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Unsettling British Columbia : interventions in a neocolonial politics Smith, Michael D. 1997

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UNSETTLING BRITISH COLUMBIA: INTERVENTIONS IN A NEOCOLONIAL POLITICS  by MICHAEL D. SMITH B.Comm., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1992 LL.B., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  o f Geography)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1997 © M i c h a e l D. Smith, 1997  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his  or her representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  3/  Of/r&l.'  711 (fr  11 ABSTRACT  The  contemporary s t r u g g l e s by A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s  b o u n d a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r l a n d and determination  w i t h i n the  self-  must be u n d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o  the  h i s t o r i c a l geography, and p o l i t i c a l economy, of European c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m .  The  p r o t r a c t e d and  uneven  p r o c e s s of European c a p i t a l i s t e x p a n s i o n o v e r s e a s e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of a B r i t i s h s e t t l e r c o l o n y on  the  P a c i f i c Coast of N o r t h America and the w h o l e s a l e d i s p l a c e m e n t of the r e g i o n ' s i n d i g e n o u s  populations.  Once  t h i s r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y of w h i t e s e t t l e r ascendancy i s p l a c e d i n i t s proper h i s t o r i c a l context, present  day  conflicts  between N a t i v e s and s e t t l e r s i n Canada's westernmost p r o v i n c e can be seen as l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of an o n g o i n g s t r u g g l e by A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s  around the w o r l d t o  s e t t l e r s t a t e power and a g l o b a l system (the "New  challenge World  Order") whose main f e a t u r e s and dynamics remain l a r g e l y imperialist.  To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , t h i s t h e s i s  c o n s i d e r s b o t h the r e c e n t upsurge of s e t t l e r o p p o s i t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l l a n d c l a i m s and t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the m i l i t a r i z a t i o n of s t a t e responses t o A b o r i g i n a l p r o t e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by the G u s t a f s e n Lake Standoff  of  1995.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  1  Acknowledgements  i  i  i iv  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER TWO  LINEAGES OF THE LATE SETTLER STATE  7  Introduction Imperialism: A P o s t - C o l o n i a l Primer The Great White N o r t h The Ragged Green Edge o f t h e World  7 10 31 59  CHAPTER THREE  80  REDNECK LIBERATION?  The New R i g h t Juggernaut Two Hundred M i l l i o n C u s t e r s The T w i l i g h t o f E x t r a c t i o n i s m Summer o f Hate Anti-Native Nativism The S o c i a l i s m o f Rednecks  86 90 93 10 0 103 111  CHAPTER FOUR  115  CANARIES IN A COALMINE  C o l o n i z i n g the Cariboo Secwepemc I n t i f a d a P o l i c i n g the C r i s i s D i v i d e and R u l e Settler Solidarity C o v e r i n g Ts'peten Bibliography  123 143 165 181 192 199 206  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many p e o p l e h e l p e d me t o s u r v i v e the graduate e x p e r i e n c e . F i r s t , I w i s h t o thank my f a m i l y , who i n s t i l l e d i n me a t h i r s t f o r l e a r n i n g and w i t h o u t whose l o v e and s u p p o r t a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , l e t a l o n e a M a s t e r ' s degree, would have been next t o i m p o s s i b l e . Second, I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o the v a r i o u s members of the Department of Geography a t U.B.C., s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and f a c u l t y a l i k e , who t o g e t h e r make i t something o f a haven i n a h e a r t l e s s campus. C e r t a i n p e o p l e m e r i t s p e c i a l mention. My s u p e r v i s o r , Derek Gregory, was an e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t e r and t h o u g h t f u l c r i t i c throughout the p r o j e c t . Dan H i e b e r t r e a d i l y agreed t o be second r e a d e r and o f f e r e d t h o r o u g h and v e r y u s e f u l comments i n the f i n a l s t a g e s . C o l e H a r r i s opened my eyes t o the h i s t o r y of t h i s ragged p l a c e . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o thank the f r i e n d s and comrades who have made up my p o l i t i c a l community f o r t h e s e l a s t few y e a r s , and s c h o o l e d me about the u n i t y of thought and a c t i o n . The good f o l k s of RR-HFC o f f e r e d an i r r e p l a c e a b l e p o l i t i c a l home, w h i l e the women of AFAC p r e s e n t e d a t o w e r i n g example o f g u t s , savvy, and t r u t h - s e e k i n g t h a t changed how I f a c e t h e w o r l d . My housemates at the 184 Commune were and a r e my a l t e r n a t i v e f a m i l y . Above a l l , I owe a debt of l o v e and g r a t i t u d e t o AW, who s t u c k w i t h me t h r o u g h the h i g h s and lows and i n s p i r e s me (and a l l around her) w i t h her p a s s i o n a t e commitment t o l i v i n g the good l i f e and f i g h t i n g the good f i g h t .  1  -  1  -  INTRODUCTION  I t ' s out o f hope, not n o s t a l g i a , t h a t we must r e c o v e r a community-based mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and way o f l i f e , founded not on greed b u t on s o l i d a r i t y , a g e - o l d , freedoms, and i d e n t i t y between human b e i n g s and n a t u r e . I b e l i e v e t h e r e i s no b e t t e r way t o honor t h e I n d i a n s , the f i r s t Americans, who from t h e A r c t i c t o T i e r r a d e l Fuego have kept t h e i r i d e n t i t y and message a l i v e t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e campaigns o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n . Today t h e y s t i l l h o l d out v i t a l keys t o memory and prophecy f o r a l l o f A m e r i c a , not j u s t o u r L a t i n A m e r i c a . Eduardo Galeano  1  Modern i m p e r i a l i s m , t h e g l o b a l e x p a n s i o n o f competing w e s t e r n European powers which began o v e r f i v e hundred y e a r s ago, l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e contemporary w o r l d system. T h i s e x p a n s i o n was d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e r i s e o f c a p i t a l i s m i n Europe, a system p r e d i c a t e d on c e a s e l e s s s e l f - e x p a n s i o n t h r o u g h t h e p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e o f commodities.  The modes  of European e x p a n s i o n v a r i e d markedly a c r o s s time and space, but r e v o l v e d e s s e n t i a l l y around t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o v e r s e a s c o l o n i e s f o r t h e purposes o f e x t r a c t i n g w e a l t h .  In  e a r l y phases, t h i s meant c o n t r o l l i n g t r a d e i n o r o t h e r w i s e a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t s o f e x i s t i n g non-European systems.  Later, with the s h i f t t o i n d u s t r i a l  social  capitalism,  European powers began t o seek out s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s Eduardo Galeano, "The B l u e T i g e r and t h e Promised Land", i n We Say No: Chronicles 1963-1991 (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1992), 227.  2  as w e l l as markets f o r f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s .  This required  a  thorough r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s , i n v o l v i n g the s e i z u r e of t e r r i t o r y , e x p l o i t a t i o n of i n d i g e n o u s and  i n t r o d u c t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s .  labour,  Sometimes  i t l e d t o the c r e a t i o n of s e t t l e r s t a t e s whose s e c u r i t y r e s t e d on the e r a d i c a t i o n o r permanent s u b o r d i n a t i o n p r e e x i s t i n g indigenous populations.  of  In a l l c a s e s ,  i m p e r i a l i s m and c o l o n i a l i s m i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d  the  i m p o s i t i o n , o f t e n by f o r c e of arms, of a p o l i t i c a l  and  economic o r d e r s u i t e d t o the needs of European r u l i n g elites.  In t h i s t h e s i s , I a n a l y z e the p o l i t i c a l economy of i m p e r i a l i s m and  c o l o n i a l i s m i n the c o n t e x t  of  British  Columbia t o r e v e a l the s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s , m o t i v e s methods t h a t l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and  of a B r i t i s h  settler  c o l o n y on the northwest coast of N o r t h A m e r i c a i n the nineteenth  century.  My p r o j e c t has a double f o c u s :  f i r s t l y t o s k e t c h i n broad o u t l i n e t h a t transformation  historic  by which s o p h i s t i c a t e d and r i c h l y  Indigenous N a t i o n s ,  I want  diverse  self-governing i n t e r r i t o r i e s  encompassing the whole of what i s now  B.C.  y e a r s , were a l l but expunged and r e p l a c e d ,  f o r thousands of i n a m a t t e r of  decades, by a d e s t r u c t i v e p o l i t i c a l and economic system centered  i n Europe, o r g a n i z e d  around the i n t e r e s t s and  a u t h o r i t y of a European e l i t e , and w h o l l y new  institutionalized in a  a p p a r a t u s of s t a t e power.  Secondly, I  consider  3  the p o l i t i c a l antagonisms which a r e t h e p r e s e n t day outcome of  s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n , and f o c u s i n p a r t i c u l a r on s e t t l e r  responses t o t h e contemporary s t r u g g l e s o f B.C.'s A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s f o r l a n d and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  A b a s i c premise o f my argument i s t h a t i m p e r i a l i s m and c o l o n i a l i s m a r e s t i l l w i t h u s , though t h e i r c i r c u i t s have changed.  To many, no doubt, these terms have a d e c i d e d l y  a n a c h r o n i s t i c and a l i e n c o n n o t a t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g a remote p a s t and d i s t a n t p l a c e s .  Yet B r i t i s h Columbia i s v e r y much  a product of the i m p e r i a l d i v i s i o n of the world i n t o c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and spheres o f i n f l u e n c e .  Like  c o u n t l e s s o t h e r e x - c o l o n i e s , i t was e s t a b l i s h e d amid i n t e n s e i n t e r - i m p e r i a l r i v a l r y i n order t o safeguard  British  p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n a much b r o a d e r geopolitical strategy.  And here as elsewhere  colonization  e n t a i l e d the subjugation of the l o c a l indigenous p o p u l a t i o n , the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y , and t h e p l u n d e r i n g o f natural wealth. of  U n l i k e elsewhere, however, i n B.C. t h e end  t h e Second World War d i d not mark t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  d e c o l o n i z a t i o n and independent  s t a t e h o o d ; i n s t e a d , B.C.'s  A b o r i g i n a l Nations are trapped w i t h i n a s e t t l e r whose b a s i c f e a t u r e s remain c o l o n i a l .  society  Moreover, i n g l o b a l  terms, d o m i n a t i o n and unequal exchange s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e r e l a t i o n s between t h e core o f advanced c a p i t a l i s t powers and a p e r i p h e r y o f poor, underdeveloped t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e mediated  c o u n t r i e s , though now  through t h e m u l t i n a t i o n a l  4  c o r p o r a t i o n s and the organs - the World Bank-IMF, the the WTO  - of an emergent t r a n s n a t i o n a l s t a t e .  v i e w " i m p e r i a l i s m " , understood  G7,  Hence i n my  as the ongoing p r o c e s s  of  c a p i t a l i s t g l o b a l i z a t i o n , remains a fundamental f e a t u r e o f the w o r l d i n our epoch.  For these r e a s o n s ,  I r e s i s t using "post-colonialism" - with  i t s emphasis on t e x t u a l i t y , c u l t u r a l h y b r i d i t y ,  and  s u b j e c t i v i t y - as -my t h e o r e t i c a l framework because i t r i s k s e x a g g e r a t i n g the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s between the s o - c a l l e d  Age  of Empire and the p r e s e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n and dynamics o f g l o b a l power.  I n s t e a d , I adopt a p o l i t i c a l economy approach  which s t r e s s e s the need f o r deep, s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , h i s t o r i c a l t r a j e c t o r i e s , and  social  c l e a v a g e s i n b o t h the w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system and  particular  s o c i a l formations.  T h i s approach, I b e l i e v e , e n a b l e s us t o  see the p o l i t i c s of s e t t l e r c o l o n i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h i n i t s proper, w o r l d - h i s t o r i c a l context.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of my d i s c u s s i o n r e f l e c t s t h i s o v e r a r c h i n g concern t o l i n k p a s t and p r e s e n t , the l o c a l and the g l o b a l , i n a coherent  structural analysis.  In Chapter Two,  I  p r e s e n t a h i t - a n d - r u n genealogy which s i t u a t e s the c o l o n i z a t i o n of B.C. i m p e r i a l expansion, genocide  w i t h i n the longue emphasizing  duree o f European  a h e m i s p h e r i c h i s t o r y of  and d i s p o s s e s s i o n , i n o r d e r t o reframe  the  s e t t l e m e n t of the p r o v i n c e , and i t s c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l  5  landscape, overview  as i n e r a d i c a b l y c o l o n i a l .  I offer a  schematic  o f E u r o i m p e r i a l i s m at t h r e e o v e r l a p p i n g s c a l e s -  g l o b a l , n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l - i n o r d e r t o l i n k the i m p l a n t a t i o n of a s e t t l e r c o l o n y i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a broader  s e t of g l o b a l dynamics, i n p a r t i c u l a r the r i s e of a  w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system c e n t e r e d on the de j u r e p r i m a c y o f the modern n a t i o n s t a t e and de f a c t o dominance o f patriarchal bourgeoisies.  These remain the  (white)  structural  i m p e r a t i v e s which shape the p o l i t i c a l t e r r a i n on w h i c h s e t t l e r s and Indigenous N a t i o n s engage today.  In Chapter Three, I c o n s i d e r the c u r r e n t conjuncture  i n B.C.,  political  where an o s t e n s i b l y p r o g r e s s i v e  t r e a t y m a k i n g p r o c e s s has b e l a t e d l y begun o n l y t o e n c o u n t e r a w e l l - o r c h e s t r a t e d and p s e u d o - p o p u l i s t This conjuncture,  s e t t l e r backlash.  I m a i n t a i n , can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d  c o n n e c t i o n t o broader  in  s h i f t s i n the e r a of m u l t i n a t i o n a l  c a p i t a l i s m whose p r i m a r y symptoms - economic r e s t r u c t u r i n g , the d i s m a n t l i n g of the w e l f a r e s t a t e , and the r i s e of r i g h t 2  wing p o p u l i s t movements - are by no means unique t o 1 argue t h a t N a t i v e s have become the new  B.C..  scapegoats f o r  r e g i o n a l e l i t e s and the s u b o r d i n a t e s t r a t a of the  settler  c a s t e i n the f a c e of ongoing r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n B.C.'s 2  I use " c o n j u n c t u r e " here m the sense s p e c i f i e d by S t u a r t H a l l , as the "coming t o g e t h e r of o f t e n d i s t i n c t though r e l a t e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , moving a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t tempos, but condensed i n the same h i s t o r i c a l moment...." See h i s "The Great Moving R i g h t Show", i n The Hard Road to Renewal (London: Verso, 1988) p. 41.  6  resource-based  economy.  T h i s d i v e r t s a t t e n t i o n from the  r e a l causes of the c r i s i s , namely, the a g g r e s s i v e  promotion  of a c o r p o r a t e agenda bent on a d a p t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l political  economy t o s u i t the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f  transnational  One  capital.  of the d e f i n i n g events of t h i s c o n j u n c t u r e , I propose i n  Chapter Four, was  the month-long G u s t a f s e n Lake S t a n d o f f ,  w h i c h t r a n s f i x e d the p r o v i n c e and the c o u n t r y i n the summer of 1995.  What began as a l o c a l c o n f l i c t between a  group of N a t i v e Sundancers and a C a r i b o o r a n c h e r developed  late  quickly  i n t o the most s e r i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n between  N a t i v e s and the s e t t l e r s t a t e apparatus S t a n d o f f of 1990.  s i n c e the  Oka  N a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e provoked a l a r g e - s c a l e  c o u n t e r - i n s u r g e n c y o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g advanced m i l i t a r y t e c h n o l o g y and hundreds of p o l i c e and Canadian F o r c e s personnel.  The S t a n d o f f i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t r e p r e s s i o n remains  the f i n a l g u a r a n t o r of s e t t l e r r u l e i n t h i s o s t e n s i b l y p o s t c o l o n i a l e r a , and t h a t the s e t t l e r s t a t e w i l l c r i m i n a l i z e any N a t i v e s who  swiftly  c h a l l e n g e the r e f o r m i s t agenda  of an e l i t e - s p o n s o r e d t r e a t y p r o c e s s .  However, the s t a n d o f f  a l s o demonstrated t h a t emergent p o l i t i c a l  d i v i s i o n s between  moderates and s o v e r e i g n t i s t s w i t h i n N a t i v e communities w i l l make the t a s k of d e f e n d i n g a b o r i g i n a l l a n d and e v e r more c o m p l i c a t e d .  nationhood  7  - 2 -  LINEAGES OF  THE  LATE SETTLER STATE  Reminders a r e a l l around us, i f we c a r e t o l o o k , t h a t the f i f t e e n t h - and s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e of H i s p a n i o l a , brought on by European m i l i t a r y a s s a u l t and the i m p o r t a t i o n o f e x o t i c d i s e a s e s , was i n p a r t o n l y an enormous p r e l u d e t o human c a t a s t r o p h e s t h a t f o l l o w e d on o t h e r k i l l i n g grounds, and c o n t i n u e t o o c c u r today - from the f o r e s t s of B r a z i l and Paraguay and elsewhere i n South and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , where d i r e c t government v i o l e n c e s t i l l s l a u g h t e r s thousands of I n d i a n p e o p l e y e a r i n and y e a r o u t , t o the r e s e r v a t i o n s and urban slums o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , where more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n d i r e c t government v i o l e n c e has p r e c i s e l y the same e f f e c t . . . . D a v i d Stannard, American  Holocaust  B r i t i s h Columbians s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d , as now t h e y h a r d l y do, how non-Native power took r o o t i n t h e i r province. Cole H a r r i s , The Resettlement of B r i t i s h Columbia  I.  INTRODUCTION  The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o o u t l i n e the main h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s which have shaped r e l a t i o n s between N a t i v e s and s e t t l e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia down t o the present.  As such, i t r e p r e s e n t s a s y n o p t i c h i s t o r y o f  i m p e r i a l i s m and c o l o n i a l i s m as t h e s e r e l a t e t o Canadian s t a t e f o r m a t i o n and the development  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  My  purpose i s not t o p r o v i d e a r i c h h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e of t h e p a s t , but t o o u t l i n e , i n schematic form, the p o l i t i c a l economic  and  dynamics which produced our p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  8 i n o r d e r t h a t we may  understand  and a c t w i t h i n them.  In  p a r t , my p r o j e c t t a k e s i t s cue from F o u c a u l t ' s n o t i o n of a " h i s t o r y of the p r e s e n t " , which s e l e c t i v e l y i n v o k e s the p a s t to d i s r u p t the r e c e i v e d wisdom of the p r e s e n t ; i t i s a "curative history", self-consciously situated i n a contemporary p o l i t i c a l f i e l d and r e s p o n d i n g t o c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l concerns.  1  But more d i r e c t i n s p i r a t i o n comes from  the work o f P e r r y Anderson, whose p e c u l i a r brand historical  of  s o c i o l o g y has g e n e r a t e d a number of a m b i t i o u s l y  s y n t h e t i c overviews  of European, and e s p e c i a l l y ,  s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g Lineages  of the Absolutist  British  State,  from  2  w h i c h the t i t l e of t h i s c h a p t e r d e r i v e s .  Anderson's work  i s s i m i l a r t o F o u c a u l t ' s i n s o f a r as he i s concerned  to  c o n s t r u c t a p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y of the p a s t i n o r d e r to  illuminate current p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  But i t d i v e r g e s s h a r p l y from F o u c a u l t ' s work m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y ,  f o r Anderson i s w r i t i n g  w i t h i n a d e l i b e r a t e l y M a r x i a n framework, i n p u r s u i t o f an avowedly s o c i a l i s t totalizing  politics.  T h i s l e a d s him t o  develop  h i s t o r i e s which seek t o d i s c l o s e the main  s t r u c t u r e s and dynamics d e t e r m i n i n g the course of  long-run  See M i c h a e l S. Roth, " F o u c a u l t ' s H i s t o r y of the P r e s e n t " , History and Theory 20 (1981) pp. 32-46.  2  P e r r y Anderson, Lzneages V e r s o , 1974).  of the Absolutist  State  (London:  9  development f o r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s .  Likewise,  t h e n , my aim i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a t e l e s c o p i c account of the " d i s t i n c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l t r a j e c t o r y " of B r i t i s h Columbian s o c i e t y , s e t t i n g i t i n i t s w i d e r h i s t o r i c o - g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t and d e l i n e a t i n g i t s main f e a t u r e s and movements.  My d i s c u s s i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main p a r t s . first,  In the  I p r o v i d e a thumbnail s k e t c h of the longue  duree  European o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n , emphasizing  the impetus  p r o v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t phases of i n t e r n a l  capitalist  development and the impact of t h a t e x p a n s i o n on the European p e o p l e s who  encountered  it.  of  non-  I a l s o o f f e r a summary  e x p o s i t i o n of the main f e a t u r e s of one p a r t i c u l a r  historical  v a r i a n t of European i m p e r i a l i s m , the w h i t e s e t t l e r c o l o n y . In t h e s e c o l o n i e s of s e t t l e m e n t , the t r i a n g u l a r  relationship  between s e t t l e r s , i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s , and the m e t r o p o l i t a n power g i v e r i s e t o a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t of power r e l a t i o n s h i p s and developmental  trajectories.  In the second p a r t , I  narrow my f o c u s t o c o n s t r u c t an h i s t o r i c a l diagram o f the Canadian s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n , emphasizing b o t h i t s p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system and i t s p a r t i c u l a r model of c o l o n i z a t i o n .  I n the t h i r d and  final  3  For a u s e f u l a n a l y s i s of Anderson's method see Mary F u l b r o o k and Theda S k o c p o l , " D e s t i n e d Pathways: The H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y of P e r r y /Anderson", i n Theda S k o c p o l , ed., Vision and Method in Historical Sociology (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984) pp.170-210.  10  p a r t , I r e f i n e my f o c u s once a g a i n , d e v e l o p i n g a s i m i l a r l y diagrammatic n a r r a t i v e o f t h e i m p e r i a l i n t r u s i o n  into  B r i t i s h Columbia, which h i g h l i g h t s t h e main f e a t u r e s o f i t s t r a n s i t i o n t o "advanced r e s o u r c e c a p i t a l i s m " and i t s h i s t o r y of N a t i v e s u b j u g a t i o n .  II.  IMPERIALISM: A POSTCOLONIAL The  PRIMER  Export of Barbarism  The d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d and s i l v e r i n A m e r i c a , t h e e x t i r p a t i o n , enslavement and entombment i n mines o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e conquest and l o o t i n g o f t h e E a s t I n d i e s , t h e t u r n i n g o f A f r i c a i n t o a warren f o r t h e commercial h u n t i n g o f b l a c k s k i n s , s i g n a l i s e d t h e r o s y dawn o f t h e e r a o f c a p i t a l i s t production. Marx, Kapital, European e x p a n s i o n i n t h e modern e r a was a spasmodic d r i v e n by t h e dynamics o f uneven development  Vol.1 affair  i n Western  Europe, a p r o c e s s shaped i n t u r n by t h e i n t e r p l a y o f a number o f c o n t i n g e n t f a c t o r s : t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e pace and n a t u r e o f economic change, and p o l i t i c a l  conflict 4  w i t h i n and between t h e nascent c a p i t a l i s t  nation-states.  The e a r l i e s t European o v e r s e a s f o r a y s spanned t h e c e n t u r y o r so f o l l o w i n g t h e Colombian voyages, t h e s t o r i e d "Age o f The p e r i o d i z a t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s t development d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e based m a i n l y on t h e e s s a y s i n H a r r y Magdoff, Imperialism: From the Colonial Age to the Present (New York: Monthly Review, 1978). A b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s b r o a d l y s i m i l a r may be found i n Hamza A l a v i , " C o l o n i a l and P o s t - C o l o n i a l S o c i e t i e s " , i n Tom Bottomore, ed., The  11  Discovery"  ( i n r e a l i t y an "Age  of P l u n d e r " ) , as European  r u l i n g c l a s s e s sought a c c e s s t o the s t o r i e d r i c h e s of "Orient".  the  In t h i s p e r i o d , c e n t r a l i z i n g f e u d a l monarchies i n  Western Europe were engaged i n a p r o t o t y p i c a l form of " i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m " , f i g h t i n g s e r i a l wars t o c o n s o l i d a t e power o v e r the patchwork of independent f i e f d o m s p e o p l e s t h a t was  and  diverse  t h e n Europe, and f i n a n c i n g t h e s e c o s t l y  campaigns w i t h the p r e c i o u s m e t a l s ,  s p i c e s and o t h e r e x o t i c  goods o b t a i n e d abroad by f o r c e of arms.  5  Spain  and  P o r t u g a l , the dominant powers i n t h i s p e r i o d , s e c u r e d  their  preeminence t h r o u g h p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t s i n empire b u i l d i n g : P o r t u g a l , f o l l o w i n g a s o u t h e r n r o u t e t o the E a s t ,  seized  c o n t r o l of the s p i c e t r a d e from A s i a n and A f r i c a n merchants and began a b r i s k t r a d e i n West A f r i c a n s l a v e s t o  satisfy  the l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s of i t s B r a z i l i a n p l a n t a t i o n c o l o n i e s ; w h i l e S p a i n , b l o c k e d by the Ottomans t o the  east  and P o r t u g a l t o the South, e n l i s t e d Columbus t o c h a r t a w e s t e r n r o u t e t o A s i a , t h e r e a f t e r embarking on a  genocidal  c o u r s e of l o o t i n g , d e s t r u c t i o n and enslavement i n the A m e r i c a s t h a t would produce u n t o l d mountains of g o l d , and  "Indian" corpses.  The  l e s s e r powers - England,  silver  Holland,  Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2d e d . ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1991) pp.94-96. I n t h i s sense, the a n t e c e d e n t s of European i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n o v e r s e a s were campaigns of i n t e r n a l e x p a n s i o n the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of economic and p o l i t i c a l power - w i t h i n Europe i t s e l f . For an e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o B r i t a i n , see M i c h a e l Hechter, Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe B r i t i s h National Development 5  12  France - were f o r c e d t o c o n t e n t themselves w i t h a hand-medown b r i g a n d i s m aimed a t l o c a l conquests ( l i k e I r e l a n d ) o r predatory  f o r a y s a g a i n s t S p a n i s h and Portuguese s h i p s and  trading posts.  In the end, however, t h i s p r e - c a p i t a l i s t ,  or  " b u l l i o n i s t " , phase of E u r o i m p e r i a l i s m c o u l d not be s u s t a i n e d , as a c c u m u l a t i o n depended upon f i n i t e r e s e r v e s o f goods ( e s p e c i a l l y p r e c i o u s m e t a l s ) , and t r a d i t i o n a l  systems  of p r o d u c t i o n t h a t were no match f o r European r a p a c i t y . Magdoff p u t s i t ,  6  As  "the w e a l t h o b t a i n e d by p l u n d e r o f hoards 7  amassed o v e r y e a r s can o n l y be t a k e n once."  T h i s o l d o r pre-modern form of i m p e r i a l i s m was  gradually  r e p l a c e d from the opening decades of the 17th c e n t u r y by a new system of c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n r e v o l v i n g around the m e r c a n t i l e i n t e r e s t s which dominated the Western  European  g t r a n s i t i o n from f e u d a l t o c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . hegemony, s t a g n a t i n g under the decadent r u l e of  Iberian retrograde  a r i s t o c r a c i e s , gave way t o an i n t e n s e r i v a l r y between B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , and Dutch r u l i n g c l a s s e s t h a t would  1536 - 1966 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1975). I borrow the term " b u l l i o n i s m " from R.T. N a y l o r , Canada in the European Age 1453-1919 (Vancouver: New S t a r , 1987) p. 67 .  6  7  H a r r y Magdoff, " I m p e r i a l i s m : A H i s t o r i c a l Survey" i n Imperialism: From the Colonial Age to the Present (New York: M o n t h l y Review, 1978), 102. g See Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i n , The Modern World System (New York: Academic P r e s s , 1974).  13  u l t i m a t e l y be r e s o l v e d , a f t e r p r o t r a c t e d wars i n Europe and N o r t h America,  w i t h the d e f e a t of Napoleon and  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the "pax B r i t a n n i c a " .  T h i s was  of the s o - c a l l e d " f i r s t B r i t i s h empire"  (comprising I r e l a n d ,  the American c o l o n i e s , and the Caribbean) was  the p e r i o d  whose l i f e b l o o d  the l u c r a t i v e " t r i a n g u l a r t r a d e " i n s l a v e s , c o l o n i a l  products  (sugar, c o t t o n , t o b a c c o ) , and manufactured goods  ( t e x t i l e s , rum) Caribbean.  between B r i t a i n , West A f r i c a and  I t was  the  a l s o the heyday of the g r e a t t r a d i n g  monopolies - the Dutch and B r i t i s h E a s t I n d i e s Companies, the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Company o f New  France,  among o t h e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s time - and of p r o t e c t i o n i s m , wherein commercial e x c l u s i v i t y  (typified  by  the N a v i g a t i o n A c t s ) became the b a s i s f o r economic growth i n 9  each i m p e r i a l domain.  L a c k i n g the c a p a c i t y t o e x e r t  e x t e n s i v e c o n t r o l over d i s t a n t t e r r i t o r i e s , i m p e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o c u s e d i n s t e a d on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o f i t a b l e management of p l a n t a t i o n c o l o n i e s and  and white  s e t t l e r e n t r e p o t s a l o n g the c o a s t a l f r i n g e s and major i n l a n d waterways of the c o l o n i a l p e r i p h e r y : f o r example, the s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g the S t . Lawrence a t P o r t R o y a l Quebec (1607) and M o n t r e a l  French  (1604),  (1640), the Dutch a t the Cape  (1652), B a t a v i a (1619) and New  Amsterdam (1626), and  Magdoff, " I m p e r i a l i s m : A H i s t o r i c a l  Survey".  the  14  E n g l i s h a t Jamestown (1607), U l s t e r (1609), and Barbados  (1627).  Merchant p r i m a c y was  Plymouth (1620)  10  not t o l a s t , however, as changes w i t h i n  Europe, f u e l e d above a l l by the e x s a n g u i n a t i o n  of c o l o n i z e d  p e o p l e s and t e r r i t o r i e s , combined t o spur on even f u r t h e r transformations.  The  so-called "industrial revolution"  h e r a l d e d not o n l y a new  phase of c a p i t a l i s t development i n  Western Europe - f e a t u r i n g w h o l e s a l e  d i s p o s s e s s i o n of  p e a s a n t s t h r o u g h e n c l o s u r e of f e u d a l l a n d s , the  rural  parallel  emergence of an u r b a n i z e d system of f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n ,  and  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y power i n the modern n a t i o n - s t a t e - but a l s o a c a t a c l y s m i c s h i f t i n the r e l a t i o n s between Europe and the r e s t of the w o r l d .  1 1  The  p r e v i o u s forms of c o l o n i a l i n c u r s i o n were d i s r u p t i v e , t o be s u r e , and i n areas of i n t e n s i v e European a c t i v i t y were frequently devastating. encomenderos,  Spanish c o n q u i s t a d o r s  and  f o r example, managed t o reduce the  p o p u l a t i o n of the Americas by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  indigenous  90 m i l l i o n ,  or  D.K. F i e l d h o u s e , The Colonial Empires: A Comparative Survey from the Eighteenth Century (London: W e i d e n f e l d & N i c h o l s o n , 1965) For a c o n c i s e and e l e g a n t t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , see Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i n , Historical Capitalism (London: Verso, 1983). 11  15  9 0 p e r c e n t , i n t h e two c e n t u r i e s  a f t e r Columbus.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , p r i o r t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n European powers l a c k e d  imperial  t h e economic and m i l i t a r y c a p a c i t y t o  t h o r o u g h l y r e o r g a n i z e communally o r i e n t e d  indigenous  s o c i e t i e s , t e n d i n g i n s t e a d t o e x p l o i t them w h i l e  leaving 13  t h e i r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s more o r l e s s i n t a c t .  But  i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m s e t new i m p e r a t i v e s i n m o t i o n , as t h e engine o f European e x p a n s i o n became l e s s and l e s s t h e t r a d e i n l u x u r y p r o d u c t s , and more and more t h e c o m p e t i t i o n between i m p e r i a l powers f o r o v e r s e a s t e r r i t o r i e s t o s e r v e as markets f o r European manufactures, s o u r c e s o f raw f o r expanding i n d u s t r i e s and f o o d f o r an  materials  urbanizing  p r o l e t a r i a t , and o u t l e t s f o r t h e p r o f i t a b l e i n v e s t m e n t o f r a p i d l y accumulating c a p i t a l . As Magdoff s u g g e s t s , c o l o n i z a t i o n became a program f o r a fundamental r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f n o n - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s a l o n g E u r o - c a p i t a l i s t l i n e s , and though t h e " l o c a l t a c t i c s " may have v a r i e d the b a s i c s t r a t e g y was u n i v e r s a l , i n v o l v i n g t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r extent the d i s r u p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g  communities;  i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r i v a t e property i n land; extending the 12  Ward C h u r c h i l l , Since Predator Came: Notes from the Struggle for American Indian Liberation (Littleton, C o l o r a d o : A i g i s P r e s s , 1995), p.41.  16  use o f money and exchange; i m p o s i t i o n o f f o r c e d  labour  and r e c r u i t m e n t o f a l a b o u r f o r c e dependent on wages; d e s t r o y i n g c o m p e t i t i v e n a t i v e i n d u s t r y ; c r e a t i n g a new c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g f o s t e r i n g o f new e l i t e groups as p o l i t i c a l and economic j u n i o r p a r t n e r s o f t h e metropolitan centers;  [and] i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e s 14  of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n  centers....  European c o n t r o l over p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , became t h e e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t o f i m p e r i a l i s m i n t h i s phase, and r e q u i r e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b o u r g e o i s p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s and a s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r p r e m i s e d on male supremacy (or i t s r e i n f o r c e m e n t , already e x i s t e d ) .  1 5  where t h e l a t t e r  Though t h e b a s i c impetus o f t h i s  p r o c e s s was economic, c o l o n i z a t i o n a l s o f r e q u e n t l y e n t a i l e d a g g r e s s i v e a t t a c k s on i n d i g e n o u s  c u l t u r e s and s o c i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the suppression of l o c a l  traditions,  e s p e c i a l l y language and r e l i g i o n , and t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n o f European c l a s s and f a m i l i a l s t r u c t u r e s and s e x u a l - c u l t u r a l regimes.  16  B i s h o p Desmond Tutu has s u c c i n c t l y c a p t u r e d t h e  T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n d e r i v e s from Magdoff, " I m p e r i a l i s m : A H i s t o r i c a l Survey", pp.87-116. I b i d . p. 106. 1 4  See M. E t i e n n e and E l e a n o r Leacock, Women and Colonization (New York: Praeger, 198 0 ) .  15  See D a v i d S c o t t " C o l o n i a l G o v e r n m e n t a l i t y " Social Text 43 (1995) pp.191-220; Timothy M i t c h e l l , Colonizing Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988). 16  17 r o l e of C h r i s t i a n missionaries  as c u l t u r a l f o o t s o l d i e r s i n  campaigns o f c o l o n i a l conquest:  They came.  They had the B i b l e and we had t h e l a n d .  And t h e y s a i d : 'Close y o u r eyes and p r a y ' .  And when we  opened our eyes t h e y had the l a n d and we had t h e Bible.  1 7  From t h e 183 0s onwards, European e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y t o the c o n t i n e n t a l i n t e r i o r s o f A f r i c a , A s i a and N o r t h A m e r i c a , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h i s new c o l o n i a l o r d e r u s u a l l y r e q u i r i n g extended wars o f conquest a g a i n s t native populations,  e i t h e r t o subdue them f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n 18  o r d i s p l a c e them f o r f u t u r e w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t . precondition  A necessary  f o r the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f European hegemony i n  c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s was the c o n t i n u i n g  technological  r e v o l u t i o n wrought by c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r y : t h e  increased  k i l l i n g c a p a c i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h new armamements, t h e enhanced economic and s t r a t e g i c power a f f o r d e d by new technologies  of transport  ( r a i l w a y and steamship) and  communications (the t e l e g r a p h ) ; and, l a s t but not l e a s t , new  Eduardo Galeano, " O t h e r c i d e " , i n We Say No (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1992), p.307. 18 For an e x c e l l e n t o v e r v i e w o f t h i s p e r i o d see V.G. K i e r n a n , European Empires From Conquest to Collapse 18151960 ( L e i c e s t e r : L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982) .  18  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e techniques  e n a b l i n g the management o f l a r g e 19  f l o w s of p e o p l e , goods, i n f o r m a t i o n and  T h i s a c q u i s i t i o n of new  capital.  t e r r i t o r i e s accelerated rapidly i n  the l a t e 1870s, the e r a of s o - c a l l e d " h i g h i m p e r i a l i s m " , as c a p i t a l i s m e n t e r e d i t s monopoly phase - marked by  the  ascendancy of f i n a n c e over i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l , the u n f o l d i n g o f the "second" I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ( s t e e l , oil,  electricity,  i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i s t r y and the i n t e r n a l combustion  engine) and the unprecedented c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l i n 20  emerging conglomerates.  T h i s s h i f t d r a m a t i c a l l y expanded  the need f o r secure s u p p l i e s of raw m a t e r i a l s , p r e f e r a b l y under m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n t r o l , and provoked f e b r i l e among the r i v a l c e n t e r s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n  competition now  c h a l l e n g i n g B r i t i s h hegemony, among them Germany, I t a l y , the U.S. reached  and Japan.  By 1914,  Belgium,  when i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n  i t s z e n i t h , Europe's i m p e r i a l masters had  secured  d i r e c t c o n t r o l over 85% of the e a r t h ' s l a n d s u r f a c e ,  and  f o r c i b l y i n i t i a t e d s o c i a l and economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s whose human and e c o l o g i c a l t o l l would perhaps be s c a r c e l y i m a g i n a b l e t o contemporary Europeans were i t not f o r the homecoming of i n t e r - i m p e r i a l r i v a l r y i n the t w e n t i e t h 19  D a n i e l H e a d r i c k , The Tentacles Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988).  of Progress: 1850-1940  Technology(New York:  20  Magdoff, " I m p e r i a l i s m : A H i s t o r i c a l Survey", p. 108-9. See a l s o E . J . Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire 1875-1914 (London: Penguin, 1987) f o r a m a g i s t e r i a l account of t h i s p e r i o d .  19  c e n t u r y , i n the form of two World Wars and the r i s e o f 21  fascism.  The s t r a t e g i e s , methods and i d e o l o g i e s o f  c o l o n i a l conquest, h i t h e r t o r e s e r v e d f o r c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e s beyond Europe, were now v i s i t e d upon the c o n t i n e n t ' s c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r groups - Jews,  Gypsys  - c l a s s i f i e d as " i n f e r i o r " and t a r g e t e d f o r s y s t e m a t i c annihilation.  The a p o c a l y p t i c c o n f l i c t , which saw o v e r  e i g h t y m i l l i o n k i l l e d , dozens of c i t i e s d e s t r o y e d , and a c o l o s s a l s q u a n d e r i n g of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r p u r e l y d e s t r u c t i v e ends, demonstrated the b a s i c p e r v e r s i o n of human 22  e x i s t e n c e t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t system r e p r e s e n t s .  And y e t  f a r from marking the d e a t h k n e l l of c a p i t a l i s m p e r se, the war s i m p l y c l e a r e d the p a t h f o r the g l o b a l preeminence of U.S.  c a p i t a l , and a new form of " i m p e r i a l i s m w i t h o u t 23  colonies". The postwar p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d the h i s t o r i c r e v e r s a l of a l m o s t f i v e c e n t u r i e s of European i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n , as a n t i i m p e r i a l movements i n the c o l o n i a l p e r i p h e r y , a d o p t i n g the modern v e r n a c u l a r of n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n ,  sought t o throw  o f f the yoke of European d o m i n a t i o n by e s t a b l i s h i n g 21  For a c o m p e l l i n g M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of World War I I , i t s causes and consequences, see E r n e s t Mandel, The Meaning of the Second World War (London: V e r s o , 1986).  22  I b i d . , p. 169.  20  independent n a t i o n - s t a t e s and n a t i o n a l i s t programs of economic development.  These movements marked the  c u l m i n a t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e s t r u g g l e s which had been g a t h e r i n g momentum throughout the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , a c c e l e r a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t 50 y e a r s of the t w e n t i e t h  century.  A number of l o n g - t e r m t r e n d s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l economy converged i n the postwar r e a l i g n m e n t  of g l o b a l  power, c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f a v o r a b l e t o these independence movements: the ascendancy of the U.S.  as the dominant  c a p i t a l i s t power, d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s own hegemony but f o r c e d t o contend w i t h a w e l t e r of systemic  anti-  f o r c e s ; the concomitant d e c l i n e of the competing  i m p e r i a l powers, whether t h r o u g h m i l i t a r y d e f e a t Japan and  imperial  I t a l y b e i n g s t r i p p e d of c o l o n i e s ) o r  ( B r i t a i n and F r a n c e ) ;  and,  (Germany, decrepitude  perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  the  h i s t o r i c emergence of a g l o b a l a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t b l o c , centered  i n the USSR but a t t r a c t i n g mass support i n the  advanced c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , which f o r a time  threatened  the p e r s i s t e n c e of the w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system.  D e c o l o n i z a t i o n thus became one  of the h a l l m a r k s  of  the  24  postwar p e r i o d .  The  i n i t i a l phase a c t u a l l y began d u r i n g  See " I m p e r i a l i s m w i t h o u t C o l o n i e s " i n Magdoff, Imperialism: From the Colonial Age to the Present, 147 .  pp.117-  24  The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs are based on K i e r n a n , Empires From Conquest to Collapse; and Madgoff, " I m p e r i a l i s m : A H i s t o r i c a l Survey".  European  21  the war, when Lebanon, S y r i a and T r a n s J o r d a n  achieved  independence i n 1941; t h e second phase c o v e r e d t h e p e r i o d 1945  t o 1950, and was c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n A s i a : t h e  P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d i a , Burma, I n d o n e s i a , China. phase, 1950-56, d e l i v e r e d t h e coup de grace  The t h i r d to a b i t t e r l y  r e c a l c i t r a n t F r a n c - i m p e r i a l i s m , as French d e f e a t s produced new n a t i o n s i n I n d o c h i n a  (Laos, Cambodia, t h e "two"  Vietnams) and N o r t h A f r i c a  ( L i b y a , T u n i s i a , Morocco).  The  f i n a l phase o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n was r e s e r v e d f o r t r o p i c a l A f r i c a , where 33 new c o u n t r i e s emerged between 1958 and 1968.  As Magdoff p o i n t s out, t h e n a t u r e o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n  was m a i n l y shaped by t h e i m p e r i a l assessment o f p o s t c o l o n i a l p r o s p e c t s : on t h e one hand, where new governments were amenable t o c o n t i n u e d i m p e r i a l i n f l u e n c e , independence "came sooner,  and w i t h l e s s bloodshed";  on t h e o t h e r , where  t h e y were n a t i o n a l i s t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n c h a r a c t e r , t h r e a t e n i n g e x p r o p r i a t i o n , c l o s u r e o f markets, and a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e s o c i a l i s t b l o c , b l o o d y w a r f a r e g e n e r a l l y ensued (as i n Vietnam, I n d o n e s i a , M a l a y s i a , and France's N o r t h A f r i c a n colonies). defenders  S e t t l e r regimes were n a t u r a l l y t h e most b i t t e r o f t h e c o l o n i a l s t a t u s quo, i n some cases s e v e r i n g  t i e s w i t h t h e "mother c o u n t r y "  (as i n A l g e r i a , I s r a e l and  Rhodesia) i n o r d e r t o g a i n a f r e e hand i n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s l i b e r a t i o n movements.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as Fanon and o t h e r s soon r e c o g n i z e d , " c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m have not p a i d t h e i r s c o r e when  22 t h e y withdraw t h e i r f l a g s and t h e i r p o l i c e f o r c e s from o u r 25 territories". modified  D e c o l o n i z a t i o n produced not autonomy but a  form of i m p e r i a l d o m i n a t i o n based on n o m i n a l  independence but de f a c t o s u b o r d i n a t i o n  i n the economic,  p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and m i l i t a r y s p h e r e s : i n a word, neocolonialism.  I n r e a l i t y , the d e c o l o n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s  i t s e l f c a r r i e d w i t h i t the seeds of t h i s r e n o v a t e d i m p e r i a l i s m : the dependent p a t t e r n s of t r a d e and i n v e s t m e n t c o u l d not be broken w i t h o u t a fundamental r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c o r e and p e r i p h e r y , w h i c h the i m p e r i a l powers ( e s p e c i a l l y the U.S.) d i s c o u r a g e d by a p p l y i n g economic p r e s s u r e necessary, i n t e r v e n i n g m i l i t a r i l y .  a step  actively  and, where  C o l d War r i v a l r y opened  up some space f o r autonomous i n i t i a t i v e s  (the N o n - A l i g n e d  Movement, the Group of 77), but the l o n g term p u t r e f a c t i o n of the S o v i e t system, s i g n a l e d f i r s t by the 1980 i n v a s i o n of Afghanistan,  t h e n by Gorbachevian r e f o r m s , and  i n the 1989  " c o l l a p s e of communism", e l i m i n a t e d 26  s l a c k e x i s t e d i n the i m p e r i a l c h a i n .  The  culminating whatever  revolutionary  dreams o f T h i r d World s o l i d a r i t y and autonomy which c h a r a c t e r i z e d much of the 1950s and 60s d i s s o l v e d i n t o a nightmare of d e b t d e p e n d e n c y  and i n t e r n a l r i v a l r y i n the  1970s and 80s, as the e x - c o l o n i e s  struggled to survive i n a  Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove P r e s s , 1968) p.101. 26 For a n a l y s i s of the c o l l a p s e of the communist b l o c and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the T h i r d World, see the e s s a y s i n  23  w o r l d s t i l l dominated by t h e c a p i t a l i s t c e n t e r s .  By t h e  e a r l y 1990s, w i t h T h i r d Worldism d i s i n t e g r a t e d and communism v a n q u i s h e d , t h e t r i u m p h o f c a p i t a l was complete, and George Bush was soon b o l d l y p r o c l a i m i n g Order.  I t schief features:  t h e b i r t h o f a New World  c l a s s p o l a r i z a t i o n on a w o r l d -  s c a l e , as t h e g u l f between t h e g l o b a l r i c h and t h e g l o b a l poor grows e v e r w i d e r ; t h e paramountcy o f m u l t i n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , d a n g e r o u s l y m o b i l e and i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a c h e d from any  n a t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , and p u r s u i n g  a c c u m u l a t i o n t h r o u g h ever more g l o b a l i z e d systems o f production; IMF,  supranational  economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s  l i k e the  t h e World Bank, and t h e GATT (now t h e WTO), t h e New  C o n q u i s t a d o r s o v e r s e e i n g t h e " s t r u c t u r a l adjustment" o f T h i r d World economies on b e h a l f  o f t h e m u l t i n a t i o n a l s ; and  r e g i o n a l t r a d i n g b l o c s dominated by one o r a n o t h e r n a t i o n a l capital  (Germany and t h e EC; Japan and ASEAN; t h e U.S. and  NAFTA); a l l g u a r a n t e e d by a r e s u r g e n t U.S. m i l i t a r i s m now d i s p o r t i n g i t s e l f i n t h e b l u e helmet o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s internationalism.  I n sum, w h i l e t h e f o r m a l t r a p p i n g s  c o l o n i a l r u l e have d i s a p p e a r e d , t h e main f e a t u r e s o f imperialism  remain i n t a c t , though i t may no l o n g be  r e c o g n i z e d as such.  of  24 C i n d e r e l l a s of Empire  The c o l o n y o f a c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n which t a k e s p o s s e s s i o n , e i t h e r o f waste c o u n t r y , o r o f one so t h i n l y i n h a b i t e d , t h a t the n a t i v e s e a s i l y g i v e p l a c e t o t h e new s e t t l e r s , advances more r a p i d l y t o w e a l t h and g r e a t n e s s than any o t h e r human society. 27 Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations In thus t r a c i n g t h e t r a j e c t o r y o f E u r o i m p e r i a l i s m i t i s u s e f u l perhaps t o d i s t i n g u i s h between d i f f e r e n t modes o f colonization.  I f t h e most common form o f i m p e r i a l  d o m i n a t i o n was t h e c o l o n y o f e x p l o i t a t i o n - c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a " t h i n w h i t e l i n e " o f European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and m i l i t a r y personnel, f o r c i b l y i n s t a l l e d i n densley populated  tropical  zones t o manage t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l o c a l r e s o u r c e s and indigenous o r imported  ( s l a v e ) l a b o u r on b e h a l f o f a  m e t r o p o l i t a n b o u r g e o i s i e - then t h e temperate c o l o n i e s o f s e t t l e m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Americas  and A u s t r a l a s i a i n  the s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s r e p r e s e n t an 28 e x c e p t i o n a l form.  The d i s t i n c t i o n between them i s n o t  Quoted i n Lenore A. S t i f f a r m and P h i l Lane, J r . , "The Demography o f N a t i v e N o r t h America: A Q u e s t i o n o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n S u r v i v a l " , i n M. Annette Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization and Resistance (Boston: South End P r e s s , 1992) pp. 23-53, p. 23. 28 There appears t o be renewed academic i n t e r e s t i n t h e " s e t t l e r c o l o n y " i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Among t h e r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d works I have r e l i e d on a r e Donald Denoon, Settler Capitalism: The Dynamics of Dependent Development in the Southern Hemisphere (Oxford: Clarendon, 1983); D a i v a S t a s u i l i s and N i r a Y u v a l - D a v i s , eds., Unsettling Settler Societies: A r t i c u l a t i o n s of Gender, Race, E t h n i c i t y and Class (London: Sage, 1995);'Ronald W e i t z e r , Transforming Settler States: Communal Conflict and Internal Security in Northern Ireland and Zanzibar (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of  25  always c l e a r - c u t , o f c o u r s e , s i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l European c o l o n i e s e x p e r i e n c e d some degree o f s e t t l e m e n t , i f o n l y t o d e s c r i b e t h a t " t h i n w h i t e l i n e " o f European d o m i n a t i o n .  For  s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s , however, t h e d e t e r m i n a t i v e f a c t o r was t h e r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y and permanence o f s e t t l e m e n t :  settlers  came i n s u b s t a n t i a l numbers, and meant t o s t a y .  As S t o c k  remarks,  i n a sense, a s e t t l e r s t a t e r e p r e s e n t s an a c t i v e attempt  t o make c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s i r r e v e r s i b l e .  For  the s e t t l e r s have c l a i m e d t h e l a n d not j u s t as t h e s p o i l s o f i m p e r i a l i s t war, but as t h e i r  'homeland'. (  T h e i r s u r v i v a l as an e r s a t z 'people' depends c o m p l e t e l y on a s e t o f j u s t i f y i n g myths, r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s ,  caste  29  systems and r e p r e s s i v e d e v i c e s . Yet w i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f t h e s e t t l e r c o l o n y a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n must be drawn between those i n t h e ( s e m i - ) t r o p i c a l and temperate zones.  The former,  which  i n c l u d e d c o l o n i e s l i k e A l g e r i a , South A f r i c a , R h o d e s i a , and Kenya, o c c u p i e d a mediate p o s i t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f c o l o n y : n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e w h i t e i m m i g r a t i o n , and determined  e f f o r t s t o e r a d i c a t e t h e N a t i v e s , s e t t l e r s were  C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1992); and t h e e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r i n Pamela C l a y t o n , Enemies and Passing Friends: Settler Ideologies in Northern Ireland (London: P l u t o , 1996) .  I  26 f a c e d w i t h the p e r s i s t e n c e of l a r g e , s e t t l e d i n d i g e n o u s populations,  and thus d e s t i n e d t o e x e r c i s e a more tenuous  form of "white m i n o r i t y r u l e " .  At any r a t e , the temperate s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s were, as Fieldhouse  puts i t ,  the " C i n d e r e l l a s " of the f i r s t  c e n t u r i e s of i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n , a c q u i r e d as o r as a d j u n c t s  three  afterthoughts  t o the main b u s i n e s s of t r o p i c a l p l u n d e r  and  30 r e l e g a t e d t o b i t p a r t s i n the nascent w o r l d economy.  The  i g n o m i n i o u s b e g i n n i n g s of the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s need h a r d l y be r e c o u n t e d , but few i f any w h i t e s e t t l e r  colonies  can c l a i m e x a l t e d o r i g i n s : South A f r i c a began as the Cape Colony, a mere way s p i c e t r a d e , New  s t a t i o n on the f r i n g e s of the g l o b a l  Zealand as a s u b - c o l o n y of New  w h i l e most of the American s e t t l e m e n t s a l i k e ) were e s t a b l i s h e d by 17th c e n t u r y  South Wales,  (French and  British  r o b b e r barons  and  r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c s , and were r e g a r d e d s k e p t i c a l l y by  their  i m p e r i a l masters.  19th  Yet t h i s .was  t o change d u r i n g the  D a v i d S t o c k , "The S e t t l e r S t a t e and the U.S. L e f t " , Forward Motion 9 (1991) pp.53-61, p.54. 30 F i e l d h o u s e , The Colonial Empires, p. 13. Spain's American empire r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e , s i n c e i t s g r a d u a l e x p a n s i o n i n C e n t r a l and South A m e r i c a i n the 15th and 16th c e n t u r i e s was, i n a sense, an e a r l y form of " s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n " . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from l a t e r forms, however, by the c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e of s e t t l e m e n t and i m p o s i t i o n of a f e u d a l ( r a t h e r t h a n c a p i t a l i s t ) mode of p r o d u c t i o n . The S p a n i s h c o l o n i e s e v e n t u a l l y became s u b j e c t t o " r e c o l o n i z a t i o n " by B r i t i s h and American i n t e r e s t s i n subsequent phases of i m p e r i a l r e d i v i s i o n , though a few (Uruguay, A r g e n t i n a and C h i l e ) would b r i e f l y f o l l o w the p a t h of dependent development c h a r t e d by s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s l i k e Canada and A u s t r a l i a .  27 c e n t u r y , the g o l d e n age of s e t t l e r s t a t e f o r m a t i o n , when the emergence of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i n Western Europe,  and  f u r t h e r rounds of c o m p e t i t i v e e m p i r e - b u i l d i n g , made the s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s more and more a t t r a c t i v e as s o u r c e s of i n d u s t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s and r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r accumulated c a p i t a l and d i s p l a c e d workers and p e a s a n t s .  They a l s o  p r o v e d c o s t - e f f e c t i v e f o r the o c c u p a t i o n of newly a c q u i r e d t e r r i t o r i e s , as s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d be m o b i l i z e d t o advance and defend i m p e r i a l aims vis-a-vis powers and i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s .  r i v a l European  By m i d - c e n t u r y ,  they  c o u l d be seen as "the n a t u r a l , as w e l l as the most r e w a r d i n g mode of i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n " , the most " l o y a l and e n e r g e t i c p a r t n e r s ' w i t h the "supreme v i r t u e of b e i n g s e l f 31 propelling".  By the end of the c e n t u r y , t h e y had become  the p r i m a r y d e s t i n a t i o n s f o r European e m i g r a t i o n and  capital  i n v e s t m e n t , much of i t g o i n g i n t o the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e 32 n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o i t l a n d and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . e s t i m a t e d 55 m i l l i o n Europeans e m i g r a t e d t o "new i n the Americas  An countries"  and A u s t r a l a s i a i n the 100 y e a r s a f t e r  1820,  w i t h E n g l i s h , I r i s h and German s e t t l e r s composing the b u l k Kenneth Good, " S e t t l e r C o l o n i a l i s m : Economic Development and C l a s s F o r m a t i o n " , Journal of Modern African Studies 14 (1976) pp.597-620 32 See Denoon, pp. 50-51. See a l s o P.J. C a i n and A.G. Hopkins, "'An E x t e n s i o n of the O l d S o c i e t y ' : B r i t a i n and t h e C o l o n i e s o f S e t t l e m e n t , 1850-1914", i n B r i t i s h Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion 1688-1914 (London: Longman, 1993) pp.229-275.  28  of m i d - c e n t u r y i m m i g r a t i o n ,  and I t a l i a n s and  Slavs  33  predominating  i n l a t e r years.  I n a sense, as Denoon i n d i c a t e s , the w h i t e s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s were the Newly I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g C o u n t r i e s T i g e r s of the 19th c e n t u r y , w i t h the U.S. paragon of c a p i t a l i s t  (NICs) o r A s i a n s e r v i n g as  the  "take o f f " t h a t Japan r e p r e s e n t s  t o Hong Kong, Singapore,  South Korea and Taiwan.  s t a t e s o t h e r than the U.S.  today  Settler  were d i s t i n g u i s h e d , f i r s t l y ,  the n a t u r e of t h e i r i n s e r t i o n i n t o the w o r l d economy as " r i c h e s t underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s " , dependencies o r "dominions"  by the  resource-based  (as the l e a d i n g B r i t i s h  settler  c o l o n i e s were c a l l e d ) dominated by m e t r o p o l i t a n c a p i t a l  but  e n j o y i n g a degree of p o l i t i c a l autonomy, and a more o r l e s s European s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g , which d i v e r g e d s h a r p l y from the 34  o r d i n a r y c o l o n y of e x p l o i t a t i o n .  Though over time the  growth of a domestic economy would p e r m i t  a substantial  measure of l o c a l c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n  industrial  and  development, and d e s p i t e the p e r i o d i c booms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s c o v e r y of p r e c i o u s m i n e r a l s i n c o l o n i e s l i k e 33 34  Magdoff, "European E x p a n s i o n s i n c e 1763",  p.33.  For more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t see the d i v e r g e n t views expressed i n P h i l l i p E h r e n s r a f t and Warwick Armstrong, "The F o r m a t i o n of Dominion C a p i t a l i s m : Economic T r u n c a t i o n and C l a s s S t r u c t u r e " i n A. M o s c o v i t c h and G. Drover, eds., Inequality: Essays on the Political Economy of Social Welfare (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1981) pp.99-155; A r g h i r i Emmanuel, " W h i t e - S e t t l e r C o l o n i a l i s m and the Myth of Investment I m p e r i a l i s m " , New Left Review 73 (1972) pp. 35-57; and Good, " S e t t l e r C o l o n i a l i s m " .  29 A u s t r a l i a and South A f r i c a , l o n g term p r o s p e r i t y was u l t i m a t e l y t i e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n f o r e x p o r t of c e r t a i n s t a p l e s - wool i n A u s t r a l i a and New i n B r i t i s h N o r t h America,  Zealand,  f i s h and  key  lumber  beef i n A r g e n t i n a and Uruguay,  n i t r a t e s i n C h i l e - and the w i l l i n g n e s s of one o r m e t r o p o l i t a n power t o s u p p l y l a b o u r , c a p i t a l ,  another  technology,  and m i l i t a r y p r o t e c t i o n .  The o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the temperate s e t t l e r colonies  ( i n c l u d i n g the U.S.)  s t r u c t u r e , which was  was  their  socio-political  founded on the t o t a l s u p p r e s s i o n , even  e x t e r m i n a t i o n , o f the i n d i g e n o u s i n h a b i t a n t s o f the newly e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e r homeland. vis-a-vis  As W e i t z e r p u t s i t , supremacy  N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s was  (and i s ) one o f the  35  " p i l l a r s of s e t t l e r r u l e " .  I n i t i a l conquest was u s u a l l y  c a r r i e d out by the i m p e r i a l power i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a f o o t h o l d i n the new  t e r r i t o r y ; l a t e r , once i m m i g r a t i o n  and  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n had t i l t e d the b a l a n c e of power i n f a v o u r of s e t t l e r s , c o l o n i a l governments f r e q u e n t l y embarked on t h e i r own  s u b - i m p e r i a l campaigns a g a i n s t i n d i g e n o u s  peoples  as p a r t of the d r i v e t o secure r e s o u r c e s and lebensraum the f l e d g l i n g n a t i o n - s t a t e - s e t t l e r governments i n the U.S.,  New  Zealand, A u s t r a l i a , C h i l e , and A r g e n t i n a a l l  fought e x p a n s i o n i s t " I n d i a n Wars" i n the 19th c e n t u r y .  W e i t z e r , Transforming  Settler  States,  p.24.  for  30  In p l a c e of the a n c i e n t s o c i e t i e s thus d i s p l a c e d ,  new  s o c i e t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d which r e c r e a t e d the h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d r e l a t i o n s of c l a s s , gender and e t h n i c i t y found i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s .  They were,  among o t h e r t h i n g s , the o f f i c i a l b i r t h p l a c e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d w h i t e supremacy, which came i n t o b e i n g not o n l y t o d i s t i n g u i s h s e t t l e r s from the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s t h e y were s u b j u g a t i n g , but a l s o t o p r i v i l e g e n o r t h e r n European s e t t l e r s  ( r e g a r d l e s s of c l a s s and gender) i n  r e l a t i o n t o the " l e s s e r breeds" of Europeans (the I r i s h , I t a l i a n s , Jews, S l a v s ) and non-Europeans ( A s i a n s , A f r i c a n s ) who  were i n c r e a s i n g l y needed t o f i l l  out the bottom rungs o f  36  expanding l a b o u r markets.  Whiteness, as a s o c i a l  identity  and s o u r c e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d power and p r i v i l e g e , r e c e i v e d i t s most p o t e n t e x p r e s s i o n i n the s e t t l e r  colonies,  where i t f u n c t i o n e d as a s o l v e n t of r a d i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s o l i d a r i t y among the oppressed and e x p l o i t e d . A f r i c a n American w r i t e r James B a l d w i n put  As t h e  it:  No one was w h i t e b e f o r e he/she came t o A m e r i c a .  It  took g e n e r a t i o n s , and a v a s t amount of c o e r c i o n , b e f o r e t h i s became a w h i t e c o u n t r y . . . .  White men  - from  Norway, f o r example, where t h e y were Norwegians became w h i t e by s l a u g h t e r i n g the c a t t l e , p o i s o n i n g t h e  See D a v i d R o e d i g e r , The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Politics of the U.S. Working Class (London: V e r s o , 198 8) .  31  w e l l s , t o r c h i n g the houses, m a s s a c r i n g N a t i v e 37 Americans, and r a p i n g B l a c k women.  III.  THE GREAT WHITE NORTH Arrested  Development  The r o o t s o f the p r e s e n t Dominion o f Canada can be found i n the y e a r 1503 when the f i r s t shipment o f g o l d p l u n d e r e d i n the Americas reached S p a i n . Canadian h i s t o r y s i n c e then r e v e a l s l i t t l e more t h a n a s t r u g g l e between v a r i o u s i m p e r i a l powers t o determine whose 38 dominion i t s h a l l be. The e a r l i e s t i m p e r i a l i n t r u s i o n s i n t o the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s of  N o r t h A m e r i c a - the cod f i s h e r y , the v a r i o u s voyages i n  s e a r c h o f a Northwest passage t o the " O r i e n t " , and, most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Dutch, E n g l i s h and F r e n c h s e t t l e m e n t s o r i e n t e d t o the b u r g e o n i n g f u r economy - were i n d i f f e r e n t ways c o m p e t i t i v e responses by the l e s s e r i m p e r i a l powers t o the  immense bounty produced by S p a i n ' s  genocide.  meso-American  A f t e r the b o u r g e o i s r e v o l u t i o n o f 1648,  embarked on an a g g r e s s i v e program o f c o l o n i a l  Britain  expropriation  against i t s r i v a l s , g r a d u a l l y wresting c o n t r o l of the  James B a l d w i n , "On B e i n g White and Other L i e s " , Essence, A p r i l 1984, pp.90-91. Of c o u r s e , many o f the " l e s s e r b r e e d s " o f Europeans would e v e n t u a l l y become " w h i t e " a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n the new c o u n t r y . F o r an example of t h i s p r o c e s s , see Theodore A l l e n ' s m a g n i f i c e n t account o f how the I r i s h were t r a n s f o r m e d from b l a c k t o w h i t e : The Invention of the White Race (London: V e r s o , 1989). 38 R.T. N a y l o r , "The r i s e and f a l l o f the t h i r d commercial empire o f the S t . Lawrence", i n Gary T e e p l e , ed. Capitalism and the National Question in Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press,1972) pp.1-41,p.2.  32 Caribbean  i s l a n d s from a weakened S p a i n , i n c l u d i n g the  l u c r a t i v e asiento  (the r i g h t t o t r a n s p o r t and s e l l  slaves),  and e v i c t i n g the Dutch from t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s on the Hudson 39 i n 1664.  I m p e r i a l c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h France was  more  p r o t r a c t e d , and d e s p i t e the c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e s s i o n s from France i n 1713 Spanish Succession  a f t e r i t s d e f e a t i n the War  wrested  of the  (which r e s u l t e d i n the s u r r e n d e r  of  A c a d i a , Hudson's Bay and the French p o r t i o n s of Newfoundland), B r i t i s h supremacy i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was  not  f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l Wolfe's t r i u m p h on the P l a i n s o f Abraham i n 1759.  The  Conquest i n s t a l l e d a regime of A n g l o  p o l i t i c a l and economic supremacy, and Quebecois n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n , whose l e g a c y c o n t i n u e s t o haunt Canadian federalism.  See " E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n - Contest f o r Empire", C h a p t e r 17 i n S t a n l e y Ryerson, The Founding of Canada: Volume 1: Beginnings to 1815 (Toronto: P r o g r e s s Books, 1975); and N a y l o r , Canada in the European Age. 40 The resurgence of Quebecois n a t i o n a l i s m b e g i n n i n g w i t h the Q u i e t R e v o l u t i o n of the e a r l y 1960s has put t h i s " n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n " a t the c e n t e r of Canadian p o l i t i c a l l i f e f o r the l a s t s e v e r a l decades. Much of t h i s s t r u g g l e has been waged a t the l e v e l of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y and f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l arrangements, so t h a t the complex h i s t o r i c a l and m a t e r i a l r o o t s of the c o n f l i c t are r a r e l y i d e n t i f i e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n mainstream Anglophone a c c o u n t s . Like a l l major p o l i t i c a l antagonisms, i t o v e r l a p s w i t h o t h e r p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s such as c l a s s , r a c e and gender. For Anglophone a n a l y s i s which attempts t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e s e c o m p l e x i t i e s , see A b i g a i l Bakan, Quebec From Conquest to Constitution: A Socialist Analysis (Toronto: I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s , 1991).  33  B r i t a i n ' s dominance would not go u n c h a l l e n g e d  f o r long,  however, as the r e v o l t w i t h i n two decades of i t s American c o l o n i e s - the r e b e l l i o n of a r i s i n g s e t t l e r  bourgeoisie  a g a i n s t r e s t r i c t i o n s on t r a d e and e x p a n s i o n i s m imposed byi t s i m p e r i a l masters - s e t i n motion a new conflict.  round of r e g i o n a l  A f t e r c o n c e d i n g independence t o the u p s t a r t  U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m now  competed w i t h i t i n  the scramble t o c a r v e up the c o n t i n e n t i n the f a c e of 41 d e c l i n i n g Russian,  French and S p a n i s h power.  The  t e r r i t o r i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the s t a t e t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y become Canada was  a d i r e c t product  of the subsequent  c o m p e t i t i o n between these two a n t a g o n i s t s , w i t h L o u i s i a n a Purchase (1803), the War  of 1812,  the  the Oregon  boundary s e t t l e m e n t of 1846,  and the A l a s k a purchase of  (along w i t h U.S.  of Texas (1836) and  annexations  1867  the  Southwest (1846-48) from Mexico) r e p r e s e n t i n g s t a g e s i n the p i e c e m e a l p a r t i t i o n of N o r t h America i n t o i m p e r i a l s p h e r e s of i n f l u e n c e - c u m - n a t i o n - s t a t e s .  Canada's nominal  independence would u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t o n l y the form, and the substance, the t w e n t i e t h  of i t s a b s o r p t i o n i n t o the U.S. 42 century.  not  imperium i n  For an e x c e l l e n t o v e r v i e w of the h i s t o r i c a l t r a j e c t o r y of U.S. i m p e r i a l i s m from independence t o the 1970s, see V.G. K i e r n a n , America: The New Imperialism (London: Zed, 1978) . 42 Commenting on the B r i t i s h l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t g r a n t e d Canada independence i n 1932, N a y l o r w r i t e s t h a t "the S t a t u t e of W e s t m i n i s t e r marked the f o r m a l t r a n s f e r of Canada from B r i t a i n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , g i v i n g the Canadian b o u r g e o i s i e the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y t o beg f a v o u r s from  34  Of c o u r s e ,  the b a s i s f o r the i m p e r i a l c o n t r i v a n c e w h i c h  became Canada was  and i s economic, " i n the l a s t  but perhaps a l s o i n the f i r s t :  instance,"  Innis maintained  that  the  economic geography of N a t i v e - E u r o p e a n i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g f u r t r a d e l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s  the  of the f u t u r e Canadian s t a t e ,  w h i l e Ryerson and o t h e r s have seen C o n f e d e r a t i o n  as  43  e s s e n t i a l l y an i n s t r u m e n t  of p u b l i c f i n a n c e .  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tendencies  towards r e s o u r c e dependency  t r u n c a t e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g  and  the  p e r i o d of B r i t i s h hegemony, and share common f e a t u r e s w i t h o t h e r "dominion c a p i t a l i s t " c o u n t r i e s : an  export-oriented  s t a p l e s economy w i t h a l i m i t e d degree of secondary processing  (forward l i n k a g e s ) , heavy r e l i a n c e on f o r e i g n  technology  inputs i n staples production  and f i n i s h e d goods (final-demand  (backward l i n k a g e s )  l i n k a g e s ) , and a h i g h  p r o p o r t i o n of f o r e i g n c a p i t a l investment.  The  dominant  f r a c t i o n of the Canadian b o u r g e o i s i e , d i r e c t descendants of the m e r c a n t i l e c l a s s of the f u r t r a d e p e r i o d , remains Washington as they p r e v i o u s l y had from London." N a y l o r , "The R i s e and F a l l " , p.28.  See  R.T.  43  The t a s k of e x p l a i n i n g the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r of Canadian development has spawned i t s own t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n , the " s t a p l e s " t h e o r y p i o n e e r e d by H a r o l d I n n i s , and c o n t i n u e s t o produce r a n c o r o u s debate even amongst l e f t i n c l i n e d p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s . See W a l l a c e Clement and G l e n W i l l i a m s , eds., The New Canadian Political Economy ( K i n g s t o n , M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Q u e e n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989) f o r an i n f o r m a t i v e s u r v e y of the v a r i o u s approaches. On the economic o r i g i n s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , see S t a n l e y Ryerson, Unequal Union: Roots of Crisis in the Canadas 1815-1873 (Toronto: P r o g r e s s Books, 1983).  35  e s s e n t i a l l y comprador and commercial, services  concentrated i n  ( f i n a n c e , commerce, r e a l e s t a t e ) and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  ( r a i l w a y s , u t i l i t i e s ) and o p t i n g t y p i c a l l y t o s e r v e as a j u n i o r partner of metropolitan c a p i t a l or Asian)  ( B r i t i s h , American,  i n i t s p i l l a g e of t h e Great White N o r t h r a t h e r  than c h a r t i n g an independent course o f c a p i t a l i s t industrialization.  At t h e same t i m e , t h e massive i n f l u x o f immigrants and c a p i t a l and c r e a t i o n of a s t r o n g , e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s t a t e s t r u c t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h white s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n m i t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s of dependency, e n a b l i n g t h e development of a q u a s i - m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n w i t h h i g h wages and l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and an advanced c l a s s structure.  I n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e American empire, a p r o c e s s  w h i c h began i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and a c c e l e r a t e d r a p i d l y i n t h e i n t e r - and postwar y e a r s , p e r m i t t e d a l i m i t e d , dependent mode of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  (the b r a n c h  p l a n t economy) w h i l e f u r t h e r i n g s t a p l e s dependence and foreign control.  The o v e r a l l r e s u l t i s an "advanced  resource c a p i t a l i s m " occupying  an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n i n  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l economy as a s u b o r d i n a t e  "region  44  w i t h i n the center".  The r e f e r e n c e s t o "advanced r e s o u r c e c a p i t a l i s m " and " r e g i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t e r " a r e d e r i v e d from G l e n W i l l i a m s , "Canada i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Economy", i n W i l l i a m s and Clement, eds., The New Canadian Political Economy, pp. 116-137.  36  Of c o u r s e , t h i s Canadian " r e g i o n " i s i t s e l f  internally-  fragmented on r e g i o n a l l i n e s , a p r o d u c t not so much o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s (as a v u l g a r g e o g r a p h i c a l  determinism  would have i t ) but o f t h e dependent development  already  45 described.  The d i v e r s i t y o f s t a p l e s e x t r a c t i o n produces  t e n d e n t i a l l y a fragmented economic and p o l i t i c a l  geography,  a tendency enhanced by t h e v a s t t e r r i t o r i a l expanse o f t h e Canadian s t a t e .  Confederation  was an attempt by t h e l e a d i n g  c a p i t a l i s t s i n each o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h American c o l o n i e s , under t h e hegemonic l e a d e r s h i p o f M o n t r e a l and T o r o n t o elites,  t o e n g i n e e r an a l l i a n c e c a p a b l e o f accommodating  t h e i r respective interests, with railway construction p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d p r i v a t e bonanzas - and a s s o c i a t e d 46 development schemes p r o v i d i n g t h e t i e s t h a t bound.  land Though  the r e s u l t i n g f e d e r a l s t a t e s t r u c t u r e was d e s i g n e d t o promote u n i f i c a t i o n by c e n t r a l i z i n g power i n Ottawa, t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e s t r u c t u r e s soon became e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e s for  the a s s e r t i o n of r e g i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n t o the unequal  exchange imposed by t h e h e a r t l a n d m e r c a n t i l i s t c l a s s : f i r s t , for  t h e p r o t e s t s o f independent commodity p r o d u c e r s i n t h e  See J a n i n e B r o d i e , "The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f R e g i o n a l i s m " i n W i l l i a m s and Clement, eds., The New Canadian Political Economy, pp. 138-159. 46 See "Make t h e R a i l w a y s F i r s t " , i n Ryerson, Unequal Union.  37  West, and l a t e r , f o r r e g i o n a l f r a c t i o n s o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e p u r s u i n g t h e i r own, s t a p l e s - b a s e d a c c u m u l a t i o n  strategies.  4 7  I r o n i c a l l y , then, t h e t r e n d s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n has been m a i n l y c e n t r i f u g a l , e s p e c i a l l y as p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e s have used r o y a l t i e s d e r i v e d from t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s t o d e v e l o p  independent  f i s c a l bases from which t o c o n t e s t t h e c o r e - p e r i p h e r y 48  r e l a t i o n s h i p c u l t i v a t e d by c e n t r a l Canadian e l i t e s .  The  p o s t w a r p e r i o d has w i t n e s s e d an i n t e n s i f i e d b a l k a n i z a t i o n o f the Canadian n a t i o n - s t a t e , as a b s o r p t i o n i n t o a U.S.dominated c o n t i n e n t a l economy has exaggerated  uneven  development ( p o p u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f have and have-not p r o v i n c e s ) , u n d e r w r i t t e n t h e d r a m a t i c e x p a n s i o n o f the s i z e and f u n c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e s ( a l l now competing f o r U.S. c a p i t a l ) , and t r a n s f o r m e d t h e dominant a x i s o f t h e Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy from east-west t o n o r t h - s o u t h and, l a t t e r l y ,  "west-east"  ( r e f l e c t i n g the  i n c r e a s i n g prominence o f A s i a n c a p i t a l ) . p o l i t i c a l upheavals  Indeed, t h e major  o f t h e l a s t two decades - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  p a t r i a t i o n , t h e 1988 Free Trade e l e c t i o n , d e f e a t o f t h e 47  The i n t e r p l a y between c a p i t a l i s m and f e d e r a l i s m i n Canada i s a n a l y z e d i n G a r t h Stevenson, " F e d e r a l i s m and t h e P o l i t i c a l Economy o f t h e Canadian S t a t e " , i n Leo P a n i t c h , ed., The Canadian State: Political Economy and Political Power (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1977) pp.71100. F o r p a r t i c u l a r examples, see L a r r y P r a t t , "The S t a t e and P r o v i n c e B u i l d i n g : A l b e r t a ' s Development S t r a t e g y " , i n P a n i t c h , The Canadian State, pp.133-164.  38  Meech Lake and C h a r l o t t e t o w n A c c o r d s , and the Quebec Referendum - can a l l be seen as i n c r e a s i n g l y attempts  desperate  t o cope w i t h the d i s i n t e g r a t i v e t h r u s t o f t h i s  new  49  p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a l i t y .  The  Mechanics of S e t t l e r  Domination  The I n d i a n s and the M e t i s of the Northwest w i l l be h e l d down w i t h a f i r m hand t i l l the West i s o v e r - r u n and c o n t r o l l e d by w h i t e s e t t l e r s . S i r John A.  Macdonald  50  I f i m p e r i a l i s m marked out a s u b o r d i n a t e p a t h f o r Canadian economic "development", i t s p e l l e d c a t a s t r o p h e f o r i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s , here as elsewhere.  N a y l o r has  observed  t h a t "Canadian h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l i s p a r t of the s t o r y o f the conquest of America,  and the f a t e of the Beothuk, Huron,  B l a c k f o o t and K w a k i u t l people i s not q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the A z t e c , the Maya o r the Arawak".  51  It i s  i m p o r t a n t t o a p p r e c i a t e the u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c of a p r o c e s s w h i c h i s too o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as e i t h e r h e r o i c and o r t r a g i c and  inevitable  irrational.  48 49  Stephenson,  "Federalism".  See the e s s a y s c o l l e c t e d i n Duncan Cameron and Mel Watkins, eds., Canada Under Free Trade (Toronto: James L o r i m e r , 1993). Quoted i n N a y l o r , Canada in the European Age, p.347. 50  39  In t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , a c r o s s the  l o n g a r c o f t h e f u r t r a d e , t h e t r a d i n g monopolies  the  Company o f New France, l a t e r t h e Hudson's Bay and  (first  Northwest Companies) e x t r a c t e d f u r w e a l t h by e x p l o i t i n g 52  N a t i v e l a b o r , knowledge,  t e c h n o l o g y and t r a d i n g networks.  D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s remained t h e m a t e r i a l base o f a l u c r a t i v e commercial v e n t u r e , as w e l l as t h e dominant m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e , so European powers would n o t , and i n d e e d c o u l d n o t , pursue t h e g e n e r a l e x t i r p a t i o n o f Native s o c i e t i e s .  I n s t e a d , t h e y were c o m p e l l e d t o adopt a  f l e x i b l e approach, f o r g i n g a l l i a n c e s o r r e s o r t i n g t o v i o l e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o economic  and s t r a t e g i c e x p e d i e n c y .  The t r a d e i t s e l f was f u n d a m e n t a l l y e x p l o i t a t i v e and i m p e r i a l i s t i n c h a r a c t e r , and would, o v e r t h e l o n g term, undermine i n d i g e n o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and autonomy: Euroi m p e r i a l i s t s m a n i p u l a t e d e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n s between A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s i n p u r s u i t o f f u r p r o f i t s and s t r a t e g i c advantage, drawing them i n t o i n c r e a s i n g l y l e t h a l  wars;  i n t r o d u c e d , g e n e r a l l y i n a d v e r t e n t l y b u t sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y , a by now f a m i l i a r spate o f d e v a s t a t i n g d i s e a s e s ; and d i s t o r t e d t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and s u b s i s t e n c e economies.  Indeed, m a r k e t - d r i v e n r a p a c i t y  I b i d . , p. xv. 52  Ryerson, The Founding of Canada; see a l s o Ron B o u r g e a u l t , "The I n d i a n , t h e M e t i s and t h e F u r Trade: C l a s s , Sexism and Racism i n t h e T r a n s i t i o n from 'Communism' t o  40 ensured t h e r a p i d d e p l e t i o n o f animal p o p u l a t i o n s ,  pushing  the commercial f r o n t i e r ever westward and e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o N a t i v e s would be temporary. N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e t h e f u r t r a d e remained t h e dominant economic f o r c e i n a g i v e n r e g i o n , ^ E u r o p e a n i m p e r i a l i s t s were d i s i n c l i n e d t o mount f r o n t a l a t t a c k s on i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n s as such.  And A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s , p u r s u i n g  their  own i n t e r e s t s , proved more than capable o f p l a y i n g o f f one 53 European power a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r . The  r i s e o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i n Europe, and  contemporaneous d e c l i n e o f t h e m e r c a n t i l e f u r t r a d e i n e a s t e r n N o r t h America, marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new, c o l o n i z i n g phase o f i m p e r i a l i s m , as t h e r i c h p o t e n t i a l o f indigenous  l a n d (and a s s o c i a t e d r e s o u r c e s ) became t h e  p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h e i m p e r i a l i s t powers.  The p i v o t a l f a c t o r  i n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , t h e "wheels o f t h e o l d a n d ' d e t e s t e d of c o l o n i z a t i o n "  (as C a b r a l put i t ) , was w h i t e  cart  settlement,  w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e l a b o u r f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o e x p l o i t t h e new t e r r i t o r i e s , as w e l l as t h e m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e n e c e s s a r y t o 54 defend them.  The s e t t l e m e n t p r o c e s s had begun r e l a t i v e l y  e a r l y i n B r i t a i n ' s o r i g i n a l "13 c o l o n i e s " , where t h e f u r C a p i t a l i s m " , Studies in Political Economy 12 (1983) pp.4580 . 53 Bruce T r i g g e r , Natives and Newcomers ( M o n t r e a l - K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985).  41  t r a d e was  m a r g i n a l t o p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , and  combination  the  of c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a p i d s e t t l e m e n t and rampant  l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n had s e t w h i t e s e t t l e r s on a g e n o c i d a l p a t h a g a i n s t N a t i v e s more o r l e s s from the o u t s e t .  5 5  By  c o n t r a s t , i n the n o r t h e r n , French-dominated p o r t i o n of the c o n t i n e n t , where c l i m a t e and topography made p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e e c o n o m i c a l l y u n f e a s i b l e , the f u r t r a d e r e t a i n e d i t s prominence, s l o w i n g the pace of s e t t l e m e n t c o n s i d e r a b l y . A l l t h i s would change, however, w i t h the g r a d u a l dismemberment of New  British  France, f i r s t i n the M a r i t i m e r e g i o n  and then, a f t e r the Conquest, i n Canada i t s e l f , when l a n d s were g r a n t e d t o A n g l o v e t e r a n s and B r i t a i n ' s N a t i v e  allies,  moving the s e t t l e m e n t f r o n t i e r a c r o s s the Ottawa R i v e r and i n t o the f u t u r e O n t a r i o .  The U.S.  R e v o l u t i o n gave d r a m a t i c  impetus t o i m m i g r a t i o n , sending thousands of L o y a l i s t s the r e m a i n i n g B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s a f t e r 1784. p r o v i d e a s t e a d y stream of land-hungry  The U.S.  settlers  into  would  (so-called  "Late L o y a l i s t s " ) w e l l i n t o the 19th c e n t u r y , s h i f t i n g b a l a n c e of power ever more i n f a v o r of the s e t t l e r s  the  (by  54  A m i l c a r C a b r a l , "Message t o the Portuguese S e t t l e r s of Cape Verde", i n Unity and Struggle (New York: M o n t h l y Review, 1979) I t a l s o s e t American c o l o n i s t s i n c r e a s i n g l y a g a i n s t the i m p e r i a l crown, which r e t a i n e d i t s i n t e r e s t i n the f u r t r a d e and sought t o p r o t e c t i t by p r o s c r i b i n g f u r t h e r w e s t e r n e x p a n s i o n of the s e t t l e m e n t f r o n t i e r , most n o t a b l y w i t h the R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n of 1763. This r e s t r i c t i o n , which t h r e a t e n e d the s p e c u l a t i v e h o l d i n g s of prominent s e t t l e r c a p i t a l i s t s l i k e George Washington and P a t r i c k Henry, became a major f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o the U.S. R e v o l u t i o n . For f u r t h e r 55  42  1812,  t h e y outnumbered N a t i v e s i n Upper Canada 10 t o  A f t e r 1810,  1).  the major source of i m m i g r a t i o n s h i f t e d t o  B r i t a i n i t s e l f , as the d i s l o c a t i o n caused by  capitalist  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n prompted s u c c e s s i v e waves of d i s p o s s e s s e d f a r m e r s and  d i s p l a c e d workers t o c r o s s the A t l a n t i c . ' 5 6  W i t h the s h i f t t o s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n , the c o l o n i a l s t a t e a p p a r a t u s ( h i t h e r t o c o n s i s t i n g , as i n E n g e l s ' famous d e s c r i p t i o n , of "bodies of armed men new  prominence, charged as i t was  and p r i s o n s " ) assumed a  with establishing  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework, under the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p l i a n t colonial oligarchy, on b e h a l f ' o f  control  f o r expanded s t a p l e s  imperial c a p i t a l .  To t h i s end,  one  the  extraction of  the  c h i e f t a s k s of the s t a t e apparatus e r e c t e d on the b a s i s the Quebec Act from s e c u r i n g  (1774) and  C o n s t i t u t i o n Act  the economic and  of  of  (1791), a s i d e  p o l i t i c a l hegemony of  c o l o n i a l e l i t e s v i s - a - v i s the s e t t l e r hoi  polloi,  was  the  57  consolidation  of c o n t r o l over A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s .  State  f o r m a t i o n and  f u n c t i o n i n Canada a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  A n g l o hegemony cannot be u n d e r s t o o d except i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s b a s i c o b j e c t i v e , which p e r s i s t e d  ( a l b e i t to  varying  degrees) w e l l i n t o the 20th c e n t u r y .  As A b e l e and S t a s i u l i s  d i s c u s s i o n , see Steve T a l b o t , Roots of Oppression (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1981), p. 60-65. J.R. M i l l e r , Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens: A History of Indian-White Relations in Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1989) p.83. . 56  43  put  i t , "both p r e - and p o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n s t a t e  structures  and p r a c t i c e s were, a r g u a b l y , shaped by t h e need t o c o n t r o l the  t e r r i t o r y encompassed by f u r t r a d e a c t i v i t y - i n c l u d i n g 58  the  aboriginal population."  I n t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s perhaps  u n s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e organ e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i m p e r i a l government i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was t h e B r i t i s h 59  I n d i a n Department ( i n 1755). One o f t h e main f u n c t i o n s o f the emerging s e t t l e r a p p a r a t u s was t h e management o f t e r r i t o r i a l  state  enclosure, the  c o n v e r s i o n o f communally h e l d n a t i v e homelands i n t o s a l e a b l e blocks the  ( l a n d as commodity) w i t h ownership c o n c e n t r a t e d i n  hands o f European e l i t e s  Ryerson, Unequal  (a c o l o n i a l v a r i a n t o f t h e  Union.  58  A b e l e and S t a s i u l i s , at p. 253.  "Canada as a White S e t t l e r Colony",  59  James F r i d e r e s , Native Peoples in Canada: ContemporaryConflicts, 4 t h ed. (Toronto: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1993) p.221. The c h a n g i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l o c a t i o n o f " I n d i a n A f f a i r s " w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l s t a t e s t r u c t u r e speaks volumes about t h e p o s i t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s w i t h i n t h e Canadian s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n : s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , i t has r e s i d e d w i t h i n t h e Department o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e P r o v i n c e s (1867), the Department o f the I n t e r i o r (1871), Department o f Mines and Resources (1936), the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n (1949), and the Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources (1965). The p r e s e n t Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development (DIAND) was c r e a t e d i n 1966. See Douglas Sanders, "Government I n d i a n A g e n c i e s i n Canada", i n The Handbook of North American Indians: Volume 4, The History of Indian and White Relations (Washington, D.C.: S m i t h s o n i a n , 1978) pp.276-283.  44  p r o c e s s Marx r e f e r r e d t o as " p r i m i t i v e a c c u m u l a t i o n " ) . Canada, the main i n s t r u m e n t f o r the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n p r i v a t e m o n o p o l i z a t i o n of N a t i v e l a n d s was  In  and  treatymaking,  which p r o v i d e d the o t h e r w i s e u g l y r e a l i t y of d i s p o s s e s s i o n w i t h a v e i l of " c i v i l i z e d " l e g a l i t y .  6 1  The p r a c t i c e of  c o n c l u d i n g l a n d s u r r e n d e r t r e a t i e s o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the Dutch i n t h e i r c o l o n i e s on the Hudson (the s t o r i e d Manhattan s w i n d l e of 1626), a t a time when s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s made such b a r g a i n s w i t h m i l i t a r i l y p o w e r f u l F i r s t  Nations  n e c e s s a r y ; the E n g l i s h began t o f o l l o w s u i t , a l b e i t w i t h " t r e a t i e s of peace and f r i e n d s h i p " which t y p i c a l l y  focused  on t r a d e and m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e s and i g n o r e d the q u e s t i o n o f  See V i c S a t z e w i c h and T e r r y Wotherspoon, First Nations: Race, Class and Gender Relations (Scarborough: N e l s o n , 1993) . The l e g i t i m a c y of t r e a t i e s r e s t s on a s e r i e s of d u b i o u s , s e l f - s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c a l p r e m i s e s : f i r s t , and most f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h a t c o l o n i a l s e t t l e r s t a t e s had "the r i g h t t o impose t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n of j u s t and e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s between p e o p l e s and c a l l i t law"; second, t h a t i m p e r i a l i s t powers c o u l d assume s o v e r e i g n t y by d i n t of mere a s s e r t i o n , and t r e a t i e s were r e q u i r e d o n l y t o d i s p o s e o f whatever r e s i d u a l , " u s u f r u c t a r y " i n t e r e s t t o use and occupation Natives retained; t h i r d , that t r e a t i e s signed under t h r e a t of a n n i h i l a t i o n , o r c o n c l u d e d w i t h o u t genuine agreement r e g a r d i n g the terms, remain v a l i d ; and l a s t l y , t h a t subsequent breaches by i m p e r i a l and Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s do not abrogate the agreements. For d i s c u s s i o n s of the i m p e r i a l i s t cant of the law of t r e a t i e s as a p p l i e d t o i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s i n N o r t h America, see Glenn T. M o r r i s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and P o l i t i c s : Towards a R i g h t t o S e l f D e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r Indigenous People", i n M. A n n e t t e Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization and Resistance (Boston: South End P r e s s , 1992) pp.55-86. 61  45  land.  62  L a t e r , as advancing  determined region  s e t t l e m e n t began t o provoke  m i l i t a r y r e s i s t a n c e i n the lower Great  Lakes  ( c u l m i n a t i n g i n P o n t i a c ' s d e v a s t a t i n g campaign o f  1763-65) and t h r e a t e n e d t o undermine the " p e l t r y t r a d e " , imperial authorities formalized a protocol for land cession i n the R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n of 1763,  based on two  fundamental  p r i n c i p l e s : the Crown a l o n e c o u l d a c q u i r e N a t i v e  territories  63  and o n l y w i t h p r i o r N a t i v e consent. set  The P r o c l a m a t i o n a l s o  a w e s t e r n boundary f o r s e t t l e r e x p a n s i o n , w h i c h  was  quickly disregarded. P r e d i c t a b l y , the P r o c l a m a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s were honoured o n l y i n the b r e a c h , p r o d u c i n g a patchwork of t r e a t i e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y , most of them i n O n t a r i o and the w e s t e r n  provinces.  Today, o n l y h a l f of Canadian t e r r i t o r y i s c o v e r e d by the  485 64  l a n d s u r r e n d e r t r e a t i e s n e g o t i a t e d between 1763 The  c e n t u r y between the R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n and  w i t n e s s e d a p r o c e s s of p i e c e m e a l  and  1921.  Confederation  c o n v e r s i o n i n Southern  O n t a r i o , as the c o l o n i a l s t a t e met  immediate s e t t l e m e n t  needs by s e c u r i n g l a n d c e s s i o n s i n exchange f o r nominal payments i n cash and goods.  I n i t i a l l y the p a r c e l s i n v o l v e d  were f a i r l y modest, but i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y i n s i z e as the 62  P. Cumming and N. Mickenberg, Native e d . ( T o r o n t o : Indian-Eskimo Assn., 1972) Ibid.  Rights p.20.  in Canada 2d  64  Donald P u n c h , Our Land: Native Rights (Toronto: James L o r i m e r , 1986) p.86.  in  Canada  46  b a l a n c e of power t i p p e d i n f a v o r of the c o l o n i z e r s :  the  seven t r e a t i e s n e g o t i a t e d i n the decade a f t e r the War 1812 1818,  c o v e r e d an a r e a of 2.8  m i l l i o n hectares.  payments were made i n lump sum  of  Prior to  6 5  form, r a n g i n g from a  few hundred t o a few thousand B r i t i s h pounds; a f t e r  this  d a t e , even these t r i f l i n g amounts were seen as too e x p e n s i v e , and c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s s w i t c h e d t o compensation v i a a n n u i t i e s , which the s t a t e p a i d out of the  annual  mortgage payments r e c e i v e d from w h i t e s e t t l e r s  (Natives  t h e r e b y p r o v i d e d i n d i r e c t f i n a n c i n g t o the agents o f dispossession).  6 6  The e x p r o p r i a t i o n p r o c e s s i n O n t a r i o ,  i n p a r t i c u l a r the s o - c a l l e d "Robinson T r e a t i e s " o f  and  1850  (which s e c u r e d massive t r a c t s i n the Lake S u p e r i o r r e g i o n i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of m i n e r a l development), s e t the p a t t e r n f o r t r e a t y m a k i n g i n the West i n the p o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p e r i o d . A f t e r b u y i n g out the Hudson's Bay Company (whose " i n t e r e s t " i n the l a n d s of the Northwest was  handsomely compensated),  the newly e s t a b l i s h e d Canadian s t a t e embarked on d i s p o s s e s s i o n on a grand s c a l e as p a r t of i t s o v e r a r c h i n g programme f o r c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g (embodied i n the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y ) , n e g o t i a t i n g 11 t r e a t i e s between 1871  S u r t e e s , " I n d i a n Land C e s s i o n s i n 1830", i n Ian A.L. G e t t y and A n t o i n e Long As the Sun Shines and the Water P r e s s , 1983) 65-84, a t 66. J.R. M i l l e r , Skyscrapers Hide the  66  and  Upper Canada, 1815S. L u s s i e r , eds., As Flows (Vancouver: UBC Heavens, p.  87.  47  193 0 c o v e r i n g most o f t h e l a n d i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o and 67  w e s t e r n Canada, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f B.C.  I n Quebec and t h e M a r i t i m e s , p r i m i t i v e a c c u m u l a t i o n  was 68  accomplished  w i t h o u t t h e p r e t e n s e o f N a t i v e consent.  the c o l o n i e s o f New France and A c a d i a , French  In  authorities  t r a n s p l a n t e d a f e u d a l system o f l a n d t e n u r e , g r a n t i n g l a r g e estates  ( s e i g n u e r i e s ) t o f a v o u r e d a r i s t o c r a t s and t h e  C a t h o l i c Church on t h e assumption t h a t i n d i g e n o u s  peoples  had no t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s ; a f t e r t h e Conquest, t h e B r i t i s h c o n s i d e r e d p r i o r French o c c u p a t i o n , w i t h o u t r e c o g n i t i o n o f N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y o r r i g h t s , as h a v i n g n u l l i f i e d whatever N a t i v e i n t e r e s t might have e x i s t e d .  They proceeded t o  i n s t a l l a regime o f b o u r g e o i s p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s  without  s e c u r i n g l a n d c e s s i o n s from t h e N a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s , many o f whom had a l r e a d y been k i l l e d i n t h e i n t e r n e c i n e w a r f a r e o f the pre-Conquest p e r i o d , o r pushed i n t o t h e h i n t e r l a n d by 69  previous settlement.  In the Maritimes, the B r i t i s h  e v i c t e d t h e b u l k o f t h e A c a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , and g r a n t e d t h e 67  Robert J . S u r t e e s , "Canadian I n d i a n T r e a t i e s " , i n Washburn, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians: Vol. 4 History of Indian and White Relations (Washington, D.C.: S m i t h s o n i a n , 1978) pp.202-210. 68  D a r l e n e Johnson, The Taking of Indian Lands in Canada: Consent or Coercion (Saskatoon: U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan N a t i v e Law Center, 1989) pp.9-21. 69  F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s , see L.F.S.Upton, Micmacs and Colonists: Indian-White Relations in the Maritimes, 1713-1867 (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1979).  l a n d s thus a c q u i r e d i n l a r g e b l o c k s t o absentee l a n d l o r d s and members of the newly e s t a b l i s h e d A n g l o o l i g a r c h y . Quebec, the s e i g n e u r i a l h o l d i n g s were p r e s e r v e d  In  - i n order  t o secure the v a n q u i s h e d Francophone f e u d a l e l i t e s as a bulwark a g a i n s t the noxious r e p u b l i c a n i s m emerging i n the c o l o n i e s - w h i l e new A n g l o e l i t e s who  g r a n t s were a s s i g n e d t o the  a r r i v e d on the h e e l s of the  occupation forces.  parasitic  British  Today, then, t h e r e are no l a n d  t r e a t i e s i n Quebec and the M a r i t i m e s  13  surrender  ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f 70  those n e g o t i a t e d s i n c e the 1970s i n N o r t h e r n As l a n d was  Quebec).  e x p r o p r i a t e d , w i t h o r w i t h o u t the facade  treatymaking,  the c o l o n i a l s t a t e was  i n c r e a s i n g l y confronted  w i t h a problem of p o p u l a t i o n management: how landless Natives?  of  to dispose  M e r i v a l e , t h e o r i s t of empire  of  and  B r i t a i n ' s c o l o n i a l u n d e r s e c r e t a r y i n the c r u c i a l p e r i o d between 1847  and 1 8 6 0 , i d e n t i f i e d f o u r o p t i o n s : 71  e x t e r m i n a t i o n , s l a v e r y , i n s u l a t i o n and amalgamation. f i r s t two,  which f e a t u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y  The  i n e a r l i e r phases of  B r i t i s h c o l o n i z a t i o n , were i m p r a c t i c a l : why  expend B r i t i s h  l i v e s and pounds t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h v i o l e n c e what s e t t l e m e n t i t s e l f c o u l d a c h i e v e through a t t r i t i o n ?  I n s u l a t i o n was  s l i g h t l y more p r o m i s i n g , but posed a r i s k of p e r p e t u a l 70 71  Cumming and Mickenberg, Native  Rights  in  Canada.  D a v i d T. McNab, "Herman M e r i v a l e and C o l o n i a l O f f i c e I n d i a n P o l i c y i n the M i d - N i n e t e e n t h Century", i n G e t t y and L u s s i e r , As Long as Sun Shines pp 85-103, a t 87.  49  dependence on the p u b l i c p u r s e .  The answer, t h e n ,  was  amalgamation ( a s s i m i l a t i o n i n c u r r e n t p a r l a n c e ) : the decomposition (what U.S.  of i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s as d i s t i n c t  entities  P r e s i d e n t Teddy R o o s e v e l t once d e s c r i b e d as  " p u l v e r i z i n g the t r i b a l mass") and the a b s o r p t i o n of indigenous people  - remade as C h r i s t i a n p o s s e s s i v e  i n d i v i d u a l i s t s - i n t o the new  society.  M e r i v a l e viewed  a s s i m i l a t i o n as the " o n l y p o s s i b l e E u t h a n a s i a of savage . . 72 communities."  I n p r a c t i c e , the s t r a t e g y adopted t o a c c o m p l i s h  amalgamation  i n c o r p o r a t e d an element of i n s u l a t i o n as w e l l , r e s t i n g as i t d i d on the c r e a t i o n of " I n d i a n r e s e r v e s " , a p r o d u c t of the same s p a t i a l l o g i c which gave modern s o c i e t y the p r i s o n and the asylum ( and l a t e r , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp and Bantustan).  the  To c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , r e s e r v e s were  temporary h o l d i n g pens d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the c o n v e r s i o n of i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s i n t o n o r m a l i z e d s u b j e c t s by c o n t a i n i n g them i n a space s e p a r a t e from t h a t of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n and making them s u s c e p t i b l e t o F o u c a u l d i a n regimes o f e n g i n e e r i n g ("Indian A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " ) . itself,  The term  "reserve"  s u g g e s t i n g an a r e a h e l d back by the s t a t e f o r some  purpose o t h e r t h a n p r i v a t e a c q u i s i t i o n , u n d e r s c o r e s e x t e n t t o which " r e s e r v i z a t i o n " was e x p a n s i o n and c a p i t a l i s t  72  Ibid.  social  a byproduct  accumulation.  the  of n a t i o n a l  50  The geography of Canadian s e g r e g a t i o n i s m r e f l e c t s p e c u l i a r p a t t e r n of the European i n v a s i o n .  The  the  first  r e s e r v e s i n Canada, modeled on the F r a n c i s c a n reducciones  of  Mexico and Paraguay, were e s t a b l i s h e d by J e s u i t s i n Quebec i n the 17th c e n t u r y f o r the " t u t e l a g e " of t h e i r Huron and Iroqouis converts  (some, l i k e those a t Kahnewake, S t . R e g i s , 73  and Huron V i l l a g e ,  survive today).  p o l i c y of r e s e r v e a l l o c a t i o n  However, a c o n s i s t e n t  d i d not emerge u n t i l the e a r l y  19th c e n t u r y , when i t became an i n t e g r a l component of the t r e a t y m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n Upper Canada.  There i s no  u n i f o r m i t y i n the amount of l a n d s e t a s i d e f o r t h e s e southern Ontario reserves  (except t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t a t i n y  f r a c t i o n of the t e r r i t o r y ceded); the n o r t h e r n r e s e r v e s c r e a t e d by the l a t e r O n t a r i o t r e a t i e s treaties,  (the Robinson  and T r e a t i e s 3 and 9) t e n d t o be much  larger,  r e p r e s e n t i n g 80 p e r c e n t of O n t a r i o r e s e r v e l a n d s ,  and  a v e r a g i n g 35 a c r e s i n p e r c a p i t a terms (compared t o 5 a c r e s i n the pre-1850 r e s e r v e s i n the s o u t h ) .  On the  Prairies,  the p a t t e r n i s more c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e the numbered  treaties  b u i l t on the O n t a r i o t r e a t y m a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e by a d o p t i n g a s p e c i f i c f o r m u l a f o r r e s e r v e s i z e : t r e a t i e s One,  Two  F i v e a l l o t t e d 160 a c r e s p e r f a m i l y of f i v e , and  the  and  r e m a i n i n g T r e a t i e s i n c r e a s e d t h i s t o 1 square m i l e , making the P r a i r i e r e s e r v e s the l a r g e s t i n the c o u n t r y  ( t h e i r per  51  c a p i t a a r e a ranges between 12 and 50 a c r e s , and 22).  averages  In Quebec and the M a r i t i m e s , the p a t t e r n i s d i f f e r e n t  a g a i n , s i n c e the p r e v a i l i n g d i s r e g a r d f o r i n d i g e n o u s  land  r i g h t s meant t h a t N a t i v e s were f o r c e d t o p e t i t i o n f o r Crown grants.  A p r a c t i c e of c r e a t i n g r e s e r v e s emerged b e l a t e d l y ,  m a i n l y i n i m i t a t i o n of the O n t a r i o model, but t h e y were a l l o c a t e d and on the b a s i s of e x e c u t i v e f i a t , s u s c e p t i b l e t o l a t e r "adjustment".  and t h u s more  As a r e s u l t ,  the  r e s e r v e s i n these r e g i o n s are f a r s m a l l e r , and fewer i n number, than elsewhere acres per  i n Canada ( a v e r a g i n g from 1 t o 5  capita).  Though r e s e r v e s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f ceded t e r r i t o r y , they have n o n e t h e l e s s been s u b j e c t t o f u r t h e r e r o s i o n , whether o r not they were p r o t e c t e d by t r e a t y .  In  some i n s t a n c e s t h i s i s due t o f e d e r a l f a i l u r e t o d i s c h a r g e t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e s e r v e allotment,, as i n Saskatchewan and Manitoba,  where N a t i v e s today c l a i m  hundreds of thousands of a c r e s i n u n f u l f i l l e d T r e a t y Land Entitlements.  A more g e n e r a l scourge has been r e l e n t l e s s  w h i t e encroachment on the N a t i v e l a n d base; as  settlement  George F.G. S t a n l e y , "The F i r s t I n d i a n Reserves i n Canada" (1950) Revue d'histoire de l'Amerique Francaise 168. 74 The s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s paragraph are d e r i v e d from R i c h a r d H. B a r t l e t t , Indian Reserves and Aboriginal Lands in Canada: A Homeland (Saskatoon: N a t i v e Law C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1990). The p e r c a p i t a f i g u r e s are based on p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s from 1980, and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e c l i n e as r e s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n s grow.  52 increased, s e t t l e r i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , land developers  and  s q u a t t e r s i n c r e a s i n g l y viewed N a t i v e e n c l a v e s as impediments t o economic development, and f e d e r a l and  provincial  governments were a l l too w i l l i n g t o l i c e n s e t h e i r i n c u r s i o n s 75 i n t o the remnants of i n d i g e n o u s homelands. Brunswick,  the 100 thousand  New  a c r e s h e l d by N a t i v e s under  l i c e n s e s of o c c u p a t i o n i n 1810 thousand  In  j u s t 18 y e a r s l a t e r  had been reduced t o 61 (and today stands a t 40  76 thousand).  In Quebec, r e m e d i a l a c t i o n by the  between 1851 and 1854  legislature  had d e s i g n a t e d 23 0 thousand  a c r e s as  r e s e r v e l a n d s ; of t h e s e , 4 5 thousand were s u r r e n d e r e d between C o n f e d e r a t i o n and 1904  as w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t moved  i n l a n d from the S t . Lawrence.  By f a r the g r e a t e s t a s s a u l t  on the N a t i v e l a n d base was mounted i n the P r a i r i e s t o make way  f o r the f l a s h f l o o d of European s e t t l e r s which a r r i v e d i n  the f i r s t two decades of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y : r o u g h l y thousand  785  a c r e s were s u r r e n d e r e d , almost h a l f i n  Saskatchewan.  O v e r a l l , t h i s ongoing p r o c e s s of  d i s p o s s e s s i o n has t r a n s f o r m e d t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s which encompassed v i r t u a l l y the whole of Canada i n t o a patchwork of 2440 r e s e r v e s w i t h a t o t a l a r e a of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3m h e c t a r e s ( r o u g h l y 6 m a c r e s ) , a p a l t r y .3 % 75 The v a r i o u s l e g i s l a t i v e measures by which f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments have sought t o undermine t h e i n d i g e n o u s l a n d base are t o o numerous t o mention, but t h e y are canvassed i n B a r t l e t t , Indian Reserves and Johnson, The Taking of Indian Lands. 76 Johnson, The Taking of Indian Lands.  of Canada's l a n d base.  That t h i s r e p r e s e n t s l e s s  than  o n e - f i f t h of the a r e a of Canada's n a t i o n a l p a r k s , and i s exceeded by the l a n d a l l o c a t e d f o r m i l i t a r y bases,  gives  some sense of the p r i o r i t y accorded t o N a t i v e homelands 78 w i t h i n the Canadian s e t t l e r  state.  S e g r e g a t i o n i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y p a r t of the o v e r a l l program f o r i n d i g e n o u s a s s i m i l a t o n , s i n c e g e o g r a p h i c a l i s o l a t i o n was  a n e c e s s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n t o  c o n s o l i d a t e s e t t l e r hegemony and atomize N a t i v e  societies.  The g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n of the emerging s e t t l e r s t a t e apparatus  i n t o expropriated lands, along w i t h white  m i g r a t i o n and economic p e n e t r a t i o n , ensured t h a t the t e r r i t o r i a l scope of i n d i g e n o u s s e l f - g o v e r n a n c e drastically curtailed.  E q u a l l y u r g e n t , however, was  e x p a n s i o n of t h a t r e g u l a t o r y apparatus themselves new  was  into Native  the enclaves  i n o r d e r t o secure t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the  s t a t e s t r u c t u r e ( a l b e i t on a d i f f e r e n t i a l b a s i s ) .  To  a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , the i m p e r i a l government had t o r e p u d i a t e the p r e v i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n of N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y i m p l i e d i n the e a r l y t r e a t i e s and r e c o r d e d i n the R o y a l (As l a t e as 1823,  Proclamation.  the government of Upper Canada was  still  O l i v e P. D i c k a s o n , Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding People's From Earliest Times (Norman: U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1995) p. 325. 78 .Report of the Special Parliamentary Committee on Indian Self-Government (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1983), a t 112.  54  u n c l e a r whether i t c o u l d l e g a l l y "make i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e I n d i a n t r i b e s amenable t o o u r laws".)  79  I n s t e a d , a new p o l i t i c a l model o f " t r u s t e e s h i p " was promoted i n w h i c h t h e s e t t l e r s t a t e became t h e g u a r d i a n o f p r e s u m p t i v e l y "dependent" and " c h i l d l i k e " N a t i v e s .  This  a u t h o r i z e d the gradual extension of i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y over r e s i d u a l N a t i v e homelands, s i g n a l e d f i r s t by t h e t r a n s f e r o f j u r i s d i c t i o n over I n d i a n a f f a i r s from m i l i t a r y t o c i v i l i a n a u t h o r i t y i n 1830, and then, more i n t r u s i v e l y , by t h e enactment o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n each o f t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s l i c e n s i n g , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , c o l o n i a l government 80  interference with Native self-governance.  I n 1860, t h e  c o l o n i e s took t h e d e c i s i v e s t e p i n s e t t l e r s t a t e f o r m a t i o n when, i n d i r e c t c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f e a r l i e r t r e a t i e s and t h e 1763  P r o c l a m a t i o n , t h e i m p e r i a l government r e l i n q u i s h e d  c o n t r o l over N a t i v e a f f a i r s .  Under t h e terms o f  C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1867, t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o l o n i e s t r a n s f e r r e d a u t h o r i t y over I n d i a n m a t t e r s t o t h e new f e d e r a l government which, by v i r t u e o f s. 91 (24) o f t h e BNA A c t (now t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t ) , presumed t o accept j u r i s d i c t i o n  over  79  Sharon Venne, " T r e a t y and C o n s t i t u t i o n i n Canada: The View From T r e a t y 6", i n Ward C h u r c h i l l , ed. Critical Issues in Native North America Vol.2 (Copenhagen: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Working Group on Indigenous A f f a i r s , 1989) pp 97-115, a t 98. 80  '  See B a r t l e t t , Indian Reserves, pp. 25-40. See a l s o John S. M i l l o y , "The E a r l y I n d i a n A c t s : Developmental S t r a t e g y  55  " I n d i a n s and l a n d s r e s e r v e d t o I n d i a n s " .  Both the manner  and outcome of t h i s i m p e r i a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g marked the f u r t h e r debasement of i n d i g e n o u s  sovereignty,  establishing  the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r f u t u r e e f f o r t s t o N a t i v e through comprehensive forms of  subjugate  "Indian  82  Administration".  Economically,  i n d i g e n o u s people were t o be weaned away from  t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  the  e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s and d i s c i p l i n a r y o r d e r o f an emerging 83  c a p i t a l i s t economy.  T h i s p r o c e s s had begun d u r i n g the f u r  t r a d e , but became an e x p l i c i t component of s t a t e p o l i c y i n d i g e n o u s homelands were e x p r o p r i a t e d . contemplated  The  specific  as  role  by c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o  the n a t u r e o f l o c a l economic development, but i t t y p i c a l l y r e v o l v e d around some form of p e t t y commodity p r o d u c t i o n  on  the model o f the independent farmer; o r , where economic c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , i n d i g e n o u s people were i n c o r p o r a t e d and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Change", i n G e t t y and L u s s i e r , As Long the Sun Shines and the Water Flows, pp.56-64.  as  81  That r e g i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e s were w i l l i n g t o concede a u t h o r i t y over N a t i v e s t o the new n a t i o n a l government i s an i n d i c a t i o n b o t h of t h e i r d e s i r e t o o f f l o a d the c o s t s of t r e a t y m a k i n g and N a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and of i t s c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the e x p a n s i o n i s t programme. 82  F o r an o v e r v i e w of p o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p o l i c y , see John L. T o b i a s , " P r o t e c t i o n , C i v i l i z a t i o n , A s s i m i l a t i o n : An O u t l i n e H i s t o r y of Canada's I n d i a n P o l i c y " , i n G e t t y and L u s s i e r , eds., As Long as the Sun Shines and the Water Flows, pp.39-55.  56  i n t o t h e wage-economy i n t h e b u r g e o n i n g e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y phases o f s e t t l e r 84  c o l o n i z a t i o n when l a b o r s h o r t a g e s were c h r o n i c . p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n of indigenous  The  p e o p l e was o n l y  partially  s u c c e s s f u l : f i r s t , because i n many cases t h e chosen model c a r r i e d with i t the sexual d i v i s i o n of labor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of b o u r g e o i s p a t r i a r c h a l t r a d i t i o n s ; second, because indigenous  p e o p l e seldom broke c o m p l e t e l y  with  traditional  p a t t e r n s , o f t e n combining wage l a b o r and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s i n a s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n t h a t approximated traditional cycles.  But i t was a l s o l i m i t e d because  Indian  p o l i c y f r e q u e n t l y succumbed t o t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f w h i t e settlement:  on t h e P r a i r i e s , f o r example, when N a t i v e  f a r m e r s overcame t h e b a r r i e r s c r e a t e d by s m a l l a l l o c a t i o n s of poor l a n d , t h e y encountered r e s i s t a n c e from w h i t e s e t t l e r s who a s s a i l e d government a s s i s t a n c e as " u n f a i r competition".  Economic dependency was c o u p l e d w i t h t h e enforcement o f N a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n , which f e d e r a l I n d i a n l e g i s l a t i o n a c c o m p l i s h e d through a v a r i e t y o f means.  First,  i t e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e system o f t r i b a l government, 83 84  S a t z e w i c h and Wotherspoon, First  Nations,  pp.17-19.  An i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r y o f N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e wage economy i n e a r l y B.C., f o r example, i s R o l f K n i g h t , Indians at Work (Vancouver: New S t a r Books, 1975).  57  "the band c o u n c i l system", which was d e s i g n e d t o r e p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l structures  (and thus undermine  86  p o l i t i c a l autonomy). and  The band f o c u s emphasized  "tribal"  " s u b - t r i b a l " d i v i s i o n s and thus m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t  unity;  the e l e c t o r a l system d i s p l a c e d government based on c l a n s and h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s ; and t h e emphasis on male  representatives  eroded t h e power which women t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d i n many indigenous nations.  A t t h e same time t h e band c o u n c i l was  made c o m p l e t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e l o c a l government representative,  t h e I n d i a n Agent, i n whom was v e s t e d a l l  r e a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e power t o depose 87  e l e c t e d l e a d e r s who were i n s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b m i s s i v e .  Band  government was d e s i g n e d from t h e f i r s t t o a i d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a homogenous Canadian p o l i t i c a l geography, transforming  the dispersed  sovereignty  and l o c a l autonomy  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d i g e n o u s governance i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f Canadian f e d e r a l i s m . complete t h i s system o f d i f f e r e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l  To  incorporation  i n t o t h e Canadian s t a t e , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l s t a t u t e s e f f e c t i v e l y denied Native peoples the r i g h t t o vote f e d e r a l l y , and i n a l l p r o v i n c e s  but New Brunswick and  85  S a t z e w i c h and Wotherspoon, " A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s and Economic R e l a t i o n s " , i n First Nations. 86  87  Tobias, "Protection, C i v i l i z a t i o n , A s s i m i l a t i o n " .  For a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f I n d i a n Agents a t t h e Kamloops Agency i n B.C., see T r e f o r Smith, "John Freemont Smith and I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e  58  Newfoundland,  from t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h r o u g h t h e Second  World War ( f i n a l removal o f t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s would w a i t u n t i l 1960 a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l ; Quebec, t h e l a s t p r o v i n c e 88  to  remove such l i m i t s , d i d so i n 1969).  F i n a l l y , t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l components o f t h i s c o l o n i z a t i o n program were a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l o n s l a u g h t aimed a t t h e complete e r a d i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l b a s i s o f i n d i g e n o u s l i f e .  The I n d i a n agent  p l a y e d a p i v o t a l r o l e here t o o , but e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t were the  l e g i o n o f m i s s i o n a r i e s and church-based  e n l i s t e d to transform native l i f e .  institutions  Various dimensions of  s o c i a l l i f e became t a r g e t s f o r r e p r e s s i o n :  language,  89  r e l i g i o n , family relations, sexuality.  O v e r a l l , the goal  was t h e c r e a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n , h e t e r o - p a t r i a r c h a l  families  s t r u c t u r e d around t h e dominance o f a male b r e a d w i n n e r . Because o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t t h r u s t o f t h i s  program,  c h i l d r e n were s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n ,  becoming  the  f o c u s f o r a s p e c i f i c form o f d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n i n  the  l a t e 19th century, the r e s i d e n t i a l school.  90  Kamloops Agency, 1912-1923" Native pp.1-3 5.  Studies  Review  These 10  (1995)  88  Wendy Moss, Aboriginal People: History of Laws (Ottawa: L i b r a r y o f P a r l i a m e n t , 1987).  Discriminatory  89 90  T o b i a s , " P r o t e c t i o n , C i v i l i z a t i o n , A s s i m i l a t i o n " , p. 45.  For an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , see Jean Barman, e t . a l . Indian Education in Canada: Volume 1, The Legacy (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1986).  59  authoritarian  b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , r u n by v a r i o u s  Christian  denominations  a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y up u n t i l t h e 1960s, were  the l i n c h p i n o f t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t e f f o r t , and a r e today credited  by some A b o r i g i n a l  people as t h e c o l o n i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n which above a l l o t h e r s d e s t r o y e d t h e i n t e g r i t y of i n d i g e n o u s  societies.  I I I . THE RAGGED GREEN EDGE OF THE WORLD i  The  P o l i t i c a l Economy o f L o t u s l a n d  Thanks t o C a l i f o r n i a g o l d and t h e t i r e l e s s energy o f t h e Yankees, b o t h c o a s t s o f t h e P a c i f i c Ocean w i l l soon be populous, as open t o t r a d e and as i n d u s t r i a l i z e d as t h e c o a s t from Boston t o New O r l e a n s now. And t h e n t h e P a c i f i c Ocean w i l l have t h e same r o l e as t h e A t l a n t i c has now and the M e d i t e r r a n e a n had i n a n t i q u i t y and i n t h e M i d d l e Ages t h a t o f t h e g r e a t water highway o f w o r l d commerce.... 92  Marx and E n g e l s , 1850  I m p e r i a l i s m came l a t e t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  When i t d i d , i n  the l a t e 18th c e n t u r y , i t s a r r i v a l was l a r g e l y i n c i d e n t a l t o the more g e n e r a l European i n c u r s i o n as t h e p r i n c i p a l l o c u s o f i m p e r i a l  into the P a c i f i c basin a g g r e s s i o n s h i f t e d away  from t h e Western hemisphere i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e A m e r i c a n revolution.  Over t h e next hundred y e a r s o r so, c o m p e t i t i o n  among t h e Dutch, B r i t i s h and French r u l i n g c l a s s e s ,  along  See C e l i a Haig-Brown, Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School (Vancouver: T i l l a c u m , 1988) . 92 Quoted i n Mike D a v i s , Prisoners of the American Dream (London: V e r s o , 1985) p.251.  60 w i t h f l e d g l i n g i m p e r i a l i s t powers l i k e R u s s i a , Germany and the U.S.,  would focus on c o n s o l i d a t i n g economic  s t r a t e g i c power i n China,  and  Japan, Southeast A s i a , and  the  93  P a c i f i c Islands.  Except f o r the speed of the  the p a t t e r n of e x p l o i t a t i o n was  onslaught,  not d i s s i m i l a r from t h a t of  the A t l a n t i c zone, w i t h m a r i t i m e - b a s e d m e r c a n t i l e (whale and  trade  s e a l f i s h e r i e s , f u r s ) q u i c k l y succeeded by more  i n t e n s i v e , l a n d - b a s e d forms of c o l o n i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n : p l a n t a t i o n c o l o n i e s i n Southeast A s i a and the South P a c i f i c , o f t e n c r e a t e d by the w h o l e s a l e e x t e r m i n a t i o n  of  indigenous  i n h a b i t a n t s , whose l a b o r needs spawned a P a c i f i c s l a v e i n South Sea  i s l a n d e r s ("blackbirds")  ("coolies"); entrepots  trade  and Chinese p e a s a n t s  l i k e S i n g a p o r e , Hong Kong,  and  Yokohama (as w e l l as o l d e r c o l o n i e s l i k e Macao and  Batavia),  t h r o u g h w h i c h European e l i t e s c o u l d dominate r e g i o n a l t r a d e ; and w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t  c o l o n i e s i n A u s t r a l i a , New  Zealand  and  w e s t e r n N o r t h America based on c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r e and resource  extraction.  Thus were l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s  i s l a t e l y c e l e b r a t e d , i n the amnesiac b o o s t e r i s m 1990s, as the " P a c i f i c  of  of what the  Rim".  N a y l o r , "The R i s e of the P a c i f i c Economy", i n Canada in the European Age; Ryers on, "The N o r t h P a c i f i c " , i n The Founding of Canada; A.R. B a g c h i , The Political Economy of Underdevelopment (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982) pp.69-111; and V.G. K i e r n a n , European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, pp.104-111.  61  The b a s i c c o n t o u r s of B.C.  p o l i t i c a l economy - i m p o r t e r o f  f o r e i g n manufactured goods and c a p i t a l , e x p o r t e r o f raw semi-processed  s t a p l e s - were e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y , and  t o the t r u n c a t e d p a t t e r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c a p i t a l i s m " elsewhere.  The  conform  "settler  f u r trade a t t r a c t e d r i v a l  i m p e r i a l powers, p r i m a r i l y S p a i n , R u s s i a , B r i t a i n and U.S.,  and  and e v e n t u a l l y produced the  the  politico-territorial 94  boundaries The  r e f l e c t i n g the d i v i s i o n of s p o i l s between them.  e a r l y prominence of a maritime  f u r t r a d e on  the  p r o v i n c e ' s n o r t h c o a s t , a byproduct of the renewed Euroi m p e r i a l i s t i n t e r e s t i n China a t the c l o s e of the c e n t u r y , was  g r a d u a l l y o v e r t a k e n by a land-based  18th trade  r e p r e s e n t i n g the f i n a l e x t e n s i o n a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t of  the  95  "Empire o f the S t . Lawrence". Company (HBC)  By 1821,  the Hudson's Bay  had d i s p l a c e d i t s e r s t w h i l e American and  Canadian r i v a l s t o become the dominant European p r e s e n c e i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, a monopoly p o s i t i o n i t would occupy 96  for  roughly f o r t y years.  R e l y i n g on e x i s t i n g N a t i v e  s e t t l e m e n t s and t r a v e l r o u t e s , the HBC  r e a d i l y organized a  94  W. E. I r e l a n d , " E v o l u t i o n of the B o u n d a r i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia" B r i t i s h Columbia Historical Quarterly 13 (1939) pp 263-282.  95  N a y l o r , "Fur Trade and P a c i f i c Empire", i n Canada in European Age; Ryerson, "Self-Government on the P a c i f i c Coast", i n Unequal Union.  the  See Jean Barman, The West Beyond the West: A History B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1991) pp.32-51; and Robin F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict:  of  96  62 network o f f o r t s and t r a d i n g p o s t s on t h e c o a s t and throughout  t h e B.C. i n t e r i o r  (then c a l l e d New C a l e d o n i a )  t h r o u g h which i t d r a i n e d t h e f u r w e a l t h o f t h e t e r r i t o r y f o r the b e n e f i t o f d i s t a n t s h a r e h o l d e r s . was  When Vancouver I s l a n d  o f f i c i a l l y d e c l a r e d a c o l o n y i n 1849 t h e HBC agreed t o  oversee t h e " s y s t e m a t i c c o l o n i z a t i o n " o f t h e t e r r i t o r y , a scheme which was doomed t o f a i l g i v e n t h e competing 97 o b j e c t i v e s o f f u r t r a d e and s e t t l e m e n t . e v e n t u a l l y be t h e Company's undoing:  G o l d would  early gold discoveries  i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s and s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r were kept q u i e t , i n t h e hopes t h a t t h e HBC might m a i n t a i n i t s e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y and monopoly i n t h e event o f a bonanza. I n e a r l y 1858, own  however, t h e Company u n w i t t i n g l y s e a l e d i t s  f a t e by s e n d i n g 800 ounces o f g o l d t o be minted  i n San  F r a n c i s c o , where t h e 184 9 Gold Rush had l a r g e l y p e t e r e d o u t ; when word o f t h e HBC shipment l e a k e d out, i t t r i g g e r e d a f l o o d o f " f r e e c a p i t a l " and Euroamerican and A s i a n goldseekers  (most but n o t a l l o f them men) i n t o t h e  t e r r i t o r y , f o r c i n g B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o revoke the Company's c h a r t e r and assume d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f t h e c o l o n y t o f o r e c l o s e t h e r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f U.S.  Indian-European Relations in B r i t i s h Columbia 1774-1890 (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1977) pp.24-48. 97 F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, pp.49-72; and N a y l o r , "Company Colony t o Company P r o v i n c e " , i n Canada in the European Age.  63  annexation.  98  The mainland  d e c l a r e d i n 1858,  c o l o n y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  became y e t another i n the l o n g l i s t  c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s added t o the empire i n the  of  third  99  q u a r t e r of the c e n t u r y .  The  i n f l u x of workers and c a p i t a l , and the "spread  effects"  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o v i s i o n i n g a g o l d r u s h economy, marked the b e g i n n i n g o f f u l l - s c a l e c o l o n i z a t i o n i n B.C.. peak y e a r s between 1858 m i l l i o n was  and 1865,  the  g o l d valued at over  $18  s h i p p e d out of the p r o v i n c e ; V i c t o r i a became a  boomtown o v e r n i g h t , w a t c h i n g to  During  i t s population increase tenfold  5,000, and i t s p r o p e r t y v a l u e s s k y r o c k e t by 3 and 4  thousand p e r c e n t , i n a matter of m o n t h s . c o n d i t i o n s were by n a t u r e s h o r t - l i v e d .  100  Yet t h e s e boom  By the l a t e 1860s,  a l l u v i a l s u p p l i e s were l a r g e l y exhausted,  and the g o l d  f r o n t i e r had move f u r t h e r n o r t h , l e a v i n g i n i t s wake a d i m i n u t i v e s e t t l e r c o l o n y whose economic p r o s p e c t s were rather bleak: gold p r o f i t s l e f t l i t t l e r e s i d u a l b e n e f i t , c o n t r i b u t i n g i n s t e a d t o p r i v a t e f o r t u n e s i n San F r a n c i s c o (whence much of the c a p i t a l , machinery and s u p p l i e s had 98  B a r r y M. Gough, " ' T u r b u l e n t F r o n t i e r s ' and B r i t i s h E x p a n s i o n : Governor Douglas, the R o y a l Navy, and the B r i t i s h Columbia G o l d Rushes" Pacific Historical Review 41 (1972) pp.15-32, p. 22. 99  Ibid. P a u l A. P h i l l i p s , " C o n f e d e r a t i o n and the Economy o f B r i t i s h Columbia", i n W. George S h e l t o n , ed., B r i t i s h  64 come) o r B r i t a i n , w h i l e r o a d - b u i l d i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s had l e f t the c o l o n y ' s i n f a n t government d e e p l y Consequently,  indebted.  1 0 1  i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s promoted t h e merger o f  the two c o l o n i e s ( a c h i e v e d i n 1864), and then  Confederation,  as a means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e c o l o n y ' s London c r e d i t and o f s e c u r i n g a permanent i m p e r i a l presence  rating,  on t h e P a c i f i c  102 coast.  The promise o f a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d , and  c o n t i n u e d p r e f e r e n t i a l t r a d e w i t h B r i t a i n , bought t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e dominant f r a c t i o n o f B.C.'s emerging bourgeoisie.  That r a i l l i n k , when i t a r r i v e d b e l a t e d l y i n  the mid-1880s, p r o v i d e d a much-needed i f temporary boost t o the now s e l f - g o v e r n i n g p r o v i n c e , which o t h e r w i s e spent much o f t h e f i r s t two decades a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n s t r u g g l i n g t o d e v e l o p domestic m a n u f a c t u r i n g  i n d u s t r i e s through  import  s u b s t i t u t i o n and e x p o r t markets f o r s t a p l e s o t h e r t h a n g o l d , amidst t h e l o c a l f a l l o u t o f economic c r i s e s i n t h e i m p e r i a l 103 centers. In t h e 1890s, t h e r e g i o n resumed growth on t h e s c a l e o f t h e g o l d r u s h y e a r s , as a s u r g i n g r e c o v e r y i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Columbia and Confederation ( V i c t o r i a : U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a P r e s s , 1967) pp.43-60, p.44. Ibid. P h i l l i p s r e p o r t s t h a t t h e p u b l i c debt o f t h e two c o l o n i e s i n c r e a s e d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y $30,000 i n 1859 t o $1.5 m i l l i o n i n 1865. 102 N a y l o r , "Company Colony t o Company P r o v i n c e " . 103 R.M. G a l o i s , "The I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i v e P r o t e s t A c t i v i t y and t h e 'Land Q u e s t i o n ' i n B r i t i s h 101  65  economies ( f u e l e d by new  rounds of p l u n d e r i n the "Age  of  H i g h I m p e r i a l i s m " ) , and the r a p i d s e t t l e m e n t of the Canadian p r a i r i e s , s p u r r e d an a p p e t i t e f o r B.C.'s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y lumber, f i s h and n o n - p r e c i o u s p r o v i n c e ' s s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n exploded, about 24,000 i n 1881  minerals.  1 0 4  The  i n c r e a s i n g from  to h a l f a m i l l i o n i n 1921.  The  105  p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e , as the p r e s e r v e of r e s o u r c e barons, e s t a t e s p e c u l a t o r s and o t h e r c a p i t a l i s t  real  entrepreneurs,  remained r a t h e r l i m i t e d i n i t s f u n c t i o n s , f o c u s i n g on  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a minimal r e g u l a t o r y framework r e q u i r e d t o promote r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , and the r e p r e s s i o n o f o u t b u r s t s of w o r k i n g c l a s s m i l i t a n c y t h a t the extreme e x p l o i t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e s o u r c e c a p i t a l i s m tended t o p r o d u c e . C r u c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was  106  added i n t h e s e  y e a r s , "opening up" more and more of the p r o v i n c e t o 107  capitalist activity.  By the t u r n of the c e n t u r y ,  Vancouver had r e p l a c e d V i c t o r i a as the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r Columbia, 1903-1916", Native 34, p. 2.  Studies  Review  8 (1992) pp.  1-  104  G a l o i s notes t h a t "the v a l u e of m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n , f o r example, i n c r e a s e d from 3.5 m i l l i o n i n 1891 t o $30.5 m i l l i o n i n 1913; f i s h e r y p r o d u c t i o n expanded from $3 m i l l i o n t o $13.9 m i l l i o n i n the same p e r i o d . " I b i d . p. 2. G a l o i s , " I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n " , p.2. See P h i l l i p R e s n i c k , "The P o l i t i c a l Economy of B.C. - A M a r x i s t P e r s p e c t i v e " i n P. Knox and P. R e s n i c k , eds. The Political Economy of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: New S t a r , 1973) pp. 3-12. 105  106  107  See Cole H a r r i s , "Moving Amid the Mountains, B.C. Studies (1983) pp.3-39.  1870-1930",  66 f o r the p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e h i n t e r l a n d , l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of i t s r o l e as the t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o i n t f o r the 108  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y and o v e r s e a s s h i p p i n g . A f t e r the boom and bust of the i n t e r w a r p e r i o d ,  which,  d e s p i t e the acute d i s t r e s s of the D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , saw  the  " f i l l i n g out" of B.C.'s secondary and t e r t i a r y s e c t o r s ,  and  c o n t i n u e d growth i n the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n , the p r o v i n c e s e t t l e d i n t o a l o n g p e r i o d of p r o s p e r i t y by r i d i n g on t h e 109  c o a t t a i l s of the A m e r i c a n - l e d postwar boom.  Capitalism i n  i t s monopoly phase was encouraged by p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y under W.A.C. B e n n e t t ' s Socred d y n a s t y , which c o n s o l i d a t e d B.C.'s r o l e as a p r o d u c e r of b u l k commodities - above a l l wood p r o d u c t s - f o r e x p o r t t o t h e U.S.. Socred p o l i c i e s encouraged the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 110  See Graeme Wynn, "The R i s e of Vancouver", i n Graeme Wynn and Timothy Oke, eds., Vancouver and Its Region (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1992) pp.69-148; and L.D. McCann, "Urban Growth i n a S t a p l e Economy: The Emergence of Vancouver as a R e g i o n a l M e t r o p l i s , 1886-1914", i n L . J . Evenden, ed., Vancouver, Western Metropolis ( V i c t o r i a : U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1978) pp. 17-41. 109  For a r e v i e w of developments i n the i n t e r w a r p e r i o d , see R.E. Caves and R.H. H o l t o n , "An O u t l i n e of the Economic H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1881-1951" i n J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n , eds., Historical Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: Gage, 1980). A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s t r u c t u r e of the B.C. economy d u r i n g the postwar boom may be found i n R o n a l d A. S h e a r e r , "The Economy of B r i t i s h Columbia", i n H a r r y J . S h e a r e r , ed., Trade L i b e r a l i z a t i o n and a Regional Economy: Studies of the Impact of Free Trade on B.C. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971) pp. 3-41. R e s n i c k , "The P o l i t i c a l Economy of B.C.", p.7-11. 110  67 ownership i n l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e companies f i n a n c e d byc e n t r a l Canadian o r U.S. c o r p o r a t i o n s  and i n t e g r a t e d  into  the c o n t i n e n t a l economy as s u p p l i e r s o f raw m a t e r i a l s . ' 1 1  C a p i t a l was c o d d l e d w i t h s c a n d a l o u s l y  low r e s o u r c e r o y a l t i e s  ( i n f o r e s t r y t h e s e f a i l e d t o c o v e r even t h e c o s t o f r e p l e n i s h i n g t h e r e s o u r c e ) and t h e l a v i s h p r o v i s i o n o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e - h y d r o e l e c t r i c dams, r a i l w a y s , highways, 112  company towns - a t p u b l i c expense.  To s e c u r e  industrial  peace, and f o r e s t a l l t h e t h r e a t o f s o c i a l democracy ( i f n o t s o c i a l i s m ) , workers were o f f e r e d h i g h wages, an expanding " s o c i a l s a f e t y net" t o reduce t h e impact o f o f t e n economic p a t t e r n s  erratic  i n t h e r e s o u r c e s e c t o r , and t h e 113  e n t i c e m e n t s o f A m e r i c a n - s t y l e mass consumerism.  For a thorough a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t r e n d i n t h e l e a d i n g s e c t o r o f t h e B.C. economy see P a t r i c i a Marchak, Green Gold: The Forest Industry in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1983). A u s e f u l supplement t o Marchak's a n a l y s i s , which s i t u a t e s the r i s e of t h i s sector w i t h i n succesive phases o f c a p i t a l i s t g l o b a l i z a t i o n , see R. H a y t e r and R . G a l o i s , "The Wheel o f F o r t u n e : B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber and the G l o b a l Economy", i n P a u l M. K o r a s c i l , ed., B r i t i s h Columbia: Geographical Essays (Vancouver: SFU Dept. o f Geography, 1991) pp.169-201. 112  See T. Gunton, Resources, Regional Development and Provincial Policy: A Case Study of B.C. (Ottawa: Canadian C e n t e r f o r P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s , 1982). 113  See T r e v o r Barnes, e t . a l . , "Vancouver, t h e P r o v i n c e , and the P a c i f i c Rim", i n Wynn and Oke,eds., Vancouver and Its Region, pp. 171-199. Of c o u r s e , t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e i n t h i s p e r i o d was n o t a phenomenon l i m i t e d t o B.C., o r even Canada. See, f o r example, A l v i n F i n k e l , " O r i g i n s o f t h e W e l f a r e S t a t e i n Canada", i n P a n i t c h , ed., The Canadian State, pp.344-372.  68 Vancouver, as t h e s u p p l y , s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t c e n t e r f o r t h i s h i n t e r l a n d zone, c o n t i n u e d i t s r a p i d g r o w t h .  114  The end o f t h e postwar boom i n t h e e a r l y 1970s, however, marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d o f c r i s i s and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e B.C. economy from which i t has y e t t o emerge.  115  The r e s o u r c e s e c t o r has been squeezed a t b o t h  ends: u n s t a b l e e x p o r t markets and c o m p e t i t i o n from new p r o d u c t i o n zones w i t h lower wage s t r u c t u r e s and r e l a x e d r e g u l a t o r y regimes has t h r e a t e n e d permanently t o undermine demand, e s p e c i a l l y i n f o r e s t p r o d u c t s , w h i l e a d w i n d l i n g s t o c k o f f o r e s t and m i n e r a l r e s e r v e s , c o u p l e d w i t h i n d u s t r y s h i f t s t o c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n methods, have p r o v o k e d l a r g e - s c a l e "downsizing" losses.  1 1 6  and consequent j o b  Temporary r e c o v e r i e s i n t h e l a t e 70s and l a t e  8 0s, accompanied by an i n f u s i o n o f Japanese and c e n t r a l Canadian c a p i t a l  (which was f i l l i n g t h e v o i d c r e a t e d by U.S.  d i s i n v e s t m e n t ) , m i t i g a t e d but c o u l d not postpone f o r e v e r t h e o r g a n i c c r i s i s i m p l i e d by market r e s t r u c t u r i n g and t h e  Barnes, e t . a l . , "Vancouver, t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e P a c i f i c Rim". Ibid. See P a t r i c i a Marchak, " P u b l i c P o l i c y , C a p i t a l and Labour i n t h e F o r e s t I n d u s t r y " , i n R. Warburton, ed., Workers, Capital and the State in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1988) pp.177-200; and "The R i s e and F a l l o f t h e P e r i p h e r a l S t a t e : The Case o f B r i t i s h Columbia", i n R . J . Breym, ed., Regionalism in Canada (Toronto: I r w i n , 1986) pp.123-159. 1 1 6  69 i n c i p i e n t d e p l e t i o n of a once seemingly i n e x h a u s t i b l e endowment of n a t u r a l w e a l t h : the p r o v i n c e now  struggles to  contend w i t h the a f t e r m a t h of what has been d e s c r i b e d as  the  117 "profligate  century".  E c h o i n g the a p o s t l e s of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l i s m i n o t h e r p a r t s of the c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d , l o c a l b o o s t e r s have p o i n t e d t o the province's t e r t i a r y like financial forward.  the  sector, notably "sunrise" i n d u s t r i e s  s e r v i c e s , t o u r i s m and f i l m , as the  way  Though Expo '86, the w o r l d e x h i b i t i o n d e s i g n e d  to  showcase Vancouver as an a s p i r i n g w o r l d c i t y , p r o v o k e d a mini-boom which a f f o r d e d p a r t i a l r e l i e f from the r e c e s s i o n a r y 90s,  i t i s easy t o exaggerate the t r e n d t o 118  post - i n d u s t r i a l i s m .  The  employment i s n o t h i n g new  dominance of i n B.C.  service-based  and p r o v i d e s a dubious  b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y : the s e r v i c e s e c t o r i s segmented i n t o h i g h and low-wage s e c t o r s , and most employment a r i s e s i n the l a t t e r ; moreover, as r e c e n t  new studies  P a t r i c i a Marchak, "The P r o f l i g a t e C e n t u r y and I t s A f t e r m a t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia", i n Logging the Globe ( M o n t r e a l - K i n g s t o n : M c G i l l - Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1995) pp. 85-116. 118 The e x p a n s i o n of the s e r v i c e economy i s a m e t r o p o l i t a n phenomenon, and i s documented i n H. C r a i g D a v i s and Thomas A. H u t t o n , "The Two Economies of B r i t i s h Columbia" B.C. Studies 82 (1989) pp.3-15; D a v i d Ley and T. H u t t o n , "Vancouver's C o r p o r a t e Complex and P r o d u c e r S e r v i c e s S e c t o r : L i n k a g e s and D i v e r g e n c e w i t h i n a P r o v i n c i a l S t a p l e Economy", Regional Studies 21 (1987) pp. 413-24; and H. C r a i g D a v i s , " I s the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Economy U n c o u p l i n g from the Rest of the P r o v i n c e ? " B.C. Studies 98 (1993) pp.3-19.  70 have made c l e a r , once u n d e r l y i n g l i n k a g e s are t a k e n account,  into  the r e s o u r c e s e c t o r remains v e r y much the engine  of  119 the p r o v i n c i a l economy.  A l l of which bodes i l l  f o r the  f u t u r e of those whose l i v e l i h o o d i s t i e d , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t o the m a t e r i a l w e a l t h of B.C.'s f o r e s t s  and  w a t e r s ; and much worse, f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s , the A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s , whose v e r y e x i s t e n c e hangs i n the b a l a n c e . E t h n i c C l e a n s i n g on  the  Pacific  Slope  P r o b a b l y savagism was never so d e f t l y and d e l i c a t e l y s t r i p p e d of i t s b e l o n g i n g s , and l a i d away t o r o t , as i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 120 H.H. B a n c r o f t , 1887 In i t s b a s i c m o t i v e s , methods and h i s t o r i c a l  trajectories,  the c o l o n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia f i t s c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h i n the g e n e r a l framework a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d .  Undoubtedly t h e r e  are " l o c a l " f a c t o r s which m o d i f i e d the p a r t i c u l a r  insertion  of European power i n t o t h i s c o r n e r of the w o r l d - the d i f f i c u l t y of the t e r r a i n , the s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n , the t i m i n g and r a p i d i t y o f the See Barnes, e t . a l . , "Vancouver, the P r o v i n c e , and the P a c i f i c Rim" and B r i t i s h Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, "The S t r u c t u r e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Economy: A Land-Use P e r s p e c t i v e " ( V i c t o r i a : 1 9 9 3 ) . A r i p o s t e of s o r t s t o those who f o r e c a s t the demise o f r e s o u r c e dependency i s o f f e r e d by Ronald A. Shearer, "The Economy", B.C. Studies 100 (1993-94) pp.121-139. 120 H.H. B a n c r o f t , History of B r i t i s h Columbia 1792-1887 (San F r a n c i s c o : H i s t o r y Company, 1887) p. 44.  71  s e t t l e r i n v a s i o n , the achievement of i m p e r i a l i s t o b j e c t i v e s w i t h o u t p r o t r a c t e d m i l i t a r y campaigns, the extreme d i s r e g a r d f o r i n d i g e n o u s r i g h t s under i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  British  i m p e r i a l law - but u l t i m a t e l y these cannot d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e i z u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia q u a l i t a t i v e l y from the which u n f o l d e d  process  elsewhere.  D u r i n g the r o u g h l y e i g h t y y e a r s of m e r c a n t i l e hegemony, European f u r t r a d e r s and N a t i v e s met  on terms t h a t were  r e l a t i v e l y r e c i p r o c a l , compared t o what would f o l l o w . Demonstrating  a c a p a c i t y t o adapt t o new c o n d i t i o n s ,  A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s on the c o a s t and,  l a t e r , i n the  u t i l i z e d European dependency on N a t i v e t r a d e  Interior  networks,  t r a p p i n g s k i l l s and p r o d u c t i o n of the means of s u b s i s t e n c e t o a c q u i r e European t r a d e goods which enhanced t r a d i t i o n a l communal p r a c t i c e s , even though i n c a p i t a l i s t terms the unequal exchange enabled Europeans t o r e a l i z e  extravagant  121  profits.  At the same time, a v a r i e t y of f o r c e s were  u n l e a s h e d w h i c h s i g n a l e d the b e g i n n i n g of a s e c u l a r d e c l i n e i n N a t i v e economy and s o c i e t y t h a t would r e s u l t i n a  reduced  c a p a c i t y t o r e s i s t when i m p e r i a l i s m adopted a more 121  Ryerson, i n The Founding of Canada, p o r t r a y s the f u r t r a d e i n B.C as a v a s t l y unequal a f f a i r , and i s u p b r a i d e d by F i s h e r f o r f a i l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e the degree t o which N a t i v e t r a d e r s h e l d t h e i r own a g a i n s t the i n t e r l o p e r s , m a i n t a i n i n g , as he p u t s i t , " c o n t r o l over t h e i r c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d " . See F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, p. 1. Therein, perhaps, l i e s the d i f f e r e n c e between them: Ryerson i s d i r e c t l y engaged w i t h q u e s t i o n s of economic e x p l o i t a t i o n and  72 i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t posture. which ravaged epidemics  Foremost among these was d i s e a s e ,  the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n w i t h successive  throughout  the f u r trade era: the Native  p o p u l a t i o n i n 1835, towards t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d , has been e s t i m a t e d a t 70,000, a r e d u c t i o n o f a t l e a s t 75% from p r e 122  contact- t i m e s .  The commercial l o g i c o f t h e t r a d e  encouraged o v e r t r a p p i n g , e n s u r i n g not o n l y t h e e v e n t u a l e x t i r p a t i o n o f animal p o p u l a t i o n s , but i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n among t r i b a l groups, conflict  l e a d i n g perhaps t o g r e a t e r i n t e r - t r i b a l  (whose l e t h a l i t y was no doubt i n c r e a s e d by t h e  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f European weaponry).  Given t h e absence o f  any c e n t r a l i z e d i n d i g e n o u s a u t h o r i t y , t r a d e r s e c u r i t y c o u l d o f t e n be m a i n t a i n e d by s k i l l f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s between t r i b a l groups; b u t i t was u l t i m a t e l y guaranteed  by v i o l e n c e , o r t h e t h r e a t o f i t ,  and N a t i v e  u n e q u a l exchange which f o r F i s h e r a r e secondary of c u l t u r e .  t o notions  122  The f i g u r e o f 70,000 i s d e r i v e d from W i l s o n D u f f , The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia: Volume 1, The Impact of the White Man ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1965) p.39. The p r e - c o n t a c t e s t i m a t e f o r B.C. as a whole i s now somewhere i n the t h r e e t o f i v e hundred thousand range, though Dobyns suggests t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s a l m o n - r i c h r i v e r systems might have s u p p o r t e d a p o p u l a t i o n a p p r o a c h i n g 1 m i l l i o n . See " I n d i a n Smallpox T o l l Worse, S c h o l a r Says" Vancouver Sun 21 November, 1987 and Henry F. Dobyns, Their Numbers Become Thinned ( K n o x v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Tennessee P r e s s , 1983), p.38. A t i t s n a d i r , t h e p o p u l a t i o n would r e a c h 22,000, s u g g e s t i n g an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e from p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s o f o v e r 90%. This figure i s consistent with current estimates f o r r a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a as a whole. See Cole H a r r i s , "Voices o f D i s a s t e r : Smallpox around t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a i n 1782" Ethnohistory 41 (1994) pp.591626. Of c o u r s e , demographic e s t i m a t e s a r e t h o r o u g h l y  73  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t HBC employees t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t e d i n b r u t a l s p e c t a c l e s - f l o g g i n g s , s h o o t i n g s o r hangings d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e as o b j e c t l e s s o n s .  By t h e 1840s, steam  power and s u p e r i o r armaments, t h e f r u i t s o f c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r y , had g i v e n t r a d e r s a d e c i d e d m i l i t a r y advantage, a t l e a s t on t h e c o a s t .  The " c o l o n i a l p e r i o d "  (1849-1871) marked t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o  permanent s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n , and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r i o d o f f r o n t i e r c o n f l i c t , f e a t u r i n g e a r l y a t t e m p t s by a still  s k e l e t a l c o l o n i a l s t a t e a p p a r a t u s t o p a c i f y , and  d i s p o s s e s s , A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s , m o s t l y on t h e s o u t h c o a s t 124  and m  the southern i n t e r i o r .  The t a s k o f s u b j u g a t i o n was  no doubt made e a s i e r by m i d - c e n t u r y e p i d e m i c s o f measles and s m a l l p o x , w h i c h may have k i l l e d as many as 40% o f t h e 125  remaining indigenous population.  The d e p r e d a t i o n s o f  e m b r o i l e d i n t h e p o l i t i c s o f a s e t t l e r s o c i e t y : see S t i f f a r m and Lane, "The Demography o f N a t i v e N o r t h A m e r i c a " . 123  F o r a g r o u n d b r e a k i n g r e f l e c t i o n on f u r t r a d e r t a c t i c s , see C o l e H a r r i s , "Towards a Geography o f White Power i n t h e C o r d i l l e r a n F u r Trade" Canadian Geographer 39 (1995) pp.131140 . 124  I p u t t h e term c o l o n i a l i n s c a r e quotes because e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n marked t h e end o f t h e c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l terms, between s e t t l e r s and the i m p e r i a l government. The A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s have y e t t o be g r a n t e d even t h e f o r m a l t r a p p i n g s o f home r u l e . 125  See D u f f , The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 40-45; and Robert T. Boyd, "Demographic H i s t o r y , 1774-1874", i n W i l l i a m S t u r t e v a n t , ed., Handbook of North American Indians: Vol.7, The Northwest Coast (Washington, D.C.: S m i t h s o n i a n , 1990) pp.135-148.  74 w h i t e men a g a i n s t N a t i v e l a n d , r e s o u r c e s , and women were a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f antagonism, and s e t t l e r  authorities  r e l i e d on a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e r s u a s i o n and c o e r c i o n t o a v o i d the o u t b r e a k o f a U . S . - s t y l e " I n d i a n War" w h i c h t h e c o l o n y 126 could i l l  afford.  S i r James Douglas, c h i e f s t r a t e g i s t o f  the s e t t l e r i n v a s i o n i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s , was a master o f t h i s c a r r o t - a n d - s t i c k approach who sought g e n e r a l l y t o p l a c a t e N a t i v e s by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e d use and o c c u p a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , and by p r o m i s i n g them a s o r t o f f o r m a l e q u a l i t y w i t h s e t t l e r s w i t h i n t h e new 127 system.  Hence h i s s o r t i e t o t h e Lower F r a s e r , i n t h e  e a r l y months o f t h e G o l d Rush, where he a t t e m p t e d t o d e f u s e an e x p l o s i v e s i t u a t i o n by a p p o i n t i n g l o c a l c h i e f s as m a g i s t r a t e s t o keep o r d e r among t h e i r p e o p l e , and by w a r n i n g miners t h a t t h e law would p r o t e c t " I n d i a n s as w e l l as w h i t e s " ; hence a l s o t h e c o l o n i e s e a r l i e s t  "Indian"  l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o h i b i t i n g t h e s a l e o f l i q u o r t o N a t i v e s and See R o b i n F i s h e r , " I n d i a n Warfare and Two F r o n t i e r s : A Comparison o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington T e r r i t o r y d u r i n g t h e E a r l y Years o f S e t t l e m e n t " , Pacific Historical Review 50 (1980) pp.31-51. 127 Douglas' p o l i c y was m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e t r e a t i e s c o n c l u d e d w i t h A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s on Vancouver I s l a n d i n t h e e a r l y 1850s, and i n t h e r e s e r v e s a l l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h Coast and s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e as g o v e r n o r o f t h e two P a c i f i c c o l o n i e s . F o r d i f f e r e n t views on Douglas' r o l e i n the s h a p i n g o f N a t i v e - n o n - N a t i v e r e l a t i o n s i n B.C., see P a u l Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics: The Indian Land Question in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1849-1989 (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1990) pp.26-38; Robin F i s h e r , " P r e f a c e t o t h e Second E d i t i o n " , i n Contact and Conflict 2d ed. (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1992).  75  the d e s e c r a t i o n of N a t i v e c e m e t e r i e s . 128  Douglas a l s o s i g n e d  fourteen land surrender t r e a t i e s with A b o r i g i n a l Nations c o v e r i n g a s m a l l p o r t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d .  Although  had p l a n s t o c o n t i n u e t h i s p r a c t i c e on the mainland, c o l o n i a l government was government was  he  the  s h o r t of funds and the i m p e r i a l  r e l u c t a n t t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r s u b s i d i e s , so  t r e a t y m a k i n g was  abandoned.  With the e x c e p t i o n o f the  n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r of the p r o v i n c e , where some C a r r i e r bands s i g n e d on t o T r e a t y 11, the s o - c a l l e d " F o r t V i c t o r i a t r e a t i e s " were the o n l y t r e a t i e s c o n c l u d e d  in British  129 Columbia. Where the s t r a t e g y of c o - o p t a t i o n f a i l e d t o produce s u b m i s s i o n , Douglas and h i s immediate s u c c e s s o r s were more t h a n ready t o r e s o r t t o "gunboat diplomacy" new  t o defend  the  o r d e r t h e y were imposing, and the p e r i o d up t o  C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t n e s s e d a s e r i e s of p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the s h e l l i n g of N a t i v e v i l l a g e s , s k i r m i s h e s , and summary e x e c u t i o n s , the "unrecorded  b a t t l e f i e l d s " of  settler  130 colonization.  Where p o s s i b l e , f o r c e was  d r e s s e d up i n the  128 See B a r r y Gough's Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890 (Vancouver: UBC P r e s s , 1984) pp.85 e t passim. 129 See Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics, pp. 19-20. 130 The n o t i o n of "unrecorded b a t t l e f i e l d s " d e r i v e s from Henry Reynolds, whose work has h e l p e d t o explode myths about the p e a c e f u l c o l o n i z a t i o n of A u s t r a l i a by, among o t h e r t h i n g s , r e c o v e r i n g the r e p r e s s e d h i s t o r y of s e t t l e r v i o l e n c e and A b o r i g i n a l r e s i s t a n c e . See h i s The Other Side of the  76 pomp and ceremony of B r i t i s h j u s t i c e , a n t i c i p a t i n g the moment when a b a t t e r y of c i v i l i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the l e g a l machinery r e p r e s e n t e d constabulary,  by m a g i s t r a t e s  and  a  c o u l d r e p l a c e the naked r e p r e s s i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t . of c o l o n i a l power was  (This j u d i c i a l i z a t i o n  no l e s s l e t h a l t o the  p o p u l a t i o n : of the 26 men  hanged between 1864  indigenous and 1871,  23  were N a t i v e .  The p o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n 1880s, w i t n e s s e d  p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y from the e a r l y  the s t e a d y c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e t t l e r power,  as the demographic b a l a n c e s h i f t e d i r r e v o c a b l y i n f a v o u r  of  the i n t e r l o p e r s , and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of an a p a r t h e i d system proceeded apace. N a t i v e s was when B.C.  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y "over"  peremptorily assigned  joined Confederation,  B.C.  t o the F e d e r a l government  though i t would be t e n y e a r s  b e f o r e the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s would e s t a b l i s h a system of d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g d e t a i l e d  Frontier (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981) and Frontier (Sydney: A l l e n and Unwin, 1987). A comparable r e v i s i o n i s t e f f o r t has y e t t o be u n d e r t a k e n i n B.C., though B.A. M c k e l v i e ' s ( a d m i t t e d l y i m p e r i a l i s t and s e n s a t i o n a l i s t ) Tales of Conflict: Indian-White Murders and Massacres in Pioneer B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The P r o v i n c e , 1949) and Gough's Gunboat Frontier represent u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . 131 Hamar F o s t e r , "'The Queen's Law i s B e t t e r t h a n Y o u r s ' : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Homicide i n E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia" i n J i m P h i l l i p s , e t . a l . eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law: Volume V, Crime and Criminal Justice (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1994) pp.41-111, p.84.  77  r e g u l a t i o n by I n d i a n agents under the I n d i a n A c t . Douglas, government a u t h o r i t i e s i n B.C.  After  tended t o assume  t h a t N a t i v e s had no l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s t o ownership of t e r r i t o r i e s , so the e n c l o s u r e of N a t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s  their  was  e f f e c t e d by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f i a t under the a e g i s of a s p e c i a l l y appointed was  I n d i a n Reserve Commission.  This  more o r l e s s complete by the t u r n of the c e n t u r y ,  process though  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l w r a n g l i n g over the e x t e n t and s t a t u s of 133  " I n d i a n l a n d s " would c o n t i n u e time, p r e s s u r e  i n t o the 193 0s.  from s e t t l e r c a p i t a l i s t s induced  At the same continual  "adjustments", r e l o c a t i o n s , and e x p r o p r i a t i o n s of r e s e r v e s so t h a t i n d i g e n o u s  Indian  homelands would e v e n t u a l l y be 134  reduced t o j u s t  .35 % of the p r o v i n c e ' s l a n d base.  The  advance of e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r y , and e l a b o r a t i o n of r e l a t e d f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t o r y regimes, ensured d e c l i n i n g See Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics, pp. 39-52, 68-83; F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, pp.175-211; George S h a n k e l , "The Development of I n d i a n P o l i c y i n B.C.", u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1945 . 133  See Hamar F o s t e r , " L e t t i n g Go the Bone: The Idea of I n d i a n T i t l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1849-1927", i n H. F o s t e r and J . McLaren, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law: Vol.6, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1995) pp.28-86; and E. B r i a n T i t l e y , "Land Claims i n B r i t i s h Columbia", i n A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian A f f a i r s in Canada (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1986) pp.135-161. 134  See B a r t l e t t , Canada's Indian Reserves, p.94. See a l s o Reuben Ware, The Lands We Lost: A History of Cut-Off Lands and Land Losses from Indian Reserves in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Union of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s , 1974).  78  access t o t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence a c t i v i t i e s , while Native l a b o u r , an i n d i s p e n s a b l e element t o European c a p i t a l i s t s i n t h e m e r c a n t i l e and e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t e r a , was r e n d e r e d  more 135  and more m a r g i n a l as t h e s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s f u n c t i o n e d as i n v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t s t o t h e system o f c o l o n i a l  rule,  e s p e c i a l l y through t h e i r management of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l 136  s c h o o l s which began t o appear i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . O v e r a l l , then, t h e s e t t l e m e n t p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d a r e l e n t l e s s c o n s t r i c t i o n o f t h e realm i n which N a t i v e communal t r a d i t i o n s could survive. / A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s , f a r from a c c e p t i n g t h i s  onslaught,  o r g a n i z e d themselves p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e new circumstances,  p a r t i c u l a r l y around t h e s o - c a l l e d " l a n d  q u e s t i o n " : t h e i r e f f o r t s t o invoke A n g l o - C a n a d i a n law and l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a g a i n s t s e t t l e r i n c u r s i o n s began i n t h e 18 60 and 70s and c o n t i n u e d r i g h t up t o t h e 1927 amendment t o the I n d i a n A c t p r o h i b i t i n g l a n d c l a i m s a c t i v i t i e s f o r c e d them underground.  A f u l l - s c a l e r e v i v a l of Native  political  a c t i v i t y would not emerge u n t i l t h e 1960s, when A b o r i g i n a l 135  See K n i g h t , Indians at Work. Seasonal p a r t i c i p a t i o n m the wage economy would remain a s u b s t a n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e N a t i v e economy throughout t h i s p e r i o d , and t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e wage economy v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . James Burrows, "A Much-Needed C l a s s o f Labour: " B.C. Studies 71 (1986) pp.27-46. 136  F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, Resistance and Renewal.  pp.119-145; Haig-Brown,  79  N a t i o n s j o i n e d o t h e r a n t i - s y s t e m i c movements s e e k i n g t o 137  challenge  and t r a n s f o r m  the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l  order.  S i n c e t h e n , B.C. N a t i v e s have s u c c e s s f u l l y used a c o m b i n a t i o n c o u r t a c t i o n , p r o t e s t and n e g o t i a t i o n t o f o r c e the s e t t l e r power s t r u c t u r e t o a d d r e s s N a t i v e demands f o r l a n d and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  Indeed, i t i s f a i r t o s a y t h a t  s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1970s, B r i t i s h Columbia has been i n t h e midst of a p r o t r a c t e d d e c o l o n i z a t i o n s t r u g g l e .  G a l o i s , " I n d i a n R i g h t s " ; Tennant, Aboriginal Politics.  People  and  80  - 3 REDNECK LIBERATION?  S o c i a l i s m i s a dead p o l i t i c a l and economic p h i l o s o p h y i n about 99 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r l d , b u t i t i s a l i v e and w e l l i n one p l a c e i n Canada - and t h a t i s on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . P r e s t o n Manning, 1995 Not an i n c h . On t h e weekend I founded t h e Not An I n c h C l u b . S o l e member, m y s e l f . The Not An Inch Club opposes n e g o t i a t i n g away even a square i n c h (or c e n t i m e t r e i f you i n s i s t ) o f B r i t i s h Columbia s o i l t o N a t i v e I n d i a n s . . . . I say: t h e b i g g e s t can o f worms i n Canadian h i s t o r y i s b e i n g s t e a l t h i l y opened. I s a y : not an i n c h . 2  T r e v o r Lautens, 1995 On F e b r u a r y 1 2 t h , 1996, n e g o t i a t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e N i s g a ' a T r i b a l C o u n c i l and t h e governments o f B.C. and Canada announced t h a t they had reached an agreement i n p r i n c i p l e (AIP) r e g a r d i n g t h e N i s g a ' a c l a i m f o r l a n d and s e l f government i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s i n t h e Nass V a l l e y , on t h e p r o v i n c e ' s northwest  coast.  The d e a l was a  l o n g time coming f o r t h e N i s g a ' a , who had been a g i t a t i n g f o r a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t ever s i n c e w h i t e s e t t l e r s had f i r s t encroached upon t h i s remote c o r n e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e l a t e nineteenth century.  The N i s g a ' a have been a t t h e  f o r e f r o n t o f t h e movement f o r t r e a t y s e t t l e m e n t s i n B.C. e v e r s i n c e , t h e i r q u a l i f i e d v i c t o r y i n t h e Supreme Court o f Canada i n 1973 i n p a r t i c u l a r marking a w a t e r s h e d i n s o f a r as i t r e s u s c i t a t e d t h e l o n g dormant common law r e c o g n i t i o n o f  Vancouver  Sun, 7 October, 1995.  Vancouver  Sun, 4 A p r i l , 1995.  81  a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and persuaded the f e d e r a l government t o abandon i t s o v e r t l y a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s and b e g i n t o 3  negotiate treaties.  The N i s g a ' a began t a l k s w i t h Ottawa i n  1975, and would w a i t a n o t h e r 15 y e a r s b e f o r e an i n t r a n s i g e n t B.C.  government would a l t e r i t s r e j e c t i o n i s t p o s t u r e and  j o i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y produced the F e b r u a r y deal.  I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h e i r dogged d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s e c u r e  a t r e a t y t h r o u g h s t a t e - s a n c t i o n e d p r o c e s s e s t h a t has  earned  the N i s g a ' a r e g u l a r a c c o l a d e s from s y m p a t h e t i c s e t t l e r s , l i k e P r e m i e r Mike H a r c o u r t , who  see them as exemplars of t h e  "moderate" approach t h a t might e v e n t u a l l y p e r m i t a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of N a t i v e c l a i m s w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g the b a s i c p r e r o g a t i v e s of Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y and a r e s o u r c e - b a s e d settler  capitalism.  Of c o u r s e , on i t s f a c e the F e b r u a r y agreement seems more l i k e a F a u s t i a n b a r g a i n f o r the 5500 o r so N i s g a ' a t h a n a generous  accommodation of t h e i r r i g h t s ; i t i s the s o r t of  v a s t l y o n e - s i d e d d e a l one would expect between a b e l e a g u e r e d i n d i g e n o u s m i n o r i t y and an uncompromising structure terms).  c o l o n i a l power  (whose o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t s l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d the The o r i g i n a l N i s g a ' a c l a i m t o j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r  3  The d e c i s i o n i n Ca.ld.er v. Attorney General of B.C. i s r e p o r t e d a t [1973] S.C.R. 313 ( S . C . C ) . For a summary account of e v e n t s p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g the d e c i s i o n , see Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics pp.213-226. A more complete account of the N i s g a ' a l a n d c l a i m can be found i n D a n i e l Raunet, Without Surrender, Without Consent: A History  82 r o u g h l y 24,000 square k i l o m e t r e s of t e r r i t o r y and  $2b  compensation was pared down t o a c o m p a r a t i v e l y meager 193 0 square k i l o m e t e r s and $190m, i n p e r c a p i t a terms (85 a c r e s and $34,545) the " e q u i v a l e n t of a s m a l l f a r m - s i z e d l o t and enough t o b u i l d a t h i r d of a modest house."  Each  square  k i l o m e t r e of l a n d (and a s s o c i a t e d t r e e s , m i n e r a l s , f i s h f u r s ) was  and  t r a d e d f o r the v a l u e of about 25 o l d growth l o g s , 4  or  $33 p e r a c r e .  C o n t r a s t these amounts w i t h the e s t i m a t e d  $2 t o $4 b i l l i o n i n r e s o u r c e revenues which non-Nisga'a have s i p h o n e d o f f N i s g a ' a t e r r i t o r i e s s i n c e c o l o n i z a t i o n began, the $1.2  t r i l l i o n g e n e r a t e d from B.C.  l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s i n  the twenty y e a r s s i n c e N i s g a ' a n e g o t i a t i o n s began, o r the $8 0 m i l l i o n which a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e company, Repap, i s c l a i m i n g as compensation f o r the p o r t i o n of i t s f o r e s t r y l i c e n s e f a l l i n g w i t h i n N i s g a ' a t r e a t y l a n d s , and  the  c o l o n i a l c a l c u l u s u n d e r l y i n g modern t r e a t y m a k i n g i s p l a i n l y revealed.  5  Politically,  the N i s g a ' a were c o m p e l l e d  to  renounce c l a i m s t o s o v e r e i g n t y i n any m e a n i n g f u l sense and a c c e p t i n s t e a d a " s u p e r - m u n i c i p a l " s t a t u s t h a t ensures  the  of the Nisga'a Land Claims (Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1984) . 4 "Precedents i n d i c a t e everyone got a good d e a l " , Vancouver Sun, 1 March, 1996, A19. The e s t i m a t e f o r N i s g a ' a l a n d s i s d e r i v e d from a P r i c e Waterhouse s t u d y commissioned by the N i s g a ' a . See B.C. R e p o r t 20 March 1995, p.9. The $1.2 t r i l l i o n e s t i m a t e i s from Sun c o l u m n i s t Stephen Hume, "Backroom d u p l i c i t y t h w a r t s e f f o r t s t o s i g n s i m p l e t r e a t y " , Vancouver Sun, 25 August 1995. For the Repap c l a i m , see the Vancouver Sun, 27 January, 1996. 5  83  law-making and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers o f t h e new N i s g a ' a government on N i s g a ' a l a n d s a r e almost subordinate  completely-  t o f e d e r a l and, a s t o n i s h i n g l y , p r o v i n c i a l  legislatures.  P r e d i c t a b l y , t h e f o r c e s o f s e t t l e r r e a c t i o n , l i k e some West c o a s t v e r s i o n o f U l s t e r u n i o n i s t s o r A l g e r i a n pied m o b i l i z e d q u i c k l y t o defend t h e n o t - s o - a n c i e n t h i s p e r i l o u s breach of s e c u r i t y .  noirs,  regime  against  The f i r s t a t t a c k s were  i n i t i a t e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e v a r i o u s  "stakeholder"  groups - a euphemism i n t h i s case f o r major  resource  companies and t h e i r p r o x i e s - which had a l r e a d y d e v o t e d much e f f o r t t o u n d e r m i n i n g support f o r t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s by now underway w i t h o t h e r i n d i g e n o u s  nations i n the province.  Spokesmen f o r t h e r a b i d l y a n t i - N a t i v e B.C. F i s h e r i e s S u r v i v a l C o a l i t i o n , f o r example, t a r g e t e d t h e p r o v i s i o n s r e s e r v i n g a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Nass salmon c a t c h t o t h e Nisga'a,  denouncing t h e c r e a t i o n o f what t h e y c a l l e d a  "race-based f i s h e r y " .  6  The two main o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s ,  each h o p i n g t o c o r r a l t h e r i g h t wing v o t e i n t h e r u n up t o a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , s e i z e d on y e t a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l a m e s e t t l e r b i g o t r y and d i s p l a y t h e i r t r u c u l e n t d i s d a i n for a b o r i g i n a l claims.  BC Reform l e a d e r Jack W e i s g e r b e r ,  r e l y i n g on t h e e r s a t z p o p u l i s m t h a t i s t h e trademark o f b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l "Reformers", demanded t h a t t h e d e a l 6  Vancouver  Sun, F e b r u a r y 16, 1996.  84  be p u t t o a l o c a l referendum  (tantamount  t o a v e t o f o r non-  N i s g a ' a i n t h e Nass r e g i o n ) , w h i l e Gordon Campbell,  Liberal  l e a d e r and l a t e s t "Great R i g h t Hope" o f t h e B.C. b o u r g e o i s i e , i n s i s t e d he would t e a r up t h e d e a l i f i t v i o l a t e d t h e h a l l o w e d p r i n c i p l e of "one law f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbians"  (an e l e c t i o n y e a r s l o g a n whose m a n t r a - l i k e  r e p e t i t i o n earned Campbell t h e t i t l e  "Gordon C u s t e r " among  7  some i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s ) .  Media commentators h e l p e d  circle  t h e wagons w i t h s c r e e d s about t h e c r e a t i o n o f " p o l i t i c a l l y c o r r e c t b a n t u t s t a n s (PCBs)" o r " a f f i r m a t i v e a p a r t h e i d " and g  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of B.C. i n t o t h e "new South  Africa".  Then, on Mar. 28th, t h e c a v a l r y a r r i v e d as l o b b y groups r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e major r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e p l a c e d f u l l - p a g e ads i n t h e major d a i l y newspapers c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e d e a l had been c u t i n s e c r e t and s h o u l d be d e l a y e d u n t i l proper p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n c o u l d take p l a c e . And  so u n f o l d e d y e t another f r a c t i o u s c h a p t e r i n t h e h i s t o r y  of N a t i v e - s e t t l e r r e l a t i o n s i n B.C., t h e N i s g a ' a d e a l marking a watershed  whose u l t i m a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e - p r e l u d e t o  i n d i g e n o u s autonomy o r r e n o v a t i o n o f s e t t l e r supremacy - has y e t t o be determined. response  I n B.C. i n t h e 1990s, t h e s e t t l e r  t o N a t i v e demands f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n has become  a c u r i o u s l y J e k y l l ' a n d Hyde a f f a i r .  I f t h e o f f i c i a l program  7  Among many a r t i c l e s , see t h e Vancouver Sun, 20 November, 1995; 25 November, 1995; and February 24, 1996.  85  for  the r e f u r b i s h m e n t of s e t t l e r supremacy i n B.C.  revolves  around the f a s h i o n i n g of a c o r p o r a t i s t e q u i l i b r i u m t h r o u g h the B.C.  T r e a t y P r o c e s s - s e t t l e r i s m w i t h a human f a c e - i t  has spawned s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i t s own  e v i l o f f s p r i n g i n the  form of an o b s t r e p e r o u s , a n t i - N a t i v e c o a l i t i o n w h i c h has succeeded i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e r o u t i n g , i f not y e t a l t o g e t h e r d e r a i l i n g , the t r e a t y p r o c e s s and a s s o c i a t e d initiatives.  Spearheading  self-government  t h i s b a c k l a s h i s the Reform P a r t y  of Canada which, a l o n g w i t h the v a r i o u s r i g h t wing p a r t i e s competing f o r power at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , has s k i l l f u l l y p l a y e d on the d e e p l y h i s t o r i c a l and m a t e r i a l r o o t s of a n t i N a t i v e sentiment i n d u s t r y workers, interests.  t o b u i l d a motley c o a l i t i o n of middle c l a s s homeowners and  resource  corporate  Though the immediate aims of t h i s New  Custerism  are the r e v e r s a l of the r e f o r m i s t t e n d e n c i e s of r e c e n t y e a r s and the i m p o s i t i o n of a f i n a l s o l u t i o n t h a t w i l l  dispense  once and f o r a l l w i t h the " I n d i a n problem" i n B.C.  (and  Canada), i t s more b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i s t o hegemonize the a n t a g o n i s t i c elements of a s e t t l e r s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n around a fundamentally  c o n s e r v a t i v e programme which seeks t o  s u b o r d i n a t e Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy t o an emerging t r a n s n a t i o n a l order.  To t h i s end,  i t has adopted a  d i s c o u r s e which s k i l l f u l l y weaves t o g e t h e r some of the t r a d i t i o n a l t r o p e s of a n t i - N a t i v e r a c i s m w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e themes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " a n t i - s y s t e m i c " movements o f the p o s t w a r p e r i o d ( a n t i - c o l o n i a l , women's, c i v i l r i g h t s , Western Report,  15 A p r i l 1996,  18.  anti-  86  Vietnam war, Green).  To f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e new wave o f colon  c h a u v i n i s m i n B.C., we  must f i r s t l o o k southward, t o t h e Land o f t h e Free and t h e Home o f t h e Brave, where r i g h t wing p o p u l i s m and modern a n t i - I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n were f o r g e d i n t h e maelstrom o f p o s t - S i x t i e s conservative a g i t a t i o n .  THE  NEW RIGHT JUGGERNAUT  I t i s t h e s o c i a l i s s u e s t h a t g o t us t h i s f a r , and t h a t ' s what w i l l take us i n t o t h e f u t u r e . We never r e a l l y won u n t i l we began s t r e s s i n g i s s u e s l i k e b u s i n g , a b o r t i o n , s c h o o l p r a y e r and gun c o n t r o l . We t a l k e d about t h e s a n c t i t y of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , about t h e Communist o n s l a u g h t u n t i l we were b l u e i n t h e f a c e . But we d i d n ' t s t a r t w i n n i n g m a j o r i t i e s i n e l e c t i o n s u n t i l we got. down t o t h e gut l e v e l issues. U.S. New R i g h t a c t i v i s t R i c h a r d V i g u e r i e , 1981 9  The  g e n e s i s o f r e a c t i o n a r y p o p u l i s m can be t r a c e d back t o  the 1960s, when U.S. c o n s e r v a t i v e s , a l r e a d y c o n t e n d i n g w i t h popular  r e v u l s i o n a t t h e g e n o c i d a l c r i m e s o f Nazism and  imperialism, confronted  the h i s t o r i c resurgence of s o c i a l  movements ( c i v i l r i g h t s , women's, a n t i - w a r )  promoting  p r o g r e s s i v e , even r a d i c a l , v i s i o n s o f e q u a l i t y , community and t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s t a t e .  The e l e c t o r a l f a i l u r e s o f  Goldwater i n 1964 and W a l l a c e i n 1968 taught t h e R i g h t the h y p o t h e s i z e d was n o t s i m p l y  " s i l e n t m a j o r i t y " of conservative  that  Americans  " w a i t i n g i n t h e wings" f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  v e h i c l e , b u t i n s t e a d had t o be a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t e d on a  87  p o l i t i c a l t e r r a i n where the d i s c o u r s e of l i b e r a l humanism i n c r e a s i n g l y h e l d sway.  The  l e s s o n s were t w o f o l d : f i r s t ,  a  c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c s of r e a c t i o n - f o c u s i n g , f o r example, on w h i t e r a c i a l resentment a g a i n s t f e d e r a l d e s e g r e g a t i o n initiatives -  c o u l d be f a r more e f f e c t i v e i n w i n n i n g  p o p u l a r support than f r e e market e v a n g e l i s m ;  and  second,  such c u l t u r a l w a r f a r e c o u l d be most s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o s e c u t e d by a p p r o p r i a t i n g the p r o g r e s s i v e d i s c o u r s e of the R i g h t ' s L e f t - l i b e r a l opponents.  I f e q u a l i t y was  now  a legitimate  s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e , the defense of i n e q u a l i t y would have t o assume a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e , a d o p t i n g a v a r i e t y o f codewords and symbols which Edgar d e s c r i b e s as a " p o l i t i c s of euphemism".  10  Wallace's  defence of Southern  i n terms of " s t a t e ' s r i g h t s " was  segregationism  prototypical in this  r e g a r d , w h i l e the Boston b u s i n g c o n t r o v e r s y of 1974, defenders  where  of s e p a r a t e s c h o o l i n g masqueraded as p r o m o t e r s " o f  "community c o n t r o l " and  " p a r e n t a l involvement",  moment i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of t h i s s t r a t e g y .  marked a key  1 1  By the e a r l y 1970s, c o n s e r v a t i v e s t r a t e g i s t s had these l e s s o n s i n t o a new  p o l i t i c a l mythology, and  formulated electoral  9  Quoted i n Mike D a v i s , Prisoners of the American Dream (London: Verso, 1985) 171. D a v i d Edgar, "Reagan's Hidden Agenda: Racism and the New American R i g h t " , Race and Class 22 (1981) pp. 221- 242 a t 235 . 10  88 gameplan, which "sought t o combine i n one  acceptable  c o n s t r u c t the r a d i c a l i n s t i n c t s of the v a s t middle society  l a y e r s of  (those i n s t i n c t s of h a t r e d and resentment d i r e c t e d  t o the r i c h above them) w i t h a r a t i o n a l e f o r r e t a i n i n g  their  12  s u p e r i o r i t y over the masses of poor below them."  It  p r o p o s e d a v e r i t a b l e c o n s p i r a c y between a r e v o l v i n g a r r a y o f d e v i a n t s who  v i o l a t e d i n some way  the norms of the f r e e  market and w h i t e , h e t e r o p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y l i f e  (Black  w e l f a r e mothers and youth gangs, i l l e g a l immigrants) and "New  a  C l a s s " o r " l i b e r a l e l i t e " of l e f t - l e a n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s  ( u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , government b u r e a u c r a t s , personnel)  who  p u r p o r t e d t o r e p r e s e n t these d e v i a n t s e c t o r s  but o n l y t o f u r t h e r t h e i r own p u r s u i t o f s t a t e power. l i t u r g y , the new  hidden agenda, the  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s now  c l a s s was  dramatic, post-Depression embodied i n New  media  selfish  familiar  the main a r c h i t e c t of the expansion  of government a c t i v i t y  Deal and Great S o c i e t y programs (the nanny  s t a t e ) , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d not o n l y a massive a s s a u l t on  the  i n d i v i d u a l freedom and e q u a l i t y of the " p r o d u c t i v e " s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y (white workers,  c a p i t a l i s t s and  f a m i l i e s ) , but a c o l o s s a l b e t r a y a l of the disadvantaged"  suburban "truly  whose consequent w e l f a r e dependency e n s u r e d  moral d e g r a d a t i o n and p e r p e t u a l p o v e r t y .  Meanwhile the  c l a s s " and l e g i o n s of w e l f a r e cheats s e l f i s h l y reaped the M i c h a e l Omi and Howard Winant, Race Formation in United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (London: Routledge, 1986) pp. 109-136. 11  the  "new  89 b e n e f i t s of t a x , borrow and spend p o l i c i e s .  With t h i s  d i a g n o s i s of s o c i a l d e c l i n e i n p l a c e , the New R i g h t c a s t i t s e l f as the agent of " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " change and the t r u e d e f e n d e r of u n i v e r s a l v a l u e s , which would o b l i t e r a t e the b l o a t e d Nanny s t a t e and the p a r a s i t i c elements i t s u p p o s e d l y  Lewis Lapham, among o t h e r s , has e f f e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e d t h e l u d i c r o u s n e s s of t h i s p o s t u r i n g by "the h e i r s and s e r v a n t s of American o l i g a r c h y " : "here were the p e o p l e who owned most of what was w o r t h owning i n the c o u n t r y (the banks and b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a t i o n s as w e l l as the t e l e v i s i o n networks and most of the members of Congress) p r e t e n d i n g t h a t t h e y were the v i c t i m s of a c o n s p i r a c y r a i s e d a g a i n s t them by t h e 14  i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t t h e y themselves c o n t r o l l e d " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the New R i g h t ' s c a l c u l a t e d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the c o n t r a d i c t o r y t e n d e n c i e s toward a n t i - e l i t i s m and b l a m i n g the v i c t i m embedded i n p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s has h e l p e d t o t r a n s f o r m the American p o l i t i c a l l a n d s c a p e i n the l a s t  two  decades, a s e i s m i c s h i f t m a n i f e s t e d not o n l y i n the ReaganBush p r e s i d e n t i a l v i c t o r i e s of the 1980s and the G i n g r i c h 12 13  Edgar, "Reagan's Hidden Agenda".  F o r an e x c e l l e n t s o c i o l o g i c a l d i s s e c t i o n of t h i s r h e t o r i c which demonstrates t h a t i t s a d v o c a t e s a r e themselves members of the New C l a s s see B a r b a r a E h r e n r e i c h , Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class (New York: Harper C o l l i n s , 1989).  90 l e d c o n g r e s s i o n a l " r e v o l u t i o n " of 1994,  but a l s o i n the  s t u n n i n g r i g h t w a r d t r a j e c t o r y f o l l o w e d by the  Democratic  p a r t y i n the passage from C a r t e r t o C l i n t o n .  TWO  HUNDRED MILLION CUSTERS  The Great Fear, w i t h i n any s e t t l e r s t a t e , i s t h a t i f i n d i g e n o u s l a n d r i g h t s are e v e r o p e n l y acknowledged, and n a t i v e people t h e r e f o r e b e g i n t o r e c o v e r some s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e i r l a n d , the immigrants w i l l c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y be d i s - p o s s e s s e d of what they've come to consider " t h e i r s " . . . . T e l l i n g l y , e v e r y major I n d i a n l a n d r e c o v e r y i n i t i a t i v e i n the U.S. d u r i n g the second h a l f o f the 20th c e n t u r y - those i n Maine, the B l a c k H i l l s , the Oneida c l a i m s i n New York s t a t e , and Western Shoshone are prime examples - has been met by a propaganda b a r r a g e from r i g h t - w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s r a n g i n g from the Ku K l u x K l a n t o the John B i r c h s o c i e t y t o the R e p u b l i c a n p a r t y warning i n d i v i d u a l n o n - I n d i a n p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s of e x a c t l y t h i s ' p e r i l ' . Ward C h u r c h i l l  1 5  O v e r l a p p i n g w i t h the emergence of " a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o p u l i s m " i n the U.S.  was  the b i r t h , i n the mid-1970s, of a v i g o r o u s ,  w e l l - o r g a n i z e d " a n t i - I n d i a n " movement, o s t e n s i b l y r o o t e d i n the l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e of w h i t e p r o p e r t y owners and  resource  u s e r s t o i n i t i a t i v e s d e s i g n e d t o r e d r e s s a wide range of i n d i g e n o u s g r i e v a n c e s , but bent on advancing the e r o s i o n o f  Lewis Lapham, " R e a c t i o n a r y C h i c " , Harper's Magazine, May 1995, pp.31-42. Ward C h u r c h i l l , " I Am I n d i g e n i s t " , i n Struggle for the Land: Indigenous Resistance to Genocide, Ecocide and Expropriation in Contemporary North America (Toronto: Between the L i n e s , 1992) pp. 403-451, a t 413. Two Hundred M i l l i o n Custers i s the t i t l e of a 1978 book by former Washington s t a t e commercial f i s h e r B i l l Lowman which remains the b i b l e of the U.S. a n t i - I n d i a n l o b b y . 15  91  the I n d i a n l a n d base and p o l i t i c a l autonomy. I n d i a n movement was  The  anti-  a key c o n s t i t u e n t of the s o - c a l l e d  "white b a c k l a s h " a g a i n s t v a r i o u s a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n measures adopted by U.S.  governments i n response t o mass  p o l i t i c a l movements of p e o p l e of c o l o r i n the 1960s, i n c l u d i n g o p p o s i t i o n to school busing,  electoral  r e d i s t r i c t i n g , and a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n i n employment education.  and  These, a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r s i n g l e - i s s u e , r i g h t  wing movements of the 1970s - the a n t i - f e m i n i s t campaigns a g a i n s t the ERA  and r e p r o d u c t i v e freedom, A n i t a  Bryant's  a n t i - g a y r i g h t s crusade - were the engine of the New  Right's  e l e c t o r a l machine.  Though the movement sought from the o u t s e t t o m o b i l i z e on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s , i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l core remains r e s t r i c t e d t o t h r e e s t a t e s - Washington, W i s c o n s i n  and Montana - where  groups w i t h names l i k e the I n t e r s t a t e Congress f o r E q u a l R i g h t s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Montanans Opposed t o  See R u d o l f R e i s e r ' s comprehensive study, The Anti-Indian Movement on the Tribal Frontier (Olympia: C e n t e r f o r World Indigenous S t u d i e s , 1995); S c o t t K e r r , "The New I n d i a n Wars", The Progressive A p r i l 1990, pp.20-21; and E i l e e n M. S t i l l w a g o n , " A n t i - I n d i a n A g i t a t i o n and Economic I n t e r e s t s " Monthly Review November 1981, pp. 28-41. I borrow the n o t i o n of " a u t h o r i t a r i a n populism" from S t u a r t H a l l , whose i n c i s i v e a n a l y s i s of T h a t c h e r i s m i n B r i t a i n b r o a d l y p a r a l l e l s the d i s c u s s i o n of Reaganism o u t l i n e d above. See h i s The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left (London: Verso, 1988). 17 See Mike D a v i s , "The New R i g h t ' s Road t o Power", i n Prisoners of the American Dream, pp.157-180.  92 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , W i s c o n s i n A l l i a n c e f o r R i g h t s and R e s o u r c e s , Equal R i g h t s f o r Everyone, and Stop T r e a t y Abuse c o n t i n u e t o 18 flourish.  The movement has f o c u s e d i t s a t t a c k s i n two  a r e a s : c h a l l e n g e s t o t r i b a l government j u r i s d i c t i o n t o r e g u l a t e on-reserve  a c t i v i t i e s o f non-members ( t y p i c a l l y b u t  not always w h i t e p r o p e r t y owners) and t o t r e a t y - b a s e d f i s h i n g r i g h t s r e c o g n i z e d by landmark f e d e r a l c o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n Washington and W i s c o n s i n  (the " B o l d t " and 19 " V o i g t " d e c i s i o n s o f 1974 and 1983 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  Movement r h e t o r i c has tended t o r e v o l v e around t h e defense of "white c i v i l r i g h t s " i n t h e f a c e o f attempts  by f e d e r a l  and t r i b a l governments t o c r e a t e I n d i a n " s u p e r c i t i z e n s " , b u t has a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e d t h e language o f t h e Green movement: the u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a n t i - I n d i a n a c t i v i t y i n Washington f o r much o f t h e 1980s, f o r example, was Salmon20 S t e e l h e a d P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t i o n Now (S/SPAWN).  While the  f a i l u r e o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments t o d i s c h a r g e  their  h i s t o r i c ' o b l i g a t i o n s t o i n d i g e n o u s n a t i o n s has u n d o u b t e d l y 18 R e i s e r , The Anti-Indian  Movement.  19 S t e v e n S i l v e r n , "Nature, T e r r i t o r y and I d e n t i t y m t h e W i s c o n s i n T r e a t y R i g h t s C o n t r o v e r s y " Ecumene 2 (1995) 267292. F o r an overview o f f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n t h e U.S., i n c l u d i n g Washington s t a t e , see The I n s t i t u t e f o r N a t u r a l P r o g r e s s , " I n U s u a l and Accustomed P l a c e s : Contemporary American I n d i a n F i s h i n g R i g h t s S t r u g g l e s " , i n M. A n n e t t e Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization and Resistance (Boston: South End P r e s s , 1992) pp.217-239.  93  l e f t some w h i t e s w i t h l e g i t i m a t e concerns about l a n d and resource  p o l i c y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t t h e movement -  led  by p r o f e s s i o n a l l o b b y i s t s , funded by l a r g e  corporations,  and  f r e q u e n t l y connected w i t h s t a t e R e p u b l i c a n p a r t i e s - has  as i t s main o b j e c t i v e not r e c o n c i l i a t i o n but t h e complete e r a d i c a t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s n a t i o n s as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s and the a b s o r p t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e i n t o t h e g e n e r a l population  so as t o remove b a r r i e r s t o c o r p o r a t e 21  e x p l o i t a t i o n of Native  l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s .  Indeed, t h e  U.S. a n t i - I n d i a n movement i n t h e 1990s i s p a r t and p a r c e l o f a dense network o f r i g h t wing o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e s a potpourri of anti-environmentalists, C h r i s t i a n fundamentalists,  w h i t e s u p r e m a c i s t s and anti-government  22 militias. THE  TWILIGHT OF EXTRACTIONISM  A c r i s i s o c c u r s , sometimes l a s t i n g f o r decades. This e x c e p t i o n a l d u r a t i o n means t h a t i n c u r a b l e s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s have r e v e a l e d themselves (reached m a t u r i t y ) , and t h a t , d e s p i t e t h i s , t h e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o conserve and defend t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s i t s e l f a r e making e v e r y e f f o r t t o c u r e them, w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , and t o overcome them. These i n c r e a s e d and p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s ( s i n c e no s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n w i l l e v e r admit t h a t i t has been superseded) form t h e t e r r a i n o f t h e ' c o n j u n c t u r a l ' , and i t i s upon t h i s t e r r a i n t h a t t h e f o r c e s of o p p o s i t i o n o r g a n i z e .  R e i s e r , The Anti-Indian  Movement, pp.22-27.  21 Stillwagon, "Anti-Indian Agitation". 22 R e i s e r p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w o f t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s , b o t h i d e o l o g i c a l l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , between t h e s e v a r i o u s r i g h t wing groups.  94 A n t o n i o Gramsci I t would not be l o n g b e f o r e Canada c o u l d add these  two  o v e r l a p p i n g and r e a c t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s t o i t s l i s t U.S.  i m p o r t s ; i n B.C.,  of  they would e f f e c t i v e l y merge, as  developments i n the 1980s and e a r l y 1990s paved the way the r i s e t o prominence of an a n t i - N a t i v e movement. sense, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g new  for  In  one  about s e t t l e r m o b i l i z a t i o n s  a g a i n s t N a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and i n i t i a t i v e s  - i t has been,  r a t h e r , a r e c u r r i n g f e a t u r e of p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n the p r o v i n c e s i n c e s e t t l e m e n t began.  But the n o v e l t y o f the  most r e c e n t round of a n t i - N a t i v e a g i t a t i o n l i e s i n i t s c e n t r a l i t y t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l programme - r i g h t wing populism  - and i n i t s f u n c t i o n as an i d e o l o g i c a l response  to  u n d e r l y i n g s h i f t s i n the s t r u c t u r e of s e t t l e r c a p i t a l i s m ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p r o t r a c t e d c r i s i s i n the e x t r a c t i v e industries).  The r e s u l t i s t h a t the p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e  N a t i v e r i g h t s has moved t o c e n t e r stage i n B.C. the f i r s t time, perhaps,  over  politics for  i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  Three o v e r l a p p i n g p o l i t i c a l dynamics have condensed i n t h i s moment t o produce the p r e s e n t c o n j u n c t u r e .  The  first  the f l a r e - u p i n the l a t e 1980s of c o n f l i c t s over p o l i c y w h i c h had been s m o l d e r i n g f o r decades.  was  resource  In a s e r i e s  of h i g h p r o f i l e , v a l l e y - b y - v a l l e y c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , F i r s t  Quoted i n D a v i d Forgacs, ed. An A n t o n i o Gramsci (New York: Schocken, 1988) p. 201.  Reader  95  N a t i o n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  (frequently working i n  a l l i a n c e ) began t o c o n t e s t o p e n l y the s u z e r a i n t y of m u l t i n a t i o n a l resource  c o r p o r a t i o n s whose o v e r c u t t i n g  consumed much of B.C.'s o l d growth f o r e s t s and  had  threatened 24  the l o n g term v i a b i l i t y of a key economic s e c t o r . i n 1990,  Then,  the Supreme Court of Canada handed down i t s  d e c i s i o n i n Regina  v. Sparrow, w i t h  far-reaching 25  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the west c o a s t  fishing industry.  f e d e r a l Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, w h i c h disregarded  Native  subordinating  f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n B.C.  them t o the p r e r o g a t i v e s  s p o r t f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s , was  The had  f o r decades,  of the commercial  and  required to overhaul i t s  r e g u l a t o r y scheme t o a c c o r d N a t i v e c e r e m o n i a l and f i s h e r i e s a p r i o r i t y second o n l y t o  food  conservation  26  requirements.  C o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s responded t o t h i s  Meares I s l a n d , L y a l l I s l a n d , the Carmanah V a l l e y , the S t e i n V a l l e y - t h e s e are j u s t some of the f l a s h p o i n t s f o r s t r u g g l e between r e s o u r c e companies and t h e i r opponents i n the 1980s. G l a v i n n o t e s t h a t at the end of the decade, d u r i n g the Oka summer of 1990, t h e r e were N a t i v e b l o c k a d e s at A l e r t Bay, A g a s s i z , F o u n t a i n , Gitwangak, K i t w a n c o o l , M e z i a d i n J u n c t i o n , N o r t h Vancouver, O l i v e r , P a v i l i o n , Pemberton, P e n t i c t o n , Toosey and Vernon. See T e r r y G l a v i n , "Roadblocks t o R e c o n c i l i a t i o n " , Georgia Straight, J u l y 7-14, 1995 . 25  26  Regina  v. Sparrow  [1990] 1 S.C.R.  1075.  The r e s u l t i n g changes, e v e n t u a l l y f o r m u l a t e d i n t o a comprehensive A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s S t r a t e g y , were p a l t r y compared t o the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n wrought by the B o l d t d e c i s i o n i n Washington (where a f u l l 50% of the s t a t e ' s commercial c a t c h was a l l o c a t e d t o N a t i v e s ) , but managed n o n e t h e l e s s t o provoke i n c r e a s i n g l y v i t r i o l i c a t t a c k s from w h i t e f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s p e r c e i v i n g a threat to t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d access to  96 s e r i e s o f s e t b a c k s by c r e a t i n g and b a n k r o l l i n g t h e f r o n t groups - Share B.C., t h e F o r e s t A l l i a n c e , t h e B.C. F i s h e r i e s S u r v i v a l C o a l i t i o n - t h a t would form t h e backbone o f a n t i Native organizing e f f o r t s .  To f u r t h e r t h i s agenda, t h e y  f o r g e d l i n k s a n t i - N a t i v e and a n t i - e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups i n the U.S., w h i c h had by t h e n d e v e l o p e d a w e a l t h o f e x p e r i e n c e i n countering l e g i s l a t i v e e f f o r t s to c u r t a i l private 27 interests. A second f a c t o r was t h e e l e c t o r a l i n s u r g e n c y o f t h e Reform P a r t y o f Canada, d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p u r s u i t o f p o l i t i c a l power u s i n g t h e r i g h t wing p o p u l i s t f o r m u l a .  L i k e Reaganism i n  the U.S., t h e Canadian v e r s i o n o f p o p u l i s t r e a c t i o n  emerged  i n t h e west and was b a n k r o l l e d a new and r e l a t i v e l y autonomous f r a c t i o n o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e  ( i n Reform's c a s e ,  28  A l b e r t a o i l barons).  Founded i n Vancouver i n 1987 under  d w i n d l i n g f i s h s t o c k s . F o r an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c e n t u r y - l o n g c o n f l i c t between N a t i v e and n o n - N a t i v e f i s h e r s i n B.C., i n c l u d i n g the aftermath of the A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s S t r a t e g y , see Diane N e w e l l , Tangled Webs of History: Indians and the Law in Canada's Pacific Coast Fisheries (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1993). On t h e s i t u a t i o n i n n e i g h b o r i n g Washington, see Fay G. Cohen, Treaties on Trial: The Continuing Controversy Over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1986). 27 See G l a v i n , "Roadblocks t o R e c o n c i l i a t i o n " . Background on t h e SHARE B.C., which r o s e t o prominence d u r i n g i n some of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a t t l e s o f t h e l a t e 1980s, may be found i n Greenpeace, The Greenpeace Guide to Anti-Environmental Organizations ( B e r k e l e y : Odonian P r e s s , 1996) pp. 93-95. 28 See Murray Dobbin, Preston Manning and the Reform Party (Toronto: James L o r i m e r , 1991) f o r an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s and development o f t h e Reform phenomenon. As Mike  97  the l e a d e r s h i p of P r e s t o n Manning, the p a r t y developed  a  p l a t f o r m which combined the s t a n d a r d "hot b u t t o n " i s s u e s 29  w i t h a facade of d i r e c t , g r a s s r o o t s democracy. sought i n i t i a l support by promoting  Though i t  i t s e l f as a v o i c e f o r  "western a l i e n a t i o n " , i t has managed t o transmute resentment  regional  into belligerent opposition to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  r e c o g n i t i o n of Quebecois r i g h t s , c o u c h i n g an a g g r e s s i v e Anglo c h a u v i n i s m i n terms of " p r o v i n c i a l e q u a l i t y " opposition to "special status". referendum  d e f e a t of the 1992  I t s prominent  and  r o l e i n the  Charlottetown Accord  (a  package of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reforms which c o n t a i n e d modest c o n c e s s i o n s t o Quebecois and A b o r i g i n a l n a t i o n a l i s m ) t r a n s l a t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o e l e c t o r a l success i n the  1993  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , where i t c a p t u r e d o v e r 50 s e a t s  (including  24 of B.C.'s 32 f e d e r a l s e a t s ) and n a r r o w l y missed the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n .  forming  S i n c e then, the main c h a l l e n g e f o r  Reform has been t o t r a n s m o g r i f y i t s e l f from a r e g i o n a l protest party into a national p o l i t i c a l rendered d i f f i c u l t  contender,  a project  by i t s l a c k l u s t e r performance i n Quebec  and O n t a r i o and the c o n t i n u i n g s u s p i c i o n t h a t i t s d e m o c r a t i c populism  (however i l l u s o r y ) evokes among the dominant  f r a c t i o n s of the Canadian b o u r g e o i s i e - as one a n a l y s t put it,  the " b u s i n e s s community i s a l i t t l e w o r r i e d about  whether Reformers are r e a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e s o r are t h e y D a v i s has p o i n t e d out, Reagan's p o l i t i c a l machine was funded by a number of prominent S u n b e l t c a p i t a l i s t s . See Prisoners of the American Dream, pp.171-176.  98  r e a l l y p o p u l i s t s . . . p o p u l i s t s t e n d t o be v e r y e x p l o i t a t i v e o f 30  the b u s i n e s s community".  Nonetheless, since  first  e l e c t i n g MPs i n the l a t e 1980s, Reform's main achievement has been t o s h i f t the p o l i t i c a l c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y i n Canada s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the r i g h t w i t h a p o l i t i c a l programme t h a t a r t f u l l y hitches  the f a m i l i a r wagon o f w e s t e r n p r o t e s t  to  31  the  " a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o p u l i s m " o f Reagan and T h a t c h e r .  In  c a s t i n g about f o r i s s u e s which have the p o t e n t i a l t o mobilize  mass support on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s , Reform has  i n c r e a s i n g l y focused i t s attacks In B.C.,  upon the " N a t i v e agenda".  Reform's p r o f i l e has been enhanced by t h e l a r g e  number o f f e d e r a l s e a t s i t h o l d s , but a l s o because i t s p s e u d o - p o p u l i s t s t r a t e g i e s have been emulated by t h e p r o v i n c i a l opposition  p a r t i e s competing t o f i l l  t h e vacuum  c r e a t e d by t h e Socred's e l e c t o r a l i m p l o s i o n i n 1991. F i n a l l y , changes i n government, and a s s o c i a t e d government p o l i c y , marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a backlash.  changes i n full-blown  The e l e c t i o n o f the NDP i n 1991 and t h e f e d e r a l  29  30  Ibid.  "Corporate Donors C o l d - S h o u l d e r Reform", Vancouver Sun F e b r u a r y 10, 1996. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o r p o r a t e d o n a t i o n s among f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e L i b e r a l s and T o r i e s remain the p a r t i e s o f c h o i c e f o r Canada's major c o r p o r a t i o n s , f o r c i n g Reform t o r e l y on s u p p o r t from o t h e r sources.  31  For an i n t e r e s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e Reform P a r t y ' s p o p u l i s t d i s c o u r s e , see Steve P a t t e n , " P r e s t o n Manning's P o p u l i s m : C o n s t r u c t i n g the Common Sense o f t h e  99 L i b e r a l s i n 1993, b o t h committed on paper t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n of N a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s , s e r v e d up t h e p e r f e c t c o m b i n a t i o n o f " p a r l o r s o c i a l i s t s " and " b l e e d i n g h e a r t " L i b e r a l s on w h i c h t o p i n t h e c r i m e s o f a New C l a s s .  I t a l s o guaranteed the  i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e B.C. T r e a t y p r o c e s s ,  ensuring  anti-  Native forces a steady flow of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r demagoguery.  I n 1994, w i t h t h e p r o c e s s b a r e l y o f f t h e  ground, t h e B.C. r i g h t began t o manufacture one f a l s e controversy  a f t e r a n o t h e r : f i r s t a c c u s i n g t h e NDP o f  s e c r e t l y c u t t i n g "backroom d e a l s " w i t h N a t i v e s threatened  that  t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o r d i n a r y B r i t i s h Columbians;  t h e n a s s a i l i n g t h e e x c l u s i o n o f " t h i r d p a r t i e s " from n e g o t i a t i o n s ; and f i n a l l y , when i t became apparent t h a t t h e NDP was e n t e r i n g i n t o I n t e r i m Measures Agreements (IMAs) w i t h F i r s t Nations  t o l i m i t resource  a c t i v i t i e s and ensure  Native p o l i c y input i n lands subject t o t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , h o l d i n g t h e s e up as p r o o f t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l government was 32  preparing f o r a wholesale s e l l o u t t o Natives.  I n each  i n s t a n c e , a n t i - N a t i v e f o r c e s denounced a n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h was f a r more open and d e m o c r a t i c ,  and f a r l e s s  determinative  o f j o b s e c u r i t y and economic w e l l - b e i n g ,  the r e s o u r c e  management d e c i s i o n s t h a t i n d u s t r y and t h e  Common P e o p l e " Studies 132 .  in Political  than  Economy 50 (1996) pp.95-  32  See, e.g., B.C. Report, June 6, 1994; Vancouver Sun, September 19, 1994; B.C. Report, A p r i l 10, 1995; Native Issues Monthly, September, 1994.  100  v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government r o u t i n e l y make b e h i n d c l o s e d 33  doors.  SUMMER OF HATE  We a r e so c l o s e t o v i o l e n c e i n r u r a l B.C. t h a t i t ' s n o t even funny 34  Reform MP Mike S c o t t  The  s t e a d y clamour g e n e r a t e d by a n t i - N a t i v e f o r c e s i n 1993  and  1994 reached a crescendo i n t h e s p r i n g and summer o f  1995,  when B.C. F i r s t N a t i o n s launched t h e most  round o f p r o t e s t s s i n c e t h e O k a - i n s p i r e d The  intense  r e s i s t a n c e o f 1990.  main t a r g e t s o f s e t t l e r f u r y were a s e r i e s o f r o a d b l o c k s  e s t a b l i s h e d by d i f f e r e n t F i r s t N a t i o n s t o p r o t e s t o n g o i n g s e t t l e r infringements  on t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s and  a c t i v i t i e s and t o secure i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n s e n v i r o n m e n t a l and r e s o u r c e  policies.  Upper N i c o l a F i r s t N a t i o n b l o c k e d  regarding  I n May and June, t h e  a c c e s s t o t h e Douglas Lake  Ranch near M e r r i t t t o p r o t e s t attempts t o p r e v e n t f i s h i n g i n a n c e s t r a l l a k e s l o c a t e d on r a n c h p r o p e r t y ;  f o r most o f t h e  s p r i n g and summer, t h e Adams Lake, L i t t l e Shuswap, and  As Sun c o l u m n i s t Stephen Hume p o i n t e d out, Gordon Campbell, l e a d e r o f t h e L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n and o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c o f t h e supposed " s e c r e c y " s u r r o u n d i n g t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , had h i m s e l f s i g n e d a p r o t o c o l ( i n h i s former c a p a c i t y as c h a i r o f t h e Union o f B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) w h i c h gave m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e power t o e x c l u d e t h e p u b l i c from c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l government on t r e a t y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Vancouver Sun, December 20, 1995. 34  Quoted i n G l a v i n , "Roadblocks t o R e c o n c i l i a t i o n " .  101  Neskonlith F i r s t Nations maintained a roadblock along the a c c e s s r o a d t o Adams Lake t o p r e v e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an RV p a r k on t r a d i t i o n a l b u r i a l grounds;  from l a t e J u l y t o mid-  September, t h e p r o v i n c e (and t h e c o u n t r y ) was t r a n s f i x e d by the t e n s e s t a n d o f f a t G u s t a f s e n Lake; and i n t h e f a l l , t h e P e n t i c t o n F i r s t N a t i o n began b u i l d i n g bunkers above t h e a c c e s s r o a d t o Apex as p a r t o f t h e i r ongoing o p p o s i t i o n t o the e x p a n s i o n o f a s k i r e s o r t .  3 5  Media a c c o u n t s , c o n t i n u i n g t h e l o c a l t r a d i t i o n o f a g g r e s s i v e w h i t e supremacy and r a c i s t fearmongering begun by Amor de Cosmos i n t h e 1860s, d w e l l e d on t h e harassment,  intimidation  and h a r d s h i p t o which l o c a l w h i t e s were s u b j e c t e d by t h i s rash of "Indian u p r i s i n g s " .  R e s i d e n t s spoke o f b e i n g " c l o s e  t o c i v i l war" and " s l e e p i n g w i t h guns a t t h e s i d e o f t h e i r 36  beds".  P u n d i t s and o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c i a n s r a i l e d a g a i n s t  N a t i v e " t e r r o r i s t s " and "thugs" h o l d i n g t h e p r o v i n c e hostage t o t h e i r o u t l a n d i s h demands, c a l l i n g f o r t h e use o f f o r c e t o demonstrate  t h a t B r i t i s h Columbians had "zero t o l e r a n c e " f o r 37  Native blockades.  They c a s t i g a t e d t h e NDP f o r b e i n g  "weak kneed" and " t o o s o f t on t h e I n d i a n s " (a p e r c e p t i o n t h e government t r i e d e v e n t u a l l y t o d i s p e l l w i t h t h e i r A f r i k a n e r s t y l e h a n d l i n g o f t h e G u s t a f s e n Lake s t a n d o f f ) .  August  35  See J a c q u i e A l l e n , "A Year o f C o n t i n u i n g C o n f i c t s " , Native Issues Monthly, December 1995, p.18. 36  Vancouver Sun, 19 J u l y and 2 9 August, 1995.  102  w i t n e s s e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f y e t a n o t h e r a n t i - N a t i v e group, the  F e d e r a t i o n f o r I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s and E q u a l i t y  (FIRE),  composed m a i n l y o f o u t r a g e d r e s i d e n t s from a r e a s t a r g e t e d by Native protests.  O r g a n i z e d by a former a i d e t o a P e n t i c t o n -  a r e a Reform MP, t h e group c l a i m e d t h a t "the s o - c a l l e d l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t s which t h e s e government's  propose exceed  a l l l e g a l e n t i t l e m e n t and w i l l d e s t r o y t h e l i v e l i h o o d s o f many' c i t i z e n s and communities", and by summer's end was 38  c l a i m i n g t o have s i g n e d up thousands o f angry w h i t e s .  W i t h a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n looming, t h e r i g h t wing p a r t i e s r u s h e d t o c a s h i n on a r i s i n g t i d e o f p u b l i c e x a s p e r a t i o n t h a t t h e y had l a r g e l y h e l p e d t o foment.  I n t h e summer and  f a l l o f 1995, each i s s u e d p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s d i s p l a y i n g  their  w i l l i n g n e s s , a l a John Wayne, t o defend w h i t e r i g h t s a g a i n s t uppity Indians.  Gordon Campbell, f o r example, b o r r o w i n g  d i r e c t l y from U.S. a n t i - N a t i v e groups, began e l e c t i o n e e r i n g w i t h a c a l l f o r "one law f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbians", and l a t e r t h r e a t e n e d t o " t e a r up any N i s g a ' a d e a l " w h i c h  failed  39  to  respect that p r i n c i p l e .  I n September,  the f e d e r a l  Reform p a r t y announced i t s own a b o r i g i n a l p o l i c y , t h e 37 38  See, e.g., Vancouver  Sun, 31 May, 2 June, 1995.  "Group aims t o change p o l i c y on I n d i a n a f f a i r s " , Vancouver Sun, 20 September, 1995; "FIRE t h e N e g o t i a t o r s " , B.C. Report, 28 August, 1995.  39  See B.C. L i b e r a l s , " D i s c u s s i o n Paper: A b o r i g i n a l T r e a t y N e g o t i o n s " , June 21, 1995; and John Malcomson, "One Law f o r  103  c u l m i n a t i o n o f a much a d v e r t i s e d s e r i e s o f "town h a l l meetings" conducted f o r t h e p a r t y f a i t h f u l i n B.C. and Ontario.  U l t i m a t e l y , the p o l i c i e s of a l l the p a r t i e s  emphasize t h e same p r i n c i p l e s : a pseudo-democratic emphasis on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n e g o t i a t i o n s , and r a t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s u l t i n g t r e a t i e s , t y p i c a l l y t h r o u g h some form o f referendum;  a s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t be l i m i t e d  to the municipal and  form a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbians,  s t r i c t l y subordinate  t o p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l  l e g i s l a t u r e s ; an i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s e t t l e m e n t s  should  consist  p r i m a r i l y o f cash, n o t l a n d , and be " a f f o r d a b l e " t o Canadian taxpayers;  and a demand t h a t t r e a t i e s s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h  " c e r t a i n t y " by e x p l i c i t l y e x t i n g u i s h i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n 40  a r e a s e x c l u d e d from t h e s e t t l e m e n t s .  The h y p o c r i s y o f  t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s was n e a t l y c a p t u r e d i n one l e t t e r t o t h e Vancouver  Sun, which p o i n t e d l y asked "those who want a  t r e a t y t h a t e l i m i n a t e s u n c e r t a i n t y , o r g u a r a n t e e s t h a t no one w i l l f e e l a b e t t e r d e a l c o u l d have been reached" what s o r t o f model t h e y e n v i s i o n e d :  "the BNA A c t , perhaps? NAFTA? 41  The  Sun's c o l l e c t i v e agreement w i t h i t s u n i o n s ? " .  ANTI-NATIVE NATIVISM  A l l : B.C. L i b e r a l s U n v e i l T r e a t y P o l i c y " , Native Issues Monthly J u l y 19 95; Vancouver Sun, 2 0 November, 1995. 40  A comparison o f t h e B.C. L i b e r a l and Reform B.C. p41o s i t i o n s may be found i n t h e Vancouver Sun, June 28, 1995. Vancouver Sun, 21 March 19 96.  104 N a t i v e t r e a t i e s w i l l change B.C. f o r e v e r . W i l l i t be E q u a l i t y or Apartheid?... Should B.C. be d i v i d e d i n t o a patchwork of j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t laws f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of Canadians? Do you want y o u r c h i l d r e n t o grow up and r a i s e f a m i l i e s i n a r a c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d B r i t i s h Columbia? B.C. F i s h e r i e s S u r v i v a l C o a l i t i o n pamphlet, 1996 The  p o s i t i o n s s t a k e d out by these p a r t i e s , a l o n g w i t h  allied  l o b b y groups, r e s o u r c e c o r p o r a t i o n s , and media p u n d i t s , r e p r e s e n t a complex a r t i c u l a t i o n of r a c e , n a t i o n  and  42 class.  F i r s t l y , as Schwarz suggests i n h i s a n a l y s i s of  s e t t l e r i s m ' s denouement i n Southern Rhodesia, d e c o l o n i z a t i o n s t r u g g l e s become the o c c a s i o n f o r a d r a m a t i c  re-  e t h n i c i z a t i o n of the s e t t l e r p o p u l a c e , which s u d d e n l y r e d i s c o v e r s and r e a s s e r t s i t s (white) c a s t e i d e n t i t y i n the 43 f a c e of N a t i v e resurgence.  Popular chauvinism  is  p r o d u c t i v e l y f u s e d w i t h b r o a d e r economic a n x i e t i e s , and new  demonology emerges, f e a t u r i n g the  a  multi-dimensional  f i g u r e of the t h r e a t e n i n g N a t i v e : armed N a t i v e s , s p o r t i n g U n l i k e o t h e r c o n t e x t s , so f a r gender has not been e x p l i c i t l y c a l l e d i n t o p l a y i n the p o l i t i c a l j o c k e y i n g s u r r o u n d i n g t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s , perhaps because p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e i s f i r m l y c o n t r o l l e d by the p r e d o m i n a n t l y male l e a d e r s h i p on b o t h s i d e s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the r o l e p l a y e d , f o r example, by the N a t i v e Women's A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada i n the c o n t r o v e r s i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the C h a r l o t t e t o w n Accord. See J o e l C. Bakan and M i c h a e l Smith, " R i g h t s , N a t i o n a l i s m and S o c i a l Movements i n Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i t i c s " , Social and Legal Studies 4 (1995) pp.367-390. 43 B i l l Schwarz, "The o n l y w h i t e man i n t h e r e : the r e r a c i a l i s a t i o n of England, 1956-1968" Race and Class 38 (1996) pp.65-78. The s l i p p a g e between s e t t l e r and w h i t e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , the a n a l y s i s of which i s beyond the scope of the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . C l e a r l y , however, not a l l s e t t l e r s are "white", though many w i l l have i n t e r n a l i z e d the v a l u e s of a system based on white and settler supremacy.  105  masks and camouflage gear, e r e c t r o a d b l o c k s  to destroy  p u b l i c o r d e r and s a f e t y ; t r i b a l i s t N a t i v e s c l a i m i n g s o v e r e i g n t y and self-government,  seek t o dismember the  Canadian body p o l i t i c ; greedy N a t i v e s , m i l k i n g the s t a t e f o r w e l f a r e handouts and t r e a t y s e t t l e m e n t s , d r a i n the p u b l i c purse;  e c o l o g i c a l N a t i v e s , opposing resource  t h r e a t e n j o b s and economic growth. process  development,  At work here i s a  of r e v e r s a l , not s i m p l y of r e a l i t y - the  ideological  i n v e r s i o n of the a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s of f o r c e i n a s e t t l e r formation  - but of the t r a d i t i o n a l m o d a l i t i e s of  representation.  racist  Gone are the c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n s of  supremacy and n a t i v e subhumanity c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e a r l i e r p e r i o d ; now  i t i s w h i t e s e t t l e r s who  the o p p r e s s e d , the c o l o n i z e d . dispossession  Vancouver Sun); who  an  are the weak,  I t i s s e t t l e r s who  ( N a t i v e s c l a i m 110%  white  today face  of P r o v i n c e , trumpets the  r i s k disenfranchisement  a t the hands of  N a t i v e governments ( " i f d e n y i n g a v o t e t o p e o p l e because t h e y were I n d i a n was  wrong b e f o r e , how  can i t be any l e s s  wrong t o deny v o t i n g r i g h t s because they are w h i t e ? "  asks  44  the C o u n c i l of F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s ) '  and who  must c o n f r o n t  the p o t e n t i a l l o s s of l i v e l i h o o d s and t r a d i t i o n a l ways of life  ( " i f the NDP  succeeds i n g i v i n g away t h i s  great  p r o v i n c e , what w i l l you t e l l y o u r c h i l d r e n and  their  " N e g o t i a t i o n s and the T h i r d P a r t y E x p e r i e n c e : The Precedent of N i s g a ' a ? " ; speech d e l i v e r e d by M a r l i e B e e t s , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , A b o r i g i n a l A f f a i r s , C o u n c i l of F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s , t o the Share B.C. Conference, P r i n c e George, B.C., March 3 1996.  106  c h i l d r e n a f t e r them?" i m p l o r e s t h e Nanaimo-based A l l 45  Canadian's E q u a l ) . p a r a l l e l s t h e attempts  T h i s emerging "white v i c t i m o l o g y " i n o t h e r " b a c k l a s h " c o n t e x t s , such as  the debates over a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n , p o l i t i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s , and  " f a l s e memory syndrome", t o p o r t r a y t h e p o w e r f u l and 46  p r i v i l e g e d as v i c t i m s , and t h e p o w e r l e s s  as v i c t i m i z e r s .  But t h e f o c u s o f t h i s b a c k l a s h i s n o t as s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d as i t f i r s t seems.  I n t h i s d i s c o u r s e , N a t i v e people  themselves  a r e t y p i c a l l y t a r g e t e d i n d i r e c t l y , through what S t u a r t H a l l c a l l s " i n f e r e n t i a l r a c i s m " i n which t h e chosen codewords i n v o k e by c o n n o t a t i o n a whole r e p o s i t o r y o f r a c i s t  imagery  sedimented over l o n g h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e 47  memory o f w h i t e s e t t l e r d o m .  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e  p o s i t i o n of Natives v i s - a - v i s the s t a t e i s d i r e c t l y The i n f l a t e d c l a i m appeared i n a banner h e a d l i n e i n t h e Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 1, 1995; t h e f e a r o f w h i t e d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t i s e x p r e s s e d i n B e e t s , " N e g o t i a t i o n s and the T h i r d P a r t y E x p e r i e n c e " ; and t h e lament from A l l Canadians Equal i s quoted i n G l a v i n , "Roadblocks t o Reconciliation".  46  For an o v e r v i e w o f t h i s new v i c t i m o l o g y , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on t h e p o l i t i c s o f male v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women and c h i l d r e n , see Annabel Webb, Misty Water Colored Mysogyny: The Politics of False Memory Syndrome, u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, U.B.C, 1996 . 47  See S t u a r t H a l l , "The Whites o f T h e i r Eyes: R a c i s t I d e o l o g i e s and t h e Media", i n Manuel A l v a r a d o and John O. Thompson, eds., The Media Reader (London: B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e , 1990) pp.7-23. Thus, f o r example, r e f e r e n c e s t o " w e l f a r e dependency" r e a d i l y c o n j u r e up images o f t h e " l a z y " o r "drunken I n d i a n " .  I  107  attacked.  Indeed, these s t a n d a r d images seem t o b e a r out  B a l i b a r ' s c l a i m t h a t "modern r a c i s m i s never s i m p l y a r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r . . . i t i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o t h e r mediated by the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the state,-...a c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s t a t e which i s ' l i v e d ' d i s t o r t e d l y  and  48  ' p r o j e c t e d ' as a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Other". contemporary B.C.,  In  the t r u e marker of N a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e ,  and  f o c u s of w h i t e s e t t l e r a n t i p a t h y , i s a " s p e c i a l s t a t u s " c o n f e r r e d by the s t a t e : s e t t l e r a n t i p a t h y d e r i v e s from the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t N a t i v e s are exempt from c e r t a i n t a x e s ; r e c e i v e massive amounts of government money; have t h e i r  own  governments which e x e r c i s e s p e c i a l powers; and a r e not p u n i s h e d when t h e y break the law.  I t i s perhaps a c c u r a t e t o  say, then, t h a t we are d e a l i n g w i t h a new  m o d a l i t y of white  supremacy, f e a t u r i n g n e i t h e r the b i o l o g i c a l r a c i s m o f the pre-World  War  replaced i t ,  I I p e r i o d , nor the c u l t u r a l r a c i s m t h a t but a " p o l i t i c a l r a c i s m " t h a t f o c u s e s  d i f f e r e n t i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the s t a t e as  on  citizens.  I t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t the r i g h t f a s t e n s on government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as the key l o c u s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of  racial  d i v i s i o n s , f o r i t enables s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the d e f l e c t i o n o f charges  of r a c i s m and promotion  of an a n t i - s t a t i s t agenda.  A n t i - N a t i v e f o r c e s can d i s c l a i m r a c i s m , because t h e y do  E t i e n n e B a l i b a r , " I s t h e r e a Neo-Racism" i n E t i e n n e B a l i b a r and Immanuel W a l l e r s t e i n , Race, Nation, Class (London: V e r s o , 1991).  not  108  blame N a t i v e s  f o r t h i s sorry state of a f f a i r s .  ("I've g o t a  l o t o f s e n s i t i v i t y on t h e N a t i v e i s s u e " d e c l a r e s Reform MP John Duncan;  "Not t h e Enemy" d e c l a r e s t h e e d i t o r i a l i n t h e 49  l o c a l business  magazine.)  I n s t e a d , i t i s governments,  managed by c a d r e s o f t h e New C l a s s , which must be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r b e t r a y a l o f " o r d i n a r y Canadians", N a t i v e and non-Native a l i k e . Task Force sums up t h i s  The Reform P a r t y ' s A b o r i g i n a l  stance:  "Many 'rank and f i l e '  a b o r i g i n a l people view the m u l t i -  b i l l i o n d o l l a r DIAND and t h e e n t i r e ' I n d i a n  Industry'  (made up p r i m a r i l y o f l a w y e r s ,  advisors,  consultants,  n e g o t i a t o r s , and some o f t h e I n d i a n l e a d e r s h i p ) as self-serving interests.  Past and p r e s e n t  governments  as w e l l as t h e ' I n d i a n i n d u s t r y ' have f o s t e r e d d i v i s i o n s a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s , a r e u n d e m o c r a t i c and t h e r e f o r e unaccountable t o the people they  serve...."  5 0  I t i s government t h a t i s t h e t r u e promoter o f r a c i s m , d r a w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f r a c e .  The a n t i - N a t i v e  f o r c e s a r e t h e t r u e " a n t i - r a c i s t s " , because t h e y oppose t h e 49  Duncan, as A b o r i g i n a l A f f a i r s c r i t i c , i s p o i n t man f o r Reform's media campaign t o i n c i t e h y s t e r i a among nonNatives. He was quoted i n t h e Vancouver Sun, September, 19, 1994; t h e e d i t o r i a l appeared i n Equity, September 1995. Reform P a r t y o f Canada, A b o r i g i n a l A f f a i r s Task F o r c e R e p o r t , October 6, 1995. See a l s o t h e background paper p r e p a r e d by John Duncan a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e N i s g a ' a 5 0  109  f o s t e r i n g of r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s , the extension  (through  t r e a t i e s ) o f Canadian a p a r t h e i d .  The  remedies proposed f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n a r e i n t r i g u i n g .  The  o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s the a b o l i t i o n , or at l e a s t the  d r a s t i c minimization, of d i f f e r e n t i a l status.  Natives are  t o be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e mainstream e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , the residue of d i f f e r e n c e s a f e l y consigned t o a r e a l m o f c u l t u r e a b s t r a c t e d from any m a t e r i a l b a s i s . we see how a n t i - N a t i v e r a c i s m d i v e r g e s  (Here  from t h e n e o - r a c i s m  d e s c r i b e d by B a l i b a r , which c h a s t i s e s government, p r i m a r i l y i n the area of immigration, b o u n d a r i e s and t h e r e b y difference.)  for dismantling  racial  f a i l i n g t o r e s p e c t immutable c u l t u r a l  The s e t t l e r program f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n o f  n a t i v e s i s a t one and t h e same time a program f o r s i m u l a t i o n , f o r e n f o r c i n g sameness.  To a c c o m p l i s h  this  will  r e q u i r e t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f government, i n two r e s p e c t s : p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be i n c r e a s e d v i a a v a r i e t y o f p o p u l i s t mechanisms ( f r e e l e g i s l a t i v e v o t e s , c o n s u l t a t i o n s ) , thereby  referenda,  reducing the d i s c r e t i o n of  government e l i t e s ; second, t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  distinctions  between n a t i v e and non-Native w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d by d i s m a n t l i n g t h e DIAND.  L u r k i n g throughout t h i s l o o k i n g - g l a s s w o r l d i s t h e s p e c t e r of t h e market.  The s t r u g g l e between s e t t l e r and N a t i v e  Agreement i n P r i n c i p l e ,  "What t h e N i s g a ' a Deal Means t o  110  always today o c c u r s on a t e r r a i n p r e s t r u c t u r e d by a c a p i t a l i s t economy.  Though i t i s i n t e g r a l t o much of  the  d i s c o u r s e on N a t i v e r i g h t s - i n the c a l l s f o r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y , the f e a r s t h a t s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t w i l l mean more b u r e a u c r a t i c r e g u l a t i o n , the c o n s t a n t i t i s most e v i d e n t  clamour about c o s t s -  i n r e l a t i o n t o the p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n  l a n d where, as Kuper o b s e r v e s , " d i a l e c t i c a l  of  opposition  between n a t i v e s and s e t t l e r s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y marked."  51  The  b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of the a n t i - n a t i v e f o r c e s i s t o m i n i m i z e  the  e x t e n t of n a t i v e commmunal ownership and maximize the amount of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , p r e f e r a b l y under s e t t l e r c o n t r o l . Thus, i n a s i n i s t e r r e p l i c a t i o n of the " l o c a t i o n t i c k e t s " system imposed on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s  i n the 19th  century,  Reform proposes t h a t i n d i v i d u a l band members be p e r m i t t e d convert  t h e i r share of t r e a t y s e t t l e m e n t  to  land i n t o fee  s i m p l e p a r c e l s ; w h i l e the L i b e r a l s s t r e t c h the d e f i n i t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y t o i n c l u d e the v a r i o u s forms of  resource  tenure  thereby  (range l e a s e s , t r e e farm l i c e n s e s , e t c . ) ,  i n s u l a t i n g the b u l k of v a l u a b l e p r o v i n c i a l l a n d from c l a i m s ; and Reform B.C. settlements  urges the e x c l u s i o n of l a n d from t r e a t y  altogether.  A l l t h r e e p a r t i e s demand a s s u r a n c e s  You", March, 1996. L. Kuper, " P o l i t i c a l Change i n White S e t t l e r S o c i e t i e s : The P o s s i b i l i t y of P e a c e f u l D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " i n L. Kuper and M.G. Smith, eds, Pluralism in A f r i c a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969) pp.169-193. 51  Ill  t h a t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s w i l l not be a f f e c t e d .  This  l o g i c i s extended t o the p o i n t of a b s u r d i t y by the  Fraser  I n s t i t u t e , which suggests t h a t i n l i e u of l a n d c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t s the p r o v i n c e p r i v a t i z e a l l Crown l a n d , p e r m i t t i n g sympathetic  s e t t l e r s t o convey t h e i r  entitlements  t. o N•«••a• t.i•v e s . 53  THE  SOCIALISM OF  REDNECKS  As l o n g as you t h i n k you're w h i t e , t h e r e ' s no hope f o r you. 54 James B a l d w i n , The  popular grievances  The Price  of  the  t h a t Reform and the p r o v i n c i a l  Ticket right-  wing p a r t i e s draws upon are not i l l u s o r y , but f l o w d i r e c t l y from the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s embedded i n the v e r y s t r u c t u r e of s e t t l e r c a p i t a l i s m . In a c l a s s i c b a i t - a n d - s w i t c h  operation,  t h e y seek t o channel  antipathy  the p r o f o u n d a l i e n a t i o n and  g e n e r a t e d by a s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n based on power and d o m i n a t i o n i n t o h o s t i l i t y toward those w i t h o u t power.  They  can do so because h i s t o r i c a l l y the s u b a l t e r n s t r a t a of  the  s e t t l e r c a s t e have been a c c o r d e d a modicum of power and p r i v i l e g e i n r e l a t i o n t o N a t i v e s , i n exchange f o r t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o a system which e x p l o i t s them.  It i s this  52 See Reform P a r t y of Canada, " A b o r i g i n a l A f f a i r s Task Force R e p o r t " ; Malcomson, "One Law For A l l " ; and 53 Owen L i p p e r t , Out of Our Past: A New Perspective on Aboriginal Land Claims (Vancouver: F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e , 1995) .  112  h i s t o r i c compromise which B a l d w i n  c a l l s the " p r i c e of  t i c k e t " , and which forms the n e c e s s a r y anti-Nativism. to  the  precondition populist  Thus, the r i g h t wing p a r t i e s demand an  end  s p e c i a l s t a t u s f o r N a t i v e s , not the w h i t e male r u l i n g  class.  They o b j e c t t o c l a i m s by the i n d i g e n o u s  minority for  l a n d and s e p a r a t e government, but encourage the massive c o n c e n t r a t i o n of w e a l t h and power under p r i v a t e c o n t r o l . They i n s i s t on d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of the t r e a t y p r o c e s s , not of government and c i v i l  society i n general.  but  They d e c r y  N a t i v e t a x exemptions and w e l f a r e dependency, but s m i l e s c o r p o r a t e t a x e v a s i o n and s u b s i d i e s .  5 5  And  on  they f e a r t h a t  s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t w i l l fragment the Canadian s t a t e i n t o hundreds of t r i b a l whose f i s c a l ,  e n c l a v e s , but promote a c o r p o r a t e  t r a d e and r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c i e s a l r e a d y  agenda threaten  disintegration.  Meanwhile, w i t h p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n thus d i v e r t e d , the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the B.C.  r e s o u r c e economy c o n t i n u e s  apace.  Thousands of f o r e s t r y j o b s have been l o s t i n the 1980s and 90s, not due  to environmental  "over-regulation" or Native  Quoted i n D a v i d Roediger, Towards the A b o l i t i o n of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics and Working Class History (London: Verso, 1994). For a p a r t i a l l i s t of the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t government s u b s i d i e s t o Canadian c o r p o r t a t i o n s , see N e i l Brooks, "Tax Breaks f o r the R i c h " , Canadian Dimension J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1994, pp.6-10. 55  113  c l a i m s , but t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n  and d o w n s i z i n g .  In the  f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , where the F i s h e r i e s S u r v i v a l C o a l i t i o n r e p e a t e d l y s t a g e s s i t - i n s a t DFO  o f f i c e s and  Native f i s h i n g vessels to protest a " r a c i a l l y  blockades segregated  f i s h e r y " , the West c o a s t seems headed f o r a Newfoundland s c e n a r i o , as c o r p o r a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , promoted by  the  f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s through i t s s o - c a l l e d " M i f f l i n p l a n " ,  puts  a s t r a n g l e h o l d on the independent o p e r a t o r s , c o a s t a l communities, and h e a l t h y f i s h s t o c k s t h a t are foundations  of a s u s t a i n a b l e f i s h e r y  the  (Terry G l a v i n  has  p o i n t e d out t h a t i n a good y e a r , two companies o b t a i n more 57  f i s h t h a n a l l the N a t i v e p e o p l e i n B.C. mining  combined).  companies are i n c r e a s i n g l y l o o k i n g o u t s i d e  province f o r p r o f i t a b l e ventures.  Yet few i f any  B.C. the observers  speak of the c o r p o r a t e t h r e a t t o economic s e c u r i t y o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y , o r government appeasement of major  resource  companies p r e s s i n g f o r reduced r e g u l a t i o n o r g r e a t e r subsidies.  Nor  i s anyone c a l l i n g f o r "openness" o r  popular  r e f e r e n d a when i n d u s t r y and p o l i t i c i a n s emerge from p r i v a t e See Ben P a r f i t t , " W i l l We Beat Our F o r e s t s t o a P u l p ? " , Georgia Straight, March 7-14, 1996. P a r f i t t notes that i n 1980, t h e r e were 1.5 f u l l time j o b s g e n e r a t e d f o r e v e r y 1000 m logged, w h i l e i n 1990 the f i g u r e had been reduced t o 1. Throughout the 198 0s, an average of 2 000 j o b s p e r y e a r were l o s t due t o i n c r e a s i n g l y automated and " e f f i c i e n t " l o g g i n g and m i l l i n g . 56  3  57  T e r r y G l a v i n , "Shooting F i s h i n a B a r r e l " , Georgia Straight June 13-20, 1996. As G l a v i n argues, the M i f f l i n p l a n , though couched i n the r h e t o r i c of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and c o n s e r v a t i o n , i s i n f a c t a b l u e p r i n t f o r the c r e a t i o n of a  114  meetings t o announce new  d i s p o s i t i o n s of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s .  A l l of t h i s i s t r i b u t e t o the massive c o n j u r i n g t r i c k p e r f o r m e d by the major c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h e i r s p o i l s m e n are t r y i n g t o p i t the s u b o r d i n a t e s t r a t a among the c a s t e a g a i n s t N a t i v e people  who  settler  i n a zero-sum game, w h i l e  e f f e c t i v e l y s t i f l i n g a genuine p u b l i c debate on the f u t u r e of a s t a p l e s economy w i t h a d w i n d l i n g endowment of n a t u r a l resources.  In g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see the programme o f the B.C.  R i g h t as an attempt t o d i s p l a c e p o p u l a r  e l i t i s m onto N a t i v e s , d i s s o l v i n g a c t u a l and  anti-  potential  s o l i d a r i t i e s and b l u n t i n g more r a d i c a l forms of consciousness.  I n t h i s sense, N a t i v e s i n contemporary  B.C.  have begun t o serve a p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the Jews i n pre-war Europe, where f a s c i s t p a r t i e s i n v o k e d h i s t o r i c a l l y r o o t e d myths of a w e a l t h y ,  powerful  and  c o n s p i r a t o r i a l "enemy w i t h i n " t o a i d i n the d e f e a t o f 58 progressive forces.  I f a n t i - s e m i t i s m i n Europe was  the " s o c i a l i s m of f o o l s " , then perhaps i n today's B.C. i n d i g e n i s m i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d as "the s o c i a l i s m o f  and i s anti-  rednecks".  " h i g h l y c a p i t a l i z e d , h i g h - t e c h , urban-based f l e e t " , a v e r i t a b l e g i f t horse t o B.C.'s l a r g e s t f i s h i n g companies. 58 For an a n a l y s i s of the p o l i t i c a l uses of a n t i - S e m i t i s m , see B a l i b a r , " I s There a Neo-Racism?".  115  -  4  -  CANARIES IN A COALMINE: THE GUSTAFSEN LAKE STANDOFF AND REMILITARIZATION OF SETTLER SECURITY  THE  F i r s t we must s t u d y how c o l o n i z a t i o n works t o d e c i v i l i z e t h e c o l o n i z e r , t o b r u t a l i z e him i n t h e t r u e sense o f t h e word, t o degrade him, t o awaken him t o b u r i e d i n s t i n c t s , t o c o v e t o u s n e s s , v i o l e n c e , r a c e h a t r e d , and moral r e l a t i v i s m ; . . . and a t t h e end o f a l l t h e s e t r e a t i e s t h a t have been v i o l a t e d , a l l these l i e s t h a t have been p r o p a g a t e d , a l l t h e s e p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s t h a t have been t o l e r a t e d , a l l t h e s e p r i s o n e r s who have been t i e d up and ' i n t e r r o g a t e d ' , a l l t h e s e p a t r i o t s who have been t o r t u r e d , a t t h e end o f a l l the r a c i a l p r i d e vthat has been encouraged, a l l t h e b o a s t f u l n e s s t h a t has been d i s p l a y e d , a p o i s o n has been i n s t i l l e d i n t o t h e v e i n s o f Europe and, s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y , the c o n t i n e n t proceeds toward savagery. Discourse  Aime C e s a i r e on Colonialism^  Massacre i s one o f t h e l a s t r e s o r t s o f t h e government i n s t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , s i n c e (unless d i r e c t e d a t o u t s i d e r s o f one kind" o r another) i t d e s t r o y s t h e i m p r e s s i o n of p o p u l a r consent on which t h e y r e s t . 2  Eric As we saw i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  chapter,  Hobsbawm  both d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l  a c t i o n by A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s and t h e commencement o f t h e B.C. T r e a t y p r o c e s s have provoked f e v e r i s h e f f o r t s t o m o b i l i z e t h e s e t t l e r populace i n defence o f t h e s t a t u s quo. The c u r r e n t round o f t r e a t y m a k i n g o r i g i n a t e d d u r i n g t h e t w i l i g h t o f t h e Socred d y n a s t y , as B i l l Van d e r Zalm and t h e o t h e r epigones o f W.A.C. Bennet b e l a t e d l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e prudence o f r e t o o l i n g t h e machinery o f s e t t l e r r u l e . Aime C e s a i r e , Discourse Review, 1978), p.15 .  on Colonialism  When  (New York: M o n t h l y  116  Mike H a r c o u r t ' s New  Democrats succeeded the Socreds i n  t h e y vowed t o c a r r y f o r w a r d , and even extend,  their  1991,  own  l o n g s t a n d i n g commitment t o r e s o l v i n g N a t i v e c l a i m s , p r e s e n t i n g i t as the o n l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the seemingly  e n d l e s s s e r i e s of N a t i v e c o u r t c h a l l e n g e s ,  blockades,  and p r o t e s t s which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  denouement. the B.C.  I n 1991,  the NDP  Socred  a c c e p t e d the f i n a l r e p o r t o f  Land Claims Task Force, a s e l e c t committee  e s t a b l i s h e d by the Socreds t o d e s i g n a "made-in-B.C." format f o r modern day t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government, the f e d e r a l government, and B.C.'s A b o r i g i n a l Nations.  The  r e p o r t ' s f i r s t recommendation was  that  "the  F i r s t N a t i o n s , Canada, and B r i t i s h Columbia e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p based on mutual t r u s t , r e s p e c t ,  new  and 3  understanding  - through p o l i t i c a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . "  F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , the gangrenous s t a t e of r e l a t i o n s between s e t t l e r s and N a t i v e s i n B.C.  suggests  t h a t the fundamental  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n a l i s m and a r e s o u r c e based s e t t l e r c a p i t a l i s m i s not so r e a d i l y d i s s o l v e d . NDP  has spent r e c e n t y e a r s b a c k p e d a l i n g  The  from i t s e a r l i e r  p l e d g e s , p a r t l y due t o f i s c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and p a r t l y because of the p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d by the p r o v i n c e ' s a n t i - N a t i v e  "May 1968" i n Revolutionaries (London: Q u a r t e t , 1977) pp.234-244, p.237. 3 B r i t i s h Columbia, The Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Land Claims Task Force, June 28, 1991, p. 19.  117  fronde,  f o r whom r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , however nominal and  d e f e r e n t i a l t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , r e p r e s e n t s t h e death of t h e White N a t i o n .  knell  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e growing  s i g n s o f d i s q u i e t among t h e supposed b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f treatymaking, the A b o r i g i n a l Nations, a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y of w h i c h r e g a r d t h e t r e a t y m a k i n g p r o c e s s as an i n s i d i o u s form o f " d e c o l o n i z a t i o n from above", a c a l c u l a t e d e f f o r t t o s u b v e r t A b o r i g i n a l s o v e r e i g n t y and e x t i n g u i s h A b o r i g i n a l 4 rights.  Indeed, i f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h e b l o c k a d e s mounted by  the P e n t i c t o n , Upper N i c o l a and Adams Lake bands i n 1995 ought t o have s e r v e d as an emphatic reminder  t o the  a r c h i t e c t s o f i n d i g e n o u s Home Rule t h a t t h e days o f m i l i t a n t r e s i s t a n c e were f a r from o v e r . 5  I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I want t o e x p l o r e t h e most s i g n a l i n s t a n c e of m i l i t a n t A b o r i g i n a l r e s i s t a n c e y e t t o d i s r u p t t h e o f f i c i a l agenda f o r a " p o s t - c o l o n i a l " B r i t i s h Columbia, namely, t h e armed s t a n d o f f a t G u s t a f s e n Lake w h i c h t r a n s f i x e d t h e p r o v i n c e f o r 31 days d u r i n g t h e l o n g , h o t " I n d i a n Summer" o f 1995 and once a g a i n a t t r a c t e d n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n t o Canada's " s e t t l e r problem".  See " N a t i v e I n d i a n s s p l i t on t r e a t y - t a l k s p r o c e s s " , Vancouver Sun, September 25, 1995. See a l s o t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d by members o f t h e Okanagan N a t i o n i n Lee M a r a c l e , e t a l . , We Get Our Living Like Milk From the Land ( P e n t i c t o n : Theytus Books, 1993/94). J a c q u i e A l l e n , "Acts o f R e s i s t a n c e : An Assessment", Native Issues Monthly, May 1995. 5  118  From mid-August,  t h i s picturesque Cariboo lake, located 3 5  km west o f t h e I n t e r i o r m i l l t o w n o f 100 M i l e House i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y o f t h e Secwepemc (Shuswap) N a t i o n , was t h e scene o f a p a r a m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n - t o u t e d by t h e Vancouver  Sun as "the l a r g e s t s i n c e t h e  M o u n t i e s marched west t o b r i n g s t a b i l i t y t o t h e P r a i r i e s " w h i c h would u l t i m a t e l y c o s t 5.5 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and i n v o l v e more t h a n 4 00 RCMP and Canadian F o r c e s p e r s o n n e l .  6  The  t a r g e t o f t h i s massive m o b i l i z a t i o n was a group o f e i g h t e e n Secwepemc s o v e r e i g n t i s t s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , who r e f u s e d t o abandon t h e s a c r e d Sundance s i t e a t Ts'peten ( t h e 7 Secwepemc name f o r G u s t a f s e n L a k e ) . Sundancers the  As s o v e r e i g n t i s t s , t h e  (who would e v e n t u a l l y p r o c l a i m themselves t o be  Ts'peten Defenders) p o i n t e d t o t h e absence o f t r e a t i e s  i n B.C. as a b a s i s f o r r e j e c t i n g b o t h t h e v a l i d i t y o f s e t t l e r l a n d ownership and t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f s e t t l e r governments  on "unceded Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y " .  They  insisted  t h a t t h e d i s p u t e be a d j u d i c a t e d by an independent, t h i r d party tribunal.  Of c o u r s e , t o t h e s e t t l e r regime such  c l a i m s were s i m p l y i n a d m i s s i b l e , and l o c a l w h i t e power b r o k e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p u t a t i v e owner o f t h e l a k e ,  cattle  See " A l l t h e news t h a t ' s f i t to...be m a n i p u l a t e d " , Vancouver Sun, September 22, 1995; and "RCMP o v e r t i m e b i l l h i t $3.3 m i l l i o n a t s t a n d o f f " , Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 6, 1996. I n c i d e n t a l l y , I have used "Secwepemc" (pronounced Shwep-m), r a t h e r t h a n t h e more commonly r e c o g n i z e d Shuswap, throughout t h i s chapter. 7 Ts'peten i s pronounced "Ch-pat-n".  119  r a n c h e r L y l e James, began t h r e a t e n i n g t o t a k e the law t h e i r own  hands.  B e f o r e l o n g , the c o n f r o n t a t i o n  into  had  e s c a l a t e d , i n the hands of a pugnacious RCMP, d e s p e r a t e p r o v i n c i a l government, and  servile f i f t h estate, into a  full-blown "internal security c r i s i s "  Yet the e n s u i n g s t a n d o f f was  by no means a n e a t l y demarcated  c o n f l i c t between "Cowboys and N a t i v e community was  and media s p e c t a c l e .  Indians".  As we w i l l see,  the  i t s e l f d e e p l y d i v i d e d o v e r the  Defender's d e f i a n t stand, w i t h many moderates, i n c l u d i n g most of the o f f i c i a l l e a d e r s h i p of the Secwepemc bands, denouncing the Defenders as "renegades", " m a l c o n t e n t s " " o u t s i d e a g i t a t o r s " , and a c t i v e l y c o o p e r a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o e j e c t them.  and  the RCMP i n  For the mainstream  Native  l e a d e r s h i p , the Defender's a c t i o n s o f f e r e d a d d i t o n a l ammunition t o the s e t t l e r r i g h t , and t h e r e f o r e t h r e a t e n e d u p s e t the a l r e a d y p r e c a r i o u s p r o g r e s s of the B.C. process.  to  treaty  To the Defenders, on the o t h e r hand, the  mainstream l e a d e r s were s i m p l y  " s e l l o u t s " or  "Uncle  Tomahawks", a comprador c l a s s of educated, a s s i m i l a t e d N a t i v e s p r e p a r e d t o s a c r i f i c e p r i n c i p l e and the  long-term  w e l f a r e of the i n d i g e n o u s masses f o r s h o r t term, o r personal,  gain.  I n t h i s view, the moderate l e a d e r s had  l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m t o a u t h o r i t y s i n c e t h e i r power d e r i v e d ,  no not  from t r a d i t i o n a l systems of governance, but from the machinery of N a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system of e l e c t e d Band C o u n c i l s )  ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , the  imposed by the Department  120  of I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  The G u s t a f s e n  Lake s t a n d o f f ,  then,  r a i s e d not o n l y t h e fundamental q u e s t i o n o f "who owns B.C.?", but a l s o , "who speaks f o r N a t i v e s ? "  T h i s i s s u e o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n - o f who speaks and who i s a u t h o r i z e d t o speak - a l s o r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n i t s o t h e r , d e p i c t i v e sense. T h i s q u e s t i o n , as Edward S a i d , B e l l Hooks, G a y a t r i  Spivak  and many o t h e r s have p o w e r f u l l y demonstrated, i s always already p o l i t i c a l .  From t h e v e r y moment t h a t t h e y  entered  the i n f o r m a t i o n a l c i r c u i t s o f t h e s e t t l e r - d o m i n a t e d p u b l i c sphere, e v e n t s a t G u s t a f s e n  Lake were p o r t r a y e d so as t o  d i s c r e d i t and demonize A b o r i g i n a l r e s i s t a n c e : t h e Defender's demands were o u t r a g e o u s ; t h e i r w o r l d v i e w i r r a t i o n a l ; methods d a n g e r o u s l y t h e i r own p e o p l e .  their  c r i m i n a l ; and t h e i r s t a n d u n s u p p o r t e d by Much o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n stemmed from t h e  RCMP's l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e a r e a , an e x e r c i s e i n " i m p r e s s i o n management" i n which t h e mass media a c t i v e l y c o l l u d e d .  But  the S t a n d o f f a l s o r e v e a l e d how t h e mass media i t s e l f f u n c t i o n s as a c r u c i a l support  f o r s e t t l e r hegemony by  s e l e c t i v e l y d i s s e m i n a t i n g images and i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h ensure t h a t p o p u l a r c u l t u r e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s  remain f i r m l y  121  ensconced w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l framework t h a t F r a n c i s 0  J e n n i n g s once d e s c r i b e d as "the cant of  conquest".  I n t h i s sense, the G u s t a f s e n Lake S t a n d o f f was as much a war of words and images as of weapons.  The Defenders  were  f o r c e d t o contend not o n l y w i t h s t a t e s e c u r i t y f o r c e s but w i t h a media apparatus t h a t d e f i n e d them as an enemy w i t h o u t l e g i t i m a t e aims.  To c i r c u m v e n t  i n f o r m a t i o n embargo, the Defender's  internal this  and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s  used a c o m b i n a t i o n of f a x e d p r e s s r e l e a s e s and I n t e r n e t communications t o p u b l i c i z e t h e i r own v e r s i o n of e v e n t s g a l v a n i z e support f o r t h e i r stand.  and  T h i s v a s t l y uneven  s t r u g g l e t o r e p r e s e n t the S t a n d o f f , t o f i x i t s meaning f o r the b r o a d e r p u b l i c , u n d e r s c o r e s how  t h o r o u g h l y the p o l i t i c s  of d e c o l o n i z a t i o n i s e n t a n g l e d w i t h what M i c h e l F o u c a u l t 9  c a l l e d "the p o l i t i c s of t r u t h " . f o r my own  I t a l s o has  implications  account i n s o f a r as i t r e n d e r s the t a s k o f  documenting "what r e a l l y happened" d e e p l y p r o b l e m a t i c .  The  o n l y honest s o l u t i o n , I t h i n k , i s t o d i s p e n s e w i t h any p r e t e n s e of d i s i n t e r e s t e d knowledge and r e c o g n i z e t h a t r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g i n such p o l i t i c a l l y  charged  c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n e v i t a b l y e n t a i l s a s e t of p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e s . g  F r a n c i s J e n n i n g s , The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1976). 9  For a l u c i d e x p o s i t i o n of t h i s term, see M i c h e l l e B a r r e t t , The Politics of Truth: From Marx to Foucault ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1991).  (  122  I n my  c a s e , I have chosen t o r e l y h e a v i l y on a l t e r n a t i v e  s o u r c e s whose r e p o r t s tended t o f a v o u r the independent community newspapers and f a x e d p r e s s r e l e a s e s and, of the I n t e r n e t .  Defenders:  radio, "Left" journals,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the v i r t u a l  archive  Together t h i s "counter-media" p r o v i d e d  the  raw m a t e r i a l f o r a c o r r e c t i v e account of the S t a n d o f f w h i c h s e r v e s as b o t h a c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g and  a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  nothing  of the dominant n a r r a t i v e  " o t h e r s i d e of the s t o r y " .  e l s e , I hope t h i s v e r s i o n has  If  the v i r t u e of o p e n l y  a c k n o w l e g i n g i t s p o l i t i c a l commitments and b i a s e s  from  the  outset.  In the end,  my  t h e s i s i s simple:  the Ts'peten S t a n d o f f  r e v e a l s t h a t the c o e r c i v e t a c t i c s of an a l l e g e d l y remote c o l o n i a l p a s t are p a r t and p a r c e l of B r i t i s h Columbia's p u t a t i v e l y p o s t c o l o n i a l present.  Morevoer, i t i s an ominous  s i g n of t h i n g s t o come f o r those - e s p e c i a l l y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s - who  dare q u e s t i o n  treaty negotiations  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  wisdom t h a t  r e p r e s e n t the c o n c l u s i v e  a c c o u n t s between s e t t l e r s and N a t i v e s , indigenous subordination  settling  o r a panacea f o r  and d e p r i v a t i o n .  I f the hopes of a  s t a b i l i z e d regime of s e t t l e r p r o s p e r i t y are now the m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s , of a New  of  pinned to  under the  aegis  C l a s s of N a t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s , i t  appears t h a t those who decolonization"  contest  this  "administrative  i n defense of i n d i g e n o u s t r a d i t i o n s of  communal w e l f a r e ,  e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , and r e v e r e n c e f o r the  123  n a t u r a l w o r l d , w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y be c a s t as v i l l a i n s  and  t r a i t o r s , and s u b j e c t t o v a r i o u s forms of s t a t e r e p r e s s i o n . In a l e s s p a r o c h i a l sense, the f a t e of the Defenders i s l i n k e d i n d i s s o l u b l y t o a l l those, i n d i g e n o u s indigenous  a l i k e , who  and  non-  m i l i t a n t l y oppose the i n j u s t i c e  and  impoverishment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e c o n f i g u r e d , but no l e s s dangerous, i m p e r i a l i s m s of the l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . indigenous  peoples,  As  however, they, l i k e the Ogoni of  N i g e r i a , o r the Z a p a t i s t a s of Chiapas,  occupy a u n i q u e l y  p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n : when i t comes t o p o l i c i n g the New Order, i t seems, the l a s t s h a l l indeed be  COLONIZING THE  World  first.  CARIBOO  The t r a d i t i o n of the oppressed t e a c h e s us t h a t the s t a t e of emergency' i n which we l i v e i s not the e x c e p t i o n but the r u l e . We must a t t a i n t o a c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y w h i c h i s i n keeping w i t h t h i s i n s i g h t . 1  W a l t e r Benjamin, "Theses on the P h i l o s o p h y of H i s t o r y "  1 0  The  t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y of the Secwepemc N a t i o n  encompasses much of the s o u t h e a s t e r n  q u a r t e r of  British  Columbia, from the F r a s e r R i v e r i n the west t o the  Rockies  i n the e a s t , w i t h the C a r i b o o and Shuswap r e g i o n s of I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u as i t s c o r e .  Though i t i s d i f f i c u l t  e s t i m a t e w i t h any p r e c i s i o n , the p r e - c o n t a c t population probably  the to  Secwepemc  ranged between twenty t o f o r t y thousand  W a l t e r Benjamin, Illuminations 1968) p. 257.  (New  York: Schocken,  124  p e o p l e , most of them c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the v a l l e y s o f the F r a s e r , and N o r t h and South Thompson r i v e r s .  1 1  Like other  i n d i g e n o u s n a t i o n s which form p a r t of the s o - c a l l e d " P l a t e a u " c u l t u r e a r e a , the Secwepemc were a semi-nomadic p e o p l e whose s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e was  o r g a n i z e d around the  s e a s o n a l c y c l e s of r e s o u r c e procurement i n which the salmon s t a p l e , h a r v e s t e d each summer a l o n g the major r i v e r systems, was  supplemented by game-hunting and the g a t h e r i n g of p l a n t  foods  (mostly r o o t s , b e r r i e s and m e d i c i n a l h e r b s ) .  b a s i c u n i t of s o c i a l l i f e was  The  the extended f a m i l y , but each  f a m i l y group was p a r t of a l a r g e r community of r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s w h i c h tended t o congregate  at designated  village  s i t e s e v e r y w i n t e r ; r e l a t e d v i l l a g e groups i n t u r n formed the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l u n i t of the Secwepemc, the "band". the p r e - c o n t a c t e r a , the Secwepemc N a t i o n was  In  composed of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y autonomous bands, each w i t h i t s own d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r y and system of h e r e d i t a r y a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h w h i c h a c c e s s t o d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e s was  s t r i c t l y regulated.  I t a k e the 20,000 f i g u r e from R i t a Jack, e t . a l . The Shuswap Community Handbook (Kamloops: Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1993). I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the demographic h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia N a t i v e s remains a source of some d i s p u t e . E s t i m a t e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group l i k e the Secwepemc were e x t r a p o l a t e d from p o s t - c o n t a c t l e v e l s w i t h o u t p r o p e r l y t a k i n g i n t o account the c u m u l a t i v e impact of e a r l y e p i d e m i c s ; they were a l s o s e t i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o n t i n e n t a l and h e m i s p h e r i c e s t i m a t e s proposed by an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s whose b i a s e s have been c o n v i n c i n g l y demonstrated. Consequently, W i l s o n D u f f ' s l o n g a c c e p t e d B.C. e s t i m a t e of "80,000 p l u s " needs t o be r e e v a l u a t e d . See my d i s c u s s i o n a t note 121 o f Chapter 2, and s o u r c e s c i t e d t h e r e i n .  125 Ts'peten  f a l l s w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y of what i s 12  today known as the Canoe Creek band.  At l e a s t f o u r thousand y e a r s of s t a b l e Secwepemc l i f e i n t h i s e c o l o g i c a l l y d i v e r s e , intermontane  landscape o f l i n k e d  p l a t e a u s and n o r t h - s o u t h v a l l e y s would be  cataclysmically  d i s r u p t e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as the t e n t a c l e s o f E u r o c a p i t a l i s t p r o g r e s s b e l a t e d l y reached i n t o t h e  B.C.  13 Interior.  The vanguard of the w h i t e i n v a s i o n was,  elswhere i n the p r o v i n c e , the f u r t r a d e : b o t h  as  Alexander  Mackenzie and Simon F r a s e r passed through Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y i n t h e i r f a b l e d voyages of 1793  and  1808  r e s p e c t i v e l y , and f u r t r a d i n g p o s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y of p r e s e n t day Kamloops and Soda Creek soon t h e r e a f t e r as the land-based t r a d e was  extended  throughout  The b r i e f account of p r e - c o n t a c t Secwepemc s o c i e t y i s based on s e v e r a l s o u r c e s : Douglas Hudson and E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s , "The P l a t e a u : A R e g i o n a l Overview", i n R.B. M o r r i s o n and C. W i l s o n , eds., Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience, 2d ed., (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1995) pp. 471-483; A l a n D. M c M i l l a n , N a t i v e Peoples and Cultures of Canada (Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e , 1988) pp. 14 8-169; J a c k , The Shuswap Community Handbook; and Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , Introduction to the Shuswap (Kamloops: SCEC, 1988). 13 A r c h a e l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r of B.C. l a g s b e h i n d t h a t of the c o a s t a l r e g i o n . A Shuswap presence can be t r a c e d back a t l e a s t f o u r thousand y e a r s , but t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f human h a b i t a t i o n g o i n g back as f a r as 8900 y e a r s . See J i m Cooperman, " H i s t o r y of Adams Lake", Shuswap Chronicles 2 (1989) pp. 4-15. The phrase " t e n t a c l e s o f p r o g r e s s " I borrow from D a n i e l H e a d r i c k s , The Tentacles of Progress: ( ).  126  the I n t e r i o r .  The f i r s t decade o r so o f f u r t r a d e a c t i v i t y  i n Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y seems t o have been m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l , and b u s i n e s s a t t h e t r a d i n g p o s t s was b r i s k : d u r i n g t h e peak y e a r s a f t e r 1811, N a t i v e s s o l d an annual average o f 2000 beaver p e l t s a t F o r t Kamloops a l o n e , i n exchange f o r t h e u s u a l v a r i e t y o f European f o o d s t u f f s , weapons, t o o l s and c l o t h i n g .  Undoubtedly t h e m e r c a n t i l e  i n t e r v e n t i o n exposed t h e Secwepemc t o a l i e n d i s e a s e and p e r i o d i c o u t b u r s t s o f w h i t e v i o l e n c e , but t h e most immediate p r e s s u r e s were e n v i r o n m e n t a l ,  as European t e c h n o l o g y and  commercial l o g i c began t o upset t h e l o c a l c u l t u r a l beaver p o p u l a t i o n s were r a p i d l y e x t e r m i n a t e d ,  ecology:  f o r c i n g the  Secwepemc t o spend more time t r a p p i n g fewer a n i m a l s , w h i l e the s u b s i s t e n c e and o t h e r requirements  of white t r a d e r s  began t o d e p l e t e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p p l i e s o f f i s h and game; as a r e s u l t , t h e Secwepemc became more dependent on t h e t r a d i n g p o s t s f o r t h e i r own s u b s i s t e n c e j u s t as t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o generate  t h e commodities d e s i r e d by Europeans d e c l i n e d .  From t h e e a r l y 182 0s onwards European-Native  relations  g r a d u a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d , as t h e l a t t e r were h i t by r e p e a t e d f o o d s h o r t a g e s which on some o c c a s i o n s pushed p a r t i c u l a r 14  bands t o t h e b r i n k o f s t a r v a t i o n . A h i s t o r y o f s t a r v a t i o n as an a d j u n c t t o c o l o n i a l i n v a s i o n i n B.C. remains t o be w r i t t e n . C o f f e y e t . a l . i d e n t i f y bouts o f s t a r v a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t groups o f Secwepemc i n 1822, 1827, 1829, 1841-43, 1850-52, 1855, and 1859. See John C o f f e y , e t . a l . , Shuswap History: The F i r s t 100 Years of Contact (Kamloops: Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n Society,1990).  127  The G o l d Rush of 1858 was a watershed event i n e a r l y p o s t c o n t a c t h i s t o r y , b r i n g i n g as many as t h i r t y thousand f l o o d i n g up the F r a s e r between A p r i l and December. r e l a t i o n s between t r a d e r s and N a t i v e s had  miners Whereas  originally  r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t a modicum of c o o p e r a t i o n , and thus d e t e r i o r a t e d g r a d u a l l y over s e v e r a l decades, open c o n f l i c t between miners and N a t i v e s e r u p t e d almost i m m e d i a t e l y due t o the s c a l e and n a t u r e of the g o l d s e e k e r ' s i n t r u s i o n .  Miners  a p p r o p r i a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g and v i l l a g e s i t e s f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , p i l l a g e d l o c a l f o o d s u p p l i e s , took g o l d which the Secwepemc r i g h t f u l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e i r own,  and  f r e q u e n t l y a s s a u l t e d the N a t i v e s t h e y encountered.  Like  o t h e r A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s f a c i n g such t r e s p a s s e s , the Secwepemc responded at t i m e s w i t h v i o l e n c e , but a l s o by r  e x a c t i n g t r i b u t e from the m i n e r s , c o n t r o l l i n g movements, and a s s e r t i n g c o n t r o l over new opportunities.  Still,  their  trade  N a t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s were b e i n g  o v e r r u n , and a t the annual summer g a t h e r i n g a t Lac La Hache i n 1858,  c h i e f s of the Shuswap, C h i l c o t i n and  n a t i o n s debated how  Carrier  t o address the f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n . Some  l e a d e r s c a l l e d f o r f o r c i b l e e x p u l s i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s , perhaps i n f l u e n c e d by news of the b l o o d y campaigns b e i n g waged a g a i n s t N a t i v e s i n the Washington and Oregon t e r r i t o r i e s , and o f w h i t e p a r a m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s i n the Okanagan and a l o n g the l o w e r F r a s e r , argued t h a t "our r e s i s t a n c e would o n l y  128  l e a d t o n e e d l e s s bloodshed  and p o s s i b l e a n n i h i l a t i o n . "  The  more accomodating view appears t o have p r e v a i l e d , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , though the Secwepemc c o n t i n u e d t o t h r e a t e n w h i t e t r e s p a s s e r s , and the C h i l c o t i n would e v e n t u a l l y r e s o r t t o armed r e b e l l i o n .  Meanwhile, f e a r i n g b o t h U.S.  annexation  o f the g o l d c o u n t r y and the outbreak of an I n d i a n  war.  Governor James Douglas i n t e r v e n e d a l o n g the lower F r a s e r t o impose B r i t i s h law and o r d e r , h a v i n g e a r l i e r p r o c l a i m e d " a l l mines o f g o l d and a l l g o l d w i t h i n the F r a s e r and Thompson R i v e r d i s t r i c t s t o be the p r o p e r t y of the Crown."  16  London  moved q u i c k l y t o f o r t i f y i t s i m p e r i a l c l a i m s , and by August the new  mainland  c o l o n y of B r i t i s h Columbia had been  o f f i c i a l l y d e c l a r e d , w i t h o u t N a t i v e knowledge o r  By 1865,  the C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h was  l a r g e l y over, but  b a l a n c e of power i n the r e g i o n had been altered.  The  1864  consent.  the  fundamentally  war i n n e i g h b o r i n g C h i l c o t i n  w h i c h ended w i t h the e x e c u t i o n of f i v e c h i e f s ,  territory, underscored  the ascendancy, i f not the l e g i t i m a c y , of w h i t e power.  The  c u m u l a t i v e impact of r e c u r r e n t f o o d s h o r t a g e s and European d i s e a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y the c a t a s t r o p h i c 1862  smallpox  James Douglas, then governor of the Vancouver I s l a n d c o l o n y , not o n l y l a c k e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y t o t h u s e x t e n d i m p e r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , he d i d so i n t o t a l d i s r e g a r d of N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y . I b i d . See a l s o , B a r r y Gough, " T u r b u l e n t F r o n t i e r s and B r i t i s h Expansion: Governor Douglas, the R o y a l Navy, and the B r i t i s h Columbia G o l d Rushes" Pacific Historical Review 41 (1972) 15-32.  129  epidemic,  p r e c i p i t a t e d a demographic c o l l a p s e : t h e Secwepemc  p o p u l a t i o n dropped from an e s t i m a t e d 7200 i n 1850, a f i g u r e w h i c h i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t s l e s s than h a l f t h e p r e - c o n t a c t l e v e l , t o j u s t 2185 by 1903.  Only 17 o f t h e o r i g i n a l 30 o r  so Secwepemc bands would s u r v i v e beyond t h e t u r n o f t h e 17 century.  I n t h e wake o f t r a n s i e n t miners,  Secwepemc now f a c e d t h e t h r e a t o f w h i t e  the beleaguered  agricultural  s e t t l e m e n t , f i r s t from r e t i r e d f u r t r a d e r s , and then, on a l a r g e r s c a l e , from American c a t t l e m e n s e e k i n g t o e x p l o i t t h e ranching p o t e n t i a l of the I n t e r i o r ' s r o l l i n g g r a s s l a n d s . Settlement  was promoted w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a r i b o o  wagon r o a d i n l a t e 1863, and t h e subsequent p r o m u l g a t i o n o f a land ordinance  enabling whites  - but not N a t i v e s - t o  preempt 160 a c r e s , and buy another 480 ( i n t h e a r i d  Interior 18  the p r e e m p t i o n l i m i t was i n c r e a s e d t o 320 a c r e s i n 1870). The  t r a n s i t i o n t o f u l l - b l o w n c o l o n i z a t i o n was h a s t e n e d by  the a r r i v a l i n 1867 o f C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s who,  having  s o j o u r n e d p e r i o d i c a l l y i n Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y d u r i n g t h e l a t e r f u r t r a d e y e a r s , now e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r f i r s t permanent m i s s i o n , S t . Josephs, on prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s o u t h o f  C o f f e y , e t . a l . , Shuswap History,  p.37.  18  The 1865 l a n d o r d i n a n c e was s i l e n t on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f N a t i v e p r e e m p t i o n , but an 1866 o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l s t i p u l a t e d t h a t such g r a n t s would h e n c e f o r t h be d e n i e d t o B.C. N a t i v e s An 1870 amendment extended t h a t p r o h i b i t i o n t o a l l N o r t h American N a t i v e s . See P a u l Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1990) pp.40-41.  130 W i l l i a m ' s Lake.  W i t h i n a few y e a r s , t h e y had succeeded i n 19  c o n v e r t i n g the m a j o r i t y of N a t i v e s i n the r e g i o n . W i t h the onset of s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n , l a n d q u i c k l y became the  p r i n c i p a l f o c u s of s e t t l e r - N a t i v e c o n f l i c t .  Secwepemc  t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y encompassed some 180 thousand km , 2  but  w i t h i n a few decades t h e y would be d e p r i v e d of a l l but a t i n y f r a c t i o n of t h i s homeland, as w h i t e r a n c h e r s and f a r m e r s e n c l o s e d thousands of a c r e s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n and 20 rangelands.  The f i r s t e f f o r t s at " I n d i a n removal" were  mounted a t the h e i g h t of the C a r i b o o G o l d Rush, when Governor Douglas i n s t r u c t e d W i l l i a m Cox, g o l d  commissioner  for  the C a r i b o o r e g i o n , t o b e g i n d e m a r c a t i n g r e s e r v e s f o r  the  Secwepemc.  I n the e a r l y 1860s, Cox l a i d out  c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e r e s e r v e s near Bonaparte Lake and Kamloops, and a l o n g the N o r t h F r a s e r (at Soda Creek,  Alkali  Lake, and Canoe Creek) but t h e s e were never p r o p e r l y s u r v e y e d o r r e c o r d e d , and were among the f i r s t t o be t a r g e t e d f o r "adjustment" by Joseph T r u t c h when he t o o k charge o f c o l o n i a l l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1864.  One  Cox  r e s e r v e was reduced from a 40 m i l e s t r e t c h a l o n g t h e N o r t h and South Thompson r i v e r s t o 3 p a r c e l s of 4 square m i l e s , E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s , Victims of Benevolence: The Dark Legacy of the Williams Lake Residential School (Vancouver: A r s e n a l P u l p P r e s s , 1995). 20 See Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y , Introduction to the Shuswap, p.12.  131  w h i l e the Bonaparte r e s e r v e was reduced by t w o - t h i r d s ,  and  21  o t h e r s were e l i m i n a t e d a l t o g e t h e r .  In  a 1910 p e t i t i o n , Secwepemc, Okanagan and Nlakapamux  c h i e f s r e c o u n t e d the d i s p o s s e s s i o n of the I n t e r i o r A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s i n terms which a r e w o r t h r e p r o d u c i n g a t length:  G r a d u a l l y , as the w h i t e s of t h i s c o u n t r y became more and more p o w e r f u l , and we l e s s and l e s s p o w e r f u l , t h e y l i t t l e by l i t t l e changed t h e i r p o l i c y towards us, and commenced t o put r e s t r i c t i o n s on us. or  Their  governments  c h i e f s have t a k e n e v e r y advantage of our  f r i e n d l i n e s s , weakness and i g n o r a n c e , t o impose on us in  e v e r y way.  They t r e a t us as s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t any  agreement t o t h a t e f f e c t , and f o r c e t h e i r laws on us w i t h o u t our consent, and i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether t h e y are  good f o r us o r n o t .  o v e r us. customs  They have broken down our o l d laws and (no m a t t e r how good) by which we  ourselves. aside.  They say t h e y have a u t h o r i t y  regulated  They l a u g h a t our c h i e f s and b r u s h them  For minor a f f a i r s amongst o u r s e l v e s , w h i c h do  not a f f e c t them i n the l e a s t , and which we can e a s i l y 21  T h i s p a r a g r a p h i s based on M. B a l f , The Dispossessed: Interior Indians in the 1800s (Kamloops: Kamloops Museum, 1978); and Robin F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict: IndianEuropean Relations in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1977) pp.162-63.  132  s e t t l e b e t t e r than t h e y can, t h e y d r a g us i n t o t h e i r courts.  They e n f o r c e t h e i r own laws one way f o r t h e  r i c h w h i t e man, one way f o r t h e poor w h i t e man, and y e t a n o t h e r f o r t h e I n d i a n . . . t h e y have t a k e n p o s s e s s i o n o f a l l t h e I n d i a n c o u n t r y , and c l a i m i t as t h e i r own. J u s t t h e same as t a k i n g t h e 'house' o r 'ranch', and, t h e r e f o r e , the l i f e of every Indian t r i b e i n t o possession.  their  They have never c o n s u l t e d us i n any o f  t h e s e m a t t e r s , n o r made any agreement, n o r s i g n e d any papers w i t h us.  They have s t o l e n o u r l a n d s and  e v e r y t h i n g on them and c o n t i n u e t o use same f o r t h e i r 22 own purposes. A f t e r s t r i p p i n g t h e Secwepemc o f t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o l e a d a traditional life,  s e t t l e r a u t h o r i t i e s made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o  t h r i v e even w i t h i n t h e new system.  I n a now famous 1874  l e t t e r t o a V i c t o r i a newspaper, F a t h e r C.J. G r a n d i d i e r , a s y m p a t h e t i c m i s s i o n a r y from Okanagan M i s s i o n , r e l a y e d N a t i v e resentment  about p a l t r y r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t s which l e f t  them  unable t o pursue t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l v o c a t i o n s now p r e s c r i b e d by w h i t e a u t h o r i t i e s .  They do n o t t h i n k t h a t , when a w h i t e man can preempt 320 a c r e s and buy as much more, b e s i d e s t h e f a c i l i t y o f  "Memorial from t h e C h i e f s o f t h e Shuswap, Okanagan, and Couteau (Thompson) T r i b e s o f B.C.", 25 August, 1910; quoted i n M a r a c l e , e t a l . , p. 112-13.  133  l e a s i n g more, t h a t they are u n r e a s o n a b l e i n a s k i n g a c r e s of t h e i r own  l a n d per f a m i l y .  I f a w h i t e man  s c a r c e l y eke out a l i v i n g w i t h h i s 320 an I n d i a n do i t w i t h 20?  a c r e s , how  encroachments of w h i t e s e t t l e r s had pushed  resistance. 1871,  can can  Which w h i t e f a m i l y would t r y  By the l a t e 1870s, the c o n t i n u i n g d e p r e d a t i o n s  n a t i o n s i n the s o u t h e r n  80  and  indigenous  I n t e r i o r t o the p o i n t of armed  B r i t i s h Columbia had j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n  but Ottawa's assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  in  "Indians  and l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s " had done l i t t l e t o improve l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , d e s p i t e f e d e r a l i r r i t a t i o n o v e r B.C.'s N a t i v e p o l i c i e s - which l e d Ottawa t o t a k e the e x t r a o r d i n a r y measure of d i s a l l o w i n g B.C.'s f i r s t c o n s o l i d a t e d l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n - and the c r e a t i o n of a j o i n t I n d i a n Reserve Commission i n 1876  charged w i t h s e t t l i n g the  land  24 question.  I n the summer of 1877,  almost two decades a f t e r  the Lac La Hache g a t h e r i n g , the e m b a t t l e d  Secwepemc once  Quoted i n B a l f , The Dispossessed, p.25. This much-cited l e t t e r was r e p r i n t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Papers Connected with the Indian Land Question 1850-1875 ( V i c t o r i a : R. Wolfenden, 1875) pp. 146-48. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t G r a n d i d i e r ' s l e t t e r s i n g l e d out the n o r t h e r n Secwepemc as p a r t i c u l a r l y maligned. 24 There are s e v e r a l accounts of the i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l w r a n g l i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d : see F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, pp. 175-211; Tennant, Aboriginal People and Politics, pp. 39-52; and F o r e s t E. L a V i o l e t t e , The Struggle for Survival:  134  a g a i n met  with other I n t e r i o r nations  ( t h i s time  the  Okanagan and n o r t h e r n Nlaka'pamux) t o d i s c u s s the  formation  of a m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e t o compel a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t of claims.  their  Some of the Secwepemc had r e c e n t l y been i n c o n t a c t  w i t h C h i e f Joseph's i n s u r g e n t Nez  Perce, and a d v o c a t e d a  c r o s s - b o r d e r a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t s e t t l e r expansionism.  Settler  o p i n i o n was  war",  mixed about the l i k e l i h o o d of an " I n d i a n  but the Reserve Commissioners who  v i s i t e d Kamloops i n J u l y  t o a s s e s s the c r i s i s were s u f f i c i e n t l y alarmed t o send an a n x i o u s message t o Ottawa: " I n d i a n s i t u a t i o n v e r y  desperate  from Kamloops t o American b o r d e r  - general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n -  outbreak  settler authorities,  possible".  I n the end,  with  the a s s i s t a n c e of l o c a l m i s s i o n a r i e s l i k e the above-named F a t h e r G r a n d i d i e r , were a b l e t o defuse the t h r e a t o f a g e n e r a l u p r i s i n g by p l a y i n g o f f d i f f e r e n t bands and f a c t i o n s among the Secwepemc so as t o thwart e f f o r t s t o confederate.  25  From the 1880s onward, a s e g r e g a t i o n i s t system g r a d u a l l y emerged t h a t would remain r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e up t o the end the Second World War.  of  The b a l a n c e of Secwepemc r e s e r v e s  were demarcated by the I n d i a n Reserve Commission i n the e a r l y 1880s, c o n f i n i n g them t o m i n i s c u l e p a r c e l s o f l a n d Indian Cultures and the Protestant Ethic in B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1961) pp. 98-144. 25 I d e r i v e my account of t h i s episode from R o b i n F i s h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of these e v e n t s . See F i s h e r , Contact and Conflict, pp 191-93.  135  even as the dynamics of a d e v e l o p i n g I n t e r i o r l a n d market e n a b l e d w h i t e c a t t l e barons and s y n d i c a t e s t o monopolize huge t r a c t s of r a n g e l a n d  (the massive spreads o f the Douglas  Lake C a t t l e Company and James C a t t l e Company, b o t h o f w h i c h exceed 180,000 h e c t a r e s , e x e m p l i f y the p r e s e n t day outcome 26  of t h i s p r o c e s s ) . i n B.C.  i n 1881,  When I n d i a n A g e n c i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d the Secwepemc people and t e r r i t o r y were  " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y q u a r t e r e d " between f o u r d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s , and brought w i t h i n the compass o f the I n d i a n A c t ' s 27  regime of b u r e a u c r a t i c o p p r e s s i o n .  Catholic  m i s s i o n i z a t i o n complemented the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t programme of the c o l o n i a l s t a t e , as m i s s i o n a r i e s persuaded many c h i e f s t o adopt an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  ( s o - c a l l e d "Durieu")  method of  government, a system based on a s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d  local  Christian  28  moralism  repugnant t o N a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s .  They a l s o  e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s a t W i l l i a m ' s Lake and By 1893, i n the A l k a l i L a k e - B i g Bar-Dog Creek d i s t r i c t , 51, 495 a c r e s of r a n g e l a n d , and 3809 a c r e s of c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the hands of j u s t 41 s e t t l e r s , a r a t e o f e n c l o s u r e exceeded o n l y i n the N i c o l a V a l l e y , the c e n t e r of the p r o v i n c e ' s r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t P e t e r O ' R e i l l y , the man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e m a r c a t i n g most of I n t e r i o r r e s e r v e s , was a l s o one o f the p r i n c i p a l s of the Douglas Lake C a t t l e Company. See Greg Thomas, The B.C. Ranching Frontier 1858-1896, ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , Department of H i s t o r y , UBC: 1976) p. 174. 27  See T r e f o r Smith, "John Fremont Smith and I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Kamloops Agency, 1912-1923" Native Studies Review 10 (1995) 1-34. 28  For an account of the Secwepemc encounter w i t h the D u r i e u system, see E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s , " R e s i s t a n c e , C o e r c i o n , R e v i t a l i z a t i o n " Ethnohistory 42 (1995) pp. 231-263.  136 Kamloops whose b i t t e r l e g a c y of c u l t u r a l r e p r e s s i o n and p h y s i c a l and s e x u a l abuse has o n l y r e c e n t l y , and  grudgingly,  29 been acknowledged by s e t t l e r s o c i e t y . D e s p i t e t h i s comprehensive a s s a u l t on t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e w a y s , the Secwepemc proved remarkably  adept at a d j u s t i n g t o ,  and  i n some measure s u b v e r t i n g , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of c o l o n i a l rule  (though always w i t h i n the c o e r c i v e l i m i t s imposed upon 30  them) .  Sequestered  on s m a l l , and l a r g e l y  unproductive,  r e s e r v e s , and f a c i n g d r a s t i c a l l y reduced a c c e s s  to  t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g s i t e s , nonetheless  they  managed t o eke out a l i v i n g by c o m b i n i n g wage  l a b o u r as g u i d e s , p a c k e r s and farm o r domestic l a b o u r e r s w i t h s m a l l - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n f o r market and those 31  seasonal  s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s s t i l l open t o them.  landmark  One  s t u d y c o n f i r m e d t h a t as l a t e as 1960, t h i s "semiF u r n i s s , Victims of Benevolence; and C e l i a Haig-Brown, Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School (Vancouver: T i l l a c u m , 1988). 30 I am m i n d f u l here of E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s s w a r n i n g a g a i n s t emphasizing N a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e i n a manner which i m p l i c i t l y o r e x l i c i t l y downplays the e x t e n t of c o l o n i a l c o e r c i o n . See F u r n i s s , Victims of Benevolence, p. 32. 31 L i k e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the s o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r , C a r i b o o N a t i v e s were a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the wage economy w e l l i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . See James K. Burrows, "A Much Needed C l a s s of Labour": The Economy and Income o f S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u I n d i a n s , 1897-1910", B.C. Studies 71 (1986) pp. 27-46. and H.B. Hawthorn e t a l , The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Study of Contemporary Social Adjustment (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1960), p. 95ff. 1  137 p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d " p a t t e r n p e r s i s t e d f o r most N a t i v e s o u t s i d e the Lower M a i n l a n d ,  e n a b l i n g them t o p r e s e r v e a c e r t a i n  degree of autonomy: " t o the e x t e n t t h a t I n d i a n s can m a i n t a i n themselves  on f i s h and game and o t h e r foods which t h e y  a c q u i r e f o r themselves,  they can remain independent of w h i t e  32 society".  Meanwhile, the Secwepemc t r i e d t o m i t i g a t e the  impact of c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m , a d a p t i n g the D u r i e u system t o t h e i r own  purposes,  and p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t the  severities 33  imposed on t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . And,  u n t i l such a c t i v i t i e s were banned i n 1927,  o r g a n i z e d themselves  they  p o l i t i c a l l y along with other  B.C.  A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s f o r a j u s t r e s o l u t i o n of the l a n d q u e s t i o n - s e n d i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o p e t i t i o n governments i n Ottawa and London, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p r o v i n c e - w i d e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the A l l i e d T r i b e s , and Prime M i n i s t e r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r d u r i n g h i s 1910 Kamloops.  visit  lobbying to  34  V  Hawthorn, e t . a l . , The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, p.95. 33 E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s has documented the o s c i l l a t i o n between accomodation and r e s i s t a n c e i n these two c o n t e x t s . See F u r n i s s , Victims of Benevolence; and " R e s i s t a n c e , C o e r c i o n , Accomodation ". 34 C o f f e y , e t . a l , " S t r u g g l e f o r the Land", i n Shuswap History, pp.40-44; Robert G a l o i s , "The I n d i a n R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , N a t i v e P r o t e s t A c t i v i t y and the 'Land Q u e s t i o n ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1903-1916", Native Studies Review, 8 (1992) pp. 1-34..  138 The p o s t - W o r l d War  I I p e r i o d , which w i t n e s s e d the r i s e o f  m u l t i n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m and the a c c e l e r a t e d i n t e g r a t i o n of Canada d i r e c t l y i n t o a U.S.-dominated c o n t i n e n t a l economy, p r e s e n t e d the next d i r e c h a l l e n g e t o Secwepemc s u r v i v a l . The consequent  e x p a n s i o n of r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n i n  e s p e c i a l l y the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I n t e r i o r f o r e s t f u r t h e r reduced Secwepemc c a p a c i t y t o pursue  B.C.,  industry,  traditional  s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s , w h i l e job s e g r e g a t i o n ensured t h a t f o r e s t revenues and employment would a c c r u e l a r g e l y t o 35 whites.  I n t h e i r 1960 r e p o r t , Hawthorn and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  u n w i t t i n g l y c a p t u r e d the essence of t h i s new  round of  c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n - the Green G o l d Rush - n o t i n g t h a t the W i l l i a m s Lake Agency "underwent p r o b a b l y the most r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of lumber output of any a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e war a n d . . . i s l i k e l y t o e n j o y c o n t i n u e d e x p a n s i o n f o r the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e " , but d o u b t i n g whether N a t i v e s t h e r e 36 "would d e r i v e much b e n e f i t from the e x p a n s i o n " .  The  For a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w of the development of B.C.'s f o r e s t s e c t o r , i n c l u d i n g the I n t e r i o r , see P a t r i c i a Marchak, Green Gold: The Forest Industry in B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U.B.C. P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) ; R . H a y t e r and R. G a l o i s , "The Wheel of F o r t u n e : B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber and the G l o b a l Economy", i n P a u l M. K o r a s c i l , ed., B r i t i s h Columbia: Geographical Essays (Vancouver: SFU Dept. o f Geography 1991) pp.169-201. Some d e t a i l s of the e a r l y phases of development i n the C a r i b o o - C h i l c o t i n can be g l e a n e d from B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y , The Cariboo-Chilcotin: A Regional Profile ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969). 36 Hawthorn, e t . a l . , Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, p.134. By "new round of c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n " I mean new t o t h i s r e g i o n ; the p l u n d e r of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s was by t h i s time w e l l advanced i n o t h e r p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e , though i t t o o  139  r e s u l t i n g economic d i s l o c a t i o n , and c u m u l a t i v e impact s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n on i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r a l and  of  social  i n s t i t u t i o n s , provoked a renewed p e r i o d of c r i s i s i n Secwepemc s o c i e t y , comparable i n many ways t o t h a t of the mid-nineteenth  century.  T h i s time the scourges were, among  o t h e r t h i n g s , i m m i s e r a t i o n , a l c o h o l i s m , male v i o l e n c e and s e x u a l abuse, and s u i c i d e , a l l of which p r o v i d e d the p r e t e x t f o r g r e a t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n by the agents of " w e l f a r e c o l o n i a l i s m " , the s o c i a l workers,  child protection officers,  and law enforcement p e r s o n n e l who  t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d the 37  i n s t i t u t i o n a l bulwark of C a r i b o o a p a r t h e i d .  Today, some t h i r t y f i v e y e a r s l a t e r , the p o l i t i c a l economy of c o l o n i a l i s m i n the 100 M i l e House a r e a remains e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged, as v a r i o u s Secwepemc bands c o n f r o n t the c o n t i n u i n g p l u n d e r of t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s by what i s the r e g i o n ' s number one  industry.  8 0 p e r c e n t of the  now  local  t i m b e r s u p p l y i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h r e e o u t s i d e companies A i n s w o r t h , Weldwood and Lignum - l e a v i n g l o c a l F i r s t to  scramble  Nations  f o r some r e s i d u a l p o r t i o n of the " a l l o w a b l e c u t "  p r e s c r i b e d by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  Job d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s  b l a t a n t : f o r e s t r y d i r e c t l y employs 3 0 p e r c e n t of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , but o n l y 10 p e r c e n t of N a t i v e s , most o f whome would undergo d r a m a t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the p o s t w a r period. 37  T e r r y G l a v i n , "The Judge of A l e x i s Creek", The Georgia Straight, 24-31 October, 1996, pp. 15-22; see a l s o G e o f f r e y  140  are r e l e g a t e d t o p e r i p h e r a l s e c t o r s of the f o r e s t economy, 38 such as t r e e - p l a n t i n g and f i r e f i g h t i n g .  Reserve  unemployment t y p i c a l l y ranges between 20 and 50 p e r c e n t , and c o n s i s t e n t l y exceeds the r a t e among n o n - N a t i v e s i n the r e g i o n by a t l e a s t 2 0 p e r c e n t ; i n most c a s e s , band governments  remain the l a r g e s t s i n g l e p r o v i d e r of j o b s ,  e m p l o y i n g as much as 70 p e r c e n t of the w o r k f o r c e among t h e southern, Secwepemc.  And, i n a t e x t b o o k i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e  mechanics o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , the w e a l t h t h a t  trickles  i n t o Secwepemc r e s e r v e s i s q u i c k l y s i p h o n e d o f f by a d j a c e n t w h i t e communities - r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t s spend c l o s e t o 85 39 p e r c e n t of t h e i r meagre incomes o f f - r e s e r v e .  Writing  about the C h i l c o t i n communities west of W i l l i a m s Lake, T e r r y G l a v i n sums up the impact of such c o l o n i a l economics i n terms which a p p l y e q u a l l y t o t h e i r Secwepemc n e i g h b o u r s : The younger p e o p l e n o t i c e how p e o p l e d i e d .  Up a t  K l u s k u s , C h i e f Roger Jimmy s a i d t h a t when he l o o k e d t o the southwest, he c o u l d t a l l y the number o f I n d i a n s who would d i e a v i o l e n t d e a t h t h a t y e a r by a d d i n g up the m i l e s of new l o g g i n g roads i n t o the c o u n t r y .  The o l d  C h i l c o t i n economy, a mix of c a t t l e - r a n c h i n g and g u i d e York, The Dispossessed: Life and Death in Native Canada (London: V i r a g o , 1990) pp. 201-227. 38 See B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , Economics and Trade Branch, 100 Mile House TSA Socioeconomic Analysis ( V i c t o r i a : March, 1995).  141  o u t f i t t i n g , f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g ,  was f a l l i n g t o p i e c e s .  More t h a n 200 f u l l y l o a d e d l o g g i n g t r u c k s were r u m b l i n g out o f t h e C h i l c o t i n c o u n t r y day,  i n t o W i l l i a m s Lake e v e r y  r o a r i n g p a s t I n d i a n r e s e r v e s where e i g h t out o f  t e n a d u l t s were on w e l f a r e . . . t h e along w i t h the c o u n t r y s i d e .  I n d i a n s were  dying  4 0  The r e s u l t s o f postwar r e s t r u c t u r i n g were not t o t a l l y  bleak,  however, s i n c e t h e renewed a s s a u l t on Secwepemc s o c i e t y produced i n t u r n a c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l r e s u r g e n c e , p a r t of a much w i d e r movement among t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f Canada (and i n d e e d o f a l l t h e Americas) t o r e a s s e r t n a t i o n a l and human r i g h t s .  their  The 1970s saw Secwepemc p e o p l e  t a k i n g t o t h e s t r e e t s o f Kamloops t o p r o t e s t Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ' c o n t r o l , e v e n t u a l l y f o r c i n g t h e DIA t o c l o s e i t s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e and t r a n s f e r l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o band c o u n c i l s - an e a r l y v i c t o r y i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r g r e a t e r autonomy.  T h i s p e r i o d a l s o w i t n e s s e d moves towards  n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n through the formation  greater  o f two t r i b a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l and t h e Shuswap N a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l , and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l nationalism, culminating  i n t h e 1982 Shuswap D e c l a r a t i o n , a  j o i n t statement from a l l 17 Secwepemc bands e x p r e s s i n g  their  common commitment t o p r e s e r v i n g and p r o m o t i n g Secwepemc 39  I b i d . See a l s o , Jack, e t . a l . , Shuswap CommunityHandbook. The s u r v e y r e s u l t s were f o r t h e Kamloops r e s e r v e .  40  G l a v i n , "The Judge o f A l e x i s Creek", p. 20.  142 h i s t o r y , language and c u l t u r e .  More r e c e n t l y , v a r i o u s  bands have begun t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e s i n f o r e s t r y , f i s h e r i e s , and r e a l e s t a t e t o b u i l d an base f o r t h e i r communities.  economic  Perhaps the most c o m p e l l i n g  developments, however, were g r a s s r o o t s e f f o r t s t o expunge c o l o n i a l r e s i d u e s from key a r e a s of Secwepemc l i f e , i n c l u d i n g the now  famous s o b r i e t y movement d e v e l o p e d by t h e  A l k a l i Lake Band, s u c c e s s i v e campaigns r a c i s m i n the j u s t i c e system  t o combat s y s t e m i c  (of which more b e l o w ) , and t h e  o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t t o r e d r e s s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l abuse  (which  r e c e n t l y c u l m i n a t e d i n the c o n v i c t i o n of B i s h o p Hubert 42 O'Connor).  A s i g n i f i c a n t , i f l e s s w e l l known, a s p e c t of  t h i s p r o c e s s of " i n t e r n a l d e c o l o n i z a t i o n " was  the  r e a s s e r t i o n of i n d i g e n o u s i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h the a d o p t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l forms, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Sundance.  It  B r i e f a c c o u n t s of t h e s e developments can be found i n R i t a J a c k , e t . a l , Shuswap Community Handbook; and C o f f e y e t . a l . , Shuswap History, . An account of the f o r m a t i o n and e a r l y development of the C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d as a DIA-sponsored organ and i n i t i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d bands from the C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r N a t i o n s , can be found i n D a v i d Z i r n h e l t , The Caribou Tribal Council ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , UBC: 1976). C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , Z i r n h e l t i s the c u r r e n t NDP M i n i s t e r of Forests. 42 A c o n c i s e account of the A l k a l i Lake s t o r y can be found i n G e o f f r e y York, The Dispossessed: Life and Death in Native Canada (London: V i n t a g e , 1990) pp. 175-200. The h i s t o r y o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l abuse i n Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y has been c o m p e l l i n g l y r e c o r d e d i n C e l i a Haig-Brown, Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School (Vancouver: T i l l a c u m , 1988) and E l i z a b e t h F u r n i s s , Victims of Benevolence.  143  was t h i s development t h a t would s e t the s t a g e f o r t h e d r a m a t i c e v e n t s o f t h e summer of 1995.  SECWEPEMC INTIFADA  . . . s h a l l we a l l o w a few r e d v a g r a n t s t o p r e v e n t f o r e v e r i n d u s t r i o u s s e t t l e r s from s e t t l i n g on the u n o c c u p i e d l a n d s ? Not a t a l l . We would t r e a t the r e d v a g r a n t s as we would w h i t e ones. L o c a t e r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r them on w h i c h t o e a r n t h e i r own l i v i n g s , and i f t h e y t r e s p a s s e d on w h i t e s e t t l e r s p u n i s h them s e v e r e l y . A few l e s s o n s would soon e n a b l e them t o form a c o r r e c t e s t i m a t e o f t h e i r own i n f e r i o r i t y , and s e t t l e the Indian t i t l e too. Amor de Cosmos, E d i t o r o f V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t and f u t u r e P r e m i e r , 1861 43  The immediate o r i g i n s o f the Ts'peten S t a n d o f f can be t r a c e d .to t h e r e v i v a l o f the Sundance, i n the l a t e 1980s, by a group of Secwepemc t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , among whom P e r c y R o s e t t e , an e l d e r w i t h f a m i l y t i e s t o t h e A l k a l i Lake band, was a key f i g u r e .  A c c o r d i n g t o R o s e t t e , whose  t r a d i t i o n a l i s t views l e d him t o r e f u s e government money and on-reserve  living,  We wanted t o r e v i v e the Sundance, t h e way our e l d e r s , the way t h e o l d ones t o l d us we had the Sundance i n our area....  We were t r y i n g t o h o l d onto something f o r our  c h i l d r e n , something s p i r i t u a l w e  were t r y i n g t o  r e v i v e a c u l t u r e because t h a t i s the h e a r t o f s p i r i t u a l  The B r i t i s h Colonist,  8 March, 1861.  144  government.  I t ' s always been a s p i r i t u a l government,  because i t s e r v e s a l l .  T h i s c o r e group of Secwepemc Sundancers j o i n e d a f a r - f l u n g network o f t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s throughout w e s t e r n N o r t h - as R o s e t t e r e c a l l s , e v e r y which way  America  "we were d a n c i n g i n A l b e r t a , Oregon,  - even down t o the S i o u x c o u n t r y " .  1988 v i s i o n q u e s t , t h r e e members of the group  During a  (including  R o s e t t e ) had a v i s i o n of Ts'peten as a "power p o i n t " , a s i t e invested with special s p i r i t u a l significance. for  some y e a r s been a p o p u l a r f i s h i n g and  Ts'peten  had  recreational  d e s t i n a t i o n , a c c e s s i b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c though o f f i c i a l l y i t f e l l w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of the James C a t t l e Company, which o c c u p i e d most of the l a n d between the F r a s e r R i v e r and Highway 97 t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n of f r e e h o l d t e n u r e and range l e a s e s .  L y l e James had purchased h i s  180,000 h e c t a r e spread i n 1970  f o r about $1.5 m i l l i o n  and  l i v e d i n a ranchhouse i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o the o r i g i n a l 45  owners of Ts'peten, the Canoe Creek/ Dog Creek Band. member of the C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l , the band was engaged i n l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s t h r o u g h the B.C.  As a  now Treaty  44  P e r c y R o s e t t e , t r a n s c r i p t of i n t e r v i e w r e c o r d e d on 2 0 August, 1995, a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the homepage of S e t t l e r s i n Support o f Indigenous S o v e r e i g n t y : http://kafka.uvic.ca/~vipirg/SISIS/SISmain.html.. 45  Ts'peten l i e s a t the headwaters of Dog Creek, and o r i g i n a l l y f e l l w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y of the Dog Creek Band, but i t amalgamated w i t h Canoe Creek i n the 1920s. See C o f f e y , e t . a l . , Shuswap History, p.21. ,  145 Commission, b u t r e g a r d e d Ts'peten as p r i v a t e l a n d , and hence o u t s i d e the purview of t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s .  The Sundancers,  on t h e o t h e r hand, now viewed Ts'peten as a  s a c r e d s i t e , and would e v e n t u a l l y c o m p i l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e a r e a had t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e r v e d as a b u r i a l ground and f i s h i n g 46 location.  Moreover,  l i k e other Native sovereigntists i n  B.C., t h e y a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e l a n d t h e r e had never been p r o p e r l y ceded t o t h e Crown, and thus remained Secwepemc territory.  P e r c y R o s e t t e u n d e r s c o r e d t h i s c l a i m by  r e c o u n t i n g an o l d s t o r y about f a i l e d e f f o r t s t o s e c u r e t h e s u r r e n d e r o f Ts'peten: ...the [ c o l o n i a l land] commissioners, when t h e y f i r s t came on t h i s l a n d , t h e y met w i t h t h e I n d i a n s and t h e commissioners had a box o f money.  The I n d i a n s c o u l d n ' t  u n d e r s t a n d what t h e s e commissioners, t h e s e s u r v e y o r s were t a l k i n g about, so t h e y had t o have a t r a n s l a t o r t a l k t o t h e commissioners.  So t h e I n d i a n s b u i l t a  s a c r e d f i r e t h e n a t Ts'peten and spoke t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r p r e t e r t o these c o l o n i a l s . debate o v e r t h e l a n d .  They had q u i t e a  These c o l o n i a l s were t r y i n g t o  buy t h i s l a n d w i t h t h a t money i n t h e box. box next t o t h e s a c r e d f i r e . Indians said,  They s e t t h e  So i n t h e end, t h e  'Whatever these c o l o n i a l s want, we w i l l  146 do i t p r o p e r . '  So t h e y t o l d them, we're g o i n g t o see  i f i t comes from t h e C r e a t o r .  So w i t h t h e money  s i t t i n g t h e r e t h e r e ' s many days o f debate about whether t h e y want t o s e l l t h e l a n d .  So t h e s e I n d i a n s had a  ceremony and t o l d t h e c o l o n i a l s t o s t e p back a l i t t l e , t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o see i f t h i s money comes  from  the C r e a t o r ; t h e y were g o i n g t o p u r i f y i t i n t h e s a c r e d fire.  So t h e y took t h e money and t h e y p u t i t i n t h e  fire.  And t h e money burned a l l t o n o t h i n g .  s a i d " t h e r e ' s no s a l e f o r t h i s l a n d " . l e g e n d of Ts'peten.  So t h e y  That's t h e  That l a n d ' s s t i l l not f o r s a l e .  We've always l i v e d t h a t , and t h a t r e s i d e s i n o u r ceremonies  Significantly,  at a l l times.  though these c o n t e n d i n g views o f Ts'peten l i e  at t h e r o o t o f t h e subsequent  s t a n d o f f , and e n c a p s u l a t e t h e  whole, r a m i f i e d h i s t o r y o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n i n B.C.,  this  c r u c i a l d i m e n s i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e would never be s e r i o u s l y addressed d u r i n g the r e s u l t i n g  In 1989, R o s e t t e approached  crisis.  L y a l l James t o i n f o r m him about  p l a n s t o use a p o r t i o n o f t h e Ts'peten l a k e f r o n t as a  Ts'peten Defenders, P r e s s R e l e a s e , August 1995. A v a i l a b l e a t SISIS homepage. 47 Percy Rosette interview.  147 Sundance s i t e .  James gave h i s a p p r o v a l somewhat  r e l u c t a n t l y , and s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the Sundancers must not e r e c t any permanent s t r u c t u r e s o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h operations or r e c r e a t i o n a l users.  ranch  To R o s e t t e , who  d i d not  r e c o g n i z e James's ownership, and hence the need t o o b t a i n 49 hxs p e r m i s s i o n , g i v i n g n o t i c e was  simply a courtesy.  Sundances were h e l d f o r t e n days each summer from t h r o u g h . 1994,  1990  and were l a r g e l y u n e v e n t f u l , though by  l o c a l non-Natives  were becoming i r r i t a t e d by the  1993  Native's  g r o w i n g a s s e r t i v e n e s s , as the Sundancers approached v i s i t o r s t o a d v i s e them about the sacredness  of the a r e a , and i n some  i n s t a n c e s encourage them t o l e a v e .  James, who  believed that  the s i t e would be used on the s t a n d a r d f o u r - y e a r c y c l e , became i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned when he l e a r n e d t h a t the Sundancers p l a n n e d  t o r e t u r n i n 1995.  A f t e r the  Sundance, R o s e t t e and h i s w i f e Toby Pena  1994  (and,  i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , o t h e r f a m i l y members) s t a y e d on t h r o u g h f a l l and w i n t e r t o watch over the Sundance grounds.  the  When  James d i s c o v e r e d t h i s , he made p l a n s t o e v i c t them, c o n s u l t i n g w i t h lawyers and the l o c a l RCMP detachment a t M i l e House, who  a d v i s e d him t h a t he would be b e t t e r o f f  i n v o k i n g a c i v i l r a t h e r than c r i m i n a l procedure, involvement  100  would l i k e l y i n c r e a s e t e n s i o n s .  as p o l i c e  Throughout the  A b o r i g i n a l S o v e r e i g n t y Support Committee, "Chronology of the G u s t a f s e n Lake S t a n d o f f " , August 1996 ( h e r e a f t e r ASSC C h r o n o l o g y ) , a v a i l a b l e through SISIS homepage. 49 P e r c y R o s e t t e speech, Vancouver, B.C., October 1995.  I  148  s p r i n g and e a r l y summer o f 1995, p e o p l e came and went from the camp p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e Sundance i n e a r l y J u l y . Meanwhile, James, h i s lawyer, p r o v i n c i a l government officials,  t h e RCMP and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e C a r i b o o  T r i b a l C o u n c i l and some o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t bands were c o n s u l t i n g each o t h e r about c a n c e l l i n g o r r e l o c a t i n g t h e 1995  Sundance, and removing t h e Sundancers.  Natives, already predisposed  L o c a l non-  t o p a r a n o i a by i n c e s s a n t ,  right  wing f e a r - m o n g e r i n g about N a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s , became i n c r e a s i n g l y a g i t a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y area ranchers  who r e g a r d e d  the government's r e f u s a l t o s w i f t l y e j e c t t h e Sundancers as c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t l e s s e e s o f Crown r a n g e l a n d s were t o be s a c r i f i c e d on t h e a l t a r o f N a t i v e  appeasement.  In t h i s atmosphere, i t was p r o b a b l y  50  p r e d i c t a b l e , i f not  i n e v i t a b l e , t h a t m a t t e r s would e s c a l a t e .  I n e a r l y June,  some Sundancers e r e c t e d a fence around t h e Sundance s i t e t o keep c a t t l e from d e s e c r a t i n g c e r e m o n i a l arousing James'ire.  grounds, f u r t h e r  Following the venerable  Cariboo  t r a d i t i o n o f s e t t l e r v i g i l a n t i s m , James and a dozen o r so o f h i s ranchhands descended on t h e Ts'peten c a m p s i t e t o remind the Sundancers about t h e p e n a l t i e s c u s t o m a r i l y imposed on troublesome I n d i a n s .  Finding Rosette  t e m p o r a r i l y absent,  t h e y removed a woodstove from t h e camp cookhouse, w r o n g l y  T e r r y G l a v i n , "How t h e C i r c u s Came t o G u s t a f s e n Lake", The Georgia Straight 22-29 September, 1995. See a l s o ASSC chronology.  149  c l a i m i n g i t had been s t o l e n ; some s a u n t e r e d about t h e campground p h o t o g r a p h i n g  Sundance r e g a l i a , w h i l e o t h e r s  b r a n d i s h e d r i f l e s and t h r e a t e n e d t o k i l l t h e Sundancers; one b e l l i g e r e n t repeatedly cracked a bullwhip, suggesting that the time had come " t o s t r i n g up some r e d n i g g e r s " .  When  R o s e t t e r e t u r n e d a few hours l a t e r , he r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t an e v i c t i o n n o t i c e James produced,  so one o f t h e ranchhands  i m p a l e d i t on a s a c r e d s t a f f as t h e group l e f t t h e campsite.  51  Now t h o r o u g h l y a n x i o u s , t h e Sundancers f i r e d  w a r n i n g s h o t s i n t o t h e a i r t h e next day when a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s v e h i c l e approached t h e camp; t h e y a l s o sent o u t an a n x i o u s a p p e a l f o r h e l p through t h e i r network o f 52 supporters.  A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h L y l e James on June  15th, s e l f - a p p o i n t e d m e d i a t o r s from t h e l o c a l bands r e l a y e d f u r t h e r t h r e a t s o f " p h y s i c a l removal"  t o t h e Sundancers.  The next day, a drunken ranchhand stumbled  i n t o t h e camp,  warning t h a t "the r a n c h e r s i n t e n d e d t o burn t h e c o u n c i l lodge and t h e RCMP were p l a n n i n g an i n v a s i o n o f t h e camp".  53  One o f t h e occupants o f t h e F o r e s t M i n i s t r y v e h i c l e , an adherent o f t h e "one l a w f o r a l l " w o r l d v i e w , c i r c u l a t e d h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n t f a r and wide, so t h a t w i t h i n a few days t h e l o c a l Reform MLA was demanding RCMP a c t i o n from t h e f l o o r of the l e g i s l a t u r e . See G l a v i n , "How t h e C i r c u s Came " . 53 Ts'peten Defender's, P r e s s R e l e a s e , 18 June 1995.  150  On June 25th, an u n i d e n t i f i e d t r u c k p u l l e d up o u t s i d e  the  encampment and the occupants f i r e d s h o t s i n t o the camp.  Despite  54  these h o s t i l e a c t i o n s , a negotiated s o l u t i o n  remained the Sundancer's p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n , though t h e y were not p r e p a r e d t o a l l o w s e t t l e r a u t h o r i t i e s and owners t o d i c t a t e the terms.  property  I d e n t i f y i n g themselves as  Defenders of the Shuswap N a t i o n , t h e y i s s u e d s e v e r a l  the  press  r e l e a s e s i n mid-June which o u t l i n e d r e c e n t e v e n t s a t T s ' p e t e n and c a l l e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the i l l e g a l o r l e a s e of N a t i v e l a n d s by government a g e n c i e s and  sale  local  band c o u n c i l s ( i n c l u d i n g presumably the Ts'peten lands)  and  an a u d i e n c e w i t h the Queen and the P r i v y C o u n c i l t o renew the t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d by the R o y a l of 1763.  They a l s o p l e a d e d w i t h s u p p o r t e r s  Proclamation  t o demand t h a t  the RCMP commit i t s e l f t o a p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n of dispute.  5 5  On June 17 t h e y met  the  w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  the  C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l , the RCMP, and the James C a t t l e Company t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n , but n o t h i n g was  achieved.  conclusive  On June 22, s e v e r a l RCMP o f f i c e r s v i s i t e d  the  Sundance camp f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s , and t h e r e a f t e r t h r e e N a t i v e c o n s t a b l e s were a s s i g n e d t o make d a i l y v i s i t s t o camp t o m o n i t o r a c t i v i t i e s and g a t h e r  information.  the  These  o f f i c e r s e s t a b l i s h e d c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Defenders, 54  ASSC Chronology.  151  and one produced a r e s e a r c h r e p o r t d e t a i l i n g t h e background t o t h e i r c l a i m t o t h e Tspeten a r e a .  5 6  The 19 95 Sundance was conducted w i t h o u t event i n e a r l y  July  ( i t was d e d i c a t e d t o ending male v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women and c h i l d r e n i n N a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s ) , b u t when t h e Defenders still  r e f u s e d t o l e a v e a f t e r t h e ceremonies were completed,  the RCMP began g e a r i n g up f o r a more c o e r c i v e approach  (they  had begun c a n v a s s i n g s u p p o r t f o r such measures among l o c a l 57  band l e a d e r s i n J u n e ) .  N e g o t i a t i o n s proceeded  fitfully  throughout J u l y and e a r l y August, d e s p i t e f u r t h e r s h o o t i n g i n c i d e n t s : on J u l y 20th, s h o t s were f i r e d i n t o t h e camp a f t e r a n o t h e r t h r e a t e n i n g v i s i t from a James C a t t l e Co. employee; on J u l y 26th, two N a t i v e f i s h e r i e s o f f i c e r s e n c o u n t e r e d s i x men c l a i m i n g t o be from t h e camp, one o f 58  whom f i r e d a shot i n t h e a i r as t h e o f f i c e r s l e f t ) .  By  t h i s t i m e , James, backed by t h e B.C. Cattlemen's Association,  was p u s h i n g f o r a c t i o n , as were t h e C e n t r a l  I n t e r i o r Loggers A s s o c i a t i o n , the  l o c a l band c o u n c i l s .  t h e l o c a l Tourism Board, and  On J u l y 27th, Reform MP P h i l l i p  Ibid. See a l s o Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, J u l y - A u g u s t 1996 a v a i l a b l e a t SISIS homepage.  57 58  Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes. G l a v i n , "How t h e C i r c u s Came"; ASSC Chronology.  152  M a y f i e l d c a l l e d the RCMP t o emphasize t h a t the Defender's 59  encampment was  i l l e g a l and  "they s h o u l d be t a k e n  out".  On August 11, the RCMP found the p r e t e x t t h e y r e q u i r e d t o j u s t i f y more f o r c e f u l measures.  On t h a t day,  two  men  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the camp, D a v i d Pena and E r n i e A r c h i e , were a r r e s t e d by f i s h e r i e s o f f i c e r s on the F r a s e r R i v e r f o r f i s h i n g during a closure  (they were f i s h i n g f o r t h e i r  f a m i l i e s ' w i n t e r food s u p p l i e s ) .  A f t e r r o u g h i n g them up,  the o f f i c e r s s e a r c h e d t h e i r c a r and found a s m a l l cache of weapons, some of them i l l e g a l .  Now  6 0  the RCMP had  "proof"  of the Defender's v i o l e n t p r o p e n s i t i e s , and began d r a w i n g up an o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e i r removal.  A few days l a t e r ,  August 17th, the N a t i v e c o n s t a b l e s , who  had m a i n t a i n e d  on  a  f a i r l y good r a p p o r t w i t h the p e o p l e i n the camp, were r e assigned  to other duties  (prompting one  t o query, i n a  subsequent i n t e r n a l memo, " i f a w h i t e r e l i g i o u s group were t o t a k e o v e r the rodeo grounds at W i l l i a m s Lake would the d e c i s i o n be made t o send the w h i t e p o l i c e home and have the N a t i v e p o i c e storm the camp?"). Emergency Response Team (ERT)  61  L a t e r t h a t day,  an  from r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s i n  59  G l a v i n , "How the C i r c u s Came". The weapons i n c l u d e d a h u n t i n g r i f l e , an AK-47, a G l o c k s e m i a u t o m a t i c p i s t o l , k n i v e s , a g a r o t t e , and nunchakus. See ASSC Chronology; Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, 14 August, 1996 r e t e s t i m o n y of RCMP S t a f f Sgt. M a r t i n S a r i c h . Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, August 15, 1996 r e RCMP C o n s t a b l e George F i n d l a y . 60  61  153  Kamloops was sent i n on a c o v e r t , o v e r n i g h t "probe" o f t h e camp t o g a t h e r t a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . understandably  The Defenders,  r a t t l e d by r e p e a t e d t h r e a t s and gunshots,  f e a r e d an a t t a c k by redneck v i g i l a n t e s when t h e y  detected  armed f i g u r e s i n camouflage gear and f a c e p a i n t i n t h e woods s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i r campsite.  The RCMP r e c e i v e d a f r a n t i c  c a l l from P e r c y R o s e t t e i n t h e e a r l y hours o f August 18, b u t i g n o r e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a s s u r e him t h a t t h e r e was no imminent danger.  As dawn broke, an u n i d e n t i f i e d Sundancer  r e p o r t e d l y f i r e d a s h o t : t h e Defenders l a t e r c l a i m e d i t was f i r e d i n t h e a i r as a warning,  but t h e ERT team i n s i s t e d i t 62  was aimed a t one o f t h e i r members, n a r r o w l y m i s s i n g him.  W i t h t h i s " s h o o t i n g i n c i d e n t " , t h e t h e RCMP began t o implement t h e f i r s t s t e p s o f a " m u l t i f a c e t e d o p e r a t i o n a l plan".  C o n t r o l was t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e l o c a l detachment t o  the r e g i o n a l command c e n t r e i n Kamloops, w h i l e s e n i o r RCMP o f f i c i a l s made i n i t i a l o v e r t u r e s t o t h e Canadian F o r c e s (CF) f o r a s s i s t a n c e ; w i t h i n days, t h e m i l i t a r y began f o r m u l a t i n g i t s own p l a n - code-named O p e r a t i o n W a l l a b y - f o r s u p p l y i n g armoured t r a n s p o r t t o t h e RCMP, g a t h e r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r d a i l y b r i e f i n g s t o Ottawa, and a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e s e c r e t 63  t r a n s p o r t o f B i s o n APC's and crews from A l b e r t a .  Locally,  Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, August 14; G l a v i n , "How t h e C i r c u s Came"; ASSC c h r o n o l o g y .  63  See Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, August 14. The CF wanted t o m a i n t a i n a low p r o f i l e so t h a t " i f a n y t h i n g goes wrong,  154 the p o l i c e s e t up c h e c k p o i n t s a l o n g a l l a c c e s s roads t o Ts'peten,  as w e l l as an " e l e c t r o n i c eye" t o m o n i t o r  movements around t h e encampment; these would l a t e r be augmented by more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a e r i a l systems i n v o l v i n g v i d e o and i n f r a r e d t e c h n o l o g y t h a t would t o g e t h e r  enable  comprehensive s u r v e i l l a n c e o f t h e Defender's movements.  At  the same t i m e , t h e RCMP began t h e b u i l d u p o f p e r s o n n e l t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g over 400 o f f i c e r s and s t a f f t o t h e s t a n d o f f s i t e from a l l over western Canada, i n c l u d i n g ops" ERT  "psy-  ( p s c h o l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s ) s p e c i a l i s t s and a t l e a s t 15 teams.  The ERT teams, k i t t e d o u t i n D e s e r t  Storm-style  i n f r a r e d goggles and weaponry, would be used t o r u n c o v e r t p a t r o l s from t h e s e c r e t RCMP base camp - a p p r o p r i a t e l y named Z u l u - w h i l e t h e r e g u l a r o f f i c e r s would p e r f o r m t h e v a r i o u s functions required i n a siege of t h i s nature, undercover  including  i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g i n t h e pubs o f W i l l i a m s 64  Lake and 100 M i l e House. On t h e a f t e r n o o n o f August 18th, t h e RCMP c o n t a c t e d major media o u t l e t s t o a l e r t them t o "a major s t o r y b r e a k i n g i n the C a r i b o o " , and t h e next day f l e w s e l e c t e d r e p o r t e r s i n t o W i l l i a m s Lake f o r a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e w i t h p o l i c e ,  Lyall  we w i l l n o t be seen as f a i l i n g " . They i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e B i s o n s be marked w i t h RCMP d e c a l s , and h i d t h e v e h i c l e s away i n a Kamloops armoury u n t i l t h e y were d e p l o y e d i n e a r l y September. See "RCMP c o n s i d e r e d a s k i n g m i l i t a r y t o t a k e o v e r a t G u s t a f s e n " , Vancouver Sun, 12 A p r i l , 1996. 64 See Vancouver Sun, 13 September, 1995; Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, J u l y 11 and August 14, 1996.  155  James, and o f f i c i a l s from t h e C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l .  The  RCMP r e c o u n t e d t h e s h o o t i n g i n c i d e n t s o f t h a t day and o f June 14, and d i s p l a y e d t h e weapons s e i z e d on August 1 1 t h a t the F r a s e r r i v e r . term  RCMP spokesperson  " t e r r o r i s m " f o r t h e f i r s t time.  people  Len O l f e r t used t h e T h e r e a f t e r , media  from o u t s i d e t h e r e g i o n a r r i v e d i n d r o v e s , and were  soon p u b l i s h i n g i n f l a m m a t o r y  s t o r i e s about v i o l e n t  bent on b e i n g " c a r r i e d out i n body b a g s " .  65  fanatics  The f e e d i n g  f r e n z y i n t e n s i f i e d on August 26, when Ovide M e r c r e d i , n a t i o n a l c h i e f o f t h e Assembly o f F i r s t N a t i o n s ,  arrived  from Ottawa t o t r y t o b r o k e r a p e a c e f u l end t o t h e s t a n d o f f . By t h i s time t h e RCMP had b l o c k a d e d t h e camp and c u t o f f t h e Defender's communications l i n k s , and was c a l l i n g f o r a " s w i f t , d e c i s i v e and u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r " ; t h e y gave M e r c r e d i j u s t 48 hours t o come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n .  After  s e v e r a l f r u i t l e s s v i s i t s t o t h e camp, a f r u s t r a t e d M e r c r e d i d i s c l o s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d RCMP p l a n s f o r a s w i f t i n v a s i o n : "they t o l d me t h e y have t o go ahead f o r two reasons  - one, they don't want t o s e t a p r e c e d e n t .  t h e y a r e s a y i n g w h i t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n demands i t . "  And two,  6 6  Around  t h i s t i m e , t h e Defenders began t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r Ottawa-based lawyer Bruce C l a r k , a c o n t r o v e r s i a l  figure  whose e x h a u s t i v e l e g a l r e s e a r c h and uncompromising advocacy i n support o f N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y d u r i n g p r e v i o u s d i s p u t e s i n  Vancouver  Sun, 25 August, 1995.  Vancouver Sun, 2 8 August, 1995, A3.  156  O n t a r i o and B.C.  had a t t r a c t e d b o t h ardent support  m i l i t a n t s o v e r e i g n t i s t s a c r o s s the country)  and  (from  bitter  enmity (from the l e g a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t and mainstream n a t i v e leaders).  A f t e r the RCMP clampdown on August 26th, the s t a n d o f f e n t e r e d i t s c r i t i c a l phase, which would l a s t u n t i l  the  Defender's s u r r e n d e r e d on September 17th, some t h r e e weeks later.  T h i s tense p e r i o d would be p u n c t u a t e d  i n c i d e n t s w h i c h the RCMP, now  by t h r e e  "hot"  f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l of  i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s , used t o j u s t i f y i t s combative approach and shape p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n (a f o u r t h i n c i d e n t , not at  reported  the t i m e , has been d i s c l o s e d i n subsequent c o u r t 68  proceedings).  The  f i r s t o c c u r r e d on August 27th, when  The flamboyant and e r u d i t e C l a r k would pay a heavy p r i c e f o r h i s b r i e f but s e n s a t i o n a l r o l e i n the s t a n d o f f , w h i c h ended w i t h a s h o r t p e r i o d of i n c a r c e r a t i o n and e v e n t u a l f l i g h t from the c o u n t r y (he f a c e d trumped-up charges of contempt and a s s a u l t i n g a p o l i c e o f f i c e r a f t e r a s c u f f l e i n the W i l l i a m s Lake c o u r t h o u s e ) . He was p o r t r a y e d as a megalomaniac and a b u f f o o n i n the media, and h i s arguments f o r N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y were never s e r i o u s l y addressed, though he i s the author of two w i d e l y c i t e d books on the l e g a l h i s t o r y of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n Canada. See h i s Indian Title in Canada (Toronto: C a r s w e l l , 1987) and Native Liberty, Crown Sovereignty (Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queens U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1990). For a t h o u g h t f u l account o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e the Ts'peten s t a n d o f f , see P h i l l i p Raphals, "Nations i n W a i t i n g " , Canadian Forum, May 1991, pp. 10-14 . 68 There are w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t v e r s i o n s of each, and RCMP d i s c l o s u r e s d u r i n g subsequent c r i m i n a l p r o c e e d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t the s t o r i e s c i r c u l a t e d t o the p r e s s d u r i n g the c o u r s e of the s t a n d o f f were h i g h l y m i s l e a d i n g . I n t e r v i e w w i t h John "Doc" H i l l , CFRO Radio, October 20 1996; and ASSC, "Chronology".  157 )  RCMP p a t r o l s d i s c o v e r e d  t r e e s had been c u t a c r o s s t h e main  a c c e s s r o a d t o t h e camp.  According  t o the p o l i c e version,  ERT members accompanied a f o r e s t s e r v i c e crew t o t h e spot t o remove t h e t r e e s , and were "ambushed" as t h e y p r e p a r e d t o leave.  Two o f f i c e r s were "shot i n t h e back", b u t were saved  from s e r i o u s i n j u r y by t h e i r f l a k j a c k e t s .  The RCMP w a i t e d  n i n e days t o produce e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r v e r s i o n o f t h e skirmish  (damaged f l a k j a c k e t s and a b u l l e t - r i d d e n  Suburban), b u t by t h e n t h e image o f h a p l e s s ERT cowboys and t r e a c h e r o u s I n d i a n s was a l r e a d y f i r m l y i m p l a n t e d i n t h e p u b l i c mind, c o n f i r m i n g  t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e RCMP's h a r d l i n e  69  stance.  There were some s k e p t i c s , n o t a b l y Ovide  Mercredi,  who c l a i m e d  t h e i n c i d e n t was t h e p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t o f RCMP  aggression,  and s y n d i c a t e d  columnist  W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , who  doubted t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y o f t h e RCMP account and i m p l i e d t h a t p o l i c e had manufactured a shootout t o d e c e i v e t h e 70  public.  On August 29th, Bruce C l a r k emerged from a  m e e t i n g w i t h h i s c l i e n t s a t t h e camp c a r r y i n g RCMP s h e l l c a s i n g s and a sworn a f f a d a v i t i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e RCMP had 71  f i r e d on t h e Defenders f i r s t .  (In the aftermath of the  s t a n d o f f , t h e Defenders have c o n s i s t e n t l y d e n i e d f i r i n g a t 69  "RCMP d i s p l a y b u l l e t - r i d d e n v e h i c l e " , Vancouver September, 1995.  Sun, 5  70  See "Mounties a c t i o n s anger M e r c r e d i " , Vancouver Sun, 28 August, 1995; W i l l i a m J o h n s t o n , Montreal Gazette, 29 August, 1995. 71  "Lawyer says p o l i c e shot a t I n d i a n s Sun, 1 September 1995.  first",  Vancouver  158  the RCMP, and c l a i m t h a t t h e whole i n c i d e n t was a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s contrivance. The  72 )  next i n c i d e n t o c u r r e d  claimed  on September 4 t h , when t h e RCMP  t h a t two Suburbans c a r r y i n g ERT p e r s o n n e l had come  under f i r e near t h e end o f a p a t r o l i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e camp.  One o f t h e v e h i c l e s was d i s a b l e d i n t h e f i r e f i g h t ,  and t h e ERT team was f o r c e d t o r e t r e a t on f o o t and t a k e up defensive  p o s i t i o n s i n the forest.  They c l a i m e d  that  a l t h o u g h t h e Defenders " s t a l k e d " them a l l n i g h t , t h e y p a s s e d up numerous o p p o r t u n i t i e s  ( a f f o r d e d by t h e i r n i g h t v i s i o n  equipment) t o f i r e upon t h e i r p u r s u e r s .  As one RCMP  s p o k e s p e r s o n p u t i t , " o n l y g r e a t r e s t r a i n t on t h e p a r t o f the o f f i c e r s p r e v e n t e d what c o u l d have been a v e r y  serious  73 incident."  Recent c o u r t d i s c l o s u r e s , however, p a i n t  a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f what t r a n s p i r e d .  According  quite  t o the  RCMP's own f o r e n s i c e x p e r t s , t h e v e h i c l e i n q u e s t i o n was d i s a b l e d when i t r a n over a t r e e branch, and was never h i t by any b u l l e t s . panicking  I t now appears t h a t t h e ERT members,  i n response t o a p e r c e i v e d  imaginary f i r e f i g h t ,  a t t a c k , i n i t i a t e d an  f i r i n g w i l d l y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s as t h e y  RCMP o f f i c e r s have r e p e a t e d t h e i r s t o r y i n c o u r t , b u t i n a c u r i o u s t w i s t , t h e o t h e r w i s e comprehensive v i d e o f o o t a g e p r o v i d e d by t h e Wescam a e r i a l s u r v e i l l a n c e system f a i l e d t o r e c o r d t h e c r u c i a l 15 minutes. I n t e r v i e w w i t h John "Doc" H i l l , CFRO Radio, October 20 1996. 73 "RCMP i g n o r e d chances t o r e t u r n f i r e " , Vancouver Sun, 6 September, 1995.  159  abandoned t h e i r v e h i c l e .  /4  Nevertheless, t h i s  second  " g u n f i g h t " became t h e p r e t e x t f o r s e c u r i n g d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Canadian F o r c e s : w i t h i n days, 4 B i s o n armoured p e r s o n n e l c a r r i e r s  (APCs), s t a f f e d by CF crews and  armed w i t h h e a v y - c a l i b r e machine guns, were r u m b l i n g a l o n g the d i r t r o a d toward Ts'peten t o p r o v i d e ERT teams w i t h an "armoured  escort service".  P o l i c e a l s o used t h e i n c i d e n t t o  j u s t i f y t h e c r e a t i o n o f 200 km  2  "no-go zone" around  T s ' p e t e n , o s t e n s i b l y t o p r o t e c t h i k e r s and h u n t e r s from 75  chance e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e Defenders.  The t h i r d major i n c i d e n t , undoubtedly t h e most s e r i o u s o f the s t a n d o f f , o c c u r r e d one week l a t e r , on September 11. I t was t h e day a f t e r RCMP f i e l d commander Roger Kemble i s s u e d two c r u c i a l o r d e r s as p a r t o f t h e s t i l l  unfolding  "operational plan": the f i r s t tightened the p o l i c e perimeter around t h e camp, r e d u c i n g t h e scope o f t h e "free-roam zone" p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d around t h e camp by agreement w i t h t h e Defenders, and e f f e c t i v e l y c u t t i n g o f f a c c e s s t o water and f i r e w o o d ; t h e second was a s e c r e t "shoot t o k i l l "  order  g i v i n g RCMP p e r s o n n e l t h e "green l i g h t " t o shoot any armed  75  ASSC Chronology.  "RCMP d i s p l a y b u l l e t - r i d d e n v e h i c l e " , Vancouver September, 1995.  Sun, 5  160  N a t i v e s t h e y encountered.  The Defenders were w o r r i e d  about m a i n t a i n i n g s u p p l i e s o f wood and water, so members o f a N a t i v e l i a i s o n group a r r a n g e d t o v i s i t t h e camp around 2:00 P.M. on t h e 1 1 t h t o d i s c u s s t h i s and o t h e r i s s u e s . J u s t b e f o r e 2:00, two Defenders, accompanied by a dog, l e f t the  campsite i n a r e d pickup truck t o o b t a i n d r i n k i n g water  for  t h e meeting.  About a k i l o m e t r e from t h e c a m p s i t e , t h e  t r u c k h i t a landmine  (a " p e r i m e t e r marker" i n RCMP j a r g o n )  and was d i s a b l e d by t h e r e s u l t i n g e x p l o s i o n , w h i c h s e n t a plume o f smoke s p i r a l l i n g 60 t o 100 f e e t i n a i r (the e x p l o s i o n caused P e r c y R o s e t t e ' s b r o t h e r , one o f t h e N a t i v e e l d e r s w a i t i n g nearby t o meet t h e Defenders, t o have a h e a r t attack).  I n t h e RCMP's i n i t i a l r e p o r t o f t h e i n c i d e n t ,  B i s o n s p u r s u e d t h e two Defenders as t h e y f l e d i n t o t h e woods on f o o t , but broke o f f t h e chase when t h e y began t o f i r e on the  RCMP; one o f t h e B i s o n s was r e p o r t e d l y d i s a b l e d i n t h e  e n s u i n g f i r e f i g h t , i n which "thousands o f rounds" were 77 exchanged.  The RCMP used t h i s s k i r m i s h t o j u s t i f y t h e  deployment o f more ERT squads, and f o u r more CF B i s o n s , i n the  woods around t h e camp.  D e t a i l s o f t h i s second o r d e r have o n l y emerged as p a r t of r e c e n t c o u r t t e s t i m o n y . See " S n i p e r s a t G u s t a f s e n a b l e t o 'shoot t o k i l l ' " , Vancouver Sun, 12 October, 1996. 77 In subsequent c o u r t t e s t i m o n y , p o l i c e have a d m i t t e d t h a t the s h o t s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f l e e i n g Defenders c o u l d have been " f r i e n d l y f i r e " , s i n c e t h e r e were more p o l i c e f i r i n g from t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e l a k e d u r i n g t h e chase. "Snipers at G u s t a f s e n a b l e t o 'shoot t o k i l l ' " , Vancouver Sun, 12 October, 1996.  161  The Defender's account d i f f e r s markedly  (and i s l a r g e l y  c o n f i r m e d by c o u r t t e s t i m o n y o f t h e o f f i c e r s i n v o l v e d and 78  the RCMP s own Wescam f o o t a g e ) . 1  In t h e i r version,  after  the e x p l o s i o n , t h e two unarmed Defenders r a n from t h e v e h i c l e t o t h e l a k e and began swimming back t o t h e camp, w i t h t h e RCMP f i r i n g on them c o n t i n u o u s l y (one o f t h e s i x t y RCMP o f f i c e r s i n t h e f i e l d t h a t day e s t i m a t e d he f i r e d 50 o r 79  6 0 rounds a t t h i s s t a g e ) .  Meanwhile, two B i s o n APCs  rammed t h e t r u c k r e p e a t e d l y (the smoke was by now so t h i c k t h e y c o u l d n o t have known i f o t h e r s remained i n s i d e ) ; t h e dog jumped o u t o f t h e back o f t h e p i c k u p , and was p r o m p t l y gunned down.  As t h e RCMP pursued t h e f l e e i n g Defenders back  t o t h e c a m p s i t e , t h e y began t o exchange g u n f i r e w i t h t h e o t h e r Defenders, who were t r y i n g t o s h i f t a t t e n t i o n away from t h e i r comrades.  I n t h e e n s u i n g f i r e f i g h t , t h e RCMP  poured up t o 20,000 rounds i n t o t h e c a m p s i t e , enough, a c c o r d i n g t o one s u p p o r t e r , t o denude much o f t h e 4 00m of f o r e s t s e p a r a t i n g t h e camp from t h e l a k e .  strip  Miraculously,  no Defenders were k i l l e d d u r i n g t h i s o n s l a u g h t , and o n l y one  The v i d e o f o o t a g e was p r e s e n t e d i n c o u r t and has s i n c e been a i r e d by t h e Defender's s u p p o r t e r s on Rogers community t e l e v i s i o n ' s N i t e w a t c h program i n January, 1997. 79  T s ' p e t e n Defenders, " G u s t a f s e n Lake: A Chronology".  162  was wounded, a non-Native woman who was h i t i n t h e arm by s n i p e r / f i r e from a c r o s s t h e l a k e .  8 0  N a t i v e l e a d e r s i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Defenders were o u t r a g e d by t h e RCMP s conduct. 1  Commenting on an RCMP  p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e h e l d t h a t e v e n i n g , P e n t i c t o n band c o u n c i l l o r Stewart D i c k s a i d media r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r S g t . P e t e r Montague was "unglued":  He seemed r e a l l y nervous. he was s a y i n g .  He d i d n ' t seem s u r e o f what  I k i n d o f g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h e y had  messed up b i g time and t h e whole t h i n g was g o i n g t o blow up i n h i s f a c e .  I n e x p l i c a b l y , a f t e r t h e s t a n d o f f ended t h e RCMP d e s t r o y e d much o f t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t would have h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h what a c t u a l l y happened on September 11th: spent RCMP b u l l e t s were removed from t h e scene w i t h o u t b e i n g examined, o r even counted; t h e camp cookhouse, which t h e Defenders r i d d l e d w i t h b u l l e t s , was b u r n t t o t h e ground;  c l a i m was  and t h e  T a l k g i v e n by B i l l Lightbown, K o o t e n a i e l d e r and s o v e r i e g n t y a c t i v i s t , a t UBC, January 1996. 81 " N a t i v e l e a d e r s f e a r r i s e i n v i o l e n c e " , Vancouver Sun, 12 September, 1995.  163 f o r e s t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e campsite was c l e a r c u t by L y l e James, 82 a c t i n g on RCMP i n s t r u c t i o n s . The f i n a l i n c i d e n t took p l a c e on September 12th, t h e day a f t e r t h e massive f i r e f i g h t , and g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the t e c h n o l o g y b e i n g d e p l o y e d by t h e RCMP.  On t h a t  morning,  an unarmed Defender was w a l k i n g a l o n g t h e r o a d about 6 00 metres s o u t h o f t h e camp, w i t h i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d "free-roam" (i.e.  no shoot) zone.  He was observed by t h r e e ERTs, a  h e l i c o p t e r , and two " E y e - i n - t h e - S k y " a i r p l a n e s equipped w i t h 83 Wescam cameras.  The s p o t t e r i n t h e h e l i c o p t e r c o n t a c t e d  ERT s n i p e r s s e t up i n a c a b i n about 1000 metres a c r o s s t h e l a k e from t h e man, and asked "Can you g e t a u t h o r i t y from Z u l u t o make h i s day u n p l e a s a n t ? " .  Watching t h e man on a  v i d e o m o n i t o r v i a an u p l i n k t o t h e " E y e - i n - t h e - S k y " cameras, the s e n i o r RCMP o f f i c e r on t h e scene gave t h e green l i g h t t o the marksmen, who used a l a s e r - s i g h t i n g system t o f i r e t h r e e s h o t s from a .308 r i f l e .  The f i r s t l a n d e d between h i s f e e t ,  and he dove f o r c o v e r , n a r r o w l y a v o i d i n g t h e next two s h o t s . T h i s i n c i d e n t was n o t r e p o r t e d i n t h e media u n t i l i t came out i n c o u r t t e s t i m o n y over a y e a r a f t e r t h e s t a n d o f f ended, presumably because i t was an RCMP, n o t a N a t i v e , ambush.  Trond H a l l e , T r i a l Notes, 11 J u l y , 1996 r e t e s t i m o n y o f RCMP Const. F l e m i n g . 83 V i d e o f o o t a g e o f t h i s i n c i d e n t was a l s o g i v e n t o t h e defence i n t h e subsequent t r i a l , and has a i r e d on community television.  164  Throughout t h e s t a n d o f f , B.C. N a t i v e groups p r e s s u r e d  police  t o abandon t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l i t a r i z e d p o s t u r e i n f a v o u r of e f f o r t s t o r e a c h a n e g o t i a t e d s o l u t i o n .  They persuaded  p o l i c e t o p e r m i t n e g o t i a t i n g teams c o n s i s t i n g o f l o c a l N a t i v e e l d e r s , s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s and N a t i v e p o l i c e t o make r e g u l a r v i s i t s t o t h e camp t o d i s c u s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a p e a c e f u l end t o t h e s t a n d o f f .  W h i l e t h e RCMP s t e a d i l y  i n c r e a s e d t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e camp w i t h c o n s t a n t ground probes and l o w - f l y i n g a e r i a l p a t r o l s (the Defenders m a i n t a i n t h a t s h o t s were r e g u l a r l y f i r e d i n t o t h e compound t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d ) , N a t i v e n e g o t i a t o r s worked t i r e l e s s l y t o b r i n g about a n o n - v i o l e n t s o l u t i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y v o l a t i l e confrontation. based medicine  E v e n t u a l l y , i t was t h e Defender's A l b e r t a man, John Stevens,  who persuaded them t o 84  l e a v e t h e camp p e a c e f u l l y on September 18.  The e i g h t e e n  Defenders were a r r e s t e d and charged w i t h v a r i o u s weapons and p r o p e r t y - r e l a t e d o f f e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g m i s c h i e f and m i s c h i e f endangering l i f e ;  two Secwepemc men, Jones  "Wolverine"  Ignace and h i s son Joseph, were charged w i t h a t t e m p t e d murder (Joseph f o r t h e August 1 8 t h i n c i d e n t ; Jones f o r a l l e g e d l y shooting at the t i r e s of a Bison that t r i e d t o run 85  him down d u r i n g t h e September 11 f i r e f i g h t ) . Vancouver  Sun, September 18, 1995.  85  The 18 Defenders c o n s i s t e d o f 3 N a t i v e women, 11 N a t i v e men (almost a l l Secwepemc), 2 non-Native women, and 2 nonN a t i v e men.  165  The s t a n d o f f i s o v e r , but the p e r s e c u t i o n c o n t i n u e s .  Though  a l l t h e Defenders were i n i t i a l l y r e l e a s e d on b a i l , the two Ignaces had t h e i r b a i l revoked on a p p e a l , a f t e r d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n by the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ; Jones Ignace has  now  been i n j a i l f o r o v e r a y e a r , and c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a 86  p o l i t i c a l prisoner.  Joseph Ignace became s u i c i d a l  p r i s o n guards beat him on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s ; he was  after finally  87  r e l e a s e d on b a i l i n the s p r i n g of t h i s y e a r .  The  Defender's t r i a l began i n e a r l y J u l y , 1996 and i s e x p e c t e d to  r u n w e l l i n t o 1997.  D e s p i t e r e p e a t e d p l e a s t h a t i t be  h e l d i n Kamloops, which would reduce the h a r d s h i p f o r the Defenders, most of whom a r e poor, and some of whom a r e accustomed  t o l i v i n g o f f the l a n d , the Crown s u c c e s s f u l l y  argued, based on " s e c u r i t y c o n c e r n s " , t h a t i t be h e l d i n t h e S u r r e y Courthouse, which has the most advanced  security  88  systems i n the p r o v i n c e .  POLICING THE  CRISIS  As f a r as we're concerned, t h e y a r e n o t h i n g more t h a n a renegade bunch o f thugs d o i n g c r i m i n a l a c t s w i t h weapons, t h e y a r e t r e s p a s s i n g and making a mockery of the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s of Canadian s o c i e t y . Vancouver Sun, September 25, 1995; Stephen Hume, " G u s t a f s e n Lake g u i l t o r innocence a m a t t e r f o r judges not p o l i t i c i a n s " , Vancouver Sun, September 29, 1995. 87  F l o r a Sampson, speech i n Vancouver, March 11, 1996 (Sampson i s the w i f e of Jones Ignace and mother o f J o s e p h ) .  88  Vancouver  Sun,  9 March, 1996; 12 March  1996.  166  RCMP spokesperson  B o t h d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e month-long s t a n d o f f , t h e RCMP was t r e a t e d t o l a v i s h p r a i s e by government o f f i c i a l s and media commentators f o r t h e i r j u d i c i o u s h a n d l i n g o f t h e a f f a i r . Conveniently e f f a c i n g the laborious e f f o r t s of the Native e l d e r s and s p i r i t u a l a d v i s o r s who u l t i m a t e l y persuaded t h e Defenders t o l e a v e t h e camp, c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom a s s i g n e d c r e d i t f o r " p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n " o f t h e d i s p u t e t o RCMP r e s t r a i n t i n t h e f a c e o f "armed thugs".  The m i l i t a r y  s p e c t a c l e o f Ts'peten was h e n c e f o r t h t r a n s f o r m e d ,  l i k e some  d o m e s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t t o UN "peacekeeping o p e r a t i o n s " ,  into  an a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c decency and c i v i l i t y o f t h e Canadian p o l i t y .  Of c o u r s e , t h i s o u t p o u r i n g o f s e l f -  c o n g r a t u l a t i o n was p r e d i c a t e d on i g n o r a n c e o r w i l f u l l m i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f what a c t u a l l y t r a n s p i r e d a t t h e l a k e , and s e r v e d t o obscure t h e more t r o u b l i n g moral and p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by y e t another deployment o f t h e s t a t e s e c u r i t y apparatus Native  and m i l i t a r y hardware a g a i n s t Canada's  peoples.  D e s p i t e t h e massive e f f o r t t o p r e s e n t G u s t a f s e n Lake as a marker o f n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e and s u p e r i o r i t y , i t s p r i m a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e was r a t h e r t o underscore  the continuing  c e n t r a l i t y o f s t a t e s e c u r i t y systems f o r t h e maintenance o f 89  " M e r c r e d i g i v e n two days t o end I n d i a n s t a n d o f f " ,  167  s e t t l e r supremacy.  Ryser, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " f o u r t h  w o r l d wars" - forms of " i n t e r n a l " c o n f l i c t between the "descendants of a n c i e n t n a t i o n s " and the "massive, modern s t a t e s t h a t surround between "hot" and  and e x p l o i t them" - d i s t i n g u i s h e s  " c o l d " indigenous  wars, the former  i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t m i l i t a r y aggression  (of I n d o n e s i a  against  the Timorese and Papuans, f o r example, o r I s r a e l a g a i n s t P a l e s t i n i a n s ) , the l a t t e r "fought w i t h p o l i t i c a l economic weapons, a l t h o u g h  the  and  sporadic p h y s i c a l violence w i l l  90 erupt i n i s o l a t i o n " . one  The  d i f f e r e n c e between them i s , i n  sense, l a r g e l y h i s t o r i c a l s i n c e those n a t i o n - s t a t e s  l o c k e d i n c o l d wars w i t h i n d i g e n o u s the U.S., fought  New  Zealand,  now  p e o p l e s - among them,  Japan and Canada - have g e n e r a l l y  "hot" wars, o f t e n over p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d s ,  e s t a b l i s h t e r r i t o r i a l hegemony.  to  T h i s h i s t o r i c a l passage  marks a t r a n s i t i o n , f a m i l i a r i n most c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t s ,  from  a p u r e l y m i l i t a r i s t i c mode of s u b o r d i n a t i o n based on conquest and p a c i f i c a t i o n , towards a more " p r o f e s s i o n a l " model, i n v o l v i n g a m i x t u r e of m i l i t a r y and techniques  civilian  g e a r e d t o s e c u r i n g b o t h the economic  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and g e n e r a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s f o r s u s t a i n e d economic e x p l o i t a t i o n of the o c c u p i e d  territory  (the  Middle  Vancouver Sun, August 25, 1995. 90 Rudolph Ryser, " F o u r t h World Wars: Indigenous N a t i o n a l i s m and the Emerging New I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Order", i n Menno B o l d t , J.A. Long, and L e r o y L i t t l e Bear, eds., The Quest for Justice: Aboriginal People and Aboriginal Rights (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1985) pp. 304-315, at 308.  168  E a s t "peace p r o c e s s " i s the most v i s i b l e contemporary 91 i n s t a n t i a t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e ) . Without t h i s s h i f t from m i l i t a r y t o b u r e a u c r a t i c r e p r e s s i o n most regimes w i l l l a c k the i d e o l o g i c a l l e g i t i m a c y t o s u r v i v e i n the l o n g r u n .  (As Napoleon r e p o r t e d l y quipped,  do a n y t h i n g w i t h bayonets but s i t on them).  you  can  Hence from  e a r l y on t h e r e i s an impulse t o c o n v e r t r u l e by f o r c e i n t o the r u l e of law, w i t h N a t i v e s o c i e t i e s s u b j e c t e d t o a comprehensive c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n , and the c r i m i n a l law adapted t o f u n c t i o n as the " c e n t r a l support of c o l o n i a l 92 domination."  I n B.C.,  e f f e c t i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n was  a  p r e o c c u p a t i o n of s e t t l e r government from i t s i n c e p t i o n , though, as B a r r y Gough has shown i n h i s s t u d y of gunboat diplomacy  on the P a c i f i c Coast,  i t was  the 1880s b e f o r e  full  See P h i l i p T. A h i r e , Imperial Policing: The Emergence and Role of the Police in Colonial Nigeria, 1860-1960 ( M i l t o n Keynes: Open U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1991). A h i r e i s w o r k i n g w i t h i n a M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n , but h i s t r a c k i n g of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l s o p a r a l l e l s F o u c a u l t ' s well-known a n a l y s i s of the emergence of d i s c i p l i n a r y power. For an e v a l u a t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n i n P a l e s t i n e see Norman F i n k e l s t e i n , "Whither the 'Peace P r o c e s s ' " , New Left Review 218 (1996). 92 P e t e r F i t z p a t r i c k , "Crime as R e s i s t a n c e : The C o l o n i a l S i t u a t i o n " , The Howard Journal 28 (1989) pp. 272-281, a t 272. I t i s t h i s b a s i c f u n c t i o n of the c r i m i n a l law as c o l o n i a l i n s t r u m e n t t h a t even today g e n e r a t e s the a p p a l l i n g r a t e s of N a t i v e i n c a r c e r a t i o n which i n c i t e so much handw r i n g i n g among the s e t t l e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  169 r e l i a n c e c o u l d be p l a c e d on c i v i l i a n p o l i c i n g . c r u c i a l to recognize,  It i s  however, t h a t t h i s l e g a l i z a t i o n of  c o l o n i a l power, not o n l y the c r i m i n a l law but the  intricate  machinery of "Native  administration"  in i t s entirety, i s  inherently unstable,  being susceptible i n p a r t i c u l a r to  the  p e r e n n i a l r e s i s t a n c e of the c o l o n i z e d , and t h u s r e l i e s (however d i s c r e e t l y ) on the machinery of s t a t e v i o l e n c e i t s ultimate guarantor.  Of c o u r s e , the form and  of c o e r c i v e a c t i o n w i l l v a r y a c r o s s time and  as  frequency  "national  s i t u a t i o n s " , but the v e r y n a t u r e of s e t t l e r r u l e , l a c k i n g as i t does the consent of the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n ,  will  r e q u i r e the p e r i o d i c r e s o r t t o v i o l e n c e , even i n advanced s e t t l e r s t a t e s l i k e Canada which have d e v e l o p e d more s u b t l e 94 mechanisms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d too t h a t , i n Canada at l e a s t , the d e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n of c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n has not i m p l i e d a concomitant r e d u c t i o n  necessarily  i n the b r u t a l i t y of  Gough, Gunboat Frontier:British Maritime Authority and Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1984). 94 W e i t z e r n o t e s t h a t "the system of c o n t r o l may be so successful i n disorganizing p o l i t i c a l mobilization, r e s t r i c t i n g p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y , and e n s u r i n g economic dependency of the s u b o r d i n a t e group t h a t o v e r t p h y s i c a l repression i s r a r e l y necessary to maintain s t a b i l i t y " . See Transforming Settler States: Communal Conflict and Internal Security in Northern Ireland and Zanzibar (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press', 1992) . The Canadian system, i n c o n t r a s t , would seem t o r e l y on the c h a n n e l i n g of  170  t r e a t m e n t meted out t o i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e . N a t i v e p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t p o l i c e abuse and the  In r e c e n t  years,  the o p e r a t i o n  of  " i n j u s t i c e system" have undermined the u n i v e r s a l i s t  mythology of l i b e r a l l e g a l i t y , f o r c i n g s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n t o shore up the i d e o l o g i c a l l e g i t i m a c y of the l e g a l system. The  w r o n g f u l c o n v i c t i o n of Donald M a r s h a l l , J r . , a Mic  from Nova S c o t i a who  Mac  spent 11 y e a r s i n p r i s o n f o r a murder  he d i d not commit, and the p o l i c e a s s a s s i n a t i o n of J . J . Harper, a prominent N a t i v e official  a c t i v i s t i n Winnipeg, prompted  i n q u i r i e s i n t o the o p e r a t i o n s  of the j u s t i c e system  i n Nova S c o t i a and Manitoba which r e v e a l e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  abuse.  widespread  95  Such g r i e v a n c e s are h a r d l y unknown i n B.C.'s c e n t r a l I n t e r i o r : i n the 1970s, the a r e a was p r o f i l e controversy C h i l c o t i n man  the f o c u s of a  high  over the k i l l i n g of F r e d Q u i l t , a  from the A l e x i s Creek Band who  died a f t e r a  p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t , and p r o m o t i o n of u r b a n i z a t i o n and economic dependency, t o a c h i e v e the same r e s u l t . 95 The P r o v i n c e of Nova S c o t i a ' s R o y a l Commission on the Donald M a r s h a l l , J r . P r o s e c u t i o n i s s u e d i t s r e p o r t i n 1989, w h i l e the Manitoba A b o r i g i n a l J u s t i c e I n q u i r y p r e s e n t e d i t s f i n d i n g s i n 1991. S i m i l a r i n q u i r i e s were conducted by the Saskatchewan I n d i a n J u s t i c e and M e t i s J u s t i c e Review Committe (1992) and the Task Force on the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e System and i t s Impact on the I n d i a n and M e t i s People of A l b e r t a (1991). The r e p o r t s are u s e f u l l y summarized i n V i j a y Mehta, Policing Services for Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: A b o r i g i n a l P o l i c i n g D i r e c t o r a t e , S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l of Canada: 1993).  171  r o a d s i d e b e a t i n g by an RCMP o f f i c e r .  The p r o t e s t from t h e  l o c a l N a t i v e community drew n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e system of " H e r r e n v o l k j u s t i c e " which then p r e v a i l e d i n t h e C a r i b o o C h i l c o t i n region.  As T e r r y G l a v i n d e s c r i b e s i t ,  ...the b u s i n e s s o f j u d g i n g was done by p e o p l e l i k e t h e l o c a l h o t e l manager o r s a w m i l l owner. a l l over the I n t e r i o r .  I t was t h a t way  A man would be sworn i n as  judge when n e c e s s a r y , t o do m a i n l y what t h e RCMP suggested he do....The p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n throughout the C h i l c o t i n and C a r i b o o was t h a t t h e RCMP's j o b was t o keep t h e I n d i a n s i n check and t o s t a y away, f o r t h e most p a r t , from t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e w h i t e community.  In  some c i r c l e s , even t h e i d e a o f c r i m i n a l t r i a l s f o r I n d i a n s was c o n s i d e r e d r a t h e r n o v e l .  C r i m i n a l and  c i v i l m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g I n d i a n s were r e g a r d e d as b e s t d i s p a t c h e d e x p e d i t i o u s l y , w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f much decorum o r due p r o c e s s , and drawing a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e 97  cases was bad p o l i c y .  Recent e v e n t s suggest t h a t perhaps not much has changed. 1993,  t h e NDP government o r d e r e d an o f f i c i a l i n q u i r y  In  into  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n t h e C a r i b o o - C h i l c o t i n F o r an account o f t h e Q u i l t case see Robert D a v i s and Mark Z a n n i s , The Genocide Machine in Canada: P a c i f i c a t i o n in the North ( M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Rose, 1973) p. 140-41.  172  r e g i o n i n response t o l o n g s t a n d i n g N a t i v e c o m p l a i n t s RCMP conduct.  In the course of h i s seven month  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , Judge Anthony S a r i c h r e c e i v e d o v e r complaints  about  179  from N a t i v e p e o p l e , and h i s f i n d i n g s c r i t i c i z e d  the f o r c e f o r f a i l i n g t o address a d e q u a t e l y contemptful behaviour  a p a t t e r n of  and e x c e s s i v e f o r c e and  intimidation.  ( S i g n i f i c a n t l y , S a r i c h ' s r e p o r t c a r e f u l l y a v o i d e d mention o f the RCMP's u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o o b t a i n a c o u r t  order  h a l t i n g the i n q u i r y a f t e r he began t o i n v e s t i g a t e c o m p l a i n t s 98  of a s s a u l t s a g a i n s t N a t i v e men  in police j a i l  cells).  I f n o t h i n g e l s e , these p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s , which a r e u l t i m a t e l y l i t t l e more than e x e r c i s e s i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , have h e l p e d t o a c c e l e r a t e d e v o l u t i o n a r y t e n d e n c i e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c i p i e n t s i n c e the 1960s. advancing  i n Native  Then, the  i m m i s e r a t i o n of N a t i v e p e o p l e , owing b o t h t o  l a r g e - s c a l e c a p i t a l i s t encroachments on t r a d i t i o n a l and s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s and the consequent  lands  implementation  of f u l l - b l o w n " w e l f a r e c o l o n i a l i s m " , produced a g r o w i n g awareness o f the need t o r e t o o l a whole range of administrative p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g p o l i c i n g , i f only to c o n t a i n the " l e g i t i m a t i o n c r i s i s " system of c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n  which an  unreconstructed  t h r e a t e n e d t o provoke.  T e r r y G l a v i n , "The Judge of A l e x i s Creek", The Straight, 24-31 October, 1996, pp. 15-22, a t 17.  The  Georgia  173  p o l i t i c a l response  was,  i n effect, twofold.  On the  one  hand, w i t h i n the sphere of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Canadian s t a t e began t o promote a c o o p t i v e o r  consensual  approach d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r the appearance of e n l i g h t e n e d p r o g r e s s toward self-government  f o r F i r s t Nations.  Problems  were d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o an e t h n i c model i n which q u e s t i o n s o f power and h i s t o r y were e f f a c e d by n o t i o n s of c u l t u r e and community: p o l i c e were no l o n g e r the whip hand of domination,  settler  but p r o v i d e r s of a " c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e "  community s e r v i c e .  The p r e f e r r e d p o l i c y response  was  and  remains a s u p e r f i c i a l " N a t i v i z a t i o n " of p o l i c i n g t h r o u g h v a r i e t y of programmes: f o r example, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t community p o l i c i n g and l i a i s o n o f f i c e s , r e c r u i t m e n t promotion  of F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n s t a b l e s , c u l t u r a l  t r a i n i n g f o r non-Native  p o l i c e , and,  a  of  and  sensitivity  i n some c a s e s ,  the  99 c r e a t i o n of reserve-based Native p o l i c e f o r c e s .  See B r i t i s h Columbia, Final Report of the CaribooChilcotin Justice Inquiry; and "B.C. J u s t i c e Report R e l e a s e d " , Native Issues Monthly, November 1993, pp.41-42. 99 For a p o s i t i v e p o l i c e view of some of t h e s e developments see Donald J . Loree, Policing Native Communities (Ottawa: Canadian P o l i c e C o l l e g e , 1985). For more c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , see P a u l Havemann, "The I n d i g e n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l C o n t r o l i n Canada", i n Robert A. S i l v e r m a n and M. N i e l s e n , eds., Aboriginal Peoples and Canadian Criminal J u s t i c e (Toronto: B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1992) pp.111-119; J i m H a r d i n g , " P o l i c i n g and A b o r i g i n a l J u s t i c e " , i n K e v i n R.E. McCormick and Lucy A. V i s a n o , eds., Understanding Policing (Toronto: Canadian S c h o l a r s P r e s s , 1992) pp. 625-645; and C u r t T a y l o r G r i f f i t h s , " P o l i c i n g A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s : The C h a l l e n g e of Change", i n R.C. Mcleod and D a v i d Schneiderman, eds., Police Powers in Canada: The Evolution and Practice of  174  On t h e o t h e r hand, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h (and b e l y i n g )  this  a p p a r e n t l y k i n d e r , g e n t l e r approach t o law enforcement, t h e Canadian s t a t e began t o g i r d i t s e l f  f o r the f o r c e f u l  s u p p r e s s i o n o f a newly emerging t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a l Native militancy.  security:  D e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on t h e r e s e r v e s ,  and i n t h e " N a t i v e g h e t t o s " d e v e l o p i n g i n Canadian i n n e r cities,  were p r o d u c i n g p r o f o u n d d i s c o n t e n t , and i n c r e a s i n g l y  r a d i c a l p r o t e s t , w i t h i n various sectors of Native s o c i e t y , but e s p e c i a l l y among youth.  The infamous 1969 White Paper  h i n t e d a t t h i s emerging s e t t l e r demonology, w i t h i t s ominous warning that  Canadians, I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s a l i k e s t a n d a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s . F o r Canadian s o c i e t y t h e i s s u e i s whether a growing element o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n w i l l become f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g i n a p o s i t i v e way t o t h e g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g o r whether, c o n v e r s e l y , t h e p r e s e n t s o c i a l and economic gap w i l l l e a d t o t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g f r u s t r a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n , a t h r e a t t o t h e g e n e r a l w e li il - bu e i• n g o f s o c i e t y .100 -F  .  .  S i m i l a r v i e w s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n more r e c e n t pronouncements Authority 121-137.  and a c t i v i t i e s .  government  A 1993 F e d e r a l p o l i c y paper  (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1991) pp.  175  on A b o r i g i n a l p o l i c i n g , a d o p t i n g the newspeak of " s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , " emphasized the impact of economic r e s t r u c t u r i n g , and the a t t e n d a n t  f i s c a l c r i s i s of the s t a t e , on a N a t i v e  p o p u l a t i o n t h a t was  i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t e d from, and i n  c o n f l i c t w i t h , the law.  "The  p o l a r i z a t i o n between v a r i o u s  groups c o u l d have s e r i o u s p u b l i c s a f e t y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the d e l i v e r y of p o l i c e s e r v i c e s , " the r e p o r t concluded, t h a t "law enforcement a g e n c i e s i n responding  face a considerable  noting challenge  t o A b o r i g i n a l needs w h i l e b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o a  c l i m a t e of c o n t i n u e d  fiscal constraint."  however, were the 1989  1 0 1  More d i s t u r b i n g ,  r e v e l a t i o n s t h a t the Canadian  Security Intelligence Service  (CSIS) had commissioned a  r e p o r t on " N a t i v e Extremism" out of c o n c e r n o v e r the political activities  of c e r t a i n N a t i v e n a t i o n s  (the Innu of  L a b r a d o r , the Mohawks of Kahnawake, and the L u b i c o n which claimed to provide  Cree)  "a d e t a i l e d assessment of a  102  potential threat".  Canada, Statement of the Government of Canada on Policy, 1969 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969). 101  Mehta, Policing  Services  for Aboriginal  Peoples,  Indian p.  18-  19 . 102  The r e p o r t was completed i n March, 1989 and news of i t s e x i s t e n c e was l e a k e d t o the media i n l a t e A p r i l . The r e s u l t i n g u p r o a r l e d t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the S e c u r i t y I n t e l l i g e n c e Review Committee, the l a r g e l y t o o t h l e s s CSIS watchdog, whose own e x c u l p a t o r y r e p o r t "The Innu I n t e r v i e w and N a t i v e Extremism Report" was r e l e a s e d i n February, 1990 ( a f t e r b e i n g c e n s o r e d by CSIS f o r reasons of n a t i o n a l security).  176  T h i s manufacture of a new  i n t e r n a l enemy c a r r i e d w i t h i t the  l a t e n t p o t e n t i a l i t y , r e n d e r e d more and more m a n i f e s t from the  1980s onward, f o r i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p r e s s i v e r e s p o n s e s t o  Native p o l i t i c a l dissent.  There a r e numerous examples from  a c r o s s "the c o u n t r y over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , most n o t a b l y the  1981  "Salmon War"  i n v o l v i n g a massive RCMP o p e r a t i o n  a g a i n s t the Micmacs on the R e s t i g o u c h e r e s e r v e ; a s i m i l a r i n v a s i o n of the Kahnawake r e s e r v e i n June, 1988; the Oka s i e g e o f summer 1990; and the 1991 p o l i c e a t t a c k s on t h e 103  L x l ' w a t N a t i o n ' s D u f f y Lake Road b l o c k a d e s .  Of c o u r s e ,  Oka remains the most v i v i d and n o t o r i o u s example o f t h i s combative approach, and the r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s of Mohawk resistance  (combined w i t h o u t r a g e over the d e a t h of a p o l i c e  o f f i c e r d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l a s s a u l t on Mohawk b a r r i c a d e s ) have no doubt c o n v i n c e d p o l i c e and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s of t h e need f o r "tougher measures".  Indeed, i n the m i d s t o f t h e  Oka c r i s i s , the Canadian P o l i c e A s s o c i a t i o n i s s u e d a statement e x p r e s s i n g u n r e s e r v e d s u p p o r t f o r the SQ and a b l a n k e t condemnation  of the Mohawks: "As Canadian p o l i c e  o f f i c e r s and c i t i z e n s , we must oppose t e r r o r i s m as a means of  resolving disputes.  We s h a l l c o n t i n u e t o u p h o l d and  See A l a n Anderson, " P o l i c i n g N a t i v e P e o p l e : N a t i v e M i l i t a n c y and Canadian M i l i t a r i s m " , i n V i c S a t z e w i c h , ed. Deconstructing a Nation: Immigration, M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism and Racism in 90's Canada ( H a l i f a x : Fernwood P u b l i s h i n g , 1992) pp. 468-483.  177  enforce  t h e laws o f Canada and p r o t e c t o u r c i t i z e n s . "  In  the wake o f t h a t c r i s i s , r i g h t wing o p i n i o n b e g i n t o c a l l f o r a more m i l i t a r i s t i c approach t o " c o u n t e r - t e r r o r i s m " . Reform MP Bob Ringma, a r e t i r e d RCMP commander opposed c u t b a c k s t o t h e Canadian m i l i t a r y budget on t h e grounds t h a t the armed f o r c e s would i n c r e a s i n g l y be c a l l e d upon t o d e a l with Native p r o t e s t s .  1 0 5  I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , t h e Mackenzie  I n s t i t u t e , an O n t a r i o - b a s e d t h i n k tank w i t h l i n k s t o r i g h t wing o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e t h e N o r t h e r n F o u n d a t i o n and t h e World Anti-Communist League, c i r c u l a t e d The Legacy  of Oka, a  p o s i t i o n paper a r g u i n g t h a t t h e Canadian s t a t e s h o u l d e q u i p and t r a i n s p e c i a l c o u n t e r - i n s u r g e n c y " q u i e t l y " and w i t h o u t  u n i t s t o be used  r e s o r t t o "prolonged n e g o t i a t i o n " i n  future confrontations with F i r s t  Such b r a z e n p r o p o s a l s  hire,  Nations.  1 0 6  might be r e a d i l y d i s m i s s e d  • w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g of reactionary crackpots  as t h e  and c o l o n i a l  r e c i d i v i s t s , b u t t h e l o n g , h o t summer o f 1995 seemed t o i n d i c a t e j u s t such an " U l s t e r i z a t i o n " i n defence o f s e t t l e r Canadian P o l i c e A s s o c i a t i o n , "We Oppose T e r r o r i s m " , statement i s s u e d 12 September 1990; quoted i n Donna G o o d l e a f , Entering the War Zone: Mohawk Perspectives on Resisting Invasion ( P e n t i c t o n , B.C.: Theytus Books, 1995) p.69-70. Ringma s statement, which went l a r g e l y unremarked i n t h e media, i s r e f e r r e d t o i n T e r r y G l a v i n , "Roadblocks t o R e c o n c i l i a t i o n " , Georgia Straight, J u l y 7-14, 1995. 105  1  178  prerogatives.  RCMP o p e r a t i o n s a t G u s t a f s e n  w i t h G u l f War m i l i t a r y hardware, shoot200  Lake - r e p l e t e  t o - k i l l orders, a  square k i l o m e t r e No-Go zone, and comprehensive media  embargo - c e r t a i n l y seemed t o r e f l e c t a Mackenzie I n s t i t u t e model o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . And even as s e t t l e r e l i t e s i n B.C.  worked t o p u t >a g e n i a l f a c e on t h i s New Model RCMP -  Sam S t e e l e as Navy S e a l - t h e O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e were b r u t a l l y s u p p r e s s i n g t h e p e a c e f u l e f f o r t s o f t h e Stoney Point F i r s t Nation t o reclaim expropriated reserve  lands,  f a t a l l y s h o o t i n g one N a t i v e man (Dudley George), wounding another,  and s a v a g e l y b e a t i n g many more.  108  A n t i - C o l o n i a l A c t i o n A l l i a n c e , "The Mackenzie I n s t i t u t e " , 11 September 1996, u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t on f i l e w i t h author. 107  I borrow t h e term " U l s t e r i z a t i o n " from Mike D a v i s , "Who K i l l e d Los A n g e l e s ? P a r t Two: The V e r d i c t i s G i v e n " , New Left Review 199 (1993) pp. 29-54, a t 32. 108  The Stoney P o i n t r e s e r v e was e x p r o p r i a t e d by t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l Defence i n 1942 and never r e t u r n e d . Some r e s i d e n t s were r e l o c a t e d t o swampland on t h e nearby K e t t l e P o i n t r e s e r v e , w h i l e many o t h e r s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t Ontario. I n s t e a d o f r e t u r n i n g t h e l a n d t o t h e band, t h e O n t a r i o government has attempted t o t u r n i t i n t o Ipperwash P r o v i n c i a l Park. On Sept. 6, O n t a r i o P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e stormed t h e a r e a p r o t e s t e r s were o c c u p y i n g a t Ipperwash, w i t h d e a d l y r e s u l t s . As a r e s u l t o f a subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e i n c i d e n t , t h e o f f i c e r i n charge o f t a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s has been charged w i t h c r i m i n a l n e g l i g e n c e c a u s i n g death. See Tony H a l l , "Who K i l l e d Dudley George?", Canadian Dimension, December 1995-January 1996, pp. 8-12; and "The S t a n d o f f a t Aazhoodena - Stoney P o i n t " , A/cwesasrze Notes 2:1 (1996) pp. 39-41. I n a c u r i o u s p a r a l l e l t o t h e G u s t a f s e n Lake s t a n d o f f , where t h e B.C.-based FIRE c l a i m e d t o a t t r a c t hordes o f new angry w h i t e members, a group c a l l e d ON-FIRE ( O n t a r i o F e d e r a t i o n f o r I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s and E q u a l i t y ) has m o b i l i z e d i n support o f t h e OPP officer.  179  J u s t what p r e c i s e l y a v e r t e d a Waco o r Ipperwash s o l u t i o n a t G u s t a f s e n Lake i s d i f f i c u l t t o know, and, g i v e n t h e v e i l o f s e c r e c y which shrouds m a t t e r s o f " i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y " , perhaps unknowable; what can be s a i d w i t h some degree o f confidence,  however, i s t h a t t h e main e x p l a n a t i o n  s i n c e on  o f f e r - j u d i c i o u s r e s t r a i n t by t h e RCMP - i s b a s i c a l l y untenable.  The RCMP, perhaps under p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e t o  avoid "coddling" Native claimants  to p r i v a t e land,  escalated  the c o n f l i c t from mid-August onward i n s t e a d o f p e r s i s t i n g with negotiations.  They implemented an o p e r a t i o n a l  plan  w h i c h f e d t h e Defender's f e a r s o f an armed i n v a s i o n ,  while  f o s t e r i n g a c l i m a t e of p u b l i c paranoia  that  q u i c k l y inflamed justice"  and h o s t i l i t y  s e t t l e r bloodlust f o r a return to "frontier  (during the Standoff  t h e r e were a t l e a s t two  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on t h e s t r e e t s o f 100 M i l e House where s i g n s bearing  s l o g a n s l i k e "Honk f o r t h e End o f G u s t a f s e n " and "1  Land, 1 People, 1 Law" abounded). at t r i a l has begun t o c h a l l e n g e  E v i d e n c e coming t o l i g h t  t h e RCMP c l a i m t h a t t h e  Defenders i n s t i g a t e d each o f t h e s h o o t i n g  i n c i d e n t s : indeed,  by i t s e l f t h e September 1 1 t h " f i r e f i g h t " , where p o l i c e f i r e d thousands o f rounds a t t h e f l e e i n g occupants o f t h e r e d p i c k u p and i n t o the' camp, s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o c a s t doubt on any myths o f r e s t r a i n t .  Even more t e l l i n g , perhaps, was  the i n c r e a s i n g l y angry c r i t i c i s m p o l i c e a c t i o n s were e v o k i n g from N a t i v e  l e a d e r s o u t s i d e t h e camp as t h e s t a n d o f f  p r o g r e s s e d , who v o i c e d mounting concern t h a t a " n a t i o n a l  180  a n t i - t e r r o r i s t presence"  was now c o n t r o l l i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n  and was " a l l s e t out t o k i l l p e o p l e "  t o discourage  future  109  m i l i t a n c y and p l a c a t e "white p u b l i c o p i n i o n " .  In t h e end, a massacre was p r o b a b l y a v e r t e d based, n o t on humanitarian  p r i n c i p l e s , b u t on a c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e  p o l i t i c a l costs associated with a large-scale bloodletting. K i l l i n g N a t i v e s might have earned t h e NDP some p r e s t i g e among t h e I n d i a n - h a t i n g segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t i t a l s o would have c r e a t e d a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s nightmare i n l e s s f a s c i s t i c c i r c l e s , provoked s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l censure,  and - most s e r i o u s l y o f a l l - shaken t h e c o n f i d e n c e  of f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r s a l r e a d y nervous about t h e s t a t e o f Native a f f a i r s i n the province.  Indeed, t h e s p e c t r e  h a u n t i n g t h e RCMP's Z u l u base camp, as w e l l as t h e c o r r i d o r s of power i n V i c t o r i a and Ottawa, was p r o b a b l y n o t t h e massacre o f a ragged band o f N a t i v e r a d i c a l s a t Ts'peten, but t h e p r o s p e c t o f f u t u r e Ts'petens a c r o s s B.C. and a c r o s s the c o u n t r y .  T h i s was p r e c i s e l y t h e message conveyed t o  s e t t l e r a u t h o r i t i e s by t h e "mainstream" N a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , who warned a g a i n s t making m a r t y r s o f t h e Defenders, s i n c e  See a r t i c l e s i n Vancouver Sun, 28 August, 12 and 13 September, 1995 q u o t i n g Ken Dennis from t h e Shuswap L i a i s o n C o u n c i l , G i k t s a n c h i e f Don Ryan, P e n t i c t o n C h i e f Stewart P h i l l i p , and Ovide M e r c r e d i .  181  t h i s c o u l d o n l y a c c e l e r a t e t h e spread o f " r a d i c a l i s m " and "extremism" among an a l r e a d y angry N a t i v e  DIVIDE  AND  populace.  110  RULE  There a r e e x t r e m i s t s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e who have been disowned by t h e a b o r i g i n a l people i n t h e C a r i b o o a r e a , who have t a k e n t h i n g s i n t o t h e i r own hands, and a r e p r e p a r e d t o come from o u t s i d e o f t h e p r o v i n c e , and t o b r i n g i n i l l e g a l weapons, and t o f i r e them a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . ex-Premier  Mike H a r c o u r t  1 1 1  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s two-pronged approach t o s e t t l e r s e c u r i t y the m a i l e d f i s t -of " r a p i d containment"  and t h e v e l v e t g l o v e  of an e t h n i c i z e d " a b o r i g i n a l p o l i c i n g " - i s t h e s t r a t e g i c e x p l o i t a t i o n of d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the F i r s t community.  Nations  B e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e s t a n d o f f , o f f i c i a l  pronouncements and media accounts h i g h l i g h t e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e moderate N a t i v e s , l i k e t h e o f f i c i a l s of t h e C a r i b o o T r i b a l C o u n c i l (the "good I n d i a n s " ) , and t h e v i o l e n t , f a n a t i c a l , e x t r e m i s t elements d e f i a n t l y r e f u s i n g t o abandon t h e s a c r e d Sundance s i t e  (the "bad I n d i a n s " ) .  Press  r e p o r t s r e p e a t e d l y quoted l o c a l c h i e f s denouncing t h e Defenders as p a r a n o i d m a l i n g e r e r s l a c k i n g c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y , o r a s s e r t i n g (wrongly as i t t u r n s o u t )  See, e.g. " R a d i c a l s t o reap support i n s h o o t o u t , warn", Vancouver Sun, 2 9 August, 1995. "Premier vows t o c o n t i n u e t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s " , Vancouver Sun, 6 September 1995.  1 1 1  leaders  182  t h a t few i f any o f t h e N a t i v e s i n t h e camp were even Shuswap, t h e r e b y summoning up t h e a g e - o l d phantasm o f "outside a g i t a t i o n " .  Meanwhile, t h e Defenders  themselves  i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t " c o l l a b o r a t o r s " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e "DIA band c o u n c i l  system".  W h i l e t h e s e r e c r i m i n a t i o n s were b r o a d c a s t w i d e l y by t h e RCMP i n o r d e r t o confuse and hence d i s o r g a n i z e p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e Defenders, political faultlines.  they a l s o r e f l e c t  genuine  C o l o n i z a t i o n has u n d o u b t e d l y  and m u l t i p l i e d t h e d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n N a t i v e  deepened  communities.  Some, l i k e those stemming from t r e a t i e s and t h e I n d i a n A c t , are t r a c e a b l e d i r e c t l y t o t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s o f s e t t l e r governments.  Others a r e e t h n o - c u l t u r a l , t h e l e g a c y o f  t r a d i t i o n a l " t r i b a l " d i v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o , and a c t i v a t e d by, t h e c o l o n i a l s t a t e .  At another l e v e l ,  are i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l , as contemporary  they  A b o r i g i n a l youth  become i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d by t h e m a n i f e s t f a i l u r e o f a more moderate approach t o improve t h e l i v e d r e a l i t y o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s masses.  A t s t i l l another l e v e l , t h e y r e f l e c t  growing c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among N a t i v e s , as t h e p r o c e s s o f embourgeoisement  ("whitification") increasingly divides  the e l i t e c o r p s o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d , w e l l - o f f N a t i v e l e a d e r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s from t h e i m p o v e r i s h e d masses t h e y p u t a t i v e l y represent.  As we saw i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r ,  183 t h i s i s a d i v i s i o n which the Reform P a r t y has  adroitly 112  s e i z e d upon i n i t s campaign a g a i n s t s e t t l e r r e f o r m s . The Defenders  r e p r e s e n t a r a d i c a l and i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l  element w i t h i n the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, the soc a l l e d s o v e r e i g n t i s t movement, which has begun t o c h a l l e n g e the hegemony of the mainstream  l e a d e r s h i p of the N a t i v e  movement embodied i n band c o u n c i l s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 113 b o d i e s l i k e the F i r s t N a t i o n s Summit and AFN. s u r p r i s i n g l y , the two p o l i t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s do not markedly  Perhaps differ  i n t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of p r e - c o n t a c t i n d i g e n o u s  s o c i e t i e s and the h i s t o r y of c o l o n i z a t i o n : b o t h acknowledge t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s were s e l f - g o v e r n i n g i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i e s from time immemorial,  that indigenous  s o v e r e i g n t y was r e c o g n i z e d i n European law and d i p l o m a c y i n the e a r l y p o s t - c o n t a c t p e r i o d , t h a t s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n  was  a g e n o c i d a l p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g a t h o r o u g h g o i n g a t t a c k on t h e e x i s t e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n s of i n d i g e n o u s s o c i e t i e s ,  and,  f i n a l l y , t h a t the Canadian s t a t e i s burdened by a h o s t of  See V i n e D e l o r i a , J r . and C l i f f o r d L y t l e , The Nations Within: The Past and Future of American Indian Sovereignty (New York: Pantheon, 1984); and "Ready t o Explode", Vancouver Sun, 12 August, 1995. R e g a r d i n g embourgeoisement, see V i c S a t z e w i t c h and T. Wotherspoon, Canada's First Nations: Gender, Race and Class Perspectives (). 113 A l e x R o s l i n , "A C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Tony H a l l " , The Pheonix, S p r i n g 1996, pp.9-13.  184 m o r a l , l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t  remain  114 unfulfilled. Where s o v e r e i g n t i s t s and mainstream l e a d e r s i s i n t h e i r v i s i o n s of the f u t u r e and, t h e i r views on the p e r e n n i a l done".  differ,  however,  consequently, i n  q u e s t i o n of "what i s t o  At the r i s k of g r o s s l y d i c h o t o m i z i n g  be  and  o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g a v e r y complex p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y , i t might be s a i d t h a t mainstream l e a d e r s ,  c o g n i z a n t of the  urgent  need t o a r r e s t the ongoing d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e i r p e o p l e t e r r i t o r i e s , seek an e x p e d i t e d accomodation w i t h i n framework of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m and state. and  the  the Canadian n a t i o n -  They view s e t t l e r c o l o n i z a t i o n as a f a i t  accompli,  the s e t t l e r power s t r u c t u r e as i n t r a n s i g e n t , and  negotiate  and  a t r a n s f e r of s u f f i c i e n t money, l a n d ,  hope t o  resources  and p o l i t i c o - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power from s e t t l e r governments t o s e c u r e the v i a b i l i t y of F i r s t N a t i o n s as societies.  distinct  I n p r a c t i c a l terms, t h i s has meant the  pursuit  of l o c a l " s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t " t h r o u g h t r e a t i e s (as i n B.C.), c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments (the now strategy during administrative  l a r g e l y abandoned  the Mulroney e r a ) , o r d e v o l u t i o n powers, and  development t h r o u g h (quasi)  c a p i t a l i s t enterprise.  want an accomodation of our i n t e r e s t s and  D e l o r i a and  L y t l e , The  of  the p r o m o t i o n of economic  John, head of the F i r s t N a t i o n s Summit i n B.C.  114  AFN  Nations  Within.  As  Ed  p u t s i t , "we  Canadian i n t e r e s t s  185  a t l a r g e , and a w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t w o . "  115  To  t h e s e mainstream l e a d e r s , the s o v e r e i g n t i s t agenda i n d u l g e s i n a dangerous r o m a n t i c i s m and u t o p i a n i s m , e l e v a t i n g a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e o v e r the d e s p e r a t e need f o r immediate, concrete  change.  F o r s o v e r e i g n t i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, t h i s  mainstream  s t r a t e g y i s tantamount t o n a t i o n a l s u i c i d e , an a b j e c t c a p i t u l a t i o n t o the p r e r o g a t i v e s of s e t t l e r  capitalist  d o m i n a t i o n that' can o n l y l e a d t o m o r a l , c u l t u r a l , and e c o l o g i c a l a n n i h i l a t i o n .  1 1 6  spiritual  They seek, not accomodation  w i t h i n the s t a t u s quo, but i t s t r a n s c e n d e n c e , a fundamental r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the s o c i a l o r d e r based on a r e c o v e r y o r r e i n v e n t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i g e n o u s e x i s t e n c e , what Galeano has d e s c r i b e d as "a community-based  mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and  way o f l i f e , based not on g r e e d but on s o l i d a r i t y , a g e - o l d  " I n d i a n s opt f o r C o e x i s t e n c e " , Vancouver Sun, O c t o b e r 21, 1996. F o r a range of views b r o a d l y r e f l e c t i v e o f the s o v e r e i g n t i s t p o s i t i o n , see the e s s a y s i n M. A n n e t t e J a i m e s , The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization and Resistance (Boston: South End P r e s s , 1992); Ward C h u r c h i l l , Struggle For the Land: Indigenous Resistance ot Genocide, Ecocide and Expropriation in Contemporary North America (Toronto: Between the L i n e s , 1992); " N a t i o n - B u i l d i n g : What i s S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n " i n Roger Moody, ed. The Indigenous Voice: Visions and Realities, V o l . 2 (London: Zed, 1989); Lee M a r a c l e , e t . a l . , We Get Our Living Like Milk From The Land; and the Union of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s , " A b o r i g i n a l T i t l e and R i g h t s P o s i t i o n Paper", i n N a t i v e Investment & Trade A s s o c i a t i o n , The Economic Bridge to Self-Reliance Through Aboriginal Land Claims (Vancouver, 1990). 116  186  freedoms, and i d e n t i t y between human b e i n g s and n a t u r e . " T h i s programme i s f r e q u e n t l y i n f u s e d by forms o f m i l l e n a r i a n s p i r i t u a l i s m , and a d e s i r e t o r e s u r r e c t , a l b e i t i n a modern form, a " n a t u r a l economy" c e n t r e d on i n t i m a t e ,  subsistence  118  use o f t h e l a n d . conception  I n p r a c t i c e , t h i s means a s s e r t i n g a  o f s o v e r e i g n t y which comes much c l o s e r t o  independent s t a t e h o o d ,  and i m p l i e s a d r a s t i c c u r t a i l m e n t o f  s e t t l e r p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s and e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . This a r t i c u l a t i o n of indigenous  n a t i o n a l i s m has l e d  i n e x o r a b l y t o an e f f l o r e s c e n c e of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l i n order t o achieve the n a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f i n d i g e n o u s external pressure t h e i r oppression  broad r e c o g n i t i o n o f  peoples,  and b r i n g  t o bear on e x i s t i n g n a t i o n - s t a t e s f o r o f " n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s " o r "entrapped 119  nations" w i t h i n t h e i r borders.  From t h e 1970s onward,  a c t i v i t y f o c u s e d on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Indian Treaty Council  ( c r e a t e d i n 1975 as t h e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arm o f t h e American I n d i a n Movement) and t h e World C o u n c i l o f Indigenous P e o p l e s ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1975 under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f George Manuel, a member o f t h e 117  Eduardo Galeano, "The B l u e T i g e r and t h e Promised Land", i n We Say No! (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1992). 118  119  D e l o r i a and L y t l e , The Nations  Within.  The term "entrapped n a t i o n s " comes from R i c h a r d F a l k , "The S t r u g g l e o f Indigenous P e o p l e s and t h e Promise o f N a t u r a l P o l i t i c a l Communities", i n R. Thompson, ed., The Rights of Indigenous Peoples in International Law: Selected  187  Secwepemc N a t i o n ) ; convening  of forums, l i k e the R u s s e l l  t r i b u n a l s and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Working Group on Affairs  Indigenous  (a sub-committe o f the UN Human R i g h t s committee) t o  c o m p i l e r e c o r d s of human r i g h t s abuses i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s ; and the promotion  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  instruments, e i t h e r e x i s t i n g  ( l i k e the UN D e c l a r a t i o n on  D e c o l o n i z a t i o n ) o r new Indigenous  legal  ( l i k e the D r a f t d e c l a r a t i o n on  P e o p l e s ) , capable of d e f e n d i n g  indigenous  120  sovereignty.  Indeed, g i v e n s e t t l e r d o m ' s  implacable  h o s t i l i t y t o a l l but the most modest r e f o r m s ,  sovereigntists  have had l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o engage i n the d e f i a n t , r e a r g u a r d a c t i o n s which have become such a f a m i l i a r f e a t u r e 121  of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l landscape  i n recent years.  In t h i s c o n t e x t , then, the Ts'peten Defender's p o l i t i c a l demands were the l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n of an emerging internationalism.  indigenous  They i n v o k e d a s u b s t a n t i a l body o f  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l law and d i p l o m a t i c p r a c t i c e t o , i n e f f e c t , c a l l the b l u f f of  settler  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m , the myth t h a t s e t t l e r r u l e  was  Essays on Self Determination (Saskatoon: N a t i v e Law U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1987) pp. 59-68.  Centre,  120  For an e x c e l l e n t overview of these developments see Roxanne Dunbar O r t i z , Indians of the Americas: Human Rights and Self-Determination (London: Zed, 1985). 121  As Ward C h u r c h i l l p o i n t s out, the demand f o r s t a t e h o o d i s i n l a r g e p a r t a r e a c t i o n t o the s e t t l e r d e n i a l o f any form of i n d i g e n o u s autonomy. See Struggle for the Land, p.445.  188  e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h s c r u p u l o u s adherence t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l 122  and domestic laws.  They argued t h a t , i n the absence of  l e g i t i m a t e t r e a t i e s between the B r i t i s h crown and the Secwepemc N a t i o n , Ts'peten c o n s t i t u t e d unceded Secwepemc t e r r i t o r y o v e r which s e t t l e r governments c o u l d e x e r c i s e no l a w f u l j u r i s d i c t i o n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , the government's p r e v i o u s a l i e n a t i o n of Shuswap l a n d t o p r i v a t e owners, and p r e s e n t a t t e m p t s t o e v i c t and p r o s e c u t e the Defenders, were i l l e g a l . Moreover, by a p p e a l i n g t o t h i r d - p a r t y t r i b u n a l s - the w o r l d c o u r t , the Queen - f o r an independent claims, they e x p l i c i t l y Canadian  r e v i e w of t h e i r  c h a l l e n g e d the competence of  state i n s t i t u t i o n s to adjudicate questions going to 123  t h e i r own  legitimacy.  Of c o u r s e , t o a s e t t l e r p u b l i c c o n g e n i t a l l y i g n o r a n t o f i t s own  i g n o b l e h i s t o r y and t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t e d , f i s c a l l y ,  p o l i t i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , i n n a t i o n a l i s t c r e a t i o n myths, the Defender's of  t h e Canadian  r e p u d i a t i o n of the t e r r i t o r i a l  jurisdiction  s t a t e and a p p e a l s t o a r c h a i c i m p e r i a l  122  Bruce C l a r k ' s l e g a l s c h o l a r s h i p has d i r e c t l y t a r g e t e d t h i s p r e v a i l i n g myth. See Native Liberty, Crown Sovereignty. See a l s o Glenn T. M o r r i s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and P o l i t i c s : Toward a R i g h t t o S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r Indigenous P e o p l e s " , i n Jaimes, ed., The State of Native America, pp. 55-86; Roxanne Dunbar O r t i z , "Land and Nationhood: The American I n d i a n S t r u g g l e f o r S e l f D e t e r m i n a t i o n and S u r v i v a l " , Socialist Review 63-64 (1982) pp.105-120.  189 c o n n e c t i o n s were n o t o n l y a n a c h r o n i s t i c but, q u i t e s i m p l y , incomprehensible.  Though t h e Defenders were d i s m i s s e d as  l u n a t i c s , t h e y were i n f a c t i n v o k i n g a l o n g and h o n o r a b l e p o l i t i c o - l e g a l t r a d i t i o n , r u n n i n g from t h e e a s t e r n  First  N a t i o n s who s i g n e d innumerable t r e a t i e s w i t h European powers p r i o r t o t h e 19th c e n t u r y ; t o t h e v a r i o u s d e l e g a t i o n s o f B.C.  N a t i v e l e a d e r s who t r a v e l l e d t o B r i t a i n i n t h e l a t e  n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s s e e k i n g r e s o l u t i o n of t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n ; t o t h e Cayuga sachem Deskaheh, who p e t i t i o n e d t h e League o f N a t i o n s i n t h e 1920s t o r e c o g n i z e the "independent s t a t e h o o d " o f t h e S i x N a t i o n s ; t o t h e N a t i v e l e a d e r s o f t h e e a r l y 1980s who l o b b i e d  Westminister  t o r e q u i r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s as a c o n d i t i o n 124 of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t r i a t x o n .  Few i f any attempts  were  made t o thus c o n t e x t u a l i z e t h e Defender's demands because, as UBCIC p r e s i d e n t S a u l T e r r y p o i n t e d out i n an e l o q u e n t b u t l a r g e l y i g n o r e d p r e s s r e l e a s e , i t would c o m p l i c a t e t h e o f f i c i a l story: the RCMP, t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  and t h e media have gone  t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e Shuswap Sundancers and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s a t G u s t a f s e n Lake as dangerous  The G u s t a f s e n Lake a r c h i v e a t t h e SISIS c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f documents e x p r e s s i n g demands. 124 See Rhadda Jappan, " G l o b a l Community?: S t r a t e g i e s o f Canada's A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e s " Indigenous Studies 3 (1995) 59-97.  homepage t h e Defender's Supranational Journal of  f a n a t i c s i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e use o f armed f o r c e t o remove them from t h e Sundance grounds.... I n t r y i n g t o d i s c r e d i t and i s o l a t e t h e Sundancers,  t h e RCMP and  A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a r e l a y i n g t h e groundwork f o r bloodshed  - n e e d l e s s bloodshed.  The p o s i t i o n s  e x p r e s s e d by t h e Sundancer's on t h e i r n a t i o n ' s s o v e r e i g n t y and a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a r e n o t ' e x t r e m i s t ' . They a r e shared by many I n d i a n p e o p l e s a c r o s s t h i s province.  B r i t i s h Columbia  i s unceded I n d i a n l a n d . . . .  Our p e o p l e s demand JUSTICE and RECOGNITION b u t whenever t h e y s t a n d up f o r t h e i r r i g h t s t h e y a r e s u b j e c t e d t o 125  the RULE OF LAW and POLICE STATE TACTICS.  Nor was t h i s r e a c t i o n c o n f i n e d t o Canadian leaders.  indigenous  Tupac E n r i q u e , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e Pheonix-  based C o n t i n e n t a l C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l o f Indigenous  Nations  and O r g a n i z a t i o n s (CONIC), came t o Ts'peten a t t h e r e q u e s t of t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s from t h e Secwepemc and Okanagan N a t i o n s t o s e r v e as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b s e r v e r .  He commented:  I w i t n e s s e d f i r s t h a n d t h e e v i d e n c e o f thousands o f rounds o f which had been f i r e d i n t o t h e camp by t h e Canadian p a r a m i l i t a r y f o r c e s .  I counted by t h e  hundreds t h e number o f t h e s e t r o o p s used t o m i l i t a r i z e 125  Union o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s , P r e s s R e l e a s e , 2 8 August 1995; l a t e r p u b l i s h e d i n UBCIC News, September 1995, a l o n g  191  the e n t i r e zone around Ts'peten...,  a l o n g w i t h Armored  Personnel C a r r i e r s , scores of troop t r a n s p o r t v e h i c l e s , h e l i c o p t e r s and commando squads i n camouflage gear. These were t h e p h y s i c a l evidence o f t h e a s s a u l t a t Ts'peten t h a t n e a r l y r e s u l t e d i n a t r a g i c l o s s o f human life....  From t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e Canadian government  and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia attempted  t o c r i m i n a l i z e t h e Sundance Camp  defenders  without addressing the underlying issues of A b o r i g i n a l 126  s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s on unceded Indigenous  territories.  Thus, i t took t h e near massacre o f a dozen o r so N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t i s t s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s a t G u s t a f s e n Lake f o r the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n t o d i s c o v e r a homegrown s o v e r e i g n t i s t movement i n i t s m i d s t .  C e r t a i n l y i t s e x i s t e n c e ought t o  have been c l e a r enough, g i v e n t h a t r o u g h l y o n e - t h i r d o f B.C. bands, most o f them l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r and c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e more r a d i c a l U n i o n of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s , have e l e c t e d n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n 127  the t r e a t y m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  But p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n has been  l a r g e l y f o c u s e d on t h e "moderate" bands o p e r a t i n g more o r l e s s w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s , w h i c h have w i t h p r o t e s t l e t t e r s from t h e Innu N a t i o n , t h e S i x N a t i o n s Confederacy, and t h e P e n t i c t o n I n d i a n Band. 126  Donna Goodleaf and Dorothy C h r i s t i a n , "Events a t Ts'peten, G u s t a f s e n Lake, B r i t i s h Columbia", Akwesasne 2:1 (1996) pp.35-38.  Notes  192  been g r a n t e d a monopoly on l e g i t i m a c y a t l e a s t as f a r as s e t t l e r s o c i e t y i s concerned.  The problem i s , t h i s does n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y a c c o r d w i t h t h e wishes o f N a t i v e communities t h e 128  Band c o u n c i l s c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t .  I t a l s o has t h e  tendency t o deny s o v e r e i g n t i s t s a c c e s s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c h a n n e l s , f o r c i n g them t o adopt u n c o n v e n t i o n a l means t o r e g i s t e r t h e i r SETTLER  concerns.  SOLIDARITY  I f t h e s t a n d o f f thus h i g h l i g h t e d , and e x a g e r r a t e d , t h e p o l i t i c a l f a u l t l i n e s w i t h i n the Native p o p u l a t i o n , i t i l l u s t r a t e d simultaneously the l a t e n t c a p a c i t y f o r caste s o l i d a r i t y which i s f o r W e i t z e r one o f t h e " p i l l a r s o f 129  s e t t l e r supremacy".  Faced w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f an " I n d i a n  u p r i s i n g " , t h e w a r r i n g f a c t i o n s o f " L e f t " and " R i g h t " , h i t h e r t o l o c k e d i n m o r t a l combat over t h e q u e s t i o n o f N a t i v e c l a i m s , q u i c k l y c l o s e d ranks t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t against a perceived challenge to s e t t l e r  dominion.  Demagogic p o l i t i c i a n s and p u n d i t s had a l r e a d y begun t o p l a y upon a n t i - N a t i v e animus d u r i n g t h e b l o c k a d e s e a r l i e r i n t h e summer i n e f f o r t t o o r g a n i z e r e f l e x i v e h o s t i l i t y t o N a t i v e 127  " N a t i v e I n d i a n s S p l i t on t r e a t y - t a l k s p r o c e s s " , Vancouver Sun, September 25, 1995. 128  129  See R o s l i n ,  "A C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Tony H a l l " .  W e i t z e r suggests t h a t d i v i s i o n s i n a s e t t l e r f o r m a t i o n can compromise t h e s t a t e ' s c a p a c i t y t o d e l i v e r r e p r e s s i o n , and o f f e r N a t i v e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o m o b i l i z e . See W e i t z e r , Transforming Settler States, p. 27.  193  p r o t e s t i n t o a groundswell land claims.  of p u b l i c opposition t o Native  By l a t e June, Sun c o l u m n i s t B a r b a r a  Yaffe,  c e r t a i n l y no s l o u c h i n t h i s r e g a r d , c o u l d o f f e r t h i s (no doubt s e l f - s e r v i n g ) d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  degraded  p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , w e l l b e f o r e t h e Ts'peten r e s i s t a n c e had a t t r a c t e d widespread a t t e n t i o n :  P u b l i c o p i n i o n c r e e p s t o t h e r i g h t w i t h e v e r y new barricade.  People want t o know why j u s t i c e f o r N a t i v e s  comes s p e c i a l l y wrapped.  B a r r i c a d e b a r g a i n i n g has a l s o  l e f t n o n - a b o r i g i n a l s wondering about n a t i v e p e o p l e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o be r e a s o n a b l e  about l a n d c l a i m s .  And  so, B.C.'s o p p o s i t i o n L i b e r a l and Reform p a r t i e s a r e c a l l i n g on Mike H a r c o u r t ' s  government t o g e t tough on 130  the natxve b l o c k a d e s ,  whatever t h e r i s k s .  Thus, once news o f t h e s t a n d o f f was out, r i g h t wing r e s p o n s e s were p r e d i c t a b l y pugnacious: t h e Sun e d i t o r i a l i z e d about "the thugs o f G u s t a f s e n  and o u r moment o f t r u t h " ,  w h i l e t h e newly formed F o u n d a t i o n f o r I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s and Equality  (FIRE) promised v i g i l a n t e a c t i o n u n l e s s t h e  government took "some f i r m a c t i o n t o l e t N a t i v e s know we u  •  ,.131  mean b u s i n e s s . "  "Why ode t o Oka might be heard a l o t t h i s summer i n B.C." Vancouver Sun, June 29, 1995. 131  Vancouver  Sun, August 25, 1995.  194  More s c a n d a l o u s , however, was the r e a c t i o n from the  left-  l i b e r a l a r c h i t e c t s and advocates o f the t r e a t y p r o c e s s , the supposed s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s of s e t t l e r humanism and e n l i g h t e n m e n t , whose h a r d l i n e s t a n c e s t i r r e d even the most 132  r e t r o g r a d e d e f e n d e r s of w h i t e p l u t o c r a c y t o p r a i s e them. The NDP  government, i t s p r i n c i p l e d support f o r a j u s t  r e s o l u t i o n t o N a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s a l r e a d y f o u n d e r i n g on t h e r o c k s o f e l e c t o r a l r e a l i t y i n a resource-dependent p r a c t i c a l l y l e a p t at the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e f l e c t the of  economy, charges  "appeasement" and " c a p i t u l a t i o n " t h a t o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s  had been c h u r n i n g out f o r months.  R a t h e r than seek a  p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o the s t a n d o f f , the p r o v i n c i a l government u n l e a s h e d s t a t e s e c u r i t y f o r c e s a g a i n s t the Defenders  and devoted the b u l k of i t s e f f o r t s t o  vilification.  Premier Mike H a r c o u r t ' s major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f o r example, was t o condemn the Defenders  as " f a n a t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y t h e o r i s t s " .  The  government's c h i e f h a t c h e t man was newly a p p o i n t e d A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l U j j a l Dosanjh, whose g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r was  jailed  the B r i t i s h f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n I n d i a , and cut  h i s p o l i t i c a l t e e t h i n B.C.  farm workers  who  o r g a n i z i n g Indo-Canadian  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y .  A b j u r i n g these a n t i -  c o l o n i a l r o o t s , Dosanjh r e f u s e d t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h See Vaughn Palmer, "New A-G's c o n v i c t i o n r o o t e d i n h i s own p a s t " , Sun, 29 August 1995; T r e v o r Lautens, Vancouver Sun, November 18, 1995..  by  195  " t e r r o r i s t s " , r e l i n q u i s h i n g f u l l o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l t o the RCMP, and spent the s t a n d o f f vehemently i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h i s was  a " c r i m i n a l m a t t e r t h a t has n o t h i n g t o do  a b o r i g i n a l land claims".  with  E a r l y on he i n d i c a t e d t h a t " i f  f o r c e has t o be used t o m a i n t a i n law and o r d e r , I w i l l have no h e s i t a t i o n i n s a n c t i o n i n g i t " , and l a t e r denounced the 133  Defenders f o r "having no r e g a r d f o r human l i f e o r He c o n t i n u e d t o " s p i n " even a f t e r the Defenders  law". surrendered,  t a k i n g media p e o p l e on a guided t o u r of the Defender's encampment (from o u t s i d e "you don't get the s e r i o u s , h o r r i b l e , and o f f e n s i v e d i m e n s i o n of the s t r u c t u r e s t h a t have been b u i l t h e r e " ) , and d e c l a r i n g t h a t " I ' l l l e t the p e o p l e of B r i t i s h Columbia be the judge of whether those  who  i l l e g a l l y occupy p r i v a t e l a n d and t h e n shoot a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a t s i g h t and hunt them and a c t u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e l y 134  pursue them t o k i l l  - whether t h e y ' r e heroes o r zeroes  ".  O v e r a l l , i n l i g h t of the performance of Dosanjh and h i s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s , the subsequent c l a i m by one Defender -  "Dosanjh's Past Paved w i t h P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n s " , Sun, September; "A-G Fears p e a c e f u l end dimming",Sun, 12 September, 1995.  2  134  Vancouver Sun, 25 September 1995. The a p o s t l e s of w h i t e s e t t l e r supremacy no doubt g l o a t e d over the s p e c t a c l e of B.C.'s f i r s t non-white A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l d i s c i p l i n i n g r e c a l c i t r a n t N a t i v e s . As p a l e o - c o n s e r v a t i v e T r e v o r L a u t e n s put i t i n h i s November 18, 1995 Sun column, Dosanjh " a c q u i t t e d h i m s e l f as w e l l as anyone c o u l d i n a s o c i e t y t h a t t r e m b l e s t o t h i n k of a t t a c k i n g t e r r o r i s t s i f t h e y c a l l t h e m s e l v e s I n d i a n s . No burden of w h i t e g u i l t . Native I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s c o u l d h a r d l y murmur t h a t he has the wrong s k i n c o l o r . "  196  t h a t "the NDP wanted t o k i l l N a t i v e s t o g e t v o t e s " 135  possessed  a d i s t u r b i n g r i n g of t r u t h .  Supplementing t h e g r i m s p e c t a c l e o f s o c i a l democracy i n a c t i o n , t h e l i b e r a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a wasted l i t t l e  time  before  t r a i n i n g t h e i r own r h e t o r i c a l guns on t h e Defenders, p o r t r a y i n g them as a grave t h r e a t t o t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s and its  moderate N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  UBC p r o f e s s o r P a u l  Tennant, p u t a t i v e a u t h o r i t y on B.C. " a b o r i g i n a l  politics"  and academic b o o s t e r f o r t h e T r e a t y Commission, warned about the growing N a t i v e c o n s t i t u e n c y f o r " r a d i c a l i s m " and d i s m i s s e d t h e Defenders as " m i s f i t s and m a l c o n t e n t s "  l e d by  136 "charatans".  SFU c r i m i n o l o g i s t John E k s t e d t compared t h e  Sundance camp t o "a 70s encounter  group t h a t went wrong".  T e r r y G l a v i n , u s u a l l y a p e r c e p t i v e a n a l y s t o f B.C. N a t i v e a f f a i r s and a one-time employee o f t h e B.C. T r e a t y Commission, b l i t h e l y equated w h i t e b a c k l a s h and N a t i v e m i l i t a n c y as " p a r a l l e l forms o f extremism", b e l i t t l i n g t h e Defenders as "a ragged band o f o u t c a s t s " and "sad l i t t l e midway f r e a k s " beset w i t h " a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n s " .  Sun  135  Jones Ignace, 1996. 136  statement  i n B.C. Supreme C o u r t ,  July  Tennant i s qouted i n "Showdown", Maclean's 11 September 1995. E a r l i e r i n t h e summer, i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f b l o c k a d e s at Douglas Lake and Adams Lake, Tennant warned t h a t " i f b l o c k a d e s a r e seen as a way t o g e t your way f a s t , we c o u l d see t h e l e g i t i m a t e t r e a t y p r o c e s s f a l l i n g a p a r t " ; a c c o r d i n g to h i s i n t e r v i e w e r , Tennant f e l t t h a t t h e " k i d g l o v e s approach" adopted by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government l e f t N a t i v e s  C o l u m n i s t E l i z a b e t h A i r d , an e r r a t i c b u t o f t e n t r e n c h a n t c r i t i c o f t h e B.C. o v e r c l a s s , wrote p a t r o n i z i n g l y t h a t " r e b e l s w i t h o u t a r e a s o n t o l i v e a r e [ t h e i r ] own p e o p l e ' s worst enemies".  Even Stephen Hume, a n o t h e r Sun c o l u m n i s t  who remains t h e mainstream's  most i n d e f a t i g a b l e and  t r e n c h a n t c r i t i c o f t h e w h i t e o v e r c l a s s , and who d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f d u r i n g t h e s t a n d o f f w i t h columns encouraging the s e t t l e r p u b l i c t o confront i t s l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , succumbed t o t h i s l i n e of t h i n k i n g .  Though u n s p a r i n g l y d e r i s i v e o f s e t t l e r  h y s t e r i a and government h y p o c r i s y , h i s u l t i m a t e c o n c e r n was to b o l s t e r f a l t e r i n g reformist e f f o r t s  (i.e. the t r e a t y  p r o c e s s ) so as t o c o n t a i n t h e t h r e a t o f "a b u r g e o n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t underground" " m i l i t a n t new e v a n g e l i s m s " . Bill,"  anti-  and t h e f u r t h e r s p r e a d o f "You don't have t o be B u f f a l o  he wrote, " t o f i g u r e out t h a t e v e r y t i m e we make  a n o t h e r r e a s o n a b l e c h i e f l o o k f o o l i s h , we make t h e r a d i c a l s a t G u s t a f s e n Lake l o o k r e a s o n a b l e t o a l l those hotheads f i g u r e t h e y have n o t h i n g l e f t t o l o s e " .  who  I n essence, h i s  columns r e p r e s e n t a s t e r n warning t o s e t t l e r d o m about t h e consequences o f s q u a n d e r i n g p r e s e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s e t t l e 137  N a t i v e c l a i m s , so t o speak, on t h e cheap.  a t t h e t r e a t y t a b l e s " l o o k i n g l i k e U n c l e Toms". Sun, June 29, 1995.  Vancouver  137  E k s t e d t i s quoted i n "Renegade l e a d e r n o t a l o n e i n h i s c o n s p i r a c y t h e o r i e s " , Sun, 31 August 1995; G l a v i n ' s s t a t e m e n t s appear i n h i s "How t h e C i r c u s Came t o G u s t a f s e n Lake"; A i r d ' s column appeared i n t h e Sun, August 25, 1995;  198  Perhaps t h e o n l y n o t a b l e d i s s e n t from t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e r w a g o n - c i r c l i n g came from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of g r a s s r o o t s , s o l i d a r i t y a c t i v i s t s , many o f them p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the environmental  long-time  movement, who worked  t i r e l e s s l y throughout t h e s t a n d o f f t o g e n e r a t e p u b l i c support  f o r t h e Defenders and p r e s s u r e t h e RCMP i n t o  abandoning i t s i n v a s i o n p l a n s .  Some o f these p e o p l e were  i n s i d e t h e camp i t s e l f , b e a r i n g w i t n e s s t o t h e Defender's s t a n d , w h i l e o t h e r s worked i n nearby communities l i k e 10 0 M i l e House and W i l l i a m s Lake, d i s r u p t i n g RCMP p r e s s conferences  and o r g a n i z i n g s u p p l i e s .  S t i l l others,- l i k e t h e  V i c t o r i a - b a s e d S e t t l e r s i n Support o f Indigenous (SISIS) and Vancouver's A b o r i g i n a l S o v e r e i g n t y  Sovereignty  Support  Committee (ASSC), c r e a t i v e l y u t i l i z e d t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e I n t e r n e t t o circumvent  t h e RCMP's propaganda machine,  g a l v a n i z i n g o v e r s e a s s u p p o r t e r s t o demonstrate o u t s i d e Canadian d i p l o m a t i c o f f i c e s and f a x l e t t e r s o f p r o t e s t t o Canadian p o l i t i c i a n s .  These groups, a l o n g w i t h community-  based r a d i o s t a t i o n s i n b o t h c i t i e s , were v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y independent source o f i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e Standoff.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e b u l k o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s non-  N a t i v e s remained a t t h e mercy o f a c o r p o r a t e and state-owned media complex which was d u t i f u l l y d i s s e m i n a t i n g a s t e a d y stream o f RCMP-crafted  deceptions.  and Hume's columns appeared i n t h e Sun on August 3 0 and September 11, 1995.  199  COVERING  TS'PETEN  As t h e I s r a e l i s have shown so s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h t e r r o r i s t s , you never ever make a d e a l t h a t a l l o w s a t e r r o r i s t t a c t i c t o 'win'. I f t h e r e i s no c o o p e r a t i o n . . . i t i s time f o r a s t e a d y e s c a l a t i o n of pressure. The f i r s t stage i s t o make l i f e u n c o m f o r t a b l e and u n p r o d u c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y by a t o t a l s e v e r i n g o f communications, i n c l u d i n g t h e c u t o f f o f c e l l phones and access t o t h e media. T h i s l a t t e r i s t h e e s s e n t i a l oxygen o f many d i s t u r b a n c e s , so i t needs t o be denied. Sun c o l u m n i s t Gordon G i b s o n o f f e r i n g t a c t i c a l advice t o the 1  no  RCMP, August 1995 Gustafsen  Lake i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e Mounties have absorbed  the p r i m a r y  t a c t i c a l innovation associated with  insurgency  operations i n the post-Vietnam era, a  counterstratagem  put e f f e c t i v e l y i n t o p r a c t i c e by U.S. i m p e r i a l i s m i n t h e "brilliant  l i t t l e f e a t s o f arms" - Grenada,  Nicaragua,  Panama, and above a l l , t h e G u l f War - which p u n c t u a t e d t h e Reagan-Bush e r a .  I g n o r i n g f o r t h e moment i t s p r a c t i c a l  e l a b o r a t i o n s and l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n s , t h e l e s s o n can be s t a t e d s u c c i n c t l y : n e u t r a l i z e t h e media.  For the reconfigured  i m p e r i a l i s m s o f t h e p o s t - c o l o n i a l (and now post-Communist) era,  a form o f " m e d i a t i z e d m i l i t a r i s m " has become e s s e n t i a l ,  not o n l y t o a v o i d i m p o l i t i c images o f G.I.s " r o n s o n i n g h o o t c h e s " , "freedom f i g h t e r s " p e r p e t r a t i n g c i v i l i a n massacres, and S t e a l t h bombers o b l i t e r a t i n g h o s p i t a l s and s c h o o l s , b u t a l s o t o s i l e n c e t h e sundry c r i m i n a l s , f a n a t i c s and t e r r o r i s t s who c o n t e s t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a n o t - q u i t e - s o  200  New W o r l d O r d e r .  As Mike D a v i s p u t s i t ,  tactical  absolute of 'anti-terrorism'  Belfast,  Jerusalem, o r Los Angeles  public voice.  " i ti s . . .  a  - whether p r a c t i c e d i n  - t o deny t e r r o r i s m a  Although t e r r o r i s m i s always p o r t r a y e d  p r e c i s e l y as i n a r t i c u l a t e malevolence,  authorities  expend 139  enormous e n e r g y t o p r o t e c t u s f r o m i t s ' r a v i n g s ' . . . . " C a n a d a , where i m p e r i a l d e s i g n s a r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s p a c i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than g l o b a l domination, t h i s not y e t f u l l y mastered  b y t h e t i m e o f Oka, w i t h  consequences f o r t h e Canadian police,  whose " f r e e d o m  troublesome Oka  internal  l e s s o n was irksome  m i l i t a r y and p r o v i n c i a l  o f a c t i o n " was h a m p e r e d b y t h e  presence o f independent  journalists within the  encampment a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g e f f u s i o n o f p u b l i c  f o r Mohawk r e s i s t a n c e .  In  (As Donna G o o d l e a f  f a i l u r e was n o t f o r l a c k o f t r y i n g ) .  support  h a s shown,  this  140  A t any r a t e , b y t h e t i m e e v e n t s a t T s ' p e t e n were underway, t h e RCMP w e r e d e m o n s t r a t i n g a r e m a r k a b l e  flair  for  o r c h e s t r a t i n g a m e d i a s p e c t a c l e : a l e r t i n g a f e w k e y news o u t l e t s t o a "major  s t o r y b r e a k i n g i n t h e C a r i b o o " on August  18th, and f l y i n g s e l e c t e d r e p o r t e r s i n t o W i l l i a m s Lake t h e n e x t d a y (on a n RCMP j e t ) f o r a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e w i t h police,  t h e a g g r i e v e d r a n c h e r James, a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  138  "Increase Pressure B i t by B i t " , August, 1995.  Vancouver  Sun, 25  139  300 . M i k e  D a v i s , C i t y of Quartz  (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1 9 9 2 ) , p.  201  from t h e l o c a l t r i b a l c o u n c i l ; and e r e c t i n g an communications cordon  sanitaire  encampment on August 26th,  around t h e Defender's  leaving journalists to l o i t e r  s u l l e n l y a t t h e 17 km c h e c k p o i n t  as t h e y w a i t e d  f o r t h e next  RCMP b r i e f i n g s e s s i o n o r staged photo o p p o r t u n i t y .  As a  r e s u l t , f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e most s e r i o u s c r i s i s i n N a t i v e - s e t t l e r r e l a t i o n s t o f a c e t h e Canadian s t a t e s i n c e Oka,  and t h e l a r g e s t p o l i c e o p e r a t i o n i n Canadian h i s t o r y ,  Canada's o s t e n s i b l y f r e e and independent media was e f f e c t i v e l y reduced t o t h e b a s e s t o f propaganda machines.  T h i s p r o s t r a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e c o n t e n t o f reportage,  which f a i t h f u l l y  s e r v e d up t h e main elements o f  the RCMP-NDP "smear campaign" f o r p u b l i c consumption; namely, t h a t t h e Ts'peten s t a n d o f f had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h l a n d c l a i m s o r N a t i v e r i g h t s and was i n s t e a d a c r i m i n a l m a t t e r i n v o l v i n g t r e s p a s s on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ,  and v i o l e n t  141  a t t a c k s on p o l i c e , by d e l u d e d thugs.  With the b a s i c  parameters t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d , p r e s s coverage f e l l i n t o a s i m p l e , dichotomous p a t t e r n d i s c e r n i b l e a c r o s s t h e whole range o f media r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  G o o d l e a f , Entering 141  On t h e one hand, r e p o r t s  the Warzone  "Smear campaign" may appear h y p e r b o l i c , b u t i t i s i n f a c t t h e term used by two s e n i o r RCMP o f f i c i a l s d u r i n g t h e s t a n d o f f . One o f them was r e c o r d e d on v i d e o t a p e a t a m e e t i n g i n t h e Z u l u command c e n t r e on September 1, 1995 s a y i n g "smear campaigns a r e o u r s p e c i a l t y " . The tape became p u b l i c i n January, 1997. See "RCMP s a y t a l k o f smear campaign ' i n j e s t ' " , Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 23, 1997.  202 w h i c h c o n f i r m e d t h e "law and o r d e r " framework were w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d , however m i s l e a d i n g : t a l e s o f o u t s i d e a g i t a t o r s , " I n d i a n ambushes", heavy armaments, phony s p i r i t u a l i t y , U.S. m i l i t i a c o n n e c t i o n s and l e n g t h y c r i m i n a l r e c o r d s dominated public discourse. for  Above a l l , t h e Defenders were v i l i f i e d  r e s o r t i n g t o repugnant d i s p l a y s o f macho v i o l e n c e , s i n c e  violence i s the cardinal p o l i t i c a l s i n w i t h i n the p r e v a i l i n g l i b e r a l worldview.  (This v i l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d a d e n i a l  b o t h o f t h e v a s t preponderance o f v i o l e n t machismo on t h e RCMP s i d e , and o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e p l a y e d by women Defenders).  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e c o l o n i a l dimensions o f  the S t a n d o f f were r e p r e s s e d o r d i s c o u n t e d : t h e r e were few i f any attempts the b r o a d e r  t o c o n t e x t u a l i z e t h e Defender's a c t i o n s w i t h i n sweep o f C a r i b o o c o l o n i z a t i o n , o r t h e t a n g l e d  l e g a l r e l a t i o n s between A b o r i g i n a l N a t i o n s and t h e Canadian state.  I n f a c t , t h e r e was l i t t l e e f f o r t even t o convey t h e  Defenders p o s i t i o n , l e t a l o n e e x p l a i n o r examine i t . were i n d e e d reduced  to "inarticulate  They  malevolence".  I t would be a m i s t a k e , however, t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s  almost  u n e x c e p t i o n a l l y o n e - s i d e d and j i n g o i s t i c coverage s o l e l y t o RCMP m a n i p u l a t i o n . an o m n i s c i e n c e  This not o n l y c r e d i t s the Mounties w i t h  they d o u b t f u l l y possess, i t denies the a c t i v e  r o l e media i n s t i t u t i o n s and p e r s o n n e l p l a y e d i n thus constructing the Standoff.  F o r even i f a c c e s s t o t h e  Defenders was d e n i e d , t h e r e were undoubtedly  alternative  s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e camp which c o u l d have s u p p l i e d t h e o t h e r  203  s i d e of the s t o r y t o a s u i t a b l y i n q u i s i t i v e F i f t h E s t a t e . At l e a s t i n p a r t , then, the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s p r o s t r a t i o n must be found i n the s y s t e m i c  f e a t u r e s of p r i v a t e l y owned  mass media o r g a n i z a t i o n s themselves - f e a t u r e s perhaps most famously and c o n t r o v e r s i a l l y a n a l y z e d by Noam Chomsky and o t h e r s - as w e l l as i n the g e n e r a l i z e d antagonism demonstrated towards i n d i g e n o u s (economic, p o l i t i c a l ,  peoples at a l l l e v e l s  i d e o l o g i c a l ) of a s e t t l e r  formation,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when N a t i v e s mount c h a l l e n g e s t o s e t t l e r power 142 and p r i v i l e g e .  Indeed, F i t z p a t r i c k ' s d i s s e c t i o n of  s e t t l e r i d e o l o g y i n the c o l o n i a l e r a might j u s t as w e l l have been w r i t t e n w i t h the Ts'peten S t a n d o f f  i n mind:  i n the c o l o n i a l scheme of t h i n g s , r e s i s t a n c e on p a r t of the oppressed c o u l d o n l y be m a r g i n a l existent.  the  o r non-  C o l o n i s t s , caught by t h e i r image of  the  c o l o n i s e d as fragmented and t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d , c o u l d  not  conceive  the  of e x t e n s i v e and i n n o v a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e on  p a r t of t h e i r charges. became m a n i f e s t , was colonists.  T h i s i s why  r e s i s t a n c e , when i t  u s u a l l y such a s u r p r i s e t o the  R e s i s t a n c e c o u l d o n l y be a g a i n s t the  f l o w of human development and r a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s hence m a n i f e s t  r e s i s t a n c e had t o be d e s i g n a t e d  sure and  i n terms  Chomsky's a n a l y s i s i s by now well-known. The b a s i c framework i s o u t l i n e d i n Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon, 1988).  204  of t h e p r i m o r d i a l ,  the i n s t i n c t u a l , the i r r a t i o n a l , the 143  e f f e c t of outside a g i t a t i o n .  As w i t h Desert Storm, i t was o n l y i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e standoff, with the c r i s i s s a f e l y  ( i f temporarily)  averted,  t h a t t h e media demonstrated any i n t e r e s t i n r e f l e c t i n g on i t s own, a b j e c t performance. Sun,  Most n o t a b l y , t h e  Vancouver  h a v i n g p l a y e d an i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n d e m o n i z i n g t h e  Ts'peten Defenders, and spearheaded t h e b a c k l a s h a g a i n s t N a t i v e c l a i m s f o r much o f t h e p r e v i o u s two y e a r s , a i r e d i t s concerns i n a pious e d i t o r i a l a d v e r t i n g t o the p e r i l s of media m a n i p u l a t i o n .  D e c r y i n g t h e r o l e p l a y e d by a  " c o m p l i a n t media... a d r o i t l y ensnared i n a web o f s e l f c e n s o r s h i p " , t h e Sun b e l a t e d l y posed t h e elementary q u e s t i o n s i t had h i t h e r t o taken g r e a t c a r e t o a v o i d .  "Who were t h e people motives?  i n t h e camp?  What were t h e i r  We had o n l y t h e word o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , who  c l e a r l y had a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e n t i n g a particular perspective."  Of c o u r s e , t h e Sun's e d i t o r s had no i n t e n t i o n o f t r y i n g t o answer these q u e s t i o n , s i n c e from a media s t a n d p o i n t t h e S t a n d o f f was now "over". sounding p l a t i t u d e s 143  Fitzpatrick,  D e s p i t e r e c y c l i n g a few r a d i c a l -  ("Tyranny always i n s i s t s t h a t o n l y t h e  "Crime as R e s i s t a n c e " , p.273.  205  o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n i s v a l i d " ) , t h e e d i t o r i a l c o n c l u d e d byc o n f i r m i n g i t s own c o n t i n u e d a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e o f f i c i a l mythology  o f Ts'peten, p r o c l a i m i n g i t a " j u s t l y - c e l e b r a t e d  t r i u m p h f o r t h e RCMP" and " d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e f o r c e i s worthy o f i t s r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e s t r a i n t , sense."  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