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Social and musical structure of the klapa singing style, Dalmatia and Vancouver Caleta, Josko 1994

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SOCIAL AND MUSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE KLAPA SINGING STYLE: DALMATIA AND VANCOUVER by JOSKO CALETA B. Mus. The University of Split, Croatia, 1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Music (Ethnomusicology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1994 © Josko Caleta, 1994  In presenting this thesis  in partial fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that pemiission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature)  Department of  HOSiC^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  0? HA^f  1^1^  ll\^^^\[^^\(j>{pG^  ABSTFlAC-r  This  study  examines  characteristics of klapa klapa  both  singing.  the  social  the  in Vancouver  The field work for this project took place on two  occasions: during the regular practices of klapa in a series of individual interviews. oldest  musical  Comparative analysis of  in Dalmatia, its place of origin, and the klapa  is the focus.  the  and  member  and  one  of  "Zvonimir", and  The interviews were with  the  organisers  of  the  klapa  "Zvonimir", Jozo Cvitanovic. A traditional folk klapa informal  was, and to an extent still is, an  group of friends, usually  interests, age group or occupations.  brought  together by similar  Festival klapa,  on the other  hand, is a formally organized group with regular rehearsals and performances, whose members, as a rule, are people of various occupations and diverse musical tastes. Socially and musically, klapa  singing has always been progressive  for its time, which is surely the reason why this folk tradition has remained successful for such a long period.  11  "TABLE  OR  CX>NXEN~rS  Abst ract  ii  Tab! e of Contents  iii  List of Figures  v  Acknowledgements  vi  Introduction  1  Chapter I ORIGINS OF KLAPA SINGING  7  Klapa,  a Traditional Folk Phenomenon of Dalmatia ...7  Klapa Songs Origins of Klapa Chapter II  8 Singing  11  MUSICAL STRUCTURE  17  Relationship Among Klapa  Songs  Relationship with "Old Town Songs"  34  Wandering Songs  39  Performing Styles  40  Chapter III SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF KLAPA: DALMATIA  Chapter IV  22  43  Membership  44  Performance Occasions  49  Festival Klapa  50  KLAPA IN VANCOUVER  52  Sumart in  53  11 ^  Emigrat ion  56  Membership  63  Repertoi re  65  Performance  66  Conclusion  67  References Cited  69  Appendix A. Klapa Song Examples  74  B. Texts of Klapa Songs  80  TV  LIST"  OR  FIGURES  Figures  Page  1 . Kl apa " T rog i r" 2.  Locat i on of Croat i a  3. Map of Croat i a  4 5 6  4. Klapa Song and Gregorian Chant  13  5. Klapa "Zvonimi r"  16  6a. Compari son of the melodic 1ines. Period A  20  6b. Comparison of the melodic 1ines, Period B  21  7. Pitch substitution  24  8. Weighted scales  26  9a. Compari son of the bass 1 ines. Period A  30  9b. Compari son of the bass 1 i nes. Period B  31  10a. Compari son of the baritone lines. Period A  32  10b. Compari son of the baritone lines Period B  32  11. Rhythmic patterns  35  12. Important pitches and cadences  37  1 3. Klapa "Zvonimi r"  55  14. Mi 1 ki pod Prozor, spontaneous singing  62  1 5 . Klapa "Zvonimi r  68  A C K N O W L E O G E M EN~rS  Many individuals helped me during my work. I would especially like to thank my wife, Jacqueline, and my family, for close support, not only during the writing of this paper, but also during my years of singing and leading klapas. I would also like to thank the klapa tradition itself for many years of priceless experience. Special thanks to Dr. Nikola Buble who recognized my talent for singing early on and helped me with his knowledge and advice. For this work, a special "thank you" to Mr. Jozo Cvitanovic, who gave me a great deal of valuable information about klapa singing. Thanks must be also given to the members of my thesis committee, Dr. Alan R. Thrasher and Dr. Vera Micznik. Dr. Thrasher, my thesis advisor, guided and assisted me during my studies in Canada. He was the first to introduce me to North American ethnomusioology, and, at the same time, encourage me to improve my English language. I extend my sincere appreciation to Sonia Borovic who carefully supervised my writing and helped me to translate my native language, Croatian, into an academic English.  VI  INTRODUCTION  The subject of my research is klapa  singing.  For a long time,  the dominant obstacle of this project was in selecting the exact approach  I might  substitute  the  take.  subject  unfamiliar and distant. fact that klapa life. to  My of  apprehension  research  with  a  almost  new  made  subject, more  The hesitant feeling originated from the  singing was, and still is, an integral part of my  My love for singing began in early childhood when I learned  sing  through  listening  and  imitating  older  klapa  singers.  Having them for my idols, I hoped for a place among them. age of  fifteen  ensemble. klapa  me  At the  I had a chance to become a member of a  klapa  I was fortunate to become a part of one of the best  ensembles, klapa  "Trogir" (Fig. 1 ) , under direction of Nikola  Buble, the eminent mestar  ("leader").  Western musical education  in Croatia helped me to become more than one of the singers; at the age of twenty, I actually became a mestar  of klapa  "Trogir".  As a culture carrier, I was apprehensive about writing on my own cultural background. music.  Klapa  My attitudes towards  to me, was a standard form of folk klapa  singing and the subject of  ethnomusicology were fundamentally altered during my studies in Canada where I was exposed to various North American theories and  2 approaches. A helpful element in selecting klapa project was the location of the klapa  singing for my research  "Zvonimir" in Vancouver.  That gave me an opportunity to raise a few important questions: Why  and  how  did  a  klapa  emerge  in  Vancouver?  What  are  the  similarities and differences between the Vancouver klapa  and one  in  in  its  place  of  origin?  Are  there  any  differences  repertoires, and what are the goals of the klapa versus the klapa Helpful  the  in Vancouver  in Dalmatia, its place of origin?  reinforcement  for my proposal  work came from Phil  Thomas, a prominent collector of folk songs of British Columbia. After Thomas presented  a lecture on the folk songs of British  Columbia,  if there were any different  I asked  him  traditional  songs, other than those of Anglo-Saxon origin, he ever heard while collecting.  His response:  "I heard the singing of the Russian Dukhobhors in Grand Forks, and I heard a couple of Swedish songs up in Cariboo; also I collected a few native songs...". His response convinced me that I was doing the right thing. A new question arose, however: What has happened to the culture and musical traditions of the thousands of immigrants who came here in quest for a better life? In most cases, ethnomusicological research tends to look for data from the neutral observer's or participant's perspective.  My  position, in this case, is that of a participant rather than an observer.  This position has advantages and disadvantages.  Being  3 a culture carrier certainly is a great advantage in helping understand  the  Dalmatian  language, and customs.  way  of  life,  social  to  circumstances,  Dalmatia is the southern, coastal region  of the Independent Republic of Croatia (Fig. 2 and 3 ) . This also allowed easy access to various written sources, written mostly in Croatian  by prominent  ethnomusicologists  such as Nikola Buble,  Jerko Bezic, Silvije Bombardelli, Josip Versic and others. On the other hand, being too close to the culture could make evaluation  of my data subjective and  biased  in some respects.  Fortunately, there is a current trend in ethnomusioology wherein more and more scholars are exploring their own cultures, though specifically from ethnomusicological perspectives. In the first chapter of this paper I will examine the origins and general characteristics of the terms klapa songs.  ensemble and  In the second chapter I wi11 examine the musical structure  of selected klapa  songs. The terms "wandering melody" and "tune  family" will be discussed in this chapter.  In the third and fourth  chapter I will compare social aspects of klapa place  klapa  of  origin  with  klapa  in  Vancouver.  similarities between traditional klapa ensemble will  also be discussed.  ensemble in its Differences  ensemble and Festival The term  associated with the beginning of Omis Festival  Festival of Klapas  klapa  and klapa is  in 1967.  Omis Festival (Fig.3) is the annual competition and great promotion of klapa  singing.  Field work for this project took place on several occasions. The  first  part  of  the  field  work  took  place  during  klapa  Z v o m r m r ' s ' I'eqular oractices.  This was an excellent oDDortunity  to record essentiai musica' examoles and to observe the behaviour OT  members.  a Dart  Informal conversations aoout k-'iaoa s m q i n q were also  of these sessions.  The second  part  directed through a series of individual interviews, every member of the klapa persona"  view  about  klapa  singing.  bette'- under St and 1 nq o^ what  klapa  o* my  interviews.  field work  During these  ensemble could express his Their  singing  responses reallv  Klapa  "Troqir", well-known Dalmatian  gave  me  a  is and what it  means to them.  Fiq. 1  was  ensemble  Fig. 2  Location of Croatia, (map of Central and Southern Europe)  6  Legend Dalmatia,  Fig,  3  Map of C r o a t i a , D a l m a t i a n towns  CHARTER  O R I G I N S  O R  1  K L A R A  SINGINC3  KLAPA, A TRADITIONAL FOLK PHENOMENON OF DALMATIA  The word klapa Northern  Italy  originated in the Trieste region (Fig.3) of  (Buble, 1988:68).  According  to Buble, in this  particular dialect of the Trieste region, klapa people gathered together, linked by the group. defined  as  a  mutual  relationship  among  means a "group",  The link is usually members,  primarily  associated in friendship.  According to R. Vidovic (1979), the root  of the word  "capulata" (to bind, to be fastened),  is the verb  originally related to a group of animals in a herd or flock. actually gave the word klapa  This  a negative connotation, similar to the  word "gang". Bratoljub Klaic (1966:629) considers the word klapa  a jargon  word which has the following four meanings: "druzba", "druzina", "skupina", "klika" (company, group, chorus, clique).  The word  "druzina" (group) is probably the most preferable to describe the idea of klapa  singing.  Over time, the negative connotations of the  8 word klapa  vanished.  Today the term is synonymous with a specific  folk singing phenomenon of Dalmatia. In the Dalmatian dialect, the word klapa 19th century  appeared in the mid-  (Buble, 1988:69), when trade between Dalmatia and  Trieste was quite frequent.  About the same time, group singing  appeared - as a folk phenomenon - in coastal-urban and suburban areas and the islands of Dalmatia. turbulent  period  in  the  history  The mid-19th century was a of  many  European  nations.  Croatians, as well as Dalmatians, started to identify with their "ethnic"  feelings  Movement.  This  variety  cultural  of  through national  what  became  revival  events.  known  manifested  Choirs,  as  the  itself  tamburitza  Illiric  through  a  orchestras,  mandolin orchestras and accordion orchestras were emerging like "mushrooms after the rain" (Buble, 1980:7). influences on the origins of klapa  They were important  singing.  KLAPA SONGS  The term "Dalmatian klapa ethnomusicologist Dalmatian Klapa in Zbornik was  the  Jerko  Dalmatian klapa  Bezic  (1979:16)  in  his  chapter  "The  Songs Within the Ten Years of the Omis Festival"  Dalmat inskih first  song" was introduced by the Croatian  one  to  Klapskih perceive  Pjesama notable  (vol.1, 1979).  Bezic  differences  between  songs and Dalmatian urban songs.  The latter type  9 embodies an extensive and more diverse repertoire  than  Dalmatian  klapa songs. Dalmatian urban songs could be performed by a variety of organized, as well as spontaneous, singing groups, with or without instrumental accompaniment.  Today many Dalmatian urban  songs are based on pop festival songs and old popular hits. Klapa songs, on the other hand, are performed almost exclusively Although klapa groups have  without instrumental accompaniment. mainly  klapa  songs  in their  repertoires, klapas  occasionally  venture into different styles of folk and classical vocal music. When a klapa attempts to sing in a different singing style, other than the traditional style, it is not recognized as klapa singing. Before the work of Bezic, klapa various descriptive titles.  songs were recognized by  At the end of the last century, the  Croatian musicologist, Franjo Kuhac, (1882: 164, 165 and 217) in his work  Austro-Ugarska  entry Glasba,  Dalmatia  ("town melodies").  Monarhija,  Opisna  , classified klapa  i Ilustrovana,  under the  songs as gradske  At the same time, the Czech  meiodije  painter and  musicologist  Ljudevit Kuba (1898:176) described those songs as  napjevi  narod  koje  pjeva  u gradskim  zborovima  ("tunes that people  sang in town choirs"). Bozidar Sirola (1942:155) named those tunes lagasne i priproste and categorized  pjesmice  ("simple and indigenous short songs")  this song style as Dalmatinske  ("Dalmatian songs in a major key") (1955:131). (1947:115) described ("urban tercama...  the same  repertoire  melodies") or meiodije gdjegdje  dublji  glasovi  koje  se  zastaju  popievke  u duru  Antun Dobronic  as meiodije odvijaju uz toniku  u  varoske paralelnim  i  dominantu  10 (" melodies in parallel thirds...where deeper voices follow the tonic and dominant").  Vinko Zganec  (1962:35) recorded the term napjevi scale thirds").  (1962:62) and Jerko Bezic  u tercnom  duru ("songs in major  Finally, Silvije Bombardelli  (1970:14), termed  all Coastal and Island Dalmatian folk songs Dalmat inska urbana  pjesma  Dalmatinska  both  ("Dalmatian urban folk songs").  klapska  the musical  pjesma  ("Dalmatian  and the social  klapa  foiklorna  The present term, song")  aspects of this  incorporates  folk musical  phenomenon, accenting the association between /cZapa singing and the particular songs sung exclusively by the klapa  group.  11  ORIGINS OF KLAPA SINGING  The origins and sources of klapa  singing style were, for a  long time, the topic of discussion among Croatian scholars. Silvije  Bombardelli  (1970:14-21)  identified  six  different  influences on Dalmatian urban folk songs (see page 10): 1) Gregori an chant 2) song books  of the Illiric Movement of mid-19th century  3) Italian and Mediterranean melodies 4) singing of the Dalmatian hinterland (the mountains) 5) songs from the Communist period 6) Croatian popular hits of the 1920s - 1950s, with characteristics of folk songs  The first three categories contain the oldest sources, while the latter three are more recent.  This flexibility in absorbing  new influences is the reason why klapa A  re-classification  (1977:70).  was  has survived to this day.  formulated  by  Lovro  Zupanovic  He used the first three sources from Bombardel1i's  categorization, and added a fourth category - the influence of mass media (radio, television).  12  The oldest supposed influence, Gregorian chant, has been given the principal attention by both authors. According to Bombardelli, (1980:614-617) started  in local  (brothers). learned  klapa  in  influenced  by Gregorian  chant  were  chapters of sacred societies called "bratimi"  The the  songs  singers  of  church,  these  then  went  societies out  to  "...  listened  sing."  The  and  first  significant change was in the modification of the song text.  The  sacred text was changed to a secular text while the melodic line remained in original  form.  The second change occurred with the  addition of a parallel melodic line over the first voice melody. As a result, the bass melodic line (when added) assumed a harmonic function,  which  in  tune  changed  the  original  modes  (of  the  Gregorian chant) into diatonic major scales. (Fig. 4) Evidence for this statement can be found in Glazbena Stanovnika  Trogirske  Opcine  by Nikola Buble (1988:71).  Kultura In the  chapter about kTapa singing in Trogir, Buble compares the melody  of  the  klapa  song,  Li pa  li  si  Mare  Beautiful"), with the melodic line of Kyrie  Moja I  (Mathias, 1936:96),  a Gregorian chant from the 10th century (Fig.4a), of melodic lines is noticeable. part  of the same  klapa  liturgical melody Rodil of the klapa  song  ("Mary, You are  The resemblance  Buble also compares the second  (in four-part  singing)  se ("He Was Born") (Fig.4b).  with the The melody  song is a consistent third over the liturgical melody.  13 LIPA LI SI M A R E Sndmio: N. Buble Kjazivaci: Transkribdrao: N. Buble Mjesto i vrijeme snimka: Trogir, 9. 10. 1983. .  4a  MOJA Niksa Bilic-Panto (1937) — I tenor, ^osko Caleta (1962A — II tenor, Dusko Geftc (1943) — barlton, Josip Bepo Mirat (1935) — bas i Zivko Santic-Sura (1946)  - '^"  p r ^ - ^ n J \-n^^-f''^-7 h  _,  k-*—^—=:^==-  1  1  ?  V  -==  _v^—  :  n —  iCvntfX . / X - i ) M' MAWAU «lOH*»m«  :€±:  a •  •  <j _  li —c  1'  B  «  1 Jmhi 1 P.. i-i^A JhU 1.4 i  Mi * 3±  =  ^ (6)  CT)  M^-)  i  s (*) ft)  CT)  (DA  {T)  i£££  ^s  ?:xVi>  '^  y p.  9=W=^  ^  lUi  I L  j-g< ; |_^ zisc:  CO) C*)  Fig.  4  Klapa  ' 1/ . 1 M l ' (i)  (»)  ' C'i |g;  (*)C'>)tT)  song and G r e g o r i a n  chant,  f r o m B u b l e N.  (1988:71)  14  Roughly  corresponding  to  Bombardelli's  Zbornik  classifications, Jerko Bezic, in Pjesama,  (vol.1,  1979),  further  divided  and  Zupanovic's  Dalmat inskih klapa  Klapskih  songs  into nine  different categories: 1) Dalmatian (traditional) klapa  song  2) Gregorian chant 3) Italian, broader European melody 4) Marching song melodies derived from band music of Napoleonic times 5) Composed Dalmatian klapa  song  6) Songs from interior regions of Croatia 7) Songs from older North Dalmatian folk tradition 8) Ceremonial, narrative, or other songs which are performed in klapa,  and sung like klapa  songs  9) Croatian popular hits of the 1920s to 1950s Bezic started his categorization with "Dalmatian (traditional) klapa  song", without any given explanation about its origins or  sources.  Zbornik  Dalmat inskih  Klapskih  Pjesama  (vol.1, 1979)  contains 217 different songs, performed at the ten festivals in Omis (1967-1976). in  the  first  More than half of the songs (122) are included category.  The  only  apparent  collective  characteristic is found in the texts which deal exclusively with love. all  Musically, the note  songs  finallis  is the major third  ("last note of the melody") in of the diatonic major scale.  I  15 postulate  that  a  thorough  musical  analysis  of  these  songs,  specifically analysis of the melodic structure, would reveal many common characteristics. Bezic's second and third categories were also included in Bombardel1i's and Zupanovic's categorizations.  Category four is  interesting because it is the first time that anyone has mentioned the influences of marching bands.  Marching bands were introduced  in Napoleonic times (Buble, 1980:7). to this day. band.  Each town or small community has its own marching  Arrangements  harmony, as are klapa Category  This tradition has continued  for the marching  bands  are  in  four-part  arrangements.  five, composed  Dalmatian  klapa  songs, is a newer  tradition which stems from the beginning of the Omis Festival.  By  the second year of the Omis Festival, 1968, there was a special evening devoted to composed Dalmatian klapa  songs.  In the last  twenty-five years there have been more than 217 songs composed for this occasion.  Some of these songs are only performed once but  others become part of klapa Pritrujena  repertoires, e.g. Dalmat ino  Poviscu  ("Difficult History of Dalmatia").  Categories six to eight can be found in klapa  repertoires but  are rarely performed and therefore are not as significant as the first five categories. Finally, category nine, Croatian popular hits of the 1920s to 1950s, is an important part of klapa now recognized as folk songs.  repertoires.  These songs are  Although Bezic limited his category  from the 1920s to the 1950s, contemporary  klapa  ensembles sing  16 current Festival  Croatian of  Popular  popular Hits.  hits, especially In  the  last  those from the  Split  kJaoas  have  two  decades  occasionally performed as backup singers at this festival.  Fig. 5  Klapa "Zvonimir", Vancouver: Performance practice. Traditional costumes from Trogir-Split region; Standard performance position in cortello ("like knife"); Tenors on the left, basses on the right side.  17  CHAPTER MUSI CAI_  II  S-TRUCTURE  In this chapter I will be analyzing seven songs. Although the klapa  songs analyzed in this chapter are a small part of  klapa  repertoire, I consider them to be representative enough for the genre, so that they can serve as universal examples. Before starting my analysis I interviewed Jozo Cvitanovic, one of the organizers, and the oldest member, of klapa Vancouver. A/a Krizu  "Zvonimir" in  One of the songs that Jozo Cvitanovic sang to me was  Zlatnim  Slovom Pise  ("On the Cross, in Golden Letters, it  is Written") (Example 2, see p. 18): I na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zarka Ijubavi, Tu pociva, slatki sanak sniva, a zemljica laka joj bila. Jozo Cvitanovic said that this song is not specifically from Sumartin but he can remember it from his childhood. "I remember singing this song with my older brother. We used to sit on the garden wall in front of our house and sing long into the night. While we were singing, we kept the beat by hitting our legs against the wall. It was a very popular song at the time."  18  A Ki^  ItJf. ^013 C'jraiJOMXcOg'^  V^Uiu,,^  y£6. '^^ . \)^viCoutf&e_-  I^  a  -^Txi  T ^ P g <^  ti H^  \/AE.\»ksJV Ot(JAt\eUTS;  13 ^ ^^r  52:  i  r©^ -SZ  ^  £  r—H^  J  ^  -7f=V  -r=v-  . rf.>  ^=y=H  ^  ^  E5£ >  ^  e  *  tscl  fa. /T\  ^"^ I  I 11J J' I I J ^ h i ^ ^  -^y -po__- C \ - v / A  i^  SL^TKN SkvJ|x\<^ S W X - V A , A ^ e - Ht-y-CA  ^  2V,  izz:=f %  UA-^A > - j  %\-.[^tK  Transcription of Example 2  T']A^/L SUM. ^  ;ri^T ' - : i k - i ^ « -  ^  -JTA-e-l  ZZEZ±Z±IZZJZ 0;J€U^  fe:  I 'Lu,rl M J . ' ' f  ^  MB - C I  Example 1  ^  ^  =  U.t|.C*.riA  H  ^  C-j TA,  SA S»-6»/S  ^ hlO-M  ^  lt^~U;J'lU^t'\i\  lAC-,  If mM^I[-'"^''^^i  SPjW 9oUiVio T A ^ A  A 'vi\}0-"^5  nLA-b\U  Gtt-je St-V. Z M L .  Fijaker Stari ("The Old Coach") - "Old Town Songs"  I  ¥  19  The melody and text of this song were familiar to me, and that is why I started to look for similar examples. The melody has much in common with the song  Fijaker  Stari  ("The Old Coach") shown in Example 1 (Dukic:1974, Kinel:1982). Dukic and Kinel indicated that the song originated in the Vojvodina region of Northern Serbia.  The town of Sombor is mentioned Fijaker  several times, during the song.  Stari  ("The Old Coach")  belongs to a type known as "Old Town Songs" (see p. 18)  Several variants of the text and melody which are similar to Jozo Cvitanovic's song, I found in the collection of klapa songs Zbornik  Dalmat  inskih  Slusaj,  Klapskih  Dragi  Pjesama  (1979,  Mene Jadnicu  vol.  1):  ("Listen to Your Poor  Darling") (no. 194, 456) (Example 3) (App. A) Kraj  Bunara  Mlada  Diva  StaJa  ( "By the Well a Young  Girl Stopped") (no.184, 432) (Example 4) (App. A) Kraj  Bunara  Djeva  Mlada  StaJa  ("The Young Girl  Stopped By the Well") (no. 183, 430) (Example 5) (App. A) Sjela  Djeva  na Kamen Studeni  ("The Young Girl Sat  on the Cold Stone") (no. 120, 292) (Example 6) (App. A) Zrtva  Ljubavi  ("Victim of Love") (no. 176, 416)  (Example 7) (App. A)  20  A  i  dt  S0M60R f—r-  ^  ^FI-JA-KER 5^  & STA-RI  ^  ^  *J-Lha-MA  UU-TA  i-tef^  ^  SA-SO-BOM WO-SI  ZA-UU-BLJe-Nl PAR  5U MARTIN  ttt-?  rr  i^=¥=  A -NA  [iiu-'iit  KRI - Z U  ^^KttHif-  ZU-TNA 5tO-VA PI-SU  TV PO-CJ - VA  iAR-TVA UU-6A"Vi  MAKAR5KA  ^rt-  H i  LM  SLU-SAJ PRA-GI  1 ri If  HE-NE  JA-DMI-CU  4 M j / l I H f If KO-JA  SLU-ZiM  VJE-CNU  TA-MN-OJ  SPLIT  ^•P ( f i r  {\\i±i\\  tCRAJ-BU- MA - RA VRANJIC-SPLIT  MLA-DA Dl-VA SfA-LA  [\+U-l^M '  ^  RU - C i  ^ ^z^  RU ~BAC D R - I A - L A  m5  ^IBENIK ^ :^  a=^^4- i 1X1 r^J~TT7T] I I, i 5JE-LA  OJE-VA  NA K A - M E N 5TU-D£- Nl  FA-CU-LET  U  RU-C(  PR.-ZA-LA  DUBROVNIK ^  i ^ ^  ^ i—1—I  Bi-LA  Fig.  6a  JE-SAN  TVO-JA NAJ-tvll-LI-jA  Comparison of  the melodic lines Period A  KO-JA TE JE  of  Examples  Vje-RKiO-UUB/-LA  1-7  21  B  h  ^~T=F^  ^ CJE-U  NQ-CI  SNI-JEaPO-LA-KO PA-DA  s Tli  '±  ^  P O - CI -  i  xn  ^  KA-KO  1  T^:  15  VA  ¥  Mo-ies  -SVO-Je  M U - D i H GRE-JE SR-CA 2AR.  r—A—^  4=  SLA-TKi~5A-NAK SNI-VA  A  ZE-  ?  MLJi-CA  ^ L A ' K A JOJ  TA-KVASR~CA _^  ZE-MUI-CJ  Bi-T| *r  M£ - ME  MLA~DU  u^^ilf  KRE-NU-LA  ' ZA  SA~DA  +  fef: PA JE  PRA-<5IM  <50R.-KO  <^LA-VU OMO-TA-LA  I  f*=^ Pi-A-KA-LA  ^M  tHF=±t  1 I nuuii SlJI-ME  8i-LA.  O-STA-Vi-T?  ull^  »~^  *  ^  V \ \ \' H L B ^ I  r—r  1 1 i l lr  <SU-/U  A DVO-JE  -V-  ^f^  r  +  ^\0\\\v\,\-[iM\m I  FOD  NJI-ME  <5bR.-KO P U - K A - L A  y u' I' n u^^ffTrrufFt' ijji I f n OJ S R E - T K i t - C E  Fig,  6b  KA-DA  ^RC-5U DO-DE5  TvSE  SJE-Tl  I  6 V O - J E R O B •K( - NJ£,  Comparison of the melodic lines of Examples 1-7 Period B  22  I will examine these songs from three points of view: structural relationship and style within the klapa  The  song repertoire  (Examples 2 trough 7 ) , focusing on similarities and differences among  the  songs  in terms  of  form, melody,  ornamentation, text and mode; Songs" and  klapa  rhythm,  intervals,  The relationship between "Old Town  songs: their  similarities  and differences;  Their relationship with songs from different parts of Europe, the so-called "wandering songs".  RELATIONSHIP AMONG KLAPA SONGS  The forms  of the klapa  several variations.  songs shown in Examples 2-7,  reflect  They can be clearly seen in the following  chart: A Example Example Example Example Example Example  2 3 4 5 6 7  B  a a a  a' a' a'  n n'  a' a"  The first two examples have identical Songs", Example 1, arranged.  b b b b b b  a' a' a" a" a' a'  form with "Old Town  The last section of Example 4 is slightly  The entire form of Example 5 is half the length of  the other examples, a common phenomenon in klapa  songs.  As these  23 songs have been passed on orally, singers occasionally are not able to remember entire songs.  Examples 5  and 7 are substantially  different in their first phrases ( a ),  The beginning pitches,  g' and d' are still part of the tonic chord. and a', are parts of the dominant chord.  The last pitches, d'  The cadences of the other  examples usually end on the b' or g' of the G chord (Fig. 12). The rhythmic pattern of these phrases  is similar to the other  examples, while the melodic contour is shaped differently from the other examples.  The reason for this essential change is found in  the performance style of these songs.  In both cases, the range of  the melody is lowered to suit the bass or baritone solo singer who performs this part. begins the singing.  Traditionally, the voice of the first tenor Beginning with baritone or bass solo is  characteristic of contemporary arrangements. Structures of the various melody and differences (Fig. 6a and 6b). quite similar in all examples.  lines also show similarities The basic melodic contour is  The opening of the phrases, the  interval of a fourth followed by a third in contrary motion, is a contour found in most examples. Comparison of the first and final sections of the phrases is further proof of melodic similarities.  Period A begins with the  notes of the tonic chord (g' b' or d"), regularly finishing on the note b'.  Period B begins consistently  finishes on the note b'.  with note d" and again  Cadences in all examples are also in  similar motion, c" moving down to b' (Fig.12).  24  The third bar is the place where differences are the most pronounced. calls  This type of variation is similar to what Thrasher  "pitch  substitution  within  a  fixed  phrase  structure"  (Thrasher, 1988:8) (Fig. 7 ) .  <r)—y^  P^  ^-% ^ = ^  Fig. 7  Pitch substitution within a fixed phrase structure,  Next  to pitch substitution, there are other techniques of  variation,  e.  ornaments. singing. is  the  g.,  There  passing is  no  notes  of  standard  various  procedure  Most of the .ornaments are spontaneous. person  Individual  whose  melody  is  the  most  types for  and  added  emb'el 1 i shing  The first tenor  highly  ornamented.  creativity of the first tenor is the primary factor  which enables the singer to ornament.  Most of the passing notes  and  4 and  ornaments  are shown  in  Examples  examples are from the Split region (Fig. 3 ) .  5.  Both  of  these  Unlike Trogir and  25 Korcula region (Fig. 3 ) , where open guttural and nasal singing is predominant, characteristics of Split region singing are soto voce and falsetto, serenade-like singing (see Example 2).  This type of  singing allows singers, especially the first tenor, to improvise the melodic line and to incorporate as many ornaments as they like. The  tempo  of  this  type of  singing  is very  slow.  The  last  (cadential) notes of each phrase are particularly long. The pure sound of this chord is certainly a pleasure for the singers, use  the  phrase  dobro  zunzi  ("good  buzz")  to  explain  who  their  sat i sfact ion. Range of the melodies varies from example to example. shortest range is in Example 2 (a' to f'#). Cvitanovic sung this example.  The  My informant, Jozo  His age of 79 is possibly the reason  for the shortness of the melodic range because younger singers usually sing with a wider range.  The range of Examples 6 and 7  is extremely wide, expanding from d' to g". in the first  phrase.  This  phrase  singer, especially bass or baritone. klapa  The extension occurs  is usually  sung by another  Traditionally, each voice in  songs usually has a range from a fourth to an octave. The best way to explain  mode is through  comparison  using  weighted scales (Fig. 8 ) . In ethnomusicology, weighted scales are used to show similarities and differences between songs based on the  range of the melodies and  melodies.  individual  pitches within  those  Most modes have the same notes of the G major scale.  One exception is Example 2, where the root tone of G major ( g' or g") does not appear. The weighted scales of the examples clearly  26  eJ^AlAPLES  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  f^^TT''^^ -<^-  $  ifc ^.  Hfc  jo]-  " -^^-^=4^ -io  ^  p  ^ ^ ^  L  W^ ^ i  f, .) ^ 'i - ('  Fig.  8  -o-  g^a  T—r"^ <-3  ^  Weighted scales of Example 1-7.  f  ^  I  27 show  the importance of particular notes - b' and d" are, in all  cases, the  most important notes.  Although I would have expected  the root tone of the G major scale ( g') to have considerable importance, it is not as important in klapa to the Western major scale. scales  songs as the tonic is  Similar balance among the weighted  is proof of the similarities among examples, proof of their  belonging to the same "tune family". Traditionally, the klapa  The harmonization  three or four part singing. typical of klapa traditional  singing.  klapa  ensemble performs  klapa  songs in  of the voices is  The melodic line of the first tenor, in  song arrangements, is regularly followed by a  parallel melodic line in thirds below.  Thirds singing is a typical  characteristic of klapa  singing.  third note of the chord.  In traditional arrangements, the baritone  The baritone line defines the  cadence regularly progresses from the leading-tone degree to the dominant baritone  degree (vii - V ) .  Contemporary arrangements of the  lines have more embellishments and passing notes. The  melodic line of the bass features the harmonic functions of the tonic, dominant and subdominant, typically in root position. Most of the bass and baritone melodic lines  shown (Fig. 9a, 9b,  10a and 10b) reflect  the above characteristics.  lines  and  of  Example  3  4  have  only  three  Bass melodic pitches:  tonic,  subdominant and dominant (G c d ) . The bass line of Example 5 has a couple of passing notes (Bar 7 and 9 ) , whereas other examples do not. The F# in the bar 9 is not typical  of the bass cadence.  Traditionally, the cadence of the bass line is dominant -tonic (V -  28 I). The bass melodic line of Example 6 regularly uses supertonic and submediant (ii, vi ), a characteristic of contemporary  klapa  arrangements. The cadence dominant - submediant (V - vi) is quite common  in Festival  klapa  song arrangements.  Another current  feature is the use of pedal tone (tonic or dominant) shown in Example 7.  Baritone melodic lines have much in common; Examples  shown feature rather simple structures of baritone melodic lines. There are a few exceptions.  Cadences of Examples 5 and 6 are not  characteristic klapa style baritone cadences, vii - V is the most characteristic cadence. The pedal tone seen in Example 7 is common in Festival klapa arrangements (but not in older songs), where bass and baritone lines hold pedals while the solo sings other lines. Bezic (1979:18) categorized klapa songs according to the ways in which four-part  singing  is achieved, and according to the  musical procedures involved: 1) Spontaneous klapa singing 2) Simple harmonization (e.g. I, IV, V) 2.1) Simple harmonization with spontaneous klapa singing 3) More developed harmonization  (e.g. I, II, IV, V, VI)  4) Arrangements of klapa songs 4.1) Arrangement of spontaneous klapa singing 4.2) Arrangement with simple harmonization 5) More developed arrangement  (e.g. I, II, IV, V, VI)  6) Composition based on tunes of the older folk songs of rural origin from Dalmatia and on Dalmatian klapa songs  29  According to this categorization, most of the songs (99) in Zbornik  Dalmat inskih  Klapskih  Pjesama  (vol.1, 1979) belong to the  2.1 category of the simple harmonization with spontaneous Simple harmonization and spontaneous klapa  singing.  closely related. and  bass,  functions.  are  klapa  singing are  Their melodic lines of the lower voices, baritone based  on  the  tonic,  dominant  and  subdominant  They differ in their simplicity, on the other hand,  from the more developed arrangements and especially from Dalmatian klapa  composed  songs.  In  arrangements,  the  composer,  with  profound knowledge of the subject, forms and combines folk melodies into  new,  developed  usually  longer,  musical  song-compositions,  compositions.  performed  usually  festival, encourage new ways of performing klapa Examples 3 - 7 Klapskih  Pjesama.  can also be found  Those  more  the  Omis  at  songs.  in Zbornik  Dalmatinskih  All of the examples are categorized as simple  harmonization, Bezic's category 2.  30  B^A^^Le^z ^^-K-  f  ^ * — *  ex AM Pie: ^  5  <!•  ^¥^-V~r  ^pTtTTnTi^^E^EE^ BC^MPLB--^  fc;  n^^^nm-  ^#1—1^  -^&-  ^-^-^"mn -i^  RiAMPL£:i>  m  BiAMPiM • 7  mmm  -I—o^  T*1  ^ ^nitl.^lf;^ r n r ~ K I r V 'VtH ' j  --•3  3  Fig. 9a Comparison of the bass melodic lines, Example 3-7 Period A  31  gXAMPL^lS  fT^=^^^^^T'T--=^ii^[ i ' I H T ^  ^  EAAyHPLg.'H  yF^  W-5*;  f [ h [ 1 r^fzjij jij f ' t ^ ^  r-^  •  fy=  f=(Tr ni'rTlf 'J ^'(-U^r r'l/jle/n  EXAMfH.£;6 ^—#t  V•-*«  **  =—  t-T  r-J^ I[-iM-=4~n^ I ^lJ'^^'((/Uit i—  rT>Triin. i^u-Hjjjj-tij  i\[[W^  Fig. 9b Comparison of the bass melodic lines, Example 3-7, Period B  32  £MMPL£:3  B^xj•m^ur-jTm  [^-p^^^^^^wrj^^^ ] iffifiir [Lutfiif^  SAMPLE: k  E-XAMPLE-.S'  W  SE  Hy/^AiPtE:6  ag -Mr  ^irC-v^i^^  BifAMPLB'.^  ^5t:  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  Fig. 10a Comparison of the baritone melodic lines, Example 3-7 Period A  33  ^AMjpLSi}  ,  ^gA_u \ I v^^^^m  f,  f_  ^3  i  f  ^HAM,PIS:\}\  te^^ n n \ uu4i-r i j m n rtj^ffi!» ii afA/MpLE.*5  iT^-it iM ( irirjiv h fU nmTir^Tit HP/.P-.6  o  acH/w/'te-*?  limLLuJuayii 111 Hir^lHVVIf  Fig. 10b Comparison of the baritone melodic lines, Example 3-7. Period B  34  RELATIONSHIP WITH "OLD TOWN SONGS"  The form of "Old Town Song" melodies, clearly in two-part form (A B ) , consists of eight bars. into two smaller phrases  Each period can also be divided  (a a'b  a').  examples display the same two-part appear  to  examples. klapa  be  alike, the  number  Most of the klapa  form.  of  Although  bars  is doubled  song  the forms in  klapa  While "Old Town Songs" (Example 1) has only eight bars,  song examples have sixteen bars.  Example 5 has eight bars  but it only includes the second part of the tune, part B (Fig. 6a and  6b).  This  variational  augmentation, emerged  technique,  the  principle  of  from the style of performing the songs.  While "Old Town Songs" are performed at moderately fast and regular tempo,  klapa  songs  are  irregular tempo {  (Fig. 6a and 6b).  exceptionally  slow  and  line  remains similar in all  examples  The "Old Town Song" type begins with the  (g' b' e " ) . Stylistically, it is not common for melody  lines of klapa  songs to begin in this way.  after an ascending motion.  at  parlando-rubato).  Contour of the melody  arpeggio  performed  The  klapa  interval  of third or fourth, is a contrary  songs shown  beginning of the song.  The typical motion,  simply  omit one pitch at the  35  Rhythmic  pattern  is also a similar feature for all  examples.  The basic two bar rhythmic pattern is repeated: fKt.HPtei,  eXfcrlPLi-I  cXftH?lt 5 i  n J. r ITT] J  n J j ,1!  1]  etr.ti.pu  e<frin/c T  "n J. r r m  Fig.  J J  11 Rhythmic p a t t e r n s o f Examples  1 j,r,fTT] J i J 1-7  Another similarity among the examples  texts.  is in their  Texts have assigned meanings, which is typical of most of Eastern European  folk songs.  According  to Bela Bartok  (1951:9), texts  consisting entirely of meaningless syllables (such as most Native American Europe.  songs) do not exist  in the folk traditions of Eastern  The objective of the performers is to transmit the meaning  of the texts, in this case ballad-like stories, to the listeners. Therefore, sections;  texts  the  correspond  structure  structure of the texts.  of  with  their  the melodies  metrical  and  melodic  is determined  by the  Although the words of the texts are  substantially different from each other, the theme of all of the texts is comparable - unfaithful  love.  All of the texts hint at  the  death  of  potential  emphasising  self-destructive  words  like  kamen  studeni  the  betrayed  ("cold stone"),  na  girl, krizu  36 zlatna  slova  tamnica  pisu  ("in golden letters, on her tombstone"),  ("eternal  or zrtva  love")  Ijubavi  vjecna  ("victim of love").  The text of Example 1, on the other hand, identifies the location (Sombor) and the pleasant  winter  journey  in an old coach  (a  romantic description) before introducing the tragic ending . Although  texts of the klapa  songs have the same topic, it is  possible to divide those texts into two sub-groups. 3 and 7  Examples 2,  use the same expressions, e. g., "eternal love", "victim  of love"  and "in golden letters on her tombstone".  hand, the expressions in Examples 4, 5 and 6 "handkerchief" and "deep well".  On the other  are  "cold stone,  The number of variations on the  same topic, with the same number of syllables, is  proof of the  richness of the folk language. One small difference that I have noticed in the examples is the number of  syllables:  Example Example Example Example Example Example Example  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  A  B  11 -10, 10 - 9, 9-9, 10 - 9,  1 1 -10 10-9 10-9 10-9 10-9 10-9 10-9  10 - 9, 10 - 9,  Again, the opening arpeggio (g' b' e") of "Old Town Songs", Example  1,  syllables.  is  the  sole  reason  Most of the klapa  of syllables, 10 - 9,  for  the  number  of  songs shown have a consistent number  in the first and  Example 3 is an exception.  different  their second parts.  37  tWi^  A  B<.A*<fi*)3 I-  -t  I  I I  >  EXfVWLEH  ^  1  etA><fi*;S  I  &-AH913(>  ^  ^  -•  0-  I  EM«  Fig. 12  Comparison of important pitches and cadences.  38  The notable distinction klapa  song examples  between Example 1 and the rest of the  is in performinQ  Songs" are performed solo, the klapa ensemble  exclusively.  The  style.  While  "Old Town  songs are performed by a  "Old  Town  Songs"  are  klapa  usually  accompanied by a tamburitza orchestra or solo instrument (guitar or accordion), while the other klapa Klapa  examples are sung a cappella.  ensembles sing these songs mainly while serenading under  windows, and more recently while performing on the stage.  "Old  Town Songs", on the other hand, are a popular type performed at weddings and other forms of social gathering. Tempo and barring Town  are also particularly  Songs", Example  1,  have  regular and accurate tempo. performed  parlando-rubato,  rhythm of the words.  an  Klapa where  distinctive.  accompaniment  which  "Old  requires  songs, on the other hand, are the  tempo  usually  equals the  That is the reason why barring of the songs  varies from example to example.  Time signs of the klapa  examples  show how various interpretations of the same melody can differ. While "Old Town Songs" have 4\4 time consistently, most of the klapa  songs  irregularity  have in  a combination tempo  appropriate ornaments.  anables  of  2\4  klapa  In practice,  and  3\4  ensembles  time. the  The use  of  the use of ornaments is  determined by the first tenor, who embellishes more than the other parts.  Ornaments are not shown here because these examples are  notations, not transcriptions. Transcription of the Example 2 with ornament variants is shown on page 18.  39  Harmonization orchestration tamburitza klapa  of  for  functional  While  areas  Town  tamburitza  orchestra  voices.  "Old  of  the  is  orchestra.  are more klapa  Songs"  developed  on  the  Arrangements  for  than  based  arrangements  for  arrangements are based on the main major  scale  (tonic,  subdominant  dominant), arrangements for tamburitza orchestras wider variety of harmonies.  and  incorporate a  The use of diminished  chords and  imitative counterpoint are standard techniques.  WANDERING SONGS  It is quite common to find similar tunes in different parts of Europe.  For example, the "Old Town Song" type (Example 1 ) from  Vojvodina, can certainly be found  in different  parts of Europe  (notably Hungary or Slovakia) as well as in Dalmatia. tunes similar to klapa  Many  tunes can be found in other European folk  t radi t ions. Nikola Buble (1992:690) noted that the popular klapa San Majko,  Cura Fina  (Zbornik Dalmatinskih Pjesama, no.126, 304)  ("Mother, I Am a Nice  folk song Dove Si Stato, while a klapa  song Ja  Girl") is a close variant of the Italian  Mio Bell'  Alpino  song from Trogir Ako Si  (Malatesta, 1972:106), Jubo Posla  Spat (Buble,  1986:173) ("If You Went to Sleep, My Darling") is a variant of the  40 Eastern Austrian song Morgan Muss Ich Melodieenbuch, no.89:61). between klapa  Fort  Von Hier  (Goldens  Buble also noted certain similarities  songs and Gregorian chant (see p.16).  songs have been adopted and arranged in the klapa  All of these  style; however,  the original melody is almost unchanged. Bruno  Nettl  (1990:48)  among  others,  correspondences as "wandering melodies".  named  these  song  According to Nettl, the  existence of these melodies, or melody types, is proof of the close relationship among art music, church music and folk music. found  the verification  for this phenomenon  in  He  the homogenous  musical characteristics of European folk songs. Nikola Buble  (1992:690) explains the  appearance of these  songs in Dalmatia as the willingness of the Dalmatian people to be open to, and employ, new European influences.  PERFORMING STYLES  Klapa  songs  have  much  in  common  with  the  general  characteristics of European folk music, specifically with that from the Southern part of Europe, the European Mediterranean. The  most  characteristic  feature  of  European  folk  songs,  strophic form, which is a specific way of expressing folk poetry, is also  a  feature  in  klapa  songs.  Other  European  folk  song  characteristics, such as use of diatonic intervals, church modes  41 and concepts of meter, There  are  are also found in klapa  differences  between  traditional and Festival klapas.  the  songs.  singing  Traditionally,  their songs in a homophonic style;  styles klapas  however, Festival klapas  of sing sing  a wide variety of homophonic and polyphonic songs, both pop hits and folk songs from different cultures, occasionally with musical accompaniment instruments.  of  guitars,  and  even  electrical  Topics of all songs usually deal with love, familiar  life situations, satara they live.  mandolins  ("gossiping") and the environment in which  Love, though, is the predominant theme.  Technically, klapa  singers express their mood by means of open  guttural, nasal, serenade-like "sotto voce" and falsetto singing, and almost always in high-pitched tessitura.  It is not always  possible to draw a clear dividing line between the specific styles of singing mentioned above.  A klapa  ensemble can sing using a  combination of singing styles depending upon their mood.  The main  aim of the singers is to achieve the best possible blend of chords. This is of primary importance to the prestige of klapas,  in their  competition to win audience support. Historically, the aspiration to delight  in homophony, with  harmonious ringing chords, has a long tradition in Dalmatia. important feature of true folk klapa ("by ear"). tenor  An  is the ability to sing na uho  This is a situation where only the leading voice,  prvi  (first tenor, the leader of the group), knows the melody and  lyrics of the song, and he initiates the singing. voice, sekondo  The second  (second tenor, "seconds it " ) , immediately joins in  42 at a third below.  The third voice bariton  (daje  ulja  pismi,  "gives oil (synonym for the soul) to the song"), completes the triad. The harmonic  basso  fourth voice,  functions  of  tonic,  challenges himself in profondo,  profondo dominant  (bass), and  defines the  subdominant.  He  low and strong, singing, so that  the song unfolds with the harmonious ringing of chords, as if all the singers were well-acquainted with the melody and lyrics of the song. Bela Bartok's work, about the area once known as Yugoslavia, (1951:1-93) suggests general characteristics of the songs of the Southern Slavs which can be related to klapa  singing.  Bartok  points out that the folk songs of the Southern Slavs (including Croatians) are usually two part songs (A B) heterometric, with melody-stanza structure.  Bartok  mentions three great centres of  part singing in Europe: the German southeastern regions; the great Russian region; the Slovenian and Croatian regions.  In general,  he divides European folk singing into two main styles,  parlando-  rubato  (free rhythm or with irregular rhythmic patterns) and tempo  giusto  (quicker tempo with more regular metric pulse).  are primarily in the relaxed parlando-rubato are also some examples in tempo giusto.  Klapa songs  style, though there  A combination of the two  singing styles can also be found - the first part of a klapa song could be in a slow and soft, parlando-rubato part (the refrain) in tempo  style, and the second  giusto.  All of the above, characterizes klapa singing as a European, and more specifically an Eastern European, folk singing style.  43  CHAPTER  III  SOCIAL BACKGROUMD OR KLARA:  DALMAXIA  Alan Lomax (1959: 927-54) identifies three singing styles of European European".  folk  music:  "Eurasian",  "Old European"  and "Modern  The Eurasian style is represented in Europe in parts  of the British Isles, and France, in southern Italy and in the Mohammedan parts of Balkans.  The Old European style is found in  Hebrides, northern England, the Pyrenees, Czechoslovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, northern Italy, Germany and parts of the Balkans, the Ukraine and Caucasus, while the Modern European style is found mostly  in England, France, Hungary, central  Italy and colonial  America. Klapa singing certainly must be considered a part of the "Old European singing" style. According to Lomax, this style of singing is done with the throat singing).  relaxed  (sotto voce of klapa ensemble  The expressions of the singers are lively and animated.  He states that the most important characteristic of this style is group Singing in harmony.  In Lomax's theory, cooperation in music  is related to social cooperation.  Indeed, klapa  singers are groups  44 of friends, commonly related by the same or similar vocation or social status.  Another social aspect mentioned by Lomax is the  position of women in society.  Their position in  "Old European"  areas, according to Lomax, has been one of equality with men.  It  may be difficult to believe that this statement could apply to Dalmatia, where  the  men  have  an  unmistakeable  "macho"  image.  However, the women were, and still are, the dominant people of the household in Dalmatia, which fits with Lomax's theory.  Outside  the household, the social activity of Dalmatian women is minimal. The limited social  activity  is possible reason why these women  prefer to sing the same tunes on more of an individual basis.  MEMBERSHIP  Before mentioning those who sing in the klapa  ensemble, there  is a question to be answered: What is the essential between the klapa Klapa  as a traditional  distinction  folk phenomenon and Festival  associated with the beginning of Omis Festival of Klapas  in  1967? Traditional  folk klapa  was, and to an extent still  is, an  informal group of friends usually brought together by the same or similar interests, age group or occupations, while Festival is  a  formally  organized  group  with  regular  rehearsals  klapa and  performances, whose members, as a rule, are people of various  45 occupations and diverse musical conceptually  diverse,  the  tastes.  singers  Although  of  formally and  klapa  both  individuals with a natural sense of musicality.  types  are  They both also  have great ability to perform spontaneously. Jerko  Bezic  ethnomusicologist  (1979:24),  the  prominent  Croatian  and one of the founders of the Omis Festival,  differentiates the following socio-geographic types: 1) traditional klapa  before the formation of the Omis  Fest ival. 2) newly-formed klapas  in the places where klapa  singing was  a popular tradition in the recent past. 3) klapas  formed in the smaller villages where klapa  singing  was not very cultivated or was even unknown before the Omis Fest ival. 4) klapas  formed outside of Dalmatia on the Northern Adriatic  coast as well as in some places along the broad belt of the Dalmatian hinterland.  Bezic's types #2, #3 and #4 are attributed to the beginning of the Omis Festival. type #1) slowly  decreased, while  expanded. The expansion Zbornik  The traditional  Dalmat inskih  klapa  Festival  of the festival  Klapskih  Pjesama  period from 1967 to 1991, 176 klapa  ensemble (Bezic's  klapa  klapa  types  rapidly  is presented  (vol. 3: 740-745).  in  In the  ensembles from 75 different  places performed at XXV Omis Festivals. Dalmatia, was represented by 33 different  Split, the capital of klapa  ensembles which  46 illustrates the strong popularity of klapa Other  important  Trogir  (8).  centres were Sibenik Beside Dalmatian  singing in that region.  (8 klapas),  urban and  Zadar  rural  (9) and  centres,  klapa  ensembles also came from various places outside Dalmatia (e.g., Zagreb, (Fig.4) 5 klapas).  Bezic's types can, undoubtedly, be  expanded for new categories.  At the time of his classification,  Bezic was not informed about the existence of klapas  among the  Croatian emigrants in North America and Australia, as well as the existence of non-Croatian klapas  (e.g., Sokoli in Seattle).  Traditionally, the individuals who sing in the klapa  are men.  Historically, the collectors of folk songs in Dalmatia (Kuba: 1892) documented that klapas  vnere exclusively male groups and that female  singers also sang the same tunes but on more of an individual basis. In the last two decades, there has been an accelerating popularity of klapa singing among women. Today, the number of singers in a klapa particular rule. ten  singers.  However, in practice, there are usually five to  The  ages  of  increasing numbers of klapas to  shoulder" with  is not limited by any  the older  the  singers  also  vary;  there  are  where younger people sing "shoulder singers.  Unlike  the  traditional  association (Bezic's type #1), fathers and sons, or other family relationships, are quite common these days in  klapas.  The relationship among singers can be examined on two separate levels:  first, the relationship among singers before and after  singing; second, the relationship among singers during singing. Before and after singing, the singers are friends who respect each  47 other without regard for age or status.  Each member of the group  takes on a particular role in order to become an accepted part of the group.  There is always a lero,  a person who entertains and  initiates a jovial atmosphere, and a zdrobuio, Lero  to eat.  the satara's  likes to be the centre of attention.  He knows all  ("town gossip") and other local jokes.  Sometimes he  is capable of imitating his zrtva On the other hand, zdrobuio,  cheese"), gavuni  activities.  can be found  ("smoked, salted  After rehearsals or  in a konoba  and pressed  ("smelts") and slane  are typical dishes of Dalmatia.  ("wine  ovcji  ham"), srdele  sir  cellar"). ("sheep's  ("salted sardines")  It is not usual for klapa to order  individual meals - they like to share their food. make klapa  is the first to  Consummation of food and wine is  typically associated with klapa performances, klapa  ("victim") through nasal singing.  more quiet than lero,  look for and eat the food.  Prsut  a person who loves  members more happy than drunk.  is not characteristic of the klapa  Strong red wine,  Aggressive  behaviour  members.  The relationship among singers during the singing is quite different. group,"  The central  is the prvi  typically  figure, the leader  tenor  ("first  tenor").  of the  The first  tenor  sings the lead melody, commands the tempo and, most  importantly, creates the mood of the songs. klapas  or "spirit  Some contemporary  are known by the timbre or by the appearance of their first  tenors. "Trogir",  Vinko Coce, known as Buco, is representative of as  is Josko  Milatic, of klapa  Prijic  for  klapa  "DC-Vranjic".  klapa Tonci  "Osjak", is certainly one of the most energetic  48 first tenors.  All three present different styles and timbres.  Coce is best known for his sotto voce singing, while Prijic is best known  for  child").  his  falsetto  singing  so-called  na  ditic  ("like a  Milatic's style of singing is open guttural, strong and  harsh, typical of the Dalmatian islands.  This extremely powerful  way of singing quickly ruins the singers glottis.  This is the  reason why many first tenors stop singing prematurely. Another noticeable relationship in the klapa the first and second tenors.  The dynamic gestures of the first and  second tenors resemble their singing.  They usually stand close  Sekondo sings u uho ("in ear")  to each other.  is one between  to the first tenor.  Many people still remember the couple, Nikola Bilie-Panto, first tenor and Spire Pitesa, second tenor, who introduced the song Okrug Selo  (" Okrug Village") in early 1970s.  melody  lines of the  thirds.  The  first  and  rest of the klapa  second  Stylistically , tenors move  the  in parallel  singers respond, through their  gestures, enthusiastically to the gestures of the first and second tenors,  which  creates  representation,(Fig. 5)  an  extremely  dynamic  visual  These active gestures help to capture the  audience's attention. Although the singers are most frequently brought together by similar interests or jobs, there are many instances where, for example, a teacher and a peasant, or a doctor and a fisherman, sing together.  However, deep friendship is the basic condition of their  association.  49  PERFORMANCE OCCASIONS  Nikola Buble (1980:15) cites one of his older informants from Trogi r: "Sunday mornings, after the long and hard work week, peasants changed their shirts, and clothes and went to Church... After lunch, they asked their wives for ofirta ("pocket money") and went to the tovirna ("wine cellar") where friends were gathering. Somebody would bring slane srdele ("salted fish"), or lovine ("clams") or cheese. Customarily, some women would prepare cicer ("broad beans") and offer them from tovirna to tovirna. Drop by drop, glass by glass of wine and the song began... the singing continued through the streets, under the street lanterns, serenading under the window of a beloved girl or wife..."  The traditional klapa  ensemble (Bezic's type #1) usually had  a good reason for singing, if there was no obvious reason, they would find a reason for a song.  They could be found on street  corners, serenading under windows, or in a konoba  (wine cellar).  Singers were usually spontaneously motivated by the present moment. They  sung  singing.  for the sake of the singing, They did not sing for money  for the sheer  joy of  but primarily for their own  and their listeners' pleasure. The  Festival  klapa  emulates  accepting the new influences.  the  same  qualities,  The strongest influences were  while mass  50 media and tourism. to  recording  The mass media enables kiapa  ensembles access  and television productions. At the same time, the  growth of tourism encouraged some of the kiapa ensembles (e.g., kiapa Sibenik) to commercialize their singing. Although most  kiapa  ensembles sing for their own pleasure,  they also spend a great deal of time practising.  Their goal is to  improve the quality of their singing and to compete at the annual Omis Festival of Klapas.  In order to receive the votes of the  judges and the audience at the Festival, klapas improve their singing style.  must constantly  Their style includes, not only their  singing, but also their gestures.  FESTIVAL KLAPA  In the period after World War II until the 1960s, traditional klapas  suffered a decline in popularity and interest which was due,  in part, to the political people, supporters of kiapa  climate of this period.  A group of  singing, who did not wish to be mere  witnesses of its possible demise, founded the Festival of Dalmatian Klapas  in Omis  in  1967, under  Ministry of Cultural Affairs.  the auspices of the  At that time, folk music was the  official music of the communist government. singing  and  industry.  used  government  it to propagate  They supported kiapa  tourism which was a growing  This initiative was wholeheartedly received by amateur  51 musicians and enthusiasts in Dalmatia, and as a result, dozens of klapas  were formed. However, it was very difficult to place klapa  ensembles on  stage in front of the microphones and stage lights and expect them to sing with as much originality as in informal performance. took a long time, for the klapa, of the microphones. became  to adopt and to overcome the fear  As a result of the festivals, klapa  representatives  of  the  It  Dalmatian  synonymous with Dalmatian singing (Fig. 1 ) .  musical  style  and  Their leaders also  originate with the start of the Omis Festival. trained musicians of Western classical music.  ensembles  Most are well-  Under the direction  of their leaders and the lack of spontaneity in singing, the  klapas  gradually increased their repertoires from the folk music of their home towns to different art and folk singing styles.  During the  last twenty-five years, since the start of the Festival, there have been many changes in most Dalmatian klapas, klapa  has given way to the Festival  klapa.  notably the traditional  52  CHAPTER  In  1979, a  KLAP-A  I N  group  people  of  I V  VANCXXJVER  from  Vancouver  spontaneously  started to sing together the songs they used to sing in their homeland, the coastal  region of Croatia, Dalmatia.  were members of the mixed choir "Zvonimir" {zvon, mir,  All of them  "bell ringing;  "peace"; the name of the first crowned prince of Croatia). The mixed choir "Zvonimir" was established in 1971, as a part  of the Vancouver Croatian cultural organisation - "The Society of Friends of Matica "queen-bee",  Hrvatska"  Hrvatska  -  (Matica  "Croatia").  -  "current  of the river",  The mixed choir "Zvonimir"  has performed at numerous community, especially ethnic, events. Beside performing at various other events, the "Zvonimir" choir also represented the province of British Columbia at the Canadian National CBC Radio Choir Competition (ethnic category).  53  SUMARTIN  The place of origin of most Vancouver singers, Sumartin, is of great importance. This topic was an integral part of all our conversations, and maybe the possible unifying  reason why they  sing. Jozo Cvitanovic was born on the island of Brae (the largest Dalmatian island), in the small town of Sumartin. Vinko  and  Petar, also sing  in the  klapa.  His two sons,  Zdravko and  Josip  Kazulin, and their uncle Veljko, came to Canada from the same town, as well as Tomislav Borojevic. klapa  Therefore, half of the Vancouver  have the same place of origin.  Two of the members are from  Northern Croatia, one from Hercegovina and the rest from coastal Dalmat i a. A brief look at the transcription of interviews shows that around 90% of the discussions were directly or indirectly related to Sumartin. religious  celebrations,  meaningful settlement. History  of  Discussions about customs, family life, different  parts  of  famous  the  people, boats  mosaic  and  history  and  fishing  of  More than that, the Sumartinians gave me Sumartin,  this The  were small Short  (Soldo, 1992), with the message: "Read this  book and you will know us better!"  54  It all started on St. Martins day (11 November) in 1646, when a  group  of  refugees  from  the  Dalmatian  interior,  led  by  a  Franciscan named Peter Kumbat, came to settle on the uninhabited part of the island called the Tip of Brae (Soldo, 1992:23), place was named after St. Martin - Sumartin. the only  speakers of the  Stokavian  The  These newcomers were  dialect  (standard  Croatian  language) on the island, whereas the rest of the population spoke the Chakavian  dialect (dialect from Dalmatia).  At the beginning,  the newcomers were forced to work for the noble families who owned most of the land, as "servants" under contract conditions.  In  1738, the Franciscans decided to turn their home into a monastery with at least six priests to perform the regular parish services and to open a school for young boys - future Franciscans.  Father  Andria Kacic Miosic, a popular poet and collector of folk poetry, started the development of the monastery which still stands. The  presence  Franciscans, Sumartin.  had  of great  the  monastery,  advantages  for  and  especially  the  small  of  community  the of  Firstly, the historical development of the community was  documented by the priests. Secondly, the school system was founded under the church auspices.  Thirdly, besides the influences on the  religious life of the inhabitants, the Franciscans had a great influence on secular life. In the interviews, all the Sumartinian members of klapa have great recollections of Father Leonardo Buljan, who was the parish priest  during  the  second  quarter  of  this  century,  (Soldo,  55 1992:205).  Although  he  Driest, 8ul]an manaqed tradition society cultural  has  been  called  only  to gather  preserved  the  events  spent  to  Crusaders.  and  activities  eight  years  as  the  parish  an excellent  church choir whose  this  He  Its  day. members  such  as  also  founded  organized lectures.  a  vanous theatre  Derformances. etc.  jozo Cvitanovic and Veliko Kazuiin were members  of  Stories  that  society.  about  these  events  have  an  important  0 1 ace in their memories.  Fiq. 13 Klaoa Zvonimir", typical rehearsal at private home, with home-made food and wine. Jozo Cvitanovic is third from right.  56  THE EMIGRATION  The reasons and the ways of emigration were also documented in Sumartin.  According to T. Stambuk (Stambuk, 1992:233), there  were three extensive waves of emigration. The first wave took place  in the second half of the 19th  century, when the inhabitants of Sumartin took advantage of the great demand for Dalmatian wine caused by the grapevine blight in France and  Italy.  Families who owned shops and ships started  trading in wine and brandy, and moved to big centres like Zagreb, Rijeka and even Prague. The second wave started after World War I, when many local people emigrated overseas due to mass unemployment.  Most of these  emigrants were skilled fishermen and boat builders. most  outstanding  emigrants  inventor of a special  is Mario Puratic  power  block used  One of the  (Soldo, 1992:261),  in net  fishing.  This  invention brought him the title of Inventor of the Year, 1974. The third, the biggest wave of emigration, occurred after World War II when many people emigrated overseas - especially to Canada  - due  Members of  to  economic  the Vancouver  as well klapa  recent, wave of emigration.  as  belong  ideological  differences.  to the third, the most  Vancouver is home for at least 85  immigrants from Sumartin and their families.  In most cases, the  57 families  have  contact  with  each  other  and  still  preserve  the  traditions and customs of family life from Sumartin.  The  following  excerpt  from  an  interview  with  the  oldest  member, Jozo Cvitanovic (age 79) (Fig.13) describes the beginning of their activities. moment of klapa  This dialogue unquestionably presents the  beginnings and presents Jozo Cvitanovic as the  organizer of the klapa  "Zvonimir".  At the same time, he is the  person who knows many different folk and religious customs and a great number of the klapa J . C : All of the klapa  songs. singers told me that, in fact, you were  the main organizer of the klapa"? Tell me, how did it happen? JOZO: It was in Petar's new house in West Vancouver. there a few times, a few of us.  We met  But after, when  he built another, bigger house, we sang for the opening. So, I proposed to them the idea of singing our songs as we did over there [in the homeland].  I was thinking  that we could do better if we met regularly; so, every week we visited other houses in order to practice. J . C : Did you begin to sing first [as the first tenor]? JOZO: I was the one who started the songs! J . C : Did they [the other singers] already know those songs? JOZO: Yes. J . C : Aha, they already knew them?  58 JOZO: Some of them knew the songs. J.C.: But they did not sing them? JOZO: There was nobody to sing those songs.  So, when  we started to sing, many of them started to recall the song. J.C.: So, MiIki  Pod Prazor  [Under Milka's Window] was (Fig.14)  one of the first songs that you sang with  klapa?  JOZO: Yes, one of the first. In fact, that song led to these other songs. J . C : What else were you singing? JOZO: Different songs...[he showed me the list of songs I asked him to write down in advance]. these are serenades.  Most of  There are also a few I learned  with the choir in Sumartin.  There are many more, but  I can't remember right now. The list of songs which he prepared for the interview helped  him to  remember  specific  songs, and me  to have better  control of my questions. J . C : [reading some of the song titles] Tiha Noci, Spava  ("Silent Night, My Darling  Moje  Zlato  is Sleeping")  JOZO: Yes, that is a serenade. J.C:  Ja Ne Znam Sto  Je Majka  Mi la  ("I  do not Remember,  Mother") JOZO: That song is not a real serenade. The deceased Father Leonardo [a priest from Sumartin, and one of the organizers of musical events]  59 taught me that one. J.C.: Can you sing it for me? [He sang the song which I recognised as a song from the Illiric movement] That is a beautiful song!  So, this song was sung in  Sumart in? JOZO: No. Father Leonardo taught me that song and another one. [He sings the other song] J.C.: With whom were you serenading at that time? JOZO: I was serenading together with Ante Kazulin, Ivo Juric who is now in Tacoma, Ante Serventic... four, five of us.  My other friends did not like serenading. That is  why we rather used to go to Selca [the neighbouring community]. J.C.: Were you able to sing songs in different voices like klapa  does?  JOZO: Yes, there was always somebody to sing sekondo and also bariton,  sometimes  profondo...  J.C.: Were they also choir members? JOZO: Yes, they were singing in the choir. J.C.: So, they learned how to sing in a choir? JOZO: No, we sang a lot outside, ever since we were children. I used to sing a lot with Serventic, sometimes up to three o'clock in the morning. He is 84 now, but still 1i kes to sing. J.C.: This song has a really strange name; what can you tell me about it?  60 JOZO: When I was in the army, I heard that song. It was 1936, in Kumbor [a town in Montenegro].  This song was  sung by a soldier from Zagreb [the capital of Croatia].  He was a real vagabond, but every officer  loved him.  He was never on guard duty or cleaning duty;  he was always singing in the cantina, [He sang the song. It was a Croatian popular hit of the 1930s.] J.C.: So, you were serenading with this song, too? JOZO: It was my  favourite one.  J.C.: Did you learn a lot of songs in the army? JOZO: He [the soldier from Zagreb] was singing the songs. was very interesting for me.  It  I was very young, only  twenty one at the time. J.C.: Were you singing with him or just listening to him sing? JOZO: I was photographing  [his term for exact and quick  learning] it right away, and it stayed in my head.  If  you asked me what I was eating a half an hour ago, I could not remember. J.C.: So, the songs really stay in your head?! JOZO: Vinko [Jozo's son] has a small book with all the songs for different religious occasions, let's say funerals or the like.  I can recite the whole book, just tell me  the first word and listen...  Some interesting information can be found in this interview. First  of  all,  there  are  three  main  sources  from  which  Jozo  61 Cvitanovic learned his songs: his friends and relatives who used to sing with him, his local priest who was very involved in music, and his comrade in the army. part of his ordinary  The first and second sources were a  life, while Jozo Cvitanovic met his third  source during military service, which was the only time he spent away from home.  At that time (during the first  half of the  century), military service was one of the rare opportunities for people to travel to different places.  It is still a great memory  for my informant. Finally, the list of my informant's songs can be classified by types and by ways of performance.  The types of songs I found  on his list were from the Illiric era, others learned from the priest,  Croatian  popular hits of the 1930s, learned  soldier,  and church and old narrative songs  from the  learned from  older  friends and relatives. A great number of the songs usually  performed  in  the  klapa.  are solo songs and the rest are As  Jozo  serenading was their inspiration for singing. are not typical in klapa informer. owned them.  Cvitanovic  said,  Although solo songs  singing, they are very important to my  As he had the solos in these songs he felt that he  62  t=a  m  , n 3 oEiAic  Wi  -f  -^5--^  h^L - t \ ^dS  Tto -Zoe^  T€ - €<i  VC-1>\ - -  & •i;o-G*,  t:-o-N^l —  C  ±^±: J!_it  t=S:  J_3_ ^  ?^^  ^  r\il_I '-c  .  J  r  I—r  n PP^  r~^ nrtcaf  J  ^^^  4 U Se  +^o-H]A,  1X3  CC  LUi U ^  s  m^^m T€(2_ 5M  tr-n  m^  ^-4=^^  - ^ i .  Ki-ue ~  ¥ f^:f=} S^^  lUco^msP;  fe^  nife  o fcfcr  Nis. 5 -  fjM,  ; ^ X  £  -1. C^UTA , rg,t>/A\v  Si^OCt-S,-  :- L H^ '1  \^U^PA  '-LVjaiJiyniL-  C>^^ L'Ho"- ^•^>g 1?*" 5^>J(^i|oc)  4:AT-k jAgul . KiLyc<? 3 i o VF T A M A H l / 7--AMA,rtl L b » e -J;= O t ^ Tc/o-(i^ C ^ ^ 2>^, ^^^wTseirTiTufc(^ 3 \JMhJaoiJ^ Tuete' l i , A sref/HH "^EASl H o n ^LrliS^  HH,<CO,  |-. .7 i^WNi A  Fig.  14  Milki  pod  Prozor,  \jJftrJ-V  klapa  WATr&-f^  m  Vf^TFg-  ttoLS^ \\\'n~  "Zvonimir"  ttlUit.- CorfrtokJ (JMAE  63  MEMBERSHIP  The singers of the klapa  "Zvonimir" are all individuals with  musical skills, which they developed  in their homeland.  they  them are first  came to this country,  (all  of  Before  generation  immigrants, who moved within the last thirty years), most were members of different choirs or singing societies and also members of smaller non-formal klapas  (Bezic's type #1).  Although they joined a mixed choir within the same cultural society, all of the members of the klapa  are exclusively men.  Of  course, male membership is one of the significant characteristics of the klapa The typical.  in Dalmatia.  number  of  singers  in  While a regular klapa  the  Vancouver  ensemble  in Dalmatia has between five and  ten singers, the klapa  in Vancouver has fourteen singers.  the  a  reason  for  such  large  is not  number?  It  What is  is noticeable  from  conversations with the singers that friendship and mutual respect are the primary  factors which determine membership, feeling of  "belonging" to the  klapa.  In a few  instances  I had  experiences in my attempt to enrol some new members.  negative  Although the  new "recruits" were good singers, they were not able to bond with the members and therefore were rejected by the klapa. that so many singers sing in this particular klapa  The reason is that it is  64 the only kiapa The kiapa  in Vancouver and probably the only kiapa  in Canada.  is usually acknowledged by the voice of the first  tenor, however this in not the situation with the Vancouver Instead of having one strong first tenor, kiapa average first tenors.  kiapa.  "Zvonimir" has four  Therefore, the lack of singing leadership  is enhanced by adding more singers. Most of the Dalmatian klapas  have singers within the same or  close age group which is not the case in the kiapa "Zvonimir". The  ages  vary  from  mid-thirties  to  mid-seventies,  basically  spanning two generations. Family relationships (father-son, unclenephew) are also present situation in Dalmatian  in the  kiapa.  This is not  a common  klapas.  Most of the Vancouver kiapa members are professional fisherman (6),  and  homeland.  ship-builders Four members  (4), occupations of  the  kiapa  they have  (geologist, economist, architect, engineer). their occupations and intellectual  learned  in their  academic  vocations  The differences in  levels is evidence that deep  friendship is the basic condition of their association.  65  REPERTOIRE  The topics of the songs sung by klapa  "Zvonimir" are more  nostalgic than the topics of the Dalmatian klapas.  Irving Babow  (Babow, 1954) suggest that the immigrant singing societies of North America  primarily  provide  satisfaction  for  a small  number of  immigrants, rather than serve as an institution established to meet the  needs  of  the many.  Babow  divides  the  immigrant  singing  societies into four categories: the nostalgic, the ceremonious, the cultural indoctrination and the protest singing society.  All four  types, according to Babow, require for survival the direction of a musically trained professional  leader who is familiar with the  folk music and national songs of the particular immigrant group. It is customary for the choruses to hold weekly rehearsals and to perform  in concerts several  "Zvonimir"  fits  into  times a year.  Babow's  category,  "the  Furthermore, nostalgic  klapa  singing  society" (Babow, 1954:292), where the participants are preoccupied with the songs that they brought from the homeland and with the cherished memories of their mother country. The repertoire of "Zvonimir" is of several types. is the group of  songs  members from memory.  learned  from  Jozo Cvitanovic  The first and other  The second group of songs was introduced by  members who have the ability to imitate the written arrangements  66 using notation, on a melodic instrument especially piano. Finally, klapa  the third group of songs includes those from contemporary repertoires which I introduced as the new leader. Besides klapa  songs, members of "Zvonimir" have various church  songs in their repertoire.  As well as singing in klapa,  all of  them are members of the Croatian Parish Choir in Vancouver.  Their  singing is important, especially during the Easter rituals, when, traditionally, the members of the Cvitanovic and Kazulin families sing at the Palm Sunday and Good Friday liturgies, about the last days of Jesus' life, Muka ("the Passion").  Members of the  klapa  also enjoy singing religious songs.  PERFORMANCE  While  klapas  in  Dalmatia  have  an  opportunity  to  spontaneously on many occasions, "Zvonimir" singers do not.  sing All  "Zvonimir" meetings are arranged in advance, regular practices as well as family gatherings (Fig. 15). lives, as well reasons  for  interviews.  as the distances  their  lack  of  The tempo of their family  between  spontaneity  their as  was  homes, are the stated  in  the  Most of them were complaining about the quantity of  their daily activities. In the recent past, in order to have an enjoyable and relaxing time, they organized practices in their private homes (Fig. 13).  67 This was a great opportunity for their wives to demonstrate their cooking skills. generally  The food they prepared was typically Croatian,  followed  by  home  irregular and more informal.  made  wine.  These  practices  were  At the same time, their performances  were not an important part of their singing. The rules and goals of the klapa changed when I became the leader of klapa  "Zvonimir".  These changes can be compared to the  festival influence on contemporary Dalmatian klapas.  I took the  leadership and proposed certain rules and goals to the members. Although they liked the change in the sound quality, there was resistance to the new rules. Discipline in singing, which requires regular formal practising, was a major obstacle.  After the first  couple of performances (Fig. 5 ) , the situation rapidly changed and members began to enjoy the new singing experience. became  an  important  goal  and  a way  of  klapa  singing  Performances  displaying  ethnic and  cultural identity.  CONCLUSION  Socially  and  musically,  has  always  been  progressive for its time, which is surely the reason why this folk tradition has remained successful for a long time.  The existence  of klapa in Vancouver, although quite different from its Dalmatian counterpart, has carried on the klapa singing tradition.  I feel  68 that with the continued support of trained klapa leaders, and the continuation  c^ the Festival  singing will  continue  well  as  in  other  to  parts  of Dalmatian  Klapas, this style of  flourish, particularly of  the  world  where  in Dalmatia, as  people  enioy  group  singing.  Fig. 15  Family gathering, an excellent  opportunity  for singing  69  REFERENCES CITED  Babow, Irving. 1954 "The Singing Societies of European Immigrants." Phylon, 15: 289-294. Bartok, Bela and Albert, B. Lord. 1951 Serbo-Croat ian Folk Songs, New York; Columbia University Press, Bezic, Jerko. 1962 1967 1973 1978 1979 1980 1981  "More i Pomorstvo u Narodnoj Muzickoj Tradiciji." Pomorski Zbornik, I-II "Muzicki Folklor Sinjske Krajine." Narodna umjetnost, Zagreb: Institut za Narodnu Umjetnost, 175-275. Razvoj Giagoljaskog Pjevanja na Zadarskom Podrucju, Zadar: Institut JAZU u Zadru. "Prikazi i kritike." Narodna Umjetnost, Zagreb: Zavod za Istrazivanje Folklora, 203-207. "Dalmatinske Klapske Pjesme Kroz Deset Godina Omiskog Festival a." Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama, Omis:FDK-Omis, 16-23. "Etnomuzikoloski Pristupi Dalmatinskoj Folklornoj Urbanoj pjesmi." Mogucnosti 6, Split: Knjizevni Krug u Splitu, 634-638. "Stilovi Folklorne Glazbe u Jugoslaviji." Zvuk, Sarajevo: 33-49.  Bombardelli, Silvije. 1970 "Neke Karakteristike Gradske Dalmatinske Pjesme." Bilten 1, Omis: FDK - Omis, 14-21. 1980 "Neke Karakteristike Gradske Dalmatinske Pjesme." Mogucnosti 6, Split: Knjizevni Krug u Splitu, 614-619 1986 "Od Gregorianike do Dalmoida." 20. Festival Dalmatinskih Klapa, Omis: FDK - Omis.  70  Buble, Nikola. 1980  Tragirski  1984  "Etnomuzikolozi i Suvremeni Glazbeni Folklor." Sv. Cecilija 3, Zagreb: 1984, 33-34. "Etnomuzikolozi i Suvremeni Glazbeni Folklor u Jugoslaviji." Sv. Cecilija 3, Zagreb: 57-58. "Daca, Napjev Trogirskih Bratima." Sv. Cecilija 1-2, Zagreb: 26-28.  1985 1986  Narodni  Napjevi,  Vokalna Folkiorna  1987  Omis: FDK - Omis.  Glazba Trogira  i Donjih  Kastela  od 1875 do 1975, vol.1, Omis: FDK - Omis. Vokalna Folkiorna  1987  Glazba Trogira  i Donjih  Kastela  od 1875 do 1975, vol.2, Omis: FDK - Omis. Glazbena Kultura  1988  Stanovnika Trogirske  Opcine,  Trogir: Muzej Grada Trogira. "Tekstovi Pjesama Vokalne Folklorne Glazbe Trogira i Donjih Kastela od 1875 do 1975." Cakavska Ric 2, Split: Knjizevni Krug Split.  1990  Buble, Nikola ed. Zbornik  1991  Dalmatinskih  Klapskih  Pjesama, vol.2  Klapskih  Pjesama, vol.3  Omis: FDK - Omis. 1992  Zbornik Dalmatinskih  Omis: FDK - Omis Dobronic, Antun. 1915 "Ojkanje" (Prilog za Proucavanje Geneze Nase Pucke Popijevke), Zbornik  Juznih 1947  Slavena,  za Narodni Zivot  i  Obicaje  vol. XX, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-25.  Zbirka Puckih Popjevaka Split,  Kastela,  Trogir,  Zagreb: Arhivska Zbirka Zavoda za Istrazivanje Folklora, No. 57N. 1948  Strucni  Izvjestaj  a Muzickom Folkloru  Split, Kastela, Trogir, Glasi, 101-109, 1993.  u Prostaru  Zagreb, rpt. Omis: Bascanski  Dukic, Dragisa. 1974  100 Najpopularni j ih Starogradskih  i Slagera, Hrvatske.  Pjesama Romansi  Zagreb: Savez Muzickih Udruzenja  Gal denes Melodieenbuch,  [Lei pzig]: n.p., n.d.  71 1943  Graduale Romanum, [Parisiis, Tornaci, Romae] n.p,  Kacic-Miosic, Andrija. 1983 Razgovori Ugodni Naroda Split: Zbornik "Kacic". Kinel, Mario. 1982  Slovinskoga,  Najpopularnije Starogradske pjesme i Romanse, Zagreb: Savez Muzickih Udruzenja Hrvatske.  Kljajic, Bratoljub. 1966 Veliki Rijecnik St ranih Zagreb: Mladost. Klenjak, K. and Vlahovic, J. 1979 Zbornik Dalmat inskih Omis: FDK - Omis.  Rijeci,  Klapskih  Pjesama,  Kos, Koraljka. 1972 "New Dimensions in Folk Music."International of the Aesthet ics and Sociology of Music, Zagreb.  vol.1  Review III.  Krader, Barbara. 1987 "Slavic Folk Music: Forms of Singing and SelfIdentity." Ethnomusioology, XXXXI, 9-17. Kuba, Ljudevit. 1898 "Narodna Glazbena Umjetnost u Dalmaciji." za Narodni Zivot i Obicaje Juznih Slavena, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-16, 167-168. 1899 "Narodna Glazbena Umjetnost u Dalmaciji." za Narodni Zivot i Obicaje Juznih Slavena, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-33, 161-183.  Zbornik III, Zbornik IV,  Kuhac, Franjo.  1892  "Glasba." "Dalmacija." Austro-Ugarska Monarhija, Opisana i Iiustrovana, Split: Naknada Medunarodne  1941  Knj izare Marsic. Juzno-Slavijenske Zagreb: JAZU.  Popijevke,  vol. V,  72  Lazenbatt, Maree. 1983 "The Klapa Music of Dubrovnik" Diss, Q. U of Belfast,  Lomax, Alan. "Folk Song Style." American  1959  Anthropologist,  LXI, 927-54. Folk  1968  Song Style  and Culture,  Washington,DC:  American Association for the Advancement of Science Malatesta, Gianni. 1972 Su in Montagna, Padova: G. Zanibon. Mathias, Fr. X. 1936  Organum Comitans  ad Kyriale  seu Ordinarium  of Music,  Evanston, IL:  Missae,  Rat i sbonae. Merriam, Alan R. 1964  The Anthropology  Northwestern University Press. Nett1, Bruno. 1965  Folk  and Tradit  ional  Music  of the Western  Continent,  New Yersey: Prentice Hall, 3rd. ed. 1990. 1985  The Western Impact on World Music: Change, Adapt at ion and Survival, Ed. by Nettl  New York: Schirmer Richtman-Augustin, Dunja. 1979 "Od Naroda do Folklornog Kica." Zvuk 3, Sarajevo: Savez Kompozitora Jugoslavije, 3-17. Richtman-Sotric, Dunja. 1974 "Narodna Tradicionalna Muzika Otoka Braca." Narodna Umjetnost, Zagreb: Institut za Narodnu Umjetnost, 1974/75: 235-299. Sirola, Bozidar. 1922  Pregled  1935  Edition Rirop. "1strazivanje Muzickog Folklora u Dalmaciji." Zagreb: Ljetopis JAZU, 1933/34, vol. 47.  1942  Hrvatska  Zagreb.  Povijesti  Narodna  Hrvatske  Glazba,  Glazbe,  Zagreb:  (2. edition)  73  Soldo, Josip ed. 1992 Sumartin  - Zbornik  Radova, Split: Zbornik "Kacic",  Stambuk, Tonci. 1992 "The Emigrants of Sumartin." Sumartin Radova, Split: Zbornik "Kacic", 233-255. Suchoff, Benjamin Ed. 1992 Bella Bartok Essays, Nebraska Press.  Zbornik  Lincoln: University of  Thomas, Phi 1. 1993 Personal communication, March 1993. Thrasher, Alan R. 1988 "Hakka-Chaozhou Instrumental Repertoire: an Analytic Perspective on Traditional Creativity." Asian  Music,  xix/2, 1-30.  Vidovic, Radovan. 1979 "Dalmatinske Klapske Pjesme sa Omiskog Festivala, Split: Slobodna  Dalmacija,  9. June 1979.  Zganec, Vinko. 1924  1962  Hrvatske  Pucke Popijevke  Zagreb: JAZU. Muzicki Folklor,  iz Medjimurja,  vol. 1,  vol. 1, Zagreb.  Zganec, V. and Sremec, Nada. 1951  Hrvatske  Narodne  Pjesme  i  Plesovi,  Zagreb: Seljacka Sloga. Zupanovic, Lovro. 1977 "0 Tonalnim Osnovama tzv. Dalmatinskog Narodnog Melosa." Cakavska Rio 1, Split: Cakavski Sabor, 65-78.  14  ARRENDIX A Actual harmonization of the klapa songs analyzed in chapter II,  I found  Dalmatinskih  in the collection Klapskih  Pjesama  of the klapa  (1973, vol.  songs  Zbornik  1).  List of the songs: Slusaj  Dragi  Mene  Jadnicu  ("Listen to Your Poor  Darling") (no. 194, 456) (Example 3) (p. 75) Kraj  Bunara  Mlada  Diva  Stala  ("By the Well a Young  Girl Stopped") (no. 184, 432) (Example 4) (p.76) Kraj  Bunara  Djeva  Mlada  Stala  ("The Young Girl  Stopped By the Well") (no. 183, 430) (Example 5) (p.77) Sjela  Djeva  na Kamen Studeni  ("The young Girl Sat  on the Gold Stone") (no. 120, 292) (Example 6) (p.78) Zrtva  Ljubavi  ("Victim of Love) (no. 176, 416)  (Example 7) (p.79)  75  ^m  N  Larghetto imnrovisato  Slu—saj  mm-^  ^ me — ne  dra — gi  TWl  t^  tamni-  r  P^ ^  mta-du  as  sa-da  I  I  6/  i  m  —  ?  ta — kva  sr— ca  h h Kh  «r=2z=nia ^  f o  ^  Aa—^0  i  h.  fe  i I •/jf.  ^  bi  h t ?M  r A  7  rrr i  m e — ne  J  fc  0—sfo-  ^  ^fc=^  mo — zes  ^  ^  (0\  M  Ka—ko  slu—zim  i  ^  ^  ^  me—ne  rtU4  Ja  AA  s  h  §m^^ fc^  Ao  • cu.  ^m m  ^  .ste  ni •  2L  ^  k vje-cnu  jad—  mo—zes  ta-kva  J^  h  sr—ca  ^" P P P^  fc m/a — du  sorf  zo  6o — ra —  • vit.  t -G-  76  Largo(J=56)  ^=k  ^s  ?  % "P  Kraj  bu-  u  ru  m  '^4^1  -;u  rfro  t^  ^  J 1771  ru—6oc  ci  dr  i g/r  a  za-  to  2 :zr  i:J: ^ ze — mj'i—ci  6  klo •  i^ gor  ko  S • fa  i  i  pld —  f  i ka •  ^  P  F  3^  ^  ;  za  ii fT 2.  1.  o  s  -to.  J J /3 J 0  6la—V  f  ^  ;r^  ^sM  -to.  t ^y  i  ?^  P b"4  fcf#^ Sbfcti  ?E5^  j , J J JJ  J-j)  V - L ^ b O "t  sta  ^'V- 7  ^  f i*  va  i  ^ I  di  -4-  hk^ -J-  i i f  f=T  i  t* 2-  mla—da  ra  .^^  J-  ^  P b 4  .na  kkM f  ^  3LE  f  77  Sostenuto  W ^  ^  ^  mp-mf  i  Kraj  4-  bu-  iW^fl4^±=±:  ^  ? — to  ^  i  i  i  i  ^  ^ $  • na—ra  dje—ra  mla  da  1^  id  XU  Jr=^  ^  ^  sta-  c\ ^  f ^  ru  ^ ru  ci  ip ^  VT  -7^  bac  J-J.  dr ritard.  za-  •la.  7^  ^  O  78 Largo -Jh-—  ^  #  ^  "l/"  1  ^  "iP S^—la  dje—va  n ^  ru—c;  ^ g ^  J^  ^  na  f f  ka—men stu  t  5  zz  T  pa  r  i cfe •  fa- •cu-  —to  M ^  /  porf  ^  ^  n//—me  ?  nji—me  je  E  gla—vu  n  pla—ka •  FT  n  o—mo-  •ta-  ;=J^ J^I^^J) ^  w^ kE  ^ ^  •la.  m m r^ ^  £f  . fa— cu—Jet u  ^  gor—ko  f  •fef  ^  1.2.  *l  £  m  ^  /  -to.  dr—za -  m M  ^ ^^sgf  ^  ^  ii  32  pa  je  -la.  i  r  79 Andante, appassionato Tenor  s P  soLo  £i=l Bi—la  je  som  tvo-ja  naj—mi-  t M (zatvorenih  cstiju)  i f  ^ ^ — ^  ^  te  je  gisyj  f  m  vjer—no  ^  ^  Iju-bi-  ^  -P LTLT  • li  ^ja  ni  f  g  ^  Oj—sret-  -ni  i i ^ JT.  ^=a  ko—ja  r T~^  ^  ^0-^  •ta.  TUTTI  i  ^  &  f  Ov  ^  ce.  m  ka—da  gro-bom  S=n  i- ^ ' " ^ CJ CJ ^ ^  m m tmi m i 1.  k  — y  ^  do  del  J  1  f  U—se  ^  ^  sje — ti  i.  ff  ^  svo-T?  rop-ki-  •nye_  ^  f^  _.  Oj-sret  J VJ j  80  APPENDIX  B  Texts of the songs, presented in Appendix B, are also found in the collection of the kiapa  Pjesama (1979, vol.1).  songs Zbormk  Dalmatinskih  Klapskih  They are arranged in the same order as  harmonizations are ordered in Appendix A. Marija Udikovic-Matek, a Croatian poet who lives in Vancouver, did the actual translation of the texts. Each song has significant information about performance and origin of the song:  A. Number and year of the  Omis Festival  B. Performing kiapa ensemble 0. Leader of the kiapa ensemble D. The informant E. Composer or arranger of the song  81  m  SLUSAJ, DRAGI MENE JADNICU Slusaj, dragi, mene jadnicu koja sluzim vjecnu tamnicu. Kako mozes takva srca biti, mene mladu sada ostavit? Kako mozes takva srca biti, mene mladu sad zaboravit? Nevjemice srca mojega, ostavljas me samu. do groba. Srce boli, morat cu xmarijeti i u hladan grob cu leci ja.  SLUSAJ, DRAGI MENE JADNICU LISTEN TO YOUR POOR DARLING Listen to y o u r poor d a r l i n g jailed by love e t e r n a l l y . " 0 how can you leave me d e s p i t e my feelings, vou c o l d - h e a r t e d ? " My h e a r t is t o r n with pain I s h e l l die a n d e n t e r my cold g r a v e . "You unfaithful d a r l i n g , how can you leave me?  (No. 194)  A B C D E  5. festival — 1971. »Srdela« — Makarska Buro Filipovic — Dv.ro Filipovic  82  184.  KRAJ BUNARA MLADA DIVA STALA  1  A B C D E  7. festival— 1973. »Luaca« — Split Dusko Tambaca Dusko Tamhaca, Ante Kezic, Split, 1972. Dusko Tambaca  Kraj bunara mlada diva stala i u ruci rubac drzala. Glavu svoju zemjici klonula i za dragin gorko plakala. Glavu svoju zemjici klonula i za dragin gorko plakala. Nevirnice, ka' mi na grob dojdes, ti se siti svoje jubavi, koja ti je uvik virna bila, koja te je zarko jubila! Koja ti je uvik virna bila, koja te je zarko jubila!  A na grobu zlatnin slovin' pise: tu pociva zrtva jubavi, tu pociva, sla'ki sanak sniva, a zemjica laka joj bila! Tu pociva, sla'ki sanak sniva, a zemjica laka joj bila! KRAJ BUNARA MLADA DIVA STALA (No. 184) BY THE WELL A YOUNG GIRL STOPPED By t h e well t h e y o u n g girl s t o p p e d holding h a n d k e r c h i e f in h e r h a n d . B e n d i n g h e r head down to t h e g r o u n d , b e c a u s e of h e r d a r l i n g , s h e was b i t t e r l y c r y i n g . "Unfaithful man, when you come to my g r a v e , r e m e m b e r me y o u r b e l o v e d , who a l w a y s faithfully loved you!" Here s h e r e s t dreaming peacefully, on h e r t o m b s t o n e it s a y s , in golden l e t t e r s : "Here r e s t in peace a victim of love!"  83  m.  K R A J BUNARA D J E V A MLADA STALA  A B C D E  5. festival — 1971. DC — Vranjic Ljubo Stipisic Ljubo Stipisic, Vitomir Mifcelic,; Vranjic, 1967. Ljubo Stipisic  Kraj bunara djeva mlada stala i u ruci rubac drzala. Glavu svoju zemljici prignula, i za dragin gorko plakala. Nesritnice, kad mi na grob dojdes, ti se siti svoje jubjene.  KRAJ BUNARA DJEVA MLADA STALA  ( No. 183)  YOUNG GIRL STOPPED BY THE WELL T h e y o u n g g i r l s t o p p e d b y t h e well, with h a n d k e r c h i e f in h e r h a n d . B e n d i n g h e r head to t h e g r o u n d , b e c a u s e of h e r d a r l i n g , s h e was c r y i n g . " U n h a p p y d a r l i n g , w h e n you come to my g r a v e r e m e m b e r me,your b e l o v e d . "  84  m  SJELA DJEVA NA KAMEN STUDENI  A 9. festival — 1975. JB »GaIeb« — Sihenik C Ivo Furcic D Ivo Furcic, Mile Livakovic (63. g.), Sibenik 1973. E Ivo Furcic  Sjela djeva na kamen student, faculet u ruci drzala, pa je njime glavu omotala, i pod njime gorko plakala. »Kako mores mene mladu, Najvirnija ja samo tebe ja  takva srca biti, tuznu ostavit? san tebi bila, san jubila.  Druga djeva tebe nece jubit, nit ces s drugom moci sritan bit, jer zbog tebe ja cu suze liti, nesritno do groba jubiti«. SJELA DJEVA NA KAMEN STUDENI YOUNG GIRL SAT ON THE COLD STONE T h e y o u n g girl sa.t on t h e cold s t o n e , h o l d i n g h a n d k e r c h i e f in h e r h a n d , a n d c r y i n g so b i t t e r l y , h e r head c o v e r e d . -"Why is y o u r h e a r t so s t o n y , w h y do you leave me, ail in s o r r o w ? Only you I loved d e a r l y , o n l y to you I was t h e most faithful. No o t h e r girl will love you t h e way I do, no o t h e r will e v e r make you h a p p y . B e c a u s e of you I will s h e d my t e a r s , a n d love you 'till t h e dav I die."  (No.l20)  85  1.  A B C D BILA JESAM TVOJA NAJMILIJA E (2rtva Ijubavi)  5. /estiual —1971. r>Maestral<i — 'Duhrovnxk Kresimir Magdic Kresimir Magdic, Stijepo Strazicic, Dubrovnik Kresimir Magdic  Bila jesam tvoja najmilija koja te je vjerno Ijubila. Oj, sretnice, kada grobu dodes, ti se sjeti svoje ropkinje. Oj, sretnice, kada grobu dodes, ti se sjeti svoje ropkinje. Tu pociva, slatki sanak sniva, a zemljica laka joj bila, a na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zrtva Ijubavi. A na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zrtva Ijubavi.  ZRTVA LJUBAVI  (No. 176)  VICTIM OF LOVE I used to y o u r most you l u c k y Remember w h e n you  be beloved, darling. me, y o u r s l a v e , visit my g r a v e .  EeT;e I d r e a m sweet d r e a m s . On h e r t o m b s t o n e it s a y s , in golden l e t t e r s : "The victim of love r e s t s in peace!"  

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