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Growth vs. integrity : environmentalism and localism in a changing community : one citizen’s participatory.. 1996

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GROWTH VS. INTEGRITY: ENVIRONMENTALISM AND LOCALISM IN A CHANGING COMMUNITY ONE CITIZEN'S PARTICIPATORY GLIMPSE by JENNIFER LYNN RUDD B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF • THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accep t this thesis as conforming to t^e Kpeuuired standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1996 ©Jennifer Lynn Rudd, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Spg. i f iKA f v ^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s i s a case study undertaken i n White Rock, a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l , oceanside town of 16,000 on Canada's southwest border. The p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h was undertaken between 1989 and 1993 when the author was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e i n the community. Noting a c h a l l e n g e to an encrusted c i t y c o u n c i l from a l o o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d group who soon became members or supporters of the "White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n " , the p a r t i c i p a n t intervened to e x p l o r e t h e o r i e s about the i n s t a b i l i t y of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a 1 s o c i e t y and the emancipatory power of new s o c i a l movements. B e l i e v i n g that the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s o c i a l movement cou l d a t t r a c t broad p u b l i c appeal and was conducive to g r a s s r o o t s p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c s , the p a r t i c i p a n t u t i l i z e d the power of environmental ideology by p u b l i c a l l y p r i o r i t i z i n g environmental i s s u e s while seeking a c o u n c i l seat as a p o l i t i c a l newcomer i n a town where l o c a l e l e c t i o n s were o f t e n uncontested. Although unsuc c e s s f u l and s u b j e c t to c o u n t e r v a i l i n g gender p o l i t i c s , the author placed seventh on a b a l l o t of 11 f o r s i x c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s , outperforming s e v e r a l long-term and i n f l u e n t i a l r e s i d e n t s of the community. Chapter One p r o v i d e s a b r i e f , overview of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , with f u r t h e r methodological d i s c u s s i o n i n Appendix A. Chapter Two g i v e s a comparative d i s c u s s i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and l o c a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s , suggesting how they p e r t a i n to the White Rock community. Chapter Three o f f e r s a p r o f i l e of the community of White Rock as i t undergoes c e r t a i n changes while f a c i n g environmental problems. The f i n a l chapter c o n s i d e r s changing p o l i t i c a l and power r e l a t i o n s between l o c a l and s e n i o r governments as they respond to environmental r e g i o n a l problems. During the p e r i o d of i n t e r v e n t i o n , new p o l i t i c a l p a r t y p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments were e l e c t e d , and i n White Rock a member of the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n became the c i t y ' s p r o v i n c i a l member of the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly, while an a c t i v e Reform Party member became f e d e r a l member of Parliament. As w e l l , the Boundary Board of Health won a power b a t t l e with c i t y c o u n c i l to e l i m i n a t e swimming at White Rock's p o l l u t e d west beach, demonstrating the newly won i n f l u e n c e of the p r o v i n c i a l government. In e x p l o r i n g and comparing e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s , both the r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e review i n d i c a t e that e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology and p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e can lead to a r e f o r m a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s , r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and p r e s t i g e f o r environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT p. i * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS f » v 1. INTRODUCTION p . l 2. ENVIRONMENTAL ISM AND LOCALISM p. 38 3. PROFILE OF A COMMUNITY IN TRANSITION p.97 4. CHANGING THE POLITICAL CONTEXT: THE POWER OF ENVIRONMENTAL I SM p. 141 5. APPENDIX A: METHODOLOGICAL NOTES p. 169 6. APPENDIX B: CHRONOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY p. 178 7. APPENDIX C ( F i g u r e 1) WHITE ROCK COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE 1989 (Researcher's Conception) p. 182 APPENDIX C ( F i g u r e 2) WHITE ROCK COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE 1994 (Researcher's Conception) ..p. 183 8. APPENDIX Dt COMPARATIVE FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTALIST AND TRADITIONAL LOCALIST IDEOLOGY p. 184 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY p. 185 i v A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w i s h t o t h a n k m y t h e s i s c h a i r , D r . B o b R a t n e r f o r b e i n g s u c h a g o o d e d i t o r , a n d a l w a y s b e i n g m o r e E n g e l s t h a n M a r x . I a l s o w a n t t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r B r i a n E l l i o t t f o r h i s t h o u g h t f u l , i n f o r m e d i n p u t o n l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s a n d D r . D a w n C u r r i e f o r g u i d i n g m e t h r o u g h t u r b u l e n t t i m e s i n t h e r e s e a r c h p e r i o d . M o s t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e p e o p l e o f W h i t e R o c k f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p a n d s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y m e m b e r s o f t h e l o c a l L i b e r a l a n d N e w D e m o c r a t i c P a r t i e s f o r t h e i r z e a l i n b o t h t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o j e c t a n d i n k e e p i n g u p m y s e l f - e s t e e m . S p e c i a l t h a n k s g o t o t h e e n e r g e t i c P a t r i c i a K e a l y , D a v e M a r t i n , W i 1 f H u r d a n d K a t h y H i l l , a c a m p a i g n m a n a g e r w h o c a n l a u g h o f f d e f e a t . B u t w i t h o u t t h e u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s o f m y t w o y o u n g d a u g h t e r s , B r a n d e e a n d M o n i c a , u p c o m i n g s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s a n d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s t h e m s e l v e s , t h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s looks at environmental ism as an urban s o c i a l movement u t i l i z i n g a case study approach as pioneered by Manuel C a s t e l 1 ' s work on urban s o c i a l movements (1972; 1983). In so doing my i n t e n t was not only to observe the i n t e r a c t i o n between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology and l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s , but to p a r t i c i p a t e i n ways that might augment the emancipatory power of new s o c i a l movements ( O f f e : 1985, Boggs: 1986; Paehlke: 1989). I f e l t f o r t u n a t e i n being s i t u a t e d i n a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l , urban area that f e a t u r e d a d e f i n e d sense of l o c a l e and i n which I had been e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s i d e n t and employee f o r a decade. The year I began to engage i n t h i s urban r e s e a r c h , 1989, was a time of unpopular p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. I was reminded of C h r i s t o p h e r Lasch's theory about the i n s t a b i l i t y of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y (1972). B e l i e v i n g that such i n s t a b i l i t y c o uld be e x p l o i t e d by environmental ideology to c r e a t e change, e n a b l i n g p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e r s to crack an e x i s t i n g l o c a l power base and a l t e r government/community r e l a t i o n s , I decided to operate as an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t i n the p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h s t y l e that has evolved from the G r i a u l e school of ethnography i n the past 20 years ( C l i f f o r d : 1983, Tanden: 1985). Use of the advocacy rese a r c h method, which aims to i n c r e a s e emancipatory knowledge, u t i l i z e s r esearch as p r a x i s ( L a t h e r : 1986). As such, the method i t s e l f can be viewed as compatible with e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology, a l l o w i n g me to t e s t not only the 2 emancipatory power of the environmental ism but the power of emancipatory method. Already experienced i n i n v e s t i g a t i v e j o u r n a l i s t i c methods f o r c o l l e c t i n g data, I delved i n t o p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n a community where I had p r e v i o u s l y worked as a newspaper r e p o r t e r (See Appendix B f o r a c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i s t i n g of my r e s i d e n t i a l h i s t o r y , p r o f e s s i o n a l background and community involvement i n White Rock, and i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n with my academic p u r s u i t s ) . A f t e r d i s t a n c i n g myself from the p r o j e c t which spanned 1989 to 1994, I found myself s u r p r i s e d at the success of the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n both undertaken i n the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e research and p r o g r e s s i v e change. (See Appendix A f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the methodological i s s u e s r e l e v a n t to t h i s r e s e a r c h ) . When I moved out of White Rock, B r i t i s h Columbia, a r e s i d e n t i a l community on the U. S. border south of Vancouver i n J u l y , 1994, the c i t y was under the stewardship of a c o n s e r v a t i v e A u s t r i a n immigrant who made h i s l i v i n g as an a i r l i n e p i l o t and had r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d h i s new L i b e r a l p a r t y membership. A f t e r s i x years on c o u n c i l , Hardy Staub was the c i t y ' s new mayor, r e p l a c i n g a popular p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t born and r a i s e d i n White Rock, Gordon Hogg. One p o l i t i c a l newcomer, Doug MacLean, sat on White Rock c o u n c i l , a p r e v i o u s newcomer, Judy F o r s t e r proved popular with v o t e r s going i n t o her second term, and former c o u n c i l l o r Louise Hutchinson returned from a s t i n t as school 3 t r u s t e e . In a d d i t i o n , a c o u n c i l l o r who campaigned on environmental i s s u e s , James C o l e r i d g e was r e t u r n e d , l e a v i n g only two c o u n c i l l o r s who had served on c o u n c i l f o r more than a decade, Vin Coyne and David Webb (a c a r d - c a r r y i n g New Democrat). Several s e n i o r c i t y s t a f f had r e t i r e d by 1993, Bruce H a l l , d i r e c t o r of permits and l i c e n c e s , Pat Duke, f i r e c h i e f , and Bob Gascoyne, c i t y engineer. The summer t o u r i s t season, on which the c o u n c i l l o r s ' business s u p p o r t e r s depended, saw continued p o l l u t i o n warning s i g n s posted on the beach where storm sewer d r a i n s d e posited high f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts and e n t i r e beaches were c l o s e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s by the p r o v i n c i a l board of h e a l t h d e s p i t e f i n a n c i a l setbacks to w a t e r f r o n t b u s i n e s s e s . Growing up i n Coquitlam well north of White Rock i n the 1960s, 1 remembered White Rock beaches as a playground where we could d i g f o r sand d o l l a r s , s t a r f i s h and e l u s i v e "gooey ducks" memorable f o r t h e i r clam h o l e s and s q u i r t i n g i n the sand. T h i r t y years ago, as former Mayor Gordon Hogg a l s o remembers, and p u b l i c a l l y remarked at a 1990 c o u n c i l meeting, c h i l d r e n used to run through the storm d r a i n s which entered the beach under r a i l w a y t r a c k s . In the mid 1970s an o i l s p i l l from an Alaskan crude o i l tanker headed f o r Cherry P o i n t south of White Rock blackened the beach. At the time, v o l u n t e e r s could only swab the o i l s l i c k s with f i s t f u l s of straw. From that i n c i d e n t was born the White 4 Rock based Boundary Bay O i l S p i l l S o c i e t y . Greenpeace, the S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n And Environmental C o n t r o l (SPEC), and l a t e r , the Western Canada Wilderness Committee (WCWC), suddenly found White Rock a r e c e p t i v e town f o r f u n d r a i s i n g and v o l u n t e e r s . Boasting of a sunnier, d r i e r c l i m a t e than Coquitlam and the r e s t of Greater Vancouver, and of s c e n i c v i s t a s , White Rock has enjoyed p r i c i e r p r o p e r t i e s with a g r e a t e r sense of community than West Vancouver and other ocean view l o c a l e s i n the warmest r e g i o n of the n a t i o n . As such, White Rock has been home to an a r t i s t i c and r e t i r e m e n t p o p u l a t i o n which, as g e n t r i f i c a t i o n has progressed, i s i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by members of the p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial and t e c h n i c a l c l a s s as well as c a p i t a l i n v e s t o r s who p r e f e r to l i v e i n , as well as own the c i t y . As White Rock has enjoyed a high p r o p o r t i o n of c u l t u r a l l y minded r e s i d e n t s , so has i t had p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s who a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . In White Rock neighbourhoods, these i n d i v i d u a l s meet with working c l a s s c i t i z e n s to form a l l i a n c e s focussed on g a r n e r i n g funds f o r l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e p r o j e c t s such as Marine D r i v e b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , a r t s c e n t r e p r o j e c t s , underground w i r i n g and b e t t e r sewage treatment. Conforming to a longstanding s t a t u s quo, these White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s tended, u n t i l the time of my p o l i t i c a l involvement beginning i n 1989, to be c o n s e r v a t i v e . (See Appendix C, F i g u r e 1, f o r a mapping of the community decision-making s t r u c t u r e i n White 5 Rock t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n 1989). T h e s e s m a l l " c " c o n s e r v a t i v e s were i n c l i n e d t o p l a c e t h e blame f o r e c o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s on i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d e r s , b l a m i n g b e a c h p o l l u t i o n on t h r e e i l l e g a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o i l e t s as r e p o r t e d i n t h e l o c a l p a p e r , o r s e e i n g s u c h p r o b l e m s a s r e s u l t i n g f r o m e c o n o m i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s by o u t s i d e g o v e r n m e n t s , s u c h as t h e S u r r e y c i t y c o u n c i l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . A s o c i a l p o l i c y o f g o i n g ' g r e e n 1 was a t odds w i t h a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t framed s o c i a l v a l u e s i n terms o f p r o f i t s p i n - o f f s , and f a v o u r e d s h o r t term g a i n o v e r l o n g term d e t r i m e n t . The e c o n o m i c a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h w h ich e x i s t e d on a macro and l o c a l l e v e l i n 1990, when I began t h e t h e s i s p r o j e c t i n White Rock, were e n a c t e d by l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s who were l a r g e l y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " p r o v i n c i a l government and who were a c t i v e p r o m o t e r s o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c i t y . 1 c o n s i d e r e d c i t y h a l l t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c f a s h i o n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r , W i l l i a m B a l d w i n . The i n a b i l i t y o f c i t y h a l l t o a d d r e s s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s b r o u g h t on by d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e a p p a r e n t r e l u c t a n c e t o i n c l u d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s and p l a n n i n g i n i t s o f f i c i a l community p l a n , f u e l l e d my b i a s . S i n c e t h e o r i s t s view e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism a s an i m p o r t a n t wedge i n t h e L e f t ' s c o u n t e r - a t t a c k a g a i n s t New R i g h t hegemony ( P a e h 1 k e : 1 9 8 9 ) , I t o o k up t h i s theme a s a v e h i c l e f o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n W hite Rock p o l i t i c s . F o r example, l would r a i s e 6 e c o l o g i c a l or environmental i s s u e s at l o c a l c o u n c i l meetings and p u b l i c f o r a . In p r e p a r i n g campaign l i t e r a t u r e and newspaper ads, I e x p l o i t e d the O f f i c i a l Community Plan's f a i l u r e to i n c l u d e environmental g u i d e l i n e s and p o l l u t i o n problems on the beach as major campaign i s s u e s . The use of a c l e a n e r environment as a " q u a l i t y of l i f e " campaign i s s u e served as more than j u s t a t o p i c a l concern; i t f o r c e d the l o c a l e l e c t o r a t e to c o n c e n t r a t e on i s s u e s i n s t e a d of p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Perhaps not uncommon i n Canadian townships with a B r i t i s h background, i ssues were secondary i n l o c a l p o l i t i c a l campaigns. The norm was f o r c a n d i d a t e s to campaign on the b a s i s of whom they know — r e p u t a t i o n r a t h e r than p r e o c c u p a t i o n . SOME LOCAL WHITE ROCK POLITICIANS: A CURSORY PROFILE Some White Rock r e s i d e n t s were more p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e than others d u r i n g the time of the p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h . Mayor Gordon Hogg not only faced Ken Jones i n a mayoral c o n t e s t i n 1990. (Jones l a t e r running f o r p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e i n 1991) but Hogg underwent a p r o t r a c t e d nomination b a t t l e i n 1993 to become a f e d e r a l L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e . Sharon C h a r l e s , Hogg's former campaign manager, ran f o r a c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n i n 1990, again i n a by- e l e c t i o n i n 1991, and then t r i e d to win a mayoral race i n 1993. Hardy Staub, won r e e l e c t i o n to c o u n c i l i n 1990, resigned from the f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e r i d i n g e x e c u t i v e i n 1993 as reported i n the Peace Arch News, and s u c c e s s f u l l y contested a 1993 mayoral V 7 e l . e c t i o n . Wi 1 f Hurd informed me that he was a l r e a d y the L i b e r a l p r o v i n c i a l nominee f o r White Rock-South Surrey at the time of the 1990 c i v i c e l e c t i o n and went on to win the c o n s t i t u e n c y i n the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and again i n 1996. Below are some b r i e f summaries on these f r o n t l i n e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . 1. Gordon Hogg grew up a p r i v i l e g e d son of White Rock's f i r s t d o c t o r . U n t i l he sought a L i b e r a l f e d e r a l r i d i n g nomination i n 1992 he had refused to d i s c l o s e h i s p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . In the past, the New Democrats had lobbied him to run as a c a n d i d a t e . Although always denying that he had a " s l a t e " , he hand- picked a group of S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y members to run on h i s "team" i n the November 1990 White Rock c i t y e l e c t i o n s when he was returned as mayor. P r i o r to the r e b i r t h of the L i b e r a l s , Hogg s o c i a l i z e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y with C o n s e r v a t i v e s and S o c i a l C r e d i t e r s . A p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l servant who works f o r the a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l ' s department, Hogg was caught in the embarrassing p o s i t i o n of d e c l a r i n g White Rock beaches f r e e from p o l l u t i o n while the board of h e a l t h shut them down. With l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n environmental i s s u e s , h i s stance as alderman and then mayor was that of a "moderate" on economic development in the c i t y , yet the p o p u l a t i o n i n White Rock increased g r e a t l y d uring h i s tenure as mayor and he was quoted as being i n f a v o r of b u i l d i n g h i g h r i s e s on Surrey school board- owned school and playground property i n downtown White Rock. 8 2. Hardy Staub moved to White Rock's west s i d e i n 1972. Growing up i n B e r l i n , Germany as a p r o f e s s i o n a l c h i l d a c t o r he enjoyed a p r i v i l e g e d l i f e which allowed him to f i n a n c i a l l y support h i s parents and s i b l i n g s f o l l o w i n g World War II p r i o r to immigrating to Canada at the age of 13. A f t e r s i x years with the armed f o r c e s , Staub became a p r o f e s s i o n a l p i l o t , t a k i n g time o f f from h i s Canadian A i r l i n e s job f o r each of h i s luncheon f o r a y , door knocking e l e c t i o n campaigns. He won a seat on the Surrey school board r e p r e s e n t i n g White Rock i n 1985, which he parl a y e d i n t o an aldermanship i n 1987 (spending $5,000 on h i s campaign) and the mayor's c h a i r i n 1993. Staub l i s t s h i s f a v o r i t e hobby as op e r a t i n g a ham r a d i o and a p o l i c e scanner i n h i s v e h i c l e , which allows him to f o l l o w l o c a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s on assignment. 3. Sharon C h a r l e s , f i r s t e l e c t e d as a c o u n c i l l o r i n 1990, and s e r v i n g u n t i l 1993, had a rocky s t a r t i n c o u n c i l p o l i t i c s a f t e r i t was d i s c o v e r e d that she provided paid p u b l i c i t y s e r v i c e s f o r the White Rock parks and r e c r e a t i o n department. A non-status n a t i v e and l o c a l businesswoman, she was form e r l y married to Semiahmoo Band c h i e f Bernard C h a r l e s . T h e i r daughter Joanne i s c u r r e n t l y band a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a p o s i t i o n C h a r l e s p r e v i o u s l y h e l d . P r i o r to running f o r e l e c t i o n i n November 1990, C h a r l e s served as campaign manager f o r l o c a l c o u n c i l l o r s and mayor Gordon Hogg, a long time personal f r i e n d . A C o n s e r v a t i v e and S o c i a l C r e d i t a c t i v i s t she has been c o n s i s t e n t l y refused L i b e r a l p a r t y 9 membership by L i b e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y p r e s i d e n t Dave M a r t i n . She served b r i e f l y as campaign manager f o r l o c a l a r c h i t e c t Chip B a r r e t t , another f r i e n d , d u r i n g h i s d i s a s t r o u s b i d f o r a l e g i s l a t i v e seat as a S o c i a l C r e d i t member i n 1991. The c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t a l l e g a t i o n s a r i s i n g from her magazine and p u b l i s h i n g company caused her to r e s i g n her c o u n c i l seat i n A p r i l 1991, c l a i m i n g that she was misled by the parks and r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r who a l s o happened to be White Rock's personnel d i r e c t o r . A f t e r the Peace Arch News noted on i t s e d i t o r i a l pages that she had r e p a i d the c i t y and d i s t a n c e d h e r s e l f from p o s s i b i l i t y of f u t u r e c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t , Ms. Ch a r l e s ran f o r r e - e l e c t i o n i n June. Des p i t e a low voter turnout she maintained her seat on c o u n c i l , a forum she then used to run u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r mayor i n November 1993, l o s i n g to Hardy Staub by almost 700 votes. 4. Wi1f Hurd put h i s house on the r e a l e s t a t e market before running as a L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e i n the October 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The house s o l d and he won the c o n t e s t . Now l i v i n g i n Langley, he i s the o p p o s i t i o n f o r e s t r y c r i t i c . Born and r a i s e d i n White Rock, and a former p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e student at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y i n the l a t e 1960s, he i s a L i b e r a l whom l o c a l New Democrats c l a i m as "one of us" ( l e f t of c e n t r e ) . Twice he ran as a cand i d a t e f o r l o c a l c o u n c i l r e p r e s e n t i n g the l o c a l r a t e p a y e r s group and encountered strong o p p o s i t i o n from those who favoured the s t a t u s quo. Short s t a f f e d , commuting to work i n 10 Kamloops, and on a t i g h t budget, he defeated the NDP can d i d a t e by more than 2,000 votes and the favored member of the White Rock c l i q u e , the S o c i a l C r e d i t candidate Chip B a r r e t t . Hurd's s t r o n g e s t support came from s e n i o r s l i v i n g i n White Rock's apartment zone. He i s an a v i d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and has always t r i e d to f o s t e r a p o l i t i c a l Liberal-NDP a 11iance. 5. Ken Jones t o l d the r e s e a r c h e r he was given a parachute and $700 to run as L i b e r a l candidate f o r l e g i s l a t u r e i n Surrey- C l o v e r d a l e . He was the s i t t i n g MLA u n t i l 1996. A former White Rock alderman who had become in v o l v e d i n White Rock p o l i t i c s when t r y i n g to get a p u b l i c swimming pool b u i l t , h e had run u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r mayor i n November 1990. A member of the Surrey-White Rock environmental c o a l i t i o n , he i s a c o n s i s t e n t l y strong e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t . On a few s o c i a l i s s u e s Jones i s c l o s e r to c e n t r e r i g h t as a born again C h r i s t i a n who b e l i e v e s h i s moderate approach to a b o r t i o n helped get him e l e c t e d i n a r i d i n g where S o c i a l C r e d i t had a l i e n a t e d a p r o - l i f e Vote. A L i b e r a l s i n c e the Trudeau e r a , Jones p r e f e r s p o l i t i c s on a one-to-one hand-shaking b a s i s . In November 1992, White Rock's l o c a l e l i t e began i t s d r i v e to r e a s s e r t p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l a f t e r l o s i n g badly i n the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The e l i t e , which had f i r m l y held l o c a l p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l f o r a decade-and-a-ha1f, saw i t s chosen 11 candidate (and l o c a l f a v o r i t e son) a r c h i t e c t Chip B a r r e t t , soundly beaten on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l by a candidate "from the wrong s i d e of the t r a c k s " , Wi 1f Hurd, who had p r e v i o u s l y f a i l e d to win even an aldermanic seat i n White Rock. T r y i n g to j o i n the L i b e r a l t i d e which c a r r i e d Wi1f Hurd i n t o p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e , White Rock Mayor Gordon Hogg announced he was seeking the L i b e r a l nomination f o r the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n race f o l l o w i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e incumbent Member of Parliament Benno F r i e s e n ' s retirement announcement. It was t o l d to me by Dave Mart i n that Hogg had been seen as the T o r i e s ' chosen successor, and with t h i s p o p u l a r i t y brought prominent T o r i e s with him to the L i b e r a l s as B r i a n Mulroney's P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e government i n Ottawa languished i n the p o l l s . Many of Hogg's supporters who took ads out i n the Peace Arch News and endorsed h i s campaign l i t e r a t u r e , were r e a l e s t a t e agents and p r o p e r t y d e v e l o p e r s . Wi 1f Hurd's c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t , Dave Mart i n (who s t r u g g l e d a g a i n s t the l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l incumbents i n h i s f a i l e d b i d with Wi1f Hurd to win s e a t s on White Rock c o u n c i l i n 1988), vowed to support another c a n d i d a t e f o r the L i b e r a l nomination. During the week that Hogg d e c l a r e d h i s candidacy (with h i s own f r e s h l y purchased L i b e r a l membership), Hogg's supporters spent thousands of d o l l a r s on newspaper advertisements, d e s p i t e the f a c t that f o l l o w i n g the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , the f e d e r a l 12 L i b e r a l s r e p o r t e d t h e y had no money f o r a l o c a l e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n . An a s p i r i n g f e d e r a l L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e , Ken J o n e s , i n s t e a d p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l as a p r o v i n c i a l MLA r e l y i n g upon a w o r k i n g c l a s s and u n i o n b a c k g r o u n d u s u a l l y f o u n d i n New D e m o c r a t s . He c l a i m e d t h e L i b e r a l s had t o f i n d a c a n d i d a t e w i t h h i s own money t o s p e n d . Hogg d i d n ' t need t o spend h i s own money, s i n c e he b r o u g h t C o n s e r v a t i v e and S o c i a l C r e d i t b a c k e r s w i t h him. However, th e S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p a r t y , a s p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l M.L.A. Hurd has p o i n t e d o u t , h a s been f u l l o f r i g h t - w i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t members f o r y e a r s . Gordon Hogg t o l d me p e r s o n a l l y i n 1993 t h a t t h e man he t h o u g h t was h i s f r i e n d , Benno F r i e s e n ( s t a l w a r t f o r m e r C o n s e r v a t i v e Member o f P a r l i a m e n t ) had t h r e a t e n e d t o " g e t him" f o r becoming a L i b e r a l . The T o r i e s s u p p o r t i n g Gordon Hogg wanted him t o r e m a i n a c e n t r e - r i g h t p o l i t i c i a n , and a s a f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e Hogg was u n a b l e t o r u n an o v e r l a p p i n g m ayoral r e - e l e c t i o n c a mpaign d u r i n g a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i n t h e f a l l o f 1993. P o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s m had been a c r i t i c i s m he s u c c e s s f u l l y l e v i e d a g a i n s t o t h e r r i v a l s f o r t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l n o m i n a t i o n . Wi1 f Hurd, t h e l e f t - w i n g e r who grew up i n White Rock and went t o Semiahmoo S e c o n d a r y w i t h t h e more p o p u l a r Hogg, e a s i l y won r e e l e c t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1996. He had been t h e f i r s t c a n d i d a t e t o d e c l a r e h i m s e l f i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l 13 l e a d e r s h i p race which saw Gordon Campbell e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e Gordon Wilson as p r o v i n c i a l leader i n 1994. Hurd, who t o l d me he attended Semiahmiamoo Secondary School a t the same time as Hogg, but denies having been c o m p e t i t i v e with Hogg, who was more popular as a "jock", has n e v e r t h e l e s s achieved g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l p r e s t i g e . Alderman Sharon C h a r l e s whose former husband Semiahmoo Band C h i e f Bernard C h a r l e s , a l s o went to school with Hogg, reported at a campaign meeting i n her f i r s t b i d f o r e l e c t i o n that she had been the campaign manager f o r s e v e r a l alderman and Mayor Hogg. She nominated the f a i l e d S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e , Chip B a r r e t t , at h i s nomination meeting i n 1991. A c t i v e l y backing Gordon Hogg in h i s L i b e r a l nomination, she was l a t e r r e p l a c e d as h i s campaign o r g a n i z e r p r i o r to the 1993 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . Louise Hutchinson, school t r u s t e e i n 1990 and c o u n c i l l o r i n 1993, join e d the L i b e r a l p a r t y and endorsed Hogg i n the Peace Arch News. Neo-conservative Staub's i n t e r e s t appears to be h i s quest to f i l l a vacant mayor's c h a i r , one which Dave Martin vowed he would f i g h t Staub f o r . Some New Democrats s a i d they would work with M a r t i n to win the 1993 mayoralty race and d i s l o d g e the l o c a l r u l i n g e l i t e . However, i t was Sharon C h a r l e s who took on the cha11enge. As a member of the New Democratic Party c o n s t i t u e n c y e x e c u t i v e , and having forged f r i e n d s h i p s with L i b e r a l s i n my 14 campaigning, I have found myself to be mediator between the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s M a r t i n , Jones and Hurd and New Democrats, on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , such as a p a r t y at my house f o r Wi1f Hurd which was attended by some NDP e x e c u t i v e members, and s h a r i n g a t a b l e with Hurd and Jones and NDP MLA Sue Hamel1 and New Democrat Surrey c o u n c i l l o r Judy V i l l e n e u v e at a U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club f u n d r a i s e r . However, nothing s u r p r i s e d me more than walking i n t o the NDP o f f i c e d u r i n g the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n campaign and seeing L i b e r a l campaign worker Duncan Cameron using the fax mach i ne. Although wanting to run unopposed f o r the L i b e r a l nomination, Hogg had to edge Surrey C o u n c i l l o r Judy Higginbotham out of the race. A defeated S o c i a l C r e d i t p r o v i n c i a l c andidate who a c t i v e l y pursued the nomination s i n c e October, 1991 and signed up hundreds of new members, Higginbotham decided the numbers were i n Hogg's favour and bowed out. A l a s t minute Indo- Canadian candidate with a 15 year L i b e r a l membership provided a scare a t Hogg's nominating meeting and got 46 votes from a s c a t t e r i n g of d i s g r u n t l e d L i b e r a l s . One of those 46 was Dave Mar t i n , another was community a c t i v i s t Pat Kealy; another was Duncan Cameron, a long-time opponent of e l i t i s t White Rock p o l i t i c s . Another community a c t i v i s t C a r o l i n e F o s t e r , who ran unsuccesfu11y f o r White Rock c o u n c i l i n 1993, voted f o r Hogg, seeing i t as her way of g e t t i n g 15 him removed from White Rock. Hogg's l o c a l p o l i t i c a l success has been dependent upon the use of myth (an unproven, e l u s i v e "Golden Age"), l o c a l i s t i deology (which promotes c e r t a i n i d e a l s and values i n p r e s e r v i n g l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s ) and support from the business community. His p o l i t i c a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y stems from a horrendous environmental r e c o r d . D e s p i t e r e p o r t s from the l o c a l h e a l t h u n i t and beach c l o s u r e s , Hogg i n s i s t e d at a c o u n c i l meeting i n 1990 that White Rock beaches were c l e a n . When f e c a l c h o l i f o r m contamination was proven to come from White Rock, Hogg, at an a l l c a n d i d a t e s ' meeting i n 1990, continued to blame the p o l l u t i o n on the town of B l a i n e , Washington (which has secondary sewage treatment). Other reasons given on the f r o n t page of the Peace Arch News were three cross-connected t o i l e t s (quoting Vin Coyne), dog f e c e s and s e a g u l l droppings (quoting parks and r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r Doug Stone i n 1991). Vin Coyne began as a young e d i t o r of the White Rock Sun i n the 1950s and b r i e f l y p u b l i s h e d h i s own paper before becoming a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s agent f o r F i n n i n g T r a c t o r and White Rock's p e r e n n i a l alderman. A member of the White Rock H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , Coyne submitted paid a r t i c l e s on White Rock h i s t o r y to the Semiahmoo Sounder magazine owned by C h a r l e s , whom he backed i n her 1991 b y - e l e c t i o n campaign. F o l l o w i n g long term c o u n c i l l o r Margaret Lower's re t i r e m e n t i n 1990, Coyne was then the only 16 member of White Rock c o u n c i l born b e f o r e W.W. I I . His c h i e f campaign s t r a t e g y , other than f r e q u e n t l y being quoted by the Peace Arch News, newspaper ads and o f f e r i n g r i d e s to the p o l l s , was to put out a campaign f l y e r d i s g u i s e d as a newspaper c a l l e d Coyne's Community News du r i n g c i t y e l e c t i o n s f o r which the White Rock Resid e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Pat Kealy t o l d me she sought l e g a l a d v i c e about negative comments on h e r s e l f and other White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n members and s u p p o r t e r s . David M a r t i n t o l d me as l a t e as 1995 he s t i l l f e l t he had a score to s e t t l e with Vin Coyne over what co u l d be c a l l e d d i s i n f o r m a t i o n campaigns a g a i n s t M a r t i n and Hurd. During the research p e r i o d the l o c a l newspaper, which predominantly f e a t u r e d news c o v e r i n g Surrey, tended to back incumbent aldermen i n i t s e d i t o r i a l s and attacked the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n . I have attended c o u n c i l meetings where Coyne was c a u s t i c to Pat Kealy. Yet Coyne topped the p o l l s i n the 1990 c i t y e l e c t i o n , d e s p i t e d i s m i s s i n g concerns r a i s e d at an a l l c a n d i d a t e ' s meeting held by the Surrey-White Rock Environmental C o a l i t i o n , when he whitewashed incumbent c o u n c i l ' s environmental record by t a l k i n g about secondary sewage treatment White Rock had i n s t a l l e d 30 years ago and no longer operated. A f t e r two-and-a-half years of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the White Rock p o l i t i c a l scene, I b e l i e v e that I have helped b r i n g some changes to the community. C i t y c o u n c i l 17 has changed memberssits around c i t y c o u n c i l and i t s committee t a b l e s ; r e tirement has seen new bureaucrats h i r e d , and although the beach p o l l u t i o n I t r i e d hard to expose has worsened, at l e a s t the problems are p u b l i c a l l y acknowledged . As excuses o f f e r e d by bureaucrats and p o l i t i c i a n s become more absurd, they face increased s k e p t i c i s m from the media and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . Dr. B i l l Meekison, the Boundary Board of Health d i r e c t o r who wanted the c i t y to discourage swimming, was appointed i n the summer of 1996 as c h i e f medical o f f i c e r f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . D espite the three t o i l e t s , s e a g u l l droppings, and "doggy do" media s t o r i e s , the p u b l i c understood that the problem, which e x i s t s elsewhere i n the r e g i o n , i s raw sewage. As w e l l , the Boundary Board of Health has maintained a c o n s i s t e n t monitoring program and won i t s s t r u g g l e with the c i t y to post s i g n s warning bathers away from the storm d r a i n s which l i n e White Rock's west beach. During the p a r t i c i p a t o r y research more people began as k i n g q u e s t i o n s , and i n 1991 Mayor Hogg attended a general meeting with the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n . Instead of t h e i r h a b i t u a l r e l u c t a n c e before c i t y c o u n c i l , more people now f e e l e n t i t l e d to honest answers from p o l i t i c i a n s and w e l l - p a i d c i v i c employees. I b e l i e v e that my outspokenness helped encourage that c i v i c a s s e r t i veness. The l o c a l newspaper, the Peace Arch News, has a new e d i t o r , ) 18 D i a n e S t r a n d b e r g , who r a i s e s i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s and t a l k s a b o u t q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s s u e s i n 1996, wh i c h i s a c h a n g e from when t h e p a p e r was sued f o r r u n n i n g a f r o n t - p a g e a r t i c l e on v o t i n g day a g a i n s t an a r d e n t l y a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e r m a n ' s r e - e l e c t i o n , r e p o r t i n g t h a t he l i v e d common-law and t h a t h i s c h i l d r e n were i l l e g i t i m a t e ( t h e a l d e r m a n , B r i a n B r e t t , t o l d me he l o s t t h e e l e c t i o n , b u t won h i s l a w s u i t a g a i n s t t h e p a p e r ) . An o n g o i n g d e m o g r a p h i c change i s , t h a t d e s p i t e t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f s e n i o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w e l l - e d u c a t e d baby boomers have g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e d p o l i t i c a l power i n Wh i t e Rock. The r e s u l t i s a g e n t r i f i e d , " Y u p p i e " community now d e s i g n e d f o r t h e s o c i a l l y m o b i l e . But m o s t l y , I have c h a n g e d . I t to o k t i m e t o move back from t h e b r i n k o f becoming a f u l l - f l e d g e d p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a n t . My c h i l d r e n have become h i g h l y p o l i t i c i z e d from w a t c h i n g me campaign and c y n i c a l a b o u t t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . D o m e s t i c s t r e s s has been p r o n o u n c e d owing t o t h e b r e a k - u p o f my m a r r i a g e , i n which p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s p l a y e d a p a r t . However, I am c o m f o r t e d by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t my i n t e r v e n t i o n has h e l p e d l a y a f o u n d a t i o n f o r change i n t h e community o f White Rock. Ken J o n e s and Wi1f Hurd a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and t h e y have been e l e c t e d a s MLA's f o r S u r r e y - C l o v e r d a l e and S o u t h S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock. W i t h p r o d d i n g from S u r r e y - N e w t o n , t h e New D e m o c r a t i c government has been open t o 19 changes i n the municipal a ct which w i l l make the s t a t u s quo e a s i e r to t o p p l e . Although 1 had t r o u b l e g e t t i n g enough s c r u t i n e e r s and phone canvassers to work f o r a c i t y b y - e l e c t i o n i n June 1991, by June 1992 more than 40 people o f f e r e d to phone canvass and a s s i s t me i n a b i d f o r the f e d e r a l N.D.P. nomination i n Surrey-White Rock- C l o v e r d a l e . T h i s d e s p i t e the f a c t that a c a r a c c i d e n t i n J u l y 1991 had c u r t a i l e d my p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . In r e t r o s p e c t , I am r e l i e v e d I d i d not get the f e d e r a l NDP nomination. With the Co n s e r v a t i v e s winning 43 per cent of the vote i n the r i d i n g i n 1988, only a Mulroney backlash could have helped the campaign by sending the r i g h t wing vote to the Reform and L i b e r a l p a r t i e s . Reform won the r i d i n g f e d e r a l l y , i n d i c a t i n g a d e s i r e by the voters f o r change a f t e r a decade-and-a-half of Co n s e r v a t i v e domination. P o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s have s h i f t e d . Perhaps by rebuking the n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p myth which permeates small town p o l i t i c s i n White Rock, a l o c a l s l a t e of candidates could run on is s u e s r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l i t i e s and form p o l i c y i n the next c i t y e l e c t i o n . In a c i t y where l e s s than 30 per cent of the people vote, and aldermen are o f t e n chosen by accl a m a t i o n , a move by the L i b e r a l s to a l l y with the N.D.P. i n c h a l l e n g i n g the s t a t u s quo rep r e s e n t s p o s i t i v e change. H o p e f u l l y , White Rock e l e c t i o n s w i l l no longer be p o p u l a r i t y c o n t e s t s and the c i t y c o u n c i l w i l l no longer be simply the 20 e x e c u t i v e branch of the l o c a l chamber of commerce. Myths have to be overcome— the myth of n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p , the myth of good government, and the myth that business people make the best counc i 1 1 o r s . I have learned to stand my ground and a s s e r t myself p u b l i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . C e r t a i n l y p u b l i c speaking i s now much e a s i e r . When I step to the microphones at a New Democratic Party p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l or convention to c r i t i c i z e the government f o r lack o f a c t i o n towards reforming municipal government or stopping p o l l u t i o n , I am no longer f e a r f u l or nervous, and 1 know p a r t y members are . 1 i s t e n i n g , and that an applauding m a j o r i t y agree with my remarks. As government members turn away from t r a d i t i o n a l N.D.P. sup p o r t e r s , I think of the p i g s i n George O r w e l l ' s Animal Farm who begin to resemble t h e i r masters. S o c i a l i s t ideas can fade r a p i d l y as s o c i a l democrats become mired i n the bourgeois hegemonic ideology to which r o l e - p l a y i n g p o l i t i c i a n s c l i n g . But they w i l l have t r o u b l e r e t a i n i n g p a r t y members and su p p o r t e r s . Change o f t e n comes from the bottom up. There can be no change, I now t h i n k , u n t i l people gain c o n t r o l of t h e i r l o c a l environment. In White Rock, i t i s u n l i k e l y that that change w i l l come from w i t h i n the New Democratic Party. Membership has dropped about 35 per cent s i n c e the 1991 e l e c t i o n i n the Surrey-White Rock r i d i n g . Many of those who have q u i t the p a r t y i n White Rock are the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . I myself am so d i s i l l u s i o n e d that when 21 I f i n a l l y got the o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n f r o n t then p r o v i n c i a l NDP Environment M i n i s t e r John Cashore at a meeting i n Surrey, I decided to stay home. The NDP government began add r e s s i n g sewage treatment f o r Greater V i c t o r i a only i n 1994 ( g i v i n g a 9 year d e a d l i n e ) , and subjected to economic p r e s s u r e from the U.S. The 1992 N.D.P. p r o v i n c i a l convention refused to address sewage i s s u e s . So one wonders whether there i s any po i n t i n g i v i n g N.D.P. environment m i n i s t e r s a l e c t u r e on the need to c l e a n up the sewage problem on White Rock beaches, to stop g r a n t i n g j o i n t sewage/storm d r a i n permits to the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , to improve sewage i n f r a s t r u c t u r e or l i m i t development. The New Democrats remain a part y which a l l o w s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworking A s s o c i a t i o n (IWA) union members to pack r e g i o n a l meetings at p r o v i n c i a l conventions to get IWA members e l e c t e d to the NDP standing committee on the environment. I f e l t myself unable to run f o r White Rock c o u n c i l because I had been t o l d by supporters such as former MLA Frank Howard, that I been badly slandered by a few l o c a l Democrats working to deny me a f e d e r a l NDP nomination. As former White Rock p r o v i n c i a l NDP c a n d i d a t e Donna Osatiuk t o l d me, u n i o n i s t s hate e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and I was p e r c e i v e d as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t . So at the f e d e r a l NDP nomination meeting I r e s i g n e d l y supported the NDP Indo-Canadian candidate Mota Jheeta (backed by 22 incumbent Surrey NDP MLA's and MP Jim Karpoff) who went on to win the NDP f e d e r a l nomination f o r Surrey-White Rock-South Langley a f t e r I was dropped o f f the b a l l o t . The e l e c t e d members' support f o r Mota Singh Jheeta was payment due the Indo-Canadian community f o r i t s support i n the 1991 e l e c t i o n which saw three women NDP candidates e l e c t e d i n Surrey. Although he had no chance of winning the r i d i n g , Mota Jheeta seemed to me to have more substance than the union o r g a n i z e r whose supporters the Peace Arch News quoted as having ripped up t h e i r NDP memberships when Jheeta won the nomination. By the time the N.D.P. nominating meeting was h e l d , the p o l l s suggested that the r i d i n g would be going to the Reform Pa r t y . F o l l o w i n g the 1992 n a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l referendum, c r i t i c a l NDP support was a l r e a d y waning. Some NDP members d i d leave the nomination meeting (more than 40 of my supporters l e f t a f t e r the f i r s t b a l l o t ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with NDP leader Audrey McLaughlin or L i b e r a l leader Jean C h r e t i e n , and l e a v i n g the impression that they would vote Reform. The 1993 nomination meeting i t s e l f was a d i f f i c u l t e x e r c i s e i n democracy f o r a l o c a l NDP o r g a n i z a t i o n used to s e t t l i n g c a n d i d a c i e s i n back rooms and by a c c l a m a t i o n . My North Surrey s u p p o r t e r s , such as former Surrey c o u n c i l l o r C l a y t o n Campbell, t o l d me I would have to move out of White Rock i n order to have a f u t u r e as a p o l i t i c i a n . My L i b e r a l f r i e n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y M a r t i n (who i s 23 p r e s i d e n t of the L i b e r a l p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y p r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n ) s a i d they would love to have me as a c a n d i d a t e . It was while working as a r e p o r t e r that I got my f i r s t t a s t e of p o l i t i c s . I d i d n ' t belong to any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , and I wanted to remain n e u t r a l . But a d v e r t i s e r s o f t e n c a l l e d me " l e f t - w i n g " anyway. I wrote e d i t o r i a l s on the m e r i t s of p r e s e r v i n g t r e e s when I worked on a l o c a l White Rock newspaper i n 1981 and 1982. I covered White Rock c o u n c i l , got s t o r i e s from B i l l Vander Zalm, took p i c t u r e s of Benno F r i e s e n , and met the l o c a l p o l t i c i a n s as I had met D e l t a and Surrey ones b e f o r e . To me they were j u s t o r d i n a r y people with good s o c i a l s k i l l s and an o c c a s i o n a l news e x c l u s i v e . In 1989 I began loo k i n g at White Rock c o u n c i l a g a i n . T h i s time I saw no o p p o s i t i o n , no d i s c u s s i o n s at c o u n c i l meetings. D e c i s i o n s seemed to be rubber-stamped. The vocal o p p o s i t i o n of B r i a n B r e t t and John Blewett who had been e l e c t e d i n 1982 was gone. Somebody was p u l l i n g s t r i n g s with t h i s c o u n c i l . C i t y h a l l s t a f f seemed arrogant. I became i n v o l v e d by speaking a g a i n s t a s e n i o r s - o n l y housing p r o j e c t to be b u i l t a c r o s s the s t r e e t from one of the c i t y ' s two elementary s c h o o l s . The zoning was s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l , but i t was the s e n i o r o r i e n t a t i o n , as opposed to much-needed f a m i l y housing, which d i s t u r b e d me. I f e l t the c i t y was i n c r e a s i n g l y l o s i n g i t s community base as f a m i l i e s became d i s p l a c e d . 2 4 A f t e r speaking a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t at a p u b l i c meeting, I was i n v i t e d to a "neighbourhood meeting" with the c i t y ' s p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t , Dan J a n c z i e w s k i . He f a i l e d to get any agreement from the group assembled, but c l o s e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by a s k i n g "What about the landscaping, the landscaping looks good, doesn't i t ? " , to which some agreed. His r e p o r t to White Rock c o u n c i l about the meeting I attended was that those at the meeting had reached agreement. What he t o l d myself and o t h e r s who were at the neighbourhood meeting was that "he" would recommend the p r o j e c t because i t was s o c i a l housing. To me the p r o j e c t appeared to be market-oriented housing, which i n the end i t was. However, because of slow s a l e s , the apartments were opened up to i n c l u d e f a m i l i e s and non-seniors. But I continued to f e e l the c i t y ' s c o n s u l t a n t had subverted the p u b l i c p r o c e s s . I then began speaking at p u b l i c f o r a on the c i t y ' s O f f i c i a l Community Plan, which again favored economic development over s o c i a l g o a l s . When 1 spoke a g a i n s t a d u l t - o n l y housing p r o j e c t s at a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , one b u i l d e r came up to me and s a i d he agreed with me about the need f o r f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d townhouses, but he had to go along with c i t y c o u n c i l ' s d e s i r e s because he had to make a l i v i n g . L a t e r developers (through Mayor Hogg) f l o a t e d the idea of r e p l a c i n g White Rock Elementary school with high r i s e condom i n iums. 25 A f t e r v o i c i n g my concerns at p u b l i c h e arings, I was asked by the l o c a l r a t e p a y e r s group (renamed the White Rock Re s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ) to j o i n as a spokesperson and e x e c u t i v e member. That's where I met Dave M a r t i n , Wi1f Hurd and l a t e r , Ken Jones. The r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n was v i r t u a l l y the c i t y ' s only o p p o s i t i o n to the " o l d boys' c l u b . " Ken, Wi1f and Dave were L i b e r a l s who had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r i e d to break i n t o the Socred/Tory l o c a l government. Glen Pinch ( c u r r e n t l y NDP c o n s t i t u e n c y p r e s i d e n t ) was a l s o an a r t i c u l a t e member of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Pat Kealy was chosen p r e s i d e n t of the renamed group. At the time, she was planning to run f o r White Rock c o u n c i l . L a t e r the h o s t i l i t y from alderman Coyne caused her to back away from those pl a n s , but she d i d remain a t i r e l e s s campaigner. She worked f o r me, donated generous amounts of money, babysat my c h i l d r e n , and put her name on c o u r t documents to have Sharon C h a r l e s ' by- e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y overturned. It was Pat who soothed d i s p u t e s between myself and Maria Romanchuk ( r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n t r e a s u r e r ) when she decided to run f o r White Rock c o u n c i l i n 1990 a f t e r 1 had d e c l a r e d ( r e s u l t i n g i n us being tagged a " S l a t e " ) . Mostly, Pat Kealy became an i n v a l u a b l e f r i e n d . My f i r s t task with the r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n (while Pat Kealy was out of town) was to r a l l y p u b l i c awareness about s h o c k i n g l y high p o l l u t i o n counts on White Rock's west beach. 26 White Rock c o u n c i l was s t a l l i n g on the i s s u e as f r u s t r a t e d p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s t o l d me. So, with members of the r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , I arranged a p r o t e s t at c i t y h a l l which a t t r a c t e d TV coverage. The c h i e f medical h e a l t h o f f i c e r , Dr. B i l l Meekison (who has now l e f t h i s post f o r Coquitlam) had asked me to apply p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e because White Rock c o u n c i l had p e r s i s t e n t l y s t a l l e d on h e a l t h department requests to c l e a n up the storm d r a i n e f f l u e n t and to post warning s i g n s on the beach. When the mayor and aldermen t r i e d to blame the sewage problem on B l a i n e , i t was unfounded. B l a i n e has had (what White Rock and Greater Vancouver s t i l l l a c k s i n 1996) a secondary sewage treatment p l a n t s i n c e 1962. The l o c a l h e a l t h department, i n f a c t , d i s c o v e r e d White Rock to be the source of contamination f o l l o w i n g a break i n B l a i n e sewage p i p e s when, c o n t r a r y to e x p e c t a t i o n , l e a k i n g sewage from B l a i n e f a i l e d to show up on White Rock beaches. In October 1991, I upset c i t y s t a f f by g e t t i n g the NDP candidate to a s s i s t with t a k i n g a c h o l i f o r m count to remind vote r s about the ongoing problem and the f a i l u r e of the p r o v i n c i a l government to c l o s e the beaches when counts exceeded 100. The c i t y ' s d i r e c t o r of parks and r e c r e a t i o n went to the NDP campaign o f f i c e to complain about my making the p o l l u t i o n an e l e c t i o n i s s u e . There was no major p o l l u t i o n problem, j u s t "doggy do", he was reported to me as s a y i n g . 27 In June 1992, White Rock c o u n c i l o f f i c i a l l y r eported that the f e c a l contamination (which now r e s u l t e d i n o c c a s i o n a l e a s t beach c l o s u r e s as well as west) was being caused by s e a g u l l s . The h e a l t h department, when c l o s i n g the beach to swimming, named urban r u n o f f the c u l p r i t . In many ways the beach p o l l u t i o n i s a r e s u l t of o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t — i n t e n s i v e u r b a n i z a t i o n on a steep s l o p e , coupled with e x t e n s i v e l o s s of t r e e s , p l u s too much pavement and r u n - o f f from c o n t i n u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The sewage system i s a l r e a d y working at f u l l c a p a c i t y and i t s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s aging (and p o o r l y mapped). One p u b l i c works employee t o l d me i n June 1991 that the c i t y ' s sewer system could no longer s e r v i c e a three s t o r e y apartment b u i l d i n g l e t alone a h i g h r i s e . Yet c o n s t r u c t i o n of apartments and monster houses has continued to f l o u r i s h . The c i t y ' s newest and l a r g e s t condominium p r o j e c t began i n March 1993. Having done survey i n t e r v i e w s f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD's) Urban Futures Study i n February, 1990, I d i s c o v e r e d that over 90 per cent of the respondents' c o n s i d e r e d environmental problems to be c r i t i c a l . I f e l t that the p o l i t i c i a n s were lagging behind the p u b l i c . Yet the GVRD p r e s e n t a t i o n on Urban Futures (presented to White Rock c o u n c i l at a l a t e r date) downplayed the importance of environmental concerns. F e e l i n g the p u b l i c might respond to a p o l i t i c i a n who represented environmental values, I placed environmental i s s u e s 28 high on my agenda f o r the two aldermanic c o n t e s t s i n which I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n White Rock. In White Rock, running on i s s u e s seemed to be a n o v e l t y . E l e c t i o n s have been more a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t , a q u e s t i o n of who has belonged to the c o r r e c t community v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Membership on the h o s p i t a l board, dominated by c o n s e r v a t i v e s , seemed to be an e l e c t o r a l p r e r e q u i s i t e . From the h o s p i t a l board, the e x p e c t a t i o n was that a person would run f o r the s i n g l e White Rock school t r u s t e e p o s i t i o n and then f o r alderman and e v e n t u a l l y mayor. Membership i n the White Rock Sea F e s t i v a l s o c i e t y , dominated by the mayor's f a m i l y and numerous S o c i a l C r e d i t members, was a l s o looked on f a v o r a b l y . One q u e s t i o n e r to a phone- in a 1 1-candidate's meeting wanted to know who I was s i n c e I had never been on the Sea F e s t i v a l committee. As a p a r t i c i p a n t i n these aldermanic races, I was able to get some i n s i d e r viewpoint. For i n s t a n c e , Vin Coyne promoted h i m s e l f i n newspaper ads as " p o s i t i v e l y independent" and i n h i s "Community News" suggested Wi1f Hurd and Dave Mart i n and l a t e r myself, Ken Jones and Maria Romanchuk, represented " s l a t e s " , d e s p i t e funding and managing our own separate campaigns and choosing our own i s s u e s . Yet I p e r s o n a l l y witnessed Coyne, s i t t i n g as incumbent alderman d u r i n g an a l 1 - c a n d i d a t e s meeting, prepare notes which Sharon C h a r l e s used f o r her c l o s i n g remarks. In White Rock, " s l a t e s " denote S u r r e y - s t y l e p o l i t i c s . 29 As Lamoureux et a l . warned i n Community A c t i o n (1989), i f the r u l i n g e l i t e accuses i t s o p p o s i t i o n of doing something the o p p o s i t i o n i s not doing, i t ' s u s u a l l y something the e l i t e i s doing. C l e a r l y , i n White Rock, where e l e c t i o n s o f t e n went uncontested and those who contested them were subjected to l i b e l l o u s a t t a c k s , a s l a t e was o p e r a t i n g . T h i s was made c l e a r e r when one aldermanic c a n d i d a t e , James C o l e r i d g e , t o l d me that the incumbent mayor had asked him to run f o r o f f i c e , not j u s t to be part of " h i s " team, but to run f o r mayor the f o l l o w i n g term. T h i s candidate c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f to be a maverick, and i n d i c a t e d other c a n d i d a t e s running were more t y p i c a l l y members of an " i n crowd" . Only one s u c c e s s f u l aldermanic c a n d i d a t e , Judy F o r s t e r , t o l d me she f e l t excluded from the " i n crowd" running f o r o f f i c e i n 1990. She f e l t she was s u c c e s s f u l because she had been the f i r s t to d e c l a r e her candidacy and knocked on most of the doors i n White Rock s o l i c i t i n g support. She a l s o had backing from the l o c a l C o uncil of Women, an " e l i t e " o r g a n i z a t i o n . Dave Mar t i n t o l d me he was prepared to run f o r o f f i c e should C o l e r i d g e not have done so. Martin's opined that Hogg's team thought the White Rock Residents A s s o c i a t i o n would run a f u l l s l a t e (as one member had p u b l i c l y vowed to do) and had i t s own team to counterbalance the c h a l l e n g e . The p r e s i d e n t of the Chamber of Commerce, the Sea F e s t i v a l p r e s i d e n t (and b r o t h e r of 3 0 the c i t y c l e r k ) and the Council of Women member who was on the c i t y ' s a d v i s o r y design panel, a l l f a i l e d to get e l e c t e d . So d i d Jones, Romanchuk and myself. Romanchuk t o l d me she was happy that she d i d n ' t come l a s t . I was pleased to have done well enough to ou t d i s t a n c e a Sea F e s t i v a l p r e s i d e n t . I f e l t too, that I had made some progress, when I convinced the l o c a l Western Canada Wilderness Committee of the importance of environmental i s s u e s i n White Rock (WCWC had been c o n c e n t r a t i n g on Surrey i s s u e s ) and the WCWC convinced the Surrey-White Rock Environmental C o a l i t i o n to i n v i t e a l l White Rock ca n d i d a t e s (along with a sev e r a l from Surrey) to i t s a l 1 - c a n d i d a t e s meeting. Duncan Cameron, a 79 year o l d S o c i a l C r e d i t member (who to r e up h i s membership and threw h i m s e l f i n t o Wi1f Hurd's L i b e r a l campaign) t o l d Pat Kealy that those at the we11-attended meeting were not h i s p o l i t i c a l type, but that they "sure loved" me. The WCWC a l s o sponsored a w e l l - attended p o l i t i c a l a l l candidates meeting f o r p r o v i n c i a l c a n d idates i n Ocean Park during the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . To have c o n s e r v a t i v e s l i k e Duncan and sev e r a l o t hers throw s o l i d support behind me made me f e e l t h a t I had won something. Said one righ t - w i n g businessman, " I f I l i v e d i n Vancouver, I'd vote f o r Jim Green. 1 don't care about h i s p o l i t i c s . He's honest and you are too." S a i d another businessman, "People l i s t e n to you. They res p e c t you. You seem to know what you're t a l k i n g about". Honesty, i n t e g r i t y and q u a l i t y of l i f e were i s s u e s which 31 reached a c r o s s the p o l i t i c a l spectrum, and even i n White Rock a new p o l i t i c s seemed to be emerging. My c o n v e r s a t i o n s with l o c a l a c t i v i s t s and from door- knocking r e v e a l e d f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n from p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n White Rock. Continued c r i t i c i s m of the p l a n n i n g process by c a n d i d a t e s such as myself fomented a r e b e l l i o n by some c i t y c o u n c i l l o r s such as Margaret Lower who, i n the l a s t year of a longtime c o u n c i l c a r e e r , decided to d i s a g r e e with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and p l a n n e r s and, i n s t e a d p r i o r i t i z e d housing developments, i n c l u d i n g the encouragment of f a m i l y housing. Both White Rock mayors, Gordon Hogg and Hardy Staub, who succeeded him with a campaign promising d e d i c a t e d c i v i c management, can be seen as c o n s e r v a t i v e on environmental i s s u e s . Both c a t e r e d to s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, but Hogg as a t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n White Rock r e s i d e n t was r e a d i l y i n v i t e d to j o i n l o c a l c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , while Staub used a g o a l - o r i e n t e d , handshaking approach. As such, White Rock r e s i d e n t s found Staub more t o l e r a n t of p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , which enabled e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to get h i s a t t e n t i o n regarding e c o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . Staub can be seen as e i t h e r a rank p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s t or as p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e i n h i s switch from an i d e o l o g i c a l l y compatible C o n s e r v a t i v e Party to the L i b e r a l P a r t y . If p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e , he i s l i k e l y to be more c a u t i o u s i n h i s 32 c h o i c e of r h e t o r i c on environmental matters. As the most vocal pro- economic development c o u n c i l l o r i n White Rock, h i s move to the p r o f e s s e d n e u t r a l i t y of the mayor's c h a i r can be seen as a bonus f o r e c o l o g i s t s and r e s i d e n t s who f a v o r l i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth. The mayor can vote on motions i n cases of a t i e vote among the c o u n c i l l o r s . Environmental ism i s a u s e f u l i d eology f o r a l l o w i n g people to come to terms with i s s u e s of a l i e n a t i o n . E c o l o g i s t s look at overcoming the a l i e n a t i o n o-f humans -from nature and -from each other, as people f i n d themselves trapped i n a s o c i a l cave m e n t a l i t y where the environment i n which they work, s l e e p and play i s i n c r e a s i n g l y void of the l i g h t , peace and b i o l o g i c a l rhythmns of nature. My time i n White Rock showed that people are c o n s c i o u s of and saddened by f e e l i n g s of a l i e n a t i o n , but lack a c e r t a i n s e l f - esteem which would enable them to i d e n t i f y the source of t h e i r g r i e v a n c e . For example, an a l i e n a t e d voter simply r e f u s e s to vote. By s t a t i n g i s s u e s with which people can i d e n t i f y , v o t e r s are then more motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l process. My goal as an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s was to b u i l d a l l i a n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a L e f t - c e n t r e p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e which would coopt r i g h t wing i s s u e s and r e a r t i c u l a t e them i n a manner conducive to the environmental L e f t and, t h e r e f o r e , to what I 3 3 p e r c e i v e d to be the v o t e r s ' fundamental concerns, which in c l u d e d p r e v e n t i n g m i n o r i t y tyranny (whether or not embedded i n r i g h t - wing p o l i t i c a l hegemony) by app e a l i n g to majoritanism with earnest and c o n s i s t e n t c r i t i q u e . S i nce I hold the b e l i e f that human needs c o i n c i d e with the goals of a p o l i t i c a l l e f t , I regard r i g h t - w i n g hegemonic ideology as c o n t r a r y not only to the emotional and economic s a t i s f a c t i o n of the needs of the m a j o r i t y , but a n t i t h e t i c to the b i o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l of the human s p e c i e s . However, to avoid the snag of bourgeois inte11ectua1ism which can bog down p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c s and impede the development of counter-hegemony, p r a x i s i s a n e c e s s i t y . T h e r e f o r e , I chose a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t model brand of c r i t i q u e , which i t s e l f u t i l i z e s a d i a l e c t i c of g r a s s r o o t s , everyday a c t i v i t y informed by s o c i a l theory. By l i s t e n i n g to those who normally go unheard, those a l i e n a t e d by a p o l i t i c a l process r e l i a n t on dogma and r h e t o r i c (both l e f t i s t and c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h i s c a s e ) , the end r e s u l t was that I became a p o l i t i c i a n by popular demand. Although g r a s s r o o t s p o l i t i c s and populism i t s e l f i s f r e q u e n t l y denoted by bourgeois i n t e l l e c t u a l t h e o r i s t s ( L a c l a u and Mouffe: 1985) as a brand of •right-wing p o l i t i e s ' , I viewed such p o l i t i c s more o p t i m i s t i c a l l y as unchartered t e r r i t o r y to be explored by the l e f t f o r i t s r a d i c a l i z i n g p o t e n t i a l . 34 If one looks at environmental ism as M i g h t green' i n a d i a l e c t i c with ecology as 'dark green', one sees that the greenest extreme of the d i a l e c t i c c o n f l i c t s with i d e o l o g y found i n moderate-right and r i g h t wing p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Looking at the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of White Rock, i t i s c l e a r that c e n t r e - r i g h t and r i g h t wing p o l i t i c s have dominated the c i t y ' s business and l o c a l p o l i t i c s s i n c e the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . Of a l l the counter-hegemonic i d e o l o g i e s thrown up a g a i n s t neoconservatism, i t i s environmenta1ism that appears to be the most v i a b l e . The t r a d i t i o n a l " c l a s s " focus of the l e f t has been profoundly d i s c r e d i t e d . S i n c e New Right p o l i t i c a l agendas have a c c e l e r a t e d e c o l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n and could be c o n c r e t i z e d on the everyday l e v e l as sewage s i t t i n g i n the ocean o u t s i d e one's windows, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are a b l e to broaden and s u s t a i n t h e i r appeal. By drawing people's a t t e n t i o n to the p o l l u t i o n of t h e i r p h y s i c a l space, such as the beach contamination i n White Rock, people could see the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of the p o l i t i c a l process and the immoral power wielded by economic e l i t e s . Consequently, the New Right became suspect i n many q u a r t e r s (Boggs: 1986; Paehlke: 1989), and the r e s u l t i n White Rock was a s h i f t from r i g h t - w i n g p o l i t i c s to more c e n t r i s t p o l i t i c s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y . F o l l o w i n g Hurd's e l e c t i o n , White Rock r e s i d e n t s began by- pas s i n g l o c a l c i t y government a l t o g e t h e r , r e q u e s t i n g that Hurd 35 e i t h e r c o n t a c t the c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r or mayor to address a p o l l u t i o n problem, or seek a p r o v i n c i a l government s o l u t i o n . With an NDP p r o v i n c i a l government i n power, White Rock e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s sought input through Surrey MLA's Sue Hamel1 and Penny P r i d d y . As w e l l , s i n c e the NDP maintains an o f f i c e i n White Rock, l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y e x e c u t i v e members f i e l d e d environmental concerns to pass on to the government or b r i n g to the NDP p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y changes. In s h o r t , with access to a p r o v i n c i a l government which e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s considered f a v o r a b l e to t h e i r concerns and with an avowed e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t as MLA, the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was a v i c t o r y f o r White Rock e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . In sum, t h i s t h e s i s looks at the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e ("old boys' club") and those p e r c e i v e d as p o l i t i c a l newcomers who formed a l l i a n c e s to c h a l l e n g e e s t a b l i s h e d power, p r i v i l e g e and i n f l u e n c e . The time frame covered i n t h i s t h e s i s i s 1989 to 1994, a p e r i o d of n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y . By choosing the c i t y of White Rock, a town of about 16,000 people surrounded by urban sprawl, I have focussed on a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l l o c a l p o l i t y which happens to be a former r e s o r t town locat e d on the border of two merging n a t i o n - s t a t e s . The r e g i o n ' s p o l i t i c a l economy remains t i e d i n t o Vancouver which, by i t s own boundaries, stands as a medium s i z e d c i t y on a warm water p o r t on the western s i d e of North America, a l o c a t i o n 36 t h a t a p p e a l s t o f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s . As growth p r e s s u r e s c r e a t e d t e n s i o n s i n t h i s p o p u l a r l o c a l e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s peaked and were on t h e u p s u r g e d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f my own p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . What t h i s t h e s i s d e m o n s t r a t e s i s t h a t p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e r s c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i d e o l o g y t o c r a c k an e x i s t i n g l o c a l power b a s e . On b o t h a m e t a p h o r i c and mundane l e v e l , sewage on W hite Rock's b e a c h e s promoted p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s . The t h e s i s f o c u s s e s , t h e r e f o r e , on b e a ch p o l l u t i o n a s a s a l i e n t community c o n c e r n i n e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h by s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f government w h i l e a f f e c t i n g t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s economy as w e l l a s r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f l i f e . In C h a p t e r Two, " E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism and L o c a l i s m " which c o n s t i t u t e s a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , I examine some p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s on s o c i a l c h a n g e . In p a r t i c u l a r , I t r y t o p r o v i d e a b a s i c t y p o l o g y o f l o c a l i s t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . The t y p o l o g y o u t l i n e s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e c o l o g i c a l i d e o l o g i e s f o r my c h o s e n c o u n t e r - hegemonic p r o j e c t and t h e s u b v e r s i v e e f f e c t t h a t i d e o l o g i e s u s e d by l o c a l e l i t e s c a n have on p r o g r e s s i v e movements. C h a p t e r Two a l s o s p e c i f i e s t h e t y p e o f a c t i o n s t h a t c a n be t a k e n by an e m e r g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l j u s t i c e movement waging a c u l t u r a l s t r u g g l e i n v o l v i n g community a c t i o n w hich d e n o t e p r a x i s . The i n p u t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e c o l o g i c a l i d e o l o g i e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t y p e s o f c i t i z e n a c t i o n s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s 37 which c o n t r i b u t e t o an ' e c o l o g i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s ' l o c a l community. In C h a p t e r 3 : " P r o f i l e o f a Community i n T r a n s i t i o n " , I examine t h e h i s t o r y o f W hite Rock, i t s l o c a t i o n and d e m o g r a p h i c s , and a l s o d i s c u s s t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l l a n d s c a p e s and t e n s i o n s i n t h e p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n - s t a t e on l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i e s . U s i n g t h e example o f White Rock and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a l l o u t from e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , t h e c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s t h e g r a v e p r e s s u r e s on t h e l o c a l s t a t e a s a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y g i v e n t h a t t h e p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f p o l l u t i o n c l e a n - u p and p r e v e n t i o n i s a l r e a d y beyond t h e r e a c h o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . The c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , " C h a n g i n g t h e P o l i t i c a l C o n t e x t : The Power o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m " , c o n s i d e r s t h e r o l e o f r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e l a t t e r a l r e a d y a s s u m i n g more powers o v e r l o c a l p o l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s t h e r e g i o n c o p e s w i t h e s c a l a t i n g sewage p o l l u t i o n , t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , a i r q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y and s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , and o t h e r " t e n s i o n s i n t h e growth machine" (Mo 1 o t c h / L o g a n : 1984). T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e a b i l i t y o f l o c a l a c t i v i s t s t o l e a p o n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l s c e n e and t h e g r o w i n g power o f p r o v i n c e s w i t h i n a d e c e n t r a l i z i n g n a t i o n - s t a t e , l o c a l p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e r s now have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x c e e d e v e n t h e i r own a m b i t i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n s . 3 8 CHAPTER I I ENVIRONMENTAL ISM AND LOCALISM Examining White Rock, B.C. as a case study c o n t r a s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and l o c a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s , to what extent can environmentalism be seen as the b a s i s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of an e f f e c t i v e counter-hegemonic ideology? Can environmental ism serve as a conceptual umbrella f o r a p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e which can s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e the e x i s t i n g power s t r u c t u r e ? As e c o l o g i c a l problems magnify and resources f u r t h e r disappear, environmental ism i n the 1990s a f f o r d s a unique h i s t o r i c a l o p p o r t u n i t y to oppose moral and m a t e r i a l d e c l i n e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c r y s t a l l i z e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y and expose the d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies of c a p i t a l i s m ( i . e . economic development r e l y i n g upon perpetual expansion i n a f i n i t e wor1d) . By l o o k i n g at the impact of the environmental movement on l o c a l p o l i t i c s , as i n the community of White Rock, I s h a l l e x p l o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c r e a t i n g the a l l i a n c e that both a new L e f t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s need to achieve i n order to secure p o l i t i c a l power and a p r o g r e s s i v e hegemony. At times l o c a l p o l i t i c s can be more i n f l u e n t i a l than e d i c t s from Ottawa, the d i s t a n t seat of Canadian n a t i o n - s t a t e government. A l s o , when a p r o v i n c i a l N . D . P . c a b i n e t breaks i t s campaign promises and permits logging of o l d growth f o r e s t at Clayoquot Sound or r e l e a s e s a g r i c u l t u r a l land from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve ( d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n from i t s appointed 39 commission and simply because l o c a l governments asked f o r g o l f c o u r s e s ) , one sees how q u i c k l y p o l i t i c i a n s can be compromised. It takes courage to keep f a i t h with t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s and r e s i s t c o o p t a t i o n . At i s s u e are the p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s which an environmental c r i s i s c r e a t e s and whether environmental ideology can dismantle the s t o r i e d myths s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s of a r u l i n g e l i t e . The " s t i n k i n g " beach i s an i n e s c a p a b l e r e a l i t y f o r a c o u n c i l which s t i l l p r e f e r s to pave a seawalk r a t h e r than accept funds o f f e r e d to communities by a new p r o v i n c i a l government to r e p a i r sewers or p r o v i d e secondary sewage treatment. In White Rock, where the c i t y c o u n c i l has been l i t t l e more than the e x e c u t i v e branch of the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce, and where demographics show that a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of c i t i z e n s are e i t h e r t r a n s p l a n t e d B r i t s or c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n of B r i t i s h immigrants, comparison to 19th century B r i t i s h l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s i s a p p r o p r i a t e . As shown i n the l i t e r a t u r e on Canadian municipal p o l i t i c s , (such as Henri Lamoureux, Community A c t i o n , 1987 and James Lorimer, A C i t i z e n ' s Guide to C i t y H a l l , 1972) the l o c a l i s t assumptions of non-partisan p o l i t i c s and businessmen as the best l o c a l c i v i c l e a d e r s , has led to a municipal p o l i t i c s where l o c a l c i t y governments do not simply pave the way f o r the p r o p e r t y development i n d u s t r y but are themselves i n the b u s i n e s s of development. In B.C., a push f o r municipal reform, i n i t i a t e d , i r o n i c a l l y , by U.S. business/commerce i n t e r e s t s , has had a g r e a t e r impact 40 than i n the r e s t of Canada. However, a continued f a i l u r e to i n s t i t u t e e l e c t o r a l ward systems favours the s t a t u s quo. Those persons and groups with the most money or p r e s t i g e get e l e c t e d , s i m i l a r to the p a r o c h i a l i s m that prompted U.S. p o l i t i c a l reforms. T h i s e 1 e c t e d - a t - 1 a r g e system of l o c a l government (as opposed to wards) favours candidates f i n a n c e d by the development i n d u s t r y , incumbent aldermen and b u s i n e s s / p r o f e s s i o n a l people whose advertisements i n the media are tax d e d u c t i b l e . Thus, B.C. municipal e l e c t i o n s tend to be l i t t l e more than p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t s . As w e l l , i t i s through l o c a l p o l i t i c s , that the " p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e " from which l o c a l o f f i c i a l s are s e l e c t e d , a l l y with i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l , through the p u r s u i t of development p r o j e c t s f i n a n c e d by banks, insurance companies e t c . L o c a l i s t non- p a r t i s a n s h i p , then, i s sheer myth. Since the ideology of environmental ism c a l l s f o r increased c o n s e r v a t i o n , i t u s u a l l y c o n f 1 i c t s with the economic e x p a n s i o n i s t ideology found i n moderate-right and r i g h t wing p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Of Canada's major p a r t i e s , the New Democratic P a r t y and the L i b e r a l Party allow some i d e o l o g i c a l space f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to manoeuvre. Environmental ism c l e a r l y has a s a l i e n t r o l e to p l a y i n the L e f t ' s c o u n t e r - a t t a c k a g a i n s t New Right hegemony. With the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of communist s t a t e s i n E a s t e r n Europe and the S o v i e t Union, the c o m m u n i s t - c a p i t a l i s t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n a p o l a r i z e d world order has disappeared. S i n c e t h i s r e s u l t s i n renewed a t t e n t i o n to i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s between labour and 4 1 c a p i t a l w i t h i n western i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s , a r e v i t a l i z e d L e f t , untrammeled by Communist ideology, should be a b l e to tap i n t o t h i s antagonism and c r e a t e p u b l i c sympathy f o r p r o g r e s s i v e causes. Emergent new s o c i a l movements (such as feminism and environmenta1ism) which transcend t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s , gender and r a c i a l boundaries, can c r e a t e the ideology and p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e needed f o r a r e v i t a l i z e d l e f t - w i n g agenda. Indeed, r a d i c a l p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i s t s argue that i n d i v i d u a l new s o c i a l movements are unable to s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y succeed i n a p o l i t i c a l and economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . As Ernesto L a c l a u and Chantal Mouffe note: "Many have devoted themselves s i n c e the 1960s to the search f o r a new p r i v i l e g e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y s u b j e c t which might come to r e p l a c e the working c l a s s , with the l a t t e r seen as having f a i l e d i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l mission of emancipation. The e c o l o g i c a l movements, the student movements, feminism and the marginal masses have been the most popular c a n d i d a t e s . . . b u t i t i s c l e a r that such an approach does not escape the t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . . . a 11 strugg1es...have a p a r t i a l c h a r a c t e r . . . " 1 Yet i n p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , which are p r i m a r i l y urban based, money and power are monopolized by c a p i t a l i s t s and the ideologues and t e c h n o c r a t s who serve them. Thus, on the l o c a l l e v e l , c i t y and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s forming c e n t r a l i z e d command u n i t s , urban planners and others have a v i t a l r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo. As Harloe and Lebas p o i n t out i n C i t y , C l a s s and C a p i t a l (1981), bureaucrats expect more from the system than those i n h a b i t i n g l e s s q u a l i f i e d and poorer s e c t o r s of the s t a t e ; thus: "...the working c l a s s i s much l e s s present and a c t i v e i n s o c i a l movements d e a l i n g with c o l l e c t i v e consumption, 42 ecology e t c . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s have consequences, and tend to produce new types of s t r u g g l e — urban s o c i a l movements, e c o l o g i c a l movements... as well as new economic and p o l i t i c a l contents to such s t r u g g l e s . Again, there i s nothing automatic i n these p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s . T h i s i s p a r t l y so because of the ambiguous nature of the s t a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of consumption, the constant processes of displacement, reshaping and c o n t r o 1 . . " 2 In t h i s c o njuncture, the p o t e n t i a l of environmental ism as an i n t e g r a t i v e ideology deserves c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n . The environmental movement appears to have g r e a t e r p u b l i c support and i d e o l o g i c a l success than any other new s o c i a l movement and seems best a b l e to overcome gender, c l a s s and r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s . The q u e s t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l c o a l i t i o n which e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can help to c o n s t r u c t r e q u i r e s a r a d i c a l r e t h i n k i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l L e f t i s t i deology, s i n c e environmenta1ism i s at odds with the p r o d u c t i v i s t and p o s i t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n of Marxism. But even w i t h i n Marx's own w r i t i n g s , one can f i n d the seeds of environmenta1-1 e f t thought. For i n s t a n c e , i n "Wages, P r i c e and P r o f i t " , Marx favours d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power, and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s p a r t of environmental s t r a t e g y . Marx a l s o d e c r i e s the manual/mental labour and town/country c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which prove abusive to the environment. "Along with the c o n s t a n t l y d i m i n i s h i n g number of the magnates of c a p i t a l , who usurp and monopolise a l l advantages of t h i s process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n flows the mass of misery, s l a v e r y , degradation, e x p 1 o i t a t i o n . . . " ( i . e . of nature as well as p e o p l e ) " 3 The a l i e n a t i o n Marx speaks of i n h i s Economic and P h i l o s o p h i c Manuscripts of 1844 i s a s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n a l s o d e c r i e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s look to overcoming the a l i e n a t i o n of man/woman from nature and from 43 themselves as they l i v e i n a s o c i a l world i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t e d s p i r i t u a l l y from the grounding only nature p r o v i d e s . Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy has always been dependent on land development and p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s (Gaucher and T a y l o r , 1989; L i p s e t , 1990) and t h i s a i d s i n b u s i n e s s / c o n s e r v a t i v e hegemony at l o c a l l e v e l s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , however, as represented by such w r i t e r s as E.F. Schumacher (Small i s B e a u t i f u l . 1973) and David Suzuki with A n i t a Gordon, ( I t ' s a Matter of S u r v i v a l . 1990) favour a move away from land development dependence. Understanding the New Right i s c r i t i c a l because of i t s s u c c e s s f u l c h a l l e n g e to t r a d i t i o n a l l e f t i s t p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . As Ruth L e v i t a s observes: "The c e n t r a l i t y of a n t i - s o c i a l i s m to the New Right p r o j e c t i s not f o r t u i t o u s . On t h i s c r i t e r i a , the hegemonic p r o j e c t of the New Right must be deemed to have had some success even i f l a r g e numbers of people are ignorant of, or i n d i f f e r e n t or a n t i - p a t h e t i c to, a s p e c t s of New Right i d e o l o g y . The process of d e l e g i t i m a t i o n of s o c i a l i s t a l t e r n a t i v e s i s c r u c i a l . . " 4 It was environmental ism, not the t r a d i t i o n a l l e f t , which gained s t r e n g t h i n opposing New Right hegemony. That the New Right hastened environmental degradation not only hardened the zeal of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s but enabled them to broaden t h e i r appeal i n defense of the environment. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s drew people's a t t e n t i o n to the p o l l u t i o n of the p h y s i c a l world, and to the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m and m i n o r i t y domination 44 by economic e l i t e s secured through the mass p o l i t i c a l p r ocesses of modern democracies. Environmental ideology a l r e a d y has had a major impact on B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s , even p l a y i n g an important r o l e i n the 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , the r e s u l t of which now i n f l u e n c e s l o c a l p o l i t i c s . The S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y d i s p l a y e d an arrogant d i s r e g a r d f o r the concerns of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and an i n a b i l i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e environmental demands. P o l l s such as the GVRD Urban Futures research showed strong p u b l i c support f o r a c l e a n e r environment, an i s s u e on which S o c i a l C r e d i t p o l i t i c i a n s lagged f a r behind. On the municipal l e v e l , r i g h t wing p o l i t i c i a n s have t r i e d to ignore the e x i s t e n c e of l o c a l environmental problems r a t h e r than come to terms with the negative e f f e c t s of growth and development. Paehlke reminds us t h a t , "The p o l i t i c s of moderation was fundamentally r e j e c t e d i n the 1980s....neoconservatives sought to r e v i v e the e x p a n s i o n i s t s t a t e , to bury the s o c i a l compromise c a l l e d the w e l f a r e s t a t e , and to achieve an economic recovery based i n m i l i t a r i z a t i o n and deregulation...From an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e the danger i s not that t h i s s t r a t e g y may f a i l , but that i t may succeed... whether or not neoconservatism remains dominant i n the short-term f u t u r e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s suggest that the f o r c e s which permitted and promoted i t s r i s e w i l l r e t u r n a g a i n . Neoconservatism a r i s e s i n the absence of 'easy' economic growth" 5 In White Rock, the l o c a l e l e c t i o n process c e r t a i n l y does not favour the e l e c t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . White Rock has a dominant c l i q u e which r e s i s t s s h a r i n g power and p r i v i l e g e with 45 newly a r r i v e d r e s i d e n t s . T h i s c l i q u e of second g e n e r a t i o n and long term r e s i d e n t s r e p r e s e n t s l a r g e landowners, r e a l t o r s , a r c h i t e c t s , c i t y h a l l b u r eaucrats, p o l i c e command o f f i c e r s , accountants, s o c i a l d i l e t t a n t e s and de v e l o p e r s . Because of the t a c t i c s used by the " o l d boys network", e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who seek a p l u r a l i s t p o l i t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e or who merely t r y to persuade urban p o l i t i c a l and economic c l i q u e s to go 'green', are d e s t i n e d to f a i l . They lack p o 1 i t i c i z a t i o n and tend to be m a r g i n a l i z e d . As Surrey c o u n c i l l o r Judy V i l l e n e u v e would a t t e s t , the system tends to work a g a i n s t even those e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who do manage to get e l e c t e d to municipal o f f i c e . However, s i n c e municipal o f f i c e i s o f t e n a t r a i n i n g ground f o r p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s , then e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s must crack l o c a l power c l i q u e s . Moreover, some environmental problems have g l o b a l dimensions, such as greenhouse e f f e c t s and t h i n n i n g ozone. Some problems e n t a i l d e f o r e s t a t i o n or p o l l u t e d r i v e r s f l o w i n g from one n a t i o n to the next. The environment on pl a n e t e a r t h i s g l o b a l , yet e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are l i k e f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t e r s , b a t t l i n g one b r u s h f i r e b l a z e at a time. To e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , the credo must be, "think g l o b a l and a c t l o c a l " . ENVIRONMENTAL ISM AND MARXIST T H O U G H T One can f i n d the seeds of environmental ism i n the w r i t i n g s of Karl Marx. For Marx, bourgeois p o l i t i c a l economy has i t s b i r t h with the i m p o s i t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ; greed and c o m p e t i t i o n 46 are i t s m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s . For e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , the economy i s an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t , a growth-oriented ideology to be countered. To an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t , greed and c o m p e t i t i o n are the rampant f o r c e s which lead to d e s t r u c t i o n of nature and the p o i s o n i n g of the p l a n e t . H i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m o f f e r s a key to understanding environmental p o l i t i c s . It p r o v i d e s a paradigm f o r the ideology of environmental ism, an ideology which s t r i v e s f o r p r a x i s ( i . e . a theory t h a t domination and e x p l o i t a t i o n of nature t h r e a t e n s l i f e i t s e l f , coupled with the a c t i o n s of t r y i n g to save and r e s t o r e the remaining n a t u r a l environment). Although l a b e l l e d a new s o c i a l movement, environmental ism had i t s b i r t h with the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and has p e r s i s t e d from the L u d d i t e s and the Romantics i n t o the present e r a . Environmental p o l i t i c s s t r i v e s to overcome commodification and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of land and the a l i e n a t i o n of man/woman from n a t u r e — n o t i o n s which Karl Marx expounded i n The Economic and P h i l o s o p h i c Manuscripts of J844. It was a l i e n a t i o n of the e a r t h which led to a l i e n a t i o n of o u r s e l v e s . "To make the e a r t h an o b j e c t of h u c k s t e r i n g — t h e e a r t h which i s our one and a l l , the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n of our e x i s t e n c e — was the l a s t step toward making o n e s e l f an o b j e c t of h u c k s t e r i n g . . . 11 was and i s to t h i s very day an immorality surpassed only by the immorality of s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n . And the o r i g i n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n — t h e monopolization of the e a r t h by a few, the e x c l u s i o n of the r e s t from that which i s the c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r l i f e — y i e l d s nothing i n immorality to the subsequent h u c k s t e r i n g of the e a r t h . " 6 47 In many ways, the c r e a t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y can be seen as a root cause of the world's environmental problems. Stewardship of the e a r t h and l i v i n g i n harmony with nature i s rep l a c e d f i r s t l y by notio n s of ownership of the land, then ownership of the minerals below the land and the a i r above the land. T h i s has creat e d a new c o n t r a d i c t i o n . What a person does on h i s or her land a f f e c t s f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s who would i n h e r i t both t h e i r land and that of t h e i r neighbours. I n c r e a s i n g l y , a c t i o n s taken on one small p a r t of the ea r t h have had negative consequences f o r the r e s t of the p l a n e t . Yet landowning m i n o r i t i e s r e p l a c e d i d e a l s of communal good with paramount i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , and u n r e s t r i c t e d or p o o r l y checked p r i v a t e property r i g h t s make environmental p r o t e c t i o n i n s u p p o r t a b l e , witness the c u r r e n t r i g h t - w i n g backlash i n western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s determined to entrench those p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . C o n s e r v a t i v e s simp 1 i s t i c a 1 1 y blame environmental problems on i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s r a t h e r than c a p i t a l i s t p r o f i t motives ( i . e . blaming environmental deg r a d a t i o n on o v e r p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r than consumption p a t t e r n s of the wealthy m i n o r i t y ) . Marx, however, blamed environmental problems on the e x i s t e n c e of " s u r p l u s wealth, s u r p l u s c a p i t a l and s u r p l u s landed p r o p e r t y " . 7 P r i v a t i z a t i o n of prop e r t y and an ideology of p r i v a t e property r i g h t s produced a change i n the a t t i t u d e s towards land, 48 a t t i t u d e s which have not boded well f o r the environment. As Marx observed, "Large landed p r o p e r t y . . . adopted an i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r i n so f a r as i t i s aiming to make as much money as p o s s i b l e , " 8. The p r o f i t motive i s a p r i v a t e p u r s u i t , f o r e g o i n g the i n t e r e s t s of community and ensuing g e n e r a t i o n s . Thus the land has become an " o b j e c t of h u c k s t e r i n g " , and we have become ,a 1 i e n a t e d from i t . O b j e c t i f i c a t i o n and commod i f i c a t i on r e p l a c e reverence f o r nature. According to Mar;x, nature was never a l o r d of labour as c a p i t a l i s t s have become, and even "man's s p e c i e s nature i s estranged from him" j u s t as each '" man i s estranged from the other". 9 As with the land i t s e l f , the worker has become o b j e c t i f i e d and commodified. Man/woman has been a l i e n a t e d from s o c i e t y , j u s t as s o c i e t y which depends on nature f o r s u r v i v a l , has been a l i e n a t e d from nature. While the t r a d i t i o n a l L e f t has t r i e d to achieve v i c t o r y on the t e r r a i n of p o l i t i c a l economy, the environmental movement has c o n s c i o u s l y worked to achieve i t s g o a l s w i t h i n c i v i l s o c i e t y . Thus, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s do not q u i e t l y accept the world of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t as unavoidable. The c h i e f combative t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s choose to u t i l i z e i n c i v i l s o c i e t y i s e d u c a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , Canada's b o u r g e o i s i e has refused adequately to fund e d u c a t i o n , p r e f e r r i n g to r e l y on immigration and 49 e m i g r a t i o n to c o n t r o l s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n (Gaucher, 1987). Thus i n B r i t i s h Columbia, with a NDP p r o v i n c i a l government stee r e d by a number of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups, edu c a t i o n funding has been cut. The consequence, as B.C. f e d e r a t i o n of labour Ken G e o r g e t t i e x p l a i n s i n a Vancouver Sun a r t i c l e , i s a confused and f r i g h t e n e d group of t r a d i t i o n a l u n i o n i s t s and labour f o r c e s , who p i t t h e i r angst a g a i n s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s i n s t e a d of the r u l i n g e l i t e and t h e i r ideologues. "A l o t of groups i n c l u d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s don't understand why people...are so a f r a i d of l o s i n g t h e i r jobs...They don't r e a l i z e that you can't o f f e r h i g h - t e c h and h i g h - s k i l l e d jobs to a guy who's 48 years o l d with a Grade 10 e d u c a t i o n . " (Vancouver Sun, Saturday, January 25, 1992) Perhaps by r a i s i n g consciousness l e v e l s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can a i d those on the t r a d i t i o n a l L e f t who seek to uproot * f a l s e c onsciousness' i n order to subvert m i n o r i t y tyranny. I f , as Marx p r e d i c t s , a r e v o l u t i o n takes p l a c e only when power becomes i n t o l e r a b l e to the p o i n t where the r u l i n g c l a s s has "rendered the great mass of humanity 'property1 ess'" 1 0 , then we might say that e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s (who argue that through environmental degradation and mismanagement, which produces wealth and c u l t u r e f o r a few, the mass of humanity lo s e s i t s ' p r o p e r t y ' — a i r , water, etc.) have become r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . POST-MARXISM AND PLURALISM Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe see M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s m and 50 environmental ism as l i t t l e more than two of many d i s c o u r s e s i n a p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y where the working c l a s s i s no longer "the o n t o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y " and r e v o l u t i o n i s no longer the main mechanism of s o c i a l change. Ergo "the very wealth and p l u r a l i t y of contemporary s o c i a l s t r u g g l e s has g i v e n r i s e to a t h e o r e t i c a l c r i s i s . " 11 They see a need to reexamine Marxism, to "renounce any e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e r o g a t i v e based upon the onto 1ogica11y p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n of a ' u n i v e r s a l c l a s s ' " 12 and to rework Marxism as a paradigm on which "to o u t l i n e a new p o l i t i c s f o r the L e f t based upon the p r o j e c t of a r a d i c a l democracy". 13 They c i t e the f a i l u r e of "communism" to e r a d i c a t e antagonisms from i t s s o c i e t y as one reason to s i t u a t e themselves i n a p o s t - M a r x i s t t e r r a i n . The i d e o l o g i c a l impact of new s o c i a l movements, such as environmenta1ism, i n the making of a v i a b l e counter-hegemony, i s pa r t of the new equation. " I f the working c l a s s , as a hegemonic agent, manages to a r t i c u l a t e around i t s e l f a number of democratic demands and s t r u g g l e s , t h i s i s due not to any a p r i o r i s t r u c t u r a l p r i v i l e g e , but to a p o l i t i c a l i n i t i a t i v e on the p a r t of the c l a s s . Thus, the hegemonic s u b j e c t i s a c l a s s s u b j e c t only i n . t h e sense t h a t , on the b a s i s of c l a s s p o s i t i o n s , a c e r t a i n hegemonic formation i s p r a c t i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d ; but, i n that case we are d e a l i n g with c o n c r e t e workers... For Gramsci, p o l i t i c a l s u b j e c t s are n o t — s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g — c l a s s e s , but complex ' c o l l e c t i v e w i l l s ' ; s i m i l a r l y , the i d e o l o g i c a l elements a r t i c u l a t e d by a hegemonic c l a s s do not have a necessary c l a s s b e l o n g i n g . . . For Gramsci a c l a s s does not take S t a t e power, i t becomes the S t a t e . " 14 Opinion p o l l s show the vast m a j o r i t y of people i n Canada 51 favour environmental o b j e c t i v e s . If a c l e a n e r environment has become a motherhood i s s u e , then environmental ism commends i t s e l f as a popular i d e o l o g y . As such, environmenta1ism u n i t e s v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s as i t c r i t i q u e s the very c o r p o r a t i z a t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n which has led to p o l l u t i o n and de g r a d a t i o n . Rather than grouping new s o c i a l movements i n t o a category which s u b s t i t u t e s f o r c l a s s , L a c l a u and Mouffe t r e a t s o c i a l movement theory as a novel way of " a r t i c u l a t i n g that r a p i d d i f f u s i o n of s o c i a l c o n f 1 i c t u a l i t y to more and more numerous r e l a t i o n s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c today of advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . 1115 The worker i s a l s o a mother, a consumer, an i nvestor. Members of m a r g i n a l i z e d groups are a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n new s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y students and women who a c t i v e l y r e s i s t the c o o p t a t i o n l o g i c of the system of c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s . "...numerous new s t r u g g l e s have expressed r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t the new forms of s u b o r d i n a t i o n . . . t h u s i t i s that the waste of n a t u r a l resources, the p o l l u t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i s m have given b i r t h to the ecology movement. Other s t r u g g l e s , which Manuel C a s t e l l s terms 'urban' express d i v e r s e forms of r e s i s t a n c e to the c a p i t a l i s t o c cupation of s o c i a l space. The general u r b a n i z a t i o n which has accompanied economic growth, the t r a n s f e r of the popular c l a s s e s to the urban p e r i p h e r y or t h e i r r e l e g a t i o n to the decaying inner c i t i e s , and the general lack of c o l l e c t i v e goods and s e r v i c e s have caused a s e r i e s of new problems which a f f e c t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the whole of s o c i a l l i f e o u t s i d e of work." 16 If environmental degradation endangers the l i v e s of the 52 m a j o r i t y of people i n the i n d u s t r i a l world, who j u s t happen to be wage l a b o r e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , then an a l l i a n c e between labour and new s o c i a l movements has to be c o n s i d e r e d . In c o n s t r u c t i n g such an a l l i a n c e , s o c i a l movements would not simply rework preceding h i s t o r i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and i d e o l o g i e s but take "the elements which are a l r e a d y c o n s t r u c t e d i n t o p l a c e , dismantle them, r e c o n s t i t u t e them i n t o a new l o g i c , and a r t i c u l a t e the space i n a new way, p o l a r i z i n g i t " . 17 Environmental ism i s one of the key elements i n that r e - a r t i c u l a t i on. RISE OF THE NEW RIGHT The 1970s and 1980s saw the r i s e of New Right p o l i t i c a l and economic f o r c e s i n the western, i n d u s t r i a l world. What was i n h e r e n t l y new about the New Right was i t s a b i l i t y to c r e a t e an a l l i a n c e between c o n s e r v a t i v e and n e o - l i b e r a l f o r c e s , using s o c i a l movement t a c t i c s and a s y n t h e s i s of d i s p a r a t e ideas condensed i n t o a hegemonic p r o j e c t . New Right economic p o l i c i e s , however, not only increased environmental degradation but shrunk workers' purchasing a b i l i t i e s , i n c reased m i d d l e - c l a s s taxes and l i t e r a l l y threw people i n t o the s t r e e t s . The ma t e r i a l r e a l i t y of New Right p o l i t i c a l might i s that only the r i c h get r i c h e r . U l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e s took c o n t r o l of the ri g h t - w i n g p a r t i e s and promoted b i g business and u p p e r - c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , downplaying 5 3 environmental concerns. If there was a swing c l a s s i n p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y which allowed these New Right f o r c e s to succeed, i t was l i k e l y the t e c h n o c r a t i c c l a s s i n a l l i a n c e with the p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e . As C h r i s t o p h e r Lasch noted, t h i s ' t r a d i t i o n a l middle c l a s s ' was d e c l i n i n g i n s t a t u s and " i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t e d , i n i t s i n s e c u r i t y and d e s p a i r to . . . i t s o l d l a i s s e z - f a i r e i d e o l o g y " . 18 Added to t h i s group were the new upwardly mobile p r o f e s s i o n a l groups with t h e i r d i s t i n c t l y s t a t u s - o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y . The philosophy of the New Right was a s y n t h e s i s of v a r i o u s c o n s e r v a t i v e and bourgeois ideas; however, the key ideology d e r i v e d from Hobbes (and bourgeois philosophy) i s that p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s s a c r o s a n c t . Thus, the New Right c o a l i t i o n c o n s o l i d a t e d groups which were p r o - c a p i t a l i s t and acted to favour c a p i t a l accumulation at any c o s t . T h i s commitment to c a p i t a l accumulation and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s put them on a c o l l i s i o n course with e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who were determined to save dwindling n a t u r a l resources on a dying p l a n e t . In North America, the New Right has grown c o n c u r r e n t l y with a r a p i d r i s e i n Pentecosta1ism and m i l l e n i a l i s t c u l t s . North America a l s o draws h e a v i l y upon P u r i t a n i s m and there i s a strong element of the P r o t e s t a n t work e t h i c i n New Right thought. The focus i s on i n d u s t r y . The New Right a l s o draws upon thousands of years of J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n p a t r i a r c h y that makes sexism, and even 54 racism, p a l a t a b l e with i t s members and suggests e x p l o i t a t i o n of nature as a God-given r i g h t . More c o n c r e t e l y , much of the New Right economic and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y i s designed to boost the f o r t u n e s of the upwardly mobile members who served as a d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the New Right hegemonic p r o j e c t ( L e v i t a s (1986). Lawyers, accountants, r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s — a r e some of the New Right members s t i l l o ver-represented on the Canadian p o l i t i c a l scene and who a c t i v e l y pursue s e l f - i n t e r e s t and economic gain through governmental p o l i c i e s . E ducation has been the t a r g e t of New R i g h t ' s s o c i a l , f i s c a l and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s . As well as r e s t r a i n t p o l i t i c s and de1 e g i t i m i z a t i o n of teachers comes a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s so that they meet the t e c h n i c a l needs of i n d u s t r y and serve as a conduit f o r r i g h t wing i d e o l o g y . Such ideology o f f e n d s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who c a l l f o r a new m o r a l i t y r e s p e c t f u l of environmental concerns, and n o t i o n s of community. The New Right, however, i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n p r i v i l e g e , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and increased p r o d u c t i v i t y . Environmental r e g u l a t i o n s and taxes are seen by them as government meddling i n a market system where New Right i d e o l o g y advocates f o r " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " . The word democracy i s notably absent from p a t e r n a l i s t i c , a u t h o r i t a r i a n New Right r h e t o r i c . CANADIAN POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS 55 That a strong r i g h t - w i n g lobby e x i s t s f o r the entrenchment of p r i v a t e property r i g h t s i s a worry to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who a l r e a d y must r e s o r t to the c o u r t s to f i g h t b i g b u s i n e s s , which i s "much more h i g h l y concentrated i n Canada than i n the United S t a t e s " . 19 Any law which generates c o u r t cases and l e g a l a c t i o n s (as the Charter of Rights does) serves the l e g a l "experts" w e l l . The Charter can be seen as p a r t of a push towards a t e c h n o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , and as S t a n l e y Aronowitz has p o i n t e d out i n Science as Power (1985), technocracy i n i t s mechanistic form, serves b i g business and b i g government. It a l s o serves the i n t e r e s t s of a p r o f e s s i o n a l - m a n a g e r i a l c l a s s to which lawyers and urban pla n n e r s be 1ong. The need f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and lobby groups to h i r e lawyers f o r l e g a l b a t t l e s to p r o t e c t the environment c r e a t e s a horrendous d r a i n on t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . Businesses can use l e g a l c o s t s as income tax d e d u c t i o n s — i n d i v i d u a l s and n o n - p r o f i t groups cannot. For i n s t a n c e , a m u l t i - n a t i o n a l c o r o p o r a t i o n such as Alcan, would f i n d c o u r t and l e g a l c o s t s worth the gamble when f i g h t i n g environmental and f i s h e r y groups (as with the case of the Nechako r i v e r d i s p u t e i n B.C.). When i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s become paramount, the s t a t e becomes a b a t t l e g r o u n d f o r a war of a l l a g a i n s t a l l . The environment can not represent i t s e l f and the a n t i - m a j o r i t a r i a n stance of the 56 l e g a l system undermines r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy and the environmental movement. In t h i s sense, the Charter of R i g h t s , a c c o r d i n g to Mandel (1987), i s not a l o f t y document which serves humanitarian and democratic g o a l s , but a p o l i t i c a l l y expedient way of d e a l i n g with c r i s e s fomented by c h a l l e n g e s to p r i v a t e power. T h i s expediency, however, has come at "the expense of and i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to other more popular forms of power...law has been a way of g e t t i n g around p e o p l e . . . i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to democracy" 20 In Canada, as resources have become more l i m i t e d and waste more predominant, c l a s s and e t h n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n has s u r f a c e d i n s t r u g g l e s over housing, e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h c a r e . The 1980s growth boom f u e l l e d socio-economic c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . T h e problem has been compounded by a h i s t o r i c a l r e l u c t a n c e of the b o u r g e o i s i e to fund e d u c a t i o n and other s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s , and by maintainance of p o l i t i c a l hegemony through " c o n t r o l of land and immigration" 21 The dependence of the Canadian economy on land s p e c u l a t i o n as a prime source of p r o f i t has been a c o n t i n u i n g problem f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The c r i s i s of l e g i t i m a t i o n c r e a t e d by land s p e c u l a t i o n and immigration, a r i s i n g i n the context of s c a r c e resources f o r Canada's lower and middle c l a s s e s , culminated i n the Charter of R i g h t s , which Mandel argues c l o t h e d the i s s u e of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n l e g a l r h e t o r i c to serve the i n t e r e s t s of the 57 s t a t u s quo. Arguments over such i s s u e s culminated i n n a t i o n a l d e f e a t f o r a 1992 f e d e r a l referendum on the Char Iottetown c o n s t i t u t i o n a l accord which e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s had supported. Since a l l i a n c e s to crack p o l i t i c a l and economic c l i q u e s have to be made through group formations, i n d i v i d u a l ism hampers those a l l i a n c e s . To combat t h i s , European Greens, have formed p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e to d e f i n e democracy as well as b r i n g p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s under c o n t r o l f o r the long-term b e n e f i t of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s . They "uphold a v i s i o n of a q u a l i t a t i v e l y new s o c i e t y that can only be r e a l i z e d through r a d i c a l l y democratic s t y l e s and methods". 22 T h e i r methods i n v o l v e more d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s "between part y and movements, n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l spheres of a c t i v i t y , e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s and g r a s s r o o t s m o b i l i z a t i o n . " 23 Indeed, g r a s s r o o t s s o c i a l movements which want to s u r v i v e must c o n t i n u a l l y forge new a l l i a n c e s to maintain momentum, and are c o n s t a n t l y i n danger of d e v o l v i n g i n t o competing i n t e r e s t groups that can be coopted by government. In order to achieve consensus and f u l f i l l common g o a l s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s need to be in a p o s i t i o n where they can stop expending meagre reso u r c e s on cour t b a t t l e s . The c o u r t room i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the type of p u b l i c meeting space necessary f o r g r a s s r o o t s growth. There i s s t i l l a 58 great deal of p u b l i c sympathy f o r environmental causes which has not been p o l i t i c a l l y e x p l o i t e d . Perhaps too, the s t r u g g l e f o r Canada's n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y could be won i n the way the Greens maximized the German peace s t r u g g l e , as symbolising freedom from advancing U.S. n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and m i l i t a r i s m . "...the Greens advanced a comprehensive, or h o l i s t i c , model of r a d i c a l change that a l s o c h a l l e n g e d the l i m i t s of s t r u c t u r a l reformism. They introduced a s p i r i t of p o l i t i c a l o r i g i n a l i t y l a r g e l y because they were abl e to c r e a t e , or help c r e a t e , a dynamic i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u around which many l o c a l f o r c e s c o u l d congregate." 24 THE ENVIRONMENTALISTS For more than 125 years Canadians have made t h e i r l i v i n g from s e l l i n g Canada's l a n d — c u t t i n g the t r e e s , s u b d i v i d i n g i t , paving over much of the best chunks. The Canadian establishment has t h r i v e d on r e a l e s t a t e development and resource e x p l o i t a t i o n , not p r o d u c t i o n . On Monday, February 10, 1992 one of the two Vancouver d a i l y newspapers owned by the Southam f a m i l y gave f r o n t page coverage to the rig h t - w i n g Urban Development I n s t i t u t e , which complained that there was not enough land a v a i l a b l e i n Surrey to b u l l d o z e f o r more suburban homes. The l e f t - w i n g N.D.P mayor was going to cos t homeowners more money, s a i d the developers ( n e g l e c t i n g to mention the high taxes needed to cover the c o s t s of s e r v i c i n g p r o p e r t y ) . The newspaper f a i l e d to c o n s i d e r d e c l i n i n g Canadian b i r t h r a t e s when developers s t a t e d that the c h i l d r e n o f Surrey r e s i d e n t s would be unable to a f f o r d to l i v e i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 59 In the same e d i t i o n of the Vancouver Sun lay a b u r i e d news item o u t l i n i n g an immediate t h r e a t to Canada's c h i l d r e n . In the s p r i n g of 1992, the ozone l a y e r over Canada would be deplet e d by 30 to 40 per cent. As a r e s u l t , the r e p o r t s a i d s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of Canadian c h i l d r e n would develop s k i n cancer i n the f u t u r e . The f e d e r a l environment m i n i s t e r r e j e c t e d any s u p p o s i t i o n that Canada was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s c a t a s t r o p h e s i n c e i t c o n t r i b u t e d only 2 -1/2 per cent of the ch1orof1orocarbons ( c f c s ) i n the atmosphere. Yet what about the d e v a s t a t i o n to the atmosphere c r e a t e d by the massive c l e a r c u t t i n g of t r e e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia?. According to e c o l o g i s t s , t r e e s are the lungs of t h i s p l a n e t . In The Next One Hundred Years, Shaping the Fate of our L i v i n g E a r t h , Jonathan Weiner estimates that 1,000 t r e e s per c a p i t a w i l l be needed i n North America alone to r e p a i r the damage done to the atmosphere by the North American l i f e s t y l e . Trees would s h e l t e r the p r a i r i e s and preserve the s o i l from dust bowl e f f e c t s i n upcoming droughts. Trees would p r o v i d e s h e l t e r i n Canada's c i t i e s and reduce energy c o s t s by p r o v i d i n g shade i n the summer ( t h e r e f o r e , reducing dependency on a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ) and a s h e l t e r e f f e c t i n the winter. Trees along B r i t i s h Columbia's c o a s t a l watershed areas would p r o t e c t a g a i n s t s o i l e r o s i o n . In urban areas such as White Rock, t r e e s would hold back p o l l u t a n t s from being washed onto p u b l i c beaches. Yet, i n White Rock, 6 0 homeowners on the h i l l s i d e ask neighbours to cut down t r e e s i n order to improve t h e i r view. P o l i t i c i a n s now c o n s i d e r the environment a motherhood i s s u e . In recent years, f e m i n i s t s have contended that women, as ma r g i n a l i z e d members of s o c i e t y , have become more concerned about the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment. P o s t - M a r x i s t e c o - f e m i n i s t s such as Ynestra King argue that t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m f a i l s both women and the environment. " A l l h i t h e r t o e x i s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s of l i b e r a t i o n , with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of some forms o f s o c i a l anarchism, accept the a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c n o t i o n that humanity should dominate nature and the i n c r e a s i n g domination of nonhuman nature i s a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r true human freedom. No s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n has ever fundamentally c h a l l e n g e d the b a s i c prototype f o r n a t u r e / c u l t u r e d u a l i s m — t h e domination of men over women." 25 < Although p r e d i c t i n g s o c i a l i s m i s " i n i t s death t h r o e s " , King argues "the o l d s o c i a l i s t s p i r i t of h i s t o r y , a v a l u a b l e legacy i s not dead." That legacy has passed to " f e m i n i s t s , greens, and other bearers of i d e n t i t y p o l i t i c s " . 2 6 These groups pr o v i d e a new a l l i a n c e with an e c o - f e m i n i s t ideology to serve as a p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e f o r s o c i a l change. Cooperation, r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i o n , becomes a l e f t - f e m i n i s t ' s e v o l u t i o n a r y g o a l . As with n a t i v e c u l t u r e s , eco- f e m i n i s t s become guardians of nature, stewards of a na t u r a l environment which e x i s t s both around and i n each one of us. Feminism becomes more h o l i s t i c " l i n k i n g a l l i s s u e s of personal and p l a n e t a r y s u r v i v a l . " 27 61 Those sacred t r u t h s which t e l 1 modern men and women that they can manage the p l a n e t "not only b l i n d us to the r e a l i t y of the environmental c r i s i s but are the cause of i t " . 28 Not only i s the ozone l a y e r i n the e a r t h ' s atmosphere being d e p l e t e d , but the water s i t u a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to the Worldwatch I n s t i t u t e , i s c r i t i c a l . World p o p u l a t i o n appears to have reached na t u r a l l i m i t s and more water i s being p o l l u t e d each day. Humanity i n c r e a s e s i t s p o p u l a t i o n d a i l y , s t r i v i n g f o r p r o s p e r i t y yet squandering the next g e n e r a t i o n ' s i n h e r i t a n c e . To e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , the economist appears the same v i l l a i n Karl Marx found him/her to be. Instead of overthrowing c a p i t a l i s m , some e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t a l k of f i n d i n g ways to add environmental values to e c o n o m i c s — i . e . g i v i n g a p r i c e f o r c l e a n a i r . But t h i s c o n t i n u e s to o b j e c t i f y and commodify nature, and c l i c h e terms such as " s u s t a i n a b l e development" simply delay r e a l i s t i c assessment. "Yet growth i s what the whole world has come to l i v e f o r . It i s the holy g r a i l of our p o l i t i c a l and economic systems, the measure of any government's success has become the extent to which i t s economy has grown. Growth and progress have become interchangeable terms. To economists, growth i s the main reason governments, i n d u s t r i e s , and s o c i e t i e s e x i s t . . . ...You don't have to be a math whiz or a PhD i n economics to see that we've reached the l i m i t s . " 29 Such c r i t i q u e s have f u e l l e d debates from which environmental ideology has evolved. In J u l y 1990, David Suzuki s t a t e d that Canada placed at the bottom among the world's seven l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s f o r environmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f e d e r a l 62 C o n s e r v a t i v e government may "be fond o f green r h e t o r i c . . . but don't tend to f o l l o w through at home". 30 As s t u d i e s o f the e f f e c t s of c f c s on the ozone l a y e r show—we s t i l l haven't d i s c o v e r e d the f u l l p r i c e to be paid f o r the l a s t round of economic growth. (Weiner,1990). The bottom l i n e i s as Karl Marx d e c l a r e d i t . "The only wheels which the p o l i t i c a l economy s e t s i n motion are greed and the war among the g r e e d y — c o m p e t i t i o n . " 3 1 Twenty years ago, E. F. Schumacher set out to c h a l l e n g e the "growth i s progress" ideology and to a t t a c k the c o m p e t i t i v e nature of economics by w r i t i n g Small i s B e a u t i f u l : a Study of Economics as If People Mattered. He blamed s o c i e t y ' s d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s on a lack of e t h i c s , an i n a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between f a i r and f o u l and a b e l i e f t h a t " m o r a l i t y i s bunk". Urban plann i n g p r a c t i c e s which mi s a p p r o p r i a t e and misuse land emanates from those " a l i e n a t e d from l i v i n g nature, who promote t h e i r own s c a l e of p r i o r i t i e s by arguing i n economic terms that we cannot • a f f o r d ' any other." 32 "Study how a s o c i e t y uses i t s land, and you can come to p r e t t y r e l i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s as to what i t s f u t u r e w i l l be....when h i s environment d e t e r i o r a t e s r a p i d l y , h i s c i v i l i s a t i o n dec 1ines...how d i d c i v i l i s e d man d e s p o i l t h i s f a v o u r a b l e environment? He d i d i t mainly by d e p l e t i n g or d e s t r o y i n g the natu r a l r e s o u r c e s . He cut down or burned most of the usable timber from f o r e s t e d h i l l s i d e s and v a l l e y s . He overgrazed and denuded the g r a s s l a n d s that fed h i s l i v e s t o c k . He k i l l e d most of the w i l d l i f e and much of the f i s h and other water l i f e . He permitted e r o s i o n to 1 rob h i s farm land of i t s p r o d u c t i v e t o p s o i l . He allowed eroded s o i l to c l o g the streams and f i l l h i s r e s e r v o i r s , i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s and harbours with s i l t . In many cases, he used and wasted most of the e a s i l y mined metals or I 63 needed m i n e r a l s . Then h i s c i v i l i s a t i o n d e c l i n e d amidst the d e s p o i l a t i o n of h i s own c r e a t i o n or they moved to new l a n d . . . t h e r e are, g e n e r a l l y speaking, no new lands to move t o . . . " 33 Economic development i s c o s t l y i n r e a l d o l l a r s , i n environmental degradation and because " l a r g e amounts of p u b l i c funds have been and are being spent on what i s g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d the ' i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ' , and the b e n e f i t s go l a r g e l y to p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e f r e e of charge'". 34 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s s t r e s s the importance of communal pr o p e r t y and p u b l i c b e n e f i t s . As organized p r o t e s t a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g p u b l i c p o l i c i e s , the environmental movement can t r a c e i t s r o o t s back to the p e r i o d of student unrest i n the 1960s with t h e i r p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the goals and e l i t i s m of Western s o c i e t i e s . Student movements p r e c i p i t a t e d a "broader wave of s o c i a l change" i n advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , 35 f a c i l i t a t i n g the m o b i l i z a t i o n of new s o c i a l movements. "Such times heighten p u b l i c s e n s i t i v i t y to the problems of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n , c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . They t e m p o r a r i l y upset the hegemony of the m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of progress, thus g i v i n g way to a broad spectrum of anti-modern r e a c t i o n s and reform movements. These phases a l s o p r o v i d e a s h o r t - l i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c r e a t i o n of r a d i c a l i z e d r e v i s i o n s of a n o n - a l i e n a t e d , communal, and e g a l i t a r i a n way of l i v i n g . " 3 6 Those who belong to the g e n e r a t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the 1960s belong to what Ronald Inglehart terms a p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t g e n e r a t i o n , whose "new values c o n s t i t u t e s a key element i n any e x p l a n a t i o n of why a new i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e 64 has a r i s e n " . 37 P o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t s value s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and the q u a l i t y of l i f e (such as community and a c l e a n environment) ahead of economic and p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y . "For the ideology of the new s o c i a l movements i s not simply the t r a d i t i o n a l i d e ology of the L e f t . . . t h e New L e f t has a predominantly middle c l a s s b a s e . . . i n c r e a s i n g l y , i t r e f e r s to a c l u s t e r of i s s u e s concerning the q u a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment, the r o l e of women, of nuclear power and nuclear weapons... Today, people are on the L e f t because they are e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s r a t h e r than the other way around." 38 P o l i t i c a l s t y l e s i n new s o c i a l movements d i f f e r from those i n t r a d i t i o n a l " e l i t e - d i r e c t e d " mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s, ideology, and p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s . According to Frank Wilson, the p l u r a l i s t s see new s o c i a l movements s e r v i n g as a method f o r b r i n g i n g new groups i n t o democratic d i s c o u r s e , each new group emerging i n response to new i s s u e s . 39 Although the environmental movement has been a loose c o a l i t i o n of i n t e r e s t groups, i t "can be understood as an e v o l v i n g set of ideas" (Paehlke, 1989) which stands to make i t the " f i r s t o r i g i n a l i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e to develop s i n c e the middle of the nineteenth century." It i s an ideology that h e l p s s o c i e t y through the t r a n s i t i o n from i n d u s t r i a l to p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l era "much as l i b e r a l i s m , conservatism, and s o c i a l i s m saw us through the formation of a new s o c i e t y d u r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution."40 6 5 Environmentalism, which q u e s t i o n s expansionism i n a f i n i t e world "may be the l e a s t s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d of a l l i d e o l o g i e s " . 41 As an ideology, environmenta1ism proceeds from the no t i o n "that c o l l e c t i v e l y we are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the q u a l i t y of the world we leave to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . " 42 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s serve to remind s o c i e t y of the negative consequences of u n l i m i t e d growth, consequences which could be i r r e v e r s i b l e . Environmental p o l i t i c s i n c l u d e values such as, "an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l l l i f e forms...a sense of h u m i l i t y r e g a r d i n g the human s p e c i e s i n r e l a t i o n to oth e r . . . a concern with the q u a l i t y of human l i f e and h e a l t h " , (Paehlke, 1989:144) as well as maintainance of a g l o b a l view and p o l i t i c a l and/or p o p u l a t i o n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (a p o l i t i c a l v a l u e ) . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s commit to a long-term view, with a sense of urgency about the s u r v i v a l of the p l a n e t , a b e l i e f i n the establishment of s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t i e s , r e v u l s i o n to waste, love of s i m p l i c i t y , a p p r e c i a t i o n of season, s e t t i n g , c l i m a t e and natu r a l m a t e r i a l s ; measurement of esteem and se l f - e s t e e m using non-material v a l u e s . Environmenta1ism favours autonomy and self-management i n a p a r t i c i p a t o r y democratic p o l i t i c a l system. There are e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s p o s i t i o n e d on the r i g h t wing of a p o l i t i c a l spectrum, p a r t i c u l a r l y many of the p o p u l a t i o n - a l a r m i s t s or those who propose p r i v a t i z a t i o n of \ub1ica11y owned u t i l i t i e s . Indeed, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who do not q u e s t i o n p r i v a t e 66 p r o p e r t y are as c o n s e r v a t i v e , a c c o r d i n g to Paehlke, as those who "seek a r e t u r n to a p r e i n d u s t r i a l past r e g a r d l e s s of the e f f e c t s of such a change on s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . " 43 But the m a j o r i t y of the environmental movement's a c t i v e members p r a c t i c e a c e n t r i s t and moderate l e f t p o l i t i c s . As Paehlke notes, "The v a r i a b i l i t y among e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p o l i t i c a l stances suggests t h a t , i n p r i n c i p l e , a case f o r environmental ism can be made to a wide v a r i e t y of governments i n terms they can a p p r e c i a t e and understand. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c o n s t r u c t p o l i c i e s a c c e p t a b l e , even d e s i r a b l e to a wide range of p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s . L e f t - o r i e n t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s might propose r a p i d and t o t a l p o l l u t i o n cleanup with a l l c o s t s to be borne by p o l l u t e r s . If some p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r t y i n d u s t r i e s were to c o l l a p s e under the burden, so much the b e t t e r . Such a view might a l i e n a t e some on the t r a d i t i o n a l l e f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y trade u n i o n i s t s , but the ' p o l l u t e r pays' p r i n c i p l e makes sense to many s o c i a l i s t s . In c o n t r a s t , a c o n s e r v a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t might be content to r a i s e energy p r i c e s with no p r o t e c t i o n f o r l e s s advantaged groups and no tax on w i n d f a l l p r o f i t s . " 4 4 Environmental ism appeals l e a s t to p o l i t i c a l e x t r e m i s t s . D e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n has been at odds with a s o c i a l i s t p h i losophy that c a l l s f o r c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g and the ascendancy of an i n d u s t r i a l working c l a s s ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a n t i c i p a t e , even welcome, the d e c l i n e of the i n d u s t r i a l working c l a s s ) . Paehlke observes that most p o l i t i c a l power r e s t s i n the hands of an economic e l i t e , which e x p l a i n s why "moderate to r i g h t regimes respond weakly to environmental concerns" These governments are dependent on "business, p r o f e s s i o n a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p e n u e r s — i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s whose 67 incomes depend on a v o i d i n g government-imposed environmental r e g u l a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s . " 45 These groups can slow or h a l t government a c t i o n which can only then proceed under "ex t e n s i v e p u b l i c outrage... and the wave o f t e n c r e s t s before s u s t a i n e d enforcement r e s o l v e s the problem" (Paehlke, 1989: 208). As well as r e p r e s e n t i n g an economic e l i t e , these p r o f e s s i o n a l and business groups are " o f t e n h i g h l y educated and a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l process much more than l e s s w e l l - t o - d o people". 46 They make campaign c o n t r i b u t i o n s , v o l u n t e e r time, dine with p o l i t i c i a n s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c e n t r e and r i g h t wing p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . "The economic e l i t e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n the process of day-to-day, n o n e l e c t o r a l , p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making. T h e i r s k i l l s and the c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e that our c u l t u r e grants them are very e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n both c l o s e d and open forums."47 Environmentalism i s incompatible with i n t e r e s t group l i b e r a l i s m as well because " i n such a system the l e s s organized and the unorganized lose ground, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n hard economic times" (Paehlke, 1989: 208). Future g e n e r a t i o n s and other s p e c i e s are not represented i n the l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l system of incrementa1ism and compromise. "Ecology i s a comprehension of systems, i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s , webs of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , connections extending over space and t i m e — a n d the very essence of our p o l i t i c s i s to zero i n on s i n g l e causes" 48 Moderate s o l u t i o n s which are "piecemeal, p a r t i a l , and 68 t e c h n i c a l " can not pr o v i d e the s o l u t i o n to a need f o r r e a l , fundamental change which modern, i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s need to make i n terms of "production, consumption, and ' d i s p o s a l ' h a b i t s " . According to Paehlke, environmental ism qu e s t i o n s the whole " l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n of t e c h n o c r a t i c management".49 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , l i k e n e o - c o n s e r v a t i v e s , support r e d u c t i o n s i n government d e f i c i t s and reduced consumer s p e n d i n g — b u t f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. Both are responding to shortages of reso u r c e s and "the onset of a new age of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s on economic expansion".50 Because those l i m i t s are r e a l , neo- conservatism w i l l remain l a t e n t i n "most b u r e a u c r a t i c c a p i t a l i s t systems, emerging i n any extended p e r i o d of slow economic growth"(Paeh1ke, 1989: 218). But neo-conservatism does not admit that environmental problems, such as a dependence on nonrenewable energy, "are at the root of the economic d i f f i c u l t i e s " . 51 Environmental ism i s an ideology born i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , urbanized world. U n l i k e the w i l d e r n e s s p r o t e c t i o n of the c o n s e r v a t i o n movement, environmental ism " c o n s i s t e n t l y focused more on human settlement, s t r e s s i n g a i r and water p o l l u t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n , energy use, resource d e p l e t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h , hazardous waste management, and r e c y c l i n g . " 52 Urban-based, g r a s s r o o t s c i t i z e n s movements o f t e n a r i s e i n response to environmental issues, such as p r e s e r v a t i o n of parkland and p u b l i c open space ( C a s t e l l s : 1983). At times t h e i r zeal i s 69 termed emotional. But the t h r e a t of cancers and lung d i s e a s e s not only to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , but to one's own c h i l d r e n , makes environmental i s s u e s "motherhood" ones. According to Paehlke, 80 per cent of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a l s o support women's movements, peace movements, and c i v i l r i g h t s movements. 53 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are s t r u g g l i n g f o r continued r e p r o d u c t i o n of not j u s t a working c l a s s , but a middle c l a s s — t h e m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y , a g a i n s t the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of a s o c i a l system wherein the economic e l i t e are r e l u c t a n t to pay the c o s t s of s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , although l i k e l y to be as f i s c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e as "red T o r i e s " , are opposed to neoconservatives on a number of key i s s u e s . They wish to expand environmental r e g u l a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e enforcement and p e n a l t i e s , oppose m i l i t a r y growth and spending, de-emphasize economic growth, support increased spending on h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e and c u l t u r a l programs, are s e l e c t i v e about how government revenues are i n c r e a s e d , and do "not t r e a t the market economy as an i n v i o l a t e sacred cow". 54 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are a l s o more sympathetic to women and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s and "might be more comfortable than neoconservatives with a c t u a l l y reducing governmental d e f i c i t s . " 55 Opinion p o l l s show e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s enjoy p u b l i c support that c r o s s e s r a c i a l , c l a s s , r e g i o n a l , e t h n i c and gender boundaries. Paehlke argues that e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s can be 70 " r e c y c l e d " to serve e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t g o a l s , i n c l u d i n g the "development of i n n o v a t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . " In Canada, both the New Democratic P a r t y and the L i b e r a l P arty "are at l e a s t sometimes open to pro- environmental p o l i c i e s . " 56 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can be encouraged to seek p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a c i e s i n these p a r t i e s and then c a r r y environmental ideas to the e l e c t o r a t e . A SUiSTA INAILE COMMUNITY E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s d i f f e r on t h e i r views about s u s t a i n a b i l i t y of geographic areas, the most ardent e c o l o g i s t s arguing that " s u s t a i n a b i l i t y " r e p r e s e n t s the type of human e n g i n e e r i n g and management which has i n t e r f e r e d with the "biosphere" and led to what doomsayers c l a i m are l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g problems. However, s i n c e the p l a n e t can no longer be considered i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e , some type of management of land, a i r and water seems to be a n e c e s s i t y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a l i v e a b l e environment and s u f f i c i e n t resource base f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . Compromise s o l u t i o n s suggest p r e s e r v i n g p a r t s of the p l a n e t , or " b i o - r e s e r v e s " i n a p r o t e c t e d or r e s t o r e d n a t u r a l s t a t e while managing b i o - r e g i o n s i n a s u s t a i n a b l e way that does not poison land, a i r or water and/or unduly s t r i p r e s o u r c e s . In i n c r e a s i n g l y urbanized p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , the e x i s t e n c e of l o c a l p o l i t i e s has been r e p l a c e d by urban m a t r i c e s . Non-partisanship of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p l a y e r s h a r d l y operates i n 71 m e t r o p o l i t a n areas where funding f o r l o c a l governments depends on secure r e l a t i o n s h i p s with p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s . The idea of l o c a l p o l i t i c o s knowing what's best f o r t h e i r communities has been r e p l a c e d by a dependence on h i r e d t e c h n o c r a t s to handle complex s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y systems such as p o l i c e , f i r e , sewage and water. Despite an axiom of "think g l o b a l , act l o c a l " , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are faced with the interdependence of communities i n l a r g e r r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t s . T h i s i s u s u a l l y addressed under the concept of " b i o - r e g i o n s " . Environmental theory e n v i s i o n s pockets of u r b a n i z a t i o n ( i . e . communities the s i z e of White Rock which once operated as a c i t y ) surrounded by green b e l t s s e p a r a t i n g each human settlement area from the other. While g e o g r a p h i c a l l y resembling a l o c a l p o l i t y , the p r e s s u r e s and demands of u r b a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d forms of government. White Rock, f o r example, would be seen as a neighbourhood i n the Greater Vancouver urban c o r r i d o r . Local government would, i n e f f e c t , be more of neighbourhood, much as the c i t y government now a c t s , r u l i n g mostly on design c r i t e r i a f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n charge of l o c a l garbage p i c k up, t i d i n e s s of s t r e e t s e t c . The Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t e n v i s i o n s White Rock's optimum p o p u l a t i o n to be 18,200, which i s p r o j e c t e d to be surpassed i n 2036. The use of combined sewer overflows (CSO) 72 remains under r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l . These are storm water o u t l e t s which are permitted to d i s c h a r g e sewage overflow d u r i n g heavy ra i n s t o r m s , and 14 per cent of a l l r e g i o n a l sewer o u t l e t s are combined. According to c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t s , such CSOs have r e s u l t e d i n poor to f a i r water c o n d i t i o n s i n some water bodies with i n c r e a s i n g l y degraded water due to heavy metals, t o x i c contaminants and/or f e c a l c o l i f o r m s . Addressing the problem e f f e c t i v e l y i n White Rock means p r e s s u r i n g the Johnston Road sewer interchange to allow i t to accept h e a v i e r loads d u r i n g r a i n f a l l . Water r e t e n t i o n ponds f o r the storm water have been used i n South Surrey f o r a number of years. S t u d i e s show them to be a p r a c t i c a l c o n t r o l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r areas not served by CSOs but by separate sewer and storm d r a i ns. "Wet ponds are l a r g e , uncovered ponds which mainta i n a permanent pool of water from one storm to the next."57 The best s o l u t i o n f o r Combined Sewer Overflows are storage areas where the excess flow can be held u n t i l i t can be d e l i v e r e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e sewage treatment p l a n t . The c o s t of p r o v i d i n g such f a c i l i t i e s f o r areas which c u r r e n t l y have poor or f a i r water q u a l i t y would be $41 per r e g i o n a l household per year. "Storage b a s i n s are covered r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s which can be b u r i e d i n the ground; they i n c o r p o r a t e v e n t i l a t i o n , washdown systems and odour c o n t r o l . " 5 8 The Center f o r Regenerative S t u d i e s at Cal Poly ( C a l i f o r n i a - Pol y t e c h n i c a 1 ) i n C a l i f o r n i a , operates an experimental 73 e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s u s t a i n a b l e community. Such s u s t a i n a b i l i t y , a c c o r d i n g to John T i l l m a n L y l e , c o n s i d e r s s h e l t e r , b i o t i c p r o d u c t i o n and waste a s s i m i l a t i o n as i n t e r r e l a t e d . L y l e c a l l s t h i s l i v i n g on "the i n t e r e s t y i e l d e d by our n a t u r a l systems r a t h e r than the c a p i t a l . " 59 White Rock, with i t s s o u t h f a c i n g h i l l s i d e l o c a l e and as a b e n e f i c i a r y of sea breezes, could be s u s t a i n a b l e and open to environmental experimentation. L e t t i n g nature do the work means the use of s o l a r h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g systems, r o o f t o p wind c a t c h e r s , c l e a n - b u r n i n g masonry hea t e r s , landforms which guide the flow of water, organized p l a n t i n g f o r pest c o n t r o l , combining r a t h e r than i s o l a t i n g f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a community, well-managed storage, and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which p r i o r i t i z e s susta i nab i 1 i t y . In a s u s t a i n a b l e community i n f o r m a t i o n r e p l a c e s power: " r e s i d e n t s are t r a i n e d to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y observe the o p e r a t i o n of each system as p a r t of everyday l i f e . E l e c t r o n i c a l l y operated sensing d e v i c e s monitor some c r i t i c a l environmental v a r i a b l e s such as s o i l moisture. Water q u a l i t y i n the a q u a c u l t u r a l ponds and sewage system are c o n t i n o u s l y monitored by l a b o r a t o r y tests."60 Goals f o r energy i n a s u s t a i n a b l e community are to supply adequate, r a t h e r than s u r p l u s , q u a n t i t i e s f u e l ( p r e f e r a b l y renweable), minimize use of f o s s i l f u e l s and other nonrenewable resources, keep waste to a minimum and e l i m i n a t e hazardous or t o x i c waste, and maximize community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l 74 (such as encouraging b i c y c l e use and walking by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and small v e h i c l e use by the c i t y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s ) . One way to encourage walking i s by a r e d u c t i o n i n parking spaces and o f f - r o a d parking l o t s , and narrower s t r e e t s to reduce the amount of pavement and concurrent urban run o f f (the c i t y of White Rock opted f o r paid parking l o t s on Marine D r i v e ) . C i t i e s would p l a n t f r u i t b earing t r e e s along s t r e e t s and paths. (The f r u i t c ould become property of l o c a l food banks.) P r i o r i t i e s f o r water p r e s e r v a t i o n are to p r o t e c t the watershed, c o n t r o l a g r i c u l t u r a l r u n - o f f , reduce water d i v e r s i o n s and c o n t r o l water chemistry. More p r o a c t i v e use of wetlands (Boundary Bay i s the wetland system near White Rock) i s to be encouraged, as well as use of t r e a t e d sewage e f f l u e n t (having a lower standard f o r water q u a l i t y than human consumption). Sewage sludge can be used i n f o r e s t s , as S e a t t l e experiments have shown. Waste d i s p o s a l i n a s u s t a i n a b l e community can be r e g e n e r a t i v e . "Burning i s a r e g e n e r a t i v e process i f the heat energy can be put to use, v a l u a b l e resources are not destroyed by the burning, i f the by-products do not p o l l u t e the a i r , and i f the ash can r e - e n t e r nature's processes without doing damage. B u r i a l can be r e g e n e r a t i v e i f c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the b u r i a l p l a c e are such that e i t h e r m a t e r i a l s are s t o r e d f o r f u t u r e reuse or i f decay and renew continue on...especia11y i f we maintain our present consumption p a t t e r n s and keep the throughput system i n o p e r a t i o n , l a n d f i l l s may become the most p r o d u c t i v e mines of the 21st century. At the other extreme, we might design them f o r r a p i d decomposition. By i n t r o d u c i n g some water i n c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d q u a n t i t i e s , we might convert l a n d f i l l s i n t o g i a n t biogas d i g e s t e r s . " 61 75 Sharing resources and storage i n l o c a l communities can i n c r e a s e s e c u r i t y and y i e l d networks that operate b e t t e r than c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s . Increased greening of landscapes to r e p l a c e greys of urban, i n d u s t r i a l landscapes can g i v e a v i s i b l e sense of s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . Water can be f i l t e r e d through p l a n t s i n ponds and wetlands a f t e r f a l l i n g from r o o f t o p s and s t r e e t s , and s t o r e d f o r f u t u r e use; t r e e s can be h e a v i l y planted around i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , major s t r e e t s and other sources of a i r p o l l u t i o n . " V i r t u a l l y a l l c i t i e s , whether we f i n d i t easy to accept or not, are dependent p a r t s of l a r g e r urban r e g i o n s , and urban regions are p a r t of a g l o b a l matrix. Thus garden c i t i e s become garden communities, and g r e e n b e l t s become green networks, encompassing the communities and weaving them together. In the green networks are the processes that support l i f e . " 62 S u s t a i n a b i l i t y can be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e , not p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive as t e c h n o c r a t i c s o l u t i o n s suggest. In 1991, a damaged M i s s i s s i p p i sewage system was expected to c o s t $11 m i l l i o n to r e p a i r . According to L y l e (1994)the sewage system was r e p l a c e d with a new, natural one f o r $350,000, a t i n y f r a c t i o n of the c o s t f o r a " c o n v e n t i o n a l " system. Regenerative systems may not only c o s t l e s s to implement, but the value of re-used res o u r c e s or improved q u a l i t y becomes a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r . Environmental ism, u n l i k e the p r e t e n s i o n s of the t e c h n i c a l / s c i e n t i f i c i d eology i t c o n f r o n t s , i s a v a l u e - l a d e n philosophy which p r i o r i z e s organic l i f e and c e l e b r a t e s the human 76 c o n d i t i o n . Environmental values r e q u i r e a long-term outlook and environmental ideology serves as an i d e a l counter-hegemonic f o r c e a g a i n s t the short-term p r o f i t and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ideology of c a p i t a l i s m . Since a b u r e a u c r a t i c m e n t a l i t y undermines fundamental e c o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who enter the p o l i t i c a l arena have to guard a g a i n s t compromise and c o o p t a t i o n . An environmental agenda seeks not only to overcome a l i e n a t i o n from p r o d u c t i v i t y and nature, but to r e t u r n s o c i e t i e s to f u l l employment. R e c y c l i n g and other environmental p r o j e c t s are labour i n t e n s i v e . Environmenta1ism q u e s t i o n s the use of massive machinery, p r e f e r r i n g to use only energy e f f i c i e n t s o f t technology such as computers. Technology i s viewed as p r o v i d i n g t o o l s f o r human use, not as an end i n i t s e l f ( i . e . b i g g e r i s not b e t t e r ) . C o n s e r v a t i o n , r e c y c l i n g , reuse and e f f i c i e n t use of resources, not only p r e s e r v e s resources f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , but lowers the c o s t s o f energy thus g i v i n g poorer members of a l o c a l s o c i e t y access to key f a c i l i t i e s . Environmenta1ism seeks input i n t o education and s c h o o l i n g i n order to promote c a r e f u l use of r e s o u r c e s . It proposes that i n s t e a d of demanding g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n , w e a l t h i e r members of s o c i e t y should waste l e s s and consume l e s s . Environmenta1ism not only q u e s t i o n s consumption p a t t e r n s , but p r o v i d e s an ideology of s e l f - d e n i a l and r e s t r a i n t . Instead of 77 d r i v i n g a Porsche, f o r example, r e s i d e n t s are encouraged to walk, E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have waged t h e i r b a t t l e i n c i v i l s o c i e t y , but must now attempt (as time grows short and e c o l o g i c a l space grows smaller) to wage a p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e while being denied access to c o r p o r a t e boardrooms and p o l i t i c a l back rooms. At the l o c a l l e v e l , l o c a l b usiness owners s i t on c o u n c i l committees, not m a r g i n a l i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , a s i t u a t i o n which could become reversed with increased p r i o r i t y on i s s u e s of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and c r e a t i v e management of r e s o u r c e s . LOCALIST POLITICS L o c a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p hilosophy tends to blame o u t s i d e f o r c e s f o r socio-economic problems which a r i s e i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e . In modern s t a t e s o c i e t i e s , t h i s "passing the buck" ideology l a y s blame f o r c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s on s t a t e governments ( i . e . the p r o v i n c i a l government should c l e a n up White Rock's beach p o l l u t i o n ) . E v o l v i n g from European m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d r e l a t i o n s of power, l o c a l i s m has a p r o p e n s i t y f o r c r i t i c i z i n g o u t s i d e r s f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e i n l o c a l a f f a i r s . C o n s i s t e n t with l o c a l e l i t e s ' dependency on e x t e r n a l blame to maintain l o c a l power bases, i s an economic s e l f - i n t e r e s t which p l a c e s p r i o r i t y on promotion of l o c a l economic b e n e f i t s . Where l o c a l communities have a c l a s s - b a s e d p h i l o s o p h y c a l l i n g f o r community-wide p o l i t i c a l and economic e q u i t y , they tend to favour l e f t i s t c o u n c i l s . When h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l 78 s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s favored (and 'business' agendas are p r i o r i t i z e d ) , l o c a l communities favour r i g h t - w i n g c o u n c i l s , r e m i n i s c e n t of nineteenth century B r i t i s h l o c a l governments. (Cannadine, 1982) Indeed, Canadian p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s are patterned a f t e r 19th century B r i t i s h systems. T h i s has cr e a t e d an e l i t i s t brand of l o c a l i s m and n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s which are fought on i s s u e s r a t h e r than p a r t i e s o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y seeking a win at a l l c o s t . At the core, Canadian p o l i t i c s tend to pa r i i a m e n t a r i a n i s m , e l i t i s m and deference to a u t h o r i t y (Richard M. Mereleman, 1991.) "Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n between p a r t i s a n i d e n t i t y and c l a s s i n Canada i s a d i s j u n c t i o n between the Par l i a m e n t a r y , m a j o r i t a r i a n model of l i b e r a l p o l i t i c s , and an a l t e r n a t i v e d u a l i s t i c , r e g i o n a l e t h n i c mode 1...cu1ture as a l e g i t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e conveys to Canada a unique q u a l i t y . . . i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s l e s s common than i n the United S t a t e s yet c l a s s consciousness i s weaker than i n B r i t a i n . " 6 3 As well as a symbolic dependence on B r i t i s h monarchy, (present i n l o c a l c o u n c i l chambers which post p i c t u r e s of the B r i t i s h queen), l o c a l i s m depends on sources of a u t h o r i t y d e r i v i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l , m a j o r i t a r i a n i s t model of Westminster p a r i i a m e n t a r i a n i s m . Local power brokers p r e f e r to deal with members of parliament who belong to a r u l i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t y r a t h e r than members of the o p p o s i t i o n who can not access funds f o r l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s . L ocalism a l s o d e r i v e s a u t h o r i t y from a p a t e r n a l i s t i c c u l t u r e which favours the community and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 79 m i d d l e - a g e d men. T h i s e q u a t e s g r a n t i n g o f l o c a l p o l i t i c a l power to t h o s e w i t h g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s . ( G r a f f t e y , 1991). C o n v e r s e l y , where l o c a l i s m r e l a t e s b e s t t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i t i c s t h e r e i s a r e l i a n c e on " e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t t o much s m a l l e r l o c a l e s " (Gagnon, B i c k e r t o n , 1990) 6 4 f o r l e g i t i m a c y , and c l a s s e s t e n d t o c o n g r e g a t e i n d e f i n e d u r b a n s p a c e s . C i t i z e n s h i p p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s promoted by l o c a l i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y m i d d l e - c l a s s , m i d d l e - a g e d male p a r t i c i p a t i o n . N e i g h b o u r h o o d i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t i n c r e a t i o n o f " s m a l l w o r l d s and l o c a l h e r o e s " (D. Munroe E a g l e s , C 1 9 9 0 ] ) , f o r example, when l a n d use z o n i n g c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d and a p r o p e r t y owner f e e l s c o m p e l l e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s . " N o n - p a r t i s a n " p o l i t i c a l p o s t u r i n g i n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s stemmed from i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n i n b o t h 19th c e n t u r y B r i t a i n and t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y N o r t h A m e r i c a ( T i n d a l : 1984). In an a t t e m p t t o r e m a i n " l o c a l " , c o m m u n i t i e s downplayed t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s i n l o c a l a f f a i r s and non- p a r t i s a n s h i p was evoked t o c o n t r a s t t h e p o l a r i z e d c l a s s - b a s e d p a r t y p o l i t i c s waged i n f a s t - r i s i n g c i t i e s . However, p a r t y p o l i t i c s have i n f l u e n c e d l o c a l i s t i d e o l o g y by s o l i c i t i n g l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s and p u b l i c a f f a i r s . A l l e g e d e x e m p l a r s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy, t h e s e p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s a r e o f t e n t h e l o c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z e r s who t a k e on a d d i t i o n a l community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( i . e . members o f h o s p i t a l b o a r d s ) . W h i l e 80 community involvement at f i r s t denoted s t a t u s d e r i v i n g from the p r i v i l e g e of p r o p e r t y ownership, t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y reforms i n the United S t a t e s led to the increased i n f l u e n c e of b u s i n e s s people i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r important r o l e i n l o c a l economies. Thus, d e s p i t e t h e i r claimed n o n - p a r t i s a n s t a t u s , l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s are o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n p a r t y p o l i t i c s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . P o l i t i c a l p a r t y a c t i v i s t s tend to be b e t t e r educated, more a f f l u e n t , from higher s o c i a l backgrounds, "work at more p r e s t i g i o u s occupations and enjoy c o n s i d e r a b l y higher incomes than do average c i t i z e n s i n the communities i n which they r e s i d e . " 65 Home ownership (which i m p l i e s r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth) with communities s p a t i a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t i n c t i v e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , i s a c e l e b r a t e d i d e a l of l o c a l i s m . C o n f l i c t s over access to p o l i t i c a l power a r i s e because notions of a f r e e and democratic s o c i e t y are i d e a l s o f t e n at odds with p o l i t i c a l systems which l e g i s l a t e f o r the powerful. Debate, another c e l e b r a t e d i d e a l , mediates at the l o c a l l e v e l i n c o u n c i l chambers where c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s are weighed a g a i n s t the s e l f - i n t e r e s t of i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owners. Community values, s e l f l e s s n e s s i n favour of a s s i s t i n g one's neighbour, s t r u g g l e f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p and d e s i r e to improve the honesty and e f f i c i e n c y of l o c a l governments are i d e o l o g i c a l 81 components of l o c a l i s m s t r e s s e d i n campaign l i t e r a t u r e . Linked with mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and s t a t e government by- l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l t i e s are mostly a c t i v a t e d d u r i n g e l e c t i o n campaigns ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e l y c ontested ones). Party fund r a i s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n has much to do with the amount of access a l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n has with n a t i o n a l power brokers ( i n Canada, power r e s i d e s i n the f e d e r a l c a b i n e t ) . Growth c o a l i t i o n s o f t e n l i n k l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s with i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s and other power brokers. C i t y and municipal mayors, whose o f f i c e s a s s i s t members of parliament i n meeting l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s , have strong p o l i t i c a l l i n k a g e s . P r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p a r t y p o l i t i c s , however, tend to be more i s s u e o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g i c a l than l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s which e x p l i c i t y promote " c h a r a c t e r and l e a d e r s h i p . " Continued economic growth and e x p l o i t a t i o n of l o c a l r esources ( i n c l u d i n g p o l i t i c a l ) encouraged to p r o v i d e economic p r o s p e r i t y f o r l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s are p r a c t i c a l p r o j e c t s addressed by l o c a l i s m . Increased p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy and b a l a n c i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n with d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n (of community s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s ) are p o l i t i c a l g o a ls which c r e a t e t e n s i o n w i t h i n l o c a l i s m and presumably lead to promotion of non- p a r t i s a n s h i p . ENVIRONMENTALIST POLITICS E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s operate with what Gramsci c a l l s "pessimism 82 of the i n t e l l i g e n c e , optimism of the w i l l " ( Golding, 1992). F o l l o w i n g i n Gramsci's f o o t s t e p s , they assume that nature and h i s t o r y are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d and view p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s as r e l a t e d to b a t t l e s about t r u t h . Seen as an i d e a l i s t i c i d e o l ogy, environmental ism promotes a philosophy of e t h i c s ( f o r nature as well as humanity). Those adhering to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology equate environmental degradation with a need f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e (Daniel Press, 1994). Pragmatic p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s b e l i e v e i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy combined with what t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l i s t s would view as r e p r e s s i v e r e g u l a t i o n s . I n t e g r i t y of the p h y s i c a l environment supersedes a l l other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (as opposed to t r a d i t i o n a l economics p r i o r i t i z e d by the p o l i t i c a l r i g h t and s t r u g g l e s f o r socio-economic e q u i t y p r i o r i t i z e d by the p o l i t i c a l l e f t ) . Much l i k e l o c a l i s m , commitment and c i t i z e n s h i p are important elements of environmental id e o l o g y . Daniel Coleman , i n Eco- P o 1 i t i c s (1994), notes that environmental p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y d i f f e r s from t r a d i t i o n a l human-centred p h i l o s o p h i e s by being b i o - c e n t r i c or l i f e - c e n t r e d . Coleman c i t e s a r e s p e c t f o r d i v e r s i t y of p l a n t and animal l i f e , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , focus on s u s t a i n a b 1 i 1 i t y , f e m i n i s t and s o c i a l j u s t i c e values, a commitment to non-violence, a c a l l f o r personal and g l o b a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , g r a s s r o o t s democracy and a push f o r community-based economics 83 ( I.e. l o c a l c o o p e r a t i v e s ) as i n t e g r a l components of environmental p o l i t i c a l p h i l osophy. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c h a l l e n g e e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s by s t r e s s i n g the democratic notions of debate found i n l o c a l i s m and demanding input i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c y debates. A p e r c e i v e d c r i s i s i n l e a d e r s h i p i s seen as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to c h a l l e n g e a u t h o r i t y , and t h i s c r i s i s becomes a source of a u t h o r i t y f o r environmentalism i t s e l f . As such, environmenta1ism e x e r c i s e s what Daniel Press (Democratic Dilemmas i n the Age of Eco1ogy, 1994) c a l l s "negative a u t h o r i t y " , as e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s r a l l y to prevent l o s s e s , r a t h e r than m o b i l i z e f o r p o l i t i c a l gai ns. S o c i a l interdependence, community and c o o p e r a t i o n are c i t e d as sources of a u t h o r i t y along with a need to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t , which p r o v i d e s a continued e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e of e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y and power r e l a t i o n s (Coleman, 1994). P e r c e i v e d as a " c r i t i q u e " r a t h e r than an ideology, environmental ism q u e s t i o n s the l e g i t i m a c y of law and government while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a l l i n g f o r s o c i a l and environmental j u s t i c e w i t h i n the bounds of e x i s t i n g government s t r u c t u r e s . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and popular input i n t o environmental l e g i s l a t i o n , as opposed to d e c i s i o n making by environmental bureaucrats, would r e s u l t from open and p u b l i c decision-making a c c o r d i n g to Paehlke ("Environmental Harm and Corporate Crime", 84 1995). C o l l e c t i v e w i l l serves to u n i t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s (Golding, 1992), and environmental p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s tend to convey the p a s s i o n Gramsci c l a i m s i s "born on the permanent and orga n i c t e r r a i n of economic l i f e , but which transcends i t " 66 C r e a t i n g a p o l i t i c a l agenda f a v o r a b l e to environmental needs r e q u i r e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which normally r a l l i e s only f o l l o w i n g an environmental d i s a s t e r . As such, environmentalism tends to be event focussed (Zachary Smith, 1993). Only continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n can y i e l d c o n t r o l over p u b l i c p o l i c y , but the t e c h n i c a l complexity of environmental i s s u e s has f r u s t r a t e d and l i m i t e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As Sue Golding observes, "The c h a l l e n g e of technocracy s t r a i n s our a b i l i t y to b r i d g e the goal of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the p e r c e i v e d need f o r expert i se". 67 Using a p o l i t i c a l g r a s s r o o t s approach based on the idea that only s e l f - r e l i a n t communities can s o l v e environmental problems, c i t i z e n empowerment i n c l u d e s the s t r a t e g i c use of p o l i t i c a l and commercial b o y c o t t s . The c a l l f o r b o y c o t t s extends environmental a c t i o n beyond the l o c a l community to a broader support base, s i n c e " i f enough people sense a good idea i t w i l l become a r e a l i t y " (Coleman, 1994). The c h a l l e n g e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s then, i s to remain u n i t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a complex s o c i e t y where technology grows beyond the c o n t r o l of l o c a l communities, and to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between those who a c t i v e l y promote e c o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and those who simply embrace 85 environmental r h e t o r i c to win votes or r e t a i n employment. Community c o n t r o l remains an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t i d e a l which a s s e r t s that l o c a l c o n t r o l r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r outcomes f o r s o c i a l groups and a c l e a n e r environment. Respect f o r the d i v e r s i t y found i n nature and a b e l i e f that " s c i e n c e must develop technology i n harmony with nature" (Coleman, 1994) 6 8 combined with the i d e a l of a m o r a l i s t i c economy ( p l a c i n g value on care and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as opposed to commodification, c o m p e t i t i t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i s m ) are core i d e a l s of environmenta1ism. T r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s , such as the love of beauty, can be loca t e d i n environmenta1ism along with r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas such as an eco-feminism which r e j e c t s sexual r o l e s ( L i p i e t z , 1995). Passionate environmental values i n c l u d e s o l i d a r i t y , autonomy, e c o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a p o l i t i c a l democracy of permanent p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . In the l a s t stage of the twentieth century, environmental a c t i v i s t s seeking c o a l i t i o n s f i n d themselves p o l i t i c a l l y l i n k e d with eco-entrepeneurs and p r o g r e s s i v e greens. (Paehlke, 1995) As with l o c a l i s m , environmental ism preaches a n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p which then make p o l i t i c a l l i n k a g e s more f l u i d . Permanent environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been b u i l t to become p r o f e s s i o n a l lobby groups, resource c e n t r e s and sources of t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . 86 Education i s a key t o o l f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who p r e f e r to conce n t r a t e power, and e x e r c i s e a " p o l i t i c s of p l a c e " with a zeal that i n s i s t s that "reform i s not enough", but that p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are r e q u i r e d (Coleman, 1994).Direct a c t i o n i s u t i l i z e d to "put pressure on d e c i s i o n makers, m o b i l i z e f o r c e s of support, dramatize i s s u e s , and help r a i s e the consciousness." 69 P o l i t i c a l l i n k a g e s are viewed as h o l i s t i c , with community s e l f - r e l i a n c e d i a l e c t i c a l 1 y posed a g a i n s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i n t e r e s t s and s t a t e p o l i c y . According to Daniel Press (1994) "markets are not i n h e r e n t l y incompatible with environmental p r o t e c t i o n " 70. Rather than a t t a c k i n g the market system, Press c o n s i d e r s progress as g r e a t e r access to the p o l i t i c a l process, i n c l u d i n g e l e c t i o n of environmental p o l i t i c i a n s and p l a c i n g of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s on environmental p l a n n i n g commissions. Such a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n has been a c o n s i s t e n t p r o j e c t of the new environmental j u s t i c e movement (Press, 1 9 9 4 ) . I n i t i a t i v e s , r e f e r e n d a and ' d i r e c t l e g i s l a t i o n ' are p o l i t i c a l t o o l s which c h a l l e n g e the a b i l i t y of democracy to d e l i v e r p o l i t i c a l a c c e s s . Establishment of economic and p o l i t i c a l b i o - r e g i o n s are favored, to ensure l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r l o c a l needs (Coleman, 1994). B a r t e r systems and c o o p e r a t i v e s are o f f e r e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s to an e x i s t i n g money and market system, which as a ma r g i n a l i z e d member of s o c i e t y I f i n d i n c l u s i v e a c t i o n . C r e a t i o n 87 of "green c i t i e s " i n p r a c t i c e stems from an ideology which p l a c e s value on nature. I n c r e a s i n g l y , e c o l o g i s t s are a s s e s s i n g the comparative m e r i t s of e x i s t i n g s t a t e and market systems by c a l c u l a t i n g the economic value of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and a h a b i t a b l e envi ronment. As opposed to l o c a l i s m , which r e l i e s on t r a d i t i o n , environmentalism r e q u i r e s breaks with past t r a d i t i o n ( L i p i e t z , 1995) that have wreaked havoc on the bio s p h e r e . S o l u t i o n s to the d e v a s t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l environment r e q u i r e , minimally, "a multitude of small breaks with the p a s t " . 71 and maximally, a complete d i s m a n t l i n g of c a p i t a l i s t hegemony and " e l i m i n a t i o n or c o n t r o l of market f o r c e s and c o r p o r a t i o n s " (Paehlke) 72 At the l e a s t , there i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r strong government l e g i s l a t i o n which p r o t e c t s " w h i s t l e blowers", c r i m i n a l i z e s p o l l u t i o n , bans t o x i c substances, r a i s e s environmental taxes and encourages markets f o r r e c y c l e d products.(Paeh1ke, 1995). A c r i t i c a l problem with r e l y i n g on environmental j u s t i c e without changing the h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s t systems l i e s with a non-democratic j u d i c i a l m i n o r i t y who remain independent from broad p o p u l a t i o n s yet who i n t e r p r e t the laws which e f f e c t those populat i o n s . ( L i p i e t z , 1995) Tensions between l o c a l i s m and environmental ism become apparent around an important d i f f e r e n c e : although both p h i l o s o p h i e s p r a i s e small l o c a l e s and the a b i l i t y of l o c a l 8 8 p o p u l a t i o n s to best manage t h e i r own s o c i a l and economic a f f a i r s , l o c a l i s m h e a v i l y favours t r a d i t i o n s which environmentalism n e c e s s a r i l y seeks to dis m a n t l e . For i n s t a n c e , whereas t r a d i t i o n a l White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s p r e f e r to d i s c u s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s , such as beach p o l l u t i o n , behind c l o s e d doors at c i t y h a l l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s p r e f e r to draw the a t t e n t i o n of the media, r a i s e p u b l i c awareness at the beach i t s e l f , and demand p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n i n c o u n c i l chambers. Golding (1992) i d e n t i f i e s a trap i n t o which environmental ideologues, t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , and t h e i r media c o n t a c t s f a l l when they f o r g e t that " i d e o l o g y i s not p s y c h o l o g i c a l or m o r a l i s t i c i n c h a r a c t e r , but s t r u c t u r a l and epistemo1ogica1". "...they form the h a b i t of c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i t i c s and h i s t o r y as...a c o m p e t i t i o n i n c o n j u r i n g and s l e i g h t of hand. ' C r i t i c a l ' a c t i v i t y i s [thus] reduced to the exposure of swindles, to c r e a t i n g scandals, and to p r y i n g i n t o the pockets of p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s . " 73 C e r t a i n l y , the type of scandal presented by former White Rock MLA and p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r B i l l Reid's involvement with a company r e c e i v i n g money f o r l o c a l r e c y c l i n g i s one example of the type of news which graces the f r o n t page of the Peace Arch News. Yet the scandal opened t e r r a i n f o r d i s c u s s i o n not j u s t on the need f o r honesty and i n t e g r i t y i n l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s , but about whether a c t i o n s meant to c o r r e c t environmental d e g r a d a t i o n would be undermined by e x c e s s i v e p r o f i t s and/or consumption. In White Rock, the p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the B i l l Reid scandal was a 8 9 p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e c y c l i n g "blue box" program managed by the c i t y , and the e l i m i n a t i o n of both p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s and v o l u n t a r y agencies i n vying f o r the c i t y ' s r e - c y c l i n g program. The p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t , a p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n that l o c a l businessmen were greedy f o r tax d o l l a r s , was a p e n e t r a t i o n of l o c a l i s t t r a d i t i o n which claimed business men make the best p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . T h i s l e f t the door open to p o l i t i c a l newcomers to c h a l l e n g e an e x i s t i n g " o l d boys c l u b " at c i t y h a l l . In sum, the environmental axiom "think g l o b a l , a c t l o c a l ' s h r i n k s i n t o "think l o c a l , a c t l o c a l " i n the hands of l o c a l i s t i d eology. Localism's reach i s narrowly expressed i n c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s with neighboring t e r r i t o r i e s or dependent m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d economic arrangements. The common i n t e r e s t between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and l o c a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s i s i n ma i n t a i n i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y contained, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t l o c a l i t i e s , such as l o c a l i s m ' s "home county" and environmenta1ism's " b i o - r e g i o n " . Community c o n t r o l , as represented by an "act l o c a l " p h ilosophy i s shared by the two i d e o l o g i e s which both c a t e r to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s and t h e i r a b i l i t y to grow and prosper i n the community i n which they were born. Localism and environmental ism both serve as attempts to counter the a l i e n a t i o n found i n burgeoning s o c i e t i e s by c r e a t i n g emotional attachment to s m a l l e r l o c a l e s . The need to s u r v i v e i n l a r g e r s o c i e t i e s encourages the no n - p a r t i s a n s h i p philosophy which suggest that l o c a l governments 90 o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y cooperate with whatever p o l i t i c a l p a r t y has power over lar g e o u t l a y s of goods and s e r v i c e s , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s ' o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y a t t a c k whichever p o l i t i c a l p a r t y wastes goods and s e r v i c e s . In order to achieve community c o n t r o l , both i d e o l o g i e s share a p o l i t i c a l goal of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Along with community c o n t r o l comes a r e g u l a t e d l i f e s t y l e , where s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s are used lto encourage l o c a l adherence to l o c a l i s t or e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s . Notions of 'good c i t i z e n s h i p ' apply, e i t h e r to a c i t i z e n who remembers to reduce, reuse and r e c y c l e , or to a l o c a l p h i l a n t h r o p i s t who r e t u r n s h i s good f o r t u n e to the community with c i v i l s e r v i c e and c h a r i t a b l e donations needed f o r l o c a l i s t s u r v i v a l . As such, both p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s have a tendency to become a s s o c i a t e d with i n d i v i d u a l merit and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . As environmental ism promotes a new environmental j u s t i c e , so does l o c a l i s m r e f l e c t a c e r t a i n " f r o n t i e r j u s t i c e " where both i d e o l o g i e s s t r e s s l o c a l j u s t i c e , a need f o r crimes to be prosecuted where they were committed, and wrongdoers punished w i t h i n s i g h t of t h e i r v i c t i m s . Cooperation and c o e r c i o n are e q u a l l y u s e f u l t a c t i c s i n t h i s regard. sEnvironmenta1ism departs from l o c a l i s m i n that i t addresses f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n as well as r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . When e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources becomes a l o c a l problem, e i t h e r by a threatened shortage of resources or by the mode of resource 91 e x p l o i t a t i o n t h r e a t e n i n g the s u r v i v a l of the community, l o c a l i s m r e v e r t s to d e f e n s i v e and combative mode. If t r a d i t i o n a l f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n become problematic f o r the community because p r o d u c t i o n has s h i f t e d elsewhere, l o c a l communities are unable to s u r v i v e . Localism, t h e r e f o r e , operates best i n a s t a b l e s o c i o - economic environment. Environmenta1ism, however, i s an ideology which f l o u r i s h e s p r i m a r i l y i n the wake of d i s a s t e r s ; d i s a s t e r s seen as o c c u r r i n g because of inadequate c o n t r o l s over the f o r c e s and r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . Localism encourages government by p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s , l i m i t i n g p a r t i c i p a t o r y - d e m o c r a c y to Greek c i t y - s t a t e notions of c i t i z e n s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y middle-aged men with property or r e s o u r c e s . Localism encourages the promotion of heroes and demagogues as opposed to a more e g a l i t a r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t i d e o l o g y . Such e g a l i t a r i a n i s m can be seen as pragmatic, s i n c e the success of environmenta1ism as p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n depends upon the b u i l d i n g of c o a l i t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s . Environmentalism, i n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s a commitment from most members i n s o c i e t y to meet i t s broad e c o l o g i c a l g o a l s . In c o n t r a s t to a l o c a l i s t dependence upon t r a d i t i o n , environmenta1ism i n s i s t s upon change. What the i d e o l o g i e s share i s the idea that one's neighbour has the r i g h t to c r i t i q u e one's a c t i o n on one's p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . However, while both a l l o w f o r "common lands", l o c a l i s m l e g i t i m a t e s the a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s 92 which environmenta1ism a t t a c k s . Localism i s comfortable with m i n o r i t y r u l e ; environmentalism r e s t r a i n s i t s own e x t r e m i s t f a c t i o n s i n order to promote m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m . ( S e e Appendix D f o r a comparison of major f e a t u r e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and l o c a l i s t ideo1og i e s ) . In what f o l l o w s , Chapter Three o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y and demographics of White Rock, showing how t r a d i t i o n s which f o s t e r e d l o c a l i s m have come i n c o n f l i c t with growth p r e s s u r e s that problematize l o c a l i s m , and how s e r i o u s p o l l u t i o n problems presage the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the " l o c a l s t a t e " . Such p o l l u t i o n p r o v i d e s the d i s a s t e r s c e n a r i o to which environmental ism responds. Chapter Four puts environmenta1ism i n a r e g i o n a l context, as e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology proves b e t t e r a b l e to deal with the r e a l i t y of aggravated p o l l u t i o n problems that are beyond the c o n t r o l , e x p e r t i s e and f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of l o c a l governments. However, r a t h e r than seeing l o c a l i s m as terminated by the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y g l o b a l i z e d , p o s t - modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology can be seen to have r e c o n s t i t u t e d i t . 93 ENDNOTES 1. p. 169, Ernesto L a c l a u and Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and S o c i a l i s t S t r a t e g y ; Verso: London. 1985. 2. p. 13, Michael Harloe and E l i z a b e t h Lebas, C i t y , C l a s s and Cap i ta1 ; Edward Arnold P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1981. 3. p. 144, Karl Marx, "Wages, P r i c e and P r o f i t " , S e l e c t e d Works Vo1. 2; Progress P u b l i s h e r s : Moscow. 1969. 4. p. 17, Ruth L e v i t a s , The Ideology of the New Right; P o l i t y P r e s s : Cambridge, U.K. 1986. 5. p. 213, Robert Paehlke, I b i d . 6. p. 210, Karl Marx, The Economic and P h i l o s o p h i c Manuscripts of 1844, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s : N.Y. 1963. 7 . 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I b i d . 27. p. 126, I b i d . 28. p. 53, David Suzuki and A n i t a Gordon, Its a Matter of S u r v i v a l ; Stoddart P u b l i s h i n g : Toronto. 1990. 29. p. 169', I b i d . 30. p. 179, I b i d . 31. p. 107, Karl Marx, Economic and P h i l o s o p h i c Manuscripts. I b i d . 32. p. 96, E.F. Schumacher, Small i s B e a u t i f u l ; Penguin Books: London. 1973. 33. p. 84/85, I b i d . 34. p. 229, I b i d . 35. p. 1, R u s s e l l J . Dal ton, "The Challenge of New Movements",in C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l Order; P o l i t y P r e s s: Cambridge, U.K. 1990. 36. p. 39, Karl Werner Brand, " C y c l i c a l Aspects of New S o c i a l Movements",in C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l Order. Dal ton and Keuch1er,Manfred, eds., I b i d . 95 37. p. 46, R u s s e l l I n g l e h a r t , "Values, Ideology, and C o g n i t i v e M o b i 1 i z a t i o n " , i n C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l Order. 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Gagnon, Broadview Press: Peterborough, Ont. 1990 65. p. 206, Howard G r a f f t e y , Why Canadians Get the P o l i t i c i a n s and Governments They Don't Want, Stod d a r t : Toronto. 1991. 66. p. 99, Sue Golding, G r a m s c i 1 s Democratic Theory: C o n t r i b u t i o n s to a P o s t - L i b e r a l Democracy, U. of Toronto P r e s s : Toronto. 1992. 67. I b i d . 68. p. 32, Daniel Coleman, E c o - P o 1 i t i c s : B u i l d i n g a Green S o c i e t y , Rutgers U. Press, N.J. 1994. 69. p. 17, I b i d . 70. p. 9, Daniel Press, Democratic Dilemmas i n the Age of Eco1ogy, Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s: Durham, N.C. 1994. 71. p. 33, Alan L i p i e t z , Green Hopes: The Future of P o l i t i c a l Eco1ogy, P o l i t y P r e s s : Cambridge, U.K. 1995. 72. p. 309, Robert Paehlke, "Environmental Harm and Corporate Crime" i n Corporate Crime: Contemporary Debates, e d i t o r s Frank Pearce and Laureen S n i d e r ; U. of Toronto Press: Toronto. 1995. 73. p. 92, Sue Golding, I b i d . 97 CHAPTER I I I PROFILE OF A COMMUNITY IN TRANSITION HISTORY The c i t y of White Rock takes i t s name from a l a r g e rock loca t e d on i t s westerly s h o r e l i n e . S i t u a t e d j u s t north of the 49th p a r a l l e l , perched on a h i l l s i d e o v e r l o o k i n g a s h e l t e r e d bay, Europeans d i s c o v e r e d White Rock i n the summer of 1791 when Spanish e x p l o r e r Don Jose Maria Narvaez s a i l e d i n t o Semiahmoo Bay aboard the Santa S a t u r n i a ( f o r which Saturna Island, one of the many G u l f and San Juan Islands v i s i b l e from White Rock, i s p r e s e n t l y named). According to l o c a l h i s t o r i a n Margaret Hastings, Don Narvaez, with help from the l o c a l n a t i v e s of the Semiahmoo t r i b e and s e v e r a l members of h i s crew, expl o r e d the f o r e s t e d Semiahmoo t r a i l which n a t i v e s used to reach F r a s e r R i v e r f i s h i n g grounds. Not to be outdone by the Spanish, B r i t i s h Captain George Vancouver navigated h i s vessel "Discovery" i n t o Semiahmoo Bay during h i s c h a r t i n g e x p e d i t i o n from Puget Sound v i a Georgia S t r a i t . "Captains Vancouver, Galiano and Valdez met i n the bay near B l a i n e , June 12, 1792. One of these p a r t i e s sent out i n small boats by Captain Vancouver met C h i e f Tsanwuch of the Semiahmoo T r i b e which occupied the present T e r r i t o r y . It was a numerous Indian t r i b e . Nowadays i t i s almost e n t i r e l y e x t i n c t . Only a few f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v e i n the o u t s k i r t s of White Rock, Canada." 1 Today, the number of F i r s t Nations members on the Semiahmoo Reserve at White Rock has been w h i t t l e d down from about 300 j u s t 150 years ago, to 30. The c i t y of White Rock has b e n e f i t t e d by 98 the d e c l i n i n g t r i b a l p o p u l a t i o n , as well as Surrey, which leases parkland from the t r i b e . The c i t y of White Rock, which began as a ward of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Surrey, s t r e t c h e s along three miles of w a t e r f r o n t and c o n s i s t s of about 3400 a c r e s and was i n c o r p o r a t e d on A p r i l 15, 1957. As noted above, the Semiahmoo Band R e s e r v a t i o n on the c i t y ' s southeastern border l e a s e s much of i t s property to the c i t i e s of Surrey and White Rock f o r use as a v a l u a b l e w a t e r f r o n t park. The band s t i l l maintains a small cemetery on the s i t e . "At the end of 1858 a work part y of Engineers came i n t o Semiahmoo Bay by boat, and e s t a b l i s h e d a base camp where the south end of White Rock C i t y now stands...the p a r t y at White Rock engaged i n the tough task of c u t t i n g a l i n e along the 49th p a r a l l e l . P a r t i e s of surveyors under the Boundary Commission, made up of both B r i t i s h and Americans, had been at work e a r l i e r on the p r o j e c t s e t t i n g markers along the boundary l i n e . The engineers c o n s t r u c t e d about a mile and a h a l f of good road along the beach of Semiahmoo Bay. You may s t i l l d r i v e along p a r t of that road today...they a l s o cut a t r a i l from Semiahmoo Bay to F o r t Lang 1 e y . . . i t was shown on very e a r l y maps..." 2 Where once f o r e s t stood, the White Rock h i l l s i d e resembles more of a barren settlement as g e n t r i f i c a t i o n s t r i p s away the t r e e s which block ocean views from luxury homes and apartments. Urban stormwater r u n o f f i s a s e r i o u s environmental consequence of constant c o n s t r u c t i o n , paving and d e f o r e s t a t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , White Rock's prime view c o n s i s t s of f o r e s t e d h i l l s i d e s on the l e s s e r populated s i d e of the 49th p a r a l l e l . Homesteading began on the o r i g i n a l townsite i n 1886 and i n 1890 l o t s were s u b d i v i d e d . "A few years l a t e r the Great Northern Railway r e - l o c a t e d i t s l i n e to water l e v e l along the shores of Semiahmoo Bay and 99 then i n 1909 the Dominion Government made White Rock a port of e n t r y f o r customs and immigration purposes. In the summer of 1910 a s y n d i c a t e of New Westminster men took over the o r i g i n a l townsite and White Rock began to grow becoming known f o r i t s year-round r e s i d e n c e as well as a r e s o r t area." 3 Logging began i n earnest when a sawmill opened at the foot of the Campbell River i n 1913. F u r t h e r up the h i l l l ogging camps housed workers who were b u i l d i n g roads as they logged timber f o r a sawmill on the east s i d e of White Rock and a s h i n g l e m i l l on the west. White Rock Water Works began o p e r a t i o n i n 1913 s e r v i n g j u s t 17 customers with a r t e s i a n well water. In 1937 the White Rock p o p u l a t i o n had reached 1700. P u b l i c works, sewers, sidewalks and other improvements began d u r i n g the second world war f o l l o w i n g formation of c i t i z e n s ' committees such as the Women's C i v i c League. Surrey took c o n t r o l of the beach while o p e r a t i n g as a municipal ward system, with White Rock r e p r e s e n t i n g one of seven wards. In 1954 the Peace Arch D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l , e v e n t u a l l y the c i t y ' s l a r g e s t employer, was opened on R u s s e l l Avenue and, having a c q u i r e d new a d d i t i o n s , the h o s p i t a l now serves the e n t i r e Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a . "In 1890 when l o c a l pioneer logger John C h r i s t i a n Roper b u i l t h i s b i g house on what i s thought to be the h i g h e s t p o i n t i n White Rock. It was the f i r s t b u i l d i n g i n the v i c i n i t y and when h i s 160 acre homestead was sub d i v i d e d l a t e r the road allowance passing h i s home was given h i s name." 4 100 The Ropers were a c t i v e loggers who f e l l e d t r e e s north of North B l u f f Road along Johnston Road, White Rock's gateway i n t e r s e c t i o n . Logs dumped i n t o the Nicomekl R i v e r were towed to New Westminster f o r p l a n i n g . West of S t a y t e Road sle n d e r t r e e s were taken f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of f i s h t r a p s . The Great Northern Railway which s t i l l runs along the White Rock wate r f r o n t began c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1905, a task which spanned s e v e r a l y ears. In 1909 the Great Northern Railway added a depot and customs and immigration f a c i l i t i e s at Oxford S t r e e t and Marine D r i v e . T h i s was followed by the l a y i n g of a rough road along Marine D r i v e f o l l o w i n g the t r a c k s along the w a t e r f r o n t at the base of the h i l l . A p i e r was b u i l t on the w a t e r f r o n t i n 1914. At the time the c i t y was comprised of 300 r e s i d e n c e s , the saw m i l l , s h i n g l e m i l l , two general s t o r e s , two h o t e l s , one meat market and some small f r u i t and grocery stands. From 1909 through to the end of World War II, weekenders and summer v i s i t o r s t r a v e l l e d by t r a i n to the waterfront White Rock depot, the number of f u l l time r e s i d e n t s numbering j u s t 467 i n 1931, and about 1500 i n 1949. The e x i s t i n g s t a t i o n i t s e l f was b u i l t i n 1913 and now serves as the c i t y ' s museum and g i f t shop. In 1916 environmental d i s a s t e r s t r u c k when a two-week long f o r e s t f i r e ravaged the h i l l s i d e . With new l o t s the p o p u l a t i o n began growing i n a post-war boom. In January 1951 s e v e r a l l o c a l r a t e p a y e r s met to form a f a c t f i n d i n g committee f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n , an act which ended with I 101 c i t y s t a t u s f o r White Rock s i x years l a t e r . By 1964 the p o p u l a t i o n had grown to 7,000. Today the c i t y o ccupies 5.05 square k i l o m e t r e s of land. F o l l o w i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n , White Rock became a more popular r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e . Boosted as a retirement haven, the p o p u l a t i o n grew by 13.45 per cent between the 1986 and 1991 census, from 14,387 to 16,314. The c i t y has v i r t u a l l y reached c a p a c i t y a c c o r d i n g to both the c i t y ' s o f f i c i a l community plan , an e a r l i e r p lan proposed by the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t which then had a comprehensive r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g department. That r e g i o n a l p l a n l i m i t e d White Rock to 20,000, a number which the c i t y ' s 1996 o f f i c i a l community plan c o n f i r m s . However, with outdated i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and weekend and summer v i s i t o r s s t r a i n i n g the p o p u l a t i o n to more than 20,000, l o c a l c i t i z e n s began a c t i v e l y v o i c i n g o p p o s i t i o n to f u r t h e r growth f o l l o w i n g the 1986 census. Surrey and White Rock have o f t e n requested a r e c r e a t i o n a l zone f o r the wa t e r f r o n t from the U.S. border to P o i n t Roberts because of the p o p u l a r i t y of Crescent Beach i n Surrey and White Rock beaches f o r swimming and b o a t i n g . Local governments are unable to fund such a c q u i s i t i o n of bea c h f r o n t . Perhaps r e g i o n a l park d e s i g n a t i o n and increased beach fron t a g e would have prompted the GVRD to take b e t t e r care of i t s sewage d i s p o s i t i o n . "Crescent-Semiahmoo covers a 9 mile s t r e t c h of s h o r e l i n e , with the former r e s o r t (and now suburban communities of Crescent Beach and White Rock at e i t h e r end and upland b l u f f s r i s i n g d i r e c t l y from the narrow s h o r e l i n e between. Firm c l e a n sand forming r e l a t i v e l y narrow f o r e s h o r e s at both Crescent and White Rock has enabled the easy development of 3 1/2 miles of beach f o r swimming and 102 other water s p o r t s , while the steep b l u f f s and narrow rocky s h o r e l i n e have discouraged beach use i n the area between. Some 7 1/2 miles of the s h o r e l i n e i s used f o r the Great Northern Railway t r a c k s and while t h i s r a i l w a y has not c r e a t e d r e c r e a t i o n access problems at Crescent Beach (where i t runs behind the s h o r e l i n e community) or along the b l u f f s , i t s l o c a t i o n on the s h o r e l i n e dyke through White Rock r e s u l t s i n repeated i n j u r y and l o s s of l i f e . " 5 D E M O G R A P H I C S Because of i t s higher than average number of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , White Rock demographics show women outnumber men by 9,050 to 7,260 ac c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1991). G e n t r i f i c a t i o n of the c i t y , which a c c e l e r a t e d a f t e r the e a r l y 1980s r e a l e s t a t e boom, has e s c a l a t e d the c o s t of luxury housing beyond the reach of many s e n i o r s . As s e n i o r s have been p r i c e d out of the market, more a f f l u e n t c h i l d l e s s couples and f a m i l i e s have moved to the c i t y , b r i n g i n g with them an i n t e r e s t i n q u a l i t y of l i f e and environmental i s s u e s . Demographica11y, the c i t y ' s l a r g e s t e t h n i c group remains a predominantly B r i t i s h one, with 5,915 r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t i n g s o l e B r i t i s h a n c e s t r y on the 1991 census. Many of the 5,995 r e s i d e n t s who r e p o r t mixed e t h n i c backgrounds, or the handful c l a i m i n g Canadian e t h n i c o r i g i n , may i n c l u d e B r i t i s h grandparentage. P r o t e s t a n t s remain the l a r g e s t r e l i g i o u s group i n White R o c k — 8 , 6 1 0 — f o l l o w e d by the next l a r g e s t group of 3,985 r e s i d e n t s who r e p o r t no r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . The g r e a t e s t number of immigrants i n White Rock (3,570) have a r r i v e d from the United S t a t e s , with the United Kingdom as the second l a r g e s t source of White Rock immigrants at 1.720. Germans make up more than h a l f of 103 the European immigrants, with 585 Germans denoted i n the 1991 census. Some B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s remain unable to vote because a f t e r decades i n Canada they have not f i l e d f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . Of the 16,000 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , 14,000 r e s i d e n t s speak E n g l i s h only, 360 c l a i m French as t h e i r only language, and 1600 speak n o n - o f f i c i a l languages. Approximately 10 per cent of White Rock's p o p u l a t i o n have come to the c i t y , and to Canada, as recent immigrants. In-migration from other p a r t s of the Lower Mainland remains White Rock's l a r g e s t source of growth, followed by i n t r a - m i g r a t i o n from other p r o v i n c e s . "The e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n Surrey were l a r g e l y of B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n , and many of them had farm backgrounds. They came in a v a r i e t y of ways but the l u r e was the same f o r a l l of them—wealth and adventure i n the l a s t remaining wild west. They worked t h e i r way a c r o s s the United S t a t e s , or t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s the Isthmus of Panama, or took the long route by s a i l i n g ship around the horn. It was the r i c h , black land they came to seek i n Surrey. Some of them came because land p r i c e s had r i s e n s h a r p l y i n e a s t e r n Canada and they lacked the necessary c a p i t a l to s e t t l e t h e r e . Some had found p l e n t y of work and land i n the United S t a t e s as they t r a v e l l e d , but chose to come because they wanted to remain B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . . . there were s p e c u l a t o r s who bought l a r g e t r a c t s of land i n Surrey and never appeared i n person." 6 Today, about 4500 f a m i l i e s of two or more persons are r e s i d e n t i n the c i t y . Twenty per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e as s i n g l e s . One important f e a t u r e of White Rock's r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n that makes the c i t y conducive to l o c a l i s t i d e ology i s the f a c t t h a t owner-occupied d w e l l i n g s outnumber r e n t a l u n i t s by 5120 to 2840, the former i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e number of s i n g l e f a m i l y houses (3385) as well as p r i v a t e l y owned condominiums and townhouses. Boom p e r i o d s of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the c i t y were between 104 1971 to 1980, as well as a growth p e r i o d of 1986 to 1991 that corresponds to the time p e r i o d of the research p r o j e c t . The c i t y of White Rock i s locate d w i t h i n the f a s t e s t growing f e d e r a l r i d i n g of Surrey-White Rock-South Langley, and any necessary a d d i t i o n s of two or more f e d e r a l r i d i n g s to the pro v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l r e s u l t i n r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r i d i n g . S t a t i s t i c s Canada data f o r the r i d i n g shows employment o p p o r t u n i t e s and occupations are g r e a t e s t i n the f o l l o w i n g order: trade, manufacturing and c o n s t r u c t i o n ; h e a l t h and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and e d u c a t i o n ; f i n a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e and government s e r v i c e s . Demographics show a strong middle c l a s s b i a s . Males are employed f i r s t l y i n managerial and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s , then i n s a l e s and s e r v i c e occupations, followed by na t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ; r e l i g i o u s , a r t i s t i c and r e l a t e d occupations, followed by a sundry assortment of c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . T h i r t y per cent of women who c o n s i d e r themselves working remain entrenched in c l e r i c a l o ccupations, followed by s e r v i c e , s a l e s and managerial or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s ; then medicine and h e a l t h and t e a c h i n g . Most overseas immigrants a r r i v e d i n the area p r i o r to 1961. Po p u l a t i o n i n the Surrey-White Rock-South Langley f e d e r a l r i d i n g f a c e s a 7.4 per cent unemployment r a t e f o r men and an 8 per cent unemployment r a t e f o r women seeking to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour f o r c e . Of males 15 or over, 75.2 per cent are labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a n t s ; of females, 57.3 per cent are i n the ranks of the employed. In f a c t , the g r e a t e s t per centage of employed females 105 occurs i n the category of those with school age c h i l d r e n (70.2 per c e n t ) . Retirement and a f f l u e n c e may account f o r the low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of women who have no c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at home (47.8 per c e n t ) . There are two elementary schools l o c a t e d w i t h i n c i t y l i m i t s , 4* White Rock Elementary and Peace Arch Elementary. My e l d e s t daughter attended the White Rock Elementary annex i n Surrey (now a Montessori school) f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n i n 1987, and Peace Arch Elementary from 1988 to 1994. Both s c h o o l s have French Immersion programs, a l l o w i n g them to stay operable d u r i n g years when the c i t y ' s number of c h i l d r e n d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y . The p o p u l a r i t y of the French Immersion programs i s one example of a l a r g e number of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who have higher education than the p r o v i n c i a l average. In 1987 to ensure a space i n the French Immersion program, parents had to l i n e up at 5 a.m. i n the morning. My daughter's c l a s s i n c l u d e d an unusual number of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , a f a c t noted by the school p r i n c i p a l i n e x p l a i n i n g that at any other school i n the d i s t r i c t my daughter would be e n j o y i n g top grades. The almost e x c l u s i v e l y European nature of White Rock and the surrounding Surrey d i s t r i c t i s e x e m p l i f i e d by an elementary school of about 350 students where the only c h i l d r e n of c o l o r i n c l u d e d a handful of F i r s t Nations students, an Indo-Canadian boy, and a g i r l with Korean h e r i t a g e adopted by a couple of European a n c e s t r y . In 1990 with about 100 members, the White Rock Ratepayers' 106 A s s o c i a t i o n changed i t s name to the White Rock Resid e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n i n order to a t t r a c t more members from the condominium owners and r e n t e r s i n the c i t y . The White Rock Condominium A s s o c i a t i o n c a r r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l c l o u t at the time. The WRRA1s new p r e s i d e n t , Pat Kealy, t o l d me she had been a c t i v e i n the e a r l y 1970s i n Bridgeview i n a s u c c e s s f u l f i g h t with Surrey c o u n c i l and then mayor B i l l Vander Zalm (whose b r o t h e r held s u b s t a n t i a l h o l d i n g s i n the area) to b r i n g sewers to the homes i n that p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of Surrey which had been zoned f o r i n d u s t r i a l use. She p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a National F i l m Board (NFB) p r o j e c t which brought a t t e n t i o n to the c o n f l i c t . The White Rock D i s t r i c t C o uncil of Women, to which then mayor Gordon Hogg's mother (a longtime White Rock resident)) and h i s wife Laverne belonged, was another mainstay of White Rock p o l i t i c a l l i f e . T y p i c a l l y l o c a l i s t i s the f a c t (as t o l d to me by my grandfather) that a v i r t u a l requirement to seeking a seat on White Rock c o u n c i l was to belong to the Peace Arch D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l S o c i e t y or any of White Rock c o u n c i l ' s sub-committees, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a d v i s o r y design committee. However, a number of Surrey r e s i d e n t s were r e c r u i t e d to the White Rock c o u n c i l committees. A l s o , with many l o c a l a r t i s t s and amateur t h e a t r e performers a c t i v e i n the c i t y , the White Rock Community A r t s Council (which has lobbied c o n t i n u a l l y throughout the past decade f o r a new j o i n t a r t s and t h e a t r e f a c i l i t y ) remains a popular meeting venue f o r the l o c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . CITY FINANCES 107 White Rock c o u n c i l has r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the f o l l o w i n g r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s : Peace Arch D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l , F r a s e r V a l l e y Regional L i b r a r y board, the Boundary Union Board of Health Surrey school board l i a i s o n (the c i t y with two elementary schools w i t h i n i t s boundaries e l e c t s one school t r u s t e e to serve on the d i s t r i c t board), the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (which pays i t s d i r e c t o r s to attend meetings and t h e r e f o r e the p o s i t i o n i s u s u a l l y taken by the c u r r e n t mayor), the GVRD parks committee, the Lower Mainland municipal a s s o c i a t i o n , and the White Rock South Surrey Chamber of Commerce. In s h o r t , the c i t y operates as a small town w i t h i n a l a r g e r r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . White Rock's l a r g e s t s i n g l e source of revenue remains r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y taxes. P o l i c i n g , d e s p i t e a r e l i a n c e on back- up from Surrey f o r summer beach p a t r o l l i n g , c o n t i n u a l l y e a t s up the g r e a t e s t share of the c i t y ' s o p e r a t i n g budget ($1 m i l l i o n i n 1989) followed by f i r e p r o t e c t i o n ($870,826). A c o n t r o v e r s i a l new f i r e h a l l , which has slowed response time to the west s i d e of the c i t y , was b u i l t i n 1992 beside the r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d p o l i c e s t a t i o n and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y n o n - d e s c r i p t c i t y h a l l . C o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s with Surrey p r o v i d e j o i n t funding of the White Rock i c e r i n k , an indoor swimming pool l o c a t e d i n Surrey and a new i c e r i n k . With a burgeoning p o p u l a t i o n i n South Surrey, the j o i n t f a c i l i t i e s remain an annual source of t e n s i o n f o r Surrey-White Rock c o u n c i l l i a i s o n s . Localism c o n f l i c t e d with environmenta1ism when a newly expanded s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' a c t i v i t y c e n t r e l o c a t e d i n the c i t y of 108 White Rock sparked c o n t r o v e r s y i n 1991 as a proposed parking l o t expansion threatened a number of t r e e s i n the parkland where the b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d . The c i t y ' s commercial base c o n s i s t s of two small shopping c e n t r e s at the corner of North B l u f f Road b o r d e r i n g Surrey and Johnston Road and a shopping s t r i p down Johnston. Banks predominate along the s t r e e t north of T h r i f t Avenue where another shopping c e n t r e and l i q u o r s t o r e are l o c a t e d , and r e s t a u r a n t s perch on the h i l l south of T h r i f t . Along the north s i d e of Marine D r i v e , a c r o s s from the wat e r f r o n t , r e s t a u r a n t s and g i f t shops cover a four block s t r e t c h on the west beach and three b l o c k s on the east beach. Business l i c e n s e s generated $231,295 i n 1989, while the c i t y operated on prop e r t y taxes r a i s e d of $6,922,965. Assessment property values reached $771,115,255 f o r 335 he c t a r e s of taxable land, which i t s e l f assessed at $435,254,099.Some of the c o s t s of growth and development i n White Rock have become g l a r i n g l y obvious. Seventy-three k i l o m e t r e s of paved roads as well as sidewalks and curbs adds to an urban storm run o f f problem which p o l l u t e s the beaches below. The c i t y a c q u i r e d an e x i s t i n g s a n i t a r y sewer system when i t in c o r p o r a t e d i n 1957 and r e l i e s on pump s t a t i o n s along the wate r f r o n t to pump e f f l u e n t back up the h i l l to a GVRD s a n i t a r y sewer trunk which runs to Annacis Island f o r primary sewage treatment. R e l y i n g on sewer user charges and front a g e taxes to cover expenses, the c i t y spent $655,978 i n 1989 f o r the s a n i t a r y sewer 109 s e r v i c e . The balanced budget i s a mixed b l e s s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g the problem with high c h o l i f o r m counts on the beach which has seen areas of the beach c l o s e d to swimmers s i n c e 1989. P r o v i n c i a l environment m i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t that s i n c e the GVRD operates with a j o i n t storm sewer/sanitary sewer permit, s a n i t a r y sewage may l e g a l l y be dumped from the storm sewers at any time, and during heavy rainstorms they f r e q u e n t l y pump out excess e f f l u e n t . Perhaps t h i s remains a c o s t saving measure to prevent budgetary overruns, much as a f t e r too many snow storms, c i t y crews might park the plows. Sewer charges are a p p l i e d to taxpayers' b i l l s p r i o r to the r a i n y season, gambling on a dry May to October. The bulk of White Rock c o u n c i l ' s o b s t e n s i b l y r o u t i n e agenda has been preoccupied with numerous app r o v a l s of new apartment p r o j e c t s and debates about parking space a l l o t m e n t s . A summary of a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c i t y from adminstrator W.W. Baldwin i n February 1990 c i t e s the h i g h l i g h t of the year being a paper weight e f f o r t of p r e p a r i n g the c i t y ' s "mission and values statements" followed by c o u n c i l ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t a c t of the year, i n s t i t u t i o n of a new smoking by-law. "Again i n A p r i l the C l e r k ' s department organized a most s u c c e s s f u l f i r s t - t i m e municipal Open House i n r e c o g n i t i o n of Municipal Government Awareness Week. The Open House was preceded by a number of a c t i v i t i e s promoting municipal awareness i n c l u d i n g a school p o s t e r c o n t e s t . Before the end of June a " b l u e - r i b b o n " committee of c i t i z e n s and business people from White Rock completed t h e i r d r a f t Economic Development S t r a t e g y p l a n . The p l a n was put i n i t s f i n a l form and presented to c o u n c i l and adopted i n September. The Treasury department a p p l i e d i t s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y to 110 maximizing the investment r e t u r n on taxes." 7 In White Rock, c i t y government remains a s o c i a l i t e endeavour i n the l o c a l i s t t r a d i t i o n of p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l rewards such as luncheons f o r " p u b l i c s e r v i c e " . C i t y o f f i c i a l s c oncentrated on p u b l i c works such as road r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and b u i l d i n g , and landscaping a promenade. " In 1989 r e c r e a t i o n programs and s p e c i a l events a t t r a c t e d over 5,000 p a r t i c i p a n t s of a l l ages. The Land 'n Sea summer program was p a r t i c u l a r l y popular and was o v e r - s u b s c r i b e d almost immediately—464 c h i l d r e n were r e g i s t e r e d i n the program. The r e c r e a t i o n d i v i s i o n organized the usual s p e c i a l e v e n t s — C e l e b r a t i o n '89 C y c l e Race, Bay Run and Walk, C i v i c P r i d e Day, and the Tour de White Rock...the S e n i o r s Centre maintained a membership of almost 1700 of which almost h a l f are from Surrey. The Kent S t . S e n i o r s S o c i e t y was formed to r a i s e funds f o r an e x t e n s i o n to the Centre..." 8 POLITICAL The a f f l u e n t r e s i d e n t i a l base and higher number of a d u l t s with i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e time c r e a t e s an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n the c i t y . For i n s t a n c e , the White Rock-South Surrey New Democratic c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n (which c u r i o u s l y has seen a dramatic decrease i n membership s i n c e the p a r t y took power p r o v i n c i a l l y i n 1991, l o s i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and t e a c h e r s ) , has the g r e a t e s t number of honorary l i f e members in the p r o v i n c e and remains one of the p a r t y ' s l a r g e s t f u n d r a i s e r s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the S o c i a l C r e d i t and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s shared memberships on a p r o v i n c i a 1 / f e d e r a 1 b a s i s and members predominated on a supposedly n o n - p a r t i s a n c i t y c o u n c i l . However, as mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s become s y s t e m a t i c a l l y de- emphasized i n p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , White Rock p o l i t i c a l I l l a f f i l i a t i o n s are now i n a s t a t e of f l u x . Whereas, ri g h t - w i n g and long time c i t y c o u n c i l l o r V in Coyne (who a c t i v e l y campaigns as a "non-partisan") once shared a l l c a n d i d a t e s ' meeting notes with candidate Sharon C h a r l e s , the former alderman Ms. C h a r l e s and c o u n c i l l o r Louise Hutchinson moved to the p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e to support former mayor Gordon Hogg i n h i s b i d f o r L i b e r a l member of Parliament. As one example,and in order to underscore the c o z i n e s s of p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a n t s i n White Rock, I was the f i r s t c i t y c o u n c i l candidate to use s c r u t i n e e r s when I ran i n 1990, c h a l l e n g i n g the l o c a l i s t ideology that a l l candidates would be trustworthy "good s p o r t s " . As w e l l , former S o c i a l C r e d i t member Duncan Cameron, who campaigned f o r the s u c c e s s f u l L i b e r a l c andidate Wi 1f Hurd, not only cooperated with the NDP i n i t s p r o v i n c i a l campaign, but used NDP o f f i c e equipment d u r i n g the 1991 e l e c t i o n . The L i b e r a l s won d e s p i t e a decided lack of campaign workers. Reform candidate Val Meredith d i d succeed i n winning the Member of Parliament seat f o r Surrey-White Rock-South Langley i n her second attempt at the o f f i c e during the 1993 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . She replaced the r e t i r i n g Benno F r i e s e n , a C o n s e r v a t i v e who had held the seat f o r more than 14 ye a r s . Environmental groups enjoy s u c c e s s f u l membership and fund r a i s i n g d r i v e s i n White Rock. Both Peace Arch Elementary and White Rock Elementary s c h o o l s have a c t i v e parent environmental committees. The Western Canada Wilderness Committee enjoys a strong membership and meets i n South Surrey, as does the White 112 Rock-South Surrey N a t u r a l i s t s which has a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n of b i r d watchers and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . In response to environmental d i s a s t e r the Boundary O i l S P i l l S o c i e t y , formed a f t e r an o i l s p i l l washed up on White Rock beaches 20 years ago, based i t s e l f i n White Rock. F r i e n d s of Boundary Bay, the Burns Bog C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y and the C i t i z e n s ' A dvisory Committee f o r Boundary Bay W i l d l i f e Management Area, draw members from White Rock. The Surrey Environmental C o a l i t i o n i n which South Surrey NDP and Surrey c o u n c i l l o r Judy V i l l e n e u v e i s a c t i v e , has a c t i v e support i n White Rock. MLA Wi1f Hurd who grew up i n White Rock remembers s i g n i n g up with Greenpeace during one of i t s door-to-door canvasses. He a l s o belongs to L i f e f o r c e . Surrey-Cloverda1e MLA Ken Jones, s t i l l a White Rock r e s i d e n t who belongs to the Western Canada Wilderness Committee and to Greenpeace, has been p u b l i c a l l y quoted as prepared to c h a i n h i m s e l f to parkland t r e e s r a t h e r see them bu11 dozed. Since 1966, when pl a n n i n g f o r r e g i o n a l growth i n an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e area f i r s t began, p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s have moved towards e c o l o g i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . Opinion surveys i n 1990 concurred with o r i g i n a l surveys done i n 1973 that placed environmental i s s u e s foremost i n the minds of people who l i v e d i n the r e g i o n . "The 1990 Urban Futures Survey i n d i c a t e d that p o l l u t i o n i s the f i r s t concern of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e s i d e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g was a l s o confirmed through p u b l i c meetings and w r i t t e n b r i e f s submitted to the GVRD...In 1990, as i n 1973, environmental i s s u e s were foremost i n the minds of r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s . P r e s e r v i n g the n a t u r a l environment was 113 ranked at the top i n both surveys." 9 A secondary concern of those p o l l e d i n the 1975 survey was c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l o c a l government s e r v i c e s . With adoption of the o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n 1975, the GVRD con s i d e r e d fragmented. Because of the d i s p a r i t y between d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s w i t h i n the region and the geographic c l a s s s e g r e g a t i o n s found i n the m e t r o p o l i s , the r e g i o n a l p l a n c o n s t a n t l y needed c o s t l y and time-consuming updating. F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was the type of t e n s i o n evidenced by Surrey and White Rock where boundary l i n e s became so a r b i t r a r y that i n 1993 Wi1f Hurd pressured the M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s to p r o v i d e a referendum f o r those l i v i n g i n South Surrey and White Rock on the q u e s t i o n of amalgamation. Those l i v i n g on the Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a see i t s p a t i a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e g i o n . The i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of municipal boundaries and the small s i z e of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Greater Vancouver area r e s u l t s from turn of the century p o l i t i c a l reforms and l o c a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . Tensions between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can be expected to continue as l o c a l governments a d j u s t to growth p r e s s u r e s and the f a i l u r e of the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e to address urban s e r v i c i n g i n a cohesive and n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e manner. As people l i k e Wi1f Hurd and Pat Kealy have moved towards greener pastures (having purchased acreage i n Langley i n 1991 and 1993 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) the new u r b a n i t e s i n White Rock, i n s t e a d of e n j o y i n g water s p o r t s on the west beach, have become joggers and walkers along a promenade. 114 The p o p u l a t i o n of White Rock which was 15,342 i n 1990, grew to 16,300 i n 1991 and i s p r o j e c t e d to e s c a l a t e to 23,300 i n 2011, well over the 20,000 l i m i t set by the GVRD as maximum c a p a c i t y i n 1975.The number of housing u n i t s , p r i m a r i l y going i n t o apartments, are p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e by almost 50 per cent from 8,200 to 12,100 i n 2011. There w i l l be i ncreased pressure to not only c l e a n up the beaches, but to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l water r e c r e a t i o n a l areas. BREAK UP OF THE LOCAL STATE D e f o r e s t a t i o n , p o l l u t i o n t h r e a t s to the l o c a l water supply, the e r o s i o n of green space, f e a r of o i l s p i l l s and the v i r u l e n t contamination of the bay, which c l o s e s White Rock beaches to p u b l i c b a t h i n g , are the main l o c a l e c o l o g i c a l concerns. Although a blue box r e c y c l i n g program i s popular, i t mostly e x i s t s f o r the r e c y c l i n g of b o t t l e s , newspapers and p l a s t i c milk jugs. Since garbage i s trucked elsewhere, to the r e g i o n a l dump i n D e l t a , garbage i s a l e s s e r concern to White Rock r e s i d e n t s . The only heavy i n d u s t r y v i s i b l e i s that of Cherry P o i n t , 15 miles away i n Washington S t a t e , and the sulphur d i o x i d e from the o i l r e f i n e r i e s blows i n t o White Rock only when there i s a southwesterly wind. De s p i t e sea breezes which c l e a r the a i r f o r those l i v i n g above the bay, smog i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y v i s i b l e as a i r i n v e r s i o n s and increased p o l l u t i o n c ontinue to plague the Lower•Mainland. However, most White Rock r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those who are r e t i r e d , seem comfortable walking around the town c e n t r e . 115 Gas d r i l l i n g and storage are a worry f o r White Rock r e s i d e n t s , and some have j o i n e d F r i e n d s o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y , a Langley based group organized to p r o t e s t p r o p o s a l s f o r such d r i l l i n g and storage. White Rock's water supply i s dependent on underground a q u i f e r s which would be threatened by underground storage p a r t i c u l a r l y . White Rock r e s i d e n t s t h i n k t h e i r water i s h e a l t h i e r than GVRD water because of some mineral content and the lack of need to use c o n t r o v e r s i a l chloramine. Chloramine caused concern i n White Rock i n September 1991 when the use of the c h l o r i n e ammonia combination was p r o t e s t e d by the Semiahmoo F i s h and Game Club because a chloramine s p i l l k i l l e d thousands of f i s h i n a stream i n 1990. The GVRD contends that chloramine, which South Surrey has added to i t s water supply, i s needed to c o n t r o l b a c t e r i a growth because the water runs from the North Vancouver watershed. Those who r e c e i v e water from White Rock u t i l i t i e s f e a r the p o t e n t i a l use of underground gas storage because, not only w i l l i t mean the d r a i n i n g of a q u i f e r s , but i t w i l l lead to underground seepage. E x p l o s i o n s , a danger posed by gas d r i l l i n g , are l e s s of a concern f o r White Rock because the proposed s i t e s are located f u r t h e r up the F r a s e r V a l l e y . Ownership of the water supply by a p r i v a t e u t i l i t y company has c r e a t e d c o n t r o v e r s y i n White Rock. Residents o b j e c t to paying a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s f o r water over and above t h e i r annual pr o p e r t y taxes. Homeowners have p r o t e s t e d that apartment d w e l l e r s pay a cut r a t e f o r t h e i r water (Peace Arch News, February 1992). White 116 Rock c o u n c i l has considered purchasing the u t i l i t y f o r the c i t y but have always been t o l d the c o s t i s p r o h i b i t i v e . White Rock c i v i c o f f i c i a l s boost l o c a l i s m at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e f e r r i n g l o c a l p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s and c o n t r o l over GVRD r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , yet f a l l i n g w i t h i n p o u l a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s . With 78 members on the GVRD board, 22 of them from the c i t y of Vancouver, the GVRD had begun a comprehensive p u b l i c p l a n n i n g process i n 1968, with a plan c a l l e d "The L i v e a b l e Region" being the end product i n 1975. The S o c i a l C r e d i t government, which in c l u d e d White Rock MLA B i l l Reid as a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r , e l i m i n a t e d the GVRD planning department and f u n c t i o n s i n 1984. In 1990 the GVRD began another p u b l i c survey and input process c a l l e d "Urban Futures", l e a d i n g to recommendations i n 1992 resembling the o r i g i n a l p l a n . "There are t h r e s h o l d s beyond which r e g e n e r a t i o n becomes imp o s s i b l e . R i v e r s and seas are natu r a l systems. They share with nature the p o s s i b i l i t y of dying." 10 Growth pres s u r e s from i n - m i g r a t i o n and immigration (75 per cent of the r e g i o n a l growth) f u l f i l l e d the GVRD p r e d i c t i o n that the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t would reach i t s s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t of 2.2 m i l l i o n i n 2004. Between 1975 and 1990 the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n grew by 600,000 people.The Urban Futures p r o j e c t was designed to f i n d ways of i n c r e a s i n g the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of t h i s r e g i o n so as to promote i t s economic development i n a l i v e a b l e way. Issues o r i g i n a l l y r a i s e d i n the 1975 p u b l i c process such as cl e a n e r a i r , b i c y c l e paths, and other environmental concerns such as p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land, remain nagging problems. 117 Aldermen such as Vin Coyne have c o n t i n u a l l y b r i s t l e d at the idea of r e g i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , espousing an ideology of l o c a l i s m which became outdated the minute South Surrey, which surrounds the c i t y of White Rock, surpassed the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . The o v e r l a p of s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p o l i c e , f i r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l , between the two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s o f t e n means a c a l l f o r South Surrey-White Rock amalgamation when c i t y p r o p e r t y owners r e c e i v e t h e i r tax b i l l s . Current L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n MLA, Wi1f Hurd, has long been a proponent of amalgamation. A request from Hurd to the m i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s i n J u l y 1992 f o r the m i n i s t r y to conduct a survey on c r e a t i o n of an expanded White Rock, r e s u l t e d i n h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n from New Democrat mayor Bob Bose. Simultaneously with the GVRD research p r o j e c t on "Urban Futures" which culminated i n a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s brochure, the c i t y o f White Rock held a s e r i e s of p u b l i c hearings on i t s own O f f i c i a l Community Pl a n . Amalgamation with South Surrey, which i n c l u d e s v a l u a b l e wetlands and a g r i c u l t u r a l land, would change the e c o - p o l i t i c s of the r e g i o n . The Boundary Bay C o n s e r v a t i o n Committee, which has sup p o r t e r s i n White Rock, has been c a l l i n g f o r a United Nations d e s i g n a t i o n of the Boundary Bay r e g i o n as a United Nations' Biosphere Reserve i n order to preserve b i r d h a b i t a t s and marine l i f e . S i n ce the Boundary Bay r e g i o n i n c l u d e s Semiahmoo Bay, as r e s i d e n t i a l urban area upland from the bay, White Rock would have to be accountable to sewage and contamination run o f f . E c o l o g i c a l concerns have e s c a l a t e d to the p o i n t that i n 1992 not only were 118 beaches c l o s e d to p u b l i c swimming because of high f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts but high c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of mercury were reported i n the Campbell R i v e r along with f e a r s of massive f i s h k i l l s . Concerned about badly d e t e r i o r a t e d r i v e r and beach water q u a l i t y , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s turned to p r o v i n c i a l government agencies to address the problem. In J u l y 1992, a 50 yard s t r e t c h of White Rock's west beach was c l o s e d to swimming. Although t o i l e t paper and tampons f r e q u e n t l y wash up on the c i t y ' s east beaches, that beach has been reopened f o r p u b l i c swimming. "On the f i r s t day of t e s t i n g , the Boundary Health Unit recorded a c h o l i f o r m count of 750. C o l i f o r m i s a b a c t e r i a that i s an i n d i c a t o r of sewage contamination. On the second day, that number jumped to 1950 and on the t h i r d day i t reached 2,000. A s a f e l i m i t set by the h e a l t h u n i t i s 200...White Rock's i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s b r i n g i n g more p o l l u t i o n to the area, e s p e c i a l l y on the beach, and b i r d s and c a t s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to high l e v e l s of c o l i f o r m . the bulk of the recent high l e v e l s came as a r e s u l t of the recent r a i n that drained the p o l l u t i o n i n t o the ocean through the c i t y ' s storm sewer system." 11 As w e l l , i n 1992 more than 50 dead b i r d s and three s e a l s washed up on White rock beaches. Members of the Boundary Bay O i l S p i l l S o c i e t y , based i n White Rock, l a i d the blame on inhumane f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s . The s t r u g g l e over development, which up to 1992 was a s t r u g g l e to preserve s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l areas and a p u b l i c outcry over h i g h r i s e developments, became concerned with saving road ends from development i n a desperate b i d to r e t a i n greenspace, even i f i t were only b l a c k b e r r y bushes on a saturated hi 11 s i d e . Local p o l i t i c i a n s have a h i s t o r y of using r h e t o r i c to 119 address the environment, while t h e i r a c t i o n s favor i t s c o n t r a d i c t i o n , economic development. For i n s t a n c e , the 1990 f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts were hidden from the p u b l i c , u n t i l p u b l i c bathing commenced. Signs warning of p o l l u t i o n were l a t e being i n s t a l l e d and wording on the s i g n s m i n i m a l i s t and small l e t t e r e d . U n t i l the 1992 i n c i d e n t , c i t y h a l l b u reaucrats and c o u n c i l l o r s blamed the high counts on "doggy do". P u b l i c p r o t e s t kept the issue i n the p u b l i c eye. Completed c o n s t r u c t i o n of a promenade a l l o w i n g people to walk along a beach which i s no longer f i t f o r p u b l i c swimming has eased l o c a l business owners' f e a r s of a s u b s t a n t i a l drop i n bus i n e s s . White Rock remains a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n d e s p i t e Marine Drive r e s i d e n t s ' complaints of noxious odours coming from the sewage pumping s t a t i o n s . S ince sewage comes down to the water f r o n t and then has to be pumped u p h i l l , and s i n c e the GVRD has a permit to dump sewage overflow, one may r e a d i l y assume that d u r i n g heavy rainstorms or on busy summer weekends, overflow w i l l be dumped i n t o the bay. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , marine l i f e i s p r a c t i c a l l y n onexistent. P r i o r to the research p e r i o d , the l o c a l e l e c t i o n process, which r a r e l y saw an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e s t and where campaign a d v e r t i s i n g r u l e s were not p r e s c r i b e d , d i d not favour the e l e c t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . At the White Rock Evergreen B a p t i s t home, where approximately 350 r e s i d e n t s vote i n c i t y 120 e l e c t i o n s , I r e c e i v e d complaints that r e s i d e n t s were given l i s t s of names to vote f o r , ( a l l e g e d l y s u p p l i e d by the popular Vin Coyne) and were h i t by an o l d gentleman's cane i f they o b j e c t e d . My s c r u t i n e e r s reported s t a f f at the home i n s t r u c t e d r e s i d e n t s i n the p o l l i n g booth on whom to vote f o r . Another concern, s i n c e the r e t u r n i n g o f f i c e r i n White Rock does not normally c r o s s check p o l l i n g l i s t s , i s that no system e x i s t s to prevent people from c a s t i n g more than one b a l l o t . Complaints a l s o e x i s t that v o t e r s are bussed i n from South Surrey with no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n requirements and are r e g i s t e r e d to vote on e l e c t i o n day (a p r a c t i c e no longer allowed i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s ) . Having grown from a small nucleus i n a short time and having a t t r a c t e d a c o n s e r v a t i v e g e n e r a t i o n of r e t i r e e s , White Rock p o l i t i c s has long been the domain of a c l i q u e of longtime White Rock r e s i d e n t s . When I began working at the l o c a l newspaper in 1980, I was t o l d to expect to be c a l l e d a newcomer u n t i l I'd a c t u a l l y l i v e d i n the c i t y f o r 10 years. The White Rock c l i q u e r e p r e s e n t s la r g e landowners, r e a l t o r s , a r c h i t e c t s , accountants, s o c i a l d i l e t t a n t e s and dev e l o p e r s . They have w e l l - p a i d c i t y h a l l b ureaucrats on t h e i r s i d e . Rather than run on i s s u e s , the l o c a l e s tablishment candidates run on a p l a t f o r m of wanting to pro v i d e " r e s p o n s i b l e government". They s t r e s s the need to be "team p l a y e r s " . As a hidden s l a t e , they take s u p p o r t i n g advertisements i n the l o c a l 121 newspaper under the guise of groups such as "concerned c i t i z e n s f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government", p l a y i n g on l o c a l i s t i d e o l o g y . The lack of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d p l a t f o r m s and p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n leads to e l e c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s based on p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t s between l o c a l l y based business and p r o f e s s i o n a l people, some of whom l i v e i n Surrey. It a l s o means voter apathy and low voter turn-out. The June 1991 b y - e l e c t i o n i n which I ran a g a i n s t two other candidates had a voter turn out of j u s t 15.3 per cent. In Canada, voter turnout i n l o c a l e l e c t i o n s only reaches the 50 per cent l e v e l when m a y o r a l t i e s are c o n t e s t e d . With such voter apathy i t i s no wonder acclamations to l o c a l government bodies i common. Higher voter turn-out would g i v e more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r people to vote f o r c h a l l e n g e r s to the e x i s t i n g incumbents.This theory has promoted changes to the B.C. Municipal Act to allow f o r ward systems i n l o c a l governments s i n c e voter turn-out tends to be "somewhat higher under a ward system than one at l a r g e . . . i t i s i r o n i c that while one of the most important r o l e s which municipal c o u n c i l could p l a y i s to act as a p u b l i c forum f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s of community concern, c o u n c i l s o f t e n attempt to avoid a i r i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l matters i n p u b l i c , " 12 The voter apathy and low turn-out encouraged by lack of p o l i t i c a l p a r t y p l a t f o r m s and the myth of n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p , lead to increased power f o r bureaucrats at c i t y h a l l . These bureaucrats tend to be r e s i s t a n t to c i t i z e n s ' groups, and they p r e f e r c l o s e d s t y l e s of government. Since c o u n c i l l o r s have been 122 e l e c t e d i n p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t s and p r e f e r to remain popular with t h e i r peers, any c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s are always d i s c u s s e d behind c l o s e d doors. "We do need municipal c o u n c i l l o r s and s t a f f who are r e c e p t i v e to more p u b l i c involvement i n the d e c i s i o n - making process, who pursue an open s t y l e of government, and who accept that community views and values are as important as t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e c i d i n g on a course of a c t i o n . We a l s o need c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n s groups with an ongoing broadly based i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l government, w i l l i n g to propose as well as oppose, and to be a p p r e c i a t i v e of the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c o u n c i l . Yet i f these c o n d i t i o n s were met, municipal governments would s t i l l be unable to respond to many of the concerns of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s simply because they lack the power and independence to do so." 13 Such c r i t i q u e , i n the e a r l y 1970s when new s o c i a l movements were i n t h e i r i n f a n c y , prompted a c t i v i s t s to run f o r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e i n many c i t i e s . However, the e l e c t i o n s of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s to c i t y c o u n c i l s i s an expensive p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p r o j e c t f o r those who seek to maintain a high community p r o f i l e . The s e n i o r member on my campaign team, Duncan Cameron, reported that on one campaign f o r alderman with the c u r r e n t mayor Hardy Staub, Staub forked out $5,000 to win e l e c t i o n to c o u n c i l . As an a i r l i n e p i l o t , Staub d i d not have the luxury of c o n s i d e r i n g h i s campaign a business promotion as Chamber of Commerce members can. However, h i s b e l i e f i n L o c a l i s t ideology made him f e e l that the expense needed to make him a "prominent c i t i z e n " and/or c o n t r i b u t e to h i s community, was warranted. My experience shows that i t ' s impossible to win a campaign f o r l e s s than $2500 (I was $600 s h o r t ) . Without s i g n s i t ' s 123 d i f f i c u l t f o r people to remember to vote, e s p e c i a l l y i n a by- e l e c t i o n when c i t y s t a f f neglected to put p o l l i n g s i g n s up u n t i l lunch time, as I noted at the Peace Arch Elementary p o l l i n g s t a t i on. "With few e x c e p t i o n s , the campaign i s devoid of i s s u e s or c l e a r p o l i c y c h o i c e s . . . c a n d i d a t e s f o r o f f i c e are r e l u c t a n t to o f f e r s p e c i f i c promises which they may not be able to f u l f i l l . The r e s u l t i s that the e l e c t i o n s becomes l a r g e l y a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t , one i n which the incumbents are l i k e l y to be favoured i f only because of the lengthy l i s t of names and m u l t i p l e b a l l o t s f a c i n g the v o t e r s . . . i t i s argued that voter turnout and c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t g e n e r a l l y may be i n h i b i t e d by the f a c t that t r a d i t i o n a l municipal boundaries do not c o i n c i d e with the community of i n t e r e s t of today's popu1 ation...peop1e may ignore municipal boundaries i n t h e i r p u r s u i t of employment, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . " 14 The t i g h t k n i t between s e n i o r c i t y s t a f f and the l o c a l p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e i s evidenced by an u n d i s g u i s e d arrogance towards l o c a l c i t i z e n s . Alderman Vin Coyne i s quoted as c a l l i n g the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n the "black-eye b r i g a d e " f o r c r i t i c i z i n g s t a f f ' s negligence i n f a i l u r e to post beach c l o s u r e s i g n s . Ken Jones c i t e d t h i s h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e towards l o c a l c i t i z e n s i n h i s f a i l e d b i d f o r mayor i n 1990 when he pledged to b r i n g a " f r i e n d l y c i t y h a l l " to White Rock. As an advocate of improved youth and s e n i o r f a c i l i t i e s , Jones f e l t b e t t e r able to serve from V i c t o r i a and s i n c e he and h i s wife were on the f r o n t l i n e s i n t h e i r b i d f o r the South Surrey-White Rock swimming p o o l , he knows the value of p r o v i n c i a l government funding, a c q u i s i t i o n of such i24 o f t e n exceeding the p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s of l o c a l mayors. "Municipal governments have not matured s u f f i c i e n t l y to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n intergovernmental r e l a t i o n s . . . among other 1 i m i t a t i o n s , t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n with a s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y r o l e , the absence of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n l o c a l governments, and the negative a t t i t u d e toward p o l i t i c s . They a l s o p o i n t to the absence of a r a t i o n a l , planned p o l i c y - making process at the l o c a l l e v e l . " 15 Other than myself, Jones was the only candidate i n 1990 to h i g h l i g h t environmental concerns, and he a c t i v e l y worked with F r i e n d s of the F r a s e r V a l l e y to stop o i l and gas d r i l l i n g . As a member of Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l , he, l i k e Lindsey Peebles, a diehard s o c i a l i s t who has belonged to the New Democratic Party from i t s i n c e p t i o n , are two of the peace a c t i v i s t s who are a l s o strong e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The l o c a l p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e p r o f i t s from t i e s not only with c i t y government but with the p r o v i n c e , as evidenced by MLA B i l l Reid's f a l l from grace when, as tourism m i n i s t e r , GO B.C. f u n n e l l e d money to a company c a l l e d Eco-Clean ( c a p i t a l i z i n g on the environmental f a d ) , which was owned by a f r i e n d and former campaign manager. B i l l Reid got caught doing what was expected of l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s as a long term p r a c t i c e . The money was i n turn to go to the Semiahmoo House S o c i e t y , another breeding ground f o r l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s , i n order to set up a r e c y c l i n g program. In the end, White Rock decided c i t y s t a f f were best a b l e to p r o v i d e the r e c y c l i n g s e r v i c e . 125 In an agreement with the Attorney General, C o l i n Gabelman, (who h i m s e l f l a t e r resigned under q u e s t i o n a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) , Eco-Clean r e p a i d h a l f the grant. GO B.C. was ap p a r e n t l y so t a i n t e d by l o c a l p o l i t i c s that the NDP government ended up c a n c e l l i n g the program. M o b i l i z a t i o n of l o c a l c i t i z e n s has g e n e r a l l y occurred around high d e n s i t y development i s s u e s , with c i t i z e n s lobbying a g a i n s t the l o c a l p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e i n the l a t e 1970s and e a r l y 1980s to prevent c o n s t r u c t i o n of high r i s e s . Two ap p a r e n t l y l e f t i s t aldermen were e l e c t e d to c o u n c i l i n 1981. One of them, a supposed environmental a c t i v i s t , B r i a n B r e t t , announced that he was g i v i n g up on f i g h t i n g development and that he was moving h i s f a m i l y to S a l t s p r i n g Island i n 1990. The GVRD Urban Futures survey i n 1990 showed that p o l l u t i o n was the number one concern of Greater Vancouver r e s i d e n t s . The GVRD cl a i m s 20 per cent of the a i r p o l l u t i o n i s caused by i n d u s t r y and 80 per cent by v e h i c l e s . Surrey c o n t r i b u t e d to massive a i r p o l l u t i o n problems on the Semiahmoo p e n i n s u l a by a l l o w i n g burning f o r land c l e a r i n g i n the r a p i d l y growing area. Surrey c o u n c i l only banned the burning i n 1993 and s t i l l a l l o w s f o r o c c a s i o n a l permits. Environmental t e n s i o n s continue to undermine l o c a l i s t s t a b i l i t y . With t h e i r h i l l s i d e view of the bay and knowledge of the water contamination, White Rock r e s i d e n t s now f i n d the beach 126 p o l l u t i o n a c o n t i n u a l reminder of the dumping going on i n the S t r a i t of Georgia. I t ' s a homefront i s s u e which helps m o b i l i z e r e s i d e n t s to seek r e g i o n a l answers to the problem. Secondary sewage treatment f o r Annacis Island i s s t i l l an engineer's dream as l o c a l c o u n c i l s f i g h t over the c o s t - s h a r i n g arrangement. L o c a l i s t response to environmental d i s a s t e r s remains slow and i n e f f e c t i v e . With Surrey now o b j e c t i n g to paying under a c o s t - s h a r i n g formula based on amounts of new development and with White Rock r e s i d e n t s e v i d e n c i n g the summer water shortages and overcrowded beaches they blame on Surrey's growth, the ongoing c o n f l i c t between the two c i t i e s w i l l e s c a l a t e . Within the GVRD Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t , the North Shore and Vancouver Sewer areas d i s c h a r g e i n t o the ocean, and Lulu and F r a s e r River areas d i s c h a r g e i n t o the F r a s e r R i v e r . Only "the F r a s e r d i s t r i c t , l a r g e s t of the fou r , must now p r o v i d e secondary treatment" (Maple R i d g e - P i t t Meadows News, May 7, 1995). The $700 m i l l i o n secondary treatment p l a n t w i l l s e r v i c e the f a s t e s t growing areas, but i t ' s a slow moving long overdue program which only p a r t i a l l y addresses the sewage problem. When summer water shortages mean that f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i s compromised, the v i s i b l e " t e n s i o n s i n the growth machine" (Molotch and Logan:1981), show up i n the Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a . S i n c e , demographica11y, White Rock r e s i d e n t s have a high l e v e l of educati o n , are considered to be g e o g r a p h i c a l l y o r i e n t e d towards a 127 sense of neighbourhood, and tend to be educated about and s o c i a l i z e d i n t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , r e s i d e n t s are l i k e l y to continue to be v o c i f e r o u s i n t h e i r campaigns a g a i n s t p o l l u t i o n and over-consumption i s s u e s . When l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and c i t y s t a f f t r y to blame the f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts on three misconnected t o i l e t s as was attempted duri n g the 1991 b y - e l e c t i o n , i t i s not only s t r a i n s the c r e d u l i t y of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , but renders these p o l i t i c i a n s suspect and helps d i f f u s e " f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . When environmental d i s a s t e r i s i n e p t l y d e a l t with by l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s the c r e d i b i l i t y of such l o c a l o f f i c i a l s not only d i m i n i s h e s , but the l o c a l i s t b e l i e f about community leaders being good c i t i z e n s i s s h a t t e r e d , to the poi n t where an a d v i s o r y design panel member, a p r e s i d e n t of the Chamber of Commerce and a p r e s i d e n t of the l o c a l sea f e s t i v a l s o c i e t y were unable to win enough votes f o r c i t y c o u n c i l e l e c t i o n i n 1990. Sinc e the long term pla n n i n g process f o r Greater Vancouver began i n 1968, growth of the re g i o n has increased p o p u l a t i o n by more than 50 per cent. From 1971 the p o p u l a t i o n of the area grew from one m i l l i o n to a m i l l i o n and a h a l f with another 500,000 people p r o j e c t e d i n the re g i o n by 2011. The planning process i n i t i a t e d i n 1968 showed a need f o r p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Since Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a , where White Rock i s perched, i s bounded by Semiahmoo Bay, the United S t a t e s Border, and 128 a g r i c u l t u r a l land, growth pressure has been more i n t e n s i f i e d than other areas of the Lower Mainland. "The Region's south-western s h o r e l i n e , long the s u b j e c t of numerous development p r o p o s a l s , extends from P o i n t Grey to White Rock, and i n c l u d e s the lower reaches of the F r a s e r R i v e r . While the B.C. Coast g e n e r a l l y f e a t u r e s a steep rocky s h o r e l i n e , our south-western s h o r e l i n e , set i n the f l o o d p l a i n d e l t a of the F r a s e r R i v e r , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by vast s t r e t c h e s of i n t e r - t i d a l f l a t . . . i n the f u t u r e a v a r i e t y of n e e d s — p o r t needs, i n d u s t r i a l needs, r e c r e a t i o n needs, w i l d l i f e needs, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s — w i l l have to be met along these shores... West Richmond, Ladner, South D e l t a , and South Surrey, favoured by more sunshine and l e s s r a i n f a l l than Vancouver, have a t t r a c t e d urban development." 16 Not only a i r q u a l i t y , a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s s u e s , sewage demands, water d e l i v e r y and s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i s s u e s need to be addressed on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The e f f e c t of development on the f i s h e r i e s r e q u i r e s responses f a r beyond a l o c a l government's e x p e r t i s e or mandate. Yet the development d e c i s i o n s made by a l o c a l government can s e v e r e l y harm the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . White Rock, a popular spot f o r c r a b b i n g , now has almost dead shores. Since Boundary Bay i s a h e r r i n g spawning ground, p o l l u t i o n threatens the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . In 1968 the GVRD reported that " f u r t h e r p o l l u t i o n would most l i k e l y harm the l o c a l h e r r i n g f i s h e r y , and reduce or d i s p e r s e the commercial and s p o r t s salmon f i s h i n g i n the process." 17 Obviously, with beach c l o s u r e s as evidence, p o l l u t i o n increased d r a m a t i c a l l y . Urban r u n - o f f i s i d e n t i f i e d as a source of heavy metal contamination as well as f e c a l c h o l i f o r m . "Sewers feeding the Annacis and Iona p l a n t s a l s o c o l l e c t 129 storm run - o f f . During r a i n y p e r i o d s , the volume e n t e r i n g the sewerage system i n c r e a s e s to such an extent that p a r t of the sewage, d i l u t e d with r u n - o f f , must be discharged d i r e c t l y to the r e c e i v i n g water before e n t e r i n g the p l a n t s . These wet weather overflows and by-passes are not covered by the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l permits, and are t h e r e f o r e not monitored r e g u l a r l y . As a r e s u l t , i t i s impossible to c a l c u l a t e p r e c i s e contaminant loadings discharged by the sewerage system." 18 In White Rock, sewage runs downhill and i s c o l l e c t e d at pumping s t a t i o n s and pumped back up to the main trunk l i n e f eeding the Annacis Island sewage p l a n t . The secondary sewage treatment p l a n t at Campbell R i v e r was c l o s e d down i n 1978. Since that time the pumping s t a t i o n s r e g u l a r l y pump out overflow d u r i n g heavy ra i n s t o r m s , which o f t e n occur j u s t before summer swimming season. Local governments are unable to enf o r c e sewage by—laws, a problem which the GVRD has i d e n t i f i e d with l o c a l by-laws concerning d i s c h a r g e s to the branch sewer l i n e s . N e i t h e r can l o c a l governments r e g u l a r l y monitor e f f l u e n t s d i s charged i n t o i t s municipal sewers or the e f f l u e n t s emanating from i t s storm sewers. That monitoring task f e l l to the p r o v i n c i a l Boundary Bay re g i o n a l board of h e a l t h i n 1989 a f t e r f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts reached dramatic h e i g h t s c a l 1 i n g f o r s e n i o r government i n t e r v e n t i o n . P r i o r to t h i s , and as e a r l y as 1978, the GVRD acknowledged both r u n o f f and a c c i d e n t a l connections of s a n i t a r y sewers to storm sewers c r e a t e d b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n problems i n the r e g i o n . "Run o f f a l s o c o n t a i n s v a r y i n g amounts of t o x i c 130 m a t e r i a l s " 19 The l a r g e number of agencies, 20, and number of monitoring s t a t i o n s , 200, makes c o r r e l a t i on of data d i f f i c u l t . The d i v i s i o n of powers between these b u r e a u c r a t i c agencies served to delay a c t i o n s on water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n . " . . . . i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw c o n c l u s i o n s from the h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t o x i c m a t e r i a l s because of the data's lack of accuracy and large v a r i a b i l i t y . T o x i c i t y data can be hard to i n t e r p r e t because d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l procedures are used that g i v e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , f o r example the data on metals may be f o r t o t a l e x t r a c t a b l e or d i s s o l v e d metals." 20 Re l i a n c e on te c h n o c r a t s , and the nature of a bureaucrat's need f o r job p r e s e r v a t i o n , only f r u s t r a t e s p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Storm r u n - o f f and chemical leachates from s a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l s were not even p o l i t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as areas f o r study u n t i l 1978, as these were i s s u e s beyond the usual scope of l o c a l c o u n c i l l o r s g e t t i n g together to serve on GVRD boards. "In 1975, the Province e s t a b l i s h e d a S t e e r i n g Committee of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from government, the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and GVRD to examine the need f o r secondary treatment at the Annacis Island Sewage Treatment P l a n t . The Committee was most concerned about the bu i l d - u p of t o x i c m a t e r i a l s from the p l a n t i n the sediments and b i o t a of the F r a s e r . The government subsequently e s t a b l i s h e d the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c i e s which the P o l l u t i o n Control Board was ordered to implement: that a source c o n t r o l program to c o n t r o l d i s p o s a l of t o x i c m a t e r i a l s before they enter municipal sewers be expanded to cover the e n t i r e G.V.R.D... That a l l f u t u r e monitoring of water q u a l i t y , e f f l u e n t s storm r u n - o f f and a q u a t i c b i o t a be co- o r d i n a t e d at a l l three l e v e l s of government." 21 Twenty years l a t e r , while c o s t s have e s c a l a t e d , member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are s t i l l arguing about c o s t - s h a r i n g arrangements and d e l a y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of secondary treatment at j u s t one 131 s i t e , as opposed to the four s i t e s needing f a c i l i t i e s . With the f e d e r a l government, under the F i s h e r i e s Act, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g u l a t i n g the " d e p o s i t i o n of substances d e l e t e r i o u s to f i s h " arguments between the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government have cont i n u e d . The GVRD remains an ad-hoc government of non-elected, non-accountable d i r e c t o r s who must respond to the concerns of l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s and p r o p e r t y owners at home, where 90 per cent of t h e i r l o c a l governments' revenue i s generated. In the meantime, between 1970 and 1990, p e s t i c i d e use i n a g r i c u l t u r a l areas increased s t e a d i l y , and f u n g i c i d e s , a n t i - s a p s t a i n agents, h e r b i c i d e s and i n s e c t i c i d e s found t h e i r way i n t o l o c a l waters. Local newspapers c a r r i e d r e p o r t s of a c c i d e n t a l p o i s o n i n g of farm workers and a e r i a l s p r a y i n g of c h i l d r e n walking to s c h o o l , as the use of such organophosphates o u t s t r i p p e d b u r e a u c r a t i c e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l t h e i r use. According to the Vancouver Sun, new p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the Greater Vancouver Area c a l l f o r three m i l l i o n people i n 2021, doubling the o r i g i n a l 1.5 m i l l i o n p r o j e c t i o n f o r 2011 (Vancouver Sun, May 30, 1995), c r e a t i n g more c o n s t r u c t i o n waste and environmental d i s r u p t i o n as well as g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g waste output i n t o a l r e a d y overloaded systems. Waste-reduction and r e c y c l i n g programs, such as the one i n i t i a t e d by White Rock, reduced l a n d f i l l input by 12 per cent from 1989 to 1995 and p u b l i c concern over water c o n s e r v a t i o n led 132 to a 26 per cent d e c l i n e i n water use i n peak times. L a n d f i l l s are reaching t h e i r c a p a c i t y , but the g r e a t e s t alarm has been the f a i l u r e to make progress i n upgrading sewage treatment p l a n t s . A new inter-governmental body, c a l l e d the F r a s e r Basin Management Board, t r i e d to s i m p l i f y the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s process by g i v i n g sewage treatment an F grade. While agencies developed p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l g u i d e l i n e s and p o l i t i c i a n s s t a l l e d on a c t i o n , White Rock beaches l o s t the water q u a l i t y needed f o r s a f e "water co n t a c t r e c r e a t i o n " at the same time the need f o r even more beaches i n the Greater Vancouver was i d e n t i f i e d . In 1990 the GVRD reported that " i n these areas of water-contact r e c r e a t i o n , p o i n t and non-point d i s c h a r g e s should be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d to meet necessary water q u a l i t y standards." Ten years l a t e r Deep Cove and White Rock beaches began c l o s u r e s . P o l i t i c i a n s f a i l e d to heed warnings that " A c t i o n should be taken i n those areas h e a v i l y used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, but which have not been s p e c i f i c a l l y set a s i d e or designated f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use at the present time, to preserve them as a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s and to pr o v i d e f o r t h e i r management." 22 These warnings came j u s t before the c o n s t r u c t i o n boom and p o p u l a t i o n growth which surged i n the e a r l y 1980s. Local c o u n c i l s became dragged down by d i s c u s s i o n s of development c o s t charges and design processes as the rush to put out development permits occupied the time of l o c a l c o u n c i l l o r s , so dependent on p o p u l a r i t y c o n t e s t s f o r e l e c t i o n and r e e l e c t i o n that s o c i a l 133 a c t i v i t i e s remained high on p r i o r i t y l i s t s . P o p u l a t i o n growth i n Surrey, which encroaches on White Rock, i s now so great that i n 15 years Surrey w i l l be the l a r g e s t c i t y i n the pro v i n c e with a p o p u l a t i o n of 600,000 (compared wtih Vancouver's 1991 census of 471,000). Yet the White Rock beach was so overcrowded p r i o r to c l o s u r e s that Marine Dr i v e remained a t r a f f i c b o t t l e n e c k every weekend. The buck-passing between governments, and the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y of a GVRD being c o n t r o l l e d by l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s whom se n i o r p o l i t i c i a n s depend on f o r r e - e l e c t i o n , has made f o r cosy p o l i t i c s i n excusing the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t from i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to keep waters c l e a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n and f i s h e r i e s use. Fi n e s , which would have to be paid by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s or c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r exceeding p o l l u t i o n g u i d e l i n e s , are waived f o r the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . The case brought by the UFAW and S i e r r a Club was h i j a c k e d by p r o v i n c i a l crown c o u n s e l , who then dropped the charges a g a i n s t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t because of a p r o v i n c i a l government "handshake agreement" p e r m i t t i n g the raw sewage to be discharged i n heavy rainstorms (Maple R i d g e - P i t t Meadows Times, May 28 1995). Common sense would suggest the GVRD be f i n e d f o r dis c h a r g e and those f i n e s banked to pay f o r the co s t of developing sewage treatment, so that by the time the GVRD took the case to the Supreme Court of Canada on appeal of the f i n e s , 134 the treatment p l a n t s would be o p e r a t i n g . But with t e c h n o c r a t s and bureaucrats i n charge of f r a c t u r e d government, common sense has been l o s t i n "the review process." White Rock, a community which once r e l i e d on logging f o r so many l i v e l i h o o d s , must now grapple with the e f f e c t s of r u n - o f f on a g r e a t l y denuded, urbanized s l o p e . White Rock has gone from logging camp to seasonal r e s o r t to retirement and bedroom community. The r u l i n g p o l i t i c a l e l i t e are holdovers from White Rock's r e s o r t e r a . Beach p o l l u t i o n t hreatens the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s t o r i e n t e d businesses which g i v e White Rock i t s c u r r e n t i d e n t i t y and sense of i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n . C e n t r a l to l o c a l i s t i deology i s the idea of a l o c a l l a n d l o r d s e r v i n g as town patron and p o l i t i c i a n . L ocalism f a i l s when major l a n d l o r d s become absentee ones, r o u t i n e i n a g l o b a l i z e d , c a p i t a l i s t economy. The s a l v a t i o n of l o c a l i s m was i n the c r e a t i o n of owner-occupied housing u n i t s , c a l l e d condominums, which turned l a n d l o r d s i n t o p roperty developers. Although l o c a l i s m , with i t s e h i c of the landowner as e n f r a n c h i s e d c i t i z e n , would exclude these small s t r a t a - t i t l e owners from the p o l i t i c a l process even though they pay "property taxes", environmenta1ism and i t s ideology of shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a c t s to motivate owners and r e n t e r s to share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r monitoring a c t i o n s which a f f e c t t h e i r surrounding community. Appointment of Condominium Home Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e members to White Rock c o u n c i l 135 committees i s now as common as appointments of l o c a l b usiness peop1e. Lured by the a t t r a c t i o n of a small town atmosphere w i t h i n a l a r g e r urban s e t t i n g , those who take up r e s i d e n c e i n White Rock w i l l be exposed to both l o c a l i s t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s . Home ownership encourages acceptance of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h i e s with the emphasis on m a i n t a i n i n g an environment that i n c r e a s e s property values and c r e a t e s p l e a s a n t havens out of neighbourhoods. Q u a l i t y of l i f e i s s u e s t h e r e f o r e remain at the top of White Rock's l o c a l p o l i t i c a l agenda. The p o p u l a r i t y that the attachment to a small l o c a l e c r e a t e s f o r the c i t y has c r e a t e d a g e n t r i f i e d community where r e s i d e n t s are more s o c i a l i z e d i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community a c t i v i t i e s and l o c a l p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . However, growth p r e s s u r e s have s t r a i n e d the a b i l i t y of the l o c a l h a b i t a t to handle i n c r e a s e d housing c o n s t r u c t i o n . The mounting environmental problems r e q u i r e response from r e g i o n a l and s e n i o r l e v e l of governments as t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s f o r e c o l o g i c a l damage l i e s beyond the c o n t r o l , e x p e r t i s e and f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s of those r e s i d i n g w i t h i n l o c a l boundaries. As the c o n c l u d i n g chapter w i l l show, although t h i s tendency to blame o u t s i d e f o r c e s and seek r e s t i t u t i o n f o r damages from o u t s i d e groups, governments, and c o r p o r a t i o n s , b e f i t s l o c a l i s t i d e o l o gy, the environmental t e n s i o n s , which c a l l f o r wider forms of 136 c o o p e r a t i o n , s i g n a l a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of 19th century B r i t i s h l o c a l i s m and forms of government i n t o symbolic and nominal neighborhoods w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s . P r e s e n t l y the p r o v i n c i a l government must mediate when encroaching growth from surrounding areas (e.g. Surrey) causes p o l l u t i o n problems with another small j u r i s d i c t i o n such as White Rock. The feuding over c o s t - s h a r i n g formulas w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t demonstrates t h a t , i n i t s c u r r e n t form r e g i o n a l government i s unworkable s i n c e attachment to s p e c i f i c l o c a l e s i s so s t r o n g . Growing p o p u l a t i o n and a need to commute f u r t h e r f o r employment and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s has made f o r st r o n g e r r e g i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and decreased i s o l a t i o n i s m . As growth pres s u r e s i n c r e a s e , p o l l u t i o n on other beaches i n the Greater Vancouver area region-wide w i l l be opposed. Beaches w i l l be seen as a r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than l o c a l r esource. As l o c a l i s m grows to b i o - r e g i o n p r o p o r t i o n s , which exceed t r a d i t i o n a l 19th century townships, s t r a t a c o u n c i l s and meeting rooms or neighbourhood community c e n t r e s and plann i n g committees w i l l assume charge of l o c a l i s t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s . T h i s r e f l e c t s a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of l o c a l i s m s i n c e the b a s i s f o r " l o c a l e " e v o l v e s , on the one hand, i n t o l a r g e r geographical e n t i t i e s f o r economic s u r v i v a l , and devolves on the other hand, i n t o s m a l l e r neighbourhoods f o r s o c i a l comfort. 137 So whereas the boundaries of White Rock encompass j u s t three square m i l e s , i t c o n t a i n s d i s t i n c t i v e neighbourhoods know to i n h a b i t a n t s as town c e n t r e , h i l l s i d e with view, east s i d e , west s i d e and w a t e r f r o n t . Large apartment b u i l d i n g s such as the s i x - s t o r e y r e t i r e m e n t - o r i e n t e d " P a c i f i c P a l i s a d e s " o f f e r meeting rooms f o r community use and promote neighbourhood i d e n t i t y . Yet the wa t e r f r o n t and beach remain the f o c a l p o i n t of White Rock. When p o l l u t i o n threatened the w a t e r f r o n t , not only immediate r e s i d e n t s but those from surrounding neighbourhoods who enjoy ) beachfront a c t i v i t y complained about stench from sewage d i s c h a r g e and the wastes washing up on p u b l i c beaches. Residents from varying neighbourhoods u n i t e d a g a i n s t d e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y . However, these r e s i d e n t s q u i c k l y d i s c o v e r e d that White Rock c i t y h a l l was unable to s o l v e the p o l l u t i o n problem, and that the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , because of b i c k e r i n g d i r e c t o r s and C i t y of Vancouver dominance, was unresponsive. Continued p o l l u t i o n watch on the beachfront has, t h e r e f o r e , led to l o c a l f r u s t r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e new i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s beyond White Rock's f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and sewage treatment remains a r e g i o n a l mandate. Only when Vancouver's beaches are threatened, however, w i l l the c u r r e n t r e g i o n a l board of d i r e c t o r s l i k e l y respond to sewer o u t l e t p o l l u t i o n problems. Stymied by White Rock's f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s , f r u s t r a t e d c i t i z e n s have several times appealed to the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r a 138 referendum vote promoting c i v i c merger of White Rock and South Surrey i n t o a geographic area with more p o l i t i c a l c l o u t , a b e t t e r tax base and more e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . T h i s amalgamation movement r e f l e c t s an new and expanded sense of l o c a l i s m i n White Rock and i t s immediate v i c i n i t y . 139 ENDNOTES 1. Margaret Lang, Along the Way, C i t y of White Rock: White Rock, B.C. p. 11. 2. G. Fern Treleaven, The Surrey Stor y , Surrey H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y : Surrey, B.C. 1992. p.2. 3. I b i d , p. 145. 4. I b i d . 5. Les Swain, ed., Our Southwestern Shores, M i n i s t r y of Environment: V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1981. p. 21. 6. G.Fern Treleaven, The Surrey Story, I b i d . p. 25. 7. W i l l i a m Baldwin, ed., Annual Report, C i t y of White Rock: White Rock, B.C. 1990. p. 1. 8. Ib i d , p. 3. 9. Bud E l s i e , ed., GVRD Development S e r v i c e s B u l l e t i n , Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , Burnaby, B.C. October, 1990. p. 5 . 10. F r a s e r R i v e r Estuary Study, A L i v i n g R i v e r by the Door, M i n i s t r y of Environment: Surrey, B.C. 1981. p. 7. 11. Diane Strandberg, ed., Peace Arch News, Metro V a l l e y Newspapers: White Rock, B.C. J u l y 15, 1992. p. 1. 12. Jack Masson and James D. Anderson, Emerging Party P o l i t i c s i n Urban Canada, McCl e l l a n d & Stewart: Toronto. 1972. p. 258. 13. I b i d . 14. I b i d , p. 156. 15. I b i d , p. 248/249. 16. I b i d , p. 181. 17. Les Swain, ed., Our Southwestern Shores. I b i d . p. 4. 18. Les G. Swain and L . J . Alexander, F r a s e r R i v e r Estuary Study Water Q u a l i t y : Boundary Bay, M i n i s t r y of Environment: V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1981. p. 8/9. 140 19. F r a s e r R i v e r Estuary Study S t e e r i n g Committee, F r a s e r Estuary Study Summary, M i n i s t r y of Environment: V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1978. p. 51. 20. I b i d , p. 67. 21. I b i d , p. 70. 22. I b i d . 141 CHAPTER IV CHANGING THE POLITICAL CONTEXT: THE POWER OF ENV IRONMENTALISM As evidenced by the e s c a l a t i n g sewer problem, c o s t l y environmental problems r a r e l y can be c o n f i n e d to a narrowly d e f i n e d l o c a l e , but become r e g i o n a l i s s u e s . Semiahmoo Bay i s part o f an in t e r c o n n e c t e d r i v e r and e s t u a r y system. Sewage d i s p o s a l f o r the c i t y o f White Rock i s managed by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t under the a u t h o r i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l government. The q u a l i t y of water i n Semiahmoo Bay, shared by Canadian and U.S. n a t i o n - s t a t e s can cause i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n beyond the d i p l o m a t i c scope of l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . High i n f i l t r a t i o n and i n f l o w s which occur throughout the c o a s t a l r e g i o n d u r i n g heavy ra i n s t o r m s , unchecked i n White Rock, have caused problems with o u t f a l l s on the beach. T i d a l flows and shallow bay water f a i l to d i s s i p a t e the e f f l u e n t . However, i t wasn't u n t i l 1988 that the GVRD en g i n e e r i n g department recommended a sewer flow monitoring program which could d e f i n e s i z e and l o c a t i o n s of the e x i s t i n g problem and look a t ways to c o n t r o l the i n f i 1 t r a t i o n / i n f I o w i n a system which shows increased demand f o r s a n i t a r y flow. " E x c e s s i v e i n f l o w s appear to be o c c u r r i n g at the White Rock, Langley and C l o v e r d a l e pumping s t a t i o n s . These have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on c o n d i t i o n s i n the sewers immediately downstream." 1 T o u r i s t s to White Rock beaches (who are a f f e c t e d by beach c l o s u r e s ) are both region-wide and i n t e r n a t i o n a l v i s i t o r s . Local 142 bu s i n e s s e s depend on these v i s i t o r s f o r economic s u r v i v a l of the small business community. The income generated by tourism helps pay f o r the c i t y ' s p r o v i s i o n of cosmetic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as sidewalks and s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , both improving the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and b o o s t i n g t o u r i s t a p p e al. P o l l u t i o n can be seen as a r e s u l t of the m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d p o l i t i c a l economy where the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the mass of people i n the m e t r o p o l i s causes e c o l o g i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n , yet the c o s t s f o r s o l v i n g the problems w i l l be borne by r e s o u r c e s drained from the h i n t e r l a n d . As those r e s o u r c e s are consumed i n the face of f u r t h e r e c o l o g i c a l d e v a s t a t i o n , such as from s t r i p mining or d e f o r e s t a t i o n , the m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d . As C l i v e Ponting observes: "I am convinced, that a f t e r n e a r l y twenty years of s u p p o r t i n g 'environmental' causes, that 'green' i s s u e s are not simply about the s t a t e of the n a t u r a l world but have to i n c l u d e c e n t r a l problems such as the use of r e s o u r c e s and energy, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of poverty and wealth, how people t r e a t other people, and the way people t h i n k about the world they i n h a b i t . " 2 Without government i n t e r v e n t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e p r a c t i c e s would predominate. With government i n t e r v e n t i o n , such p r a c t i c e s are m i t i g a t e d but r a r e l y e l i m i n a t e d . S t u d i e s undertaken by the GVRD i n 1988 came up with p r o p o s a l s to curb the combined storm/sewer outflow problems which have plagued the beach at White Rock and other areas i n the region-wide. The f i r s t p r o p o s a l , which e n t a i l e d f u r t h e r study, noted that zero t o l e r a n c e 143 approach to sewage p o l l u t i o n of beach water i n the r e g i o n would have added $134 per household i n the sewage and drainage d i s t r i c t i n order to t r e a t the combined sewer o u t l e t , urban r u n - o f f flows. A second, f a r l e s s c o s t l y o p t i o n , at $41 per household would p l a c e c o n t r o l s i n areas a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d as those causing d e t e r i o r a t i n g water q u a l i t y downstream. T h i s p r a c t i c a l second o p t i o n was omitted from the f i n a l r e p o r t d r a f t e d by the GVRD en g i n e e r i n g department. In s h o r t , the tec h n o c r a t s opted f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , delayed implementation, and i n c u r r e d higher c o s t s . T h i s d e s p i t e the f a c t that " f a i r " and "poor" water q u a l i t y c o u l d have been improved by an impact- d r i v e n proposal f o r combined sewer overflow/urban r u n - o f f c o n t r o l s at a p r i c e p o l i t i c i a n s would have co n s i d e r e d a f f o r d a b l e . Local "watchdogs" might have been ab l e to c i t i c i z e t h i s o v e r s i g h t had the r e g i o n a l government been accountable, not the unelected p r i v a t e l y meeting body that i t i s . The 1988 GVRD r e p o r t a l s o recommended high p r i o r i t y be placed on the South Surrey I n t e r c e p t o r at Johnston Road i n White Rock, having a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d i t as causing downstream sewage problems on the White Rock beach, but having f a i l e d to inform l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . The GVRD en g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t c a l l e d f o r a surcharge on the i n t e r c e p t o r which would allow the i n t e r c e p t o r to operate under pressure d u r i n g heavy r a i n f a l l and take the ex c e s s i v e i n f l o w . Combined sewer/storm o u t l e t s r e s u l t i n 58 per cent summer 144 c o n t r i b u t i o n and 31 per cent winter c o n t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l f e c a l c o l i f o r m loads i n l o c a l r i v e r s and beach waters. Urban r u n o f f , which p o l i t i c i a n s and engineers blamed f o r the contamination, c o n t r i b u t e s only one per cent of the f e c a l c o l i form. Beach p o l l u t i o n , along with the s t r i p p i n g of t r e e s from the White Rock landscape, adds to the a l i e n a t i o n of the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n from a n a t u r a l environment. P r e s s u r e s f o r quick growth are evidenced i n a l l major Canadian m e t r o p o l i t a n areas due to the p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s c h a r a c t e r of Canadian p o l i t i c a l economy and the n a t i o n ' s dependence on land development i n s t e a d of i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Emergence of p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and a r e l i a n c e on p r o d u c t i o n of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g s t r u g g l e s over c u l t u r a l t e r r a i n , should help reduce t h i s dependence on land development (e.g., movie p r o d u c t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia). The t a n g i b l e p o l l u t i o n evidenced by foaming beach waters i n White Rock draws people's a t t e n t i o n to the degradation of the p h y s i c a l and geographical environment. T h i s becomes a metaphor f o r the u n d e r l y i n g a l i e n a t i o n found i n the s o c i a l environment and leads to increased d i s t r u s t of p o l i t i c i a n s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s then educate c i t i z e n s to look at the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the p o l i t i c a l process and economic e l i t e s . P o l i t i c i a n s come to be seen as c o r r u p t by v o t e r s s i n c e the response to dwindling resources merely i n t e n s i f i e s the environmental degradation i n 145 such a way as to be v i s i b l e and d e t r i m e n t a l to everyday l i f e . Thus, the use of counter-hegemonic ideology, i n the course of my own involvements i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , was e s s e n t i a l i n t r y i n g to b r i n g about s o c i a l change w i t h i n a l o c a l i z e d c o n t e x t . Environmental ism i s a p o p u l i s t counter-hegemonic ideology capable of e x p l o i t i n g an a r r a y of i s s u e s and events f o r use i n the p o l i t i c a l process, at a l o c a l , s t a t e or g l o b a l l e v e l . T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the twentieth century g i v e s an i d e o l o g i c a l impression that technology e x i s t s to cure p o l l u t i o n and over-consumption woes. For i n s t a n c e , e c o l o g i c a l ideology i n s i s t s t h a t new technology can and must pro v i d e a change i n the means of p r o d u c t i o n which can then r e v o l u t i o n i z e r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n and lead to e c o l o g i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . However, most e c o l o g i c a l ideologues lack the r e q u i s i t e power and p r e s t i g e to be taken s e r i o u s l y by even a l o c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . As an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t wanting to e x e r t i n f l u e n c e , I f i r s t had to e s t a b l i s h the c r e d e n t i a l s that would c o n f e r some measure of p r e s t i g e . A f t e r a c q u i r i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r know 1 e d g a b i 1 i t y at the l o c a l l e v e l , the p r o j e c t r e q u i r e d a b i d to achieve a p o s i t i o n of l o c a l power ( i . e . by being e l e c t e d to c i t y c o u n c i l ) while d e v i a t i n g from the c o n c i l i a t o r y tone the s t a t u s quo expect i n t h e i r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l campaigns and m a i n t a i n i n g an a g g r e s s i v e a t t a c k a g a i n s t r i g h t wing r h e t o r i c . In my case, while not winning 146 a p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , the e l e c t i o n attempts served to i n c r e a s e my p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the l o c a l community. In 1991, environmental ideology impacted B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s by p l a y i n g a major r o l e i n d e f e a t i n g the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y , which had d i s p l a y e d an arrogant d i s r e g a r d f o r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and an i n a b i l i t y to i n c o r p o r a t e enviromental demands. Both L i b e r a l v i c t o r s , Ken Jones and Wi1f Hurd were the darkest green of the p o l i t i c a l c a n d idates running i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . Although e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s campaigned a c t i v e l y f o r the New Democrats,they were the f i r s t to leave the New Democratic Party f o l l o w i n g i t s s e c u r i n g of the p r o v i n c i a l r e i n s of s t a t e . Although the Mike Harcourt government moved on o u t s t a n d i n g environmental i s s u e s , such as c r e a t i o n of more parkland and promises f o r sewage treatment f o r the c a p i t a l r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t abandonment of the p a r t y can be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n that e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s wanted more than engineered environmental management. The d e - a l i e n a t i n g s t r u g g l e of e c o l o g i s t s e n t a i l s a strong demand f o r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l m o r a l i t y . L i k e the p r e v i o u s S o c i a l C r e d i t government, the New Democratic one came to be seen by some former sup p o r t e r s as morally bankrupt and h y p o c r i t i c a l . The Mike Harcourt government could never have been termed L e f t i s t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can be seen as L e f t i s t when the s t r u g g l e turns a g a i n s t neoconservatism, op p r e s s i o n , e x p l o i t a t i o n 147 and greed. The e s c a l a t i n g problems posed by ozone d e p l e t i o n , marine degradation, d e f o r e s t a t i o n and other g l o b a l concerns, as well as r a p i d l y d e p l e t i n g resources i n a p l a n e t f a c i n g a burgeoning p o p u l a t i o n , can be seen as a c r i s i s p r e - f i g u r i n g new r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . As a counter-hegemonic ideology, environmental ism i s w e l l - p l a c e d to p r o v i d e the i d e o l o g i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e f o r an emergent base on which s p e c i e s s u r v i v a l depends. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s i n the broad sense, which a m a j o r i t y of White Rock r e s i d e n t s would now c l a i m to be, c r y s t a l l i z e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of a decaying c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y and focus on the d e s t r u c t i v e tendencies of c a p i t a l i s m , i . e . economic development which r e l i e s on perpetual expansion i n a f i n i t e world. The p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n White Rock has become a l o c a l i z e d , neighbourhood s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h i s a l i e n a t i n g brand of economic development. P r o v i n c i a l governments, however, are s t i l l expected to c a r r y c l o u t on environmental i s s u e s . Yet the p o l i t i c a l c o a l i t i o n environmental ism could achieve r e q u i r e d a r a d i c a l r e t h i n k i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l L e f t i s t i d e o l ogy, s i n c e environmental ism i s at odds with the p r o d u c t i v i s t and p o s i t i v i s t o r i e n t a t o n of Marxism. Response from e c o l o g i c a l l y concerned c i t i z e n s who want d e c i s i v e government a c t i o n to end the p o l l u t i o n c r i s i s r e q u i r e s resources long u n a v a i l a b l e at a l o c a l l e v e l . Local a c t i v i s t s tend to become f r u s t r a t e d and "burned out". Environmental groups, 148 which normally serve a p r o v o c a t i v e or e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n , need a l l i a n c e with well-funded groups i n order to wage c o s t l y l e g a l b a t t l e s , p u t t i n g them at r i s k of c o - o p t a t i o n . C i t i n g the 20 years of i n a c t i o n on p o l l u t i o n of the F r a s e r R i v e r and the seawaters i t feeds i n t o , such as the Boundary Bay system which i n c l u d e s Semiahmoo Bay, the U.S. based S i e r r a Legal Defence Fund has undertaken l e g a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . The a c t i o n was prompted by the United Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers' Union (UFAW), a l e f t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n which has been working with the Save Georgia S t r a i t A l l i a n c e (a group opposed to sewage i n the s t r a i t ) has been working . According to the Vancouver Sun, (May 12th, 1995), p r i v a t e p r o s e c u t i o n (which the p r o v i n c i a l system has f a i l e d to undertake) c i t e s f i v e v i o l a t i o n s of the p r o v i n c i a l Waste Management Act and one under the Federal F i s h e r i e s Act concerning the Annacis Island sewage o u t f a l l . The f a c t i s that the GVRD, as a non-elected body, f a l l s under p r o v i n c i a l government c o n t r o l , yet c o n t i n u a l l y breaks the p r o v i n c i a l laws set by the government. It i l l u s t r a t e s an unworkable system of government. The salmon f i s h e r y , worth $300 m i l l i o n a year i s a f f e c t e d by the sewage outflow which l o c a l governments (such as Surrey) complain a b o u t — t h e $700 m i l l i o n c a p i t a l c o s t of secondary sewage treatment p l a n t s . T h i s p e t t y l o c a l a t t i t u d e by members of Surrey towards r e g i o n a l c o s t s h a r i n g d e f i e s common sense yet t i e s i n t o a 149 t o o t h l e s s n a t i o n - s t a t e government which p r e f e r s to throw money out on short-term p r o j e c t s such as royal commissions where f r i e n d s can be appointed, and p r o v i n c i a l governments which spend $500 a day on f r i e n d l y p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a d v i s o r s to promote myths of a c t i o n where d e c i s i o n s are delayed. "The p r i v a t e p r o s e c u t i o n f o l l o w s a demand... from f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r B r i a n Tobin that the GVRD take a c t i o n w i t h i n 30 days to upgrade i t s Annacis Island and Lulu Island treatment p l a n t s . F a i l u r e to comply could r e s u l t i n f i n e s o f up to $1 M i l l i o n a day under the F i s h e r i e s Act, he s a i d ..." (the UFAW said) i t i s too l i t t l e too l a t e . "We've had 20 years of broken promises. I t ' s time f o r stronger a c t i o n and l a y i n g these charges w i l l r e s u l t i n t h a t . " So f a r , l e s s than h a l f of the $650 m i l l i o n upgrade has been f i n a n c e d . The GVRD i s hoping to reach a c o s t s h a r i n g deal with the B.C. government f o r the next phase, worth $167 m i l l i o n , but the pr o v i n c e i s lukewarm to the id e a . " (Vancouver Sun, May 12, 1995) D e c i s i v e l y i s s u e - o r i e n t e d environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s are more f l e x i b l e and, t h e r e f o r e , more r e a d i l y adaptable and more conducive to s o c i a l change than mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The changing p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y i n Canada, with the r i s e o f the r e g i o n a l l y based Reform and Bloc Quebecois p a r t i e s (simultaneous with plunging support of t r a d i t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e and New Democratic P a r t i e s ) and a L i b e r a l p a r t y with weak long-term support, suggest mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may not s u r v i v e i n t o the 21st century. Even i n the United S t a t e s with j u s t two t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t i e s to choose from, mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s are being f o r c e d to regroup, given the r i s e of p o p u l i s t s such as Newt 150 G i n g r i c h and new p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s such as Ross Per o t ' s Reform Party and Ralph Nader's Green Party, along with demonstrated voter backlash a g a i n s t incumbent p o l i t i c i a n s i n the 1994 Senate and Congressional e l e c t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s ( r e g i o n a l w i t h i n North American standards) appears best s u i t e d to both a d d r e s s i n g c o n c r e t e problems such as a i r and water p o l l u t i o n , and d e b u r e a u c r a t i z i n g n a t i o n - s t a t e government p o l i t i c a l systems. These n a t i o n - s t a t e p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e f i e l d s have come to be p e r c e i v e d by c i t i z e n s as c o r r u p t , i n e f f i c i e n t and c o s t l y . As evidenced by r e l i a n c e on r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n to p r o p e r l y reduce sewage p o l l u t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can best m o b i l i z e when presented with low- l e v e l , l o c a l l y focussed p o l i t i c i a n s to contend with. As a barometer of s o c i a l change, r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l systems would best f i t the e c o l o g i s t s ' theory of d i v i d i n g n a t i o n - s t a t e s i n t o b i o - re g i o n s . The push to b i o - r e g i o n s reduces the s c a l e of o r g a n i z a t i o n , e n a b l i n g s u s t a i n a b 1 i t y of resources and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s . As r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s o c i a l movement, p r o g r e s s i v e environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s focus on i n t e r n a t i o n a l fund r a i s i n g and networks. T h i s m i r r o r s g l o b a l p o l i t i c s which has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d as r e a c t i o n s to both improved i n f o r m a t i o n technology, reduced resources and interdependent commerce and problem-solving i n i t i a t i v e s . New r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s suggest the r e f o r m a t i o n of l o c a l 151 p o l i t i c s as the p o l i t i c a l system t r i e s to r e c o n s t i t u t e i t s e l f more to the t e r r i t o r i a l e q u i v a l e n t of the c i t y - s t a t e s i z e , m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d g e o p o l i t i c a l paradigm. O r g i n a l l y intended to p r o v i d e s t r e e t l e v e l s e r v i c e s to small c i t i e s , l o c a l governments are p a r a l y z e d by funding c r i s e s , lack of s k i l l s to s o l v e complex problems and a changing g l o b a l p o l i t i c a l economy. However, d e s p i t e i n i t i a t i v e s from both South Surrey and White Rock r e s i d e n t s , amalgamation f o r the Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a remains remote. "The concern remains to understand a new...comp1exity of r e l a t i o n s between a mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s to manifold but i n t e g r a t e d processes and p r a c t i c e s of consumption."3 If urban areas are not viewed i n terms of use value, but l a r g e l y i n terms of exchange value, then p o l l u t i o n , stemming from re-zoning ordinances can be seen as an example of a negative by- product of the l a t t e r . "...the c e n t r a l s t a t e determines the t o t a l amount of s u r p l u s value to be removed from d i r e c t accumulation, i . e . the sphere of c a p i t a l to be devalued, while l o c a l government uses the sphere of d e v a l o r i z e d c a p i t a l to produce the general c o n d i t i o n s . The two phases are q u i t e d i s t i n c t ; the f i r s t concerns values, the second concerns use values and i s l i m i t e d by the amount of value removed from accumulation" 4 If c i t i e s are to have a use value, as o u t l i n e d by Manuel C a s t e l l s (The C i t y and the G r a s s r o o t s : 1983), c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . Without c i t i z e n s and without t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c i t i e s would be reduced to economic exchange value of i t s i n c l u s i v e p r o p e r t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , where people congregate 152 i n l a r g e , s e t t l e d communities, c i t i z e n s ' movements w i l l c o n s t a n t l y be born. "A s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n (not n e c e s s a r i l y based on a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s imposes a new urban meaning i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d urban meaning and ag a i n s t the i n t e r e s t of the dominant c l a s s . It i s i n t h i s case that we use the concept of urban s o c i a l movement: a c o l l e c t i v e c o nscious a c t i o n aimed at the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d urban meaning a g a i n s t the l o g i c , i n t e r e s t , and values of the dominant c l a s s . " 5 So f o r i n s t a n c e , the White Rock Residents A s s o c i a t i o n was composed of r e t i r e d businessmen, r e t i r e d housewives, c l e r k - t y p i s t s , government workers, f a c t o r y workers, c o n s t r u c t i o n managers and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , with p r o p e r t y ownership g e n e r a l l y the common bond between them. One of the most c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s f a c i n g t h i s p o l i t i c a l c o a l i t i o n was whether or not to pool economic resources and run a s l a t e of ca n d i d a t e s f o r c i t y e 1ect i ons. While g e n e r a l l y conceding that the "Buena V i s t a o l d boys' c l u b " (White Rock c i t y h a l l being on Buena V i s t a Avenue, as the WRRA r e f e r r e d to the l o c a l s t a t u s quo) c o n s i s t e n t l y ran a hidden s l a t e f o r e l e c t i o n , the e x e c u t i v e i n v a r i a b l y shied away from a c t u a l l y running an organized, c e n t r a l l y - f u n d e d s l a t e of can d i d a t e s . The experience of both Wi1f Hurd and Dave Mar t i n , when they chose to run f o r council, and were v i c i o u s l y attacked as a s l a t e i n a "newspaper" promoted by alderman Vin Coyne, served as a negative reminder. However, when Maria Romanczhuk, WRRA t r e a s u r e r , decided to run f o r c o u n c i l as a l a s t minute d e c i s i o n 153 and as an independent, the " s l a t e " l a b e l was slapped on both of us. The sense of neighbourhood e x i s t s i n White Rock, with the east s i d e c o n s i d e r i n g i t s e l f a separate neighbourhood from the west s i d e , and the Marine D r i v e s t r i p with a d j o i n i n g h i l l s i d e another neighbourhood, and the apartment area a c e n t r a l i z e d , predominantly r e s i d e n t i a l Town Centre w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of s t o r e s and s e r v i c e s . Whereas, I p o l l e d s t r o n g l y i n the November 1990 e l e c t i o n on the east s i d e of White Rock, by the June 1991 b y - e l e c t i o n I won only the West s i d e of the c i t y and the town c e n t r e . T h i s r e s u l t e d from the i n t e r v e n t i o n of a t h i r d c andidate l i v i n g on the east s i d e who campaigned on the east s i d e , combined with my f a i l u r e to r e a c q u a i n t myself with east s i d e r e s i d e n t s by door-knocking, and a low voter turnout on the east s i d e . Success on the west r e s u l t e d from new i s s u e s which brought new consciousness to west s i d e v o t e r s . West s i d e v o t e r s r a l l i e d around p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t a new f i r e h a l l , which the power c l i q u e decided would have to be l o c a t e d i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c complex that i n c l u d e s the p o l i c e s t a t i o n and l i b r a r y as well as c i t y h a l l , and which s e v e r e l y hampers the response of the f i r e department to the convoluted geographical l o c a t i o n of the west s i d e houses. West s i d e r e s i d e n t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been viewed as more a f f l u e n t than those with east s i d e p r o p e r t i e s , however, the g e n t r i f i c a t i o n of " h i l l s i d e " view p r o p e r t i e s has changed the demographics, causing White Rock's 154 planner to term the e a s t s i d e two d i s t i n c t neighbourhoods. P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n p rovided i n s i g h t i n t o a community where p r i c i e r p r o p e r t i e s and g e n t r i f i c a t i o n made a demographic d i f f e r e n c e i n the wealth, ed u c a t i o n and c l a s s backgrounds of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . White Rock i s noted f o r having more than i t s share of a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , educators, s u c c e s s f u l businessmen and r e t i r e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s . T h e r e f o r e , a well-educated, a r t i c u l a t e c i t i z e n s ' base e x i s t s from which both the s t a t u s quo and opposing groups can draw "fo o t s o l d i e r s " . In White Rock the p o l i t i c a l f i g h t i s never one f o r l o c a l jobs, but q u a l i t y of l i f e i s s u e s . T h i s leaves the p o l i t i c a l arena wide open to ideology, e s p e c i a l l y ongoing c o n f l i c t between the l o c a l i s m of " o l d t i m e r s " and the environmental ism of "newcomer" c h a l l e n g e r s . Where members of the p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial and t e c h n i c a l c l a s s meet with working c l a s s c i t i z e n s ( i n a c i t y with "west" s i d e and "east" s i d e r e s i d u a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . . . quick 1y becoming "view" and "non-view" s p a t i a l segregation) i t i s u s u a l l y on i s s u e s of funding f o r p u b l i c works. For i n s t a n c e , Marine Drive b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and s t r e e t improvements, a r t s c e n t r e p r o j e c t s , and sewage treatment improvements c a l 1 f o r a broader base of support and formation of pro and con groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Operating as a female p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t i n the White Rock c i t y and r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l arena, 1 am i n c l i n e d to agree with C a s t e l l s ' c o n t e n t i o n about women le a d i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s such as the P a r i s Commune, which "was d e c i s i v e l y an a c t i o n by the 155 women" ( I b i d , p.18). Women can and do p l a y a c t i v e r o l e s i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s ( K l a t c h : 1987). Often e i t h e r m a r g i n a l i z e d as housewives, or small b u s i n e s s owners, they spend more time doing everyday p r a c t i c e w i t h i n a l o c a l environment. Women have developed a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r coping and tend to r e l y l e s s on b u r e a u c r a t i c and t e c h n o c r a t i c language which obscures i s s u e s and c o n t r i b u t e s to f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was two women ( E l l e n Long and Joan L i d d i c o a t t ) who came up with the p r o t e s t l i n e about sewage on the beach being " s h i t from c i t y h a l l " . Excluded by t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s , women f i n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology m o t i v a t i o n a l . S i n c e most l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are dependent on v o l u n t e e r s , demographics i n White Rock assure women are a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n lobby groups. It was women who p a i n t e d the s i g n s and brought the c h i l d r e n f o r t e l e v i s i o n to focus on. It was myself who decided that with a minimal number of p r o t e s t e r s , g u e r i l l a t a c t i c s would be p r e f e r a b l e (thereby, choosing a Monday night to stage a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c i t y c o u n c i l knowing that c o u n c i l voted the week before not to meet that night to p r o v i d e themselves with a summer break). F i n d i n g the doors locked and having a l e r t e d the t e l e v i s i o n cameras and with the good weather, an outdoor p r o t e s t r e s u l t e d . The f a c t that c o u n c i l f a i l e d to meet durin g a time of environmental c r i s i s on the c i t y ' s beaches made i t p o s s i b l e to view c i t y c o u n c i l l o r s as s e l f - s e r v i n g . Use of media i s an e s s e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l movements which must 156 q u i c k l y r a l l y p u b l i c awareness but lack the resources and f i n a n c i n g a v a i l a b l e to the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s they are a t t a c k i n g . T h i s r e q u i r e s c i t i z e n "watchdogs" (a l a b e l P a t r i c i a Kealy and Duncan Cameron r e f e r to) w i l l i n g to pass l o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on to Vancouver based media which might otherwise be unaware of such i n f o r m a t i o n which a f f e c t s the r e g i o n due to White Rock's t o u r i s t mecca s t a t u s . Because t e l e v i s i o n reaches the g r e a t e s t number of c i t i z e n s and has the s t r o n g e s t e d u c a t i v e e f f e c t , use of t e l e v i s o n media r e q u i r e s group s t r a t e g y and implementation; t h e r e f o r e , communication between members of a s o c i a l movement becomes a constant, sometimes nagging requirement. Localism enables a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on l o c a l media, such as a p r o l i f i c 1 e t t e r - t o - t h e e d i t o r s s e c t i o n which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the Peace Arch News from other weekly and bi-weekly newspapers. Under a t t a c k by fo e s , i n s i t u t i o n a 1 i z e d groups ( i . e . bureaucrats and p o l i t i c i a n s ) go on the o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t c i t i z e n groups while c o n t i n u i n g a c t i o n s which the c i t i z e n groups oppose, These t a c t i c s , which i n c l u d e b l o c k i n g access to i n f o r m a t i o n , h o l d i n g important committee meetings duri n g times d i f f i c u l t f o r working members of the p u b l i c to attend, c h a r g i n g fees f o r c o u n c i l minutes e t c . are adopted i n e x p e c t a t i o n that the c i t i z e n groups w i l l c o l l a p s e under p r e s s u r e . Environmental s o c i a l movements and groups have, however, s u r v i v e d s i n c e the l a t e 1960s. T h e i r s u r v i v a l i s based on the s a l i e n c e of r e p r o d u c t i v e 157 i s s u e s . Environmental deg r a d a t i o n threatens the s u r v i v a l and r e p r o d u c t i o n not only of the working c l a s s but of the c a p i t a l c l a s s as w e l l . Species s u r v i v a l transcends f a m i l i a r c l a s s d i v i s i o n s , promoting e x t r a o r d i n a r y a l l i a n c e s which allow f o r long term s u r v i v a l of e c o - p o 1 i t i c a 1 movements, adding knowledge, e x p e r t i s e and funding. Because p o l l u t i o n i s v i s i b l e , i t q u i c k l y becomes a t o p i c of l o c a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n s t i g a t e s new a l l i a n c e s which, along with more g l o b a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n technology, works toward p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i a l change. The s h i f t to a humanist l e f t works as a de- a l i e n a t i n g process and serves a human need to be at peace with s e l f , each other and nature. Once " f a l s e c onsciousness" i s overcome, aided by the symbols and metaphors invoked by e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , a l i e n a t i o n can be s l o w l y overcome i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the end of what Weber c a l l e d " d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n " of the world and e s p e c i a l l y of l o c a l bureaucracy, which now i s p e r c e i v e d i n a l l i t s i n e p t i t u d e . By p r o v i d i n g a l o c a l i d e n t i t y and boundaries, the n o t i o n of "community" a i d s i n the p r o g r e s s i v e d e - a l i e n a t i o n process. F o l l o w i n g gains made by l e f t i s t s i n White Rock, however, r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e s have not ceased to operate. For i n s t a n c e , B i l l Reid, the d i s g r a c e d former S o c i a l C r e d i t Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly who had l i v e d i n D e l t a and run a used ca r business i n c e n t r a l Surrey, I was t o l d by Pat Kealy, was e l e c t e d i n 1995 as p r e s i d e n t of the White Rock-South Surrey Chamber of 158 Commerce. Reid, whose idea of environmental consciousness a p p a r e n t l y enabled h i s f r i e n d s and supp o r t e r s to cash i n on government r e c y c l i n g funds, has used h i s time served and c o n t a c t s made as MLA to become an entrenched member of the l o c a l , White Rock p o l i t i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A l l o w i n g Reid continued power, p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e d e s p i t e a m a j o r i t y of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s damning him at the p o l l s , e x e m p l i f i e s the type of c l i q u i s h m e n t a l i t y and use of l o c a l myth which cont i n u e s to operate i n White Rock. S o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s would d i s m i s s Reid's chamber of commerce p o s i t i o n as small town p o l i t i c s . But s o p h i s t i c a t e d and experienced p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s have i n s t e a d been d r a f t e d i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l scene; r a t h e r than crack the l o c a l power base, Wi 1f Hurd and Ken Jones transcended i t , t a k i n g the most p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i v i s t s with them. In any case, the f u t u r e of l o c a l power groups i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y g l o b a l i z e d s o c i e t y , depends upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e l a r g e r governments and b u r e a u c r a t i c bodies. Such i n f l u e n c e r e q u i r e s access to knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n and understanding of majoritanism p o l i t i c s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s continue to judge both l o c a l and s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s on environmental p o s i t i o n s and a t t a c k any A c h i l l e s heel of those deemed e i t h e r ignorant of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology or 159 e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e . In Canadian p o l i t i c s , c i t y versus s t a t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and demands f o r c o s t - e f f e c t i v e downscaling of government, has r e s u l t e d i n a power boost f o r p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of governments, making i t e a s i e r f o r l o c a l power groups to access and i n f l u e n c e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . The new p r o v i n c i a l Municipal Act, plans i n the education m i n i s t r y f o r reshaping school d i s t r i c t s , and other p r o v i n c i a l government moves, have been designed to erode independent l o c a l power bases and small town power c l i q u e s . Environmental c o n t r o l and e c o l o g i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n r e q u i r e p o l i t i c a l w i l l and commitment to long term values i n order to c o u n t e r a c t the heavy hand of c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g through small town p o l i t i c i a n s . D e s p i t e i n i t i a t i v e s from both South Surrey and White Rock r e s i d e n t s amalgamation f o r the Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a s t i l l seems remote. O b j e c t i o n s from Surrey p o l i t i c i a n s and lack of response from the p r o v i n c i a l government i n d i c a t e s such a r e g i o n a l chunk i s not a p p r o p r i a t e w i t h i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n area. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s e n v i s i o n a d i f f e r e n t " b i o " r e g i o n which would i n c l u d e White Rock on the b a s i s of shared r i v e r , t i d a l water and e c o l o g i c a l systems. F r i e n d s of Boundary Bay S o c i e t y , based i n Tsawwassen, operates as an umbrella o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r l o c a l environmental groups ( i . e . t h e White Rock-Surrey N a t u r a l i s t s ) i n order to 160 promote p r e s e r v a t i o n of Boundary Bay e s t u a r i e s and wetlands. The s o c i e t y has strong support i n White Rock and Crescent Beach where i t maintains an education and i n f o r m a t i o n o u t l e t . S i n c e e c o l o g i c a l i s s u e s w i t h i n the Boundary Bay area remain i n t e r r e l a t e d , the group has been a c t i v e l y lobbying f o r d e s i g n a t i o n of the Delta-South Surrey-White Rock-Richmond r e g i o n as a United Nations b i o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e and b i r d sanctuary. T h i s i s seen as an important step up from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve d e s i g n a t i o n a l r e a d y granted by the pr o v i n c e f o r much of the area. Areas such as Burns Bog i n D e l t a would remain undeveloped, while upland areas such as White Rock would be t i g h t l y r e g u l a t e d to prevent p o l l u t i o n encroachment i n t o s e n s i t i v e water systems. Such a move would s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t economic development i n the area and transform l o c a l governments which c u r r e n t l y e x i s t to s e r v i c e the property development s e c t o r . In essence, s i m i l a r i t i e s between l o c a l i s m and environmentalism are such as to suggest that l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p hilosophy i s an u n w i t t i n g p r e c u r s o r to environnmenta 1ist 161 i d e o l o g y . In t h i s context, environmental ism can be seen as i d e o l o g i c a l adjustment to the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m which undermine l o c a l i s t a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l f o r c e s and r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . Because e x c e s s i v e consumption can be seen as an h e d o n i s t i c " e v i l " by both those on a p o l i t i c a l l e f t and r e l i g i o u s r i g h t , environmental ism has a broad appeal. Environmentalism can evoke a zeal that l o c a l i s m never c o u l d . Part of that z e a l , however, stems from a de t e r m i n a t i o n to r e t u r n to a s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y rooted i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d l o c a l e , but l a r g e r than t r a d i t i o n a l small town standards. C e r t a i n l y , my p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n White Rock was marked by concerted e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t a t t a c k s on the l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s . That o f f e n s i v e helped change the way l o c a l d i s s i d e n t s exerted t h e i r i n f l u e n c e and empowered them to s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e the bureaucrats who commanded l o c a l power (see Appendix C - 2 ) . In so doing, the l o c a l , power base returned to members of the l o c a l community, i n c l u d i n g having c o u n c i l l o r s r e c r u i t e d from White Rock in s t e a d o f Surrey. A "green l o c a l i s m " , l i k e the o l d l o c a l i s m i t r e p l a c e s , s t r e s s e s n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p , c o o p e r a t i o n , community values and c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s which preserve d i s t i n c t i v e towns and provide long-term s t a b i l i t y f o r prop e r t y owners and r e s i d e n t s . Although home ownership remains a common North American g o a l , "green l o c a l i s m " promotes a l t e r n a t i v e s such as c o o p e r a t i v e housing and gr e a t e r p u b l i c access to common lands. As w e l l , the s e l f l e s s n e s s 162 promoted by l o c a l i s m e v o l v e s i n "green l o c a l i s m " to i n c l u d e people's r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature as well with one another. T h i s h o l i s t i c interdependence i s seen as a source of a u t h o r i t y f o r "green l o c a l i s m " which i s l e s s p a t e r n a l i s t i c and more n u r t u r i n g than the l o c a l i s m i t r e p l a c e s . Rather than l i m i t i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n to middle-aged males, "green l o c a l i s m extends l o c a l i s m to i n c l u d e women and c h i l d r e n as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n community and p u b l i c a f f a i r s . At a time when g l o b a l economy depends upon shared resources and human s u r v i v a l depends upon g l o b a l c o o p e r a t i o n f o r massive clean-up and p r e s e r v a t i o n programs, environmenta1ism's a b i l i t y to appeal to broader c o n s t i t u e n c i e s makes i t a necessary i d e o l o g y . White Rock has evolved from a logging camp, to a weekend h o l i d a y r e s o r t town, to a r e t i r e m e n t community and now i n t o a g e n t r i f i e d bedroom community with a r e s o r t atmosphere. The e v o l u t i o n has brought the town's a t t e n t i o n to a growing number of o u t s i d e r s and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s . In r e t u r n , White Rock l o c a l s , have worked to i n f l u e n c e s e n i o r p o l i t i c a l and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on environmental i s s u e s . As more beaches i n the m e t r o p o l i s c l o s e because of unhealthy f e c a l c h o l i f o r m counts, r e g i o n a l and s t a t e governments w i l l be for c e d to address the problem. In p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , the chances of rezoning White Rock f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes because of wasted wa t e r f r o n t or unpleasant smell i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . P o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s are noted f o r w a t e r f r o n t r e c l a m a t i o n as 163 v a l u a b l e l i v i n g l o c a t i o n s . As c i t i e s seek new i d e n t i t i e s i n a post i n d u s t r i a l age, there i s need f o r r e c o n s t i t u t e d l o c a l i s m . Environmenta1ism p r o v i d e s an ideology which can promote a "green l o c a l i s m " , using l o c a l i s t n otions of good c i t i z e n s h i p to promote s u s t a i n a b l e communities. Although s u s t a i n a b l e communities remains the goal of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , the f a c t the ideology only becomes o p e r a t i v e f o l l o w i n g c r i s i s impedes the p r a c t i c e of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . The , n o t i o n of b i o - r e g i o n i s an attempt to p r o v i d e a long term o b j e c t i v e . Combined with l o c a l i s t i d e o l o gy, b i o - r e g i o n s p r o v i d e a p o t e n t i a l foundation f o r s u s t a i n a b l e community. Localism p r o v i d e s i d e o l o g i c a l support f o r c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s such as community r e c y c l i n g , as i n the White Rock blue box r e c y c l i n g program. Complaints to c i t y h a l l from p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i t i z e n s who are accustomed to a t r a d i t i o n of v o i c i n g concerns about community, improves d e l i v e r y of such s e r v i c e s . Planned urban areas surrounded by green space i s a p r a c t i c a l p r o j e c t promoted by environmental ism which t i e s i n with l o c a l i s t small c i t y i d e o l o g y . However, a mandate f o r such communities comes not only from areas which d e s i r e such sense of space and s e c u r i t y of p l a c e , but r e g u l a t o r y s t a t e governing bodies and agencies which have the p o l i t i c a l and economic c l o u t to i n i t i a t e such p r o j e c t s . At the same time the b i o - r e g i o n a l approach i s an attempt to d e c e n t r a l i z e n a t i o n - s t a t e governments. New governments i n an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s u s t a i n a b l e s o c i e t y would t h e r e f o r e be 164 s m a l l e r than s t a t e governments yet l a r g e r than l o c a l ones. Local governments which a l r e a d y have seen reduced power, would become even more r e s t r i c t e d i n power and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . However, neighbourhood and l o c a l i t i e s are necessary concepts f o r e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s . The p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the White Rock Condominium A s s o c i a t i o n i n White Rock which holds p r i v a t e a 1 1-candidates meetings, based i n the c i t y ' s town c e n t r e area, shows how i n f l u e n t i a l organized neighbourhoods can be. Groups which can d e l i v e r v o t e r s en masse are valued by p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as well as by l o c a l po1i t i c i a n s . As new g e n e r a t i o n s come to express ' p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t ' values, and a r t i c u l a t e a d e s i r e f o r community and a c l e a n environment, "green l o c a l i s m " i s g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y . S u s t a i n a b l e communities, which r e l y on shared i n f o r m a t i o n f o r success, are a t t a i n a b l e w i t h i n l o c a l i t i e s the s i z e of White Rock. Indeed, r a t h e r than symbolizing a remote power s t r u c t u r e , White Rock c i t y h a l l can be seen as a p l a c e where i n f o r m a t i o n on government programs and s e r v i c e s can be accessed and ques t i o n e d . Environmenta1ism o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n v i a l o c a l newspapers and l i b r a r i e s f o r l o c a l c i t i z e n s on how to address problems of consumption, waste and p o l l u t i o n . With g l o b a l networks and vo l u n t e e r agencies which tap new ideas and technology, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can empower l o c a l c i t i z e n s who would be l i m i t e d i n t h e i r knowledge under i s o l a t e d , xenophobic types of l o c a l i s m . 165 S t a t e governing bodies i n such a "green l o c a l i s t " s t r u c t u r e are necessary counterweights to m u l t i - n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . Increased owner-occupation of l i v i n g u n i t s keeps p a r t i c i p a n t s informed i n the p o l i t i c s of property and maintenance of l o c a l environments. Whereas i t i s easy to blame one's neighbours f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p r o p e r t y "downstream", the d e s i r e f o r q u a l i t y of l i f e , a p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t value, leads to c o o p e r a t i o n and a sense of shared e c o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which moderates the blame- t h e - o u t s i d e r approach of l o c a l i s m . Such p o s i t i o n i n g i s shown by a White Rock p o l i t i c a l e l i t e which p u b l i c a l l y bashes Surrey, yet seeks p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e s and committee members from Surrey i n the back rooms of c i t y h a l l . L o c a l i s m can lead to m i n o r i t y tyranny, but m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m has a f o o t h o l d on the 21st century. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m aims at p r o t e c t i n g the p h y s i c a l environmental, promoting a h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l , emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u t u r e and e f f i c i e n t use of l o c a l r e s o urces, i n c l u d i n g human and p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s . Whereas power to s o l v e environmental problems such as beach p o l l u t i o n l i e s with s e n i o r governments, so c o n v e r s e l y , the power to i n f l u e n c e s e n i o r government l i e s with experienced White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s and a c t i v i s t s . As a movement which seeks j u s t i c e f o r communities, the environmental j u s t i c e movement uses j u r i d i c a l and l e g a l forums to p e n a l i z e p o l l u t e r s . The S i e r r a Legal Defense Fund has resources a v a i l a b l e which the C i t y of White Rock does not. In r e q u e s t i n g 166 support from such i n t e r n a t i o n a l groups, communities such as White Rock have to u t i l i s e an ideology of the importance of a c l e a n , h o l i s t i c community whose s u r v i v a l i s threatened by aggravated p o l l u t i o n beyond i t s c o n t r o l . White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s can complain to the Greater Vancouver Regional Sewer and Drainage D i s t r i c t , which the S i e r r a Legal Defense Fund can t h r e a t e n with l a w s u i t s . Should the wel 1-organized F r i e n d s of Boundary Bay achieve United, Nations mandated b i o l o g i c a l r e serve s t a t u s f o r Boundary Bay and the surrounding Delta-Surrey-White Rock r e g i o n , l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments would become accountable to a g l o b a l a u t h o r i t y and the power of the f e d e r a l s t a t e , which now operates the Roberts Bank superport, to expand i n the area would be preempted. One can envisage an emergent "green l o c a l i s m " as connecting l o c a l and g l o b a l i deology i n a micro-macro s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e of "think l o c a l , think g l o b a l , act l o c a l " . Local governments are seen to be at once s t r i v i n g to form r e g i o n a l governments, while a l s o g e t t i n g back to neighbourhood r o o t s . New forms of l o c a l i s t government suggest a s e p a r a t i o n of power, i . e . r e g i o n a l p o l i c y versus neighbourhood s e r v i c e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would see White Rock as one community i n a web of s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g towns and nature r e s e r v e s they e n v i s i o n f o r the p l a n e t . With a c l e a n beach, c l e a n a i r , ample green space and p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d neighbourhoods, the town would remain a comfortable p l a c e where long term r e s i d e n t s can l i v e , work, play 167 and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s . In White Rock, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p o l i t i c a l success f o r l e f t - o f - c e n t r e L i b e r a l s i n a formerly C o n s e r v a t i v e community, demonstrating the a l l i a n c e p o s s i b l e between "new L e f t " and " e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t " p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . By aiming my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n White Rock at t u r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t sympathizers i n t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s and educating s t a t u s quo p o l i t i c i a n s i n p r o g r e s s i v e ideology, I can say that I was able to achieve the f o l l o w i n g : added to the l o c a l resource base by b r i n g i n g i n guest p u b l i c speakers; p u b l i c a l l y c h a l l e n g e d c i t y s t a f f and incumbent c o u n c i l l o r s to f o s t e r debate; introduced L i b e r a l s to New Democrats s o c i a l l y ; and encouraged the media to p r o v i d e a forum f o r the Boundary Board of Health to i n f l u e n c e c i t y s t a f f on environmental a c t i o n s . I helped to achieve p r a x i s by a s s i s t i n g the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n i n p u b l i c f o r a and l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s , i n v o l v i n g environmental groups i n White Rock c i v i c p o l i t i c s through a 1 1-candidates' meetings, adding to NDP p o l i c y d i s c u s s i o n and s u b m i t t i n g a b r i e f to the M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s which r e s u l t e d i n changes to the Municipal Act. Thus, I can c l a i m to have made a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the community. 168 ENDNOTII . 1, GVRD En g i n e e r i n g , Greater Vancouver L i q u i d Waste Management Plan Stage 1, GVRD: Burnaby, B. C. J u l y 1988. p. x i v , C l i v e Ponting, A Green H i s t o r y of the World: The Environment and the C o l l a p s e of Great C i v i l i z a t i o n s ; S t . Martin's Press: New York. 1991. p . x i , Michael Harloe and E l i z a b e t h Lebas, eds., C i t y C l a s s and Cap i ta1 ; Edward Arnold P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1981. p . x v i i , Manuel C a s t e l l s , The C i t y and the G r a s s r o o t s : A Cross C u l t u r a l Theory of Urban S o c i a l Movements; Edward Arnold P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1983. p. 305, Ib i d . 169 A P P E N D I X A : M E T H O D O L O G I C A L N O T E S Research f o r t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n f i e l d work and newspaper a r c h i v a l data r e t r i e v a l , c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d from February 1990 to February 1993. P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n c l u d e d the r e s e a r c h e r j o i n i n g v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t t e n d i n g meetings, l o c a l c o u n c i l meetings and running f o r e l e c t i o n as "alderman" ( c o u n c i l l o r ) i n a municipal e l e c t i o n of November 1991 and a by- e l e c t i o n i n June 1992. It a l s o i n c l u d e d a t t e n d i n g v a r i o u s a l l c a n d i d a t e s ' meetings, door knocking and telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n s with White Rock r e s i d e n t s , l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and a c t i v i s t s . The f i e l d work a l s o e n t a i l e d work on a 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n campaign and s e r v i n g as e d u c a t i o n c h a i r f o r the White Rock-South Surrey New Democrats. T h i s enabled the r e s e a r c h e r to attend v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l meetings, o r g a n i z e e d u c a t i o n events, and i n f l u e n c e the nomination of a f e d e r a l N.D.P. candidate i n January 1992 (running myself as a candidate) r a t h e r than accept a t r a d i t i o n a l back room s e l e c t i o n . Records of phone c o n v e r s a t i o n s with p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s and l o c a l v o t e r s were a l s o examined. The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD) f i e l d r esearch p r o j e c t on "Urban Fut u r e s " (a governmental make-work p r o j e c t ) i n February 1990, and d i d enumeration, v o t e r s ' l i s t r e v i s i o n , and deputy r e t u r n o f f i c e r work f o r E l e c t i o n s Canada duri n g the 1992 f e d e r a l referendum on the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c c o r d . Enumerating provided s t r e e t l e v e l access to l o c a l v o t e r s . 170 Demographics provided by the f e d e r a l N.D.P. were taken from S t a t i s t i c s Canada r e p o r t s . Other demographic data were r e t r i e v e d from newspaper accounts, census data, newspaper accounts, GVRD r e p o r t s , and r e p o r t s obtained from White Rock c i t y s t a f f . H i s t o r i c a l research was undertaken through access to the White Rock museum c o l l e c t i o n s and l o c a l l y p u b l i s h e d h i s t o r y books. Throughout the p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n time frame, the res e a r c h e r p r i o r i t i z e d environmental i s s u e s by p l a c i n g them at the top of her p o l i t i c a l campaign agenda and by promoting those i s s u e s i n campaign l i t e r a t u r e and newspaper i n t e r v i e w s . Local j o u r n a l i s t s were s u p p o r f i v e , p r o v i d i n g campaign p u b l i c i t y and background i n f o r m a t i o n about other p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e s during the i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t p e r i o d of the s o c i a l r e s e a r c h , and with the help of the r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , t e l e v i s i o n news coverage was u t i l i z e d . Content a n a l y s i s of newspaper advertisements, i n t e r v i e w s of candidates and review of t h e i r campaign l i t e r a t u r e , were undertaken, i n c l u d i n g e s t i m a t i o n s of the co s t of each "independent's" campaign. An e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review was u t i l i z e d to p r o v i d e background support f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s o c i a l movement theory. P o l l u t i o n data and i n f o r m a t i o n was provided by the Boundary Board of Health, the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r y of environment, GVRD engi n e e r i n g r e p o r t s , and White Rock and Surrey e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f . In-depth i n t e r v i e w s with e s t a b l i s h e d White Rock p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s Ken Jones and Wi l f Hurd were undertaken. Both succeeded i n being e l e c t e d as L i b e r a l members of the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e 171 A s s e m b l y i n t h e 1991 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and b o t h a r e c o m m i t t e d e c o l o g i s t s . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h o t h e r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s were l e s s s t r u c t u r e d . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o c o n d u c t e d a random t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y o f W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s p r i o r t o t h e J u n e 1991 c i t y b y - e l e c t i o n . T h e r e s e a r c h f i t s somewhere b e t w e e n u t t e r l y c o v e r t o b s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h i s p l a i n l y u n e t h i c a l , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h was l o g i s t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f e v e n t s c o v e r e d , s i t u a t i o n s a n d p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d . H a v i n g d e v e l o p e d a c r i t i c a l and i n q u i s i t i v e e y e l o n g b e f o r e t h e r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d i n g a t e n d e n c y t o l o o k o v e r o t h e r s ' s h o u l d e r s a n d e a v e s d r o p on c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r s some c o v e r t a c t i v i t y b o t h i m p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d and v a l u a b l e i n g a t h e r i n g v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Any d e g r e e o f c o v e r t r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , s o t h e r e s e a r c h e r made a m p l e u s e o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s t o b a c k - u p c o n t e n t i o n s , s u c h a s w i t h p u b l i c d o c u m e n t s o r by q u e s t i o n i n g k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n f o r m a n t s and k e e p i n g m e t i c u l o u s n o t e s o f p u b l i c and t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . Key i n f o r m a n t s were aware t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r was u n d e r t a k i n g s o c i a l r e s e a r c h a s p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The r e s e a r c h e r p u b l i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f a s a s o c i a l r e s e a r c h e r by o c c u p a t i o n o n t h e b a l l o t ( ' o c c u p a t i o n ' b e i n g one v o t e - c a t c h i n g l o c a l i s t t r a d i t i o n e l i m i n a t e d by t h e NDP p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i n a r e v i s e d M u n i c i p a l A c t ) . L o c a l c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i s t s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o a w a r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ' r o l e a s a i72 newspaper r e p o r t e r . The advantage of conducting research i n a community where the r e s e a r c h e r i s well-known as a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e p o r t e r who might p u b l i s h accounts or t i p o f f other j o u r n a l i s t s about a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the community becomes a disadvantage when those being observed are more guarded i n t h e i r behaviour. The ' r e p o r t e r ' l a b e l was a p a r t i c u l a r disadvantage when i t prevented the r e s e a r c h e r from being a b l e to enter c l o s e d arenas, such as c i t y c o u n c i l "in-camera" s e s s i o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r was t r e a t e d with s u s p i c i o n by some, but the o v e r t n e s s induced other informants to be more forthcoming i n a c o - c o n s p i r a t o r i a l , c o - p a r t i c i p a n t way that advocacy research encourages. By p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t on a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e , an informant who d i v u l g e s i n f o r m a t i o n to a "whistle-blower" c r i t i c can work towards changing a r u l e , r e g u l a t i o n or system, or block an unpopular person's e n t r y i n t o the p u b l i c p o l i c y arena by o f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l ammunition to those r a l l y i n g to prevent h i s / h e r e l e c t i o n to p u b l i c o f f i c e . In sum, the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s posed f o r the r e s e a r c h e r were the f o l l o w i n g : temptation to 'go n a t i v e ' and i d e n t i f y with p o l i t i c a l l y marginal groups; c o n t r o l over personal b i a s ; and s e p a r a t i n g r o l e s of r e s e a r c h e r and p o l i t i c i a n . The problem of r e l i a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n was m i t i g a t e d by s e l e c t i n g key informants who were themselves t r a i n e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i v e and research methods, e i t h e r as newspaper r e p o r t e r s or u n i v e r s i t y p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e graduates. Time and energy c o n s t r a i n t s across 173 the r e s e a r c h e r ' s v a r i o u s r o l e s (wife, mother, student, r e s e a r c h e r , p o l i t i c o ) f o r c e d a compartmenta1ization of a c t i v i t i e s that prevented immersion i n any one r o l e or e x c l u s i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with any one p e r s p e c t i v e . The q u e s t i o n of v a l i d i t y plagues p a r t i c i p a t o r y research as such research has evolved i n t o an a l t e r n a t i v e system of knowledge i n a p o s t - p o s i t i v i s t s o c i e t y . C e r t a i n l y , p a r t i c i p a t o r y research i s conducive to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t ideology and w e l l - s u i t e d to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and understanding of new s o c i a l movements. However, good p a r t i c i p a t o r y research i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve when the r e s e a r c h e r has poor communications s k i l l s . T r a i n i n g and experience as a newspaper j o u r n a l i s t helped the res e a r c h e r develop e f f e c t i v e communications s k i l l s as we l l as ongoing s e l f - d i a l o g u e about o b j e c t i v i t y versus b i a s . Although some attempt was made at enumerations and samples, such as a random telephone survey, observer-as-a p a r t i c i p a n t and informant i n t e r v i e w s were the p r i n c i p a l methods u t i l i z e d . Q b s e r v i n g - a s - a - p a r t i c i p a n t helped the res e a r c h e r focus on i s s u e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , whereas informant i n t e r v i e w s provided s u b s t a n t i a l data. The r e s e a r c h e r was a v a i l a b l e at home w i t h i n the community being s t u d i e d and t h e r e f o r e contacted by informants at v a r i o u s times of day and night f o r var y i n g lengths of time. Such ongoing contact with zealous and/or knowledgeable informants supplemented i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and made the research experience a c o l l e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . 174 Leaving the f i e l d , d i s a s s o c i a t i n g from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and from the p o s s i b i l i t y of 'going n a t i v e ' or "overboard" was achieved when the r e s e a r c h e r p h y s i c a l l y r e l o c a t e d out of White Rock to Maple Ridge, a community of c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t geography and demographic make-up. P a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n research p r o v i d e s a wealth of data. The f i e l d worker, however, due to the time i n v e s t e d i n g a r n e r i n g t h i s data, can have d i f f i c u l t y i n d e c i d i n g what data to s e l e c t . The problematic of p r i o r i t i z i n g data becomes s u b j e c t i v e i . e . which i s more i m p o r t a n t — a two hour i n t e r v i e w with a s u b j e c t or w i t n e s s i n g a s p l i t - s e c o n d vote on a c o n t r o v e r s i a l apartment p r o j e c t at a Monday night c o u n c i l meeting? Which vote i s s i g n i f i c a n t , which moments and which meetings are i n t e g r a l to the research and which are those which the p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r should minimize as merely u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t - o bserver's own i d e n t i t y or r e c o g n i t i o n value? Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can preoccupy the r e s e a r c h e r . Complicating t h i s i s the use of informants who become a u x i l i a r y p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r s . Another problem i n t h i s type of a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d s o c i o l o g y i s that because the aim of the research i s to achieve r e s u l t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the p o i n t at which the " r e s e a r c h " can be terminated or when a ' s a t i s f a c t o r y ' c o n c l u s i o n to the p r o j e c t has been a t t a i n e d . Due to the l e v e l of personal involvement, the r e s e a r c h e r i s c o n s t a n t l y under t e n s i o n and needs to take time out to r e f l e c t on the course of the r e s e a r c h . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , even f a i l u r e 175 to consummate the intended p r a x i s can meet some of the research p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s by i d e n t i f y i n g problems inherent i n attempts to l i n k theory and p r a x i s . Because an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t takes on a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , he/she has to s t r e s s not only the end goal but the counters- hegemonic ideology with which he/she i s educating s u b j e c t s . T h i s e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n at times supersedes the problem of o b s e r v a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s . P a r t i c i p a t o r y research can promote s o c i a l change i n s e v e r a l ways. Such research can r a i s e c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t can and probably should "improve the l i v e s of those i n v o l v e d i n the research process" and/or lead to " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of fundamental s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s " ( P a t r i c i a Maguire, Doino. P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research: a f e m i n i s t approach, 1987). The r e s e a r c h e r hopes that t h i s t h e s i s r a i s e s such c r i t i c a l c o n s ciousness. She i s a l s o aware that c o l l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e s e a r c h , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s , helped g i v e informants a sense of empowerment. The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s that i n f o r m a t i o n and data gleaned from the research helped lead to changes i n the p r o v i n c e ' s M u n i c i p a l Act, which should have the e f f e c t of loosening the g r i p of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s on the s t a t u s quo. Using i n f o r m a t i o n from the f i e l d , the r e s e a r c h e r was a b l e to submit a b r i e f to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s which provided input during r e v i s i o n of the p r o v i n c e ' s M u n i c i p a l A c t . In t h i s approach, there can be no " r o l e p l a y i n g " by the 176 r e s e a r c h e r because to t r i v i a l i z e and dehumanize the process by r e q u i r i n g the res e a r c h e r to look on hi m / h e r s e l f as a c t i n g out a number of s o c i a l r o l e s not onl y d i s c o u n t s the research i t s e l f , but the no t i o n of " r o l e s " p l a y s i n t o a hegemonic ideology which the r e s e a r c h e r has committed h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f to both exposing and end i ng. In the a c t u a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l act of w r i t i n g the d a i l y s c r i p t or c a r r y i n g out an i m p r o v i s a t i o n which responds to input from v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s , the res e a r c h e r needs to view h i m / h e r s e l f as w e l l as the s u b j e c t s as three-dimensional people. T h i s must be done even when the s u b j e c t appears to be c o n s c i o u s l y a c t i n g out a s o c i a l r o l e i . e . "mayor". The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t has to have a g r i p on h e r / h i s e x i s t e n t i a l base and view s u b j e c t s and informants as not r o l e p l a y e r s but human beings with values and personal h i s t o r y which may be f o r or ag a i n s t the p r a x i s or the re s e a r c h e r ' s own va l u e s . Where the s u b j e c t appears to be a c t i n g out a r o l e s c r i p t e d by those who hold economic and i d e o l o g i c a l power, the res e a r c h e r must assume that t h i s " p l a y e r " has been coerced or conned i n t o a s u p e r f i c i a l r o l e which a l i e n a t e s the s u b j e c t not j u s t from h i s or her true s e l f , but from those o t h e r s with whom he/she has s o c i a l t i e s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t , t h e r e f o r e , must serve as a f o r c e f o r d e a l i e n a t i o n and look beyond the s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e and i n t o the eyes of the s u b j e c t . I n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t s can b e n e f i t by French a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Marcel G r i a u l e ' s approach to ethnography. G r i a u l e 177 saw such g a t h e r i n g of data as a " t h e a t r i c a l undertaking" with the r e s e a r c h e r ' s m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s i n e x t r a c t i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n deemed v i t a l . B r i a u l e would see i r o n y ("a complex, 1 n e g o t i a t e d , h i s t o r i c a l l y c o ntingent t r u t h " ) as almost u n i v e r s a l i n p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s — i r o n i e s inherent i n each ethnographic informant's account of h i m s e l f or o t h e r s i n h i s / h e r s o c i a l world, irony i n methods used by r e s e a r c h e r s to r e t r i e v e data. B r i a u l e , an e n e r g e t i c proponent of p r a x i s , foresaw the b i r t h of i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g y by d e s i g n a t i n g "both r e s e a r c h e r s and n a r r a t i v e s as a c t i v e c r e a t o r s " . M o r a l l y and e t h i c a l l y , an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t must be a humanist. Without an inherent f a i t h i n the e q u a l i t y and u n i t y of humankind, the r e s e a r c h e r would be unable to f u l f i l l the fundamental requirements of such advocacy r e s e a r c h . Lacking a humanist p e r s p e c t i v e , the i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t - s o c i o l o g i s t would lapse i n t o a contained r o l e and the research p r o j e c t i t s e l f would turn i n t o a dubious c r i t i q u e of the s u b j e c t , based on a t r u n c a t e d v e r s i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s own consciousness. 1. p. 124, C l i f f o r d , James, "Power and Dialogue i n Ethnography: Marcel G r i a u l e s ' s I n i t i a t i o n , " i n Observers Observed, e d i t e d by George W. S t o c k i n g , J r . , U. of Wisconsin, 1983. 178 APPENDIX B:CHRONOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY 1960 My f a m i l y moved from Powell R i v e r to Coquitlam, B.C. 1961 Family f r i e n d s purchased a s i n g l e f a m i l y home i n White Rock and we began summer Sunday e x c u r s i o n s to beaches at White Rock and Crescent Beach. 1964 My grandfather purchased a two bedroom rancher i n Ocean Park near White Rock and moved i n t o the home upon retirement the next year. 1970 My grandfather s o l d the Ocean Park pr o p e r t y and purchased a two bedroom apartment with a p a r t i a l ocean view on M e r k l i n S t r e e t i n White Rock. I graduated from high s c h o o l , and having had two years of j o u r n a l i s m coursework and been e d i t o r of the school paper, began doing f r e e l a n c e journa1i sm. 1979 F o l l o w i n g the death of my grandmother who had been h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r much of 20 years, my grandfather s o l d the M e r k l i n apartment and purchased a one bedroom apartment on Martin S t r e e t i n White Rock's town c e n t r e c o r e . He became f r i e n d s with another widowed neighbour by the name of Sam Shearer, who i t was t o l d to me, was a long time New Democratic Party a c t i v i s t . L i v i n g i n Surrey I began c o v e r i n g Surrey school board meetings as a r e p o r t e r f o r the Surrey D e l t a Messenger f o l l o w i n g s t a f f l a y o f f s at the Vancouver C o u r i e r where , I had covered news events i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area ( i n c l u d i n g White Rock) s i n c e q u i t t i n g as a r e p o r t e r at the D e l t a O p t i m i s t and t r a v e l l i n g i n A u s t r a 1 i a . 1980 While working as a photographer and r e p o r t e r at the S t e r l i n g owned Messenger newspaper, my husband and I purchased and moved i n t o a two bedroom ocean view home on C l i f f Avenue, east of White Rock c i t y h a l l . We maintained our Surrey home as revenue pr o p e r t y and I attended Surrey c o u n c i l meetings as a r e p o r t e r . 1981 I t r a n s f e r r e d to the White Rock-Surrey Sun (another member of the S t e r l i n g newspaper chain) as c i t y e d i t o r and began a t t e n d i n g White Rock c i t y c o u n c i l meetings as a r e p o r t e r . 1982 While I was on maternity leave, S t e r l i n g newspapers terminated the White Rock newspaper. The competing Peace Arch News t a b l o i d began twice weekly p u b l i c a t i o n . I 179 continued to work v a c a t i o n r e l i e f as a c i t y desk r e p o r t e r at the S u r r e y - D e l t a Messenger. 1983 My husband and I began plans to renovate our White Rock home, doubling i t s f l o o r space. Since the house sat with 25 f e e t of the F i n l a y S t r e e t s i d e i t was c o n s i d e r e d non-conforming by White Rock's O f f i c i a l Community Plan at the time and my husband was f o r c e d to appeal to the c i t y ' s Board of Variance which r u l e d the house would have to be moved two f e e t e a s t , d e s p i t e a p r e v i o u s easement f o r the neighbouring house on the south c o r n e r . My husband's anger was increased when he found the c h a i r of the board, J . N e v i l l e Graham l i s t e d as r e s i d i n g In Surrey. Moving the house proved so d i s a s t r o u s to the r e n o v a t i o n , b u l l d o z i n g the house would have been a b e t t e r opt i o n . 1985 I volunteered with White Rock Summer Theatre and worked as an usher throughout i t s summer season. The White Rock t h e a t r e was owned by the amateur White Rock P l a y e r ' s Club. My brother moved i n t o our North Surrey home and attended Kwantlen C o l l e g e f o r undergraduate c r e d i t s r e q u i r e d Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . 1986 Having switched from an E n g l i s h major to a S o c i o l o g y major with an E n g l i s h minor, I went to Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y to complete a Bachelor of A r t s degree begun i n 1972. We s o l d the north Surrey home and had a guest room and bathroom completed i n our White Rock home f o r Expo 86 v i s i t o r s . I worked at Surrey P l a c e Mall promoting department s t o r e c r e d i t cards i n order to earn f a l l semester t u i t i o n . 1987 In September I gave b i r t h to a second daughter and the o l d e r c h i l d began French Immersion k i n d e r g a r t e n at Dawn School i n Surrey. 1988 My e l d e s t daughter was t r a n s f e r r e d to Peace Arch Elementary School on Roper Avenue in White Rock to begin Grade One. I began a s s i s t i n g her c l a s s with computer education and a t t e n d i n g parent teacher a u x i l i a r y meetings. I completed my f i n a l undergraduate course i n the summer semester. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g correspondence from McMasters' U n i v e r s i t y asking me to apply to graduate s c h o o l , I decided to apply f o r graduate study i n S o c i o l o g y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (U.B.C.) 1989 F r u s t r a t e d by a lack of playmates f o r my c h i l d r e n i n White Rock and having been accepted by U.B.C. I attended my f i r s t c o u n c i l meeting in order to address f a m i l y 180 housing and other s o c i a l p lanning i s s u e s . In September, I commenced graduate s t u d i e s . 1990 My husband and I joined the White Rock Homeowner's A s s o c i a t i o n of which my daughter's f r i e n d ' s f a t h e r E l i o Azzara (a former White Rock school t r u s t e e ) was a member, a f t e r an i n v i t a t i o n from member Pat Kealy who reminded me we had met when she had covered White Rock c o u n c i l meetings with me as a r e p o r t e r i n 1980. L i k e myself, she and Azzara had attended and a spoken at some meetings regarding r e v i s i o n s to White Rock's O f f i c i a l Community Pla n . In June, the a s s o c i a t i o n changed i t s name to the White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n to i n c l u d e apartment owning members and r e n t e r s . I had conducted i n t e r v i e w s f o r the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t i n D e l t a , New Westminster, Surrey and White Rock f o r an Urban Futures survey. Many of the q u e s t i o n s d e a l t with environmental i s s u e s . Noting a f a i l u r e of the community plan to even mention environmental g o a l s , plans or r u l e s f o r development, I considered doing a t h e s i s on environmental p o l i t i c s . I prepared a proposal f o r a Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) grant to research f a m i l y housing, which was d e c l i n e d . Already a c t i v e at the p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n l e v e l c o l l e c t i n g data f o r the proposal by u t i l i z i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e j o u r n a l i s t i c methods, I switched focus to the environment and ran f o r c i t y c o u n c i l i n a November 1990 e l e c t i o n , emphasizing environmental p l a n n i n g , and beach clean-up as top p o l i c y goals i n my campaign l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r v i e w s , and p u b l i c addresses. 1991 A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n with c o u n c i l l o r James C o l e r i d g e , who had beaten me on the November b a l l o t f o r the s i x t h spot on White Rock c o u n c i l , and former mayoral ca n d i d a t e Ken Jones, I decided to run a g a i n s t new incumbent Sharon C h a r l e s i n a b y - e l e c t i o n f o r the seat she had r e c e n t l y r e s i g n e d . F o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n of a t h i r d c a n d i d a t e , C h a r l e s regained her seat with a narrow v i c t o r y over me and 48 per cent of the vote. I then became i n v o l v e d at the l e v e l of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and volunteered to a s s i s t N.D.P. cand i d a t e Donna Osatiuk with her campaign. In October, White Rock Residents' A s s o c i a t i o n member Wi1f Hurd won the c o n s t i t u e n c y f o r the L i b e r a l s while f e l l o w L i b e r a l Ken Jones won Surrey-Cloverda1e. I joi n e d the N.D.P. and was e l e c t e d to the White Rock-South Surrey e x e c u t i v e as e d u c a t i o n c h a i r , a p o s i t i o n I saw as f a c i l i t a t i n g my p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h . The t h e s i s proposal I had begun i n J u l y was i n t e r r u p t e d by i n j u r i e s s u s t a i n e d by myself and f a m i l y i n a c a r a c c i d e n t . A second major car a c c i d e n t that my 181 husband was i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r delayed c o n c e i v i n g and w r i t i n g the p r o p o s a l . 1992 In February I attended a f e d e r a l N.D.P. sponsored t r a i n i n g workshop at Crescent Beach, promoting women candidates i n B.C. I decided to seek a f e d e r a l nomination, again c o n c e n t r a t i n g on environmental i s s u e s . In May, I separated from a v i o l e n t husband which a f f e c t e d my a b i l i t y to produce a coherent t h e s i s p r o p o s a l , although I was f i r m l y entrenched i n f i e l d work by that time. F o l l o w i n g some academic a d v i s o r y committee changes, a proposal was completed and approved l a t e r that year. In October I worked i n White Rock on enumeration and vote t a k i n g f o r the f e d e r a l referendum on the Char 1ottetown c o n s t i t u t i o n a l accord. 1993 In January, with mounting problems stemming from domestic s t r i f e , I ran u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r the N.D.P. f e d e r a l nomination. S h o r t l y afterwards, I t e m p o r a r i l y withdrew from p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and i n September, I f o r m a l l y requested a medical leave of absence from graduate s t u d i e s f o r one year. 1994 My f a m i l y lawyer advised me to q u i c k l y f i n d a job because of a custody b a t t l e and I took work as a l i f e i nsurance s a l e s p e r s o n . In March I worked on the Sargeant-at-Arms committee f o r the p r o v i n c i a l N.D.P. party convention, and i n June I a s s i s t e d the N.D.P. a f f i l i a t e d Surrey C i v i c E l e c t o r s with i t s municipal candidate s e l e c t i o n meeting. A f t e r l o s i n g the f a m i l y home to my ex-husband, and q u i c k l y e v i c t e d , my c h i l d r e n and I stayed with f a m i l y and f r i e n d s u n t i l moving i n t o a home i n Maple Ridge at the end of September. The move proved u s e f u l , reducing the g u i l t I f e l t at dodging White Rock and Surrey p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , but the r e l o c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n and personal problems i n t e r r u p t e d work on the t h e s i s . 1995 In September I was granted a year's e x t e n s i o n from the F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s and, given my s t r e s s f u l personal circumstances, I began a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s to focus on completing the t h e s i s . Newly p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on the environmental j u s t i c e movement helped me to i n t e r p r e t my p a r t i c i p a t o r y - o b s e r v a t i o n experience, and I was abl e to complete the t h e s i s p r o j e c t f o r f a l l g r a d u a t i o n i n 1996. CM CO O CO CD u o -*—' CO L_ Q) 5 o D_ E E o o o 0 01 CD o 2 0) ^ o O >< J? Z ro U J o to o E w ro •g '> T3 C ~ ro CA 2 _ CD CA CO JQ < CD CD O c CD 3 CO • a i o rc e j CD <D ha m b om m  o ro o co o o o CO ro •a CL ro CA o o m X ro > ( A a) Fe  oc i ro CO a> to O to < ro 'o O CO "° < o ro o j -. ro ;>< a> ro x •a M-«= o 3 o co c o ro cu i o o -*—' CD o CC cu o3 b in ro D. o c 3 o O b o (A ' c E "O < b 3= _ ro c w S 8 E> = ro o co CD O "5 CL CD 0 c ro 1 *— o "2 ro o CQ a> > ro cu </> c o O o c no: c o ( A >> ' r o 2 _j CO CD c c ro CL c § CD > 3 o 5 ( A a) ro CD O ro c g CD CD CC c CD '«A a> a CD an  o CL (A •> •a < CD CD c 'co c LU b 3 (A ro CD b _CD o b g ro[ 'cn . a cu ~j CC i in > ro . 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L ic en s ^ § CO c LU I s 5 ° T3 CA G (A o < O T3 •S ro .9 ro 5 -S  184 APPENDIX D: COMPARATIVE FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTALIST AND TRADITIONAL LOCALIST IDEOLOGY FEATURE ENV I RONMENTAL ISM LOCAL I SM Governance i n c l u s i v e , open p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x c l u s i v e , c l o s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i ve P o l i t i c a l A u t h o r i t y c i t i zensh i p, major i t a r i a n i s m 1andown i ng, pa r t y c 1iques Property R i g h t s pub 1 i c pr i vate J u s t i c e community ethos el i te determ i nat i on Product i on eco1og i c a 1 1 y s u s t a i nab 1e exp1o i t a t i ve Techno 1ogy " s o f t " "hard" Consumpt i on based on need based on s t a t u s 1*5 BIBLIOGRAPHY Apple, Michael, "Why the Right i s Winning: Education and the P o l i t i c s of Common Sense", S t r a t e g i e s , V o l . 2, F a l l , 1989. Aronowitz, S t a n l e y , Science As Power. McGraw H i l l , New York: 1986. Bergland, David, L i b e r t a r i a n ! s m i n One Lesson. 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