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Social and musical structure of the klapa singing style, Dalmatia and Vancouver Caleta, Josko 1994

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SOCIAL AND MUSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE KLAPA SINGING STYLE: DALMATIA AND VANCOUVER by JOSKO CALETA B. Mus. The University of Split, Croatia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Music (Ethnomusicology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1994 © Josko Caleta, 1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that pemiission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. (Signature) Department of H O S i C ^ ll\^^^\[^^\(j>{pG^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 0? HA f^ 1^1^ DE-6 (2/88) ABSTFlAC-r This study examines both the social and musical characteristics of klapa singing. Comparative analysis of the klapa in Dalmatia, its place of origin, and the klapa in Vancouver is the focus. The field work for this project took place on two occasions: during the regular practices of klapa "Zvonimir", and in a series of individual interviews. The interviews were with the oldest member and one of the organisers of the klapa "Zvonimir", Jozo Cvitanovic. A traditional folk klapa was, and to an extent still is, an informal group of friends, usually brought together by similar interests, age group or occupations. Festival klapa, on the other hand, is a formally organized group with regular rehearsals and performances, whose members, as a rule, are people of various occupations and diverse musical tastes. Socially and musically, klapa singing has always been progressive for its time, which is surely the reason why this folk tradition has remained successful for such a long period. 11 " T A B L E O R C X > N X E N ~ r S Abst ract i i Tab! e of Contents i i i List of Figures v Acknowledgements vi Introduction 1 Chapter I ORIGINS OF KLAPA SINGING 7 Klapa, a Traditional Folk Phenomenon of Dalmatia ...7 Klapa Songs 8 Origins of Klapa Singing 11 Chapter II MUSICAL STRUCTURE 17 Relationship Among Klapa Songs 22 Relationship with "Old Town Songs" 34 Wandering Songs 39 Performing Styles 40 Chapter III SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF KLAPA: DALMATIA 43 Membership 44 Performance Occasions 49 Festival Klapa 50 Chapter IV KLAPA IN VANCOUVER 52 Sumart in 53 11 ^ Emigrat ion 56 Membership 63 Repertoi re 65 Performance 66 Conclusion 67 References Cited 69 Appendix A. Klapa Song Examples 74 B. Texts of Klapa Songs 80 TV L I S T " O R F I G U R E S Figures Page 1 . Kl apa " T rog i r" 4 2. Locat i on of Croat i a 5 3. Map of Croat i a 6 4. Klapa Song and Gregorian Chant 13 5. Klapa "Zvonimi r" 16 6a. Compari son of the melodic 1ines. Period A 20 6b. Comparison of the melodic 1ines, Period B 21 7. Pitch substitution 24 8. Weighted scales 26 9a. Compari son of the bass 1 ines. Period A 30 9b. Compari son of the bass 1 i nes. Period B 31 10a. Compari son of the baritone lines. Period A 32 10b. Compari son of the baritone lines Period B 32 11. Rhythmic patterns 35 12. Important pitches and cadences 37 1 3. Klapa "Zvonimi r" 55 14. Mi 1 ki pod Prozor, spontaneous singing 62 1 5 . Klapa "Zvonimi r 68 A C K N O W L E O G E M E N ~ r S Many individuals helped me during my work. I would especially like to thank my wife, Jacqueline, and my family, for close support, not only during the writing of this paper, but also during my years of singing and leading klapas. I would also like to thank the klapa tradition itself for many years of priceless experience. Special thanks to Dr. Nikola Buble who recognized my talent for singing early on and helped me with his knowledge and advice. For this work, a special "thank you" to Mr. Jozo Cvitanovic, who gave me a great deal of valuable information about klapa singing. Thanks must be also given to the members of my thesis committee, Dr. Alan R. Thrasher and Dr. Vera Micznik. Dr. Thrasher, my thesis advisor, guided and assisted me during my studies in Canada. He was the first to introduce me to North American ethnomusioology, and, at the same time, encourage me to improve my English language. I extend my sincere appreciation to Sonia Borovic who carefully supervised my writing and helped me to translate my native language, Croatian, into an academic English. VI INTRODUCTION The subject of my research is klapa singing. For a long time, the dominant obstacle of this project was in selecting the exact approach I might take. My apprehension almost made me substitute the subject of research with a new subject, more unfamiliar and distant. The hesitant feeling originated from the fact that klapa singing was, and still is, an integral part of my life. My love for singing began in early childhood when I learned to sing through listening and imitating older klapa singers. Having them for my idols, I hoped for a place among them. At the age of fifteen I had a chance to become a member of a klapa ensemble. I was fortunate to become a part of one of the best klapa ensembles, klapa "Trogir" (Fig. 1), under direction of Nikola Buble, the eminent mestar ("leader"). Western musical education in Croatia helped me to become more than one of the singers; at the age of twenty, I actually became a mestar of klapa "Trogir". As a culture carrier, I was apprehensive about writing on my own cultural background. Klapa to me, was a standard form of folk music. My attitudes towards klapa singing and the subject of ethnomusicology were fundamentally altered during my studies in Canada where I was exposed to various North American theories and 2 approaches. A helpful element in selecting klapa singing for my research project was the location of the klapa "Zvonimir" in Vancouver. That gave me an opportunity to raise a few important questions: Why and how did a klapa emerge in Vancouver? What are the similarities and differences between the Vancouver klapa and one in its place of origin? Are there any differences in the repertoires, and what are the goals of the klapa in Vancouver versus the klapa in Dalmatia, its place of origin? Helpful reinforcement for my proposal work came from Phil Thomas, a prominent collector of folk songs of British Columbia. After Thomas presented a lecture on the folk songs of British Columbia, I asked him if there were any different traditional songs, other than those of Anglo-Saxon origin, he ever heard while collecting. His response: "I heard the singing of the Russian Dukhobhors in Grand Forks, and I heard a couple of Swedish songs up in Cariboo; also I collected a few native songs...". His response convinced me that I was doing the right thing. A new question arose, however: What has happened to the culture and musical traditions of the thousands of immigrants who came here in quest for a better life? In most cases, ethnomusicological research tends to look for data from the neutral observer's or participant's perspective. My position, in this case, is that of a participant rather than an observer. This position has advantages and disadvantages. Being 3 a culture carrier certainly is a great advantage in helping to understand the Dalmatian way of life, social circumstances, language, and customs. Dalmatia is the southern, coastal region of the Independent Republic of Croatia (Fig. 2 and 3). This also allowed easy access to various written sources, written mostly in Croatian by prominent ethnomusicologists such as Nikola Buble, Jerko Bezic, Silvije Bombardelli, Josip Versic and others. On the other hand, being too close to the culture could make evaluation of my data subjective and biased in some respects. Fortunately, there is a current trend in ethnomusioology wherein more and more scholars are exploring their own cultures, though specifically from ethnomusicological perspectives. In the first chapter of this paper I will examine the origins and general characteristics of the terms klapa ensemble and klapa songs. In the second chapter I wi11 examine the musical structure of selected klapa songs. The terms "wandering melody" and "tune family" will be discussed in this chapter. In the third and fourth chapter I will compare social aspects of klapa ensemble in its place of origin with klapa in Vancouver. Differences and similarities between traditional klapa ensemble and Festival klapa ensemble will also be discussed. The term Festival klapa is associated with the beginning of Omis Festival of Klapas in 1967. Omis Festival (Fig.3) is the annual competition and great promotion of klapa singing. Field work for this project took place on several occasions. The first part of the field work took place during klapa Zvomrmr's' I'eqular oractices. This was an excellent oDDortunity to record essentiai musica' examoles and to observe the behaviour OT members. Informal conversations aoout k-'iaoa smqinq were also a Dart of these sessions. The second part o* my field work was directed through a series of individual interviews. During these interviews, every member of the klapa ensemble could express his persona" view about klapa singing. Their responses gave me a bette'- under St and 1 nq o^ what klapa singing reallv is and what it means to them. Fiq. 1 Klapa "Troqir", well-known Dalmatian ensemble Fig. 2 Location of Croatia, (map of Central and Southern Europe) 6 Legend Dalmatia, F i g , 3 Map of C r o a t i a , Dalmat ian towns C H A R T E R 1 O R I G I N S O R K L A R A S I N G I N C 3 KLAPA, A TRADITIONAL FOLK PHENOMENON OF DALMATIA The word klapa originated in the Trieste region (Fig.3) of Northern Italy (Buble, 1988:68). According to Buble, in this particular dialect of the Trieste region, klapa means a "group", people gathered together, linked by the group. The link is usually defined as a mutual relationship among members, primarily associated in friendship. According to R. Vidovic (1979), the root of the word is the verb "capulata" (to bind, to be fastened), originally related to a group of animals in a herd or flock. This actually gave the word klapa a negative connotation, similar to the word "gang". Bratoljub Klaic (1966:629) considers the word klapa a jargon word which has the following four meanings: "druzba", "druzina", "skupina", "klika" (company, group, chorus, clique). The word "druzina" (group) is probably the most preferable to describe the idea of klapa singing. Over time, the negative connotations of the 8 word klapa vanished. Today the term is synonymous with a specific folk singing phenomenon of Dalmatia. In the Dalmatian dialect, the word klapa appeared in the mid-19th century (Buble, 1988:69), when trade between Dalmatia and Trieste was quite frequent. About the same time, group singing appeared - as a folk phenomenon - in coastal-urban and suburban areas and the islands of Dalmatia. The mid-19th century was a turbulent period in the history of many European nations. Croatians, as well as Dalmatians, started to identify with their "ethnic" feelings through what became known as the Illiric Movement. This national revival manifested itself through a variety of cultural events. Choirs, tamburitza orchestras, mandolin orchestras and accordion orchestras were emerging like "mushrooms after the rain" (Buble, 1980:7). They were important influences on the origins of klapa singing. KLAPA SONGS The term "Dalmatian klapa song" was introduced by the Croatian ethnomusicologist Jerko Bezic (1979:16) in his chapter "The Dalmatian Klapa Songs Within the Ten Years of the Omis Festival" in Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama (vol.1, 1979). Bezic was the first one to perceive notable differences between Dalmatian klapa songs and Dalmatian urban songs. The latter type 9 embodies an extensive and more diverse repertoire than Dalmatian klapa songs. Dalmatian urban songs could be performed by a variety of organized, as well as spontaneous, singing groups, with or without instrumental accompaniment. Today many Dalmatian urban songs are based on pop festival songs and old popular hits. Klapa songs, on the other hand, are performed almost exclusively without instrumental accompaniment. Although klapa groups have mainly klapa songs in their repertoires, klapas occasionally venture into different styles of folk and classical vocal music. When a klapa attempts to sing in a different singing style, other than the traditional style, it is not recognized as klapa singing. Before the work of Bezic, klapa songs were recognized by various descriptive titles. At the end of the last century, the Croatian musicologist, Franjo Kuhac, (1882: 164, 165 and 217) in his work Austro-Ugarska Monarhija, Opisna i Ilustrovana, under the entry Glasba, Dalmatia , classified klapa songs as gradske meiodije ("town melodies"). At the same time, the Czech painter and musicologist Ljudevit Kuba (1898:176) described those songs as napjevi koje narod pjeva u gradskim zborovima ("tunes that people sang in town choirs"). Bozidar Sirola (1942:155) named those tunes lagasne i priproste pjesmice ("simple and indigenous short songs") and categorized this song style as Dalmatinske popievke u duru ("Dalmatian songs in a major key") (1955:131). Antun Dobronic (1947:115) described the same repertoire as meiodije varoske ("urban melodies") or meiodije koje se odvijaju u paralelnim tercama... gdjegdje dublji glasovi zastaju uz toniku i dominantu 10 (" melodies in parallel thirds...where deeper voices follow the tonic and dominant"). Vinko Zganec (1962:62) and Jerko Bezic (1962:35) recorded the term napjevi u tercnom duru ("songs in major scale thirds"). Finally, Silvije Bombardelli (1970:14), termed all Coastal and Island Dalmatian folk songs Dalmat inska foiklorna urbana pjesma ("Dalmatian urban folk songs"). The present term, Dalmatinska klapska pjesma ("Dalmatian klapa song") incorporates both the musical and the social aspects of this folk musical phenomenon, accenting the association between /cZapa singing and the particular songs sung exclusively by the klapa group. 11 ORIGINS OF KLAPA SINGING The origins and sources of klapa singing style were, for a long time, the topic of discussion among Croatian scholars. Silvije Bombardelli (1970:14-21) identified six different influences on Dalmatian urban folk songs (see page 10): 1) Gregori an chant 2) song books of the Illiric Movement of mid-19th century 3) Italian and Mediterranean melodies 4) singing of the Dalmatian hinterland (the mountains) 5) songs from the Communist period 6) Croatian popular hits of the 1920s - 1950s, with characteristics of folk songs The first three categories contain the oldest sources, while the latter three are more recent. This flexibility in absorbing new influences is the reason why klapa has survived to this day. A re-classification was formulated by Lovro Zupanovic (1977:70). He used the first three sources from Bombardel1i's categorization, and added a fourth category - the influence of mass media (radio, television). 12 The oldest supposed influence, Gregorian chant, has been given the principal attention by both authors. According to Bombardelli, (1980:614-617) klapa songs influenced by Gregorian chant were started in local chapters of sacred societies called "bratimi" (brothers). The singers of these societies "... listened and learned in the church, then went out to sing." The first significant change was in the modification of the song text. The sacred text was changed to a secular text while the melodic line remained in original form. The second change occurred with the addition of a parallel melodic line over the first voice melody. As a result, the bass melodic line (when added) assumed a harmonic function, which in tune changed the original modes (of the Gregorian chant) into diatonic major scales. (Fig. 4) Evidence for this statement can be found in Glazbena Kultura Stanovnika Trogirske Opcine by Nikola Buble (1988:71). In the chapter about kTapa singing in Trogir, Buble compares the melody of the klapa song, Li pa li si Mare Moja ("Mary, You are Beautiful"), with the melodic line of Kyrie I (Mathias, 1936:96), a Gregorian chant from the 10th century (Fig.4a), The resemblance of melodic lines is noticeable. Buble also compares the second part of the same klapa song (in four-part singing) with the liturgical melody Rodil se ("He Was Born") (Fig.4b). The melody of the klapa song is a consistent third over the liturgical melody. 13 LIPA LI SI MARE MOJA Sndmio: N. Buble Kjazivaci: Niksa Bilic-Panto (1937) — I Transkribdrao: N. Buble tenor, ^osko Caleta (1962A — II Mjesto i vrijeme snimka: Trogir, 9. 10. tenor, Dusko Geftc (1943) — ba-1983. rlton, Josip Bepo Mirat (1935) . — bas i Zivko Santic-Sura (1946) 4a - '^ " _, p r ^ - ^ n J \-n^^-f''^-7 h ? k - * — ^ — = : ^ = = - - = = 1 1 : n — V _v^— :€±: iCvntfX . / X - i ) M' MAWAU «lOH*»m« a • • 1 ' B « <j _ l i — c 1 Jmhi 1 P.. i-i^A JhU 1.4 i i M^-) Mi * = ^ s 3 ± CT) (6) CT) i£££ (*) ft) (DA {T) ^s ? : x V i > '^  y p. 9=W=^ ^ lUi I L ' 1/ . 1 M l j -g< ; |_^  zisc: ' ' C'i |g; CO) C*) ( i ) (») (*)C'>)tT) F i g . 4 Klapa song and G r e g o r i a n c h a n t , f r om Bub le N. ( 1 9 8 8 : 7 1 ) 14 Roughly corresponding to Bombardelli's and Zupanovic's classifications, Jerko Bezic, in Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama, (vol.1, 1979), further divided klapa songs into nine different categories: 1) Dalmatian (traditional) klapa song 2) Gregorian chant 3) Italian, broader European melody 4) Marching song melodies derived from band music of Napoleonic times 5) Composed Dalmatian klapa song 6) Songs from interior regions of Croatia 7) Songs from older North Dalmatian folk tradition 8) Ceremonial, narrative, or other songs which are performed in klapa, and sung like klapa songs 9) Croatian popular hits of the 1920s to 1950s Bezic started his categorization with "Dalmatian (traditional) klapa song", without any given explanation about its origins or sources. Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama (vol.1, 1979) contains 217 different songs, performed at the ten festivals in Omis (1967-1976). More than half of the songs (122) are included in the first category. The only apparent collective characteristic is found in the texts which deal exclusively with love. Musically, the note finallis ("last note of the melody") in all songs is the major third of the diatonic major scale. I 15 postulate that a thorough musical analysis of these songs, specifically analysis of the melodic structure, would reveal many common characteristics. Bezic's second and third categories were also included in Bombardel1i's and Zupanovic's categorizations. Category four is interesting because it is the first time that anyone has mentioned the influences of marching bands. Marching bands were introduced in Napoleonic times (Buble, 1980:7). This tradition has continued to this day. Each town or small community has its own marching band. Arrangements for the marching bands are in four-part harmony, as are klapa arrangements. Category five, composed Dalmatian klapa songs, is a newer tradition which stems from the beginning of the Omis Festival. By the second year of the Omis Festival, 1968, there was a special evening devoted to composed Dalmatian klapa songs. In the last twenty-five years there have been more than 217 songs composed for this occasion. Some of these songs are only performed once but others become part of klapa repertoires, e.g. Dalmat ino Poviscu Pritrujena ("Difficult History of Dalmatia"). Categories six to eight can be found in klapa repertoires but are rarely performed and therefore are not as significant as the first five categories. Finally, category nine, Croatian popular hits of the 1920s to 1950s, is an important part of klapa repertoires. These songs are now recognized as folk songs. Although Bezic limited his category from the 1920s to the 1950s, contemporary klapa ensembles sing 16 current Croatian popular hits, especially those from the Split Festival of Popular Hits. In the last two decades kJaoas have occasionally performed as backup singers at this festival. Fig. 5 Klapa "Zvonimir", Vancouver: Performance practice. Traditional costumes from Trogir-Split region; Standard performance position in cortello ("like knife"); Tenors on the left, basses on the right side. 17 CHAPTER II MUSI CAI_ S-TRUCTURE In this chapter I will be analyzing seven songs. Although the klapa songs analyzed in this chapter are a small part of klapa repertoire, I consider them to be representative enough for the genre, so that they can serve as universal examples. Before starting my analysis I interviewed Jozo Cvitanovic, one of the organizers, and the oldest member, of klapa "Zvonimir" in Vancouver. One of the songs that Jozo Cvitanovic sang to me was A/a Krizu Zlatnim Slovom Pise ("On the Cross, in Golden Letters, it is Written") (Example 2, see p. 18): I na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zarka Ijubavi, Tu pociva, slatki sanak sniva, a zemljica laka joj bila. Jozo Cvitanovic said that this song is not specifically from Sumartin but he can remember it from his childhood. "I remember singing this song with my older brother. We used to sit on the garden wall in front of our house and sing long into the night. While we were singing, we kept the beat by hitting our legs against the wall. It was a very popular song at the time." 18 ItJf. ^013 C'jraiJOMXcOg'^ A Ki^  V^Uiu , ,^ I ^ y£6. '^^ . \)^ viCoutf&e_- -^Txi a ti T^Pg <^  H^ \/AE.\»ksJV Ot(JAt\eUTS; ^ 13 ^ ^ r^ 52: J -7f=V ¥ i ^ ^ r©^ ^ =^y=H -SZ ^ . r f .> -r=v-E5£ * I tscl e fa. > "^^  I I 11J J' I I J ^ h i ^ ^ /T\ ^ £ r — H ^ % 2V, i^  izz:=f -^y -po__- C\ - v / A SL^TKN SkvJ|x\<^  S W X - V A , A ^ e - Ht-y-CA U A - ^ A > - j %\-.[^tK Transcription of Example 2 T']A^/L SUM. ^ ^ ^ = ^ fe: ^ ^ ^ I 'Lu,rl MJ. ' ' f ;ri^ T' - : ik - i^«- -JTA-e-l U.t|.C*.riA C-j TA, SA S»-6»/S h l O - M lt^~U;J'lU^t'\i\ l A C - , If mM^I[-'"^''^^i ^ ZZEZ±Z±IZZJZ H 0;J€U^ MB - C I SPjW 9oUiVio T A ^ A A 'vi\}0-"^5 n L A - b \ U Gtt-je St-V. Z M L . Example 1 Fijaker Stari ("The Old Coach") - "Old Town Songs" 19 The melody and text of this song were familiar to me, and that is why I started to look for similar examples. The melody has much in common with the song Fijaker Stari ("The Old Coach") shown in Example 1 (Dukic:1974, Kinel:1982). Dukic and Kinel indicated that the song originated in the Vojvodina region of Northern Serbia. The town of Sombor is mentioned several times, during the song. Fijaker Stari ("The Old Coach") belongs to a type known as "Old Town Songs" (see p. 18) Several variants of the text and melody which are similar to Jozo Cvitanovic's song, I found in the collection of klapa songs Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama (1979, vol. 1): Slusaj, Dragi Mene Jadnicu ("Listen to Your Poor Darling") (no. 194, 456) (Example 3) (App. A) Kraj Bunara Mlada Diva StaJa ( "By the Well a Young Girl Stopped") (no.184, 432) (Example 4) (App. A) Kraj Bunara Djeva Mlada StaJa ("The Young Girl Stopped By the Well") (no. 183, 430) (Example 5) (App. A) Sjela Djeva na Kamen Studeni ("The Young Girl Sat on the Cold Stone") (no. 120, 292) (Example 6) (App. A) Zrtva Ljubavi ("Victim of Love") (no. 176, 416) (Example 7) (App. A) 20 S0M60R A i dt ^ ^ 5 ^ f—r-& ^ ^ ^ i-tef^ tt FI-JA-KER STA-RI *J-Lha-MA UU-TA SA-SO-BOM WO-SI ZA-UU-BLJe-Nl PAR 5U MARTIN t-? r r [iiu- ' i i t ^^KttHif-i^=¥= A -NA KRI -ZU ZU-TNA 5tO-VA PI-SU TV PO-CJ - VA iAR-TVA UU-6A"Vi MAKAR5KA ^rt- H i LM 1 ri If 4 M j / l IHf If SLU-SAJ PRA-GI H E - N E JA-DMI-CU KO-JA SLU-ZiM VJE-CNU TA-MN-OJ SPLIT ^•P ( f i r {\\i±i\\ [\+U-l^M ^ ^z^ m tCRAJ-BU- MA - RA MLA-DA Dl-VA SfA-LA ' ^ RU - C i RU ~BAC D R - I A - L A V R A N J I C - S P L I T 5 ^ IBENIK a=^^4- i 1X1 r^J~TT7T] I I, i ^ : ^ ^ 5JE-LA OJE-VA DUBROVNIK NA KA-MEN 5TU-D£- Nl F A - C U - L E T U R U - C ( PR.-ZA-LA i ^ ^ ^ i—1—I B i - L A JE -SAN TVO-JA NAJ-tvl l -LI- jA KO-JA TE JE Vje-RKiO-UUB/-LA F i g . 6a Compar ison o f t h e m e l o d i c l i n e s o f Examples 1-7 P e r i o d A 21 h B ^ ^~T=F^ ^ f ^ + r C J E - U N Q - C I SNI-JEaPO-LA-KO PA-DA A DVO-JE M U - D i H GRE-JE SR-CA 2AR. ^ ^ s r—A—^ ^ -V- ? 4= Tli P O - CI - VA SLA-TKi~5A-NAK SNI-VA A Z E - M L J i - C A LA'KA JOJ 8 i - L A . '± I i ¥ r—r V \ \ \' H L B ^ xn ^ KA-KO M o - i e s TA-KVASR~CA B i - T | M£ - ME M L A ~ D U S A ~ D A O - S T A - V i - T ? 1 T ^ : 1 1 i l l r f *=^ I 15 _^  *r u^^ilf ull^  <SU-/U -SVO-Je Z E - M U I - C J K R E - N U - L A ' ZA P R A - < 5 I M <50R.-KO Pi-A-KA-LA »~^ ^M + tHF=±t * 1 I n u u i i ^\0\\\v\,\-[iM\m fef: PA JE SlJI -ME <^LA-VU OMO-TA-LA I FOD N J I - M E <5bR.-KO P U - K A - LA y u' I' n u^^ffTrrufFt' ijji I f n OJ SRE-TK i t -CE K A - D A ^RC-5U DO-DE5 T v S E S J E - T l 6VO-JE ROB I •K( - NJ£, Fig, 6b Comparison of the melodic lines of Examples 1-7 Period B 22 I will examine these songs from three points of view: The structural relationship and style within the klapa song repertoire (Examples 2 trough 7), focusing on similarities and differences among the songs in terms of form, melody, rhythm, intervals, ornamentation, text and mode; The relationship between "Old Town Songs" and klapa songs: their similarities and differences; Their relationship with songs from different parts of Europe, the so-called "wandering songs". RELATIONSHIP AMONG KLAPA SONGS The forms of the klapa songs shown in Examples 2-7, reflect several variations. They can be clearly seen in the following chart: A B Example Example Example Example Example Example 2 3 4 5 6 7 a a a n n' a' a' a' a' a" b a' b a' b a" b a" b a' b a' The first two examples have identical form with "Old Town Songs", Example 1, The last section of Example 4 is slightly arranged. The entire form of Example 5 is half the length of the other examples, a common phenomenon in klapa songs. As these 23 songs have been passed on orally, singers occasionally are not able to remember entire songs. Examples 5 and 7 are substantially different in their first phrases ( a ), The beginning pitches, g' and d' are still part of the tonic chord. The last pitches, d' and a', are parts of the dominant chord. The cadences of the other examples usually end on the b' or g' of the G chord (Fig. 12). The rhythmic pattern of these phrases is similar to the other examples, while the melodic contour is shaped differently from the other examples. The reason for this essential change is found in the performance style of these songs. In both cases, the range of the melody is lowered to suit the bass or baritone solo singer who performs this part. Traditionally, the voice of the first tenor begins the singing. Beginning with baritone or bass solo is characteristic of contemporary arrangements. Structures of the various melody lines also show similarities and differences (Fig. 6a and 6b). The basic melodic contour is quite similar in all examples. The opening of the phrases, the interval of a fourth followed by a third in contrary motion, is a contour found in most examples. Comparison of the first and final sections of the phrases is further proof of melodic similarities. Period A begins with the notes of the tonic chord (g' b' or d"), regularly finishing on the note b'. Period B begins consistently with note d" and again finishes on the note b'. Cadences in all examples are also in similar motion, c" moving down to b' (Fig.12). 24 The third bar is the place where differences are the most pronounced. This type of variation is similar to what Thrasher calls "pitch substitution within a fixed phrase structure" (Thrasher, 1988:8) (Fig. 7). <r)—y^ P ^ ^ = ^ ^-% Fig. 7 Pitch substitution within a fixed phrase structure, Next to pitch substitution, there are other techniques of variation, e. g., passing notes of various types and added ornaments. There is no standard procedure for emb'el 1 i shing singing. Most of the .ornaments are spontaneous. The first tenor is the person whose melody is the most highly ornamented. Individual creativity of the first tenor is the primary factor which enables the singer to ornament. Most of the passing notes and ornaments are shown in Examples 4 and 5. Both of these examples are from the Split region (Fig. 3). Unlike Trogir and 25 Korcula region (Fig. 3), where open guttural and nasal singing is predominant, characteristics of Split region singing are soto voce and falsetto, serenade-like singing (see Example 2). This type of singing allows singers, especially the first tenor, to improvise the melodic line and to incorporate as many ornaments as they like. The tempo of this type of singing is very slow. The last (cadential) notes of each phrase are particularly long. The pure sound of this chord is certainly a pleasure for the singers, who use the phrase dobro zunzi ("good buzz") to explain their sat i sfact ion. Range of the melodies varies from example to example. The shortest range is in Example 2 (a' to f'#). My informant, Jozo Cvitanovic sung this example. His age of 79 is possibly the reason for the shortness of the melodic range because younger singers usually sing with a wider range. The range of Examples 6 and 7 is extremely wide, expanding from d' to g". The extension occurs in the first phrase. This phrase is usually sung by another singer, especially bass or baritone. Traditionally, each voice in klapa songs usually has a range from a fourth to an octave. The best way to explain mode is through comparison using weighted scales (Fig. 8). In ethnomusicology, weighted scales are used to show similarities and differences between songs based on the range of the melodies and individual pitches within those melodies. Most modes have the same notes of the G major scale. One exception is Example 2, where the root tone of G major ( g' or g") does not appear. The weighted scales of the examples clearly 26 eJ^AlAPLES ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f^^TT''^^ - < ^ -$ ifc j o ] - " -^^-^=4^ ^ . Hfc ^ g^a -io p ^ ^ ^ ^ i T—r"^ -o-L W^ f, .) ^ 'i - (' ^ <-3 f ^ I F i g . 8 Weighted scales of Example 1-7. 27 show the importance of particular notes - b' and d" are, in all cases, the most important notes. Although I would have expected the root tone of the G major scale ( g') to have considerable importance, it is not as important in klapa songs as the tonic is to the Western major scale. Similar balance among the weighted scales is proof of the similarities among examples, proof of their belonging to the same "tune family". Traditionally, the klapa ensemble performs klapa songs in three or four part singing. The harmonization of the voices is typical of klapa singing. The melodic line of the first tenor, in traditional klapa song arrangements, is regularly followed by a parallel melodic line in thirds below. Thirds singing is a typical characteristic of klapa singing. The baritone line defines the third note of the chord. In traditional arrangements, the baritone cadence regularly progresses from the leading-tone degree to the dominant degree (vii - V). Contemporary arrangements of the baritone lines have more embellishments and passing notes. The melodic line of the bass features the harmonic functions of the tonic, dominant and subdominant, typically in root position. Most of the bass and baritone melodic lines shown (Fig. 9a, 9b, 10a and 10b) reflect the above characteristics. Bass melodic lines of Example 3 and 4 have only three pitches: tonic, subdominant and dominant (G c d). The bass line of Example 5 has a couple of passing notes (Bar 7 and 9), whereas other examples do not. The F# in the bar 9 is not typical of the bass cadence. Traditionally, the cadence of the bass line is dominant -tonic (V -28 I). The bass melodic line of Example 6 regularly uses supertonic and submediant (ii, vi ), a characteristic of contemporary klapa arrangements. The cadence dominant - submediant (V - vi) is quite common in Festival klapa song arrangements. Another current feature is the use of pedal tone (tonic or dominant) shown in Example 7. Baritone melodic lines have much in common; Examples shown feature rather simple structures of baritone melodic lines. There are a few exceptions. Cadences of Examples 5 and 6 are not characteristic klapa style baritone cadences, vii - V is the most characteristic cadence. The pedal tone seen in Example 7 is common in Festival klapa arrangements (but not in older songs), where bass and baritone lines hold pedals while the solo sings other lines. Bezic (1979:18) categorized klapa songs according to the ways in which four-part singing is achieved, and according to the musical procedures involved: 1) Spontaneous klapa singing 2) Simple harmonization (e.g. I, IV, V) 2.1) Simple harmonization with spontaneous klapa singing 3) More developed harmonization (e.g. I, II, IV, V, VI) 4) Arrangements of klapa songs 4.1) Arrangement of spontaneous klapa singing 4.2) Arrangement with simple harmonization 5) More developed arrangement (e.g. I, II, IV, V, VI) 6) Composition based on tunes of the older folk songs of rural origin from Dalmatia and on Dalmatian klapa songs 29 According to this categorization, most of the songs (99) in Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama (vol.1, 1979) belong to the 2.1 category of the simple harmonization with spontaneous klapa singing. Simple harmonization and spontaneous klapa singing are closely related. Their melodic lines of the lower voices, baritone and bass, are based on the tonic, dominant and subdominant functions. They differ in their simplicity, on the other hand, from the more developed arrangements and especially from Dalmatian composed klapa songs. In arrangements, the composer, with profound knowledge of the subject, forms and combines folk melodies into new, usually longer, musical compositions. Those more developed song-compositions, performed usually at the Omis festival, encourage new ways of performing klapa songs. Examples 3 - 7 can also be found in Zbornik Dalmatinskih Klapskih Pjesama. All of the examples are categorized as simple harmonization, Bezic's category 2. - - •3 3 30 B^A^^Le^z ^^-K- f 5 ^ * — * <!• ex AM Pie: ^  ^¥^-V~r fc; n^^^nm- -^&-^pTtTTnTi^^E^EE^ ^ # 1 — 1 ^ BC^MPLB--^ RiAMPL£:i> m BiAMPiM • 7 mmm ^-^-^"mn -i^ ^ ^nitl.^lf;^ r - I—o^ T*1 nr~K I r V 'VtH ' j Fig. 9a Comparison of the bass melodic lines, Example 3-7 Period A 31 gXAMPL^lS ^ fT^=^^^^^T'T--=^ii^[ i ' I H T ^ EAAyHPLg.'H yF^ f [ h [ 1 r ^ f z j i j j i j f ' t ^ ^ W-5*; r - ^ • f y = f=(Tr ni 'rTlf 'J '^(-U^r r'l/jle/n EXAMfH.£;6 r-J^ I[-iM-=4~n^ I ^lJ'^^'((/Uit ^—#t V-•-*« ** =— t -T i— rT>Triin. i^u-Hjjjj-tij i\[[W^ Fig. 9b Comparison of the bass melodic lines, Example 3-7, Period B 32 £ M M P L £ : 3 B^xj- [^-p^^^^^^wrj^^^ SAMPLE: k •m^ur-jTm ] iffifiir [Lutfiif^ E-XAMPLE-.S' W SE Hy/^ AiPtE:6 ag ^ i r C - v ^ i ^ ^ -Mr BifAMPLB'.^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^5t: Fig. 10a Comparison of the baritone melodic lines, Example 3-7 Period A 33 ^AMjpLSi} , g^A_u \ I v^^^^m f, f_ 3^ i f ^HAM,PIS:\}\ te^^ n n \ uu4i-r i j m n rtj^ ffi!» ii afA/MpLE.*5 iT^-it iM ( irirjiv h fU nmTir^Tit HP/.P-.6 o acH/w/'te-*? l imLLuJuayii 111 Hir^ lHVVIf Fig. 10b Comparison of the baritone melodic lines, Example 3-7. Period B 34 RELATIONSHIP WITH "OLD TOWN SONGS" The form of "Old Town Song" melodies, clearly in two-part form (A B), consists of eight bars. Each period can also be divided into two smaller phrases (a a'b a'). Most of the klapa song examples display the same two-part form. Although the forms appear to be alike, the number of bars is doubled in klapa examples. While "Old Town Songs" (Example 1) has only eight bars, klapa song examples have sixteen bars. Example 5 has eight bars but it only includes the second part of the tune, part B (Fig. 6a and 6b). This variational technique, the principle of augmentation, emerged from the style of performing the songs. While "Old Town Songs" are performed at moderately fast and regular tempo, klapa songs are performed at exceptionally slow and irregular tempo { parlando-rubato). Contour of the melody line remains similar in all examples (Fig. 6a and 6b). The "Old Town Song" type begins with the arpeggio (g' b' e"). Stylistically, it is not common for melody lines of klapa songs to begin in this way. The typical motion, after an ascending interval of third or fourth, is a contrary motion. The klapa songs shown simply omit one pitch at the beginning of the song. 35 Rhythmic pattern is also a similar feature for all examples. The basic two bar rhythmic pattern is repeated: fKt.HPtei, cXftH?lt 5 i 1 ] e<frin/c T eXfcrlPLi-I n J. r ITT] J n J j ,1! etr.ti.pu "n J. r r m J J F i g . 11 Rhythmic pa t te rns of Examples 1-7 1 j,r,fTT] J i J Another similarity among the examples is in their texts. Texts have assigned meanings, which is typical of most of Eastern European folk songs. According to Bela Bartok (1951:9), texts consisting entirely of meaningless syllables (such as most Native American songs) do not exist in the folk traditions of Eastern Europe. The objective of the performers is to transmit the meaning of the texts, in this case ballad-like stories, to the listeners. Therefore, texts correspond with their metrical and melodic sections; the structure of the melodies is determined by the structure of the texts. Although the words of the texts are substantially different from each other, the theme of all of the texts is comparable - unfaithful love. All of the texts hint at the potential self-destructive death of the betrayed girl, emphasising words like kamen studeni ("cold stone"), na krizu 36 zlatna slova pisu ("in golden letters, on her tombstone"), vjecna tamnica ("eternal love") or zrtva Ijubavi ("victim of love"). The text of Example 1, on the other hand, identifies the location (Sombor) and the pleasant winter journey in an old coach (a romantic description) before introducing the tragic ending . Although texts of the klapa songs have the same topic, it is possible to divide those texts into two sub-groups. Examples 2, 3 and 7 use the same expressions, e. g., "eternal love", "victim of love" and "in golden letters on her tombstone". On the other hand, the expressions in Examples 4, 5 and 6 are "cold stone, "handkerchief" and "deep well". The number of variations on the same topic, with the same number of syllables, is proof of the richness of the folk language. One small difference that I have noticed in the examples is the number of syllables: A Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 11 -10, 10 - 9, 9 - 9 , 10 - 9, 10 - 9, 10 - 9, B 1 1 -10 1 0 - 9 1 0 - 9 1 0 - 9 1 0 - 9 1 0 - 9 1 0 - 9 Again, the opening arpeggio (g' b' e") of "Old Town Songs", Example 1, is the sole reason for the different number of syllables. Most of the klapa songs shown have a consistent number of syllables, 10 - 9, in the first and their second parts. Example 3 is an exception. tWi^ A B<.A*<fi*)3 I- -t I 37 I > EXfVWLEH I ^ 1 etA><fi*;S I &-AH913(> ^ ^ -• 0- I EM« Fig. 12 Comparison of important pitches and cadences. 38 The notable distinction between Example 1 and the rest of the klapa song examples is in performinQ style. While "Old Town Songs" are performed solo, the klapa songs are performed by a klapa ensemble exclusively. The "Old Town Songs" are usually accompanied by a tamburitza orchestra or solo instrument (guitar or accordion), while the other klapa examples are sung a cappella. Klapa ensembles sing these songs mainly while serenading under windows, and more recently while performing on the stage. "Old Town Songs", on the other hand, are a popular type performed at weddings and other forms of social gathering. Tempo and barring are also particularly distinctive. "Old Town Songs", Example 1, have an accompaniment which requires regular and accurate tempo. Klapa songs, on the other hand, are performed parlando-rubato, where the tempo usually equals the rhythm of the words. That is the reason why barring of the songs varies from example to example. Time signs of the klapa examples show how various interpretations of the same melody can differ. While "Old Town Songs" have 4\4 time consistently, most of the klapa songs have a combination of 2\4 and 3\4 time. The irregularity in tempo anables klapa ensembles the use of appropriate ornaments. In practice, the use of ornaments is determined by the first tenor, who embellishes more than the other parts. Ornaments are not shown here because these examples are notations, not transcriptions. Transcription of the Example 2 with ornament variants is shown on page 18. 39 Harmonization of "Old Town Songs" is based on the orchestration for tamburitza orchestra. Arrangements for tamburitza orchestra are more developed than arrangements for klapa voices. While klapa arrangements are based on the main functional areas of the major scale (tonic, subdominant and dominant), arrangements for tamburitza orchestras incorporate a wider variety of harmonies. The use of diminished chords and imitative counterpoint are standard techniques. WANDERING SONGS It is quite common to find similar tunes in different parts of Europe. For example, the "Old Town Song" type (Example 1 ) from Vojvodina, can certainly be found in different parts of Europe (notably Hungary or Slovakia) as well as in Dalmatia. Many tunes similar to klapa tunes can be found in other European folk t radi t ions. Nikola Buble (1992:690) noted that the popular klapa song Ja San Majko, Cura Fina (Zbornik Dalmatinskih Pjesama, no.126, 304) ("Mother, I Am a Nice Girl") is a close variant of the Italian folk song Dove Si Stato, Mio Bell' Alpino (Malatesta, 1972:106), while a klapa song from Trogir Ako Si Jubo Posla Spat (Buble, 1986:173) ("If You Went to Sleep, My Darling") is a variant of the 40 Eastern Austrian song Morgan Muss Ich Fort Von Hier (Goldens Melodieenbuch, no.89:61). Buble also noted certain similarities between klapa songs and Gregorian chant (see p.16). All of these songs have been adopted and arranged in the klapa style; however, the original melody is almost unchanged. Bruno Nettl (1990:48) among others, named these song correspondences as "wandering melodies". According to Nettl, the existence of these melodies, or melody types, is proof of the close relationship among art music, church music and folk music. He found the verification for this phenomenon in the homogenous musical characteristics of European folk songs. Nikola Buble (1992:690) explains the appearance of these songs in Dalmatia as the willingness of the Dalmatian people to be open to, and employ, new European influences. PERFORMING STYLES Klapa songs have much in common with the general characteristics of European folk music, specifically with that from the Southern part of Europe, the European Mediterranean. The most characteristic feature of European folk songs, strophic form, which is a specific way of expressing folk poetry, is also a feature in klapa songs. Other European folk song characteristics, such as use of diatonic intervals, church modes 41 and concepts of meter, are also found in klapa songs. There are differences between the singing styles of traditional and Festival klapas. Traditionally, klapas sing their songs in a homophonic style; however, Festival klapas sing a wide variety of homophonic and polyphonic songs, both pop hits and folk songs from different cultures, occasionally with musical accompaniment of guitars, mandolins and even electrical instruments. Topics of all songs usually deal with love, familiar life situations, satara ("gossiping") and the environment in which they live. Love, though, is the predominant theme. Technically, klapa singers express their mood by means of open guttural, nasal, serenade-like "sotto voce" and falsetto singing, and almost always in high-pitched tessitura. It is not always possible to draw a clear dividing line between the specific styles of singing mentioned above. A klapa ensemble can sing using a combination of singing styles depending upon their mood. The main aim of the singers is to achieve the best possible blend of chords. This is of primary importance to the prestige of klapas, in their competition to win audience support. Historically, the aspiration to delight in homophony, with harmonious ringing chords, has a long tradition in Dalmatia. An important feature of true folk klapa is the ability to sing na uho ("by ear"). This is a situation where only the leading voice, prvi tenor (first tenor, the leader of the group), knows the melody and lyrics of the song, and he initiates the singing. The second voice, sekondo (second tenor, "seconds it " ) , immediately joins in 42 at a third below. The third voice bariton (daje ulja pismi, "gives oil (synonym for the soul) to the song"), completes the triad. The fourth voice, basso profondo (bass), defines the harmonic functions of tonic, dominant and subdominant. He challenges himself in profondo, low and strong, singing, so that the song unfolds with the harmonious ringing of chords, as if all the singers were well-acquainted with the melody and lyrics of the song. Bela Bartok's work, about the area once known as Yugoslavia, (1951:1-93) suggests general characteristics of the songs of the Southern Slavs which can be related to klapa singing. Bartok points out that the folk songs of the Southern Slavs (including Croatians) are usually two part songs (A B) heterometric, with melody-stanza structure. Bartok mentions three great centres of part singing in Europe: the German southeastern regions; the great Russian region; the Slovenian and Croatian regions. In general, he divides European folk singing into two main styles, parlando-rubato (free rhythm or with irregular rhythmic patterns) and tempo giusto (quicker tempo with more regular metric pulse). Klapa songs are primarily in the relaxed parlando-rubato style, though there are also some examples in tempo giusto. A combination of the two singing styles can also be found - the first part of a klapa song could be in a slow and soft, parlando-rubato style, and the second part (the refrain) in tempo giusto. All of the above, characterizes klapa singing as a European, and more specifically an Eastern European, folk singing style. 43 CHAPTER III SOCIAL BACKGROUMD OR KLARA: DALMAXIA Alan Lomax (1959: 927-54) identifies three singing styles of European folk music: "Eurasian", "Old European" and "Modern European". The Eurasian style is represented in Europe in parts of the British Isles, and France, in southern Italy and in the Mohammedan parts of Balkans. The Old European style is found in Hebrides, northern England, the Pyrenees, Czechoslovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, northern Italy, Germany and parts of the Balkans, the Ukraine and Caucasus, while the Modern European style is found mostly in England, France, Hungary, central Italy and colonial America. Klapa singing certainly must be considered a part of the "Old European singing" style. According to Lomax, this style of singing is done with the throat relaxed (sotto voce of klapa ensemble singing). The expressions of the singers are lively and animated. He states that the most important characteristic of this style is group Singing in harmony. In Lomax's theory, cooperation in music is related to social cooperation. Indeed, klapa singers are groups 44 of friends, commonly related by the same or similar vocation or social status. Another social aspect mentioned by Lomax is the position of women in society. Their position in "Old European" areas, according to Lomax, has been one of equality with men. It may be difficult to believe that this statement could apply to Dalmatia, where the men have an unmistakeable "macho" image. However, the women were, and still are, the dominant people of the household in Dalmatia, which fits with Lomax's theory. Outside the household, the social activity of Dalmatian women is minimal. The limited social activity is possible reason why these women prefer to sing the same tunes on more of an individual basis. MEMBERSHIP Before mentioning those who sing in the klapa ensemble, there is a question to be answered: What is the essential distinction between the klapa as a traditional folk phenomenon and Festival Klapa associated with the beginning of Omis Festival of Klapas in 1967? Traditional folk klapa was, and to an extent still is, an informal group of friends usually brought together by the same or similar interests, age group or occupations, while Festival klapa is a formally organized group with regular rehearsals and performances, whose members, as a rule, are people of various 45 occupations and diverse musical tastes. Although formally and conceptually diverse, the singers of both klapa types are individuals with a natural sense of musicality. They both also have great ability to perform spontaneously. Jerko Bezic (1979:24), the prominent Croatian ethnomusicologist and one of the founders of the Omis Festival, differentiates the following socio-geographic types: 1) traditional klapa before the formation of the Omis Fest ival. 2) newly-formed klapas in the places where klapa singing was a popular tradition in the recent past. 3) klapas formed in the smaller villages where klapa singing was not very cultivated or was even unknown before the Omis Fest ival. 4) klapas formed outside of Dalmatia on the Northern Adriatic coast as well as in some places along the broad belt of the Dalmatian hinterland. Bezic's types #2, #3 and #4 are attributed to the beginning of the Omis Festival. The traditional klapa ensemble (Bezic's type #1) slowly decreased, while Festival klapa types rapidly expanded. The expansion of the festival klapa is presented in Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama (vol. 3: 740-745). In the period from 1967 to 1991, 176 klapa ensembles from 75 different places performed at XXV Omis Festivals. Split, the capital of Dalmatia, was represented by 33 different klapa ensembles which 46 illustrates the strong popularity of klapa singing in that region. Other important centres were Sibenik (8 klapas), Zadar (9) and Trogir (8). Beside Dalmatian urban and rural centres, klapa ensembles also came from various places outside Dalmatia (e.g., Zagreb, (Fig.4) 5 klapas). Bezic's types can, undoubtedly, be expanded for new categories. At the time of his classification, Bezic was not informed about the existence of klapas among the Croatian emigrants in North America and Australia, as well as the existence of non-Croatian klapas (e.g., Sokoli in Seattle). Traditionally, the individuals who sing in the klapa are men. Historically, the collectors of folk songs in Dalmatia (Kuba: 1892) documented that klapas vnere exclusively male groups and that female singers also sang the same tunes but on more of an individual basis. In the last two decades, there has been an accelerating popularity of klapa singing among women. Today, the number of singers in a klapa is not limited by any particular rule. However, in practice, there are usually five to ten singers. The ages of the singers also vary; there are increasing numbers of klapas where younger people sing "shoulder to shoulder" with the older singers. Unlike the traditional association (Bezic's type #1), fathers and sons, or other family relationships, are quite common these days in klapas. The relationship among singers can be examined on two separate levels: first, the relationship among singers before and after singing; second, the relationship among singers during singing. Before and after singing, the singers are friends who respect each 47 other without regard for age or status. Each member of the group takes on a particular role in order to become an accepted part of the group. There is always a lero, a person who entertains and initiates a jovial atmosphere, and a zdrobuio, a person who loves to eat. Lero likes to be the centre of attention. He knows all the satara's ("town gossip") and other local jokes. Sometimes he is capable of imitating his zrtva ("victim") through nasal singing. On the other hand, zdrobuio, more quiet than lero, is the first to look for and eat the food. Consummation of food and wine is typically associated with klapa activities. After rehearsals or performances, klapa can be found in a konoba ("wine cellar"). Prsut ("smoked, salted and pressed ham"), ovcji sir ("sheep's cheese"), gavuni ("smelts") and slane srdele ("salted sardines") are typical dishes of Dalmatia. It is not usual for klapa to order individual meals - they like to share their food. Strong red wine, make klapa members more happy than drunk. Aggressive behaviour is not characteristic of the klapa members. The relationship among singers during the singing is quite different. The central figure, the leader or "spirit of the group," is the prvi tenor ("first tenor"). The first tenor typically sings the lead melody, commands the tempo and, most importantly, creates the mood of the songs. Some contemporary klapas are known by the timbre or by the appearance of their first tenors. Vinko Coce, known as Buco, is representative of klapa "Trogir", as is Josko Prijic for klapa "DC-Vranjic". Tonci Milatic, of klapa "Osjak", is certainly one of the most energetic 48 first tenors. All three present different styles and timbres. Coce is best known for his sotto voce singing, while Prijic is best known for his falsetto singing so-called na ditic ("like a child"). Milatic's style of singing is open guttural, strong and harsh, typical of the Dalmatian islands. This extremely powerful way of singing quickly ruins the singers glottis. This is the reason why many first tenors stop singing prematurely. Another noticeable relationship in the klapa is one between the first and second tenors. The dynamic gestures of the first and second tenors resemble their singing. They usually stand close to each other. Sekondo sings u uho ("in ear") to the first tenor. Many people still remember the couple, Nikola Bilie-Panto, first tenor and Spire Pitesa, second tenor, who introduced the song Okrug Selo (" Okrug Village") in early 1970s. Stylistically , the melody lines of the first and second tenors move in parallel thirds. The rest of the klapa singers respond, through their gestures, enthusiastically to the gestures of the first and second tenors, which creates an extremely dynamic visual representation,(Fig. 5) These active gestures help to capture the audience's attention. Although the singers are most frequently brought together by similar interests or jobs, there are many instances where, for example, a teacher and a peasant, or a doctor and a fisherman, sing together. However, deep friendship is the basic condition of their association. 49 PERFORMANCE OCCASIONS Nikola Buble (1980:15) cites one of his older informants from Trogi r: "Sunday mornings, after the long and hard work week, peasants changed their shirts, and clothes and went to Church... After lunch, they asked their wives for ofirta ("pocket money") and went to the tovirna ("wine cellar") where friends were gathering. Somebody would bring slane srdele ("salted fish"), or lovine ("clams") or cheese. Customarily, some women would prepare cicer ("broad beans") and offer them from tovirna to tovirna. Drop by drop, glass by glass of wine and the song began... the singing continued through the streets, under the street lanterns, serenading under the window of a beloved girl or wife..." The traditional klapa ensemble (Bezic's type #1) usually had a good reason for singing, if there was no obvious reason, they would find a reason for a song. They could be found on street corners, serenading under windows, or in a konoba (wine cellar). Singers were usually spontaneously motivated by the present moment. They sung for the sake of the singing, for the sheer joy of singing. They did not sing for money but primarily for their own and their listeners' pleasure. The Festival klapa emulates the same qualities, while accepting the new influences. The strongest influences were mass 50 media and tourism. The mass media enables kiapa ensembles access to recording and television productions. At the same time, the growth of tourism encouraged some of the kiapa ensembles (e.g., kiapa Sibenik) to commercialize their singing. Although most kiapa ensembles sing for their own pleasure, they also spend a great deal of time practising. Their goal is to improve the quality of their singing and to compete at the annual Omis Festival of Klapas. In order to receive the votes of the judges and the audience at the Festival, klapas must constantly improve their singing style. Their style includes, not only their singing, but also their gestures. FESTIVAL KLAPA In the period after World War II until the 1960s, traditional klapas suffered a decline in popularity and interest which was due, in part, to the political climate of this period. A group of people, supporters of kiapa singing, who did not wish to be mere witnesses of its possible demise, founded the Festival of Dalmatian Klapas in Omis in 1967, under the auspices of the government Ministry of Cultural Affairs. At that time, folk music was the official music of the communist government. They supported kiapa singing and used it to propagate tourism which was a growing industry. This initiative was wholeheartedly received by amateur 51 musicians and enthusiasts in Dalmatia, and as a result, dozens of klapas were formed. However, it was very difficult to place klapa ensembles on stage in front of the microphones and stage lights and expect them to sing with as much originality as in informal performance. It took a long time, for the klapa, to adopt and to overcome the fear of the microphones. As a result of the festivals, klapa ensembles became representatives of the Dalmatian musical style and synonymous with Dalmatian singing (Fig. 1). Their leaders also originate with the start of the Omis Festival. Most are well-trained musicians of Western classical music. Under the direction of their leaders and the lack of spontaneity in singing, the klapas gradually increased their repertoires from the folk music of their home towns to different art and folk singing styles. During the last twenty-five years, since the start of the Festival, there have been many changes in most Dalmatian klapas, notably the traditional klapa has given way to the Festival klapa. 52 C H A P T E R I V K L A P - A I N V A N C X X J V E R In 1979, a group of people from Vancouver spontaneously started to sing together the songs they used to sing in their homeland, the coastal region of Croatia, Dalmatia. All of them were members of the mixed choir "Zvonimir" {zvon, "bell ringing; mir, "peace"; the name of the first crowned prince of Croatia). The mixed choir "Zvonimir" was established in 1971, as a part of the Vancouver Croatian cultural organisation - "The Society of Friends of Matica Hrvatska" (Matica - "current of the river", "queen-bee", Hrvatska - "Croatia"). The mixed choir "Zvonimir" has performed at numerous community, especially ethnic, events. Beside performing at various other events, the "Zvonimir" choir also represented the province of British Columbia at the Canadian National CBC Radio Choir Competition (ethnic category). 53 SUMARTIN The place of origin of most Vancouver singers, Sumartin, is of great importance. This topic was an integral part of all our conversations, and maybe the possible unifying reason why they sing. Jozo Cvitanovic was born on the island of Brae (the largest Dalmatian island), in the small town of Sumartin. His two sons, Vinko and Petar, also sing in the klapa. Zdravko and Josip Kazulin, and their uncle Veljko, came to Canada from the same town, as well as Tomislav Borojevic. Therefore, half of the Vancouver klapa have the same place of origin. Two of the members are from Northern Croatia, one from Hercegovina and the rest from coastal Dalmat i a. A brief look at the transcription of interviews shows that around 90% of the discussions were directly or indirectly related to Sumartin. Discussions about customs, family life, different religious celebrations, famous people, boats and fishing were meaningful parts of the mosaic and history of this small settlement. More than that, the Sumartinians gave me The Short History of Sumartin, (Soldo, 1992), with the message: "Read this book and you will know us better!" 54 It all started on St. Martins day (11 November) in 1646, when a group of refugees from the Dalmatian interior, led by a Franciscan named Peter Kumbat, came to settle on the uninhabited part of the island called the Tip of Brae (Soldo, 1992:23), The place was named after St. Martin - Sumartin. These newcomers were the only speakers of the Stokavian dialect (standard Croatian language) on the island, whereas the rest of the population spoke the Chakavian dialect (dialect from Dalmatia). At the beginning, the newcomers were forced to work for the noble families who owned most of the land, as "servants" under contract conditions. In 1738, the Franciscans decided to turn their home into a monastery with at least six priests to perform the regular parish services and to open a school for young boys - future Franciscans. Father Andria Kacic Miosic, a popular poet and collector of folk poetry, started the development of the monastery which still stands. The presence of the monastery, and especially of the Franciscans, had great advantages for the small community of Sumartin. Firstly, the historical development of the community was documented by the priests. Secondly, the school system was founded under the church auspices. Thirdly, besides the influences on the religious life of the inhabitants, the Franciscans had a great influence on secular life. In the interviews, all the Sumartinian members of klapa have great recollections of Father Leonardo Buljan, who was the parish priest during the second quarter of this century, (Soldo, 55 1992:205). Although he spent only eight years as the parish Driest, 8ul]an manaqed to gather an excellent church choir whose tradition has been preserved to this day. He also founded a society called the Crusaders. Its members organized vanous cultural events and activities such as lectures. theatre Derformances. etc. jozo Cvitanovic and Veliko Kazuiin were members of that society. Stories about these events have an important 0 1 ace in their memories. Fiq. 13 Klaoa Zvonimir", typical rehearsal at private home, with home-made food and wine. Jozo Cvitanovic is third from right. 56 THE EMIGRATION The reasons and the ways of emigration were also documented in Sumartin. According to T. Stambuk (Stambuk, 1992:233), there were three extensive waves of emigration. The first wave took place in the second half of the 19th century, when the inhabitants of Sumartin took advantage of the great demand for Dalmatian wine caused by the grapevine blight in France and Italy. Families who owned shops and ships started trading in wine and brandy, and moved to big centres like Zagreb, Rijeka and even Prague. The second wave started after World War I, when many local people emigrated overseas due to mass unemployment. Most of these emigrants were skilled fishermen and boat builders. One of the most outstanding emigrants is Mario Puratic (Soldo, 1992:261), inventor of a special power block used in net fishing. This invention brought him the title of Inventor of the Year, 1974. The third, the biggest wave of emigration, occurred after World War II when many people emigrated overseas - especially to Canada - due to economic as well as ideological differences. Members of the Vancouver klapa belong to the third, the most recent, wave of emigration. Vancouver is home for at least 85 immigrants from Sumartin and their families. In most cases, the 57 families have contact with each other and still preserve the traditions and customs of family life from Sumartin. The following excerpt from an interview with the oldest member, Jozo Cvitanovic (age 79) (Fig.13) describes the beginning of their activities. This dialogue unquestionably presents the moment of klapa beginnings and presents Jozo Cvitanovic as the organizer of the klapa "Zvonimir". At the same time, he is the person who knows many different folk and religious customs and a great number of the klapa songs. J.C: All of the klapa singers told me that, in fact, you were the main organizer of the klapa"? Tell me, how did it happen? JOZO: It was in Petar's new house in West Vancouver. We met there a few times, a few of us. But after, when he built another, bigger house, we sang for the opening. So, I proposed to them the idea of singing our songs as we did over there [in the homeland]. I was thinking that we could do better if we met regularly; so, every week we visited other houses in order to practice. J.C: Did you begin to sing first [as the first tenor]? JOZO: I was the one who started the songs! J.C: Did they [the other singers] already know those songs? JOZO: Yes. J.C: Aha, they already knew them? 58 JOZO: Some of them knew the songs. J.C.: But they did not sing them? JOZO: There was nobody to sing those songs. So, when we started to sing, many of them started to recall the song. J.C.: So, MiIki Pod Prazor [Under Milka's Window] was (Fig.14) one of the first songs that you sang with klapa? JOZO: Yes, one of the first. In fact, that song led to these other songs. J.C: What else were you singing? JOZO: Different songs...[he showed me the list of songs I asked him to write down in advance]. Most of these are serenades. There are also a few I learned with the choir in Sumartin. There are many more, but I can't remember right now. The list of songs which he prepared for the interview helped him to remember specific songs, and me to have better control of my questions. J.C: [reading some of the song titles] Tiha Noci, Moje Zlato Spava ("Silent Night, My Darling is Sleeping") JOZO: Yes, that is a serenade. J.C: Ja Ne Znam Sto Je Majka Mi la ("I do not Remember, Mother") JOZO: That song is not a real serenade. The deceased Father Leonardo [a priest from Sumartin, and one of the organizers of musical events] 59 taught me that one. J.C.: Can you sing it for me? [He sang the song which I recognised as a song from the Illiric movement] That is a beautiful song! So, this song was sung in Sumart in? JOZO: No. Father Leonardo taught me that song and another one. [He sings the other song] J.C.: With whom were you serenading at that time? JOZO: I was serenading together with Ante Kazulin, Ivo Juric who is now in Tacoma, Ante Serventic... four, five of us. My other friends did not like serenading. That is why we rather used to go to Selca [the neighbouring community]. J.C.: Were you able to sing songs in different voices like klapa does? JOZO: Yes, there was always somebody to sing sekondo and also bariton, sometimes profondo... J.C.: Were they also choir members? JOZO: Yes, they were singing in the choir. J.C.: So, they learned how to sing in a choir? JOZO: No, we sang a lot outside, ever since we were children. I used to sing a lot with Serventic, sometimes up to three o'clock in the morning. He is 84 now, but still 1i kes to sing. J.C.: This song has a really strange name; what can you tell me about it? 60 JOZO: When I was in the army, I heard that song. It was 1936, in Kumbor [a town in Montenegro]. This song was sung by a soldier from Zagreb [the capital of Croatia]. He was a real vagabond, but every officer loved him. He was never on guard duty or cleaning duty; he was always singing in the cantina, [He sang the song. It was a Croatian popular hit of the 1930s.] J.C.: So, you were serenading with this song, too? JOZO: It was my favourite one. J.C.: Did you learn a lot of songs in the army? JOZO: He [the soldier from Zagreb] was singing the songs. It was very interesting for me. I was very young, only twenty one at the time. J.C.: Were you singing with him or just listening to him sing? JOZO: I was photographing [his term for exact and quick learning] it right away, and it stayed in my head. If you asked me what I was eating a half an hour ago, I could not remember. J.C.: So, the songs really stay in your head?! JOZO: Vinko [Jozo's son] has a small book with all the songs for different religious occasions, let's say funerals or the like. I can recite the whole book, just tell me the first word and listen... Some interesting information can be found in this interview. First of all, there are three main sources from which Jozo 61 Cvitanovic learned his songs: his friends and relatives who used to sing with him, his local priest who was very involved in music, and his comrade in the army. The first and second sources were a part of his ordinary life, while Jozo Cvitanovic met his third source during military service, which was the only time he spent away from home. At that time (during the first half of the century), military service was one of the rare opportunities for people to travel to different places. It is still a great memory for my informant. Finally, the list of my informant's songs can be classified by types and by ways of performance. The types of songs I found on his list were from the Illiric era, others learned from the priest, Croatian popular hits of the 1930s, learned from the soldier, and church and old narrative songs learned from older friends and relatives. A great number of the songs are solo songs and the rest are usually performed in the klapa. As Jozo Cvitanovic said, serenading was their inspiration for singing. Although solo songs are not typical in klapa singing, they are very important to my informer. As he had the solos in these songs he felt that he owned them. 62 , n 3 oEiAic t=a m - ^ 5 - - ^ Wi -f h^L - t \ ^dS T t o -Zoe^ T€ - €<i VC-1>\ - - C ±^±: J!_it t=S: J_3_ ^ ^ ? ^ ^ & I '-c . J r \ i l _ - r •i;o-G*, t:-o-N^l — ¥ I—r n r~^ nrtcaf f^:f=} PP^ S ^ ^ J ^ ^ ^ 4 U Se +^o-H]A, 1X3 CC LUi U tr-n ^ - 4 = ^ ^ - ^ i . m ^ l U c o ^ m s P ; -1. C^UTA , rg,t>/A\v o fcfcr m^^m fe^ n i f e Nis. 5-^ T€(2_ 5M K i - u e ~ fjM, s ; ^ X £ Si^OCt-S,- \^U^PA '-LVjaiJiyniL-:- L '1 H^ C>^^  L'Ho"- •^^ >g 1?*" 5^>J(^i|oc) 4:AT-k jAgul . KiLyc<? 3 i o VF TAMAHl 2> ,^ / 7--AMA,rtl L b » e -J;= O t ^ Tc/o-(i^ C ^ ^ "^EASl H o n ^^^wTseirTiTufc(^ 3 \JMhJaoiJ^ Tuete' l i , A sref/HH ^ L r l i S ^ HH,<CO, WATr&- m ttoLS^ tt lUit.- CorfrtokJ (JMAE |-. .7 i^ WNi A \jJftrJ-V -f^ Vf^TFg- \ \ \ ' n ~ Fig. 14 Milki pod Prozor, klapa "Zvonimir" 63 MEMBERSHIP The singers of the klapa "Zvonimir" are all individuals with musical skills, which they developed in their homeland. Before they came to this country, (all of them are first generation immigrants, who moved within the last thirty years), most were members of different choirs or singing societies and also members of smaller non-formal klapas (Bezic's type #1). Although they joined a mixed choir within the same cultural society, all of the members of the klapa are exclusively men. Of course, male membership is one of the significant characteristics of the klapa in Dalmatia. The number of singers in the Vancouver ensemble is not typical. While a regular klapa in Dalmatia has between five and ten singers, the klapa in Vancouver has fourteen singers. What is the reason for such a large number? It is noticeable from conversations with the singers that friendship and mutual respect are the primary factors which determine membership, feeling of "belonging" to the klapa. In a few instances I had negative experiences in my attempt to enrol some new members. Although the new "recruits" were good singers, they were not able to bond with the members and therefore were rejected by the klapa. The reason that so many singers sing in this particular klapa is that it is 64 the only kiapa in Vancouver and probably the only kiapa in Canada. The kiapa is usually acknowledged by the voice of the first tenor, however this in not the situation with the Vancouver kiapa. Instead of having one strong first tenor, kiapa "Zvonimir" has four average first tenors. Therefore, the lack of singing leadership is enhanced by adding more singers. Most of the Dalmatian klapas have singers within the same or close age group which is not the case in the kiapa "Zvonimir". The ages vary from mid-thirties to mid-seventies, basically spanning two generations. Family relationships (father-son, uncle-nephew) are also present in the kiapa. This is not a common situation in Dalmatian klapas. Most of the Vancouver kiapa members are professional fisherman (6), and ship-builders (4), occupations they learned in their homeland. Four members of the kiapa have academic vocations (geologist, economist, architect, engineer). The differences in their occupations and intellectual levels is evidence that deep friendship is the basic condition of their association. 65 REPERTOIRE The topics of the songs sung by klapa "Zvonimir" are more nostalgic than the topics of the Dalmatian klapas. Irving Babow (Babow, 1954) suggest that the immigrant singing societies of North America primarily provide satisfaction for a small number of immigrants, rather than serve as an institution established to meet the needs of the many. Babow divides the immigrant singing societies into four categories: the nostalgic, the ceremonious, the cultural indoctrination and the protest singing society. All four types, according to Babow, require for survival the direction of a musically trained professional leader who is familiar with the folk music and national songs of the particular immigrant group. It is customary for the choruses to hold weekly rehearsals and to perform in concerts several times a year. Furthermore, klapa "Zvonimir" fits into Babow's category, "the nostalgic singing society" (Babow, 1954:292), where the participants are preoccupied with the songs that they brought from the homeland and with the cherished memories of their mother country. The repertoire of "Zvonimir" is of several types. The first is the group of songs learned from Jozo Cvitanovic and other members from memory. The second group of songs was introduced by members who have the ability to imitate the written arrangements 66 using notation, on a melodic instrument especially piano. Finally, the third group of songs includes those from contemporary klapa repertoires which I introduced as the new leader. Besides klapa songs, members of "Zvonimir" have various church songs in their repertoire. As well as singing in klapa, all of them are members of the Croatian Parish Choir in Vancouver. Their singing is important, especially during the Easter rituals, when, traditionally, the members of the Cvitanovic and Kazulin families sing at the Palm Sunday and Good Friday liturgies, about the last days of Jesus' life, Muka ("the Passion"). Members of the klapa also enjoy singing religious songs. PERFORMANCE While klapas in Dalmatia have an opportunity to sing spontaneously on many occasions, "Zvonimir" singers do not. All "Zvonimir" meetings are arranged in advance, regular practices as well as family gatherings (Fig. 15). The tempo of their family lives, as well as the distances between their homes, are the reasons for their lack of spontaneity as was stated in the interviews. Most of them were complaining about the quantity of their daily activities. In the recent past, in order to have an enjoyable and relaxing time, they organized practices in their private homes (Fig. 13). 67 This was a great opportunity for their wives to demonstrate their cooking skills. The food they prepared was typically Croatian, generally followed by home made wine. These practices were irregular and more informal. At the same time, their performances were not an important part of their singing. The rules and goals of the klapa changed when I became the leader of klapa "Zvonimir". These changes can be compared to the festival influence on contemporary Dalmatian klapas. I took the leadership and proposed certain rules and goals to the members. Although they liked the change in the sound quality, there was resistance to the new rules. Discipline in singing, which requires regular formal practising, was a major obstacle. After the first couple of performances (Fig. 5), the situation rapidly changed and members began to enjoy the new singing experience. Performances became an important goal and a way of displaying ethnic and cultural identity. CONCLUSION Socially and musically, klapa singing has always been progressive for its time, which is surely the reason why this folk tradition has remained successful for a long time. The existence of klapa in Vancouver, although quite different from its Dalmatian counterpart, has carried on the klapa singing tradition. I feel 68 that with the continued support of trained klapa leaders, and the continuation c^ the Festival of Dalmatian Klapas, this style of singing will continue to flourish, particularly in Dalmatia, as well as in other parts of the world where people enioy group singing. Fig. 15 Family gathering, an excellent opportunity for singing 69 REFERENCES CITED Babow, Irving. 1954 "The Singing Societies of European Immigrants." Phylon, 15: 289-294. Bartok, Bela and Albert, B. Lord. 1951 Serbo-Croat ian Folk Songs, New York; Columbia University Press, Bezic, Jerko. 1962 "More i Pomorstvo u Narodnoj Muzickoj Tradiciji." Pomorski Zbornik, I-II 1967 "Muzicki Folklor Sinjske Krajine." Narodna umjetnost, Zagreb: Institut za Narodnu Umjetnost, 175-275. 1973 Razvoj Giagoljaskog Pjevanja na Zadarskom Podrucju, Zadar: Institut JAZU u Zadru. 1978 "Prikazi i kritike." Narodna Umjetnost, Zagreb: Zavod za Istrazivanje Folklora, 203-207. 1979 "Dalmatinske Klapske Pjesme Kroz Deset Godina Omiskog Festival a." Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama, Omis:FDK-Omis, 16-23. 1980 "Etnomuzikoloski Pristupi Dalmatinskoj Folklornoj Urbanoj pjesmi." Mogucnosti 6, Split: Knjizevni Krug u Splitu, 634-638. 1981 "Stilovi Folklorne Glazbe u Jugoslaviji." Zvuk, Sarajevo: 33-49. Bombardelli, Silvije. 1970 "Neke Karakteristike Gradske Dalmatinske Pjesme." Bilten 1, Omis: FDK - Omis, 14-21. 1980 "Neke Karakteristike Gradske Dalmatinske Pjesme." Mogucnosti 6, Split: Knjizevni Krug u Splitu, 614-619 1986 "Od Gregorianike do Dalmoida." 20. Festival Dalmatinskih Klapa, Omis: FDK - Omis. 70 Buble, Nikola. 1980 Tragirski Narodni Napjevi, Omis: FDK - Omis. 1984 "Etnomuzikolozi i Suvremeni Glazbeni Folklor." Sv. Cecilija 3, Zagreb: 1984, 33-34. 1985 "Etnomuzikolozi i Suvremeni Glazbeni Folklor u Jugoslaviji." Sv. Cecilija 3, Zagreb: 57-58. 1986 "Daca, Napjev Trogirskih Bratima." Sv. Cecilija 1-2, Zagreb: 26-28. 1987 Vokalna Folkiorna Glazba Trogira i Donjih Kastela od 1875 do 1975, vol.1, Omis: FDK - Omis. 1987 Vokalna Folkiorna Glazba Trogira i Donjih Kastela od 1875 do 1975, vol.2, Omis: FDK - Omis. 1988 Glazbena Kultura Stanovnika Trogirske Opcine, Trogir: Muzej Grada Trogira. 1990 "Tekstovi Pjesama Vokalne Folklorne Glazbe Trogira i Donjih Kastela od 1875 do 1975." Cakavska Ric 2, Split: Knjizevni Krug Split. Buble, Nikola ed. 1991 Zbornik Dalmatinskih Klapskih Pjesama, vol.2 Omis: FDK - Omis. 1992 Zbornik Dalmatinskih Klapskih Pjesama, vol.3 Omis: FDK - Omis Dobronic, Antun. 1915 "Ojkanje" (Prilog za Proucavanje Geneze Nase Pucke Popijevke), Zbornik za Narodni Zivot i Obicaje Juznih Slavena, vol. XX, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-25. 1947 Zbirka Puckih Popjevaka Split, Kastela, Trogir, Zagreb: Arhivska Zbirka Zavoda za Istrazivanje Folklora, No. 57N. 1948 Strucni Izvjestaj a Muzickom Folkloru u Prostaru Split, Kastela, Trogir, Zagreb, rpt. Omis: Bascanski Glasi, 101-109, 1993. Dukic, Dragisa. 1974 100 Najpopularni j ih Starogradskih Pjesama Romansi i Slagera, Zagreb: Savez Muzickih Udruzenja Hrvatske. Gal denes Melodieenbuch, [Lei pzig]: n.p., n.d. 71 1943 Graduale Romanum, [Parisiis, Tornaci, Romae] n.p, Kacic-Miosic, Andrija. 1983 Razgovori Ugodni Naroda Slovinskoga, Split: Zbornik "Kacic". Kinel, Mario. 1982 Najpopularnije Starogradske pjesme i Romanse, Zagreb: Savez Muzickih Udruzenja Hrvatske. Kljajic, Bratoljub. 1966 Veliki Rijecnik St ranih Rijeci, Zagreb: Mladost. Klenjak, K. and Vlahovic, J. 1979 Zbornik Dalmat inskih Klapskih Pjesama, vol.1 Omis: FDK - Omis. Kos, Koraljka. 1972 "New Dimensions in Folk Music."International Review of the Aesthet ics and Sociology of Music, III. Zagreb. Krader, Barbara. 1987 "Slavic Folk Music: Forms of Singing and Self-Identity." Ethnomusioology, XXXXI, 9-17. Kuba, Ljudevit. 1898 "Narodna Glazbena Umjetnost u Dalmaciji." Zbornik za Narodni Zivot i Obicaje Juznih Slavena, III, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-16, 167-168. 1899 "Narodna Glazbena Umjetnost u Dalmaciji." Zbornik za Narodni Zivot i Obicaje Juznih Slavena, IV, Zagreb: JAZU, 1-33, 161-183. Kuhac, Franjo. 1892 "Glasba." "Dalmacija." Austro-Ugarska Monarhija, Opisana i Iiustrovana, Split: Naknada Medunarodne Knj izare Marsic. 1941 Juzno-Slavijenske Popijevke, vol. V, Zagreb: JAZU. 72 Lazenbatt, Maree. 1983 "The Klapa Music of Dubrovnik" Diss, Q. U of Belfast, Lomax, Alan. 1959 "Folk Song Style." American Anthropologist, LXI, 927-54. 1968 Folk Song Style and Culture, Washington,DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science Malatesta, Gianni. 1972 Su in Montagna, Padova: G. Zanibon. Mathias, Fr. X. 1936 Organum Comitans ad Kyriale seu Ordinarium Missae, Rat i sbonae. Merriam, Alan R. 1964 The Anthropology of Music, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Nett1, Bruno. 1965 Folk and Tradit ional Music of the Western Continent, New Yersey: Prentice Hall, 3rd. ed. 1990. 1985 The Western Impact on World Music: Change, Adapt at ion and Survival, Ed. by Nettl New York: Schirmer Richtman-Augustin, Dunja. 1979 "Od Naroda do Folklornog Kica." Zvuk 3, Sarajevo: Savez Kompozitora Jugoslavije, 3-17. Richtman-Sotric, Dunja. 1974 "Narodna Tradicionalna Muzika Otoka Braca." Narodna Umjetnost, Zagreb: Institut za Narodnu Umjetnost, 1974/75: 235-299. Sirola, Bozidar. 1922 Pregled Povijesti Hrvatske Glazbe, Zagreb: Edition Rirop. 1935 "1strazivanje Muzickog Folklora u Dalmaciji." Zagreb: Ljetopis JAZU, 1933/34, vol. 47. 1942 Hrvatska Narodna Glazba, (2. edition) Zagreb. 73 Soldo, Josip ed. 1992 Sumartin - Zbornik Radova, Split: Zbornik "Kacic", Stambuk, Tonci. 1992 "The Emigrants of Sumartin." Sumartin - Zbornik Radova, Split: Zbornik "Kacic", 233-255. Suchoff, Benjamin Ed. 1992 Bella Bartok Essays, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Thomas, Phi 1. 1993 Personal communication, March 1993. Thrasher, Alan R. 1988 "Hakka-Chaozhou Instrumental Repertoire: an Analytic Perspective on Traditional Creativity." Asian Music, xix/2, 1-30. Vidovic, Radovan. 1979 "Dalmatinske Klapske Pjesme sa Omiskog Festivala, Split: Slobodna Dalmacija, 9. June 1979. Zganec, Vinko. 1924 Hrvatske Pucke Popijevke iz Medjimurja, vol. 1, Zagreb: JAZU. 1962 Muzicki Folklor, vol. 1, Zagreb. Zganec, V. and Sremec, Nada. 1951 Hrvatske Narodne Pjesme i Plesovi, Zagreb: Seljacka Sloga. Zupanovic, Lovro. 1977 "0 Tonalnim Osnovama tzv. Dalmatinskog Narodnog Melosa." Cakavska Rio 1, Split: Cakavski Sabor, 65-78. 14 ARRENDIX A Actual harmonization of the klapa songs analyzed in chapter II, I found in the collection of the klapa songs Zbornik Dalmatinskih Klapskih Pjesama (1973, vol. 1). List of the songs: Slusaj Dragi Mene Jadnicu ("Listen to Your Poor Darling") (no. 194, 456) (Example 3) (p. 75) Kraj Bunara Mlada Diva Stala ("By the Well a Young Girl Stopped") (no. 184, 432) (Example 4) (p.76) Kraj Bunara Djeva Mlada Stala ("The Young Girl Stopped By the Well") (no. 183, 430) (Example 5) (p.77) Sjela Djeva na Kamen Studeni ("The young Girl Sat on the Gold Stone") (no. 120, 292) (Example 6) (p.78) Zrtva Ljubavi ("Victim of Love) (no. 176, 416) (Example 7) (p.79) 75 Larghetto imnrovisato ^m m-^ m Slu—saj dra — gi ^ TWl ^ me — ne jad— ni • 2L • cu. s N Ao Ja slu—zim AA ^ ^ k t^  tU4 r-^m ^ m i 7 vje-cnu tamni- Ka—ko mo — zes m^^ fc^ ^ h ta — kva sr— ca h h K h bi ^ § ^ «r=2z=nia ^ f r rrr o .ste ^ I fc i t h ?M fe h. I ^ P^ ? as me—ne mta-du sa-da 0—sfo-^ ^ • / j f . i r Aa—^0 mo—zes ta-kva sr—ca i J ^ h ^ " P P P ^  ^ f c = ^ (0\ I A 6/ M J i m — me— ne m/a — du fc sorf zo 6o — ra — • vit. t -G-76 Largo(J=56) ^=k % ^s "P Kraj bu-^ J-P b 4 f=T ? .na ra .^ ^ i i f ^ kkM f mla—da di va hk^ -J--4-sta to 2 :zr t* 2-^ i I u i ^ ru ci f i ^ ru—6oc dr za-t ^ y ?E5^  -to. f '^V- 7 ^sM 6la—V i* ' ^ 4 ^ 1 m ^ i:J: 6 -;u V-L^bO "t J-j) j P b"4 ?^  ze — mj'i—ci klo • , J J J J i ^ Sbfcti fcf#^ i ;r^ i^  i 1. rfro g/r t^ J 1771 a gor ko pld — ka • J J / 3 J 0 ^ P F S • fa f i -to. f 3^ ^ ; za i i fT 2 . o s 3 L E 77 Sostenuto W ^ ^ i i ^ i $ ^ ^ 4-mp-mf Kraj bu-W^ i • na—ra 1^ dje—ra id mla da XU sta-Jr=^ ^ fl4^ ^ ±=±: ^ i ^ ^ ^ c\ V T f ? — to ^ i ru ci i ^ p - 7 ^ ru bac J-J. dr za-ritard. •la. ^ 7 ^ O 78 # Largo -Jh-— 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^sgf i ^ ^ i "l/" fa- •cu-? i •fef f £ ^ £ f "iP S^—la dje—va na ka—men stu cfe • . fa— cu—Jet u ^ t ^ m n f n f -to. / ru—c; dr—za - pa je m M 5 nji—me ;=J^ gla—vu o—mo- •ta-J^I^^J) ^ g ^ ^ ^ zz E w^ J^ T r *l ^ 1.2. k ^ n E ^ —to / porf n//—me gor—ko pla—ka • •la. pa je -la. M ^ ^ m ^ m i ^ FT 32 r^ r 79 Andante, appassionato Tenor soLo s Ov £ i = l P Bi—la je som tvo-ja naj—mi-t • li ^ja n i TUTTI M (zatvorenih cstiju) ^ i ^ i ko—ja ^ — ^ f f f ^ r T~^ ^ m & g ^ 0 - ^ ^ m te je vjer—no Iju-bi- •ta. Oj—sret--ni ce. ^ ^ ^ i i ^ JT. i- ^ ka—da gro-bom S=n gisyj ^ ^ ^ f =^a '"^ CJ CJ -P LTLT m m k t m i 1 . m i — y ^ do del J 1 U—se sje — ti f ^ ^ i. ^ ff svo-T? rop-ki- •nye_ ^ f^  _. Oj-sret J V J j 80 APPENDIX B Texts of the songs, presented in Appendix B, are also found in the collection of the kiapa songs Zbormk Dalmatinskih Klapskih Pjesama (1979, vol.1). They are arranged in the same order as harmonizations are ordered in Appendix A. Marija Udikovic-Matek, a Croatian poet who lives in Vancouver, did the actual translation of the texts. Each song has significant information about performance and origin of the song: A. Number and year of the Omis Festival B. Performing kiapa ensemble 0. Leader of the kiapa ensemble D. The informant E. Composer or arranger of the song 81 m SLUSAJ, DRAGI MENE JADNICU A 5. festival — 1971. B »Srdela« — Makarska C Buro Filipovic D — E Dv.ro Filipovic Slusaj, dragi, mene jadnicu koja sluzim vjecnu tamnicu. Kako mozes takva srca biti, mene mladu sada ostavit? Kako mozes takva srca biti, mene mladu sad zaboravit? Nevjemice srca mojega, ostavljas me samu. do groba. Srce boli, morat cu xmarijeti i u hladan grob cu leci ja. SLUSAJ, DRAGI MENE JADNICU (No. 194) LISTEN TO YOUR POOR DARLING Listen to y o u r poor da r l ing jai led by love e te rna l ly . " 0 how can you leave me desp i t e my feel ings, vou c o l d - h e a r t e d ? " My h e a r t is to rn with pain I shel l die and e n t e r my cold g r a v e . "You unfai thful dar l ing , how can you leave me? 82 184. KRAJ BUNARA MLADA DIVA STALA A 7. festival— 1973. B »Luaca« — Split C Dusko Tambaca D Dusko Tamhaca, Ante Kezic, Split, 1972. E Dusko Tambaca 1 Kraj bunara mlada diva stala i u ruci rubac drzala. Glavu svoju zemjici klonula i za dragin gorko plakala. Glavu svoju zemjici klonula i za dragin gorko plakala. Nevirnice, ka' mi na grob dojdes, ti se siti svoje jubavi, koja ti je uvik virna bila, koja te je zarko jubila! Koja ti je uvik virna bila, koja te je zarko jubila! A na grobu zlatnin slovin' pise: tu pociva zrtva jubavi, tu pociva, sla'ki sanak sniva, a zemjica laka joj bila! Tu pociva, sla'ki sanak sniva, a zemjica laka joj bila! KRAJ BUNARA MLADA DIVA STALA (No. 184) BY THE WELL A YOUNG GIRL STOPPED By t h e well t he young gir l s t opped holding handkerch ie f in he r hand . Bending he r head down to t h e g r o u n d , b e c a u s e of her dar l ing , s h e was b i t t e r l y c r y i n g . "Unfaithful man, when you come to my g r a v e , remember me your beloved, who always faithfully loved you!" Here s h e r e s t dreaming peacefully, on h e r tombstone it s a y s , in golden l e t t e r s : "Here r e s t in peace a victim of love!" 83 m. A 5. festival — 1971. B DC — Vranjic C Ljubo Stipisic K R A J BUNARA D Ljubo Stipisic, Vitomir Mifcelic,; Vranjic, 1967. DJEVA MLADA STALA E Ljubo Stipisic Kraj bunara djeva mlada stala i u ruci rubac drzala. Glavu svoju zemljici prignula, i za dragin gorko plakala. Nesritnice, kad mi na grob dojdes, ti se siti svoje jubjene. KRAJ BUNARA DJEVA MLADA STALA ( No. 183) YOUNG GIRL STOPPED BY THE WELL The y o u n g gi r l s t opped by t h e well, with handkerch ie f in h e r hand . Bending h e r head to t h e g r o u n d , b e c a u s e of her da r l ing , s h e was c r y i n g . " U n h a p p y dar l ing , when you come to my g rave remember me,your beloved." m 84 A 9. festival — 1975. JB »GaIeb« — Sihenik C Ivo Furcic D Ivo Furcic, Mile Livakovic (63. g.), Sibenik 1973. SJELA DJEVA NA KAMEN STUDENI E Ivo Furcic Sjela djeva na kamen student, faculet u ruci drzala, pa je njime glavu omotala, i pod njime gorko plakala. »Kako mores takva srca biti, mene mladu, tuznu ostavit? Najvirnija ja san tebi bila, samo tebe ja san jubila. Druga djeva tebe nece jubit, nit ces s drugom moci sritan bit, jer zbog tebe ja cu suze liti, nesritno do groba jubiti«. SJELA DJEVA NA KAMEN STUDENI (No.l20) YOUNG GIRL SAT ON THE COLD STONE The young gir l sa.t on t h e cold s tone , holding handkerch ie f in h e r hand, a n d c r y i n g so b i t t e r ly , h e r head covered . -"Why is your h e a r t so s t ony , why do you leave me, ail in sorrow? Only you I loved dear ly , only to you I was t h e most faithful. No o t h e r gir l will love you t h e way I do, no o t h e r will ever make you happy . Because of you I will shed my t e a r s , a n d love you ' t i l l t h e dav I die." 85 1. BILA JESAM TVOJA NAJMILIJA (2rtva Ijubavi) A 5. /estiual —1971. B r>Maestral<i — 'Duhrovnxk C Kresimir Magdic D Kresimir Magdic, Stijepo Strazicic, Dubrovnik E Kresimir Magdic Bila jesam tvoja najmilija koja te je vjerno Ijubila. Oj, sretnice, kada grobu dodes, ti se sjeti svoje ropkinje. Oj, sretnice, kada grobu dodes, ti se sjeti svoje ropkinje. Tu pociva, slatki sanak sniva, a zemljica laka joj bila, a na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zrtva Ijubavi. A na krizu zlatna slova pisu, tu pociva zrtva Ijubavi. ZRTVA LJUBAVI (No. 176) VICTIM OF LOVE I u s e d to be y o u r most beloved, you lucky dar l ing . Remember me, your s lave , when you visi t my g r a v e . EeT;e I dream sweet d reams . On h e r tombstone it s a y s , in golden l e t t e r s : "The victim of love r e s t s in peace!" 

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