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Information systems planning in a charitable organization Ferguson, Steven Brent 1994

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING IN A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONbySTEVEN BRENT FERGUSONB.Comm., Carleton University, 1990A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCE in BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESTHE FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(Management Information Systems Program)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJuly 1994Steven Brent Ferguson, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(SignDepartment of_________________The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate I /DE.6 (2J88)ABSTRACTThe thrust of this thesis is a practical one, namely, how to do information systemsplanning in a small charitable organization. There are two relevant bodies of literature to beconsidered. The first is the Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) literature. Thetraditional methodologies recommended in this literature tend to be driven by business objectivesmoving from the identification of information requirements to the selection of supportinginformation technology (IT). The second body of literature, Business Process Reengineering(BPR), is growing rapidly, at least in part because it seeks to counter the criticism that theapplication of IT in organizations has in the past failed to deliver productivity gains. The BPRapproach views IT as enabling the removal of constraints that are the result of out-datedorganizational processes. Upon reviewing the SISP and BPR literature, it became apparent thatboth lacked the necessary operational specifics for straight forward application in the settingbeing studied. In particular, it was not clear how to integrate the process focused BPR and themore functional SISP methodologies, or how either could be applied in a charitable organization.The contributions to be made by this thesis include a description of an IS planning project donewith the B.C. and Yukon Division of the Canadian Cancer Society, and a discussion of aproposed integrated approach called Organizational Information Systems Planning (OISP).— 11 —TABLE OF CONTENTS (Summary)ABSTRACT- ii -TABLE OF CONTENTS- iii -LIST OF TABLES- vii -LIST OFFIGURES-viii-1. INTRODUCTION- 1 -1.1 MOTIVATION1.2 BACKGROUND. .- 1-1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS-2-1.4 CONTRIBUTION-3-1.5 ORGANIZATION-3-2. LITERATURE REVIEW-5-2.1 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING -5-2.2 BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING- 15-3. CASE STUDY-22-3.1 INTRODUCTION-22-3.2 ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW -24-3.3 IS PLANNING APPROACH -40-3.4 FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS-63-4.THEORY-65-4.1 INTEGRATION OF SISP & BPR -65-4.2 OISP IN A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATION -79-4.3 OISP & THE CCS -82-4.4 THEORY SUMMARY-88-5. CONCLUSIONS-90-5.1 SUMMARY- 90 -5.2 CASE STUDY & THEORY LINKAGES -90-5.3 SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES -92-5.4 LIMITATIONS-93 -5.5 FUTURE DIRECTIONS -94-BIBLIOGRAPHY-95-APPENDICES-98-— 111 —TABLE OF CONTENTS (Detailed)—11——111—-vii--viii-1. INTRODUCTION1.1 MOTiVATION1.2 BACKGROUND1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS1.4 CONTRIBUTION1.5 ORGANIZATION3. CASE STUDY3.1 INTRODUCTION3.1.1 Project Objectives3.1.2 Overall Approach3.1.3 Terminology3.1.4 Report Layout—1——1——1—-2--3--3--5-PLANNING -5-.-7-.-8-— 11 —- 14 -- 15 -- 15 -- 16 -- 16 -- 17 -- 17 -- 18 -- 20 --22--22--22--22--23--24-ABSTRACTTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURES2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS2.1.1 Importance2.1.2 Definition2.1.3 Objectives2.1.4 Benefits2.1.5 Preconditions2.1.6 Components2.1.7 Contents2.1.8 Approaches2.1.9 Methodology2.1.10 Management2.2 BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING2.2.1 Importance2.2.2 Definition2.2.3 Processes2.2.4 Motivation2.2.5 Approaches2.2.6 Methodology2.2.7 Management- iv -• -24-• -24-• -27--28--28--29--29--30--30--31--31--32--32--33--34--34--35--36--37--39--40--40--41--42--44--49--56--57--58--61--62--63-3.2 ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW3.2.1 Mission & Priorities3.2.2 Structure & Supporting Systems3.2.2.1 Financial Development3.2.2.2 Patient Services3.2.2.3 Lodges3.2.2.4 Public Education3.2.2.5 Public Relations3.2.2.6 Human Resources3.2.2.7 Administrative Services3.2.2.8 Financial Services3.2.2.9 Computer Services .3.2.2.10 District Services3.2.2.11 District Offices3.2.2.12 Unit Offices3.2.3 Challenges3.2.3.1 Environmental Changes3.2.3.2 Organizational Issues3.2.3.3 IS Issues3.2.4 Overview Summary3.3 IS PLANNING APPROACH3.3.1 Guiding Principles3.3.2 Sample Analysis3.3.2.1 Objectives & Organization3.3.2.2 Information Requirements3.3.2.3 IS Infrastructure3.3.2.4 Analysis Discussion .3.3.3 Organizational Implications .3.3.3.1 Planning Priorities3.3.3.2 Reengineering Potential3.3.4 Planning Summary3.4 FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS4. THEORY4.1 INTEGRATION OF SISP & BPR4.1.1 Base Models4.1.2 Organizational Model4.1.3 Analysis of SISP & BPR4.1.4 The OISP Approach4.1.5 Applying OISP4.2 OISP IN A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATION4.2.1 Dimensions4.2.2 Implications-65--65--68--71--73-- 77 --79--79-• -81-4.3 OISP & THE CCS.4.3.1 Promoters & Inhibitors.4.3.2 Ties to Planning Priorities4.3.3 Links to Reengineering4.4 THEORY SUM11ARY5. CONCLUSIONS5.1 SUMIV[ARY5.2 CASE STUDY & THEORY LINKAGES....5.3 SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES5.4 LIMITATIONS5.5 FUTURE DIRECTIONSBIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDIX A: Program & District ObjectivesAPPENDIX B: Organization Chart & Committee OverlayAPPENDIX C: Division Office SystemsAPPENDIX D: Data Processing Philosophy (1984)APPENDIX E: Equipment Acquisition Policy (Sept. 1993)APPENDIX F: Background for IS ChallengesAPPENDIX G: Client-Server Computing- 82 -- 82 -• -83--84--88-• -90--90-• -90-• -92--93--94--95--98-- 102 -- 107 -- 116 -- 118 -- 121 -- 123 -- vi -LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Organizational Unit Involvement in Objective Achievement- 42 -Table 2: Description of Information Classes- 44 -Table 3: Importance of Information Class to Objective Achievement- 45 -Table 4: Creation and Use of Information by Organizational Unit- 47 -Table 5: Existing Custom Applications in each Information Class- 49 -Table 6: Custom Application Support for Organizational Objectives- 50 -Table 7: Custom Application Support for Organizational Units- 51 -Table 8: Existing Packaged Applications in each Application Category- 52 -Table 9: Typical Uses for Software in each Application Category- 52 -Table 10: Packaged Application Support for Organizational Objectives- 53 -Table 11: Packaged Application Support for Organizational Units - 54 -Table 12: Description of Organizational Components & Elements- 68 -Table 13: Summary of SISP and BPR approaches- 71 -Table 14: Strengths and Weaknesses of SISP and BRP approaches - 71 -Table 15: Principles Selected from SISP & BPR approaches- 72 -Table 16: Examples of Principles in Practice- 73 -Table 17: Summary of the OISP Approach- 74 -Table 18: Fundamental OISP Actions after Adoption- 76 -Table 19: Possible Initial Definitions- 84 -Table 20: Example Performance Measures- 84 -Table 21: Sample Ranking Criteria- 85 -- vii -LIST OF HGIJRESFigure 1: Summary of Revenues & Expenditures- 25 -Figure 2: Partial Organization Chart- 26 -Figure 3: Summary of Organizational Objectives- 41 -Figure 4: Common & Specific Information Classes- 45 -Figure 5: Barrett’s Process Visualization Hierarchy- 65 -Figure 6: Hammer’s Business System Diamond- 66 -Figure 7: Simple Organizational Model- 67 -Figure 8: B.C. & Yukon Division Activity Diagram- 85 -- yin -1. INTRODUCTION1.1 MOTIVATIONThe impetus for this thesis came from a project request made by the B.C. and YukonDivision of the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) to assess its information systems (IS) needs.The project was defined to include a review of the Division’s current systems and procedures,and an evaluation of the applicability of recent information technology (IT) advances. Thisrequest provided an excellent opportunity to gain a better understanding of IS planning in acharitable organization. Of particular interest was the potential to determine how the differencesbetween a charitable organization and a typical business enterprise affect the planning process.The project was entered into with dual goals in mind. The first goal was to provide the B.C.and Yukon Division of the CCS with realistic IS planning recommendations. The second goalwas to use the project as the basis for a more theoretical investigation of the implications for ISplanning of being a charity.1.2 BACKGROUNDA review of the relevant academic and professional IS literature was done in preparationfor the project. It was clear that a segment of the traditional IS planning literature commonlyreferred to as Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) should be examined. Althoughthere are a number of distinct SISP approaches, most tend to emphasize identifying applicationsand architectures that the organization should adopt. A growing body of literature that takes asomewhat broader organizational perspective is Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Whilegiven many different names such as Process Innovation or Critical Process Redesign by variousauthors, this more recent thinking focuses on improving organizational processes by eliminating—1—outdated rules and unnecessary organizational boundaries. It was decided that these two sets ofliterature together would provide a sufficient theoretical background for the project.While working with the CCS, it became apparent that the existing SISP and BPRmethodologies are difficult to combine, and not well suited for this specific organizationalsetting. It was not entirely clear how the project should be conducted, or even how to start.As a result, the methods used and the steps taken were decided upon as the project progressed.The initial phase of the project entailed documenting the Division’s objectives, structure, andchallenges. Although similar actions are frequently taken as a first step in many SISPapproaches, they are not always an acknowledged part of BPR methodologies. The rest of theproject focused on the development of a simplified planning approach that was used to analyzethe information gathered during the initial phase in order to generate planning priorities. Whilesome ideas were used from both SISP and BPR, it was discovered that it was much easier tochoose one or the other as a base, which in this case turned out to be the more traditional SISP.1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe project served to raise a number of important questions about SISP and BPR, theanswers to which could not be found in the existing literature. The two key research questionsthat are addressed in this thesis are:1) How can SISP and BPR be integrated?2) How would such an integrated approach be applied in a charitable organization?While the work done for the B.C. and Yukon Division of the CCS did not deal with thesequestions specifically, the experience has provided invaluable insights. Attempting to employ-2-both SISP and BPR concepts in the same project facilitated the evolution of the idea of using theunderlying assumptions of each as a means of linking their methodologies. Moreover, the in-depth knowledge gained about the operations of the CCS helped guide the adaptation of acombined SISP and BPR approach for use in a charitable organization. Responding to these twoquestions should also contribute to the understanding of how SISP, BPR or an integratedapproach can best be applied in other types of organizations.1.4 CONTRIBUTIONThe ideas presented in this thesis about integrating SISP and BPR and applying this newapproach in a charitable organization are of significant value to both academics and practitioners.The two sets of literature around SISP and BPR are currently unconnected, yet there is anobvious need to explore the relationships between their central tenets. Clearly, academics in theMIS domain will benefit from increased knowledge about how key notions from SISP and BPRcan be combined and applied in a real world setting. The majority of the literature to date tendsto discuss the SISP and BPR approaches in the context of large for-profit corporations. Intoday’s world, however, small enterprises play a key role in the economy, and non-profitorganizations are increasingly important for community health. The professionals that managethese organizations need practical advice on how to do IS planning, and both the theoreticalwork and the recommendations made to the CCS are of value in that regard.1.5 ORGANIZATIONThe remainder of this thesis is organized into six principle sections, namely, LiteratureReview, Case Study, Theory, Conclusions, Bibliography, and Appendices. The LiteratureReview section summarizes the relevant SISP and BPR literature. The Case Study section-3-contains the text of the main body of the final project report presented to the B.C. and YukonDivision of the CCS. In the Theory section, an organizational model is used to integrate SISPand BPR concepts, and the resulting Organizational Information Systems Planning (OISP)approach is discussed in the context of charities and the CCS. The Conclusion sectionsummarizes the results of the Case Study and Theory work, discusses limitations of the OISPapproach, and suggests future research directions. This is followed by the Bibliography, andfinally by Appendices that support the Case Study.-4-2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLA?NING2.1.1 ImportanceInformation systems (IS) executives and practitioners consider IS planning to be criticalto managing information technology (IT) in today’s dynamic and uncertain environment (Conrathet. al. 1992, Earl 1993, Tayntor 1993). Advances in IT have presented IS managers with a vastarray of opportunities to induce significant productivity gains by fundamentally altering the wayan organization operates. However, failure to develop sound, strategic IS plans can result notonly in lost opportunities but also in wasted IS resources (Lederer & Sethi 1992). Unless keydecision makers internalize the necessity for rational planning, and determine just how IS andthe related technological components can contribute to organizational outcomes, strategicinvestments are seldom made. Given the limited resources available in many organizationstoday, an all-encompassing planning initiative may not be feasible, yet not taking any action mayput important organizational objectives at risk and can lead to an erosion of the IS asset base(Atkinson, 1992(a)). Therefore, engaging in meaningful strategic IS planning is essential tolong-term organizational competitiveness.2.1.2 DefinitionA classic way of thinking about planning is the pyramid of strategic, tactical andoperational planning, where strategic planning is associated with long-term forecasts, tacticalwith short-term objectives, and operational with implementation strategies. Strategic planningprovides the basis for the development of the tactical and operational plans. Strategic ISplanning (SISP) has been commonly been defined as the process of identifying a portfolio of-5-computer-based applications that will assist an organization in executing its business plans andrealizing its business goals (Lederer & Sethi 1992, Lederer & Gardiner 1992). More recently,Earl (1993) has defined SISP as “the process of deciding on objectives for organizationalcomputing and identifying potential computer applications which an organization shouldimplement.” Earl’s definition is somewhat broader thereby allowing for the inclusion ofapproaches to SISP that are not driven by business goals. This is not to say that generalorganizational goals are not important in these approaches, but it is a reflection of the emphasisplaced on objectives.2.1.3 ObjectivesPrior to undertaking an SISP initiative it is essential that the organization first determinethe root motivation and define the bottom-line benefits expected. The stakeholders in the processmust be clear on the decisions they want to be able to make as a result of engaging in SISP(Atkinson 199 1(a)). In this light, it has been suggested that SISP should facilitate thedevelopment of an information systems strategy, an information management strategy, and aninformation technology strategy (Earl 1993). Further, the literature recommends the followingSISP objectives: aligning IS investment with business goals; seeking competitive advantage fromIT; directing efficient and effective management of IS resources; developing technology policiesand architectures; and gaining top management commitment. The challenge for the SISP teamis to demonstrate how IS and the related technologies can make the greatest contribution to theeffective and efficient operation of the organization.-6-2.1.4 BenefitsSISP gives IS managers the opportunity to identify broad initiatives, specific applications,and critical technologies to help their organizations carry out its strategies (Lederer & Gardiner1992). It also offers managers the means to identify ways in which IS can be used to create newstrategies, and the chance to develop a vision of the future of IT in the organization. Byaligning IS and organizational needs, SISP facilitates the sharing of resources and data acrossthe organization, which often leads to improved communication, understanding and supportamong top management, users and IS professionals (Conrath et. al. 1992, Earl 1993, Flaattenet. al. 1992). Meeting SISP objectives and obtaining the resulting benefits requires that certainpreconditions are met, that all components be addressed, and that an appropriate approach andmethodology be selected.2.1.5 PreconditionsThe motivation for an SISP initiative must be shared by a broad enough and powerfulenough constituency of stalceholders to provide the process with sufficient direction, resourcesand ongoing support. Obtaining the necessary commitment can be ensured through theformation of a formal management steering committee to oversee the initiative, and amultidisciplinary team that includes members from all key areas of the organization (Atkinson1992(a)). Involvement of top management, users, and IS personnel alone are not sufficient toensure the success of SISP. Additional factors that facilitate the process include the existenceof clear organizational goals, effective IS management, good IS-user relationships, and sufficientresources (Earl 1993, Tayntor 1993). More importantly, continual communication is essentialto transforming a written plan into reality. Effective SISP requires that the organization followa well-defined process that allows for completion of initiatives within established time frames.-7-2.1.6 ComponentsThe SISP literature tends to emphasize the methodological component of planning.However, a recent empirical study by Earl (1993) suggests that there are three equally importantingredients for successful SISP, namely, method, process and implementation. Method includesthe methodology employed and the supporting techniques and tools. Process refers to moregeneral management related issues from project initiation and methodology selection through tocompletion. Implementation is the detailed follow-up on the strategies developed using thechosen methodology. In the past, the literature and strategic plans themselves have focused onthe technical aspects of IS such as hardware and software. A customer focus is widelyrecognized as important in organizational planning efforts, yet it has been slow in coming to theSISP field (Tayntor 1993). With a customer-centric approach, the impetus for change wouldcome from end users, where information requirements are determined first followed by theselection of the supporting hardware and software. Tayntor (1993) argues that this meansplanning should begin with the user interface rather than with the computing platform, whichhas been the traditional starting point for planning projects.2.1.7 ContentsBefore starting the actual planning process, the organization should define the desiredcontents of the strategic IS plan based on its own unique needs. Conrath et. al. (1992) suggeststhat the plan should include a statement of objectives, hardware plan, recommendedimplementation plan, systems development plan, financial plan, personnel plan, and facilitiesplan. Similarly, Lederer and Gardiner (1992) believe that the plan should define newapplications, specify data bases, describe the network of hardware and software, estimateresource requirements, set priorities, and establish a migration plan. Atkinson (1992(a)) also-8-advises that the pian components include an information technology scan, a current IS portfoliodescription and evaluation, IS strategies, target data, applications and technology architectures,and a transition plan based on all of these.Two components that should be included in every large organization’s plan are aninfrastructure plan and an information technology impact assessment. Infrastructure plansinclude plans for the development environment, the production environment and for personnel.Poor infrastructure planning can result in high maintenance workloads that lead tounresponsiveness. Further, the accumulation of disparate hardware and software may causeduplication of effort, and make development personnel less interchangeable (Flaatten et. al.1992). The purpose of an IT impact assessment is to assess the potential of IT to enhanceexisting organizational outputs, create new products and services, and streamline orfundamentally reengineer internal operations. A well formulated and complete strategic IS planwill drive the IS operating budget and provide the supporting management rationale (Atkinson& Montgomery 1990).2.1.8 ApproachesSome organizations choose to adopt one of the numerous popular approaches to SISP,while others adapt an existing approach to their needs or simply develop their own. Fiaatten et.al. (1992) have suggested four categories of approaches to SISP. The first, which they callApplication Portfolio Planning, represents the most traditional approach to systems planning.It entails reviewing the current state of the information systems, locating the greatest needs andopportunities, analyzing costs and benefits, and ranking projects by some priority scheme. In-9-.such an approach, little thought is generally given to the integration of projects, which is aproblem that the other classes of approaches attempt to resolve in different ways.The second approach, Enterprise Modelling, involves analyzing current businessprocesses and the data they use, and proposing new systems around clusters of shared data. Theadvantages of this type of approach are better integration and more stability, but thedisadvantages are that it takes longer and that it is often difficult to get top managementcommitment for developing a base architecture. Flaatten et. al. suggest that this is the mostpopular approach today, and gives IBM’s Business Systems Planning (BSP) as an example ofa methodology that follows this approach. The third approach in the Flaatten et. al.classification is technology Infrastructure Planning. It concentrates on the resources requiredto implement and run applications including IS personnel, hardware and software, developmenttools, and telecommunications networks. They point out that Infrastructure Planning is also usedto support other approaches. The final class of approaches suggested by Flaatten et. al. attemptsto link business and technology strategies. They argue that this approach came about as a resultof the analysis tools developed by Michael Porter that are intended to help an organization createa competitive advantage.Another SISP approach classification scheme has been developed by Earl (1993). Hisscheme differentiates five approaches based on what he calls their underpinning assumptionsincluding Business-Led, Method-Driven, Administrative, Technological and Organizational.Under the Business-Led approach, business planning drives SISP. The Method-Driven approachis dependent upon the use of a formal methodology, the Administrative approach conforms tomanagement planning and control procedures, and the Technological approach assumes that an- 10 -information system-oriented model of the business is a necessary outcome of SISP. These fourapproaches were represented in the Flaatten et. al. framework, however, Earl’s organizationalapproach is not covered by Flaatten et. al. or generally recognized in the SISP literature. Theunderpinning assumption of the Organizational approach is quite different. It is that SISP is nota special or neat and tidy endeavour, but is based on IS decisions being made through continuousinteraction between the IS function and the organization.2.1.9 MethodologyA pioneer in the SISP field, King (1978), developed an organization strategy drivenmethodology that served as the basis for many of the methods available today. His methodologyfocused on translating the organization’s mission, objectives and strategy into system objectives,system constraints and a system design. King has also stated that successful planning forinformation systems should meet three criteria. First, planning should incorporate processes forrelating IS strategy to the existing business strategy of the enterprise. Second, planning shouldincorporate processes for assessing the existing and planned IS resources of the organization withthe objective of identifying potentially useful changes in business strategy, tactics or theprocesses that they may support. Finally, the organization should instill information and IS asa strategic resource or competitive weapon, and that planning should explicitly involve processesfor the identification of opportunities for use of the information resource (Carter et. al. 1990).Other authors, such as Laware (1991) and Atkinson (1991(a), 1991(b), 1992(b)) agreewith King’s stance. Laware argues that IS managers must understand, communicate, and showsenior management how information and technological solutions can most effectively help theorganization achieve its goals if SISP is to succeed. Similarly, Atkinson (199 1(c)) comments— 11 -that repackaging organizational models to highlight vital performance measures and using theseas a basis for determining where and how IT can best make essential contributions can greatlyimprove SISP. He also believes that the business strategy-centred approach is the mostappropriate because the organization’s key objectives and strategies can be used to define areduced scope for the IS plan, which focuses the planning effort on enabling these organizationalimperatives. Atkinson (1991(b)) suggests that the development of a business model is the keyfirst step in SISP, which should be supported by a matrix analysis with business functions invalue-chain sequence on one axis and information technologies on the other. Under thisapproach, insight occurs when the emerging patterns reveal one or more key technologies withboth high impact and wide impact, which can be used to improve organizational alignment anddefine target architectures (Atkinson 1992(b)).An eleven stage business-driven methodology called the Information System MasterArchitecture and Plan (ISMAP) has been proposed by Atkinson and Montgomery (1990). Thefirst four stages can be started concurrently, and they entail developing business and IS models,along with describing both the current and target enterprise and technology. The fifth stage,assessing technology impact, and the sixth stage, evaluating current IS situation, can also bestarted concurrently after the first four stages are nearly complete. The remaining stages arestarted sequentially but the last stage starts before the completion of any of the previous stages.The seventh stage defines unconstrained target architectures, and the eighth involves identifyingconstraints. The ninth concerns constraining target architectures, the tenth with defining the ISstrategy and transition plan, and the eleventh with planning framework maintenance and use.- 12 -An example of the Enterprising Modelling approach has been provided by Flaatten et.al. (1992). Although the approach is not business-centred, they suggest that understanding theorganization’s business plan is a necessary first step that serves to promote understanding of thevalue system, culture and strategies for which the IS plan is being developed. Many differenttools such as Critical Success Factor analysis or Nolan’s stage model can be used during thisinitial stage. The results of the first step then allow for identification of accepted risk andbenefit criteria for project evaluation. Once the criteria have been established, Flaatten et. al.suggest that analysis of the organization’s processes, data requirements, and systems be done.This analysis is expected to identify short and long-term systems projects which can then beevaluated using the chosen criteria, and ranked in priority sequence.Other popular methodologies include Holland Systems Corp.’s PROplanner MethodGuide, IBM Corp.’s Business Systems Planning approach, and Andersen Consulting’s Method/i.As described by Lederer and Gardiner (1992), the Method/i approach has five distinctobjectives; to identify the organization’s information needs; to find new opportunities for usinginformation to achieve a competitive advantage; to define an overall information technologystrategy for satisfying the organization’s information technology objectives; to define data,application, technology, and organizational requirements for supporting the overall informationtechnology strategy; and to define the activities needed to meet the aforementioned requirementsand thereby implement the overall information technology strategy. The planning process iscompleted in ten work segments as follows: scope definition and organization; business andcompetitive assessment; present status assessment; information technology opportunities;information technology strategies; organization plan; data and applications plan; technology plan;information action plan; and project definition and planning.- 13 -A very different approach to SISP is the Organizational approach described by Earl(1993). Based upon his empirical study of the various approaches, he concluded that theOrganizational approach is more effective than the other approaches. The methodology of theOrganizational approach is less formal than any of the popular approaches used today, andemphasizes learning about business problems and the opportunities for contribution afforded byIT. Adopting the organizational approach could involve setting up mechanisms andresponsibility structures to encourage IS-user partnerships within the organization. It may alsomean developing IS planning and development capabilities by ensuring that IS managers aremembers of all permanent and ad hoc teams. Earl argues that the organization must strive torecognize strategic thinking as a continuous activity, identify and pursue business themes, andaccept “good enough” solutions that can be built upon. Above all, Earl states that organizationsusing this approach should encourage any mechanism that promotes organizational learning aboutthe scope of IT.2.1.10 ManagementSISP has long been recognized as an intricate and complex process with numerousproblems that plague planners and can prevent its success (Lederer & Sethi l992). The ISmanager and team conducting the planning projects must pay careful attention to a number ofspecific factors in order to be successful. First and foremost, the SISP process requires aholistic or interdependent view supported by top management. Methods may be necessary butthey could fail if the process factors receive no attention. It is also important to explicitly andpositively incorporate implementation plans and decisions into the strategic planning cycle.Second, successful SISP seems to require users and line managers to work in partnership withthe IS function (Flaatten et. al. 1992). This may not only generate relevant application ideas,- 14 -but it will tend to create ownership of both the process and outcomes. Third, SISP must beconducted efficiently by seeking to identify projects that can generate an immediate payback(Lederer & Sethi 1992). Finally, Earl (1993) adds that SISP in practice should be eclectic,selecting and trying methods and process initiatives to fit the needs of the time. Oneconsequence of this view might be recognition and acceptance that planning need not alwaysgenerate plans, and that plans may arise without a formal planning process.Like any corporate strategic planning effort, a strategic IS plan must be long-range.Moreover, it must not be a static document, but an evolving model that effectively supports themanagement decision-malcing process on an ongoing basis (Lederer & Gardiner 1992,Atkinson& Montgomery 1990). SISP should also concentrate on those areas where information systemsand related technology are truly essential. An integral component of strategic IS planning shouldbe to regularly identify, assess, and present applicable information technologies to seniormanagement by describing the technology and explaining its uses, technical and economicfeasibility, and most likely trends (Atkinson 1991(b)). Doing this keeps the planning processongoing and creates knowledgeable employees who are better equipped to participate in theprocess, thereby solidifying their commitment to the planning process and the plan itself (Laware1991). It is important to avoid the misconception that SISP occurs only at prescribed timesthrough a formal process. Strategic information systems planning should also occur whencircumstance demand it (Atkinson 1992(a)).2.2 BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING2.2.1 Importance- 15 -Traditionally, information technology has been employed by organizations to automateexisting processes, which typically resulted in incremental productivity improvement. Thereality of today’s environment necessitates a more revolutionary approach, where technology isused to reshape the way work is done. Current management literature is ripe with terms suchas business reengineering, process innovation, and core process redesign, each promising to curethe ills plaguing modem organizations. While the amount of hype is extraordinary, the basictenants are intuitively appealing and supported by anecdotal evidence. No matter what termsare used, the essential ideas espoused include a process orientation and the critical role of IT asan enabler of process redesign. Before discussing the role of IT in more detail, it is importantto gain a better understanding of the nature of Business Process Reengineering (BPR).2.2.2 DefinitionNotable management gurus Michael Hammer and James Champy (1993) have definedreengineering in the following manner.Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of businessprocesses to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measuresof performance such as cost, quality, service, and speed.Fundamental rethinking means asking questions about what is done and why it is done that way.It also means starting from scratch with a clean sheet as if unconstrained in order to concentrateon what ‘should be’. Radical implies disregarding existing structures and procedures andabandoning the outdated rules and assumptions that underlie current ways of accomplishingwork. Achieving dramatic results requires the innovative application of technology to businessproblems and aiming for re-invention, not improvement, enhancement or modification.2.2.3 Processes- 16 -The true key to reengineering is thinking about IT in terms of how it can supportredesigned business processes. Thomas Davenport (1993) defmes a business process as “astructured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specified output for a particularcustomer or market.” He also states that processes are what an organization does to producevalue for its customer, that processes need clearly defined owners, and that processes crossorganizational boundaries. What is truly amazing is that most business processes have neverbeen measured, let alone analyzed with the capabilities of modem day IT in mind. The resultof a process focus is the ability to concentrate on interdependent activities that add value to theprocess customer rather than on maximizing the performance of particular individuals ororganizational functions.2.2.4 MotivationAt the heart of reengineering is the idea that appurtenances of the industrial revolution,namely, the division of labour, economies of scale, and hierarchical control, do not work intoday’s environment where nothing is constant or predictable (Hammer & Champy 1993). Whileproponents such as Hammer have argued that organizations must reengineer in order to survive,others advise caution given the risks associated with such radical change. Even Hammer (1990)has admitted that “Reengineering cannot be planned meticulously and accomplished in small andcautious steps. It’s an all-or-nothing proposition with an uncertain result.” Top managementcommitment is absolutely essential, yet not sufficient, as change of this magnitude can not besimply willed. Further, management usually underestimates both the time and resourcesrequired to complete a project. Thomas Stewart (1993) believes there are two principle motivesfor reengineering, fear and greed, and he recommends not doing it unless absolutely necessary.- 17 -2.2.5 ApproachesEven given these criticisms, the possibilities presented by BPR are so appealing thatorganizations are continuing to pursue countless reengineering efforts. Advocates ofreengineering have studied successful projects in an attempt to extrapolate common themes soas to present a methodology for reengineering. Approaches presented by various authors havebegun to coalesce, and agreement about the steps to be followed has been forming. The maincomponents of this methodology and its associated techniques are presented next.In his seminal Harvard Business Review article, Hammer (1990) identified what hetermed “Principles of Reengineering”. More recently, Hammer and Champy (1993) expandedupon these principles in reference to “Recurring Themes” of BPR. The central principles orthemes are that work should be organized around outcomes instead of tasks, and that those whouse the output should be the ones performing the steps of the process and making the controldecisions. Organizing work in this manner generally results in combining several jobs into onewith the aim of reducing non-value added management overhead. Additional tenants includecapturing information only once and at the source, linking parallel activities instead ofintegrating their results, and treating geographically dispersed resources as though they werecentralized. While these ideas describe the results of a reengineered business process, they donot demonstrate how these ends are to be achieved.2.2.6 MethodologyRealizing the lack of a standard methodology, some companies have developed their ownapproaches to reengineering. One well known example is the seven-step methodology deployed- 18 -by AT&T called “Process Quality Management and Improvement” (I/S Analyzer 1993). Theseven steps are as follows:1. Establish process management responsibilities2. Define process and identify customer requirements3. Define and establish measures4. Assess conformance to customer requirements5. Investigate process to identify improvement opportunities6. Rank improvement opportunities and set objectives7. Improve process qualityA somewhat more comprehensive six-stage model has been developed by Guha, Kettinger andTeng (1993). Their model includes the following:1. Envisioning new processesSecuring commitment from senior managementIdentifying reengineering opportunitiesIdentifying enabling technologiesAligning with corporate strategy2. Initiating changeOrganizing the reengineering teamSetting performance goals3. Diagnosing the processes to be reengineeredDocumenting the existing processUncovering pathologies4. The redesign stageExploring alternative designsDesigning new processesDesigning the human resources architecturePhototyping5. Reconstructing the processInstalling ITReorganizing6. Monitoring the newly constructed processesPerformance measurementLinks to quality improvement- 19 -In his recent book “Process Innovation”, Thomas Davenport (1993) recommends a five stepframework with ten key activities within this change process framework. Davenport’s approachincludes the following.Steps:1. Identifying processes for innovation2. Identifying change levers3. Developing process visions4. Understanding existing processes5. Designing and phototyping the new processActivities:1. Identifying and selecting processes for redesign2. Identifying enablers for new process design3. Defining business strategy and process vision4. Understanding the structure and flow of the current process5. Measuring the performance of the current process6. Designing the new process7. Phototyping the new process8. Implementing and ‘operationalizing’ the process and associated systems9. Communicating ongoing results of the effort, and10. Building commitment toward the solution at each step2.2.7 ManagementEach of these approaches shares many common elements, some of which are not explicitin the aforementioned steps. Reengineering must be driven from the top down into theorganization, starting with a process redesign team composed of high-level managers from acrossthe organization. A clear, strategic vision must be developed and continually communicated toguide and sustain the effort. The establishment of bench marks and quantifiable productivityimprovement goals in the areas of time, cost, and quality are essential to measuring gains.Fundamental to the success of any approach is the recognition that redesign must start from aclean slate and not be bound by existing concepts of organization or process design. The above- 20 -methodologies not only require a rethinking of existing structures and procedures, but also areevaluation of the organizational philosophy. Once the redesign is completed, the organizationmust continue to fine tune the rejuvenated processes through a program of continuousimprovement. This also means that the information technology infrastructure should bestandardized yet flexible enough to accommodate future changes.- 21 -3. CASE STUDY3.1 INTRODUCTION3.1.1 Project ObjectivesThe purpose of this project is to assess the information systems (IS) needs of theCanadian Cancer Society (CCS), B.C. and Yukon Division. A periodic review of informationrequirements (IR) and IS is necessary in order to ascertain the implications of recentenvironmental and organizational changes, to identify any unfulfilled needs, to determine thelevel of satisfaction amongst IS users, and to evaluate new opportunities provided bytechnological advancements. Such an assessment would normally be done in the context ofStrategic Information Systems Planning (SISP). Under a traditional SISP approach, existingsystems are studied, problems are identified, alternate solutions are analyzed, andrecommendations for change are made. Essentially, the focus is on how IS can be used tosupport what the organization does. Recent thinking suggests that to do IS planning properly,the whole organization must be examined in terms of its business processes and their outcomes.Moreover, information technology (IT) is seen as enabling organizations to not only do thethings they do better, but more importantly, to do things in ways never before considered. Thecentral tenants of this new approach, commonly referred to as Business Process Reengineering(BPR), were used in conjunction with the more traditional SISP methods during the project.3.1.2 Overall ApproachThe project was completed in three phases. The first phase entailed a review of theacademic and professional literature on the subjects of SISP and BPR. Both sets of literatureemphasize the need to take a broad organizational view by developing an understanding of- 22 -existing objectives, structure and challenges. The goal of the second phase of the project wasto document these aspects of the B.C. and Yukon Division. The information for this phase wasgathered primarily via interviews with administrators and staff in the Division and Districtoffices, and complimented by examining existing documents. The literature also suggests thatto do SISP or BPR properly requires the full time commitment of a cross-functional, team fora period of months or even years. Given the time and resources available for the project andfuture planning efforts, it was clear that a significantly scaled down approach would benecessary. The aim of the third phase, therefore, was to capture the essence of SISP and BPRin an approach that can be easily used by the Division to develop a long-range IS plan. Anorganizational overview and the recommend planning approach are presented in this report.3.1.3 TerminologyBefore proceeding with a description of how the report is organized, it is appropriate todefine what is meant by some of the terminology used. Information systems (IS) can be usedto refer to any systematic means of transforming raw data into useable information, which mayor may not involve computers. IS can also include all organizational resources and practices thatsupport this transformation. For purposes of this report, IS will be used in a more limited sense,referring specifically to the hardware (architecture) and software (applications) used by theDivision. While information technology (IT) is occasionally used to refer to the more technicalaspects of IS, both terms will be used interchangeably in this document. Informationrequirements (IR) refers to the basic blocks of information that the organization needs in orderto achieve its objectives and carry out its plans. An end-user is someone who either interactsdirectly with office systems or utilizes output from the systems, and is not part of the dataprocessing or computer services department. Finally, personal computer (PC) will be used here- 23 -to refer to a micro-processor based computer that is compatible with the IBM standard. Thesedefmitions are intended to be consistent with the popular use of the terms, and should providea common language for the readers of this document.3.1.4 Report LayoutThe remainder of this report is composed of three principle parts, an OrganizationalOverview, the recommended IS Planning Approach, and Future Considerations. The mainsections making up the Organizational Overview are Mission & Priorities, Structure &Supporting Systems, Challenges, and Overview Summary. The IS Planning Approach partincludes major sections on Guiding Principles, Sample Analysis, Organizational Implications,and Planning Summary. The Future Considerations part then reviews the project by presentingsome additional thoughts. Included in the main appendices are a listing of the Program &District Objectives, an Organization Chart & Committee Overlay, detailed summaries of theDivision Office Systems, the Data Processing Philosophy, a portion of the EquipmentAcquisition Policy, Background for IS Challenges, and a brief review of relevant Client-ServerComputing literature.3.2 ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEW3.2.1 Mission & PrioritiesThe Canadian Cancer Society (CCS), B.C. and Yukon Division, is a not-for-profit, non-government organization dedicated to the prevention, research and treatment of cancer. Itsmission statement is as follows:The Canadian Cancer Society is a national, community-based organization ofvolunteers, whose mission is the eradication of cancer and the enhancement of thequality of life of people living with cancer.- 24 -The head office is located in Vancouver where approximately two thirds of the sixty to seventypermanent staff members are engaged in policy setting, program development, andadministration. The remaining staff work out of one of the Division’s six District offices insupport of the thousands of active volunteers in the more than one hundred Unit offices. It isthese volunteers who are responsible for fundraising and the delivery of CCS programs in theircommunities,The Division has established long range priorities to the year 2000. These priorities areto continue:1. To meet the changing needs of cancer patients and their families forphysical, financial, and emotional support.2. To promote tobacco-free communities.3. To support programs to significantly reduce mortality from breast cancer.4. To maintain a strong volunteer force.5. To value staff and volunteers equally.Up until 1982, the Division did not set objectives because it was believed that failure toachieve these goals would be detrimental to volunteer motivation, By 1984, objectives forfundraising were regularly established, yet as little as four or five years ago evaluation was stillnot considered appropriate. Today, objectives have become an annual focus with monitoringoccurring from the Unit level up. The most recent objectives for each of the Division’s primaryfunctional areas and the six Districts are detailed in Appendix A.- 25 -The B.C. and Yukon Division has grown over the past 12 years from a $4 million peryear organization, to one that generates nearly $12 million in net revenue. The sources of thesefunds are the annual campaign, special events, bequests and legacies, in-memoriam donations,investment income, and a provincial government grant. After taking account of the variousfundraising and administrative expenses, funds are allocated to research commitments and to thevarious programs of the Division. Research funds are apportioned to the National CancerInstitute of Canada, the research arm of the CCS, and National Programs based upon a revenueassessment formula. In addition, through a 1990 tripartite agreement, the Division also servesas the fundraising body for the B.C. Cancer Agency, which operates cancer treatment centresthroughout the province, and the B.C. Cancer Foundation that runs the B.C. Cancer ResearchCentre. The purpose of this agreement was to avoid public confusion over multiple solicitations,and to provide financial stability for the Foundation and Agency. A summary of revenues andexpenditures by source for the most recent fiscal year is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1: Summary of Revenues & ExpendituresRevenuesTotsl: $11088410Special Evente (net315Provincial &ant1%In-MemorlamExpendituresTotal: $11,882O6tIncomeuI 4%Bequeata & LegadeaFr. 1HI Lodgee (neLl0%-aAdmlnlaLra±lon ‘ Comrrn.inlty Servlcea2%PulcEduc&flon3%11% Patient Servicee18%Fem ieee e....i eept- 26 -3.2.2 Structure & Supporting SystemsA portion of the organizational structure is shown in Figure 2, and a detailed organizationchart and committee overlay are provided in Appendix B. The primary decision makers for theB.C. and Yukon Division are the Board of Directors Members, Executive Officers, CommitteeChairs and District Presidents. The staffing structure at the Division’s head office includesAdministrators and staff for each of the main programs, a Comptroller who is responsible forAccounting and Computer Services staff, a Director of Administrative Services who overseesoffice support staff as well as Material and facilities management, and the Manager of HumanResources who coordinates staffing. The staffing structure at the District level consists of aDistrict Manager, Program Coordinators and District Assistants. The Division officedepartments, along with District and Unit offices are described below in terms of theirresponsibilities and major supporting IS applications. A more detailed description of theDivision office systems can be found in Appendix C.Figure 2: Partial Organization ChartBoard ofDirectorsExecutiveDirectorAesiatantExeoutiveDirectorI I I I IPublic Pubilo patient Lodges District Human Financial Finance Adniln.Relations Education Servioe5 Services Resources Development Services- 27 -3.2.2.1 Financial DevelopmentThe Financial Development department is responsible for overseeing the Division’sfundraising activities. This encompasses the Residential Campaign where efforts are made tocontact every household either personally or by mail, the Corporate Campaign during which bothbusinesses and employee groups are solicited, special events such as Jail-N-Bail, and appeals tospecial interest groups. Another major source of revenue is planned charitable giving in theform of bequests and legacies, and in-memoriam donations. Financial Development’sAdministrator and staff interact with the fundraising committees to set priorities and establishbudgets using a bottom up approach. The department is supported by a custom designed MasterDonor Accounting System (MOAS) that provides access to some seven hundred thousandindividual donor records, and a relatively new Bequests system that identifies potential plannedgiving donors. These systems are used to refine campaign targets and marketing procedures.3.2.2.2 Patient ServicesPatient Services, in conjunction with various volunteer committees, is charged with thedevelopment of childhood and family programs, the coordination of emotional support programs,and the provision of financial assistance to needy cancer patients. Some of the department’sprograms include Camp Goodtimes for children with cancer, Ogopogo Teen Ski Camp, FamilyCamp, Look Good Feel Better, Reach to Recovery, Living with Cancer, and Volunteer Drivers.Eligibility for financial aid is assessed based on such factors as income and number ofdependents. The department uses a custom designed application to record and maintainelectronic records on patients who have received financial aid. It also uses an additionalprogram to maintain records of volunteers, councillors and campers who participating in Camp- 28 -Goodtimes. These electronic records are in addition to the paper files maintained by thedepartment.3.2.2.3 LodgesThe CCS currently operates two lodges, the Vancouver Lodge, in operation since 1980,and the Vancouver Island Lodge, which opened in 1982. Both lodges are situated close toB.C. ‘s two cancer treatment centers, in Vancouver and Victoria, from which patients arereferred. The primary function of the lodges is to provide a comfortable and convenient placeto stay for cancer patients while receiving treatment, but they are also used to host varioussupport group meetings. Plans are under way for a new lodge to accompany the future openingof a treatment center in Kelowna. A custom designed program is used by Vancouver Lodgestaff to collect patient demographics, calculate bill amounts and identify room vacancies. Thesystem provides statistics on the number of patients and spouse or escort stays, where residentsare from, and the type of cancer being treated.3.2.2.4 Public EducationThe role of Public Education is to get the residents of B.C. and the Yukon to practicecancer prevention, and to recognize the importance of early detection. In working with thevarious associated committees, Public Education staff provide the materials and training tosupport unit volunteers in the delivery of the programs in the community. The principalprograms produced by Public Education focus on reducing tobacco use, sun protection, healthyfood choices, and breast health. A custom designed application is used to track an inventory ofvideos used by staff and volunteers. The department also maintains records on materials use,as well as demographics and statistics that facilitate program evaluation. In addition to the- 29 -community programs, the Cancer Information Line with its supporting on-line database allowsvolunteers to respond quickly and effectively to information requests. Based upon the natureof these requests, the department can evaluate the effects of its programs as well identifyemerging trends in public interest.3.2.2.5 Public RelationsThe challenge of maintaining an image that accurately reflects the CCS in the eyes of thecommunity falls upon the Public Relations Administrator, staff and committee. The departmentis responsible for media liaison, for developing the language for the materials used by the otherdepartments, and for fostering awareness of the services provided by and the role of the CCSin supporting cancer research. Public Relations is also concerned with carefully nurturingconnections between volunteers and staff across the various programs of the CCS withoutinfringing upon the equally important identification of individuals with a particular serviceprogram. The department’s communication tools include the Annual Report, along with two biannual publications, the Pacific Report and the Cancer Research News. These publications aredistributed to major donors, businesses, District offices and other organizations such as the B.C.Cancer Agency.3.2.2.6 Human ResourcesThe Human Resources Manager is the sole person involved with all personnel relatedactivities at both the Division and District levels. The screening of job applicants, orientationof new employees, maintenance of employee records, development of compensation packagesand employee handbooks are all functions performed by the Manager. All employee records are- 30 -currently kept in paper files, therefore, generating statistics or performing analysis on suchthings as turnover or absenteeism are done manually.3.2.2.7 Administrative ServicesAdministrative Services is essentially responsible for general office management.Materiel management, purchasing, and facilities management are under the administrativeumbrella, as is providing support for the Board of Directors and executives, and the managementof issues related to estate bequests. The department currently uses two separate custom designedsoftware applications. The first is the Bequests / Planned Giving program that is shared withFinancial Development, and used to maintain information pertaining to estate management. Thesecond program is the Inventory Control & Order Entry system, which serves to track inventorylevels and the dispersement of materials to District offices. The Inventory Control system isseen as the means by which tight inventory control can be realized.3.2.2.8 Financial ServicesIncluded under the Finance umbrella are both the Accounting and Computer Servicesfunctions. The Accounting side is discussed here, while Computer Services, which operatesrelatively autonomously, is described in the next section. The Comptroller, AccountingManager, staff and committee volunteers are responsible for the detailed tracking of revenuesand expenditures, which are reflected in the financial reports. Both monthly and quarterlyfinancial statements are distributed to program Administrators, District Managers and DistrictPresidents. The Finance department also plays a large role in the budgeting process, but thisrole is changing as Districts and Unit offices become increasingly involved. The accounting andbudgeting processes are supported by a custom designed General Ledger package that- 31 -consolidates information from the MDAS, Accounts Payable, Patient Services, and InventoryControl systems. An Accounts Payable application is used by Finance personnel to manage andpay vendor invoices.3.2.2.9 Computer ServicesThe role of Computer Services includes the planning, development, enhancement andmaintenance of information systems in the Division. The Manager has overall responsibility andserves as the liaison with the National and other Provincial offices on IS issues. The SystemsOperator, similar to the Manager, is involved in most daily activities, and is also currentlyresponsible for the Jail-N-Bail application. A Systems Analyst examines the MDAS databaseusing statistical techniques to help improve the effectiveness of the direct mail campaign. Thereare two permanent Data Entry Operators who input donor information into the MDAS database,supplemented by additional contract personnel during busy periods. Augmenting the Divisionoffice staff are the designated District users that receive yearly training and act as the supportpersons for their respective offices. IS planning still follows the spirit of the Data ProcessingPhilosophy developed in 1984 (see Appendix D). Information needs are assessed viaquestionnaires and informational interviews with users. The most significant applicationssupported by Computer Services have been custom designed in-house to run on an IBM ASI400system, with programming provided by outside consultants.3.2.2.10 District ServicesThe primary role of District Services is to support the District staff who in turn supportthe Unit volunteers. An important component of this role is volunteer development, whichentails the recruitment of skilled people and the provision of training so that they are equipped- 32 -to deliver programs in the community. District Services must be able to accommodate thechanging needs of volunteers and provide them with the tools and resources they require to beeffective. The recruitment, supervision and evaluation of all District staff is also theresponsibility of District Services. Further, the Administrator acts as a liaison between theDivision office and District / Unit staff, councils, executive and management committees.Another function performed by District Services staff is the monitoring of District and Unitexpenses, along with the preparation of reimbursements to expense accounts. Currently muchof this work is performed entirely manually, with only the end results being entered into theaccounting system.3.2.2.11 District OfficesOfficially there are six districts, namely Vancouver Island, Kootenay, Greater Vancouver,Interior, Fraser Valley, and the North. In many respects, due the size of the population itcovers, the Vancouver City unit is treated as a seventh District. Theoretically, the role ofdistrict managers and staff is to provide the motivation and tools for volunteers to deliverprograms, but in actuality staff are also involved in delivery. Coordination responsibilities forthe various programs are divided amongst the District Manager and Program Coordinators basedupon individual strengths and preferences. The District Assistants and volunteers perform allof the office management tasks. The District offices act as information conduits passing alongprogram materials from the Division office to the Units, and collecting revenue receipts andexpense documentation to be sent to Division for accounting. There exists considerablevariability in the staff size of the districts, from the Kootenays with one and three quarterspersonnel to the Greater Vancouver Region with eight permanent staff. At the District level,PCs with the office recommended Enable software and other popular packages are used for- 33 -common tasks like word processing, spread sheeting and database applications. At the presenttime, there are no electronic links between the Division and District offices.3.2.2.12 Unit OfficesUnit offices are completely volunteer based, and are directly responsible for fundraisingand the delivery of CCS programs in their communities. Units cover mutually exclusivegeographical areas that encompass all of B.C. and the Yukon, and each unit falls under thedirection of a District Office. All units operate under the principle that expenses should notexceed 5% of revenues, which practically means that not all units will have actual physicaloffices. The size and sophistication of the various units differs considerably, with only thelargest offices having faxes or personal computers. A special equipment task force has recentlydeveloped a policy statement for the acquisition of equipment by Unit offices, which in partstates that they are expected to provide for their own support. Therefore, unit offices arecurrently free to use any software they feel appropriate to meet their needs. A portion of thetask force report is reproduced in Appendix E.3.2.3 ChallengesEvery organization faces challenges in today’s constantly changing world. Generalenvironmental trends such as the aging of the population, increased ethnic diversity, and desiresfor specialized treatment and recognition on the part of both people with cancer and volunteers,all have significant effects on the way in which the CCS operates. In order to get the ‘biggestbang for the buck’, the organization must be closely scrutinized in terms of the distribution ofdecision making, allocation of responsibilities, communication of information, and assessmentof goal achievement. Advancements in IT provide new means for the Division to respond to- 34 -environmental changes and improve its business processes, however, IS present their own setof challenges (background material related to the IS challenges is provided in Appendix F). Theability of the Division to effectively continue to pursue its mission is dependent upon its reactionto these challenges.3.2.3.1 Environmental ChangesA pivotal environmental change that is just developing is the planned decentralization orregionalization of health care by the provincial Ministry of Health. The plan calls for theestablishment of regional health boards and community health councils. It will be some timebefore the effects of regionalization can be determined, but there are questions regarding futurecharity grants and potential attachments on spending. There may also be a need to have CCSvolunteers become members of these regional and community boards in order to better representthe Society’s interests.Another environmental concern is the increased competition for both fundraising dollarsand for volunteers. This change is the result of several factors including an overall rise innumber of charities, an increased number of general cancer related charities, and the growth ofso called ‘boutique’ organizations that focus on specific types of cancer. Each organization hasvested interests, and they are beginning to polarize around these interests. A related change isin the nature of volunteer commitment. Traditionally, volunteers have had long-termassociations with the organizations of their choice, but increasingly volunteers are more episodicin their commitment and are bringing with them new skills and aspirations. This trend willimpact both leadership and governance at the CCS.- 35 -3.2.3.2 Organizational IssuesIn adjusting to these environmental changes, the Division must be concerned withattending to internal issues that may enable it to become more effective and efficient. One issuethat has arisen is that of the decision making process within the Division. Many newercharitable organizations empower their staff to make operational decisions, which results inquick response times. The traditionally conservative nature of the CCS has led to a moreconsensual decision making process that may put the Division at a disadvantage in competingfor limited financial and human resources. A related issue is that of the degree of centralizationor decentralization of decision making. Decentralization can often lead to faster and perhapsmore efficient decisions, but the effectiveness is dependent upon the maturity of the decisionmaking body. Determining where decisions should be made can be difficult considering thediffering levels of maturity of districts and units across the organization.An ongoing concern is maintaining a balance between the number of staff and the numberof volunteers. If the staff size is too large then volunteers do not have meaningful Work, andthis is a key motivation for many volunteers who are fulfilling a personal need that can not beachieved elsewhere. As well, if the staff size is too small then there is a risk of either staff orvolunteers leaving after they become frustrated with an insufficient support structure. Ensuringan optimal balance can be particularly demanding considering that the number of volunteersranges from a low of a few thousand during the summer to as many ten or fifteen thousandduring the spring campaign.Another key issue that is a concern for any organization is information collection anddissemination. Raw revenue and expense data, along with information requests, generally travel- 36 -the same route, from Unit to District to Division, and then after processing, from Division, toDistrict to Unit. The timeliness of the returned information can be less than ideal, and sincethere are only six districts but over a hundred units, the potential for bottlenecks at the districtlevel is high. Moreover, general unit meetings occur only once each month, which furthercomplicates the task of information dissemination. Keeping such a large volunteer work forceup-to-date and satisfied with the operational and program information they receive presents acritical challenge for the Division.A final issue that is receiving increased attention is planning and evaluation. Being acharitable organization, the CCS is driven by the results of the research it supports and theprograms it provides. However, being a non-profit organization does not mean that long-rangeplanning and bottom-line sensitivity are not important. Given limited resources, the organizationmust weight the benefits of a diversity of programs and fundraising activities against the needto focus energy on areas where significant contributions can be made. Improvement in this arearequires input from both staff and volunteers at all levels of the Division, along with adequateplanning processes and information feedback for rational decision making.3.2.3.3 IS IssuesLike all modern organizations, the benefits afforded by IS are becoming increasinglyimportant to the CCS in performing both daily activities and accomplishing long-term objectives.The Division is in the early stages of a fundamental transition from a time when the need ordemand for personal computers was small to a point where they will become an embedded andessential component of the organization’s information infrastructure. The introduction ofsignificant numbers of PCs into the Division raises many new issues for managing the resulting- 37 -end-user community. As well, the combination of AS/400 and PCs greatly increases thecomplexity of IS planning and decision making in regard to application management. Thedevelopment of a vision for the future through a formal planning exercise, and the establishmentof pertinent end-user computing policies may be needed to help smooth the transition.Another significant IS challenge, one faced by most organizations, is the relationshipbetween the data processing staff and the rest of the Division. The Computer Services personnelinteract with a wide range of users. Many people will have had previous computer experienceand with prompting will adeptly express their IS needs. Some users, on the other hand, mayform exceedingly high expectations fuelled by media hype, others will give little thought to thepossible uses of IS in their area, and still others may simply be unable to articulate their needs.The correct identification of information requirements is paramount to successful deployment ofIS, yet the diversity of user knowledge and consideration of IS potential makes this taskextremely difficult. Overcoming this hurdle requires a commitment to user education and thedevelopment of mechanisms to facilitate communication between Computer Services and theDivision’s user groups.An IS issue that is associated with many of the broader organizational issues is that ofthe degree of centralization or decentralization of IS resources. There is a trade-off betweencentral control for integration and security benefits and user group, particulary District and Unit,needs for ready access to computing facilities. The pace of technological advancement makespurely economic arguments based on various implementation schemes unsuitable for resolvingthe debate. Moreover, the basic question is one of control, which is a political issue that is notnecessarily grounded in rational economic thought. Generally, the centralization or- 38 -decentralization of computing should correspond with prevailing organizational norms. TheDivision is currently highly decentralized in carrying out organizational activities, yet morecentralized in terms of decision making. This incongruence makes it difficult to distribute thesupporting IS resources in a manner that appears sensible to all parties.3.2.4 Overview SummaryThe mission and organization of the Division clearly illustrate what the CCS is all about,namely, raising funds for cancer research, providing services to cancer patients and educatingthe public about cancer. The distinguishing aspect of the current structure is the arrangementof organizational responsibility in terms of a Division, District and Unit offices. The Divisionoffice has specialized functional departments and acts as the coordinating body, while theDistricts and Units directly interact with the communities. The majority of the staff and ISresources are devoted to the Division office, while the volunteers in the Unit offices and thesupport they receive from District staff are unquestionably essential to the success of theorganization. The Division has enjoyed significant growth over the past decade, but like allorganizations faces certain challenges that if unattended have the potential to reduce productivity.The face of regional health care is changing and competition for funds and volunteers isincreasing. To remain effective the Division must use planning and evaluation to ensure thattasks are completed and decisions are made by the right people, and that they have theinformation they need to make rational choices. Information systems will play an importantrole, yet the deployment of IT raises new issues that must also be dealt with. Planning,communication and education are essential tools for smoothing the transition to a more complex- 39 -IS environment, maintaining a solid relationship between IS providers and users, and allocatingIS resources where they are needed most.3.3 Is PLANNING APPROACH3.3.1 Guiding PrinciplesThe goal here is not to recommend the implementation of specific technologies orapplications, but rather to present an approach along with some supporting techniques that canbe used by the Division to develop an Information Systems Plan. The approach represents asimplified amalgamation of many different popular Strategic Information Systems Planning(SISP) methodologies, supplemented with important Business Process Reengineering (BPR) ideas(in-depth reviews of SISP & BPR literature are provided in the Literature Review). This iscertainly not the only approach that could be used, however, it should provide a sound basis forfuture planning efforts. Developing the actual IS plan requires the participation of players whoare intimately familiar with the current business processes and systems, and should be done inconjunction with general organizational planning.The thrust of the approach is the identification of key organizational objectives andinformation requirements, which guide the selection of appropriate information architectures andapplications. The sample analysis that is shown in the next section serves to demonstrate thisapproach, but is not intended to be complete. The level of examination is necessarily high, andbased only upon the researcher’s knowledge of the Division. Again, the detailed analysis thatdemands negotiation amongst the organization’s IS stakeholders in order to generate commitmentto conclusions is best done in the context of future planning efforts. Following the sampleanalysis is a discussion of the resulting organizational implications. The directions generated- 40 -from the analysis are examined in terms of their resolution potential for the various challengesidentified during the organizational overview.3.3.2 Sample AnalysisMany of the SISP methods recommend analyzing the organization by comparing differentdimensions or aspects, and this is the technique that is employed here. Simple two dimensionalmatrices or tables facilitate such an analysis by visually representing the relationship betweendistinct facets of the organization. The examination of more complex relationships can also bedone by looking at two or more tables concurrently. A well defined table provides an easilyread and succinct summary of ideas resulting from the comparison that are often not wellarticulated in purely narrative descriptions. Moreover, the process of decomposing theorganization along a number of dimensions and examining the resulting relationships often servesto bring discrepancies in how different people view the organization to the surface. The realpower of this dimensional analysis is in stimulating discussion amongst informed organizationalmembers.In keeping with SISP and BPR approaches, the sample analysis done here has a top-downorientation. The analysis starts by identifying key organizational objectives. These objectivesare then explored further in terms of the involvement of the various organizational departmentsor units in achieving those aims. This is followed by the generation of broad classes ofinformation requirements that are important to the operation of the Division. These informationclasses are then examined in relation to both objectives and organizational units. These threeaspects of the Division, in conjunction with knowledge of existing systems, will permit thedetermination of gaps between information needs and the current levels of IS support.- 41 -Knowledge of these differences furnishes a basis for developing criteria for the selection offuture applications and information architectures, and establishing priorities for subsequentplanning endeavors.3.3.2.1 Objectives & OrganizationThe CCS mission is stated as the “eradication of cancer and the enhancement of thequality of life of people living with cancer.” The mission, along with the functional organizationof the Division, serves to suggest three key organizational objectives. These are listed belowand summarized in Figure 3.• To raise funds for cancer research and support programs.• To provide programs and services that offer help and hope to cancer patients.• To encourage people to take personal responsibility through education.Figure 3: Summary of Organizational ObjectivesKey DrganIzationI OblectivesMission &OrsnlzstlonFundraislng Servlce LEihb05Clearly, fundraising, patient services and education are all driving forces for the CCS and theDivision. Fundraising, however, accounts for nearly all revenue generated, and thus is a- 42 -prerequisite for the provision of programs and the pursuit of education. The essential role thatfundraising plays is reflected in the existing IS infrastructure of the Division.As a “community-based organization”, volunteers are critical to the achievement of theCCS mission and objectives. To be effective, volunteers must be properly supported by staffat the Division and District offices. A measure of this support is the level of direct involvementof various organizational units in achieving the key objectives. A sample evaluation using theobjectives identified above, the organizational units described in the Organizational Overview,and a three level scale is shown below in Table 1.Table 1: Organizational Unit Involvement in Objective AchievementOrganizational_ObjectivesOrganizational Units . .Fundraising Services EducationPublic Relations (PR) Medium Medium HighPublic Education (PE) Low Low HighPatient Services (PS) Low High LowLodges (L) Low High LowDistrict Services (DS) Medium Medium MediumFinancial Development (FD) High Low LowHuman Resources (HR) Low Low LowFinance (F) Low Low LowAdministrative Services (AS) Low Low LowComputer Services (CS) Low Low LowDistrict Offices (DO) High High HighUnit Offices (DO)-High High High- 43 -For this table to serve its purpose as a communication tool, it is important to understandthe rationale used to determine individual ratings. Essentially, each rating represents the relativelevel of involvement of an organizational unit in achieving a particular objective. For example,Public Relations was considered to have a Medium level of involvement in Fundraising. Thereasoning behind this rating is two fold. First, PR through such activities as developing thelanguage to be used in campaign materials is certainly more involved than Human Resources orFinance. Second, although PR does play a role, it is clearly not as involved as FinancialDevelopment. Therefore, for each objective some organizational units are highly involved,others have some involvement, and others have little direct involvement. A more precise scalecould be used, but, for purposes of this analysis three levels was deemed sufficient. -The true benefit of such an analysis is the trend or impact information that can beobtained. The table indicates that both the District and Unit offices play crucial roles in thepursuit of all three organizational objectives. Public Relations and District Services are alsoshown to have broad and significant influence in objective achievement. Public Education,Patient Services, Lodges, and Financial Development are critical to a particular objective, buthave minimal involvement in realizing other objectives. The remaining organizational units areof course essential to the operation of the Division, but their influence on objective achievementis indirect and based upon the support they provide to the other units.3.3.2.2 Information RequirementsIdentifying key objectives, whether they be formal or informal, serves to highlight whatis important to the Division. Organizational objectives are critical in that they provide a contextwithin which to conduct IS planning, but that alone is not enough. One must also determine the- 44 -information that is required by the various organizational units in order for them to achieve theseobjectives. Once information requirements are determined, steps can be taken to assess currentsystems, and to evaluate additional opportunities for the deployment of IT. Knowing theimportance of information requirements in terms of objectives also facilitates the developmentof priorities for system maintenance and development projects.For purposes of this analysis, information requirements have been grouped into generalinformation classes. These classes represent information needs related to both commonorganizational requirements and those needs that are specific to the CCS. Each of these classesis listed below, along with a brief description of what is meant by each. The groupings aresummarized in Figure 4.Table 2: Description of Information ClassesInformation Class 1 DescriptionCommonPlanning Business plans, objectives and strategies, along with the resultingbudgets for the period.Accounting Summary and detailed revenue and expense information by source.Inventory Inventory on hand (supplies, materials, etc.), and amountsdispersed to organizational units.Employee Employee data and related policy information.CCS SpecificDonor Individual donor contact data and history.Volunteer Individual volunteer contact data, and program or committeeassociation information.Patient Individual patient contact data, and program information or historywhere appropriate.Program Information specific to fundraising and program development ordelivery, but not covered by other information classes.- 45 -Figure 4: Common & Specific Information ClassesInformation ClassesCommon CCS SpecificPlanning DonorAccounting VolunteerInventory PatienLEmployee ProgramThe importance of each of these information classes to objective achievement is assessedin Table 3 using a three level scale.Table 3: Importance of Information Class to Objective AchievementOrganizational_ObjectivesInformation ClassFundraismg Services EducationPlanning Information High Medium HighAccounting Information Medium Low LowInventory Information Medium Medium MediumEmployee Information Low Low LowDonor Information High Low LowVolunteer Information High High HighPatient Information Low High LowProgram Information Medium Medium Medium- 46 -Once again the individual ratings are relative rankings of the importance of informationclasses to the achievement of a particular objective. In other words, in terms of Fundraising,Planning, Donor, and Volunteer information are key. Accounting, Inventory and other Programspecific information are also important, while Employee and Patient information are of littlesignificance. Just to remind the reader, these ratings are the researcher’s interpretation of thesituation, and may differ somewhat from those that would be reached through a more involveddiscussion of a larger group. Iidividual differences in ratings, however, are less important thanthe communication that should be brought about by critical examination of these aspects of theoperation of the Division.A number of observations can be made from the table. Volunteer and Planninginformation are shown to be essential to accomplishing the key organizational objectives. Thiswould seem intuitive given that planning is a prerequisite to achieving goals, and that volunteersare the Division’s key resource. The table also indicates that Inventory and Program specificinformation are relatively important in all three objective areas, while the remaining classes ofinformation are only influential for an individual objective. Another interesting observation isthat there seems to be a difference in the overall number and importance of information toobjective achievement. Fundraising appears as the most information intensive, followed byServices, with Education having the least information needs. This result may partially be areflection of the relative importance of each objective to the Division as a whole.In addition to determining the relative importance of information classes, it is alsonecessary to establish where the information is created and subsequently used. Table 4 belowprovides this picture.- 47 -Table 4: Creation and Use of Information by Organizational Unit_____Organizational_UnitInfo. ClassPR PE PS L DS FD HR F AS CS DO UOPlanning B B B B B B B B B B B BAccounting B B B B B B B B B B B BInventory U U U U U U U U B U U UEmployee BDonor U B B BVolunteer B B B B B B B B BPatient U B B B BProgram B B B B B B U UNote: C = Create, U = Use, B = BothThe interpretation of this table is different and perhaps somewhat more difficult than theprevious ones. There are four possible entries for each cell, namely, Create, Use, Both, orblank. A Create entry indicates that the organizational unit is somehow actively involved inproducing information in this class, which may include being simply the source of theinformation or the organizer of the data for use by other units. A Use entry merely signifiesthat the respective organizational unit utilizes information in this class, whether receiving thisinformation from other units, or storing and using it internally. The Both entry means that theunit both creates and uses the information from the class, while a blank entry indicates that theunit is neither involved in the creation of information for this class, nor a user of theinformation. The table does not provide an indication of extent, level, or importance of theinformation classes to each organizational unit.- 48 -In looking at the table it is clear that all organizational units are involved in creating,using, or both creating and using, Planning, Accounting, and Inventory information. Theremaining common information class, Employee, is shown to only be of interest to HumanResources. The CCS specific classes related to Donor, Volunteer, Patient and Programinformation are naturally created and used predominately by the organizational units mostdirectly involved in achieving the corresponding organizational objectives. While Donor andPatient information are created and used by a small number of units, Volunteer and Programinformation are required by most line units. As well, the table shows that the District and Unitoffices are both major sources and users of organizational information with involvement in allclasses except Employee information.3.3.2.3 IS InfrastructureDetermining objectives and assessing the organization in terms of information needs arenecessary steps that provide a basis for examining the existing IS of the Division. The goal isnot to look for problems or to suggest minor changes to current applications, but rather toidentify areas where future resources should be devoted. This requires that existing applicationsbe documented in terms of how they provide information and support organizational units in thepursuit of the key objectives. The focus here is on applications or software and not onhardware. Once links between information needs and IS support are known, plans for futureIS applications can be made, which will then suggest appropriate supporting architectures.Each of the existing significant custom designed or customized package applicationsidentified during the organizational overview is listed in TableS beside the information class thatit is most closely associated with. One note to be made from the table is that there are currently- 49 -no custom applications devoted primarily to processing Planning or Employee classes ofinformation. This should not be surprising for Employee information since it is of little directimportance in objective achievement (see Table 3), and used essentially by only HumanResources (see Table 4). Planning information, on the other hand, is created and used by allorganizational units, and is essential to achieving the key objectives. Some of the otherapplications such as the GL or MDAS do provide information for use in Planning, but additionalsoftware that can assist the Division in this area may be worth investigating.Table 5: Existing Custom Applications in each Information ClassInfo. Class Existing Custom Designed IS ApplicationsPlanningAccounting General Ledger, Accounts PayableInventory Inventory & Order EntryEmployeeDonor Master Donor Accounting System, Bequests I Planned GivingVolunteer Volunteer RegistryPatient Patient Services, Lodge RegistryProgram Camp Goodtimes, Video Loans, Cancer Information LineThe level of support provided by each of the custom applications in terms oforganizational objectives is analyzed in Table 6 below. The ratings represent a relative rankingof Low, Medium or High for the applications on an objective by objective basis. For example,the MDAS application has a High rating for Fundraising, while the General Ledger, which isvaluable for Fundraising but to a lesser degree, received a Medium rating. The table indicatesthat with the exception of the Cancer Information Line, all custom applications only providesignificant support for one key objective. The table also suggests that Fundraising has the- 50 -largest amount of custom application support, followed by Services, with Education receivingthe least support. This may be related to possible differences in information intensity (assuggested in Table 3), or to the relative importance of each objective to the operation of theDivision.Table 6: Custom Application Support for Organizational ObjectivesOrganizational_ObjectivesCustom ApplicationsFundraismg Services EducationGeneral Ledger Medium Low LowMDAS High Low LowPatient Services Low Medium LowAccounts Payable Low Low LowInventory & Order Entry Low Low LowBequests / Planned Giving High Low LowCamp Goodtimes Low Medium LowVideo Loans Low Low MediumVolunteer Registry Medium Low LowCancer Information Line Low High MediumLodge Registry Low Medium LowThe relationship between organizational units and the supporting custom applications issummarized in Table 7. In the table, a P means that the application was primarily designed foruse by the corresponding organizational unit, while an S indicates that the application providessecondary support to another unit. For instance, MDAS’s main function is to track donorinformation for use by Financial Development. At the same time, it furnishes the GeneralLedger with revenue information that is used by Finance. The table clearly shows that Financereceives support from the greatest number of custom applications. A number of other- 51 -organizational units also enjoy the benefits of custom application, yet a surprising numbercurrently have no direct support.Note: 1-’ = pnmary unit supported, secondary unit supportedThe analysis of applications to this point has focused on custom designed and customizedsoftware, however, there are many non-customized packages being used throughout the Division.In fact, the District and Unit offices are supported almost entirely by this type of software, andthe Division office has just recently invested heavily in PCs for the purpose of running suchapplications. The majority of the applications currently in use are personal productivity toolsthat are standard in most office environments. There are numerous more specialized softwareapplications on the market, but few, if any, of these are currently being used. The applicationsutilized in the Division are categorized into a number of generic areas in Table 8.Table 7: Custom Application Support for Organizational UnitsOrganizational UnitCustomApplications P P P L D F H F A C D URE S SD R S SO 0General Ledger PMDAS P SPatient Services P SAccounts Payable PInventory & Order Entry S PBequests / Planned Giving P S SCamp Goodtimes PVideo Loans PVolunteer Registry PCancer Information Line PLodge Registry P S- 52 -Table 8: Existing Packaged Applications in each Application CategoryApplication Category Existing Packaged ApplicationsWord Processing WordPerfect (DOS & Windows), Enable, Microsoft WorksSpread Sheeting EnableDatabase Enable, IDDU, QueryGraphics / Presentation WordPerfectDesktop Publishing First Publisher, Aldus Pagemaker, Correl Draw, WordPerfectCommunication AS/400 Email & Calendar, PC SupportFrom this point on, the application category names will be used instead of the brandnames of the actual software because the generic functionality is more important and stable thanthe actual package used. Each of the categories, the typical uses associated with software of thistype, and an example specific to the Division is described in Table 9.Table 9: Typical Uses for Software in each Application CategoryApplication Category Typical UseWord Processing Producing documents for written correspondence.Example: Preparing a memo to all District Presidents.Spread Sheeting Performing numeric calculations, and developing models forsensitivity analysis.Example: Analyzing changes to budget forecasts.Database Storing and manipulating large amounts of data.Example: Retrieving the names of all persons donating morethan $200.Graphics / Presentation Creating visual aids for documents or presentations.Example: Using a pie chart to show a revenue breakdown bysource.Desktop Publishing Producing documents suitable for an external audience.Example: Creating a direct mail letter for potential donors.Communication Accessing remote data, and transferring information.Example: Querying the MDAS from a District or Unit office.- 53 -It is important to note at this point that the information classes defined earlier (seeTable 2) generally represent requirements related to information that needs to be captured,processed, stored, and later retrieved. These types of requirements are best handled by databaseapplications. It should come as no surprise then that virtually all of the existing custom designedapplications are fundamentally database oriented. These customized applications have been builtwith specific requirements and departmental needs in mind, which makes it relatively easy todetermine the organizational units supported and to assess the contribution toward objectiveachievement. The same can not be said for the standard application categories, which by theirgeneric nature complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, the effort is made here, starting withTable 10 that examines the level of support for organizational objectives.Table 10: Packaged Application Support for Organizational ObjectivesOrganizational_ObjectivesApplication CategoryFundraismg Services EducationWord Processing Low Low LowSpread Sheeting Low Low LowDatabases Low Low LowGraphics / Presentation Low Low LowDesktop Publishing Low Low LowCommunication Low Low LowThese ratings, in keeping with the previous tables, are relative rankings of the level ofsupport provided by the various application categories for each objective. Clearly, theseapplications are valuable tools, yet the table indicates that they are for the most part notproviding direct support for organizational objectives. It is important to keep in mind that these- 54 -ratings are meant to reflect the current situation, and not necessarily the potential level ofsupport in the future. Moreover, the benefits provided by these tools is very rarely easilyidentifiable or measurable. It is somewhat easier to identify how the different applicationcategories support organizational units, and this is shown in Table 11.Table 11: Packaged Application Support for Organizational UnitsOrganizational UnitApplication— — — — — — — — — —Category P P P L D F H F A C D URE S SD R s So oWord Processing X X X X X X X X X X X XSpread Sheeting X XDatabases XGraphics / Presentation XDesktop Publishing X X XCommunication X X X X X X X X XNote: X denotes use by organizational unitIn Table 11, X signifies that the organizational unit currently uses a package in theassociated category. Something that is not represented is the degree or level of usage. The tableshows that Word Processing and Communication (primarily email) applications are widely used,while most other application categories are used by only two or three organizational units. Thisshould not be completely unexpected given that word processing and email are essential toolsin most office environments. The table also demonstrates that the District Offices use thegreatest variety of packaged applications. This result can be at least partially by explained bythe fact that District offices are physically separate, thereby, requiring their own dedicatedresources.- 55 -3.3.2.4 Analysis DiscussionAlthough it would be easy to use generalities drawn from individual tables tomake suggestions about future resource allocations, decisions of that nature should be based onthe complete analysis. Moreover, the sample analysis presented here has been done at a veryhigh level, and clearly more detailed study is warranted. Although individually the sample tablespresent only a superficial look at the relationships between aspects of the Division, together theydo highlight a number of points that deserve further investigation. The most significant of theseare introduced below, with a more complete discussion of the issues included under theOrganizational Implications section.One important observation that comes out of the analysis is that while the District andUnit offices play important roles in objective achievement (see Table 1) and are key users ofmany classes of information (see Table 4), they do not have direct access to the large corporatedatabases (see Table 7). They do receive accounting reports from Division office and canrequest any additional information they require, but this form of dissemination is less convenientand timely. The issue here is larger than just the costs and benefits of providing acommunications link. The real question concerns the distribution of organizational resources andinformation. Recent technological advancements make distributive or cooperative computingincreasing favorable for many organizations. The Division should consider the potentialbenefits, particularly intangibles such as increased job satisfaction, that it may achieve frommoving in this direction.Another interesting result of the sample analysis is that while the Planning and Volunteerinformation classes are extremely important for objective achievement (see Table 3) and used- 56 -by the majority of organizational units (see Table 4), there are no directly supporting customapplications (see Table 5). A related observation is that the existing custom applications tendto support a single objective (see Table 6) and only one or two organizational units (seeTable 7). Applications related to either Planning or Volunteer information classes have veryhigh impact potential. Realizing this potential would require a more involved planning effortin order to satisfy the information needs of such a large number of organizational units pursuingwhat are moderately diverse objectives. The ability of the Division to explore this potentialopportunity would require further investigation as part of a formal planning project.A final issue that can be drawn from the analysis tables is that even though the Divisionis relatively small in terms of staff size, has fairly clear objectives, and basic information needs,the supporting information architecture is comparatively complex. In addition to Divisionoffice’s numerous custom databases (see Table 5), there are many packaged applications (seeTable 8) that are used by staff and volunteers in offices throughout the Division (see Table 11).Keeping these systems operating smoothly demands not only constant attention from a well-trained staff, but also considerable thought devoted to management issues. The ComputerServices department must be responsible for providing the information architecture, however,trained and motivated end-users can be extremely productive on their own. The Division shouldlook to continue to ensure that its end-user environment stimulates the productive use ofresources and skills by developing and communicating policies that provide clear guidance.33.3 Organizational ImplicationsThere are a number of parallels between the IS issues identified during the organizationaloverview and the results of the preliminary analysis. The IS challenges suggested a need for- 57 -planning, communication and education to strengthen the relationship with end-users, aid in themanagement of an IS environment that includes PCs, and deal with resource allocation issues.Similarly, the sample analysis implies that a formal planning process could be used to explorethe benefits of distributed computing, to exploit the high impact potential of systems providinggeneral planning and volunteer information, and to develop policies that give end-users greatercontrol and responsibility. The implications of the linkages between the IS challenges and theanalysis outcomes are described next in terms of planning priorities for the Division. This isfollowed by a brief discussion of the possible application of some reengineering principles.3.3.3.1 Planning PrioritiesAs has been mentioned before, traditional IS planning is a long process that requires theparticipation of a number of organizational players. While the work undertaken for this projectis in no way comprehensive, it does serve to suggest priorities for future planning efforts. Thefirst priority would be to develop a new or update the existing Data Processing Philosophy sothat it reflects current organizational objectives and strategies. A related priority should be thedevelopment of a vision statement and guiding principles that will provide a framework withinwhich to select applications and architectures that accommodate organizational constraints.These aspects of an IS plan are the basis for the more specific planning components related topolicy, personnel, and technology. Priorities in each of these areas are discussed next.A prominent policy issue for the Division is that of the appropriate distribution of ISresources amongst organizational offices, that is, Division, District and Unit. While argumentsfor centralization or decentralization can be made based on economic analysis, underlying issuesof control and decision making power are key determinants in resource allocation. There must- 58 -be agreement as to the importance of the activities performed at each level, and this should bereflected in the IS resources devoted to the respective offices. As suggested in the planningliterature, achieving congruence between responsibility and IS resource distribution would beaided by clearly specifying decision making authority for each of the three levels. For example,it maybe agreed that Division office will establish standards for hardware and software, and thatDistricts and Units can make their own purchases as long as they adhere to these standards.Even though some of these aspects of control have already have been worked out, continuednegotiation between organizational groups and formally spelling out the results may helpmaintain a high level of commitment.A related policy matter concerns the management of end-user computing (EUC). Threeprimary activities or attributes of EUC management discussed in the literature are direction,support and control. Direction involves setting policies that clarify acceptable practices for end-users, and planning the allocation of resources based upon established goals. Support isconcerned with the provision of tools and training that enhance the continued development andgrowth of EUC. Control imposes appropriate accountability through evaluation mechanisms thatensure that EUC activities are performed effectively, efficiently, and in compliance withpolicies. The benefits of EUC can include quicker turnaround, more customized and specificresponses, and happier, more productive end-users. The potential risks are increased securityexposure, duplication of effort, incompatibility, inefficient programming and improperdocumentation for end-user developed applications. The Division should ensure that it continuesto synchronize its management strategy with the stage of EUC development, so that the changingneeds of the end-user community are satisfied.- 59 -A priority related to personnel is ensuring that adequate IS skills exist within theDivision. IS literature suggests that there are two aspects that deserve attention, skills withinComputer Services, and skills of the end-users. Supporting the new end-user community andexploring new IS opportunities requires that personnel within Computer Services have detailedknowledge of the hardware and software that users have today and may expect to have a needfor in the future. Any skills that may currently be missing can be acquired either by trainingexisting staff or hiring new staff with the appropriate abilities. In addition, end-users shouldhave the knowledge necessary to use not only the systems currently available to them, but alsothe generic skills that will allow them to conceive of new applications or uses for existingproducts. Insufficient attention to personnel planning has been cited by many organizations asa major pitfall to the effective use of IS resources, so it is important for the Division to addressthis issue. The key points here are that the role of Computer Services shifts increasingly towardsupport, and both Computer Services and end-users become more proactive in seekingapplications for IT.In terms of technology, there are a number of factors that suggest that the Divisionshould consider an eventual move toward an organization wide client-server environment(Appendix G describes client-server computing in more detail). Foremost among these is thata need exists to share information amongst geographically dispersed offices. In particular, muchof the information within the Division needs to be consolidated and is efficiently stored at theDivision office, yet it also needs to be broken down and distributed to District and Unit offices.Considerable communication of information between offices is also necessary for the effectiveoperation of the Division. As well, the existing systems in the Division include both personnelproductivity tools running on PCs, and large database applications residing on the ASI400.- 60 -These factors demonstrate a need for the capabilities that client-server computing can provide.While much of the hardware base exists, a transition to a true client-server environment wouldbe a long and arduous process. The move would have to be made in deliberate small steps, andthis requires a long range vision that is supported by a detailed migration plan.3.3.3.2 Reengineering PotentialThe planning approach presented in this report predominately adheres to the traditionalSISP methods with some components of BPR thinking added where appropriate. Such anapproach serves as the core means of incremental adaptation to change, however, this should besupplemented with projects aimed at achieving more substantial jumps in productivity. Whilecontinuous improvement is essential, remaining competitive in the long-run requires theimplementation of more innovative change initiatives. The principles of BPR provide guidancefor engaging in projects with this goal. Fundamentally, reengineering is about redesigningprocesses from scratch, challenging long held assumptions, and forging links acrossorganizational boundaries. A summary of prominent BPR literature can be found in theLiterature Review, and some suggestions regarding initiating projects within the Division arepresented below.As a first project, it is advisable to select a process that will allow the development ofreengineering skills, has the potential for a quick pay-off, and has little risk of failure. Typicalindicators of a process ripe for redesign are where large amounts of paper are passed betweena number of people, and the turnaround time is an order of magnitude greater than the totalactual processing time. The selection of a process is an important step that should be done bythe redesign team, but an example is useful for illustrating the type of thinking that reengineering- 61 -entails. Lets say the process of ‘paying the bills’ is examined. This includes current activitieslike expense reimbursement and accounts payable. Some radical questions that could be askedinclude: are reimbursement forms needed; what is their purpose; can all data entry be done atthe source; should all bills be directly mailed to the Division office; can a computer systemcompletely automate the reimbursement and payment activities; what are the costs and benefitsof the process. These questions are meant only to demonstrate that no question is off limits, andthat real innovation is the result of creative thinking.Experience and small successes in reengineering undertakings provide the momentumnecessary to tackle a project with the expectation of more dramatic productivity improvements.An obvious prospect for the Division is the process of communicating information betweenDivision, District and Unit offices. Currently there are huge amounts of information passeddownward through a combination of mailings, faxes, and telephone calls. Clearly, thecommunication capabilities of IT offer abundant opportunities for the formation of a moreefficient and effective process. Achieving results in such an endeavour demands the participationof a large number of people over a significant amount of time, but the potential benefits canmake the effort worthwhile.3.3.4 Planning SummaryThis section of the report presented a simplified IS planning approach that is based upontraditional SISP and more recent BPR methodologies. Drawing upon the background materialgarnered during the organizational overview, key objectives, information requirements and theexisting IS infrastructure were analyzed in a series of evaluation tables. The importance ofDistrict and Unit offices, the possibilities for the deployment IT to satisfy Planning and- 62 -Volunteer information requirements, and the complexity of the Division’s IS environment allsuggested certain directions for future planning efforts. These observations were then lookedat in terms of broader organizational implications and the links with the challenges identified aspart of the overview. This facilitated the establishment of planning priorities related todistribution of IS resources, management of end-user computing, maintaining the IS skill base,and investigating client-server computing. Finally, some additional thoughts on reengineeringfor innovation through a project approach were introduced.3.4 FUTURE CONSIDERATIONSThe Division has enjoyed considerable success over the last few years, and informationsystems have played a significant role in supporting organizational units as they pursue keyobjectives. The purpose of this project was to assess the IS needs of staff and volunteers to helpensure that the Division continues to be an effective users of IT. While the Division is wellpositioned for the future, changes in the environment and the desire to improve operationscompel the search for ways to exploit new opportunities afforded by IT advances. In recognitionof the inherent linkages between the organization as a whole and IS as a strategic resource, theproject started with an organizational overview followed by the development of an IS planningapproach.The analysis suggested a number of specific priorities for a formal planning exercise,including building upon existing policies for the end-user community, investigating client-servercomputing, and continuing to manage the resource allocation issue. However, more importantis the generic planning process itself because it can be used again-and-again during each planningcycle. The ultimate value of the project is in presenting ideas and hopefully motivating people- 63 -to act upon these. Changes in behaviour or thinking have the potential for far greater impactthan the implementation of any specific recommendation. The project has been about IS, andclearly IT is a fundamental organizational resource, but it is important to keep in mind that itis not a cure-all. The creative application of IS can bring about dramatic improvements inorganizational performance, but this is dependent upon the skill and motivation of the Division’sstaff and volunteers.- 64 -4. THEORY4.1 INTEGRATION OF SISP & BPRAs was demonstrated in the literature review, both SISP and BPR represent usefulapproaches for an organization seeking to exploit the performance improvement opportunitiesoffered by information technology. Currently, the bodies of literature around these twoapproaches have remained unconnected, and questions about the possibility of integrating notionsfrom each have not been addressed. This section is devoted to constructing an integratedapproach based upon existing SISP and BPR methodologies. This is accomplished in a seriesof logical steps, beginning with the development of a model designed to illustrate how SISP andBPR impact the various aspects of an organization. This is followed by an analysis of theassumptions, emphasis, strengths and weaknesses of the different SISP approaches and the BPRapproach. Based upon the model and the analysis, key principles are selected from each of theSISP approaches and BPR so as to benefit from the advantages of each. These principles arethen expanded into a comprehensive approach which will be referred to as OrganizationalInformation Systems Planning (OISP).4.1.1 Base ModelsA prerequisite to combining the SISP and BPR approaches is an understandIng of theessence or central tenets of each. One way to begin to acquire this knowledge is to examineSISP and BPR in terms of a simple organizational model. To be of use, the model must becapable of graphically depicting the relationships between fundamental organizational aspects,so that the effects of SISP and BPR on these linkages can be discerned. A model that satisfiesthese requirements was not found in the existing SISP or BPR literature. However, the Process- 65 -Visualization Hierarchy introduced by Barrett (1994), and the Business System Diamonddeveloped by Hammer (1993) provide a basis for the creation of an appropriate model.Although a number of well researched models, such as Leavitt’s (1965) Factors in OrganizationChange framework, could have been drawn from Organizational Theory literature, these basemodels were deemed sufficient for the intended purpose. The Hierarchy and the Diamond wereoriginally constructed as an aid to understanding BPR, but their qualities are sufficiently generalfor use with SISP. Barrett’s Hierarchy is shown in Figure 5 and Hammers’ Diamond in Figure6, and both are described in more detail below.Figure 5: Barrett’s Process Visualization HierarchyBusiness VisionI HBusiness Strategy11111Process VisualizationThe goal of the Process Visualization Hierarchy is to demonstrate the differences betweenbusiness vision, business strategy and process visualization. Barrett defines business vision asa statement of an organization’s fundamental goals and values that provide a high-level sense ofdirection. He summarizes business strategy as being about understanding markets and customerssuch that resources can be allocated to taking advantage of opportunities. Finally, he defines- 66 -Determining who we areand what we are all aboulDefining the rlght” things to doDoing the right things right”process visualization as the development of a mental picture of a future reengineered businessprocess in advance of its realization. Barrett believes that business vision and business strategyset the proper context for process visualization development, which he sees as the key to BPR.He also feels that much confusion has arisen from a tendency in BPR projects to homogenizethese elements together or to use them interchangeably. He argues that while all three elementsare interdependent, they must remain separate and distinct.Figure 6: Hammer’s Business System DiamondHammer’s Business System Diamond is intended to depict the changes that occur whenan organization reengineers its business processes. The linkages between organizational aspectsare the key to understanding how the modification of business processes in turn changes jobs andstructures, management and measurement systems, and values and beliefs. As an example,Hammer points out that integrating a process often gives rise to multidimensional jobs that arebest accomplished by teams. Team members must be evaluated and paid by means ofappropriate management systems, which shape employees’ values and beliefs about what is- 67 -Business ProcessesJobs andStructuresNValuesand BeliefsManagement andMeasurement Systemsimportant. These values and beliefs then support the newly integrated process, therebycompleting the diamond. Hammer argues that reengineering requires that all four of thesehighly interrelated aspects be redesigned concurrently in order to ensure congruency.4.1.2 Organizational ModelClearly, processes is the common factor in Barrett’s Hierarchy and Hammer’s Diamond,one that can be used to merge these frameworks into a more comprehensive organizationalmodel. A model that combines Barrett’s and Hammer’s work along with some additional basicideas is shown in Figure 7.As a discussion aid, the organizational aspects in the boxes around the outside of themodel will be referred to as components, while the aspects in the middle will be called elements.All components are derived directly from Barrett and Hammer with the arrows between themsymbolizing the primary direction of influence. The Mission and Objectives component labels- 68 -Figure 7: Simple Organizational Modelare more generic terms that correspond to Barrett’s Business Vision and Business Strategy.Similarly, the remaining component terms are simplified replacements for those used-by eitherBarrett or Hammer. The elements in the center, People and Technology, were added by theresearcher to represent how integrating aspects not only bind an organization together, but alsoallow components to influence one another indirectly. For example, a very strong cooperativeculture or the use of self-monitoring statistical controls as is done in Total Quality Managementprograms would facilitate the redesign of a process into parallel activities to be performed bywork teams. An important concept represented in the model is that Processes is just onecomponent of an organization that is both shaped by upstream components and has a determininginfluence on downstream components. A brief description of what is meant by each of thecomponents and elements in the model is provided below in Table 12.Table 12: Description of Organizational Components & ElementsAspect DescriptionMission The vision for the organization that determines what the organizationis all about thereby providing direction and guidance.Objectives The strategy that is within the context of the mission and specifieswhat things the organization does to fulfil its mission.Processes The sequenced collections of activities that through certain methodsuse resources to convert inputs into outputs to meet the objectives.Structure The organization of tasks and responsibilities into jobs and units thatdetermines who does each activity in a process.Mgmt. Systems The management, measurement and evaluation systems that ensurethat jobs are done and how well objectives are met.Culture The values and beliefs that reflect congruence between the otherorganizational components.People The human capital of the organization that supports the organizationalcomponents.Technology The application of scientific and industrial advances to organizationalcomponents.- 69 -The people and technology elements of an organization are not only of central importancebut also may be subject to more frequent changes than the organizational components. Hiringthe right people, and adopting the newest technology have long been accepted as means ofimproving organizational performance. Recognizing the potential competitive gains to be madefrom modernizing organizational components has also led to mission statement recasting,strategic objective adjustments, structural modifications, the adoption of new management stylesand evaluation systems, and cultural recreations. It could be argued that initiatives aimed solelyat components downstream of Processes will meet with only limited success because mostorganizations have not yet redesigned their long outdated processes, and therefore can not expectto benefit from merely altering downstream components. After all, organizing people into teamsand changing the way they are paid is of little value if the process they work on remainssequential and highly fragmented.Most classic SISP approaches implicitly accept the organizational components as they are,and simply seek to replace the existing technologies with more efficient IT. Supplantingtypewriters with word processors and other forms of office automation illustrate this thinking.Changes in any of the organizational components are of course reflected in subsequent IS plans,but often there is no direct connection between these events. BPR, on the other hand, tightlycouples modification of the Processes organizational component with the enabling ability ofmodern IT. A process reengineering project has downstream implications for the Structure,Management Systems, and Culture components of the organization, and provides the necessaryinformation for the development of a long-range IS plan. An example is IBM Credit’s redesignof its financing process using a new computer system that allows a single generalist to replacea group of specialists (Hammer & Champy 1993). Some modem SISP approaches, like the- 70 -Organizational approach described by Earl (1993), may involve the alteration of any individualorganizational component or combination of components along with IT considerations in orderto form future IS plans.4.1.3 Analysis of SISP & BPRBased on the above interpretation of the organizational effects of classic SISP, BPR andmodem SISP, IS planning in the context of BPR can be viewed as a unique form of modemSISP. The literature also suggests a number of important similarities between SISP and BPR.They both aim to pursue a long-range vision that has strategic implications for the organization.Top management commitment, continual communication and education are prerequisites tosuccess, and both rely on cross-functional teams following a chosen methodology. There are,however, some easily identifiable differences. The BPR approach places more emphasis upfronton IT capabilities, focuses on customer-centric performance measures, takes a processorientation, and is accomplished via a series of discrete projects. Although the various SISPapproaches have important differences, overall they tend to consider IT at a later stage in theplanning process, have traditionally been internally focused, adopt a functional orientation, andare done on an ongoing basis. A key distinction between individual SISP approaches is that theclassic methodologies entail an evaluation of the whole organization, while many modemmethods allow IS plans to flow out of projects that have a much narrower scope.Each type of SISP approach inherently has certain strengths and weaknesses, as does BPRmethodology. Based on Earl’s (1993) taxonomy and the methodology suggested by Hammer andChampy (1993), the five SISP approaches and BPR are summarized in Table 13, while the mostsignificant strengths and weaknesses of each are shown in Table 14.- 71 -Table 13: Summary of SISP and BPR approachesApproach Underpinning Assumption Emphasis of ApproachBusiness-Led Business plans and needs should Business leads IS and not vice-drive IS plans. versa.Method- IS strategies will be enhanced by Selection of the best method.Driven use of a formal SISP method.Administrative SISP should follow and conform Identification and allocation ofwith the firm’s management IS resources to meet agreedplanning and control procedures. user group needs.Technological SISP is an exercise in business Production of models andand information modelling, blueprints.Organizational SISP is a continuous decision- Organizational learning aboutmalcing activity shared by the business problems andbusiness and IS. opportunities and the ITcontribution.BPR Business processes are outdated Redesigning business process.and grossly inefficient, with IT as the primary enabler.Note: S[SP approaches adapted from Earl (1993), BPR from Hammer & Champy ( 993)Approach H Strengths WeaknessesBusiness-Led Business first. Ad hoc method.Raises IS status. Depends on quality ofbusiness strategy.Method- Provides a methodology. Lacks user involvement.Driven Plugs strategy gaps. Too influenced by method.Administrative System viability. Non-strategic.Encourages user input. Resource constrained.Technological Rigor. Lacks management support.Focus on infrastructure. Only partial implementation.Organizational Emphasis on implementation. Generation of new themes.Promotes IS-user relationship. Fuzzy or soft methodology.Table 14: Strengths and Weaknesses of SISP and BRP approachesBPR Large productivity potential.Performance results focus.Note: SISP approaches adapted from Earl (1993), BPR from Hammer & Cliampy (1993)Creates resistance to change.High risk of failure.- 72 -4.1.4 The OISP ApproachNow that the effects of SISP and BPR on an organization, and the assumptions,emphasis, strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches have been identified, the processof devising a new composite approach can begin. A practical technique for creating a viableapproach is to purposefully extract complementary principles from each of the existing SISP andBPR approaches such that when combined, their strengths will have been captured and theirweaknesses offset. An effective method of choosing principles is to attempt to achieve a balancebetween the method, process, and implementation concerns described by Earl (1993) as essentialingredients for successful IS planning. Having a clear methodology and supporting modellingtools ensures that method difficulties are avoided. The combination of education, objectiveappreciation, user input and process orientation will help sustain the planning process throughto implementation. The principles selected for inclusion in OISP are listed in Table 15, andexamples of these principles in practice are given in Table 16.Table 15: Principles Selected from SISP & BPR approachesApproach PrincipleBusiness-Led An understanding of organizational objectives facilitates thedevelopment of a vision and the establishment of performance goalsfor the planning process.Method- A formal methodology will provide planning teams with clear andDriven proven means of pursing established goals.Administrative Capturing user input is a good way to generate new ideas andsolidify commitment to the planning process.Technological Choosing appropriate modelling techniques to meet needs as theyarise can save planning teams the effort required to create theirown analysis tools.Organizational Promoting organizational learning about IT will help prepareeveryone for active participation in the planning process.BPR Adopting a customer-centred process view will aid in selectingareas where IS planning attention can be of the greatest benefit.- 73 -Table 16: Examples of Principles in PracticeApproach PrincipleBusiness-Led A major organizational objective of superior customer service couldbe translated into a vision of becoming the industry leader in thatarea by achieving 9 out of 10 on performance ratings fromcustomer satisfaction surveys.Method- Adopting Davenport’s methodology for process innovation wouldDriven provide a team with 10 key activities to perform in order tocomplete the project.Administrative People who perform a process on a daily basis are likely to havemany ideas for improvements that would help them in their work.Technological A project team may choose a CASE tool to model a portion of aredesigned process, and use this model to generate code for a newsupporting application.Organizational A specialist on a process redesign team who has learned of thecapabilities of expert systems may realize the potential of having ageneralist take care of all but the most complex cases.BPR A financing request that requires only 2 hours of processing time,but has a customer turn around time of 14 days would clearly be anarea where a customer service organization would want to improve.Having selected key principles from the SISP and BPR approaches is an important stepbut they must now be amalgamated into a coherent package. The Organizational approach hasbeen found to be very successful (Earl 1994), so it is a reasonable place to begin. Essentially,the Organizational approach is about IT education. Similarly, the Business-Led approach isabout objective education. A combined education program would create an environment wherethe organization would always be prepared for IS planning activities. Being prepared isessential, but the organization also needs to direct its efforts. Redesigning processes assuggested by BPR, and capturing users’ ideas as is done in the Administrative approachrepresent useful means for identifying areas where a prepared organization can apply itsknowledge. Along with the appropriate knowledge and direction, the organization needs- 74 -methods and tools to help it work efficiently. The methodologies of the Method-Drivenapproach and BPR, along with the modelling techniques and analysis tools used in theTechnological approach, would clearly be invaluable in this regard.Two key features of OISP which emerge from the above discussion are environment andprojects. The environment includes the support mechanisms that provide the necessary basis forIS planning, while projects provide the means by which the actual activity of planning can becarried out. These two aspects are summarized in Table 17, and described below in detail.Table 17: Summary of the OISP ApproachAspect [ Underpinning Assumption V Emphasis of AspectEnvironment A basic understanding of IT Continual education of topcapabilities is essential to its management and key users toapplication in achieving prepare them for participation inorganizational objectives, project teams.Projects The best way to conceptualize how To ensure that IT is givento use IT to tackle organizational consideration so that IS initiativeschallenges is in the context of may emerge from projects dealingmulti-disciplinary teams, with any organizational challenge.Working from the Organizational and Business-Led principles, the task of establishingan OISP environment entails ensuring that everyone has a fundamental understanding oforganizational objectives, and knowledge of modem IT capabilities. Two groups that arecommon to many planning methodologies and essential to such an environment are a steeringcommittee and a new technology group. An OISP steering committee would be comprised ofrepresentatives from top management, user groups and IS personnel, with membership changesbeing made on a rotating basis. The committee would be responsible for overseeing aneducation program that links organizational objectives with IT, for ensuring that OISP goals- 75 -become part of every significant organizational project, and for selecting individuals forparticipation in project teams. A new technology group would be composed of a small numberof IS personnel responsible for investigating IT opportunities and preparing presentations andreports for incorporation into the education program. The technology group would also aid thesteering committee and project teams in gaining a more comprehensive understanding of specifictechnologies. Together, these two groups serve to create an environment that is both aprerequisite and a critical tool for successful OISP.In addition to is role in maintaining an appropriate environment, the OISP steeringcommittee should also sponsor its own projects. As suggested by experience with theOrganizational approach, the committee can obtain the greatest combined impact by clusteringprojects around predefined themes that are driven by organizational objectives. Examples ofthemes include focusing on lowering administrative costs or becoming the highest qualityproducer of a certain product. As anecdotal evidence in the BPR literature illustrates, processesare a logical place for most organizations to look for project ideas. As a good initial project,the steering committee could assign a cross-functional team the task of identifying processes toreengineer. Such a project would benefit from adopting one of the methodologies suggested byHammer & Champy (1993), Davenport (1993), or others, supplemented with organizationalmodelling techniques and tools popular in the Technological approach to SISP. Based on thisinitial project, additional teams could be organized to redesign specific processes, where onceagain BPR methodology and Technological based tools could be utilized.Focusing on processes is one useful avenue for generating project ideas, but it is not theonly one. Process reengineering is basically a top-down approach that has great potential for- 76 -generating strategic IS plans. However, organizations using the bottom-up Administrativeapproach to SISP have also been able to make strategic IS investments. The steering committeetherefore should establish a formal mechanism that will allow users to make project proposals.It is important for the steering committee to realize that their job is to encourage the discoveryof new project ideas regardless of source, and to package these ideas into meaningful themes.Moreover, the steering committee must look for ways to capture the lessons learned duringprojects so that these experiences can be passed on during the training of future project teammembers. Even if the steering committee is unable to generate its own project ideas, it stillserves an important role in ensuring that projects sponsored by other organizational groups haveIS planning as part of their mandate, and are supported by team members who areknowledgeable about IT.4.1.5 Applying OISPAs discussed above, there are a number of fundamental actions that must be taken earlyon after deciding to adopt OISP. These actions and a suggested order in which they should beaccomplished are summarized in Table 18.Table 18: Fundamental OISP Actions after AdoptionOrder fl Action1 Establish an OISP steering committee, define its mandate, and select themes.2 Create a new technology group and assign a list of technologies to investigate.3 Establish a process identification team to assess reengineering potential.4 Develop mechanisms for capturing user input and for communicating results.5 Implement an organizational education program for top management and users.6 Begin to assign personnel to regular committees, and process redesign teams.- 77 -By now it should be clear that the OISP approach developed here is not a simple step-by-step methodology. Traditionally, organizations would engage in IS planning whenever they felta strong need to develop a strategic IS plan. The emphasis of the OISP approach, however, isthe creation of a climate where IS considerations become habitual and an embedded part oforganizational thinking. Continuous education lays the groundwork for organizational learning,the benefits of which are a readiness to see how IT can be used to tackle problems and improveperformance. Under OISP, there would not be an IS planning team charged specifically withthe task of producing a long-term IS plan, rather IS planning initiatives would emerge from themultidisciplinary teams formed as a natural response to organizational challenges. The ultimategoal of OISP is to raise the status of IT to the point where it is viewed as a fundamentalorganizational resource. Once this is accomplished, the organization will begin to use IT as theinspiration for both continuous improvement and more innovative project ideas.It is important to note that the concepts presented as the OISP approach are necessarilygeneral, and that their application in a specific organizational setting requires that adjustmentsbe made to account for differences in existing knowledge and practices. In other words,developing OISP into an approach that has very detailed steps and activities would be counterproductive considering the effort that would be required to adapt it to each new setting. Anorganization that already has an advanced technology group, an IS steering committee, or usesan Organizational approach to SISP will be much farther ahead in creating an OISP environmentthan an organization that has only had experience with something that resembles theAdministrative approach to IS planning. Perhaps the greatest challenge for an organization thatadopts OISP will be to maintain top management’s commitment to an appropriate educationprogram. The key to overcoming resistance to training efforts is to ensure that IS initiatives- 78 -reach implementation, and then to communicate education’s role back to top management. Thecontinued success of OISP is dependent upon the constant attention of a steering committee thatis prepared to make changes to its education program as the organization evolves.4.2 OISP iN A CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONAlthough not expressly stated in either the SISP or BPR literature, both sets ofapproaches seem implicitly to have been conceived with the average large, for-profitorganization in mind. Clearly, not all organizations, nor the majority of the enterprises intoday’s world fit this mould. A class of organization that is perhaps the antithesis of the largefor-profit is the small, volunteer-based charitable organization. The question that naturally arisesthen is, can SISP, BPR or OISP be applied in a charitable organization? Further, how must theadopted approach be adapted for this environment? An understanding of the fundamentaldifferences between the classic large for-profit enterprise and a typical charitable organizationwill begin to answer these questions.4.2.1 DimensionsSize is one obvious distinction that has many implications for organizations consideringOISP. Smaller organizations tend to have considerably less financial and human resources todevote to both general and IS planning efforts. Financial constraints impose strict limitationson the ability to invest in new technologies, to provide the necessary training of personnel, orto hire outside consultants. There are likely to be fewer specialists in a small organization asemployees take on a wider range of tasks and responsibilities out of necessity. As- a result,devoting key personnel full-time to a planning team carries a greater risk. Moreover,redesigning processes may be less beneficial since the processes themselves are likely to be- 79 -simple and involve fewer tasks. The maturity of the IS department, if one even exists, isprobably considerably less than what would be found in a large organization, which may presentan obstacle to the application of modem IT or the use of sophisticated methodologies.Potentially positive implications of smaller size are more readily identifiable processes, easiertop to bottom communication, and less time required for completion of OISP projects.Most executives would agree that a customer focus, a keen awareness of the competition,and attention to the bottom-line are essential to the survival of most for-profit organizations.Non-profits, on the other hand, tend to be driven by more idealistic visions, where the conceptsof customer, competition, performance measures, and budgetary constraints take on entirelydifferent meanings. The outputs of non-profit organizations may or may not include productsor services, and the connections to the ultimate recipients, or customers, are often weak incomparison to for-profit companies. Non-profit organizations often seek to obtain resourcesfrom governments and the public in general, and therefore are competing with all of the otherdemands placed upon these groups. Standard business performance metrics like time, cost, andquality may be more difficult to define or measure, and in some cases are simply less important.Clear bench-marks and future performance targets are crucial to assessing the results of OISPprojects, but its not clear what these measures should be based upon for many non-profitorganizations. Most non-profit organizations are highly budget oriented, yet failure to achievedesired goals is of considerably less consequence for some non-profits than it is for a typical forprofit corporation.Another important distinction for many charities is the importance of the role played byvolunteers. In charitable organizations, staff and volunteers often work side by side in the- 80 -pursuit of organizational objectives. In many cases, volunteers are both the front line workers,and through participation in a committee structure, a significant decision making body withpriority setting responsibilities. The nature of a volunteer work force has many ramificationsfor conducting OISP. The majority of volunteers have at best a regular part-time commitment,and more commonly only an episodic association with an organization. Moreover, volunteersmay greatly outnumber a charitable organization’s employees, with considerable fluctuations innumbers over any given period. Gaining the kind of commitment and participation that OISPrequires over the long-term from a volunteer force presents a particularly difficult challenge.As well, investments in training and the acquired knowledge of the volunteers can disappearquickly as they move on. On the other hand, volunteers are there by choice and are oftendeeply concerned with the success of the charity, and this motivation can be a key resource forplanning efforts.4.2.2 ImplicationsOverall, these differences suggest a number of meaningful adjustments that should bemade when conducting OISP in a charitable setting. Given the importance of maintainingorganizational memory, the steering committee should have a stable core group that does notchange along with the regular membership. Considering the smaller size, less complex OISPprojects should be selected with team members working on a rotating basis so that theorganization is not adversely affected by the absence of key personnel. A charity wouldgenerally be better off using relatively simple methods and must concentrate on implementation.This may be best accomplished via a series of smaller projects, thereby avoiding the detrimentalrepercussions of the failure of a large and time consuming initiative. If it has not already doneso, the charity should work to define its own performance measures that reflect its mission and- 81 -objectives. Pursuing its own metrics rather than the typical business measures will aid thecharity in focusing on its unique needs. A charity should also not be afraid of investing in itsvolunteers since they can serve as committee members, as well as be an invaluable source ofinsight into organizational operations. Moreover, even volunteers who leave may inspire othersto join once they learn of the education and experience that can be gained from working withthe charity.4.3 OISP & TIlE CCSThe B.C. & Yukon Division of the CCS is, for the most part, a typical charitableorganization, and the adjustments to OISP for charities that were described above are certainlyapplicable. The OISP approach was not used during the CCS case study because it was notdeveloped until after the project had been completed. However, the in-depth knowledge of theDivision acquired during the study can be used to speculate about how well the approach wouldwork in this particular setting. Moreover, additional recommendations for linking the planningpriorities that resulted from the project with the adoption of the new OISP approach can nowbe made. General comments about the suitability of OISP for the Division, along with morespecific suggestions and examples are given in the rest of this section.4.3.1 Promoters & InhibitorsAdopting the OISP approach in many respects represents a pivotal change for theDivision in terms of IS planning, one that would require some time to take effect. Currently,IS planning resembles the Administrative approach, which is a reflection of the Division’straditional bottom-up decision making style and emphasis on short-term planning. The Divisionalready has a data processing department and a significant investment in IT, so it does recognize- 82 -the importance of IS for maintaining productive operations. However, the average level of ITknowledge among management, staff and volunteers is relatively limited. The Division’sexperience in using an IS literate cross-functional task force to develop computer acquisitionpolicies should provide the basis for forming an OISP steering committee, but vesting it withthe required decision making authority will be a much larger step. Overall, a move to OISP willbe aided by a parallel migration to a more business-like attitude and a healthy concern for long-term organizational planning. While the adoption of OISP may not be the Division’s numberone priority, it is apparent that it has the ability and the need to take deliberate steps in thatdirection.4.3.2 Ties to Planning PrioritiesThe Division can clearly benefit from linking the sample analysis planning priorities thatresulted from the project with the adoption of the OISP approach. An OISP steeringcommittee’s first order of business would be to create a charter outlining its responsibilities andobligations. The membership of the steering committee would make it an ideal group forattending to the suggested priorities of updating the Data Processing Philosophy and developingprinciples to guide project selection. Moreover, the steering committee would also be perfectfor overseeing the formation of teams to attend to the planning priorities related to thedistribution of IS resources and the management of end-user computing. A new technologygroup’s (which may actually be only one person) OISP responsibilities mesh well with theplanning priorities of ensuring an adequate IS skill base, and investigating client-servercomputing. The process of establishing an OISP environment has the double advantage for theDivision of both positioning itself for future planning efforts and addressing the immediate ISplanning priorities that emerged from the project.- 83 -4.3.3 Links to ReengineeringOnce the planning priorities have been attended to as part of constructing an OISPenvironment in the Division, the steering committee should look to sponsor two key processoriented projects. The first project team would be responsible for defining who the Division’scustomers are, the outcomes that each receives, and the competition that exists. The teamshould then develop performance measures that reflect these definitions. These performancemeasures in turn will provide the basis for generating project themes that will focus theDivision’s efforts, and can also serve as metrics for establishing baseline bench marks for theevaluation of implemented project initiatives. The second project team should work to identifythe Division’s main processes, and prioritize them by reengineering potential. A model thatdisplays the Division’s existing processes, combined with impressions of the reegineeringpotential and risk related to each will aid the steering committee in assigning redesign projectpriorities.Basic examples of the areas that should be addressed by the two project teams are usefulfor visualizing how these suggestions may be implemented. Some brief initial definitions of theDivision’s customers, the outcomes they receive, and the existing competition are provided inTable 19. Operating performance parameters taken from a classification scheme developed byDavidson (1993) and examples of possible corresponding measures are given in Table 20. Asample model or diagram that shows the Division’s stakeholders, its boundary processes thathave direct links to the stakeholders, and its internal processes that support the boundaryprocesses is shown in Figure 8. Finally, Table 21 illustrates some factors or criteria that couldbe considered when assessing the reengineering potential of processes in order to develop aranked list of potential projects.- 84 -Table 19: Possible Initial DefinitionsAspect DefinitionCustomers: Three existing customer types include donors, patients and volunteers.Potential customers include any member of the community.Outcomes:Donors Receive peace of mind and a feeling of having done well.Patients Receive help in dealing with emotions and financial expenses.Volunteers Receive useful work experience and a feeling of having done well.Competition:Donors All other non-profits and charitable organizations.Patients Related non-profits or charitable organizations.Volunteers Other demands on time including work and other volunteer associations.Table 20: Example Performance MeasuresPerformance Selected Metrics &Parameter Example MeasuresProductivity: Output per unit of labour or capital, variable transaction costs.Overall efficiency Percentage of revenue consumed by administration expenses.Staffing efficiency Number of donations processed per staff person.Staffing levels Number of staff per number of volunteers.Transaction costs Cost per donation processed.Velocity: Cycle times.Special events Percentage of pledges received X days after the event.Quality: Life expectancy and life-cycle costs.Lodges Percentage of requests for stays satisfied. (see Note 1)Performance ratings on a 1 to 10 scale completed by guests.Precision: Mass customization and microsegmentation activity.Donors Number of different types or categories of donors.Patients Number of categories of patients with different cancers.Service: Retention rates, loyalty, customer satisfaction.Donors Percentage of first time and repeat donors.Volunteers Retention rates for volunteers over time.Patients Percentage of patients receiving financial aid.Education Percentage of queries answered by the Information Line.Note: Generic Performance Parameters taken from Davidson (1993)Note 1: Important given that amount received decreases after time.- 85 -Figure 8: B.C. & Yukon Division Activity DiagramBCCF BCCA National Office Interest GroupsDonors Patients VolUnteers Media ResearchersFundraising Service Volunteer Public ProgramActivities Delivery Development Relations DevelopmentBasic Inventory Financial Information Human ResourcePlanning Management Management Management DevelopmentTable 21: Sample Ranking CriteriaProcess Performance Risk of Theme OverallReward Failure Alignment RatingProcess A High Medium High HighProcess B Medium Medium Medium Medium... Process X ......Note: Quantitative scales could be used in place qualitative for more precision.These definitions, example measures, activity diagram, and sample criteria are onlyintended to stimulate thinking and get the Division pointed in the right direction. The initialdefinitions are incomplete and only reflect the opinion of the researcher. The list ofperformance parameters has been drawn from work done by Davidson (1993), but performanceparameter classifications developed by other authors may be just as relevant. The activity- 86 -ExternalEnvironmentStakehol dareBoundaryProcessesLinkInter naiPrOCe8BeBSupportdiagram is an attempt to demonstrate that there are at least two different kinds of processes,those that link the organization with its external environment and those that are entirely internal.Other diagrams or models illustrating different relationships between processes or between theorganization and its environment could also prove extremely useful. The sample ranicing simplyuses the mean score of basic composite criteria that are relevant for any reengineeringassessment. Depending on its particular needs, an organization may wish to break these criteriadown into sub factors, add additional criteria, or use more sophisticated means for determiningthe overall rating. What is really required is a team of Division staff and volunteers with theappropriate knowledge and time to fully explore these ideas to the point where they becomeuseful for the organization.Once these two base process projects have been completed, the steering committee canbegin to assign teams to redesign selected processes. While the BPR literature providesguidance for identifying processes, little has been written about process analysis. It is importantto develop a method for describing a process, for decomposing it into a set of related activities,and for identifying potential improvements. Some useful suggestions in this area come fromWand (1994). For describing a process, he suggests that they be viewed as a network ofsequenced activities where each activity has inputs and outputs, employs methods, and consumesresources. A process can be represented graphically by using boxes for the activities and arrowsbetween them to represent their precedence relationships. Process improvements can then beexplored by considering whether an activity can be eliminated, split, combined, improved, orconnected to other activities by new precedence relationships. This is one possible method foranalyzing processes, other may exist, but what is important is that the Division use one that itis comfortable working with.- 87 -4.4 THEORY SUMMARYThe primary purpose of the theory section was to deal specifically with the two researchquestions proposed for the thesis, that is, how to integrate SISP with BPR, and how to apply theresulting approach in a charitable organization. The integration question was addressed in aseries of steps. The first step entailed looking at SISP and BPR in terms of a simpleorganizational model that illustrates the relationship between processes and other organizationalaspects. The second step involved examining the assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of SISPand BPR. In the third step, principles were selected for inclusion in an integrated .approachbased upon the organizational model and approach analysis. The resulting principles weregrouped to form the two principle features of the OISP approach, establishing an environmentthat depends on effective interaction between a steering committee and a new technology group,and engaging in committee sponsored projects. The generality and continual nature of the OISPapproach represents a significant departure from classical SISP methodologies which present verydetailed means of creating IS plans.In responding to the question of applying the proposed OISP approach in a charitableorganization, the organizational dimensions of size, profit orientation and volunteer workforcewere explored. Based on these generic differences, implications for OISP in terms of charitiesin general and the CCS in particular were discussed. This was followed by recommendationsto establish an OISP environment in the Division in parallel with satisfying the planningpriorities that emerged from the planning project. Additional suggestions were also made on twocritical process oriented projects intended to define customers, establish appropriate performancemeasures, and investigate process reengineering potential. Finally, some thoughts on how- 88 -project teams can go about documenting and redesigning processes were presented. Whileperhaps not completely putting the two research questions to rest, this discussion has hopefullyprovided useful principles and direction.- 89 -5. CONCLUSIONS5.1 SUMMARYThis thesis began as the very practical problem of how to evaluate and makerecommendations about the information systems (IS) needs of the B.C. and Yukon Division ofthe Canadian Cancer Society (CCS). The problem was quickly translated into one of IS planningin the context of a charitable organization. It became evident that the two most relevant sets ofliterature, Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) and Business Process Reengineering(BPR), lacked the specifics necessary to provide appropriate direction on how to complete sucha task. As a result, the work done for the CCS was not a simple planning exercise using a givenmethodology. Rather, the project required the careful consideration of many different methodsand techniques related to both SISP and BPR in order to develop an approach suitable for theCCS setting. The CCS project also represented an opportunity to explore ideas about how tocombine the best elements of SISP and BPR into a comprehensive approach, an eclectic ISplanning approach called Organizational Information Systems Planning (OISP) was proposed.OISP was discussed in terms of how it should be adapted for use in charities, with the case ofthe B.C. and Yukon Division of the CCS being used as an illustrative example.5.2 CASE STUDY & THEORY LINKAGESA number of clear linkages can be made between the planning approach used during thecase study with the CCS and the proposed OISP approach. The two critical planning componentsof the case study were the organizational overview and the sample dimensional analysis. Eachof these components could be usefully employed by any organization interested in adoptingOISP. An organizational overview provides the kind of information that would make such anactivity a valuable prelude to establishing an OISP envirOnment. Similarly, dimensional analysis- 90 -is a technique that could be easily employed in different project settings. Some specific ideason how an organizational overview and dimensional analysis can be utilized by an organizationlooking to embrace OISP are provided below.In order to create a working OISP environment, an organization must be able to clearlydelineate its key objectives, understand its structure, and be aware of the fundamental challengesit faces. An organization wide study, such as the one done with the CCS, can supply thisinformation. The identified objectives must be incorporate into the OISP education program sothat members of the organization share a common vision. Knowledge of structure andoperations will determine which groups require or deserve representation on the OISP steeringcommittee. Finally, an appreciation of both objectives and challenges will guide thedevelopment of the steering committee’s mandate, and the formation of appropriate OISP projectthemes. In this light, an organizational overview could be seen as necessary prerequisite or atleast as a valuable tool for establishing an OISP environment.The dimensional analysis done with the CCS entailed a comprehensive examination ofthe entire organization along four distinct dimensions. This form of broad analysis could beused by an OISP steering committee to identify gaps between needs and existing IS, therebygenerating ideas for IS planning projects. A modified analysis that used technology as a keydimension could be utilized by a new technology group to explore the impact potential of theapplication of recent IT advances for the organization. Individual project teams could alsousefully employ a more focused dimensional analysis by limiting the scope applied to a particulardimension or using fewer dimensions. For example, a particular team’s requirements may implythat it only needs to examine the relationship between a single organizational objective and the- 91 -structure dimension. Dimensional analysis is a technique that an organization can simply pullfrom its toolbox anytime an applicable need exists.Another interesting connection between the case study and the theory behind OISP arethe parallels in the dimensions used in the sample analysis with the components of the simpleorganizational model. Basic organizational aspects like objectives, structure and technology wereused as dimensions and were represented in the organizational model. This of course is logicalbecause the model was intended to depict all fundamental aspects of the organization. Theimportance of making this connection is that the “diamond” organizational model provides a listof potential dimensions for use in analysis. For example, the processes component is a keyorganizational dimension that was not used during the CCS project, but one that could be utilizedin other analyses. In summary, although the case study and theory development occurred inseparate time frames, underlying relationships clearly exist between them.5.3 SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCESSome special circumstances that were present during the course of the project with theCCS are worth noting. Although it is likely common to charities and other small non-profitorganizations, the CCS has only recently adopted a more business like approach. As a result,long-range planning and evaluation of objective achievement are only now becoming highpriorities, which means that more preparatory work is required to do IS planning than in mostbusiness settings. However, the many modern management fads that have resulted in the socalled corporate ‘flavour of the month programs’ are also absent in charitable organizations,which seems to make staff and volunteers less resistant to change. Another important realizationinvolves acknowledging the effect of having an outsider acting as the principle instigator of a- 92 -planning project. An outsider has a certain assumed objectiveness and is capable of visualizingfresh ideas, but often lacks the authority or backing necessary to sustain a project from inceptionto implementation. In the case of the B.C. and Yukon Division, recent changes in leadershipwere accompanied by an increased willingness or desire to improve operations, and this alsoprovided a special motivation for engaging in a planning project. The exact effects of thesecircumstances were not investigated, however, it is clear that the application of IS planningapproaches such as OISP can be effected by the unique situations that exist in every enterprise.5.4 LIMITATIONSThere are a number of obvious limiting factors derived from the fact that the thesis wasinitiated by an IS planning project request made by a single organization. Perhaps the mostsignificant implication of the practical nature of the thesis is that the theoretical development ofOISP was done after the completion of the CCS project, so it was not tested directly during thecase study. Moreover, many of the ideas that served as the basis for the development of OISPwere the result of working with one particular charitable organization. A related concern is thatOISP is not based on an evolving tradition of research from a number of authors, but rather isa reflection of the potentially biased views of a single researcher. Although these concerns arenot unimportant, they are not completely unexpected either. Existing approaches are known tobe strong on method but weak on process and implementation. The OISP approach representsa first cut at creating a simple yet balanced approach that can be easily used by today’sorganizations. OISP is uniquely valuable because it combines notions from SISP and BPR,which seem implicitly designed for large for-profit corporations, and examines how such anapproach can successfully be used in what appears to be a typical charitable organization.- 93 -5.5 FUTURE DIRECTIONSThe OISP approach is a useful start to developing a means by which any organization canincorporate IS planning into an accepted element of its overall planning processes, however,much more work needs to be done. The linkages between OISP and its theoretical basis in SISPand BPR need to be expanded so that the emergence of OISP ideas can be further explained.OISP should be developed in greater detail, applied in a number of different types oforganizations, and refined in order to ensure that it is sufficiently generic for nearly universalapplication. As well, research is required to study the effectiveness of OISP in comparison toother popular approaches currently in use, and to gain an understanding of its strengths andweaknesses. The long-term value of this thesis is dependent upon other researchers seeing OISPas an interesting beginning, one that is worthy of their time and effort to cultivate into somethingthat can be utilized by academics and practitioners alike.- 94 -BIBLIOGRAPHYAtkinson, Robert A., and Montgomery, Judith, “Reshaping IS Strategic Planning”, Journal ofInformation Systems Management, Fall 1990, pp. 9-17.Atkinson, Robert A., “Positioning a Strategic Planning Initiative for Success”, Journal ofInformation Systems Management, Winter 1991, pp. 67-70.Atkinson, Robert A., “Capturing the Full Impact of IT”, Journal of Information SystemsManagement, Summer 1991, pp. 53-56.Atkinson, Robert A., “The Real Meaning of Strategic Planning”, information SystemsManagement, Fall 1991, pp. 57-59.Atkinson, Robert A., “Keeping IS Strategic Plans Off the Self”, Infonnation SystemsManagement, Winter 1992, pp. 68-71.Atkinson, Robert A., “Applying the 80/20 Rule: Making It Work for IS Plans”, InformationSystems Management, Summer 1992, pp. 57-59.Barrett, John L., “Process Visualization: Getting the Vision Right Is Key”, Information SystemsManagement, Sprint 1994, pp. 14-23.Bashein, Barbara J., Markus, Lynne M., and Riley Patricia, “Preconditions for BPR Success:And How to Prevent Failures”, information Systems Management, Spring 1994, pp. 7-13.Carter, Richard B., Nilakanta, Shree, and Norris, Daniel, “Information Systems Planning: ACase Study”, Journal of Systems Management, July 1990, pp. 10-15.Conrath, David W., Ang, James S. K., and Mattay Shankar, “Strategic Planning for InformationSystems: A Survey of Canadian Organizations”, INFOR, Volume 30, Number 4,November 1992, pp. 364-377.DMR, “Information Technology Enters a Second Era”, Business Week, October 25, 1993,(special advertising section).Davenport, Thomas H., Process Innovation, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, 1993,ISBN 0-87584-366-2Davenport, Thomas H., and Short, James E., “The New Industrial Engineering: InformationTechnology and Business Process Redesign”, Sloan Management Review, Summer 1990,pp. 11-27.Davidson, W.H., “Beyond re-reengineering: The three phases of business transformation,” IBMSystems Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1993, pp. 65-79.- 95 -Earl, Michael J., “Experiences in Strategic Information Systems Planning”, MIS Quarterly,March 1993, pp. 1-20.Flaatten, Per 0., et. aL, Foundations ofBusiness Systems: Second Edition, The Dryden Press:Orlando, 1992.FORTUNE, “The Promise of Reengineering”, May 1993, pp. 94-97.FORTUNE, “Reengineering: the Hot New Managing Tool”, August 23, 1993, pp. 41-48.Gartner Group, “Client/Server Computing in the 1990s”, Information Technology ManagementAcademic Program, R-001-102, January 6, 1994.Guha, Subashish, Kettinger, William J., and Teng, James T.C., “Business ProcessReengineering: Building a Comprehensive Methodology”, Infonnation SystemsManagement, Summer 1993, pp. 13-22.Hammer, Michael, “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate”, Harvard BusinessReview, July-August 1990, pp. 104-112.Hammer, Michael, and Champy, James, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto forBusiness Revolution, Harper Business, New York, NY, 1993, ISBN 0-88730-640-3.I/S Analyzer, “Establishing a Client/Server Framework”, November 1993, Vol. 31, No. 11.I/S Analyzer, “The Role of IT in Business Reengineering”, August 1993, Vol. 31, No.8.1/S Analyzer, “Usability and Client-Server Computing”, March 1992, Vol. 30, No. 3.King, William R., “Process Reengineering: The Strategic Dimensions”, Information SystemsManagement, Spring 1994, pp. 7 1-73.King, William R., “Strategic Planning for Management Information Systems”, MIS Quarterly,Volume 2, Number 1, March 1978.Klien, Mark M., “Reengineering Methodologies and Tools: A Prescription for EnhancingSuccess”, Information Systems Management, Spring 1994, pp. 30-35.Laware, Gilbert W., “Strategic Business Planning: Aligning Business Goals with Technology”,Infonnation Systems Management, Fall 1991, pp.44-9.Leavitt, H., “Applied Organizational Change in Industry: Structural Technological andHumanistic Approaches, in Handbook of Organizations, March, J., Ed., Chicago: RandMcNally & Co., 1965, pp. 1145.- 96 -Lederer, Albert L., and Sethi, Vijay, “Root Causes of Strategic Information Systems PlanningImplementation Problems”, Journal ofManagement Information Systems, Summer 1992,Volume 9, Number 1, pp. 25-42.Lederer, Albert L., and Gardiner, Veronica, “Strategic Information Systems Planning: TheMethod/i Approach”, Information Systems Management, Summer 1992, pp. 13-20.Maurer, Paul, and Silver Jerry, “Sizing Up Downsizing: Benefits and Challenges of Client-Server Computing”, Oracle Corporation, Informatics 93 Presentation.Ryan, Hugh W., “Reinventing the Business”, Information Systems Management, Spring 1994,pp. 77-79.Stewart, Thomas A., “Welcome to the Revolution”, FORTUNE, December 1993, pp. 66-77.Tayntor, Christine B., “Customer-Driven Long-Range Planning: Integrating EUC into ISPlanning”, Information Systems Management, Fall 1993, pp. 13-20.Wand, Yair, “Business Process Reengineering - How to Analyze for Process Redesign”, ClassNotes for Commerce 439, University of British Columbia, 1994.Wang, Richard Y., Information Technology in Action, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1992, ISBN 0132210290.- 97 -APPENDIX A: Program & District Objectives1993-1994 AGM Program ObjectivesPatient Services1. To develop and fill vacant chairs.2. To develop and train the Childhood and Family Volunteers forall Patient Services programs.3. To develop and distribute a doctors’ information pamphlet on Patient Services so thatpatients are better informed.Public RelationsBy the end of September 30, 1994:1. To increase involvement of the medical community by recruiting at least one familyphysician for each Unit.2. To improve our internal communications by receiving and replying back to time-sensitivematerial from Division through to Units and vice-versa within a 2-week period.3. To seek more involvement with the multicultural community by recruiting in each Unit,where applicable, at one volunteer from each of the following: First Nations,Chinese and Indo-Canadian.Fundraising1. By November, 1993, to establish a fund raising goal which provides for the approval ofall 1993/94 budget programs.2. To increase the annual revenue by:- increasing the household and business canvass by April 30, 1994- each District holding one 24-hour run by Sept. 30, 1994- each District holding one Longest Day of Golf by Sept. 30, 1994- each Unit holding one special event by Sept. 30, 1994- each District choosing to utilize a “Closed-access Donor” direct mail campaignin April 19943. To recruit volunteer chairman, vice-chairman for each District by January 15, 1994, andto identify and fill volunteer positions and train the volunteers required in each Unit bySeptember 30, 1993.- 98 -Volunteer Development1. To develop a generic training module including standards for use throughout the Divisionby December 31, 1993.2. To establish contact with multicultural groups in Districts and Units and recruit avolunteer base by Sept. 30, 1994.3. To review and revise as required the volunteer recognition policy and procedure byDecember 31, 1994.Public Education1. To offer a Fresh Start course in 50% of the Units in each District and hold one workshopto train Fresh Start facilitators in each District by_______2. To develop school Smoking and Health program resource materials packages for 9-12year olds by______3. To establish a Breast Health volunteer committee in 20% of the Units.1993-1994 DISTRICT OBJECTIVESFraser Valley District1. Campaign: Door-to-Door, Daffodil.- volunteer involvement- high profile - education tool- ambassadors- well established experience2. Bequests3. Jail-N-Bail.- fun/media- different part of community- professionals4. 24 Hour Run.- community involvement- young people- family- media5. Fashion Show.6. Golf Tournaments.7. Rent-a-Santa8. Breast Run.- strong message re CCS involvement- 99 -Greater Vancouver DistrictBy October 1994:1. District Executive and Volunteer Development Chair - recruiting/orienting of volunteersin order to increase district wide # of 25%, filling vacancies.2. Each Unit will take tobacco use reduction program to at least one new school.By December 1993.3. Improved campaign organization in place in 100% of units.Interior District1. To provide the necessary workshops and mini-workshops to better enable our volunteers.2. To provide CCS programs.3. To have a Volunteer Development Chair in each active unit to develop and maintainvolunteers.4. To hold an annual “Presidents” workshop to provide training and improve two-waycommunication.Kootenay1. To fill vacant chairs (includes vice) of units and district; youth involvement; to offertraining programs and have training session at AGM in June.2. To restructure District Council to allow East/West input without increasing size/council.3. To better communication with our medical counterparts, ie., doctors, nurses and medicalprofessionals; more emphasis on healthy lifestyles.4. All units to participate in an April Door-to-Door Campaign.Northern District1. Workshop for F. St.2. Develop CMP.3. Encourage LFV RRP to the units.4. 1 - 24 Hour Run.5. 2 longest day of golf6. Increase awareness of 4 and 5.Objectives1. Volunteer Development.2. Special Events.3. Unit office development.- 100 -Vancouver Island District1. To develop and pilot anti-smoking programs for 9-12 year olds in at least 2 units 1993-1994.2. To re-establish the involvement of the medial community we will add the position ofmedical advisor to District Council in order to increase awareness of and referrals toPatient Services of the CCS.3. Between June 1993 and March 1994, to establish a competent Residential Campaignorganization in each unit.4. By September 30, 1994, to recruit, where applicable, at least one volunteer from eachof the following communities: First Nations, Chinese, Indo-Canadian.5. By September 1994, to have trained one volunteer in each Island unit to do orientationand training of unit volunteers.- 101 -APPENDIX B: Organization Chart & Committee OverlayOrganization Chart 1Canadian Cancer SocietyBritish columbia & Yukon DivisionBoardof DirectorsAdnilnietretor ManagerFinancial HumanDevelopment ResourcesAdministratorComptrollerFinanceAdm mist rotc rDirectorAdmin.ServicesAdministratorFundraisingGoord..5 PR/FRCoord.2 in-Men.Cia rksAdministratorAdministrate rExecutiveSecretarySecretaryReceptionistAocountingManager2 Accounts!Ciarks.6 OfficeGikComputerServices Mgr.SystemsOperatorSystemsAnalyst2 Data EntryOperatorsContractData Entry2.5 Office01cr kaMaterielMgrflt. Mgr.MaterielClerk- 102 -Organization Chart 2Canadian Cancer SocietyBritish Columbia a Yukon DivisionAss t.Exe. DirectorAd m in at r ate rPublicRelationsAdministratorPublicEducationAd minis t raterPatientServices.5 PR/FRCoordinatorSecretaryAdministratorLodgesAdministratorDistrictServicesEducationCoordinatorSecretaryProjectOfficerChild &Family Coord.EmotionalSup. Coord.FinancialAid Corrd.SecretarySuper vi sorVan, isiandAdmi n,Assistant.6 AccountCierk6.6NursesDistrictManagerDistrictManagerDistrictManagerDistrictManagerDistrictManagerDistrictManager- 103 -Organization Chart 3Canadian Cancer SocietyBritish Columbia & Yukon DivisionDistrict DistrictManager ManagerVancouver GreeterIsland VancouverDistrictManagerFraserValley1 ProgramCoordinator1.5 DistrIctAest,1 ProgramCoordinator1 DistriotAssistant4 Programcoordinators.5 SooIaiWorker.5 Programcoordinator2 DIstrictAssistants.75 DiatriotAsst.1 Part-time1 Part-timeAsst,- 104 -Committee Overlay 1Canadian Cancer SocietyBritish Columbia a Yukon DivisionBoardor DirectorsAdministratorAdministratorAdministratorAdministratorFinanoeCommitteeFund RaisingCommitteeSub.Corporate Camp.Sub.• MarkotingSub.Planned GivingSub.Special EventsBuildingCommitteeExecu t I vsOommitteeFinanceOommitteeinteragencyCommitteeNomInatIngCommittee- 105 -Committee Overlay 2Canadian Cancer SocietyBritish Columbia & Yukon DivisionAdministratorPublicReifions IPublicRelatione Comm.Ad ml n 1st r a tarPajlantSorvices I Ad rn In is trtorOletrictServices IPublicEduoatlon Comm.Sub.Breaat HealthSub.Canoer Into. LineSub.Tobacco flduotlonMedicalAdvlaory Comm.Publicleeues LialeonVolunteerDevelopmentPatientServlcee Comm.Sub.0amp GoodtlmeeSub.Famiiy ProgramSub.Teen ProgramEmergencyAidEmotionalSupportSub.Human SpiritSub.CansurmountSub.•Lary. ehab.Sub,•Llving with Can.Volunteer• Drlver- 106 -APPENDIX C: Division Office SystemsThe hardware used by the Division office currently consists of an IBM AS/400minicomputer with attached terminals and PCs, eight stand-alone PCs, and various associatedprinters. The PCs attached to the AS/400 are used both as terminals and for running personalproductivity software such as WordPerfect. The stand-alone PCs serve a variety of purposesform running the Cancer Information Line research document database, to providingupload/download capabilities, to serving as dedicated application stations. A pictorial summaryof the AS/400 and stand-alone PCs, along with the applications used on them, is provided below.This is followed by more detailed descriptions of the office’s custom applications.HardwareAS/400SoftwarePatientServicesAccountsPayableGeneralLedgerMDAS InventoryControl8 PCsCamp Volunteer VideoGoodtlmes Registry LoansWordprocesslngBequestsElectronl EIectronlMall CalendarJLJJ EnableJdjJJWordPerfectZYINDEX LodgeRegistryWordStarFirstPublisherPCSupportPoetai CodeLockup- 107 -CUSTOM APPLICATIONSGeneral LedgerHardware: AS/400.Software: Canned package customized for CCS use.Users: Finance / Accounting department.Purpose: To maintain financial accounting data for audit purposes, and to trackperformance of investments.Inputs: Revenue information electronically transferred from MDAS. Expensedata electronically transferred from the Patient Services, AccountsPayable, and Inventory Control & Order Entry systems.Outputs: Standard monthly and quarterly financial statements for distribution toAdministrators, District Presidents, and District Managers. Additional adhoc queries and reports can be produced upon request. The standardreports include:Summary Comparative Operating StatementConsolidated Operating StatementDistrict Operating StatementDetailed District Operating StatementMonthly District BreakdownGeneral Ledger ReportNotes: The GL is divided into 3 funds. The General Fund where most revenueand expense information is applied, a Building Fund for investmentsrelated to new lodges, and the Terry Fox Fund which is no long in use.- 108 -Master Donor Accounting System (MDAS)Hardware: AS/400Software: Canned package customized for CCS use.Users: Financial Development department - Corporate Campaign.Finance department- Cash Command.Computer Services - Statistical Analysis.Purpose: To maintain donor records that will enhance the planning and evaluationof annual campaigns.Inputs: Donor name, address, amount of donation, and any special codinginformation about the donor. Information obtained from received mail orfrom receipts books returned from Unit offices.Outputs: Receipts for personal donations. Categorization of data for statisticalanalysis. Full query abilities on geographic (by Unit), and type(corporate/business, personal/residential, special contacts/events) basis.Produces mailing lists on diskette (forwarded to Microzip, Hill DirectMarketing). Duplicate listings for examination by units. Fundraisingreport generated monthly showing revenue by type and by region withseparate totals for campaign and in-memoriam donations. -Notes: Current database size approaching 700,000 records. Bar codes on directmail not used because keyboard entry found to be quicker. Receipt booksfiled in boxes for 3 years after entry into the system. In direct mailcampaigns, additional names are occasionally purchased from DominionDirectory, known as Prospecting (designated code R in MDAS when adonation is received). Donor database contained in separate files (6districts + Vancouver City Unit) called companies.- 109 -Patient ServicesHardware: AS/400Software: Designed in-house, implemented by outside consultants.Users: Patient Services - Financial Aid.Purpose: To track Emergency Aid expenditures that are coded according to funduse, and assigned to Unit expense accounts in the General Ledger.Inputs: An Assessment form is used to collect patient information for monthlybatch entry. Issued check stubs indicating appropriate expense categoriesare batched and entered each month. Approximately 500 checks areissued each month. Data entry consumes roughly 2 full working days permonth.Outputs: An Emergency Aid Report provides a break down by Unit of total numberof patients and dollar amounts spent over a period. Useful for fundraisingactivities. A Drug Report is used to determine outstanding amountsexpected for reimbursement from Pharmacare via patients and is generallyrun once per quarter. Reconciliation Reports are used to follow-up wherenecessary on outstanding assessment forms and check stubs.Links: Tied to the General Ledger (expense information transferred).Notes: Financial need assessed by some 150 local Unit volunteers who issuechecks directly. The Financial Aid Coordinator in Division office alsodoes assessments and check issuing.- 110-Inventory Control & Order EntryHardware: AS/400Software: Canned package customized for CCS use.Users: Administrative Services - Materiel Management.Purpose: To track items in stock and dispersement to District offices. Suggestsreorder quantities, and maintains average and latest product cost data.Inputs: Number of items received. Quantities sent to each Districts. Inventoryreconciliation adjustments based on year-end physical inventory.Outputs: Month end reports on distribution and total inventory on hand. ‘Low’inventory reports. Ad-hoc usage reports for Districts (with date andproduct number break-downs as requested). End of year reports andsummaries, for example, pamphlets used for year broken down by districtfor Public Education.Links: Tied to the General Ledger (orders paid via expense codes). Updatesperformed on a monthly basis.Notes: Division departments responsible for producing own purchase orders andindicating appropriate expense codes and dollar amounts. Requests foritems received by fax or by mail from Districts. Items delivered once perweek, and invoiced for dollar amount. Computer equipment purchasingand inventory accounting done by Computer Services.- 111 —Bequests I Planned GivingHardware: AS/400Software: Designed in-house, implemented by outside consultants.Users: Financial Development - Planned Giving.Administrative Services - Bequests Administration.Purpose: To aid staff in identifying potential planned giving donors to be contactedvia direct mail campaign. Also used to track lawyers and other estaterelated information like timing of funds.Inputs: Potential donor names garnered from MDAS based on established profile.The system provides more note making capabilities for each individual andbetter sorting facilities than available in MDAS.Outputs: Mailing lists for direct mail appeals.Links: Linked back to MDAS to allow for queries on individual donor history.Notes: Ensuring confidentiality is very important for this system.Accounts PayableHardware: AS/400Software: Canned package customized for CCS use.Users: Finance / Accounting - Accounts Payable.Purpose: To aid staff in the tracking and payment of suppliers invoices.Inputs: Vendor name, address, and amount owing information.Outputs: Checks printed once a week (Wednesday night). Outstanding check reportused for reconciliation with bank records. Query can be used to retrieveinformation for 3 year period (current, last, previous).Links: Tied to the General Ledger (vendors paid via expense codes).- 112 -Camp GoodtimesHardware: AS/400Software: Adapted from MDAS.Users: Patient Services - Childhood Programs.Purpose: To maintain a record of volunteers, councillors, and campers along withthe years attended.Inputs: Name and address information.Outputs: Queries on individuals. Lists or labels in preparation for mailings.Links: Part of MDAS library without dollar amount or history information.Notes: The size of the database is relatively small.Volunteer RegistryHardware: AS/400Software: Adapted from MDAS.Users: District Offices.Purpose: To aid in planning the annual eampaign by maintaining a record ofprevious door-to-door canvassers.Inputs: Canvasser’s personal information from Canvasser Kit.Outputs: Lists of canvassers (generally by unit office).Links: Special coding in MDAS database denotes person as a canvasser.Notes: Each program, District and Unit may keep their own lists of volunteers.Records are not kept on all volunteers, rather only on highly activevolunteers and canvassers involved in previous door-to-door campaigns.- 113-Video LoansHardware: AS/400Software: Custom designed database.Users: Public Education.Purpose: To record what videos are in inventory, who has each video and whenthey are returned.Inputs: Loan information from a release voucher.Outputs: Video status information.Links: None.Notes: The size of the database is relatively small.Cancer Information LineHardware: 2 PCs, I printerSoftware: WordPerfect off-the-self word processing package.ZYINDEX package for document search and retrieval.Users: Used directly by volunteers working the information line.Overseen by Public Education.Purpose: To enable volunteers to quickly retrieve information in response to callerinquiries.Inputs: Periodic updates of documentation done by Public Education department.Outputs: Results of ZYINDEX searches can be displayed on screen or printed formail outs.Links: None.Notes: Statistics are kept on the type and number of requests. These statistics areused by Public Education to identify emerging trends in public interest.- 114 -Lodge ProgramHardware: PCSoftware: Adapted from MDAS.Users: Vancouver Lodge staff.Purpose: To aid staff in tracking patient stays, calculating bill amounts, anddetermining room availability.Inputs: Patient demographics, including home address, and type of cancer beingtreated. Booking information as to the room and bed where a patient,spouse or escort is staying, along with the length of the stay.Outputs: Billing information, room availability, statistics on patient stays such asnumber of patient stays per year or average length of stays. An activityreport that allows for follow-up on outstanding accounts.Links: None.Notes: The Lodge program is only in use at the Vancouver Lodge. TheVancouver Island lodge had a PC at one time, however it was movedelsewhere because it was not being utilized.- 115 -APPENDIX D: Data Processing Philosophy (1984)COMPUTER PROGRAMPurpose- to increase productivity through mechanization of heavy manual tasks.Goal1. To increase the time available for problem solving by decreasing the amount of timeexpended in communicating information.2. To increase the independence of major components of the organization throughdecentralization of record maintenance.Objectives1. To establish a system which more than one operator can use at the same time and inwhich information can be input simultaneously with the processing and generation ofdata.2. To replace the present work processing system with a system that can be kept current andthat will enable use of state of the are software facilitating secretarial time by includingthe majority of writing, editing, screen and print formatting features as part of the totalinformation system.3. To install a system which can utilize with minimum modification the software programsdeveloped and available through the Ontario Division.4. To establish the following priorities for program implementation and to review thesepriorities every 6 months.1. Terry Fox Run2. Fund-raising- Campaign - Corporate- Door to door- Employee Groups- CEO Contracts- In Honour Program- Special Events- Special Contacts- In Memoriam Program- Bequests and Deferred Gifts3. Materiel Management4. Accounting5. Public Education6. Patient Services- 116 -5. To purchase hardware which could become universal throughout the CCS which offerslongevity, maintenance, support systems and maximum choice of software for fundraisingand membership responsibilities.6. To install a mainframe at the B.C. & Yukon Divisional office with a minimum purchaseof 2 terminals initially and the potential of supporting a minimum of 9 terminals in thesame location and to install hard disc in 6 districts and “X” unit offices to operate asstand-alones and/or interface with the main computer at Division Office.7. To establish consultation support either locally or through the Ontario Divisionconsultant.8. To establish a procedure for program development, preferably together with the OntarioDivision which can be used by other components of the organization with the firstpriority to be Patient Services.- 117 -APPENDIX E: Equipment Acquisition Policy (Sept. 1993)Guiding PrincipleAs the Canadian Cancer Society is a charitable organization funded by public donation, withservice delivery performed primarily by a volunteer work force, an attempt should be made toobtain goods and services as an outright donation or at a reduced rate as a matter of course oncea need has identified.General Procedure for Acquiring EquipmentThe following steps should be taken to acquire equipment:i Volunteers in conjunction with the District Manager will develop a proposal establishingthat the acquisition would make a significant, quantifiable difference to the operation ofthe Unit or District.ii The proposal will be ranked against other request for furniture and equipment in theDistrict by the District Manager in conjunction with senior District volunteers andsubmitted through the budgeting process.iii The proposal will be reviewed by the Administrator, District Services and ranked againstrequests for furniture and equipment throughout the Division.iv The application for funds will be made through the budgeting process.v Operating costs will be identified and considered, whether equipment is acquired throughthe budgeting process or by donation.Minimum Criteria to Support the Purchase Decisioni The volunteers who will utilize the equipment on an ongoing basis will be identified.ii Ongoing training and hardware and software support will be identified within Unit.iii Significant improvement in program delivery will be identified.iv Unit office hours of operation will be a least six hours/day, 5 days a week. -v The proposal will be ranked taking into account Unit Assessment criteria. SeeEquipment Need Assessment Form, Unit level.vi Unit will ensure that the 5% unit cost to revenue criterion is met.- 118 -Standard SpecificationsIt is the objective at the Division and District level to integrate hardware, technical support andtraining as well as providing software which facilitates database management, spread sheeting,graphics, communication and word processing capabilities.The Enable Integrated software is the preferred software choice at the Disthct and Division levelbecause of the wide range of capabilities in word processing, spread sheeting, graphics anddatabase management. However, it is not appropriate for Units because of its operationalcomplexity.Units may acquire WordPerfect and Lotus software and other widely used packages becausethere is a large pooi of trained potential volunteers. Prior to acquiring these other softwarepackages, the District Manager should be informed. Integration between Units and Districts isnot possible at this time due to the limited support available to train and trouble shoot.It is Division policy that all software is licensed.SupportDue to the limited capability to train and trouble shoot at District and Divisional levels, supportcan not be provided to Units which acquire equipment.MaintenanceThe Society does not have maintenance contracts for equipment. A maintenance budget is inplace for computers which allows for the repair or replacement of equipment, depending on thetype of problems and the quality and age of the equipment. This procedure has been found tobe more effective than entering into maintenance contracts. When Unit equipment requiresmaintenance or repairs, it is necessary to get 3 quotes and contact District.Review of UtilizationEquipment will be transferred between Units if it is found to be under utilized during the annualUnit review and if there is a proven need at another Unit. Level of operating and maintenancecost of equipment will also be considered.- 119 -Process to Facilitate the Purchase of Computer Hardware and SoftwareFollowing budget approval a Disthct office may elect on its own, or, on a Unit’s behalf, to havethe Division office procure equipment, or may elect to procure it locally. For computersoftware and hardware the Division System Manager should be consulted. The following appliesto the procurement of products at the local level:i The District office will notify the Manager regarding the product requirements of theDistrict or Unit.ii The Manager will advise the District Office regarding the product which should beprocured and an approximate cost if purchased.iii The Manager will determine the best overall package based upon price, maintenance,shipping, local support, group purchase savings, etc.Unit Considerations When Planning for Computer AcquisitionAs hardware and software support is not available from District or Division, the Unit shouldconsider the following:i Establishing working relationships with local suppliers who have a commitment toprovide ongoing hardware and software support.ii Acquiring a system which has software loaded and is ready to go.iii Choosing software which is commonplace and user friendly so that trained volunteers andlocal training is available.iv The solving of problems with computer applications should be carefully considered. Insome Units where computerization was seen as the solution to many problems, it hasresulted in greater difficulties in training, program development, etc.- 120 -APPENDIX F: Background for IS ChallengesThis appendix discusses some of the reasons behind the recent large scale purchase ofPCs for the Division office. It also summarizes some of the researcher’s impressions ofdifferences in user knowledge about and satisfaction with the current information systems basedon the interviews conducted during the organizational overview phase of the project. Finally,observations concerning control over decision making related to IS resources are presented.Bulk PC Acquisition - Division OfficeUntil very recently the hardware at the Division office consisted of an IBM ASI400minicomputer which ran most of the significant applications, and eight personal computers thatserved a variety of purposes. See Appendix C for detailed descriptions of the existing customapplications. The AS/400 provides the large database capabilities needed for the MDAS and theGL, and ensures a high level of security. However, current applications have used up themajority of the existing disk capacity, performance in terms of cursor return and printing hasbeen slow on occasion, and the available personal productivity tools for the AS/400 have lessthan optimal functionality and interfaces. In recognition of these limitations, the Division officehas acquired additional PCs for individuals who require access to the AS/400, and havedemonstrated a need for personal productivity applications, such as word-processing. Thisaction will help alleviate the capacity, performance, and functionality concerns. Other benefitsshould include increased productivity, reduced training costs, greater convenience for thoseworking outside normal office hours, and independence if the AS/400 goes down. One area ofconcern that the acquisition of PCs in the Division office does not directly address is that of thetime required to develop new or enhance existing custom applications. Requirements analysis,design, programming, testing, and debugging all take considerable time and effort in comparisonto simply purchasing off-the-self software, but produce tailor fitted functionality. This trade-offrequires that the long-term costs and benefits of each avenue be considered and debated beforefunds are committed.User Knowledge & SatisfactionJudging from the comments made during interviews, the administrative and managementlevels of the organization generally appear more satisfied with the existing systems than thesupport staff. It is not entirely clear why these differences exist, although some staff pointedout that many of the administrators do not use the systems directly, and therefore may not haveexperienced any frustrations that have either existed in past or continue to exist today.However, the recent acquisition of PCs as described above may alleviate these differences.There are also important differences in how individuals think about IS in the Division, whichseems to correspond to levels of experience with PCs. As could be expected, less experiencedusers tended not to have formed a well considered opinion in regard to their satisfaction withcurrent systems, and had difficulty conceptualizing how IS could improve their productivity.The more experienced users generally appeared prepared to discuss opportunities forimprovement, and had higher expectations about the potential of IT to contribute in a meaningfulway.- 121 -Location of Decision Making ControlAll IS departments must deal with the desire to control purchasing and enforce standardsthat reflect priorities and ensure compatibility, while attempting to satisfy the immediate andspecific needs of user departments. This tension is most obvious at the Division in howinformation and IS resources are obtained by District and Unit offices. Most of theorganizational information is processed are stored at the Division office, which in effect meansthe Division office has control over that information. As well, the acquisition of PC hardwareor software is normally done through the budgeting process, which means that approval isdependent upon Divisional priorities that may or may not correspond with those of the requestingDistrict or Unit office. This situation potentially brings with it a certain amount of frustrationand desire for more control on the part of Districts or Units who feel that the control should beplaced in their hands.- 122 -APPENDiX G: Client-Server ComputingIntroductionA number of key advances in IT have combined to make client-server computing anattractive alternative for many organizations. Modern microprocessors have driven the price Iperformance ratio to the point where computers have become a commodity. This in turn hasenabled the almost factory like production of software that has varied functionality and is easyto use. As well, networking technologies have now progressed to the point where a myriad ofdifferent machines can work together and share resources. Client-server computing promisesmany things including increased flexibility from the modular nature of the network nodes, moreusability since any available network resource can respond to a user request, and betterintegration through the linking of formerly disparate systems.DefinitionClient-server computing is a form of cooperative processing where the work performedfor an application is split between individual computers on a network (Maurer & Silver 1993).At least one of the computers is a programmable workstation (PWS), such as a PC or RISCmachine, that does more than simple terminal emulation (Gartner Group 1994). Client-servercomputing is often talked about in relation to down-sizing and open systems. Down-sizing in theIS sense refers to moving applications to smaller computers where the cost per unit of work islower, and does not imply a need for client-server. Open systems is a set of non-vendor specificprotocol and program interface standards proposed by neutral standards setting bodies. It isthese standards that facilitate client-server computing, however, open system in itself does notequate to client-server (Maurer & Silver).MotivationThere are many good reasons for organizations to move toward client-server computing.One major driver is the increased usability provided to the end user by an intuitive and familiargraphical user interface (GUI) running on a PWS that provides a single point of access tocorporate databases and processing resources (I/S Analyzer 1993). Users are relieved fromhaving to know where information is physically stored and from learning the command linesyntax required to access the platform where the data resides (I/S Analyzer 1992). This usabilitytranslates into improved productivity as a result of such intangibles as higher user satisfaction,better access to information, and greater flexibility. Additional reasons for moving to client-server are that standards are maturing, familiarity with the technology is improving, and almostall new advances in IS may soon be in the client-server domain (Maurer & Silver 1993).Overall, these forces allow organizations to integrate their computing environment and broadentheir options with regards to product selection.- 123 -CostsIt is important to realize that the benefits of client-server accrue to end users and thatoperating costs may in fact be greater, particularly in the short run. Converting to client-serverrequires considerable user and technical training, and is often slowed by numerous technologicaldifficulties in establishing the base network and getting applications to work properly (I/SAnalyzer 1993). Both the organization as a whole and the data processing department must beadequately prepared for the adoption process if these obstacles are to be overcome. Linking thefuture system to business goals and understanding the technology are important first steps(Maurer & Silver 1993). The benefits of a successful transition are elevated user productivitywith the possibility of lower long term costs.Management IssuesClient-server computing in itself does little to add value to the organization. The realpotential comes from the integration of client-server, IS planning and enterprise planning, whereclient-server can be used as a tool that enables significant change in the operation of theorganization (Gartner Group 1994, Maurer & Silver 1993). Client-server provides newopportunities for reengineering processes that could not be considered with traditionaltechnologies. By first ensuring that organizational process are designed to provide the right datato the right people, then carefully planning and managing the transition, the move to a clientserver platform should prove extremely beneficial for many organizations.- 124 -

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