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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analysing voice in the contemporary Canadian short story Wilkshire, Claire 1997

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ANALYZING VOICE I N THE CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN SHORT STORY by C L A I R E WILKSHIRE B.A.  ( H o n s . ) , M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , 1985 M.A.,  McMaster U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1991  I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE.DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E n g l i s h  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  (---—"rllE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H April ®  COLUMBIA  1997  Claire Wilkshire,  1997  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of my copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  t^NltrU-SV"!  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  2°l  fWlL-  1^7"  ABSTRACT  This thesis particular, series  it  i s about  i s about  voice i n short  purpose  stories.  Little  has been p a i d t o v o i c e i n C a n a d i a n f i c t i o n ;  of t h i s  In  the m u l t i p l e v o i c e s at work i n a  of contemporary Canadian short  attention  fiction.  s t u d y i s t o show t h a t v o i c e i s  the  important  by  e x a m i n i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h v o i c e s come i n t o p l a y i n t h e s e texts.  This dissertation w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e ways i n  w h i c h v o i c e s may be l i s t e n e d t o ;  it will  provide a  d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e k i n d s o f r e a d i n g t h a t may be done when voice is reader  s i t u a t e d at  and  the  core of the  first  what t h e n a r r a t o r  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n  chapter  i s devoted to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  i s : what t h e  term i m p l i e s ,  and where d i f f i c u l t i e s  distinctions. the  short  Each of the  fiction  Rooke's story  arise  how  on  i n Leon  "Unfinished."  stories  and  focusses  Chapter Three addresses  a n a l y z e s two s h o r t  narrators  C h a p t e r Two  o f r e p e t i t i o n and s u r p r i s e  "Shut U p . "  narrative  i n making such  remaining chapters  i n t e r p l a y of voices i n Terry G r i g g s ' chapter  is  implied authors  o f an i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r .  h i g h l i g h t s elements  fourth  between  subject  have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a u t h o r s , characters,  interaction  text.  Because the voice,  the  the The  by Douglas G l o v e r ,  " R e d " a n d "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " ; are both f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n s how t h e  apparently  and the  analysis  story  of Chapter Five i s polyphony i n Mavis  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " ;  omniscient  Canadian short techniques argues that most p a r t ,  Gallant's  and the  r o l e of  fiction,  comprises a s e r i e s analyses  of analyses  which i l l u s t r a t e  involved i n identifying f i c t i o n a l short failed  voices.  s t o r y c r i t i c i s m i n Canada has, to address the  issue  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  critical  repertoire  of  the  for  o f v o i c e , and  v o i c e - c e n t r e d r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s make a s i g n i f i c a n t  fiction.  on  narrator.  This d i s s e r t a t i o n  to  The p r i n c i p a l  the d i s c u s s i o n focusses  complex i n t e r w e a v i n g of c h a r a c t e r - v o i c e s , the  reveals  s i n g u l a r " I " of each s t o r y p l a y s host  a v a r i e t y o f competing v o i c e s and i d e n t i t i e s . subject  these  of readers of  It the that  the  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement  v  Introduction  1  C h a p t e r One W h o ' s Who?  25 N a r r a t o r s and  Others  C h a p t e r Two A D i s t i n c t i v e V o i c e : R e p e t i t i o n and i n L e o n R o o k e ' s " S h u t Up"  Surprise  Chapter Three N a r r a t i v e V o i c e and S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s Terry Griggs' "Unfinished"  in  Chapter Four The V o i c e s V o i c e C o m p r i s e s : I n c o r p o r a t i o n , F r a g m e n t a t i o n and F i r s t - P e r s o n N a r r a t i o n i n D o u g l a s G l o v e r ' s " R e d " a n d "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " Chapter Five N a r r a t i v e Modulations i n Mavis "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  Gallant's  49  67  86  129  Conclusion Summaries and P o s s i b i l i t i e s  191  Works  196  Cited  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The members o f my t h e s i s generously of t h e i r supervisor,  better.  t i m e and e n e r g y .  patient  and e f f i c i e n t .  my  helpful,  Dr. Richard Cavell  has  a n d r e l e n t l e s s l y p r o v o k e d me t o t h i n k h a r d e r  and  D r . E v a - M a r i e K r o l l e r has  pertinent  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  D r . W . H . New, has b e e n u n f a i l i n g l y  encouraging, cheerfully  committee have g i v e n  questions.  I am g r a t e f u l ,  asked p o i n t e d  To a l l t h r e e I am much  as a l w a y s ,  t o my p a r e n t s ,  e n c o u r a g e d me i n a l l my e n d e a v o u r s . Peter Dickinson for h i s  and  indebted.  who h a v e  I should l i k e  invaluable practical  to  thank  assistance;  E l i z a b e t h Hillman f o r sharing her t e c h n i c a l w i z a r d r y ;  the  B u r n i n g R o c k f o r c o m m i s e r a t i n g ; a n d L a r r y M a t h e w s , my g u i d e and s t a y ,  f o r h i s a f f e c t i o n and good humour.  1  INTRODUCTION  This thesis particular, series of  it  i s about v o i c e i n s h o r t  i s about  study are,  critical  to demonstrate  reading,  stories.  The  purposes  b y e x a m i n i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h v o i c e s  come i n t o p l a y i n t h e s e t e x t s , important,  In  the m u l t i p l e v o i c e s at work i n a  of contemporary Canadian short  this  fiction.  t o show t h a t v o i c e  how a n a w a r e n e s s  is  of voice  affects  a n d t o i l l u s t r a t e a v a r i e t y o f means  w h i c h v o i c e may be i d e n t i f i e d a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o responses.  One way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a u d i t o r y metaphor: different  the  it will  provide a  demonstration  t h e k i n d s o f r e a d i n g t h a t may be done when v o i c e  situated text;  at  the  core of the  and i t w i l l  consequences  The  strategies  is  i n t e r a c t i o n between r e a d e r  h a z a r d some s u g g e s t i o n s  of these reading  principal  story.  i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e ways i n w h i c h  v o i c e s may be l i s t e n e d t o ; of  an  of l i s t e n i n g to  v o i c e s a n d d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e y t e l l  This d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l  readers'  r e a d i n g i s to use  r e a d i n g i s the process  by  about  and  the  strategies.  contention of t h i s  which p r i v i l e g e v o i c e w i l l  study i s that  reading  reveal aspects of  f i c t i o n which might otherwise remain obscure:  these  aspects  2  i n c l u d e t h e ways i n w h i c h d i r e c t  and i n d i r e c t  speech  f u n c t i o n b o t h i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and i n c o n s t r u c t i n g oppositions which create n a r r a t i v e of  the  relations  implied author,  among f i g u r e s narrator,  and c h a r a c t e r s )  short  Introduction w i l l  fiction  complexity  the  author,  and the p o i n t s  s t r a n g e and  variegated  voice.  argue t h a t  c r i t i c i s m of Canadian  has p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n  t o v o i c e and  that  v o i c e - c e n t r e d r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s are v a l u a b l e because of kinds of issues  they b r i n g to  n e g l e c t e d by o t h e r a context  of  commentaries  authors i n order  which are  These samples  voice.  Finally,  it will  provide  survey of introduce  often brought are  short samples  on the works o f w e l l - k n o w n C a n a d i a n  to bear  critical  on the  f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f  an o u t l i n e w i l l  summarize the  m a j o r emphases a n d s t r a t e g i e s o f t h i s  Critical  often  First,  Then i t w i l l  the  which are  to demonstrate the k i n d s of  story.  1.  issues  f o r the d i s c u s s i o n i n a b r i e f  critical  approaches  light,  kinds of reading.  s t o r y c r i t i c i s m i n Canada.  at  and the b r o a d range o f  w h i c h combine t o form t h a t  t h i n g which i s c a l l e d n a r r a t i v e  This  the  (for example,  which they overlap or separate; languages  tension;  the  short  d i s c u s s i o n of procedure,  thesis.  context  The most i n f o r m a t i v e b o o k o n t h e  short  s t o r y i n Canada  i s W . H . New'.s Dreams of Short  Story  in  Canada and New Zealand  valuable both for i t s narratives  In the  o u t l i n e s t h e means b y w h i c h t h e  length,  and t y p e - - o r  He t a k e s  s t o r y commentaries his  the  reader  necessary the  catalogue  for short  fiction)  twentieth century  Ian Reid, cultural  is  of  the New  s t o r y has been  defined  categories--  i s s u i n g from h i s t o r y and through  s u c h as t h o s e  (with the  the  individual  nineteenth-century  o f E d g a r A l l a n Poe  c o n c e r n f o r b r e v i t y and u n i t y o f i m p r e s s i o n )  Matthews  of  short  of  which  opening chapter,  ( d e f i n i t i o n s b a s e d on f o r m a l  technique,  culture).  of  comprehensive account  of the genre.  and a s s e s s e d  The Art  (1987),  s e n s i t i v e analyses  and f o r i t s  development  Speech and Violence:  of features  he  and B r a n d e r  considered  and i n t o the v a r i e d  (such as t h o s e  (with  appraisals  of Frank O'Connor,  C l a r e Hanson, and Susan L o h a f e r ) , p o i n t i n g out and o t h e r b i a s e s  New maps t h e  changes  of  each.  i n the  short  s t o r y i n New Z e a l a n d  and Canada. C e n t r a l t o t h e  experience of e a r l y  writers,  he c l a i m s , i s t h e  search  literary  form f o r the  determined e f f o r t . . . terms w i t h the it  was a m a t t e r  of  the  stories to f i n d  environment...  for  "an  appropriate and  "a  a l i t e r a r y means o f c o m i n g t o local  experience.  r e c o r d i n g the  Y e t b y W o r l d War I ,  b e g u n t o document t h e n u a n c e s  fiction  they wanted to t e l l "  s p e c i f i c s of the of f a i t h f u l l y  the  Initially  empirical  . . . writers  o f v o i c e and a t t i t u d e  fact's had...  that  4 w e r e t o mark t h e i r r e c o r d the  s e p a r a t e n e s s as a c u l t u r e as w e l l  s p e c i f i c s of f l o r a  separateness of t e r r i t o r y i n Canada o f the  "the  " (21).  New n o t e s t h e  sketch,  importance hence  which "stopped being a  f o r m b e c a u s e i t was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e  between the  tension  o b s e r v i n g mind and the documentary language o f  observation"  (24).  t h a t New b e g i n s ,  And i t  i n Part  i s w i t h the documentary  2 ("Canada:  S t o r y and  sketch  History"),  o u t l i n i n g a "cumulative l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n " of short (29),  when he d i s c u s s e s  Campbell S c o t t ,  favour;  of  the  Scott's  fragmentary  structure"  (49)  success  Thomas M c C u l l o c h ,  overall  itself  context  The t a l e  however,  composite  to a v a r i e t y of purposes  came  to  a  form  including By the  nineteen  w r i t e r s s u c h as M o r l e y C a l l a g h a n and s k e t c h i n search of a  new s t y l e t h a t w o u l d g i v e t h e i r w o r k a n  first  out  separateness  took i t s p l a c e ,  Raymond K n i s t e r w e r e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e  appeal.  a n d Thomas  of a broad range of  m o r a l d i d a c t i c i s m and r o m a n t i c r e g i o n a l i s m . twenties,  Duncan  became a p r o b l e m o n c e f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n the  fiction  s k e t c h was t o f a l l  i n " m a i n t a i n i n g the  u n i t s w i t h i n the  cultural values.  which adapted  among o t h e r s ,  E v e n t u a l l y the  be s e e n a s u n f o r t u n a t e colonial  the work o f ,  Susanna Moodie,  Chandler H a l i b u r t o n . of  to  their  documentary i m p u l s e " and o f i r o n y ;  importance of the  'static'  and fauna t h a t marked  as  international  N e w ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1930 t o 1980  h i g h l i g h t s the d i v e r s i t y of w r i t e r s '  t e n s i o n between the  backgrounds,  idea of a Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  and  at  the the  5 fact  t h a t much o f i t was b e i n g w r i t t e n and. s h a p e d b y p e o p l e  who w o u l d a t one t i m e n o t h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d C a n a d i a n ; later  i n this period,  the main o p p o s i t i o n w i l l  do w i t h n a t i o n a l o r e t h n i c i d e o l o g y and p r a c t i c e ,  as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  W i t h i t s d u a l focus on m i c r o attention  Laurence's context  t o , f o r example,  the opening of Margaret  i n many ways e m b o d i e s t h e i d e a o f  of the " i n t e r r u p t e d  which address  sequence"  i n the  Story  fiction.  story  interests.  Modes: Techniques  a structuralist  of  the  short  Bonheim i d e n t i f i e s t h e f o u r n a r r a t i v e  modes  report,  s p e e c h a n d comment)  of f i c t i o n a l  narrative.  a study of s i x hundred short Canadian s t o r i e s )  patterns exist  t o argue  he s e e s a s f o r m i n g  He d r a w s s t a t i s t i c s  stories  that discernible  i n b o t h n o v e l s and s h o r t  categories  of narration"  from  (three hundred of which  stories,  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e modes  "fundamental  those  include  analysis of  (description, the b a s i s  (102) o f s h o r t  t h e work o f an i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r ,  (1982),  fragmented  s t o r y i n Canada, b e s i d e s  H e l m u t B o n h e i m ' s The Narrative  this  (its  o f a much l a r g e r n a t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y ) ,  O t h e r books on t h e s h o r t  are  emerges.  and m a c r o s t r u c t u r e s  c y c l e s w h i c h i s one o f h i s c h i e f  Short  the  writers  "To S e t O u r House i n O r d e r , " a n d t h a t  N e w ' s own t e x t unity,  to  i n f l u e n c e a n d more t o do w i t h  concerns o f m o d e r n i s t and p o s t m o d e r n i s t  careful  have l e s s  [165])  structural and t h a t (the  constitutes  a  6 theory of structure of  narrative  the  w h i c h may f o r m t h e b a s i s  . Roughly h a l f  narrative  modes,  beginnings Short  chapters are  and e n d i n g s .  Story  (1988)  t h e book e x p l a i n s a n d  t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s and  while three substantial  for a  devoted to short  M i c h e l l e G a d p a i l l e ' s The  are  a l s o c h a p t e r s o n G a l l a n t , Munro a n d A t w o o d ,  there  and a  final  Gadpaille,  Canadian short it  Short  echoes Fiction  Hood ( 1 9 8 2 ) . readings  s t o r y was,  is,  (1993)  o r might be;  R o b e r t L e c k e r ' s On the of  works  i t makes no p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m a s  Clark  Blaise,  Line:  will  be v a l u a b l e i n t h e i r  is self-explanatory;  V a u t h i e r ' s e s s a y s on t h e  short  in  to  stories,  collects  of a v a r i e t y of  C a r o l S h i e l d s , Rudy W i e b e , Hugh Hood a n d M a v i s  Miracles),  John M e t c a l f ,  on one s t o r y  on S h i e l d s , w h i c h i s about  the  own r i g h t .  Blaise,  focusses  in  and  ( L e o n R o o k e , A u d r e y Thomas,  Each chapter  what  this  writers  Gallant).  an  and Hugh  Reverberations  stories  is  Readings  John Metcalf  B o t h c r i t i c s assume t h a t t h e  o f them,  Lecker's t i t l e  any o f t h e  Simone V a u t h i e r ' s Reverberations  u n u s u a l book i n t h a t  chapter  (and  a t t e m p t s t o c o v e r s o much g r o u n d i n a s l i m v o l u m e  she m e n t i o n s .  the  1960s a n d a f t e r .  she e n d s up s a y i n g v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t  respect  Canadian  C a n a d i a n s t o r y w r i t e r s and t h e i r w o r k s ;  one o n w r i t i n g f r o m t h e  the  story  p r o v i d e s a sketchy overview o f major  so major)  that  explores  manifestations,  not  however,  poetics  endings  in  Clark  (except  the  Various  so t h a t V a u t h i e r has enough room t o d r a w o n a  v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l  and c r i t i c a l  models and t o  analyze  7 the  fiction  i n some d e p t h .  a n t h o l o g y w h i c h draws pieces  by e d i t o r s  meditations  How Stories  together,  John M e t c a l f  on s h o r t  fiction  apart  Mean (1993) from  and J . R .  an  introductory  Struthers,  forty-six  by Canadian w r i t e r s ;  s u b j e c t s range from p u n c t u a t i o n  is  the  t o m o r a l i t y and  literary  markets.  Articles  on t h e  short  "Genre S u b v e r s i o n and the Davey a r g u e s t h a t misconstrued  of  Canadian Short  Canadian short  t h a t a much more  short  story"  characteristics  (10).  summary o f t h e  story's  "pluralist  of  i n which  been Anglo-  or  eclectic  to understand the  one o f i t s  history  of which a l s o  i n Canada i n t h e et  1983  includes  " M o d e r n i s m and t h e  E n g l i s h Canadian Story C y c l e , "  special  expression (18).  G e r a l d Lynch concurs  that  concerns  short  by D i e t e r  story  o f d i s t i n c t l y modern c o n c e r n s  English-Canadian Short 1991)  an a r t i c l e  s u i t a b i l i t y of the  "the  story  in his  and  later  The  Meindl, addressing  cycle for  the  convictions"  "The One and t h e Many:  Story Cycles"  {Canadian  c y c l e seems t o be w e l l  of Canadian w r i t e r s " ;  issue a  Davey's piece.  l a t t e r volume a l s o  "the  a brief  Nord-Americaines),  contains  kind  chief  W r i t e r David Arnason provides  o f RANAM {Recherches Anglaises issue  Davey's  Story,"  s t o r y has  is required  g e n r e b ( l ) e n d i n g he s e e s a s  (1987)  i n c l u d e Frank  as h a v i n g e v o l v e d o n t h e b a s i s  American models, view of the  the  story  Lynch,  Literature  suited  l i k e New, s e e s  to  the  the  8 c y c l e as a v i t a l means o f  "portraying a particular  community" and,  l i k e Meindl,  psychology that  characterizes  surveys  short  History  of  fiction  n o t i n g the  of short  it  modernism"  to  (1990).  fiction  t e n s i o n between  (92).  David  Jackel  Literary-  Jackel categorizes  produced d u r i n g that  those that  strove  or  "the  f r o m 1972 t o 1984 i n t h e  Canada v o l . 4  anthologies  he r e l a t e s  region  to  the  period,  acknowledge  a C a n a d i a n l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and t h o s e w h i c h d e n i e d s u c h a tradition existed.  He a s s e s s e s t h e w o r k o f many w r i t e r s  produced c o l l e c t i o n s of short (Margaret Atwood, Metcalf,  c o n c l u d e s by a s s e r t i n g  tendency  over the m e r i t s  the  that  short  the  the  of  a vague and r o o t l e s s  George G r a n t ,  (72).  finally  He l a m e n t s  "the  and s e l f - r e f l e x i v e forms"  and t h e  battle  fiction "promotion  c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m w h i c h w o u l d somehow standards'  w h i c h "seemed t o d e n y t h e  Canadian f i c t i o n "  s t o r y has  John Jackel  s t o r y a g r o u n d on w h i c h t o  e x p e n s e o f more t r a d i t i o n a l  accord with ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l  invoked but  Canadian-ness  never of  Jackel invokes T.D. MacLulich  and c l o s e s w i t h the  e n c a p s u l a t e s h i s p o s i t i o n on the in  short  deserves.  of experimental  at  defined,"  1984  Rudy W i e b e a n d many o t h e r s ) .  recognition i t  to f i n d  f r o m 1972 t o  M a t t C o h e n , J a c k H o d g i n s , Hugh H o o d ,  A u d r e y Thomas,  r e c e i v e d the  stories  who  following warning, short  story,  and  which  a n d on w r i t i n g  general: W r i t e r s who s e e k t o a t t u n e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h c u r r e n t l y f a s h i o n a b l e t h e o r i e s o f a r t , and n e g l e c t t h e r e a l i t i e s of t h e i r t i m e and p l a c e , add t o t h e r i s k t h a t l i t e r a t u r e w i l l become m e r e l y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r  9 s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s . F o r t u n a t e l y , the v a r i e t y , the s u b s t a n c e , and the q u a l i t y o f many s h o r t s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d b e t w e e n 1972 a n d 1984 g i v e some r e a s o n t o hope t h a t d o g m a t i c , d o c t r i n a i r e , and i l l - g r o u n d e d ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' v i e w s w i l l not i n the end p r e v a i l . (72)  While Canadian short of  critical  response,  form of s t u d i e s  fiction  that  has prompted a good  r e s p o n s e has u s u a l l y t a k e n  of i n d i v i d u a l  exceptions,  associative  w o r k has b e e n done o n t h e  A n d on t h e  remained  silent.  2.  Critical  demonstration  critical  subject  of t h i s  of the  I will  of v o i c e ,  section  relative  discuss  commentaries  because they are  short  story  in  c r i t i c s have  or  this largely  Canadian l i t e r a r y  i s to provide a b r i e f  absence of c r i t i c i s m  two ' s a m p l e s ' :  on major  related  two s e t s o f  Canadian authors,  Sinclair  Ross and L a u r e n c e f i g u r e  c a n o n i c a l Canadian w r i t e r s  a n t h o l o g i z e d and g e n e r a l l y  here  whose f i c t i o n  considered part of  is  the  mainstream.  C e r t a i n obvious objections point.  some  a great deal of comparative  Ross and M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e .  often  With  the  samples  The p u r p o s e  to v o i c e .  not  authors.  significant  country.  deal  m i g h t be r a i s e d a t  I h a v e c h o s e n o n l y two s a m p l e s  because t h i s  this i s not  a  10 catalogue  of c r i t i c i s m ,  representative are  not  the  are  standard  selection,  sketch.  just  a b r i e f and,  The c r i t i c a l  I would  commentaries  cited  o n l y ones a v a i l a b l e on t h e s e a u t h o r s , t e x t s and the  not  aim here i s  t o be c o m p r e h e n s i v e .  between  them a r e  here they  by  Margaret Laurence the  and  thematic  s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o h a v e  e x p l o r e d b y S a n d r a Djwa i n a n a r t i c l e (see b e l o w ) - - b u t  but  to i l l u s t r a t e  S i n c l a i r Ross are b o t h p r a i r i e w r i t e r s - - i n d e e d , connections  argue,  u l t i m a t e l y the  i n Margaret  differences  been  Laurence  outweigh  the  similarities.  (A)  Sinclair  Ross  S i n c l a i r R o s s i s w e l l known f o r h i s n o v e l s a n d stories;  the  standard  c o l l e c t i o n of h i s  Lamp at  Noon and Other Stories,  Stewart  i n 1968,  shorter  chiefly lives  works i s  i s s u e d by M c C l e l l a n d  w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by M a r g a r e t  as p a r t o f t h e New C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y s e r i e s . as a p r a i r i e  realist,  existence. Hardyesque struggle  Much o f R o s s ' s  fiction  bleak  defeat.  climate  a l l o w s them t o eke o u t is  characterized  s e n s e o f doom, h i s c h a r a c t e r s d e t e r m i n e d  on, but marked f o r  and  R o s s i s known  a c h r o n i c l e r of the  and o n l y j u s t  The  Laurence,  o f h a r d w o r k i n g f a r m f a m i l i e s b e a t e n down b y a  w h i c h o n l y sometimes  short  by a to  an  11  Margaret Laurence's highlights isolation: the  time,  extreme  smallest  Ross's characters grapple For Laurence,  " a p p e a r [s] of  the  almost  landscape,  The Lamp at Noon  unit,  the  f o r most  family...  the  with their  l i v e s and t h e i r  protagonist"  bleakness  of the  (7) ; " t h e land,  his material--spare,  lean,  (8).  fairly  young,  honest,  up c o n t i n u i n g e c h o e s i n  "are  (8-9) .  farmers'  These  "painfully inarticulate,"  l o n e l y women on the  dogs a n d h i d e t h e i r  result  "fail  (9-10)  consistently  To s u m m a r i z e :  Ross's w r i t i n g , for Laurence, implacable setting,  the  i n v o l v e the  which functions  the them  l i v e s of  other  hand, duties  feelings, in  in  are  c o m p e l l e d by the  manhood t o w o r k l i k e  relationships"  to  to  the  w i v e s , most o f  d e s p e r a t e f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; t h e men,  of which they  in  no g i m m i c k s , a n d y e t  t r y i n g to r e s i g n themselves  u n r e l i e v e d drabness"  remain  style  Characterization is relatively consistent:  women, L a u r e n c e w r i t e s , still  She n o t e s R o s s ' s  the  i s always b e a u t i f u l l y matched  very s i m p l i c i t y setting  mind"  fate"  reflect  (11).  style  in  emptiness  a s s u r a n c e and g e n t l e n e s s " "Ross's  is  land  t o t o u c h one a n o t h e r w i t h  its  It  that  " v i o l e n t and u n p r e d i c t a b l e "  as c h i e f the  and w i n t e r b l i z z a r d  i n a b i l i t y of these people  one s e n t e n c e :  of  c o n d i t i o n o f human s e p a r a t e n e s s a n d  e x t r e m e s o f summer d r o u g h t  (7).  to  "The human c o m m u n i t y i s ,  reduced to i t s  within this the  Introduction  as  a  close  key f e a t u r e s violent  and  s y m b o l i c a l l y as  an  of  of  12 i n d i c a t o r of the characters' the  spare,  a l i e n a t i o n f r o m one a n o t h e r ;  s i m p l e s t y l e ; and t h e t e n s i o n between the  d e s p e r a t e l o n e l i n e s s o f the w i v e s and t h e d e t e r m i n e d drudgery o f the husbands. then,  Setting,  style,  and c h a r a c t e r ,  w i t h t h e emphasis on s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r  L a u r e n c e g i v e s them more  Thirteen years Mitchell's  Sinclair  after  attention.  Laurence's  Ross: A Reader'  Coteau Books.  This i s a c r i t i c a l  with a chapter  devoted to the short  characterizes  because  Ross's stories  as  I n t r o d u c t i o n , Ken Guide was p u b l i s h e d b y  study of Ross's fiction.  oeuvre,  Mitchell  follows:  Most o f t h e s t o r i e s have a r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r p a t t e r n : a d i r e c t n a r r a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y and l a c k of s t y l i s t i c excess. Occasionally, there i s a f i r s t person narrator. The c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s u a l l y s i m p l e people, e i t h e r r u r a l or small-town; "sophisticates" never appear, even p e r i p h e r a l l y . Ross's technique of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , however, i s n e v e r s i m p l e . I t shows a c a r e f u l a c c r e t i o n o f p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t a i l through the course of a w e l l - p l o t t e d s t o r y . His pieces a r e , i n o t h e r words, models o f t h e " c l a s s i c " s t o r y , and show much s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e s t o r i e s o f James J o y c e a n d Stephen Crane. R o s s ' s p a r t i c u l a r s t r e n g t h i s the use of c e r t a i n f o r c e s , such as weather and l a n d s c a p e , to create symbolic p a t t e r n s around the i n t e r n a l l i v e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; he a l s o shows a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d e y e f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y v i v i d d e t a i l i n a commonplace world. (4)  M i t c h e l l goes on t o argue  that the s t o r i e s  c o l l e c t e d i n The  Lamp at Noon may b e d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s . "marked b y an i n t e n s e while the other  conflict  One s e t i s  between husband and w i f e , "  comes f r o m a c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f v i e w .  In the  13 first  set,  "the  powerful,... crops.  husband  toiling  The w i f e  refined,  i s t i g h t - l i p p e d and p h y s i c a l l y  to s a t i s f y  She i s  comments,  are marked by a " n a r r a t i v e  characters,  too,  characterized;  are  plots  of  of the  features  setting,  the  is  lives;  sexes. implicit  prairie  of R o s s ' s work: the  s i m p l i c i t y of the  style,  M i t c h e l l draws a t t e n t i o n i n Laurence's praise  of  short  simply along a mirrors  one o f t h e  the  strengths  detail.  and L a u r e n c e a r e b o t h s t r u c k b y  dominant  Ross's  landscape  the w r i t i n g l i e s i n i t s use of v i v i d  Mitchell  the  then:  carefully structured  character's  to a l i f e  s i m p l i c i t y " ,- t h e  " c l a s s i c " model; the harshness of the i n n e r torment  and  (5).  simple, although not are  farm and  sensitive  subjected  and e m o t i o n a l d e p r i v a t i o n . . . "  To s u m m a r i z e M i t c h e l l ' s stories  of h i s  i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  often well-educated.  suffering  t h e demands  certain  symbolism of the the  harsh  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of  to v i v i d d e t a i l ,  which  for Ross's d e s c r i p t i o n of  landscapes.  A t h i r d and f i n a l M c M u l l e n ' s book, t h e Twayne s e r i e s Tecumseh P r e s s .  sample o f Ross c r i t i c i s m i s  Sinclair but  Ross,  Lorraine  f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1979 i n  r e v i s e d and r e i s s u e d  Each of R o s s ' s s t o r i e s ,  i n 1991 b y  McMullen  argues,  14 i s a f i n e l y wrought p a t t e r n o f e v e n t , c h a r a c t e r , and s e t t i n g i n w h i c h p r e c i s i o n , economy, r h y t h m , a n d r e p e t i t i o n , the hallmarks of Ross's novels, are evident... While r e c r e a t i n g the p r a i r i e of the d e p r e s s i o n , t h i s f i c t i o n most o f t e n c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e e f f e c t s o f l o n e l i n e s s , i s o l a t i o n , h a r d s h i p , and p o v e r t y on i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus, a l t h o u g h Ross v i v i d l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o r t r a y s the wind, s t o r m s , and d r o u g h t s o f t h e p r a i r i e o f the t h i r t i e s , h i s f o c u s i s on i n n e r r a t h e r t h a n o u t e r r e a l i t y . In f a c t , one o f t h e r e m a r k a b l e a s p e c t s o f h i s a r t i s h i s a b i l i t y t o merge i n n e r a n d o u t e r l a n d s c a p e . . . (9)  McMullen, she  then,  highlights  "event,  i s s l i g h t l y more p r e c i s e  her c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n economy,  rhythm,  significance hardship,  language  and r e p e t i t i o n " ) ; the  setting";  or Laurence  very b r i e f l y ,  meticulousness,  humour,  and d e s c r i p t i v e  To g e n e r a l i z e features  she n o t e s  the  former symbolizes  which the n a t u r a l  p o i n t of view,  the  short  environment  fiction  enacts the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s and the g u l f s e p a r a t e s husbands  with reference  Ross's  then, are  the  t h e ways i n  characters'  of s i l e n c e  which  ( h a r d - w o r k i n g and i n s e n s i t i v e )  ( l o n e l y and s e n s i t i v e ) .  Ross's  which  passages.)  from these t h r e e books, of Ross's  in  ("precision,  ( T h e r e i s a l s o a s e c t i o n on s t y l e a n d c r a f t ,  addresses,  the  and  e v o c a t i o n o f i s o l a t i o n and  a n d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e  latter.  dominant  than M i t c h e l l  of R o s s ' s  of s e t t i n g ,  character,  language  t o h i s d e s c r i p t i v e powers  i s s u e o f s y m b o l i s m and t h e n a t u r a l  from wives  i s mentioned (this  overlaps  environment,  either with  15 especially  s i n c e s u c h p o w e r s t e n d t o be p r o v e n b y c i t a t i o n  r a t h e r than analyzed)  o r i n terms o f such q u a l i t i e s  as  s i m p l i c i t y and p r e c i s i o n .  (B) M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e  V o i c e i s an i m p o r t a n t for  a v a r i e t y of reasons.  Wilderness,"  (1981),  concept  criticism,  In "Feminist C r i t i c i s m i n the  Elaine Showalter,  Anglo-American feminism, p o s i t s writing.  i n feminist  a major proponent o f  a c u l t u r a l m o d e l o f women's  In a much-cited passage,  Showalter w r i t e s :  i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s m o d e l i s t h a t women's f i c t i o n r e a d as a d o u b l e - v o i c e d d i s c o u r s e , and a ' m u t e d ' between speech as  story"  (266) .  containing a  c a n be 'dominant'  The p a r a d i g m a t i c o p p o s i t i o n  (seen as male and dominant)  female and s u b o r d i n a t e )  and s i l e n c e  (seen  h a s l e d many f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s t o  s e e k o u t women's v o i c e s i n f i c t i o n :  to search,  that  a n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f women's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n m e n ' s for  "one  t h e "muted" s t o r y i n women's w r i t i n g ,  i s , for texts,  or for a voice  t h a t may be i d e n t i f i e d a s i n some way c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f women ( i n t h e l a s t  example,  t h e t e r m " v o i c e " means a s much  "behaviour patterns"  as a n y t h i n g e l s e ;  controversial  In a Different  study,  prominence of the term " v o i c e " suggest that c r i t i c a l  studies  see C a r o l  Voice  Gilligan's  [1982]).  The  i n f e m i n i s t s c h o l a r s h i p might of Margaret Laurence's  would have t o do, o v e r w h e l m i n g l y , w i t h v o i c e ,  since  fiction  16 L a u r e n c e ' s w r i t i n g i s so much a b o u t perspectives This,  and l e n d s  however,  I will  i s not  itself the  discuss here,  women's c o n c e r n s  r e a d i l y to feminist  Essays  (1977),  readings.  case.  very b r i e f l y ,  the  contents  c o l l e c t i o n s o f e s s a y s on M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e : Laurence  and  Laurence  to  (1983),  e d i t e d by  the  Margaret  Laurence  e d i t e d by K r i s t j a n a Gunnars;  Critical  Approaches  (1990),  to  e d i t e d by C o l i n  Margaret commentaries, interview,  Laurence  the  Fiction  of Margaret  c o l l e c t s an i m p r e s s i v e  which include reviews,  critical  in Honour of  Laurence  studies,  thirty-seven  introductions,  semi-biographical on l a n g u a g e  an  appraisals,  and l i f e .  Of  o n l y one commentary a d d r e s s e s v o i c e d i r e c t l y :  and t h e N a r r a t i v e V o i c e " - - b y M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e . writers  are  A Place  f a r more i n t e r e s t e d  to  Stand On b r i n g s  on L a u r e n c e ' s w o r k . Margaret Two o t h e r Growing:  Laurence, entries  and  Nicholson.  a n d L a u r e n c e ' s own m e d i t a t i o n s these,  Essays  Stand On:  G e o r g e W o o d c o c k ; Crossing (1988),  River:  four  Margaret  e d i t e d b y W . H . New; A Place  By and About Margaret  of  "Time  As a  rule,  i n v o i c e than c r i t i c s  together twenty-five  Nine of those appeared  pieces  previously in  i n c l u d i n g "Time and t h e N a r r a t i v e address v o i c e d i r e c t l y :  are.  "Gadgetry  Voice." or  Form a n d V o i c e i n t h e N o v e l " a n d " E v e r y Now a n d  17 Then: V o i c e and Language i n L a u r e n c e ' s former is,  is,  not  again,  The Stone Angel."  by Margaret L a u r e n c e ;  the  latter's  s u r p r i s i n g l y , W . H . New, whose i n t e r e s t  becomes more a p p a r e n t i n Dreams of  I n Crossing Preface,  the  River,  Introduction,  perspectives "Silence,  ten a r t i c l e s  and A f t e r w o r d )  on L a u r e n c e ' s  Voice,  Women," s p e a k s t o i s s u e s  Laurence--none.  art;  one,  and the M i r r o r :  a p p e a r i n Critical  Thus,  were w r i t t e n by the  to  of the  (excluding  While standard  Diana Brydon's  Fiction  seventy-eight  setting  of  d i s c u s s i o n of language  they  on the  includes  and even l e s s  some ways e s p e c i a l l y c u r i o u s  Margaret  works  collected  a n d two o f  short  i n the  y e a r s been dominated by i s s u e s of the  argue t h a t the samples  those  fiction  little  of v o i c e .  narrator.  features  This i s  case of Ross,  in  i s n o t my i n t e n t i o n  kinds of c r i t i c i s m represented i n  recent the to  these  a r e m i s g u i d e d , m e r e l y t h a t most o f them do n o t  with a topic  I consider  important.  The r e a d i n g s  in  since  r e l a t i n g t o v o i c e and It  of  substantive  c r i t i c i s m o f h i s n o v e l As For Me and My House has  reliability  which  herself.  commentaries  and c h a r a c t e r ,  and  fifteen  S i n c l a i r Ross and M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e h i g h l i g h t s u c h as  the  p r o v i d e a range of  four deal with voice, author  Violence.  And of the  the  author  i n voice  Margaret Laurence  of v o i c e .  Approaches  i n these four books,  Speech and  The  they  deal  produce  18 are a f f e c t e d it  by the subjects  i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t  topic w i l l  3.  i n t r o d u c i n g v o i c e as a p r i m a r y  produce d i f f e r e n t  kinds of readings.  Voice  It  i s not the purpose  clear-cut  definition  inevitably fail is  they choose t o i n t r o d u c e , and  of voice;  t o encompass  notoriously difficult  the  that,  on Style,  fiction,  Voice  t o sum u p i n a n y u s e f u l w a y . Eight  workshops,  Contemporary  t h e t e r m s voice  They a r e c r u c i a l  elements  a t once s p e c i f i c and vague,  understood and d i f f i c u l t to the celebrated  (123).  Alexander writes,  to define  In  Fiction  o f contemporary  a t once c l e a r l y  i s an a u d i b l e  tone and n a r r a t i v e  "are e l u s i v e terms,  According  w r i t e r Lloyd Alexander,  unique and p e r s o n a l , Style,  a n d t o n e come  adequately."  c h i l d r e n ' s fantasy  narrative voice,  fingerprint"  would  A l l e n Weir and Don H e n d r i e , J r . , n o t e  "[i]nfiction  up f r e q u e n t l y .  such a d e f i n i t i o n  a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Voicelust:  Writers  "The  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n to provide a  voice,  o v e r l a p p i n g and  m e r g i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r . . .  Encompassing s t y l e and tone,  v o i c e i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  a n d t h e most d i f f i c u l t  describe"  to  (126).  I n c l u d e d i n Voicelust  i s an essay by w r i t e r Lee Smith.  "Even t h e s m a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  of language,"  Smith w r i t e s ,  19 "contribute the  t o any w r i t e r ' s v o i c e :  l e n g t h of the  constructions, This thesis  the  v o i c e s of the  the  imagery,  assumes  considerations  of  sentences,  that  or the  are  and t h a t  l a c k of imagery"  (99).  and the  those which g i v e r i s e  it  i s only through the  to  small the  process  u n r a v e l l i n g v o i c e s t h a t a s e n s e o f what v o i c e i s may be  formed.  It  is  at  or  stance,  i s important  t o add t h a t ,  times used to designate the analyses  term  "voice"  one d o m i n a n t n a r r a t i v e  persona  will  demonstrate  v o i c e but  4.  as w e l l  the n a r r a t o r ' s  study  will  as n a r r a t o r s ,  and  v o i c e i s o f t e n not  many.  first  body o f t h i s  is divided into five  chapters.  narrator.  N a r r a t i v e v o i c e means h e r e t h e v o i c e s o f t h e  narration  rather  chapter  thesis  examines the n o t i o n of the  than the v o i c e of the n a r r a t o r ;  reflects fact  one  Outline  The The  that  w h i l e the  w h i c h compose t h i s  e x p l o r e the v o i c e s of c h a r a c t e r s  that voices other  however, first  this  definition  a r e c o g n i t i o n of the polyphony of f i c t i o n ,  significant  the  as  favoured grammatical  the p r o s a i c questions  of language text,  such p r o s a i c questions  role.  than the n a r r a t o r ' s  The n a r r a t o r ' s  demand a t t e n t i o n , chapter  of t h i s  and i t  and  the  often play a  (narrators') is for this  study i s devoted to  voices, reason a  that  20 c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what t h e n a r r a t o r implies,  how n a r r a t o r s  implied authors  i s : what t h e  term  have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  and c h a r a c t e r s ,  i n making such d i s t i n c t i o n s .  authors,  and where d i f f i c u l t i e s  The i d e n t i t y o f t h e  arise  narrator  i s n o t a t o p i c t h a t t e n d s t o r e c e i v e much c o n s i d e r a t i o n . a thesis  which deals with n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s , with  the v o i c e s of n a r r a t o r s c l e a r a b o u t what t h e  and o t h e r s ,  t e r m narrator  some i d e a as t o w h e r e t o s i t u a t e figures  f o u r subsequent  an i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r .  c a n mean, the n a r r a t o r  chapters  characteristics appeared  it  then proceeds  among  i n R o o k e ' s 1992 c o l l e c t i o n ,  "Unfinished"  this  fiction.  introduce  critical  of the prominence of to analyze  the  Who Do You Love?  which are  1990). often  In a d d i t i o n to i r o n i c and  s t o r y includes a v a r i e t y of other  b e l o n g i n g t o a n amalgam o f p e o p l e t h e n a r r a t o r the v o i c e s are not  those  of other  but of a c o l l e c t i v e "they"  which  i n t e r p l a y of v o i c e s i n Terry  (Quickening,  v o i c e s of the n a r r a t o r , reflexive,  other  o f the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i n "Shut U p , "  Chapter Three examines the Griggs'  have  C h a p t e r Two  b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Leon R o o k e ' s  voice i n his stories;  be  examines the work  t h e means b y w h i c h v o i c e may be a d d r e s s e d .  effects  to  and t o  C h a p t e r s Two a n d T h r e e  r e c e p t i o n which h i g h l i g h t s the  identifying  i s important  i m p l i c a t e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of v o i c e i n  Each of the of  it  In  selfvoices  encounters:  individualized  the n a r r a t o r  the  confronts  characters in  the  21 p r o c e s s o f r e c o v e r i n g from t h e l o s s w h i c h i s the s u b j e c t o f the  story.  The f o u r t h c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s two s h o r t Douglas Glover, Saskatoon."  " R e d " a n d " D o g A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n  Both s t o r i e s  c o l l e c t i o n of short Saskatoon  (1985).  appear  fiction,  i n Glover's  Dog Attempts  two d i f f e r e n t  "Red" i s dominated by the  voice,  but t h a t v o i c e draws i n t o i t s e l f  voices  i s s u i n g from c h a r a c t e r s  narrator's  a v a r i e t y of other  a n d a s s o r t e d modes o f  s o t h a t what a p p e a r s  strong voice turns  second  to Drown Man in  These s t o r i e s m a n i f e s t  types of p o l y v o c a l i t y .  discourse,  s t o r i e s by  at f i r s t  g l a n c e t o be one  o u t t o b e a n amalgam o f v o i c e s s p e a k i n g  i n and through t h a t o f F l o , the n a r r a t o r . Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n , " l i k e  "Red,"  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o  is told  i n the  person;  the " I " i s b o t h t h e n a r r a t o r and a c h a r a c t e r  story.  Here, however,  b r e a k i n g down i n t o t h e f r a g m e n t s  to other voices but of  o f w h i c h i t i s made.  " I " i n the s t o r y - - a pronoun which appears  sentence itself  to represent  p l a y i n g host  identities  contradict  writer,  i n the  Thus, first  a s i n g u l a r and u n i t a r y i d e n t i t y - - f i n d s  t o an assortment  of  (lover, ex-lover, protagonist,  philosopher,  i n the  the v o i c e of the n a r r a t o r g i v e s the  impression not of a l l o w i n g entrance  the  first  and o t h e r s )  one a n o t h e r  throughout  antecedent narrator,  which c o n f l i c t the  text.  w i t h and  22  The p r i n c i p a l Gallant's texts  story  subject  Mavis  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " a l t h o u g h some  come u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; t h e d i s c u s s i o n h a s  t o do w i t h c h a r a c t e r - v o i c e s . characters it  of Chapter Five i s  says a l o t about  also functions  theme,  w h i c h has  to a u t h o r i t y .  The s p e e c h o f t h e who t h e y a r e  other  chiefly  two m a i n  as i n d i v i d u a l s ,  as a means o f a d d r e s s i n g t h e  story's  t o do w i t h t h e ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e  The c h a r a c t e r  named H e r b e r t  speaks  a  but  main  respond lot  without  s a y i n g v e r y m u c h ; he i s p r e s e n t e d  as a n  figure,  but  i n h i s response  others'  abuses of power.  remains c u r i o u s l y acquiescent  the o t h e r hand, perceives verbal.  it,  The c h a r a c t e r  confronts  and h e r c h a l l e n g e s  fiction,  and t h e  some c r i t i c s '  responses  stories  cultivate.  often  and  i s a complex i s s u e c o n t i n u e s by  to the d i s t a n t  assessing  two  chapters  them b y c o n t i n u i n g t o e x a m i n e s t r a t e g i e s  i s o l a t i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g introduce other  t o p i c s which are  J u d i t h B u t l e r ' s ideas  for  v o i c e s ; i n a d d i t i o n , though, related  to v o i c e .  about  the performance  i s a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e ways i n w h i c h  perform a v a r i e t y of gendered  identities  they  Thus,  Chapter Four blends v o i c e - c e n t r e d reading s t r a t e g i e s  result  in  omniscience her  C h a p t e r s F o u r a n d F i v e b u i l d on t h e which precede  she  are mostly d i r e c t  chapter  to  named C h r i s t i n e , o n  a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m wherever  The v o i c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r  Gallant's  authority  with  of gender:  the  characters  through speech  in  23 Douglas G l o v e r ' s s t o r y , the  In Chapter F i v e ,  following  a n a l y s i s o f v o i c e i n M a v i s G a l l a n t ' s "The P e g n i t z  Junction," of  "Red."  v o i c e i s shown t o p l a y a k e y r o l e i n t h e  judgement  w h i c h h a v e so i n f l u e n c e d G a l l a n t ' s  issues  critical  reception.  The s e l e c t i o n o f a u t h o r s v a r i e t y of choices. fiction,  for this  study r e f l e c t s  The i n t e n t i o n was t o i n c l u d e  but not e x c l u s i v e l y work from the  t e m p o r a l range Junction,"  extends  last  a  recent  decade.  The  f r o m G a l l a n t ' s "The P e g n i t z  o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n book form i n 1973,  to  Leon R o o k e ' s "Shut U p , " c o l l e c t e d i n 1992; between  these  fictions  and  Griggs'  fall  Glover's stories  "Unfinished"  ( c o l l e c t e d i n 1985)  ( i n 1 9 9 1 ) : two c h a p t e r s ,  i n v o l v i n g books p u b l i s h e d i n the n i n e t i e s , eighties  a n d one i n t h e  spectrum, stories  s u c h as i t  w h i l e at  the  is,  period,  that  The p u r p o s e  i s to address  charge  the  of  primarily  that voice plays  role only i n f i c t i o n it  one i n  this  "new"  same t i m e p r o v i d i n g some s e n s e o f  h i s t o r y and a v o i d i n g the significant  seventies.  then,  a  i s s u i n g from a v e r y  i s a m i n o r t r e n d o r a b l i p on the  Temporal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  aside,  the  stories  brief  graph.  h a d t o be  h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n - - w h i c h i s t o say I had t o  good--a find  them i n t e r e s t i n g e n o u g h t o f e e l t h e y w o u l d k e e p my a t t e n t i o n through repeated  readings.  Also,  interesting things with voice.  they needed t o  do  A l t h o u g h many v e r y  different  24 kinds of s t o r i e s it  lend themselves  to voice-centred  readings,  i s o b v i o u s l y more p r o d u c t i v e t o b r i n g them t o b e a r  t e x t s i n which v o i c e stands out at Other issues  i n c l u d e d gender  often  (Rooke i s a n o t h e r )  case w i t h Mavis G a l l a n t ' s with i t s that  o f t e n announces  opening l i n e s of the  story,  such i s not  counters  some k i n d o f v o c a l  A final that  the  note:  readings  kinds of reading,  flamboyance or  superior to a l l  that they r e v e a l the u l t i m a t e  a s t o r y w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be i n a c c e s s i b l e , k i n d s o f r e a d i n g done h e r e a r e done.  By h i g h l i g h t i n g i s s u e s  the  this  which,  must  imply other  truth  about  or that  the  only kinds that  of v o i c e ,  study  s h o u l d be creates  new a n d i n t e r e s t i n g ways o f r e a d i n g f i c t i o n - - b u t t h e y not  the  o n l y ways.  the  ostentation.  I do n o t b y a n y means i n t e n d t o which f o l l o w are  as  any n o t i o n  t e x t s i n which v o i c e plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e  manifest  And  itself  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , "  i r o n i e s and u n d e r s t a t e m e n t ,  is  whose  f e a t u r e h i g h l y a u d i b l e women's v o i c e s .  w h i l e some v o i c e - c e n t r e d f i c t i o n such from the  i n some s m a l l w a y .  and v o i c e : D o u g l a s G l o v e r  one o f a v e r y few m a l e w r i t e r s stories  least  on  are  25  CHAPTER ONE  F I G U R E S : WHO'S WHO?  NARRATORS AND OTHERS.  Voices can't about v o i c e ,  connotations; actual),  after  The t e r m " f i g u r e " i s more u s e f u l  "person" or it  refers  characters,  constructs  that  "character," in this  narrators,  But i t  which the n a r r a t o r  and o t h e r  and " f i g u r e "  narrator narrator,  who i s n o t , then,  or  M o s t v o i c e s do  connotes is  important  at  a l l , i n which i s never a  the  character  The " I "  who i s c a p a b l e o f a c t i o n a n d a  who i s c a p a b l e o n l y o f c o m m e n t a r y .  i s a figure rather  person i s presumably real) in a story).  its (implied  b u t p o s s i b l y some k i n d o f image o f a c h a r a c t e r . both a character  than,  There i s a sense i n  even a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r ,  designates  talk  such d i s c u r s i v e  and t h i s  attributed.  i s not a c h a r a c t e r  of  to authors  a l s o means i m a g e ,  i n t e r m s o f how v o i c e s a r e  narrator,  text  because  s i m u l a t e p e o p l e i n some w a y .  a l l come f r o m p e o p l e ,  personhood.  In order to  one must h a v e some n o t i o n o f a f i g u r e t o whom  the v o i c e belongs. f o r example,  come f r o m n o w h e r e .  than a person  or a character  The  (since a  (who d o e s  things  In order to continue i n v e s t i g a t i n g v o i c e s i n  26  fiction  it will  be h e l p f u l  t o examine the  figures  t o whom  these voices belong.  It "narrator" generated  i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o u s e  uncritically. by the  such terms  The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f v o i c e s  fictional  "I" gives r i s e to questions  t h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f whom o r what t h e I will  use,  others,  not  in Fiction  and Film  t h e most r e c e n t  it  a wide range Barthes,  (1978).  Story  study of n a r r a t i v e  James,  Genette,  out,"  of t h e o r i s t s ,  and  but  it  i s one o f subject;  Roland  Gerard Genette,  what he s e e s as t h e k e y e l e m e n t s and d e s c r i b e s  the process  Henry  and the  r o l e s of those  participate  in  fictional  reading  important  process  and a c t u a l p e r s o n a e  who  it.  d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e , the  a  "reading  Chatman's s t u d y i s c l e a r and a c c e s s i b l e .  to describe  isolates  of n a r r a t i v e ,  he c a l l s  which i s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the  in  of the works o f  including Aristotle,  E.M. Forster,  Discourse  on the  Chatman's r e a d i n g s  and  Narrative  P e r c y L u b b o c k , a n d T z v e t a n T o d o r o v . Chatman  and d e f i n e s la  incorporates  Wayne B o o t h ,  designates.  and Discourse:  t h e most w i d e l y r e a d N o r t h - A m e r i c a n t e x t s addition,  "I"  about  for t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of narrators  Seymour C h a t m a n ' s Story  Structure is  as a b a s i s  as  it  r e l i e s on a s e r i e s  of  components o f s t o r y and d i s c o u r s e ,  to r e c o g n i z e these metaphors,  Like  any  metaphors and i t  is  t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n and  27 effect. of  Chatman a p p r o a c h e s  narrative  from the  perspective  s t r u c t u r a l i s m , a n d w h i l e he i s c a r e f u l t o e x p l a i n  a n a l y z e s u c h c o n c e p t s as s t o r y a n d d i s c o u r s e , crucial  t o h i s w o r k , many o t h e r  unchallenged  (for example,  chain of u n i t s , structure  that  t h e n o t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e as  and a deep s t r u c t u r e ,  the  accessible through a simple reading,  w h i c h c a n be u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e  s u c h as s t r u c t u r e  (31).  elements  structure somehow i n t o a whole  Concepts  f o r example,  and a u d i e n c e s a r e  but  Chatman d i s t i n g u i s h e s and a u d i e n c e s :  only  immanent t o t h e w o r k " of the t h e o l o g i c a l  burden c a r r i e d by the word "immanent," r e a d e r s are  audiences  Why a r e o n l y i m p l i e d a u t h o r s  immanence,  left  the  e x p l a n a t i o n s become more a n d more  opaque:  be  c r i t e r i a for  A s Chatman c o m b i n e s one m e t a p h o r w i t h f o r e x a m p l e , w i t h grammar a n d  with  and  immanent t o t h e w o r k - - w h a t d o e s i t mean t o  "immanent t o t h e w o r k , " a n d what t h e n a r e immanence?  the  s u c h as d e p t h and  to d e s c r i b e the r e a d i n g process,  Why?  being  There i s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h  S e t t i n g aside the d i f f i c u l t y  the q u e s t i o n ,  a  c a r e f u l r e a d e r who u s e s  " r e a l and i m p l i e d a u t h o r s  implied authors  t h e deep  a n d immanence, m e t a p h o r s  p r o b l e m s a r i s e when, between  structure  t h e deep s t r u c t u r e ) .  grammar i n f o r m C h a t m a n ' s w o r k . u s i n g metaphors  surface  go  surface  t h e deep s t r u c t u r e  c o n t a i n i n g and g u i d i n g the n a r r a t i v e  a p p r o p r i a t e means t o a c c e s s  are  i d e a s about n a r r a t i v e  chain of u n i t s having a  t h r o u g h a more c a r e f u l o n e ,  which  and  others--  structure--his  28 F o r n a r r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , t h e n , a t r a i t may be s a i d t o be a n a r r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e o u t o f t h e v e r n a c u l a r l a b e l i n g a personal q u a l i t y of a c h a r a c t e r . . . J u s t as we d e f i n e " e v e n t " a t t h e s t o r y l e v e l a s a n a r r a t i v e p r e d i c a t e (DO o r H A P P E N ) , s o we c a n d e f i n e " t r a i t " as the n a r r a t i v e a d j e c t i v e t i e d to the n a r r a t i v e copula when t h a t r e p l a c e s t h e n o r m a l t r a n s i t i v e p r e d i c a t e . The a c t u a l v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e , o f c o u r s e , n e e d n o t . . . appear. B u t w h e t h e r i n f e r r e d o r n o t , i t i s immanent t o t h e deep s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t . (125)  Structure--deep  or surface--is  chooses to a v o i d . Discourse chief  has  m o r a s s Chatman  In s p i t e of these weaknesses,  i t s moments o f c l e a r t h i n k i n g ;  strengths l i e s  unwieldy concepts such c a t e g o r i e s critique  another  Story  one o f  i n t h e way i t b r e a k s down l a r g e  i n t o r e l a t i v e l y manageable  ones.  and d i s t i n c t i o n s c a n w i t h s t a n d  i s an open q u e s t i o n ;  and  its and Whether  sustained  t h e y do p r o v i d e a u s e f u l  place  to begin.  The Sending End  A n a r r a t i v e i s a communication; hence, i t p r e s u p p o s e s two p a r t i e s , a s e n d e r a n d a r e c e i v e r . Each p a r t y e n t a i l s three d i f f e r e n t personages. On t h e s e n d i n g end a r e the r e a l a u t h o r , the i m p l i e d a u t h o r , and t h e n a r r a t o r ( i f a n y ) ; o n t h e r e c e i v i n g e n d , t h e r e a l audience ( l i s t e n e r , reader, v i e w e r ) , the i m p l i e d a u d i e n c e , and the n a r r a t e e . (Chatman 28) )  29 The  " r e c e i v i n g end" has been t h e  considerable c r i t i c a l response others,  I s e r and F i s h .  t o do w i t h t h e is  d i s c u s s i o n - - i n speech-act,  and r e c e p t i o n t h e o r i e s , Jauss,  what w i l l  designate often  c o n f u s e d and o b s c u r e .  among chiefly  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and  Chatman s u b d i v i d e s  the r e a l author,  the  Although these terms  separate e n t i t i e s ,  reader-  N a r r a t i v e v o i c e has  be a d d r e s s e d h e r e .  and t h e n a r r a t o r .  of  i n the works of,  " s e n d i n g end" o f the  category into three figures: author,  subject  this  the implied  appear  to  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s among them This section w i l l  are  problematize  t h e means b y w h i c h t h e t h r e e f i g u r e s h a v e b e e n s e p a r a t e d , order to demonstrate word  the c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g  the  "narrator."  The Real  Author  The  " r e a l author"  would appear  easier  than the o t h e r  refers  t o an i d e n t i f i a b l e p e r s o n .  groups of authors  i n t h i s century,  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the criticism,  t o be  figures to deal with,  W h i l e much h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t  and  in  in literature  s i n c e the  But t h i s  i s not  individual relatively  r o l e of the  somewhat term  so.  authors  and  little  author  i n theory  and i n r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e s .  The  30 salient  c o n v e n t i o n o f modern c r i t i c i s m  w r i t e s the author  text  and t h e n the  has no f u r t h e r  i n t o p l a y i n the  text  textual  reading  leaves  and the  and l e t t e r s ,  t e x t s and p r a c t i c e s  questions  about  t o as the  author-function  the  author  (125).  continue  biography?  More p r e c i s e l y ,  literary  finished text  questionable--consider w h i c h h i s work has the v e r y l e a s t ,  the  other  a v a r i e t y of  For instance:  refers  given that  i s the  i n conjunction with  f u n c t i o n of  text?  The  by W o o l f ' s  life,  Bell's  Waves,  life,  by  the  o r b y no o n e ' s  Furthermore,  separates i t s e l f  the  the  i f a reader reads Quentin  of Woolf's  rather Quentin B e l l ' s  of  which r a i s e  r e a d i n g o f The Waves a f f e c t e d  reader's interpretation  interviews,  what  the  from the  Salman R u s h d i e and the  i m p a c t e d on h i s l i f e ,  it  have  and a h o s t  to p r o l i f e r a t e ,  b i o g r a p h y o f V i r g i n i a WooIf  the  come  a n d what M i c h e l F o u c a u l t  biographies  that  especially  along with poetry readings,  author-related  but  the  i s a sweeping g e n e r a l i z a t i o n - - i f  a u t h o r ' s work), would  p u b l i c a t i o n of d i a r i e s  the  author;  (which i m p l y a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n between  author's l i f e  is  author  f u n c t i o n and does not  were s t r i c t l y t r u e t h e n b i o g r a p h i e s ,  disappeared,  the  the  process.  This of course  biographies  i s that  notion  author  extent  and h i s  life  is  to  life  on,  at  d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d c i r c u l a t i o n o f h i s work  ( R u s h d i e ' s c a s e may be a n e x t r e m e  example,  which demonstrates the p e r s i s t e n c e  of the  but  it  is  one  relationship  31 between a u t h o r  and  text).  There are f o c u s on t h e  three key t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  author:  the A u t h o r "  Author?"  (1968)  (1969).  New C r i t i c a l affirmation  "that  o f p r o d u c i n g them"  "objective  its  influence of  (that  (1018)  ( 1 0 1 6 ) . The e f f e c t  s i g n i f i c a n c e from a u t h o r  i n matters of t e x t u a l  its  the  text's  from the  Fallacy"  indeed,  that  literary  of t h e i r  argument  to text.  The  has been v a s t - - i t  its  effect  to d i v e r t attention  analysis,  art  and t o w a r d  reprinted i n v i r t u a l l y every anthology of theory  been not o n l y h e l p f u l l y  the  Wimsatt and B e a r d s l e y  "author psychology"  c r i t i c i s m - - s o much s o ,  in  is,  t h e y seek t o r e d i r e c t  "The I n t e n t i o n a l  an  underscores  o f poems i s d i f f e r e n t  (1018);  "The D e a t h  "What I s  Romantic c r i t i c i s m  author).  criticism"  i s to transfer  Fallacy"  a u t o n o m y o f t h e poem  judgement  s t u d y away f r o m  Roland Barthes'  and M i c h e l F o u c a u l t ' s  reaction against  independence,from contend  (1946),  "The I n t e n t i o n a l  of the  that  W . K . Wimsatt and Monroe B e a r d s l e y ' s  "The I n t e n t i o n a l F a l l a c y " of  texts  is  and  seems t o  from the  have  author  but a l s o c u r i o u s l y t o  d i s c o u r a g e many c r i t i c s f r o m t a l k i n g a b o u t  the  author  at  all.  Roland Barthes' some t w e n t y y e a r s advances  the  after  "The D e a t h o f t h e A u t h o r "  "The I n t e n t i o n a l  Fallacy";  c o m p l a i n t t h a t r e a d e r s p a y t o o much  appeared it  also  attention  32 to the of it"  author,  too l i t t l e  to the w r i t i n g :  a work i s a l w a y s sought (168).  For Barthes,  "The  explanation  i n t h e man o r woman who p r o d u c e d  the  author disappears  i n the  act  of  composition:  As s o o n a s a f a c t i s narrated no l o n g e r w i t h a v i e w t o a c t i n g d i r e c t l y on r e a l i t y b u t i n t r a n s i t i v e l y , t h a t i s t o s a y , f i n a l l y o u t s i d e o f any f u n c t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h a t of the v e r y p r a c t i c e o f the symbol i t s e l f , t h i s d i s c o n n e c t i o n o c c u r s , the v o i c e l o s e s i t s o r i g i n , the a u t h o r e n t e r s i n t o h i s own d e a t h , w r i t i n g b e g i n s . (168)  It  i s o n l y w i t h the  emerge, or  death of the  and f o r B a r t h e s t h e  perhaps  the  which a l l the  important quotations  author  reader  site:  that  i s the  in its  In  reader  important  "The r e a d e r  i s the  t h a t make up a w r i t i n g  i n s c r i b e d w i t h o u t a n y o f them b e i n g l o s t ; l i e s not  the  o r i g i n but  in its  [sic] a b s e n c e  space  a text's  destination"  it will  on  unity  (171).  agrees  the w r i t e r ' s death:  w i s h t o know t h e w r i t e r i n o u r d a y , s i n g u l a r i t y of h i s  figure,  are  "What I s a n A u t h o r ? " M i c h e l F o u c a u l t  with Barthes that w r i t i n g e n t a i l s  may  " I f we  be t h r o u g h  and i n h i s l i n k  to  the  death,  w h i c h h a s t r a n s f o r m e d h i m i n t o a v i c t i m o f h i s own w r i t i n g " (117). author  Foucault i s interested has  copyright, the  functioned a subject  i n t h e ways i n w h i c h  (as a p r o p e r name, position).  f o u r most i m p o r t a n t  the  a holder of  He a n a l y z e s what he s e e s  characteristics  of the  author-  as  33 function:  it  i s t i e d t o the l e g a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e , d e t e r m i n e , and a r t i c u l a t e the r e a l m o f d i s c o u r s e s ; i t d o e s n o t o p e r a t e i n a u n i f o r m manner i n a l l d i s c o u r s e s , at a l l t i m e s , and i n any g i v e n c u l t u r e ; i t i s not d e f i n e d by the spontaneous a t t r i b u t i o n o f a t e x t to i t s c r e a t o r , but through a s e r i e s of p r e c i s e and complex p r o c e d u r e s ; i t does n o t r e f e r , p u r e l y and s i m p l y , t o an a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l i n s o f a r as i t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g i v e s r i s e t o a v a r i e t y o f e g o s and t o a s e r i e s o f s u b j e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s o f any c l a s s may come t o o c c u p y . (130-31)  Wimsatt and B e a r d s l e y , B a r t h e s have a s i m i l a r agenda, "What d o e s t h e way t h a t  author  which i s to respond to the mean?"  such a q u e s t i o n  questions  is  Each t e x t  these questions  are  question  a r g u e s i n i t s own  inappropriate,  s h o u l d be a s k e d i n s t e a d .  Beardsley,  and F o u c a u l t a l l  that  other  F o r Wimsatt and  about  the  way i n w h i c h  the  poem f u n c t i o n s .  The poem i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a n a r t i f a c t ,  complete  a series  thing,  autonomous  object;  r e l a t i o n of part questions the  job of the  to whole.  critic  For Barthes,  i s to explain the  which the  q u a l i t y of the  text  act  inscribes itself  of reading,  questions  at  existence  of t h i s  determined  the  end o f the  article  of  ("What a r e  [138]).  with  the  preferable  d i s c o u r s e ? . . . What p l a c e m e n t s  for possible subjects?"  the  w i t h t h e way i n  on the v e r y body o f  F o u c a u l t p r o v i d e s h i s own l i s t  and  important  have t o do w i t h how w r i t i n g s h o u l d be r e a d ,  ephemeral  reader.  the  of parts c o n s t i t u t i n g a u n i t a r y  a  t h e modes o f are  The l e s s o n o f  34 the  twentieth century i s that  h i s o r her absence, who t h e a u t h o r presence  that  it  the  still  because of i t s p e r s i s t e n c e have l o n g f o r s a k e n the  i s useful only i n  i s no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t i n g t o  i s o r what s / h e  (or absence)  author  means.  But the  ask  author's  l i n g e r s , and remains  important  e v e n i n t h e m i n d s o f t h o s e who  idea of the  a u t h o r as  "oracle"  ( W i m s a t t a n d B e a r d s l e y 1 0 2 2 ) , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r i m p i n g e s on o t h e r obsolete, figures  and y e t v i t a l  to the  which comprise the  figures.  The a u t h o r  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  " s e n d i n g end" o f  is  other  the  communication.  "That i t narrator," literary  i s e s s e n t i a l not to confuse author  Chatman w r i t e s ,  theory"  (147).  has a v o i c e i n a t e x t . "narrator"  "has become a commonplace o f  It  a u t h o r and n a r r a t o r - - t h e  seems e a s y e n o u g h t o  But at  times the  f o r the t e x t ?  a u t h o r and n a r r a t o r  as  latter  s u b s t i t u t i o n of  w o u l d once have been u s e d  p r o b l e m s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - - t o what d e g r e e responsible  separate  f o r m e r h a s a b o d y , where t h e  where " a u t h o r "  and  i s the  causes  narrator  Chatman d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n  follows:  In the s t r i c t sense, of c o u r s e , a l l statements are " m e d i a t e d , " s i n c e t h e y a r e c o m p o s e d b y someone. Even d i a l o g u e h a s t o be i n v e n t e d b y a n a u t h o r . But i t i s q u i t e c l e a r ( w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e o r y and c r i t i c i s m ) t h a t we must d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t o r , o r s p e a k e r , t h e one c u r r e n t l y " t e l l i n g " t h e s t o r y , a n d t h e a u t h o r , t h e u l t i m a t e d e s i g n e r o f t h e f a b l e , who a l s o d e c i d e s , f o r example, w h e t h e r t o have a n a r r a t o r , and  35  i f s o , how p r o m i n e n t he [ s i c ] s h o u l d b e . It i s a fundamental c o n v e n t i o n t o i g n o r e the a u t h o r , but not the n a r r a t o r . The n a r r a t o r may be o v e r t . . . Or he [sic] may be " a b s e n t " . . . The " n a r r a t o r , " when he [sic] appears, i s a demonstrable, recognizable e n t i t y immanent t o t h e n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f . Every n a r r a t i v e , e v e n one w h o l l y "shown" o r u n m e d i a t e d , f i n a l l y h a s a n a u t h o r , t h e one who d e v i s e d i t . But " n a r r a t o r " s h o u l d n o t be u s e d i n t h a t s e n s e . Rather i t should mean o n l y t h e s o m e o n e - - p e r s o n o r p r e s e n c e - - a c t u a l l y t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y t o a n a u d i e n c e , no m a t t e r how m i n i m a l l y e v o k e d h i s [sic] v o i c e o r t h e a u d i e n c e ' s l i s t e n i n g ear. (33-34)  These p r e m i s e s invents the  story;  statements are the  author,  s h o u l d be c l e a r e n o u g h :  the n a r r a t o r  "composed b y s o m e o n e , "  t h e n t o what d e g r e e  autonomy t o t h e n a r r a t o r , say,  it.  and t h a t  that  the  bind author  sentence  or to a character?  remains the  and n a r r a t o r  someone  i s i t possible to  and a n a r r a t o r  author  But i f a l l is  attribute  That i s  i s t h e r e a m e a n i n g f u l o v e r l a p between an  composing a sentence fact  tells  the  to  author  "speaking" it--does same  ( i f indeed i t  does)  i n some i n e x o r a b l e way, o r i s  a c o n n e c t i o n i n c i d e n t a l to the n a r r a t i v e  and t o the  the  such  reading  process?  One c o n s e q u e n c e difficulty its  of the  c o n n e c t i o n - - o r perhaps,  i n distinguishing--between author  impact on the  Terry Griggs'  language  story  incomplete s i m i l e s ,  of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m .  "Unfinished" how i s t h e  opening--who i s r e s p o n s i b l e  and n a r r a t o r  opens w i t h i t s  critic  for i t ?  One m i g h t  say,  is  When  sequence  t o t a l k about  the  that  of  f o l l o w i n g t'he n o t i o n t h a t invention, of  sentence  fragments  narrator's  by the  title."  v o i c e and a t t r i b u t e  the  and v e r b s  verbs...." first of  sense of consider  the  them a c c o r d i n g l y : "The of truncated  theme o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y . "  " T h i s sequence  comparisons  altogether  and The  a figure  the  i n t e n t i o n a l f a l l a c y by a f f i r m i n g  that  w r i t e r h a s made c e r t a i n c h o i c e s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e certain end--it  the  does n o t  ignore the  according to current  author  critical  and i s  author,  two a r e  but  the  convention.  which i s not  who d i s c u s s t h e v o i c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r narrator  has w r i t t e n t h e  story.  the  the n a r r a t o r  selects  the  often  In t h i s  i m p l i c a t i o n i s i n d i r e c t : the n a r r a t o r comparisons,  a  case.  that Critics  imply that  instance  begins  The  narrator  simple s u b s t i t u t i o n suggests  interchangeable,  the  not  conforms t o c o n v e n t i o n by s u b s t i t u t i n g the  f o r the  capable  The f o r m e r d e f i e s W i m s a t t a n d B e a r d s l e y ' s  warnings about  latter  is  by  of s i m i l e s lacks subjects  two s t a t e m e n t s i m p l i c a t e an i n v e n t o r ,  acceptable  which  The e a s y way o u t  The i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  choice.  the  series  Or one m i g h t  to avoid mentioning author or narrator beginning:  for  in this  f i r s t manifestation of  begins with a series  highlight  is responsible  i n order to u n d e r l i n e the  o p e n i n g l i n e s as t h e  narrator  author  "Griggs omits subjects  incompletion suggested the  the  the  the  with  comparisons h i g h l i g h t d i s c o n t i n u i t y - - e r g o ,  a particular effect.  p a r t i c u l a r c o m p a r i s o n s so as t o The q u e s t i o n t h e n  i s whether  create  such  37 c h o i c e s are w i t h i n the n a r r a t o r ' s purview.  Both sentences  assume the e x i s t e n c e of a g u i d i n g hand, a c o n t r o l l i n g mind. The l a s t example d i f f e r s reference  i n several  to a c o n t r o l l i n g f i g u r e ;  responsibility  i s not an i s s u e ,  respects.  t h i s suggests  that  or at l e a s t that  such  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y does not apply to the communication.  It omits  "sending end" of  or i t may s i g n a l the b e l i e f  not always p e r t i n e n t ,  that  The i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t  or the  is  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they a c c o r d the author,  f r e e p l a y of  that p o s i t i o n  d e c i s i o n s about f i g u r e s  critics  the degrees of narrator(s)  a l l c o n t r i b u t e to the m a n i f e s t a t i o n  c r i t i c a l position,  the  distinctions  make among n a r r a t o r , author and t e x t ,  characters,  would  such q u e s t i o n s are  that what i s p e r t i n e n t  i n t e r a c t i o n between reader and t e x t , language.  the  The f a i l u r e to r e f e r to a f i g u r e may be a  means of a v o i d i n g the q u e s t i o n s such a r e f e r e n c e entail,  any  constituting  and  of a  a set  of  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n i n and to  the  text.  "Even d i a l o g u e , " invented by an author" paragraph,  Chatman w r i t e s ,  (33).  "has to be  Consider the  following  which occurs on the second page of  "Unfinished":  But i t wasn't my f a u l t . I wasn't the i n v e n t o r of t h i s f a r c e , t h i s t h r i l l e r , j u s t a c h a r a c t e r l i k e you. The heroine cowering i n the c o r n e r , her hand clapped l i k e a s t r a n g e r ' s hand a g a i n s t her mouth. Face i t , you were w r i t t e n out, d i s c a r d e d , a paper man t o r n i n two, a jagged l i n e down the c e n t r e . Not a drop s p i l l e d . (42)  38 Here the n a r r a t o r  appears  t o be c o m m e n t i n g d i r e c t l y o n  d i s t i n c t i o n between h e r s e l f and the a u t h o r .  the  The p a r a g r a p h  opens w i t h a d e n i a l o f a u t h o r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - - j u s t i n case the reader, the  or the n a r r a t e e ,  were b e g i n n i n g t o  r o l e s o f a u t h o r and n a r r a t o r ,  the n a r r a t o r  them b y a s s i g n i n g i n v e n t i o n t o t h e a u t h o r . sentence  she d e s c r i b e s h e r s e l f as  "just  a  herself  specifically  thriller-heroine, the author,  subject  h i s hand s t o p p i n g h e r v o i c e .  b u t she p l a y s a g r e a t e r  role,  a traditional  This i s  narrator,  narrator  stranger, somewhat  inventor of  this  w i t h more p o w e r i n a n d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the n a r r a t i v e than a c h a r a c t e r . e x a c t l y where t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  third  represents  to the v i o l e n c e of the  d i s i n g e n u o u s - - t h e n a r r a t o r may n o t be " t h e farce"  The  narrator-  the n a r r a t o r  as a s t o c k c h a r a c t e r ,  second  character"--  i n c r e a s e s the d i s t a n c e between the  c h a r a c t e r and the a u t h o r i n t h a t  clarifies  In the  powerless i n r e l a t i o n to the a u t h o r - i n v e n t o r . sentence  confuse  lie--between author  But and  and c a r d b o a r d h e r o i n e - - i s d i f f i c u l t  to  determine.  The Implied  Author  Wayne B o o t h i n v e n t e d t h e 1961 b o o k ,  The Rhetoric  of Fiction.  implied author i n h i s The i m p l i e d a u t h o r i s  a  39 useful  illusion;  i t increases  t h e number o f f i g u r e s o n t h e  s e n d i n g e n d f r o m two t o t h r e e a n d a l l o w s f o r t h e a t t r i b u t i o n of  ideas  quotes  t o someone o t h e r  than author  and n a r r a t o r .  Chatman  B o o t h ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f what t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r  and e l a b o r a t e s  is,  on i t :  As he w r i t e s , [ t h e r e a l a u t h o r ] c r e a t e s n o t s i m p l y an i d e a l , i m p e r s o n a l 'man i n g e n e r a l ' b u t a n implied version of ' h i m s e l f that i s different f r o m t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r s we meet i n o t h e r m e n ' s works.... W h e t h e r we c a l l t h i s i m p l i e d a u t h o r a n ' o f f i c i a l s c r i b e ' , o r adopt the term r e c e n t l y r e v i v e d b y K a t h l e e n T i l l o t s o n [ i n The Tale and the Teller 1959]--the author's 'second s e l f - - i t i s c l e a r that the p i c t u r e the reader gets o f t h i s p r e s e n c e i s one o f t h e a u t h o r ' s most i m p o r t a n t effects. However i m p e r s o n a l he may t r y t o b e , h i s reader w i l l i n e v i t a b l y construct a p i c t u r e of the official scribe. He i s " i m p l i e d , " t h a t i s , r e c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e r e a d e r from t h e n a r r a t i v e . He i s n o t t h e n a r r a t o r , b u t r a t h e r the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n v e n t e d the n a r r a t o r , a l o n g w i t h everything else i n the n a r r a t i v e , that stacked the c a r d s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r way, h a d t h e s e t h i n g s h a p p e n t o t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , i n t h e s e words o r i m a g e s . (Chatman 14 8) 1  This passage i l l u s t r a t e s between f i g u r e s : the  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  e v e n Chatman g r o w s c o n f u s e d a s he  implied author  a s t h e one who " i n v e n t e d t h e  along with everything else surely,  i s the " r e a l "  i n the n a r r a t i v e " :  describes  narrator,  this  figure,  author.  Chatman c o n t i n u e s addressing issues  of distinguishing  of voice:  h i s e x p l i c a t i o n of Booth by  40 U n l i k e t h e n a r r a t o r , t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r c a n t e l l us nothing. He, o r b e t t e r , i t has no v o i c e , no d i r e c t means o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g . I t i n s t r u c t s us s i l e n t l y , through the design of the whole, w i t h a l l the v o i c e s , b y a l l t h e means i t h a s c h o s e n t o l e t us l e a r n . (148)  But t h i s  i s n o t what B o o t h s a y s ; the  of Fiction, concludes  implied author  the paragraph  c r y s t a l l i z i n g the intricate [sic]  relationship  which are  most e v i d e n t  speaking role second s e l f ,  hand:  the  when t h e  has  of h i m s e l f  If  V o i c e seems t o be t h e trouble  himself  narrator  g i v e s a s an e x a m p l e t h e since  the  different case,  means o f  novels,  then the  and the  dividing  While  r e a l author  and the  authors  overt,  self  Chatman Booth  implied author.  is  or  l i n e between  the  the Booth  explaining that  clearly different  r e a l author  2  communicating."  novels of F i e l d i n g ,  i m p l i e d authors are  (71) .  then that  difficulty.  and t h a t o f the  with his  implied author,  w i t h v o i c e and B o o t h ' s i m p l i e d a u t h o r ,  i s none t o o c l e a r o n t h e  v o i c e of the  the  the  Booth argues,  i s g i v e n an  speaking r o l e , "  c l e a r l y has a v o i c e a n d a " d i r e c t  has  implied  author's texts,  (71).  "an o v e r t ,  by  [sic]"  and t h e  second s e l f  i n a story"  above  "Our p r e s e n t p r o b l e m i s  author  i n that  Rhetoric  s o - c a l l e d r e a l author  versions  between  constructed  at  The  c a n have a v o i c e . B o o t h  Chatman e x c e r p t s  of the  various o f f i c i a l  The d i f f e r e n c e s  "are  issue  according to  in  the  same i n  implied author  each  cannot  be  41 identical.  .One o f t h e  characterizes  the  chief  means b y w h i c h  implied author,  commentary o f the n a r r a t o r . him  [sic,  the  p a r t l y by the  is built,  explicit  of  tale  i s to the  narrator's  that Booth p o i n t s ,  author  (72-73).  implied author  voiceless  it  In the  implied author,  than the  kind  implication that  narrator  then,  i s t h a t of the  the implied  between  Booth proceeds  to  fuse  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f what  end,  Chatman's  while i t  provides a corrective i n that d i s e n t a n g l i n g the  even  commentary r a t h e r  two f i g u r e s 3  is  (73).  and n a r r a t o r ,  is .  only  to t e l l "  Having e s t a b l i s h e d a boundary  the v o i c e s of the implied author  of course,  he c h o o s e s  w i t h the  w o r l d v i e w e x p r e s s e d by the  the  "Our p i c t u r e o f  commentary;  more d e r i v e d f r o m t h e k i n d o f t a l e But i t  i s through  Booth w r i t e s :  i m p l i e d author] narrator's  however,  Booth  it  image o f a  does not  obviates  implied author's  the  come f r o m  Booth,  the problem of  v o i c e from t h a t o f  the  narrator.  B o o t h ' s c r e a t i o n of the important because real  i t prevents  the  implied author simplistic  a u t h o r w i t h what B o o t h r e f e r s  reader  gets of t h i s presence"  separation  of i m p l i e d author  p l a g u e d by d i f f i c u l t y  (71);  t o as the  from a u t h o r  i s not h i s f a u l t .  is  equation of  "the p i c t u r e fact  that  the  the  the  and n a r r a t o r  is  Chatman's  apparently unwitting manipulation of Booth's implied  author  makes two c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  the  I n a d d i t i o n t o t a k i n g away  42 implied author's referring the  to  voice,  Chatman d e p e r s o n a l i z e s t h e  "him" [sic]  as  i m p l i e d a u t h o r from the a u t h o r ,  author's  personhood.  the degree  to which the  as a n y t h i n g l i k e a voice,  issuing  effect  (149).  i s to  to reduce the  Chatman d e s c r i b e s t h e  as a " s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e "  if  "it"--the  figure, distance implied  implied  author  This comparison suggests  implied author functions r e a l l y  a n a u t h o r b u t as a s t r u c t u r e ,  not  a form--or,  t h e n n o t one v o i c e b u t some k i n d o f amalgam  from t h e v a r i o u s v o i c e s o f t h e t e x t w i t h o u t b e i n g  r e d u c i b l e t o o r c o n t a i n e d by any i n d i v i d u a l implied author then,  might b e t t e r  which i m p l i e s  m i s l e a d i n g s i m i l a r i t y to the r e a l author. w i t h the caveat  n o t mean more i m p o r t a n t o r b e t t e r ,  The  be c a l l e d b y a t e r m  does not c o n t a i n t h e word " a u t h o r , "  might serve t h i s purpose,  one.  "Prime that  and t h a t  that  a voice"  " p r i m e " does  the v o i c e  is  not  a s i n g l e v o i c e recorded i n the t e x t but a composite v o i c e heard by the r e a d e r , narrator(s)  The  and  c o m p r i s i n g the a s s o r t e d v o i c e s of  character(s).  Narrator  The n a r r a t o r ' s p r e s e n c e d e r i v e s f r o m t h e a u d i e n c e ' s s e n s e o f some d e m o n s t r a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I f i t f e e l s i t i s b e i n g t o l d s o m e t h i n g , i t presumes a teller. (Chatman 14 7)  43 E v e n i f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e t o draw d i s t i n c t i o n s between the n a r r a t o r narrator  and the  implied author,  and the  sharp r e a l author or  the v o i c e of the to i d e n t i f y .  narrator  would remain at  times d i f f i c u l t  o b s t a c l e to the  i s o l a t i o n of the n a r r a t o r ' s  f r o m one o f t h e  features  The c h i e f  way i n w h i c h i t  i n c o r p o r a t e s and i n t e r m i n g l e s w i t h  voice  results  w h i c h make i t most i n t e r e s t i n g ,  voices of other characters,  the  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n free  the  the  indirect  discourse.  Clearly,  there are d i f f e r e n t  Some assume a p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n t h e  kinds of  story,  with  narration,  remarks addressed to the n a r r a t e e ,  Others are  scarcely present,  person narration,  lies  Chatman's c h i e f  He d e s c r i b e s as  which appear o n l y to r e p o r t  audible" narration.  and the  concealed behind a  like.  third-  interest  i n the degree t o which they  themselves i n the t e x t .  kind of text  first-person  commenting on a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r o n l y  t h e most o b l i q u e m a n n e r . narrators  narrators.  information . 4  in  in  manifest  "nonnarrated"  texts  Between t h i s  and a n a r r a t i o n w h i c h i s " c o n s p i c u o u s l y  (197),  Chatman s i t u a t e s  "covert or  effaced"  This i s the s o r t of n a r r a t i o n i n which i t  most d i f f i c u l t  to l o c a t e the n a r r a t o r ' s  v o i c e and  disentangle i t  from o t h e r v o i c e s i n the t e x t .  narration w i l l  be t h e s u b j e c t  is  to  Covert  of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n because  own c o m p l e x i t i e s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d b e c a u s e many o f  the  its  44 difficulties  it  offers  even i n n a r r a t i o n s  are  manifested  to different  i n which the v o i c e of the  degrees  narrator  is  much more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e .  "In covert n a r r a t i o n , "  Chatman w r i t e s ,  we h e a r a v o i c e s p e a k i n g o f e v e n t s , c h a r a c t e r s , and s e t t i n g , b u t i t s owner r e m a i n s h i d d e n i n t h e d i s c o u r s i v e [ s i c ] shadows. U n l i k e the "nonnarrated" s t o r y , t h e c o v e r t l y n a r r a t e d one c a n e x p r e s s a c h a r a c t e r ' s speech o r thoughts i n i n d i r e c t form. Such e x p r e s s i o n i m p l i e s an i n t e r p r e t i v e d e v i c e o r m e d i a t o r q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the s i m p l e m i n d r e a d i n g stenographer of nonnarrated n a r r a t i v e s . Some i n t e r p r e t i n g p e r s o n must be c o n v e r t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' t h o u g h t s i n t o i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n , a n d we c a n n o t t e l l w h e t h e r h i s own s l a n t d o e s n o t l u r k b e h i n d t h e w o r d s . . . The t e r r a i n o f c o v e r t n a r r a t i o n i s b e w i l d e r i n g , and i t i s e a s y t o l o s e o n e ' s b e a r i n g s . (197)  It  i s the  indirect expression,  interpretation,  a n d most o f t e n  then,  that  this  occurs  discourse.  Chatman p r o v i d e s a t a b l e  differences  between d i r e c t  and between  "tagged"  to  and i n d i r e c t  and " f r e e "  causes problems of i n free  indicate  indirect the  speech and  thought,  style:  Tagged  Free  Direct: Speech Thought  I have t o  go,  I have t o g o , "  she she  said thought  I have t o  go  I have t o  go  45  Indirect: Speech  She s a i d t h a t  Thought  She t h o u g h t  she h a d t o go  that  she h a d t o go  She h a d t o  go  She h a d t o  go  (201)  This table The f r e e  indicates  i n d i r e c t forms r e m a i n the  speech or thought. narrator's  report  character's thought, thought  some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  of the  character's  Or i t  thought  could represent  assuming the n a r r a t o r  ambiguity.  same w h e t h e r  "She h a d t o g o " may t h e n  speech.  she h a d t o  for  functions  indicate or  the  the  as a c h a r a c t e r  ("I  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " p r o v i d e s ambiguity generated  of  Consider the  indirect discourse. In i t ,  the  narrator's  m u l t i t u d e o f examples o f the  paragraph.  express  go").  Mavis G a l l a n t ' s  free  they  Herbert  has  by the  use  following  r e c o g n i z e d the  deception of a  y o u n g German woman who i s t r y i n g t o p a s s h e r s e l f  off  American;  now s e e s  was  a  C h r i s t i n e had not b e l i e v e d H e r b e r t but  as he  right:  By now C h r i s t i n e knew a l l t h i s . H e r b e r t , who knew n o t h i n g , h a d f i x e d u p o n t h e e s s e n c e o f i t : t h e g i r l was ashamed o f b e i n g t h o u g h t German b y o t h e r G e r m a n s . (78)  46 "Who knew n o t h i n g " discourse  i s the  key here:  (whom C h r i s t i n e t h o u g h t  is this  narrator, the  narrator,  in this  (unuttered)  or of C h r i s t i n e ?  case,  discourse  It  In other  narrator  statement of  intervenes  voice of otherwise;  directly in  the  This k i n d of on  t h e way G a l l a n t ' s work has b e e n r e c e i v e d ,  and s u c h i s s u e s  of  narration  i n more  on.  lack of i t - - h a s  is  impact  later  the  direct  the  m i g h t w e l l be t h e  t o make j u d g e m e n t s a b o u t c h a r a c t e r .  intervention--or  or a  words,  s i n c e t h e r e i s no t a g t o i n d i c a t e the  indirect  knew n o t h i n g ) ,  statement of the n a r r a t o r ' s o p i n i o n ? "who knew n o t h i n g " t h e  free  and judgement On t h e  other  will  mind),  s i n c e the  be d i s c u s s e d  hand,  w e l l be C h r i s t i n e ' s v o i c e  the  questions  arise:  it  is this  imply simply that Herbert  her time?  questions  indirect  free  it  i s one o f many, (that  several  is a  end o f the  that arise  discourse;  is,  it  because i t to the  says  statement or  C h r i s t i n e has d e c i d e d H e r b e r t  of  plot  And i f i t  T h i s i s a s m a l l example o f the  interpretative  the  a general  c o m i n g so c l o s e t o t h e  imply that  case,  her  does not have a c c e s s t o  p s y c h i c i n f o r m a t i o n she d o e s ?  it  In t h i s  might  the  what d o e s C h r i s t i n e mean when she  "knew n o t h i n g " :  statement,  speaks i n  opening sentence suggests that  c e n t r e s on C h r i s t i n e .  detail  "who knew n o t h i n g "  (the v o i c e t h a t  paragraph  Herbert  a significant  raises  the  general novella,  does  i s a waste of  kinds of  as a r e s u l t  remains  does  of the  significant  questions  because  central  relationship of C h r i s t i n e  use  and  to  47 Herbert),  and because  i t demonstrates  the  ultimate  u n r e s o l v a b i l i t y o f many q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s mode of  expression.  Chatman a d d r e s s e s t h i s  unresolvability:  Sometimes i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e words i n i n d i r e c t f r e e form a r e the c h a r a c t e r ' s o r the n a r r a t o r ' s . . . T h i s i s not a n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , s i n c e t h e m e r g i n g o f t h e two v o i c e s may w e l l be an intended aesthetic effect. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s " I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r who s a y s o r t h i n k s t h i s ; i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o b o t h c h a r a c t e r and n a r r a t o r . " The a m b i g u i t y may s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o n d b e t w e e n t h e t w o , make u s t r u s t s t i l l more t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a u t h o r i t y . Perhaps we s h o u l d s p e a k o f " n e u t r a l i z a t i o n " o r " u n i f i c a t i o n , " r a t h e r than ambiguity. (206)  Neutralization  i s however not a l w a y s the e f f e c t .  whether the n a r r a t o r or the c h a r a c t e r nothing;  the e f f e c t s  are d i f f e r e n t .  characters,  It  it  is possible  and c h a r a c t e r s  implied  of reading.  authors,  a r e c o m p l i c a t e d , and w h i l e i t  n o t n e c e s s a r y t o be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y  a n y segment o f a  as b e l o n g i n g t o one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e m ,  it  to  narrators,  a l l a large part  R e l a t i o n s among a u t h o r s , narrators  may n o t be p o s s i b l e  and f o r m i n g o p i n i o n s about  and a c t i o n i s a f t e r  matters  s a y s H e r b e r t knew  t o make a n a b s o l u t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , b u t form an o p i n i o n ,  It  is helpful  is text to  h a v e some s e n s e o f who t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e b e f o r e one b e g i n s the process of examining the voices.  i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e i r  48 1.  "he";  "him";  "himself"  [sic]  2. Booth uses the phrase " o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n " "second s e l f " and " i m p l i e d a u t h o r . "  interchangeably with  3 . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i m p l i e d a u t h o r a n d n a r r a t o r g r o w s i n c r e a s i n g l y muddy when i t comes t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e reliable narrator. B o o t h c a l l s "a n a r r a t o r reliable when he [sic] s p e a k s f o r o r a c t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e norms o f t h e w o r k ( w h i c h i s t o s a y , t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r ' s n o r m s ) , u n r e l i a b l e when he [ s i c ] does n o t " ( 1 5 8 - 9 ) . B u t i f , a c c o r d i n g t o B o o t h , an i m p l i e d a u t h o r can have a v o i c e i n a t e x t , and i f t h e r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r " s p e a k s f o r . . . t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r ' s n o r m s , " t h e n how i s i t p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the n a r r a t o r s p e a k i n g f o r the i m p l i e d a u t h o r and the i m p l i e d a u t h o r s p e a k i n g ? Chatman d o e s n o t a d d r e s s t h i s p r o b l e m , b u t i t i s i m p l i c i t i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n as w e l l : "The u n r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r i s a t v i r t u a l o d d s w i t h t h e i m p l i e d author; otherwise h i s [sic] u n r e l i a b i l i t y c o u l d not emerge" (14 9) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e l i a b l e n a r r a t o r i s n o t a t odds w i t h t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n b e c o m e s : what d e g r e e o f sameness i s i m p l i e d b y " n o t a t o d d s " ? 4 . "The n o n - o r m i n i m a l l y - m e d i a t e d n a r r a t i v e r e c o r d s n o t h i n g beyond the speech o r v e r b a l i z e d thoughts o f c h a r a c t e r s . Such m i n i m a l marks o f n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n c e . . . as ' h e t h o u g h t ' o r 'he s a i d ' may be d e l e t e d . . . " (Chatman 166)  49  CHAPTER TWO  A D I S T I N C T I V E V O I C E : REPETITION AND SURPRISE I N LEON ROOKE'S "SHUT UP"  L e o n Rooke a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a known w r i t e r short  stories  i n 1969,  a  little-  f r o m N o r t h C a r o l i n a w i t h one c o l l e c t i o n o f to his c r e d i t .  S i n c e t h a t t i m e he h a s  t o O n t a r i o and p u b l i s h e d t w e l v e more c o l l e c t i o n s o f fiction,  several  plays,  has b y now e s t a b l i s h e d Canadian l i t e r a r y critical Their  and t h r e e n o v e l s . h i m s e l f as  scene,  attention.  figure  received  in  "So f a r ,  Rooke r e m a i n s  m a g i c i a n l o v e d w i s e l y and w e l l ,  but  a  the  scant  K e i t h G a r e b i a n i n Canadian  Works w r i t e s :  short  A l t h o u g h Rooke  a major  h i s work has  moved  Writers  and  literary  who s o f a r  has  not  r e c e i v e d h i s due s h a r e o f c r i t i c a l  analysis"(138)--that  in  changed  1989,  and the  situation  has  not  The r e a s o n s f o r R o o k e ' s r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y are  not  clear.  R o o k e ' s e a r l y works are fictions  c e r t a i n l y are.  Garebian points not It  may be t h a t ,  much.  critical out  available--but  was  his  t h a t many o f later  d e s p i t e the  success  50 of  a few w r i t e r s  short  story  is  s u c h a s A l i c e Munro a n d M a v i s G a l l a n t ,  still  considered a lesser  a women's g e n r e - - a n d seriously a fiction novels.  It's  that  t h a t the  There  p r i m a r i l y not  d i c t i o n and rhythms  i s a l s o the  characteristic  weirdness  matter of  it  who a r e  s t r a n g e c r e a t u r e s t a n g l e d up i n b i z a r r e  events .  question  o f how t o a p p r o a c h ,  fiction.  Pierre Spriet writes  dans ses  nouvelles,  trouve  le lecteur  (137).  There are  d'en  faire  two c h i e f  symbolism and n a r r a t i v e struggle  between  Rooke's f i c t i o n , symbols--but  it  symbols o f .  At times  of  i s often  Christian morality,  thematic  i s often  at  the  partly  c l e a r what  the  often  that  through  symbols  i s undercut.  describes  the  core of  t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a s t r o n g but  se  thematically,  manifested  not  "Ce q u i  referentielle"  work h e r e :  First,  K i r k w o o d i n an i n t e r v i e w i n Brick novel:  at  the Rooke's  1 ' i m p o s s i b i l i t e ou  factors  a struggle  understand  une l e c t u r e  good and e v i l  often  for readers i s  of Rooke's s t o r i e s :  voice.  difficult  2  respond to,  c'est  to  is  t o i d e n t i f y w i t h some o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s ,  frappe  of  the  of Rooke's s t o r i e s :  Another p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t y  even  taking  v o i c e s sound t o o f o r e i g n t o a p p e a l  Canadian e a r s . 1  c r i t i c s have d i f f i c u l t y  w r i t e r whose w o r k s a r e  possible  Rooke's f i c t i o n a l  genre--perhaps  the  Rooke's  are element Hilda 1989  51 A Good Baby seems t o be a b o u t t h e s t r u g g l e beween Good and E v i l , t h e s e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s e m b o d i e d f i r m l y i n two e x t r e m e s , Truman t h e m u r d e r e r and mad p r e a c h e r who i s t h e D e v i l , o r a d e v i l , i n human f o r m , a n d t h e Good B a b y who i s a b a b y J e s u s f i g u r e , i f I am n o t m i s t a k e n , female i n t h i s case, w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g influence on t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d t h e m . (29) This i s quintessential ambiguous  Rooke: a moral s t r u g g l e peppered w i t h  and p a r a d o x i c a l  girl-Jesus.  symbols:  the  L a w r e n c e Mathews i n " ' A B o l t  L e o n Rooke as terminology"  Parabolist" i n that  identifies  s t o r y but  the  of c h a r a c t e r s or motifs  the  is a a text  of  "It  theology  notes that  o r wisdom" several  A Good Baby m i g h t (45).  The c l o t h  example  it  could just  which i s  to say t h a t i n the  claims,  c r i t i c s have n o t e d , between r e a l they refuse same way,  l i t e r a l refers the  real  beside brand  it  could,  imaginary,  metaphysical  but  worlds , 3  divides the  more s i g n i f i c a n t or  as  fictions  and i m a g i n a r y  t h e y work a g a i n s t  and the  s y m b o l i c c o l l i d e and the  Rooke's  theological,  in  i s a good  a structure that  to another,  symbolic,  I n R o o k e ' s work t h e the  of White Cloth")  other  boundary  the  tragedy  as e a s i l y s u g g e s t a w h o l e h o s t o f  the  (for example,  from Greek  (128),  dissolve  the  is  symbolize speech  As s e v e r a l  that  ultimately,  as B i b l i c a l  indeterminate symbolism:  things.  those worlds;  "religious  apparently C h r i s t i a n references  ( i n "A B o l t  Daniele Pitavy-Souques  Cloth':  And M i c h e l e Kaltemback  equally well derive  of Rooke's  the  t h a t p r o m o t e s no p a r t i c u l a r  (108-9).  of the  of White  argues t h a t ,  identification point:  devil-preacher,  idea level  metaphorical). the  i s as  literal likely  and to  52 inhere  i n a s o c k as an e p i p h a n y .  some r e a d e r s a r e with theology,  left  The e f f e c t  wondering whether  morality,  of t h i s  they are  or something e l s e ,  is  that  dealing  a n d what  the  symbols s y m b o l i z e .  My f i n a l  s p e c u l a t i o n as t o t h e  lack of  w r i t i n g a b o u t R o o k e ' s work i s t h a t much o f h i s d r i v e n by s t r o n g v o i c e s , difficult point  to analyze  critical  fiction  and t h a t k i n d o f w r i t i n g c a n  (because v o i c e i s not  for l i t e r a r y investigation,  often  a  because t h e r e i s  no  it--the  often  Hancock and Stephen  undefined).  Geoff  both h i g h l i g h t the p e r f o r m a t i v e I n 1995 The P o r c u p i n e ' s Q u i l l  Muffins,  c o n t a i n i n g one s t o r y a n d a 4 5 r . p . m . v i n y l reading  i t - - R o o k e ' s v o i c e becomes,  the package,  and the  a u d i t o r y as w e l l Companion  to Canadian  quite  reader's experience  as v i s u a l .  "voice"  q u a l i t y of Rooke's  released  itself Scobie  art . 4  a t h i n book  r e c o r d o f Rooke  literally, of the  F r a n k D a v e y i n The  Literature  be  starting  vocabulary w i t h which to discuss remains  term  is  text  part  of  is  Oxford  writes:  I n c o n t i n u a l l y t e s t i n g t h e l i m i t s o f f i c t i o n , he d e l i b e r a t e l y weakens t r a d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e r e a l i s t i c story. Often there i s l i t t l e u n i t y of a c t i o n : the n a r r a t o r , as i n " B r u s h f i r e " , prefers f r e q u e n t d i g r e s s i o n t o t h e t a l e he o r i g i n a l l y s e t o u t to t e l l . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r i s o f t e n m i n i m a l , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t many o f R o o k e ' s s t o r i e s h a v e t h e q u a l i t y o f p a r a b l e o r f a b l e - - s k e l e t a l dramas enacted by g e n e r i c f i g u r e s . A l t h o u g h i n some s t o r i e s s e t t i n g c a n be g i v e n i n s u c h d e t a i l t h a t i t becomes t h e d o m i n a n t e l e m e n t . . . i n many i t i s c o m p l e t e l y absent. (712-13)  If  narrators  don't  s t i c k to t h e i r  characterization i s minimal,  narratives,  and s e t t i n g  i s absent,  then  a n y o n e e m b a r k i n g on a n a n a l y s i s m i g h t have t r o u b l e d e c i d i n g where t o b e g i n .  Of c o u r s e ,  D a v e y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n does  apply to a l l of Rooke's s t o r i e s , the  but  Simone V a u t h i e r o p e n s  t h i r d paragraph of her reading of  "The B i r t h  K i n g o f the Upper V o l t a "  w i t h a comment t h a t  much o f R o o k e ' s f i c t i o n :  "What we p e r c e i v e f i r s t  (10).  called  This section w i l l  characterizes i s a voice"  r e p e t i t i o n and  involving protagonist  Gordon,  mysterious black f i g u r e .  There i s an argument  figure  t o as  figure,  blinded.  and a  at  appears,  dispute  i n w h i c h she t e l l s h i m t o  about  W h e n e v e r he  " i t " o r "he")  narrative  h i s w i f e and son,  the t e l e v i s i o n  During these c o n f l i c t s ,  e n t e r s and d e p a r t s  darkness,  narrative:  first-person  t o i t s v o l u m e ) , a n d one a b o u t  o n l y t o Gordon.  Who Do You  The s t o r y o p e n s w i t h a  between Gordon and h i s w i f e ,  t o buy some).  story  surprise.  " S h u t Up" i s a s h o r t  objects  of the  what?  examine a  " S h u t Up" f r o m R o o k e ' s 1992 c o l l e c t i o n  Love? a n d e x a m i n e two k e y e l e m e n t s  up.  Control  B u t once t h e v o i c e h a s b e e n p e r c e i v e d , t h e n  How t o t a l k a b o u t v o i c e ?  not  shoes  shut  (Gordon  (she w a n t s h i m  the mysterious b l a c k  intervals, visible  initially  (the b l a c k f i g u r e i s  referred  Gordon i s enveloped i n  Gordon goes o u t d o o r s  who l e a d s h i m t o a s h o e s t o r e  to confront  and buys him an  the  54 expensive p a i r of shoes. does not b e l i e v e i n the Gordon bought shoes;  the  the wife  son s i t  figure  who now a p p e a r s t o t h e t h e w i f e has  stopped  This i s  speaking to  does not just  no s e t t i n g  featuring  i n the  the  two s o u r c e s  shoes  figure,  end o f t h e  Rooke  speak o f  story  blackness  all  o r some o t h e r  symbols are of domestic  the  entity,  ambiguous.  and d a r k n e s s but  that  issue  all  tradition  tropes  could  entirely.  t e l e v i s i o n and  the  conflict.  Repetition  repetition:  paragraph  of  " S h u t Up" i s  full  in  and  a p o w e r f u l and m y s t e r i o u s motifs,  story:  (a h o u s e  a bizarre  a p p e a r t o be i n v o k e d o t h e r w i s e - - s u c h  The f i r s t and  to  Christian tradition,  The two m a j o r p o t e n t i a l  1.  By the  5  as e a s i l y i m p l y r a c e ,  shoes,  their  i n many ways a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  tropes of blindness,  have a p l a c e  l o o k i n g at  his  them.  and a v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e t h e m a t i c The c h i e f  Gordon and  an E i g h t y - t h i r d S t r e e t ) ,  unrealistic plot  and c l a i m s  v i s i t s of the b l a c k  s o n as w e l l .  characterization,  a t o w n t h a t has  see  family.  night  repeated  surprisingly,  The s o n t a k e s G o r d o n ' s o l d  i s angry w i t h her  i n t h e b o y ' s room a t  not  she c a n n o t  shoes h i m s e l f .  and e x p e r i e n c i n g the  little  Gordon's wife,  of  dialogue  55 " Y o u must do me t h e f a v o r o f d o i n g me t h e f a v o r o f shutting up." T h a t i s what she s a i d . I t i s how she talks. I t o l d her not t o t a l k t h a t way. T a l k human, I t o l d her. "When i t comes t o t h a t , " she s a i d , " y o u d o n ' t t a l k so s t r a i g h t y o u r s e l f . No y o u d o n ' t . " Please stop t a l k i n g l i k e that, I s a i d . "Talk, t a l k , " she s a i d . "That's a l l I ever hear. Why d o n ' t y o u be Q.U.I.E.T.? Why d o n ' t y o u S h u t . Up?" (112)  The o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e r e p e a t s t h e title  and draws a t t e n t i o n  nonsensical repetition favor."  The n e x t  the  to i t s e l f  "do me t h e  w i t h the  + "what"/"how"  + verb.  the verbs which conclude the  to the  the  remainder  differences  the  end o f the  it  verb  between  further  statements;  clauses  t h i r d provides a  of the paragraph:  " t a l k s " b r i n g s the close,  subordinate  c l o s e of the  verb,  six-word  are  transition  one o f t h e most  sentences i s the and the v e r b ' s  obvious  tense s h i f t  p o s i t i o n of  sentence h i g h l i g h t s that  also initiates  a new r e p e t i t i v e  in  shift.  S o , when a  sequence based  " t o t a l k , " w h i c h a p p e a r s s i x more t i m e s b e f o r e The f o u r t h s e n t e n c e ,  to t a l k that way," i n a d d i t i o n to r e p e a t i n g  the  emphasis  second of the p a i r e d sentences to  end o f the p a r a g r a p h .  +  But w h i l e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s form a  between the  second p r e d i c a t e  the  another  second and t h i r d s e n t e n c e s i s r e i n f o r c e d by  twinned p a i r ,  the  The s i m i l a r i t y  p a r a l l e l s - - b o t h sentences are b r i e f ,  at  odd and  [impersonal t h i r d p e r s o n pronoun]  + "she"  m o n o s y l l a b i c synonyms.  story's  f a v o r o f d o i n g me  two s e n t e n c e s r e p e a t one  s t r u c t u r a l l y as f o l l o w s : "is"  e x p r e s s i o n i n the  "I t o l d her "talk,"  also  on the not  56 i n c l u d e s the v a r i a n t told her,"  a clause  s i x t h and s e v e n t h the  " t o l d , " which appears i n the phrase repeated  i n the  sentences repeat  fifth  sentence.  the words  "you  "I  The don't";  e i g h t h and n i n t h f e a t u r e u t t e r a n c e s i n c l u d i n g  "talk(ing)"  f o l l o w e d b y " I s a i d " a n d "she  two s e n t e n c e s a r e  questions  final  two w o r d s o f t h e p a r a g r a p h  title.  Then comes t h e new p a r a g r a p h , assume t o be a b o u t  i n s t e a d resumes the  ("That  i n c l u d e s an i r o n i c q u e s t i o n about  the  last  you...";  c i r c l e back t o  the  w h i c h one m i g h t  something d i f f e r e n t ,  discussion  ("have I made my p o i n t ? " )  The  b e g i n n i n g "Why d o n ' t  and the  reasonably  said."  but  i s how she  talks"),  proceedings  and c o n t i n u e s  which  thus  the p a t t e r n  far  of  r e p e t i t i o n w i t h v a r i a t i o n by c o n t r i v i n g a p e c u l i a r l y p h y s i c a l v e r s i o n of tongue  " T h i s i s how she t a l k s " :  i s how h e r  moves."  Repetition--of common t e c h n i q u e different  words,  o f humour,  p a r t s of the  repetition, opening  "It  of ideas,  and i t  story.  images--is  takes different  There  a  forms  in  i s simple verbal  a n e x a m p l e o f w h i c h a p p e a r s one p a g e a f t e r  the  paragraph:  Now I do n o t n o r m a l l y w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n . I am a n o r m a l p e r s o n , b u t I do n o t n o r m a l l y w a t c h i t . As a matter of f a c t , I hate i t . T h a t i s how n o r m a l I am. In a normal y e a r , say s i x o r seven times I w i l l watch television. (113)  57 R e p e t i t i o n of ideas verbal  often occurs through a combination of  r e p e t i t i o n and p a r a p h r a s e o r v a r i a t i o n ; the  passage a l s o a p p e a r s on the  story's  second  following  page:  F o r , once t h e y had s p o k e n , a l a r g e b l a c k f i g u r e s t r o d e i n t o my r o o m . A l a r g e , INERT b l a c k f i g u r e , o n c e i t h a d g o t w h e r e i t was g o i n g . Huge. W e - - a l l t h r e e of us--were cast under i t s s p e l l . S u c h a n ENORMOUS b l a c k f i g u r e . I had never imagined s u c h a f i g u r e c o u l d be s o l a r g e . I c o u l d not imagine how, e v e n c r o u c h i n g , i t c o u l d h a v e come t h r o u g h t h e front door. We were u n d e r i t s s p e l l . I said that. We c o u l d not say a word. We no l o n g e r c o u l d see e a c h o t h e r . T h a t ' s how b l a c k i t . w a s . (113) This passage i l l u s t r a t e s to characterize  the  first  above,  paragraph  black figure" "INERT," size,  a v a r i e t y of techniques  comic v o i c e of the n a r r a t i o n .  from the  the  capitals  do,  first,  varying i t  does not  so t h a t even a word not  emphasis,  ("Huge"),  a s i n g l e word i s o l a t e d  seems b o t h t o e n c a p s u l a t e  p r e v i o u s one;  it  summarizes the  continues  the  expansion,  connote having to idea. for  i d e a and u s e s a t e r m  through  The t h i r d  "huge"  Once t h e p a t t e r n  has been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  abandoned,  its  to  do  The  the that  paragraph  a d d i n g "ENORMOUS," s o t h a t t h e r e  a p r o g r e s s i o n from " l a r g e "  since  the  "large  a n d t o e x p a n d on  s u g g e s t s a s i z e g r e a t e r than, " l a r g e . "  serve  s l i g h t l y by adding  w i t h s i z e i s muscled i n t o c o n t r i b u t i n g to that next paragraph  In  second sentence repeats  and a l t h o u g h the word " i n e r t "  the  which  is  "ENORMOUS."  though,  c o n t i n u a t i o n w o u l d become  it  is  predictable;  58 instead of adding further to  "large,"  adjectives,  pausing to r e f l e c t  the n a r r a t o r  on t h a t  largeness  s e n t e n c e s w h i c h open w i t h s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n : imagined..." paragraph  and "I c o u l d not  variation--the In the its  first  spell"  instance the  three of us,"  with a  opening sentence of the "We--all  repetition  paragraph  been e x p l a i n e d .  The o p e n i n g o f t h e its  spell.  opening of the paragraph acknowledges the  extent  figure  ("We c o u l d n o t . . .  narrator  cast  it  have  paragraph repeats  a l s o echoes  a half After  to which the  a p a g e up  the ("I  and  beginning of said that.  are mesmerized by  "That's  the  repeatedly  figure's  but w i t h o u t the  emphasis  R e p e t i t i o n i s t h e most first  couple o f pages o f  such frequency;  its  consequences  time  size.  s t r i k i n g device i n  are  numerous.  was,"  mentioned  accorded i t s  " S h u t Up" b e c a u s e i t  the  the  how b l a c k i t  b l a c k n e s s - - w h i c h has been  I  elaborate  as i f t o s u g g e s t t h a t he has b e e n t a l k i n g a l l t h i s about  already  the  We no l o n g e r c o u l d . . . " ) ,  concludes the paragraph,  to  above  two s e n t e n c e s w h i c h  characters  under  adjunct  immediately preceding i t ,  which figures  on the  last  I said that")  repetition;  said that").  follows.  explanation " a l l  s i t u a t i o n and the p a r t i c i p a n t s  definitely  it  w h i c h as a p h r a s e i s an u n n e c e s s a r y  ("We were u n d e r  final  slight  three of us--were  l i e s i n the  never  The  "we" b e c a u s e t h e  a paragraph  i n two  "I had  imagine h o w . . . . "  c i t e d above r e p e a t s - - a g a i n  goes back  occurs  the with  A l t h o u g h the  citations  a b o v e may n o t s o u n d f u n n y ,  that  i s because  are b e i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d and e x p l i c a t e d r a t h e r the o v e r a l l functions  effect  speakers.  which are  s u b j e c t but to share and h i s w i f e  read;  also  and c o n n e c t s  In the opening paragraph,  i s r e p e a t e d by Gordon and h i s w i f e ;  statements,  than  Repetition  as a d e v i c e w h i c h b o t h s e p a r a t e s  v o i c e s of the "talk"  on r e a d i n g i s c o m i c .  they  it  the  links  word  their  shown n o t m e r e l y t o f o c u s o n t h e the  same v o c a b u l a r y , s o t h a t  the  same  t h e man  seem e v e n i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e i r a r g u m e n t  to  h a v e some k i n d o f common g r o u n d , a common l a n g u a g e .  Certain  phrases,  be  h o w e v e r , come, t h r o u g h t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n , t o  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one c h a r a c t e r o r a n o t h e r , refrain  ("shut  the husband don't"),  up")  sets i t s e l f  ("Please stop t a l k i n g l i k e  that,"  the w i f e ' s  rather  r u d e demand  the end o f the s t o r y ,  it  The n a r r a t o r ' s  that")  ("Please"),  ("shut  up").  on  speech g i v e s  i n contrast  with  Ironically,  by  i s t h e w i f e who h a s s h u t u p , who  has r e s p o n d e d t o the n a r r a t o r ' s like  wife's  "Please  a n d t h e d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n them comes t o c e n t r e  impression of p o l i t e reason  talking  the  up i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t o f  i s s u e s o f speech and s i l e n c e . the  so t h a t  request  by c e a s i n g t o speak  ("Please  stop  altogether.  60  2.  Surprise  I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f A Bolt Pitavy-Souques formulates lies  at  the heart  of  White  Cloth,  Daniele  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n that  of Rooke's work--surprise:  A 1 ' o r i g i n e de c e s t e x t e s , p l u s q u ' u n p r o p o s b a r o q u e , i l y a p r o j e t m e t a p h y s i q u e : non pas d e s i r d ' a f f i r m e r une t r a n s c e n d a n c e m a i s s u s c i t e r l ' e t o n n e m e n t p h i l o s p h i q u e p a r l e q u e l l'homme p e u t a p p r e h e n d e r s a condition. (134)  I n some o f R o o k e ' s s t o r i e s , innocence.  surprise  i s associated  Simone V a u t h i e r i n h e r a n a l y s i s o f  C o n t r o l K i n g of the Upper V o l t a "  raises  A d l a i ' s u n r e l i a b i l i t y as a n a r r a t o r ; Adlai's unreliability,  she a r g u e s ,  with  "The  Birth  the q u e s t i o n of  one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f  h a s t o do w i t h  his  surprise:  the n a r r a t o r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e and o f e v e n t s may s t r i k e u s a s l i m i t e d , t o s a y t h e l e a s t . When, o n the t e l e p h o n e , the P o l e e x c l a i m s , "Oh, i t ' s y o u , the nincompoop"... A d l a i i s b a f f l e d . . . . His very surprise betrays his s i m p l i c i t y . (12)  In  "Shut U p , " t h e n a r r a t o r  equally baffled  by the  i s n o t as c h i l d l i k e  i n the  but  s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h he f i n d s h i m s e l f .  The m a i n r e a s o n f o r h i s s u r p r i s e b l a c k t h i n g , but  as A d l a i  i s the appearance  course o f the n a r r a t i o n  his  of  the  s u r p r i s e d tone  i s h e a r d more t h a n o n c e .  Gordon's.statement the  conflict;  it  For example,  " T h a t TV i s t o o l o u d "  i s f o l l o w e d by t h i s  appears  to  initiate  paragraph:  I said that. I definitely said that. S u c h i s how these present d i f f i c u l t i e s got s t a r t e d . I t d i d not seem t o me a mean t h i n g t o s a y . (113)  The  utterance  loud,"  I said')  sentence  instead,  the e f f e c t  i n the  that."  but  o f t h i s arrangement  r e a d i n g between the u t t e r a n c e  The p a u s e  narrator's  and the  full  sentence  surprise  said that":  up a  and "I  the  "definitely," instead creates  a pause  in  as i f  This  "I  sense  definitely  which might convey confidence the  impression that of the  fact  said i t  Then t h e r e a s o n f o r  i s explained: Gordon's utterance  "these present i s at  difficulties." least  s o much t r o u b l e ;  to  the  the that  s a i d what he d i d , t h a t he i s h a v i n g t r o u b l e i m a g i n i n g  surprise  a  said  story,  repetition,  i s t r y i n g to convince himself  c o u l d have s a i d s u c h a t h i n g .  full  the  i s to create  were s u r p r i s e d a t what he s a i d .  i s h e i g h t e n e d by the  authority,  narrator  too  g i v e more w e i g h t  t h o u g h t w h i l e he i s t e l l i n g t h e  Gordon h i m s e l f  and  TV i s  the a t t r i b u t i o n takes  the a d m i s s i o n , but they a l s o suggest  of  ('"That  a n d i s s i t u a t e d one p a r a g r a p h b r e a k a f t e r  utterance; pause  c o u l d have been t a g g e d  i s the  cause of  p a r t l y b e c a u s e what he s a i d h a s the  he  his  I f he i s amazed b y what  h i s s u r p r i s e h a s t o do w i t h  he  he  caused  62 consequences admitted  o f h i s s p e e c h as w e l l  culpability,  Gordon seeks  i n i t i a t i n g the c o n f l i c t : to say."  "It  to downplay h i s r o l e  d i d not  subject  in  seem t o me a mean t h i n g  of the n a r r a t i v e ,  the  and t h a t  he  i t by s p e a k i n g .  G o r d o n ' s w i f e and son b u r s t him t o shut up,  language which i t s e l f imagined...  under i t s  suggests  a l l o f them  spell";  say a w o r d . . . " ) . his wife  of h i s appearance  I c o u l d not  stuns  speaks,  i n t o h i s room a n d  the b l a c k f i g u r e e n t e r s ,  d e s c r i b e s the e f f e c t  figure  Having  B u t t h e p o i n t h a s b e e n made t h a t he s t a r t e d  t r o u b l e which i s the started  as i t s o r i g i n .  imagine...").  and Gordon  on the  surprise  family  in a  ("I h a d n e v e r He r e p e a t s t h a t  ("We--all three of us--were  "We were u n d e r i t s  spell...  the  cast  We c o u l d  He muses f o r a t i m e o n b l i n d n e s s , as i f n o t h i n g h a s  tell  not  and  then  happened:  I n the b l a c k n e s s , under t h e shade o f t h i s g i g a n t i c f e l l o w , I h e a r d h e r s a y , " I s t h a t c l e a r ? " A n d my s o n s a y i n g "Yeah, Dad, i s t h a t c l e a r ? " A s i f t h e y were t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t o f t h i s g i a n t f i g u r e b l a c k e n i n g the room. Quite amazing, I thought. W e l l , I t h o u g h t , t h e y l e a d charmed l i v e s . (114)  Gordon expresses the reader not v i s i b l e  h i s amazement d i r e c t l y ,  i s as s u r p r i s e d as he i s t h a t t o the w i f e and s o n .  t h a t Gordon has d e s c r i b e d the  and at  this  point  the b l a c k f i g u r e  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s  is  is  i n c i d e n t as i f t h e y s h a r e d  his  63 reactions. the  But the n a r r a t o r  s t o r y i s not  them.  the  who i s t e l l i n g  same as t h e  V a u t h i e r comments o n t h e  character distance  C o n t r o l K i n g o f the Upper V o i t a " selves,  the  'innocent'  self  t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d s e l f Up,"  I-character--has  audience  events  i n "The  Birth "two  who woke up t h a t m o r n i n g ,  he now h a s become"  i n effect  (11).  I-narrator,  the  narrator,  Gordon t e l l s the  the  been m a n i p u l a t i n g h i s  are  reflected  H i s e x p e r i e n c e and h i s s t a t u s as  happen/what  these present  has happened  difficulties  s e c t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the the  identities  events  I-narrator  got  first  i n effect  started").  appearance  poses  as t h e  t o s a y t h a t he t e m p o r a r i l y assumes t h a t he may t h e n be s u r p r i s e d ,  the  o f what  " S u c h i s how But i n  the  of the b l a c k  I-character, role of  figure,  which  a n d s o t h a t we may be  "Shut U p , " s u r p r i s e  Gordon t o a g r e a t e r works.  understanding  His expressions  does not  seem t o  o f t h e way t h e  o f s u r p r i s e may r e n d e r  is  innocent--so  surprised with him.  In  of  the  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  (for example:  the  narrator  i n g e n e r a l i z i n g comments w h i c h c o n v e y  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he knows a n d h a s will  This  s t o r y i n t h e p a s t t e n s e as  one who h a s a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e  the n a r r a t i v e .  "Shut  opposed  i n t o s u r p r i s e by w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  "I."  and  In  as  w i t h h o l d i n g h a s t o do w i t h a t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e of  of  who e x p e r i e n c e d  between A d l a i ' s  t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d s e l f - - t h e  to the  the  lead world  him,  like  64 Adlai,  less  narrator  c r e d i b l e as a n a r r a t o r .  to character  The s h i f t  which a l l o w s the  reader  from  to  be  s u r p r i s e d w i t h Gordon c r e a t e s a p r e c e d e n t - - i t  suggests  further  narrator  m a n i p u l a t i o n s may be i n s t o r e  s h o u l d n o t be t r u s t e d the  implicitly.  o p p o r t u n i t y to say her p i e c e ,  find  her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of events  and t h e  When t h e w i f e it  that  is given  is difficult  not  more c r e d i b l e .  to  According  to Gordon,  t h e b l a c k f i g u r e has t a k e n him t o a shoe  and bought  him an e x p e n s i v e p a i r o f  store  shoes:  B u t t h e w i f e a c c e p t s none o f t h i s . She s a y s , "What b i g b l a c k f i g u r e ? Have y o u gone c r a z y ? Can't you admit t o the simple act? T h a t y o u b o u g h t t h o s e new shoes? No? T h e n S h u t . U p . " (116)  On t h e one h a n d , sensible--because is  t h e w i f e ' s p o s i t i o n seems e m i n e n t l y of the  a s k i n g her to accept.  i m p l a u s i b i l i t y of the On t h e  soon begins appearing to the reader,  i f not the w i f e ,  Gordon's story. with surprise, to accept the  other,  Gordon responds  to the  his wife with d i s b e l i e f .  resigned sort  s t o r y he c o n t i n u e s o f way, a t  figure  so t h a t  the  some c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f  t h e u n l i k e l y does n o t a p p e a r  end o f the  the b l a c k  son as w e l l ,  receives  events Gordon  events  he  describes  But h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to help him.  t o be b a f f l e d ,  how t h i n g s have t u r n e d  And at  though i n a out.  65  " S h u t Up" o p e n s i n t h e  middle of a heated dialogue;  c l o s e s w i t h Gordon c o n t e m p l a t i n g h i s Gordon and h i s occasionally; the  son, the  s i t t i n g i n the  effect  voice continues  boy's  room,  woman s p e a k s t o n e i t h e r  b l a c k f i g u r e may be c o n s t r u e d  had the  situation  o f s i l e n c i n g the even i n the  in  as r e p r e s e n t i n g ,  family,  darkness,  but  the  silence.  converse  o f them.  only  Whatever it  has  narrator's  summing u p ,  not  c e a s i n g t o be s u r p r i s e d b y t h e w o r l d o r t o a r t i c u l a t e surprise.  it  that  66 1. A number o f c r i t i c s h a v e n o t e d S o u t h e r n - s o u n d i n g i d i o m s a n d s p e e c h ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , J . R . S t r u t h e r s ' 1981 r e v i e w , o r H i l d a K i r k w o o d ' s 1994 i n t e r v i e w ) . 2. G a r e b i a n argues t h a t "the p e c u l i a r i t y o f h i s [Rooke's] v i s i o n a n d t h e c o m p r e s s e d i n t e n s i t y o f h i s f o r m do c o n t r i b u t e t o p o p u l a r misconceptions of his c r a f t . . . The a b n o r m a l i t y o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s o b s c u r e d f o r s e v e r a l c r i t i c s t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f t h e w o r k s " (139) . 3.  See,  f o r example,  Vauthier  (18-22)  and S p r i e t  (139).  4 . See H a n c o c k ' s "The H i - T e c h W o r l d o f L e o n R o o k e " i n a s p e c i a l i s s u e o f Canadian Fiction Magazine d e v o t e d t o R o o k e ' s w o r k , a n d S c o b i e ' s m u c h - c i t e d r e v i e w o f Death Suite a n d The Magician in  Love.  5 . Rooke d i s c u s s e s C l i n t Burnham:  setting  and p l a c e  i n a 1986 i n t e r v i e w w i t h  P l a c e has n e v e r meant t h a t much t o me. We a r e a v e r y m o b i l e s o c i e t y now a n d we t a k e - - o r d o n ' t t a k e - - o u r p l a c e s w i t h u s where we g o . Boundaries a r e n ' t f i x e d . A n d more t h a n t h a t , t h e p l a c e where we most l i v e i s i n o u r h e a d s , i n o u r imaginations. B u t I see s e t t i n g a n d p l a c e as two d i f f e r e n t things. I t ' s e s s e n t i a l t h a t most s t o r i e s h a v e a s e t t i n g . But " s e t t i n g " i s a k i t c h e n , a bedroom, an a p a r t m e n t o r h o u s e , on a s t r e e t c o r n e r o r j o b s i t e o r i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h a t ' s where we l i v e , w h e r e t h e d r a m a t i c s t r u g g l e o r c o n f l i c t t a k e s p l a c e , and n i n e t i m e s out o f t e n i t m a t t e r s l i t t l e w h e t h e r t h a t room o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s i n T o r o n t o o r V i c t o r i a , or Miami, Ohio, o r Sydney, A u s t r a l i a . (6)  67  CHAPTER  THREE  NARRATIVE VOICE AND SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS  I N TERRY  GRIGGS'  "UNFINISHED"  T e r r y G r i g g s was b o r n i n L i t t l e M a n i t o u l i n I s l a n d i n 1 9 5 1 ; she Her  c o l l e c t i o n of short  1990 a n d a n o v e l ,  Man i s an e x u b e r a n t ,  Lusty  possesses the in  the  least  l i v e s i n London,  stories,  The Lusty  Quickening,  energetic  same e n e r g y b u t  chapter the  will  the  examine the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  paragraphs, of  idiom,  e x p l o r e the  o t h e r s and t h e i r  it  in  language  Even  Quickening of prose,  rhythm of a sentence.  story  The  Quickening  differently.  fictions,  analyze  n a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e i n the  opening  different  narrator  interplay,  v o i c e s of the  with  This  "Unfinished": i t w i l l  a n d d e m o n s t r a t e t h e way i n  which aspects of s e l f - r e f l e x i v i t y i n the call  appeared  comic n o v e l ;  deploys  s e l f - r e f l e x i v e of i t s  w i t h the  Ontario.  Man, was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 9 5 .  d i s p l a y s a profound concern w i t h the image,  Current,  narrator's  voice  i n t o q u e s t i o n h e r own r o l e a n d f u n c t i o n i n t h e  text.  "Unfinished"  i s a four-page  s t o r y about  the  and  68 unexpected death of the c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the man's of  loss.  least  suggest  after  protagonist the  funeral.  tense,  aftermath.  l i n k e d by repeated  the  experience funeral--at the  The f i r s t - p e r s o n but  narrator-  r e l a t e s much  d e s c r i b i n g a n d c o m m e n t i n g on  Paragraphs are short  o r c o n n e c t e d words and images,  and although  t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one i d e a o r p a r a g r a p h t o a n o t h e r often abrupt. deceased) immediate,  The t e x t  addresses  whose f r e q u e n t and g i v e s t h e  a "you" (the n a r r a t e e ,  s t o r y an e p i s t o l a r y q u a l i t y . reader,  so t h a t  the  p r o n o u n - - a c t s as a s o u r c e o f n a r r a t i v e  and  The  same  tension.  Openings  The t i t l e o f t h e life  the  relation  between r e a d e r and l o v e r - - b o t h d e s i g n a t e d by the  1.  is  i n v o c a t i o n makes h i m seem a l i v e  "you" a l s o i m p l i c a t e s the  It  o f i n c i d e n t s and  h e r s e l f i n the present  s t o r y i n the past  the d e a t h and i t s  text  t h a t n o t v e r y much t i m e h a s p a s s e d .  w i t h the  situates  The  events  although the d e t a i l s of  an a c h r o n o l o g i c a l set  reminiscences,  lover.  s t r o k e and the n a r r a t o r ' s  The s t o r y o p e n s some t i m e a f t e r  recollection  of  narrator's  of r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the  a few d a y s l a t e r ,  closes,  (female)  and d e a t h .  the man's l i f e short,  s t o r y comments m e t o n y m i c a l l y o n  The two most o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e i s u n f i n i s h e d because  that  i t was s u d d e n l y c u t  as i f t h e r e w e r e a c e r t a i n amount o f t i m e a l l o t t e d  69 for a l i f e life,  a n d some o f h i s was t a k e n a w a y .  on the  remains  other  hand,  t o be l i v e d .  raw e m o t i o n o f g r i e f ,  is unfinished i n that  the  as  sentences which form the  splintered surfaces  opening  the  title  title  although end,  the  i s m i s s i n g , whereas  beginnings of the omissions,  sentences.  the paragraph  moonlight")  to something  unidentifiable, s t o r y the  speculate cluster death.  indicates  the  describes  Like like L i k e what  and  that  As a r e s u l t  day,"  the  "finish,"  of  a series  the  the  these  of things  "holding a river,  ("a  holding  unidentified--something  on a f i r s t  reading,  since at  this point  r e a d e r d o e s n o t know e n o u g h t o be a b l e  as t o what t h e  verbs:  incomplete,  e l l i p s e s here occur at  compares  dream i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e  the  sentences are  "unfinished" often  her  paragraph:  a dream i n the m i d d l e o f t h e d a y . r i v e r , holding moonlight, f a l l i n g L i k e remembering p a i n , i n e x a c t l y . Like nothing. (41)  suggests,  the  of  of  T h i s sequence of s i m i l e s l a c k s s u b j e c t s as t h e  it  i f a good s a n d i n g and a c o a t  More p a r t i c u l a r l y , h o w e v e r ,  Like holding a mercury. is left.  some o f  The t e r m a l s o s u g g e s t s r o u g h n e s s ,  u r e t h a n e w o u l d smooth o v e r the existence.  The woman's  something i s .  These  a r o u n d a m i s s i n g c e n t r e - - t h e gap l e f t  in  to  similes by the  man's  70  The f i r s t of  unreality,  her  The s e c o n d o f f e r s  sentence suggests the n a r r a t o r ' s  inability  to concentrate  three comparisons.  on the  neither  natural  c a n be h e l d ) .  phenomena) "Falling  complex and t h r e a t e n i n g  image,  u n c o n t r o l l e d movement o p p o s e s  present.  "Holding a r i v e r "  " h o l d i n g m o o n l i g h t " evoke b o t h the n a t u r a l moonlight are  sense  and t h e  (since r i v e r s  impossible  l i k e mercury"  i s a more  s e c u r i t y of  of  containment  connoted by " h o l d i n g . "  A n d m e r c u r y i s most commonly  associated  i n thermometers  w i t h i t s use  f a l l i n g mercury i n a thermometer  and  barometers:  i n d i c a t e s heat l o s s  because mercury thermometers  most o f t e n  temperature,  c o o l i n g of the man's  may s u g g e s t t h e  register  deviates  from the  which precede  syntactical pattern  it--the  "like"  the present p a r t i c i p l e . "falling"  r a t h e r than  emphasizes  the  corpse.  "like,"  idea of the  of the  d i r e c t l y on t h e  last  mercury"  two p h r a s e s  and the  after  foreground  o f emphasis  which  l o s s o f c o n t r o l and t h u s  three sentences,  dreamlike to  provides the  w h i c h comment  more  s t o r y a s a w h o l e . The r e p e t i t i o n o f e a c h o f  o p e n i n g images t h r o u g h o u t i s not  of the  here i s to  a shift  t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s two p a g e s l a t e r  this  like  A  an  h a s moved t o a p o s i t i o n  The e f f e c t  a t r a n s i t i o n from the n a t u r a l starkness  "Falling  and,  body  drop i n b a r o m e t r i c p r e s s u r e warns o f stormy weather, obvious m e t e o r o l o g i c a l metaphor.  and  (since  one whose s u g g e s t i o n the  and  the  1  and the  resonance  s t o r y u n d e r l i n e the  a classic expository introduction,  of  fact  that  the  the that  71  significance  of the  opening paragraphs  comprehended w i t h o u t t h e  later  meanings n e c e s s i t a t e s the describes  ones.  cannot  be  The p l u r a l i t y o f  rereading process  Roland  Barthes  i n S/Z:  We must f u r t h e r a c c e p t one l a s t f r e e d o m : t h a t o f r e a d i n g t h e t e x t as i f i t had a l r e a d y been r e a d . . . . [ F ] o r t h o s e o f u s who a r e t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a p l u r a l , we c a n n o t s t o p t h i s p l u r a l a t t h e g a t e s o f r e a d i n g : t h e r e a d i n g must a l s o be p l u r a l , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t o r d e r o f entrance... [Rereading] c o n t e s t s the c l a i m which would have us b e l i e v e t h a t the f i r s t r e a d i n g i s a p r i m a r y , n a i v e , p h e n o m e n a l r e a d i n g w h i c h we w i l l o n l y , a f t e r w a r d s , h a v e t o " e x p l i c a t e , " t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e (as i f t h e r e w e r e a b e g i n n i n g o f r e a d i n g , as i f e v e r y t h i n g were n o t a l r e a d y r e a d : t h e r e i s no f i r s t r e a d i n g . . . ) ; r e r e a d i n g i s no l o n g e r c o n s u m p t i o n , b u t p l a y . . . (15-16)  So t h a t  r e a d i n g and r e r e a d i n g ,  form p a r t of the and f o r e v e r  meanings  a c t i v i t y and the  which remain  there i s nothing to  the  her r o l e ;  i n d i c a t e who s p e a k s ;  has been e m p t i e d out  second paragraph the paragraph  s e a r c h i n g metaphors metaphors  already  is relatively voiceless:  of the  any sense o f text  s i m u l a c r u m o f t h e vacuum c r e a t e d b y t h e m a n ' s until  all  "unfinished."  The o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h  or character  text  and b e g i n n i n g s ,  begins,  and n e v e r  implies that  opening paragraph  does the  the  narrator  person  in a death.  Not  o v e r t l y assume  "I c o u l d send a f l e e t  of  f i n d y o u . " The r e f e r e n c e  narrator  i s a l l u d i n g to  and r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y c l a i m i n g i t  to  the as  her  72 own,  a l t h o u g h she has n o t u n t i l  As t h e  story continues,  on  l i t e r a r y functions  the  so w i l l of  to narrative  the  i n the  narrator's  text.  reflections  language.  The t h i r d p a r a g r a p h reference  now a p p e a r e d  a l s o opens w i t h an  explicit  technique:  A b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e , and an end. But y o u r s t o r y w a s n ' t f i n i s h e d , t h e p l o t was s t i l l u n f o l d i n g , a n d now you're lying i n i t . What d o e s t h a t make y o u ? Postmodern? Or s i m p l y , p o s t - e v e r y t h i n g ? (41)  The A r i s t o t e l i a n a l l u s i o n a p p l i e s death:  the n a r r a t o r  establishes  life-as-text/text-as-life, throughout funereal  the  story,  as w e l l  as  e a r l y on t h e m e t a p h o r  of  which w i l l  and u s e s i t  text  the  be e x p l o i t e d  as t h e  occasion for  some  puns.  The f i r s t s t o r y up i n s e v e r a l emphasizes  the  voicelessness, "nothing." the  to the  three paragraphs s i g n i f i c a n t ways.  "Unfinished" set The o p e n i n g  sense of l o s s through i t s and t h e  strategic  The s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h  s t o r y and,  of  ellipses,  the prominence  narrative  self-consciousness.  self-consciousness  in this  develops  paragraph its  c l o s u r a l p o s i t i o n i n g of inserts  b y c o m m e n t i n g on t h e u s e o f  indicates  the  the n a r r a t o r  into  metaphor,  text  o f b o t h metaphor  and  In the  t h i r d paragraph,  that  further  t h r o u g h w o r d p l a y and  the  73  explicit then,  comparison between l i f e  and t e x t .  The opening,  i n t r o d u c e s the p r i n c i p a l v o i c e s of the n a r r a t o r : the  f i r s t p a r a g r a p h ' s v o i c e l e s s n e s s suggests the s i l e n c e of death; the second s i t u a t e s her i n the t e x t and i n the present  tense as a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r who i s  action,  while the t h i r d r e v e a l s  on the s t o r y she i s  2.  capable of  her c a p a c i t y f o r  reflection  telling.  Voices  "Unfinished" i n c o r p o r a t e s a v a r i e t y of v o i c e s b e s i d e s that of the n a r r a t o r . c l e a r l y marked by i t a l i c s ,  These v o i c e s tend to be  q u o t a t i o n marks, or the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the speaker.  Many of the u t t e r a n c e s  do not i s s u e from the n a r r a t o r are a t t r i b u t e d , indirectly,  to a group the n a r r a t o r c a l l s  along with the  " I " - n a r r a t o r and the  which  d i r e c t l y or  "them."  "They,"  "you"-narratee,  form the  c e n t r a l t r i a d of c h a r a c t e r s .  Other, minor v o i c e s serve a  v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s  to the c o n t e x t s i n which they  specific  appear.  The s t o r y ' s  second paragraph i n t r o d u c e s  the  p o s s i b i l i t y of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of o t h e r v o i c e s with the narrator's claim, i n s t r u c t i o n : bring  " I am a bounty hunter w i t h one him back alive."  T h i s i s not  really  74 another  voice,  narrator's italics  s i n c e the  own m e t a p h o r  and the  statement presents i t s e l f f o r h e r p o s i t i o n . However,  term " i n s t r u c t i o n " g i v e the  t h e s e w o r d s b e l o n g t o someone e l s e , been handed an assignment entity.  The t a s k  speaking,  repeated  epistolary quality derives  from the  I cleaned the  enjoyed t h i s . . . " ) .  The n a r r a t o r  p o s i t i n g h i m as n a r r a t e e . narrator's memories,  what he was l i k e narrator  It  the the  now t h a t he i s n o t .  story's narrator  ("When  "You would  life.  story, life  occurs i n the  which i s not  is like  departure,  for  silent,  and s e t t l e d  about  the  the n a r r a t o r  in  dead.  t h i r d paragraph,  until  the  B y f o c u s s i n g on h e r own  when t h e n a r r a t o r  c h i l d r e n i n a garden i m i t a t i n g crow n o i s e s , i n t o the wind,  by  Few s u c h  The s e c o n d u s e o f i t a l i c s m a r k s a t t r i b u t e d it  have  c o u l d a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t  a l i v e b u t what  b r i n g s him back  sense t h a t  The  b r i n g s him back to l i f e  f i g u r e i n the  experience of her p a r t n e r ' s effect  elsewhere,-  fridge";  memories evoke the man's however,  i s p r e c i s e l y what  on what h a s b e e n g o i n g o n  t h e y t o o k y o u away,  or  figuratively  story to him.  his existence  i s updating her partner  has  b y some u n i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n  i n a d d r e s s i n g the  " y o u " assumes  the  impression that  seems a n i m p o s s i b l e one b u t ,  does  the  t h a t the n a r r a t o r  b r i n g i n g her l o v e r back a l i v e  the n a r r a t o r  as  the  " c a w caw  voices; watches cawing  r e a l t h i n g d r i f t e d i n , b l a c k and  ominously near,  w h i c h s t o p p e d them d e a d  in  their tracks."  I t a l i c s heighten the  children's energetic  v o i c e s and the  contrast  between  slow s i l e n c e of  the  " r e a l t h i n g , " so t h a t  the  c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r v o i c e s come  signify  whereas  the  c r o w a n d s i l e n c e embody n o t  ability  t o s i l e n c e and t h u s t o k i l l  life,  death but them  the  dead").  of the  italics. by  anonymous  "they,"  Bill  omission--after ellipsis). narrator,  and Mary, what?--the  of  Bill  and g e n e r a l  the w a i t r e s s ,  repeating  ambiguous;  it  orders  who " t h o u g h t  a s new c u s t o m e r s  u n d e r l i n e s the  a n y t h i n g but  p r e c i s e l y the  subject  the  the  The  term "morbid" i s  ensues,  came i n "  not  morte,  except  on t h e  part  (41).  Bill's  slip  s i t u a t i o n : he a n d M a r y want " m o r b i d , " when d e a t h  of everyone's  thoughts.  i n n o c e n t l y p i c k s up o n B i l l ' s  dismay),  her a c t i o n s p a r a l l e l those to the past to put  the  a l t h o u g h e i t h e r may  waitress  returns  another  i t was h i l a r i o u s a n d k e p t  a b s u r d i t y of the  t o t a l k about  the  you know," says  "your apple p i e a l a  embarrassment  coffee  (note  'morbid' topics."  a s s i g n e d t o Mary o r B i l l ,  have u s e d i t .  for  d e a t h goes u n m e n t i o n e d ,  " T r y i n g t o k e e p me b u s y ,  q u o t a t i o n marks h e r e a r e  please"  ("stopped  especially  i s taken out  " a few d a y s a f t e r "  "my m i n d d i v e r t e d f r o m  explicitly  merely  e v e n more c l e a r l y t h a n  The n a r r a t o r / p r o t a g o n i s t  friends,  to  2  Q u o t a t i o n marks f l a g o t h e r v o i c e s , those  the  the death  remark  is  A n d when (much t o  of the n a r r a t o r ,  the his  who  i n t o w o r d s a n d makes  76 s a r d o n i c j o k e s about  it.  Mary and B i l l Bill's  are  common names,  and a p a r t  F r e u d i a n s l i p t h e y do n o t h i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h  t h e m s e l v e s as i n d i v i d u a l s : faceless  Mary and B i l l  " t h e y " whose w o r d s r e c u r i n t h e  a r e among story,  a r e u s u a l l y i t a l i c i z e d and w h i c h s e r v e c h i e f l y of  the n a r r a t o r ' s  begins,  critique.  "A stroke,  A caress..."  d i r e c t l y but  as t h e  A s t r o k e o f what?  page  Lightning?  The " t h e y " r e m a i n u n i d e n t i f i e d - - p r e s u m a b l y The n a r r a t o r  could report  the  i n s t e a d r e p e a t s the p r e c i s e w o r d s , as  she w e r e u n s u r e o f what t h e y m e a n t . r e p e t i t i o n conveys a sense t h a t  Such  incident though as  though  critical  "they" are not e n t i r e l y  to  3  "They" r e a p p e a r information  object  second  t h e y w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t , as t h o u g h she d o u b t e d t h e m ,  trusted.  the  words w h i c h  A p a r a g r a p h on the  they s a i d .  the h o s p i t a l s t a f f .  be  from  as a n u n r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f  i n the next paragraph,  when someone i s d y i n g ,  "They s a y  l i k e being born.  The d y i n g  need  t o be c r a d l e d , r o c k e d . . . " B u t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s  experience  does  not bear t h i s out; t h a t way. in  general,  it's  which begins,  t h e d e a t h she w i t n e s s e d d i d n o t  happen  H e r e , the p r o n o u n has expanded t o i n c l u d e p e o p l e rather  than people i n the  means t h a t what f o l l o w s w i l l something a character  story:  "they  be a n adage r a t h e r  (or group o f c h a r a c t e r s )  say"  than actually  says.  This accounts  italicized  f o r the  fact  that  o r p l a c e d i n q u o t a t i o n marks,-  p a r t of the general  domain of words.  the  as  narrator  minds,  t h i r d page o f t h e  i s evident  story,  narrator  and h e r  thought)  in italics,  quotation  the words a r e they  And i t  not  constitute i s words  i n a paragraph  on  that  the  where a d i a l o g u e o c c u r s between  interlocutor(s), the  other  the n a r r a t o r ' s  speaker's  speech  (or s p e a k e r s ' )  the (or in  marks:  ' I know what y o u ' r e g o i n g l e a s t he d i d n ' t s u f f e r . " No. thankful f o r . ' Yes. ' I t ' s a l ' B e f o r e l o n g y o u ' l l be a b l e t o start again.' Yes, the pieces, falling.  through.' Yes. ' A t ' Y o u h a v e t h a t t o be l over now.' No... yes. p i c k up t h e p i e c e s , all over. L i k e mercury (43)  T h i s exchange p r e s e n t s i t s e l f may n o t be o n e . marks confuses  as a c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  The u s e o f i t a l i c s as w e l l the  issue.  A straightforward  would p r o b a b l y have the n a r r a t o r ' s instead of i t a l i c s , speakers.  is  The f a c t  indicate that  this  the  i s not  combined from a s e r i e s  marks  change  in  this  p o s s i b l y imagined, p o s s i b l y a  t h a t no s p e a k e r  identified disrupts  conversation  t o mark t h e  The u s e o f i t a l i c s s u g g e s t s t h a t  it  quotation  words i n q u o t a t i o n  with indentations  conversation is different, composite.  as  although  other  conventions  than the  of d i a l o g u e .  one c o n v e r s a t i o n b u t  o f them,  q u o t a t i o n marks c o u l d i s s u e  narrator It  may  fragments  i n which case the v o i c e i n  f r o m one c h a r a c t e r  or  several,  78  on  one o c c a s i o n o r many.  The n a r r a t o r ' s  responses  instructive.  The m o n o s y l l a b i c comments c o n t r a s t  w i t h the  sentences  full  replies and  ("Yes."  "No."  alternation,  engage  i n conversation, e s p e c i a l l y i n the  into  " y e s " as i f e i t h e r italicized  narrator's  "Yes."  suggest  rote,  final  they respond t o .  that that  life,  also  sharply  The s e q u e n c e  the n a r r a t o r  of  their brevity  "No... yes"),  does n o t w i s h  to  she i s m e r e l y a n s w e r i n g b y  f o u r t h response, response  segment  are  when " n o "  w o u l d be t h e  turns  same.  i n d i c a t e s the breakdown o f  The the  which i s not adequately addressed by  the  b a n a l and u n h e l p f u l b u t p r e s u m a b l y w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d r e m a r k s of  the  interlocutor.  statement  The p a r a g r a p h c l o s e s w i t h a n u n m a r k e d  ("Like mercury f a l l i n g " )  from c o n v e r s a t i o n t o n a r r a t i v e . story's  second sentence,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the utterance,  but here  image.  temperature  is liquid  droplets which, difficult  to  The  "As i t  the context  controls  all over,"  dispersal. i f spilled,  a river,  the the  narrator's  this  reference  (Mercury at separates  l i k e moonlight, are  " t h e y " become l e s s  s y m p a t h e t i c as  r e a l l y - - t h e y a r e a l l one,  a l a t e r paragraph,  don't:  echoes  to  room into very  contain.)  (as a c h a r a c t e r in  like  and,  return  T h i s fragment  F o l l o w i n g the  "Yes, the pieces,  mercury s t r o n g l y suggests  which i n d i c a t e s a  is,  characters  indistinguishable)  n o t b y what t h e y s a y b u t what  no one w a n t s t o s p e a k o f y o u .  they  Y o u r name  79 leaves  a bad t a s t e i n t h e i r mouths."  silence/death equation established the  crow and the  their voices p u l l the graveside  end,  though,  the n a r r a t o r feels  incident  "they"  the  involving  to acknowledge  l o v e r u n d e r l i n e s h i s absence,  s i l e n c e becomes as e x p r e s s i v e as  In the  at  i n the  children. Their refusal  death of the n a r r a t o r ' s their  This reinforces  the  and  speech.  redeem  themselves,-  back to l i f e .  The  narrator  the power o f t h e i r words i n a  closing  s e c t i o n which i s profoundly ambivalent but u l t i m a t e l y  life-  affirming :  A p e r s o n can m e d i t a t e o n l y so l o n g by a g r a v e . . . I f e l t t h i s t e r r i f i c p u l l , t h i s f o r c e , and t h e l i v i n g e y e s a t my b a c k , a n d v o i c e s s a y i n g , Honey, there's  plenty of time for that, we'll have a few drinks,  come away now, come home, order some food.  I s t e p p e d i n t o i t a n d i t swept me away, i n t o the f u t u r e , b l o o d pumping, c e l l s working l i k e s l a v e s to k e e p me g o i n g . S c a r c e l y f i v e minutes out o f the gate, g e t t h i s , a n d someone h a d me l a u g h i n g , i t came p o u r i n g o u t o f my m o u t h , a m a g i c i a n ' s t r i c k , l i k e a l o n g a n d coloured s c a r f of vomit. (44)  The s h o c k o f  "vomit" at  the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  loss,  i s m i t i g a t e d by the  the  end f o r e g r o u n d s  its  i r r e p a r a b i l i t y , but  forces  r e e l her back i n t o l i f e . appeal to her, "home,"  of l i f e Note the  the words t h a t  "drinks," "food."  the v i o l e n c e of this  shock  and companionship w h i c h terms w i t h which  connote  comfort,  the  they foyer--  U n l i k e the d i a l o g u e e a r l i e r ,  this  80 italicized  s e c t i o n i s not u n a t t r i b u t e d - - h e r e  identifies  i f not people at  v o i c e s are p l u r a l ,  "the v o i c e s "  as  At times  everyone except the n a r r a t o r  to c e r t a i n friends,  social  i n general.  story's lover,  core.  refers  of the w o r l d - - i . e .  addresses  both to remain i n the past, the  lover),  other--the  the the  i f the "you"  leaving  the  else.)  a m b i v a l e n c e : she  w i t h the death  (or at  wants  least  with  She f i n d s t h e v o i c e o f  v o i c e of speech/movement/change, s t a s i s - - i n t r u s i v e because  t o what i t o f f e r s .  reader  " t h e y " - - t h e n "you"  everyone  a n d t o move f o r w a r d .  silence/stillness/ resistance  l o v e r gone,  folds,  the n a r r a t o r ' s  its  the  as t h e d e a d man, a n d t h e  standing alone against  "Unfinished"  and  the n a r r a t o r ,  (Indeed,  and " t h e y " a r e e l i d e d and t h e t r i a d narrator  narrator's  b u t b o t h t h e v o i c e and  ( " t h e y " ) - - w i t h the  t o t h e r e a d e r as w e l l  belongs to the r e s t  on o c c a s i o n ,  t o the dynamic t r i a d at  n a r r a t o r must c o n f r o n t t h e o t h e r .  those)  change  s a y amuses  The t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s a r e  and t h e o t h e r  (or  represents  or to the  What " t h e y "  the n a r r a t o r by t u r n s ,  disembodiment are c r u c i a l  "they"  and n a r r a t e e ;  "they" r e f e r s  frustrates  the  to a group  " t h e y , " a p r o n o u n whose a n t e c e d e n t s  a c c o r d i n g to the c o n t e x t .  circle  and  voices other than that  t h e n a r r a t o r b e l o n g f o r t h e most p a r t  identified  narrator  n o t a communal a m a l g a m .  In " U n f i n i s h e d , " of  least  the  as opposed t o of  her  I n t h e e n d s h e succumbs  to  the  81 it,  w i t h mixed f e e l i n g s ,  metaphorical s i l e n c e and  3.  structure  of the  story,  following  the  speech and l i f e  over  death.  The v o i c e s o f t h e  narrator  The n a r r a t o r ' s i n d i c a t e changes ironic,  and c h o o s e s ,  but  the  tone of v o i c e s h i f t s  i n t o p i c o r mood. i r o n y i s not  Apparently pleasant  the  memories a r e  frequently  The d o m i n a n t t o n e  same  is  throughout.  t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h an  a c c u m u l a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g l y sombre c o n n o t a t i o n s . w o r d p l a y seem a t  to  Puns a n d  t i m e s f l i p p a n t ; on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s  they  p r o b e w o r d s a n d m e a n i n g s as i f s e e k i n g w i t h p r o f o u n d seriousness  a linguistic  explanation for death.  Irony  c r e a t e s a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s d i s t a n c e between the n a r r a t o r her s t o r y , telling  so t h a t  she i s a b l e t o t a l k a b o u t  it  also and  as w e l l  as  it.  At times the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e s t r i k e s a t r a n q u i l , recollective l o o k i n g at  tone:  the  " I remember s t a n d i n g a t  the  window  c e d a r s . . . " ( 4 1 ) ; " I remember w a t c h i n g o u t  window a c o r p u l e n t a n d s t r a n g e l y c l u m s y s p a r r o w . . . " ( 4 3 ) . each of these cases,  the peace  i s d i s t u r b e d a s what  the In  follows  82  grows i n c r e a s i n g l y ominous. cedars, of  she a l s o s e e s t h e  the portentous  echoes  c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g and the  f i r s t glance but  "corpse,"  something not q u i t e possession,  right,  the  as t h e n a r r a t o r  which begins,  imagines the  e v e r y dream t u r n s  the  close:  unit  second,  it  place).  metamorphoses  it  i n f e c t e d by the  Wordplay i s important  "The p l o t was s t i l l t h i r d paragraph,  Thus t h e meaning o f  it  i n "Unfinished"  sustains acute  and h e r penchant  the  the because  ironic  awareness  of  the  f o r b l a c k humour.  u n f o l d i n g , " the n a r r a t o r  says  " a n d now y o u ' r e l y i n g i n i t . " "plot" introduces  meaning  independent  ( s u p p o s i n g i t were a b l e t o i n  of language  the meanings of  The  nightmare.  o r an i d e a ) .  r e v e a l i n g both the n a r r a t o r ' s  intricacies  the  "Like nothing."  a k i n d of transformation:  r e l i e s on m u l t i p l e m e a n i n g s ;  voice,  first  c a n no l o n g e r f u n c t i o n a s a n  of s i g n i f i c a t i o n  first it  into a  f i r s t word i s t r a n s f o r m e d - - o n c e the  "bursting"  a p p a r e n t l y u n r e l a t e d o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y meaning  t o a word (or a statement,  of  clumsy" suggests  sparrow  Similarly,  curt  Irony also effects  the  The s p a r r o w  image becomes one o f  semblance of calm i n the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e  adds a s e c o n d ,  arrival  " L i k e a dream i n t h e m i d d l e o f  d a y , " moves r a p i d l y t o i t s  consistently;  the  the word  "strangely  and t h e n t h e  w i t h t h e man i n s i d e i t s b o d y . paragraph,  sees  c r o w who " s t o p p e d them d e a d . "  seems i n n o c e n t e n o u g h a t "corpulent"  When t h e n a r r a t o r  the n a r r a t o r ' s  in  the  The p u n on concern  83 w i t h the  conventions  of genre.  At times  seems more s p e c u l a t i v e t h a n s a r d o n i c : Lightning?  A caress,  squeezing t i g h t , (42). of  fingers  the word " s t r o k e , "  The n e x t  "A s t r o k e  linked  the p o s s i b l e  what? and  significances  d r a w i n g two t o g e t h e r i n a n a t t e m p t so t h a t t h e  i n an i n c o n g r u o u s  c a r e s s and  semantic  sentence e x p l a i n s the need f o r such  to language  of  p l a c e d l o v i n g l y on a v e i n  explores  what h a s h a p p e n e d ,  blood c l o t are  grim irony  f o r m i n g a l i t t l e bonbon o f c l o t t e d b l o o d ? "  Here the n a r r a t o r  understand  the  and m e a n i n g :  "Your speech,  before  attentiveness  how s u d d e n l y  your s t a r t l e d  the  comparison.  s k i d d e d o u t o f c o n t r o l , w o r d s c r a s h i n g i n t o one u n s p e l l i n g themselves  to  it  another,  eyes."  The  spell  w h i c h b o u n d t h e m a n ' s w o r d s t o g e t h e r i n a m e a n i n g f u l way has been b r o k e n by the death:  stroke.  The f i r s t  l o s s of c o n t r o l over language,  The n e x t  stage,  presumably,  do y o u want me t o s a y ? "  the  is silence:  (43).  imminent  chaos  of  by i t s e l f ,  answering i t s  of  t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be  words.  "You were b l u e ,  T h i s s e n t e n c e forms  paragraph death,  sign of  a  own q u e s t i o n - - i n t h e  narrative  frequent  self-consciousness  references  film  s i g n a l the n a r r a t o r ' s  sense  which i s r e i n f o r c e d by  t o g e n r e and g e n e r i c  Repeated a l l u s i o n s to n a r r a t i v e  face  said.  The i r o n i c v o i c e i n " U n f i n i s h e d " c r e a t e s a of  what  convention.  method i n w r i t i n g and i n  awareness t h a t  w i t h i n c e r t a i n formal parameters.  she  The s e c o n d  is  operating  paragraph  84 begins by a l l u d i n g to l i t e r a r y language fleet  of searching m e t a p h o r s . . . " ) .  beginning,  a middle,  narrative  structure  describes  the  through the "bellow":  s t r e e t s as  the  it  t h i s paragraph  because of i t s of  sound of the  siren,  emphasis  The s e v e n t h  ambulance  Through i t s  strategy  strategy,  i n the  the  to i t s  fiction.  i n p a r t i c u l a r the and c h a r a c t e r .  The n e x t  s t o r y by Douglas G l o v e r , Saskatoon," around the  i n which, edges,  roles  on a b l a n k in  the overt  dominant  capacity  The e f f e c t  of author, chapter  for of  will  implied  be author,  examine a  f a d i n g i n t o one  t h e p e r s o n a e who p l a y t h e s e r o l e s  i n c r e a s i n g l y s e p a r a t e and  this  "Dog A t t e m p t s To Drown Man i n  r a t h e r than  fragmented.  a  image  i s a b l u r r i n g of r o l e s g e n e r a l l y imagined to  discrete, narrator  as  outset  the  i r o n i c t o n e and i t s  " U n f i n i s h e d " draws a t t e n t i o n on a s w e l l  whine" to  but  to f l o a t  from the  it  cinematographic  o n s o u n d a n d movement,  itself  to  tracing  especially  c o n c e r n w i t h g e n r e and n a r r a t i v e  reflection  siren,  ("A  paragraph  grows from an " i n s e c t sounds  grounds  mechanics of w r i t i n g .  v o i c e of  makes r e f e r e n c e  "a p e r i o d t y p e d and l e f t  sheet of paper,"  c o u l d send a  The t h i r d p a r a g r a p h  and an e n d . . . " ) and t h e o r y .  ("I  another become  85 1. A l t h o u g h t h e w o r d " r i v e r " d o e s n o t r e a p p e a r , i t i s s y m b o l i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e man t h r o u g h i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f death. The n a r r a t o r l a t e r r e f e r s t o t h e man a s a swimmer. The paragraph preceding t h i s reference c l o s e s w i t h the sentence f r a g m e n t , " L i k e m e r c u r y f a l l i n g " ; t h e one w h i c h f o l l o w s i t includes a reference to moonlight. 2 . T h i s e x p l i c i t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n s i l e n c e a n d d e a t h seems p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s o n a n t , c o m i n g a s i t does so s o o n a f t e r t h e v o i c e l e s s n e s s of the opening l i n e s . 3 . A l l e n T h i h e r , d i s c u s s i n g v o i c e i n Samuel B e c k e t t , Heidegger to e x p l a i n t h i s k i n d o f use of " t h e y " :  looks  to  I n H e i d e g g e r ' s e a r l y w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y i n Being and Time, he would d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e r e i s r a r e l y , i f ever, such a t h i n g as a n i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r . F o r what i s t a k e n t o b e t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e i s r e a l l y t h e v o i c e o f das Man, t h e anonymous " t h e y " t h a t s p e a k , t h r o u g h i n a u t h e n t i c s p e e c h , t h e f a l l e n l o g o s o f e v e r y d a y e x i s t e n c e . The o n l y a u t h e n t i c v o i c e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h e v o i c e o f s i l e n c e t h a t s t a n d s o p p o s e d i n s i l e n t r e s o l v e t o the "they" t h a t speak a language o f p u b l i c l y determined meanings. (82)  86  CHAPTER FOUR  THE VOICES VOICE COMPRISES: FIRST-PERSON  INCORPORATION,  FRAGMENTATION AND  NARRATION I N DOUGLAS G L O V E R ' S  " R E D " AND "DOG  ATTEMPTS TO DROWN MAN I N SASKATOON"  D o u g l a s G l o v e r i s p r o b a b l y b e s t known f o r h i s most recent  novel,  The Life  was w i d e l y r e v i e w e d . of  short  fiction:  and Times of Captain  N (1993),  He i s a l s o t h e a u t h o r  of three  The Mad River  Drown Man in Saskatoon Behaviour  (1991).  eclecticism.  (1985)  (1981),  to  to Animal  These c o l l e c t i o n s a r e n o t a b l e  Louis K . MacKendrick w r i t e s  books  Dog Attempts  a n d A Guide  which  for their  o f Dog Attempts  Drown Man in Saskatoon  that  range...  show a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i e t y o f v o i c e  these s t o r i e s  and n a r r a t i v e  form"  (126),  "Apart from t h e i r  to  and the e n t r y  Contemporary  Authors  particularly  impressed c r i t i c s "  Behaviour  of  on G l o v e r i n  notes the "range o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i n A Guide  that  to Animal  ( 1 6 3 ) . T h a t r a n g e i s b r o a d e n e d b y one a s p e c t o f  Glover's writing that a r e women.  international  i s u n u s u a l : many o f G l o v e r ' s  It i s quite  both genders o f t e n .  rare f o r a w r i t e r t o use Another i n t e r e s t i n g  G l o v e r ' s w r i t i n g i s the increase  narrators  narrators  feature of  i n first-person  narrations:  87 in  each s u c c e s s i v e s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n ,  stories  narrated  the proportion of  i n the f i r s t person g r e w - - a l l the  i n A Guide to Animal  Behaviour  are at least  partly  p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n s - - a n d many o f t h e n a r r a t o r s  This chapter w i l l  e x a m i n e two s t o r i e s  to Drown Man in Saskatoon. person, The in  first-  are female.  f r o m Dog Attempts  Both are narrated  i n the f i r s t  one w i t h a f e m a l e a n d one w i t h a m a l e  protagonist.  purpose w i l l  be t o a n a l y z e t h e v a r i e t y o f v o i c e s a t w o r k  these n a r r a t i v e s  with a view to understanding  means b y w h i c h p o l y p h o n i c e f f e c t s "Red," the narrator  incorporates  subdivides,  some o f t h e  may be a c h i e v e d .  In  other v o i c e s and languages  i n t o h e r own; i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n ' s t i t l e "I"  stories  story,  the narrating  creating a m u l t i p l i c i t y of narrating  personae.  I) " R e d "  "Red"  i s one o f e i g h t  stories  Douglas G l o v e r ' s second c o l l e c t i o n , Man in Saskatoon. the  brought  Dog Attempts  Three o f these s t o r i e s  f i r s t person by a female p r o t a g o n i s t .  interesting features  o f "Red"  narration incorporates  While  to Drown  are narrated i n One o f t h e  i s t h e way i n w h i c h  Flo's  a w i d e r a n g e o f h e r own modes o f  e x p r e s s i o n and i n c l u d e s as w e l l characters.  together i n  the voices of a v a r i e t y of  " R e d " may b e d e s c r i b e d a s a  "first-  88  person" n a r r a t i o n , demonstrate  that  the  a n a l y s i s which follows  the phrase  " f i r s t person"  s i n g u l a r n o r i r r e d u c i b l e , and t h a t among t h e v o i c e s i t  satire  Elements o f romance, a l l f i g u r e i n the  remains the  e l i d e s the  Red.  repeated  shifts,  background.  same way t h a t F l o b l e n d s  parody,  story,  The n a r r a t i v e  comedy, drama a n d  whose p r i n c i p a l  opens  from p r e s e n t  to past,  fill  she l e f t  miserable.  times;  him.  Sylvie,  oldest  at  t o L e o , "a p i l l - p o p p i n g , failed  but  years  when t h e  later,  a week l a t e r  the  s t o r y opens,  less h a p p i l y ever a f t e r  liar,  and  college;  has  attached  glue-sniffing loser"  (42);  three  When she met R e d , F l o  was c o n t e m p l a t i n g a m e l o d r a m a t i c s u i c i d e a t Kansas C i t y ,  tense;  perennially  twenty-eight,  waiter.  a H o l i d a y Inn i n  two w e r e m a r r i e d a n d they are  i n New M e x i c o .  her  relationship  her bar admission examinations  P i e r r e i s a depressed  and  the  d u r i n g o r soon a f t e r  The c h i l d r e n a r e the  in  alcoholic,  t h e y had t h r e e c h i l d r e n and a t w e n t y - y e a r  F r a n k y has  focus  i n the present  Flo married Jack T i t u s ,  banjo-picking philanderer,  herself  differences  r e l a t i o n s h i p between F l o , the n a r r a t o r ,  husband,  before  neither  comprises.  "Red" b l e n d s g e n r e s i n t h e voices.  it  is  will  l i v i n g more  ten or  89 1.  "Whose w o r d s a r e t h e s e ? " :  theoretical  considerations  D i c k L e i t h a n d G e o r g e M y e r s o n ' s The Power of Explorations  in Rhetoric  designed to a s s i s t  formulates  a series  the reader i n c l a r i f y i n g  of  Address:  questions  the process  through which various kinds of t e x t s are understood. t h e most u s e f u l q u e s t i o n s  i s : "Whose w o r d s a r e t h e s e ? "  one o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r p o s i n g s u c h a q u e s t i o n "The authority identify  of ideas  a voice..."  more a u t h o r i t y others;  (158).  (or d i f f e r e n t  That  to  i s , certain voices  kinds of authority)  And  i s that  can depend on how we decide  carry  than  t h e r e a d e r ' s assessment o f an i d e a w i l l be  influenced by her p e r c e p t i o n of the source more o r l e s s  authoritative.  S h e l l e y ' s Frankenstein,  I n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f Mary  a s a means o f t e a s i n g  the v a r i o u s v o i c e s b e l o n g i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i n s i d e the language  influences characters)  out not only  characters  of a single character,  of other voices and language  o f t h e v o i c e as  L e i t h and Myerson use t h e q u e s t i o n  "Whose w o r d s a r e t h e s e ? "  also,  One o f  (that  i s , those of  systems  ( f o r example,  but  the  other science,  poetry).  This approach t o r e a d i n g the language that of Mikhail Bakhtin, often  of f i c t i o n  echoes  whom L e i t h a n d M y e r s o n m e n t i o n  and a p p r o v i n g l y : " M . M . B a k h t i n ' s work g i v e s an  90 exemplary model f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g through the reading of l i t e r a t u r e ,  of general  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  n o t a v a i l a b l e i n a n y o t h e r way" ( 8 3 ) . Novel,  Bakhtin c r i t i c i z e s  problems that  I n Discourse  in  the philosophy of discourse  is  the prior  to the t w e n t i e t h century f o r assuming "the system o f a unitary  language"  "languages," language  (269) .  Bakhtin i d e n t i f i e s a variety of  i n c l u d i n g l i t e r a r y language  (that i s , the  o f t h e n o v e l - - B a k h t i n does n o t d i s c u s s  fiction  as a s e p a r a t e d i s c o u r s e ) .  though,  "is itself  short  Even " l i t e r a r y  s t r a t i f i e d and h e t e r o g l o t "  language,"  (288) .  One  "form f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g h e t e r o g l o s s i a i n the novel--a is  form t h a t e v e r y n o v e l w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n  the language used by c h a r a c t e r s , "  utilizes--  writes Bakhtin  (315);  heteroglossia i s a l s o d i f f u s e d throughout the a u t h o r i a l speech that surrounds the characters, c r e a t i n g h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r i z e d character zones. These zones a r e formed from t h e fragments o f c h a r a c t e r speech, from v a r i o u s forms f o r h i d d e n t r a n s m i s s i o n o f someone e l s e ' s w o r d , f r o m s c a t t e r e d w o r d s a n d s a y i n g s b e l o n g i n g t o someone e l s e ' s s p e e c h , f r o m those i n v a s i o n s i n t o a u t h o r i a l speech o f o t h e r s ' expressive indicators ( e l l i p s i s , questions, exclamations). Such a c h a r a c t e r zone i s t h e f i e l d of action f o r a character's voice, e n c r o a c h i n g i n one way o r a n o t h e r u p o n t h e author's voice. (316) Discourse themselves  in the Novel a n d The Power of Address w i t h what B a k h t i n t e r m s  concern  " h y b r i d i z a t i o n , " t h e ways  i n which fragments  o f speech from a v a r i e t y o f  combine i n a t e x t .  One o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  a source of d i f f i c u l t y  both  sources  b e t w e e n them, a n d  f o r some o f B a k h t i n ' s r e a d e r s ,  is his  assertion can  that  " a u t h o r i a l speech"  and "the a u t h o r ' s  voice"  be i d e n t i f i e d a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t o f , f o r e x a m p l e ,  "posited"  or implied author,  B a k h t i n ' s p o i n t has l i t t l e  a narrator  or character.  a  But  t o do w i t h a u t h o r i a l d o m i n a n c e ,  a n d e v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e a s t o n i s h i n g d i v e r s i t y o f v o i c e s and languages  in fictional  prose.  For t h e i r  L e i t h and Myerson r e f e r ,  i f not to the author,  the  and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the  "authority of ideas"  identification  of voice,  i t s degrees c o n s i s t e n t  part,  at least  to  as i f a u t h o r i t y were a c o n s t a n t and  and apparent  to a l l readers i n the  same w a y .  While the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l speech and i t s components, voices voice comprises, throughout  is  or, to put i t another  it will  be s a l u t a r y t o  that v o i c e i s not a transparency  between c h a r a c t e r character  analyze  that  offered  and r e a d e r .  characterway, t h e  recall  interposed  One image o f v o i c e a n d  suggests the complexity of t h e i r  relationship  i n an a r t i c l e by M i c h e l Chion on the f i l m  C h i o n a r g u e s i n "The I m p o s s i b l e E m b o d i m e n t " t h a t  Psycho.  Psycho " i s  concerned w i t h the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a t t a c h i n g a v o i c e t o a body o r , i n o t h e r words, embodiment" describe  (195).  w i t h the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  Chion uses the term "acousmetre"  "the v o i c e o f a person not y e t seen"  an a c o u s m a t i c p r e s e n c e  consists  of a voice,"  to  (195). Chion  " a n d a b o v e a l l when t h a t v o i c e h a s n o t y e t b e e n  "When  argues,  visualized,  92 a n d one c a n n o t  therefore  y e t put a face  to it--one  dealing with a being of a p a r t i c u l a r sort, talking,  a c t i n g shadow,  (206).  In a story,  the be  fiction  the " v o i c e o f a person not y e t seen" emerge,  since characters  t h e way t h e y a r e i n m o v i e s : i n t h i s  i s acousmatic i n that  voices.  a kind of  w h i c h I have named a n acousmetre"  only voice that w i l l "seen"  Fiction,  i t deals  e v e n more t h a n f i l m ,  " i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f embodiment,"  only with  and t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n  2.  implicit  and e x p l i c i t  qualities  of "Red."  address  acousmatic  c r e a t e s an  in fictional  it will  Power of Address  of study).  refer  by i d e n t i f y i n g  ( f o r example,  a  language  or with a certain  L e i t h a n d M y e r s o n i n The  t o such a l l u s i o n s as  t h e y d i s t i n g u i s h between i m p l i c i t Walton quotes the monster.  examine t h e  voices i n the text  associated with a p a r t i c u l a r character, or f i e l d  voices.  some o f t h e p o l y p h o n i c  a l l u s i o n s t o a v a r i e t y o f languages  discipline  fictional  quotation  Specifically,  manifestation of different  a l l  denying the s t a b i l i t y and the  characters  This section w i l l  is  can never  sense,  c o n s i s t e n c y w h i c h have come t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  "Red":  is  "quotations";  and e x p l i c i t  quotations:  Frankenstein, F r a n k e n s t e i n quotes That a p p l i e s b o t h t o s n i p p e t s o f  93  ' s p e e c h ' and t o l o n g e r n a r r a t i o n s . These are explicit q u o t a t i o n s , vouched f o r by the b o o k ' s structure, including chapter d i v i s i o n s . But then t h e i n v e n t o r ' s e a r l i e r v o i c e t u r n s up i n s i d e h i s l a t e r (present) a c c o u n t ; and m o n s t e r - r e s o n a n c e s g e t i n t o what ' s h o u l d ' be V i c t o r ' s n a r r a t i o n . T h e s e m i g h t be c a l l e d i m p l i c i t q u o t a t i o n s . . . T h e s e a r e ' q u o t a t i o n s ' i n t h e s e n s e t h a t one voice presents or contains another. As e v e r , t h e q u o t i n g a n d t h e q u o t e d i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as n o t the o t h e r , and y e t o v e r l a p . . . (161) 1  Explicit easily  quotations,  then,  t e n d t o be a t t r i b u t e d ,  i d e n t i f i a b l e as i s s u i n g f r o m a g i v e n c h a r a c t e r ,  implicit  quotations,  the  fragments  of v a r i o u s  combine t o c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r f i c t i o n a l quotations  a r e more d i f f i c u l t  they o v e r l a p : they are always narrates  "Red" i n the  constitute  addition,  voice.  the  (at  least) but  double-voiced. Flo the words o f  s p e e c h from F l o h e r s e l f ,  story reports  or refers  a n d more  former d o c t o r ) .  These r e f e r e n c e s  explicit  (Flo's  to  Red, S y l v i e ,  constitute  into a text  moulds and c a s t s t h e  which i s ,  finally,  her  in  Jack's  what L e i t h  and  I n a d d i t i o n , F l o ' s own  discourse incorporates a v a r i e t y of i m p l i c i t the p o t t e r ,  the  speech by a l l of  former employer,  quotations.  others  "Red"  J a c k and J a c k ' s mother;  these characters  Myerson c a l l  Implicit  to d e a l w i t h p r e c i s e l y because  f i r s t person,  t h r e e c h i l d r e n as a g r o u p ,  while  languages,  a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of her s t o r y .  includes direct  Flo,  o r more  quotations.  language of  story.  others  94 (A)  Implicit  quotation  F l o ' s n a r r a t i o n comprises a v a r i e t y of l e v e l s of language; the  h e r d i c t i o n and a l l u s i o n range  colloquial.  was e d u c a t e d  at  On t h e Smith,  f i r s t page o f t h e  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  reflects  her l e v e l of education.  (47),  "Jack j u s t  i n which the  he  reference  [Jack]  general  style  the  grammar,  those  "intimate  of art  i s t h a t of the  she n o t e s  "a H a w a i i a n s h i r t  (42).  chapels, style"; visual  At in the  i s heightened  systems,  Flo's  in  at  work  frame o f  i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of Red,  out o f a Douanier-Rousseau  She a l s o m e n t i o n s K a c h i n a d o l l s ,  specificity  artist's  (52).  colloquy."  o r language  artist;  Pueblo sacred dances, the  more  and i d i o m a t i c , but  and g e o g r a p h y .  reference  jungle"  the  s y n t a x and v o c a b u l a r y o f  and t h i s e f f e c t  Two o f t h e many l a n g u a g e s , "Red" are  loon"  s y n t a x and v o c a b u l a r y b e l o n g t o  i r o n i c p h r a s e s s u c h as  the  "a man w i t h whom I am s u r e  i s more i n f o r m a l  realm of l i t e r a r y language,  in  i f I were a  has been h o l d i n g i n t i m a t e c o l l o q u y "  times the  women's  language  "were" r e p l a c e s  to a bartender,  she  Consider, f o r example,  l o o k e d a t me as  subjunctive  to  s t o r y she s a y s  At times her  common c o n v e r s a t i o n a l " w a s , " o r t h e Flo's  formal  one o f t h e most p r e s t i g i o u s  colleges  statement,  from t h e  a storage  pot  Penitente  " i n the Mimbres  of the d e s c r i p t i o n s t e s t i f i e s  concern with s t y l e .  [sic]  The n a r r a t i o n  to  also  the  d r a w s on t h e  language  its  naming o f p l a c e s  frequent  Pecos R i v e r ,  the  of geography,  both d i r e c t l y ,  (New M e x i c o ,  Blood of C h r i s t Mountains,  indirectly,  through e p i t h e t s  through the  adobe a r c h . . . " ;  suggestive  the n a r r a t i v e  one m i g h t c a l l  w o u l d a p p e a r t o be an o x y m o r o n . s o u n d as  i f they are  of s h i f t s  spoken,  colloquial  the  first  syntax.  language,  subjunctive  or the p l u p e r f e c t .  such markers precise  It  as more f o r m a l s y n t a x  and c o n c i s e ,  Red's encounter each other  (and a r e  a conversational  to include,  less  tone,  clearly  distinct  not  limited  the use  of  and i n f o r m a l employs the  f o r example,  past the  may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y 3  a n d d i c t i o n , a more  leisurely style.  w i t h P a t r i c e as  is  Characteristic  p e r s o n and the p r e s e n t t e n s e ,  t e n s e a n d i s more l i k e l y  This  w h i l e others g i v e the  The w r i t t e n v o i c e more o f t e n  2  f r o m what  B u t some u t t e r a n c e s  o f a s p o k e n v o i c e may i n c l u d e  to)  of  term " w r i t t e n v o i c e "  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y have been w r i t t e n . features  logs").  a spoken v o i c e to a w r i t t e n v o i c e .  perhaps a p r o b l e m a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n : the  and  ("Stepping  and frames  evidence  the  La Posada),  "a t r i p o d of p i n o n  offers  Fe,  of place  In a d d i t i o n to i t s v a r i e d languages reference,  Santa  through  follows:  Flo  recounts  "They had r u n  into  i n U p p e r V o l t a one y e a r w h i l e he was b u i l d i n g  s l u i c e g a t e s o n a p o w e r dam f o r t h e backpacking,  studying African  government;  primitives"  (47).  Patrice This  sentence i s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g , dense w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n ,  the was  96 c a r e f u l l y balanced with a semi-colon to separate activities  from P a t r i c e ' s .  information,  a considered,  It  Red's  i s a c o n c i s e way o f c o n v e y i n g  w r i t t e n sentence,  quite  different  f r o m s u c h o t h e r s as  " J a c k ' s m o t h e r n e v e r g a v e me a n y h e l p , "  or  t i m e he was t e l l i n g me t h e  "I c r i e d a l l the  These l a s t  two s e n t e n c e s c o u l d be s p o k e n a s e a s i l y a s  c o u l d be w r i t t e n .  The s h i f t  the  here,  s i n c e the  text  ( " t a l k i n g " i s of course a  performative  dynamic).  as c h a r a c t e r  4  a totally  which appears i n "Red," but  narrator  the and  metaphor it  is  different  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between  and the  the  of  i s never a c t u a l l y spoken u n l e s s  read aloud, which introduces  narrator  i n the persona  an a l t e r n a t i o n between the w r i t i n g n a r r a t o r  t a l k i n g character  they  from the w r i t t e n v o i c e t o  conversational voice implies a shift narrator,  story."  as n a r r a t o r  the is  one  one w h i c h G l o v e r e x p l o i t s much  more e x t e n s i v e l y i n "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n Saskatoon."  (B) E x p l i c i t  quotation  The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e e x e m p l i f i e s t h e voices which c o n t r i b u t e  to F l o ' s  d i v e r s i t y of  the  narration:  F o r h i s p a r t , Red a d m i t t e d i t w a s n ' t q u i t e t r u e what he h a d s a i d a b o u t a l l t h e d r i n k i n g a n d whoring. U n t i l a y e a r a n d a h a l f b e f o r e we met, he h a d b e e n m a r r i e d t o a M e x i c a n woman c a l l e d P a t r i c e , an a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t e r i n t h e s t y l e o f R u f f i n o Tamayo, who h a d d i e d o f a stroke. They had r u n i n t o each o t h e r i n Upper V o l t a one y e a r w h i l e he was b u i l d i n g t h e s l u i c e  97  g a t e s o n a p o w e r dam f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; P a t r i c e was b a c k p a c k i n g , s t u d y i n g A f r i c a n primitives. When s h e f a i l e d t o c o n c e i v e , s h e "went C a t h o l i c " i n s t e a d o f g o i n g t o s e e a d o c t o r , according to Red. She e v e n g o t h i m t o go t o M a s s , p r a y i n g f o r a c h i l d t h a t n e v e r came. "She was a d i f f i c u l t woman," he s a i d , s h a k i n g h i s h e a d . "But I can't forget her. T a k e me, a n d y o u ' l l j u s t h a v e t o p u t up w i t h h e r l i k e a g h o s t i n t h e h o u s e . " I c r i e d a l l t h e t i m e he was t e l l i n g me t h e s t o r y . I h a d n e v e r met a man s o r o m a n t i c . S o m e t i m e s I t h i n k I h a d j u s t n e v e r met a man. J a c k was j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e . Jack l i e d every t i m e he o p e n e d h i s m o u t h . He l i e d when he s a i d " g o o d m o r n i n g " o r "how a r e y o u ? " It wasn't that he was t r y i n g t o be c r u e l ; he w o u l d a l w a y s e x p l a i n h i s p r e v a r i c a t i o n b y s a y i n g he o n l y w a n t e d t o make me h a p p y . I d i d n ' t know u n t i l t h e s e c o n d y e a r o f o u r m a r r i a g e t h a t he was a n a l c o h o l i c . I d i d n ' t know u n t i l he went i n t o t h e h o s p i t a l w i t h a c u t e a l c o h o l p o i s o n i n g a n d t h e d o c t o r t o l d me h i m s e l f . "But J a c k d o e s n ' t d r i n k , " I s a i d , a l l i n n o c e n c e a n d wounded p r i d e . " L a d y , when y o u r h u s b a n d came i n h e r e , he h a d more b o u r b o n t h a n b l o o d i n h i s veins. " (47)  Explicit  quotations  from Red c o u n t e r  i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y he h a s p r o j e c t e d S y l v i e ' s unsympathetic crypto-fascist  pig"  terms,  (45).  w i t h F l o ; he b u i l d s l a r g e  image o f p o w e r a n d  thus far  i n the  structures  the  a n d makes l o t s  c h i l d r e n and pays  when P i e r r e a c c i d e n t a l l y s h o o t s faints  to the  truck.  unassailable,  and i t 5  for  macho,  of their  figuratively:  R e d on a h u n t i n g e x p e d i t i o n ,  i s t h e wounded Red who c a r r i e s  Although F l o ' s  him back  c h i l d r e n r e g a r d Red as  he i s maimed, p h y s i c a l l y b y s k i n c a n c e r  e m o t i o n a l l y by the g r i e f  In  relationship  He i s s t r o n g p h y s i c a l l y as w e l l a s  Pierre  story.  Red i s an " o v e r - s e x e d ,  He i n i t i a t e s  money; he p r o v i d e s f o r F l o ' s education.  the  associated  with his  first  and  98 marriage.  6  Red says that P a t r i c e "went C a t h o l i c " ;  a d i f f i c u l t woman... but I c a n ' t f o r g e t h e r . "  "she was  His  d e t e r m i n a t i o n to keep a l i v e the memory of h i s l a t e appeals to F l o because  it  r e v e a l s the k i n d of r e s p e c t  was never accorded i n her marriage to J a c k . passage,  Twice i n  she this  Red's speech i s presented i n s i d e q u o t a t i o n marks;  the f i r s t c i t a t i o n i s a r e f e r e n c e to P a t r i c e ' s the second to her l i n g e r i n g presence d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s emphasize,  Catholicism,  in his l i f e .  respectively,  a l l u d i n g f i r s t to a l a c k of l i f e  These two  Red and P a t r i c e ' s  f a i l u r e to conceive a c h i l d and h i s bereavement.  death,  wife  By  and then e x p l i c i t l y  to  they suggest Red's u l t i m a t e impotence i n the face of  mortality.  L e i t h and Myerson's term,  "explicit quotation,"  encompasses more than d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n . o t h e r a t t r i b u t a b l e fragments of speech, opens the passage c i t e d above:  It a p p l i e s a l s o  such as that which  "For h i s p a r t ,  Red admitted  i t wasn't q u i t e t r u e what he had s a i d about a l l the and whoring."  drinking  When Red f i r s t meets F l o , he p l a y s the  of swaggering s t u d ; as they become b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d , r o l e s become i n c r e a s i n g l y v a r i e d . "I...  His i n i t i a l  d r i n k and whore a l l the time"  speech,  whereas the counter to i t ,  i n i n d i r e c t speech.  7  (43), his  Typographically,  to  role his  announcement,  appears i n d i r e c t  ' a d m i s s i o n , ' occurs d i r e c t speech  is  accentuated and l o c a l i z e d i n a way that i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e  99 is  not;  of  an u t t e r a n c e because i t  his  indirect discourse  part,  this  requires quite  the e a r l i e r and the  i s r e i n f o r c e d by the  entirely consistent  ("For had  i n the  utterance,  " i t wasn't  and quite  i m p r e s s i o n not of the  first;  second instance  (rather than  the  in direct  the  t h u s seems  conflict)  not  with  first.  Explicit  quotations  double-voicedness  lied,"  Flo claims,  you.'"  It  especially  from J a c k demonstrate the  "when he s a i d  since i t  to  utterance: familiar  Jack's  ability  languages  to  the  that  l i e "every time  it  often  here i t  ceases to  of  also belongs duplicity.  are  rather he  importance of are  i n v o k e d by an  "How a r e y o u ? " may be a f a m i l i a r that  'how  i s usually considered a greeting  b e l o n g i n g t o what B a k h t i n c a l l s  language  'good morning' or  "He  i m a g i n e " g o o d m o r n i n g " as a l i e ,  o p e n e d h i s mouth" u n d e r s c o r e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  capacity  o f even t h e most b a n a l u t t e r a n c e .  is difficult  t h a n an a s s e r t i o n .  but  t r u e what he  clause,  The s e c o n d s t a t e m e n t g i v e s t h e  i d e n t i t y Red p r o j e c t s  for  impact  more w o r d s  later  c o n t r a d i c t i n g but merely of q u a l i f y i n g  the  the  The i n d i r e c t i o n o f R e d ' s a d m i s s i o n s o f t e n s  between  effect  true."  often  Red a d m i t t e d i t w a s n ' t  said..."). contrast  a l s o tends to d i f f u s e  question  f u n c t i o n as a  question)  "common l a n g u a g e "  to J a c k ' s  language,  (so  that  (301-2), is,  the  100 Flo's direct  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the d o c t o r ,  speech,  shows h e r n a i v e t e  marriage with Jack, major  dialogue characterizes one who n a r r a t e s t h e  story.  the b r i e f ,  drink,"  separate the v o i c e of the  about  far different  deluded a s s e r t i o n  from t h a t of F l o the  "But Jack  trusting narrator,  d e c e p t i o n and m i s p l a c e d l o y a l t y .  quotation  fragments  the  i d e n t i t y of the  focal  the  which  ("all  who has  This  h i g h l i g h t i n g a s p l i t between  from  doesn't  Flo  8  the  The  The q u o t a t i o n m a r k s  enclose  her  to understand  i n her marriage.  a F l o who i s  in  e a r l y stages of  her apparent i n a b i l i t y  cause of the unhappiness  innocence")  i n the  which appears  learned  explicit character,  F l o - a s - s h e - i s and  Flo-as-she-  was.  Fragmented and c o n t r a d i c t o r y i d e n t i t i e s Just  as Red t h e u n a s s a i l a b l e  fragilities,  t u r n s out  so F l o t h e n a r r a t o r  experienced s e l f  w i t h her  w i t h i n the  F l o of the  identities  continue  recur  contrasts  her  present  t o compete.  tense,  The F l o who i s m a r r i e d  i n f a n t i l e egocentrism of her  children,  the  F l o who i s a m o t h e r  to S y l v i e ' s voice  ( " t h i n and w e a r y . . .  ribs"  against  [50]),  maternal  and,  i n t o a meeting w i t h Jack.  responds like  allows herself She d o e s t h i s  to  adult immediately  a k n i f e i n my  her b e t t e r judgement,  g u i l t a n d empathy,  Even  a v a r i e t y of  the  but  current  former i n e x p e r i e n c e d s e l f .  story's  "Red."  t o h a v e h i s own  Red r e c o g n i z e s 9  in  t o be  out o f manipulated  " i n a moment o f  101 weakness"  (50);  differently. Flos,  1 0  the  Implicit of  the  i n a n o t h e r moment,  Thus,  a different  F l o would  act  t h e name " F l o " d e s i g n a t e s a v a r i e t y o f  term "character"  and e x p l i c i t  a v a r i e t y of  characters.  quotation provide concise  competing i d e n t i t i e s  which,  together,  impressions  create  character.  3.  Speech and the p r o d u c t i o n o f  Voice, character,  then, or,  fictional  i s a key f a c t o r  to put  it  identities.  identity  i n the  a n o t h e r way,  creation  i n the p r o d u c t i o n of  The d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s  address the p r o d u c t i o n of i d e n t i t y through on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s e x u a l o r g e n d e r e d Butler's  Gender Trouble  (1990)  Significant Trouble locate  at  this  the performance  identity  i n general,  focussing  t h a t an  Judith  d i s c u s s i o n of that  individual  it.  r i s k s accompany t h e juncture.  will  identities.  B u t l e r argues  assigned but performed,  c r e a t e s a gender by e n a c t i n g  speech,  i s an e x t e n d e d  the p r o d u c t i o n of sexual i d e n t i t i e s ; gender i s not  of  First,  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Butler's project  of gender i d e n t i t y ,  and t o s i t u a t e  it  1 1  is  to  context  of  not  i n the  Gender  of a  102 s o c i e t y governed by compulsory h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y - - t o questions  of sexual d i f f e r e n c e  arguments  of her book.  politics,  the  purpose  i d e n t i t y i n t h e polis,  fiction,  B u t l e r has  heterosexual the  "illusion"  as w e l l  the  of  gender  " i l l u s i o n of a much  an  less  H o w e v e r , much o f  i d e n t i t y and performance  as h o m o s e x u a l i d e n t i t i e s .  1 2  what  applies  to  A n d as  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i s c u s s i o n ,  draws h e a v i l y on d i s c u r s i v e m o d e l s :  w r i t i n g s of Foucault,  to  to the world of  is a given.  " l i t e r a r y " context  Butler herself  the  c o r e " becomes  i s transposed  t o say about  references  law suggest t h a t  in fiction;  and o r g a n i z i n g gender  where  repeated  i s to address issues  not  r a d i c a l n o t i o n once i t  for  and the  o f Gender Trouble  interior  i s to a v o i d the p r i n c i p a l  Furthermore,  individual  avoid  Freud,  Kristeva,  f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n Gender  Trouble.  L a c a n and  the  Wittig  B u t l e r e x p l a i n s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f i d e n t i t y as  follows:  [ A ] c t s , g e s t u r e s , and d e s i r e p r o d u c e t h e e f f e c t o f an i n t e r n a l c o r e o r s u b s t a n c e , b u t p r o d u c e t h i s on the surface o f the body, t h r o u g h the p l a y o f s i g n i f y i n g absences t h a t suggest, but never r e v e a l , the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f i d e n t i t y as a c a u s e . . . . [ A ] c t s and g e s t u r e s , a r t i c u l a t e d and e n a c t e d d e s i r e s c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f an i n t e r i o r and o r g a n i z i n g gender c o r e , an i l l u s i o n d i s c u r s i v e l y maintained f o r the purposes of t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f s e x u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e o b l i g a t o r y frame of r e p r o d u c t i v e h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y . (136) " A c t s and g e s t u r e s ,  a r t i c u l a t e d and e n a c t e d  writes,  illusion  gender  "create the core."  That  is,  the  desires,"  Butler  o f an i n t e r i o r and o r g a n i z i n g assortment  o f v e r b a l and  bodily  103 a c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l  a p p e a r t o be c o n t r o l l e d from w i t h i n by  a force c a l l e d gender. removed,  what r e m a i n s ,  unconnected a c t s , gender  or the  gender. his of  When t h e  idea of that  according to B u t l e r ,  force  is a series  e a c h o f w h i c h m i g h t be a l l i e d w i t h  other,  or with a p a r t i c u l a r facet  Red p e r f o r m s  a v a r i e t y of gender  speech and h i s a c t i o n s , these performances,  this  of  section w i l l  identities  t h r o u g h h i s speech and a c t i o n s meet b e c a u s e he a p p r o a c h e s  from the  her to ask,  " Y o u wanna h o l d my c u c u m b e r ,  honey?"  a n d d r o p s c i g a r a s h on h e r s t o m a c h ,  some the  speech.  itself  without 1 3  through  in  through  outset.  (42) .  one  examine  Red i s a r i c h T e x a n whose b r a v a d o r e v e a l s  of  one  identities  with a particular interest  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of m u l t i p l e gender  sweat  is  He a n d F l o preamble:  He d r i p s  sweat  and  cigars  b e i n g c l a s s i c metonyms f o r a c e r t a i n k i n d o f m a s c u l i n i t y . Red i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e d i r e c t n e s s  of h i s  their  "direct":  are  f i r s t m e e t i n g - - i n both senses of  speech his  i n q u o t a t i o n m a r k s a n d h i s manner o f s p e a k i n g  colloquial  ("you wanna"),  His opening l i n e constitutes  p a t r o n i z i n g ("honey")  and b l u n t . that  identities.  Red's dominant m a s c u l i n e presence t h r o u g h how much he s a y s as w e l l conversational pattern  words  is  t o F l o e p i t o m i z e s t h e macho s w a g g e r  one o f h i s g e n d e r  at  reveals  itself  a s what he s a y s .  A  emerges a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y whereby  104 Red  speaks,  Flo  cries  F l o g i g g l e s , - Red s p e a k s , (42-3).  meeting not  Red's speech dominates  o n l y because of the  t a k e up b u t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n i n v e r t e d commas,  to him i s  speechlessness:  s e c t i o n she  t o Red (at  not  p o l a r i t y between remains  silent  indeed the  as t h e  apart  from the  rest  of  own  response  and because F l o ' s  Flo is  in direct  still  speech).  i n the m e e t i n g scene and t h e n  story progresses.  over asleep  whereas  eight  i n a phrase. say,  the  makes i t  fact  After their  the  stereotypical  though;  undercutting  scene by the  conversational  (43).  hours  pool,  positions:  straight,  R e d ' s words a t  then the  t a k e up a c e r t a i n amount  of s t o r y  hours  are passed  of F l o ' s n a r r a t i v e  A l t h o u g h Red m i g h t not that  his  i d e n t i t y of  in  nothing  speech  always have a l o t  i s often  reported  the b i g t a l k e r ,  performs  a kind of  pool,  space, over to  directly  a p p e a r t o t a k e up more r o o m ; a s a c o n s e q u e n c e ,  t h e b i g man,  If  on h i s b e d "  speech,  the  The  but  a n d t h e woman who  i n R e d ' s room, F l o " t a l k e d f o r e i g h t  in direct  r e a d e r and  the  such a b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n by  F l o a n d Red q u i c k l y r e v e r s e  fell  words  the n a r r a t o r ,  to the  t h e man who s p e a k s  story parodies  first his  i s not maintained c o n s i s t e n t l y ,  establishing i t it  the  speaks,  of space  i s saying l i t t l e  least  at  Red  amount  set  narrative  this  F l o laughs,-  Red,  masculine  presence.  R e d ' s s p e e c h a n d t h e manner  r e v e a l aspects of h i s gender  i n which i t  identity,  is  so d o e s t h e  reported absence  105 of  his  speech,  w h i c h F l o n o t e s on a number o f  R e d ' s own s i l e n c e implications positive. proud,  i s e m p h a s i z e d i n a number o f c o n t e x t s  t h a t may d i f f e r b u t  There  occasions.  remain  consistently  i s the man-of-few-words  b u t he n e v e r  s a i d a word"  i m p l y i n g d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n  (46).  motif: There  (with the  'what  silent  life"  he s a y s n o t h i n g . . . to h i s heart" way t h a t  (50).  There  Red cannot  is  is critical  refusal  or judgemental,  h e r up w i t h h e r e x - h u s b a n d :  about t h i s  get-together with Jack.  This last  naturally; not  it  is  always work:  h a r d on me,  the  result  "Sometimes,  though,  performed  final  throughout  rescues her  the  of w i l l  himself"  say a n y t h i n g , nor I him"  story.  the  (49).  come  w h i c h does  It  especially remains  a n d one w h i c h she n o r does Red"  (49);  (46).  r o l e o f h e r o he  When R e d m e e t s F l o ,  has he  f r o m t h e d e a t h she has p l a n n e d f o r h e r s e l f  the H o l i d a y Inn. he o f f e r s  good  s a i d a word"  when S y l v i e h a s b e e n  words c o u n t e r a c t  He s a v e s h e r  close  to speak i n a  He h a s n ' t  i n F l o ' s eyes,  s a i d he l o v e d me,  Red's  t h a t are  " R e d ' s been  o f an e f f o r t  restrain  shares w i t h Red: "I never "Red n e v e r  " A n d now  type o f s i l e n c e does not n e c e s s a r i l y  Red c a n n o t  always a q u a l i t y ,  said  as when F l o ' s c h i l d r e n  t r y to set  (51).  never  pain:  speak of t h i n g s  (51). And t h e r e i s the  silence  i m p l i c a t i o n that "Red has  in his  " R e d was  is  speech opposes a c t i o n by d e l a y i n g i t ) : i f  with  c h i l d r e n to the  them a home a n d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t .  extent He e v e n  at that  106  conducts a parodic rescue t r u c k when t h e  latter  back by a c c i d e n t .  of P i e r r e ,  faints  after  But i n the  c a r r y i n g him to  the  h a v i n g shot Red i n  story's  i s a t h i s most v u l n e r a b l e : h a v i n g j u s t  final  paragraphs,  had s k i n  removed from h i s f a c e by a d e r m a t o l o g i s t ,  the Red  cancers  he m e e t s  Flo in  t h e b a r where she h a s b e e n t a l k i n g t o h e r e x - h u s b a n d J a c k , i n the r e u n i o n o r c h e s t r a t e d  by h e r c h i l d r e n .  Red h a s b e e n r e m i n d e d o f t h e p r e c a r i o u s n e s s and h i s m a r r i a g e . for her part Jack;  By t h e  Presumably, of both h i s  t i m e he e n t e r s t h e b a r ,  life  F l o has  b e e n r e m i n d e d o f e v e r y t h i n g she l o a t h e s  about  she dumps h i m a n d s l i p s i n b e s i d e R e d : I am n u d g i n g R e d ' s e l b o w , s a y i n g s o f t l y , " B u y me a drink, sweetheart." T h e n he t u r n s t o me a n d g i v e s me a shock. A drop of b l o o d has seeped t h r o u g h the gauze on h i s n o s e , t i n y p i n h e a d s o f sweat a r e r u n n i n g t o g e t h e r over h i s brow, and t h e r e are t e a r s s l i d i n g down h i s c h e e k s . I t a k e h i s hand and g i v e i t a squeeze. " I l o v e y o u , F l o , " he s a y s . " I f y o u l e a v e me, I ' l l b l o w my b r a i n s o u t . " (54-55)  F l o responds by a f f i r m i n g  her love f o r Red.  r e v e r s a l of the  initial  p o o l s i d e encounter,  F l o p l a y i n g the  seducer  (her o p e n i n g l i n e  t h a n R e d ' s "Wanna h o l d my c u c u m b e r , more c o n v e n t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n o n t h e "sweetheart" the  echoes R e d ' s  sentence).  from the h e r words  And here  In a neat t h i s episode  is less  honey?", but same t h e m e ;  explicit it  is  in  i s F l o t h e h e r o who r e s c u e s Red  t h r e a t o f d e a t h b y l o n e l i n e s s , who r e s c u e s (which are a l s o ,  a  her  "honey" even t o i t s placement it  has  i n a sense,  him w i t h  h i s w o r d s ) , a n d who  c l o s e s the n a r r a t i v e w i t h h e r d e c l a r a t i o n .  107 II)  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n "  If  "Red" i s ,  among o t h e r  things,  a d e c l a r a t i o n of  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " d e c l a r e s u n r e l i a b i l i t y of d e c l a r a t i o n s . 1985 c o l l e c t i o n narrated  The t i t l e  f i r s t person,  the  story of G l o v e r ' s  i s one o f f o u r f i c t i o n s i n t h a t  e n t i r e l y i n the  love,  book  and t h e o n l y  s t o r y t o have a male n a r r a t o r .  Unlike  d i v i d e d i n t o segments s e p a r a t e d  by t y p o g r a p h i c a l marks,  the  s e g m e n t s p l a y o f f one a n o t h e r  "Red," t h i s  such story  is and  t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n and  variation.  1.  The s h i f t i n g " I "  Flo,  the  first-person narrator  t h e hegemony o f t h e n a r r a t i n g other  characters  quotation.  disrupts  the  person.  In t h i s  i n the  " I " by weaving the v o i c e s of  Similarly,  case,  just  husband,  the n a r r a t o r  commentator,  but a l s o  philosopher,  " I " remains nameless.  narrator  first chiefly  of the p r i n c i p a l v o i c e .  c o n t a i n and s t a b i l i z e i d e n t i t y , story's  o f "Dog"  the d i s r u p t i o n i s e f f e c t e d  fragmentation  Unlike Flo, this  this  the n a r r a t o r  and  semblance o f coherence p r o v i d e d by the  s t o r y i s not  protagonist,  " R e d , " b r e a k s down  i n t o her s t o r y through i m p l i c i t  explicit  through the  of  The " I "  the rescuer....  I f b y n a m i n g we  then the namelessness  suggests h i s evasiveness,  his  of  108 multiplicity. singularity  And i f the term " f i r s t person" (that  i s , t h e r e may b e a f i r s t  not  two f i r s t s )  then t h i s  The  a n a l y s i s which follows  The  will  " I " - n a r r a t o r and the  work o f G e r a r d G e n e t t e  clarification  narrator,  and n o t e s t h a t  person- -narrative"  seem  narration.  persons  of the  "I"-character.  provides a  I n Narrative  discusses  but  focus on t h e dynamics o f t h e  helpful  o f the d i s t i n c t i o n between the  and t h e " I " - n a r r a t o r . Method G e n e t t e  and a second,  i s not a f i r s t - p e r s o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two m a i n f i r s t story--the  implies  Discourse:  the r o l e of the the terms  "I"-character An Essay  in  first-person  "first-person--or  third-  "inadequate":  The p r e s e n c e o f f i r s t - p e r s o n v e r b s i n a n a r r a t i v e t e x t c a n t h e r e f o r e r e f e r t o two v e r y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h grammar r e n d e r s i d e n t i c a l b u t w h i c h n a r r a t i v e a n a l y s i s must d i s t i n g u i s h : t h e n a r r a t o r ' s own d e s i g n a t i o n o f h i m s e l f a s s u c h , a s when V i r g i l w r i t e s " J s i n g o f arms a n d the m a n . . . , " o r e l s e the i d e n t i t y of person b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t o r a n d one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e s t o r y , a s when C r u s o e w r i t e s "I was b o r n i n the y e a r 1632, i n the c i t y o f Y o r k . . . . " The t e r m "first-person narrative" refers, quite obviously, o n l y t o the second o f these s i t u a t i o n s , and t h i s dissymmetry confirms i t s u n f i t n e s s . . . . The r e a l q u e s t i o n i s whether o r not the n a r r a t o r can use t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o d e s i g n a t e one of his [sic] characters. We w i l l t h e r e f o r e d i s t i n g u i s h h e r e two t y p e s o f n a r r a t i v e : one w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r a b s e n t f r o m t h e s t o r y he [sic] t e l l s . . . , the other w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r p r e s e n t as a c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y he [sic] tells.... I c a l l the f i r s t type, f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s , heterodiegetic, and the second type homodiegetic. (244-5)  109  One m i g h t d i s p u t e  the  contention that  person n a r r a t i v e '  refers,  differences  heterodiegetic  at  but  somewhere b e t w e e n o r b e s i d e  narrator story" narrator it,  He i s ,  the  narrator  i s at  however,  announces,  the  times  i n p l a c e s he  operates  1 4  slightly:  heterodiegetic  the  further  I am  "outside of  outside  it  than  a n d he i s d i s t a n c e d  the  the from  by t i m e and the d i s t o r t i o n s of  a n d memory.  "heterodiegetic" the  both  the  s t r i c t l y speaking,  Some r e a d e r s f i n d G e n e t t e ' s  for  contexts.  two c a t e g o r i e s .  who a c t s as a c h a r a c t e r ,  a s he h i m s e l f  fiction  the  designations  i n "Dog" i s n o t , (244).  glosses  and t h e i r p o i n t s o f c o n v e r g e n c e :  times h e t e r o d i e g e t i c ;  twisting Genette's  well  illustrates  between t h e h o m o d i e g e t i c and  narration is first-person, homodiegetic,  is  among a number o f n a r r a t i v e  narrator  the  irreducible; it  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " the  'first-  However, the p o i n t  n a r r a t i o n i s not  over the d i f f e r e n c e s  term  quite obviously, only to  second of these s i t u a t i o n s . " taken--first-person  "the  confusing.  "narrative  as d i s c o u r s e , "  1 S  terms  " h o m o d i e g e t i c " and  "Diegesis" i s Genette's  as s t o r y , "  as opposed t o the  the d i s t i n c t i o n between s t o r y  term  "narrative  and  d i s c o u r s e b e i n g t h a t w h i c h was p o p u l a r i z e d b y t h e R u s s i a n Formalists. narrator  1 6  Thus t h e h o m o d i e g e t i c  i s immersed i n the  heterodiegetic  narrator  story,  i s not.  (same-as-diegesis) whereas  I will  the  use the  terms " I " -  110 character  and " I " - n a r r a t o r ,  the  s t o r y ' s most s a l i e n t  2.  Openings  A)  because  narrative  t h e y h i g h l i g h t two o f postures.  Opening l i n e s  The o p e n i n g l i n e s o f and f r a g m e n t a t i o n  "Dog" i n t r o d u c e i s s u e s  which permeate the  of  identity  text:  My w i f e a n d I d e c i d e t o s e p a r a t e , a n d t h e n s u d d e n l y we a r e a l m o s t h a p p y t o g e t h e r . The p a t h o s o f o u r s i t u a t i o n , o u r p r i v a t e and u n i q u e t r a g e d y , l e n d s romance t o e a c h s m a l l a c t . We s e e e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e r o u n d , t h e f a c e t s as opposed t o t h e f l a t b a n a l i t y t h a t was w e d g i n g u s a p a r t . (97) The n a r r a t o r  i s i d e n t i f i e d as a m a r r i e d man f r o m t h e  two w o r d s o f t h e may assume the  t h a t he w i l l  separation,  less.  story;  The f i r s t  division  (separation,  the d i v i d e d s e l f ) . follows:  is  sentence  (unitary identity,  opening clause,  proceed to recount  and t h i s  o p p o s i t i o n on w h i c h t h e unity  from the  i n d i c a t e s one f o r m o f  The s e n t e n c e  "My w i f e a n d I d e c i d e "  (unity). throughout  story,  or  the  marriage, disorder,  fixity)  (unity)--"to  as  separate"  a l m o s t happy  e s p e c i a l l y i n the  and  disjunction,  This a l t e r n a t i o n of opposites manifests the  more  may be mapped o u t  ( d i v i s i o n ) - - " a n d t h e n s u d d e n l y we a r e  reader  an o p p o s i t i o n between  togetherness,  fragmentation,  the  h i s v e r s i o n of  i n d e e d what h a p p e n s ,  story hinges,  first  structure  together" itself (even  at  Ill the  level  the  fluctuating narrative  w i t h the  of sentence s t r u c t u r e ,  as  i n the  postures,  ambivalence of the  example  and the  above),  preoccupation  "I."  The a l t e r n a t i o n b e t w e e n u n i t y a n d d i v i s i o n m a r k s sequence of the  opening sentences.  presents i t s e l f  as a n o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s  (as  objective,  is,  be).  The s h i f t  that  the  semblance  flowing  adjectives  from the  subject  suggest that  subject,  opening sentence,  w i t h the the  it  abandons  that  first-person  i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d  t o be r e a d as  "I."  the  sentence  although  In the  a  objective  plural stance,  d e s c r i b i n g here a p e r c e p t i o n which i s both p a r t i c u l a r somewhat wife both  deceptive. "see...  banality...." of  The p r o t a g o n i s t  the  This i s ,  facets  quite  a c e r t a i n k i n d of perception,  they  share i t .  appropriates  It  i s more l i k e l y  flat  is unlikely  t h a t the  hers  c o i n c i d e s w i t h h i s : he h a s d e c i d e d t h a t  this  h a v e come t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r  The n a r r a t o r ,  one m i g h t a r g u e ,  uses  "we" i n t h e  that  protagonist  assuming t h a t  situation.  his  a specific description  and i t  his wife's perception,  and  c l a i m s t h a t he a n d  as o p p o s e d t o t h e  however,  as  third  reversion to a f i r s t - p e r s o n  narrator  can  second  i n c l u s i o n o f two  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the v o i c e of the sentence,  i n the  of o b j e c t i v i t y ,  s e n t e n c e ' s p o s i t i o n and i t s possessive  sentence  as any f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n  to a third-person  reinforces  The f i r s t  the  i s how t h e y then,  t h i r d s e n t e n c e when he  112 means " I , " a s l i p w i t h numerous concerned w i t h t r u t h the  story's  pronouns  editorial t h a t has  and d e c e p t i o n ,  opening l i n e s ,  and p o s s e s s i v e  ambivalent,  caught  resonances  the  so  a c c u r a c y and e r r o r .  first-person plural  adjectives  t e n s i o n between  the n a r r a t o r  and the  two a n t e c e d e n t s - - t h e n a r r a t o r / c h a r a c t e r  In  subject  m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d  in a referential  "we" t h a t d e s i g n a t e s  i n a story  and  as  the "we" his  wife.  The o p e n i n g l i n e s o f Saskatoon"  set  they introduce division, that  B)  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n  up a t e n s i o n b e t w e e n the  narrator's  and the p a t t e r n  the  "we" a n d t h e  "I";  a m b i v a l e n c e t o w a r d u n i t y and  of a l t e r n a t i o n which  illustrates  ambivalence.  Opening  paragraphs  "Dog" i s n o t "Traditional  a straightforward  story writers,"  chronological narration.  claims the  narrator,  compose a b e g i n n i n g , a m i d d l e a n d a n e n d , s t r i n g i n g t h e s e t o g e t h e r i n c o n t i n u i t y as i f t h e r e w e r e some whole which they r e p r e s e n t e d . Whereas I am w r i t i n g fragments and d i s c u r s i v e c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s about an o b j e c t t h a t may n o t be c o m p l e t e o r may be i n f i n i t e . (102) The s t o r y ' s which describe protagonist's  alternating the  structure  juxtaposes  events surrounding the  marriage  sections  d i s s o l u t i o n of  ( u s u a l l y t o l d by the  the  "I"-character)  113 w i t h those the  act  which grapple w i t h the business  of n a r r a t i n g  itself  These a p p a r e n t l y d i s c r e t e spaces  ( t o l d by the  passages are  and t y p o g r a p h i c a l m a r k s ,  sections  the p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  on h i s m a r r i a g e ,  of the  (homodiegetic or h e t e r o d i e g e t i c )  the  story.  concerns of the  The f i r s t  i n v o l v i n g the  individual  "I"-character,  acts.  of the The  reflecting  "I"-narrator,  status  of the n a r r a t o r " I " at  and t h o s e  of  "Dog" i s  s p e c i f i c moments  demonstrate  between the  "I"-character  by b l a n k  even w i t h i n  two p a r a g r a p h s  considerable differences  "I"-narrator).  separated  i n t e r m i n g l e w i t h those  m e d i t a t i n g on h i s own n a r r a t i v e  produced by the  but  of s t o r y - t e l l i n g ,  story  in  the  segments  i n v o l v i n g the  "I"-  narrator.  Here i s the also i t s  second paragraph  second s e c t i o n ,  separated  of the  story,  from the  first  which  is  paragraph  by b l a n k space and a t y p o g r a p h i c a l mark: Note. A l r e a d y t h i s i s not the s t o r y I wanted to t e l l . That i s b u r i e d , gone, l o s t - - i t s a c t i o n fragmented and d i s t o r t e d by i n e x a c t r e c o l l e c t i o n . D i r e c t l y i t was c o m p l e t e d , i t h a d d i s a p p e a r e d , gone w i t h t h e p a s t i n t o t h a t s t r a n g e r e a l m o f suspended a n i m a t i o n , t h a t c o a t r a c k of d e s p a i r , wherein a l l our completed a c t s await, g a t h e r i n g d u s t , u n t i l we come f o r them a g a i n . I am t r y i n g to g i v e you the t r u t h , though I c o u l d t r y harder, a n d o n l y r e f r a i n b e c a u s e I know t h a t t h a t way l e a d s t o madness. So I o f f e r a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n , a shadow p l a y , s u c h as w o u l d e x c i t e children, full of b l i n d s p o t s and i r r e l e v a n t a d u m b r a t i o n s , too l i t t l e i n p a r t s ; e l s e w h e r e t o o much. A l t e r n a t e l y I w i l l f r u s t r a t e you and l e a d you a s t r a y . I can o n l y s a y t h a t , a t t h e o u t s e t , my i n t e n t i o n was o t h e r w i s e ; I sought o n l y c l a r i t y and s i m p l e conclusions. Now I know t h e w o r s t - - t h a t  114 r e a s o n s a r e o u t o f j o i n t w i t h a c t i o n s , t h a t my b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l be o b s c u r e , s u b t l e a n d u n s a t i s f y i n g , a n d t h a t t h e human m i n d i s a t a n g l e of u n e x p l o r e d pathways. (98) T h i s passage i n t e r r u p t s first  paragraph  tropes  of the  abrupt  sentence  shift  line  initiated in  a n d a l l u d e s t o t h r e e o f t h e most  story:  i n tone,  the n a r r a t i v e  truth,  fragment  blindness,  ("Note.")  e s p e c i a l l y when i t  insistent  and r e d e m p t i o n .  marks from the is contrasted  The  outset  with  opening c l a u s e .  The " I " i n t h e  ("Already t h i s  i s not  differentiated  i n context  opening s e c t i o n : the  the  story  second  I wanted t o t e l l " )  " I , " the  desires  " I " of the  to t e l l  how  that w i l l  the  first  second paragraph,  a story,  happen.  narrator  story is reality, t e l l i n g a story;  the  does not d i s r u p t does not  appear  illusion  s u c h d i s r u p t i o n i s t h e mandate  whose s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a i m i s t h e  fiction.  But i n the  t h i r d sentence  status of r e a l experience  a c t i o n of "the  story  " d i s t o r t e d by i n e x a c t the a c t i o n of the  lies  the  that  recollection."  s t o r y w i t h the  the is  of the " i " -  c r e a t i o n of  "I"-narrator  blurs  i n r e l a t i o n to f i c t i o n :  I wanted t o t e l l , "  in  awareness:  t o be aware t h a t he  narrator,  the  separation,  "I"-narrator,  i s one o f  the  the  appeared  and h i s p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t  The d i f f e r e n c e  the  is  "I"-character,  t o be d e s c r i b i n g i n c i d e n t s h a v i n g t o do w i t h h i s w h i l e the  of  sentence  and i n t e n t i o n from t h a t o f  first  the  the  conventional subject-verb-infinitive/object structure story's  the  he c l a i m s , The n a r r a t o r  the  is equates  e x p e r i e n c e h i s memory h a s  115 distorted--equates,  i n short,  p l o t w i t h l i f e - - t h e binary-  o p p o s i t i o n between c o n s t r u c t e d authentic  experience  fiction  c o l l a p s e s when t h e  a p p e a r s b o t h as a r t i f i c e a n d a s a reality.  Thus,  difference  i n the  The s h i f t to the  associated  from the  shifts  wife,  the  say y e s " ) ,  ("she  thoughts,  realize"...  paragraph  i n the  asks m e " . . .  perceptions  "we l o o k " . . .  and L u c y ,  form of  about  crucial elides  it.  first  paragraph  a number o f  s t y l e and f o c u s o f the  narrative.  character  and h i s s t o r y .  around "I"-"she"  story  Glover  of c r e a t i n g  second produces  There i s a c o n f l i c t  protagonist  story,  i s concerned w i t h the  is structured  include dialogue  think").  i n the  second w i t h the n a r r a t o r  paragraph  "[we]  of the  "I"-character  i n the  The f i r s t p a r a g r a p h  a c t i o n of the  (however d i s t a n t )  i n the v e r y p r o c e s s  "I"-narrator  (supposedly)  f i r s t passage to e s t a b l i s h a  between the n a r r a t o r s  this difference  and  and The  interactions,  " I do n o t  his first which  say n o " . . .  and a c t i o n s  ("we  "I  see"...  "we a r e b o t h t h i n k i n g " . . . " I b e t w e e n two c h a r a c t e r s ,  t h e i r marriage.  Lucy has d i s a p p e a r e d ;  In the  the paragraph  is  the  second structured  a r o u n d n o t a c t i o n o r s p e e c h b u t d e s c r i p t i o n and introspection. the that  "I"-narrator the  There i s a c o n f l i c t and the  "I"-narrator  "you",  b e t w e e n two  about  a story.  1 7  i s n o t much c o n c e r n e d w i t h  characters, The  fact  reporting  d i a l o g u e o r a c t i o n g i v e s h i m more room f o r d e s c r i p t i o n - hence the  expanded use of a d j e c t i v e s  ( w h i c h come now i n t w o s  116 and  threes--"buried,  distorted," imagery  "obscure,  gone,  lost,"  "fragmented  and  s u b t l e and u n s a t i s f y i n g " )  ("gone w i t h t h e p a s t  into that  strange  suspended a n i m a t i o n , t h a t  coatrack of despair,  our  gathering dust,  completed acts  them a g a i n " ) . antiphonal l e a d you  The " I " - n a r r a t o r  structure:  wherein a l l  until  encapsulates  "Alternately I will  realm of  we come f o r  the  story's  frustrate  you and  astray."  The  t h i r d paragraph of the  character story's  1 8  await,  and o f  and t h e  opening  s t o r y combines the  "I"-narrator.  "I"-  I t begins by r e p e a t i n g  the  sentence:  "My w i f e a n d I d e c i d e t o s e p a r a t e , a n d t h e n s u d d e n l y we a r e a l m o s t h a p p y t o g e t h e r . " This i s a s e n t e n c e f u l l o f i r o n i e s and l i e s . For example, I h e r my w i f e . . . .  call  (98)  The  r e p r i s e and c r i t i q u e o f t h e o p e n i n g l i n e  this after  section w i l l the  be d o m i n a t e d b y t h e  l i n e s c i t e d above the  t a l k s about m a r r i a g e . to  postures  h a v i n g been set  The  "I"-character  s i n g u l a r i t y of the  "I"-character  out  i n the p r e c e d i n g  of  that but  returns  and  s w i t c h from " i " -  i s r e c o g n i z a b l e , the  opening paragraphs  Saskatoon" c o n s t i t u t e  "I"-narrator,  By t h i s p o i n t the  narrator  suggest  two n a r r a t i v e paragraphs.  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n  a c r i t i q u e of the  f i r s t person.  convention of  the  The s t o r y ' s n a r r a t i n g  rapidly subdivides, revealing himself  t o be a t  least  two  "I"  117 "I"s,  3.  t e l l i n g at  least  two  stories.  Truth  The p r i n c i p a l  s o u r c e o f a m b i v a l e n c e i n "Dog A t t e m p t s  Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " i s t h e u n i t y and d i v i s i o n . protagonist's  Unity suggests,  marriage,  narrating  " I , " and the  division,  represented  disruption, his wife.  recurring tension  the  s i n g u l a r i d e n t i t y of  coherence by the  fragmentation,  among o t h e r  of the  story,  "I"-narrator,  interrupts  ostensible  reason  interruptions  In the  and c h a l l e n g e s a t  f o r many o f t h e  i s the  search for  second paragraph,  am t r y i n g t o g i v e y o u t h e a r e p e t i t i o n of the sentence  full  the  whereas  separation  truth"  o f i r o n i e s and l i e s "  statements"  (103).  from  every turn.  "I"The  truth.  the  follows:  which the  "I"-narrator (98).  In the  asserts: third,  (98).  A few p a g e s  "The d i s c e r n i n g r e a d e r  Another  "I after  he c l a i m s : " T h i s i s  b y now h a v e t r a p p e d me i n a number o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s doubtful  the  "I"-narrator's  opening sentence,  a p a r a g r a p h b e g i n s as  things,  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n i t y and  the o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i o n of the n a r r a t i v e , narrator  between  implies  the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  The " I " - c h a r a c t e r  to  opens:  a  later, will and  118 Do n o t , i f y o u w i s h , b e l i e v e a n y o f t h e a b o v e . It i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l j a z z w r i t t e n en marge; I am a p o e t o f marginalia. Some o f what I w r i t e i s u t t e r c r a p a n d wishful thinking. L u c y i s n o t "happy t o be s a d " ; she i s s e e t h i n g i n s i d e b e c a u s e I am b e t r a y i n g h e r . (105)  And a g a i n :  "More b u n k !  I ' l l l e t y o u know now t h a t we a r e  not g o i n g t o the a r t g a l l e r y as I w r i t e t h i s " recurring references  to truth,  numerous i m p l i c a t i o n s . the n a r r a t o r it  started  was i n a c c u r a t e ,  and e r r o r s  This strategy  c a n a work o f f i c t i o n  reader  t o know t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r w i l l  be u n t r u t h f u l ?  what means m i g h t t h a t n a r r a t o r  tell  a number  a n d t o what  How i s t h e truthful  it?  And by  t h e t r u t h from here on  On t h e one h a n d t h e c o n f e s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e s  narrator;  realizing  raises  b e a n y more  the confession of d u p l i c i t y than before  complicity,  that  d e c i d e d t o admit the d e c e p t i o n i n o r d e r  extent  in?  have  out t e l l i n g a s t o r y and then,  q u e s t i o n s : what d o e s t r u t h mean i n f i c t i o n ,  after  The  The i l l u s i o n b e i n g f o s t e r e d i s  t o be t r u t h f u l t o t h e r e a d e r . of  lies,  (107).  a  a bond o f c o n f i d e n c e , between r e a d e r and  on t h e o t h e r  i t undermines the  narrator's  c r e d i b i l i t y b y r e v e a l i n g h i s own d o u b t s a b o u t t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y of the  text.  "Do n o t , i f y o u w i s h ,  b e l i e v e any o f t h e above"  (105):  t h e onus i s o n t h e " y o u " t o d e c i d e what s / h e " w i s h [ e s ] ,  n  what t o " b e l i e v e " (do we b e l i e v e s o m e t h i n g b e c a u s e we w i s h to?).  When a n a r r a t o r makes a s t a t e m e n t  and l a t e r  denounces  119 it,  the  effect  i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h o c c u r s when a l a w y e r  in a jury t r i a l  asks of a witness  q u e s t i o n may be c o n t e s t e d will  and s t r u c k  a l w a y s have b e e n a s k e d ;  gesture i s (105).  lost;  the  interruptions  words;  this  narrative  positions,  character  to the  order  In other  "Red,"  call  specifically  shifts  the  the  f o r the  and  through s h i f t s from the  the  in  "I"another  in  draws i n v o i c e s o f  first right  person  splits  to truth,  and  story.  N a r r a t i v e personae  While the p r i n c i p a l s e p a r a t i o n of  into question  t o c r e a t e a f i r s t - p e r s o n p o l y p h o n y ; i n "Dog  i n t o two " I " - v o i c e s who compete  4.  "No  it.  A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n , "  to the  it  repeated"  "I" displaces  the v o i c e of the n a r r a t o r  characters  but it:  i n human a c t s  i s p l a y e d out  "I"-narrator--one  to c r i t i q u e  un-hear  the  a n d d i s c l a i m e r s i n "Dog  and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n  interrogation  record,  l i n k e d and  A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " nature of t r u t h  from the  j u r y cannot  a l l our a c t s are  Repeated  an i m p r o p e r q u e s t i o n :  i n the  narrative  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " "I"-character  identities  and the  manifest  "I"-narrator,  themselves  occurs  numerous  as c o m p o n e n t s  voice  between  other  of that  "I,"  120 identities invoke.  which are  Chief  philosopher,  i d e n t i f i a b l e by the  among t h e s e a r e  and the  ambivalent  The " I " - n a r r a t o r never quite tell  it:  l i n e s of the  he  s t o r y he i s t e l l i n g o r how b e s t  to  ("Already t h i s  final  the  lover.  a storyteller,  confident  on h i s own t e x t .  That i s b u r i e d ,  they  but  he a l t e r n a t e s b e t w e e n  second s e c t i o n  storyteller,  is a writer,  s u r e what  method and a t t a c k s  tell.  the  languages  gone,  i s not lost")  explanations  of  The d i s c l a i m e r i n the  story  his  the  I wanted  i s echoed i n the  is  to  opening  section:  T h i s i s not the s t o r y I wanted t o t e l l . I repeat t h i s c a v e a t as a r e m i n d e r t h a t I am w i l l f u l a n d w a y w a r d as a s t o r y t e l l e r , n o t a good s t o r y t e l l e r a t a l l . The r i g h t s t o r y , the t r u e s t o r y , had I been a b l e t o t e l l i t , would have changed y o u r l i f e - - b u t i t i s b u r i e d , gone, l o s t . (112) It  i s as  Platonic actual  if  "the  right  story,  i d e a l , a n o t i o n i n the  t e x t s c a n be o n l y p a l e  approximation...").  assertions  of the  narrator this list.  that i t list  all.  i s not  the  ("so  story,  framed by the  of t o p i c s  were a mind, of  "Dog A t t e m p t s  they do--as p a r t  and  the  some do n o t of  cases they appear i n another  "Woman G o r e d b y B i s o n L i v e s , "  to  narrator's  t o be c o v e r e d t h a t (106),  which  I o f f e r you an  s t o r y he h a d i n m i n d ,  Except that  And i n s e v e r a l  altogether,  storyteller's  imitations  d r a w s up i n a n o t e b o o k  s t o r y at  true story"  The s t o r y - - t h i s  Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n " - - i s  indeed,  the  appear  in  that story  in Glover's third  121 collection,  A Guide to Animal  Iser writes  i n "The P r o c e s s o f R e a d i n g " t h a t  reading constitutes expectations: which are the  s e t s up c e r t a i n  then a l t e r e d by the next dramatizes  c o m m e n t i n g on t h e  (214).  that process  s t o r y as i t p r o c e e d s  and d i s c l a i m e r s , r e p e t i t i o n s t h a t the process  (1991).  Wolfgang  the act  of  a continual m o d i f i c a t i o n of  one s e n t e n c e  "I"-narrator  laid  Behaviour  expectations, And i n t h i s  story  by j u m p i n g i n and  with overt  denials  and r e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n s ,  of m o d i f i c a t i o n , the process  so  of reading,  is  bare.  The l a n g u a g e  of philosophy enters the  second page as t h e n a r r a t o r "Somewhere t h a t  paraphrases  text  on  Blaise  the  Pascal:  c r e t i n P a s c a l says t h a t a l l our problems  s t e m f r o m n o t b e i n g a b l e t o s i t q u i e t l y i n a room a l o n e " (98). is  The p h r a s e  1 9  t o some d e g r e e  having,  say,  "that c r e t i n " i m p l i e s that f a m i l i a r w i t h P a s c a l ' s work  taken the  and a c o u p l e of pages l a t e r  e x p l a i n s the  familiarity:  "style":  that,  the  the  " I am two c o u r s e s  i n philosophy which I w i l l  pages a f t e r  (rather  "I"-narrator  a n d W i t t g e n s t e i n , he c l a i m s t o be  short  of a  never receive"  (100).  e x p l a i n s the  story's  Two  Nietzsche  " i n v o k i n g a t r a d i t i o n " of  The p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e  with fragmentation  than  narrator  c i t i n g H e r a c l i t u s , Kierkegaard, Hegel,  fragmentation.  narrator  i d e a from a d i c t i o n a r y o f  quotations),  degree  the  thematic  concern  and t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a  122 fragmented  style is fairly  obvious.  academics i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n i r o n y - - i f  The r e f e r e n c e the  philosopher's  p h i l o s o p h y o f c h o i c e has t o do w i t h f r a g m e n t a t i o n , is  appropriate  t h a t h i s degree  The i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e discursive  space  the  it  story;  offers  to contemplate  then  it  s h o u l d be m i s s i n g two p i e c e s .  language  f o r the  to  of philosophy creates  a  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and f r a g m e n t a t i o n  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l " I " the  his circumstances  of  opportunity  from a v a r i e t y o f  different  positions.  The " I " - c h a r a c t e r  i n "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n  S a s k a t o o n " a p p e a r s p r o f o u n d l y c o n f u s e d as t o t h e n a t u r e o f his role,  and L u c y ' s ,  in their relationship.  o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h he makes t h e  confusion  In the  story's  explicit:  We a r e b o t h t h i n k i n g , "Who i s t h i s p e r s o n t o whom I have been m a r r i e d ? What has b e e n t h e m e a n i n g o f o u r relationship?" T h e s e a r e q u e s t i o n s we h a v e n e v e r a s k e d o u r s e l v e s ; we have b e e n a b l i n d c o u p l e g r o p i n g w i t h each o t h e r i n the dark. (97) At the his  e n d o f t h e p a r a g r a p h he i n d i c a t e s t h e  f e e l i n g s t o w a r d L u c y have c h a n g e d  my w i f e a g a i n s t  Pascal!  the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  [98]).  But i t  i s not  harbours  q u i t e an a r r a y o f a p p a r e n t l y  that  relationship.  s i n c e the  the  s o much  f e e l i n g s have changed o v e r t i m e :  d e n i a l s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e  the  which  ("Now I am d e f e n d i n g  frequent  about  to  A month ago I w o u l d h a v e u s e d  same p a s s a g e t o b l u d g e o n h e r " that  extent  In the  incompatible  t h i r d paragraph  c e r e m o n y was s h o r t  that  the  he  ideas  he  argues  and the m a r r i a g e  short-  123 lived,  t h e y were n e v e r  analyses  of the  Lucy sought brother). of  a child,  relationship,  i n h i m someone But,  father  r e a l l y married.  referring  dances at  to her  behaviour  innocence...  hat  end o f the  the  s t o r y are  the p r o t a g o n i s t wife"  (107),  s e e s me as often  far  the  she  is  the  A t one p o i n t  Call  her mother  tyrant  Celeste;  (106).  protagonist's  relationship  the  i n the  rape"  (107).  identities,  and s t r i p  and  so t h e p r o t a g o n i s t  of  what  t o be  a  "naturally that  i n the  he  story, "Call  this  Clytemnestra. I was t h e  brother-  L u c y was t o t e a c h me  On o c c a s i o n  the  i s more s e x u a l  o f f her  J u s t as Red p e r f o r m s  gave  into here;  "What s h e d o e s l o v e i s f o r me t o w r e s t l e  living-room carpet  the  implications  he r e c a s t s h i m s e l f :  the meaning of s u f f e r i n g "  familial:  her  I  i s t h a t Lucy "refused  the wandering w a r r i o r k i n g . . . s l a y the  were  she  o u t my p o c k e t s ,  He seems u n a w a r e  child.  C a l l me O r e s t e s .  role  i f she (101),  The p s y c h o s e x u a l  (101).  r o l e of father,  come t o  h e r as  sexually repressed  a play.  friend  I turned  however,  the  father,  describes  a  role  A n d when t h e p u p p e t e e r s p a s s e d  refusing  Her  (a f a t h e r ,  "She i s a c h i l d a g a i n a n d I am i n  (109).  father"  sees h e r as  that  to p l a y the  t o o c o m p l e x t o be gone  says,  that  claims  " c h i l d ' s s c h o o l desk"  show,  them e v e r y t h i n g I h a d " of  his  (108) ; he i s d e e p l y moved when  a p u p p e t show:  the  he c l e a r l y was n o t  he o f t e n  awe o f h e r at  the p r o t a g o n i s t  a l t h o u g h he d o e s n o t want  to h i s wife,  "kittenish"  I n many o f  clothes  a v a r i e t y of "Dog A t t e m p t s  her  than to  i n a mock gender t o Drown Man  124  i n Saskatoon"  articulates  s e v e r a l of the  subject  he t a k e s up i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L u c y ; that  in this  s t o r y none o f t h e  one q u e s t i o n them.  i s whether  And w h i l e the  roles  one d i f f e r e n c e  seems s a t i s f y i n g ,  the p r o t a g o n i s t  avoids or  is  identities,  clear that  those of n a r r a t o r  creates  two  this binary compartmentalization i s  inadequate  positions  "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n "  overtly,  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y fragmented  writing,  "Red" m e r e l y g i v e s the  shifts  the  an  and d i s r u p t e d p i e c e o f  impression of  back and f o r t h i n t i m e ;  is  the  seamlessness:  f o c u s moves f r o m F l o  and Red t o F l o and J a c k t o F l o and h e r c h i l d r e n ; t h e w h i c h seems t o be F l o ' s N a r r a t i o n i n the  first  by a s i n g l e f i g u r e . L u c y ' s nameless particles. less  it  offers.  If  it  and  and p r o t a g o n i s t ,  t o a d d r e s s t h e number a n d d i v e r s i t y o f s u b j e c t story  is  " I " i n "Dog A t t e m p t s t o Drown Man i n  S a s k a t o o n " may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g different  positions  speaks person,  the words o f then,  obvious than  others.  d o e s n o t mean  narration  F l o p u l l s o t h e r v o i c e s i n t o h e r own;  former husband fragments  In e i t h e r  voice  case,  what  i t m i g h t seem.  address polyphony w i t h o u t the  " I " means i s The n e x t  " I , " the  multiple voices i n a third-person  into  assorted considerably  chapter  will  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  narration.  125 1. B a k h t i n d i s c u s s e s t h i s i n t e r w e a v i n g o f q u o t e d and q u o t i n g i n a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f D i c k e n s ' Little Dorrit; he t h e " q u o t a t i o n s " as marked by i n v i s i b l e ( i n d e e d , nonexistent) punctuation:  sees  So i t i s t h r o u g h o u t D i c k e n s ' w h o l e n o v e l . His e n t i r e t e x t i s , i n f a c t , everyhwere d o t t e d w i t h q u o t a t i o n marks t h a t s e r v e t o s e p a r a t e out l i t t l e i s l a n d s o f s c a t t e r e d d i r e c t s p e e c h and p u r e l y a u t h o r i a l s p e e c h , washed b y h e t e r o g l o t waves f r o m a l l s i d e s . But i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e a c t u a l l y t o i n s e r t such m a r k s , s i n c e , as we h a v e s e e n , one a n d t h e same w o r d o f t e n f i g u r e s b o t h a s t h e s p e e c h o f t h e a u t h o r a n d as t h e s p e e c h o f a n o t h e r - - a n d a t t h e same t i m e . (307-8) 2 . S u c h as s e n t e n c e f r a g m e n t s , n o n - s t a n d a r d s y n t a x , a n d s e n t e n c e s w h i c h c o m p r i s e , f o r e x a m p l e , one p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e , o r a s e r i e s of p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e s l i n k e d by c o n j u n c t i o n s . 3 . F o r e x a m p l e , c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e one o r more s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s , - compound s e n t e n c e s c o m p r i s i n g two o r more p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e s l i n k e d b y s e m i - c o l o n s i n s t e a d o f c o n j u n c t i o n s ; a p p o s i t i v e s and r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s . 4. P i e r r e S p r i e t d i s c u s s e s the use o f the a p p a r e n t l y spoken v o i c e i n a n a r t i c l e on L e o n R o o k e ' s "The B i r t h C o n t r o l K i n g o f t h e U p p e r V o l t a " (an i n t e r e s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l c o i n c i d e n c e ) ,- t h e r e , he s a y s , L a n o u v e l l e se p r e s e n t e comme une n a r r a t i o n a u t o d i e g e t i q u e a l a p r e m i e r e p e r s o n n e : en i d e n t i f i a n t n a r r a t e u r e t p e r s o n n a g e p r i n c i p a l , l ' a c t e de p a r o l e se p r e s e n t e done comme v e r i t e e t n o n comme f i c t i o n . II s u p p r i m e e n e f f e t t o u t i n t e r m e d i a i r e : l e n a r r a t e u r se d i t e t p a r a i t ne p a s c o m p o s e r , c e q u i c o n t r i b u e a v o i l e r l e c a r a c t e r e f i c t i f du t e x t e . C e l u i - c i ne se p r e s e n t e p a s comme " l i t t e r a i r e , " ce q u i e s t une a u t r e m a n i e r e de d i s s i m u l e r s o n c a r a c t e r e f i c t i f ; i l se p r o p o s e comme r e c i t o r a l , s a n s a p p r e t e t s a n s r e c h e r c h e rhetorique apparente. (138) 5 . T h i s i s one o f t h e many o c c a s i o n s i n t h e s t o r y when comedy l e a d s i n t o p a r o d y ; t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c o v e r t o n e s h e r e e x e m p l i f y G l o v e r ' s sense of the absurd. 6. The s o u r c e s p o i n t s i n the P a t r i c e occurs i s accented at  of R e d ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y appear at s t r a t e g i c story: t h i s e x p o s i t i o n of h i s marriage to about h a l f w a y t h r o u g h , w h i l e h i s s k i n cancer the end.  126 7. I n d i r e c t speech i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y of r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "Whose w o r d s a r e t h e s e ? " The v o i c e i s F l o ' s , b u t she i s p a r a p h r a s i n g R e d , a n d t h e r e a d e r h a s no way o f d e t e r m i n i n g whose w o r d s a r e w h o s e . I n d i c a t o r s such as " F o r h i s p a r t , Red a d m i t t e d . . . " a n d " a c c o r d i n g t o R e d " mark e x p l i c i t q u o t a t i o n s , b u t , u n l i k e q u o t a t i o n m a r k s , t h e y do n o t s e p a r a t e one v o i c e f r o m a n o t h e r . 8. F l o ' s a s s e r t i o n , " B u t J a c k d o e s n ' t d r i n k , " i s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e d b y two s e n t e n c e s e a c h o f w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h t h e statement, "I d i d n ' t k n o w . . . " ; t h i s conspicuous r e p e t i t i o n f u r t h e r s t r e s s e s her ingenuousness. 9. " A l l t h r e e a r e , t o use S y l v i e ' s w o r d s , f u c k e d up, a c o n d i t i o n f o r w h i c h , t h e y c l a i m , I am m o s t l y t o b l a m e " " F o r some r e a s o n t h e y a r e a f r a i d o f l i f e me" ( 4 6 ) .  and t a k e  it  out  (41). on  1 0 . A s i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e name i t s e l f : " F l o " may be a name i n i t s own r i g h t o r an a b b r e v i a t i o n o f F l o r e n c e ; i t e c h o e s " f l o w , " " f l o e " a n d " f l o r a " ; F l o ' s name c a r r i e s t h e t r a c e s o f a d i v e r s i t y o f o t h e r words and c o n n o t a t i o n s . 1 1 . Gender i d e n t i t y and s e x u a l i d e n t i t y a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e t e r m s h e r e , s i n c e , f o r B u t l e r , " g e n d e r " a n d " s e x " mean more o r l e s s t h e same t h i n g : I f the immutable c h a r a c t e r of sex i s c o n t e s t e d , perhaps t h i s c o n s t r u c t c a l l e d "sex" i s as c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as g e n d e r ; i n d e e d , p e r h a p s i t was a l w a y s a l r e a d y gender, w i t h the consequence t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s e x a n d g e n d e r t u r n s o u t t o be no d i s t i n c t i o n at a l l . (7) 12. Indeed, B u t l e r ' s c r i t i q u e of the s t a b i l i t y of terms as " s e x " a n d " g e n d e r " e f f e c t i v e l y d i s r u p t s t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s among s u c h o t h e r l a b e l s a s " h o m o s e x u a l , " " b i s e x u a l " and " h e t e r o s e x u a l . "  such  1 3 . R e d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o o d a number o f t i m e s i n t h e o p e n i n g pages o f the s t o r y . He r e f e r s t o h i s p e n i s as a cucumber a g a i n a c o u p l e o f pages l a t e r ( 4 3 ) ; F l o ' s i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m r e g i s t e r s h i s " l i m e g r e e n " s h o r t s and " s k i n t h e c o l o u r o f b o i l e d l o b s t e r " ( 4 2 ) ; a p a g e l a t e r she n o t e s t h a t " h i s e y e s were l e a f g r e e n w i t h r e d f l e c k s , like p i m e n t o " ( 4 3 ) - - t h e c o n n e c t i o n between f o o d and d e s i r e does n o t n e e d t o be l a b o u r e d . •  127 1 4 . Thus G e n e t t e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f " t h e n o v e l i s t ' s c h o i c e " m i g h t b e e x t e n d e d : " t o h a v e t h e s t o r y t o l d b y one o f i t s ' c h a r a c t e r s , ' o r t o have i t t o l d by a n a r r a t o r o u t s i d e o f t h e s t o r y , " (244) o r both. 15.  See t r a n s l a t o r J a n e L e w i n ' s n o t e  (27n).  1 6 . A s J e r e m y H a w t h o r n e x p l a i n s i n A Concise Glossary of Literary Theory, t h e t e r m s " s t o r y " a n d " d i s c o u r s e " b e l o n g t o a c o n f u s i n g network o f d e f i n i t i o n s and o p p o s i t i o n s : commentators r e f e r t o s t o r y and p l o t , s t o r y and f a b u l a , s t o r y a n d d i s c o u r s e , fabula a n d sjuzet, p a i r i n g the terms i n s u c h a way t h a t " s t o r y " i n one p a i r means t h e o p p o s i t e o f what i t d o e s i n a n o t h e r . "The s i m p l e d i s t i n c t i o n , " H a w t h o r n w r i t e s , " i s b e t w e e n , o n t h e one h a n d , a series of real or fictitious events, connected by a certain logic or chronology, and involving certain ACTORS, a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e NARRATION of this series of events" (173) . I n G e n e t t e ' s work, " s t o r y " r e f e r s t o t h e s e r i e s o f e v e n t s , "discourse" to t h e i r narration. 17. S p e c i f i c a l l y , about t h i s s t o r y . I n d e e d , i t m i g h t be more a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t t h e s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n t h e addressee replaces Lucy, that the addressee p l a y s a minor r o l e and the " I " - n a r r a t o r f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h h i s s t o r y , becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s o r b e d i n i t even as t h e " I " c h a r a c t e r d i s t a n c e s h i m s e l f from h i s w i f e . 18. Verb tenses h e i g h t e n the d i s t i n c t i o n between the " i " n a r r a t o r and the " I " - c h a r a c t e r . The s t o r y o p e n s w i t h t h e " I " - c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i b i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Lucy i n the present tense. The s e c o n d s e c t i o n r e v e a l s t h e " I " - n a r r a t o r confronting the d i f f i c u l t i e s of w r i t i n g the s t o r y , a l s o i n t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e ; he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e v e n t s o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n are l o s t i n the past. In both cases the tense i s present, but the reader i s given to understand that these a r e n o t e q u a l p r e s e n t s : one p r e s e n t i s , f o r a l l i n t e n t s a n d purposes, past, w h i l e the other i s present. The t h i r d s e c t i o n r e v e r t s t o t h e p r e s e n t - p r e s e n t where i t d e t a i l s t h e immediate c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the m a r i t a l breakdown, but i t a l s o r e f e r s t o p r i o r i n c i d e n t s (the wedding, f o r i n s t a n c e ) and t h e s e appear i n t h e p a s t t e n s e . L a t e r i n the s t o r y , the " I " - n a r r a t o r c o r r e c t s t h e " I " - c h a r a c t e r when t h e f o r m e r c l a i m s t o r e p o r t what a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e v i s i t to the a r t g a l l e r y . This t r i p occurs, i n chronological terms, a f t e r the present-tense opening s e c t i o n , y e t i t appears i n the past tense. The t e n s e s h i f t s d i s t i n g u i s h t h e temporal p e r s p e c t i v e o f the " I " - n a r r a t o r from t h a t o f the " I " - c h a r a c t e r , f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n i n g the d i s t a n c e between the two " I " s .  128 1 9 . See P a s c a l ' s Pensees: " T o u t l e m a l h e u r d e s hommes v i e n t d ' u n e s e u l e c h o s e , q u i e s t de ne s a v o i r p a s d e m e u r e r e n r e p o s d a n s une c h a m b r e " ( i i , 1 3 9 ) .  129  CHAPTER  FIVE  NARRATIVE MODULATIONS  I N MAVIS G A L L A N T ' S "THE PEGNITZ  JUNCTION"  Voice i s everything. I f I d o n ' t hear the v o i c e , I c a n ' t w r i t e the s t o r y . One h a s t o f i n d t h e e x a c t t o n e , and i t h a s t o h o l d f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d i f i t i s t o be true. Mavis G a l l a n t  Mavis G a l l a n t ' s career  as a w r i t e r o f  short  f i c t i o n may h a v e b e g u n i n 1951 when The New Yorker p u b l i s h e d one o f h e r s t o r i e s . Canada the y e a r b e f o r e , many y e a r s . fiction, genre.  She h a d moved t o E u r o p e  a n d F r a n c e h a s now b e e n h e r home  the  While i t  short  s t o r y r e m a i n s h e r most  entire  fictions  t o d e s c r i p t i o n more r e a d i l y t h a n some.  a writer's writer,  lend Gallant  which i s t o say t h a t h e r s t o r i e s  to appeal to readers accustomed to r e a d i n g w i t h c a r e ; stories rather evoked,  are  subtle--nuanced rather  t h a n comic,but  for  important  i s i m p o s s i b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e the  b o d y o f any w r i t e r ' s w o r k , G a l l a n t ' s s h o r t  is  from  G a l l a n t has w r i t t e n p l a y s , n o v e l s and n o n -  but  themselves  first  than exuberant,  evoked c o o l l y ,  o f t e n from  the  her  witty  s t r o n g e m o t i o n s a n d d e s i r e s may be  they are  tend  130 perspective frequently  of a detached noted,  suffer  observer. various  Her c h a r a c t e r s ,  forms o f a l i e n a t i o n ,  l i v i n g or s t a y i n g i n f o r e i g n countries, not  their  own--or,  as  i s the  speaking  is  often  languages  c a s e i n "The P e g n i t z  a l w a y s on t h e i r way home b u t  as  Junction,"  never a r r i v i n g .  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i s one o f G a l l a n t ' s m o s t c o m p l e x and c h a l l e n g i n g t e x t s . challenges both arise  from the  v o i c e and p o i n t o f v i e w . in  in  alternation barely perceptible,  The s k i l l  1  take place  G a l l a n t ' s polyphony"  (234).  strategic  Junction,"  deployment  t h a t makes i t  densely textured  i n any c a s e ,  the  Indeed,  it  is this  modulations "The  polyphony,  intricate  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " h a s a novella  and a s t o r y  one o f t h e  and t h e n  been  ( G a l l a n t and Fabre  falling  and  ( G a l l a n t and  a b i l i t y of a r e l a t i v e l y long f i c t i o n  i n t e r r u p t i n g one a n o t h e r  Mavis  i n "The P e g n i t z  s u c h a v a r i e t y o f v o i c e s a p p e a r i n g and  constitutes  the  examples of  one o f G a l l a n t ' s most  (Davies 70),  Hancock 37; Besner 9 3 ) ,  richest  of v o i c e s ,  fictions.  d e s c r i b e d as a n o v e l  sustain  and even confuse  l e a d s D a n i e l l e Schaub t o c h a r a c t e r i z e "one o f t h e  that  occasionally  with which these n a r r a t i v e  P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " as  the  constantly  times w i t h a f l u i d i t y  s u c h a manner as t o d i s c o n c e r t  reader.  the  s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n of  Narrative voices shift  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " a t  renders t h e i r  The c o m p l e x i t y a n d  97): to  disappearing,  silent,  t e x t ' s most c o m p e l l i n g  features.  131 "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i s a s t o r y made up o f stories --the  v o i c e s C h r i s t i n e h e a r s and the  2  tell  intrude  r e l e n t l e s s l y on h e r  begins w i t h the numerous so t h a t  end i t  German h i s t o r y a s i t much a b o u t  consciousness.  t e l l i n g as  broadens  i s at  least  i s about it  the  scope of the  a s much a b o u t  the  i r o n y , at  Christine,  just  lover Herbert, Bert.  the b e g i n n i n g of the  twenty-one, ten years  with  interruptions train  o l d e r than she,  for  journey,  theology student, centre  on t h e  3  c h o i c e she w i l l  throughout,  little  marked  overheated  interminable wait--for  another  itself,  the n a r r a t i v e  to  p r e s u m a b l y h a v e t o make  But the  student  r e m a i n s a shadowy  and w h i l e H e r b e r t and h i s son these are j u s t  p u n c t u a t e d b y what C h r i s t i n e r e f e r s i n t e r p o l a t e d thoughts  her  C h r i s t i n e i s engaged t o marry a  occupy C h r i s t i n e ' s thoughts,  the  i n the  characters  a n d one m i g h t e x p e c t  between h i m and H e r b e r t . figure  though,  f o r a new d e s t i n a t i o n t o p r e s e n t  something to happen.  as  characteristic  and h i s son,  but a l s o by a p p a r e n t l y  d u r i n g which the  to a r r i v e ,  least  i s r e t u r n i n g t o Germany w i t h  This i s a p e c u l i a r l y s t a t i c  compartment  at  end o f a h o l i d a y :  not o n l y by l o n g p e r i o d s o f confinement train  narrative  tale.  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " o p e n s , Gallant  through  a period in  one German c o u p l e ,  i s about  they  Gallant  s t o r y o f C h r i s t i n e and H e r b e r t and,  interjections, i n the  stories  of other  t o as  as  frequently  often  "interference"--  characters  transmitted  by  132 some m y s t e r i o u s p r o c e s s  1.  through  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " :  her.  Introductions  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of C h r i s t i n e . "Red,"  physical traits:  reader  that Christine i s  years  learns  she i s t a l l earlier,  Several  L i k e Douglas G l o v e r ' s  i n the  "bony" and  t h a t she has b i g f e e t  significant differences create widely divergent  example,  the  opening sentence  in narrative effects.  "plain"  a few  hair.  technique,  Compare,  o f G l o v e r ' s " R e d " ("I  for have  "The P e g n i t z  ("She was a b o n y s l o w - m o v i n g g i r l  bombed b a r o q u e German c i t y ,  the  "slow-moving,"  and l i g h t  l i k e E t h e l Kennedy's") to that of  Junction"  the  opening paragraph  and m i g h t have been t h o u g h t  however,  hair  t h i r d person  t h i s n a r r a t i v e b e g i n s w i t h an e n u m e r a t i o n o f  protagonist's  that  i n the  from a  small  where a l l t h a t was w o r t h w h i l e  k e e p i n g h a d b e e n r e b u i l t a n d w h i c h now l o o k e d a s p i n k a n d g o l d e n as a p r e t t y  c h i l d a n d a s new as m o r n i n g " ) . B o t h  opening sentences of s t o r i e s  f e a t u r i n g a female  each begins a paragraph which serves characterize  the p r o t a g o n i s t  appearance.  In both s t o r i e s ,  immediate v i s u a l  i n terms this  anchor f o r the  primarily  are  protagonist; to  of her p h y s i c a l  information provides  reader;  it  establishes  an the  133 appearance filter  of the  character  t h r o u g h w h i c h many o f t h e e v e n t s  pass before  they reach us.  more r e v e a l i n g t h a n t h e  The Both s t o r i e s protagonist brief,  The d i f f e r e n c e s ,  from the v e r y f i r s t word of the  the  "she").  same t i m e  the  introduces the  i l l u s i o n of immediacy:  and p r o t a g o n i s t a r e combined,  The o p e n i n g l i n e s o f  "The P e g n i t z they  than a character.  and t h e m a t i c c o n t e x t s w h i c h w i l l  reader,  ( t h a t o f an  are  They c o n t a i n  much more p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a l s o i n d i c a t e  story progresses.  the  become c r u c i a l  p e r m i t s the e x t e n s i v e and c a r e f u l l y  constructed  than from a c h a r a c t e r ,  world of the  whose p e r c e p t i o n o f  s t o r y remains n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d .  It  observations  seem more c r e d i b l e when t h e y come f r o m a n o m n i s c i e n t  narrator  as  The t h i r d p e r s o n a l l o w s f o r a  l e i s u r e l y pace and a r h y t h m i c , a l m o s t i n c a n t a t o r y s t y l e .  that  the  presents  F l o speaks d i r e c t l y t o the  rather  view.  The  shape  are p e r m i t t e d to run l o n g e r because  spoken by a n a r r a t o r  the  are  f o c u s on  from "Red"  i n t e r v e n t i o n of another voice  omniscient narrator).  cultural  will  though,  how t h a t v o i c e w i l l  since the r o l e s of n a r r a t o r impression i s that  ("I";  sentence  The f i r s t p e r s o n c r e a t e s  Junction"  the  story  announce the p o i n t o f v i e w and the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and at  without the  of the  as  similarities.  F l o ' s v o i c e and s u g g e s t s story.  act  most o b v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s p o i n t o f  d i r e c t address  physical  the  whose m i n d w i l l  the  These  134 opening l i n e s , appearance tell  then,  characterize Christine's physical  and the v o i c e o f the  Glover's  One m i g h t s a y t h a t F l o ' s v o i c e a r r i v e s  s t o r y at  the  same t i m e a s  C h r i s t i n e ' s p h y s i c a l presence sequence  The o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e protagonist;  that  she d o e s ,  precedes  i s a p p r o p r i a t e because  times u n w i l l i n g l y )  of  her v o i c e .  in  This  primarily  while Flo i s a  "Red" draws t h e r e a d e r  to  (if  speaker.  the  o f "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " f u n c t i o n s  mainly  c r e a t i n g through the use of  the t h i r d p e r s o n a s e p a r a t i o n between n a r r a t o r protagonist,  her  whereas  Christine acts  as a l i s t e n e r ,  t o map o u t c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e s ,  and  they  us n e x t t o n o t h i n g about C h r i s t i n e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y o r  own v o i c e .  at  invisible narrator;  and s i t u a t i n g the n a r r a t o r  between  and protagonist  reader.  Some r e a d e r s narrator  have i n t e r p r e t e d  and p r o t a g o n i s t  i n d i c a t i o n of h o s t i l i t y  the d i s t a n c e  between  i n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " a s on t h e p a r t  of the  implied  an  author.  I n h e r a r t i c l e o n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " D a n i e l l e  Schaub  cites  the  the  story's  o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h as e v i d e n c e o f  omniscient n a r r a t o r ' s  distaste  for Christine.  depreciative d e s c r i p t i v e statements,"  "Originally  Schaub w r i t e s ,  are f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e d by cascades of s u b c l a u s e s o r s u b s e q u e n t c l a u s e s t h a t c o l o u r them n e g a t i v e l y . Thus the f i r s t p i c t u r e o f the p r o t a g o n i s t and h e r b a c k g r o u n d i s not devoid of c r i t i c i s m . C h r i s t i n e immediately s t r i k e s t h e r e a d e r as n o t v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . . . . Since she i s i m p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t e d i n a c r i t i c a l mode i t i s no w o n d e r t h a t t h e e n t i r e n a r r a t i v e i s c r i t i c a l t o o . The 4  135 c r i t i c i s m even extends to the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o things. The comment as t o t h e t o w n w h e r e C h r i s t i n e comes f r o m r e v e a l s t h e human a b i l i t y t o f o r g e t t h e p a s t by o b l i t e r a t i n g i t s t r a c e s and p r o d u c i n g b e a u t i f u l , i m p e r s o n a l , and a g e l e s s s u b s t i t u t e s . (235)  A l t h o u g h Schaub appears l o s s as a r e s u l t  to recognize the n a r r a t o r ' s  of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  (this,  sense of  after  all,  is  c o n v e y e d d i r e c t l y - - " w h e r e a l l t h a t was w o r t h w h i l e k e e p i n g had been r e b u i l t " ) , h e r s u b s t i t u t i o n of narrator's nuances word.  "pretty"  r e v e a l s a b l i n d n e s s to the  of G a l l a n t ' s d i c t i o n .  "Pretty"  thing. what t h e  this  i s not  Gallant's narrators  are,  by and l a r g e ,  s p e c i f i c s of appearance  s/he might be.  point  such e p i t h e t s  of the n a r r a t o r ,  particularly disparaging.  5  in itself  r e v e a l about  a n d n o t how a t t r a c t i v e  as a bad  interested a  From t h e as  little  vantage  " b o n y " may n o t  seem  (There i s a l s o the e v i d e n c e i n  she must be r e a s o n a b l y g o o d - l o o k i n g . )  significance  of the opening paragraph l i e s  presentation, appearance. object  passivity,  rather  than i t s  in  evaluation, of  The its physical  By e s t a b l i s h i n g C h r i s t i n e from the o u t s e t of the n a r r a t o r ' s the  in  character,  s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h t h a t C h r i s t i n e h a s done some w o r k a s  model:  the  herself  (or even p r e t t y ) ,  the  finely-tuned  is a flimsy  A n d w h i l e C h r i s t i n e may n o t p r e s e n t  beautiful  the  "beautiful" for  gaze,  impression that  Gallant underlines  i n s t e a d o f a c t i n g she  as her is  acted upon.  A t t i m e s i n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " C h r i s t i n e  demonstrates  her defiance--as  i n her outburst  to the  hotel  a  136 porter,  f o r example,  or the  closing section,  w i s h e s and t e l l s brothers.  though,  she  feelings  when she g o e s a g a i n s t  l i t t l e B e r t the  are  s t o r y about  of others,  Junction"  i s the  as  i t were,  who i s a t  first  who f o l l o w s  h i s own o r d e r s  down t h e  corridor.  it  night porter  that are  the  i n "The P e g n i t z night  seen,  "pounding  train  conductor  in first  the precedence  a purpose:  it  porter  class!" of v o i c e  i s not  so much  (his p a r t i n g remarks  says  sum up a  Bavarian accent  will  and  r e c u r as a m o t i f  narrative.  If  the use of the  paragraphs  of  separation  between n a r r a t o r  the  reader  t o w a r d Germans i n p o s t w a r E u r o p e ) ,  t r a i n conductor's  i n the  and  d o e s a s what he s a y s a n d how he  significant  particular attitude  the  ("No s t a n d i n g  over p h y s i c a l appearance serves  often,  story.  h e a r d and not  Here t o o ,  part,  More  v o i c e - f i r s t : the  (6);  his  experiences  characters  on t h e p a s s a g e d o o r a n d s h o u t i n g "  what t h e  Bruno and  r o l e t o which the  opening l i n e s of the  ( g e n e r a l l y minor)  arrive,  the h o t e l ,  c h a n n e l l i n g the  and t h i s  i n t r o d u c e d i n the  [20])  conductor,  Herbert's  a l l associated w i t h speech.  i s a receptor,  Other  of  train  T h e s e a c t s o f r e b e l l i o n on C h r i s t i n e ' s  significantly,  is  her c h a l l e n g i n g of the  t h i r d person i n the  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i n d i c a t e s  second paragraph  and p r o t a g o n i s t ,  makes t h a t  separation  opening the  a statement explicit:  in  1 3 7  She was a t one o f t h o s e t u r n i n g s i n a y o u n g l i f e w h e r e no one c a n l e a d , no one c a n h e l p , b u t w h e r e someone f o r the sake of l o v e might f o l l o w . (4)  T h e s e l i n e s make m a n i f e s t  the  difference  suggest an e x p e r i e n c e d n a r r a t o r love.  Even b e f o r e  this  fairly  they  l o o k i n g b a c k on y o u t h a n d direct  p a t t e r n s o f r h y t h m and s y n t a x p o i n t opposed t o a  i n age:  dissociation,  though,  t o an a u t h o r i a l v o i c e  as  character-voice.  C o n s i d e r the  o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e as p o e t r y  for  a  moment: _ _ _ / _ / / _ / She was a b o n y s l o w - m o v i n g g i r l  /  /  / _  bombed b a r o q u e  /  / _  German c i t y ,  /  /  _  _  _  / from a s m a l l  /  where a l l t h a t  _  _  /  was  _  _  /  w o r t h w h i l e k e e p i n g h a d b e e n r e b u i l t a n d w h i c h now _ / _ / _ _ _ / _ / _ _ / l o o k e d a s p i n k a n d g o l d e n a s a p r e t t y c h i l d a n d a s new  -  /  as m o r n i n g .  6  ( 3 )  First  of a l l , t h i s  subordinate now...")  i s a l o n g c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e c o m p r i s i n g two  relative  clauses  ("where  all..."  i n a d d i t i o n to the main c l a u s e .  occasionally manifest  themselves  and  Character  i n long sentences,  such cases these tend to c o n s t i t u t e  a series  G e n e r a l l y , complex sentences  written,  two w r i t e r l y s i m i l e s a t  this  and t h e  impression here.  to express  herself  the  but  in  clauses  sound end  When C h r i s t i n e d o e s s p e a k ,  d i r e c t l y and c o n c i s e l y .  voices  of main  l i n k e d by "and." 7  "which  reinforce she  tends  138  The c l u s t e r the  c i t y brings  the  of s t r e s s e s around the  r e a d e r up s h o r t  t e x t ' s most p r o m i n e n t undercurrent.  moving g i r l " ;  eight out  syllables describe  f o u r out  Christine  German c i t y " ;  and t h e  c i t y where she was first  p a r t of the  not  traditional  not  " p i n k " and " p r e t t y , "  exactly a child,  Herbert,  though the  but  she  and t h e n a r r a t o r  This comparison i s  p e r s o n and p l a c e and,  more p r e c i s e l y ,  historical  impact of the  and s o c i a l  German p e o p l e ,  i s the  story's  While i t  grounds  (Christine  story,  "girl.") between  S e c o n d W o r l d War on subject.  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  t e l l s us r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  of the  than  cultural,  C h r i s t i n e beyond her p h y s i c a l appearance, thematic  it  gender  relation  the  principal  The o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e o f works h a r d .  child  establishes  it  about  l a y s out  the  if  relative  likening  t o h e r as a  because the  of  single  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y younger  does r e f e r  important  city,  t o a female  out  s e n t e n c e as  c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n them i n t h e  to a c h i l d but,  her  raised,  the  markers  and  five  clause which e x p l i c i t l y p e r s o n i f i e s just  ("bony s l o w -  T h e s e r h y t h m i c emphases  two o f f i n t h e  to prepare f o r the  greatest  of s i x s y l l a b l e s stressed)  syllables stressed).  the p r o t a g o n i s t  the  h i s t o r i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l  ( " s m a l l bombed b a r o q u e  p a i r i n g the  and u n d e r l i n e s  The two p h r a s e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e  number o f s t r e s s e d  home t o w n  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  narrator's  is  139 tone of v o i c e  (aloof,  thoughtful,  a distance  between n a r r a t o r  difference  is reflected  her t o p i c - - G a l l a n t the  unhurried),  and p r o t a g o n i s t .  i n the observer  positioning herself  but  so c l o s e a s t o become e n g u l f e d b y  it.  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " : H e r b e r t - - i s s u e s  of  and  enters the  delay suggests h i s  to C h r i s t i n e  (who i s  s t o r y on i t s  subordinate  i n t r o d u c e d i n the  her prominence i n the n a r r a t i v e paragraph points  c l o s e e n o u g h t o see  the  detail  speech  second page;  Herbert  and  this  position in relation opening l i n e s ) ,  as a w h o l e .  i n w h i c h he i s m e n t i o n e d makes two  about  in  authority  Herbert slight  This  o f t h e German p e o p l e  era,  2.  out  r e l a t i o n between G a l l a n t and  postwar not  and marks  The  and  first  important  speech:  U n l i k e t h e s t u d e n t o f t h e o l o g y , he h a d n o t p u t up b a r r i e r s s u c h as t o o much t a l k , s e l f - a n a l y s i s , o r s e c o n d t h o u g h t s . I n f a c t , he t e n d e d t o l i m i t t h e number o f s u b j e c t s he w o u l d d i s c u s s . . . . He o f t e n s a i d he t h o u g h t he c o u l d n o t l i v e w i t h o u t h e r , b u t a few m i n u t e s a f t e r m a k i n g s u c h a d e c l a r a t i o n he seemed u n a b l e t o remember what he h a d j u s t s a i d , o r t o i m a g i n e how h i s v o i c e must h a v e s o u n d e d t o h e r . (4)  Herbert,  then,  appears from the  o u t s e t as a c h a r a c t e r  speech i s l i m i t e d t o c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c and  whose  predetermined  140  topics.  This characterization  H e r b e r t may be p r e p a r e d of  subjects,  to  speak o n l y on a r e s t r i c t e d  length.  Furthermore,  v o i c e i s undermined by i t s  characterization--his  bullying, composes  whereas  as a man,  to a u t h o r i t i e s  f o r example,  the  Herbert's serve  either  When H e r b e r t  his  as a p a r e n t , professional of  various  to the h o t e l  porter's  a v e r b a l defence;  he  editors  i n t h e s e l e t t e r s he i s  of  careful  government.  u t t e r a n c e s i n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " to r e i f y  explains to h i s  have a s u b s t a n t i a l intervenes  but  at  Herbert's  C h r i s t i n e launches  and j o u r n a l s ,  to c r i t i c i z e  often  range  e v e n i n h i s own  i n h i s head l e t t e r s o f c o m p l a i n t t o the  newspapers not  meekly,  a u t h o r i t y of  a s a member o f t h e  as w e l l as h i s r e s p o n s e He d e f e r s  in  own a u t h o r i t y  as C h r i s t i n e ' s o l d e r l o v e r ,  kinds.  the  impermanence  A u t h o r i t y i s a key i s s u e  class,  irony:  b u t w i t h i n t h o s e p a r a m e t e r s he c a n go on  considerable  mind.  i s not w i t h o u t  or to undercut son,  l i t t l e Bert,  meal i n S t r a s b o u r g ,  with a direct  his  the  authority. why t h e y  must  narrator  translation:  . . . b e c a u s e t h e German t r a i n w o u l d n o t h a v e a r e s t a u r a n t c a r , H e r b e r t went o n c a l m l y . His actual w o r d s w e r e , " B e c a u s e t h e r e w i l l be no f a c i l i t i e s f o r e a t i n g on t h e s e c o n d t r a n s p o r t . " (9)  Herbert's is  set  second statement r e c e i v e s  a double emphasis--  o f f i n q u o t a t i o n marks and d e s c r i b e d as  it  "His actual  141 words."  Both these devices r e i n f o r c e the d i r e c t n e s s ,  seeming a u t h e n t i c i t y of h i s speech. c u r i o u s one,  though--Herbert's  The s t a t e m e n t i s  "actual words,"  s u p p o s e d l y i n German, p r e s u m a b l y t r a n s l a t e d into English.  characters  assumes  narrator  are  by the  foreign i n Herbert's words,  German r e n d e r i n g o f t h e  reader  a  narrator  The e x c e s s i v e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e d i c t i o n  e x p r e s s i o n evoke the  Many o f t h e  the  8  though a  statement might sound e q u a l l y odd. i n the  s t o r y a r e German a n d  the  what t h e y s a y i s i n German ( a l t h o u g h  p o i n t s out  and  that Herbert at  times  insists  the  on  s p e a k i n g F r e n c h ) . B u t "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i s , o b v i o u s l y , written  i n E n g l i s h and G a l l a n t u s u a l l y r e n d e r s  the  characters'  v o i c e s as i f t h e y w e r e s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h ,  extent  it  that  i s at  times d i f f i c u l t  instance,  t o remember t h a t  are not.  In t h i s  Herbert's  s p e e c h a n a w k w a r d n e s s t h a t makes i t  inelegant  translation.  The e f f e c t serves  however,  of H e r b e r t ' s  First,  it  speech  (and o n l y h i s - - o t h e r  the n a r r a t o r  utterance  as a r e m i n d e r o f t h e  is  characters  "train"  with i t s  s u b s t i t u t i o n of  and " f a c i l i t i e s  g i v e s the  for eating"  gives  of  his  Second,  this the  for  "restaurant  i s often associated with  an  twofold.  "transport"  i m p r e s s i o n o f i m p r e c i s e and p e d a n t i c  T h i s k i n d of language  they  c o u l d speak i n  for  the  sound l i k e  foreignness  manner b u t G a l l a n t d o e s n o t h a v e them do s o ) . explanation,  to  car,"  wordiness. government  142 documents, this  b u r e a u c r a t i c memoranda,  s p e e c h comes a t  the upcoming journey,  plans,  as we a r e  " C h r i s t i n e thought great d e a l . "  of  son  that Herbert's  Herbert  information left  H i s d i c t i o n and s y n t a x h e r e ,  seems  this  sentence,  then,  administrators,  out  a  align  and o t h e r  such  authority.  The i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e woman r e f e r r e d " A m e r i c a n army w i f e "  heightens  Herbert's  v o i c e o f a u t h o r i t y i n a s u r p r i s i n g way. one who, t h r o u g h o u t people's  to h i s  long time at  t o l d i n the next  Herbert with decision-makers, figures  almost  e x p l a n a t i o n s which i n c l u d e meal  a p p r o x i m a t e t r a v e l t i m e s and s t o p o v e r s :  although,  Moreover,  explanations  t o have been e x p l a i n i n g f o r an a w f u l l y point,  like.  the b o t t o m o f a page d e v o t e d  e n t i r e l y t o a summary o f H e r b e r t ' s about  and the  much o f t h e  characters--she  one e l s e h e a r s . information  hears t h e i r  has  an  credibility  as  Christine is the  stories,  Unless C h r i s t i n e fabricates  she c o l l e c t s  interpretation,  text,  t o as  (the  and n e i t h e r  text  does n o t  a  the  insights  into  the  no  all  ones  the  support  this  does G a l l a n t h e r s e l f ) ,  then  9  she s t a n d s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n t e r m s her a b i l i t y  to assess character.  But i t  i s H e r b e r t who,  w i t h o u t any s p e c i a l knowledge, r e c o g n i z e s i m m e d i a t e l y d e c e p t i o n p r a c t i s e d b y t h e y o u n g German woman who t r i e s p a s s h e r s e l f o f f as A m e r i c a n . s e v e r a l ways.  It  of  the to  This recognition functions  allows Herbert to state d e f i n i t i v e l y  in  and,  143 as  it  turns out,  protests,  i n the  face  of  t h a t t h e y o u n g woman i s G e r m a n .  his credibility, of  accurately,  but  it  Christine's This  reinforces  a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t he t o o i s  i n s i g h t and p e r h a p s s e n s i t i v i t y . Her v o i c e g i v e s  pregnant  woman away:  capable the  she  s a i d i n h e r h a u g h t i e s t E n g l i s h , " S i r ! V a r e i s s ze b o s s t o B u t t o n s h t a h ? " w h i c h was enough t o t e l l any c a r e f u l c e n s u s t a k e r ( H e r b e r t , f o r one) h e r n a t i o n a l i t y , schooling, region, v i l l a g e - - w h a t part of v i l l a g e , e v e n , i f one was p a r t i c u l a r o v e r d e t a i l s . (77)  Herbert of  t r i c k s h e r b y r e s p o n d i n g i n German  their  t r a i n conductor"),  w h i c h she i s n o t  understand.  "She h a d b e e n d e c e i v e d b y t h e  the n a r r a t o r  t e l l s us  by the  (77), just  l o o k of the pregnant on t h e  woman.  Herbert  concentrating  enables  h i m t o make a s t u t e i n f e r e n c e s :  truth.  supposed  look of  accent to  Herbert,"  a s C h r i s t i n e was d e c e i v e d  visual,  are m i s l e a d i n g , v o i c e , here,  ("with the  auditory,  serves  ignores  and t h i s whereas  the  approach appearances  as a n a v e n u e  to  the  1 0  At times H e r b e r t ' s explanation,  his propriety,  ponderous and the  habits  o v e r a l l impression  he seems much o l d e r t h a n h i s t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s c r e a t e the  of  impression of a cardboard character,  buffoon.  Robertson D a v i e s c a l l s him "the  Herbert,"  " a man w i t h o u t f a i t h b u t  full  of  combine  that to  a dogmatic  reasonable remorseless  144 principle"  (70).  The i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e  alerts  reader  to the  the  fact  "army w i f e , "  t h a t he i s t o be  taken  seriously,  that his character  suppose.  T h u s , when H e r b e r t w a r n s C h r i s t i n e t h a t  1 1  whose s t o r y she i n t e r c e p t s  at  though,  i s more c o m p l e x t h a n one m i g h t  the border  t h e man  i s a p o l i c e m a n , we  a r e more i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e h i m , a l t h o u g h C h r i s t i n e h a s suspected  it  and t h e r e i s  little  evidence to support  not  his  claim.  Another t r a i t Herbert  i s h i s sense o f humour;  manifests the  one w o u l d n o t e x p e c t  itself  we a r e  B a v a r i a n accent  in  characteristic  e x c l u s i v e l y through v o i c e .  t r a i n conductor's  compartment,  this  to find  When s t r a i n s  of  reach C h r i s t i n e ' s  told,  The v o i c e was v e r y l i k e H e r b e r t ' s , i m i t a t i n g a celebrated B a v a r i a n p o l i t i c i a n addressing a congress of p e a s a n t s . B u t H e r b e r t was n o t u n e x p e c t e d l y b e i n g f u n n y out t h e r e i n t h e c o r r i d o r , and t h e v o i c e b e l o n g e d t o t h e c o n d u c t o r , now s e e n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . (20-21)  Although Herbert's  s e n s e o f humour i s n o t e d a few t i m e s  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " i t of  never s t r i k e s  h i s more p r o m i n e n t q u a l i t i e s - - h e n c e  the  reader  as  in one  the use here of  " u n e x p e c t e d l y . " L a t e r o n we d i s c o v e r t h a t  Herbert  o c c a s i o n a l l y b e g i n s phone c o n v e r s a t i o n s by i m i t a t i n g a political finds  f i g u r e o r t e l e v i s i o n announcer,  a custom C h r i s t i n e  " s t r a n g e f o r a man a s b u s y a n d p r a c t i c a l a s  Herbert"  145 (47). the  In both instances,  it  i s n o t what H e r b e r t  s u b s t i t u t i o n of another's  a comic e f f e c t . those  v o i c e f o r h i s own t h a t  Furthermore,  not of f r i e n d s  t h e v o i c e s he t r i e s  of a u t h o r i t y .  editor.  in  critique,  absence.  underlines responses  speech at  the d i f f e r e n c e s to authority. last  s c r e a m i n g about  plumbing. the  although  in his letters as  a private r e b e l l i o n against  times d i s t i n g u i s h e s  The i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e  morning of the in,  a government  their he to  a  those  power.  Herbert's its  are  generally  H e r b e r t ' s manipulation of v o i c e serves  means o f q u i e t  creates  Herbert undercuts  a u t h o r i t y by e x p l o i t i n g t h e i r r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t s , would not p u b l i c l y c r i t i c i z e  but  out  or f a m i l y but of c e l e b r i t i e s ,  politicians--figures  the  says  French h o t e l  stopper,  finally,  e v i c t s the conjure The t e x t Herbert.  Herbert's  When C h r i s t i n e r u n s a b a t h o n  day of t h e i r h o l i d a y , the p o r t e r t h e n o i s e made b y t h e h o t e l ' s  c a l c u l a t e d malice of h i s actions steamed g e n t l y ; t o make s u r e "  travellers  and the  bursts  to the  ("The s c e n t e d  fact  the  ancient noise,  tub  the p o r t e r p u l l e d  [7]),  by  porter  between C h r i s t i n e ' s and  The s u d d e n v i o l e n c e o f h i s r e s p o n s e  one w o u l d e v e r u s e  itself  no  the  that  he  from t h e i r bathroom,  l o c k i n g the  door,  images o f c r u e l t y and c o n f i n e m e n t ,  e v o k i n g the  war.  reinforces Herbert  the p o r t e r ' s  this  evocation i n i t s  d e s c r i p t i o n of  i s d i s t u r b e d c h i e f l y by the  statement that  it  i s too l a t e  inaccuracy of  t o make s u c h a  146 noise:  "He meant  and s h o u t i n g , slip  too e a r l y - - H e r b e r t ,  kept  t e l l i n g him so"  drawn by the (7).  But the  resonates with h i s t o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n .  b e r a t e s the p o r t e r , he r e s p o n d s  but  banging porter's  Christine  " T h a t was a l l H e r b e r t h a d t o  say";  to i n t i m i d a t i o n with compliance:  He r e a l l y seemed e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c a l m , p i c k i n g up t o o t h b r u s h e s and j a r s and t u b e s w i t h o u t s t a n d i n g h i s ground f o r a second. I t was a s i f he w e r e u n d e r a r r e s t , o r as t h o u g h t h e p o r t e r ' s o l d p a j a m a t o p m a s k e d h i s badge o f o f f i c e , h i s s e c r e t c r e d e n t i a l s . The l o o k o n H e r b e r t ' s f a c e was a b s t r a c t a n d s o f t , a s i f he h a d a l r e a d y l i v e d t h i s , o r a l w a y s h a d t h o u g h t t h a t he might. (7)  A l t h o u g h H e r b e r t was o n l y a c h i l d d u r i n g t h e Gallant  suggests through h i s reactions  c o l l e c t i v e memory o f a p o p u l a t i o n . w e l l have fleeing,  "already lived"  this  war,  i n t h i s passage  the  Herbert might j u s t  as  e p i s o d e o f p a c k i n g and  an e p i s o d e w h i c h p r e f i g u r e s  the  s t o r y of S i g i ,  the  c h i l d whose p a r e n t s woke h i m i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t make t h e i r  escape.  Herbert's  response  potential  danger,  difficult  to determine whether  submission  i s no w a r ,  ("without  the  conflict  C h r i s t i n e and h e r g e n e r a t i o n directly.  and i t  implied c r i t i c i s m of  standing h i s ground f o r a  i s t h e more l i k e l y . and the  and  r e a l or imagined, i s obedience,  comes f r o m C h r i s t i n e o r t h e n a r r a t o r , alternative  to orders  is his  second")  although the  This time,  to  former  however,  i s f a r enough i n t h e p a s t  there for  t o have escaped w i t n e s s i n g  it  147 The d i f f e r e n c e affects that  i n the  their behaviour-- Christine,  there i s less to fear,  threat  characters'  to the p o r t e r  less  experiences  who f e e l s ,  to lose,  perhaps,  f i g h t s back w i t h  even as H e r b e r t t r i e s  t o smooth  a  things  over:  She s a i d , " Y o u a r e g o i n g t o be i n t r o u b l e o v e r t h i s . " "Never m i n d , " s a i d H e r b e r t . He d i d n o t want a n y unpleasantness i n France. (7) 1 2  Here H e r b e r t ' s thoughts narrator  it  serves  mind a l i t t l e  she a r t i c u l a t e s  often-  h e r v i s i o n o f The  this  i s about  comment t o a r g u e  One m i g h t that  Pegnitz  well  "The P e g n i t z  s u c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s as t h e y a r e  i n t h e ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e r e s p o n d t o  H e r b e r t ' s v o i c e appears  thoughts  the  unpleasantness  I n one o f G a l l a n t ' s most  ( G a l l a n t and Hancock 4 1 ) .  particularize  time near  of  as a n e x p l o r a t i o n o f F a s c i s m ' s " s m a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  i n people"  Junction"  who d o e s n ' t  a purpose.  quoted statements, Junction  over those  s o t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m  that of C h r i s t i n e , if  take precedence  the end o f the  text  authority.  in italics  (84).  manifested  f o r the  At times,  and memories have been t r a n s m i t t e d  Herbert's  through  C h r i s t i n e ' s p o i n t of view  (as when she t h i n k s a b o u t  t h i n k i n g about h i s mother  [13]).  v o i c e g i v e s the appearance  first  Here, however,  Herbert  Herbert's  of being channelled d i r e c t l y to  148  the reader,  and t h e  italics  emphasize the  clarity  of  signal.  T h i s technique e x e m p l i f i e s the  l a y e r i n g s of  illusion  i n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " - - t h e  italicized  is  Herbert's voice not,  u n m e d i a t e d form b u t as Christine, intercept  who, a p a r t  it  i t w o u l d seem,  i n some  i s heard or i n t e r p r e t e d  from the r e a d e r ,  by  i s t h e o n l y one  f u n c t i o n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y i n the  one v o i c e o r a n o t h e r .  Mrs. Schneider's  r e c u r s more t h a n a n y o t h e r a n d i t as does the  letter  Ludwig and the  to  escape  impression of d i r e c t n e s s  as  c r e a t e d by the  Uncle episode  When  accentuates  the  first-person  The p a s s a g e c o m b i n e s humour w i t h a n e m o t i o n a l  i n t e n s i t y we h a v e n o t h e r e t o f o r e as H e r b e r t s t r u g g l e s  to answer,  witnessed i n Herbert. over the  telephone,  q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t his life,  italics,  i s the  from h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e . the typeface  to  voice  always appears i n  i s i n ordinary type,  Herbert's voice i s i t a l i c i z e d ,  narration.  text  to Ken; the Kafkaesque s t o r y of  castle  concerning S i g i ' s  in  section  it.  Italics pinpoint  as  the  t h e n a r r a t o r mocks h i s  Even  a  relationships  caution:  One night I heard, "Do you still love me?" I thought for a long time, wanting to give her a complete answer. (85)  This excerpt demonstrates  the  complexity of the  story's  narrative  transmissions  and t r a n s a c t i o n s .  narrator  i s making fun of Herbert  narrated  i n the  technically i t  first  The o m n i s c i e n t  i n a passage  apparently  p e r s o n by H e r b e r t h i m s e l f ,  i s C h r i s t i n e who h e a r s H e r b e r t ' s  t h r o u g h whose p o i n t o f v i e w i t contextualized.  is  while story  and  f o c a l i z e d and  "Occasionally within Christine's  inner  m o n o l o g u e , " Schaub e x p l a i n s ,  one c a n h e a r H e r b e r t ' s v o i c e , as i f one h e a r d a v o i c e within a v o i c e . . . . Episodes of p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . . . are t h u s r e c o r d e d as i f b y a n o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r w h e r e a s i t i s C h r i s t i n e who d e c o d e s s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n . (236-7)  Christine's  r o l e as d e c o d e r  i s u n d e r l i n e d by b r i e f  i n w h i c h she comments on t h e so as t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n has n o t channelled  it.  i s t h e medium,  a r r i v e d i n the  text  that  glance,  Herbert  having  seems v e r y much i n  t h i s p o s i t i o n o f power i s e s t a b l i s h e d between h i m and C h r i s t i n e .  engineer,  she a p p e a r s t o do n o t h i n g i n  whereas  She h a s a c c o m p a n i e d h i m t o P a r i s a n d n o t As a p a r e n t ,  t h a t he i s c o n s t a n t l y t h a t he has  the  without her  through contrasts  around.  received,  1 3  At f i r s t control;  she  i n f o r m a t i o n she h a s  passages  Herbert  the  principally He i s  an  particular.  other  way  a c t s as a n e d u c a t o r ;  the  i m p a r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n makes i t  a l o t of i t .  1 4  A s a man,  Herbert  i s the  fact  seem object  150 of  the a t t e n t i o n  C h r i s t i n e but of being finds  of the g i r l s  f r o m summer camp, who i g n o r e  " w o u l d h a v e m u r d e r e d one a n o t h e r  [Herbert's]  favourite"  ( 2 1 ) . As a m i m i c ,  a means o f e x p r e s s i o n f o r s u c h d e f i a n c e  capable o f .  1 5  And the  fact  t h a t he h i m s e l f  (as when l i t t l e  honneur?",  u n w i t t i n g l y parodying h i s father) own i n f l u e n c e .  themselves though,  Bert says,  is  object  testifies  These power r e l a t i o n s  own v o i c e f a d e s  the passage c i t e d at  as he  "Oh, en quel  out t h r o u g h v o i c e and d i a l o g u e .  Herbert's  sake  Herbert  i s the  of mimicry  Herbert's  f o r the  out.  to  play  Ultimately,  C o n s i d e r o n c e more  the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s  section:  [ H e r b e r t ] o f t e n s a i d he t h o u g h t he c o u l d n o t l i v e w i t h o u t h e r , b u t a few m i n u t e s a f t e r m a k i n g s u c h a d e c l a r a t i o n he seemed u n a b l e t o remember what he h a d j u s t s a i d , o r t o i m a g i n e how h i s v o i c e must h a v e sounded t o h e r . (4)  Christine indicates  the  when,  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " s h e c l o s e s  at  the  end o f  w a i t i n g room d o o r . characters,  ephemeral q u a l i t y of H e r b e r t ' s  She s h u t s o u t  Herbert's  i n c l u d e d , and,  begins her s t o r y to l i t t l e  3.  the v o i c e s of the left  at  last  in  Bert.  V o i c e and p o i n t o f v i e w :  C h r i s t i n e and  authority  voice the  other peace,  151 I n most t h i r d - p e r s o n f i c t i o n s i t discern a narrator, presence,  at  determines,  an i m p l i e d a u t h o r ,  times effaced, among o t h e r  at  times  things,  the  said,  a n d o f t e n what i s s a i d .  Gallant narrator ironic,  controlling, tone,  the  diction, then,  sharply observed d e t a i l .  n a r r a t i v e persona only,  i s not  however,  how t h i n g s  sophisticated,  through the  It  i m p l i c a t i o n of  the v o i c e of  which structures  o b s e r v a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n : much o f  the  textual  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  comes f r o m C h r i s t i n e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w .  This text  p a r t i c u l a r l y complex i n terms o f i t s n a r r a t i v e is,  mode o f  The q u i n t e s s e n t i a l  of t h i s k i n d i s detached,  j u d g i n g not o v e r t l y but  is layering--in  terms,  that  point,  a n d t h r o u g h whose p o i n t o f v i e w t h e s e t h o u g h t s  u t t e r a n c e s are  o f who i s s a y i n g o r t h i n k i n g w h a t ,  some p l a c e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s  guiding voice,  while i n others  consist  what or  i n "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  fluctuates--in  character.  narrator's  at  expressed.  The c o n t r o l l i n g p r e s e n c e  another  to  a p e r s o n a whose  e x p r e s s i o n of the n a r r a t i v e - - d e t e r m i n e s , are  is possible  of the n a r r a t o r ' s  maintains a distant,  The f i r s t  few  story  and g e n e r a l demeanour.  the  paragraphs  d e s c r i p t i o n of C h r i s t i n e ,  objective,  the  i s C h r i s t i n e ' s , or that of  I n the o p e n i n g pages of the  voice predominates.  p h y s i c a l appearance  it  a p p e a r s t o be  The  her  narrator  d e s c r i p t i v e stance,  with  what m i g h t be c o n s t r u e d a s o c c a s i o n a l i n c u r s i o n s i n t o  the  152  points  o f v i e w o f C h r i s t i n e and  Herbert:  Sometimes she woke up t o f i n d h e r s e l f b e i n g i n s p e c t e d f r o m h e a d t o f o o t b y l i t t l e B e r t , who h a d c r e p t t o t h e i r room i n s e a r c h o f h i s f a t h e r . . . . T h r o u g h h e r h a i r she w o u l d w a t c h h i m t a k i n g a l o n g l o o k a t h e r b e f o r e he moved r o u n d t h e b e d . . . H e r b e r t w o u l d t u r n a t once t o l i t t l e B e r t . His d e e p e s t f e e l i n g s were l i n k e d t o t h e c h i l d . He sometimes c o u l d r e v e a l a n g u i s h , o f w h i c h o n l y the c h i l d was t h e s o u r c e . (5)  Such o b s e r v a t i o n s , shifts  however,  i n point of view;  perspective  would w a t c h . . . " ) ,  but  i n the  really Herbert's:  then,  first  instance,  focus  ("Through h e r h a i r  although the  narrator  on a p a r t i c u l a r  from the  thoughts  not feeling  r a t h e r on a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  i n general.  The p a s s a g e c i t e d  omniscient narrator's  much n a r r o w e r p e r s p e c t i v e a more s u b s t a n t i a l  shift  she  is  the p o i n t of view i s  i s not  the  the  above,  m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d as p a r t o f a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s  movement  the  o n l y s l i g h t l y from  In the  feelings,  a p a r t i c u l a r moment b u t  his emotional l i f e  substantial  t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f h e r  second,  the  constitute  stray  is Christine's  describing Herbert's  at  they  of the n a r r a t o r .  physical perspective  or f e e l i n g s ;  do n o t  (the  p o i n t of view to  o f one i n d i v i d u a l ) , a few p a g e s l a t e r  preparing  the for  i n t o the minds of  characters.  When t h e h o t e l p o r t e r i n t o t h e h o t e l room a n d demands  makes h i s f r e n z i e d t h a t t h e w a t e r be  entrance turned  153 off,  the  t e x t makes i t s  first  foray  into  Christine's  mind:  A t f i r s t , o f c o u r s e , she t h o u g h t t h a t t h e man was d r u n k ; t h e n t h e k n o w l e d g e came t o h e r - - she d i d n o t know how, b u t n e v e r q u e s t i o n e d i t e i t h e r - - t h a t he s u f f e r e d from a form of e p i l e p s y . (7)  The s h i f t  from the  Christine  is  in addition,  narrator's point  c l e a r l y s i g n a l l e d by the this  sentence provides  Christine's  telepathic  sensitivity,  throughout  "The P e g n i t z  Junction."  A little train  of view to that  later  to Strasbourg,  the  on,  p h r a s e "she  the  first  the  be  exploited  once t h e y have b o a r d e d  narrative  the  v o i c e becomes more Herbert,  and l i t t l e B e r t have been h a v i n g b r e a k f a s t dining car;  thought";  i n d i c a t i o n of  which w i l l  o b v i o u s l y and d e c i s i v e l y C h r i s t i n e ' s .  the  of  p a r a g r a p h o p e n s as  Christine,  and t a l k i n g  in  follows:  Oh, he was so f o o l i s h w i t h t h e c h i l d ! Like a s e r v a n t , l i k e a humble t u t o r w i t h a c r o w n p r i n c e . She would never marry Herbert--never. (13) By t h i s entirely  point,  Christine's  from t h a t of the  exclamation point, Christine's mode o f  point  the  v o i c e has  narrator--the  repetition--all  of view but  expression.  1 6  taken  over  almost  interjection of t h i s  her v o i c e : her  i s not  opinions  and only and  1 5 4  In the  opening pages of the  voice predominates; acquiescent.  story,  C h r i s t i n e i s presented  As the  narrative  more o f a n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t  narrator's  as p a s s i v e  progresses, in it.  the  C h r i s t i n e becomes  First,  the  Second,  narrative  v o i c e more o f t e n m e r g e s  with hers.  polyphonic q u a l i t i e s of  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " b e g i n  emerge,  so d o e s C h r i s t i n e as a c e n t r a l  s t o r y of C h r i s t i n e , Herbert  even as  figure.  voices,  r o l e expands.  she becomes  As the  a focal  t h a t of the  l i s t e n i n g to the h e r own.  sensitive,  is after  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n cannot  these  Her c a p a c i t y  for  stereotypical  i n t u i t i v e woman,  d i f f i c u l t i e s of. o t h e r s w i t h o u t  But t h i s  the  characters,  receiving information casts Christine i n a female r o l e :  to  interrupted  one who c h a n n e l s  character.  the  While  and l i t t l e B e r t i s  more a n d more o f t e n b y t h e v o i c e s o f o t h e r Christine's  and  speaking of  a l l a Gallant story,  and such a  be s u s t a i n e d w i t h o u t p a r a d o x .  The  third manifestation  of C h r i s t i n e ' s i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  s t o r y of  undermines  the  most d e f i a n t  "The P e g n i t z  feminine stereotype:  refuses  roles  C h r i s t i n e i s by f a r  and r e b e l l i o u s c h a r a c t e r  Christine consistently challenges  i n the  spheres,  the  text.  authoritarianism  she d o e s n o t want t o a c c e p t  d o m e s t i c and the p o l i t i c a l  Junction"  i n both  and the  and i n h e r r o l e  as  storyteller.  C h r i s t i n e ' s main act  of resistance  on t h e  domestic  155 front  i s to refuse  Christine persists  t h e e a s y e q u a t i o n o f woman w i t h  mother.  i n r e b e l l i n g against  loco  A l t h o u g h some o f H e r b e r t ' s p a r e n t a l  parentis.  unnecessarily unyielding, them,  she r e f r a i n s  from a p p e a r i n g t o s i t u a t e  equal.  1 7  a c t i n g in  A t t i m e s she i s n o t  rules  seem  from q u e s t i o n i n g  h e r s e l f as a  familial  s u r e how t o d e a l w i t h  the  child: C h r i s t i n e s u p p o s e d t h a t i t was up t o h e r t o b e h a v e l i k e a mother. P e r h a p s she o u g h t t o p i c k up t h e s p o n g e , go o u t t o l i t t l e B e r t , s t o o p down u n t i l t h e i r f a c e s were n e a r l y l e v e l . . . (19)  But  she d o e s n o t .  Much l a t e r ,  Christine thinks l i t t l e "But  she was n o t  Herbert asks  whether  B e r t s h o u l d be a l l o w e d a c o m i c b o o k .  the c h i l d ' s mother:  she w o u l d n o t be d r a w n "  (63) .  C h r i s t i n e refuses is  the  r o l e of mother because  u n w i l l i n g t o compromise h e r s e l f t h r o u g h d i s s i m u l a t i o n .  Born a f t e r  the war,  she r e m a i n s ,  whose a c t i o n s most o f t e n t a k e t h e Herbert adheres to a s t r i c t sometimes o n l y because alter of  she  them t o s u i t  form of  the  character  resistance.  code o f p r i n c i p l e s , b u t  t h e y a r e p r i n c i p l e s , - he w i l l  circumstances.  c o n t i n g e n c y : she f a c e s  context  ironically,  questions  i n which they a r i s e .  not  Christine's is a morality of p r i n c i p l e '  in  the  156 C h r i s t i n e confronts are  directed against  abuses o f power,  her or others.  uniform--the  French h o t e l porter,  conductor.  As the  down,  1 8  She a l s o u p b r a i d s tells  the  asks  later,  the  and the  is transferred  latter  site  of  (60).  She  his the  A n d when he  d i r e c t i o n s o f a n o l d man a n d i s r e b u f f e d , the  backs  to C h r i s t i n e .  " B e s i d e s . . . , y o u know t h i s was n o t  I t must h a v e b e e n t o t h e n o r t h "  confronts  train  t o be i n t h e w r o n g .  s c a r r e d man who s e a r c h e s f o r t h e  c h i l d h o o d escape, place.  and,  t h o s e she f e e l s  they  She c h a l l e n g e s men i n  former disappears  some o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y  whether  Christine  latter:  " H i s f e e l i n g s a r e h u r t , " s a i d C h r i s t i n e , as t h e s t r a n g e r d r i f t e d away. " L o o k a t t h e way he h a n g s h i s head.... Now, why d i d y o u a n s w e r t h a t w a y ? " she a s k e d t h e o l d man. " I ' m sure you are not a refugee at all. What d i d n ' t y o u l i k e a b o u t t h e p o o r c r e a t u r e ? " (62)  C h r i s t i n e may n o t n a r r a t e but  she  is a storyteller,  the  stories  heteroglossia,  narrator  The  a f i n e example o f B a k h t i n i a n  as w e l l  as s u c h g e n r e s as t h e embedded f i c t i o n .  i n c o r p o r a t e d genres are  of  about  i n c l u d i n g as i t d o e s a v a r i e t y o f v o i c e s  b i o g r a p h y and the  characters  c h o i c e s she makes  she t e l l s d e m o n s t r a t e h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e .  novella constitutes  languages,  and the  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  stories  Many o f  i s s u i n g from  through C h r i s t i n e , but on o c c a s i o n .  1 9  letter,  and  the  the other  she h e r s e l f  When C h r i s t i n e t e l l s  p l a y s the stories,  role her  157 audience u s u a l l y comprises Herbert Herbert,  finding  t a l e s before the  story:  them u n s u i t a b l e ,  they get  underway.  when H e r b e r t  and l i t t l e B e r t . tends to i n t e r r u p t  C h r i s t i n e does not  objects  to i t ,  she  stops  the change  reading:  " ' I t was t h e f o u r t e e n t h o f J u l y i n P a r i s . B r u n o p u t on h i s b l u e - a n d - g o l d u n i f o r m w i t h t h e t a s s e l s a n d buttons s h i n i n g . . . ' " "No, n o , " s a i d H e r b e r t . "Nothing m i l i t a r y . " " W e l l , you read t h e n . " She h a n d e d t h e b o o k across. (18)  C h r i s t i n e u s e s t h e p r e t e n c e o f r e a d i n g t o l i t t l e B e r t as means o f g o a d i n g H e r b e r t : stories as  with t i t l e s  she o f f e r s  Bert  s h e knows H e r b e r t w i l l  "Bruno goes t o an  kindergarten?" Herbert object  Herbert  apparently of the  that  t h e war all  suggests  "Don't tease him"  to  (38);  r e a l i z e t h a t he i s h i m s e l f  oddest  s t o r y i s the  one a b o u t  a l l named G e o r g - - H e r b e r t o b j e c t s it  is silly  and c o n f u s i n g ,  i n s i s t s w i t h u n u s u a l vehemence father  When she  such  the  teasing.  five brothers, grounds  not accept,  anti-authoritarian  responds,  does not  Christine's  her  to read l i t t l e Bert  "Bruno and the w i c k e d s t e p m o t h e r . "  little  a  knew t h e  that  five brothers,  (she d o e s n o t ,  f i v e were b r o t h e r s  however,  it  but  on  Bruno's the  Christine  i s a true story,  o n l y one o f whom s u r v i v e d  t r y to convince Herbert  of Bruno the  that  sponge).  that  Circumstances  158 interrupt closes, Bert,  the  narrative,  Christine,  i s able  alone  t o resume  b u t when "The P e g n i t z i n the  Junction"  w a i t i n g room w i t h  little  it:  She h a d b e e n h o p i n g a l l d a y t o h a v e t h e l a s t w o r d , without interference. She h e l d l i t t l e B e r t and s a i d a l o u d , " B r u n o h a d f i v e b r o t h e r s , a l l named G e o r g . But G e o r g was p r o n o u n c e d f i v e d i f f e r e n t ways i n t h e f a m i l y , so t h e r e was no c o n f u s i o n . They were c a l l e d the G o y s h , the Yursh, the S h o r s h . . . " (88)  This i s a defiantly non-closural point overdetermined, contradictory stalled  that  implications.  t r a i n that w i l l  but  a story, respite  C h r i s t i n e i s on a j o u r n e y ,  far  a story Herbert  away;  has  she has  she  is  t e l l i n g his  from the p e r s i s t e n c e of o t h e r n a r r a t i v e s  but  J u n c t i o n " but g i v e n the  last  i n the word,  about o t h e r s ' narration  of  lives. "The  end C h r i s t i n e i s g r a n t e d although,  these are p r o b a b l y the  i f she  words o f h e r  is  t o be  father,  and f o r w a r d i n t o  its  largest  fills The  Pegnitz  h e r w i s h and believed,  and the  reader backward i n t o lacuna.  son  seeks a  novella,  t o c l o s e w i t h any d e g r e e o f f i n a l i t y , p i v o t s on  e l l i p s i s , d i r e c t i n g the  to  escaped  she  n a r r a t o r opens t h e  but  to board or not  already vetoed;  space w i t h another s t o r y  refusing  hundred  t a k e h e r home;  knows he i s n o t  but  omniscient  final  laden with a  closure--  i n a w a i t i n g room w h i l e she w a i t s  board the Herbert  ambiguous,  of  the  its  text  159 "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " b e g i n s Christine,  Herbert,  and l i t t l e B e r t ;  w i t h the  gradually  e x p a n d s t o encompass t h e v o i c e s a n d h i s t o r i e s r a n g e o f German p e o p l e . of  this  expanding  ellipsis, focus  One m i g h t e x p e c t  scope-- fragmentation,  p o l y p h o n y - - w o u l d d i m i n i s h the  on C h r i s t i n e ,  narrator's voice is  through  does not  opposition to  "small p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n people"  If  upstage  intimidation,  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  then C h r i s t i n e r e p r e s e n t s the small  the  happen:  indeed.  (Gallant people  is  about  and  i n whom  2 0  A u t h o r i a l j u d g e m e n t and G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t o r s :  critics  of  s u b s t a n c e and c r e d i b i l i t y  Fascism's  4.  effects  enough t o  and d e c e p t i o n .  are  the  intensity  and c o n f i d e n t  repeated verbal  possibilities  broad  interruption,  injustice  H a n c o c k 41)  of a  strong  i f anything gains  her  scope  omniscient  But t h i s  of  its  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the  t h a t of the p r o t a g o n i s t . Christine  that  story  what  the  say.  "Mavis G a l l a n t i s a p e c u l i a r k i n d of Janice  Critical  Kulyk  moralist."  Keefer  d i s c u s s i o n of Mavis G a l l a n t ' s  stories  its  160  returns  a g a i n a n d a g a i n t o one k e y p o i n t :  judgement.  "Judgement"  i s a b r o a d and p r o b a b l y an e x c e s s i v e l y j u r i d i c a l  term t o use  in this  its  connotations  c o n t e x t but  of a u t h o r i t y ,  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Gallant's  it  i s a p p r o p r i a t e because  power,  control,  The i s s u e i s n a r r a t i v e  hierarchy,  control:  do  (often but not always omniscient) n a r r a t o r s  so f o r c e f u l l y  as t o c l o s e o f f the p o s s i b i l i t y  r e a d e r ' s d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h them,  o r do t h e  of  obliquity  responses?  and opinion  A  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of three sets of c r i t i c a l  positions  suffice  debate.  to i l l u s t r a t e the nature of the  speak  the  i n d i r e c t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r expressions of a l l o w f o r a range of i n t e r p r e t a t i v e  of  will  Two c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t M a v i s G a l l a n t ' s fiction first  recur repeatedly  i n the  i s t h a t h e r judgements  t h e i r a c t i o n s are o p i n i o n s of the  treated  critical  are  commentaries.  too harsh:  characters  i n a d i s p a r a g i n g manner;  i m p l i e d author are  enough: the  stories  readers can't  The  judge  l a c k a u t h o r i a l d i r e c t i o n ; as a  d e c i d e what t h e y mean.  result,  C r i t i c s who o c c u p y  what one m i g h t c a l l  a m i d d l e ground see G a l l a n t ' s  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n as  i r o n i c without being unsympathetic;  a u t h o r i a l o p i n i o n i s suggested  rather  and  the  c l e a r and n a s t y .  second major o b j e c t i o n i s t h a t G a l l a n t does not  The  than pronounced.  161 E x a m p l e One: r u t h l e s s n e s s  and  indifference  C r i t i c s who f e e l t h a t G a l l a n t j u d g e s characters Schaub;  her  t o o h a r s h l y i n c l u d e H e r b e r t Grabes and D a n i e l l e  t h e y r e p r e s e n t what one m i g h t c a l l  t h e Mean M a v i s  school of thought.  I n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d  Dissect:  o f C h a r a c t e r P o r t r a y a l and E v a l u a t i o n i n  Strategies  "Creating  to  S h o r t S t o r i e s b y M a r g a r e t L a u r e n c e , A l i c e Munro a n d M a v i s Gallant,"  Grabes p u n c t u a t e s h i s  c r i t i q u e of  "Acceptance of  T h e i r Ways" w i t h t h e k i n d o f d i c t i o n one m i g h t e x p e c t find  i n a report  (124-26).  on the  He e x a m i n e s  "the  d i s s e c t i n g of character of  this  story,"  the presence  of  a c t i v i t i e s of a c r u e l c o n t i n u o u s and  ironic."  "scathingly s a t i r i c a l " narrative "the  characters  viciously dissected. touches  as  Grabes p o i n t s  to  Mavis G a l l a n t ' s s c a l p e l  narrative  to  be  continuously  D a n i e l l e Schaub p e r c e i v e s  i n "The  so much a n o b s e s s i o n w i t h i n c i s i o n gloom.  and  concludes  only i n order  She r e a d s  as the  o p e n i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t i n e and  h e r home t o w n as a n i n d i c t m e n t o f c h a r a c t e r entire  analyses"  s t r a t e g i e s and  a sense o f p e r v a s i v e and u n c h a r i t a b l e omniscient narrator's  feature  who i s j u s t  seem t o be c r e a t e d  to the q u i c k . . . . "  Pegnitz J u n c t i o n " not  ruthless  "ruthless  "an o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r  m e r c i l e s s and d e v a s t a t i n g l y  that  pathologist  w h i c h i s t h e most p r o m i n e n t  noting L i l y L i t t e l ' s  to  is critical,"  and p l a c e .  Schaub w r i t e s .  "None o f  "The the  162 characters  i s spared by Mavis G a l l a n t ' s d i s p a r a g i n g pen:  t h e y a l l come o u t i n a r a t h e r d i s m a l l i g h t " Grabes and Schaub p l a c e an u n w a r r a n t e d v i c i o u s and the d i s m a l .  on G a l l a n t ' s f i c t i o n  describe  i t as h a p p y - g o - l u c k y ,  powerful  element  2 2  on t h e  The n a r r a t o r ,  i n the story,  Tone i s c r u c i a l .  the omniscient n a r r a t o r  Pegnitz Junction" serves  whether  s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n  A s we h a v e s e e n ,  the tone  i n the opening paragraphs  a number o f i m p o r t a n t  condemning t h e p r o t a g o n i s t  might  but ambivalence i s a  of her w r i t i n g .  omniscient or a character  of  emphasis  2 1  I t i s t r u e t h a t o n l y t h e most  m i s g u i d e d o f commentators  too l i t e r a l l y .  (235-6).  o f "The  functions;  i s n o t one o f t h e m .  Some r e v i e w e r s h a v e a c c u s e d G a l l a n t n o t o f castigating her characters  b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y o f  maintaining a profound indifference  toward them.  have blamed G a l l a n t f o r n o t j u d g i n g more,  "Critics  f o r not s m i l i n g on  t h e g o o d o r f r o w n i n g o n t h e b a d more o v e r t l y , " w r o t e T i m o t h y F o o t e i n a 1979 r e v i e w o f From the Fifteenth A u c h i n c l o s s ' s r e v i e w o f My Heart Times Review of Books of  objections  (1964)  is  ostentatious question: the  Foote i s r e f e r r i n g t o .  w i t h h o l d i n g o f judgement  comments  represents the k i n d Gallant's  " o f t e n wanders  why t h e n w r i t e t h e s t o r y ? "  following  Eve  Broken i n t h e New York  doubtless  "discretion," Auchincloss claimed,  District.  on i n t o an  t h a t begs t h e W i l l i a m P r i t c h a r d made  i n h i s 1973 r e v i e w o f The  Pegnitz  163 Junction:  That M a v i s G a l l a n t r e f u s e s t o . . . speak as a t h o u g h t f u l o m n i s c i e n c e b e h i n d h e r c h a r a c t e r s , m i g h t be a d m i r e d as i n d i c a t i v e o f h e r b e l i e f t h a t l i f e ' s o d d i t i e s m u s t n ' t be i r o n e d o u t i n t o t h e o r d e r l y understandings of f i c t i o n . Yet by c u l t i v a t i n g i n c o n g r u i t i e s , j u x t a p o s i n g v o i c e s and memories t h a t f i t t o g e t h e r i n o n l y t h e c r a z i e s t way the author might seem to evade responsibility for saying or caring very much about her characters and their situation. (4; e m p h a s i s added)  P r i t c h a r d sees G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t o r as m a i n t a i n i n g a indifference  toward the c h a r a c t e r s ,  w h i l e Grabes  studied  and Schaub  a r g u e t h a t n a r r a t o r s go o u t o f t h e i r way t o f i n d  fault.  may b e i n s t r u c t i v e  point:  he  "it is difficult  to  writes see  t o i n v o k e Wayne B o o t h a t t h i s  i n The Rhetoric  of Fiction  that  why t h e r e s h o u l d be a n y c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n  neutrality  and an absence o f j u d g e m e n t . . .  B u t i f I am r i g h t  that neutrality  e v e n t h e most n e u t r a l  will  reveal  i s impossible,  some s o r t o f commitment"  Repeated indifference fiction  has o f t e n  i n claiming  r u t h l e s s n e s s and  the moral standards against which her  been a s s e s s e d .  Technical s k i l l  is  an i s s u e - - t h e p r o b l e m f o r some r e a d e r s i s n o t b a d but  bad w r i t i n g .  following lines:  The a s s u m p t i o n s  never  writing  appear t o r u n along the  c h a r a c t e r s s h o u l d be a p p e a l i n g and  p r e s e n t e d i n an a p p e a l i n g on t h e i r  comment  (76).  charges of G a l l a n t ' s  reveal  It  fashion;  deficiencies--writers,  writers  i n short,  should not dwell s h o u l d be n i c e  to  their  c h a r a c t e r s because o p t i m i s m i s good,  a n d a w r i t e r who e x p o s e s protagonists) a  her  characters  to c r i t i c i s m w i l l  (and e s p e c i a l l y  bad, her  be j u d g e d h a r s h l y  as  result.  Gallant's  fiction  m o r a l i t y of niceness. through her  stories  and p a r t i c u l a r i t y ; unambiguous presentation narrative  does not  generalizations of d e t a i l ,  voice reveals  i n t o the gaps l e f t  and  emerges t h r o u g h  the  but  itself  t h e way i n w h i c h i n that  a greater tolerance  a n d shows i t s e l f  i n the  analysis  of  But t h a t ' s  "Orphans'  children's progression  stories. the  for  more w i l l i n g  to  Helmut Bonheim says "text  fine w i t h him.  Progress," toward  the  presentation.  contains  f o r m u l a t i o n t o h e l p us open t h e d o o r t o (72).  itself  control  " A c c e p t a n c e o f T h e i r Ways" t h a t  treasures"  a  ambivalence,  d e l i v e r sweeping  through  a m b i v a l e n c e and a m b i g u i t y ,  explicit  h e r s i s not  t o do w i t h c o n t i n g e n c y ,  Some c r i t i c i s m m a n i f e s t s  read  amoral but  The m o r a l i t y w h i c h e x p r e s s e s  has it  i s not  E x a m p l e Two: o r i g i n a l i t y a n d  of  herself  pessimism i s  no  its  In his  detailed  M i c h e l Fabre d e s c r i b e s  alienation:  the  165  L ' h o r r e u r n ' e s t p a s nominee, e l l e d o i t e t r e p e r c u e , s u p p l e e e p a r l e l e c t e u r d a n s l e n o n - d i t de l ' e n o n c e q u i se g a r d e b i e n de p r e n d r e o u v e r t e m e n t p a r t i . C ' e s t en c e s e n s que 1 ' o r i g i n a l i t e de l a s t r a t e g i e n a r r a t i v e de l ' a u t e u r se c a r a c t e r i s e d a v a n t a g e p a r s o n u t i l i s a t i o n de l a v o i x que p a r u n q u e l c o n q u e r e f u s de r e s p e c t e r l e s e x i g e n c e s du g e n r e de l a n o u v e l l e . ( F a b r e 59)  Thus, fill  f o r Fabre,  it  i n t h e gaps  reading process, strategy,"  i s the  l e f t by the n a r r a t o r ; 2 3  the  "originality  and n o t a f l a w  responsibility,  moreover,  m a n i p u l a t i o n of  voice.  The e f f e c t s subject  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  of debate.  i n the  (63),  fiction;  i s part  of  to the  narrative such a  result  of the  writer's  2 4  of G a l l a n t ' s use of v o i c e remain a  Whereas F a b r e c o n c l u d e s t h a t de r e f u s  Janice Kulyk Keefer,  thought-provoking study, opposite.  of the  is a direct  M a v i s G a l l a n t i n d i q u e une s o r t e totalisateur"  this  reader  G a l l a n t , she  Reading  d'un  "Le ton  de  discours  i n her  Mavis Gallant,  lively  and  argues  the  says,  i s g o o d a t d o i n g d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s . . . Y e t so s t r o n g i s the r e a d e r ' s sense of the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f the v a r i o u s v o i c e s w i t h i n the t e x t t h a t any c o n v i n c i n g d i s c o u r s e o f o p p o s i t i o n t o the n a r r a t i v e l i n e i s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to hear. ( K u l y k K e e f e r 62)  The a r g u m e n t s  e x e m p l i f i e d here are  somewhat  subtler  166 than those  c i t e d above; they take  extent  complexity of G a l l a n t ' s w r i t i n g .  the  r a i s e d are  e s s e n t i a l l y the  same:  i n t o account to a  is it  But the case,  that G a l l a n t ' s stories  refusing  any " t o t a l i z i n g d i s c o u r s e , " o r i s K u l y k  to hold that G a l l a n t ' s narrators  o p i n i o n s i f not d i r e c t l y at any r e a d e r l y d i s s e n t ? will  radically  as  submits,  right  are  the  least  One f i n a l  Example T h r e e :  Fabre  express  Keefer  their  of c r i t i c a l  as t o swamp responses  p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e means a n d e x t e n t  Gallant's narrative  issues  open-ended,  so e f f e c t i v e l y set  greater  of  control.  strange  magic and s t r o n g  implication  The mode o f n a r r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n c o m p l i c a t e s t h e over the extent  to which the  s t o r y judges her c h a r a c t e r s .  i m p l i e d author of a G a l l a n t T h i n g s a r e n o t made e a s y  the r e a d e r - - G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t o r s example, or,  do n o t  ' F r a u Schneider i s a greedy o l d b i g o t but  unsaid. restraint Transit,  Instead,  as F a b r e p o i n t s o u t ,  One way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g G a l l a n t ' s i s to follow  for  indecision,' she d i d h a v e a  much i s  left  apparent  I . M . Owen, who, i n a r e v i e w o f Tn  writes:  T h a t ' s perhaps  for  come o u t a n d s a y ,  'Sometimes C h r i s t i n e i s p a r a l y z e d by  hard l i f e . '  debate  the key to Mavis G a l l a n t ' s  strange  167 magic. She d o e s n ' t s e e k t o e x p l a i n t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e ; i t h a p p e n s , a n d she shows i t h a p p e n i n g . (23)  O w e n ' s laissez-faire that  the  latter  approach d i f f e r s h i g h l i g h t s the  Gallant's narrative t e l l e r with a tale together, appeals  and,  somehow,  because  calculated effects  strategies. i n mind:  of i t s  she l a y s i t  i t works.  constitute  sounds  separating because  it  the  ellipsis,  functions  and  in fiction,  a small piece of  conclusions.  other share  ("le  non-  it  contains  nothing  But p r e c i s e l y  B and a f t e r  A , t h e gap i s  t h e wake o f t h a t w h i c h  at all i n t o g a p s ;  they f u l f i l  and i n M a v i s G a l l a n t ' s s t o r i e s  guided to f i l l  what  is misleading.  a n t i c i p a t i o n of that which f o l l o w s .  r e a d anything  of  B u t Owen a n d F a b r e  something from something e l s e .  of i t s p o s i t i o n before  and t h e  reading  gaps.  a n empty s p a c e ,  a n empty s p a c e ;  it  a s i g n i f i c a n t component o f G a l l a n t ' s  gap,  like  them.  a  i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of  i n e x p l i c a b l e and the u n s a i d  we r e a d i n t o t h e  The It  element  w h e r e b y some p e o p l e w r i t e s t o r i e s  the n o t i o n that the  narrative:  we p u t  The " i t h a p p e n s "  s i m p l i c i t y and the  p e o p l e r e a d and a p p r e c i a t e  dit")  out,  in  of  F o r Owen, G a l l a n t i s  m i g h t a l m o s t be c a l l e d m y s t i c i s m , t h e the process  from t h a t o f Fabre  the  2 5  not  precedes  We do n o t  specific reader  them w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a s s e s s m e n t s ,  is  often  judgements,  T h i s i s where Owen's t a k e on G a l l a n t  falls  168 short:  " i t " may h a p p e n ,  Wolfgang I s e r process, the  b u t what e x a c t l y h a p p e n s ,  e x p l a i n s the " i t , " the  as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between  text;  such a process  a n d how?  reading  the r e a d e r ' s mind and  i s affected  but not determined by  b o t h the " i n d i v i d u a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f the reader" and the "different  patterns of the text"  the  sequent sentences:  text's  expectation, satisfying)  that expectation.  and r e - s h a p i n g  can  Iser  For this  of several different  ever exhaust  reader w i l l  fill  (rather  follows  an  than  Thus t h e r e a d e r ' s  progress  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a constant  w i t h gaps i n t h e f i c t i o n ,  capable  2 6  of expectations.  ways.  The r e a d e r  one s e n t e n c e r a i s e s  w h i l e the next modifies  through the n a r r a t i v e  in different  (212).  the f u l l  shaping  When i t comes t o d e a l i n g claims, they  reason,  one t e x t  realizations,  potential,  "may b e  filled  is potentially  a n d no r e a d i n g  f o r each  individual  i n t h e g a p s i n h i s [ s i c ] own w a y ,  thereby  e x c l u d i n g t h e v a r i o u s o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , - a s he r e a d s ,  he  w i l l make h i s own d e c i s i o n a s t o how t h e g a p i s t o b e filled"  (216) .  L a w r e n c e M a t h e w s ' a r t i c l e o n From the District,  Fifteenth  p r o v i d e s a c o n c i s e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e way i n  w h i c h one c r i t i c  reads a G a l l a n t gap:  When, n e a r t h e e n d o f "The R e m i s s i o n , " B a r b a r a Webb t h i n k s , " A l e c g a v e me t h r e e c h i l d r e n . Eric  169 g a v e me L o u M a s " ( 1 1 5 ) , t h e r e a d e r i s b r o u g h t up short. L o u Mas i s t h e h o u s e t h a t B a r b a r a a n d A l e c have l i v e d i n . P a i d f o r b y h e r b r o t h e r s a n d owned b y them i n a l l s e n s e s e x c e p t t h e t e c h n i c a l l y l e g a l , i t was g i v e n t o h e r b y E r i c ( h e r l o v e r ) o n l y i n t h a t he h a s a r r a n g e d f o r h e r t o s w i n d l e her b r o t h e r s out of i t . For Barbara to t h i n k of t h i s as somehow p a r a l l e l t o h e r h u s b a n d ' s g i f t o f three c h i l d r e n i s to reveal a breathtaking moral i l l i t e r a c y . But t h e s e s e n t e n c e s end t h e p a r a g r a p h . G a l l a n t d o e s n o t w a s t e so much as a p h r a s e i n u n d e r l i n i n g f o r the reader the nature of the j u d g e m e n t o f B a r b a r a t h a t i s so s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d . (158-59)  A c c o r d i n g t o Mathews, t h e n , the  space f o l l o w i n g  Gallant's directly  Gallant  fills  t h e gap f o r  the end o f the p a r a g r a p h r e s o n a t e s  judgement o f B a r b a r a , a judgement w h i c h , stated,  is  us--  "strongly implied."  Strong  if  with not  implication  may i n d e e d be one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t p h r a s e s  to bear  m i n d as one c o n s i d e r s how G a l l a n t  characters.  I n t h e c a s e o f "The R e m i s s i o n , "  evaluates her  it  in  i s not that Barbara i s  c o n s i s t e n t l y j u d g e d and found w a n t i n g (nor i s t h a t Mathews' point);  rather,  quirky morality, specific  one o f t h e  d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t s times not)  of other c h a r a c t e r s .  on h e r l i f e  as  (at and  times the  J a n i c e Kulyk Keefer might  w e l l h a v e b e e n w r i t i n g a b o u t B a r b a r a when she Gallant  her  which i s explored through Barbara's  a p p a r e n t l y wholesome, at lives  s t o r y ' s main concerns i s  "a p e c u l i a r k i n d o f m o r a l i s t "  describes  (20).  K u l y k K e e f e r e x p l a i n s how t h a t m o r a l i t y i n G a l l a n t ' s stories with respect  as  t o judgement and  operates the  170 omniscient  narrator:  One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s o f G a l l a n t ' s i r o n y i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t we c a n make c l e a r a n d s w e e p i n g j u d g e m e n t s o f p e o p l e a n d s i t u a t i o n s : she shows u s n o t o n l y t h a t we do n o t know more a b o u t a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r t h a n t h a t c h a r a c t e r knows a b o u t h e r o r h i m s e l f , b u t a l s o t h a t we do n o t know n e a r l y as much as we t h i n k we do a b o u t o u r own r e s p o n s e s t o o t h e r s a n d t h e d e s i r e s t h a t p r o v o k e those responses. Again, the uncomfortable p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n operates here: not o n l y G a l l a n t ' s c h a r a c t e r s b u t a l s o h e r r e a d e r s a r e r e v e a l e d as s e l f - d e c e i v e d a n d i m p e r f e c t l y aware. This discomfort at being i m p l i c a t e d i n her i r o n y i s matched by an e q u a l l y u n s e t t l i n g sense o f G a l l a n t ' s " i n v i s i b i l i t y " w i t h i n her f i c t i o n s . Authorial i m p e r s o n a l i t y and the o b l i q u e n e s s i t engenders a r e c r u c i a l to the very p r o j e c t of her f i c t i o n . ( K u l y k K e e f e r 45)  Here i s the d i f f i c u l t  part:  if  "not  characters  but  a l s o her readers"  narrators)  are  t o be  " r e v e a l e d as  only Gallant's  (and,  I would add,  self-deceived  imperfectly aware,"  t h e n G a l l a n t must  balance.  i s power: G a l l a n t ' s n a r r a t o r  The i s s u e  powerful  as she e x p o s e s  the  flaws i n a  confers  But i f  principal  judge.  situations," judgement  g r o w s more  judgement  "[o]ne of  the  t a r g e t s of G a l l a n t ' s i r o n y i s the b e l i e f  c a n make c l e a r a n d s w e e p i n g j u d g e m e n t s then the  narrator's  of people  (and t h e  must be c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n .  for  the n a r r a t o r ' s  for  the measured detachment  c r i t i q u e of character  readers to construct  their  delicate  character's  of passing  on the  and  s t r i k e a very  p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d - - t h e act authority  her  t h a t we  and  reader's) Hence t h e n e e d  both  and s i t u a t i o n ,  and  w h i c h p r o v i d e s a space own e v a l u a t i o n s - - h e n c e  for the  171 charges  of ruthlessness,  Ultimately, Fabre and K u l y k K e e f e r least  not  then,  and o f  indifference.  the d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n  between  i s n o t one w h i c h may be r e s o l v e d ,  i n general terms.  If,  as  Iser argues,  "The  convergence of t e x t  and r e a d e r b r i n g s t h e  existence,  c o n v e r g e n c e c a n n e v e r be p r e c i s e l y  and t h i s  pinpointed," the  it  the  same p l a c e i n a l l c a s e s .  between I s e r ' s then the  another  two p o l e s ,  "the  c l o s e r to  they d i f f e r  critics  I f the  convergence takes  the a r t i s t i c and t h e  "the  r e a l i t y of the  Gallant  they are  they are not  the  same  reader.  t o as  And i f ,  as K u l y k K e e f e r  "any c o n v i n c i n g d i s c o u r s e o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e  the  i s exceedingly hard to hear," fault  discourse,  of the t e x t ,  then that  it.  asserts,  narrative  i s perhaps  w h i c h makes a s p a c e f o r  b u t t h a t o f t h e r e a d e r who e x p e c t s  t h a n t o speak  "un  t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l b l e n d o f warm  o p i n i o n and c o o l d i s t a n c e .  line  Keefer  unsophisticated  a v o i d s what F a b r e r e f e r s  discours totalisateur"  Kulyk  and i n  to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of G a l l a n t ' s  not because  but because  2 7  instance  reader,"  text."  place  aesthetic,  be i n one  i n d i v i d u a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the  Fabre are both a l i v e  work;  l i t e r a r y work i n t o  convergence does not o c c u r i n  locus of the convergence w i l l  closer to  and  i s because  at  not  such to hear  rather  172 5.  The p r i m e v o i c e  The c o n c e r n s meaning,  judgement,  r a i s e d by G a l l a n t c r i t i c s  and the  b o u n d up w i t h v o i c e .  narrator/author  I n some s t o r i e s ,  of a p a r t i c u l a r  construed symbols,  on t h e b a s i s metaphors,  in a significant  text  of,  f o r example,  find  story.  a place  and i d e a s devices incident Indeed,  the  fiction  conventions,  seems i m p o r t a n t  forward  however,  rarely  avoids each  images  weighted  individual  in its  own r i g h t .  development  and y e t  which i s unusual  action,  i n modern  a hallmark of G a l l a n t ' s work.  of s i t u a t i o n ,  the  minor events create a p a t t e r n of  a schematic  emerges i s n o t what one a n t h o l o g y  falling  narrative  d e t a i l and sense o f p r e c i s i o n accompanying  i s possible to construct  contours  or  Although certain  G a l l a n t as a r u l e  d e s c r i p t i o n of apparently fictional  decision  one w h i c h  r e a d e r can work b a c k w a r d and  symbol and metaphor;  i n a story  themselves  might p r o v i d e a  i n the G a l l a n t canon.  s u c h as  a p a t t e r n of  m a k i n g an i m p o r t a n t  Such g e n e r i c  do r e c u r ,  the  Or a k e y e v e n t ,  u n d e r g o i n g some k i n d o f e p i p h a n y ,  i n t o the  action,  t h e s e may r e s o l v e  closural figure.  l o c u s from w h i c h the  (the  i n a b o d y o f w o r k ) may be  or images;  involves a character  intimately  "meaning"  c o n c l u s i o n s r e a d e r s draw a b o u t c h a r a c t e r s , function  are  about  narrative t o as  Insofar  as  line,  what  it  "the  classic  complication, r i s i n g action,  climax,  a n d denouement"  refers  short  (The Short  Story:  An  173 Introduction  17).  23  i m a g i n e d as a s e r i e s incidents .  Rather,  G a l l a n t ' s p l o t t i n g may b e  o f more o r l e s s e q u a l l y w e i g h t e d  2 9  Where " m e a n i n g " i s n o t t o b e f o u n d i n o r made o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e d e v i c e s s u c h as p l o t t i n g symbolic p a t t e r n i n g and metaphor, elsewhere, if  strategy,  i t must b e s o u g h t  and i n G a l l a n t ' s work t h a t p l a c e i s v o i c e .  And  one o f t h e more p r o d u c t i v e ways o f r e a d i n g M a v i s  Gallant's  fiction  h a s l e s s t o do w i t h a n a l y z i n g  structure  and symbol t h a n w i t h l i s t e n i n g a t t e n t i v e l y t o t h e v o i c e s that  tell  the s t o r i e s ,  on what i s h e a r d ,  Voice  then issues of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  how i t i s h e a r d ,  and credibility:  "Its  a n d who i s s p e a k i n g .  Image on the  Much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d arrives, the  as i t were,  i n a mediated form.  that  the n a r r a t o r  selects  worthy o f mention and recounts  i n a story  among o t h e r  c e r t a i n i n c i d e n t s as  them.  The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e  n a r r a t o r d e t e r m i n e s what i s s i g n i f i c a n t "credibility"  Mirror"  That i s t o say,  i l l u s i o n we a s r e a d e r s m a i n t a i n i m p l i e s ,  things,  centre  o f t h e n a r r a t o r means,  a n d w h y . The  basically,  the degree  174 to which the n a r r a t o r ' s coincide with those because of  it  affects  the n a r r a t o r ;  reader  receives  it  o p i n i o n s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d  of the the  reader.  Credibility  important  reader's p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to  affects  the p e r s p e c t i v e  from w h i c h  Image on t h e M i r r o r , "  the  of  critical  d i s p u t e between D . B . J e w i s o n and W . J . K e i t h .  In J e w i s o n ' s view,  the  questionable  "Jean's authority i s  Providing a series  assertions  finds  i n Jean's  " J e a n may be cannot,  story.  on J e a n ' s p a r t ,  some o f t h e  I think,  (104).  Keith,  contradictions Jewison Keith  contends, b u t we  p r o p e r l y r e g a r d h e r u n r e l i a b i l i t y as  i n any  (159).  According to  ' s u s p i c i o n ' - - o n l y an i m p o s s i b l y n a i v e r e a d e r  not,  W. J .  " a s s e s s m e n t s s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be r e g a r d e d  them a l l a t  with  i n t h e way t h a t we a l l a r e ,  way c u l p a b l e o r e x c e s s i v e " Jean's  severely  Jewison concludes  "As a n a r r a t o r , "  'unreliable'  to  of examples of  s u s p i c i o n and sometimes w i t h contempt" disputes  of  references  " t h a t J e a n ' s a s s e s s m e n t s must a l w a y s be r e g a r d e d  by c o n t r a s t ,  of a  (and o f J e a n ' s memory i n  Consequently, (102) .  subject  compounded b y r e p e a t e d  l i m i t a t i o n s o f memory  undermined"  i s the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n J e a n ' s account  her f a m i l y h i s t o r y are  particular).  the  first-person  narrator  the  that  information.  The c r e d i b i l i t y o f J e a n P r i c e , "Its  is  to  face v a l u e - - b u t  I would argue  w i t h J e w i s o n , r e g a r d them,  Keith, with  would  accept  t h a t we s h o u l d  even ' s o m e t i m e s , '  with  175 ' contempt'"  (159) .  The d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n J e w i s o n a n d K e i t h i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h r e e ways. magnitude o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s credibility,  shows t h i s  i n d e e d as t h e v e r y d i s c u s s i o n  evaluating trustworthiness.  distrust  i s at issue:  Jean,  reservations) illustrates text.  What is  of a s s e s s i n g and  The c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e  does t h e r e a d e r b e l i e v e J e w i s o n and  o r s i d e w i t h K e i t h and a c c e p t her v e r s i o n of the story?  (with  Second,  the debate r a i s e s  t h e q u e s t i o n o f how  i s determined.  a prime  voice?  t o imagine that  voice the reader states,  every reader  trusts,  f o r example,  was l y i n g . ' character,  some  it  One way o f e n v i s i o n i n g t h e d y n a m i c s o f is  critics  the c e n t r a l i t y o f v o i c e t o any r e a d i n g o f the  Third,  credibility  i t shows t h e  involved i n determining  becomes i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e p r o c e s s  themselves  First,  constructs  a prime  one w h i c h t e l l s t h e t r u t h ,  voice--  a  which  ' J e a n P r i c e s a i d X b u t o f c o u r s e she  The p r i m e v o i c e i s n o t t h a t o f a or author,  credibility  narrator,  a l t h o u g h i t may a p p r o a c h a n y o r a l l o f  t h e s e a t t i m e s - - i t does n o t e x i s t e x c e p t  i n the  reader's  176 mind's ear.  Its  function is  particular  truth,  story,  necessity  reader,  the  or set  story,  insofar  as  v e r s i o n of the  other  wanting.  not  story,  the u l t i m a t e  let  it  is  the  them,  The p r i m e v o i c e t e l l s  in  the  real  conceivable--recounts  us say,  which the  possible,  or i n t e r e s t i n g .  or the b e s t v o i c e  primacy o n l y i n terms of i t s rather,  particular  v o i c e s and f i n d s  that notion i s  fitting,  about a  a  of those t r u t h s b e i n g d i c t a t e d by  f r o m among t h e many v e r s i o n s plausible,  n o t The T r u t h b u t  of truths,  who e v a l u a t e s t h e  one way o r a n o t h e r ,  to t e l l  because i t  ("prime"  l i k e one o f a s e r i e s  chooses seems most  The p r i m e v o i c e  3 0  appeal  reader  here  a  is  implies  to a p a r t i c u l a r of y a r d s t i c k s ,  reader);  the  one  y o u e n d up b u y i n g , a l t h o u g h none o f them m i g h t m e a s u r e e x a c t l y one y a r d .  William Pritchard,  above,  "Mavis G a l l a n t refuses  claims that  i n a review to...  s p e a k as  thoughtful  omniscience behind her  Spatially,  we may s i t u a t e t h e p r i m e v o i c e alongside  v o i c e s i n the  story;  w i t h and i n between  temporally, them.  characters"  it  speaks  cited  (4). other  simultaneously  3 1  To a r e a d e r o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a c r i t i c a l  framework  w h i c h a l l o w s t h a t t h e r e i s o r was a p e r s o n who p e r f o r m e d p h y s i c a l act  of w r i t i n g but  intentionality, stories, not  the  does not  as an u n p r o b l e m a t i c  admit, clue to  for  of saying,  the  example,  understanding  i d e a o f a p r i m e v o i c e c a n be l i b e r a t i n g .  a question  a  It  " I b e l i e v e t h e A u t h o r meant X , "  is  177 but  of a different  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e way i n w h i c h  i n f o r m a t i o n communicated i n a s t o r y understood. different  i s r e c e i v e d and  The r e a d e r h e a r s a p r i m e v o i c e w h i c h i s  f o r each reader,  and at each r e a d i n g - - t h e  v o i c e i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e dynamic i n t e r p l a y r e a d e r and t e x t  which constitutes  The prime  in  voice  "The Pegnitz  prime between  reading.  Junction"  The p r i m e v o i c e o p e r a t e s c h i e f l y i n one o f two situations.  In the f i r s t ,  i t speaks i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  voice of the narrator.  F o r example,  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , "  the omniscient narrator  e p i t h e t s as "bony," Christine.  "slow m o v i n g , " and " t a l l "  D a n i e l l e Schaub u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s  Christine i s unattractive,  although  say s o .  One m i g h t s a y t h a t  comments  i n a certain  that  light.  Schaub i s i n e f f e c t  voice,  i n the opening l i n e s of  describe  t o mean  that  does n o t  the n a r r a t o r ' s  hearing another voice,  like,  such  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one c o u l d a r g u e  along with that of the narrator,  voice i s saying things  to  the narrator  Schaub i n t e r p r e t s  uses  and t h a t  the prime the prime  ' B o n y means t o o t h i n ;  too t h i n  178 i s not a t t r a c t i v e . . . . '  For another  the opening s e c t i o n of the dominate--such a voice u n t i l  that  established  (that  text,  reader,  the n a r r a t o r ' s  reader would perhaps of the n a r r a t o r is,  h a s b e e n more  takes  dominates,  the  prime  narrator's  same  thing).  of circumstances the prime v o i c e  on a more a c t i v e r o l e .  t e m p o r a r i l y absent  is  firmly-  the p r i m e v o i c e and t h e  set  this  v o i c e might  not hear  v o i c e m i g h t f o r t h e moment be s a y i n g t h e  In another  because  from the  When t h e n a r r a t o r text,  the prime v o i c e takes  and a  is  character-voice  the p l a c e of the  narrator.  The e x t e n s i v e m o n o l o g u e s o f M r s . S c h n e i d e r i l l u s t r a t e  this  dynamic.  so  'speech'  The c h a r a c t e r  i s not d i r e c t but  monologues d i f f e r that  i s not  speaking but  reported.  f r o m most i n s t a n c e s  However,  of  so a s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e  surrounding  t h e y c o n t a i n no i n t e r p o l a t i o n s f r o m C h r i s t i n e ,  hears  them,  supposedly, in  italicized  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n , " t h e s e c r e a t e  a sense of  f i r s t person that they represent  a  v o i c e which i s b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d d i r e c t l y to the the  passages  s u g g e s t i n g b o t h t h r o u g h t y p o g r a p h y and t h r o u g h  the use of the  without  who  who,  Like other  immediacy,  p a s s e s them o n .  in  intactness.  text,  o r from the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r ,  her  her  of r e p o r t e d speech  they are presented w i t h the appearance  Italicized  thinking,  i n t e r v e n t i o n of a n a r r a t o r  or another  characterreader, character.  179 "This was the beginning,"  says M r s . Schneider,  Two first cousins from Muggendorf married two first cousins from Doos. Emigrated to the USA, all four together. [...] The men got work right away in Flushing. [...] Arrangement was that they would come to us for their evening meal. Had every evening meal together for forty-seven years. [...] I cooked around seventeen thousand suppers, all told. Never a disagreement. Never an angry word. Nothing but good food and family loyalty. (23-4)  Mrs.  Schneider recounts  i n New Y o r k s t a t e , style,  t h e l i v e s o f t h e f o u r German e m i g r e s  often  i n a brisk,  clipped,  journalistic  as i f she were i n a h u r r y t o g e t h e r s t o r y o u t .  The  b r e v i t y o f the sentences and the o m i s s i o n o f a r t i c l e s and subject was...  pronouns  ("Emigrated  Had every evening  urgency.  Equally often,  to the USA...  meal...") though,  underline  the couples'  i m p r e s s i o n o f speed c r e a t e d  as i f t o suggest  There i s a t e n s i o n between stylistically  r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n o f events and s o c i a l (the D e p r e s s i o n ,  alterations  provides  l i v e s were s i g n i f i c a n t c h i e f l y b e c a u s e o f  what t h e y h a d f o r s u p p e r .  chronicles  the sense o f  Mrs. Schneider  l o n g l i s t s o f t h e f o o d she has p r e p a r e d , that  Arrangement  the  and through the  changes  M r s . Schneider  the war, the postwar p e r i o d ,  i n t h e s o c i a l makeup o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ) ,  t h e monotony o f an e x i s t e n c e marked b y a progression of  dishes.  the and  relentless  3 2  However t h e p r i n c i p a l t e n s i o n i n M r s .  Schneider's  180 monologues a r i s e s  from t h e c o n f l i c t  the prime v o i c e .  A t times  she  states that  they appear t o concur,  she has cooked seventeen  t h e r e i s no d o u b t  a r e more f r e q u e n t l y  repeatedly  refers  to f a m i l i a l  open w i t h a n e g a t i o n  sentences s t r u c t u r e d  suspect. harmony  33  F o r example, i n sentences  insistence  around n e g a t i v e s  want t o s a y a n d how s h e s a y s  instance  loathing.  indicates pathos.  t o an emerges seems t o  3 4  that of Mrs. Schneider--where family  that  i t ; the prime v o i c e t e l l s the  The p r i m e v o i c e e x p r e s s e s  replies  she  on the p o s i t i v e i n  gives rise  The p r i m e v o i c e i n t h i s  lying.  suppers--  But her  f r o m t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n b e t w e e n what t h e c h a r a c t e r  r e a d e r she i s  a s when  ("Never. . . Never. . . " ,- "Nobody. . .  Mrs. Schneider's  opposing v o i c e .  thousand  t h e woman h a s w o r k e d h a r d .  assertions  Never...").  between h e r v o i c e and  itself  she says  Later,  i n opposition to  "family  loyalty", i t  when s h e s u g g e s t s p r i d e ,  Mrs. Schneider describes  the  it  restrictions  p l a c e d on t h e f a m i l i e s d u r i n g t h e w a r :  During the conflict we were enemy aliens... Police had orders, had to tell us we couldn't go to the beaches any more. Big joke on them--we never went anyway, didn't even own bathing suits! Were given our territorial limits: could go into Jackson Heights as far as the corner of Northern and 81st. Never went, never wanted t o . . . . The men... had three stations from home to work, were warned not to get off at the wrong one. They never did. The thing was we never wanted to go anywhere except the three blocks between our two homes. The only thing we missed was the fresh bratwurst. We never went anywhere because we never  181 wanted to!  The joke  The d o m i n a n t t o n e defiant  o f t h i s passage i s M r s . S c h n e i d e r ' s  glee at o u t w i t t i n g the a u t h o r i t i e s .  voice t e l l s a different life  was on the whole USA! (48)  story,  o f a woman who c h o o s e s  of the l i v e s  ( " B i g joke  Here a g a i n ,  on them...  never  didn't  even own...  went anywhere because  the  The joke  USA!") a n d t h e r e l i a n c e o n n e g a t i v e went...  of the with  o f t w o c o u p l e s who  t o go anywhere beyond " t h e t h r e e b l o c k s  between o u r two homes." repetition  t h a t o f t h e meanness  t o spend h e r time o n l y  p e o p l e she c l e a r l y d e s p i s e s , h a v e no d e s i r e  But the prime  persistent was on the whole  constructions  Never went, never we never  ("We never  wanted t o . . . We  wanted to!")  create a  counter-voice.  One o f M r s . S c h n e i d e r ' s most u n a t t r a c t i v e is her blatant  traits  racism:  There was a plan to save some German cities, those with interesting old monuments. The plan was to put Jews in the attics of all the houses. The Allies would never have dropped a bomb. What a difference it might have made. Later we learned this plan had been sabotaged by the President of the USA. Too bad. It could have saved many famous old statues and quite a few lives. (53-4)  Here,  the a n t i - S e m i t i s m Mrs. Schneider expressed e a r l i e r i n  her condemnation o f P r e s i d e n t  Roosevelt  (39) m a s q u e r a d e s  as  182 a desire the  t o save s t a t u e s and l i v e s .  T h e r e i s no n e e d  oppositional syntactical strategies  deployed e a r l i e r :  the p r i m e v o i c e does not have t o work v e r y h a r d t o e t h n o c e n t r i s m b e h i n d the appearance  The p r i m e v o i c e s p e a k s  of prudent  from the  w h i c h i s s a i d and t h a t w h i c h i s n o t .  side of i t .  It  thing,  opposes  relations  o r one v o i c e ,  among d i f f e r e n t  voices,  temporary p o s i t i o n o f power b e f o r e p o s i t i o n to another. of  the  the o r on  i n t o account  dynamic which c o n s t i t u t e s  the  the  "The  constitutes but  not  the  one  a c o m p l e x web o f  each of which m a i n t a i n s  a  r e l i n q u i s h i n g that  The i d e a o f a p r i m e v o i c e i s a n  i n t e r a c t i o n between r e a d e r  attempts to take  that  of voices, a competitive  i n which " n a r r a t i v e voice"  n o t one n a r r a t o r  the  pragmatism.  And dominance i s c r u c i a l because  P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i s a sequence polyphony,  show  space between  dominant v o i c e by p o i n t i n g t o something o u t s i d e other  for  and t e x t ,  a n image  image that  importance of v o i c e i n  reading  process.  the  183 1. R o n a l d H a t c h , f o r e x a m p l e , who i n a n i n s i g h t f u l e a r l y e s s a y o n G a l l a n t ' s w o r k p r o n o u n c e s "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " " q u i t e a n extraordinary work," was p u z z l e d on f i r s t r e a d i n g , n o t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n c r e a s i n g fragmentation, yet f e e l i n g s t r a n g e l y the s i n i s t e r e l e m e n t b e h i n d e v e n t h e most t r i v i a l e v e n t . . . . [B]y the end o f t h e n o v e l l a , s o many s t o r i e s h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d w i t h i n s t o r i e s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g seems t o be f l y i n g a p a r t . (101) 2 . B a r b a r a G o d a r d ' s comment on A Fairly Good Time a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " : she d e s c r i b e s G a l l a n t ' s n o v e l as " a n e t e r n a l b r a i d of s t o r y w i t h i n s t o r y moving to the v a n i s h i n g point" (43). 3 . T h i s j o u r n e y r e p r e s e n t s t h e o p p o s i t e o f what r a i l w a y t r a v e l i s supposed to be. I n The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century, W o l f g a n g S c h i v e l b u s c h w r i t e s : ' A n n i h i l a t i o n o f s p a c e a n d t i m e ' was t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - century c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the e f f e c t of railroad travel. The c o n c e p t was b a s e d on t h e s p e e d t h a t t h e new means o f t r a n s p o r t was a b l e t o a c h i e v e . A given s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o v e r e d i n a f i x e d amount o f t r a v e l t i m e , c o u l d s u d d e n l y be d e a l t w i t h i n a f r a c t i o n o f t h a t t i m e ; t o p u t i t a n o t h e r way, t h e same amount o f t i m e p e r m i t t e d one t o c o v e r t h e o l d s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e many t i m e s over. I n t e r m s o f t r a n s p o r t e c o n o m i c s , t h i s meant a s h r i n k i n g of space... (33) By t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h i n g s h a v e c h a n g e d a n d t h e a i r p l a n e i s even f a s t e r than the t r a i n , but i n G a l l a n t ' s s t o r y the P a r i s a i r p o r t s a r e on s t r i k e : C h r i s t i n e , H e r b e r t and l i t t l e B e r t a r e forced to resort to t r a i n t r a v e l . T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n p l a n : the s t r i k e suggests a s o c i a l unrest which sets the stage f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s G a l l a n t poses about a u t h o r i t y and c i v i c o r d e r , and t h e p r o l o n g e d o v e r l a n d j o u r n e y evokes the r a i l w a y n a r r a t i v e s of the n i n e t e e t h c e n t u r y . In t h i s case, though, i t i s a r a i l w a y j o u r n e y by d e f a u l t o n l y , and i n s t e a d o f t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f space, t r a i n t r a v e l here extends space and t i m e not o n l y because t h e movement i t s e l f i s s l o w b u t b e c a u s e f o r s o much o f t h e j o u r n e y t h e r e i s no movement a t a l l . 4. Here Schaub q u o t e s i n f u l l the s t o r y ' s o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h , i t a l i c i z i n g s u c h p h r a s e s a s "bony s l o w - m o v i n g , " " s m a l l bombed b a r o q u e German c i t y " a n d " s h e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h o u g h t p l a i n . " ( C u r i o u s l y , S c h a u b d o e s n o t p l a c e any e m p h a s i s o n t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t " i n h e r c h i l d h o o d she h a d o f t e n b e e n t o l d t h a t h e r f e e t w e r e l i k e c a n a l b o a t s , " which i s perhaps the l e a s t f l a t t e r i n g d e s c r i p t i v e comment. H o w e v e r , as i s so o f t e n t h e c a s e i n G a l l a n t ' s w o r k , t h i s k i n d o f m o c k e r y may c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s p e a k e r  184 a s much as t h e a d d r e s s e e . That i s , the p o i n t here c o u l d w e l l h a v e t o do w i t h one o f G a l l a n t ' s f a v o u r i t e t h e m e s , t h e e r r o r s o f adults i n t h e i r treatment of c h i l d r e n . ) 5 . F u r t h e r i s s u e s o f i r o n y and a u t h o r i a l addressed below.  judgement w i l l  be  6. A s w i t h p o e t r y , s c a n s i o n r e s u l t s n o t f r o m s t r e s s e s p l a c e d b y the a u t h o r but from the i n t e r a c t i o n between the v o i c e o f the t e x t a n d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e a d e r h e a r s i t . That i s to say, you m i g h t d i s a g r e e w i t h my e m p h a s e s . 7 . See t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t o p i c e a r l i e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e x p o s i t o r y s e c t i o n o f Douglas G l o v e r ' s "Red" w h i c h d e a l s w i t h Red's previous marriage. 8. I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h M i c h e l F a b r e , G a l l a n t i n d i c a t e s s e n s i t i v i t y to the e f f e c t s of t r a n s l a t i o n :  the  her  When, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e I h a d t o c o r r e c t p r o o f s o f my own w o r k i n F r e n c h . . . , I f o u n d t h a t I was i n t r o d u c i n g g a l l i c i s m s i n t o my w r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h . I s p e a k more F r e n c h t h a n E n g l i s h d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d a y , b u t u n t i l now I h a v e k e p t t h e two l a n g u a g e s s e p a r a t e d i n my m i n d . I was g r e a t l y a l a r m e d , f o r i f i t had c o n t i n u e d I would have been f o r c e d t o l e a v e F r a n c e , a n d t h a t w o u l d h a v e u p s e t me v e r y m u c h . For a t i m e I h a d t o c u t down my r e a d i n g i n F r e n c h . I don't l i k e s h i f t i n g f r o m one l a n g u a g e t o t h e o t h e r . When I am i n t e r v i e w e d , I p r e f e r t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n t o be e n t i r e l y i n E n g l i s h or i n French. ( G a l l a n t a n d F a b r e 95) 9 . I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h G e o f f H a n c o c k , G a l l a n t makes t h e f o l l o w i n g comment on C h r i s t i n e ' s u n u s u a l r e c e p t i v i t y : You see, a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n i t ["The Pegnitz Junction"] i s cut o f f , short c i r c u i t e d . When t h e y o u n g woman h e a r s t h e o l d e r woman t h i n k i n g a b o u t h e r l i f e i n A m e r i c a , she r e a l l y d o e s h e a r h e r t h i n k i n g . She i s n o t i n v e n t i n g o r m a k i n g up s t o r i e s . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t the young woman s e e s when she l o o k s o u t t h e t r a i n w i n d o w , s h e r e a l l y does see. A k i n d of magic, i f you l i k e . To my m i n d , a short c i r c u i t . She r e a l l y d o e s know a l l t h e s e s t o r i e s . She r e a l l y d o e s know what h a p p e n e d t o e v e r y o n e . Someone w o n d e r e d i f she was s c h i z o p h r e n i c . N o . T h e r e i s a German e x p r e s s i o n , "I can hear him t h i n k i n g . " I ' v e always l i k e d that. I c o u l d hear him t h i n k i n g . B e c a u s e one d o e s v e r y often. ( G a l l a n t and H a n c o c k 65)  185 1 0 . D a n i e l l e S c h a u b i n d i c a t e s t h e i r o n y o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n when she p o i n t s o u t t h a t , i n P a r i s , " H e r b e r t f e e l s s o e m b a r r a s s e d a b o u t i t [ t h e war] t h a t he o n l y s p e a k s F r e n c h i n p u b l i c s o a s t o p a s s h i m s e l f o f f as F r e n c h " ( 2 3 9 ) . 11. Other episodes which r e v e a l the Herbert-beneath-the-surface i n c l u d e t h o s e i n v o l v i n g h i s e x - w i f e and h i s m o t h e r . 1 2 . The s p e c i f i c i t y o f " i n F r a n c e " h e r e c a r r i e s a c e r t a i n w e i g h t : f o r C h r i s t i n e , F r a n c e may be m e r e l y a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y , b u t f o r H e r b e r t i t r e m a i n s enemy t e r r i t o r y . 1 3 . See f o r e x a m p l e t h e d i a l o g u e w h i c h f o l l o w s l e t t e r to Ken:  the  intercepted  "Is i t f i n i s h e d ? " s a i d l i t t l e B e r t . "I suppose s o . Though n o t h i n g i s e v e r f i n i s h e d , " s a i d Christine. She h a d b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d b y b o t h t h e s u b s t a n c e and q u a l i t y o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . (84) Or, a page l a t e r , the s e c t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s H e r b e r t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s w i f e ' s departure:  italicized  This f e l l l i k e d i r t y cinders. As i n f o r m a t i o n , i t o f f e r e d n o t h i n g e x c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t H e r b e r t was n o t f a r from the w a i t i n g room. P e r h a p s i t h a d no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i m ; i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r game no one was a l l o w e d a n u n f a i r advantage. I t was o l d a n d t a r n i s h e d s t u f f w h i c h h a d come t o her by e r r o r . (85) 1 4 . So o f c o u r s e d o e s C h r i s t i n e ; h e r " i n t e r f e r e n c e " t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o as " i n f o r m a t i o n . " H e r s , however, i n k i n d , a n d she d o e s n o t p a s s i t a l o n g .  i s a l s o at is different  1 5 . Homi B h a b h a h a s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m i m i c r y a s a strategy for r e b e l l i o n against authority. B h a b h a ' s f o c u s on the c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t does not t r a n s l a t e h e r e , but the i s s u e s o f power, r e b e l l i o n and m i m i c r y d o . See, f o r example, "Of M i m i c r y a n d M a n : The A m b i v a l e n c e o f C o l o n i a l D i s c o u r s e " : Mimicry i s , thus, the s i g n of a double a r t i c u l a t i o n ; a complex s t r a t e g y o f r e f o r m , r e g u l a t i o n , and d i s c i p l i n e , w h i c h " a p p r o p r i a t e s " t h e O t h e r as i t v i s u a l i z e s p o w e r . M i m i c r y i s a l s o the s i g n of the i n a p p r o p r i a t e , however, d i f f e r e n c e or r e c a l c i t r a n c e which coheres the dominant s t r a t e g i c f u n c t i o n o f c o l o n i a l power, i n t e n s i f i e s s u r v e i l l a n c e , a n d p o s e s a n immanent t h r e a t t o b o t h " n o r m a l i z e d " knowledges and d i s c i p l i n a r y p o w e r s . (126)  a  186 1 6 . T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what M i k h a i l B a k h t i n d e s c r i b e s a s one o f t h e means o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g h e t e r o g l o s s i a i n t o a t e x t : " a n i n t r u s i o n o f t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f someone e l s e ' s s p e e c h ( e l l i p s i s , q u e s t i o n s , exclamations)" (319). "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n " i s a p o l y p h o n i c t e x t not merely because i t i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f v o i c e s b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e ways i n w h i c h t h o s e v o i c e s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d , t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y i n t e r s e c t a n d e c h o one another. 1 7 . F o r e x a m p l e , when a v e n d o r p a s s e s o n t h e t r a i n , buys a s o f t d r i n k and then  Christine  saw s h e h a d made a m i s t a k e : H e r b e r t w o u l d n o t l e t l i t t l e B e r t have s o f t d r i n k s , even i n an emergency, because t h e y w e r e b a d f o r t h e t e e t h , a n d o f c o u r s e he w o u l d n o t d r i n k i n front of the t h i r s t y c h i l d . When s h e r e a l i z e d t h i s s h e p u t t h e c a n down o n t h e f l o o r . (25) 1 8 . N o t e t h a t t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s frame t h e n a r r a t i v e , t h e f i r s t o c c u r r i n g very e a r l y on, before the s t a r t of the t r a i n journey, and t h e second c l o s e t o t h e end o f t h e s t o r y . Christine's impugnment o f t h e c o n d u c t o r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e she u n d e r t a k e s i t o n b e h a l f o f a g r o u p - - l i t t l e B e r t a n d t h e women i n the s t a t i o n w a i t i n g r o o m - - i n a passage r e d o l e n t o f i n t i m i d a t i o n ( " p a n i c , " " f r i g h t , " "power," " a u t h o r i t y , " " t e s t i f y , " " s c a r i n g , " " f r i g h t e n e d , " " i l l w i t h t e r r o r , " "escape" [80-81]). 19.  See B a k h t i n o n i n c o r p o r a t e d g e n r e s a n d h e t e r o g l o s s i a  (320) .  2 0 . T h a t a woman, a n d a y o u n g woman a t t h a t , s h o u l d s e r v e a s t h e f i g u r e f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o o p p r e s s i o n may n o t be e n t i r e l y accidental. I n t h e Hancock i n t e r v i e w , G a l l a n t has t h i s t o s a y : We h a d no way o f k n o w i n g t h e n o r f o r a l o n g t i m e t h a t t h e r e h a d e v e r b e e n a n y German r e s i s t a n c e . I f the Resistance i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s has sometimes been i n f l a t e d o u t o f a l l h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , t h e German r e s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n p l a y e d down. I f y o u want t o l e a r n a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t y o u h a v e t o take t r o u b l e , search out the books--very few--and t r y t o f i n d w i t n e s s e s , f i r s t hand a c c o u n t s . A s k p e o p l e i n Canada, t o d a y , i f t h e y have e v e r h e a r d o f S o p h i e S c h o l l , d e c a p i t a t e d at nineteen f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g a n t i - N a z i t r a c t s at the u n i v e r s i t y i n M u n i c h . H e r b r o t h e r , a g e d 2 1 , was b e h e a d e d too. Of c o u r s e , we d i d n ' t know t h a t . (40) 2 1 . Schaub does c o n t e n d , however, t h a t C h r i s t i n e undergoes a t t h e end o f t h e n a r r a t i v e a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t s i g n a l s an o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k on t h e f u t u r e . In a curiously contradictory i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Schaub c l a i m s t h a t C h r i s t i n e " d e c i d e s t o s t o p p r e t e n d i n g " a n d t h a t " s h e s t a r t s acting as a real mother would"  187 (244; emphasis a d d e d ) . C h r i s t i n e ignores the a r r i v a l of the t r a i n i n a move away f r o m s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n a n d t o w a r d independence. F o r a more c o n v i n c i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e s t o r y ' s f i n a l pages, see Hatch (103). 2 2 . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , H e r b e r t L e e t ' s r e v i e w o f The Other Paris: " t h e r e i s a w i s t f u l , humorous q u a l i t y i n t h e s e s i m p l e t a l e s o f how a y o u n g A m e r i c a n g i r l became d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h P a r i s . . . " (Leet 8 3 2 ) . J a n i c e K u l y k K e e f e r quotes a l a t e r fragment o f t h e same r e v i e w , i n w h i c h L e e t c o n c l u d e s : " E n j o y m e n t i s l i m i t e d t o feminine s p e c i a l readers i n l a r g e r p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s " (Kulyk Keefer 155). 2 3 . R e c e p t i o n t h e o r i s t W o l f g a n g I s e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e gap ( t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n , the hiatus) i s v i t a l to the n a r r a t i v e : "Indeed, i t i s only through i n e v i t a b l e omissions that a story w i l l g a i n i t s dynamism. T h u s w h e n e v e r t h e f l o w i s i n t e r r u p t e d a n d we a r e l e d o f f i n unexpected d i r e c t i o n s , the o p p o r t u n i t y i s g i v e n t o us t o b r i n g i n t o p l a y o u r own f a c u l t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n n e c t i o n s - - f o r f i l l i n g i n t h e gaps l e f t b y t h e t e x t i t s e l f " ( 2 1 6 ) . 24. F a b r e u n d e r l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f gaps i n M a v i s s h o r t s t o r i e s a n d r e l a t e s them t o n a r r a t i v e v o i c e :  Gallant's  Or, M a v i s G a l l a n t , p a r son r e c o u r s r e p e t e a 1 ' e l l i p s e ou a l a l i t o t e , s e m b l e r e f u s e r 1 ' i m p l i c a t i o n de 1 ' a u t e u r / n a r r a t e u r q u i s ' e f f a c e b i e n p l u s q u ' i l ne s e l a i s s e e n t r e v o i r d a n s l a p l u p a r t de s e s n o u v e l l e s . E t , p a r a d o x a l e m e n t , c ' e s t l o r s q u ' i l semble se m a n i f e s t e r l e p l u s o u v e r t e m e n t que l e n a r r a t e u r s e t r o u v e l e p l u s l o i n de l a v o i x , q u ' i l p r e n d l e m o i n s e n c h a r g e l a v i s i o n p r o f o n d e de 1'auteur. (60)  2 5 . I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d ' s " A t t h e B a y , " W. H . New e x p l o r e s v a r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e x t u a l g a p s a n d s i l e n c e s ; h e r e he c o n s i d e r s t h e p a r a d o x i c a l way i n w h i c h s p e e c h a n d s i l e n c e - - p r e s e n c e a n d a b s e n c e - - i m p l i c a t e one a n o t h e r : Repeatedly, the s t o r y asks not j u s t t h a t the reader l i s t e n t o s o u n d s , b u t t h a t t h e r e a d e r mark how s o u n d s b r e a k d u r a t i o n s o f s i l e n c e : s o u n d , t h a t i s , makes u s aware n o t j u s t of i t s e l f but also of the expressiveness of s i l e n c e , of t h e presence of silence. Hence s p e e c h makes u s a w a r e o f t h e u n s a i d , a n d a c t i o n o f what h a s n o t t a k e n p l a c e : t h e e f f e c t of the form i s o b l i q u e , drawing a t t e n t i o n t o a p r e s e n t otner...." (213)  188 26. I s e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f sequent sentences, each o f w h i c h modifies the expectations created by i t s precedent, approaches B a k h t i n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f sequent words: "every word i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a n answer a n d c a n n o t e s c a p e t h e p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e answering word t h a t i t a n t i c i p a t e s " (280). 27. "The a r t i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e t e x t c r e a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r , and the a e s t h e t i c t o the r e a l i z a t i o n accomplished by the reader" (212) . 28.  E d s . Stone et a l .  2 9 . I s e r ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f J a n e A u s t e n comes t o m i n d h e r e - - h e notes the s i g n i f i c a n c e of "the u n w r i t t e n aspects of apparently t r i v i a l scenes" (213). 30. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the meaning o f such terms "real" i s utterly relative.  as " t r u t h " and  3 1 . " I n between" h e r e i m p l i e s a t e m p o r a l as w e l l as a s p a t i a l c o m p o n e n t : t h e p r i m e v o i c e may be t h a t w h i c h i s h e a r d i n t h e space w h i c h f o l l o w s the end o f a paragraph, o r i n t h e t e m p o r a l s p a c e w h i c h b e g i n s where a r e a d e r s t o p s r e a d i n g a n d e n d s when s h e resumes. 3 2 . "I cooked fresh chicken soup, pea soup with bacon, my own goulash soup, hot beer soup, soup with dumplings, soup with rice, soup with noodles, prepared my own cabbage in brine, made fresh celery salad, potato salad our way, potato dumplings, duck with red cabbage, cod with onions, plum dumplings, horseradish salad, sweet and sour pork our way, goose giblets with turnips" ( 2 4 ) . 3 3 . "Never a disagreement. Never an angry word. good food and family loyalty" (24). "Nobody was ever as close (25) .  as we were....  Nothing  Never a cross  but  answer"  3 4 . T h i s i s one o f many p o s s i b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f a p r i m e v o i c e - my p r i m e v o i c e a t t h i s r e a d i n g . Different readers w i l l f e e l v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s y m p a t h y ( o r none) f o r M r s . S c h n e i d e r , d e p e n d i n g on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e prime v o i c e opposes h e r account.  189  CONCLUSION: SUMMARIES AND P O S S I B I L I T I E S  This thesis  investigates  recent Canadian short  the  stories.  f u n c t i o n o f v o i c e i n some  The t e n s i o n  i n Leon Rooke's  "Shut Up" a r i s e s  m a i n l y from the  opposing v o i c e s ,  t h o s e o f G o r d o n and h i s w i f e .  v o i c e dominates  the  story,  c o n f l i c t between  though,  s u c h k e y f e a t u r e s as r e p e t i t i o n  and the  qualities.  of  and t h e n a r r a t o r  postures,  narrating  into question  dominant v o i c e i s t h a t of F l o , the n a r r a t o r ,  c h a r a c t e r s and d i f f e r e n t Attempts  fragmented other  rather  voices within i t s e l f ,  Mavis G a l l a n t ' s narrative,  a story  voices t e l l i n g other  protagonist, disappear themselves  Christine,  and l e a v e h e r constitute  constantly  f o r the  i n peace,  a vital  but  the  Flo's voice  i n "Dog than  the v o i c e of own r o l e s  although  and a  by  the  "interference" interrupting  the  is  interrupted  p a r t of the  act  the  "The P e g n i t z J u n c t i o n "  stories,  longs  the  different  appears t o s e p a r a t e and d i v i d e i t s  identities.  but  kinds of d i s c o u r s e ) ;  t o Drown Man i n S a s k a t o o n , "  accommodating o t h e r narrator  (those of  are  different  In Douglas G l o v e r ' s "Red,"  d r a w s o n an a s s o r t m e n t o f v o i c e s  the  "Unfinished"  adopts s e v e r a l  some o f w h i c h c a l l  itself.  reveal  distinctive  The v o i c e s o f T e r r y G r i g g s '  more n u m e r o u s , narrative  its  Gordon's  examination of  and s u r p r i s e  means b y w h i c h t h a t v o i c e a c h i e v e s  two  to stories  narrative.  190 Voice i n f i c t i o n because  it  is difficult  is less a thing,  perhaps  a n e n t i t y o f some k i n d ,  range of t h i n g s - - a p r o c e s s perhaps, experiences.  to define,  I t may be h e l p f u l  than a  or a series of  t o c o n s i d e r what k i n d s o f  i s s u e s a r e w o r t h n o t i n g when one c o n s i d e r s n a r r a t i v e what a s p e c t s audible.  of a text  First,  characters: character, text  setting i t  idiom,  it  more  from  language of a  o f f from the o t h e r languages o f  i t often encapsulates  characteristics;  difference  d i a l o g u e o r any d i r e c t speech  d i r e c t speech i s o l a t e s the  so t h a t  diction,  one m i g h t e x p l o r e t o r e n d e r  voice,  c e r t a i n ideas  the  or  c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to such matters  as  s y n t a x a n d r h y t h m may r e v e a l n o t o n l y  b e t w e e n one c h a r a c t e r ' s  the  speech and a n o t h e r ' s  but  a l s o the range o f l a n g u a g e s encompassed i n the  speech of a  character,  other  characters  whether those (so t h a t  the  languages d e r i v e from  i n t e r a c t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f  v o i c e m i g h t be s i g n i f i c a n t ) o r v a r i o u s k i n d s o f d i s c o u r s e ( f o r example academic, languages). of  colloquial,  scientific,  The p l a c e m e n t a n d f u n c t i o n  or  of n o n - d i r e c t  c h a r a c t e r - s p e e c h may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d ( t h a t  which i s not marked t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h dashes, marks,  or other  such i n d i c e s ) ;  i n free  the n a r r a t o r ' s  speech  quotation  i s not always  Then t h e r e a r e t h e v o i c e s o f t h e n a r r a t o r .  n a r r a t o r may be more o r l e s s speech,  is,  forms  indirect discourse,  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between s p e e c h and t h o u g h t clear.  childlike  i n t r u s i v e ; as w i t h  The  character-  v o i c e may draw on a v a r i e t y o f  languages, sections  a n d may s o u n d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  of a s t o r y .  narration, points of  In the  i t may be u s e f u l  case of a  in  third-person  t o examine the d i f f e r e n c e s  of convergence between the n a r r a t o r ' s  the p r o t a g o n i s t  (or those  first-person narration, "I"-character(s) clarify  the  different  of other  and  v o i c e and  characters).  that  In  c o n c e i v i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n between  and the  "I"-narrator(s)  assorted v o i c e s of the  often helps  the  to  "I".  Rather than a t t e m p t i n g t o say something c o n c i s e , definitive,  and c o n c l u s i v e about v o i c e - - w h i c h i s  not p o s s i b l e ,  g i v e n the  range  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s - - ! would l i k e and q u e s t i o n s research  for this  questions present  for further study,  of i t s  functions  to suggest  and  some p o s s i b i l i t i e s  exploration.  In the  I became i n t e r e s t e d  I d i d not have t h e  probably  c o u r s e o f my  i n a number o f  opportunity to address.  some o f them h e r e as a n i n d i c a t i o n o f some o f  areas i n which v o i c e - c e n t r e d reading s t r a t e g i e s  might  I  will  the prove  helpful.  One i s s u e has  i n p a r t i c u l a r that  requires  closer examination  t o do w i t h t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e v o i c e :  accommodates  a narratee.  While t h i s  what Seymour Chatman r e f e r s communication, reader,  the  audience,  t o as  s t u d y has  "the  how i t  addressed  s e n d i n g end" o f  "receiving end"--that  is,  a d d r e s s e e a n d n a r r a t e e as  the  the  r o l e s of  textual  192 functions its  and as p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the reading  r e l a t i o n to n a r r a t i v e voices deserve  At times,  as i n T e r r y G r i g g s '  invoked e x p l i c i t l y how,  then,  does  both the reader apparently address "dear  and the c h a r a c t e r  the narratee  references  to  is  "you":  t o whom t h e s t o r y  And i n t e x t s  anyone i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  w h i c h do n o t  i s a narratee nonetheless  Gender i s another  is  explicitly  w h e r e t h e r e i s no " y o u , " no  s o b y what s p e c i f i c means a n d w i t h what  significant  attention.  t h a t pronoun operate i n i t s d e s i g n a t i o n o f  addressed?  reader,"  greater  "Unfinished,"  through repeated  process--and  addressed, effect?  issue which r e l a t e s  and t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g ways.  and i f  to voice i n  Why i s i t t h a t  so  few C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s e m p l o y b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e v o i c e s t o any g r e a t e x t e n t ? exclusively,  I t seems t h a t most men c r e a t e ,  m a l e v o i c e s , a n d women, f e m a l e v o i c e s  Rooke a n d D o u g l a s G l o v e r a r e n o t a b l e be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e s t r u c t u r a l i s t those  exceptions). methodologies  e m p l o y e d i n H e l m u t B o n h e i m ' s The Narrative  brought  to bear  the b a s i s  almost  on t h i s q u e s t i o n ;  (Leon It  would  similar  to  Modes  such a study might  form  o f an i n t e r r o g a t i o n i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  gendered v o i c e s . Furthermore,  gender  studies  might seek  to  i n v e s t i g a t e gay and l e s b i a n v o i c e s i n f i c t i o n by heterosexual writers Lives"),  ( s u c h a s G l o v e r ' s "Woman G o r e d b y B i s o n  or heterosexual  v o i c e s c r e a t e d by gay and l e s b i a n  w r i t e r s - - ! am t h i n k i n g o f a n a r t i c l e b y E m i l y S . A p t e r  193 entitled  "Female I m p e r s o n a t i o n s :  i n G i d e ' s L'Ecole fascinating voice.  des Femmes, Robert,  the s e c t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n  examines the performance model f o r o t h e r  o f gender  considerations  o f gender performance  I would l i k e  the n o t i o n of a prime v o i c e suggested Mavis G a l l a n t .  perspective  that  to refer  i n the c h a p t e r on  i n the text.  the reading process  to allow entrance  process  reader-  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s only problematic i f the prime I would suggest  as i t p e r t a i n s  t o c r e a t e a space  to the aberrant for reading  t o v o i c e . The  image i n t h a t  trope,  the  v o i c e i n what  Showalter c a l l s a "double-voiced discourse" to  it  aberrant  (or l i s t e n i n g )  I n the language of f e m i n i s t theory,  of a l l o w i n g the "other"  that  a n d one w h i c h may  prime v o i c e i s a vaguely d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t  the g r a i n .  difficulty  of prime v o i c e w i t h a  the prime v o i c e i s a r e a d e r ' s c o n s t r u c t , illustrate  once a g a i n t o  such as t h a t a r t i c u l a t e d by Wolfgang  v o i c e i s seen t o i n h e r e  voice,  in  i s s u e o f v o i c e and  A l t h o u g h some r e a d e r s may h a v e  r e c o n c i l i n g the concept  seeks  which  i n " R e d " may p r o v i d e a  with regard to the broader  voice-centred readings,  Iser,  a  fiction.  Finally,  response  a n d Genevieve,"  e x p l o r a t i o n o f g e n d e r - c o d i n g and n a r r a t i v e  Also,  Canadian  Gender and N a r r a t i v e V o i c e  against  i t i s the Elaine speak.  194 WORKS CITED Alexander, Lloyd. " A Manner o f the Narrator in Children's Writers and Critics. Eds. D. S c h m i d t . Contributions L i t e r a t u r e S e r i e s 2 8 . New 131.  Speaking." The Voice of Literature: Insights from C h a r l o t t e F . O t t e n and Gary to the Study of World Y o r k : Greenwood, 1989. 123-  A p t e r , E m i l y S. "Female I m p e r s o n a t i o n s : Gender and N a r r a t i v e V o i c e i n G i d e ' s L'Ecole des Femmes, Robert a n d Genevieve." Romanic Review 7 7 . 3 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 2 6 4 - 7 8 . Arnason, David. "The H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Short S t o r y . " RANAM (Recherches Anglaises et Americaines) 16 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 1 5 9 - 1 6 4 .  Canadian  A u c h i n c l o s s , E v e . "Good H o u s e k e e p i n g . 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