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"Safe from Utopia?" : the LSD controversy in Saskatchewan, 1950-1967 1996

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"SAFE F R O M UTOPIA?": T H E LSD C O N T R O V E R S Y IN S A S K A T C H E W A N , 1950-1967 by E R I K M U R R A Y L . A N D E R S O N B.A. Honours, The University of Regina, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 1996 0Erik Murray L . Anderson, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, 'Canada Date , 2 . t f ftfyvQ mia DE-6 (2/88) il" Abstract The controversy surrounding the use of LSD as an adjunct to psychotherapy for alc o h o l i c s i n Saskatchewan has not been explored by s o c i a l or medical hist o r i a n s . From 1950 to 1967, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s developed new treatments for chronic alcoholism by using LSD on themselves, on volunteers and f i n a l l y on patients. Despite early success and praise, the use of LSD i n psychotherapy was l a t e r condemned by the media, the general public, the medical profession and eventually the federal government and was discontinued a f t e r being banned i n 1967. The reasons for the ban were far-reaching and diverse. LSD was exploited by the counter-culture for "kicks" and was l a t e r abandoned by pharmaceutical companies because of the negative reputation lay-professionals and the media had bestowed upon i t s therapeutic use. As i t turned out, legitimate LSD research became too clouded i n controversy to survive the 1960s as researchers f a i l e d to convince the masses that the drug did not pose a threat to the well-being of society. In many respects, the LSD controversy can be seen as more of a moral panic than a s c i e n t i f i c debate. Nevertheless, the LSD controversy provides a unique and much needed look into the history of medicine from a s o c i a l perspective, i l l u s t r a t i n g that s o c i a l values often have more impact on medical research than empirical v a l i d i t y . As recent evidence suggests, the psychotherapeutic p o t e n t i a l of LSD -- as developed by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s -- has not been forgotten. Indeed, a renewal of interest i n LSD research has surfaced i n several U.S. states as American p s y c h i a t r i s t s are discovering, once again, that LSD can be a valuable p s y c h i a t r i c research t o o l . Table of Contents Abstract ii Chapter I "Safe From Utopia?" 1 Tables 39 Notes 40 Bibliography 51 1 The dynamics of the debate surrounding LSD experimentation i n Saskatchewan i n the two decades following the Second World War have not been well documented by s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s . The growth of psychiatry, the implementation of Medicare and the general history of mental health i n the province have a l l been examined, as has the government's role i n these developments.^ But few historians have endeavoured to look beyond these broad themes, l e t alone explore the f i e l d of medicine from a s o c i a l perspective. In the past, scholars, usually physicians posing as amateur historians, have tended to convey t h e i r findings i n terms fa m i l i a r to t h e i r colleagues, not the layman. Such works, S.E.D. Shortt contends, merely r e f l e c t the Whig assumptions -- "the professional creed" - - o f t h e i r authors, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r u n f a i l i n g " f a i t h i n the progress of science." 2 These studies also lack o b j e c t i v i t y , mainly the a b i l i t y to analyze the dynamics within a larger conceptual framework. As a re s u l t , a body of research has surfaced which i s , as Wendy Mitchinson observes, u n c r i t i c a l , unanalytical, and reductionist.^ Perhaps due to a paucity of available sources, professional historians have also experienced d i f f i c u l t y when writing the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of medicine. According to Mary-Ellen Kelm, "historians have seldom been able to extend t h e i r studies beyond the confines of ps y c h i a t r i c thought and p r a c t i c e . " 4 Shortt agrees, stating that neither the patient, the community, nor areas outside medicine have been considered.^ George Rosen also laments the exclusion of s o c i a l factors i n medical history, 2 S a f e From U t o p i a ? asserting that i t has suffered from a t r a d i t i o n a l i a t r o - c e n t r i c (or physician-centred) approach: "While the sign i f i c a n c e of s o c i a l factors are recognized, t h i s aspect i s relegated to the very periphery of the picture."^ Beginning i n 1950, a group of Saskatchewan doctors and ps y c h i a t r i s t s determined a new d i r e c t i o n for the treatment of mental i l l n e s s , alcoholism i n p a r t i c u l a r , by using a r e l a t i v e l y new and seemingly revolutionary drug, LSD-25. However, despite early success, t h e i r use of LSD-25 as an adjunct to psychotherapy was l a t e r met with accusation and condemnation by the media, the medical profession and eventually the federal government. As quickly as i t had appeared, the experimental use of LSD-25 was concluded i n the late-1960s, l a i d to rest by the hands of prejudice not science. * * * The s c i e n t i f i c name of LSD i s d-lysergic acid diethylamide t a r t r a t e . It i s also known as LSD-25 and Delysid. The acronym i t s e l f i s derived from the German translation, Lyserg Saure Diethylamid. LSD i s a semi-synthetic compound derived from the ergot fungus {Claviceps purpurea), which grows i n the seeds of rye and other grasses. Although i t was f i r s t synthesized i n 1938 by the Sandoz Research Laboratories i n Basel, Switzerland, i t s perception-altering e f f e c t s were not discovered u n t i l 1943 when Swiss chemist, Albert Hofmann, acci d e n t a l l y ingested the drug. In his laboratory journal he noted the e f f e c t s of LSD: I noted with dismay that my environment was undergoing progressive change. Everything seemed 3 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? strange and I had the greatest d i f f i c u l t y i n expressing myself. My v i s u a l f i e l d s wavered and everything appeared deformed as i n a f a u l t y mirror. I was overcome by a f e e l i n g that I was going crazy, the worst part of i t that I was c l e a r l y aware of my condition.... I was seized by a peculiar sensation of vertigo and restlessness. Objects, as well as the shape of my associates i n the laboratory, appeared to undergo o p t i c a l changes.... In a dream-like state I l e f t for home...[where I] f e l l into a peculiar state of 'drunkenness' characterized by an exaggerated imagination....After two hours t h i s state gradually subsided. 7 Since then, thousands of s c i e n t i f i c papers have emerged, many of which substantiate the p o s i t i v e role that LSD can assume Q as an adjunct to psychotherapy. However, LSD experxmentation was also harshly c r i t i c i z e d , both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and i n the press, u n t i l i t was f i n a l l y abandoned a f t e r being banned by the federal government i n 1967. The f i r s t and only study of LSD experimentation i n Saskatchewan came i n 1992 when Canadian Broadcasting Corporation j o u r n a l i s t Kenneth B e l l highlighted the impact of LSD "testing" on the l i v e s of those to whom i t was administered.^ Arguing that the objectives of the Saskatchewan ps y c h i a t r i c community were not grounded on sound experimental p r i n c i p l e s , l e t alone empirical research, B e l l drew attention to a select number of individuals who claimed to have suffered continuously from t h e i r experiences with the drug. However, these " i n d i v i d u a l " experiences offered only a cursory, i f not i l l - c o n s i d e r e d , analysis of a f a r more complex issue. At f i r s t glance, B e l l ' s assertion seemed accurate: by today's medical standards, such experimentation could be seen as both l i t i g i o u s and unethical. But can we judge t h i s experience by modern s c i e n t i f i c standards? Indeed, as barbaric as 4 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? labotomies or electro-shock therapy seem today, we must s t i l l accept that these forms of treatment occurred and appreciate the conditions under which they took place. To do otherwise ignores the complexities of the more diverse debate surrounding the issue. By focusing s o l e l y on the volunteers who were tested, B e l l also ignored the more s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of LSD experimentation. As we s h a l l see, LSD research took three forms: i t was used experimentally by p s y c h i a t r i c doctors and nurses; volunteers were offered an opportunity to "experience" the e f f e c t s of the drug under medical supervision; and, most importantly, i t was used as an adjunct to psychotherapy for a l c o h o l i c s . By concentrating on only one aspect of LSD research, B e l l misinterpreted the o r i g i n a l premises upon which successful LSD experimentation a c t u a l l y took place. * * * In the early 1950s, ps y c h i a t r i c doctors and nurses throughout the world, r e a l i z i n g the pot e n t i a l usefulness of LSD i n psychotherapy, experimented with LSD on themselves because of i t s a b i l i t y to induce psychotic behaviour. Indeed, by understanding what i t was l i k e to be mentally i l l , they believed they stood a better chance of helping patients who were mentally i l l . As Max Rinkel, Senior Research Consultant of the Massachusetts Mental Health Centre and chief p r a c t i t i o n e r of such research, reported, "we found that our nurses who had received LSD i n experimental sessions unanimously declared taht [sic] now they have a better understanding of t h e i r patients 5 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? 1 0 with whom they deal." According to Abram Hoffer, Director of Psychiatric Research, Department of Public Health, the same was true i n Saskatchewan. Convinced that t h e i r private LSD experiences resembled those of latent schizophrenics, Hoffer and his Saskatchewan colleagues f e l t that by exploring the e f f e c t s of LSD on themselves, they would be "much better professional people. 1 , 1 1 However, while such personal experimentation proved to be enlightening, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s recommended against using the drug when treating patients. According to Hoffer, "the r e s u l t s when the therapist took LSD [simultaneously with the patient] were only half as good" as regular therapy sessions. But t h i s did not undermine the therapist's own experimentation with the drug. Indeed, as outspoken University of Saskatchewan (Regina Campus) psychology professor Duncan Blewett maintained, "It should be absolutely i l l e g a l for somebody to o f f e r themselves as a guide into any dangerous t e r r i t o r y unless they've been there." Nevertheless, aside from creating a harmony between doctor and patient, the more dir e c t therapeutic applications of LSD were s t i l l unstudied. In 1952, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s began to apply t h e i r "model psychosis" theory, hypothesizing that by dispensing LSD to normal subjects, usually themselves or volunteers, they could determine the factors that caused mental i l l n e s s , such as alcoholism or schizophrenia. 1 4 Conversely, they also posited that by administering the drug to the mentally i l l , they might enact a "double negative": i f i t made normal people psychotic, 6 S a f e From U t o p i a ? i t might help make psychotic people normal. 1 5 Yet regardless of the apparent benefits, such research proceeded slowly i n Saskatchewan as doctors there were "necessarily cautious" of the drug's possible harmful e f f e c t s . As Saul Cohen of the Alcoholism Commission of Saskatchewan warned, LSD, used indiscriminately, could produce a far worse psychotic r e a c t i o n . 1 ^ As t h e i r studies continued over the next year, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s began to turn away from the "model psychosis" theory, asserting that i t was the LSD "experience" that deserved attention, not the af f e c t LSD had on the patient's biochemistry. Years l a t e r , Hoffer heralded t h i s discovery as a watershed i n LSD research. "It became apparent," he t o l d an audience at the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley i n 1966, that i t was "not the chemical [reaction], but the experience [that was] the key factor m therapy." Indeed, r e a l i z i n g that increased attention to the "model psychosis" theory might lead t h e i r research into a dead end, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s proposed that LSD be used instead as an adjunct to psychotherapy, e s p e c i a l l y for al c o h o l i c s . But that decision also posed some i n i t i a l problems, namely that alcoholism had yet to be properly defined by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . When t h e i r research into LSD began i n 1950, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s posited that alcoholism was the re s u l t of a biochemical imbalance i n the body that f a i l e d to reduce i ft stress. ° Knowing t h i s , they set out to explore the ef f e c t s of LSD on the body's biochemistry. Two years l a t e r , when i t was 7 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? discovered that LSD did i n fact increase the amount of adrenochrome i n the body, Saskatchewan researchers proposed that LSD could help alcoholics by increasing t h e i r a b i l i t y to deal -I Q with stress. J And because LSD had already helped many volunteers i n t h i s manner -- "by producing some degree of relaxation... and by producing some strong insight and psychological re-orientation" -- Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s f e l t they were ready to st a r t t reating a l c o h o l i c patients with LSD-25. In 1953, Humphrey Osmond, Superintendent of the Weyburn Psychiatric Hospital, teamed up with Hoffer to treat the f i r s t two alcoholics with LSD. 2 1 However, while t h e i r r e s u l t s substantiated the adrenochrome theory, the apparent success of the experiment seemed to have been the r e s u l t of several d i f f e r e n t factors. Paradoxically, although the LSD allowed the patient to "relax," i t also created a new form of model psychosis which c l o s e l y resembled delirium tremens (DTs). 2 2 But rather than s t a l l experimentation, t h e i r discovery that i t was possible to induce a r t i f i c i a l delirium tremens spawned a new theory into the treatment of alcoholism. As Hoffer explained, When we learned that i n some cases Alcoholics stopped drinking a f t e r h i t t i n g bottom and that i n some cases h i t t i n g bottom meant having delirium tremens i t occurred to us that a controlled delirium tremens given under ideal conditions might also be e f f e c t i v e i n helping some alcoh o l i c s remain sober. But because delirium tremens often proved f a t a l -- some studies estimated the mortality rate to be as high as ten percent ^ -- Hoffer and Osmond were i n i t i a l l y cautious. Nevertheless, a f t e r f a i l i n g to i n i t i a t e model DTs i n volunteers, S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? they once again turned to alcoholics, reasoning that because the LSD experience was c a r r i e d out i n a controlled setting, t h e i r subjects would be safe. This type of therapy, Hoffer and Osmond proposed, "could avoid a l l the undesirable features of the natural delirium tremens experience," and "a f r i g h t f u l experience which modelled the worst i n natural delirium tremens could persuade [their] a l c o h o l i c patients not to drink anymore." 2 5 However, as we s h a l l see, they had s t i l l only scratched the surface of the drug's p o t e n t i a l . As further studies demonstrated, Saskatchewan researchers found that LSD acted more l i k e a catalyst than a toxin i n humans. As C a l i f o r n i a p s y c h i a t r i s t Oscar Janiger confirmed s i x years l a t e r , LSD was "mainly responsible for t r i g g e r i n g the psychotic reaction," and the events that followed were "no longer dependent upon i t s presence." S i m i l a r l y , Hoffer and Osmond reported that "LSD i s so active i n producing psychological changes i n man that i t can hardly be a toxin i n the usual physiological sense." With these results i n mind, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s posited that the seemingly "natural" biochemical reaction to LSD could be used for other purposes than s o l e l y producing a "chemically- created delirium." Realizing t h i s , they set out to treat mental i l l n e s s , alcoholism i n p a r t i c u l a r , rather than merely reproduce i t . 2 8 In 1957, a f t e r close to four years of extensive study, Hoffer and Osmond determined that LSD could be employed more us e f u l l y during a psychedelic (mind manifesting) "experience" than during a psychotomimetic (model psychosis or psychosis- 9 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? 0 9 mimicking) episode. To them, LSD had become increasingly- b e n e f i c i a l to psychotherapy because of i t s a b i l i t y to break down the natural defensive barr i e r s of subjects, thereby making them more open to ps y c h i a t r i c counselling. As Hoffer explained, "by 1957 i t was apparent that even though many of our patients were helped by LSD, i t was not i t s ps[y]chotomimetic a c t i v i t y which was responsible." Of equal importance, the psychedelic experience appeared to be mutually b e n e f i c i a l for both patient and therapist. "Our p s y c h i a t r i s t s , " Hoffer and Osmond reported, "were more at ease working with the psychedelic experience because i t was possible [for them] to e s t a b l i s h a therapeutic relationship and to use psychotherapy." Consequently, LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s s h i f t e d t h e i r focus, arguing that to be t r u l y useful as an adjunct to psychotherapy, LSD-25 would have to be used as a psychedelic. The following year, fascinated by the work of p s y c h i a t r i s t s at the Hollywood Hospital i n New Westminster, B r i t i s h Columbia, Hoffer and Osmond i n v i t e d A.M. Hubbard, Hollywood's Director of Psychological Research, to demonstrate, under controlled conditions at the University Hospital i n Saskatoon, some of the techniques he had developed using LSD as a psychedelic. Inspired by Hubbard's methods, Hoffer, Osmond and Blewett soon teamed with Nick Chwelos, Research Ps y c h i a t r i s t , Saskatchewan Hospital, Weyburn, and Colin Smith, Deputy Director of Research, Saskatchewan Department of Public Health, to conduct t h e i r own experiments. The r e s u l t i n g s t u d y 3 1 was the f i r s t one i n which the psychedelic method of treating patients was published. 10 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? A report on the therapeutic e f f e c t s of LSD on 40 alcoholics patients (see Table 1 ) , Chwelos et al. concluded that " s e l f - surrender and self-acceptance are more e a s i l y achieved i n the LSD experience" and that "the resolution of the problem of the alc o h o l i c l i e s i n t h i s surrender." More importantly, though, they also discovered that using LSD as a psychedelic f a c i l i t a t e d the r e c a l l and abreaction of "forgotten or repressed" material, which promoted the patient-therapist r e l a t i o n s h i p and accelerated the process of "psychoexploration." However, as was soon discovered, the r e v i v a l of repressed memories was not the only res u l t of psychedelic treatment. A year l a t e r , i n a paper presented to the symposium on the C l i n i c a l and Therapeutic Use of LSD at Napa State Hospital, Napa, C a l i f o r n i a , Dr. James T e r r i l l , a p s y c h i a t r i s t i n the Palo Alto C l i n i c mental research i n s t i t u t e , reported that "when p o s i t i v e changes have occurred [in psychotherapy] they often seem to have occurred i n terms of the person's value system rather than i n terms of revived memories." Indeed, although the r e c a l l of repressed memories was an important element i n the therapeutic process, long-term success i n psychotherapy was usually the res u l t of the patient's desire to reconcile t h e i r problems, not just to remember them. Seen t h i s way, the r e a l i z a t i o n of the " s e l f " proved to be yet another important c o r o l l a r y to LSD therapy. Evidently, because i t induced a state of depersonalization and allowed the patient to "access the l i m i t s of s e l f by going beyond them to f i n d a new perspective not bound by an irrevocable 11 S a f e From U t o p i a ? s e l f - c o n c e p t , " 3 4 many pr a c t i t i o n e r s believed LSD inspired a notion of self-transcendence i n the mentally i l l . As Duncan Blewett t o l d MacLean's, "It scares the pants o f f people the f i r s t time [but] there i s a v a s t l y increased sense of awareness [as]...the subject i s able to see himself with s t a r t l i n g c l a r i t y and f e e l deeply the hurts he has caused o t h e r s . " 3 5 And because of t h i s , LSD provided "the psychological research worker with a tool as useful and powerful i n psychology as i s the microscope i n biology or the telescope i n astrology." Yet, according to some ~i 7 p r a c t i t i o n e r s , such an important discovery should not be r e s t r i c t e d to the mentally i l l . In subsequent years, LSD increasingly became the centre of O Q attention i n n o n - s c i e n t i f I C c i r c l e s throughout North America. Indeed, claiming that t h i s "shock of l i b e r a t i o n " could produce a f e e l i n g of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with the world, hippies, beatniks and college students a l i k e a l l began t h e i r own private experiments. However, despite the apparent benefits for the i n d i v i d u a l " s e l f , " the repercussions for legitimate LSD research were much greater. As we s h a l l see, when LSD research was l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d by the government and the press i n the 1960s, the ambiguous concept of the " s e l f " and i t s connection to the counter-culture only served to worsen the LSD controversy. Nevertheless, although the notion of the " s e l f " would eventually d i s c r e d i t the drug's therapeutic application, i t was an important breakthrough for LSD research based on the psychedelic model. And as further research attested, t h i s work by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s was indeed pioneering. 12 S a f e From U t o p i a ? In 1961, p s y c h i a t r i s t s at the Hollywood Hospital reported that out of 61 alcoholics with poor prognoses, 30 were much improved and 16 showed some improvement due to treatment with LSD (see Table 2). Working from the same premise as t h e i r Saskatchewan counterparts (the "undiscovered s e l f " ) , Hollywood p s y c h i a t r i s t s concluded that i n a controlled environment, the "psychedelic experience provides the opportunity for extensive emotional reeducation" and that psychedelic drugs "constitute another door...for approach to emotional problems." Evidently, much of t h i s success was achieved by the therapist's a b i l i t y to get the patient to "open up." Indeed, as University of C a l i f o r n i a medical doctors Sidney Cohen and Keith Ditman confirmed a year l a t e r , under the influence of LSD a patient's " r e c a l l of repressed memories were enhanced and ego defensiveness to c o n f l i c t laden material were r e d u c e d . I f there ever was a golden age of psychedelic research, i t was from 1959 to 1962. During those years, more than 2,000 cases i n Saskatchewan alone, reporting recovery rates ranging from f i f t y to eighty percent, evidenced the p o s i t i v e role LSD could play i n psychotherapy. 4 1 And, as we have seen, the re s u l t s published by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s were not an anomaly. Indeed, as more than 300 s c i e n t i f i c papers evidenced, 4 2 s c i e n t i s t s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s from a l l over the world believed LSD research to be of fundamental importance towards establishing a cure for alcoholism and other psychosomatic i l l n e s s . Moreover, the consistency of these re s u l t s was p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy i n view of the many uncontrolled factors that were known to influence 13 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? reactions to drugs and treatment outcome.4"^ By a l l measures, LSD experimentation seemed to be an extraordinary discovery i n the f i e l d of psychotherapy. *** In t h e i r 1983 a r t i c l e , "A Social History and Analysis of the LSD Controversy," historians Roy Baumeister and Kathleen P l a c i d i concluded they "found no evidence... that the news media had portrayed LSD as a t t r a c t i v e and d e s i r a b l e . " 4 4 While t h i s may have been true a f t e r LSD made i t s way into s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c i r c l e s a f t e r 1962, Baumeister and P l a c i d i ' s argument ignores the period of LSD experimentation p r i o r to that date. As a wealth of a r t i c l e s i n the popular press show, LSD was indeed given c r e d i b i l i t y by both newspapers and magazines, as well as by the pr o v i n c i a l government i n Saskatchewan, i n the late 1950s and early 1960s. Although i n i t i a l l y s i l e n t during early stages of research, Saskatchewan's two major newspapers eventually took a supportive interest i n LSD experimentation. As early as 1957, the Regina Leader-Post reported that " B r i l l i a n t research i s producing astonishing drugs and unlocking the mysteries of the brain," bringing on a "revolution of quickening change." Si m i l a r l y , the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix wrote that "LSD produces a sensation of well-being and freedom from tension, and during t h i s time the patient was helped by a greater insight into his problems." In subsequent years, convinced by medical reports that LSD was "a remarkable and powerful drug...[that] has brought l a s t i n g help to many patients," the Leader-Post even boasted of the inroads made 14 S a f e From U t o p i a ? by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s , claiming that "Saskatchewan i s far ahead of anywhere else i n the world as far as treatment of alcoholics with LSD goes." 4 5 In addition to the l o c a l press, national magazines and other p r o v i n c i a l newspapers also championed LSD research. Sidney Katz of MacLean's reported that "alcohol c l i n i c s i n Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia have been blazing a pioneer t r a i l i n the use of LSD" which "aroused excitement and enthusiasm i n many informed quarters." Similarly, Muriel Clements of Saturday Night wrote that "LSD seems to teach acceptance," which "lowers the b a r r i e r between the conscious and the sub-conscious, permitting the 4 ft patient to look more deeply into himself." The Vancouver Sun, the Toronto Globe and Mail and the Montreal Star a l l drew attention to LSD's "highly e f f e c t i v e " role as a adjunct to 4 7 psychotherapy for a l c o h o l i c s . And as the Ottawa Citizen declared, "A s t r i k i n g aspect of the [LSD] treatment i s that...cured patients have f e l t confident enough to indulge i n moderate alcohol drinking without s l i p p i n g back into habitual 4 ft drunkenness." The success of LSD research i n Saskatchewan was even reported i n seemingly remote corners south of the border. According to Scope Weekly, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s had proven that LSD provided s c i e n t i s t s "with a powerful method for studying abnormal mental experiences." Moreover, "In spite of a l l the unknowns and uncertainties," P/A assured i t s readers that LSD had been "safely and constructively used i n the treatment of... alcoholism." The North Renfrew Times even went so f a r as to 15 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? predict that LSD would "probably hasten the day when quick, e f f e c t i v e treatment of mentally disturbed people may be undertaken." LSD research was also reported n a t i o n a l l y i n the United States. In 1954, acknowledging that the therapeutic benefits of "LSD 25 have [previously] been much neglected," Time went on to report that "as an aid to psychotherapy, LSD 25 i s the best of a l l such drugs so far tested." In a subsequent a r t i c l e , Time also praised the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s , pointing to the fact that "Whereas Alcoholics Anonymous usually claims success i n only 50%-60% of r u n - o f - t h e - s t i l l cases [ s i c ] , Dr. Hoffer has dried out 50% of the 100-proof cases who had been f a i l u r e s i n A.A. 1 , 5 0 In addition, the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s did not go unnoticed by the p r o v i n c i a l CCF government or the c i v i l service. As p r o v i n c i a l Minister of Health Walter Erb t o l d a radio t a l k show during Alcohol Information Week i n 1960, Some real advances have been made here i n Saskatchewan and I think I should be remiss i f I would not take t h i s opportunity to pay tri b u t e to the wonderful research that has been done i n connection with the new drug LSD- 25. It should be a matter of pride to Saskatchewan c i t i z e n s that our own Psychiatric Services Branch has spear-headed the research i n t h i s a r e a . 5 1 Likewise, the Saskatchewan Bureau on Alcoholism was also impressed. As J.F.A. Calder, Director of the Bureau, boasted to the Globe and Mail, LSD had been "the only new development of any value i n the treatment of alcoholics that we have found i n 27 years." J F.S. Larson, Director of the Department of Health's Psychiatric Services Branch, also ext o l l e d the drug's success i n 16 S a f e From U t o p i a ? alcohol research, though he cautioned that i t should be used only under s t r i c t medical supervision and should not be available "at the corner drug store." But regardless of such concerns, Erb was elated to report that LSD had been sanctioned by the c i v i l service. "It gives our department great pleasure," he t o l d the radio audience, "to know that the s t a f f of the Bureau [on Alcoholism] are most enthusiastic about the re s u l t s that have been obtained i n many cases of treatment by LSD." 5 4 But such praise for LSD was premature. In retrospect, Erb's support for LSD research appeared to be more " p o l i t i c a l " than sincere. As we s h a l l see, when LSD experimentation was l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d , the Department of Health severed a l l t i e s with i t s p s y c h i a t r i c program, e s s e n t i a l l y leaving i t at the mercy of i t s c r i t i c s , most notably the federal government. Nevertheless, i n the short term the success of LSD research boosted the slumping image of the CCF. In 1958, the Western Producer i l l u s t r a t e d the strong a l l i a n c e between the Saskatchewan ps y c h i a t r i c community and the CCF, asserting that Saskatchewan was " s t i l l the only province putting money into p s y c h i a t r i c research" and that the Saskatchewan Department of Health was fond of using national health grants to fund i t s p s y c h i a t r i c program. 5 5 And because health o f f i c i a l s r e a l i z e d more research was needed, the Department of Health, "happy i n the knowledge that r e a l progress has been made already," continued to support LSD research knowing that "experts i n the f i e l d of alcoholism believe that we are on the right t r a c k . " 5 6 17 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? Nevertheless, despite regional, national, international and even governmental praise, a considerable tide of c r i t i c i s m to LSD experimentation had begun to mount. The years a f t e r 1962 would be quite d i f f e r e n t from the preceding decade. * * * In many ways, 1962 proved to be a c r u c i a l turning point for LSD research i n Saskatchewan. Although i t had achieved c r i t i c a l acclaim i n both the popular and s c i e n t i f i c press and was endorsed by the p r o v i n c i a l CCF government, LSD research faced a considerable challenge i n some professional c i r c l e s . In the short term, such c r i t i c i s m appeared to d i s c r e d i t the inroads LSD research had made i n North America, e s p e c i a l l y i n Saskatchewan where i t had been pioneered. Of greater consequence, however, was the l a s t i n g c r i t i c a l attention the Canadian press and federal government gave to legitimate LSD research. As we s h a l l see, unlike the previous decade, LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s found l i t t l e support for t h e i r research a f t e r 1962. The chief architect of such "professional" opposition to LSD i n Canada was James S. Tyhurst, head of the department of psychiatry at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. As early as 1959 i n what became known as The B r i t i s h Columbia Report, Tyhurst argued that LSD had "no validated therapeutic value i n psychiatry." By i t s e l f , t h i s c r i t i c i s m did not hasten the cessation of LSD research i n Saskatchewan or anywhere else. However, when the p e r i l s of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c LSD use began to dominate newspaper columns and t e l e v i s i o n programs a f t e r 1962, Tyhurst's opposition to legitimate LSD research gathered so much 18 S a f e From U t o p i a ? momentum that for the f i r s t time i t posed a serious threat to the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . Despite the subsequent impact of his c r i t i c i s m , Tyhurst only attacked LSD research on two grounds. I n i t i a l l y , he claimed that the therapist's "power of suggestion" greatly influenced the patient and thereby predetermined the r e s u l t s of the experiment. According to t h i s supposition, LSD was depicted as a "shame drug" which allowed the therapist to implant "a sense of a l c o h o l i c g u i l t i n the patient's subconscious." In addition, Tyhurst concluded, such suggestion played a major role i n determining IT Q "the kind of psychological e f f e c t s that developed." Indeed, to him, LSD therapy was just another form of " s c i e n t i f i c brainwashing." 5^ Tyhurst also argued that previous studies, many of which had reported successful re s u l t s , often ignored several of the "controlled measures" which had come to be associated with "orthodox s c i e n t i f i c methods." o u By i t s e l f , t h i s disregard for t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c controls was not overly problematic; LSD therapy was, a f t e r a l l , a new form of treatment. The issue of s c i e n t i f i c control, moreover, had already been addressed by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . As Duncan Blewett put i t , "Using the s c i e n t i f i c and experimental methods of present day psychology i n the f i e l d of paranormal investigation i s l i k e t r y i n g to measure the distance to the moon with a yard s t i c k . " 6 1 However, when coupled with the therapist's power of suggestion, such "uncontrolled" experimentation, Tyhurst believed, was both manipulative and unethical. 19 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? According to Tyhurst, studies that claimed therapeutic value for LSD were "overly suggestive" and too often "characterized by the uncontrolled character of the investigations supporting them." Because of t h i s , Tyhurst feared that the "mystical" q u a l i t i e s of LSD might entice the layman or the general public to indulge i n i t s use. According to him, t h i s "God i n a b o t t l e " q u a l i t y not only promoted the unethical use of the drug, but also made i t more a t t r a c t i v e to those who opposed or r e s i s t e d organized r e l i g i o n . LSD research, then, was "more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a c u l t than of responsible s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . " 0 ^ However, as we s h a l l see, these c r i t i c i s m s were nothing more than unmitigated, i r r a t i o n a l reactions to an issue Tyhurst i n fact knew very l i t t l e about. Although he claimed to have been part of an "International Committee" which had completed a four-year study on the use of LSD i n p s y c h i a t r i c research, Tyhurst had not undertaken as comprehensive a study as he reported. According to him, "The p r i n c i p a l research i n t e r e s t " of LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s had been " i n investigating the a l t e r a t i o n s of perception, f e e l i n g and thinking... as a form of fundamental research on abnormal states of psychological functioning." But as Tyhurst l a t e r admitted, he had not studied the therapeutic value of LSD as "developed i n the s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e , " having only "heard [about] i t quite frequently from those interested i n the drug." 6 4 Tyhurst was not alone i n his condemnation of LSD experimentation. Indeed, as early as 1956 there were signs that the s c i e n t i f i c community was divided over the issue of LSD 20 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? therapy. In t h e i r a r t i c l e published i n the American Journal of Psychiatry, p s y c h i a t r i s t s John McDonald and James Galvin attacked the usefulness of LSD i n psychotherapy, claiming that i t did not "possess therapeutic value s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y i t s use i n p s y c h i a t r i c practice." Si m i l a r l y , although he admitted that the use of LSD was "of great importance i n elucidating or understanding...psychodynamics," Dr. Paul Hoch concluded that the therapeutic value of LSD was "much less impressive." And as F. Gordon Tucker, p s y c h i a t r i s t at the B r i t i s h Columbia Mental Hospital i n Essondale, t o l d the Vancouver Province i n May 1962, there had been "no great success" with LSD, which had only proven i t s e l f as "a very doubtful treatment." Like Tyhurst, these " s c i e n t i s t s " not only ignored the reported findings of Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia p s y c h i a t r i s t s but also provided i n s u f f i c i e n t s c i e n t i f i c evidence to support t h e i r claims. Consequently, t h e i r findings were by no means conclusive, l e t alone more controlled than those reported by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . For example, Tucker's study of only six cases proved that his conclusions, i f not e n t i r e l y predetermined, were based upon a sampling that was too narrow. Needless to say, t h i s c r i t i c i s m caused considerable consternation i n the Saskatchewan ps y c h i a t r i c community. As Hoffer commented wryly, "This n i c e l y i l l u s t r a t e s things going on at the west coast, where i t i s possible to say that s i x subjects makes a controlled t r i a l whereas one hundred subjects at another centre i s not controlled." Likewise, J.F.A. Calder, Director of the Saskatchewan Bureau on Alcoholism, dismissed Tyhurst's 21 S a f e From U t o p i a ? "distanced" c r i t i c i s m s as those of an amateur: "His second hand knowledge does not agree with our f i r s t hand experience with the drug." Blewett echoed t h i s sentiment, claiming that opponents to LSD i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere "know as much about i t as I do of the type of b a l l e t danced i n Persian harems." And C.G. Costello, a psychologist at the Regina General Hospital, added that "Until Prof. Tyhurst and other c r i t i c s present clear evidence of the dangers of LSD, we need not be unduly worried." 6 9 As we have seen, the success of LSD i n t r e a t i n g a l c o h o l i c s had been well-documented i n the s c i e n t i f i c press. Knowing t h i s , i t becomes easier to see that Tyhurst's objection to LSD research had more to do with his concern for morality than with any s c i e n t i f i c wrongdoing. Apparently, t h i s was not uncommon behaviour for James Tyhurst. According to biographer Christopher Hyde, Tyhurst "had l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l experience as a medical doctor or as a p s y c h i a t r i s t " when he moved to UBC i n 1958. 7 0 Moreover, Tyhurst also confessed that he had not taken LSD himself and that he had conducted no "adequately co n t r o l l e d research into the uses of the drug t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y . " 7 1 Importantly, Hyde also noted that Tyhurst's i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g had been i n engineering and only l a t e r had he moved on to psychiatry. From t h i s evidence, i t i s obvious that James Tyhurst was more concerned with the "direct and immediate withdrawal of LSD-25" than with producing a systematic, " s c i e n t i f i c " rebuttal to i t s therapeutic use. Yet surprisingly, c r i t i c i s m s such as Tyhurst's were even apparent i n the minds of some Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . 22 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? According to Hoffer, Dr. P. O'Reilly, Psychiatric Director of the Moose Jaw Hospital, had "started out with a very strong bias against [LSD]," but, unlike Tyhurst, was l a t e r convinced of i t s 7 0 therapeutic value by conducting his own experiments. But Dr. M. Rejskind, Director of the Munroe Psychiatric Wing at the Regina General Hospital, was not as e a s i l y convinced. "I...have seen no proof LSD has i n any way helped," he t o l d the Leader- Post, "There are no fewer alcoholics now than there were when we 7 3 started using i t . " Although t h i s statement seems out of context for a Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t , i t i s important to note that Rejskind, l i k e Tyhurst, had not paid close enough attention to the work of Hoffer and Osmond. Nevertheless, i n the years ahead Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s struggled to continue t h e i r research as the crusade against the use of LSD as an adjunct to psychotherapy i n t e n s i f i e d . * * * The specious legitimacy of Tyhurst's c r i t i c i s m and the repudiation of LSD research by the media and the federal government a f t e r 1962 are not e a s i l y understood, e s p e c i a l l y considering the wealth of s c i e n t i f i c evidence that attested to the p o s i t i v e role LSD could play i n psychotherapy. As we have seen, Tyhurst's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a reputable p s y c h i a t r i s t and credible opponent of LSD research were unproven. Knowing t h i s , one must turn to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context surrounding LSD experimentation i n order to better understand the general tide of c r i t i c i s m that arose i n the mid-1960s. As we s h a l l see, although the debate surrounding LSD experimentation was diverse and far- 23 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? reaching, the issue of morality, e s p e c i a l l y the maintenance of the 1950s status-quo, became the d r i v i n g force behind the f i g h t to abolish LSD research based on the psychedelic model. Perhaps the most damaging testimony against the use of LSD i n psychotherapy came not from Canada, but from the United States. Referred to as the "Harvard a f f a i r " or the "Harvard University drug scandal," t h i s investigation centered on two years of LSD experimentation c a r r i e d out by Harvard psychologists Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert. I n i t i a l l y conducted under the auspices of the Harvard School of Medicine, Leary and Alpert l a t e r began off-campus investigations i n private homes, using as t h e i r subjects graduate students, friends, other doctors and even a r t i s t s . As these "private" studies continued, LSD became increasingly popular i n both academic and counter-cultural c i r c l e s -- a fact that prompted Harvard o f f i c i a l s and U.S. health authorities to interrupt LSD research i n 1962. Consequently, fearing the apparent " c u l t o g e n i c " 7 4 appeal of LSD might be exacerbated, LSD research was cancelled at Harvard and both psychologists were dismissed. According to u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s , Leary and Alpert did not exercise the necessary caution i n selecting candidates for LSD research. In the words of John U. Monro, dean of Harvard College, "Playing with [LSD i n t h i s manner] i s l i k e playing psychic Russian roulette." Harvard p s y c h i a t r i s t Theodore Rothman also condemned Leary and Alpert, claiming they were nothing but "academic hipsters" who were no longer q u a l i f i e d to practice medicine. "The more the two s c i e n t i s t s take the drug," commented 24 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? another o f f i c i a l , "the less they become interested i n science." Nevertheless, the repercussions for bona fide LSD research proved to be much greater than the consequences for Leary and Alpert. 7 ft Fuelled by further instances of misuse i n the U.S., the Canadian government proposed to ban LSD i n the f a l l of 1962. In the federal government's eyes, indiscriminate use of LSD posed a severe threat to society and should be c l a s s i f i e d , along with thalidomide (the notorious infant-deforming drug), as an i l l e g a l drug under Schedule H of the Food and Drugs A c t . 7 7 According to C.A. Morrell, Director of the Canadian Food and Drugs Directorate, LSD was "a very potent drug which may produce 'mental disturbances'" and whose therapeutic "value so far seemed 7 ft limited." Canada's Minister of National Health and Welfare, J. Waldo Monteith, agreed, t e l l i n g the House of Commons i n November 1962 that LSD was a "very dangerous drug" which had been "known 7 Q to produce fantasies and t h i s sort of thing." At f i r s t , the recommendation by the Food and Drugs Directorate that LSD be banned was greeted with surprise by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s , who were astonished that they had not been consulted. Indeed, a major point of contention with the B i l l (C-3) was the fact that Monteith had supposedly appointed a committee of "experts" to advise him but had f a i l e d to contact any Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . Such an oversight, according to Hoffer, was both "hasty and i l l - c o n s i d e r e d . " 8 0 Even Leonard Bertin, science editor of the Toronto Daily Star, condemned Monteith's motion: The fact that Monteith saw f i t to name s p e c i f i c drugs and ask a lay parliament to pass judgement on them, has 25 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? caused consternation amoung [sic] some members of the medical profession. Objecting doctors f e e l that the naming of drugs should have been l e f t to the [National Health and Welfare] department, acting on the advice of an appropriate committee of doctors and scientists.® 1 One reason for the medical profession's anxiety was that the B i l l appeared to take away i t s fundamental right to prescribe drugs to needy patients. Seen t h i s way, p s y c h i a t r i s t s and medical doctors feared that i f LSD was banned, Canada might be l e g i s l a t e d out of the f i e l d of experimental medicine and legitimate c l i n i c a l research. Fearing that such was the case, p r a c t i t i o n e r s of LSD therapy responded. George Lucas, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Toronto, proposed that "decisions of t h i s sort should be l e f t to a t r u l y representative committee of physicians and Q 9 s c i e n t i s t s . " Likewise, fellow University of Toronto professor, E.A. S e l l e r s , condemned the Directorate for not having consulted the Ontario Special Medical Advisory Committee, adding that " i t would have been p o l i t e , at least, to have asked us what we thought." But apparently such was to be expected from what ps y c h i a t r i s t s l a b e l l e d an "alarmist" government. In the words of Frank Brien, chairman of the Advisory Committee, "These days, parliament does some queer t h i n g s . " 8 3 In Saskatchewan, p s y c h i a t r i c experts saw the national Directorate's proposal to ban LSD as a reaction to the poor press LSD had received. As Hoffer t o l d a colleague, "The fa n t a s t i c controversy i n the U.S.A. a r i s i n g from the Harvard experiences... c e r t a i n l y p u b l i c i z e d the fact that psychedelic drugs are around." 8 4 Consequently, reports that once boasted of LSD's therapeutic value soon turned into emotional homilies that 26 S a f e From U t o p i a ? warned of the dangers associated with LSD. Realizing t h i s , Professor Duncan Blewett c r i t i c i z e d the government and the press for having "done l i t t l e or nothing but stress the t e r r i b l e dangers involved with the LSD experience." To him, such di s t o r t e d information had " b u i l t up an aura of dread" around LSD, a drug that was "non-addictive and less toxic than a s p i r i n " but "harder to obtain than heroin or cyanide." Nevertheless, the peculiar paradox continued: although LSD was heralded as a breakthrough i n the treatment of alcoholism, very few alcoholics could obtain such treatment because people i n general f e l t that Q C i t was "something that rots your brain." As Blewett and Hoffer warned, the proposed ban threatened "to put the crimp on a l o t of promising research" which, i n turn, "could k i l l the whole [LSD] o c program." Despite the increasing tide of c r i t i c i s m , LSD was spared the fate of i t s partner, thalidomide. As the debate continued i n the House, more Members of Parliament began to r e a l i z e the advances LSD therapy had achieved i n the study of alcoholism. Elucidating upon an e a r l i e r assertion by T.C. Douglas, MP for Burnaby- Coquitlam, that "the use of L.S.D....in the treatment of alcoholics has had some b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , " H.C. Harley, MP for Halton, pointed to the fact that LSD also rendered a patient "much more amenable to ps y c h i a t r i c therapy" and that " i n Saskatchewan, 50 per cent of al c o h o l i c patients stopped drinking." Stanley Haidasz, MP for Parkdale, confirmed that LSD had "been found to be very promising for use in...psychotherapy" and maintained that "It would be t r a g i c a l l y u n f a i r to r e s t r i c t 27 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? the a v a i l a b i l i t y of L.S.D. now that medical researchers have ft 7 learned to use i t properly."°' In response to Harley's statement, David Orlikow, MP for Winnipeg North, suggested that the Health and Welfare Department was "moving much too fast i n connection with the banning of the L.S.D. drug." 8 8 Indeed, even Tyhurst had admitted that the B i l l was perhaps too hasty. "I'm not sure that the b i l l i s a good idea," he t o l d the CBC, " i f i t removes the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the ft 9 drug for the purposes of research." Realizing t h i s , Health Minister J. Waldo Monteith was forced to relax his ardent a n t i - LSD stance. "If we went any further i n [forcing the ban of LSD for research purposes]," he t o l d the Commons, "I am given to understand that we would be invading p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the matter of property and c i v i l r i g h t s . " With t h i s decision and despite e a r l i e r b e l i e f s , i t was apparent that LSD researchers would not be " l e g i s l a t e d " out of the f i e l d of experimental psychiatry, at least not for the time being. * * * Although the f i g h t to remove LSD from Schedule H had been won, LSD research s t i l l abated a f t e r 1962. Indeed, though LSD had not been banned, the federal government placed r e s t r i c t i o n s upon i t s use that l i m i t e d i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y to "research purposes 91 only."^ x By themselves, these r e s t r i c t i o n s were not overly constraining. However, when Canada's only d i s t r i b u t o r of LSD, Sandoz Research Laboratories i n Quebec, ceased production i n 1965, ^ LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s found i t harder to continue t h e i r work. 28 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? As a res u l t , many p s y c h i a t r i s t s abandoned t h e i r research on LSD i n favour of more permissive studies. In Saskatchewan, the consequences of the LSD controversy appeared much sooner. In 1961, Sven Jensen, a p s y c h i a t r i s t with the alcoholism treatment unit at the Weyburn Psychiatric Hospital, l e f t the province to take an appointment elsewhere. Although t h i s loss was s i g n i f i c a n t , by i t s e l f i t did not threaten the continuation of LSD research i n Saskatchewan. Nevertheless, when both Osmond and Chwelos also decided to leave t h e i r positions the following year, many feared that LSD research, which was already i n the doldrums, would disappear altogether. Although the three p s y c h i a t r i s t s never indicated t h e i r reasons for leaving, i t i s easy to see how the LSD controversy affected t h e i r decisions. Without f i n a n c i a l support from the pr o v i n c i a l and federal governments, research into LSD became less a t t r a c t i v e to Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . Of more importance, though, was the general tide of uneasiness that t h e i r departures engendered. With the loss of three reputable and well-published advocates of psychedelic treatment, the future of LSD research i n the province seemed uncertain. As the Leader-Post forewarned, "while every p s y c h i a t r i c hospital or ward i n the province i s now using LSD to treat alcoholics, t h i s may not be so when these doctors leave." 9^ Despite such concerns, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s continued to make important advances. In 1962, Hoffer began to lobby for the establishment of a p r o v i n c i a l p s y c h i a t r i c research centre to be located i n Saskatoon. Claiming that p s y c h i a t r i c research i n 29 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? the country had been stagnating for years, he persuaded the pr o v i n c i a l government to support the proposed centre, which promised to be the f i r s t of i t s kind i n Canada even though construction would not begin u n t i l 1967. 9 4 Apparently, the Canadian Mental Health Association was also aware of the importance of such a centre as they donated $100,000 towards i t s establishment. 9 5 Assured that p r o v i n c i a l and federal grants would cover the remainder of the costs, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s were pleased to have renewed such enthusiasm i n th e i r work. As Blewett r e c a l l e d years l a t e r , "There i s every reason to predict that such centres... would become major treatment and research resources." 9 6 In 1964, another major ps y c h i a t r i c innovation came to f r u i t i o n i n Saskatchewan. As early as 1954, p s y c h i a t r i s t s had re a l i z e d that the design of the ps y c h i a t r i c i n s t i t u t i o n played a major role i n psychotherapy, e s p e c i a l l y regarding the patient's a b i l i t y to improve. According to Osmond, "the huge corridors and unnecessarily enlarged spaces so often found i n mental hospitals are l i a b l e to enhance...[the patient's] uncertainty about the . Q 7 i n t e g r i t y of the s e l f . " y Consequently, when a new ps y c h i a t r i c hospital was proposed for construction i n Yorkton, Hoffer and Osmond e n l i s t e d the talents of innovative Regina architect, Kiyo Izumi, to design the new centre. Although well aware of Hoffer and Osmond's objectives, Izumi i n i t i a l l y had d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending the p l i g h t of the mentally i l l patient. Consequently, a f t e r completing his i n i t i a l research, Izumi agreed to Osmond's proposal that he take LSD i n 30 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? order "to grasp the re a l and s i g n i f i c a n t problems of a mentally i l l i n d i v i d u a l as [they] related to a building environment." Under the guidance of Osmond and Blewett, Izumi was given LSD and then taken on a tour of the University Hospital i n Saskatoon. Through t h i s experience, Izumi f e l t he was able to gain a better idea of what i t was l i k e to be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . As Osmond explained, "An appreciation of the nature of the mentally i l l person's disease... allows an imaginative architect to evolve certa i n simple rules which can then be applied." And with these insights i n mind, Izumi endeavoured to design a p s y c h i a t r i c hospital that would be, by a l l measures, state of the a r t . When completed i n 1964, newspapers reported that the Yorkton Psychiatric Hospital resembled more a f i v e - s t a r hotel than a mental h o s p i t a l . 1 0 0 Indeed, instead of the long, w h i t e - t i l e d hallways and barred windows that had come to personify mid- twentieth century mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , Izumi designed a more comfortable and soothing environment that was intended to make psychotherapy easier. Needless to say, the new centre, which was the f i r s t of i t s kind i n Canada, attained two important goals: not only did i t hush negative press reports, but, more importantly, i t i n s t i l l e d a new confidence i n the Saskatchewan psyc h i a t r i c community. As Hoffer himself boasted, "Yorkton i s the prototype of the mental hospital of the f u t u r e . " 1 0 1 Whereas the proposed ps y c h i a t r i c research centre and the Izumi experience helped rejuvenate LSD research i n Saskatchewan, the International Conference on the Use of LSD i n Psychotherapy helped promote LSD therapy i n other countries. From May 8 to 10, 31 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? 1965, more than 4 0 LSD experts from a l l over the world gathered i n Amityville, New York to discuss the use of LSD as an adjunct to psychotherapy. The r e s u l t i n g publication, The Use of LSD i n 3 in Psychotherapy and m Alcoholism, J inspired several important developments aimed at advancing the use of LSD i n the f i e l d of p s y c h i a t r y . 1 ^ 4 However, although the conference praised the successful use of the drug, most notably by researchers i n Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia, i t also warned of the dangers associated with i t s unsupervised, non-medical use. Public concern about the non-medical use of LSD continued to grow, despite further s c i e n t i f i c advances. In 1966, Life magazine i n a series of a r t i c l e s drew attention to the growing use of LSD i n counter-cultural c i r c l e s . "No longer just a promising research t o o l , " wrote j o u r n a l i s t Lawrence S c h i l l e r , LSD had been "taken up by a large underground c u l t " that comprised " a r t i s t i c , bohemian and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s " as well as college students. With t h i s evidence that people were "taking LSD for as many reasons as there are minds to imagine what l i e s i n the universe," 1 1^ 5 many feared that Leary's "psychic revolution of man" might become a darker r e a l i t y than he i n i t i a l l y f o r e t o l d . In Canada, the p e r i l s of black-market LSD use were no less apparent. Referring to an a r t i c l e dealing with the use of LSD i n Vancouver-area h i g h - s c h o o l s , 1 0 6 Eileen Moore asked federal Opposition Leader John Diefenbaker to impose greater controls on the drug: "As a mother I believe t h i s [LSD] should be brought under control.... We think t h i s to be serious enough through the whole of Canada." u Another concerned c i t i z e n commented, "I 32 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? place no reliance whatever on the quacks who...preach the gospel of LSD and t r y to turn the hallucinations i t induces into a new and fake r e l i g i o n . " Aside from demonstrating that "everyday Canadians" were also concerned about the harmful e f f e c t s of LSD, opinions such as these indicate that opposition to LSD therapy had become even less s c i e n t i f i c between 1962 and 1967. Realizing t h i s , i t i s easy to see that the m o r a l i s t i c c r i t i c i s m s of James Tyhurst (and others) had a great impact on LSD research i n the long-run. And because newspapers continued to publish negative accounts of LSD abuse by hippies, teenagers and college students, Tyhurst's rela t i o n s h i p with the Canadian press became more symbiotic as j o u r n a l i s t ' s claims that LSD was a " s o c i a l menace" were r a t i f i e d by Tyhurst's seemingly "professional" standing. But not a l l Canadians were convinced of the drug's e v i l q u a l i t i e s . Claiming that LSD had been "part of many respectable c i t i z e n s ' l i v e s " for more than a decade and had been of p a r t i c u l a r benefit to alcoholics, a Carleton University student asked the government to ignore negative press reports -- which tended to sensationalize cases where improper use had triggered an adverse reaction -- and to reconsider the p o s i t i v e aspects of LSD t h e r a p y . 1 0 9 S i m i l a r l y , a Regina s o c i a l worker posited that i f the government did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the s o c i a l use of LSD and legitimate LSD research, i t risked jeopardizing a "great number of research programs taking place i n North America and i n Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r . " According to him, LSD provided important therapeutic benefits to people who were "genuinely seeking r e l i e f 33 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? from troublesome personality problems associated with psychoneurosis and a l c o h o l i s m . n 1 1 ^ Nevertheless, a f t e r 1966, the fact remained that LSD had become more synonymous with the counter-cultural movement than with psychotherapy. In some ways, though, LSD's connection to the counter- culture had been apparent for some time. As early as 1958, beatniks, hippies and students had begun to integrate the concept of the " s e l f " into t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . And as Blewett and Leary continued to promote t h i s concept i n the early 196 0s, more and more youths became attracted to the idea of "discovering t h e i r own nirvana." At f i r s t , LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s f a i l e d to r e a l i z e the adverse repercussions such a rela t i o n s h i p could engender. In the long run, however, LSD's connection with the counter-culture produced two harmful e f f e c t s : i t undermined the drug's success i n treating alcoholism and delegitimized LSD research i n general. Of further consequence was the attention the Canadian government gave to t h i s growing rela t i o n s h i p a f t e r 1966. Alarmed by increasing reports of indiscriminate LSD use by "unqualified t h r i l l - s e e k e r s , " government o f f i c i a l s focussed c r i t i c a l attention towards those p r a c t i t i o n e r s who had apparently advocated i t s non- medical use. As Ron Basford, MP for Vancouver-Burrard, commented, "I have been more than disappointed i n some of our academics, who have been making statements and speeches, which seem to me to almost constitute encouragement of the use of LSD -1 -1 o for non-research projects." But academics were not the only group attacked by the federal government. Referring to what had been labeled the 34 S a f e From U t o p i a ? "Cubehead R e v o l u t i o n , " 1 1 3 Senator Gunnar S. Thorvaldson c r i t i c i z e d the CBC for romanticizing the s o c i a l use of LSD which "to a large extent [had been] responsible for i t s widespread use i n Canada by students... including e s p e c i a l l y the beatnik crowd." Condemned for having "popularized t h i s drug out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n , " 1 1 4 the CBC maintained that i t was only "presenting both sides to the s t o r y . " 1 1 5 In a l e t t e r to CBC story editor Paul Saltzman, Hoffer praised the CBC for considering " a l l points of view" and giving "a f a i r , well-balanced account of the problem." Nevertheless, fearing that increasing s o c i a l use of LSD might lead to a "psychedelic epidemic," the federal government launched a second investigation into the apparent misuse of LSD i n 1967. Like the 1962 inquiry, t h i s debate drew attention to "the increasing popularity of LSD for n o n - s c i e n t i f i c or medical purposes" but concluded that i t was "necessary to introduce an additional control which... recognize[d] t h i s and s i m i l a r substances for the dangers which they possess and which...[would] prohibit both unauthorized possession of them and t r a f f i c k i n g i n them." 1 1 7 The r e s u l t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , B i l l S-60 passed i n 1967, further amended the Food and Drugs Act, making the possession and sale of LSD i l l e g a l . However, although the federal government f e l t t h i s "necessary, preventative strategy" would reduce the amount of black-market LSD on Canadian streets, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s warned that banning LSD might counteract the government's intentions. 35 S a f e From U t o p i a ? Although LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s were supportive of the need to prohibit black-market LSD, they were also aware that further r e s t r i c t i o n s could threaten the continuation of t h e i r work. As Hollywood Hospital p s y c h i a t r i s t Ross MacLean charged, "No more repugnant, and indeed p o t e n t i a l l y l e t h a l , practice can be imagined beyond crass 'commercialization' of LSD, but current l e g i s l a t i o n and regulation i s a c l a s s i c example of 'throwing the -1 -1 Q baby out with the bath water'!"-LJ-° Furthermore, there was no guarantee that black-market LSD use would i n fact decline. According to Duncan Blewett, B i l l S-60 might have "the ef f e c t of stopping research and s t a r t i n g the move into the streets" where "the young people... [would] become the major r e s e a r c h e r s . " 1 1 9 Consequently, "In order to avoid the sale of bootleg LSD," Hoffer t o l d an audience at a meeting of the Saskatchewan Anglican Young People's Association i n 1967, "we must be prepared to allow discretionary use of the drug [by trained professionals] and provide controlled c o n d i t i o n s . " 1 2 0 Nevertheless, even though LSD was s t i l l made available for research purposes, t i g h t e r federal controls dissuaded pharmaceutical companies from producing i t . Consequently, Health Minister A l l a n J. MacEachern's promise -- that "Any l e g i s l a t i o n involving LSD...will not af f e c t the present procedures and f a c i l i t i e s which have been established for the use of t h i s drug in connection with legitimate c l i n i c a l i n vestigation and r e s e a r c h " 1 2 1 -- did not hold true. In the end, where B i l l C-3 (1962) had f a i l e d to regulate the i l l e g a l use of LSD, B i l l S-60 36 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? (1967) succeeded. In doing so, i t also put an end to legitimate LSD research i n Canada. * * * Despite an auspicious beginning, LSD research i n Saskatchewan, B r i t i s h Columbia and the rest of Canada eventually succumbed to external pressures. Exploited by the counter- culture, abandoned by pharmaceutical companies and condemned by lay-professionals, the media and the federal government, LSD research ultimately became too clouded i n controversy to survive the 1960s. In the end, despite more than a decade of empirical research that demonstrated the p o s i t i v e role LSD could play i n psychotherapy, researchers f a i l e d to convince the masses that LSD did not pose a threat to the well-being of society. The results were obvious: the nine major LSD research programs i n operation i n Saskatchewan i n 1960 had dwindled to only one by 1967. 1 2 2 Needless to say, developments such as the p s y c h i a t r i c research centre proposed by Hoffer i n 1962 never materialized. Perhaps Duncan Blewett best summed up the p l i g h t of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s some years l a t e r when he commented that opponents of LSD had succeeded i n making "a problem out of what should have been an o p p o r t u n i t y . " 1 2 3 But why was LSD research able to prosper i n Saskatchewan p r i o r to 1962? At f i r s t glance, i t would appear the hospitable p o l i t i c a l climate i n Saskatchewan and the CCF's t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e c t i v i s m and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were two major reasons LSD research was able to f l o u r i s h during the 1950s. However LSD research, we must remember, was not s p e c i f i c to Saskatchewan, 37 S a f e F r o m U t o p i a ? although i t had been pioneered there, and thus was not the product of democratic socialism. Moreover, despite the fact the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s was c a r r i e d out at the same time the province was embroiled i n a major public debate over medical care, there i s no evidence to suggest the i n s t i t u t i o n of Medicare had any influence -- p o s i t i v e or negative -- on LSD research. The use of LSD i n psychotherapy, then, should be remembered as another innovation i n Saskatchewan's "scene of many 'health care f i r s t s . ' " 1 2 4 The LSD controversy provides a unique and much needed look into the history of medicine from a s o c i a l perspective. Understanding the 1950s as an era of conservatism, family values and s o c i a l homogeneity, i t becomes evident that opposition to LSD research i n the 1960s was more a moral panic than a s c i e n t i f i c debate. Given the s o c i a l and moral upheaval of the 196 0s, i t i s easy to understand why legitimate LSD research was continually undermined despite near unanimous support from the s c i e n t i f i c community. Moreover, the LSD controversy also demonstrates that medicine and society are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , each having an impact on the other. Seen t h i s way, one r e a l i z e s that s o c i a l values often have more impact on medical research than empirical v a l i d i t y . Despite being abandoned by p s y c h i a t r i s t s a f t e r i t was banned in 1967, recent evidence suggests that the psychotherapeutic potential of LSD has not been forgotten. According to the Los Angeles Times, a renewal of interest i n LSD research has developed i n several U.S. states, including New Mexico, North 38 S a f e From U t o p i a ? Carolina, Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a . Like t h e i r Saskatchewan mentors, American p s y c h i a t r i s t s are discovering, once again, that LSD can be a valuable p s y c h i a t r i c research t o o l . To rejuvenate the study of LSD, the M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), a non-profit organization dedicated to proving that "psychedelic drugs have 'therapeutic p o t e n t i a l , ' " was established i n 1989 and already boasts a membership of over 800 doctors from a l l over the world. With t h i s renewed interest i n the study of LSD -- s i x studies are already underway i n the U.S. -- the Leader-Post's assertion that without LSD society was "Safe From Utopia" may once again be open to d e b a t e . 1 2 6 39 Table 1; Results of Treatment Using L S D as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy Number M u c h Diagnosis of Cases Improved Improved Unchanged i n I II I II i n Character Disorder 8 6 4 4 3 1 l I Psychopathy 12 6 2 4 2 2 8 0 Borderline & Actual Psychosis 4 4 0 2 1 2 3 0 T O T A L S 24 16 6 10 6 5 12 1 I = Original 24 cases. (Source: C M . Smith, " A N e w Adjunct to the Treatment of Alcoholism: The Hallucinogenic Drugs," Quarterly Journal ofStudies on Alcohol, vol. 19 (1958), p. 412.) II = 16 subsequent cases using psychedelic therapy. (Source: N . Chwelos, D : B . Blewett, C M . Smith and A . Hoffer, "Use of J-Lysergic Ac id Diethylamide in the Treatment of Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 20 (1959), p. 581.) Table 2: Results of Treatment Using L S D as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy Improved Unchanged Number o f Cases Diagnosis Alcoholics: M F M u c h Improved Sociopathic 11 ~ None Disturbances Personality Trait 31 11 27 Disturbances Addiction without 4 — 3 Complication Addiction with 4 ~ None Chronic Brain Damage T O T A L S 50 11 30 7 8 1 None 16 4 7 None 4 15 (Source: J. Ross MacLean, D . C . MacDonald, Ultan P. Byrne, and A . M . Hubbard, "The Use of LSD-25 in the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Psychiatric Problems," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 22 (1961), p. 40.) Safe From Utopia? 40 Notes 1 Maurice Demay, "The Beginnings of Psychiatry i n Saskatchewan," Canadian Mental Health (January-February, 1973, pp. 18-24); Harley Dickinson, The Two Psychiatries: The Transformation of Psychiatric Work in Saskatchewan, 1905-1984 (Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1989); and Duane Mombroquette, "A Government and Health Care: The CCF i n Saskatchewan, 1944-1964," unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Regina, 1990. 2 S.E.D. Shortt, "The Canadian Hospital i n the Nineteenth Century: An Historiographic Lament," Journal of Canadian Studies Vol. 18, No. 4 (Winter 1983-84), p. 4. 3 Wendy Mitchinson, "Canadian Medical History: Diagnosis and Prognosis," Acadiensis (1982-83 No. 11), p. 125. 4 Mary-Ellen Kelm, "'The only place l i k e l y to do her any good': The Admission of Women to B r i t i s h Columbia's Provincial Hospital for the Insane," BC Studies (Winter 1992-93), p. 67. 5 S.E.D. Shortt, "The New Social History of Medicine: Some Implications for Research," Archivaria, v o l . 10 (1980), pp. 5-22; and "Antiquarians and Amateurs: Reflections on the Writing of Medical History i n Canada," Medicine in Canada: Historical Perspectives (Montreal: McGill-Queens's University Press, 1981), pp. 16, 27. 6 George Rosen, "Levels of Integration i n Medical Historiography: A Review," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (1974 No. 4), p. 456. 7 Excerpts c i t e d i n Maurice S. Tarshis, The LSD Controversy: An Overview (Springfield, I l l i n o i s : Charles C. Thomas, 1972), p. 9; and i n Oscar Janiger, "The Use of Hallucinogenic Agents i n Psychiatry," The California Clinician (Los Angeles: C a l i f o r n i a Osteopathic Association, 1959), pp. 3-4. 8 The best source for works r e l a t i n g to LSD experimentation i n Saskatchewan i s Abram Hoffer's "Bibliography, 1952-1963" published by the Psychiatric Research Unit at the University of Saskatchewan [Z 6878.P8H69]. 9 Kenneth B e l l , "Acid Tests," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation News Hour Documentary, o r i g i n a l l y aired July 6, 1992 . 1 0 Saskatchewan Archives Board (hereafter SAB), Abram Hoffer Papers, Kyo (Joe) Izumi to Ruth Cheney, cc: Hoffer, July 14, 1966. Attached to t h i s l e t t e r i s a tra n s c r i p t of Safe From Utopia? 41 The International Association for Psychedelic Therapy's LSD Conference held i n Amityville, New York, May 1965, where Dr. Rinkel was a chief speaker. 1 1 Abram Hoffer, "Review of Psychiatric Research i n Saskatchewan, 1952-1965," Saskatchewan Division C.M.H.A. News Bulletin, v o l . 2, no. 1 (February 1966), p. 4. 1 2 SAB, Hoffer Papers, Abram Hoffer, "Indications and Contra-indications For LSD Therapy of Alcoholism," tape recording, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, June 16, 1966. (Hereafter c i t e d as Berkeley Speech.) 1 3 Therese Stecyk, "LSD: Research i n Saskatchewan," MagaNova, v o l . 1, no. 1 (April 1984), p. 13. 1 4 Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond, The Hallucinogens (New York: Academic Press, 1967), p. 128. LSD was f i r s t studied i n t h i s way by Max Rinkel i n 1949. See also, Saturday Review, June 1, 1963. In l a t e r years, LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s hypothesized that by developing an antidote to counteract the e f f e c t s of LSD, they might be able to cure mental diseases such as schizophrenia. 1 5 Following up on t h i s theory years l a t e r , University of C a l i f o r n i a medical doctors Sidney Cohen and Keith Ditman reported that LSD's " a b i l i t y to induce a 'model psychosis' makes i t an excellent laboratory device for the study of psychotic-like phenomena." Sidney Cohen and Keith S. Ditman, "Complications Associated with Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," The Journal of The American Medical Association, Vol. 181 (1962), p. 161. 1 6 University of Regina Archives (hereafter URA), Duncan Blewett Papers, Newspaper Clippings F i l e , 97-81 Box 2. This excerpt came from The Leader Post, although no date or page number was recorded. 17 Abram Hoffer, Berkeley Speech, June 16, 1966. 1 8 Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond, New Hope For Alcoholics (New York: University Books, 1968), pp. 22-28. The history of alcoholism i s best outlined i n E.M. J e l l i n e k , The Disease Concept of Alcoholism (New Haven, Connecticut: Hillhouse Press, 1960). 1 9 Saskatchewan News, v o l . 14, no. 16 (June 23, 1959), p. 3; A. Hoffer, CM. Smith, N. Chwelos, M.J. Callbeck and M. Mahon, "Psychological Response to d-lysergic Acid Diethylamide and i t s Relationship to Adrenochrome Levels," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, v o l . 20 (1959), pp. 125-134. Because adrenochrome allowed patients to relax and concentrate on t h e i r condition, Hoffer hypothesized that a l c o h o l i c s were "abnormally tense Safe From Utopia? individuals who used alcohol to a l l e v i a t e t h e i r tension," the res u l t of an adrenochrome deficiency. 2 0 Montreal Star, January 15, 1960. See also the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, A p r i l 5, 1961; and MagaNova, v o l . 1, no. 1 (April 1984). 2 1 Abram Hoffer, Berkeley Speech. Also, The Hallucinogens, p. 153; New Hope for Alcoholics, pp. 55-56. In t h i s session, Osmond treated two patients, a male and a female, with 200 micrograms of LSD. Reportedly, the male remained sober for s i x months af t e r discharge, while the female remained unchanged for six months before becoming sober. 2 2 The Hallucinogens, p. 154. Delirium tremens, or toxic psychoses, usually occur i n alcoholics a f t e r a prolonged period of continuous drinking. 2 3 Abram Hoffer, Berkeley Speech, June 16, 1966. 2 4 The Hallucinogens, p. 154. 2 5 SAB, Hoffer Papers, S-A207, f i l e IX, "An Alcoholism Treatment Program: LSD, Malvaria and N i c o t i n i c Acid," unpublished manuscript, p. 37; and The Hallucinogens, p. 155. 2 6 Oscar Janiger, "The Use of Hallucinogenic Agents i n Psychiatry," The California Clinician, July/August 1959, p. 9. Importantly, Janiger also acknowledged that "only a small portion of the t o t a l dose of LSD ever reaches the brain," and that within two hours "70 percent of the t o t a l dose has been metabolized by the l i v e r . " 2 7 The Hallucinogens, p. 95. 2 8 It was also at t h i s time that Hoffer and Osmond abandoned the theory that alcoholism was the res u l t of some biochemical deficiency (ie. adrenochrome). Instead, they discovered, as did many other scholars of alcoholism, that alcoholism was i n fact a disease and that i t could be cured New Hope for Alcoholics, p. 22. 2 9 It was here that Osmond coined the term "psychedelic," which he defined as a compound " l i k e LSD, or mescaline whic enriches the mind and enlarges the v i s i o n . " The Hallucinogens, p. 132. New Hope for Alcoholics, pp. 57-58. 3 0 SAB, Hoffer Papers, "An Alcohol Treatment Program," p. 37; The Hallucinogens, p. 13 6. 3 1 N. Chwelos, D.B. Blewett, CM. Smith and A. Hoffer, "Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide i n the Treatment of Safe From Utopia? 43 Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 20 (1959), pp. 577-590. In The Hallucinogens, p. 136, Hoffer maintains that t h i s study "was the f i r s t one i n which the psychedelic method of treating patients was reported." Also, for an early review of the t r a n s i t i o n between psychotomimetic and psychedelic research, see Humphrey Osmond, "A Review of the C l i n i c a l E f f e c t s of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals of the New York Academy of Science, v o l . 66 (1957), pp. 418-434; and CM. Smith, "A New Adjunct to the Treatment of Alcoholism: The Hallucinogenic Drugs," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 19 (1958), pp. 406-417. 3 2 Chwelos et al., pp. 589-590. 3 3 URA, Blewett Papers, 88-29 Box 3. J. T e r r i l l , "Psychological E f f e c t s of LSD," unpublished paper read at the symposium on The C l i n i c a l and Therapeutic Use of LSD, Napa State Hospital, Napa, C a l i f o r n i a , January 1960. 3 4 Janiger, p. 11. 3 5 MacLean's, March 15, 1958; Leader-Post, December 18, 1963. In the l a t t e r a r t i c l e , Blewett also maintained that "You can't t e l l what you look l i k e u n t i l you use a mirror. LSD i s that mirror." 3 6 URA, Blewett Papers, 91-87 Box 2, Blewett to T.C Douglas, August 26, 1966, p. 3. 3 7 The chief p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the " s e l f " concept were Duncan Blewett i n Canada and Timothy Leary i n the United States. 3 8 Counter-cultural use of LSD and the impact i t had on bona fide LSD research i s covered by Martin A. Lee i n Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985). For a more detailed analysis of LSD abuse by the counter-culture, see Donald B. Louria, "The Abuse of LSD," i n Richard C. DeBold and Russell C. Leaf (eds.) LSD; Man and Society (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp. 36-52; Richard H. Blum, Utopiates: The Use and Users of LSD 25 (New York: Atherton Press, 1964). 3 9 J. Ross MacLean, D.C. MacDonald, Ultan P. Byrne and A.M. Hubbard, "The Use of LSD-25 i n the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Psychiatric Problems," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 22 (1961), pp. 43-44. 4 0 Sidney Cohen and Keith S. Ditman, "Complications Associated with Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," The Journal of The American Medical Association, Vol. 181 (1962), p. 162. Safe From Utopia? 44 For r e s u l t s pertaining to LSD experimentation i n Saskatchewan (in addition to the a r t i c l e s c i t e d within) see: S.E. Jensen, "A Treatment Programme for Alcoholics i n a Mental Hospital," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), pp. 109-121; Abram Hoffer and Humphrey- Osmond, "A Brief Account of the Saskatchewan Research i n Psychiatry," Journal of Neuropsychiatry, v o l . 2 (1961), pp. 287-291; and P.O. O'Reilly and Genevieve Reich, "Lysergic Acid and the Alcoh o l i c , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), pp. 331-334. 4 2 "LSD," a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation documentary that aired on the Sense of History program, August 27, 1994 (hereafter c i t e d as Sense of History); and Hoffer, Berkeley Speech, June 16, 1966. For an in-depth bibliography of many of these s c i e n t i f i c papers see The Hallucinogens, pp. 83-88, 95-103, 128-139, 148-196. 4 3 Such factors include dose l e v e l , frequency of administration, patient and therapist expectations, and the setting or environment i n which the session was conducted. Also of importance were the widely divergent t h e o r e t i c a l persuasions of LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s throughout the world -- from Freudian and Jungian therapists to behaviourists and e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s . See also Robert E. Mogar, "Current Status and Future Trends i n Psychedelic (LSD) Research," Symposium on LSD: Basic Problems and Potentialities, San Jose State College, May 9, 1964. 4 4 Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen S. P l a c i d i , "A Social History and Analysis of the LSD Controversy," Journal of Humanistic Psychology, v o l . 23, no. 4 ( F a l l 1983), p. 31. 4 5 Regina Leader-Post, March 18, 1957; Saskatoon Star- Phoenix, November 25, 1960; A p r i l 5, 1961; Leader-Post, June 8, 1961; June 24, 1961. 4 6 MacLean's, October 1, 1953; Sidney Katz, "The Heaven or H e l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964; Muriel Clements, "New Hope for Alcoholics," Saturday Night, July 4, 1959. 4 7 Vancouver Sun, August 11, 1959; Montreal Star, January 15, 1960; Toronto Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962. In the Globe and Mail a r t i c l e , Hoffer reported that Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s had "treated about 500 a l c o h o l i c patients with LSD" and were seeing them recover where they "had not seen them do so before." More importantly, Hoffer indicated that since the introduction of LSD therapy, "About half the 500 have been sober or very much improved." 4 8 Ottawa Citizen, March 8, 1960. This a r t i c l e also draws attention to the fact that the success of LSD therapy i s r a r e l y achieved by Antabuse, an anti-alcoholism drug used i n Safe From Utopia? 45 Canadian alcoholism c l i n i c s that causes nausea and flushing at the taste of alcohol. 4 9 Scope Weekly, February 19, 1959; P/A, August 1966; The North Renfrew Times, December 3, 1958. 5 0 Time, June 28, 1954; March 28, 1960. 5 1 SAB, J. Walter Erb Papers, Saskatchewan Minister of Health, 1956-1961. Transcript of a radio t a l k given i n connection with Alcohol Information Week i n 1960 (hereafter c i t e d as Radio Talk), GR 91, 012Q3, p. 3. 5 2 The Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962. 5 3 Star-Phoenix, October 26, 1962. 5 4 SAB, Erb Papers, Radio Talk, p. 3. 5 5 The Western Producer, June 19, 1958. 5 6 SAB, Erb Papers, Radio Talk, p. 3. 5 7 Ottawa Citizen, December 4, 1958; March 8, 1960. 5 8 URA, Blewett Papers, 91-87, Box 3. James S. Tyhurst, "The Therapeutic Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD- 25)," unpublished manuscript prepared for the B r i t i s h Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959, p. 31. (Hereafter c i t e d as Tyhurst.) Referred to as The B r i t i s h Columbia Report, t h i s manuscript formed much of the basis for Tyhurst's challenge to LSD research i n the Vancouver press. It should be remembered that although t h i s document was written i n 1959, the impact of Tyhurst's c r i t i c i s m did not become a factor u n t i l a f t e r 1962. 5 9 Katz, "The Heaven or H e l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964. Apparently, Tyhurst was not the only p s y c h i a t r i s t who f e l t t h i s way. As Theodore Rothman, senior p s y c h i a t r i s t at the University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , maintained: "I'm against chemical brainwashing. I protest the impairing of the intact human brain with chemicals i n order to disorganize the nervous system, producing psychopathological states which may be i r r e v e r s i b l e . " 6 0 The "controlled measures" Tyhurst referred to most often were adequate numbers of t r i a l s , standardized d e f i n i t i o n s of oft-used terms (such as "improved") and adequate sampling procedures designed to include a large and diverse population. Safe From Utopia? 6 1 URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett to Mrs. E.S. Garett, President, Canadian Parapsychology Foundation, November 3, 1958 . 6 2 Tyhurst, "The Therapeutic Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," pp. 22, 26, 31. See also, MagaNova, A p r i l 1984. 6 3 Tyhurst, "The Therapeutic Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," p. 26. Leader-Post, January 14, 1963. There i s no evidence to suggest t h i s committee ac t u a l l y existed. 6 4 Tyhurst, "The Therapeutic Use of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," p. 22. 6 5 John M. MacDonald and James A.V. Galvin, "Experimental Psychotic States," American Journal of Psychiatry (1956), pp. 970-971, 976. 6 6 Paul H. Hoch, "Pharmacologically Induced Psychoses," American Handbook of Psychiatry, S. A r i e t i , ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1959), pp. 1697, 1708. 6 7 Vancouver Province, May 5, 1960. 6 8 SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Joe Izumi, May 26, 1960. 6 9 Leader-Post, January 14, 1963, December 18, 1963, February 5, 1963. 7 0 Christopher Hyde, Abuse of Trust: The Career of Dr. James Tyhurst (Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre, 1991), p. 43 . 7 1 CBC, Sense of History, August 27, 1994. 7 2 SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Harold Abramson, June 5, 1964. See also, P.O. O'Reilly and Genevieve Reich, "Lysergic Acid and the Alcoh o l i c , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), pp. 331-334. 7 3 Leader-Post, June 24, 1961. 7 4 Katz, "The Heaven or He l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964. According to Jonathan Cole, d i r e c t o r of psychopharmacological research at the U.S. National Institute of Health i n Maryland, "cultogenic" was a term used to describe the "psychic addiction" that occurred as people who took LSD "developed boundless enthusiasm and wanted to give i t to everyone else." 7 5 Ibid. Safe From Utopia? 47 7 6 SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Dr. Ruth Fox, May 6, 1966; Star-Phoenix, October 26, 1962. According to Hoffer and F.S. Larson, Director of the ps y c h i a t r i c services branch of the Saskatchewan Health Department, i n addition to the "Harvard A f f a i r , " s i m i l a r misuses of LSD had been reported i n C a l i f o r n i a , Texas and New York. 7 7 The r e s u l t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , B i l l C-3, i n i t i a l l y forbade the sale or d i s t r i b u t i o n of LSD and Thalidomide to any person, including medical doctors. However, LSD was l a t e r made available to p s y c h i a t r i s t s for "research purposes only." 7 8 Star-Phoenix, October 20, 1962; The Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962. 7 9 House of Commons Debates, Official Report, November 12, 1962, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962), p. 1545. 8 0 Star-Phoenix, October 20, 1962. 8 1 Toronto Daily Star, October 20, 1962. 8 2 Ibid. 8 3 Ibid. S e l l e r s was also a member of the said committee. SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Harold Abramson, June 1, 84 1964 . 8 5 Leader-Post, February 23, 1963; August 14, 1963; The Carillon, University of Regina student newspaper, March 6, 1967 . 8 6 The Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962; Toronto Telegraph, October 20, 1962. 8 7 House of Commons Debates, November 12, 1962, p. 1359; December 7, 1962, pp. 2432, 2429-2430. 88 Ibid., p. 2438. 8 9 CBC, Sense of History, August 27, 1994. 9 0 House of Commons Debates, November 13, 1962, p. 1567. 9 1 Leader-Post, January 9, 1963. According to t h i s a r t i c l e , the Food and Drugs Act was "amended to allow use of LSD by medically competent people i n hospitals using i t for treatment and research." 9 2 URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett to Sidney Katz, February 15, 1965. In t h i s l e t t e r , Blewett remarked that LSD had been abandoned by Sandoz because "It i s d i f f i c u l t to make Safe From Utopia? 48 and has never been p r o f i t a b l e because of the extremely r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . " It should also be noted that LSD was always hard to obtain i n Canada, so much so that Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s even pondered the idea of producing i t themselves. 9 3 Leader-Post, June 24, 1961. 9 4 URA, Blewett Papers, Hoffer to Blewett, February 8, 1967. In t h i s l e t t e r Hoffer laments that the p s y c h i a t r i c research centre, which was scheduled to be b u i l t " l a t e r t h i s year," was looking "more doubtful and doubtful." 9 5 Star-Phoenix, March 3, 1962. 9 6 URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett to each Member of Parliament, November 30, 1967. 9 7 The Hallucinogens, p. 234. 9 8 Kiyo Izumi, "LSD and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design," i n Bernard Aaronson and Humphrey Osmond (eds.), Psychedelics: The Uses and Indications of Hallucinogenic Drugs, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Company, 1971), p. 383. 99 100 101 The Hallucinogens, p. 234. Leader-Post, October 8, 1964. SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Hugh Edwards, February 15, 1965. 1 0 2 Star-Phoenix, May 26, 1965. 1 0 3 The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and in Alcoholism, Harold A. Abramson, ed. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965). 1 0 4 One such development c a l l e d for the establishment of an International Association for Psychedelic Therapy which would help to standardize psychedelic methodologies. 1 0 5 Life, March 25, 1966. 1 0 6 Leader-Post, March 8, 1967; Vancouver Sun, March 11, 1967. These a r t i c l e s drew attention to the increasing use of LSD by high-school students and "LSD c u l t s " i n Vancouver. 1 0 7 The Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre Archives (hereafter DCA), John G. Diefenbaker, Leader of the Opposition, Papers, Moore to Diefenbaker, March 17, 1967. 1 0 8 Toronto Telegram, March 21, 1967. Safe From Utopia? 49 1 0 9 DCA, Diefenbaker Papers, Robert A. Barnes to Diefenbaker, March 22, 1967. 1 1 0 Ibid., Leonard Ghan to Diefenbaker, February 28, 1967. 1 1 1 Donald B. Louria, "The Abuse of LSD," i n Richard C. DeBold and Russell C. Leaf (eds.) LSD; Man and Society (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp. 32, 51. Martin A. Lee i n Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985), pp. 1-3, 7. 1 1 2 URA, Blewett Papers, Basford to Blewett, March 8, 1967. 1 1 3 Senate Debates, Official Report, A p r i l 25, 1967, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1967), p. 1824. In a series of documentaries which examined the use of LSD i n Canadian society, the CBC coined the term "Cubeheads" to describe those who used LSD, which was commonly sold i n sugar cubes, for "kicks." Two such documentaries were "Eyes of Tomorrow," which aired on A p r i l 2 and 9, 1967, and "This Hour Has Seven Days," which aired on A p r i l 24, 1967. 1 1 4 Ibid., p. 1821. 1 1 5 URA, Blewett Papers, Hugh Edwards, CBC Winnipeg a f f i l i a t e , to Blewett, May 15, 1967. 1 1 6 SAB, Hoffer Papers, Hoffer to Saltzman, A p r i l 10, 1967. 1 1 7 Senate Debates, Official Report, A p r i l 19, 1967, p. 1794 . 1 1 8 SAB, Hoffer Papers, MacLean to Susan Wright, cc: Hoffer, August 2, 1967. 1 1 9 Leader-Post, May 4, 1967. 120 Star-Phoenix, May 1, 1967 1 2 1 URA, Blewett Papers, MacEachern to Blewett, A p r i l 3, 1967. 1 2 2 The Carillon, March 6, 1967. 1 2 3 MagaNova, A p r i l 1984. -1 O A Duane Mombroquette, "A Government and Health Care: The CCF i n Saskatchewan, 1944-1964," unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Regina, 1990, pp. i i , 167. 1 2 5 Los Angeles Times, November 18, 1994. 1 2 6 Referring to predictions that Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s would soon discover a cure for mental i l l n e s s , Safe From Utopia? alcoholism i n p a r t i c u l a r , cynical j o u r n a l i s t Jim McGunigal impugned i n A p r i l 1958 that "For the time being the c i t y i s safe from Utopia." Leader-Post, A p r i l 19, 1958. Safe From Utopia? Bibliography Primary Sources Newspapers and Magazines The Carillon, 1967. Ottawa Citizen, 1958, 1960. Toronto Daily Star, 1962. Toronto Globe and Mail, 1962. Regina Leader Post, 1950-1967. L i f e , 1966. Los Angeles Times, 1994. MacLean's, 1958. Montreal Star, 1960. The North Renfrew Times, 1958. P/A, 1966. Vancouver Province, 1960. Saskatchewan News, 1959. Saturday Review, 1963. Scope Weekly, 1959. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, 1950-1967. Vancouver Sun, 1959. Toronto Telegraph, 1962. Toronto Telegram, 1967. Time, 1954, 1960. The Western Producer, 1958. Safe From Utopia? 52 Personal Papers, Government Records, Publications and M i n i s t e r i a l Papers House of Commons Debates, Official Report (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962). University of Regina Archives. Duncan Blewett Papers, 1950-1985. The Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre Archives. John G. Diefenbaker, Leader of the Opposition Papers, 1967. M i n i s t e r i a l Papers of Health Minister J. Walter Erb, 1956-1961. Saskatchewan Archives Board. Abram Hoffer Papers, 1950-1988. Senate Debates, Official Report (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1967). Televi s i o n Footage and Taped Speeches B e l l , Kenneth. "Acid Tests." Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Saskatchewan) News Hour Documentary. O r i g i n a l l y aired July 6, 1992. [Video] Hoffer, Abram. "Indications and Contra-indications For LSD Therapy of Alcoholism." Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1966. "Eyes of Tomorrow." Canadian Broadcasting Corporation documentary, A p r i l 2 and 9, 1967. "This Hour Has Seven Days." Canadian Broadcasting Corporation documentary, A p r i l 24, 1967. "LSD." Sense of History. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation documentary, August 27, 1994. Secondary Sources A r t i c l e s and Books Abramson, Harold A. (ed.) The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and in Alcoholism. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965. Baumeister, Roy. F. and Kathleen S. P l a c i d i . "A Social History and Analysis of the LSD Controversy," Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Vol. 23 No. 4 (F a l l 1983): pp. 25-57. Blum, Richard H. Utopiates: The Use and Users of LSD 25. New York: Atherton Press, 1964. Safe From Utopia? 53 Cohen, Sidney and Keith S. Ditman. "Complications Associated with Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)," The Journal of The American Medical Association. Vol. 181 (1962): pp. 161- 174 . Chwelos, N. and D.B. Blewett, CM. Smith, A. Hoffer. "Use of d- l y s e r g i c Acid Diethylamide i n the Treatment of Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 20 (1959) : pp. 577-590. Clements, Muriel. "New Hope for Alcoholics," Saturday Night. (July 4, 1959): pp. 14-15, 39-40. Demay, Maurice. "The Beginnings of Psychiatry i n Saskatchewan," Canadian Mental Health. (January-February, 1973): pp. 18-24. Dickinson, Harley. The Two Psychiatries: The Transformation of Psychiatric Work in Saskatchewan, 1905-1984. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1989. Hoch, Paul H. "Pharmacologically Induced Psychoses," American Handbook of Psychiatry. Edited by S. A r i e t i . New York: Basic Books, 1959: pp. 1607-1708. Hoffer, Abram and CM. Smith, N. Chwelos, M.J. Callbeck, M. Mahon. "Psychological Response to d-lysergic Acid Diethylamide and i t s Relationship to Adrenochrome Levels," Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology. Vol. 20 (1959): pp. 125-134. Hoffer, Abram and Humphrey Osmond. "A B r i e f Account of the Saskatchewan Research i n Psychiatry," Journal of Neuropsychiatry. Vol. 2 (1961), pp. 287-291. Hoffer, Abram. Bibliography, 1952-1963. Saskatoon: Psychiatric Research Unit, University of Saskatchewan, 1963. Hoffer, Abram and Humphrey Osmond. The Hallucinogens. New York: Academic Press, 1967. Hoffer, Abram and Humphrey Osmond. New Hope For Alcoholics. New York: University Books, 1968. Hoffer, Abram. "Review of Psychiatric Research i n Saskatchewan, 1952-1965," Saskatchewan Division C.M.H.A. News Bulletin. Vol. 2 No. 1 (February 1966): pp. 2-4. Hyde, Christopher. Abuse of Trust: The Career of Dr. James S. Tyhurst. Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre, 1991. Izumi, Kiyo. "LSD and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design," Psychedelics: The Uses and Indications of Hallucinogenic Drugs. Edited by Bernard Aaronson and Humphrey Osmond. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Company, 1971: pp. 381- 399 . Safe From Utopia? 54 Janiger, Oscar. "The Use of Hallucinogenic Agents i n Psychiatry," The California Clinician. Los Angeles: C a l i f o r n i a Osteopathic Association, 1959: pp. 1-15. J e l l i n e k , E.M. The Disease Concept of Alcoholism. New Haven, Connecticut: Hillhouse Press, 1960. Jensen, S.E. "A Treatment Programme for Alcoholics i n a Mental Hospital," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 23 (1962), pp. 109-121. Katz, Sidney. "The Heaven or H e l l Drugs," MacLean's. (June 20, 1964): pp. 9-13, 26-29. Kelm, Mary-Ellen. "'The only place l i k e l y to do her any good': The Admission of Women to B r i t i s h Columbia's P r o v i n c i a l Hospital for the Insane," B.C. Studies. (Winter 1992-93): pp. 6 6-8 9. Lee, Martin A. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. New York: Grove Press, 1985. Louria, Donald B. "The Abuse of LSD," LSD: Man and Society. Edited by Richard C. DeBold and Russell C. Leaf. London: Faber and Faber, 1969: pp. 36-52. MacDonald, John M. and James A.V. Galvin. "Experimental Psychotic States," American Journal of Psychiatry. (1956): pp. 970-976. MacLean, J. Ross and D.C. MacDonald, Ultan P. Byrne, A.M. Hubbard. "The Use of LSD-25 i n the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Psychiatric Problems," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 22 (1961), pp. 34-45. Mitchinson, Wendy. "Canadian Medical History: Diagnosis and Prognosis," Acadiensis. No. 11 (1982-83): pp. 125-137. Mogar, Robert E. "Current Status and Future Trends i n Psychedelic (LSD) Research," Symposium on LSD: Basic Problems and Potentialities. San Jose, C a l i f o r n i a : San Jose State College, 1964. Osmond, Humphrey. "A Review of the C l i n i c a l E f f e c t s of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals of the New York Academy of Science. Vol. 66 (1957): pp. 418-434. O'Reilly, P.O. and Genevieve Reich. "Lysergic Acid and the Alcoho l i c , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 23 (1962), pp. 331-334. Rosen, George. "Levels of Integration i n Medical Historiograhy: A Review," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. No. 4 (1974): pp. 456-472. Safe From Utopia? 55 Shortt, S.E.D. "The Canadian Hospital i n the Nineteenth Century An Historiographical Lament," Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol. 18 No. 4 (Winter 1983-84): pp. 4-13. Shortt, S.E.D. "The New Social History of Medicine: Some Implications for Research," Archivaria. Vol. 10 (1980): pp 5-22 . Shortt, S.E.D. "Antiquarians and Amateurs: Reflections on the Writing of Medical History i n Canada," Medicine in Canada: Historical Perspectives. (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1981): pp. 16-27. Smith, CM. "A New Adjunct to the Treatment of Alcoholism: The Hallucinogenic Drugs," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Vol. 19 (1958): pp. 406-417. Stecyk, Therese. "LSD: Research i n Saskatchewan," MagaNova. Vol. 1 No. 1 (1984): pp. 12-13. Tarshis, Maurice S. The LSD Controversy: An Overview. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : Charles C. Thomas, 1972. Theses and Unpublished Manuscripts Mombroquette, Duane. "A Government and Health Care: The CCF i n Saskatchewan, 1944-1964." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Regina, 1990. Tyhurst, James S. "The Therapeutic Use of d-lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)." Unpublished manuscript prepared fo the B r i t i s h Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959.

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