T W O - suspended above orchestra  mnrnmnimnnnnnwiMH  l^r-i, 1 perc  1  perc  ^ - ^  7\ l  y  —  s  o  o  p  r  a  n  |BttSHHMHHWra«|  L a J  2  r  perc  c  h  e  s  t  3  r  perc  a  / ,\  o  ,  conductor M E T R I P R O P O R T I O N A L  4  v  N O T A T I O N  -any material within two-line brackets is metriproportional, played somewhat freely within the measure, though with approximate reference to its placement, -frequently a whole section (strings), or multiple parts (distributed on their individual staves), play the same bracketed material, this material is to be played ad libitum, each player is a soloist in spirit, no effort should be made to synchronize the parts, -a number of variations to the metriproportional notation may occur. 1. rests are specified prior to the brackets, in this case, it is important to not begin the metriproportional material until the specified place in the measure, material inside the bracket is metriproportional for the remainder of the measure and on until the end bracket. 2. rests frequently follow the bracketed material, consider these to be less specific than those preceding the metriproportional brackets. 3. rests within the metriproportional brackets are sometimes indicated by the approximate size of the blank space when there is a gap between events. 4. some measures contain rhythmic values that exceed the total metric value, given that the barline is a pillar of reference, either compress the rhythms slightly, or exceed the boundary of the measure slightly (or both). specific rhythms within the brackets should be adhered to as much as possible, though based on the above-noted variation criteria.  62 OTHER  NOTATIONS  -accidentals r e m a i n active t h r o u g h o u t the measure, h o w e v e r , " r e d u n d a n t " accidentals are often present t o clarify t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the note alteration. -there are three types o f grace-notes: those o c c u r r i n g before the beat, those b e g u n w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y n o t a t e d r h y t h m ( o f short d u r a t i o n ) , a n d those placed as tails o n l o n g e r durations. -in t h e s t r i n g parts, a n u m b e r o f l o n g sustains are i n t e r r u p t e d by b r i e f r a n d o m tremoli. s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n is n o t i n t e n d e d between members o f the s e c t i o n , as each player s h o u l d tremolo independently. - p r i o r t o a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e t r e m o l i , there s h o u l d n o t be any space; shift d i r e c t l y f r o m t r e m o l o t o sustain.  Software: NoteAbility, designed by K e i t h A. H a m e l , Opus 1 music. C o m p u t e r engraving by Nathan Wilkes. Part e x t r a c t i o n b y N a t h a n W i l k e s , L e o Pedersen, a n d P a u l S t e e n h u i s e n . F i n a l score e d i t i n g b y P a u l S t e e n h u i s e n . Special thanks t o K e i t h H a m e l , N a t h a n W i l k e s , B o b P r i t c h a r d , D a v i d S i m p s o n , and Dieter Piltz.  WONDER  was commissioned by The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, for the CBC Vancouver Radio Orchestra.  Note AW F i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e : 9 June 1 9 9 6 , Music of Extremes, Vancouver International N e w M u s i c Festival, by the C B C V a n c o u v e r O r c h e s t r a , O w e n U n d e r h i l l , conductor, Valdine A n d e r s o n , soprano. E l e c t r o a c o u s t i c s p e r f o r m e d by P a u l S t e e n h u i s e n , w i t h t h e assistance o f B o b P r i t c h a r d a n d D a v i d S i m p s o n .  wonder  is d e d i c a t e d t o e l i z a b e t h s k i l l i n g s  wonder 69  i"  bass drum |  U  1" © 1996  1  C  J=69 Paul B. A. Steenhuisen  paul steenhuisen  (53  r  ft U J § »  r  y=j==LJ *f— ,  *  j  1—J-  J J ' *—"—  h  p £ It r  r  ,i.r » . i. r r ^ f  FH r  r  lit -^R?  ^  i J= 32  A9  uu  1 11  ^  '  = =4 tr k :  •—<—• L p L f i p .. p=4t=  ITT [ temple blocks [  r  XT  '.XT  poco a poco acc.  J = 50  B13  188  1  J = 96  f #  >  f  1 *  > r  *  ±—  U J  xr > «r tij  * .  •if,  .  P  f , f  1F f F f  v rt 1 (_? > 7  «P-TT^  •,. ,1 v. U  Jr U J  *  jr—t ?  f  r  *r  U  'f t r~r~  .ULU  J  '  L]  Lip^  L_J L _ J L--J  L rLv  j- ,  1  LJ  r  »r..  ? 1 .:  >  f-i -L  LJ  P ^ >—r - f .—:—.7 1 J 1 1  r v U  v  H*r—!f . *F .  •  2  ' r - •, C  U  f  •,  y  v  —  L_7  •  'f i  f  v  U ]  •» 1  m ]7  -  =  — ,  T-I ;  f, ,f -  '  ^  j  >|T=:08 |  bass  | temple blocks j  J = 96  F3  drum~|  ends at :08 -H  1  | crotale  |  |  (plastic malletsi  j  y—n  V  i  1  J bass drum | perc 2  | whip*]  or  ^  


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