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"Safe from Utopia?" : the LSD controversy in Saskatchewan, 1950-1967 Anderson, Erik Murray L. 1996

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" S A F E F R O M UTOPIA?": T H E L S D C O N T R O V E R S Y IN S A S K A T C H E W A N , 1950-1967 by ERIK MURRAY L. ANDERSON B.A. Honours, The University of Regina, 1993  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 1996  0Erik Murray L . Anderson, 1996  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  University  of  British  available for  copying  of  this  department  or  publication  of  this  for  his thesis  scholarly  or for  her  The University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, 'Canada  Date  DE-6  (2/88)  ,  2. f t  ftfyvQ  mia  the  requirements  I further agree  purposes  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  of  Columbia, I agree that the  reference and study.  thesis by  fulfilment  gain  It  shall not  be is  that  an  permission for  granted  allowed  advanced  Library shall make  by  understood be  for  the that  without  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  il"  Abstract The  c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the use of LSD  psychotherapy  as an adjunct to  f o r a l c o h o l i c s i n Saskatchewan has not been  e x p l o r e d by s o c i a l or medical h i s t o r i a n s . Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s developed a l c o h o l i s m by u s i n g LSD  new  on themselves,  From 1950 treatments  to  1967,  f o r chronic  on v o l u n t e e r s and  finally  on p a t i e n t s .  Despite e a r l y success and p r a i s e , the use of LSD  psychotherapy  was  l a t e r condemned by the media, the g e n e r a l  p u b l i c , the medical p r o f e s s i o n and e v e n t u a l l y the government and was The was  reasons  in  federal  d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r b e i n g banned i n  1967.  f o r the ban were f a r - r e a c h i n g and d i v e r s e .  e x p l o i t e d by the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e f o r " k i c k s " and was  abandoned by pharmaceutical  companies because of the  LSD  later  negative  r e p u t a t i o n l a y - p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the media had bestowed upon i t s t h e r a p e u t i c use.  As i t turned out, l e g i t i m a t e LSD  research  became too clouded i n c o n t r o v e r s y to s u r v i v e the 1960s as r e s e a r c h e r s f a i l e d to convince the masses t h a t the drug d i d not pose a t h r e a t to the w e l l - b e i n g of s o c i e t y . the LSD  In many r e s p e c t s ,  c o n t r o v e r s y can be seen as more of a moral p a n i c than a  scientific  debate.  Nevertheless,  the LSD  c o n t r o v e r s y p r o v i d e s a unique and much  needed look i n t o the h i s t o r y of medicine  from a s o c i a l  p e r s p e c t i v e , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h a t s o c i a l v a l u e s o f t e n have more impact  on medical r e s e a r c h than e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y .  evidence  suggests,  developed forgotten.  As  recent  the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c p o t e n t i a l of LSD  -- as  by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s -- has not been Indeed, a renewal of i n t e r e s t i n LSD  s u r f a c e d i n s e v e r a l U.S.  research  has  s t a t e s as American p s y c h i a t r i s t s  are  d i s c o v e r i n g , once again, t h a t LSD research t o o l .  can be a v a l u a b l e p s y c h i a t r i c  Table of Contents  Abstract Chapter I "Safe From Utopia?"  ii 1  Tables  39  Notes  40  Bibliography  51  1  The dynamics of the debate surrounding LSD e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n Saskatchewan i n the two decades f o l l o w i n g the Second World War have not been w e l l documented by s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s .  The growth  of p s y c h i a t r y , the implementation of Medicare and the g e n e r a l h i s t o r y of mental h e a l t h i n the p r o v i n c e have a l l been examined, as has the government's r o l e i n these developments.^  But few  h i s t o r i a n s have endeavoured t o look beyond these broad themes, l e t alone e x p l o r e the f i e l d of medicine from a s o c i a l perspective. In the past, s c h o l a r s , u s u a l l y p h y s i c i a n s p o s i n g as amateur h i s t o r i a n s , have tended t o convey t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n terms f a m i l i a r t o t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , not the layman.  Such works, S.E.D.  S h o r t t contends, merely r e f l e c t the Whig assumptions -- "the p r o f e s s i o n a l creed" - - o f t h e i r authors, e s p e c i a l l y unfailing  " f a i t h i n the progress of s c i e n c e . "  2  their  These s t u d i e s  a l s o l a c k o b j e c t i v i t y , mainly the a b i l i t y t o analyze the dynamics w i t h i n a l a r g e r conceptual framework. r e s e a r c h has s u r f a c e d which i s ,  As a r e s u l t , a body of  as Wendy M i t c h i n s o n observes,  u n c r i t i c a l , u n a n a l y t i c a l , and r e d u c t i o n i s t . ^ Perhaps due t o a p a u c i t y of a v a i l a b l e sources,  professional  h i s t o r i a n s have a l s o experienced d i f f i c u l t y when w r i t i n g the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of medicine.  A c c o r d i n g t o M a r y - E l l e n Kelm,  " h i s t o r i a n s have seldom been a b l e t o extend t h e i r s t u d i e s beyond the c o n f i n e s of p s y c h i a t r i c thought and p r a c t i c e . "  4  Shortt  agrees, s t a t i n g that n e i t h e r the p a t i e n t , the community, nor areas o u t s i d e medicine have been c o n s i d e r e d . ^  George Rosen a l s o  laments the e x c l u s i o n of s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n medical h i s t o r y ,  2  S a f e From U t o p i a ?  a s s e r t i n g t h a t i t has s u f f e r e d from a t r a d i t i o n a l  iatro-centric  (or p h y s i c i a n - c e n t r e d ) approach: "While the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s o c i a l f a c t o r s are recognized, t h i s aspect i s r e l e g a t e d t o the v e r y p e r i p h e r y of the p i c t u r e . " ^ Beginning  i n 1950, a group of Saskatchewan d o c t o r s and  p s y c h i a t r i s t s determined mental i l l n e s s ,  a new d i r e c t i o n f o r the treatment of  a l c o h o l i s m i n p a r t i c u l a r , by u s i n g a r e l a t i v e l y  new and seemingly  r e v o l u t i o n a r y drug,  LSD-25.  However, d e s p i t e  e a r l y success, t h e i r use of LSD-25 as an adjunct t o  psychotherapy  was l a t e r met w i t h a c c u s a t i o n and condemnation by the media, the medical p r o f e s s i o n and e v e n t u a l l y the f e d e r a l government. q u i c k l y as i t had appeared, the experimental concluded  i n the late-1960s,  As  use of LSD-25 was  l a i d t o r e s t by the hands of  p r e j u d i c e not s c i e n c e . ***  The tartrate. itself  s c i e n t i f i c name of LSD i s d - l y s e r g i c a c i d  diethylamide  I t i s a l s o known as LSD-25 and D e l y s i d .  The acronym  i s d e r i v e d from the German t r a n s l a t i o n , L y s e r g Saure  Diethylamid. LSD i s a s e m i - s y n t h e t i c compound d e r i v e d from the ergot fungus  {Claviceps  other g r a s s e s .  purpurea), Although  which grows i n the seeds o f rye and  i t was f i r s t  s y n t h e s i z e d i n 1938 by the  Sandoz Research L a b o r a t o r i e s i n B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d , i t s p e r c e p t i o n - a l t e r i n g e f f e c t s were not d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l Swiss chemist,  1943 when  A l b e r t Hofmann, a c c i d e n t a l l y i n g e s t e d the drug.  In h i s l a b o r a t o r y j o u r n a l he noted the e f f e c t s of LSD: I noted with dismay t h a t my environment was undergoing p r o g r e s s i v e change. E v e r y t h i n g seemed  3 Safe From  Utopia?  strange and I had the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g myself. My v i s u a l f i e l d s wavered and e v e r y t h i n g appeared deformed as i n a f a u l t y m i r r o r . I was overcome by a f e e l i n g t h a t I was going crazy, the worst p a r t of i t t h a t I was c l e a r l y aware of my c o n d i t i o n . . . . I was s e i z e d by a p e c u l i a r s e n s a t i o n of v e r t i g o and r e s t l e s s n e s s . Objects, as w e l l as the shape of my a s s o c i a t e s i n the l a b o r a t o r y , appeared t o undergo o p t i c a l changes.... In a dream-like s t a t e I l e f t f o r home...[where I] f e l l i n t o a p e c u l i a r s t a t e of 'drunkenness' c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an exaggerated i m a g i n a t i o n . . . . A f t e r two hours t h i s s t a t e g r a d u a l l y subsided. 7  Since then, thousands of s c i e n t i f i c papers have emerged, many of which s u b s t a n t i a t e the p o s i t i v e r o l e t h a t LSD  can assume  Q  as an adjunct t o psychotherapy. was  However, LSD  experxmentation  a l s o h a r s h l y c r i t i c i z e d , both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and i n the  p r e s s , u n t i l i t was  f i n a l l y abandoned a f t e r b e i n g banned by the  f e d e r a l government i n The  first  1967.  and o n l y study of LSD  Saskatchewan came i n 1992  experimentation i n  when Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n  j o u r n a l i s t Kenneth B e l l h i g h l i g h t e d the impact on the l i v e s of those t o whom i t was  of LSD  administered.^  "testing" Arguing  that the o b j e c t i v e s of the Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i c  community  were not grounded on sound experimental p r i n c i p l e s ,  l e t alone  e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , B e l l drew a t t e n t i o n t o a s e l e c t number of i n d i v i d u a l s who  claimed t o have s u f f e r e d c o n t i n u o u s l y from  experiences w i t h the drug.  However, these  experiences o f f e r e d o n l y a c u r s o r y , i f not  their  "individual" ill-considered,  a n a l y s i s of a f a r more complex i s s u e . At f i r s t glance, B e l l ' s a s s e r t i o n seemed a c c u r a t e : by today's medical standards, such experimentation c o u l d be seen both l i t i g i o u s and u n e t h i c a l . by modern s c i e n t i f i c standards?  But can we  judge t h i s  as  experience  Indeed, as b a r b a r i c as  S a f e From  4  Utopia?  labotomies or e l e c t r o - s h o c k therapy seem today, we must accept t h a t these forms of treatment  still  o c c u r r e d and a p p r e c i a t e the  c o n d i t i o n s under which they took p l a c e .  To do otherwise  the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the more d i v e r s e debate surrounding  ignores the  issue. By f o c u s i n g s o l e l y on the v o l u n t e e r s who a l s o i g n o r e d the more s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of experimentation. forms:  i t was  As we  s h a l l see, LSD  were t e s t e d , B e l l LSD  r e s e a r c h took t h r e e  used e x p e r i m e n t a l l y by p s y c h i a t r i c d o c t o r s  nurses; v o l u n t e e r s were o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  and  "experience"  the e f f e c t s of the drug under medical s u p e r v i s i o n ; and,  most  i m p o r t a n t l y , i t was  for  alcoholics.  used as an adjunct t o psychotherapy  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on o n l y one aspect of  research, B e l l m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the o r i g i n a l premises s u c c e s s f u l LSD  LSD upon which  experimentation a c t u a l l y took p l a c e . ***  In the e a r l y 1950s, p s y c h i a t r i c d o c t o r s and throughout  the world,  i n psychotherapy,  nurses  r e a l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s of  experimented  w i t h LSD  on themselves  i t s a b i l i t y t o induce p s y c h o t i c behaviour. understanding what i t was  LSD  because of  Indeed, by  l i k e t o be m e n t a l l y i l l ,  they b e l i e v e d  they stood a b e t t e r chance of h e l p i n g p a t i e n t s who  were m e n t a l l y  ill.  As Max  Massachusetts  R i n k e l , S e n i o r Research  Mental H e a l t h Centre and c h i e f p r a c t i t i o n e r of  such r e s e a r c h , r e p o r t e d , "we r e c e i v e d LSD [sic] now  Consultant of the  found t h a t our nurses who  had  i n experimental s e s s i o n s unanimously d e c l a r e d t a h t  they have a b e t t e r understanding of t h e i r p a t i e n t s  S a f e From  5  Utopia?  1 0  with whom they d e a l . "  According  to Abram H o f f e r , D i r e c t o r of  P s y c h i a t r i c Research, Department of P u b l i c Health,  the same  was  t r u e i n Saskatchewan. Convinced that t h e i r p r i v a t e LSD  experiences  resembled  those of l a t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i c s , H o f f e r and h i s Saskatchewan colleagues f e l t  t h a t by e x p l o r i n g the e f f e c t s of LSD  themselves, they would be However, while  on  "much b e t t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l people.  such p e r s o n a l experimentation  1 , 1 1  proved to be  e n l i g h t e n i n g , Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s recommended a g a i n s t u s i n g the drug when t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s .  According  "the r e s u l t s when the t h e r a p i s t took LSD  [simultaneously  the p a t i e n t ] were o n l y h a l f as good" as r e g u l a r sessions.  But  experimentation of Saskatchewan Blewett  to Hoffer,  therapy  t h i s d i d not undermine the t h e r a p i s t ' s with the drug. (Regina  maintained,  with  own  Indeed, as outspoken U n i v e r s i t y  Campus) psychology p r o f e s s o r Duncan  " I t should be a b s o l u t e l y i l l e g a l  somebody to o f f e r themselves as a guide i n t o any t e r r i t o r y u n l e s s they've been t h e r e . "  for  dangerous  Nevertheless,  aside  from c r e a t i n g a harmony between d o c t o r and p a t i e n t , the more d i r e c t t h e r a p e u t i c a p p l i c a t i o n s of LSD In 1952,  were s t i l l  unstudied.  Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s began to apply  "model p s y c h o s i s "  theory,  their  h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t by d i s p e n s i n g  to normal s u b j e c t s , u s u a l l y themselves or v o l u n t e e r s , they determine the f a c t o r s that caused mental i l l n e s s , a l c o h o l i s m or s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  1 4  Conversely,  a "double n e g a t i v e " :  could  such as  they a l s o p o s i t e d  that by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the drug to the m e n t a l l y enact  LSD  ill,  they might  i f i t made normal people p s y c h o t i c ,  S a f e From  6  Utopia?  i t might help make p s y c h o t i c people n o r m a l .  1 5  Yet r e g a r d l e s s of  the apparent b e n e f i t s , such r e s e a r c h proceeded s l o w l y i n Saskatchewan as doctors there were " n e c e s s a r i l y c a u t i o u s " of the drug's p o s s i b l e harmful e f f e c t s .  As Saul Cohen of the  A l c o h o l i s m Commission of Saskatchewan warned, LSD, used i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y , c o u l d produce a f a r worse p s y c h o t i c reaction. ^ 1  As t h e i r s t u d i e s continued  over the next year,  Saskatchewan  p s y c h i a t r i s t s began t o t u r n away from the "model p s y c h o s i s " theory,  a s s e r t i n g that i t was the LSD "experience"  a t t e n t i o n , not the a f f e c t LSD had on the p a t i e n t ' s  t h a t deserved biochemistry.  Years l a t e r , H o f f e r heralded t h i s d i s c o v e r y as a watershed i n LSD  research.  " I t became apparent," he t o l d an audience at the  U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a at B e r k e l e y the chemical factor m  i n 1966, t h a t i t was "not  [ r e a c t i o n ] , but the experience  therapy."  [that was] the key  Indeed, r e a l i z i n g t h a t  a t t e n t i o n t o the "model p s y c h o s i s "  increased  theory might l e a d t h e i r  r e s e a r c h i n t o a dead end, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s proposed that LSD be used i n s t e a d as an adjunct especially foralcoholics.  t o psychotherapy,  But t h a t d e c i s i o n a l s o posed some  i n i t i a l problems, namely t h a t a l c o h o l i s m had y e t t o be p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . When t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n t o LSD began i n 1950, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s p o s i t e d t h a t a l c o h o l i s m was the r e s u l t of a biochemical  imbalance i n the body t h a t f a i l e d t o reduce  i ft stress. ° LSD  Knowing t h i s , they s e t out t o e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s of  on the body's b i o c h e m i s t r y .  Two years  l a t e r , when i t was  7 S a f e From  Utopia?  discovered  that LSD  d i d i n f a c t i n c r e a s e the amount of  adrenochrome i n the body, Saskatchewan r e s e a r c h e r s LSD  proposed that  c o u l d help a l c o h o l i c s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to d e a l -I  with s t r e s s . volunteers  Q  J  And  because LSD  had  a l r e a d y helped many  i n t h i s manner -- "by producing some degree of  r e l a x a t i o n . . . and by producing some s t r o n g i n s i g h t psychological re-orientation"  and  -- Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s  f e l t they were ready to s t a r t t r e a t i n g a l c o h o l i c p a t i e n t s w i t h LSD-25. In 1953,  Humphrey Osmond, Superintendent of the Weyburn  P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l , teamed up with H o f f e r t o t r e a t the two  a l c o h o l i c s with L S D .  substantiated  21  However, w h i l e t h e i r r e s u l t s  the adrenochrome theory,  the apparent success of  the experiment seemed to have been the r e s u l t of different factors.  Paradoxically,  several  although the LSD  p a t i e n t to " r e l a x , " i t a l s o c r e a t e d a new psychosis  allowed  the  form of model  which c l o s e l y resembled d e l i r i u m tremens  r a t h e r than s t a l l  first  experimentation, t h e i r d i s c o v e r y  (DTs).  that i t  p o s s i b l e to induce a r t i f i c i a l d e l i r i u m tremens spawned a  But  2 2  was  new  theory i n t o the treatment of a l c o h o l i s m . As H o f f e r e x p l a i n e d , When we l e a r n e d that i n some cases A l c o h o l i c s stopped d r i n k i n g a f t e r h i t t i n g bottom and that i n some cases h i t t i n g bottom meant having d e l i r i u m tremens i t o c c u r r e d to us that a c o n t r o l l e d d e l i r i u m tremens g i v e n under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s might a l s o be e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g some a l c o h o l i c s remain sober. But  because d e l i r i u m tremens o f t e n proved f a t a l  s t u d i e s estimated the m o r t a l i t y r a t e to be as h i g h as percent  ^ -- H o f f e r and Osmond were i n i t i a l l y  Nevertheless,  -- some ten  cautious.  a f t e r f a i l i n g to i n i t i a t e model DTs  i n volunteers,  S a f e From  Utopia?  they once again turned to a l c o h o l i c s , reasoning LSD  experience  was  t h a t because the  c a r r i e d out i n a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g ,  s u b j e c t s would be s a f e .  T h i s type of therapy,  proposed, "could a v o i d a l l the u n d e s i r a b l e n a t u r a l d e l i r i u m tremens experience,"  and  their  H o f f e r and Osmond  f e a t u r e s of  the  "a f r i g h t f u l  experience  which modelled the worst i n n a t u r a l d e l i r i u m tremens c o u l d persuade  [ t h e i r ] a l c o h o l i c p a t i e n t s not to d r i n k anymore."  However, as we  s h a l l see,  they had  still  only scratched  25  the  s u r f a c e of the drug's p o t e n t i a l . As  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s demonstrated, Saskatchewan  found t h a t LSD  acted more l i k e a c a t a l y s t than a t o x i n i n humans.  As C a l i f o r n i a p s y c h i a t r i s t Oscar J a n i g e r confirmed l a t e r , LSD  was  upon i t s presence."  it  s i x years  "mainly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r i g g e r i n g the p s y c h o t i c  r e a c t i o n , " and the events t h a t f o l l o w e d were "no  "LSD  researchers  l o n g e r dependent  S i m i l a r l y , H o f f e r and Osmond r e p o r t e d that  i s so a c t i v e i n producing  p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes i n man  that  can h a r d l y be a t o x i n i n the u s u a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l sense."  With these r e s u l t s i n mind, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s p o s i t e d that the seemingly " n a t u r a l " b i o c h e m i c a l  r e a c t i o n to LSD  used f o r other purposes than s o l e l y producing created delirium." illness, it.  a  could  "chemically-  R e a l i z i n g t h i s , they set out to t r e a t mental  alcoholism i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  r a t h e r than merely  reproduce  2 8  In 1957,  be  a f t e r c l o s e to f o u r years of e x t e n s i v e  H o f f e r and Osmond determined t h a t LSD  study,  c o u l d be employed more  u s e f u l l y during a psychedelic  (mind manifesting)  "experience"  than d u r i n g a psychotomimetic  (model p s y c h o s i s or p s y c h o s i s -  9  S a f e From U t o p i a ? 0 9  mimicking)  episode.  To them, LSD had become increasingly-  b e n e f i c i a l t o psychotherapy because of i t s a b i l i t y t o break down the n a t u r a l d e f e n s i v e b a r r i e r s of s u b j e c t s , thereby making them more open t o p s y c h i a t r i c c o u n s e l l i n g . 1957  i t was  apparent that even though many of our p a t i e n t s were  helped by LSD, was  As H o f f e r e x p l a i n e d , "by  i t was  responsible."  not i t s ps[y]chotomimetic a c t i v i t y  which  Of equal importance, the p s y c h e d e l i c  experience appeared t o be m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r both p a t i e n t and t h e r a p i s t .  "Our p s y c h i a t r i s t s , " H o f f e r and Osmond r e p o r t e d ,  "were more at ease working w i t h the p s y c h e d e l i c e x p e r i e n c e because  i t was p o s s i b l e  [ f o r them] t o e s t a b l i s h a t h e r a p e u t i c  r e l a t i o n s h i p and t o use psychotherapy."  Consequently,  p r a c t i t i o n e r s s h i f t e d t h e i r focus, a r g u i n g that t o be  LSD  truly  u s e f u l as an adjunct t o psychotherapy, LSD-25 would have to be used as a p s y c h e d e l i c . The f o l l o w i n g year, f a s c i n a t e d by the work of p s y c h i a t r i s t s at the Hollywood H o s p i t a l i n New H o f f e r and Osmond i n v i t e d A.M.  Westminster,  British  Hubbard, Hollywood's  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research, to demonstrate,  under  Columbia,  D i r e c t o r of  controlled  c o n d i t i o n s at the U n i v e r s i t y H o s p i t a l i n Saskatoon,  some of the  techniques he had developed u s i n g LSD as a p s y c h e d e l i c .  Inspired  by Hubbard's methods, H o f f e r , Osmond and Blewett soon teamed w i t h Nick Chwelos, Research P s y c h i a t r i s t , Saskatchewan H o s p i t a l , Weyburn, and C o l i n Smith, Deputy D i r e c t o r of Research, Saskatchewan Department of P u b l i c Health, t o conduct t h e i r experiments.  The r e s u l t i n g s t u d y  3 1  was  own  the f i r s t one i n which  the p s y c h e d e l i c method of t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s was p u b l i s h e d .  S a f e From  10  Utopia?  A r e p o r t on the t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s of LSD patients surrender  (see Table and  experience"  1 ) , Chwelos et al.  on 40 a l c o h o l i c s  concluded  that  "self-  s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e are more e a s i l y achieved  and that "the r e s o l u t i o n of the problem of  a l c o h o l i c l i e s i n t h i s surrender."  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  they a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t u s i n g LSD  as a p s y c h e d e l i c  i n the  LSD  the though,  facilitated  the r e c a l l and a b r e a c t i o n of " f o r g o t t e n or r e p r e s s e d "  material,  which promoted the p a t i e n t - t h e r a p i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p and  accelerated  the process  of " p s y c h o e x p l o r a t i o n . "  discovered,  the r e v i v a l of r e p r e s s e d memories was  r e s u l t of p s y c h e d e l i c A year l a t e r ,  i n a paper presented Use  of LSD  C a l i f o r n i a , Dr. James T e r r i l l ,  only  the  at Napa State H o s p i t a l , Napa, i n the Palo A l t o  r e p o r t e d t h a t "when p o s i t i v e  [ i n psychotherapy] they o f t e n seem to have  i n terms of the person's value system r a t h e r than i n  terms of r e v i v e d memories." r e p r e s s e d memories was process,  not the  to the symposium on  a psychiatrist  C l i n i c mental r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e , changes have o c c u r r e d  soon  treatment.  C l i n i c a l and T h e r a p e u t i c  occurred  However, as was  Indeed, although  an important  long-term success  the r e c a l l  element i n the  i n psychotherapy was  of  therapeutic  u s u a l l y the  r e s u l t of the p a t i e n t ' s d e s i r e to r e c o n c i l e t h e i r problems, not j u s t to remember them.  Seen t h i s way,  the r e a l i z a t i o n of  " s e l f " proved to be yet another important  c o r o l l a r y to  the  LSD  therapy. E v i d e n t l y , because i t induced and allowed  the p a t i e n t to "access  beyond them to f i n d a new  a s t a t e of d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n the l i m i t s of s e l f by  going  p e r s p e c t i v e not bound by an i r r e v o c a b l e  11 S a f e From  Utopia?  self-concept,"  3 4  many p r a c t i t i o n e r s b e l i e v e d LSD  n o t i o n of s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e i n the m e n t a l l y Blewett time  t o l d MacLean's,  inspired a  ill.  As Duncan  " I t s c a r e s the pants o f f people  the  [but] there i s a v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d sense of awareness  [as]...the s u b j e c t i s able to see h i m s e l f w i t h s t a r t l i n g and  first  f e e l deeply the h u r t s he has caused o t h e r s . "  of t h i s ,  LSD  provided  3 5  And  clarity because  "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h worker w i t h a  t o o l as u s e f u l and powerful  i n psychology  b i o l o g y or the t e l e s c o p e i n a s t r o l o g y . "  as i s the microscope i n Yet,  a c c o r d i n g t o some  ~i 7  practitioners,  such an important  r e s t r i c t e d t o the m e n t a l l y  d i s c o v e r y should not  be  ill.  In subsequent years, LSD  i n c r e a s i n g l y became the c e n t r e of O  a t t e n t i o n i n n o n - s c i e n t i f I C c i r c l e s throughout North Indeed, c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s  c o l l e g e students a l i k e a l l began t h e i r own However, d e s p i t e the apparent  hippies, beatniks  and  p r i v a t e experiments.  b e n e f i t s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  the r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r l e g i t i m a t e LSD s h a l l see, when LSD  America.  "shock of l i b e r a t i o n " c o u l d produce a  f e e l i n g of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the world,  As we  "self,"  r e s e a r c h were much g r e a t e r .  r e s e a r c h was  l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d by  the  government and the p r e s s i n the 1960s, the ambiguous concept the  " s e l f " and  i t s connection t o the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e o n l y  to worsen the LSD of the  Q  controversy.  Nevertheless,  although  of  served  the n o t i o n  " s e l f " would e v e n t u a l l y d i s c r e d i t the drug's t h e r a p e u t i c  application,  i t was  an important  based on the p s y c h e d e l i c model.  breakthrough f o r LSD And  as f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  a t t e s t e d , t h i s work by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s was pioneering.  research  indeed  S a f e From  12  Utopia?  In 1961,  p s y c h i a t r i s t s at the Hollywood  Hospital reported  that out of 61 a l c o h o l i c s with poor prognoses, improved  30 were much  and 16 showed some improvement due t o treatment w i t h  (see Table 2).  Working from the same premise  as  LSD  their  Saskatchewan c o u n t e r p a r t s (the "undiscovered s e l f " ) ,  Hollywood  p s y c h i a t r i s t s concluded that i n a c o n t r o l l e d environment,  the  " p s y c h e d e l i c experience p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x t e n s i v e emotional r e e d u c a t i o n " and that p s y c h e d e l i c drugs another d o o r . . . f o r approach much of t h i s success was  "constitute  t o emotional problems."  Evidently,  achieved by the t h e r a p i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o  get the p a t i e n t t o "open up."  Indeed,  as U n i v e r s i t y of  C a l i f o r n i a medical d o c t o r s Sidney Cohen and K e i t h Ditman confirmed a year l a t e r , under the i n f l u e n c e of LSD  a patient's  " r e c a l l of r e p r e s s e d memories were enhanced and ego to c o n f l i c t laden m a t e r i a l were r e d u c e d . I f golden age of p s y c h e d e l i c r e s e a r c h , i t was  defensiveness  there ever was  from 1959  to  a  1962.  During those years, more than 2,000 cases i n Saskatchewan alone, r e p o r t i n g r e c o v e r y r a t e s ranging from f i f t y t o e i g h t y percent, evidenced the p o s i t i v e r o l e LSD psychotherapy.  41  And,  could play i n  as we have seen, the r e s u l t s p u b l i s h e d by  Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s were not an anomaly. than 300  s c i e n t i f i c papers e v i d e n c e d ,  4 2  Indeed,  scientists  p s y c h i a t r i s t s from a l l over the world b e l i e v e d LSD of fundamental  importance  as more  and r e s e a r c h t o be  towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a cure f o r  a l c o h o l i s m and o t h e r psychosomatic c o n s i s t e n c y of these r e s u l t s was  illness.  Moreover, the  p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy  i n view  of the many u n c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s that were known t o i n f l u e n c e  13 Safe From  Utopia?  r e a c t i o n s t o drugs and treatment  outcome. "^  By a l l measures, LSD  4  experimentation seemed t o be an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i s c o v e r y i n the f i e l d of psychotherapy.  *** In LSD  t h e i r 1983 a r t i c l e ,  "A S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A n a l y s i s of the  Controversy," h i s t o r i a n s Roy Baumeister  and Kathleen  Placidi  concluded they "found no evidence... t h a t the news media had p o r t r a y e d LSD as a t t r a c t i v e and d e s i r a b l e . "  4 4  While  t h i s may  have been t r u e a f t e r LSD made i t s way i n t o s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c i r c l e s a f t e r 1962, Baumeister  and P l a c i d i ' s argument i g n o r e s the  p e r i o d of LSD experimentation p r i o r t o t h a t date.  As a wealth of  a r t i c l e s i n the popular p r e s s show, LSD was indeed g i v e n c r e d i b i l i t y by both newspapers and magazines, as w e l l as by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n Saskatchewan, i n the l a t e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s. Although  i n i t i a l l y s i l e n t d u r i n g e a r l y stages of r e s e a r c h ,  Saskatchewan's two major newspapers e v e n t u a l l y took a s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r e s t i n LSD experimentation. Leader-Post  As e a r l y as 1957, the Regina  reported that " B r i l l i a n t  r e s e a r c h i s producing  a s t o n i s h i n g drugs and u n l o c k i n g the m y s t e r i e s o f the b r a i n , " b r i n g i n g on a " r e v o l u t i o n of q u i c k e n i n g change." Saskatoon  Star-Phoenix  S i m i l a r l y , the  wrote t h a t "LSD produces a s e n s a t i o n o f  w e l l - b e i n g and freedom from t e n s i o n , and d u r i n g t h i s time the p a t i e n t was helped by a g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o h i s problems."  In  subsequent years, convinced by medical r e p o r t s t h a t LSD was "a remarkable  and powerful drug...[that] has brought  many p a t i e n t s , " the Leader-Post  l a s t i n g help to  even boasted of the i n r o a d s made  S a f e From  14  Utopia?  by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s ,  claiming that  "Saskatchewan i s f a r  ahead of anywhere e l s e i n the world as f a r as treatment of a l c o h o l i c s w i t h LSD  goes."  4 5  In a d d i t i o n t o the l o c a l p r e s s , n a t i o n a l magazines and other p r o v i n c i a l newspapers a l s o championed LSD of MacLean's r e p o r t e d that B r i t i s h Columbia LSD"  "LSD  Sidney Katz  " a l c o h o l c l i n i c s i n Saskatchewan and  have been b l a z i n g a p i o n e e r t r a i l  which "aroused excitement and enthusiasm  quarters." that  research.  i n the use of  i n many informed  S i m i l a r l y , M u r i e l Clements of Saturday  Night  wrote  seems t o teach acceptance," which "lowers the b a r r i e r  between the conscious and the sub-conscious, p e r m i t t i n g the 4  p a t i e n t t o look more deeply i n t o h i m s e l f . " the Toronto Globe and Mail  and the Montreal  ft  The Vancouver Sun, Star  a l l drew  a t t e n t i o n t o LSD's " h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e " r o l e as a adjunct t o 47  psychotherapy declared,  for alcoholics.  And as the Ottawa  "A s t r i k i n g aspect of the  [LSD]  Citizen  treatment i s  t h a t . . . c u r e d p a t i e n t s have f e l t c o n f i d e n t enough t o i n d u l g e i n moderate a l c o h o l d r i n k i n g without s l i p p i n g back i n t o h a b i t u a l 4 ft  drunkenness." The success of LSD r e s e a r c h i n Saskatchewan was  even  r e p o r t e d i n seemingly remote c o r n e r s south of the border. A c c o r d i n g t o Scope Weekly, Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s had that LSD p r o v i d e d s c i e n t i s t s abnormal mental e x p e r i e n c e s . "  proven  "with a powerful method f o r s t u d y i n g Moreover, "In s p i t e of a l l the  unknowns and u n c e r t a i n t i e s , " P/A assured i t s r e a d e r s that LSD  had  been " s a f e l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y used i n the treatment of... alcoholism."  The North Renfrew Times even went so f a r as t o  15  S a f e From U t o p i a ?  p r e d i c t t h a t LSD  would "probably hasten the day when quick,  e f f e c t i v e treatment  of m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d people may  be  undertaken." LSD  r e s e a r c h was  States. "LSD  In 1954,  25 have  a l s o r e p o r t e d n a t i o n a l l y i n the U n i t e d  acknowledging t h a t the t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s of  [ p r e v i o u s l y ] been much n e g l e c t e d , "  r e p o r t t h a t "as an a i d to psychotherapy, LSD all  such drugs so f a r t e s t e d . "  Time went on to  25 i s the best of  In a subsequent a r t i c l e ,  Time  a l s o p r a i s e d the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p o i n t i n g to the f a c t t h a t "Whereas A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous u s u a l l y c l a i m s success  i n o n l y 50%-60% of r u n - o f - t h e - s t i l l cases  [sic],  H o f f e r has d r i e d out 50% of the 100-proof cases who f a i l u r e s i n A.A.  Dr.  had been  1 , 5 0  In a d d i t i o n , the work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s d i d not go unnoticed by the p r o v i n c i a l CCF service.  government or the  As p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h Walter  civil  Erb t o l d a  r a d i o t a l k show d u r i n g A l c o h o l Information Week i n  1960,  Some r e a l advances have been made here i n Saskatchewan and I t h i n k I should be remiss i f I would not take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to pay t r i b u t e to the wonderful r e s e a r c h that has been done i n connection with the new drug LSD25. I t should be a matter of p r i d e to Saskatchewan c i t i z e n s t h a t our own P s y c h i a t r i c S e r v i c e s Branch has spear-headed the r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . 5 1  Likewise, impressed.  the Saskatchewan Bureau on A l c o h o l i s m was  As J.F.A. Calder, D i r e c t o r of the Bureau, boasted  the Globe and Mail,  LSD  value i n the treatment years."  J  also  F.S.  Larson,  had been "the o n l y new of a l c o h o l i c s t h a t we  development of  have found  D i r e c t o r of the Department of  to any  i n 27  Health's  P s y c h i a t r i c S e r v i c e s Branch, a l s o e x t o l l e d the drug's success i n  S a f e From  16  Utopia?  a l c o h o l r e s e a r c h , though he c a u t i o n e d t h a t i t should be used o n l y under s t r i c t medical s u p e r v i s i o n and should not be a v a i l a b l e "at the corner drug s t o r e . " was  But r e g a r d l e s s of such concerns,  e l a t e d t o r e p o r t t h a t LSD had been s a n c t i o n e d by the  service.  Erb  civil  " I t g i v e s our department g r e a t p l e a s u r e , " he t o l d the  r a d i o audience,  "to know t h a t the s t a f f of the Bureau  [on  Alcoholism] are most e n t h u s i a s t i c about the r e s u l t s t h a t have been o b t a i n e d i n many cases of treatment But such p r a i s e f o r LSD was  premature.  support f o r LSD  r e s e a r c h appeared  sincere.  s h a l l see, when LSD  As we  criticized,  by L S D . "  54  In r e t r o s p e c t , Erb's  t o be more " p o l i t i c a l " experimentation was  than later  the Department of H e a l t h severed a l l t i e s w i t h i t s  p s y c h i a t r i c program, e s s e n t i a l l y l e a v i n g i t at the mercy of i t s critics,  most n o t a b l y the f e d e r a l government.  the short term the success of LSD image of the In  1958,  Nevertheless, i n  r e s e a r c h boosted the  slumping  CCF. the Western Producer  i l l u s t r a t e d the s t r o n g  a l l i a n c e between the Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i c community and CCF,  a s s e r t i n g t h a t Saskatchewan was  "still  the  the o n l y p r o v i n c e  p u t t i n g money i n t o p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h " and t h a t the Saskatchewan Department of H e a l t h was  fond of u s i n g n a t i o n a l  h e a l t h g r a n t s t o fund i t s p s y c h i a t r i c p r o g r a m . h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s r e a l i z e d more r e s e a r c h was Department of Health,  55  because  needed, the  "happy i n the knowledge t h a t r e a l  has been made a l r e a d y , " continued t o support LSD that  And  r e s e a r c h knowing  "experts i n the f i e l d of a l c o h o l i s m b e l i e v e t h a t we  the r i g h t t r a c k . "  5 6  progress  are on  Safe From  17  Utopia?  Nevertheless, despite regional, national,  international  and  even governmental p r a i s e , a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i d e of c r i t i c i s m to experimentation had begun t o mount.  The years a f t e r 1962  LSD  would  be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p r e c e d i n g decade.  *** In many ways, 1962 LSD  proved t o be a c r u c i a l t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r  r e s e a r c h i n Saskatchewan.  Although  i t had a c h i e v e d  critical  a c c l a i m i n both the popular and s c i e n t i f i c p r e s s and was by the p r o v i n c i a l CCF government, LSD  endorsed  research faced a  c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a l l e n g e i n some p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s .  In the  short term, such c r i t i c i s m appeared  t o d i s c r e d i t the i n r o a d s  r e s e a r c h had made i n North America,  e s p e c i a l l y i n Saskatchewan  where i t had been pioneered. was  the l a s t i n g c r i t i c a l  Of g r e a t e r consequence, however,  a t t e n t i o n the Canadian p r e s s and  government gave t o l e g i t i m a t e LSD  research.  As we  u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s decade, LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s found support f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h a f t e r The c h i e f a r c h i t e c t of such i n Canada was  shall  federal see,  little  1962. " p r o f e s s i o n a l " o p p o s i t i o n to  As e a r l y as  i n what became known as The B r i t i s h Columbia Report,  argued t h a t LSD psychiatry."  LSD  James S. Tyhurst, head of the department of  p s y c h i a t r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1959  LSD  had  "no v a l i d a t e d t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e i n  By i t s e l f ,  c e s s a t i o n of LSD  Tyhurst  t h i s c r i t i c i s m d i d not hasten  the  r e s e a r c h i n Saskatchewan or anywhere e l s e .  However, when the p e r i l s of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c LSD use began t o dominate newspaper columns and t e l e v i s i o n programs a f t e r Tyhurst's o p p o s i t i o n t o l e g i t i m a t e LSD  1962,  r e s e a r c h gathered so much  18 S a f e From  Utopia?  momentum t h a t f o r the f i r s t  time i t posed a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o the  work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . Despite the subsequent impact a t t a c k e d LSD  of h i s c r i t i c i s m , Tyhurst o n l y  r e s e a r c h on two grounds.  I n i t i a l l y , he claimed that  the t h e r a p i s t ' s "power of suggestion" g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the p a t i e n t and thereby predetermined  the r e s u l t s of the  experiment.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n , LSD was  d e p i c t e d as a "shame drug"  which allowed the t h e r a p i s t t o implant  "a sense of a l c o h o l i c  guilt  i n the p a t i e n t ' s subconscious."  concluded,  In a d d i t i o n ,  such s u g g e s t i o n p l a y e d a major r o l e i n determining IT  Q  "the k i n d of p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s t h a t developed." him,  LSD  Tyhurst  therapy was  j u s t another form of  Indeed, t o  "scientific  brainwashing." ^ 5  Tyhurst a l s o argued  t h a t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , many of which had  r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s , o f t e n i g n o r e d s e v e r a l of the " c o n t r o l l e d measures" which had come t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "orthodox  scientific  methods."  traditional scientific therapy was, scientific  By i t s e l f ,  c o n t r o l s was  a f t e r a l l , a new  this disregard for  not o v e r l y p r o b l e m a t i c ;  form of treatment.  The  LSD  i s s u e of  c o n t r o l , moreover, had a l r e a d y been addressed  Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . scientific  ou  by  As Duncan Blewett put i t , "Using the  and experimental methods of present day psychology i n  the f i e l d of paranormal i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s l i k e t r y i n g t o measure the d i s t a n c e t o the moon w i t h a y a r d s t i c k . "  6 1  However, when  coupled w i t h the t h e r a p i s t ' s power of suggestion,  such  " u n c o n t r o l l e d " experimentation, Tyhurst b e l i e v e d , was m a n i p u l a t i v e and  unethical.  both  S a f e From  According f o r LSD  19  Utopia?  to Tyhurst,  s t u d i e s that claimed  were " o v e r l y suggestive"  and  therapeutic  too o f t e n " c h a r a c t e r i z e d  the u n c o n t r o l l e d c h a r a c t e r of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  supporting  them."  "mystical"  Because of t h i s , Tyhurst  q u a l i t i e s of LSD indulge  f e a r e d t h a t the  might e n t i c e the layman or the g e n e r a l  i n i t s use.  According  to him,  this  "God  q u a l i t y not o n l y promoted the u n e t h i c a l use made i t more a t t r a c t i v e to those who organized  religion.  LSD  research,  of a c u l t than of r e s p o n s i b l e However, as we  s h a l l see,  little  p u b l i c to  of the drug, but  also  opposed or r e s i s t e d  then, was  "more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  scientific investigation." ^ 0  these c r i t i c i s m s were nothing  more than  i n fact  about.  Although he claimed Committee" which had LSD  by  in a bottle"  unmitigated, i r r a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s to an i s s u e Tyhurst knew very  value  to have been p a r t of an  completed a f o u r - y e a r  i n p s y c h i a t r i c research,  Tyhurst  had  comprehensive a study as he r e p o r t e d . p r i n c i p a l research  i n t e r e s t " of LSD  "International  study on the use  of  not undertaken as  According  to him,  p r a c t i t i o n e r s had  "The  been " i n  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a l t e r a t i o n s of p e r c e p t i o n ,  f e e l i n g and  t h i n k i n g . . . as a form of fundamental r e s e a r c h  on abnormal s t a t e s  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l had  not  functioning."  But  as Tyhurst  s t u d i e d the t h e r a p e u t i c value  s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e , " having o n l y  of LSD  "heard  f r e q u e n t l y from those i n t e r e s t e d i n the Tyhurst  was  experimentation.  l a t e r admitted,  as  "developed i n the  [about] i t q u i t e  drug."  6 4  not alone i n h i s condemnation of Indeed, as e a r l y as 1956  the s c i e n t i f i c community was  he  LSD  there were s i g n s  d i v i d e d over the i s s u e of  LSD  that  20 S a f e From  Utopia?  therapy. Psychiatry,  In t h e i r a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n the American  Journal  p s y c h i a t r i s t s John McDonald and James G a l v i n  the u s e f u l n e s s of LSD  attacked  i n psychotherapy, c l a i m i n g t h a t i t d i d not  "possess t h e r a p e u t i c value s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y i t s use psychiatric practice." the use of LSD  was  of  S i m i l a r l y , although  in  he admitted  that  "of great importance i n e l u c i d a t i n g or  understanding...psychodynamics," Dr. t h e r a p e u t i c value of LSD  was  Paul Hoch concluded  "much l e s s impressive."  that And  the  as  F.  Gordon Tucker, p s y c h i a t r i s t at the B r i t i s h Columbia Mental H o s p i t a l i n Essondale,  t o l d the Vancouver Province  there had been "no great success" with LSD, i t s e l f as "a very d o u b t f u l L i k e Tyhurst,  these  treatment."  " s c i e n t i s t s " not o n l y i g n o r e d  p s y c h i a t r i s t s but a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e i r claims.  1962,  which had o n l y proven  r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s of Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h  to support  i n May  insufficient  the  Columbia scientific  evidence  Consequently, t h e i r f i n d i n g s were by  means c o n c l u s i v e , l e t alone more c o n t r o l l e d than those by Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s .  reported  For example, Tucker's study  of  o n l y s i x cases proved t h a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , i f not  entirely  predetermined, were based upon a sampling t h a t was  too narrow.  Needless to say,  t h i s c r i t i c i s m caused c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n the Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i c community. wryly,  consternation  As H o f f e r commented  "This n i c e l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i n g s going on at the west  coast, where i t i s p o s s i b l e to say t h a t s i x s u b j e c t s makes a c o n t r o l l e d t r i a l whereas one i s not c o n t r o l l e d . "  hundred s u b j e c t s at another c e n t r e  Likewise,  J.F.A. Calder, D i r e c t o r of  Saskatchewan Bureau on A l c o h o l i s m ,  dismissed  no  Tyhurst's  the  S a f e From  21  Utopia?  " d i s t a n c e d " c r i t i c i s m s as those of an amateur: "His second knowledge does not agree w i t h our f i r s t drug." LSD  Blewett echoed t h i s sentiment,  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere  hand  hand experience w i t h the c l a i m i n g t h a t opponents to  "know as much about i t as I  do of the type of b a l l e t danced i n P e r s i a n harems."  And  C.G.  C o s t e l l o , a p s y c h o l o g i s t at the Regina General H o s p i t a l , added that  " U n t i l P r o f . Tyhurst and o t h e r c r i t i c s present  evidence of the dangers of LSD, As we  clear  we need not be unduly  have seen, the success of LSD  in treating  had been well-documented i n the s c i e n t i f i c  press.  worried." alcoholics  Knowing t h i s ,  i t becomes e a s i e r t o see t h a t Tyhurst's o b j e c t i o n t o LSD had more t o do w i t h h i s concern f o r m o r a l i t y than w i t h scientific behaviour  wrongdoing.  Apparently, t h i s was  f o r James Tyhurst.  Hyde, Tyhurst  6 9  research  any  not uncommon  According to biographer Christopher  "had l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l experience as a medical  d o c t o r or as a p s y c h i a t r i s t " when he moved t o UBC  i n 1958.  Moreover, Tyhurst a l s o confessed t h a t he had not taken h i m s e l f and t h a t he had conducted r e s e a r c h i n t o the uses of the drug  no  "adequately  70  LSD  controlled  therapeutically."  Importantly, Hyde a l s o noted t h a t Tyhurst's i n i t i a l  7 1  training  had  been i n e n g i n e e r i n g and o n l y l a t e r had he moved on t o p s y c h i a t r y . From t h i s evidence, concerned  i t i s obvious t h a t James Tyhurst was  w i t h the " d i r e c t and immediate withdrawal  than w i t h producing a systematic, " s c i e n t i f i c " therapeutic  more  of LSD-25"  r e b u t t a l to i t s  use.  Yet s u r p r i s i n g l y , c r i t i c i s m s such as T y h u r s t ' s were even apparent  i n the minds of some Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s .  Safe From  22  Utopia?  A c c o r d i n g t o H o f f e r , Dr. P. O ' R e i l l y , P s y c h i a t r i c D i r e c t o r of the Moose Jaw H o s p i t a l , had " s t a r t e d out w i t h a v e r y s t r o n g b i a s against  [LSD]," but, u n l i k e Tyhurst, was l a t e r convinced of i t s 7 0  t h e r a p e u t i c value by conducting h i s own experiments.  But Dr.  M. R e j s k i n d , D i r e c t o r of the Munroe P s y c h i a t r i c Wing at the Regina General H o s p i t a l , was not as e a s i l y convinced.  "I...have  seen no proof LSD has i n any way helped," he t o l d the LeaderPost,  "There are no fewer a l c o h o l i c s now than t h e r e were when we 73  started using i t . "  Although t h i s statement  context f o r a Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t ,  seems out o f  i t i s important  t o note  that R e j s k i n d , l i k e Tyhurst, had not p a i d c l o s e enough a t t e n t i o n to the work of H o f f e r and Osmond.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n the years  ahead Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s s t r u g g l e d t o continue  their  r e s e a r c h as the crusade a g a i n s t the use of LSD as an adjunct t o psychotherapy  intensified.  *** The  specious l e g i t i m a c y of Tyhurst's c r i t i c i s m and the  r e p u d i a t i o n of LSD r e s e a r c h by the media and the f e d e r a l government a f t e r 1962 are not e a s i l y understood,  especially  c o n s i d e r i n g the wealth o f s c i e n t i f i c evidence t h a t a t t e s t e d t o the p o s i t i v e r o l e LSD c o u l d p l a y i n psychotherapy.  As we have  seen, Tyhurst's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a r e p u t a b l e p s y c h i a t r i s t and c r e d i b l e opponent of LSD r e s e a r c h were unproven.  Knowing t h i s ,  one must t u r n t o the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l context surrounding LSD experimentation i n order t o b e t t e r understand c r i t i c i s m t h a t arose i n the mid-1960s.  the g e n e r a l t i d e of  As we s h a l l see, although  the debate surrounding LSD experimentation was d i v e r s e and f a r -  Safe From  23  Utopia?  reaching, the i s s u e of m o r a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the maintenance of the 1950s status-quo, to a b o l i s h LSD  became the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the  fight  r e s e a r c h based on the p s y c h e d e l i c model.  Perhaps the most damaging testimony a g a i n s t the use of i n psychotherapy States.  came not from Canada, but from the U n i t e d  R e f e r r e d to as the "Harvard a f f a i r " or the  "Harvard  U n i v e r s i t y drug s c a n d a l , " t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c e n t e r e d on years of LSD  LSD  two  experimentation c a r r i e d out by Harvard p s y c h o l o g i s t s  Timothy Leary and R i c h a r d A l p e r t .  I n i t i a l l y conducted under the  a u s p i c e s of the Harvard School of Medicine, Leary and A l p e r t l a t e r began off-campus i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n p r i v a t e homes, u s i n g as t h e i r s u b j e c t s graduate artists.  students, f r i e n d s , o t h e r d o c t o r s and even  As these " p r i v a t e " s t u d i e s continued, LSD became  i n c r e a s i n g l y popular i n both academic and  counter-cultural  c i r c l e s -- a f a c t that prompted Harvard o f f i c i a l s and U.S. a u t h o r i t i e s t o i n t e r r u p t LSD f e a r i n g the apparent exacerbated, LSD  r e s e a r c h i n 1962.  "cultogenic"  r e s e a r c h was  7 4  health  Consequently,  appeal of LSD might be  c a n c e l l e d at Harvard and  both  p s y c h o l o g i s t s were d i s m i s s e d . According to u n i v e r s i t y o f f i c i a l s ,  Leary and A l p e r t d i d not  e x e r c i s e the necessary c a u t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g c a n d i d a t e s f o r LSD research. College,  In the words of John U. Monro, dean of Harvard "Playing with  [LSD i n t h i s manner] i s l i k e  p s y c h i c Russian r o u l e t t e . "  playing  Harvard p s y c h i a t r i s t Theodore Rothman  a l s o condemned Leary and A l p e r t , c l a i m i n g they were n o t h i n g but "academic h i p s t e r s " who medicine.  were no l o n g e r q u a l i f i e d t o p r a c t i c e  "The more the two  s c i e n t i s t s take the drug,"  commented  24  S a f e From U t o p i a ?  another  official,  "the l e s s they become i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e . "  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r bona fide  LSD  research  proved  to be much g r e a t e r than the consequences f o r Leary and A l p e r t . 7  F u e l l e d by f u r t h e r i n s t a n c e s  ft  of misuse i n the U.S.,  Canadian government proposed to ban LSD the f e d e r a l government's eyes,  i n the f a l l of 1962.  C.A.  along w i t h  (the n o t o r i o u s i n f a n t - d e f o r m i n g drug), as an  drug under Schedule  In  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of LSD posed a  severe t h r e a t to s o c i e t y and should be c l a s s i f i e d , thalidomide  the  H of the Food and Drugs A c t .  illegal  A c c o r d i n g to  7 7  M o r r e l l , D i r e c t o r of the Canadian Food and Drugs  D i r e c t o r a t e , LSD  was  "a v e r y potent drug which may  produce  'mental d i s t u r b a n c e s ' " and whose t h e r a p e u t i c "value so f a r seemed 7 ft  limited."  Canada's M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare,  Waldo Monteith, 1962  agreed,  t h a t LSD was  J.  t e l l i n g the House of Commons i n November  a "very dangerous drug" which had been "known 7Q  to produce f a n t a s i e s and t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . " At f i r s t ,  the recommendation by the Food and Drugs  D i r e c t o r a t e that LSD  be banned was  Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s , who been c o n s u l t e d . Bill  (C-3)  was  g r e e t e d w i t h s u r p r i s e by  were a s t o n i s h e d t h a t they had  Indeed, a major p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n w i t h the the f a c t that Monteith had supposedly  committee of "experts" to advise him but had any Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s . H o f f e r , was  not  both  appointed a  f a i l e d t o contact  Such an o v e r s i g h t , a c c o r d i n g to  "hasty and i l l - c o n s i d e r e d . "  B e r t i n , s c i e n c e e d i t o r of the Toronto Daily  8 0  Even  Star,  Leonard  condemned  Monteith's motion: The f a c t t h a t Monteith saw f i t to name s p e c i f i c drugs and ask a l a y parliament to pass judgement on them, has  25 S a f e From  Utopia?  caused c o n s t e r n a t i o n amoung [ s i c ] some members of the medical p r o f e s s i o n . O b j e c t i n g d o c t o r s f e e l t h a t the naming of drugs should have been l e f t t o the [National H e a l t h and Welfare] department, a c t i n g on the advice of an a p p r o p r i a t e committee of d o c t o r s and scientists.® 1  One reason Bill  f o r the medical  p r o f e s s i o n ' s a n x i e t y was t h a t the  appeared t o take away i t s fundamental r i g h t t o p r e s c r i b e  drugs t o needy p a t i e n t s . medical  Seen t h i s way, p s y c h i a t r i s t s and  d o c t o r s f e a r e d t h a t i f LSD was banned, Canada might be  l e g i s l a t e d out of the f i e l d of experimental legitimate c l i n i c a l  research.  p r a c t i t i o n e r s of LSD therapy  medicine and  F e a r i n g t h a t such was the case, responded.  George Lucas, a p r o f e s s o r of pharmacology at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, proposed t h a t " d e c i s i o n s o f t h i s s o r t should be l e f t to  a t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e committee o f p h y s i c i a n s and Q  scientists." E.A.  9  Likewise,  Sellers,  f e l l o w U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto p r o f e s s o r ,  condemned the D i r e c t o r a t e f o r not having  consulted  the O n t a r i o S p e c i a l Medical A d v i s o r y Committee, adding t h a t " i t would have been p o l i t e , at l e a s t , t o have asked us what we thought."  But a p p a r e n t l y  such was t o be expected from what  p s y c h i a t r i s t s l a b e l l e d an " a l a r m i s t " government. Frank B r i e n , chairman of the A d v i s o r y Committee, parliament  does some queer t h i n g s . "  LSD  had r e c e i v e d .  controversy  "These days,  8 3  In Saskatchewan, p s y c h i a t r i c experts Directorate's proposal  In the words of  saw the n a t i o n a l  t o ban LSD as a r e a c t i o n t o the poor press  As H o f f e r t o l d a c o l l e a g u e ,  "The f a n t a s t i c  i n the U.S.A. a r i s i n g from the Harvard  experiences... c e r t a i n l y p u b l i c i z e d the f a c t t h a t p s y c h e d e l i c drugs a r e a r o u n d . "  84  Consequently, r e p o r t s t h a t once boasted of  LSD's t h e r a p e u t i c value soon turned i n t o emotional  h o m i l i e s that  26 S a f e From  Utopia?  warned of the dangers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h LSD.  Realizing  this,  P r o f e s s o r Duncan Blewett c r i t i c i z e d the government and the p r e s s f o r having  "done l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g but s t r e s s the t e r r i b l e  dangers i n v o l v e d with the LSD experience."  To him, such  d i s t o r t e d i n f o r m a t i o n had " b u i l t up an aura of dread" around LSD, a drug t h a t was " n o n - a d d i c t i v e and l e s s t o x i c than a s p i r i n " but "harder t o o b t a i n than h e r o i n o r cyanide."  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  p e c u l i a r paradox continued: although LSD was h e r a l d e d as a breakthrough  i n the treatment  c o u l d o b t a i n such treatment  of a l c o h o l i s m , v e r y few a l c o h o l i c s  because people i n g e n e r a l f e l t t h a t Q  C  i t was "something that r o t s your b r a i n . " warned, the proposed  As Blewett and H o f f e r  ban threatened " t o put the crimp on a l o t of  p r o m i s i n g r e s e a r c h " which, i n t u r n , "could k i l l o  the whole [LSD]  c  program." D e s p i t e the i n c r e a s i n g t i d e of c r i t i c i s m , fate of i t s partner, thalidomide.  LSD was spared the  As the debate c o n t i n u e d i n the  House, more Members o f Parliament began t o r e a l i z e the advances LSD therapy had achieved i n the study o f a l c o h o l i s m . upon an e a r l i e r a s s e r t i o n by T.C. Douglas, Coquitlam,  that "the use o f L.S.D....in  Elucidating  MP f o r Burnaby-  the treatment of  a l c o h o l i c s has had some b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , " H.C. Harley, MP f o r Halton, p o i n t e d t o the f a c t t h a t LSD a l s o rendered a p a t i e n t "much more amenable t o p s y c h i a t r i c therapy" and t h a t " i n Saskatchewan, 50 p e r cent of a l c o h o l i c p a t i e n t s stopped drinking." had  S t a n l e y Haidasz, MP f o r Parkdale, confirmed t h a t LSD  "been found t o be v e r y p r o m i s i n g f o r use in...psychotherapy"  and maintained  t h a t " I t would be t r a g i c a l l y u n f a i r t o r e s t r i c t  27 Safe From U t o p i a ?  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of L.S.D. now  that medical r e s e a r c h e r s have  ft 7  l e a r n e d t o use i t properly."°' In  response t o H a r l e y ' s statement,  Winnipeg was  North, suggested that the H e a l t h and Welfare Department  "moving much too f a s t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the banning of the  L.S.D. d r u g . " was  David Orlikow, MP f o r  perhaps  8 8  Indeed,  too hasty.  i d e a , " he t o l d the CBC,  even Tyhurst had admitted that the "I'm  not sure that the b i l l  Bill  i s a good  " i f i t removes the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the ft 9  drug f o r the purposes of r e s e a r c h . " M i n i s t e r J . Waldo Monteith was  R e a l i z i n g t h i s , Health  f o r c e d t o r e l a x h i s ardent  anti-  LSD  stance.  " I f we went any f u r t h e r i n [ f o r c i n g the ban of  LSD  for  r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s ] , " he t o l d the Commons, "I am g i v e n t o  understand that we would be i n v a d i n g p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the matter of p r o p e r t y and c i v i l and d e s p i t e e a r l i e r b e l i e f s ,  rights."  i t was  With t h i s  decision  apparent that LSD r e s e a r c h e r s  would not be " l e g i s l a t e d " out of the f i e l d of experimental p s y c h i a t r y , at l e a s t not f o r the time b e i n g .  *** Although the f i g h t t o remove LSD won,  from Schedule H had been  LSD r e s e a r c h s t i l l abated a f t e r 1962.  Indeed,  though  LSD  had not been banned, the f e d e r a l government p l a c e d r e s t r i c t i o n s upon i t s use that l i m i t e d i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y t o " r e s e a r c h purposes 91  only."^  x  By themselves,  constraining.  these r e s t r i c t i o n s were not o v e r l y  However, when Canada's o n l y d i s t r i b u t o r of  LSD,  Sandoz Research L a b o r a t o r i e s i n Quebec, ceased p r o d u c t i o n i n 1965,  ^ LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s found i t harder t o continue t h e i r work.  28  S a f e From U t o p i a ?  As a r e s u l t , many p s y c h i a t r i s t s abandoned t h e i r r e s e a r c h on LSD i n favour o f more p e r m i s s i v e s t u d i e s . In Saskatchewan, the consequences of the LSD c o n t r o v e r s y appeared much sooner.  In 1961, Sven Jensen,  the a l c o h o l i s m treatment Hospital, l e f t Although  a psychiatrist  with  u n i t at the Weyburn P s y c h i a t r i c  the p r o v i n c e t o take an appointment  t h i s l o s s was s i g n i f i c a n t , by i t s e l f  elsewhere.  i t d i d not t h r e a t e n  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of LSD r e s e a r c h i n Saskatchewan.  Nevertheless,  when both Osmond and Chwelos a l s o decided t o leave t h e i r p o s i t i o n s the f o l l o w i n g year, many f e a r e d t h a t LSD r e s e a r c h , which was a l r e a d y i n the doldrums, would disappear a l t o g e t h e r . Although reasons  the three p s y c h i a t r i s t s never i n d i c a t e d  their  f o r l e a v i n g , i t i s easy t o see how the LSD c o n t r o v e r s y  affected their decisions.  Without f i n a n c i a l support  from the  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, r e s e a r c h i n t o LSD became l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t o Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s .  Of more  though, was the g e n e r a l t i d e of uneasiness  that t h e i r  engendered. advocates  importance, departures  With the l o s s of three r e p u t a b l e and w e l l - p u b l i s h e d  of p s y c h e d e l i c treatment,  the p r o v i n c e seemed u n c e r t a i n .  the f u t u r e of LSD r e s e a r c h i n  As the Leader-Post  forewarned,  "while every p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l o r ward i n the p r o v i n c e i s now u s i n g LSD t o t r e a t a l c o h o l i c s , t h i s may not be so when these doctors l e a v e . " ^ 9  D e s p i t e such concerns, to  make important  advances.  Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s  continued  In 1962, H o f f e r began t o lobby f o r  the establishment of a p r o v i n c i a l p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h c e n t r e t o be l o c a t e d i n Saskatoon.  Claiming that p s y c h i a t r i c research i n  29  Safe From U t o p i a ?  the  c o u n t r y had been s t a g n a t i n g f o r y e a r s , he persuaded the  p r o v i n c i a l government t o support the proposed c e n t r e , promised t o be the f i r s t  of i t s k i n d i n Canada even  c o n s t r u c t i o n would not b e g i n u n t i l 1 9 6 7 .  94  which  though  Apparently, the  Canadian Mental H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o aware of the importance of such a c e n t r e as they donated $100,000 towards i t s establishment.  9 5  Assured that p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l g r a n t s  would cover the remainder of the c o s t s ,  Saskatchewan  p s y c h i a t r i s t s were p l e a s e d t o have renewed such enthusiasm i n t h e i r work.  As Blewett r e c a l l e d years l a t e r ,  "There i s every  reason t o p r e d i c t that such c e n t r e s . . . would become major treatment and r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e s . " In  9 6  1964, another major p s y c h i a t r i c i n n o v a t i o n came t o  f r u i t i o n i n Saskatchewan.  As e a r l y as 1954, p s y c h i a t r i s t s had  r e a l i z e d that the d e s i g n of the p s y c h i a t r i c i n s t i t u t i o n p l a y e d a major r o l e i n psychotherapy, e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g the p a t i e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o improve.  A c c o r d i n g t o Osmond, "the huge c o r r i d o r s and  u n n e c e s s a r i l y e n l a r g e d spaces so o f t e n found i n mental are  hospitals  l i a b l e t o enhance...[the p a t i e n t ' s ] u n c e r t a i n t y about the Q 7  .  i n t e g r i t y of the s e l f . "  y  Consequently, when a new p s y c h i a t r i c  h o s p i t a l was proposed f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Yorkton, H o f f e r and Osmond e n l i s t e d the t a l e n t s of i n n o v a t i v e Regina a r c h i t e c t ,  Kiyo  Izumi, t o d e s i g n the new c e n t r e . Although w e l l aware of H o f f e r and Osmond's o b j e c t i v e s , initially  Izumi  had d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending the p l i g h t o f the  mentally i l l patient.  Consequently, a f t e r completing h i s i n i t i a l  r e s e a r c h , Izumi agreed t o Osmond's p r o p o s a l t h a t he take LSD i n  S a f e From  30  Utopia?  order "to grasp the r e a l and s i g n i f i c a n t problems of a m e n t a l l y ill  i n d i v i d u a l as  [they] r e l a t e d t o a b u i l d i n g environment."  Under the guidance  of Osmond and Blewett,  Izumi was  g i v e n LSD  then taken on a t o u r of the U n i v e r s i t y H o s p i t a l i n  Saskatoon.  Through t h i s experience, i d e a of what i t was explained, person's  Izumi f e l t he was  and  able t o g a i n a b e t t e r  l i k e t o be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .  As Osmond  "An a p p r e c i a t i o n of the nature of the m e n t a l l y i l l  d i s e a s e . . . allows an i m a g i n a t i v e a r c h i t e c t t o evolve  c e r t a i n simple r u l e s which can then be a p p l i e d . "  And  with  these i n s i g h t s i n mind, Izumi endeavoured t o d e s i g n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l that would be, by a l l measures, s t a t e of the a r t . When completed  i n 1964,  newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t the  P s y c h i a t r i c H o s p i t a l resembled mental h o s p i t a l .  Yorkton  more a f i v e - s t a r h o t e l than a  Indeed, i n s t e a d of the long, w h i t e - t i l e d  1 0 0  hallways and b a r r e d windows t h a t had come t o p e r s o n i f y midt w e n t i e t h century mental i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  Izumi designed a more  comfortable and s o o t h i n g environment t h a t was psychotherapy  easier.  Needless  intended t o make  t o say, the new  the f i r s t of i t s k i n d i n Canada, a t t a i n e d two  c e n t r e , which  important  was  goals:  not o n l y d i d i t hush negative p r e s s r e p o r t s , but, more importantly, i t i n s t i l l e d a new p s y c h i a t r i c community.  confidence i n the Saskatchewan  As H o f f e r h i m s e l f boasted,  "Yorkton i s  the p r o t o t y p e of the mental h o s p i t a l of the f u t u r e . " Whereas the proposed  p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h c e n t r e and  Izumi experience helped rejuvenate LSD the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference helped promote LSD  1 0 1  the  r e s e a r c h i n Saskatchewan,  on the Use of LSD  therapy i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  in  Psychotherapy  From May  8 t o 10,  31 S a f e From U t o p i a ?  1965,  more than 4 0 LSD e x p e r t s from a l l over the world gathered  i n A m i t y v i l l e , New  York t o d i s c u s s the use of LSD as an adjunct  to psychotherapy.  The r e s u l t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n ,  The Use of  LSD  i n 3  in Psychotherapy developments  and m  Alcoholism,  J  i n s p i r e d s e v e r a l important  aimed at advancing the use of LSD  psychiatry. ^ 1  4  i n the f i e l d of  However, although the conference p r a i s e d the  s u c c e s s f u l use of the drug, most n o t a b l y by r e s e a r c h e r s i n Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia,  i t a l s o warned of the  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s unsupervised, non-medical  dangers  use.  P u b l i c concern about the non-medical use of LSD c o n t i n u e d to grow, d e s p i t e f u r t h e r s c i e n t i f i c advances.  In 1966,  Life  magazine i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s drew a t t e n t i o n t o the growing use of LSD  i n counter-cultural c i r c l e s .  promising r e s e a r c h t o o l , " wrote  "No  longer just a  j o u r n a l i s t Lawrence S c h i l l e r ,  had been "taken up by a l a r g e underground  c u l t " that  LSD  comprised  "artistic,  bohemian and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s " as w e l l as c o l l e g e  students.  With t h i s evidence that people were " t a k i n g LSD  f o r as  many reasons as t h e r e are minds t o imagine what l i e s i n the universe," ^ 1 1  man"  5  many f e a r e d that Leary's " p s y c h i c r e v o l u t i o n of  might become a darker r e a l i t y than he i n i t i a l l y  foretold.  In Canada, the p e r i l s of black-market LSD use were no apparent.  less  R e f e r r i n g t o an a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h the use of LSD i n  Vancouver-area h i g h - s c h o o l s ,  1 0 6  E i l e e n Moore asked  federal  O p p o s i t i o n Leader John Diefenbaker t o impose g r e a t e r c o n t r o l s on the drug: "As a mother I b e l i e v e t h i s under c o n t r o l . . . . We whole of Canada."  u  [LSD] should be brought  t h i n k t h i s t o be s e r i o u s enough through the Another concerned c i t i z e n commented, "I  Safe From  32  Utopia?  p l a c e no r e l i a n c e whatever on the quacks who...preach the gospel of LSD  and t r y t o t u r n the h a l l u c i n a t i o n s i t induces i n t o a  and fake  new  religion."  A s i d e from demonstrating concerned  t h a t "everyday  about the harmful e f f e c t s of LSD,  these i n d i c a t e t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o LSD l e s s s c i e n t i f i c between 1962  Canadians"  were a l s o  o p i n i o n s such as  therapy had become even  and 1967.  Realizing this,  i t is  easy t o see t h a t the m o r a l i s t i c c r i t i c i s m s of James Tyhurst others) had a great impact  on LSD  (and  r e s e a r c h i n the long-run.  And  because newspapers continued t o p u b l i s h n e g a t i v e accounts of abuse by h i p p i e s , teenagers and c o l l e g e students,  LSD  Tyhurst's  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Canadian p r e s s became more symbiotic as j o u r n a l i s t ' s c l a i m s t h a t LSD was by Tyhurst's seemingly  a " s o c i a l menace" were r a t i f i e d  "professional" standing.  But not a l l Canadians were convinced of the drug's e v i l qualities. citizens'  C l a i m i n g t h a t LSD had been "part of many r e s p e c t a b l e l i v e s " f o r more than a decade and had been of  p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t to a l c o h o l i c s , a Carleton U n i v e r s i t y  student  asked the government t o ignore negative p r e s s r e p o r t s -- which tended t o s e n s a t i o n a l i z e cases where improper an adverse LSD  use had  triggered  r e a c t i o n -- and t o r e c o n s i d e r the p o s i t i v e aspects of  therapy.  1 0 9  S i m i l a r l y , a Regina  s o c i a l worker p o s i t e d t h a t  i f the government d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the s o c i a l use of LSD  and l e g i t i m a t e LSD  r e s e a r c h , i t r i s k e d j e o p a r d i z i n g a "great  number of r e s e a r c h programs t a k i n g p l a c e i n North America and i n Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r . "  A c c o r d i n g t o him,  t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s t o people who  LSD p r o v i d e d  important  were "genuinely s e e k i n g  relief  33 S a f e From U t o p i a ?  from troublesome p e r s o n a l i t y problems psychoneurosis and a l c o h o l i s m .  n 1 1  associated with  ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r 1966,  the  f a c t remained that LSD had become more synonymous w i t h the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r a l movement than w i t h psychotherapy. In some ways, though,  LSD's c o n n e c t i o n t o the counter-  c u l t u r e had been apparent f o r some time.  As e a r l y as  1958,  b e a t n i k s , h i p p i e s and students had begun t o i n t e g r a t e the concept of the " s e l f " i n t o t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s .  And as Blewett and Leary  continued t o promote t h i s concept i n the e a r l y 196 0s, more and more youths became a t t r a c t e d t o the i d e a of " d i s c o v e r i n g own  nirvana."  At f i r s t ,  their  LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e the  adverse r e p e r c u s s i o n s such a r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d engender.  In the  long run, however, LSD's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e produced two harmful e f f e c t s : i t undermined the drug's success i n t r e a t i n g a l c o h o l i s m and d e l e g i t i m i z e d LSD r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l . Of f u r t h e r consequence  was  the a t t e n t i o n the  Canadian  government gave t o t h i s growing r e l a t i o n s h i p a f t e r 1966. by i n c r e a s i n g r e p o r t s of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e LSD use by  "unqualified  t h r i l l - s e e k e r s , " government o f f i c i a l s f o c u s s e d c r i t i c a l towards  those p r a c t i t i o n e r s who  medical use.  As Ron Basford, MP  Alarmed  attention  had a p p a r e n t l y advocated i t s nonf o r Vancouver-Burrard,  commented, "I have been more than d i s a p p o i n t e d i n some of our academics,  who  have been making statements and speeches,  seem t o me  to almost c o n s t i t u t e encouragement of the use of -1  -1  which  o  f o r non-research p r o j e c t s . " But academics were not the o n l y group a t t a c k e d by the f e d e r a l government.  R e f e r r i n g t o what had been l a b e l e d the  LSD  34 S a f e From U t o p i a ?  "Cubehead R e v o l u t i o n , " criticized "to  the CBC  1 1 3  Senator Gunnar S.  Thorvaldson  f o r r o m a n t i c i z i n g the s o c i a l use of LSD  a l a r g e extent  which  [had been] r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s widespread use  i n Canada by students... i n c l u d i n g e s p e c i a l l y the b e a t n i k crowd." Condemned f o r having proportion,"  " p o p u l a r i z e d t h i s drug out of a l l  the CBC  1 1 4  maintained  both s i d e s to the s t o r y . "  1 1 5  t h a t i t was  In a l e t t e r to CBC  Paul Saltzman, H o f f e r p r a i s e d the CBC of  view" and g i v i n g "a f a i r ,  problem."  Nevertheless,  misuse of LSD  in  L i k e the 1962  w e l l - b a l a n c e d account  the  federal  a second i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the  apparent  1967. i n q u i r y , t h i s debate drew a t t e n t i o n to  but concluded  "the  f o r n o n - s c i e n t i f i c or medical  that i t was  "necessary to i n t r o d u c e an  a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l which... recognize[d] substances  of the  f e a r i n g t h a t i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l use of  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of LSD purposes"  story editor  for considering " a l l points  LSD might l e a d to a " p s y c h e d e l i c epidemic," government launched  only "presenting  t h i s and  f o r the dangers which they possess  similar  and which...[would]  p r o h i b i t both unauthorized p o s s e s s i o n of them and t r a f f i c k i n g i n them."  The  1 1 7  resulting legislation, B i l l  S-60  passed  in  1967,  f u r t h e r amended the Food and Drugs Act, making the p o s s e s s i o n s a l e of LSD felt  this  illegal.  However, although the f e d e r a l government  "necessary,  p r e v e n t a t i v e s t r a t e g y " would reduce the  amount of black-market  LSD  on Canadian s t r e e t s ,  Saskatchewan  p s y c h i a t r i s t s warned t h a t banning LSD might c o u n t e r a c t government's i n t e n t i o n s .  the  and  S a f e From  35  Utopia?  Although LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s were s u p p o r t i v e of the need t o p r o h i b i t black-market LSD, they were a l s o aware t h a t f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s c o u l d t h r e a t e n the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e i r work. Hollywood H o s p i t a l p s y c h i a t r i s t Ross MacLean charged,  As  "No more  repugnant, and indeed p o t e n t i a l l y l e t h a l , p r a c t i c e can be imagined beyond c r a s s 'commercialization'  of LSD, but c u r r e n t  l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n i s a c l a s s i c example o f 'throwing the -1 -1  Q  baby out with the bath water'!"- -° LJ  Furthermore, there was no  guarantee t h a t black-market LSD use would i n f a c t d e c l i n e . According  t o Duncan Blewett,  Bill  S-60 might have "the e f f e c t of  stopping r e s e a r c h and s t a r t i n g the move i n t o the s t r e e t s " where "the young people... [would] become the major  researchers."  1 1 9  Consequently, "In order t o a v o i d the s a l e o f b o o t l e g LSD," H o f f e r t o l d an audience at a meeting of the Saskatchewan A n g l i c a n Young People's A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1967, "we must be prepared d i s c r e t i o n a r y use of the drug  [by t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s ] and  provide c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . " Nevertheless,  1 2 0  even though LSD was s t i l l  r e s e a r c h purposes, t i g h t e r f e d e r a l c o n t r o l s pharmaceutical  to allow  companies from producing  it.  made a v a i l a b l e f o r dissuaded Consequently,  Health  M i n i s t e r A l l a n J . MacEachern's promise -- t h a t "Any l e g i s l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g L S D . . . w i l l not a f f e c t the present  procedures and  f a c i l i t i e s which have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the use o f t h i s drug in  connection  research"  1 2 1  with l e g i t i m a t e c l i n i c a l -- d i d not h o l d t r u e .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  In the end, where B i l l C-3  (1962) had f a i l e d t o r e g u l a t e the i l l e g a l use of LSD, B i l l S-60  36 S a f e From U t o p i a ?  (1967) succeeded. LSD  In doing so, i t a l s o put an end to l e g i t i m a t e  r e s e a r c h i n Canada.  *** Despite an a u s p i c i o u s beginning,  LSD  research i n  Saskatchewan, B r i t i s h Columbia and the r e s t of Canada e v e n t u a l l y succumbed to e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s .  E x p l o i t e d by the  c u l t u r e , abandoned by pharmaceutical  counter-  companies and condemned by  l a y - p r o f e s s i o n a l s , the media and the f e d e r a l government, r e s e a r c h u l t i m a t e l y became too clouded the 1960s.  In the end,  i n c o n t r o v e r s y to s u r v i v e  d e s p i t e more than a decade of e m p i r i c a l  r e s e a r c h t h a t demonstrated the p o s i t i v e r o l e LSD psychotherapy, r e s e a r c h e r s f a i l e d to convince  could play i n  the masses t h a t  d i d not pose a t h r e a t to the w e l l - b e i n g of s o c i e t y . were obvious:  the nine major LSD  i n Saskatchewan i n 1960  The  LSD  results  r e s e a r c h programs i n o p e r a t i o n  had dwindled to o n l y one by  1967.  Needless t o say, developments such as the p s y c h i a t r i c c e n t r e proposed by H o f f e r i n 1962 Duncan Blewett  LSD  never m a t e r i a l i z e d .  1 2 2  research Perhaps  best summed up the p l i g h t of Saskatchewan  p s y c h i a t r i s t s some years l a t e r when he commented t h a t opponents of LSD been an  had  succeeded i n making "a problem out of what should have  opportunity."  But why  was  p r i o r to 1962?  LSD  1 2 3  r e s e a r c h able to p r o s p e r  At f i r s t glance,  i n Saskatchewan  i t would appear the h o s p i t a b l e  p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n Saskatchewan and the CCF's t r a d i t i o n of c o l l e c t i v i s m and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were two major reasons r e s e a r c h was  able to f l o u r i s h d u r i n g the 1950s.  r e s e a r c h , we must remember, was  However  LSD  not s p e c i f i c to Saskatchewan,  LSD  37 Safe From U t o p i a ?  although i t had been p i o n e e r e d t h e r e , and thus was product of democratic s o c i a l i s m .  Moreover,  work of Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s was time the p r o v i n c e was  not the  d e s p i t e the f a c t the  c a r r i e d out at the same  embroiled i n a major p u b l i c debate over  medical care, t h e r e i s no evidence t o suggest the i n s t i t u t i o n of Medicare had any i n f l u e n c e -- p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e -- on research.  The use of LSD  LSD  i n psychotherapy, then, should be  remembered as another i n n o v a t i o n i n Saskatchewan's "scene of many 'health care  firsts.'"  1 2 4  The LSD c o n t r o v e r s y p r o v i d e s a unique and much needed look i n t o the h i s t o r y of medicine from a s o c i a l  perspective.  Understanding the 1950s as an e r a of conservatism, f a m i l y v a l u e s and s o c i a l homogeneity, i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o LSD r e s e a r c h i n the 1960s was debate.  more a moral p a n i c than a s c i e n t i f i c  Given the s o c i a l and moral upheaval of the 196 0s,  easy t o understand why  l e g i t i m a t e LSD r e s e a r c h was  undermined d e s p i t e near unanimous support from the community.  Moreover,  i t is  continually scientific  the LSD c o n t r o v e r s y a l s o demonstrates  that  medicine and s o c i e t y are c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , each having an impact on the o t h e r .  Seen t h i s way,  one r e a l i z e s that  social  v a l u e s o f t e n have more impact on medical r e s e a r c h than e m p i r i c a l validity. D e s p i t e b e i n g abandoned by p s y c h i a t r i s t s a f t e r i t was i n 1967,  r e c e n t evidence suggests that the p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c  p o t e n t i a l of LSD has not been f o r g o t t e n . Angeles  banned  A c c o r d i n g t o the  Los  Times, a renewal of i n t e r e s t i n LSD r e s e a r c h has  developed i n s e v e r a l U.S.  s t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g New  Mexico,  North  38 S a f e From  Utopia?  C a r o l i n a , Oregon and  California.  L i k e t h e i r Saskatchewan  mentors, American p s y c h i a t r i s t s are d i s c o v e r i n g , LSD  can be a v a l u a b l e p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h  the study of LSD, Psychedelic to p r o v i n g  (MAPS), a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n  "psychedelic  was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1989  800  doctors  and  dedicated  a l r e a d y boasts a membership of over With t h i s renewed  -- s i x s t u d i e s are a l r e a d y underway  i n the U.S.  -- the Leader-Post's  s o c i e t y was  "Safe From Utopia"  1 2 6  rejuvenate  drugs have ' t h e r a p e u t i c p o t e n t i a l , ' "  from a l l over the world.  i n t e r e s t i n the study of LSD  debate.  To  that  the M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  Studies that  tool.  once again,  a s s e r t i o n that without may  once again be open to  LSD  39  Table 1;  Results of Treatment Using L S D as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy Number of Cases  Diagnosis  Much Improved I II  i  n  Character Disorder Psychopathy Borderline & Actual Psychosis  8 12  6 6  4 2  4  4  TOTALS  24  16  Improved  Unchanged  I II  i  n  4 4  3 2  1 2  l 8  I  0  2  1  2  3  0  6  10  6  5  12  1  0  I = Original 24 cases. (Source: C M . Smith, " A N e w Adjunct to the Treatment o f Alcoholism: The Hallucinogenic Drugs," Quarterly Journal ofStudies on Alcohol, vol. 19 (1958), p. 412.) II = 16 subsequent cases using psychedelic therapy. (Source: N . Chwelos, D : B . Blewett, C M . Smith and A . Hoffer, "Use of J-Lysergic A c i d Diethylamide in the Treatment o f Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 20 (1959), p. 581.)  Table 2:  Results of Treatment Using L S D as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy  Diagnosis  Number o f Cases  Much Improved  Improved  Unchanged  None  7  4  Alcoholics:  M  F  Sociopathic Disturbances Personality Trait Disturbances Addiction without Complication Addiction with Chronic Brain Damage  11  ~  31  11  27  8  7  4  —  3  1  None  4  ~  None  TOTALS  4 None  50  11  30  15  16 (Source: J. Ross MacLean, D . C . MacDonald, Ultan P. Byrne, and A . M . Hubbard, "The Use o f L S D - 2 5 in the Treatment o f Alcoholism and Other Psychiatric Problems," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 22 (1961), p. 40.)  Safe From Utopia?  40 Notes  Maurice Demay, "The Beginnings of P s y c h i a t r y i n Saskatchewan," Canadian Mental Health (January-February, 1973, pp. 18-24); H a r l e y D i c k i n s o n , The Two Psychiatries: The Transformation of Psychiatric Work in Saskatchewan, 1905-1984 (Regina: Canadian P l a i n s Research Centre, 1989); and Duane Mombroquette, "A Government and H e a l t h Care: The CCF i n Saskatchewan, 1944-1964," unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Regina, 1990. 1  S.E.D. S h o r t t , "The Canadian H o s p i t a l i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century: An H i s t o r i o g r a p h i c Lament," Journal of Canadian Studies V o l . 18, No. 4 (Winter 1983-84), p. 4. 2  Wendy M i t c h i n s o n , "Canadian M e d i c a l H i s t o r y : D i a g n o s i s and Prognosis," Acadiensis (1982-83 No. 11), p. 125. 3  M a r y - E l l e n Kelm, "'The o n l y p l a c e l i k e l y t o do h e r any good': The Admission o f Women t o B r i t i s h Columbia's P r o v i n c i a l H o s p i t a l f o r the Insane," BC Studies (Winter 1992-93), p. 67. 4  S.E.D. S h o r t t , "The New S o c i a l H i s t o r y of Medicine: Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Research," Archivaria, v o l . 10 (1980), pp. 5-22; and " A n t i q u a r i a n s and Amateurs: R e f l e c t i o n s on the W r i t i n g of Medical H i s t o r y i n Canada," Medicine in Canada: Historical Perspectives (Montreal: McGill-Queens's U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981), pp. 16, 27. 5  George Rosen, "Levels o f I n t e g r a t i o n i n M e d i c a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y : A Review," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (1974 No. 4 ) , p. 456. 6  E x c e r p t s c i t e d i n Maurice S. T a r s h i s , The LSD Controversy: An Overview ( S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1972), p. 9; and i n Oscar J a n i g e r , "The Use of H a l l u c i n o g e n i c Agents i n P s y c h i a t r y , " The California Clinician (Los Angeles: C a l i f o r n i a Osteopathic A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959), pp. 3-4. 7  The best source f o r works r e l a t i n g t o LSD experimentation i n Saskatchewan i s Abram H o f f e r ' s " B i b l i o g r a p h y , 1952-1963" p u b l i s h e d by the P s y c h i a t r i c Research U n i t at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan [Z 6878.P8H69]. 8  Kenneth B e l l , " A c i d T e s t s , " Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n News Hour Documentary, o r i g i n a l l y a i r e d J u l y 6, 1992 . 9  Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board ( h e r e a f t e r SAB), Abram H o f f e r Papers, Kyo (Joe) Izumi t o Ruth Cheney, c c : H o f f e r , J u l y 14, 1966. Attached t o t h i s l e t t e r i s a t r a n s c r i p t of 1 0  Safe From Utopia?  41  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P s y c h e d e l i c Therapy's LSD Conference h e l d i n A m i t y v i l l e , New York, May 1965, where Dr. R i n k e l was a c h i e f speaker. Abram H o f f e r , "Review of P s y c h i a t r i c Research i n Saskatchewan, 1952-1965," Saskatchewan Division C.M.H.A. News Bulletin, v o l . 2, no. 1 (February 1966), p. 4. 1 1  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, Abram H o f f e r , " I n d i c a t i o n s and C o n t r a - i n d i c a t i o n s For LSD Therapy of A l c o h o l i s m , " tape r e c o r d i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, June 16, 1966. (Hereafter c i t e d as Berkeley Speech.) 1 2  Therese Stecyk, "LSD: Research i n Saskatchewan," MagaNova, v o l . 1, no. 1 ( A p r i l 1984), p. 13. 1 3  Abram H o f f e r and Humphrey Osmond, The Hallucinogens (New York: Academic Press, 1967), p. 128. LSD was f i r s t s t u d i e d i n t h i s way by Max R i n k e l i n 1949. See a l s o , Saturday Review, June 1, 1963. In l a t e r years, LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s hypothesized that by developing an a n t i d o t e to counteract the e f f e c t s of LSD, they might be able to cure mental d i s e a s e s such as s c h i z o p h r e n i a . 1 4  F o l l o w i n g up on t h i s theory years l a t e r , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a medical doctors Sidney Cohen and K e i t h Ditman r e p o r t e d that LSD's " a b i l i t y to induce a 'model p s y c h o s i s ' makes i t an e x c e l l e n t l a b o r a t o r y device f o r the study of p s y c h o t i c - l i k e phenomena." Sidney Cohen and K e i t h S. Ditman, "Complications A s s o c i a t e d w i t h L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide (LSD-25)," The Journal of The American Medical Association, V o l . 181 (1962), p. 161. 1 5  U n i v e r s i t y of Regina A r c h i v e s ( h e r e a f t e r URA), Duncan Blewett Papers, Newspaper C l i p p i n g s F i l e , 97-81 Box 2. T h i s excerpt came from The Leader Post, although no date or page number was recorded. 1 6  17  Abram H o f f e r ,  Berkeley  Speech, June 16,  1966.  Abram H o f f e r and Humphrey Osmond, New Hope For Alcoholics (New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1968), pp. 22-28. The h i s t o r y of a l c o h o l i s m i s best o u t l i n e d i n E.M. Jellinek, The Disease Concept of Alcoholism (New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : H i l l h o u s e Press, 1960). 1 8  Saskatchewan News, v o l . 14, no. 16 (June 23, 1959), p. 3; A. H o f f e r , CM. Smith, N. Chwelos, M.J. C a l l b e c k and M. Mahon, " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Response to d - l y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide and i t s R e l a t i o n s h i p to Adrenochrome L e v e l s , " Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, vol. 20 (1959), pp. 125-134. Because adrenochrome allowed p a t i e n t s to r e l a x and concentrate on t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , H o f f e r hypothesized that a l c o h o l i c s were "abnormally tense 1 9  Safe From Utopia? i n d i v i d u a l s who used a l c o h o l t o a l l e v i a t e t h e i r t e n s i o n , " the r e s u l t of an adrenochrome d e f i c i e n c y . Montreal Star, January 15, 1960. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, A p r i l 5, 1961; 1, no. 1 ( A p r i l 1984). 2 0  See a l s o the and MagaNova, v o l .  Abram H o f f e r , B e r k e l e y Speech. A l s o , The Hallucinogens, p. 153; New Hope for Alcoholics, pp. 55-56. In t h i s s e s s i o n , Osmond t r e a t e d two p a t i e n t s , a male and a female, w i t h 200 micrograms of LSD. Reportedly, the male remained sober f o r s i x months a f t e r d i s c h a r g e , while the female remained unchanged f o r s i x months b e f o r e becoming sober. 2 1  The Hallucinogens, p. 154. D e l i r i u m tremens, or t o x i c psychoses, u s u a l l y occur i n a l c o h o l i c s a f t e r a prolonged p e r i o d of continuous d r i n k i n g . 2 2  2 3  2 4  Abram H o f f e r , B e r k e l e y Speech, June 16, The Hallucinogens,  p.  1966.  154.  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, S-A207, f i l e IX, "An A l c o h o l i s m Treatment Program: LSD, M a l v a r i a and N i c o t i n i c A c i d , " unpublished manuscript, p. 37; and The Hallucinogens, p. 155. 2 5  Oscar J a n i g e r , "The Use of H a l l u c i n o g e n i c Agents i n P s y c h i a t r y , " The California Clinician, July/August 1959, p. 9. Importantly, J a n i g e r a l s o acknowledged t h a t "only a small p o r t i o n of the t o t a l dose of LSD ever reaches the b r a i n , " and t h a t w i t h i n two hours "70 percent of the t o t a l dose has been metabolized by the l i v e r . " 2 6  2 7  The Hallucinogens,  p.  95.  I t was a l s o at t h i s time t h a t H o f f e r and Osmond abandoned the theory t h a t a l c o h o l i s m was the r e s u l t of some b i o c h e m i c a l d e f i c i e n c y ( i e . adrenochrome). Instead, they d i s c o v e r e d , as d i d many o t h e r s c h o l a r s of a l c o h o l i s m , t h a t a l c o h o l i s m was i n f a c t a d i s e a s e and t h a t i t c o u l d be cured New Hope for Alcoholics, p. 22. 2 8  I t was here that Osmond c o i n e d the term " p s y c h e d e l i c , " which he d e f i n e d as a compound " l i k e LSD, or mescaline whic e n r i c h e s the mind and e n l a r g e s the v i s i o n . " The Hallucinogens, p. 132. New Hope for Alcoholics, pp. 57-58. 2 9  3 0  37; 3 1  "Use  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, "An A l c o h o l Treatment Program," p. The Hallucinogens, p. 13 6. N. Chwelos, D.B. Blewett, CM. Smith and A. H o f f e r , of d - L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide i n the Treatment of  Safe From Utopia?  43  A l c o h o l i s m , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 20 (1959), pp. 577-590. In The Hallucinogens, p. 136, H o f f e r maintains that t h i s study "was the f i r s t one i n which the p s y c h e d e l i c method of t r e a t i n g p a t i e n t s was r e p o r t e d . " A l s o , f o r an e a r l y review of the t r a n s i t i o n between psychotomimetic and p s y c h e d e l i c r e s e a r c h , see Humphrey Osmond, "A Review of the C l i n i c a l E f f e c t s of Psychotomimetic Agents," Annals of the New York Academy of Science, v o l . 66 (1957), pp. 418-434; and CM. Smith, "A New Adjunct t o the Treatment of A l c o h o l i s m : The H a l l u c i n o g e n i c Drugs," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 19 (1958), pp. 406-417. 3 2  Chwelos e t al.,  pp.  589-590.  URA, Blewett Papers, 88-29 Box 3. J. T e r r i l l , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of LSD," unpublished paper read at the symposium on The C l i n i c a l and T h e r a p e u t i c Use of LSD, Napa S t a t e H o s p i t a l , Napa, C a l i f o r n i a , January 1960. 3 3  3 4  J a n i g e r , p.  11.  MacLean's, March 15, 1958; Leader-Post, December 18, 1963. In the l a t t e r a r t i c l e , Blewett a l s o maintained that "You can't t e l l what you look l i k e u n t i l you use a m i r r o r . LSD i s that m i r r o r . " 3 5  URA, Blewett Papers, 91-87 Box Douglas, August 26, 1966, p. 3. 3 6  2, Blewett t o  T.C  The c h i e f p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the " s e l f " concept were Duncan Blewett i n Canada and Timothy Leary i n the U n i t e d States. 3 7  C o u n t e r - c u l t u r a l use of LSD and the impact i t had on bona fide LSD r e s e a r c h i s covered by M a r t i n A. Lee i n Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985). For a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of LSD abuse by the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e , see Donald B. L o u r i a , "The Abuse of LSD," i n R i c h a r d C. DeBold and R u s s e l l C. Leaf (eds.) LSD; Man and Society (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp. 36-52; R i c h a r d H. Blum, Utopiates: The Use and Users of LSD 25 (New York: A t h e r t o n Press, 1964). 3 8  J . Ross MacLean, D.C. MacDonald, U l t a n P. Byrne and A.M. Hubbard, "The Use of LSD-25 i n the Treatment of A l c o h o l i s m and Other P s y c h i a t r i c Problems," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 22 (1961), pp. 43-44. 3 9  Sidney Cohen and K e i t h S. Ditman, "Complications A s s o c i a t e d w i t h L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide (LSD-25)," The Journal of The American Medical Association, V o l . 181 (1962), p. 162. 4 0  Safe From Utopia? For r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g t o LSD e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n Saskatchewan ( i n a d d i t i o n t o the a r t i c l e s c i t e d w i t h i n ) see: S.E. Jensen, "A Treatment Programme f o r A l c o h o l i c s i n a Mental H o s p i t a l , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), pp. 109-121; Abram H o f f e r and HumphreyOsmond, "A B r i e f Account of the Saskatchewan Research i n P s y c h i a t r y , " Journal of Neuropsychiatry, v o l . 2 (1961), pp. 287-291; and P.O. O ' R e i l l y and Genevieve Reich, " L y s e r g i c A c i d and the A l c o h o l i c , " Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), pp. 331-334. "LSD," a Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n documentary that a i r e d on the Sense of History program, August 27, 1994 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sense of History); and H o f f e r , B e r k e l e y Speech, June 16, 1966. For an i n - d e p t h b i b l i o g r a p h y of many of these s c i e n t i f i c papers see The Hallucinogens, pp. 83-88, 95-103, 128-139, 148-196. 4 2  Such f a c t o r s i n c l u d e dose l e v e l , frequency of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a t i e n t and t h e r a p i s t e x p e c t a t i o n s , and the s e t t i n g o r environment i n which the s e s s i o n was conducted. A l s o of importance were the w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n s of LSD p r a c t i t i o n e r s throughout the world -from F r e u d i a n and Jungian t h e r a p i s t s t o b e h a v i o u r i s t s and existentialists. See a l s o Robert E. Mogar, "Current S t a t u s and Future Trends i n P s y c h e d e l i c (LSD) Research," Symposium on LSD: Basic Problems and Potentialities, San Jose S t a t e C o l l e g e , May 9, 1964. 4 3  Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen S. P l a c i d i , "A S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A n a l y s i s of the LSD Controversy," Journal of Humanistic Psychology, v o l . 23, no. 4 ( F a l l 1983), p. 31. 4 4  Regina Leader-Post, March 18, 1957; Saskatoon StarPhoenix, November 25, 1960; A p r i l 5, 1961; Leader-Post, June 8, 1961; June 24, 1961.  4 5  MacLean's, October 1, 1953; Sidney Katz, "The Heaven o r H e l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964; M u r i e l Clements, "New Hope f o r A l c o h o l i c s , " Saturday Night, J u l y 4, 1959. 4 6  Vancouver Sun, August 11, 1959; Montreal Star, January 15, 1960; Toronto Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962. In the Globe and Mail a r t i c l e , H o f f e r r e p o r t e d that Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s had " t r e a t e d about 500 a l c o h o l i c p a t i e n t s w i t h LSD" and were s e e i n g them r e c o v e r where they "had not seen them do so b e f o r e . " More i m p o r t a n t l y , H o f f e r i n d i c a t e d that s i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of LSD therapy, "About h a l f the 500 have been sober o r v e r y much improved." 4 7  Ottawa Citizen, March 8, 1960. T h i s a r t i c l e a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t that the success of LSD therapy i s r a r e l y achieved by Antabuse, an a n t i - a l c o h o l i s m drug used i n  4 8  44  Safe From Utopia?  45  Canadian a l c o h o l i s m c l i n i c s that causes nausea and at the t a s t e of a l c o h o l .  flushing  Scope Weekly, February 19, 1959; P/A, August 1966; North Renfrew Times, December 3, 1958. 4 9  5 0  Time, June 28,  1954;  March 28,  The  1960.  SAB, J . Walter Erb Papers, Saskatchewan M i n i s t e r of Health, 1956-1961. T r a n s c r i p t of a r a d i o t a l k g i v e n i n connection w i t h A l c o h o l Information Week i n 1960 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Radio T a l k ) , GR 91, 012Q3, p. 3. 5 1  5 2  The Globe and Mail,  October 20,  5 3  Star-Phoenix,  5 4  SAB,  5 5  The Western Producer,  5 6  SAB,  5 7  Ottawa C i t i z e n , December 4, 1958;  October 26,  1962.  1962.  Erb Papers, Radio Talk, p. June 19,  Erb Papers, Radio Talk, p.  3. 1958. 3. March 8,  1960.  URA, Blewett Papers, 91-87, Box 3. James S. Tyhurst, "The T h e r a p e u t i c Use of d - L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide (LSD25)," unpublished manuscript prepared f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959, p. 31. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Tyhurst.) R e f e r r e d to as The B r i t i s h Columbia Report, t h i s manuscript formed much of the b a s i s f o r T y h u r s t ' s c h a l l e n g e to LSD r e s e a r c h i n the Vancouver p r e s s . I t should be remembered that although t h i s document was w r i t t e n i n 1959, the impact of T y h u r s t ' s c r i t i c i s m d i d not become a f a c t o r u n t i l a f t e r 1962. 5 8  Katz, "The Heaven or H e l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964. Apparently, Tyhurst was not the o n l y p s y c h i a t r i s t who f e l t t h i s way. As Theodore Rothman, s e n i o r p s y c h i a t r i s t at the U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , maintained: "I'm a g a i n s t chemical brainwashing. I p r o t e s t the i m p a i r i n g of the i n t a c t human b r a i n w i t h chemicals i n o r d e r t o d i s o r g a n i z e the nervous system, producing p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s which may be i r r e v e r s i b l e . " 5 9  The " c o n t r o l l e d measures" Tyhurst r e f e r r e d t o most o f t e n were adequate numbers of t r i a l s , s t a n d a r d i z e d d e f i n i t i o n s of o f t - u s e d terms (such as "improved") and adequate sampling procedures designed t o i n c l u d e a l a r g e diverse population. 6 0  and  Safe From Utopia? URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett to Mrs. E.S. P r e s i d e n t , Canadian Parapsychology Foundation, 1958 .  6 1  Garett, November 3,  Tyhurst, "The T h e r a p e u t i c Use of d - L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide (LSD-25)," pp. 22, 26, 31. See a l s o , MagaNova, A p r i l 1984. 6 2  Tyhurst, "The T h e r a p e u t i c Use of d - L y s e r g i c A c i d Diethylamide (LSD-25)," p. 26. Leader-Post, January 14, 1963. There i s no evidence to suggest t h i s committee actually existed. 6 3  Tyhurst, "The T h e r a p e u t i c Use Diethylamide (LSD-25)," p. 22. 6 4  of d - L y s e r g i c A c i d  John M. MacDonald and James A.V. G a l v i n , "Experimental P s y c h o t i c S t a t e s , " American Journal of Psychiatry (1956), pp. 970-971, 976. 6 5  Paul H. Hoch, " P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l l y Induced Psychoses," American Handbook of Psychiatry, S. A r i e t i , ed. (New York: B a s i c Books, 1959), pp. 1697, 1708. 6 6  6 7  Vancouver Province,  May  6 8  SAB,  H o f f e r to Joe Izumi,  H o f f e r Papers,  Leader-Post, January February 5, 1963. 6 9  5,  14,  1960.  1963,  May  December 18,  26,  1960.  1963,  C h r i s t o p h e r Hyde, Abuse of Trust: The Career of Dr. James Tyhurst (Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1991), p. 43 . 7 0  7 1  CBC,  Sense of History,  August 27,  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, H o f f e r to 1964. See a l s o , P.O. O ' R e i l l y and " L y s e r g i c A c i d and the A l c o h o l i c , " Studies on Alcohol, v o l . 23 (1962), 7 2  7 3  Leader-Post,  June 24,  1994.  Harold Abramson, June 5, Genevieve Reich, Quarterly Journal of pp. 331-334.  1961.  Katz, "The Heaven or H e l l Drugs," MacLean's, June 20, 1964. A c c o r d i n g to Jonathan Cole, d i r e c t o r of psychopharmacological r e s e a r c h at the U.S. N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of H e a l t h i n Maryland, " c u l t o g e n i c " was a term used to d e s c r i b e the "psychic a d d i c t i o n " t h a t o c c u r r e d as people who took LSD "developed boundless enthusiasm and wanted to g i v e i t to everyone e l s e . " 7 4  7 5  Ibid.  Safe From Utopia?  47  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, H o f f e r t o Dr. Ruth Fox, May 6, 1966; Star-Phoenix, October 26, 1962. A c c o r d i n g t o H o f f e r and F.S. Larson, D i r e c t o r of the p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s branch of the Saskatchewan H e a l t h Department, i n a d d i t i o n t o the "Harvard A f f a i r , " s i m i l a r misuses of LSD had been r e p o r t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , Texas and New York. 7 6  The r e s u l t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , B i l l C-3, i n i t i a l l y forbade the s a l e o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of LSD and Thalidomide t o any person, i n c l u d i n g medical d o c t o r s . However, LSD was l a t e r made a v a i l a b l e t o p s y c h i a t r i s t s f o r " r e s e a r c h purposes only." 7 7  Star-Phoenix, October 20, 1962. 7 8  7 9  1962,  October 20, 1962; The Globe  House of Commons Debates, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r ,  Official Report, 1962), p. 1545.  8 0  Star-Phoenix,  October 20, 1962.  8 1  Toronto Daily  Star,  8 2  8 3  84  1964 .  and Mail, November 12,  October 20, 1962.  Ibid. Ibid. SAB,  S e l l e r s was a l s o a member of the s a i d  committee.  H o f f e r Papers, H o f f e r t o H a r o l d Abramson, June 1,  Leader-Post, February 23, 1963; August 14, 1963; The Carillon, U n i v e r s i t y of Regina student newspaper, March 6, 1967 .  8 5  The Globe and Mail, October 20, 1962; Toronto Telegraph, October 20, 1962.  8 6  House of Commons Debates, November 12, 1962, p. 1359; December 7, 1962, pp. 2432, 2429-2430. 8 7  88  Ibid.,  p. 2438.  8 9  CBC, Sense of History,  August 27, 1994.  9 0  House of Commons Debates,  November 13, 1962, p. 1567.  Leader-Post, January 9, 1963. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a r t i c l e , the Food and Drugs A c t was "amended t o a l l o w use o f LSD by m e d i c a l l y competent people i n h o s p i t a l s u s i n g i t f o r treatment and r e s e a r c h . " 9 1  URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett t o Sidney Katz, February 15, 1965. In t h i s l e t t e r , Blewett remarked that LSD had been abandoned by Sandoz because " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make 9 2  Safe From Utopia?  48  and has never been p r o f i t a b l e because of the restricted distribution." I t should a l s o be was always hard t o o b t a i n i n Canada, so much Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s even pondered the producing i t themselves. 9 3  Leader-Post,  June 24,  extremely noted t h a t so that i d e a of  LSD  1961.  URA, Blewett Papers, H o f f e r t o Blewett, February 8, 1967. In t h i s l e t t e r H o f f e r laments that the p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h c e n t r e , which was scheduled t o be b u i l t " l a t e r t h i s year," was l o o k i n g "more d o u b t f u l and d o u b t f u l . " 9 4  9 5  Star-Phoenix,  March 3,  1962.  URA, Blewett Papers, Blewett t o each Member of Parliament, November 30, 1967. 9 6  9 7  The Hallucinogens,  p.  234.  Kiyo Izumi, "LSD and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design," i n Bernard Aaronson and Humphrey Osmond (eds.), Psychedelics: The Uses and Indications of Hallucinogenic Drugs, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1971), p. 383. 9 8  99  The Hallucinogens,  100  Leader-Post,  101  15, 1 0 2  p.  234.  October 8,  1964.  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, H o f f e r t o Hugh Edwards, February 1965. Star-Phoenix,  May  26,  1965.  The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and in Alcoholism, H a r o l d A. Abramson, ed. ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1965). 1 0 3  One such development c a l l e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P s y c h e d e l i c Therapy which would h e l p t o s t a n d a r d i z e p s y c h e d e l i c methodologies. 1 0 4  1 0 5  Life,  March 25,  1966.  Leader-Post, March 8, 1967; Vancouver Sun, March 11, 1967. These a r t i c l e s drew a t t e n t i o n t o the i n c r e a s i n g use of LSD by h i g h - s c h o o l students and "LSD c u l t s " i n Vancouver. 1 0 6  The Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre A r c h i v e s ( h e r e a f t e r DCA), John G. Diefenbaker, Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n , Papers, Moore t o Diefenbaker, March 17, 1967. 1 0 7  1 0 8  Toronto Telegram,  March 21,  1967.  Safe From Utopia?  49  DCA, Diefenbaker Papers, Robert A. Barnes t o Diefenbaker, March 22, 1967. 1 0 9  1 1 0  Ibid.,  Leonard Ghan t o Diefenbaker, February 28,  1967.  Donald B. L o u r i a , "The Abuse of LSD," i n R i c h a r d C. DeBold and R u s s e l l C. Leaf (eds.) LSD; Man and Society (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), pp. 32, 51. M a r t i n A. Lee i n Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion (New York: Grove Press, 1985), pp. 1-3, 7. 1 1 1  1 1 2  URA,  Blewett Papers, B a s f o r d to Blewett, March 8,  1967.  Senate Debates, Official Report, A p r i l 25, 1967, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967), p. 1824. In a s e r i e s of documentaries which examined the use of LSD i n Canadian s o c i e t y , the CBC c o i n e d the term "Cubeheads" t o d e s c r i b e those who used LSD, which was commonly s o l d i n sugar cubes, for "kicks." Two such documentaries were "Eyes of Tomorrow," which a i r e d on A p r i l 2 and 9, 1967, and "This Hour Has Seven Days," which a i r e d on A p r i l 24, 1967. 1 1 3  1 1 4  Ibid.,  p.  1821.  URA, Blewett Papers, Hugh Edwards, CBC a f f i l i a t e , t o Blewett, May 15, 1967. 1 1 5  1 1 6  SAB,  H o f f e r Papers, H o f f e r t o Saltzman, A p r i l 10,  Senate 1794 .  1 1 7  Winnipeg  Debates,  Official  Report,  A p r i l 19, 1967,  1967. p.  SAB, H o f f e r Papers, MacLean t o Susan Wright, c c : H o f f e r , August 2, 1967. 1 1 8  1 1 9  120  Leader-Post, Star-Phoenix,  URA, 1967.  1 2 1  1 2 2  1 2 3  -1  May May  4,  1967.  1,  1967  Blewett Papers, MacEachern  The Carillon,  March 6,  MagaNova, A p r i l  t o Blewett, A p r i l  3,  1967.  1984.  O A  Duane Mombroquette, "A Government and H e a l t h Care: The CCF i n Saskatchewan, 1944-1964," u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Regina, 1990, pp. i i , 167. 1 2 5  Los Angeles  Times, November 18,  1994.  R e f e r r i n g t o p r e d i c t i o n s that Saskatchewan p s y c h i a t r i s t s would soon d i s c o v e r a cure f o r mental i l l n e s s , 1 2 6  Safe From Utopia? a l c o h o l i s m i n p a r t i c u l a r , c y n i c a l j o u r n a l i s t Jim McGunigal impugned i n A p r i l 1958 t h a t "For the time b e i n g the c i t y i s safe from U t o p i a . " Leader-Post, A p r i l 19, 1958.  Safe From Utopia? Bibliography Primary  Sources  Newspapers and Magazines The Carillon,  1967.  Ottawa Citizen, Toronto Daily  1958, Star,  1960. 1962.  Toronto Globe and Mail, Regina Leader Life,  1962.  Post, 1950-1967.  1966.  Los Angeles  Times,  MacLean's, Montreal  1994.  1958.  Star,  1960.  The North Renfrew Times, P/A,  1958.  1966.  Vancouver Province, Saskatchewan Saturday  News, 1959.  Review,  Scope Weekly, Saskatoon  1960.  1963.  1959.  Star-Phoenix,  Vancouver Sun,  1959.  Toronto Telegraph, Toronto Telegram, Time, 1954,  1950-1967.  1962. 1967.  1960.  The Western Producer,  1958.  Safe From Utopia?  52  P e r s o n a l Papers, Government Records, P u b l i c a t i o n s and M i n i s t e r i a l Papers House of Commons Debates, P r i n t e r , 1962).  Official  U n i v e r s i t y of Regina A r c h i v e s .  Report  (Ottawa: Queen's  Duncan Blewett  Papers, 1950-1985.  The Honourable John G. Diefenbaker Centre A r c h i v e s . John G. 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