UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Growth vs. integrity : environmentalism and localism in a changing community : one citizen’s participatory.. Rudd, Jennifer Lynn 1996

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_1996-0545.pdf [ 7.42MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0099056.json
JSON-LD: 1.0099056+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0099056.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0099056+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0099056+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0099056+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0099056 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0099056.txt
Citation
1.0099056.ris

Full Text

GROWTH VS. INTEGRITY: ENVIRONMENTALISM AND LOCALISM IN A CHANGING COMMUNITY ONE CITIZEN'S PARTICIPATORY GLIMPSE by JENNIFER LYNN RUDD B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF •  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department of Anthropology a n d Sociology) We a c c e p t this thesis as conforming to t^e Kpeuuired standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1996 ©Jennifer Lynn Rudd, 1996  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  available for reference  copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis by  for  his  or  of this thesis  and  her  of  Spg.  for financial  i fiKA f v ^  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  representatives.  Columbia  the  requirements  I agree  I further  scholarly purposes  permission.  Department  study.  of  that the  agree that  may  be  It  is  gain shall not  an  permission for  granted  advanced  Library shall make  by the  understood be  for  that  head  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  allowed without my written  i i ABSTRACT T h i s i s a case study undertaken i n W h i t e Rock, a p o s t i n d u s t r i a l , o c e a n s i d e town o f 16,000 on C a n a d a ' s s o u t h w e s t b o r d e r . The p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h was u n d e r t a k e n between 1989 and 1993 when t h e a u t h o r was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e i n t h e community. N o t i n g a c h a l l e n g e t o an e n c r u s t e d c i t y c o u n c i l from a l o o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d g r o u p who soon became members o r s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e "White Rock R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n " , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t intervened to e x p l o r e t h e o r i e s about the i n s t a b i l i t y o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a 1 s o c i e t y and t h e e m a n c i p a t o r y power o f new s o c i a l movements. B e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s o c i a l movement c o u l d a t t r a c t b r o a d p u b l i c a p p e a l and was c o n d u c i v e t o g r a s s r o o t s p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i t i c s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t u t i l i z e d t h e power o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i d e o l o g y by p u b l i c a l l y p r i o r i t i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s w h i l e s e e k i n g a c o u n c i l s e a t as a p o l i t i c a l newcomer i n a town where l o c a l e l e c t i o n s were o f t e n u n c o n t e s t e d . A l t h o u g h u n s u c c e s s f u l and s u b j e c t t o c o u n t e r v a i l i n g g e n d e r p o l i t i c s , t h e a u t h o r p l a c e d s e v e n t h on a b a l l o t o f 11 f o r s i x c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s , o u t p e r f o r m i n g s e v e r a l l o n g - t e r m and influential r e s i d e n t s o f t h e community. C h a p t e r One p r o v i d e s a b r i e f , overview o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , w i t h f u r t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i n A p p e n d i x A. C h a p t e r Two g i v e s a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f environmentalist and l o c a l i s t i d e o l o g i e s , s u g g e s t i n g how t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e W h i t e Rock community. C h a p t e r T h r e e o f f e r s a p r o f i l e o f t h e community o f W h i t e Rock as i t u n d e r g o e s c e r t a i n c h a n g e s w h i l e f a c i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s . The f i n a l c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l and power r e l a t i o n s between l o c a l and s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s as t h e y r e s p o n d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r v e n t i o n , new p o l i t i c a l party p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s were e l e c t e d , and i n W h i t e Rock a member o f t h e W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n became the c i t y ' s p r o v i n c i a l member o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y , w h i l e an a c t i v e Reform P a r t y member became f e d e r a l member o f P a r l i a m e n t . As w e l l , t h e B o u n d a r y B o a r d o f H e a l t h won a power b a t t l e w i t h c i t y c o u n c i l t o e l i m i n a t e swimming a t W h i t e R o c k ' s p o l l u t e d west b e a c h , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e newly won i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. In e x p l o r i n g and c o m p a r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t and localist p o l i t i c s , b o t h t h e r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e t h a t environmentalist i d e o l o g y and p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e can l e a d t o a reformation of t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l i s t p o l i t i c s , r e s u l t i n g in g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and p r e s t i g e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l organizations.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  p. i *  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  f »  1.  INTRODUCTION  p.l  2.  ENVIRONMENTAL ISM AND  LOCALISM  3. PROFILE OF A COMMUNITY 4. CHANGING  p. 38  IN TRANSITION  p.97  THE POLITICAL CONTEXT: THE POWER OF  ENVIRONMENTAL I SM 5.  v  APPENDIX A: METHODOLOGICAL  6. APPENDIX B: CHRONOLOGICAL  p. 141 NOTES  p. 169  BIOGRAPHY  p. 178  7. APPENDIX C ( F i g u r e 1) WHITE ROCK COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE 1989 ( R e s e a r c h e r ' s C o n c e p t i o n ) p. 182 APPENDIX C ( F i g u r e 2) WHITE ROCK COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURE 1994 ( R e s e a r c h e r ' s C o n c e p t i o n ) ..p. 183 8. APPENDIX Dt COMPARATIVE FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTALIST TRADITIONAL LOCALIST IDEOLOGY 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY  AND p. 184 p. 185  i  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  w i s h  t o  s u c h  a  g o o d  e d i t o r ,  a l s o  w a n t  i n f o r m e d g u i d i n g  t o  on  I  a n d  New  t h a n k s  t o  K a t h y  w i t h o u t a n d  M o n i c a ,  t h e m s e l v e s ,  t h e  H i l l ,  t h e  a n d  a l w a y s  b e i n g  P r o f e s s o r  t u r b u l e n t  a n d  t o  i n  u p c o m i n g  p r o j e c t  a n d  t h e  t h e  f o r  up  my  P a t r i c i a  o f  my  w o u l d  f o r  o f  two  y o u n g  h a v e  l a u g h  f o r  p e r i o d . R o c k  o f i n  t h e  p o l i t i c a l  t h e  S p e c i a l  M a r t i n , o f f  f o r l o c a l  b o t h  W i 1 f  d e f e a t .  d a u g h t e r s ,  b e e n  I  t h o u g h t f u l ,  s e l f - e s t e e m .  c a n  M a r x .  W h i t e  z e a l  D a v e  b e i n g  C u r r i e  m e m b e r s  who  n e v e r  h i s  r e s e a r c h  t h e i r  a n d  f o r  t h a n  Dawn  p e o p l e  K e a l y ,  s c i e n t i s t s  R a t n e r  E n g e l s  D r .  p a r t i c u l a r l y  m a n a g e r  Bob  E l l i o t t  t h a n k  k e e p i n g  s o c i a l  m o r e  i n  P a r t i e s  r e s o u r c e s  D r .  t i m e s  s u p p o r t ,  c a m p a i g n  u n i q u e  t h i s  l i k e  e n e r g e t i c a  B r i a n  p o l i t i c s  D e m o c r a t i c  p r o j e c t  a n d  c h a i r ,  a n d  p o l i t i c a l go  t h e s i s  w o u l d  f r i e n d s h i p  L i b e r a l  my  l o c a l i s t  t h r o u g h  M o s t l y , t h e i r  t h a n k  i n p u t me  t h a n k  H u r d B u t  B r a n d e e  a c t i v i s t s  c o m p l e t e d .  1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This  t h e s i s looks  movement  utilizing  Castel1's  work on  doing  my  participate new  social  study  social  not  only  ideology  i n ways t h a t  fortunate  that  featured  established  in being  year  movements  localist  a r e s i d e n t and  could  of Christopher  be  enabling  political  b a s e and  alter  operate style the  as  an  past  20  years  Use  of  the  1986). As with  theory  environmental  interventionist evolved  from  (Clifford:  advocacy  the  1983,  about  ideology,  an  between  to power  the  urban  I had  area  been  1989, I  such  was  was  instability  of  instability  to c r e a t e  existing  change,  local  I decided  power to  p a r t i c i p a t o r y research  Tanden:  of ethnography  be  allowing  in  1985).  method, w h i c h aims t o  can  of  1989). I  research,  relations,  research  itself  so  decade.  G r i a u l e school  research  method  environmentalist  but  i n which  ideology  i n the  the  In  Paehlke:  urban  to c r a c k  knowledge, u t i l i z e s  such,  1986;  (1972). B e l i e v i n g that  challengers  Manuel  f e d e r a l governments.  government/community  t h a t has  emancipatory  and  by  emancipatory  for a  in this  Lasch's  society  e x p l o i t e d by  1983).  social  interaction  l o c a l e and  employee  I began t o engage  post-industrial  the  Boggs:  sense of  a time of unpopular p r o v i n c i a l reminded  pioneered  (1972; the  urban  politics,  might augment 1985,  an  situated in a post-industrial,  a defined  as  as  approach as  to observe  and  movements ( O f f e :  felt  The  a case  urban  i n t e n t was  environmentalist  a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  as  praxis  viewed me  to  as test  increase  (Lather: compatible not  only  the  2 emancipatory  power o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism b u t t h e power o f  emancipatory  method. A l r e a d y  journalistic  methods f o r c o l l e c t i n g  participant-observation  experienced  in investigative  data,  i n a community  I delved  where  into  I had p r e v i o u s l y  worked a s a newspaper r e p o r t e r (See A p p e n d i x B f o r a chronological background  with  the p r o j e c t  surprised  which  spanned  methodological When  of social  1994, t h e c i t y  recently  six  years  replacing  was u n d e r  professional  on W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l ,  councillor  both  research). Columbia, a  south  o f Vancouver i n of a conservative  a s an a i r l i n e  voters going  Louise Hutchinson  and r a i s e d i n  newcomer, Doug  MacLean,  newcomer, Judy F o r s t e r  i n t o h e r second  returned  After  new mayor,  p s y c h o l o g i s t born  a previous  p i l o t and  p a r t y membership.  Hardy S t a u b was t h e c i t y ' s  White Rock, G o r d o n Hogg. One p o l i t i c a l  with  myself  intervention  the stewardship  who made h i s l i v i n g  on c o u n c i l ,  popular  d i s t a n c i n g myself  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h and  on t h e U. S. b o r d e r  r e c e i v e d h i s new L i b e r a l  a popular  its  (See Appendix A f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  community  had  proved  After  1989 t o 1994, I found  issues relevant to t h i s  immigrant  professional  i n W h i t e Rock, and  I moved o u t o f W h i t e Rock, B r i t i s h  residential  sat  history,  o f the p o l i t i c a l  i n the i n t e r e s t s  p r o g r e s s i v e change.  Austrian  involvement  my a c a d e m i c p u r s u i t s ) .  a t the success  undertaken  July,  o f my r e s i d e n t i a l  and community  intersection from  listing  from  term, and  a stint  former  as school  3 trustee.  In a d d i t i o n ,  environmental two  issues,  councillors  V i n Coyne and Several director  who  a councillor  o f p e r m i t s and  councillors' pollution  s e r v e d on c o u n c i l  Webb (a c a r d - c a r r y i n g  senior c i t y  Gascoyne, c i t y  staff  on a r e g u l a r  financial  G r o w i n g up 1960s, could  basis  1993,  saw  by  Bruce  chief,  season,  t h e beach  on  and  Bob  which  where s t o r m  counts  Hall,  the  continued  and  sewer  entire  the p r o v i n c i a l  well  dollars, clam  former  star  board  n o r t h o f W h i t e Rock  fish  h o l e s and  y e a r s ago,  as  publically  remarked a t a 1990  and  elusive  squirting  Mayor G o r d o n Hogg a l s o  the storm  beaches of  health  i n the  council  "gooey  remembers,  Thirty  and  children  t h e beach  we  ducks"  i n the sand.  meeting,  d r a i n s which e n t e r e d  where  used  to  under  tracks.  In t h e mid t a n k e r headed  with  by  P a t Duke, f i r e  on  decade,  Democrat).  W h i t e Rock b e a c h e s a s a p l a y g r o u n d  memorable f o r t h e i r  beach.  retired  choliform  i n Coquitlam  d i g f o r sand  railway  New  only  s e t b a c k s to w a t e r f r o n t b u s i n e s s e s .  1 remembered  run through  f o r more t h a n a  summer t o u r i s t  signs posted  on  returned, leaving  b u s i n e s s s u p p o r t e r s depended,  drains deposited high fecal  despite  had  licences,  e n g i n e e r . The  warning  were c l o s e d  campaigned  James C o l e r i d g e was  had  David  who  At  1970s an  from  f o r Cherry P o i n t south  the time,  fistfuls  oil spill  an A l a s k a n c r u d e o i l  o f W h i t e Rock b l a c k e n e d  v o l u n t e e r s c o u l d o n l y swab t h e o i l s l i c k s  of straw.  From t h a t  incident  was  born  the  White  the  4 Rock b a s e d Society later, found  B o u n d a r y Bay O i l S p i l l  forPollution  And E n v i r o n m e n t a l  W h i t e Rock a r e c e p t i v e  pricier  managerial  participate  citizens  t o form  initiative  centre projects, Conforming politicians beginning  W h i t e Rock h a s o f community  such  as c a p i t a l  a s own t h e c i t y .  a high p r o p o r t i o n o f c u l t u r a l l y activists  politics.  who  class  f o c u s s e d on g a r n e r i n g f u n d s  as Marine wiring  also  In W h i t e Rock  i n d i v i d u a l s meet w i t h w o r k i n g  underground  f o r local  Drive beautification, and b e t t e r  sewage  until  t h e t i m e o f my p o l i t i c a l  arts  treatment.  t o a l o n g s t a n d i n g s t a t u s quo, t h e s e W h i t e  tended,  than  i n t h e warmest r e g i o n  c l a s s as well  i n , as well  and p r o v i n c i a l  alliances  projects  and t h e  by members o f t h e  so h a s i t had p o l i t i c a l  these  and v o l u n t e e r s .  as g e n t r i f i c a t i o n has  and t e c h n i c a l  to l i v e  i n regional  neighbourhoods,  vistas,  locales  dominated  As W h i t e Rock h a s e n j o y e d residents,  suddenly  W h i t e Rock h a s been home t o an a r t i s t i c  i s increasingly  i n v e s t o r s who p r e f e r  for  view  r e t i r e m e n t p o p u l a t i o n which,  professional,  (WCWC),  p r o p e r t i e s with a g r e a t e r sense  o f t h e n a t i o n . As s u c h ,  progressed,  ( S P E C ) , and  c l i m a t e than Coquitlam  and o f s c e n i c  West V a n c o u v e r and o t h e r o c e a n  minded  Control  town f o r f u n d r a i s i n g  of a sunnier, d r i e r  o f G r e a t e r Vancouver,  enjoyed  and  Greenpeace, the  t h e W e s t e r n Canada W i l d e r n e s s Committee  Boasting rest  Society.  Rock  involvement  i n 1989, t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e . ( S e e A p p e n d i x C, F i g u r e 1,  a mapping o f t h e community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  structure  i n White  5 Rock  that  inclined  prevailed to  place  householders, connected problems  A  political  The  level  in  pollution  as  from the of  when by  Credit  active  city  hall  to  be  direction  of  a  inability  of  city  of  technocratic hall and  to  the  apparent and  were  of  policy.  in  terms  of  long  term  detriment.  on  macro  and  a  i n White  the  1  fashion  of  and  who  considered under  Baldwin.  problems  to  local  supportive  city.  William  profit  Rock,  government  environmental  in  outside  a  largely  reluctance  such  with  bureaucratic  planning  the The  brought  include  its official  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  Left's counter-attack  intervention  seeing  community  bias.  t h e o r i s t s view  (Paeh1ke:1989),  who  administrator,  address  the  my  in a  or  odds  values over  individual  development  at  existed  redevelopment  administered  plan,  in  paper,  "free enterprise" provincial of  on  were  illegally  thesis project  politicians  guidelines  Since  three  was  1  gain  which  the  problems  council  social  term  conservatives  i n t e r v e n t i o n s by  city  framed  faith  on  local  'green  short  environmental fuelled  economic  I began  promoters  development  the  Surrey  that  local  in  going  favoured  1990,  Social  by  reported  policy  were  on  as  articles  were e n a c t e d the  beach  and  economic  "c"  blaming  philosophy  spin-offs,  small  for ecological  such  social  These  blame  resulting  governments,  1989).  the  toilets as  in  I took  i n White  up Rock  this  against theme  politics.  New as For  as  an  Right a  important  wedge  hegemony  vehicle example,  for  political  l would  raise  6 ecological public  or environmental  fora.  I exploited  the O f f i c i a l  forced  use  local  pollution  a s more t h a n  electorate  P e r h a p s not  background,  c a m p a i g n s . The o f whom t h e y  literature  of a c l e a n e r environment  personalities. British  council and  meetings  newspaper  failure  and  ads,  to i n c l u d e  p r o b l e m s on  the beach  as  issues.  i s s u e served  the  local  Community P l a n ' s  g u i d e l i n e s and  major c a m p a i g n  campaign  at  In p r e p a r i n g campaign  environmental  The  issues  i ssues  norm was  as a  just  "quality  a topical  to c o n c e n t r a t e uncommon  on  for candidates  concern;  it  townships with  in local  t o campaign  know — r e p u t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n  life"  issues instead of  i n Canadian  were s e c o n d a r y  of  a  political on  the  basis  preoccupation.  SOME LOCAL WHITE ROCK POLITICIANS: A CURSORY PROFILE Some W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s were more p o l i t i c a l l y others during  the  Gordon Hogg not 1990.  (Jones  time  o f the p a r t i c i p a t o r y  o n l y f a c e d Ken  later  running  Jones  Hogg underwent a p r o t r a c t e d n o m i n a t i o n federal  Liberal  manager, r a n election  i n 1991,  Hardy S t a u b , federal  won  and  then  reelection  Conservative  Peace Arch  office  battle  contest in i n 1991)  i n 1993  but  t o become a  c a n d i d a t e . S h a r o n C h a r l e s , Hogg's f o r m e r  for a council  News, and  riding  position tried  i n 1990,  t o win  to c o u n c i l executive  successfully  again  a mayoral i n 1990,  i n 1993  contested  than  r e s e a r c h . Mayor  i n a mayoral  for provincial  active  a  in a race  campaign by-  in  resigned  as  1993. from  reported  1993  mayoral  in  the the  V  7  el.ection.  Wi 1 f Hurd  provincial  nominee f o r  1990  election  civic  1991  provincial  summaries on 1.  in  1992  affiliations.  run  he  on  and  the  Liberals,  had  embarrassing  and in  the  during  city, his  building  yet  that the  of  property  a  some  son  of  White  federal  disclose  Social 1990  his  Credit  to  A provincial  Surrey  issues,  political  he  him  had  shut his  was  party  members  city  the  rebirth  school  civil  servant caught  Rock.  free  them down. W i t h s t a n c e as  alderman  development  increased as  being  greatly  in favor  b o a r d - owned s c h o o l  i n downtown W h i t e  of  with  economic  quoted  to  a  W h i t e Rock b e a c h e s  i n W h i t e Rock he  brief  Rock's  lobbied  that  mayor. P r i o r  health  the  riding  W h i t e Rock  declaring of  the  participants.  "moderate" on  mayor and  on  time of  g e n e r a l ' s d e p a r t m e n t , Hogg was  board  of  the  Liberal  Below a r e  1996.  D e m o c r a t s had  Crediters.  the  in  almost e x c l u s i v e l y  population  t e n u r e as  highrises  playground  the  as  in environmental  t h e n mayor was  to  November  position  while  interest  already  constituency  Liberal  New  returned  attorney  little  the  i n the  who  from p o l l u t i o n  the  in  a group of  Social  the  win  a privileged  refused  C o n s e r v a t i v e s and  in  was  Although always denying  was  the  he  political  Hogg s o c i a l i z e d  works f o r  to  sought a  past,  "team"  when he  that  again  line  he  hand- p i c k e d  his  elections the  In  he  a candidate.  "slate", to  went on  front  doctor. Until  nomination  as  and  election  these  me  White Rock-South S u r r e y a t  G o r d o n Hogg grew up  first  run  informed  and  of  8 Hardy Staub  2.  moved  t o White R o c k ' s west  side  G r o w i n g up i n B e r l i n , Germany a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l enjoyed  a privileged  support  h i s p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s f o l l o w i n g  immigrating armed  life  which a l l o w e d  S t a u b became a p r o f e s s i o n a l  from h i s C a n a d i a n A i r l i n e s j o b f o r e a c h door  knocking  school  board  i n t o an a l d e r m a n s h i p and  3. and  for  local  Sharon C h a r l e s ,  serving  after  and a p o l i c e  until  and l o c a l  Prior  first  served  that  band a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  she p r o v i d e d  Credit  activist  parlayed  h i s f a v o r i t e hobby a s in h i s vehicle,  i n council paid  which  Charles.  i n 1990, politics  publicity  services  department. A non-status  she was f o r m e r l y Their  married to  daughter Joanne i s  a position Charles previously  forelection  time p e r s o n a l  foray,  on t h e S u r r e y  as a c o u n c i l l o r  start  i n November  a s campaign manager f o r l o c a l  Hogg, a l o n g  time o f f  o f h i s luncheon  lists  elected  businesswoman,  to running  taking  p o l i c e o f f i c e r s on a s s i g n m e n t .  Semiahmoo Band c h i e f B e r n a r d currently  II p r i o r t o  $5,000 on h i s campaign)  t h e W h i t e Rock p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n  native  he  s i x years with the  pilot,  scanner  1993, had a r o c k y  i t was d i s c o v e r e d  War  i n 1985, which he  i n 1993. S t a u b  a ham r a d i o  a l l o w s him t o f o l l o w  W h i t e Rock  i n 1987 ( s p e n d i n g  t h e mayor's c h a i r  operating  World  e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s . He won a s e a t representing  actor  him t o f i n a n c i a l l y  t o Canada a t t h e age o f 13. A f t e r  forces,  child  i n 1972.  held.  1990, C h a r l e s  c o u n c i l l o r s and mayor G o r d o n  f r i e n d . A C o n s e r v a t i v e and S o c i a l  she h a s been c o n s i s t e n t l y  refused  Liberal  party  9 membership by L i b e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y served  briefly  Barrett,  of  a s c a m p a i g n manager f o r l o c a l  another  legislative  f r i e n d , during  seat  as a S o c i a l  company c a u s e d that  who a l s o happened After she  Credit  future  June. D e s p i t e  seat  she t h e n used  she m a i n t a i n e d  November  1993, l o s i n g t o Hardy S t a u b by a l m o s t  election.  forestry c r i t i c .  University  i n the late  New D e m o c r a t s c l a i m as  a candidate  ratepayers favoured  council  g r o u p and e n c o u n t e r e d quo. S h o r t  votes. market  Now  living in  Born and r a i s e d i n  s t u d e n t a t Simon  of centre).  representing strong  before  1991 p r o v i n c i a l  1960s, he i s a L i b e r a l whom  a s "one o f u s " ( l e f t  f o r local  the status  science  f o r mayor i n  estate  i n the October  White Rock, and a f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l Fraser  700  The house s o l d and he won t h e c o n t e s t .  L a n g l e y , he i s t h e o p p o s i t i o n  h e r s e a t on  to run u n s u c c e s s f u l l y  W i 1 f Hurd p u t h i s house on t h e r e a l as a L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e  that  ran f o r r e - e l e c t i o n i n  a forum  running  pages  h e r s e l f from p o s s i b i l i t y o f  o f i n t e r e s t , Ms. C h a r l e s turnout  director.  on i t s e d i t o r i a l  council,  4.  1991,  by t h e p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r  and d i s t a n c e d  a low v o t e r  bid for a  in April  t o be W h i t e Rock's p e r s o n n e l  the c i t y  conflict  a r c h i t e c t Chip  from h e r m a g a z i n e and p u b l i s h i n g  t h e P e a c e A r c h News n o t e d  had r e p a i d  She  member i n 1991. The c o n f l i c t  her to resign her council she was m i s l e d  Dave M a r t i n .  h i sdisastrous  interest allegations arising  claiming  president  local  T w i c e he r a n  the local  opposition  s t a f f e d , commuting  from  t h o s e who  t o work i n  10 Kamloops, and on a t i g h t b u d g e t , he d e f e a t e d more t h a n 2,000 v o t e s and t h e f a v o r e d clique,  the S o c i a l  Credit  Hurd's s t r o n g e s t Rock's apartment always t r i e d  zone. He  came from  i s an a v i d  to f o s t e r a p o l i t i c a l  c a n d i d a t e by  member o f t h e W h i t e Rock  candidate Chip  support  t h e NDP  Barrett. seniors  living  environmentalist  i n White and has  Liberal-NDP  a 11iance. 5. and  Ken J o n e s t o l d  the researcher  $700 t o r u n a s L i b e r a l  Cloverdale.  He was t h e s i t t i n g  Rock a l d e r m a n who trying  candidate  had become  to get a public  unsuccessfully  MLA  involved  i n November  S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock e n v i r o n m e n t a l strong  issues  b o r n a g a i n C h r i s t i a n who abortion  helped  alienated  Jones p r e f e r s  White  i n W h i t e Rock p o l i t i c s built,he  when  had r u n  1990. A member o f t h e  c o a l i t i o n , he i s a  reassert  provincial political  Jones  believes  g e t him e l e c t e d  a pro-life politics  In November to  1996. A f o r m e r  consistently  environmentalist.  On a few s o c i a l  had  f o r l e g i s l a t u r e i n Surrey-  until  swimming p o o l  f o r mayor  he was g i v e n a p a r a c h u t e  to centre  i n a r i d i n g where S o c i a l  Vote. A L i b e r a l  since  after  e l e c t i o n . The e l i t e ,  local  elite  basis.  began  losing badly  saw  i t s drive  i n t h e 1991  which had f i r m l y h e l d  f o r a decade-and-a-ha1f,  Credit  the Trudeau e r a ,  on a o n e - t o - o n e h a n d - s h a k i n g  control  r i g h t as a  h i s moderate approach t o  1992, W h i t e Rock's  political  control  i s closer  local  i t s chosen  11 candidate soundly  (and  beaten  local on  wrong s i d e o f t h e t o win  e v e n an  Trying provincial seeking  to  aldermanic join  the  Friesen's  retirement told  association  Wi1f  the  Dave M a r t i n  freshly  previously  federal  Wi1f  election  him  L i b e r a l s as  to the  government who  took  the  failed  Hurd  into  he  was  race  Benno  (who  Mulroney's  languished  in  out  Peace  i n the  were r e a l  struggled against  incumbents  the  estate  Liberal  i n 1988),  bid vowed  nomination.  h i s candidacy  m e m b e r s h i p ) , Hogg's  (with  election,  his  supporters  newspaper a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ,  that f o l l o w i n g the p r o v i n c i a l  the  in his failed  White Rock c o u n c i l  t h e week t h a t Hogg d e c l a r e d  on  seen  p o p u l a r i t y brought  Brian  ads  been  Wi 1f H u r d ' s c o n s t i t u e n c y  f o r the  Liberal  this  literature,  political  s e a t s on  with  i n Ottawa  h i s campaign  candidate  purchased  t h a t Hogg had  and  thousands of d o l l a r s  fact  "from  Rock.  successor,  developers.  t o win  another  had  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t  p r e s i d e n t , Dave M a r t i n  Hurd  During  spent  by  power s t r u c t u r e and  to s u p p o r t  own  endorsed  property  a candidate  which c a r r i e d  f o r the  Many o f Hogg's s u p p o r t e r s  a g e n t s and  with  tide  incumbent  t o me  T o r i e s with  News and  local  i n White  Liberal  Progressive Conservative  Arch  by  announcement.  the T o r i e s ' chosen  polls.  seat  nomination  Conservative  prominent  level  Chip B a r r e t t ,  W h i t e Rock Mayor G o r d o n Hogg announced  following  as  architect  t r a c k s " , Wi 1f Hurd, who  Liberal  It was  son)  the p r o v i n c i a l  office,  the  favorite  the  despite  federal  12 Liberals  reported  they  had  no  money  for  a  local  election  campaign. An proved class  aspiring successful  and  claimed to  union  the  spend.  brought the  Liberals  Hogg  Credit that  (stalwart  former  threatened The  to  to  federal  been the  a  went  to  in  the  was  as  fall  of  he  successfully  Liberal  nomination.  Hurd,  the  Semiahmoo  won  reelection  the  first  to  left-winger  Secondary the  candidate  to  provincial declare  a  as  He money  he  him.  However,  provincial  full told  of  right-wing  me  personally  Benno  Friesen  Parliament)  had  Liberal. wanted  him  to  candidate  re-election  against  more  up  in  in  the  a  was during  opportunism  White  in  Hogg  other  popular  legislature  remain  campaign  Political  grew  himself  own  since  with  friend,  levied  the  working  his  money,  Hogg  of  a  instead  Democrats.  with  been  1993.  who  with  has  federal  mayoral  upon  New  party,  Hogg  a  Jones,  backers  his  Member  Gordon  and  own  Gordon  becoming  overlapping  criticism  Wi1f  for  supporting  an  out,  thought  him"  election  federal  he  his  Liberal  years.  in  candidate  Credit  pointed  for  a  Ken  relying  found  spend  Social  politician,  run  to  Conservative  "get  Tories  centre-right  has  man  find  federal  members the  to  and  MLA  usually  need  Rock  candidate,  provincial  had  didn't  M.L.A. H u r d  1993  unable  a  Liberal  background  Surrey-White  Social  a  as  Conservative  Liberal  in  federal  rivals  Rock  Hogg,  1996.  He  provincial  had for  and  easily had  been  Liberal  13 leadership  r a c e which  Gordon W i l s o n attended but  as p r o v i n c i a l  eventually replace  l e a d e r i n 1994. Hurd, who t o l d  Semiahmiamoo S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l  denies having  popular  saw Gordon C a m p b e l l  a t t h e same t i m e  been c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h  me he  a s Hogg,  Hogg, who was more  as a " j o c k " , has n e v e r t h e l e s s a c h i e v e d  greater  political  prestige. A l d e r m a n S h a r o n C h a r l e s whose C h i e f Bernard  Charles, also  a campaign meeting  former  husband  went t o s c h o o l  i n her f i r s t  with  Semiahmoo Band  Hogg, r e p o r t e d a t  bid forelection  t h a t she had  been t h e campaign manager f o r s e v e r a l a l d e r m a n and Mayor Hogg. She at  nominated  the f a i l e d  h i s nomination  in h i s Liberal organizer school party  meeting  nomination,  prior  i n 1991.  Hogg  a vacant Staub  candidate, Chip  Actively  she was l a t e r  mayor's c h a i r ,  interest  Louise  t o win t h e 1993 m a y o r a l t y  ruling  elite.  Hutchinson, the L i b e r a l  News. t o be h i s q u e s t t o  one w h i c h Dave M a r t i n  Martin  However,  r e p l a c e d a s h i s campaign  appears  f o r . Some New D e m o c r a t s s a i d  Barrett,  G o r d o n Hogg  i n 1993, j o i n e d  i n t h e Peace Arch  Staub's  backing  election.  t r u s t e e i n 1990 and c o u n c i l l o r and e n d o r s e d  fight  Credit  t o t h e 1993 f e d e r a l  Neo-conservative fill  Social  they  would  vowed he would work  with  r a c e and d i s l o d g e t h e l o c a l  i t was S h a r o n C h a r l e s who took  on t h e  cha11enge. As  a member o f t h e New D e m o c r a t i c  executive,  and h a v i n g  forged  Party constituency  f r i e n d s h i p s with  Liberals  i n my  14 campaigning, provincial several  Liberals  attended  by  w i t h Hurd and  Surrey c o u n c i l l o r fundraiser. t h e NDP seeing  myself  some NDP  Jones  Judy  Liberal  and  mediator Hurd and  a s a p a r t y a t my  and  between New  house f o r Wi1f  e x e c u t i v e members, and NDP  MLA  Sue  Hamel1  d u r i n g the  surprised  1991  me  provincial  the  Democrats,  and  V i l l e n e u v e at a U n i v e r s i t y  However, n o t h i n g  office  t o be  M a r t i n , Jones  o c c a s i o n s , such  which was table  I have f o u n d  on  Hurd  sharing a New  Democrat  Women's C l u b  more t h a n w a l k i n g  into  election  and  campaign  campaign w o r k e r Duncan Cameron u s i n g t h e  fax  mach i ne. Although nomination,  wanting  Hogg had  t o r u n unopposed  o f the r a c e . A d e f e a t e d  who  actively  signed  up  the  Social  Credit  nomination  h u n d r e d s o f new  s i n c e October,  members, H i g g i n b o t h a m d e c i d e d  the  Liberal  15 y e a r  s c a r e a t Hogg's n o m i n a t i n g  One  of those  46  meeting  another  opponent  of e l i t i s t  got  was  46  votes  activist  C a r o l i n e F o s t e r , who  was  Duncan Cameron, a  W h i t e Rock p o l i t i c s .  voted  minute  Indo-  membership p r o v i d e d  Dave M a r t i n , a n o t h e r  Pat  i n 1993,  and  last  from  a  a  Liberals.  activist  council  Kealy;  was  candidate and  Canadian  of disgruntled  Higginbotham  1991  bowed o u t . A  candidate with a  Judy  provincial  numbers were i n Hogg's f a v o u r and  scattering  Liberal  t o edge S u r r e y C o u n c i l l o r  out  pursued  f o r the  Another  ran unsuccesfu11y  f o r Hogg, s e e i n g  community long-time community  f o r White  i t a s h e r way  of  Rock getting  15 him  removed  f r o m White  Hogg's l o c a l u s e o f myth ideology local  elites)  Hogg  reports insisted  b e a c h e s were c l e a n .  i n 1990,  Blaine,  Washington  reasons given  seagull  localist  values  in preserving  from t h e b u s i n e s s  community.  When f e c a l  health  unit  and  m e e t i n g i n 1990 choliform  beach  that  White  contamination  was  Hogg, a t an a l l c a n d i d a t e s '  t o blame  the p o l l u t i o n  on t h e town  of  ( w h i c h has s e c o n d a r y sewage t r e a t m e n t ) . O t h e r  toilets  page o f t h e P e a c e A r c h News were  (quoting  (quoting  V i n C o y n e ) , dog  p a r k s and  recreation  feces  three  and  director  Doug  i n 1991). V i n Coyne  the  the  stems f r o m a h o r r e n d o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l  at a council  continued  droppings  i d e a l s and  from t h e l o c a l  on t h e f r o n t  cross-connected  "Golden Age"),  support  t o come from W h i t e Rock,  meeting  Stone  and  vulnerability  Despite  closures,  proven  s u c c e s s h a s been d e p e n d e n t upon  (which promotes c e r t a i n  His p o l i t i c a l  Rock  political  (an u n p r o v e n , e l u s i v e  political  record.  Rock.  began a s a young e d i t o r  1950s and b r i e f l y  public  published  h i s own  r e l a t i o n s agent f o r F i n n i n g  perennial Society,  o f t h e White Rock  paper b e f o r e becoming  T r a c t o r and  a l d e r m a n . A member o f t h e W h i t e Rock Coyne  submitted  paid  articles  White  Margaret  by-election  Lower's  campaign.  on W h i t e Rock  retirement  Following  i n 1990, Coyne  long  was  a  Rock's  Historical  t h e Semiahmoo S o u n d e r m a g a z i n e owned by C h a r l e s , i n h e r 1991  Sun i n  history  to  whom he b a c k e d term  councillor  then the o n l y  16 member  o f White Rock c o u n c i l  campaign  strategy, other  Peace Arch  than  C o y n e ' s Community Rock R e s i d e n t s ' a d v i c e about  David score  held  told  with  me a s l a t e  to the p o l l s ,  told  called  t h e White  me she s o u g h t  a s 1995 he s t i l l  tended  and a t t a c k e d council  legal  secondary  t o back  incumbent  During the  aldermen  t h e W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s '  the p o l l s  i n t h e 1990 c i t y  raised  Rock E n v i r o n m e n t a l  sewage t r e a t m e n t  featured in i t s  Association. I to Pat  election,  a t an a l l c a n d i d a t e ' s Coalition,  c o u n c i l ' s environmental  y e a r s ago and no l o n g e r  he had a  what c o u l d be c a l l e d  m e e t i n g s where Coyne was c a u s t i c  by t h e S u r r e y - W h i t e incumbent  felt  newspaper, w h i c h p r e d o m i n a n t l y  d i s m i s s i n g concerns  r e c o r d by  meeting  when he talking  W h i t e Rock had i n s t a l l e d  30  operated.  t w o - a n d - a - h a l f y e a r s o f p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n and  intervention have h e l p e d  by t h e  f o r which  c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t M a r t i n and H u r d .  Y e t Coyne t o p p e d  After  rides  elections  V i n Coyne o v e r  period the local  whitewashed about  quoted  d i s g u i s e d a s a newspaper  A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Pat Kealy  Martin  have a t t e n d e d  despite  flyer  News d u r i n g c i t y  news c o v e r i n g S u r r e y ,  Kealy.  f r e q u e n t l y being  A s s o c i a t i o n members and s u p p o r t e r s .  disinformation  editorials  II. His chief  n e g a t i v e comments on h e r s e l f and o t h e r W h i t e Rock  to s e t t l e  research  b e f o r e W.W.  News, newspaper a d s and o f f e r i n g  was t o p u t o u t a c a m p a i g n  Residents'  born  i n t h e W h i t e Rock p o l i t i c a l  scene,  b r i n g some c h a n g e s t o t h e community.  I believe that I City  council  17 has  changed  tables;  memberssits around  r e t i r e m e n t has  the beach p o l l u t i o n  seen  I tried  city  new  council  and  bureaucrats  hard  hired,  t o e x p o s e has  acknowledged  bureaucrats  become more a b s u r d ,  politicians  increased  s k e p t i c i s m from  Meekison,  t h e B o u n d a r y Board  city  to discourage  as c h i e f  medical  District. "doggy do"  the  which e x i s t s elsewhere Boundary Board p r o g r a m and bathers  won  f o r the G r e a t e r  the p u b l i c  i n the  of Health  has  the  storm  least  offered  who  by  face  wanted  Bill  the  summer o f  1996  Regional  droppings,  understood  t h a t the  and problem,  sewage. As w e l l ,  the  a consistent monitoring  the c i t y  d r a i n s which  although  r e s i d e n t s . Dr.  Vancouver  seagull  maintained  they  i n the  r e g i o n , i s raw  i t s s t r u g g l e with  away from  local  appointed  three t o i l e t s ,  media s t o r i e s ,  . As e x c u s e s  of Health d i r e c t o r  swimming, was  officer  Despite  t h e media and  and  worsened, a t  the problems are p u b l i c a l l y and  i t s committee  to post  line  s i g n s warning  W h i t e R o c k ' s west  beach. During questions,  the p a r t i c i p a t o r y and  i n 1991  honest  a n s w e r s from  believe  t h a t my  more p e o p l e  Mayor Hogg a t t e n d e d  t h e W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s ' reluctance before c i t y  research  a general  A s s o c i a t i o n . Instead  council,  politicians  more p e o p l e and  outspokenness helped  began  now  asking  meeting  with  of t h e i r habitual feel  well-paid c i v i c encourage that  entitled  to  employees. civic  a s s e r t i veness. The  local  newspaper,  the Peace Arch  News, has  a new  editor,  I  )  18 Diane  S t r a n d b e r g , who  quality paper  of life  was  against  sued  election,  percentage boomers  result  the  socially  lived  when t h e  on v o t i n g  day  re-election,  h i s children  told  me  he  lost  were the  the paper).  i s , that  despite  Columbia,  "Yuppie"  from  about  the highest  well-educated power  community  i n White now  baby Rock.  designed f o r  mobile. I have  campaign  and c y n i c a l  has  pronounced  However,  changed.  a  become  political  I am  highly about owing  and t h e y  and South  Surrey-Newton,  a  watching  o f my  have  been  Democratic  from  My  me  p r o c e s s . Domestic  stress  marriage, i n  part. that  f o u n d a t i o n f o r change  Ken J o n e s  back  aspirant.  by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  Surrey-White  t h e New  from  to the break-up played  t o move  political  the p o l i t i c a l  lay a  Rock.  time  politicized  comforted  has helped  o f White  It took  full-fledged  differences  environmentalists Cloverdale  Brett,  achieved p o l i t i c a l  i s a gentrified,  intervention  and t h a t  against  in British  o f becoming  community  change  gradually  have  which  Brian  h i s lawsuit  children  been  front-page a r t i c l e  common-law  ( t h e alderman,  mostly,  brink  i s a change  anti-development alderman's  of seniors  The  the  i n 1996, w h i c h  demographic  have  But  he  b u t won  ongoing  i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s and t a l k s  f o r running a  that  illegitimate  An  issues  an a r d e n t l y  reporting  raises  my i n the  and W i 1 f Hurd a r e elected  a s MLA's  f o r Surrey-  With  prodding  from  government  has been  open t o  Rock.  19 changes easier  i n the municipal  make t h e s t a t u s quo  to topple.  Although canvassers 1992  a c t which w i l l  1 had t r o u b l e g e t t i n g enough  t o work f o r a c i t y  s c r u t i n e e r s and phone  b y - e l e c t i o n i n June  more t h a n 40 p e o p l e o f f e r e d t o phone c a n v a s s and a s s i s t  i n a b i d f o r t h e f e d e r a l N.D.P. n o m i n a t i o n Cloverdale. 1991  This despite  had c u r t a i l e d  relieved  1988,  only  sending  the fact  my p o l i t i c a l  winning  a Mulroney b a c k l a s h  the r i g h t  wing  vote  f o r change a f t e r  domination. P o l i t i c a l  activities.  election.  could  affiliations  i n W h i t e Rock,  have h e l p e d  indicating  have s h i f t e d .  where  a local  less  to a l l y  represents  with  parties.  a d e s i r e by t h e Conservative P e r h a p s by  myth which p e r m e a t e s s m a l l slate  of candidates  t h a n p e r s o n a l i t i e s and form p o l i c y  In a c i t y  t h e campaign by  t h a n 30 p e r c e n t  t h e N.D.P.  in challenging  town  could  r u n on  i n t h e next  city  of the people  and a l d e r m e n a r e o f t e n c h o s e n by a c c l a m a t i o n ,  a move by t h e  t h e s t a t u s quo  p o s i t i v e change.  Hopefully, contests  I am  i n the r i d i n g i n  a decade-and-a-half of  politics  rather  o f the vote  federally,  the non-partisanship  Liberals  Rock-  in July  In r e t r o s p e c t ,  t o t h e Reform and L i b e r a l  rebuking  issues  that a c a r accident  43 p e r c e n t  Reform won t h e r i d i n g voters  i n Surrey-White  me  I d i d n o t g e t t h e f e d e r a l NDP n o m i n a t i o n . W i t h t h e  Conservatives  vote,  1991, by J u n e  White Rock e l e c t i o n s w i l l  and t h e c i t y  council will  no l o n g e r  no l o n g e r  be p o p u l a r i t y  be s i m p l y t h e  20 executive be  branch  overcome—  of the local  chamber o f commerce. Myths have t o  t h e myth o f n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p ,  g o v e r n m e n t , and  t h e myth t h a t b u s i n e s s  t h e myth o f good  people  make t h e b e s t  counc i 1 1 o r s . I have publically easier.  to stand  and p o l i t i c a l l y .  When  provincial lack  learned  I step  my ground  t o t h e m i c r o p h o n e s a t a New  council or convention  I am no l o n g e r  to c r i t i c i z e municipal  fearful  Farm who b e g i n fade  rapidly  to resemble  as s o c i a l  their  ideology  they  have t r o u b l e r e t a i n i n g  will  party  m a j o r i t y agree  masters. S o c i a l i s t  Animal  ideas can  i n the bourgeois  to which r o l e - p l a y i n g p o l i t i c i a n s party  with  traditional  i n George O r w e l l ' s  d e m o c r a t s become m i r e d  hegemonic  or stopping  o r n e r v o u s , and 1 know  o f the pigs  Party  t h e government f o r  my r e m a r k s . As government members t u r n away from I think  i s now much  Democratic  government  members a r e . 1 i s t e n i n g , and t h a t an a p p l a u d i n g  N.D.P. s u p p o r t e r s ,  myself  C e r t a i n l y p u b l i c speaking  o f a c t i o n towards r e f o r m i n g  pollution,  and a s s e r t  members and  c l i n g . But  supporters.  Change o f t e n comes from  t h e b o t t o m up. T h e r e c a n be no c h a n g e , I  now t h i n k , u n t i l  gain control of t h e i r  people  In White Rock, from w i t h i n t h e New a b o u t 35 p e r c e n t Rock r i d i n g . are  i t i s unlikely Democratic  that  Party.  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s .  come  Membership h a s d r o p p e d  who have q u i t I myself  environment.  t h a t change w i l l  s i n c e t h e 1991 e l e c t i o n  Many o f t h o s e  local  i n the Surrey-White the party  i n White  am so d i s i l l u s i o n e d  that  Rock when  21 I finally  got the opportunity  Environment decided  to stay  The Greater  Minister  only  t o economic  began  there  addressing  i n 1994 ( g i v i n g pressure  convention  wonders whether  refused  on t h e need  White  to stop  Rock b e a c h e s ,  to the Greater  sewage i n f r a s t r u c t u r e The  New  Democrats  meetings a t p r o v i n c i a l t h e NDP s t a n d i n g  joint  sewage/storm  Regional D i s t r i c t ,  was p e r c e i v e d  t o improve  International regional  c o n v e n t i o n s t o g e t IWA members e l e c t e d t o  by a few l o c a l  on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  Rock c o u n c i l  Democrats  As f o r m e r W h i t e me,  drain  development.  (IWA) u n i o n members t o pack  committee  Donna O s a t i u k t o l d  supported  up t h e sewage p r o b l e m on  because  I felt  unionists  working  myself  I had been  s u c h a s f o r m e r MLA F r a n k Howard, t h a t  NDP n o m i n a t i o n .  So  to c l e a n  N.D.P. e n v i r o n m e n t  remain a p a r t y which a l l o w s  u n a b l e t o r u n f o r White  slandered  a 9 y e a r d e a d l i n e ) , and  in giving  granting  or l i m i t  sewage t r e a t m e n t f o r  t o a d d r e s s sewage i s s u e s . So one  Vancouver  Woodworking A s s o c i a t i o n  supporters  i n Surrey, I  from t h e U.S. The 1992 N.D.P.  i s any p o i n t  ministers a lecture  permits  NDP  home.  Victoria  provincial  then p r o v i n c i a l  John Cashore a t a meeting  NDP government  subjected  to confront  I been  t o deny  Rock p r o v i n c i a l  me a  told  by  badly federal  NDP c a n d i d a t e  h a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and I  a s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t .  at the federal t h e NDP  NDP n o m i n a t i o n m e e t i n g  I resignedly  I n d o - C a n a d i a n c a n d i d a t e Mota J h e e t a ( b a c k e d by  22 incumbent t h e NDP after  Surrey  NDP  federal I was  nomination  dropped  for  Mota S i n g h  for  i t s support  i n the  Arch  than  J h e e t a won By polls  the  the  that  the  was  support  leave the  nomination  after  first  the  nomination for  a  rooms and former to  r i p p e d up  riding  ballot),  meeting  by  NDP  politician.  itself  o f White Rock Liberal  be  community  no c h a n c e  NDP  of  t o have more  NDP  Peace  memberships when  indicating or  going  Liberal  My  40  friends,  o f my  Reform  members d i d  supporters  dissatisfaction  left  with  C h r e t i e n , and The  1993  e x e r c i s e i n democracy  to s e t t l i n g Surrey  the  referendum,  v o t e Reform.  C l a y t o n Campbell, in order  to the  l e a d e r Jean  a difficult  North  held,  Some NDP  their  t h e y would  was  was  constitutional  (more t h a n  o r g a n i z a t i o n used  acclamation.  My  win  support  t h r e e women  meeting  a l r e a d y waning.  that  Surrey c o u n c i l l o r  move o u t  their  would  national  meeting  impression  local  members'  o r g a n i z e r whose s u p p o r t e r s t h e  l e a d e r Audrey M c L a u g h l i n  leaving  had  t o me  t h e N.D.P. n o m i n a t i n g  critical  NDP  he  saw  to  Langley  Indo-Canadian  which  seemed  Rock-South  elected  the  went on  nomination.  1992  the  election  Mota J h e e t a  P a r t y . F o l l o w i n g the NDP  The  payment due  as h a v i n g  time  suggested  K a r p o f f ) who  f o r Surrey-White  1991  the union  News q u o t e d  Jim  i n Surrey. Although  the r i d i n g ,  substance  MP  o f f the b a l l o t .  J h e e t a was  candidates elected winning  MLA's and  c a n d i d a c i e s i n back  s u p p o r t e r s , such told  me  I would  t o have a f u t u r e a s  particularly  Martin  a  (who  is  as have  23 president  of  the  association) It was  said  remain  anyway.  would  I didn't  belong  n e u t r a l . But  covered  on  a  local  love  a reporter t o any  on  the  met  Delta  ordinary  Benno F r i e s e n ,  and  Surrey  a  candidate. my  party,  called  merits  presidents'  I got  political  me  first and  I wanted  "left-wing"  of preserving i n 1981  taste  and  trees  1982.  when  I  s t o r i e s from B i l l  Vander  and  p o l t i c i a n s as  met  ones b e f o r e .  p e o p l e w i t h good  as  that  W h i t e Rock newspaper  W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l , g o t  took p i c t u r e s o f  t o have me  advertisers often  I wrote e d i t o r i a l s  I worked  had  they  w h i l e working as  of p o l i t i c s . to  Liberal provincial constituency  social  the  To  skills  local  me  Zalm, I  t h e y were j u s t  and  an  occasional  news  exclusive. In time  1989  I saw  Decisions Brian  I began no  opposition,  seemed  Brett  and  t o be  seemed  to be  built  schools.  it  senior  the  housing, losing  discussions  at  r u b b e r - s t a m p e d . The who  had  again.  council vocal  been e l e c t e d this  This  meetings.  opposition i n 1982  of was  council. City  hall  arrogant.  elementary was  a t W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l  p u l l i n g s t r i n g s with  I became i n v o l v e d project  no  John B l e w e t t  gone. Somebody was staff  looking  by  speaking against  across The  the  zoning  s t r e e t from one was  o r i e n t a t i o n , as  which d i s t u r b e d  i t s community  me.  b a s e as  a seniors-only of  single family opposed  I felt  the  the  city's  residential,  t o much-needed  city  f a m i l i e s became  was  housing  but  family  increasingly  displaced.  two  24  After was  speaking  invited  consultant,  to a Dan  a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t  "neighbourhood  about  the  to which meeting  I attended  To which  me  was told  the p r o j e c t  I continued  public  myself that  social  i t was.  would  had  "What  recommend  about  the  reached  were a t  up  to f e e l  t o be  the  the  market-oriented  However, b e c a u s e o f slow to  include families  the c i t y ' s  began s p e a k i n g  goals.  a public  t o go  o t h e r s who  "he"  appeared  Community P l a n , which a g a i n  with  asking  from  project  housing,  sales,  and  the  non-seniors.  c o n s u l t a n t had  subverted  the  process.  I then  at  agreement  l o o k s good, d o e s n ' t i t ? " ,  at the meeting  and  planning  housing.  a p a r t m e n t s were opened But  landscaping  that those  social  i n t h e end  t o g e t any  H i s r e p o r t t o W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l  m e e t i n g was  i t was  failed  meeting, I  the c i t y ' s  c l o s e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n by  the  some a g r e e d .  a g r e e m e n t . What he  because  but  landscaping,  neighbourhood  meeting" with  J a n c z i e w s k i . He  the group assembled,  at a public  me  living.  the  with  need  the c i t y ' s  city  Official  f a v o r e d economic development  builder  came up  t o me  and  c o u n c i l ' s d e s i r e s b e c a u s e he (through  White Rock E l e m e n t a r y  condom i n iums.  on  over  projects  said  he  f o r f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d t o w n h o u s e s , but  Later developers  replacing  fora  1 spoke a g a i n s t a d u l t - o n l y h o u s i n g  h e a r i n g , one  about  along  When  at p u b l i c  had  Mayor Hogg) f l o a t e d  school  with  high  rise  agreed he  had  t o make a the  idea of  25 After the  local  voicing  my  r a t e p a y e r s group  Association)  to j o i n  T h a t ' s where  I met  The  residents'  opposition Liberals  concerns at public (renamed  Dave M a r t i n ,  association  Socred/Tory  had  was  Wi1f Hurd virtually  unsuccessfully  local  constituency  t h e White  as a s p o k e s p e r s o n and  to the " o l d boys' c l u b . "  who  hearings,  government.  p r e s i d e n t ) was  and  to break  Ken  Jones.  only  Dave were  into  the  (currently  NDP  an a r t i c u l a t e  by  member.  later,  and  asked  Residents'  executive  Wi1f  Glen Pinch  also  Rock  the c i t y ' s  Ken,  tried  I was  member o f t h e  association. P a t K e a l y was time,  she was  hostility plans, me,  chosen p r e s i d e n t  planning  election  Mostly, My  documents t o have  overturned.  between m y s e l f and  declared  K e a l y was shockingly  P a t who  She  i n us b e i n g  task with the r e s i d e n t s '  o u t o f town) was high  pollution  to r a l l y  the those  worked  for  children,  and  soothed  (residents'  invaluable  Later  Sharon C h a r l e s '  t o r u n f o r White  (resulting  P a t K e a l y became an first  I t was  M a r i a Romanchuk  when she d e c i d e d  1 had  campaigner.  At the  away from  g e n e r o u s amounts o f money, b a b y s a t my  victory  treasurer)  Rock c o u n c i l .  Coyne c a u s e d h e r t o back  b u t she d i d r e m a i n a t i r e l e s s  p u t h e r name on c o u r t  after  t o r u n f o r White  from a l d e r m a n  donated  o f t h e renamed g r o u p .  by-  disputes  association  Rock c o u n c i l tagged a  in  "Slate").  friend. association  public  c o u n t s on W h i t e  (while  awareness Rock's  west  1990  Pat  about beach.  26 White  Rock c o u n c i l  health  officials  association,  was  told  has  now  political stalled  left  department  to post  on B l a i n e , Greater  fact,  discovered  following  a break  expectation, White  Rock  Blaine  up  to apply  persistently the storm  1962.  h a s had  i n 1996)  The  local  drain  (what  White  a secondary  health  department,  the source of c o n t a m i n a t i o n  sewage p i p e s when, c o n t r a r y  sewage from B l a i n e  1991,  to a s s i s t  provincial  I upset c i t y  with taking  staff  failed  to  t o show up  t h e o n g o i n g p r o b l e m and  government  The c i t y ' s  to c l o s e  director  on  o f p a r k s and  t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t my  election  issue.  T h e r e was  reported  t o me  no major as  the  NDP  count to remind  the f a i l u r e  of the  t h e b e a c h e s when c o u n t s e x c e e d e d  office  he was  by g e t t i n g  a choliform  campaign  do",  Meekison  a s k e d me had  TV  beaches.  v o t e r s about  100.  attracted  t o blame t h e sewage  lacks  Rock t o be  in Blaine  leaking  In O c t o b e r candidate  still  since  White  which  to c l e a n  tried  unfounded.  Vancouver  residents'  Dr. B i l l  Rock c o u n c i l  public  s i g n s on t h e b e a c h .  aldermen  i t was  hall  officer,  requests  warning  sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t in  at c i t y  f o r C o q u i t l a m ) had  p r e s s u r e b e c a u s e White  and  Rock and  w i t h members o f t h e  medical health  When t h e mayor and problem  So,  h i s post  on h e a l t h  effluent  me.  on t h e i s s u e a s f r u s t r a t e d  I arranged a protest  c o v e r a g e . The c h i e f (who  stalling  recreation making  pollution  saying.  went t o t h e  the p o l l u t i o n problem,  just  NDP  an "doggy  27 In J u n e the  fecal  1992,  contamination  beach c l o s u r e s health urban  W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l  as  resulted  beach  to  culprit.  In many ways t h e  slope,  coupled  pavement and The  with  extensive  run-off  i s already  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s aging told  longer  i n June  Yet  continued  to  flourish.  began  The  i n March  District  I discovered  that  environmental politicians presentation later  on  much  activities. capacity  and  public  works  sewer s y s t e m  building  could  l e t alone  a  city's  l a r g e s t condominium  newest and  interviews  o v e r 90  per  f o r the  cent  the  the  has  Vancouver  in February,  respondents'  I felt  that  p u b l i c . Yet  the  1990,  considered  the GVRD  t o W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l  importance of  values,  Greater  Study  the  (presented  p u b l i c might  environmental  of  critical.  behind  Urban F u t u r e s  d a t e ) downplayed  represented  steep  monster houses  (GVRD's) Urban F u t u r e s  the  too  full  city's  a  1993.  lagging  concerns. Feeling  on  mapped). One  apartment  named  o f a p a r t m e n t s and  p r o b l e m s t o be  were  construction  the  The  beach p o l l u t i o n i s a  working a t  that  seagulls.  swimming,  trees, plus  poorly  storey  construction  H a v i n g done s u r v e y Regional  1991  service a three  highrise.  project  me  (and  by  urbanization  l o s s of  from c o n t i n u a l  sewage s y s t e m  employee  a  east  d e p a r t m e n t , when c l o s i n g t h e  of o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t — i n t e n s i v e  no  in occasional  caused  result  its  that  being  the  well  now  reported  west) was  runoff  as  (which  officially  respond I placed  environmental to a p o l i t i c i a n environmental  who  issues  at  28 high  on  my  agenda f o r t h e  participated  i n White  two  has  to  Membership on  the  t o be  the  the an  Rock s c h o o l  dominated  t h a t a p e r s o n would  the  members, was  i n the  looked  on  the  Festival  viewpoint.  i n newspaper ads  myself,  Ken  despite  funding  sitting prepare  J o n e s and  our as  and  own  to  aldermanic  Wi1f  Hurd and  own  board,  s i n g l e White eventually  society, Credit  questioner I was  to a  since  I was  phoneI  had  i n d e p e n d e n t " and Dave M a r t i n  separate  an used  able  to  V i n Coyne promoted  and  denote S u r r e y - s t y l e  later  and  Coyne,  al1-candidates f o r her  in his  "slates",  campaigns  I p e r s o n a l l y witnessed  n o t e s which S h a r o n C h a r l e s "slates"  f o r the  races,  instance,  incumbent a l d e r m a n d u r i n g  In W h i t e Rock,  hospital  Romanchuk, r e p r e s e n t e d  managing our  i s s u e s . Yet  conservatives,  numerous S o c i a l  "positively  Maria  who  organizations.  the  know who  of  committee.  For  as  "Community News" s u g g e s t e d  choosing  wanted  novelty.  a question  Festival  f a v o r a b l y . One  a p a r t i c i p a n t i n these  some i n s i d e r  himself  Sea  run  a  f o r a l d e r m a n and  W h i t e Rock Sea  in a 11-candidate's meeting n e v e r been on  then  mayor's f a m i l y and  also  by  p r e r e q u i s i t e . From  t r u s t e e p o s i t i o n and  by  i n which I  t o be  volunteer  h o s p i t a l board, dominated  was  mayor. Membership  get  i s s u e s seemed  c o r r e c t community  electoral  expectation  As  on  have been more a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t ,  belonged  seemed  contests  Rock.  In W h i t e Rock, r u n n i n g Elections  aldermanic  meeting,  c l o s i n g remarks.  politics.  29 As  Lamoureux e t a l . warned  the r u l i n g  elite  accuses  opposition  i s not d o i n g ,  i n Community  A c t i o n (1989), i f  i t s o p p o s i t i o n of doing i t ' s usually  something  doing. C l e a r l y ,  i n W h i t e Rock, where e l e c t i o n s  uncontested  those  libellous when one  and  of  contested  attacks, a slate aldermanic  incumbent mayor had part  who  was  something the e l i t e  them were s u b j e c t e d  o p e r a t i n g . T h i s was  to  made c l e a r e r me  asked  just  " h i s " team, b u t  to run  to run  for office,  f o r mayor t h e  T h i s c a n d i d a t e c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f t o be other candidates running  not  following  a maverick,  were more t y p i c a l l y  is  o f t e n went  c a n d i d a t e , James C o l e r i d g e , t o l d him  the  that  the  to  be  term.  and  indicated  members o f an " i n  crowd" . Only me  she  1990.  one  felt She  successful  excluded  felt  she  from  was  White Rock s o l i c i t i n g  and  Coleridge thought  me  c a n d i d a t e , Judy F o r s t e r ,  " i n crowd" r u n n i n g b e c a u s e she  knocked  s u p p o r t . She  C o u n c i l o f Women, an Dave M a r t i n t o l d  slate  the  successful  to d e c l a r e her c a n d i d a c y  local  aldermanic  on  also  had  team t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e  been  the  backing  from  in first  in the  "elite" organization.  he  was  prepared  to run  t h e W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n member had  had  most o f t h e d o o r s  not have done s o . M a r t i n ' s o p i n e d  ( a s one  for office  told  publicly  vowed  Chamber o f Commerce, t h e Sea  Festival  that would  t o do)  t h e c h a l l e n g e . The  for office  and  should  Hogg's team run a had  president of  p r e s i d e n t (and  full  i t s own the  brother  of  30  the c i t y  clerk)  and t h e C o u n c i l o f Women member  city's  advisory design panel, a l l f a i l e d  Jones,  Romanchuk and m y s e l f .  she  d i d n ' t come l a s t .  o u t d i s t a n c e a Sea F e s t i v a l made some p r o g r e s s , when  toget elected.  Romanchuk t o l d  I was p l e a s e d  who was on t h e  me s h e was happy  t o have done w e l l  president.  I convinced  I felt the local  Western  Committee o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e  White Rock  (WCWC had been c o n c e n t r a t i n g on S u r r e y  invite  a l l W h i t e Rock c a n d i d a t e s  Surrey) old  himself  but  member  i n t o Wi1f Hurd's L i b e r a l  attended  they  political  candidates To  "sure  vote  f o r J i m Green.  you.  sponsored  1 don't  that  Said another  Honesty,  integrity  election. others  hispolitics.  businessman,  and q u a l i t y  a well-  throw  i n V a n c o u v e r , I'd  "People  They r e s p e c t y o u . You seem t o know what y o u ' r e  about".  type,  I had won s o m e t h i n g .  " I f I lived  c a r e about  that  for provincial  Duncan and s e v e r a l  me made me f e e l  one r i g h t - w i n g b u s i n e s s m a n ,  you a r e too."  Pat Kealy  d u r i n g t h e 1991 p r o v i n c i a l  Said  and  from  were n o t h i s p o l i t i c a l  a l l c a n d i d a t e s meeting  behind  Coalition to  Duncan Cameron, a 79 y e a r  campaign) t o l d  meeting  have c o n s e r v a t i v e s l i k e  support  issues i n  i s s u e s ) and t h e  (along with a several  l o v e d " me. The WCWC a l s o  i n Ocean P a r k  had  (who t o r e up h i s membership and threw  a t t h e we11-attended  that  solid  Credit  I  Canada  o f environmental  Rock E n v i r o n m e n t a l  t o i t s a l 1 - c a n d i d a t e s meeting.  Social  those  the Surrey-White  that  enough t o  too, that  Wilderness  WCWC c o n v i n c e d  So d i d  of life  He's h o n e s t l i s t e n to talking  were i s s u e s w h i c h  31  reached new  across  politics My  knocking White  the p o l i t i c a l  seemed  t o be  feelings  local  s u c h as M a r g a r e t  and  career,  p l a n n e r s and,  including  succeeded  him  instead  Lower who,  prioritized of family  Rock mayors, Gordon  w i t h a campaign  generation c l u b s and  to s p e c i a l  White  Rock r e s i d e n t  approach.  more t o l e r a n t  of p u b l i c  environmentalists  door-  by  some  i n the l a s t  housing  Hogg and  city  administrators  developments,  Hardy  Staub,  invited  used a  to get h i s a t t e n t i o n  issues.  third  to j o i n  local  goal-oriented,  Rock r e s i d e n t s  which  who  civic  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  readily  s u c h , White  criticism,  in  year of a  g r o u p s , b u t Hogg a s a  was  life  housing.  w h i l e Staub  As  Rock a  p r o c e s s by  promising dedicated  interest  organizations,  handshaking  from  from p o l i t i c a l  a rebellion  management, c a n be s e e n a s c o n s e r v a t i v e Both c a t e r e d  and  d e c i d e d to d i s a g r e e with  t h e encouragment  B o t h White  i n White  of the p l a n n i n g  c a n d i d a t e s s u c h as m y s e l f fomented  longtime c o u n c i l  even  activists  of a l i e n a t i o n  Rock. C o n t i n u e d c r i t i c i s m  councillors  and  emerging.  conversations with revealed  spectrum,  found  Staub  enabled  regarding  ecological  issues. S t a u b c a n be s e e n a s e i t h e r as p o l i t i c a l l y  astute  i n h i s switch  compatible Conservative Party politically  astute,  he  a rank p o l i t i c a l from an  to the L i b e r a l  is likely  opportunist  ideologically Party.  t o be more c a u t i o u s  If in his  or  32 choice  of r h e t o r i c  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  matters.  p r o - economic development c o u n c i l l o r  As  o f t h e mayor's c h a i r  bonus f o r e c o l o g i s t s and  r e s i d e n t s who  among t h e  mayor c a n  v o t e on m o t i o n s  come t o terms w i t h overcoming  find  themselves  void  saddened  trapped i n which  of the  light,  by  feelings  that  stating  g o a l a s an  them  look at -from  each  cave  t h e y work, s l e e p and biological  people are conscious of but  to i d e n t i f y  lack a c e r t a i n the source of  voter simply  to p a r t i c i p a t e  interventionist  particularly  coopt  conducive  to  their  r e f u s e s to  identify,  i n the  self-  voters  institutional  process.  alliances, would  in a social  i s s u e s w i t h which p e o p l e c a n  t h e n more m o t i v a t e d  political  Ecologists  p e a c e and  of a l i e n a t i o n ,  g r i e v a n c e . F o r example, an a l i e n a t e d  My  a  ideology f o r a l l o w i n g people  i n W h i t e Rock showed  esteem which would e n a b l e  are  as  nature.  time  v o t e . By  seen  i n cases of a t i e vote  o-f humans -from n a t u r e and  where t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  rhythmns o f  and  be  favor limited population  issues of a l i e n a t i o n .  is increasingly  My  i s a useful  the a l i e n a t i o n  as p e o p l e  mentality play  can  councillors.  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  other,  vocal  i n White Rock, h i s move t o  the p r o f e s s e d n e u t r a l i t y  g r o w t h . The  t h e most  right  wing  in local  a Left-centre i s s u e s and  to the environmental  politics  political  rearticulate  Left  and,  was  alliance them  therefore,  to  build  which  i n a manner t o what I  33  perceived  t o be t h e v o t e r s '  preventing  minority  wing p o l i t i c a l earnest  goals as  tyranny  I hold  contrary  not o n l y  left,  I regard  bourgeois and  with  hegemonic  and e c o n o m i c  but a n t i t h e t i c  species.  inte11ectua1ism  to the b i o l o g i c a l  However, t o a v o i d  t h e snag o f  w h i c h c a n bog down p r o g r e s s i v e  necessity. Therefore,  I chose  interventionist  brand  dialectic  of grassroots,  ideology  satisfaction  impede t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o u n t e r - h e g e m o n y , p r a x i s  model  right-  needs c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e  right-wing  to the emotional  o f t h e human  included  in  to majoritanism  t h a t human  o f t h e needs o f t h e m a j o r i t y , survival  which  critique.  the b e l i e f  of a p o l i t i c a l  concerns,  ( w h e t h e r o r n o t embedded  hegemony) by a p p e a l i n g  and c o n s i s t e n t  Since  fundamental  politics  is a  a participant-observation,  of critique,  which  everyday a c t i v i t y  itself  informed  by  utilizes a social  theory. By  listening  alienated (both that  to those  by a p o l i t i c a l  leftist  normally  process  and c o n s e r v a t i v e  and p o p u l i s m  intellectual  theorists  •right-wing  polities',  unchartered  radicalizing  itself  in this  case),  demand. A l t h o u g h by  was  grassroots bourgeois  1985) a s a b r a n d o f  such p o l i t i c s more  t o be e x p l o r e d  rhetoric  t h e end r e s u l t  i s f r e q u e n t l y denoted  I viewed  those  on dogma and  ( L a c l a u and M o u f f e :  territory potential.  go u n h e a r d ,  reliant  I became a p o l i t i c i a n by p o p u l a r  politics  as  who  by t h e l e f t  optimistically for i t s  34 I f one dialectic greenest  looks  with  a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  ecology  extreme  of  in moderate-right the  political  right and  and  Of  a l l the  right  most v i a b l e .  s i n c e the  level  as  By  physical people  could  the  immoral  New  Right  politics  see  the  the  the  result  able  of  political could  be  local  as  t o be  left  the  has  been  a g e n d a s have  concretized  one's  sustain of  on  their their  i n W h i t e Rock,  political  process  Consequently,  (Boggs:  a shift  1986;  from  exemplified  by  and the  Paehlke:  right-wing the  victory.  Hurd's e l e c t i o n , city  the  against  pollution  economic e l i t e s .  politics,  business  ocean o u t s i d e  beach c o n t a m i n a t i o n  i n many q u a r t e r s  election  the  t o b r o a d e n and  i n White Rock was  t o more c e n t r i s t Liberal  by  centre-  city's  that appears  i n the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  power w i e l d e d  Following passing  such as  became s u s p e c t  provincial  are  the  at  century.  focus  Right  found  p a r t i e s . Looking  drawing p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n to the  space,  1989), and  "class" New  ideology  i d e o l o g i e s thrown up  sewage s i t t i n g  windows, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s appeal.  the  e c o l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n and  everyday  with  in a  the  i t i s c l e a r that  turn of  traditional  green'  sees that  have d o m i n a t e d  d i s c r e d i t e d . Since  accelerated  one  conflicts  i t i s environmenta1ism  The  Might  wing p o l i t i c a l  counter-hegemonic  neoconservatism,  the  dialectic  wing p o l i t i c s  politics  profoundly  the  'dark g r e e n ' ,  h i s t o r y o f W h i t e Rock,  right  local  and  as  as  White Rock r e s i d e n t s began  government a l t o g e t h e r ,  requesting  that  byHurd  35 either  contact  pollution an  NDP  the  city  problem, or  provincial  administrator  seek a p r o v i n c i a l  government  environmentalists  sought  and  As  Penny P r i d d y .  W h i t e Rock,  local  environmental the  NDP  with  access  considered  local  favorable as  MLA,  this  political  instability. 16,000 p e o p l e  to  By  1994,  town  the  region's i t s own  warm w a t e r p o r t  on  the  the  In  in  to  short,  environmentalists an  avowed  election  was  a  by  and  of  those  time  frame c o v e r e d  national  and  merging  western  in  this  political  I have f o c u s s e d  stands  as  about on  a  a former r e s o r t  nation-states.  economy r e m a i n s t i e d  boundaries,  as  established  o f W h i t e Rock, a town o f  w h i c h happens t o be two  a  perceived  to c h a l l e n g e  urban sprawl,  polity  political  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  alliances  city  border of  the  office  fielded  changes.  with  provincial  boys' c l u b " )  a period  choosing  local  w h i c h , by  1991  an  Hamel1  government o r b r i n g  c o n c e r n s and  formed  surrounded  l o c a t e d on  to the  i n f l u e n c e . The  post-industrial  The  ("old  newcomers who  i s 1989  members  government w h i c h  the  MLA's Sue  maintains  executive  t h e s i s looks at  and  s o l u t i o n . With  environmentalists.  elite  power, p r i v i l e g e  NDP  for public policy  to t h e i r  f o r W h i t e Rock  political  thesis  w e l l , s i n c e the  to a p r o v i n c i a l  In sum,  through Surrey  c o n c e r n s t o p a s s on  environmentalist victory  input  council  government  a  i n power, White Rock  constituency  provincial  o r mayor t o a d d r e s s  i n t o Vancouver  a medium s i z e d c i t y  s i d e of North  America,  on  a  a location  36 that  appeals  to  foreign  tensions  in  this  and  on  the  were  intervention. challengers crack  an  mundane  as  a  a  political  by  local  by  cultural The in  input  Two,  elites  an  and  can  Two  of  relation  have  also  emerging  struggle  on  the  of  the  of  that  political  ideology  promoted beach  local  to and  political  pollution  with  as  by  several  business  economy  the  and  In  which  matter,  I  particular,  examine I try  to  environmentalist  outlines for  effect  the my  usefulness chosen  that  of  counter-  ideologies  used  movements.  type  of  actions  that  j u s t i c e movement  community  action  ecological  citizen  Localism"  subject  change.  environmental  types  political  metaphoric  on  and  progressive  and  peaked  life.  ideologies  specifies  involving  a  beaches  the  subversive  environmental to  of  typology  the  own  is  both  therefore,  localist  ecological  project  On  Rock's  social  of  The  my  environmental  affecting  on  of  created  concerns  ineffectively dealt  quality  typology  and  an  " E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  ideologies.  Chapter taken  while  theories  basic  environmental hegemonic  White  concern  time  base.  l i t e r a t u r e review  some p o l i t i c a l provide  use  focusses,  Chapter  constitutes  demonstrates  power  pressures  environmental  thesis  thesis  residential  growth  the  on  government  As  during  sewage  The  as  In  local  community  of  well  this  locale,  successfully  existing  salient  levels  upsurge  can  alliances. a  popular  What  level,  interests.  which  and  waging  denote  ideologies  actions  can  is  public  be a  praxis. discussed  services  37 which  contribute In  and  the  also  in  economies. fallout  The of  "Profile  the  White  the  the cost  of  pollution  reach  of  local  polities copes  i t s l o c a t i o n and political  Rock  chapter  a  on  and  costs,  (Mo 1 o t c h / L o g a n :  of  local  activists  and  the  growing  nation-state, to  to  power  local the  local  political  entity  the  grave  given  that  "Changing  the  Political  considers  the  role  latter the  already  province  and  other  onto  is  the  already  of  of  the  British  pollution,  even  into  challengers  their  own  regional  in  more  powers as  traffic facility the  and  growth the  political  ability scene  a decentralizing now  ambitious  have  The  and  Columbia  account  provincial within  Context:  assuming  "tensions  Taking  provinces  political  exceed  and  environmental  prevention  1984).  leap of  landscapes  and  e s c a l a t i n g sewage  machine"  demographics,  considers  political  clean-up  community.  in Transition", I  air quality deterioration, recreation  construction  opportunity  the  within  with  the  local  governments.  chapter,  over  congestion,  Community  White  as  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism",  region  conscious'  changing  of  state  governments,  school  of  growth,  local  concluding  local  a  Rock,  example  provincial  the  of  effects  economic  on  the  'ecologically  post-industrial nation-state  Using  prohibitive  Power  the  from  pressures  an  history of  discuss  tensions  beyond  3:  Chapter  examine  to  the  expectations.  38  CHAPTER  I I  E N V I R O N M E N T A L ISM  E x a m i n i n g W h i t e Rock, B.C. environmentalist  and  environmentalism  be  effective as  s e e n as  successfully  umbrella  challenge  basis  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  ideology?  historical  opportunity  and  i n the  Can  expose the  economic development  the  t o what e x t e n t  a l l i a n c e which  an serve  can  structure?  resources  and  further unique  material  contradictions  destructive  of  can  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  1990s a f f o r d s a  t o o p p o s e moral  crystallize  contrasting  for construction  e c o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s m a g n i f y and  Environmentalists  study  e x i s t i n g power  disappear,  society  a case  for a p o l i t i c a l  the  LOCALISM  philosophies,  the  counter-hegemonic  a conceptual  As  localist  as  AND  decline.  of a  capitalist  tendencies of c a p i t a l i s m ( i . e .  r e l y i n g upon p e r p e t u a l  expansion  in a  finite  wor1d) . By local  looking  at  the  politics,  as  i n the  explore new  the  possibilities  L e f t and  political At  times  local the  Agricultural  community  or  environmental o f W h i t e Rock,  of c r e a t i n g  politics  need  can  seat  the  permits  releases  Land R e s e r v e  movement  on  I shall  a l l i a n c e that  to a c h i e v e  i n order  both to  a  secure  hegemony. be  more i n f l u e n t i a l  of Canadian  when a p r o v i n c i a l N . D . P .  c a m p a i g n p r o m i s e s and Sound  the  a progressive  distant  government. A l s o ,  Clayoquot  of  environmentalists  power and  from O t t a w a ,  impact  logging  edicts  nation-state cabinet  of old  a g r i c u l t u r a l land  (despite  than  opposition  growth  breaks i t s forest  at  from  the  from  i t s appointed  39 commission courses), It  takes  and one  simply sees  courage  because  how  local  governments asked  quickly politicians  to keep f a i t h  with  their  can  be  for  golf  compromised.  principles  and  resist  cooptation. At crisis the  issue are c r e a t e s and  storied  "stinking" still  the p o l i t i c a l  whether e n v i r o n m e n t a l  myths s e r v i n g t h e beach  alliances  i s an  p r e f e r s t o pave a s e a w a l k  t o c o m m u n i t i e s by  a new  provide  sewage  secondary  the e x e c u t i v e  branch  transplanted Brits  British politics As  immigrants,  of  the  funds  to r e p a i r  The  which offered sewers  council  been  little  or  more and  large proportion of c i t i z e n s  are  or c h i l d r e n  comparison  has  Chamber o f Commerce,  to  and  19th  grandchildren  century  British  of localist  is appropriate. shown  i n the  literature  on  Henri  Lorimer,  A C i t i z e n ' s Guide to C i t y  assumptions of  city  accept  government  local  (such as  local  elite.  treatment.  where d e m o g r a p h i c s show t h a t a either  dismantle  for a council  r a t h e r than  In W h i t e Rock, where t h e c i t y than  of a r u l i n g  reality  provincial  environmental  i d e o l o g y can  interests  inescapable  w h i c h an  civic  Lamoureux, Community A c t i o n , 1987  non-partisan  l e a d e r s , has  g o v e r n m e n t s do  development  Canadian municipal  not  Hall,  politics  and  1972)  i n d u s t r y but  are  pave t h e  themselves  the  James localist  businessmen as  led to a m u n i c i p a l simply  and  politics,  politics  way  f o r the  i n the  the  where  best local  property  business  of  development. In B.C., by  U.S.  a push  f o r municipal  business/commerce  reform,  interests,  has  initiated,  had  a greater  ironically, impact  40 than  i n the  institute  rest  electoral  p e r s o n s and similar  o f C a n a d a . However, a c o n t i n u e d  to  ward  groups with the  systems f a v o u r s the  t o wards) f a v o u r s industry,  i n the  municipal  e l e c t i o n s tend  contests.  As  industrial financed  by  well,  through  banks,  insurance  the  conservation, ideology  found  parties.  Of  the  then,  Liberal  to  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism counter-attack  disintegration Soviet  Union,  polarized renewed  world  officials  a t t e n t i o n to  people  are  that  the  B.C.  "petite  selected, ally  p u r s u i t of development  companies e t c .  with  projects  Localist  non-  myth.  and  calls  the  right  for  economic wing  New  some i d e o l o g i c a l  increased expansionist  political  Democratic  space  Party  and  for  manoeuvre. clearly  has  a salient  against  New  Right  states  has  disappeared.  internal  role  tensions  to p l a y  hegemony.  in Eastern  communist-capitalist  order  opposed  d e d u c t i b l e . Thus,  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  o f communist the  (as  development  politics,  Canada's major p a r t i e s , the allow  reforms.  more t h a n p e r s o n a l i t y  local  in moderate-right  Party  Those  political  government  the  tax  i t u s u a l l y c o n f 1 i c t s with  environmentalists  Left's  by  little  the  i s sheer  ideology  local  media a r e  local  U.S.  to  elected,  business/professional  i t i s through  capital,  of  financed  t o be  from w h i c h  partisanship, Since  system  a l d e r m e n and  whose a d v e r t i s e m e n t s  bourgeoisie"  t h a t prompted  candidates  incumbent  s t a t u s quo.  most money o r p r e s t i g e g e t  parochialism  This e1ected-at-1arge  the  failure  With  in the  E u r o p e and  the  contradiction in a Since  this  between  results  labour  and  in  the  41  capital  w i t h i n western  untrammeled this  by  Communist  a n t a g o n i s m and  causes.  industrial  Emergent  new  social  boundaries,  needed  for a revitalized  social  political Ernesto  can  radical  movements  economic  L a c l a u and  be  ( s u c h as  feminism class,  and  gender  political  and  alliance  agenda.  theorists  argue that  to s i n g l e - h a n d e d l y  Mouffe  into  for progressive  individual  succeed  transformation of c a p i t a l i s t  Chantal  Left,  a b l e to tap  i d e o l o g y and  left-wing  pluralist  a revitalized  traditional  c r e a t e the  movements a r e u n a b l e and  sympathy  transcend  racial  new  ideology, should  create public  e n v i r o n m e n t a 1 i s m ) which  Indeed,  states,  in a  societies.  As  note:  "Many have d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s s i n c e t h e 1960s t o t h e s e a r c h f o r a new p r i v i l e g e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y s u b j e c t which m i g h t come t o r e p l a c e t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , w i t h t h e l a t t e r s e e n as h a v i n g f a i l e d in i t s h i s t o r i c a l mission of emancipation. The e c o l o g i c a l movements, t h e s t u d e n t movements, f e m i n i s m and t h e m a r g i n a l masses have been t h e most p o p u l a r c a n d i d a t e s . . . b u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t such an a p p r o a c h d o e s not e s c a p e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . . . a 11 strugg1es...have a p a r t i a l c h a r a c t e r . . . " 1 Yet  in post-industrial  b a s e d , money and i d e o l o g u e s and level,  city  centralized role  and  power a r e m o n o p o l i z e d  t e c h n o c r a t s who school  C l a s s and  the system sectors  than  of the  the  state;  by  capitalists  them. Thus, on  u r b a n p l a n n e r s and  s t a t u s quo.  Capital  those  serve  which a r e p r i m a r i l y  administrators, police  command u n i t s ,  in maintaining  in C i t y ,  societies,  (1981),  inhabiting  As  Harloe  and  the  officers  urban the  local forming  o t h e r s have a and  bureaucrats  less q u a l i f i e d  vital  Lebas p o i n t  expect and  more  out  from  poorer  thus:  " . . . t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s i s much l e s s p r e s e n t and a c t i v e i n s o c i a l movements d e a l i n g w i t h c o l l e c t i v e c o n s u m p t i o n ,  42 e c o l o g y e t c . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s have c o n s e q u e n c e s , and t e n d t o p r o d u c e new t y p e s o f s t r u g g l e — u r b a n s o c i a l movements, e c o l o g i c a l movements... a s w e l l a s new e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t s t o s u c h s t r u g g l e s . Again, there i s nothing automatic i n these p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s . T h i s i s p a r t l y so b e c a u s e o f t h e ambiguous nature o f the s t a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f consumption, the c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s e s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t , r e s h a p i n g and contro1.." 2 In t h i s integrative  conjuncture,  ideology deserves  environmental ideological best  able  question help  success  careful  than  any  other  of a p o l i t i c a l  ideology, and  Marx's own  coalition  decries  as  positivist  can  find  instance,  i s part of environmental  which p r o v e a b u s i v e  the  seeds  to the  labour  and  can  traditional  i s a t odds w i t h  the even  of  i n "Wages, P r i c e  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power,  t h e manual/mental  The  which e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s r e t h i n k i n g of  and  seems  divisions.  o r i e n t a t i o n o f M a r x i s m . But  w r i t i n g s , one  an  The  movement and  racial  s i n c e environmenta1ism  Marx f a v o u r s  decentralization  social  and  requires a radical  environmenta1-1 e f t thought. For Profit",  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  attention.  new  t o overcome g e n d e r , c l a s s  productivist within  potential  movement a p p e a r s t o have g r e a t e r p u b l i c s u p p o r t  to c o n s t r u c t  Leftist  the  and  and  s t r a t e g y . Marx a l s o  town/country c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  environment.  " A l o n g w i t h t h e c o n s t a n t l y d i m i n i s h i n g number o f t h e magnates o f c a p i t a l , who u s u r p and m o n o p o l i s e a l l a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f l o w s t h e mass of misery, s l a v e r y , degradation, e x p 1 o i t a t i o n . . . " ( i . e . o f n a t u r e as w e l l a s p e o p l e ) " 3 The  alienation  Philosophic decried  by  overcoming  Marx s p e a k s o f  Manuscripts  of  1844  environmentalists. the  alienation  i n h i s Economic  is a social  alienation  Environmentalists  o f man/woman from  and  look  nature  and  also  to from  43 t h e m s e l v e s as spiritually  they  from  the  Canadian p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t and Taylor,  1989;  conservative  live  in a social  grounding  economy has  L i p s e t , 1990) hegemony a t  E.F.  with  Schumacher  A n i t a Gordon,  move away from  As  Ruth  provides.  social  structures  this aids  in  the  however, as  to  land and  business/  represented  i s B e a u t i f u l . 1973)  New  on  (Gaucher  by  and  such David  ( I t ' s a M a t t e r o f S u r v i v a l . 1990)  challenge  Levitas  nature  levels.  land development  Understanding successful  and  local  (Small  increasingly alienated  a l w a y s been d e p e n d e n t  petit-bourgeois  Environmentalists, as  only  world  writers Suzuki  favour  a  dependence.  Right  i s c r i t i c a l because of i t s  traditional  leftist political  ideology.  observes:  "The c e n t r a l i t y o f a n t i - s o c i a l i s m t o t h e New R i g h t p r o j e c t i s not f o r t u i t o u s . On t h i s c r i t e r i a , t h e hegemonic p r o j e c t o f t h e New R i g h t must be deemed t o have had some s u c c e s s e v e n i f l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e a r e i g n o r a n t o f , o r i n d i f f e r e n t o r a n t i - p a t h e t i c t o , a s p e c t s o f New Right i d e o l o g y . The p r o c e s s o f d e l e g i t i m a t i o n o f s o c i a l i s t alternatives is crucial.." 4 It was gained Right zeal  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism,  strength hastened  i n opposing  appeal  i n defense of  p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n to the  New  environmental  of environmentalists the the  not  but  the  Right  traditional hegemony.  degradation enabled  not  only  left, That  the  of  them t o b r o a d e n  the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m  New  hardened  the  their  environment. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s pollution  which  drew  p h y s i c a l w o r l d , and and  minority  to  domination  44 by  economic e l i t e s  o f modern  1991  Columbia  provincial  local  politics.  disregard to  through  i d e o l o g y a l r e a d y has  politics, election, The  Social  f o r the concerns  even p l a y i n g the r e s u l t Credit  i n c o r p o r a t e environmental  environment,  an  issue  had  processes  an  a major  impact  important  role  o f which  now  party displayed  demands. P o l l s strong public  on which S o c i a l  Credit  such  on i n the  influences an  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and  Urban F u t u r e s r e s e a r c h showed  far  t h e mass p o l i t i c a l  democracies.  Environmental British  secured  as  support  arrogant an  inability  t h e GVRD for a cleaner  politicians  lagged  behind. On  ignore  the municipal  level,  the e x i s t e n c e of  come t o t e r m s w i t h development.  local  right  wing p o l i t i c i a n s  environmental  the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s  Paehlke  reminds  us  have t r i e d  problems r a t h e r  o f growth  to  than  and  that,  "The p o l i t i c s o f m o d e r a t i o n was f u n d a m e n t a l l y r e j e c t e d i n the 1 9 8 0 s . . . . n e o c o n s e r v a t i v e s sought to r e v i v e the e x p a n s i o n i s t s t a t e , t o b u r y t h e s o c i a l compromise c a l l e d t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e , and t o a c h i e v e an e c o n o m i c r e c o v e r y b a s e d i n m i l i t a r i z a t i o n and d e r e g u l a t i o n . . . F r o m an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e t h e d a n g e r i s not t h a t t h i s s t r a t e g y may fail, b u t t h a t i t may s u c c e e d . . . whether o r not n e o c o n s e r v a t i s m remains dominant i n the s h o r t - t e r m f u t u r e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e f o r c e s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d and p r o m o t e d i t s r i s e w i l l r e t u r n a g a i n . Neoconservatism a r i s e s i n the a b s e n c e o f 'easy' e c o n o m i c g r o w t h " 5 In W h i t e Rock, t h e favour  the e l e c t i o n  dominant c l i q u e  local  election  process c e r t a i n l y  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . W h i t e Rock has  which r e s i s t s  s h a r i n g power and  privilege  does a with  not  45 newly a r r i v e d r e s i d e n t s . T h i s c l i q u e o f s e c o n d long  term  residents represents  architects,  city  accountants,  hall  social  who m e r e l y  d i l e t t a n t e s and  developers.  tend  would  who  are destined  t o be m a r g i n a l i z e d .  attest,  the  system  political  to f a i l .  They  As S u r r e y  tends  po1iticization  lack  t o work a g a i n s t  who do manage t o g e t e l e c t e d  office  . However,  since municipal  ground  for provincial  local  Judy  even  i s often a then  power c l i q u e s . M o r e o v e r ,  p r o b l e m s have g l o b a l  greenhouse e f f e c t s  and t h i n n i n g o z o n e . Some p r o b l e m s  or p o l l u t e d r i v e r s  n e x t . The e n v i r o n m e n t environmentalists brushfire be,  "think  blaze  on p l a n e t  are like  a t a time.  global  of Karl with  earth  dimensions,  from  such as entail  one n a t i o n  to the  i s global, yet  firefighters,  battling  To e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s ,  one  the credo  must  and a c t l o c a l " .  ENVIRONMENTAL ISM AND MARXIST One c a n f i n d  flowing  forest  those  training  some e n v i r o n m e n t a l  deforestation  Villeneuve  to municipal  and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s ,  must c r a c k  a l t e r n a t i v e or  councillor  office  network",  and e c o n o m i c c l i q u e s  environmentalists  environmentalists  officers,  u s e d by t h e " o l d b o y s  seek a p l u r a l i s t  and  realtors,  p o l i c e command  t r y to persuade urban p o l i t i c a l  to go ' g r e e n ' , and  landowners,  bureaucrats,  Because o f the t a c t i c s environmentalists  large  generation  THOUGHT  t h e s e e d s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism i n t h e w r i t i n g s  Marx. F o r Marx, b o u r g e o i s  the imposition  political  of private property;  economy  greed  and  has i t s b i r t h competition  46 are an  i t s motivating artificial  countered. rampant  To  f o r c e s . For  construct, an  of  the  Historical environmental  materialism  politics.  coupled  remaining  had  i t s birth  from  the  with  ideology  the  to  and  is  be are  the  the  with  industrial  the  the  politics land  social  a paradigm strives  f o r the  to  ideology  for praxis  (i.e. a  threatens  s a v e and  life  restore  and  which K a r l of  led to a l i e n a t i o n of  movement, e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  r e v o l u t i o n and  Romantics  strives  nature—notions  Manuscripts  understanding  environment).  of  which  economy  competition  e x p l o i t a t i o n of nature  a new  and  to  a c t i o n s of t r y i n g  objectification  Philosophic  and  a key  which  labelled  Luddites  Environmental  offers  It p r o v i d e s  an  natural  Although  ideology  to d e s t r u c t i o n o f nature  t h a t d o m i n a t i o n and  itself, the  lead  greed  the  planet.  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism, theory  a growth-oriented  environmentalist,  f o r c e s which  poisoning  environmentalists,  i n t o the  has  present  persisted era.  t o overcome c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n  the  a l i e n a t i o n o f man/woman f r o m  Marx expounded J844.  and  I t was  i n The  Economic  a l i e n a t i o n of  the  and earth  ourselves.  "To make t h e e a r t h an o b j e c t o f h u c k s t e r i n g — t h e e a r t h which i s our one and a l l , t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n o f our e x i s t e n c e — was t h e l a s t s t e p toward making o n e s e l f an o b j e c t o f h u c k s t e r i n g . . . 11 was and i s t o t h i s v e r y day an immorality s u r p a s s e d o n l y by t h e i m m o r a l i t y o f s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n . And the o r i g i n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n — t h e m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h by a few, t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e r e s t f r o m t h a t w h i c h i s t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r l i f e — y i e l d s n o t h i n g i n i m m o r a l i t y to the subsequent h u c k s t e r i n g of the earth." 6  47  In many ways, as  a root  cause o f the world's environmental  Stewardship replaced  o f the earth  firstly  ownership land.  the c r e a t i o n o f p r i v a t e property  and l i v i n g  by n o t i o n s  o f the minerals  This  has c r e a t e d  below  the land  who would  neighbours.  Increasingly,  paramount private  individual  property  industrial property  and t h e a i r above t h e  witness  consumption  and t h a t  f o r the rest  of their  part  the current determined  of the  of the planet.  i d e a l s o f communal  good  and u n r e s t r i c t e d o r p o o r l y  with  checked  protection  right-wing  to entrench  simp 1 i s t i c a 1 1 y  choices  patterns  environmental surplus  rather  backlash those  i n western  private  blame e n v i r o n m e n t a l  than c a p i t a l i s t  degradation  on  profit  overpopulation  p r o b l e m s on t h e e x i s t e n c e and s u r p l u s  of property  r i g h t s produced  landed  a change  rather  than  however,  of " surplus  property".  and an i d e o l o g y  problems  motives ( i . e .  o f t h e w e a l t h y m i n o r i t y ) . Marx,  capital  Privatization property  land  rights.  environmental  wealth,  a f f e c t s future  t a k e n on one s m a l l  replaced  rights,  societies  individual  blamed  actions  their  r i g h t s make e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Conservatives  blaming  both  consequences  minorities  insupportable,  on  inherit  have had n e g a t i v e  landowning  then  a new c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  generations  Yet  nature i s  o f the land,  What a p e r s o n d o e s on h i s o r h e r l a n d  earth  problems.  i n harmony w i t h  o f ownership  c a n be s e e n  7  of private  i n t h e a t t i t u d e s towards  land,  48 attitudes  w h i c h have not  observed,  "Large  character  i n so  possible," the  8.  landed f a r as  The  interests Thus the  even man  was  motive  l a n d has  i s estranged  from  a  lord  of  from  from  While terrain  consciously  the  has  of p o l i t i c a l  interest  Left  him"  with  the  society  has  from  tried  not q u i e t l y  just land  The  to u t i l i z e  chief  ;  and  as e a c h '" itself,  Man/woman  the  has  which depends  on  nature.  to a c h i e v e  accept  we  t o Mar x,  have become,  i t s goals within c i v i l  as u n a v o i d a b l e .  foregoing  and  from  commodified. as  as  h u c k s t e r i n g " , and  economy, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  to a c h i e v e  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s choose  As  been a l i e n a t e d  Thus, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s do private  pursuit,  for nature. According  i s estranged  just  Marx  generations.  "object of  the o t h e r " . 9  traditional  worked  t o make a s much money  ensuing  and  As  industrial  l a b o u r as c a p i t a l i s t s  society,  for survival,  an  i t .Objectification  become o b j e c t i f i e d  been a l i e n a t e d nature  and  replace reverence  never  f o r the environment.  is a private  become an  "man's s p e c i e s n a t u r e  w o r k e r has  the  i t i s aiming  o f community  commod i f i c a t i on  well  p r o p e r t y . . . adopted  profit  have become ,a 1 i e n a t e d  nature  boded  victory movement  has  society.  the world  combative  on  of  tactic  in c i v i l  society  is  C a n a d a ' s b o u r g e o i s i e has  refused  adequately  education. Historically, to  fund  education, preferring  to r e l y  on  immigration  and  49 emigration  to c o n t r o l  in  Columbia,  British  a number o f s p e c i a l  social with  reproduction  a NDP  interest  (Gaucher,  provincial  1987).  government  groups, education  Thus  steered  funding  has  by  been  cut. The explains  consequence, as  i n a V a n c o u v e r Sun  group o f t r a d i t i o n a l angst their  B.C.  against  f e d e r a t i o n of  article,  u n i o n i s t s and  environmentalists  l a b o u r Ken  i s a confused  labour  and  f o r c e s , who  i n s t e a d of the  Georgetti frightened pit their  ruling  elite  ideologues. "A l o t o f g r o u p s i n c l u d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why p e o p l e . . . a r e so a f r a i d o f l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s . . . T h e y d o n ' t r e a l i z e t h a t you c a n ' t o f f e r h i g h - t e c h h i g h - s k i l l e d j o b s to a guy who's 48 y e a r s o l d w i t h a G r a d e 10 e d u c a t i o n . " ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, S a t u r d a y , January 25, 1992) P e r h a p s by  can  a i d those  predicts,  raising  on  consciousness'  the  traditional  in order  mass o f h u m a n i t y  degradation a few,  Left  to subvert  and  (who  ruling 10,  argue that through  environmentalists  seek  to uproot  tyranny.  c l a s s has  *false  I f , as  then  we  "rendered might  Marx  say  the that  environmental  mismanagement, which p r o d u c e s w e a l t h  w a t e r , e t c . ) have become  Ernesto  who  minority  'property1 e s s ' "  t h e mass o f h u m a n i t y  POST-MARXISM AND  levels,  and  p l a c e o n l y when power becomes  t o t h e p o i n t where t h e  environmentalists  for  consciousness  a r e v o l u t i o n takes  intolerable great  and  and  culture  loses i t s ' p r o p e r t y ' — a i r ,  revolutionaries.  PLURALISM  L a c l a u and  Chantal  M o u f f e see  Marxist  socialism  and  50 e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism as pluralist  society  ontological  little  where t h e w o r k i n g  centrality"  mechanism o f s o c i a l of contemporary crisis."  privileged  Ergo  i s no  i s no  longer  longer  rise  in a  "the  t h e main  " t h e v e r y w e a l t h and  s t r u g g l e s has g i v e n  to reexamine  of a  to a  plurality theoretical  on w h i c h  class'"  "to o u t l i n e  of a radical  reason to s i t u a t e  ideological  o f t h e new  to "renounce  impact  any  upon t h e o n t o 1 o g i c a 1 1 y  o f "communism" t o e r a d i c a t e  as one The  Marxism,  'universal  upon t h e p r o j e c t  environmenta1ism, part  class  revolution  p r e r o g a t i v e based  position  the f a i l u r e  terrain.  social  as a p a r a d i g m  based  society  change.  s e e a need  epistemological  Left  and  o f many d i s c o u r s e s  11  They  Marxism  more t h a n two  a new  to  antagonisms in a  social  i n t h e making o f a v i a b l e  rework  politics  democracy".  themselves o f new  12 and  f o r the  13 They  cite  from i t s  post-Marxist  movements, s u c h  counter-hegemony,  as is  equation.  " I f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , as a hegemonic a g e n t , manages t o a r t i c u l a t e a r o u n d i t s e l f a number o f d e m o c r a t i c demands and s t r u g g l e s , t h i s i s due not t o any a p r i o r i s t r u c t u r a l p r i v i l e g e , b u t t o a p o l i t i c a l i n i t i a t i v e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c l a s s . Thus, t h e hegemonic s u b j e c t i s a c l a s s s u b j e c t o n l y i n . t h e s e n s e t h a t , on t h e b a s i s o f c l a s s p o s i t i o n s , a c e r t a i n hegemonic f o r m a t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d ; b u t , i n t h a t c a s e we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h c o n c r e t e w o r k e r s . . . F o r Gramsci, p o l i t i c a l s u b j e c t s are n o t — s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g — c l a s s e s , b u t complex ' c o l l e c t i v e w i l l s ' ; s i m i l a r l y , t h e i d e o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s a r t i c u l a t e d by a hegemonic c l a s s do not have a n e c e s s a r y c l a s s b e l o n g i n g . . . F o r G r a m s c i a c l a s s d o e s not t a k e S t a t e power, i t becomes t h e S t a t e . " 14 Opinion  polls  show t h e v a s t  majority  o f p e o p l e i n Canada  51 favour environmental become a motherhood as a p o p u l a r factions  objectives. issue,  i d e o l o g y . As s u c h ,  as i t c r i t i q u e s  which  than  theory  grouping  new  as a novel  diffusion  of social  relations  which  environmenta1ism  social  and s e p a r a t i o n  movements i n t o  way o f " a r t i c u l a t i n g  i s characteristic  11  unites various  a category  L a c l a u and M o u f f e t r e a t  conf1ictuality  s o c i e t i e s . 15 The w o r k e r  itself  and d e g r a d a t i o n .  substitutes for class,  movement  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism commends  the very c o r p o r a t i z a t i o n  which h a s l e d t o p o l l u t i o n Rather  then  I f a c l e a n e r environment has  i s also  social  that  rapid  t o more and more numerous today  o f advanced  industrial  a mother, a consumer, an  i nvestor. Members o f m a r g i n a l i z e d g r o u p s a r e a c t i v e new s o c i a l actively  movements—particularly  resist  the  students  cooptation logic  participants in  and women who  o f the system  of c a p i t a l i s t  relations. "...numerous new s t r u g g l e s have e x p r e s s e d r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t t h e new f o r m s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n . . . t h u s i t i s t h a t t h e waste o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e p o l l u t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i s m have g i v e n b i r t h t o t h e e c o l o g y movement. O t h e r s t r u g g l e s , which Manuel C a s t e l l s t e r m s 'urban' e x p r e s s d i v e r s e forms o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t o c c u p a t i o n o f s o c i a l s p a c e . The g e n e r a l u r b a n i z a t i o n w h i c h h a s a c c o m p a n i e d economic growth, t h e t r a n s f e r o f the p o p u l a r c l a s s e s to the urban p e r i p h e r y or t h e i r r e l e g a t i o n to the decaying inner c i t i e s , and t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f c o l l e c t i v e goods and s e r v i c e s have c a u s e d a s e r i e s o f new p r o b l e m s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e whole o f s o c i a l l i f e o u t s i d e o f work." 16 If  environmental  degradation  endangers the l i v e s  o f the  52 majority wage and  of people  i n the i n d u s t r i a l  l a b o r e r s and t h e i r new s o c i a l  families,  w o r l d , who  t h e n an a l l i a n c e  movements h a s t o be  simply  rework p r e c e d i n g  i d e o l o g i e s but take into and  place,  articulate  between  historical  social  p h i l o s o p h i e s and  them, r e c o n s t i t u t e them  the space  labour  movements would  " t h e elements which a r e a l r e a d y  dismantle  happen t o be  considered.  In c o n s t r u c t i n g s u c h an a l l i a n c e , not  just  i n t o a new  i n a new way, p o l a r i z i n g  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism i s one o f t h e key e l e m e n t s  constructed  it".  logic,  17  i n that r e -  a r t i c u l a t i on. RISE OF THE NEW The economic  1970s and 1980s saw t h e r i s e forces  inherently alliance social  i n the western,  new a b o u t  t h e New  between c o n s e r v a t i v e  movement t a c t i c s  condensed New  abilities,  Right  Right  political  w o r l d . What  was i t s a b i l i t y  and  was  t o c r e a t e an  and n e o - l i b e r a l f o r c e s ,  and a s y n t h e s i s o f d i s p a r a t e  Right  economic p o l i c i e s ,  degradation  increased  however, n o t o n l y  but shrunk workers'  middle-class  might  i s that only  Ultra-conservatives and  industrial  taxes  i n t o t h e s t r e e t s . The m a t e r i a l  political  o f New  using ideas  i n t o a hegemonic p r o j e c t .  environmental  people  RIGHT  promoted  b i g business  the r i c h  purchasing  and l i t e r a l l y  reality  increased  o f New  threw Right  get r i c h e r .  took c o n t r o l o f t h e r i g h t - w i n g and u p p e r - c l a s s  interests,  parties  downplaying  53  environmental industrial succeed, the  If there  was a swing c l a s s i n p o s t -  s o c i e t y which a l l o w e d  i t was  petit  likely  As C h r i s t o p h e r  middle c l a s s '  "increasingly  these  New  Lasch  18  ideology".  ideology.  The  philosophy  conservative derived property  course  with  dwindling  ideas;  their  distinctly  however, t h e key philosophy) Right  resources  In N o r t h A m e r i c a ,  who  t h e New  i n Pentecosta1ism  and a c t e d  and m i l l e n i a l i s t  America  a l s o draws h e a v i l y upon P u r i t a n i s m  element  of the Protestant  work e t h i c i n New  years  of Judeo-Christian  Right  favour  to c a p i t a l collision  to save  h a s grown c o n c u r r e n t l y  rise  i s on i n d u s t r y . The New  to  planet.  a rapid  focus  private  coalition  were d e t e r m i n e d  Right  status-  ideology  r i g h t s p u t them on a  on a d y i n g  ...its  of various  i s that  a t any c o s t . T h i s commitment  environmentalists  to  g r o u p were t h e new  was a s y n t h e s i s  T h u s , t h e New  and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  natural  with  this  and d e s p a i r  g r o u p s w h i c h were p r o - c a p i t a l i s t  accumulation  accumulation  Right  (and b o u r g e o i s  i s sacrosanct.  consolidated capital  o f t h e New  and b o u r g e o i s  from Hobbes  noted,  Added t o t h i s  upwardly mobile p r o f e s s i o n a l groups with oriented  f o r c e s to  was d e c l i n i n g i n s t a t u s and  attracted, in i t s insecurity  laissez-faire  Right  the t e c h n o c r a t i c c l a s s i n a l l i a n c e  bourgeoisie.  'traditional  old  concerns.  cults.  and t h e r e Right  with  North  is a  thought.  strong The  a l s o draws upon t h o u s a n d s o f  p a t r i a r c h y t h a t makes s e x i s m ,  and e v e n  54 racism, nature  p a l a t a b l e with as  a God-given  i t s members and  policy  upwardly mobile New  Right  who  political  Such  been t h e  policies.  so  on  As  well  the  f o r c e behind  some o f t h e New  Right  the Canadian p o l i t i c a l and  the  Lawyers,  scene  economic g a i n  t h a t they  as  Right's  through  restraint  social,  politics  comes a r e s t r u c t u r i n g  meet t h e  for right  technical  wing  New  of environmental Right,  however,  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  Environmental  and  fortunes of  a driving  t a r g e t o f New  of teachers  respectful  privilege,  r e g u l a t i o n s and  government m e d d l i n g  absent  as  economic  from p a t e r n a l i s t i c ,  CANADIAN POLITICAL  concerns,  The  call  and  are  for a  notions  new  of  in  productivity. s e e n by  them  where New  as  Right  word d e m o c r a c y  a u t h o r i t a r i a n New  INSTITUTIONS  industry  i s more i n t e r e s t e d  i n a market s y s t e m  for "laissez-faire".  of educational  ideology.  increased taxes  fiscal  and  needs o f  i d e o l o g y o f f e n d s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who  community. The  advocates  the  pursue s e l f - i n t e r e s t  s e r v e as a c o n d u i t  morality  served  estate agents—are  has  de1 e g i t i m i z a t i o n institutions  of  policies.  Education  and  to boost  over-represented  actively  governmental  and  members who  real  members s t i l l and  i s designed  Right  hegemonic p r o j e c t ( L e v i t a s ( 1 9 8 6 ) .  accountants,  exploitation  right.  More c o n c r e t e l y , much o f t h e New political  suggests  Right  ideology  i s notably rhetoric.  55 That a s t r o n g  right-wing  of p r i v a t e property already is  must  lobby  r i g h t s i s a worry  r e s o r t to  the  courts  "much more h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d  States". Any the  law  can  society, Power  to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s fight  who  big business,  i n Canada t h a n  which g e n e r a t e s c o u r t of Rights be  and  and  cases  does) s e r v e s  s e e n as  as  (1985),  business  to  entrenchment  i n the  which United  19  Charter  Charter  e x i s t s f o r the  part  Stanley  the  o f a push  A r o n o w i t z has  technocracy  legal  legal  towards a pointed  It a l s o s e r v e s  c l a s s t o which  actions  "experts"  in i t s mechanistic  b i g government.  professional-managerial  and  well.  The  technocratic  out  in Science  form, s e r v e s the  (as  as  big  i n t e r e s t s of  l a w y e r s and  urban  a  planners  be 1ong. The hire  need  for individuals,  lawyers f o r  legal  a h o r r e n d o u s d r a i n on c o s t s as  the  find  resources.  the  environmental  Nechako r i v e r  battleground represent  and and  dispute  legal  c o s t s worth  fishery  groups  can  creates  use  legal  non-profit  the  (as with  such  to  groups  as  gamble when the  case  of  i n B.C.).  of a l l against  and  groups  environment  Businesses  r i g h t s become paramount,  f o r a war itself  lobby  a multi-national coroporation  court  When i n d i v i d u a l  not  their  instance,  would  fighting  b a t t l e s to p r o t e c t  income t a x d e d u c t i o n s — i n d i v i d u a l s and  cannot. For Alcan,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  the  all.  the  The  s t a t e becomes a  environment  a n t i - m a j o r i t a r i a n stance  of  the  can  56 legal  system  u n d e r m i n e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y and  environmental In t h i s (1987),  crises  sense, a  fomented  but  by  Charter  come a t  a politically  "the  resources  s t r u g g l e s over housing, growth boom f u e l l e d  education  and  The as  environmentalists.  the  reluctance  other  reproduction  social  social  hegemony t h r o u g h  of  has  the  to  of g e t t i n g  20  health care.  a historical  and  the  and  waste  surfaced The  in  1980s problem  has  bourgeoisie  institutions,  " c o n t r o l of  C a n a d i a n economy on  of p r o f i t The  of Rights,  has  crisis  immigration,  f o r Canada's  Charter  opposition  limited  ethnic polarization  with  expediency,  been a way  have become more  and  to  and  land  by  and  21  a prime source  resources  in direct  to democracy"  and  Mandel  of d e a l i n g  socio-economic c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . T h e  dependence of  speculation  way  t o p r i v a t e power. T h i s  education  maintainance of p o l i t i c a l immigration"  to  humanitarian  expedient  opposition  more p r e d o m i n a n t , c l a s s and  fund  serves  e x p e n s e o f and  direct  In Canada, as  by  according  f o r m s o f power...law has  people...in  been compounded  of Rights,  document which  challenges  more p o p u l a r  around  the  lofty  goals,  however, has other  movement.  i s not  democratic  the  been a c o n t i n u i n g of  speculation  problem  legitimation created  arising  lower and  i n the  context  of  by  for land  scarce  middle c l a s s e s , culminated  which Mandel  i n e q u a l i t y in legal  land  argues c l o t h e d  r h e t o r i c to s e r v e  the  the  in  issue  i n t e r e s t s of  of the  57 status  quo. Arguments o v e r  defeat  f o r a 1992 f e d e r a l  constitutional  accord  such  issues  referendum  culminated  i n national  on t h e C h a r I o t t e t o w n  which e s t a b l i s h e d  political  p a r t i e s had  supported. Since  a l l i a n c e s to crack  t o be made t h r o u g h g r o u p alliances. political as  parties  bring  benefit  To combat  of their  qualitatively radically involve  this,  forces  new s o c i e t y  democratic  more d i a l e c t i c a l  must c o n t i n u a l l y f o r g e  groups that  that  can only  those  formed  democracy as well  "uphold  a vision of a  be r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h Their  methods  r e l a t i o n s h i p s "between p a r t y and spheres o f a c t i v i t y , e l e c t o r a l  m o b i l i z a t i o n . " 23 social  movements w h i c h want t o s u r v i v e  new a l l i a n c e s t o m a i n t a i n  c a n be c o o p t e d  common g o a l s ,  momentum, and  i n t o competing  by g o v e r n m e n t .  a p o s i t i o n where t h e y c a n s t o p  court  hampers  have  f o r the long-term  s o c i e t i e s . They  i n danger o f d e v o l v i n g  c o n s e n s u s and f u l f i l l in  to define  under c o n t r o l  and r e g i o n a l  and g r a s s r o o t s  constantly  i n d i v i d u a l ism  s t y l e s and methods". 22  Indeed, g r a s s r o o t s  are  and e c o n o m i c c l i q u e s  E u r o p e a n G r e e n s , have struggle  respective  movements, n a t i o n a l politics  formations,  in their  productive  political  In o r d e r  to achieve  environmentalists  expending  interest  need  t o be  meagre r e s o u r c e s  on  battles. The  meeting  court  room  i s the a n t i t h e s i s o f the type o f p u b l i c  space necessary  f o rgrassroots  growth.  There  isstill  a  58 great has  deal  of public  sympathy  n o t been p o l i t i c a l l y  Canada's n a t i o n a l  f o r environmental  exploited.  i d e n t i t y could  causes  which  Perhaps too, the s t r u g g l e f o r  be won  maximized  t h e German p e a c e s t r u g g l e ,  advancing  U.S. n a t i o n a l  i n t h e way  the Greens  as symbolising  freedom  from  i n t e r e s t s and m i l i t a r i s m .  " . . . t h e G r e e n s a d v a n c e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , o r h o l i s t i c , model o f r a d i c a l change t h a t a l s o c h a l l e n g e d t h e l i m i t s o f s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m i s m . They i n t r o d u c e d a s p i r i t o f p o l i t i c a l o r i g i n a l i t y l a r g e l y b e c a u s e t h e y were a b l e t o c r e a t e , o r h e l p c r e a t e , a dynamic i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u a r o u n d w h i c h many l o c a l f o r c e s c o u l d c o n g r e g a t e . " 24 THE  ENVIRONMENTALISTS For  from  selling  paving has  more t h a n  125 y e a r s C a n a d i a n s have made t h e i r  Canada's  o v e r much o f t h e b e s t  t h r i v e d on r e a l  not  land—cutting  estate  the trees,  establishment  and r e s o u r c e  exploitation,  production. On Monday, F e b r u a r y  10, 1992 one o f t h e two V a n c o u v e r  newspapers owned by t h e Southam f a m i l y to  subdividing i t ,  c h u n k s . The C a n a d i a n  development  living  the right-wing  that for  there  Urban Development  was n o t enough  land  I n s t i t u t e , which  a v a i l a b l e i n Surrey  more s u b u r b a n homes. The l e f t - w i n g  cost  homeowners more money,  mention  the high  property). birth  be u n a b l e  N.D.P  the costs  to c o n s i d e r  stated  that  to  coverage  complained bulldoze  mayor was g o i n g t o  the developers  to cover  failed  when d e v e l o p e r s  would  said  needed  The newspaper  rates  residents  taxes  gave f r o n t page  daily  ( n e g l e c t i n g to of s e r v i c i n g  declining  Canadian  the c h i l d r e n o f Surrey  to a f f o r d to l i v e  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  59 In item  t h e same e d i t i o n  outlining  spring  o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun l a y a b u r i e d  an immediate  o f 1992, t h e ozone  30 t o 40 p e r c e n t .  threat  layer  As a r e s u l t ,  numbers o f C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n future.  The f e d e r a l  was r e s p o n s i b l e  contributed  only  would  would said  2 -1/2 p e r c e n t  created  develop skin  be d e p l e t e d  cancer  rejected  of  planet.  this In  The Next One Hundred  Living  Earth,  capita  will  done t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e shelter  effects  i n the  any s u p p o s i t i o n since i t  summer  cities  shelter  coastal  effect  watershed  estimates  that  by t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n and p r e s e r v e  trees  a r e the lungs  1,000 t r e e s p e r to repair  reducing  dependency  provide  protect  washed o n t o p u b l i c  Trees  from d u s t  bowl  shelter in shade  i n the  on a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ) and  i n the winter. Trees along a r e a s would  t h e damage  lifestyle.  the s o i l  d r o u g h t s . T r e e s would  u r b a n a r e a s s u c h a s White Rock, from b e i n g  of trees i n  and r e d u c e e n e r g y c o s t s by p r o v i d i n g  (therefore,  to the  Years, Shaping the Fate o f our  i n North America alone  the p r a i r i e s  i n upcoming  Canada's  to e c o l o g i s t s ,  J o n a t h a n Weiner  be needed  by  of the ch1orof1orocarbons  by t h e m a s s i v e c l e a r c u t t i n g  Columbia?. According  In t h e  significant  f o r this catastrophe  British  a  the report  children.  i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e . Y e t what a b o u t t h e d e v a s t a t i o n  atmosphere  would  o v e r Canada  environment m i n i s t e r  t h a t Canada  (cfcs)  t o Canada's  news  British  against  t r e e s would  soil  hold  Columbia's erosion.  back  b e a c h e s . Y e t , i n White  In  pollutants Rock,  60  homeowners on t h e h i l l s i d e order  t o improve  their  Politicians In r e c e n t  the  socialism  a motherhood  issue.  t h a t women, a s  p h y s i c a l environment.  such a s Y n e s t r a  fails  trees i n  o f s o c i e t y , have become more c o n c e r n e d  deterioration of their  eco-feminists  the environment  f e m i n i s t s have c o n t e n d e d  members  t o c u t down  view.  now c o n s i d e r  years,  marginalized  ask neighbours  King  argue that  about  Post-Marxist  traditional  b o t h women and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  " A l l h i t h e r t o e x i s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s o f l i b e r a t i o n , with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f some forms o f s o c i a l a n a r c h i s m , a c c e p t the a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c n o t i o n t h a t humanity should dominate n a t u r e and t h e i n c r e a s i n g d o m i n a t i o n o f nonhuman n a t u r e i s a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r t r u e human f r e e d o m . No s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n has ever fundamentally challenged the basic p r o t o t y p e f o r n a t u r e / c u l t u r e d u a l i s m — t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f men o v e r women." 25 < Although King  argues  legacy  predicting socialism  "theo l d s o c i a l i s t  i s not dead." That  greens,  and o t h e r  provide  a new a l l i a n c e  a progressive  with  rather  feminist's evolutionary  g o a l . As w i t h  s u r v i v a l . " 27  valuable  These  ideology  groups  to serve as  change.  o f nature,  which e x i s t s both around  planetary  throes",  to "feminists,  politics".26  an e c o - f e m i n i s t  F e m i n i s m becomes more h o l i s t i c and  has passed  than c o m p e t i t i o n ,  f e m i n i s t s become g u a r d i a n s environment  " i n i t s death  of history, a  of identity  force f o rsocial  Cooperation,  spirit  legacy  bearers  is  becomes a  left-  native cultures, ecostewards o f a natural and i n e a c h  "linking  one o f u s .  a l l issues o f personal  61  Those s a c r e d t r u t h s which they can  manage t h e p l a n e t "not  the environmental is  the ozone  crisis  layer  critical.  World  more w a t e r  population next  Karl  to the r e a l i t y  are the cause  of  it".  a c c o r d i n g to the Worldwatch  capitalism,  striving  each  day.  for prosperity  h i m / h e r t o be.  v a l u e s to e c o n o m i c s — i . e .  air.  c o n t i n u e s to o b j e c t i f y  cliche  t e r m s such  realistic  only  natural  Humanity  is limits  increases i t s  yet squandering  as  appears  Instead of  some e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t a l k  this  Not  of  the  inheritance.  environmental But  28  Institute,  t o have r e a c h e d  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , the economist  Marx found  that  us  i s being p o l l u t e d  daily,  women  only b l i n d  p o p u l a t i o n appears  generation's To  but  and  i n the e a r t h ' s atmosphere b e i n g d e p l e t e d , but  the water s i t u a t i o n ,  and  t e l 1 modern men  t h e same  overthrowing  of finding giving  and  villain  a price  commodify  " s u s t a i n a b l e development"  ways t o  add  for clean  nature,  and  simply delay  assessment.  "Yet g r o w t h i s what t h e whole w o r l d has come t o l i v e f o r . It i s t h e h o l y g r a i l o f our p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s , t h e measure o f any g o v e r n m e n t ' s s u c c e s s has become t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t s economy has grown. Growth and p r o g r e s s have become i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e t e r m s . To e c o n o m i s t s , g r o w t h i s t h e main r e a s o n g o v e r n m e n t s , i n d u s t r i e s , and s o c i e t i e s e x i s t . . . ...You d o n ' t have t o be a math w h i z o r a PhD i n e c o n o m i c s t o s e e t h a t we've r e a c h e d t h e l i m i t s . " 29 Such c r i t i q u e s ideology  has  have f u e l l e d  evolved.  In J u l y  debates  1990,  David  from  Suzuki  Canada p l a c e d a t t h e b o t t o m among t h e w o r l d ' s industrial  nations f o r environmental  which  environmental  stated  seven  responsibility.  that  largest The  federal  62  Conservative don't  tend  effects  government may  to f o l l o w through  of cfcs  discovered  "be f o n d  on t h e ozone  the f u l l  economic growth.  price  o f green  a t home". 30 layer  As s t u d i e s o f t h e  show—we  t o be p a i d  r h e t o r i c . . . but  still  f o r the l a s t  ( W e i n e r , 1 9 9 0 ) . The b o t t o m  line  haven't round o f  i s as K a r l  Marx  declared i t . "The o n l y w h e e l s w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c a l economy s e t s i n m o t i o n a r e g r e e d and t h e war among t h e greedy—competition."31 Twenty y e a r s "growth nature  ago, E. F. Schumacher s e t o u t t o c h a l l e n g e t h e  i s progress"  i d e o l o g y and t o a t t a c k  o f e c o n o m i c s by w r i t i n g S m a l l  Economics as I f People  Mattered.  planning from scale  and f o u l  and a b e l i e f  an i n a b i l i t y  that  p r a c t i c e s which m i s a p p r o p r i a t e  those  " a l i e n a t e d from  of p r i o r i t i e s  •afford'  1  fair  i s Beautiful:  any o t h e r . "  living  by a r g u i n g  a Study o f  He blamed s o c i e t y ' s  d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s on a l a c k o f e t h i c s , between  the competitive  to d i s t i n g u i s h  " m o r a l i t y i s bunk". Urban and m i s u s e  nature,  i n economic  land  emanates  who promote t h e i r t e r m s t h a t we  own  cannot  32  "Study how a s o c i e t y u s e s i t s l a n d , and y o u c a n come t o p r e t t y r e l i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s a s t o what i t s f u t u r e w i l l be....when h i s e n v i r o n m e n t d e t e r i o r a t e s r a p i d l y , h i s c i v i l i s a t i o n dec 1ines...how d i d c i v i l i s e d man d e s p o i l this f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t ? He d i d i t m a i n l y by d e p l e t i n g o r d e s t r o y i n g t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . He c u t down o r b u r n e d most o f t h e u s a b l e t i m b e r from f o r e s t e d h i l l s i d e s and v a l l e y s . He o v e r g r a z e d and denuded t h e g r a s s l a n d s t h a t fed h i s l i v e s t o c k . He k i l l e d most o f t h e w i l d l i f e and much o f t h e f i s h and o t h e r w a t e r l i f e . He p e r m i t t e d e r o s i o n t o r o b h i s farm l a n d o f i t s p r o d u c t i v e t o p s o i l . He a l l o w e d e r o d e d s o i l t o c l o g t h e s t r e a m s and f i l l h i s r e s e r v o i r s , i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s and h a r b o u r s w i t h s i l t . In many c a s e s , he used and wasted most o f t h e e a s i l y mined m e t a l s o r  I  63 needed m i n e r a l s . Then h i s c i v i l i s a t i o n d e c l i n e d a m i d s t the d e s p o i l a t i o n o f h i s own c r e a t i o n o r t h e y moved t o new l a n d . . . t h e r e a r e , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , no new l a n d s t o move to..." 33 Economic development environmental  degradation  f u n d s have been and the  are  'infrastructure',  enterprise  organized  and a  elitism  "broader  societies,  spent  34  i n the  can  on  what  and  largely  their  facilitating  change" the  called  to p r i v a t e stress  the  public benefits. public policies,  t r a c e i t s r o o t s back  societies.  in  is generally  Environmentalists  1960s w i t h  wave o f s o c i a l  dollars,  " l a r g e amounts o f p u b l i c  protest against existing  o f Western  35  because  property  movement  unrest  in real  t h e b e n e f i t s go  f r e e of charge'".  environmental student  and  being  and  i m p o r t a n c e o f communal As  is costly  to the  protests against  S t u d e n t movements i n advanced  the  period the  of  goals  precipitated  industrial  m o b i l i z a t i o n o f new  social  movements. "Such t i m e s h e i g h t e n p u b l i c s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n , c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . They t e m p o r a r i l y u p s e t t h e hegemony o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o g r e s s , t h u s g i v i n g way t o a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f a n t i - m o d e r n r e a c t i o n s and reform movements. T h e s e p h a s e s a l s o p r o v i d e a s h o r t - l i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c r e a t i o n o f r a d i c a l i z e d r e v i s i o n s o f a n o n - a l i e n a t e d , communal, and e g a l i t a r i a n way o f l i v i n g . " 3 6 T h o s e who the  belong  1960s b e l o n g  materialist element  to the  to what R o n a l d  generation,  i n any  generations Inglehart  whose "new  explanation  o f why  strongly influenced  values a new  terms a  by  post-  constitutes a  ideological  key  perspective  64 has  arisen".  quality of  37 P o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t s  of l i f e  value self-expression  ( s u c h a s community  e c o n o m i c and p h y s i c a l  and a c l e a n  and t h e  environment)  ahead  security.  "For t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e new s o c i a l movements i s n o t s i m p l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i d e o l o g y o f t h e L e f t . . . t h e New L e f t h a s a predominantly middle c l a s s b a s e . . . i n c r e a s i n g l y , i t r e f e r s to a c l u s t e r o f i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r o l e o f women, o f n u c l e a r power and n u c l e a r weapons... Today, p e o p l e a r e on t h e L e f t because they a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s r a t h e r than the o t h e r way a r o u n d . " 38 Political in  styles  traditional  Participation ideology,  "elite-directed" varies  new g r o u p s  emerging  i n response  Although  evolving the  society era  into democratic t o new  of interest set of ideas"  parties. values, Wilson, the  a s a method f o r  d i s c o u r s e , each  i t " c a n be u n d e r s t o o d  (Paehlke,  ideological  1989) which  new  group  the t r a n s i t i o n  stands  a s an t o make i t  p e r s p e c t i v e to develop  from  since the  I t i s an i d e o l o g y t h a t industrial  helps  to p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  c o n s e r v a t i s m , and s o c i a l i s m  t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y  Revolution."40  those  movement h a s been a l o o s e  of the nineteenth century." through  from  i s s u e s . 39  groups,  "much a s l i b e r a l i s m ,  through  movements s e r v i n g  the environmental  " f i r s t original  middle  mass p o l i t i c a l  s k i l l s . A c c o r d i n g to Frank  s e e new s o c i a l  bringing  movements d i f f e r  a c c o r d i n g t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and p o l i t i c a l  pluralists  coalition  i n new s o c i a l  saw us  during the Industrial  65  Environmentalism, world an  "may be t h e l e a s t  ideology,  to future generations." serve  consequences o f u n l i m i t e d irreversible. appreciation the  of a l l l i f e  o f human  decentralization long-term  the  planet,  a belief  politics  forms...a  of season,  setting,  participatory  using  democratic  alarmists utilities.  spectrum,  or those  (Paehlke,  1989:144) a s w e l l and/or  and n a t u r a l  of  of sustainable appreciation  values.  autonomy and s e l f - m a n a g e m e n t  in a  system.  positioned  particularly  commit t o  m a t e r i a l s ; measurement o f  non-material  political  as  population  the survival  love of s i m p l i c i t y ,  There a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a political  regarding  value). Environmentalists  r e v u l s i o n t o waste,  be  concern with the  view and p o l i t i c a l  climate  we  s u c h a s , "an  sense o f h u m i l i t y  a sense o f urgency about  favours  "that  o f the world  include values  i n the establishment  e s t e e m and s e l f - e s t e e m  the notion  s o c i e t y o f the negative  to other...a  societies,  Environmenta1ism  from  t o remind  (a p o l i t i c a l  view, w i t h  o f a l l i d e o l o g i e s " . 41 As  f o r the q u a l i t y  and h e a l t h " ,  maintainance of a global  finite  42  in relation life  in a  growth, consequences which c o u l d  Environmental  human s p e c i e s  quality  a  proceeds  we a r e r e s p o n s i b l e  Environmentalists  expansionism  self-interested  environmenta1ism  collectively leave  which q u e s t i o n s  on t h e r i g h t  wing o f  many o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n -  who p r o p o s e p r i v a t i z a t i o n  Indeed, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  o f \ub1ica11y  who do n o t q u e s t i o n  owned private  66 property "seek of  a  such  are  as  return  conservative,  according  to a p r e i n d u s t r i a l  a c h a n g e on  past  to P a e h l k e , regardless  s t r u c t u r e s . " 4 3 But  social  as  of  the  the  environmental  movement's a c t i v e members p r a c t i c e a  and  moderate  politics.  As  Paehlke  who  effects  majority  the  left  those  of  centrist  notes,  "The v a r i a b i l i t y among e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p o l i t i c a l stances suggests that, i n p r i n c i p l e , a case f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism c a n be made t o a wide v a r i e t y o f g o v e r n m e n t s i n t e r m s t h e y c a n a p p r e c i a t e and u n d e r s t a n d . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c o n s t r u c t p o l i c i e s a c c e p t a b l e , even d e s i r a b l e to a wide range o f p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s . L e f t - o r i e n t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s m i g h t p r o p o s e r a p i d and t o t a l p o l l u t i o n c l e a n u p w i t h a l l c o s t s t o be b o r n e by p o l l u t e r s . I f some p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r t y i n d u s t r i e s were t o c o l l a p s e u n d e r t h e b u r d e n , so much t h e b e t t e r . Such a view m i g h t a l i e n a t e some on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , but t h e ' p o l l u t e r p a y s ' p r i n c i p l e makes s e n s e t o many s o c i a l i s t s . In c o n t r a s t , a c o n s e r v a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t m i g h t be c o n t e n t t o r a i s e e n e r g y p r i c e s w i t h no p r o t e c t i o n f o r l e s s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s and no t a x on w i n d f a l l profi ts."44 E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism Decentralisation that  calls  industrial welcome,  been a t  least  working  the  hands o f an  d e c l i n e of observes  governments a r e  weakly  and  the  a  the  industrial  ascendancy  which e x p l a i n s  dependent  on  "business,  entrepenuers—individuals  philosophy of  class).  power r e s t s i n why  the  "moderate t o  concerns"  right  These  professional and  an  a n t i c i p a t e , even  working  t h a t most p o l i t i c a l  to environmental  extremists.  socialist  (environmentalists  economic e l i t e ,  respond  agricultural  class  to p o l i t i c a l  odds w i t h  for central planning  Paehlke  regimes  has  appeals  and  institutions  whose  67 incomes depend  on a v o i d i n g g o v e r n m e n t - i m p o s e d  r e g u l a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s . "  45  T h e s e g r o u p s c a n slow o r h a l t only  then  often  crests  (Paehlke, these and  proceed  under  before  professional  volunteer  dine with  particularly  groups a r e " o f t e n h i g h l y  i n the p o l i t i c a l  people".  r e s o l v e s the problem"  a s r e p r e s e n t i n g an e c o n o m i c  and b u s i n e s s  less well-to-do  which c a n  o u t r a g e . . . and t h e wave  s u s t a i n e d enforcement  able to p a r t i c i p a t e  time,  government a c t i o n  "extensive public  1989: 2 0 8 ) . As w e l l  environmental  process  elite, educated  much more  than  46 They make c a m p a i g n c o n t r i b u t i o n s , politicians  i n c e n t r e and r i g h t  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  wing p o l i t i c a l  parties.  "The e c o n o m i c e l i t e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d a y - t o - d a y , n o n e l e c t o r a l , p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h e i r s k i l l s and t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e t h a t o u r c u l t u r e g r a n t s them a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n b o t h c l o s e d and open forums."47 Environmentalism liberalism and  the unorganized  times" are  as well  (Paehlke,  because  " i n such  interest  a system  l o s e ground, p a r t i c u l a r l y  1989: 2 0 8 ) . F u t u r e  not r e p r e s e n t e d  incrementa1ism  i s incompatible with  i n the l i b e r a l  group  the less i n hard  organized economic  g e n e r a t i o n s and o t h e r political  species  system o f  and compromise.  "Ecology i s a comprehension o f systems, i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s , webs o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o n n e c t i o n s e x t e n d i n g o v e r s p a c e and t i m e — a n d t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f o u r p o l i t i c s i s t o z e r o i n on s i n g l e c a u s e s " 48 Moderate s o l u t i o n s which a r e " p i e c e m e a l ,  partial,  and  68 technical"  can not p r o v i d e t h e s o l u t i o n  fundamental  t o a need  c h a n g e w h i c h modern, i n d u s t r i a l  make i n t e r m s o f " p r o d u c t i o n , c o n s u m p t i o n , habits". whole  According to Paehlke,  "liberal  tradition  Environmentalists,  like  government d e f i c i t s different and  conservatism systems,  Because  those  latent  management".49  to shortages of resources and s o c i a l  limits  "are a t the root  period  such  o f slow  population,  does not admit  o f the economic d i f f i c u l t i e s " . i n an  hazardous  settlement, stressing  a i r and w a t e r  use, resource d e p l e t i o n ,  waste management, and r e c y c l i n g . "  Urban-based, g r a s s r o o t s c i t i z e n s response and  to environmental  public  open s p a c e  i s s u e s , such  (Castells:  51  industrialized,  U n l i k e the w i l d e r n e s s p r o t e c t i o n  energy  capitalist  economic  of the  c o n s e r v a t i o n movement, e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism " c o n s i s t e n t l y more on human  neo-  a s a d e p e n d e n c e on n o n r e n e w a b l e  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism i s an i d e o l o g y b o r n world.  l i m i t a t i o n s on  are real,  1989: 2 1 8 ) . B u t n e o - c o n s e r v a t i s m problems,  reductions i n  i n "most b u r e a u c r a t i c  i n any e x t e n d e d  that environmental  urbanized  'disposal'  consumer s p e n d i n g — b u t f o r  are responding  remain  emerging  growth"(Paeh1ke,  energy,  of technocratic  o f a new age o f p h y s i c a l  will  and  need t o  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism q u e s t i o n s t h e  and r e d u c e d  economic expansion".50  societies  neo-conservatives, support  r e a s o n s . Both  "the onset  for real,  focused  pollution,  occupational health, 52  movements o f t e n a r i s e i n as p r e s e r v a t i o n o f parkland  1983).  At times  their  zeal i s  69 termed not  emotional.  only  to future generations,  environmental per  But the t h r e a t o f c a n c e r s  cent  of  issues  p e a c e movements, and c i v i l are  class,  reluctant  of a social  t o pay t h e c o s t s  Environmentalists, conservative a  a l s o support  reproduction  but a middle c l a s s — t h e m a j o r i t y  contradictions  system  although  support  increased  spending  and do " n o t t r e a t  sacred  to neoconservatives  t o expand  environmental  and p e n a l t i e s , oppose growth,  w e l f a r e and  a b o u t how government  revenues  t h e market economy a s an  a r e a l s o more s y m p a t h e t i c  m i n o r i t i e s and "might be more c o m f o r t a b l e  neoconservatives  with  55 O p i n i o n  show e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  racial,  on  cow". 5 4  Environmentalists  polls  a working  t h e economic e l i t e a r e  on h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n ,  programs, a r e s e l e c t i v e  inviolate  crosses  o f not j u s t  t o be a s f i s c a l l y  a s " r e d T o r i e s " , a r e opposed  increased,  ethnic  Environmentalists  g r o w t h and s p e n d i n g , d e - e m p h a s i z e e c o n o m i c  cultural are  women's movements,  reproduction.  likely  r e g u l a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e e n f o r c e m e n t  t o P a e h l k e , 80  of society, against the  wherein  of social  number o f key i s s u e s . They w i s h  military  According  r i g h t s movements. 5 3  s t r u g g l i n g f o r continued  diseases  b u t t o o n e ' s own c h i l d r e n , makes  "motherhood" o n e s .  environmentalists  and l u n g  class,  a c t u a l l y reducing  t o women and than  governmental enjoy  p u b l i c support  r e g i o n a l , e t h n i c and g e n d e r  Paehlke argues that e x i s t i n g  political  deficits." that  boundaries.  p a r t i e s c a n be  70  "recycled"  to s e r v e  "development political and  the  of  environmentalist  i n n o v a t i v e and  institutions."  Liberal  environmental  Party  environmental  "are  at  56  least  the  the  administrative  and  New  Party  Democratic  sometimes open t o  Environmentalists  candidacies  ideas  including  participatory  In Canada, b o t h  policies."  t o seek p o l i t i c a l  goals,  i n these  can  be  proencouraged  p a r t i e s and  then  carry  views about  sustainability  to the e l e c t o r a t e .  A SUiSTA INAILE COMMUNITY Environmentalists of geographic  areas,  "sustainability"  differ  represents  the p l a n e t can  o f human e n g i n e e r i n g  interfered  with  the  no  necessity  for maintaining  a  restored  liveable  strip  natural  of  to  However, state, a  sufficient  Compromise s o l u t i o n s or  "bio-reserves"  in a  managing b i o - r e g i o n s  land, a i r or water  in  and/or  resources.  In i n c r e a s i n g l y u r b a n i z e d existence  poison  led  in a natural  e n v i r o n m e n t and  planet,  and  and  w a t e r seems t o be  state while  t h a t d o e s not  problems.  considered  l a n d , a i r and  p r e s e r v i n g p a r t s o f the  a s u s t a i n a b l e way unduly  be  base f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s .  or  "biosphere"  life-threatening  longer  o f management o f  protected  that  type  some t y p e  suggest  e c o l o g i s t s arguing  the  what d o o m s a y e r s c l a i m a r e  resource  their  t h e most a r d e n t  management w h i c h has  since  on  local  Non-partisanship  of  polities local  has  post-industrial been r e p l a c e d  political  societies, by  urban  players hardly  the  matrices.  operates  in  71 metropolitan secure The  a r e a s where f u n d i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  idea of local  technocrats police,  Despite  an axiom  surrounded from the  what's  theory  global, act  with  pressures  sophisticated  of  contexts.  envisions  pockets of urbanization ( i . e .  government  resembling  local  criteria  garbage p i c k The G r e a t e r  Rock's  up,  area polity,  more  f o r example,  would  be more o f  now  acts,  construction  and  ruling  i n charge of  t i d i n e s s of s t r e e t s e t c .  Vancouver Regional  optimum p o p u l a t i o n  surpassed  f o r new  city)  Vancouver urban  in effect,  government  a local  require  White Rock,  would,  as a  e a c h human s e t t l e m e n t  While g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  forms o f government.  on d e s i g n  i s usually  o f W h i t e Rock which once o p e r a t e d  n e i g h b o u r h o o d , much a s t h e c i t y mostly  local",  "bio-regions".  and demands o f u r b a n i z a t i o n  Local  for their  on h i r e d  This  be s e e n a s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t h e G r e a t e r corridor.  politicians.  the interdependence o f  by g r e e n b e l t s s e p a r a t i n g  the other.  best  on  s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s such a s  of "think  the concept  the s i z e  national  depends  water.  are faced  Environmental  governments  by a d e p e n d e n c e  in larger regional  under  communities  replaced  sewage and  environmentalists  addressed  knowing  t o h a n d l e complex  fire,  communities  p r o v i n c i a l and  politicos  c o m m u n i t i e s has been  for local  t o be  District  18,200, which  i n 2036. The u s e o f combined  sewer  envisions  White  i s projected overflows  t o be  (CSO)  72 remains under r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l . which a r e p e r m i t t e d rainstorms,  and  resulted with  i n poor  accept the  storm  years. for  areas  during  are  bodies  toxic  coliforms.  Road  sewer  i n W h i t e Rock means  interchange  rainfall.  to a l l o w  a practical  CSOs b u t  by  i t to  Water r e t e n t i o n ponds f o r  i n South Surrey  show them t o be by  heavy  CSOs have  t o heavy m e t a l s ,  the problem e f f e c t i v e l y  served  outlets  o f a l l r e g i o n a l sewer o u t l e t s  w a t e r have been used  not  sewage o v e r f l o w  w a t e r due  loads during  Studies  water  w a t e r c o n d i t i o n s i n some w a t e r  fecal  the Johnston  heavier  storm  t o c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t s , such  degraded  contaminants and/or  pressuring  cent  to f a i r  increasingly  Addressing  to d i s c h a r g e  14 p e r  combined. A c c o r d i n g  These a r e  f o r a number  control  separate  of  alternative  sewer and  storm  d r a i ns. "Wet in The areas to  ponds a r e  l a r g e , uncovered  a permanent p o o l best  solution  where t h e e x c e s s  o f w a t e r from  f o r Combined flow  can  be  t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sewage t r e a t m e n t  such  facilities  for areas  ponds w h i c h one  storm  mainta to t h e  Sewer O v e r f l o w s held until  i t can  p l a n t . The  are  next."57 storage  be d e l i v e r e d  cost of p r o v i d i n g  w h i c h c u r r e n t l y have p o o r o r  fair  water  q u a l i t y would be $41 p e r r e g i o n a l h o u s e h o l d p e r y e a r . "Storage b a s i n s are covered r e i n f o r c e d concrete s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h c a n be b u r i e d i n t h e g r o u n d ; t h e y i n c o r p o r a t e v e n t i l a t i o n , washdown s y s t e m s and odour c o n t r o l . " 5 8 The  Center  for Regenerative  Pol y t e c h n i c a 1 ) i n C a l i f o r n i a ,  S t u d i e s at Cal  operates  an  Poly  (California-  experimental  73 environmentally according  to John T i l l m a n  production this  and  living  rather  sustainable  "the  the  of  environmental the  use  of  catchers, the  flow  rather  breezes,  and  isolating social  our  biotic  natural  be  hillside  calls  systems  l o c a l e and  as  a  sustainable  and  open  L e t t i n g n a t u r e do  the  work means  cooling  systems,  masonry h e a t e r s ,  of water, organized  and  could  experimentation.  clean-burning  than  storage,  i t s southfacing  solar heating  shelter,  59  capital."  sea  sustainability,  i n t e r r e l a t e d . Lyle  i n t e r e s t y i e l d e d by  W h i t e Rock, w i t h beneficiary  Lyle, considers  waste a s s i m i l a t i o n as  on  than  community. Such  planting  functions  organization  within which  rooftop  wind  l a n d f o r m s which  f o r pest  to  guide  c o n t r o l , combining  a community,  well-managed  prioritizes  s u s t a i nab i 1 i t y . In a s u s t a i n a b l e  community  information  replaces  power: " r e s i d e n t s are t r a i n e d to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y observe the o p e r a t i o n o f e a c h s y s t e m as p a r t o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . E l e c t r o n i c a l l y o p e r a t e d s e n s i n g d e v i c e s m o n i t o r some c r i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s s u c h as s o i l m o i s t u r e . Water q u a l i t y i n t h e a q u a c u l t u r a l ponds and sewage s y s t e m a r e c o n t i n o u s l y m o n i t o r e d by l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s . " 6 0 Goals f o r energy adequate,  rather  in a sustainable  than s u r p l u s ,  r e n w e a b l e ) , m i n i m i z e use resources, toxic  of  quantities fuel  fossil  f u e l s and  keep waste t o a minimum and  w a s t e , and  community a r e  supply  (preferably  other  eliminate  to  nonrenewable  hazardous  m a x i m i z e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  or  control  74 (such and  as  encouraging  small  v e h i c l e use  authorities). parking reduce city  by  way  city  could  Priorities  fruit  for paid bearing  (Boundary Bay  lots,  i s the  wetland  and  parking  urban on  food  to p r o t e c t  the  r e d u c e water of  diversions  wetlands i s to  f o r w a t e r q u a l i t y t h a n human c o n s u m p t i o n ) .  Waste d i s p o s a l  used  in forests,  as  paths.  banks.)  lower s t a n d a r d be  (the  Marine D r i v e ) .  n e a r White Rock)  treated  off  s t r e e t s and  More p r o a c t i v e use  of  run  in  s t r e e t s to  well  can  use  a reduction  narrower  lots  local  run-off,  system  residents  encouraged, as  sludge  as  i s by  concurrent  of  local  transportation  f o r water p r e s e r v a t i o n are  c o n t r o l water c h e m i s t r y .  by  trees along  become p r o p e r t y  watershed, c o n t r o l a g r i c u l t u r a l and  walking  and  off-road parking  amount o f pavement and  would p l a n t  fruit  the  and  to encourage walking  o f White Rock o p t e d  Cities (The  One  s p a c e s and the  b i c y c l e use  sewage e f f l u e n t  be  (having  a  Sewage  S e a t t l e e x p e r i m e n t s have shown.  i n a s u s t a i n a b l e community  can  be  regenerative.  " B u r n i n g i s a r e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i f t h e h e a t e n e r g y c a n be put t o u s e , v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s a r e not d e s t r o y e d by t h e b u r n i n g , i f t h e b y - p r o d u c t s do not p o l l u t e the a i r , and i f t h e ash can r e - e n t e r n a t u r e ' s p r o c e s s e s w i t h o u t doing damage. B u r i a l c a n be r e g e n e r a t i v e i f c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e b u r i a l p l a c e are such t h a t e i t h e r m a t e r i a l s are s t o r e d f o r f u t u r e r e u s e o r i f d e c a y and renew c o n t i n u e o n . . . e s p e c i a 1 1 y i f we m a i n t a i n our p r e s e n t c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s and keep the t h r o u g h p u t system i n o p e r a t i o n , l a n d f i l l s may become t h e most p r o d u c t i v e mines o f t h e 2 1 s t c e n t u r y . At t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , we might d e s i g n them f o r r a p i d d e c o m p o s i t i o n . By i n t r o d u c i n g some w a t e r i n c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d q u a n t i t i e s , we might c o n v e r t l a n d f i l l s i n t o g i a n t b i o g a s d i g e s t e r s . " 61  75 Sharing increase  s e c u r i t y and  centralized to  replace  visible  resources  control  and yield  sense of  wetlands a f t e r f a l l i n g use;  plants,  trees  can  can  operate better greening  of  l a n d s c a p e s can  filtered rooftops  heavily  major s t r e e t s and  communities  than  landscapes give  a  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental  be  from be  Increased  industrial  successful Water c a n  in local  networks t h a t  structures.  greys of urban,  sustainability.  future  storage  other  through p l a n t s and  i n ponds  s t r e e t s , and  planted  around  stored  and for  industrial  sources of a i r p o l l u t i o n .  " V i r t u a l l y a l l c i t i e s , w h e t h e r we f i n d i t e a s y t o a c c e p t o r n o t , a r e d e p e n d e n t p a r t s o f l a r g e r u r b a n r e g i o n s , and u r b a n r e g i o n s a r e p a r t o f a g l o b a l m a t r i x . Thus g a r d e n c i t i e s become g a r d e n c o m m u n i t i e s , and g r e e n b e l t s become g r e e n n e t w o r k s , e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e c o m m u n i t i e s and w e a v i n g them together. In t h e g r e e n n e t w o r k s a r e t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t support l i f e . " 62 Sustainability e x p e n s i v e as Mississippi repair.  cost  a  technocratic  According  to  natural  "conventional" l e s s to  improved  be  c o s t - e f f e c t i v e , not p r o h i b i t i v e l y s o l u t i o n s suggest.  sewage s y s t e m was  w i t h a new, for  can  Lyle one  expected  to c o s t  1991, $11  a damaged  million  ( 1 9 9 4 ) t h e sewage s y s t e m was  but  the  value  of  s y s t e m s may re-used  to  replaced  f o r $350,000, a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f  system. R e g e n e r a t i v e  implement,  In  the  not  resources  cost  only or  q u a l i t y becomes a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r .  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism, technical/scientific philosophy  unlike  ideology  the  pretensions  i t confronts,  which p r i o r i z e s o r g a n i c  life  and  of is a  the value-laden  celebrates  the  human  76  condition.  Environmental  values  environmental  ideology  force against  the short-term  of  capitalism.  fundamental political An  are  full  profit  beliefs,  have t o g u a r d  environmental from  a s an i d e a l  labour  and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y  against  ideology  undermines  environmentalists  who e n t e r t h e  compromise and c o o p t a t i o n .  agenda s e e k s n o t o n l y  p r o d u c t i v i t y and n a t u r e ,  employment. R e c y c l i n g  o u t l o o k and  counter-hegemonic  a bureaucratic mentality  ecological  arena  alienation to  Since  serves  r e q u i r e a long-term  and o t h e r  t o overcome  but to r e t u r n environmental  i n t e n s i v e . Environmenta1ism q u e s t i o n s  societies projects  the use o f  massive machinery, p r e f e r r i n g to use o n l y energy e f f i c i e n t technology tools  such as computers. T e c h n o l o g y  i s viewed  f o r human u s e , n o t a s an end i n i t s e l f  soft  as p r o v i d i n g  ( i . e . bigger  i s not  better). Conservation, resources, but  recycling,  not only  preserves  lowers the c o s t s o f energy  reuse  and e f f i c i e n t  resources thus  g i v i n g poorer  local  s o c i e t y access  t o key f a c i l i t i e s .  input  into education  and s c h o o l i n g  use  of resources.  production, consume  It proposes  wealthier  generations, members o f a  Environmenta1ism  i n order  t o promote  careful  i n s t e a d o f demanding  members o f s o c i e t y s h o u l d  waste  seeks  greater  l e s s and  less.  Environmenta1ism but  that  f o r future  use o f  provides  not o n l y q u e s t i o n s  an i d e o l o g y  of self-denial  consumption  patterns,  and r e s t r a i n t .  Instead o f  77  driving  a Porsche,  Environmentalists must  now  attempt  smaller)  have waged (as  b o a r d r o o m s and  local  business  marginalized  r e s i d e n t s are  their  back  owners s i t on  environmentalists,  reversed  with  increased  creative  management o f  and  b a t t l e while  political  being  denied  rooms. At  the  but grows  access  to  local not  which c o u l d  issues of  walk,  society,  c o u n c i l committees,  on  to  e c o l o g i c a l space  a situation  priority  encouraged  battle in c i v i l  t i m e grows s h o r t  t o wage a p o l i t i c a l  corporate level,  f o r example,  become  sustainability  and  resources.  LOCALIST P O L I T I C S Localist for  political  philosophy  t e n d s t o blame o u t s i d e  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c problems which a r i s e  In modern s t a t e s o c i e t i e s ,  this  blame f o r c o n t e n t i o u s  i s s u e s on  provincial  should  government  pollution).  Evolving  "passing  from E u r o p e a n  relations  o f power,  outsiders  for interference in local  local  elites'  d e p e n d e n c y on  power b a s e s ,  i s an  on  of  promotion  economic  local  Where l o c a l  buck"  White Rock's  a propensity  external  affairs.  for  ideology  lays  ( i . e . the beach  criticizing  Consistent  blame t o m a i n t a i n  self-interest  which p l a c e s  with local priority  economic b e n e f i t s .  c o m m u n i t i e s have a c l a s s - b a s e d  f o r community-wide p o l i t i c a l  tend  favour  leftist  locale.  metropolis-hinterland  calling to  the  s t a t e governments  c l e a n up  l o c a l i s m has  in a particular  forces  and  philosophy  economic e q u i t y ,  c o u n c i l s . When h i e r a r c h i c a l  social  they  78 stratification prioritized),  i s favored local  (and ' b u s i n e s s '  communities  favour  right-wing  reminiscent  of nineteenth  (Cannadine,  1982) Indeed, C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l  patterned elitist  after  brand  on  issues  all  cost.  British  19th c e n t u r y B r i t i s h  local  councils, governments.  structures are  systems. T h i s  o f l o c a l i s m and n a t i o n a l  rather  has c r e a t e d  pariiamentarianism,  Canadian p o l i t i c s  elitism  an  e l e c t i o n s which a r e f o u g h t  than p a r t i e s o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y s e e k i n g  At t h e c o r e ,  M. Mereleman,  century  agendas a r e  and d e f e r e n c e  a win a t  tend t o to authority  (Richard  1991.)  "Lack o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between p a r t i s a n i d e n t i t y and c l a s s i n Canada i s a d i s j u n c t i o n between t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y , m a j o r i t a r i a n model o f l i b e r a l p o l i t i c s , and an a l t e r n a t i v e d u a l i s t i c , r e g i o n a l e t h n i c mode 1 . . . c u 1 t u r e a s a l e g i t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e c o n v e y s t o Canada a u n i q u e q u a l i t y . . . i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s l e s s common t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s y e t c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s weaker t h a n i n B r i t a i n . " 63 As  well  (present British from  as a symbolic  i n local queen),  council  pariiamentarianism.  m a j o r i t a r i a n i s t model Local  members o f p a r l i a m e n t  for  pictures  of the  who b e l o n g  deriving  o f Westminster  power b r o k e r s p r e f e r  to deal  to a r u l i n g p o l i t i c a l  t h a n members o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n  local  with party  who c a n n o t a c c e s s  funds  initiatives.  Localism which  chambers w h i c h p o s t  monarchy,  l o c a l i s m d e p e n d s on s o u r c e s o f a u t h o r i t y  the t r a d i t i o n a l ,  rather  d e p e n d e n c e on B r i t i s h  favours  also  derives  authority  from a p a t e r n a l i s t i c c u l t u r e  t h e community and p o l i t i c a l  participation of  79 middle-aged to  those  men.  with  Conversely, there  tend  to  heroes"  zoning  owner  (D.  creates  feels  compelled  and  from  to  to  remain  predominance  of  partisanship  was  party  politics  politics  have  politicians  propertied evoked  waged  to  in  interested  of  often  local  responsibilities  party  posturing  classes  in  contrast  of  of for  local in  and  classes  a  these  take  hospital  property  century  1984).  on  Britain  In  an  the and  non-  class-based  However,  public  land  communities  affairs  by  when  and  politics.  polarized  ideology  who  and  19th  cities.  worlds  example,  downplayed  the  and  "small  local  local  democracy,  ( i . e . members  smaller  localism,  (Tindal:  communities  organizers  politics  participation.  i n both  America  in p o l i t i c s  representative  by  neighbourhood  localist  much  legitimacy,  C1990]),  fast-rising  influenced  exemplars the  "local",  to  male  participate in  North  1991).  spaces.  urbanization  turn-of-the-century  attempt  in a  power  environmental  in creation  Eagles,  political  increasing  for  middle-aged  conflict  to  i s promoted  result  Munroe  "Non-partisan" stemmed  urban  participation  influences  64  political  (Grafftey,  attachment  1990)  in defined  local  resources.  "emotional  middle-class,  Neighbourhood  of  r e l a t e s best  Bickerton,  congregate  particularly  use  localism  (Gagnon,  granting  economic  r e l i a n c e on  Citizenship  local  equates  greater  where  is a  locales"  This  party  soliciting affairs. political additional  boards).  local  Alleged actors  are  community  While  80 community  involvement  at  privilege  of property  ownership,  the U n i t e d people local  States  in local  first  led to the  politics,  politicians  are  indirectly.  educated,  from  the  t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y reforms  increased  reflecting  i n f l u e n c e of  their  in  business  important  Political  do  from  occupations average  role  in  concentration distinctive localism.  higher and  citizens  (which  tend  social  enjoy  local  either  directly  t o be b e t t e r  backgrounds,  "work a t  considerably higher  i n the communities  p r i v a t e and Conflicts  political  over  and  democratic  chambers where c o l l e c t i v e  Community neighbour, the honesty  values,  property,  access  systems which  individual  communities  public  celebrated ideal,  of  implies residential  of wealth) with  notions of a free  interest  status,  i n which  they  65  Home o w n e r s h i p  another  non-partisan  party a c t i v i s t s  more a f f l u e n t ,  incomes t h a n reside."  claimed  often involved in party p o l i t i c s  more p r e s t i g i o u s  with  status deriving  economies. Thus, d e s p i t e t h e i r  or  denoted  legislate  mediates at interests  property  the  of  into  i s a celebrated ideal  are  power a r i s e ideals  local  a r e weighed  because  o f t e n at  level  of  odds  Debate,  in council  a g a i n s t the  self-  owners.  selflessness  efficiency  and  divided  f o r the p o w e r f u l .  i n favour  s t r u g g l e f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p and  spatially  to p o l i t i c a l society  stability  local  and  of a s s i s t i n g d e s i r e to  governments a r e  one's  improve  ideological  81 components  of localism  Linked local  with  political  s t r e s s e d i n campaign  mass p o l i t i c a l  during e l e c t i o n  contested  ones).  Party  brokers  Growth  ( i n Canada,  coalitions  capitalists  often  and o t h e r  campaigns  fund  t h e amount o f a c c e s s  power  a  raising local  power  link  power  local  have s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l  "character  than  mostly  participation  h a s much t o do  has with  national  politicians City  with  cabinet).  industrial  and m u n i c i p a l i n meeting  mayors,  local  linkages. Provincial  tend  and  t o be more i s s u e o r i e n t e d  politics  which e x p l i c i t y  promote  and l e a d e r s h i p . "  Continued  e c o n o m i c growth and e x p l o i t a t i o n  resources  (including  prosperity  f o r local  by  however,  localist  are  closely  brokers.  constituents,  ideological  ties  (particularly  members o f p a r l i a m e n t  party p o l i t i c s ,  government by-  r e s i d e s i n the f e d e r a l  assist  and  state  politician  whose o f f i c e s  federal  and  party organizations, p o l i t i c a l  activated  with  parties  literature.  localism.  political)  centralization  with  public  policy  within  localism  local  encouraged to p r o v i d e  populations are p r a c t i c a l  Increased  of  participatory  decentralization  and p r e s u m a b l y l e a d  projects  addressed  d e m o c r a c y and b a l a n c i n g ( o f community  decisions) are p o l i t i c a l  economic  s e r v i c e s and  g o a l s which c r e a t e t e n s i o n  t o p r o m o t i o n o f non-  partisanship . ENVIRONMENTALIST  POLITICS  Environmentalists  operate  with  what  Gramsci c a l l s "pessimism  82 of the  intelligence,  Following  optimism  i n Gramsci's  footsteps,  history  are  inextricably  related  to b a t t l e s about  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism well  as  Pragmatic  they  l i n k e d and  degradation  idealistic  of e t h i c s  with  a need  and  struggles  as  ideology,  ( f o r nature  to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t  as  ideology  for social  justice  1994). philosophically, environmentalists d e m o c r a c y combined  would  repressive regulations.  with  environment  supersedes a l l other  traditional  economics p r i o r i t i z e d  struggles  an  1992).  nature  view p o l i t i c a l  participatory view a s  (Golding,  assume t h a t  t r u t h . Seen a s  h u m a n i t y ) . Those a d h e r i n g  Press,  will"  promotes a p h i l o s o p h y  equate environmental (Daniel  of the  what t r a d i t i o n a l I n t e g r i t y of  considerations by  believe in  the  prioritized  like  and  the  physical  (as opposed  political  f o r socio-economic equity  localists  right  by  the  to  and  political  left) . Much  l o c a l i s m , commitment  elements of environmental Po1itics  (1994),  differs  from  centric  or  traditional  human-centred  animal  life,  to n o n - v i o l e n c e ,  a call  social  f o r personal a push  , in  political  justice and  by for  Eco-  being  bio-  diversity  on  values,  global  important  philosophy  a respect  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , focus  f e m i n i s t and  d e m o c r a c y and  Coleman  are  philosophies  Coleman c i t e s  sustainab 1i1ity,  grassroots  Daniel  notes that environmental  life-centred.  o f p l a n t and  ideology.  citizenship  a  commitment  responsibility,  f o r community-based  economics  83 (I.e.  local  political  c o o p e r a t i v e s ) as  challenge existing  stressing  the democratic  demanding  input into  leadership  environmental  i s seen  authority  as an  policy  and  this  e x e r c i s e s what D a n i e l P r e s s calls  to prevent  found  debates.  by  in localism  and  A perceived c r i s i s  in  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to crisis  f o r environmentalism  1994)  authorities  n o t i o n s of debate  public  challenge authority,  rally  components o f  philosophy.  Environmentalists  Eco1ogy,  integral  becomes a s o u r c e  itself.  (Democratic  As  such,  losses,  rather  environmenta1ism  Dilemmas  "negative authority",  of  i n t h e Age  of  as e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  than m o b i l i z e f o r  political  g a i ns. Social as  interdependence,  sources of authority  community and  a l o n g w i t h a need  cooperation are to r e s o l v e  which p r o v i d e s a c o n t i n u e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e authority  and  "critique"  power r e l a t i o n s  rather  P e r c e i v e d as  a  government w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  for  social  environmental  government  and  justice  within  calling  t h e bounds o f  structures.  participation  legislation,  a s opposed  bureaucrats,  would  according  existing  law  of  Citizen  of  i d e o l o g y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism q u e s t i o n s  legitimacy  existing  1994).  conflict,  t h a n an  the  and  (Coleman,  cited  popular  to d e c i s i o n  result  to Paehlke  and  from  making by  open and  ("Environmental  input into  public  Harm and  environmental  environmental decision-making Corporate  Crime",  84 1995).  Collective  (Golding, convey  1992),  serves to unite e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  the p a s s i o n Gramsci  organic  terrain  Creating  a political  following  t o be e v e n t  participation technical limited  focussed  can y i e l d  complexity  citizen  life,  a c t o r s tend to  on t h e permanent and  but which  transcends  i t " 66  agenda f a v o r a b l e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  participation,  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  political  c l a i m s i s "born  o f economic  requires c i t i z e n  tends  will  which  disaster.  normally  rallies  As s u c h ,  environmentalism  (Zachary Smith,  control  participation.  1993).  over p u b l i c  of environmental  needs  only  Only  policy,  continued  but the  i s s u e s h a s f r u s t r a t e d and  As Sue G o l d i n g  observes,  "The c h a l l e n g e o f t e c h n o c r a c y s t r a i n s o u r a b i l i t y t o b r i d g e t h e g o a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d need f o r e x p e r t i s e " . 67 Using only  a political  self-reliant  citizen  action since  the local  (Coleman,  i s to remain  sense  1994).  a good  idea  and  environmental  support  i t will  that  problems,  use o f p o l i t i c a l  to a broader  base,  become a  The c h a l l e n g e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  united, particularly  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  ecological  on t h e i d e a  f o r b o y c o t t s extends  community  where t e c h n o l o g y grows beyond and  the s t r a t e g i c  The c a l l  " i f enough p e o p l e  reality" then,  includes  boycotts.  beyond  based  communities can s o l v e environmental  empowerment  commercial  g r a s s r o o t s approach  i n a complex  the c o n t r o l  of local  between t h o s e who a c t i v e l y  society communities,  promote  p r a c t i c e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and t h o s e who  simply  embrace  85 environmental  rhetoric  t o win  Community c o n t r o l asserts  that  g r o u p s and in  nature  and  as o p p o s e d  nature"  as an  of  (Coleman,  which  environmental  ecological  responsibility  the  last  stage  seeking  with  localism,  c o m p e t i t i t i o n and  as  rejects values and  o f the  and  the  with  the  in  ideal  responsibility  individualism)  love of beauty,  with  can  be  r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas  sexual  roles  (Lipietz,  include s o l i d a r i t y ,  a political  such  1995).  autonomy,  democracy o f  professional  twentieth century, find  themselves  p r o g r e s s i v e greens.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  make p o l i t i c a l  environmental  technical  6 8 combined  found  technology  v a l u e on c a r e and  along  coalitions  eco-entrepeneurs  then  f o r the d i v e r s i t y  permanent  action.  with  which  such  i n environmenta1ism  activists  social  environmenta1ism.  Passionate  In  which  i n b e t t e r outcomes f o r  1994)  (placing  ideals,  eco-feminism  employment.  " s c i e n c e must d e v e l o p  to c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n ,  ideals  political  retain  environmentalist ideal  results  that  economy  Traditional located  control  a belief  a moralistic  are core  r e m a i n s an  or  a c l e a n e r environment. Respect  harmony w i t h of  local  votes  preaches  a  lobby  groups,  expertise.  politically (Paehlke,  linked  1995)  non-partisanship  l i n k a g e s more f l u i d .  o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been b u i l t  environmental  Permanent  t o become  r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s and  sources  of  As  86 Education concentrate that  is  f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who p r e f e r t o  power, and e x e r c i s e a " p o l i t i c s  insists  social  i s a key t o o l  that  "reform  of support,  t o "put p r e s s u r e dramatize  a zeal  i s n o t enough", b u t t h a t p o l i t i c a l  transformation are required  utilized  o f p l a c e " with  (Coleman,  on d e c i s i o n  issues,  and h e l p  1994).Direct  and  action  makers, m o b i l i z e f o r c e s  raise  the consciousness."  69 Political self-reliance interests  l i n k a g e s a r e viewed dialectical1y  and s t a t e  policy.  posed  as h o l i s t i c ,  70. R a t h e r  than  According  to Daniel  election  o f environmental  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l Such a f f i r m a t i v e new e n v i r o n m e n t a l  action  justice  politicians planning  movement  (Press,  are p o l i t i c a l  o f e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l local  and p l a c i n g o f  production f o r local  tools  political  t o an e x i s t i n g  marginalized  member  money and market  of society  I find  which access.  bio-regions are needs  1994). B a r t e r s y s t e m s and c o o p e r a t i v e s a r e o f f e r e d alternatives  of the  1994).Initiatives,  o f democracy t o d e l i v e r  to ensure  process,  h a s been a c o n s i s t e n t p r o j e c t  challenge  favored,  Press  commissions.  legislation'  Establishment  (1994)  system,  to the p o l i t i c a l  r e f e r e n d a and ' d i r e c t the a b i l i t y  Press  capital  environmental  a t t a c k i n g t h e market  c o n s i d e r s progress as g r e a t e r access including  community  against international  "markets a r e not i n h e r e n t l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h protection"  with  (Coleman, as  system, which as a  inclusive  action.  Creation  87 of  "green c i t i e s "  v a l u e on n a t u r e .  in practice  stems from  Increasingly,  comparative  merits of existing  calculating  t h e economic  an i d e o l o g y w h i c h  places  e c o l o g i s t s are a s s e s s i n g the state  and market  systems  value of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y  by  and a h a b i t a b l e  e n v i ronment. As  opposed  to l o c a l i s m ,  environmentalism 1995)  that  devastation  which  control At  have wreaked  havoc  o f the p h y s i c a l  o f market  environment  the l e a s t , which  protects  encourages  markets  changing  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  with r e l y i n g  non-democratic  broad  "whistle  f o r recycled  problem  apparent  around  need  judicial  of  minority interpret  small  72  criminalizes  environmental  1995).  justice  capitalist who  t a x e s and A  without  systems  remain  t h e laws which  effect  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism become although  l o c a l e s and t h e a b i l i t y  lies  independent  1995)  localism  a  f o r s t r o n g government  blowers",  an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e :  philosophies praise  (Paehlke)  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  p o p u l a t i o n s y e t who  T e n s i o n s between  m i n i m a l l y , "a  products.(Paeh1ke,  relations  those populat i o n s . ( L i p i e t z ,  to the  hegemony and " e l i m i n a t i o n o r  substances, r a i s e s  critical  (Lipietz,  t h e p a s t " . 71 and m a x i m a l l y ,  there i s a pressing  bans t o x i c  from  require,  f o r c e s and c o r p o r a t i o n s "  pollution,  with a  tradition,  on t h e b i o s p h e r e . S o l u t i o n s  dismantling of c a p i t a l i s t  legislation  on  r e q u i r e s breaks with past t r a d i t i o n  multitude o f small breaks with complete  relies  both of local  88  populations localism  to best  manage t h e i r  heavily favours  necessarily  such  t r a d i t i o n s which  seeks to d i s m a n t l e .  W h i t e Rock p o l i t i c i a n s  own s o c i a l  and e c o n o m i c  environmentalism  F o r i n s t a n c e , whereas  traditional  prefer to discuss controversial  as beach p o l l u t i o n ,  behind  affairs,  c l o s e d doors  at c i t y  issues, hall,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s p r e f e r t o draw t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e media, raise  p u b l i c awareness a t t h e beach  discussion  i n council  Golding ideologues, they  forget that  character,  and demand p u b l i c  chambers.  (1992) i d e n t i f i e s  their  itself,  supporters, "ideology  but s t r u c t u r a l  a trap  into  and t h e i r  which  environmental  media c o n t a c t s  fall  when  i s not p s y c h o l o g i c a l or m o r a l i s t i c i n  and  epistemo1ogica1".  " . . . t h e y form t h e h a b i t o f c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i t i c s and h i s t o r y a s . . . a c o m p e t i t i o n i n c o n j u r i n g and s l e i g h t o f hand. ' C r i t i c a l ' a c t i v i t y i s [thus] reduced to the exposure o f s w i n d l e s , t o c r e a t i n g s c a n d a l s , and t o p r y i n g i n t o t h e p o c k e t s o f p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s . " 73 Certainly,  the type  Rock MLA and p r o v i n c i a l with of  the type  need  money f o r l o c a l  o f news w h i c h g r a c e s  f o r honesty  presented  cabinet minister B i l l  a company r e c e i v i n g  News. Y e t t h e s c a n d a l the  o f scandal  opened  and i n t e g r i t y  Reid's  recycling  the f r o n t  terrain  by f o r m e r  be u n d e r m i n e d  solution  i s one example  f o r d i s c u s s i o n not j u s t  i n local  by e x c e s s i v e p r o f i t s  White Rock, t h e p r a c t i c a l  involvement  page o f t h e P e a c e  Arch on  p o l i t i c i a n s , but  a b o u t w h e t h e r a c t i o n s meant t o c o r r e c t e n v i r o n m e n t a l would  White  degradation  a n d / o r c o n s u m p t i o n . In  to the B i l l  Reid  scandal  was a  89  public and  service  recycling  the e l i m i n a t i o n  agencies  o f both  political  result,  b u s i n e s s m e n were g r e e d y localist  tradition  political  shrinks  left  ideology.  r e l a t i o n s with hinterland  both  o r dependent  contained,  control,  i s shared  The need  non-partisanship  metropolis-  interest  localities,  as represented  ability  were b o r n . to counter  by c r e a t i n g  such a s  by an " a c t l o c a l "  which  c a t e r to  t o grow and p r o s p e r  i n the  L o c a l i s m and e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism the a l i e n a t i o n  emotional  to survive i n larger philosophy  between  environmenta1ism's " b i o - r e g i o n " .  by t h e two i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h b o t h  they  societies  i n competitive  ideologies i s i n maintaining  self-sufficient and  act local'  i n t h e hands o f l o c a l i s t  territories  serve as attempts  locales.  "think global,  neighboring  and l o c a l i s t  newcomers  hall.  expressed  i n which  burgeoning  axiom  act local"  f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s and t h e i r community  men make t h e b e s t  i s narrowly  "home c o u n t y "  Community philosophy  business  e c o n o m i c a r r a n g e m e n t s . The common  geographically  local  was a p e n e t r a t i o n o f  reach  environmentalist  localism's  perception that  " o l d boys c l u b " a t c i t y  local,  Localism's  program.  t h e d o o r open t o p o l i t i c a l  sum, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l "think  re-cycling  a public  which c l a i m e d  leaders. This  into  c o n t r a c t o r s and v o l u n t a r y  f o r tax d o l l a r s ,  c h a l l e n g e an e x i s t i n g In  private  i n vying f o r the c i t y ' s  The  to  " b l u e box" program managed by t h e c i t y ,  found i n  attachment  to smaller  s o c i e t i e s encourages the  suggest  that  local  governments  90 opportunistically power o v e r  large  cooperate  p a r t y has  o u t l a y s o f goods and s e r v i c e s , and  environmentalists' party  with whatever p o l i t i c a l  opportunistically  a t t a c k whichever  w a s t e s goods and s e r v i c e s . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e community c o n t r o l ,  a political control  goal  l  ideologies. citizen  local  adherence  service  As s u c h , b o t h  become a s s o c i a t e d  with  ideologies  with  community  where s o c i a l  or environmentalist  apply, either  or to a  needed  reflect  m e r i t and p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  "frontier  ideologies  stress  prosecuted  where t h e y were c o m m i t t e d ,  within equally s  sight  local  of their  useful  tactics  Environmenta1ism  forces  justice,  victims. in this  exploitation threatened  a need  j u s t i c e , so  justice"  where  f o rcrimes  t o be  and w r o n g d o e r s  both  punished  C o o p e r a t i o n and c o e r c i o n a r e regard.  d e p a r t s from  o f p r o d u c t i o n as well  with  p h i l o s o p h i e s have a t e n d e n c y t o  individual  a certain  local  for localist  As e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism p r o m o t e s a new e n v i r o n m e n t a l localism  to a  f o r t u n e t o t h e community  donations  political  share  constraints are  r e u s e and r e c y c l e ,  who r e t u r n s h i s good and c h a r i t a b l e  both  to l o c a l i s t  who remembers t o r e d u c e ,  survival.  Along  N o t i o n s o f 'good c i t i z e n s h i p '  philanthropist civil  of decentralization.  comes a r e g u l a t e d l i f e s t y l e ,  used t o e n c o u r a g e  does  political  localism  as r e l a t i o n s  o f r e s o u r c e s becomes a l o c a l  i n that  i t addresses  o f p r o d u c t i o n . When problem,  either  by a  s h o r t a g e o f r e s o u r c e s o r by t h e mode o f r e s o u r c e  91  exploitation reverts  threatening  to d e f e n s i v e  the  and  survival  become p r o b l e m a t i c  production  has  survive.  Localism,  the  c o m b a t i v e mode.  production  shifted  of  community,  If t r a d i t i o n a l  f o r t h e community  elsewhere,  local  therefore, operates  communities are best  f l o u r i s h e s p r i m a r i l y i n the  seen as and  o c c u r r i n g because of  relations Localism  of  resources.  inadequate  particularly  middle-aged  encourages the  opposed  of c o a l i t i o n s  in p r a c t i c e , in  s o c i e t y t o meet  environmenta1ism the  action "common  and  as  men  be  with  the  forces  political  i t s broad  insists  limiting  of  property  or and  pragmatic,  since  a c t i o n d e p e n d s upon  alliances.  ecological  localist  elites,  environmentalist  s e e n as  political  from most  goals.  upon c h a n g e . What t h e  ideologies  right  share  to c r i t i q u e  However, w h i l e  l o c a l i s m l e g i t i m a t e s the  the  members  tradition,  the  the  Environmentalism,  d e p e n d e n c e upon  one's p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y .  lands",  ideology  promotion of heroes  i d e a t h a t one's n e i g h b o u r has on  i s an  notions  t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s a commitment  In c o n t r a s t to a  is  political  t o a more e g a l i t a r i a n  of environmenta1ism  building  to  in a stable socio-  c o n t r o l s over  t o Greek c i t y - s t a t e  i d e o l o g y . Such e g a l i t a r i a n i s m c a n success  unable  wake o f d i s a s t e r s ; d i s a s t e r s  e n c o u r a g e s government by  Localism  demagogues a s  of  production.  participatory-democracy citizenship,  forces  because  e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . E n v i r o n m e n t a 1 i s m , however, which  localism  both  authority  one's  allow  relations  for  92 which e n v i r o n m e n t a 1 i s m minority  rule;  factions  in order  a comparison  attacks.  Localism  environmentalism  i s comfortable  r e s t r a i n s i t s own  extremist  t o promote m a j o r i t a r i a n i s m . ( S e e  o f major  with  Appendix D  f e a t u r e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t  and  for  localist  ideo1og i e s ) . In what f o l l o w s , C h a p t e r T h r e e o u t l i n e s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s o f White Rock, showing how localism  have come i n c o n f l i c t  problematize  l o c a l i s m , and  the  transformation  of  the  disaster scenario  the  how  with  reality  serious pollution  "local  state".  control,  e x p e r t i s e and  the  modern  realities industrial  of  life  than  i n an  seeing  fostered  that  to deal  of  presage provides  responds.  regional  capabilities  context, with  beyond  as  the the  local  l o c a l i s m as  terminated  increasingly globalized,  society, environmentalist  to have r e c o n s t i t u t e d i t .  which  problems  problems that are  financial  g o v e r n m e n t s . However, r a t h e r by  in a  proves b e t t e r able  pollution  and  Such p o l l u t i o n  t o w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  ideology  of aggravated  traditions  growth p r e s s u r e s  Chapter Four puts environmenta1ism environmentalist  history  ideology  can  postbe  seen  93 ENDNOTES 1. p.  169, E r n e s t o L a c l a u and C h a n t a l M o u f f e , Hegemony S o c i a l i s t S t r a t e g y ; V e r s o : London. 1985.  2.  p.  13, M i c h a e l H a r l o e and E l i z a b e t h L e b a s , C i t y , C l a s s Cap i ta1 ; Edward A r n o l d P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1981.  and  3.  p.  144, K a r l Marx, "Wages, P r i c e and P r o f i t " , Vo1. 2; P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s : Moscow. 1969.  Works  4.  p.  17,  Ruth  Press: 213,  L e v i t a s , The  Cambridge,  5.  p.  Robert  6.  p.  8.  P-  104,  Ibid.  9 . P-  114,  Ibid .  U.K.  Paehlke,  Ideology  of  the  New  and  Selected Right;  Polity  1986. Ibid.  210, K a r l Marx, The E c o n o m i c and P h i l o s o p h i c M a n u s c r i p t s 1844, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s : N.Y. 1963. 7 . P- 219 , I b i d .  56 ,  Ibid.  10.  P-  11.  P • 2,  12.  P-  4,  Ibid .  13.  P-  3,  Ibid .  14.  P-  65/67/69,  15.  P-  159 ,  Ibid.  16 . P-  161 ,  Ibid.  17.  P-  172 ,  Ibid.  18.  P- 38, Chr i s t o p h e r S o c i e t y " , i n P o l i t i c s i n the Post Welfare G . S j o b e r g , eds.) C o l u m b i a U. P r e s s : N.Y.  19.  20.  of  Ernesto  Lac 1  Ibid.  State 1972.  (M.Hancock,  p. x v / x v i , Seymour L i p s e t t , C o n t i n e n t a l D i v i d e : The Values and I n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada; R o u t l e d g e : N. Y. 1990. p.245, M i c h a e l M a n d e l , " R u l e o f Law and t h e L e g a l i s a t i o n of P o l i t i c s i n Canada",in State Contro1. Ibid.  94 of  Politics  in Canada",in  State Control,  Ibid.  21.  p. 179, R o b e r t G a u c h e r , " C a n a d i a n C i v i l S o c i e t y , t h e C a n a d i a n S t a t e and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t i o n s : T h e o r e t i c a l Considerations",in S t a t e C o n t r o 1 , R. S. R a t n e r and J o h n L. M c M u l l a n , e d s . , U.B.C. P r e s s : V a n c o u v e r . 1987  22.  p.  171,  Carl  Temple U. 23.  Boggs, S o c i a l  Movements and  Press: Philadelphia.  Political  Power.  1986.  Ibid.  24. 25.  p. 204, C a r l Boggs, I b i d . p. 117, Y n e s t r a K i n g , " H e a l i n g t h e Wounds: F e m i n i s m , E c o l o g y and N a t u r e / C u l t u r e Dual i s m " . i n G e n d e r / B o d y / K n o w l e d g e (A. J a g g a r and S.Bordo, eds.) R u t g e r s U. P r e s s : New Brunswick. 1989 .  26.  p.  118.  Ibid.  27.  p.  126,  Ibid.  28.  p.  53,  David  Survival;  Suzuki  Stoddart  and  Anita  Gordon,  Publishing:  Its a Matter  Toronto.  29.  p.  169',  Ibid.  30.  p.  179,  Ibid.  31.  p. 107, K a r l Marx, E c o n o m i c and P h i l o s o p h i c Ibid. p. 96, E.F. Schumacher, S m a l l i s B e a u t i f u l ;  32.  London. 84/85,  of  1990.  Manuscripts. Penguin  Books:  1973.  33.  p.  Ibid.  34. 35.  p. 229, Ibid. p. 1, R u s s e l l J . Dal t o n , "The C h a l l e n g e o f New Movements",in C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l O r d e r ; P o l i t y P r e s s : C a m b r i d g e , U.K. 1990.  36.  p. 39, K a r l Werner B r a n d , " C y c l i c a l A s p e c t s o f New Social M o v e m e n t s " , i n C h a l l e n g i n g t h e P o l i t i c a l O r d e r . Dal t o n and Keuch1er,Manfred, eds., Ibid.  95 37.  p. 46, R u s s e l l I n g l e h a r t , " V a l u e s , I d e o l o g y , and C o g n i t i v e M o b i 1 i z a t i o n " , i n C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l Order. I b i d .  38.  p. 46/47,  39.  p. 68, F r a n k W i l s o n , " N e o - c o r p o r a t i s m and t h e R i s e o f New S o c i a l Movements",in C h a l l e n g i n g the P o l i t i c a l Order, I b i d .  40.  p. 69,  41.  p. 7,  Ibid.  Ibid. Robert  Paehlke,  Progressive 42.  p.  13,  43.  p.  194,  44.  p.  195/196,  45.  p. 208,  46.  Ibid.  47.  Ibid.  48. 49.  Environmenta1ism  Politics,  and  the F u t u r e o f  Ibid.  Ibid.  p. 211,  Ibid. Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.  50.  p. 218,  Ibid.  51.  p. 225,  Ibid.  52.  p. 245,  Ibid.  53.  p. 268,  Robert  54.  p.276/277,  55.  p. 277,  Ibid.  56.  p. 279,  Ibid.  57.  p. 94, G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r D r a i n a g e and Sewage System e n g i n e e r i n g d e p a r t m e n t , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r L i q u i d Waste Management P l a n ; G.V.R.D.: B u r n a b y , B.C. F e b r u a r y , 1989.  58.  p.93/94,  Paehlke,  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.  96 59.  p. 3,  John  Tillman  Lyle,  Deve1opment; John 48,  Regenerative Design  W i l e y and  S o n s : N.Y.  for Sustainable  1994.  60.  p.  Ibid.  61.  p. 228,  62. 63.  p. 287, Ibid. p. 32, R i c h a r d M. Mereleman, P a r t i a l V i s i o n s : C u l t u r e and P o l i t i c s i n B r i t a i n . Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U. o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s : M a d i s o n , Wn. 1991.  64.  p. 289, D. Munro E a g l e s , " P o l i t i c a l E c o l o g y : L o c a l E f f e c t s on the P o l i t i c a l Behaviour of Canadians", i n Canadian P o l i t i c s , e d . James P. B i c k e r t o n and A l a i n G. Gagnon, B r o a d v i e w P r e s s : P e t e r b o r o u g h , Ont. 1990  65.  p. 206, Howard G r a f f t e y , Why C a n a d i a n s Get t h e P o l i t i c i a n s and Governments They Don't Want, S t o d d a r t : T o r o n t o . 1991.  66.  p. 99, Sue G o l d i n g , G r a m s c i s D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y : Contributions t o a P o s t - L i b e r a l Democracy, U. o f P r e s s : T o r o n t o . 1992.  Ibid.  1  67.  Ibid.  68.  p. 32,  Daniel  Society,  Rutgers  U.  P r e s s , N.J.  Building  a  Green  1994.  69.  p.  70.  p. 9, D a n i e l P r e s s , D e m o c r a t i c Dilemmas i n t h e Age o f E c o 1 o g y , Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : Durham, N.C. 1994. p. 33, A l a n L i p i e t z , G r e e n Hopes: The F u t u r e o f P o l i t i c a l E c o 1 o g y , P o l i t y P r e s s : C a m b r i d g e , U.K. 1995.  71.  17,  Coleman, E c o - P o 1 i t i c s :  Toronto  Ibid.  72.  p. 309, R o b e r t P a e h l k e , " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Harm and C o r p o r a t e Crime" i n C o r p o r a t e Crime: Contemporary Debates, e d i t o r s F r a n k P e a r c e and L a u r e e n S n i d e r ; U. o f T o r o n t o Press: Toronto. 1995.  73.  p. 92,  Sue  Golding,  Ibid.  97 CHAPTER PROFILE OF  II I  A COMMUNITY  IN TRANSITION  HISTORY The located 49th  city on  o f White Rock t a k e s  i t s westerly  parallel,  perched  i t s name from a  shoreline. on  Situated  a hillside  just  W h i t e Rock  i n the  Spanish  Jose  Narvaez s a i l e d  aboard  the Santa  many G u l f and  Saturnia  San  presently  named).  Hastings,  Don  Juan  fishing  Islands v i s i b l e  According  to  local  help  north  of  from  1791  which  the  into  Semiahmoo  I s l a n d , one  from W h i t e  of  Margaret  the  natives of  n a t i v e s used  Bay  the  Rock, i s  historian local  bay,  when  s e v e r a l members o f h i s crew, e x p l o r e d  Semiahmoo t r a i l  to reach  the the  Fraser  River  grounds.  Not  to be  o u t d o n e by  Vancouver navigated during  summer o f  ( f o r which S a t u r n a  Narvaez, with  Semiahmoo t r i b e and forested  Maria  rock  overlooking a sheltered  Europeans d i s c o v e r e d e x p l o r e r Don  large  the Spanish,  h i s vessel  British  "Discovery"  Captain  into  h i s c h a r t i n g e x p e d i t i o n from P u g e t Sound  George  Semiahmoo via  Bay  Georgia  Strait. " C a p t a i n s V a n c o u v e r , G a l i a n o and V a l d e z met i n t h e bay n e a r B l a i n e , J u n e 12, 1792. One o f t h e s e p a r t i e s s e n t o u t i n s m a l l b o a t s by C a p t a i n V a n c o u v e r met C h i e f Tsanwuch o f t h e Semiahmoo T r i b e w h i c h o c c u p i e d t h e p r e s e n t T e r r i t o r y . I t was a numerous I n d i a n t r i b e . Nowadays i t i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y e x t i n c t . O n l y a few f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v e i n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f W h i t e Rock, Canada." 1 Today, the  number o f F i r s t  Nations  members on  the  R e s e r v e a t W h i t e Rock has  been w h i t t l e d down from a b o u t  150  city  years  ago,  to 30.  The  o f W h i t e Rock has  Semiahmoo 300  just  b e n e f i t t e d by  98 the d e c l i n i n g  tribal  parkland  from  the  The  city  o f W h i t e Rock, which began as a ward o f  municipality  p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l  of Surrey,  c o n s i s t s o f about  15,  1957.  noted  southeastern  cities  of Surrey The  band  s t r e t c h e s along  3400 a c r e s and  above,  city's  park.  Surrey,  which  leases  tribe.  and  As  as  and  still  three miles  was  the  of  waterfront  i n c o r p o r a t e d on  April  t h e Semiahmoo Band R e s e r v a t i o n  border  l e a s e s much o f  W h i t e Rock f o r u s e maintains  a small  i t s property  as  a valuable  cemetery  on  on  to  the  the  waterfront  the  site.  "At t h e end o f 1858 a work p a r t y o f E n g i n e e r s came i n t o Semiahmoo Bay by b o a t , and e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s e camp where t h e s o u t h end o f W h i t e Rock C i t y now s t a n d s . . . t h e p a r t y a t W h i t e Rock engaged i n t h e t o u g h t a s k o f c u t t i n g a l i n e a l o n g t h e 49th p a r a l l e l . P a r t i e s o f s u r v e y o r s under the Boundary C o m m i s s i o n , made up o f b o t h B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n s , had been a t work e a r l i e r on t h e p r o j e c t s e t t i n g m a r k e r s a l o n g t h e b o u n d a r y l i n e . The e n g i n e e r s c o n s t r u c t e d a b o u t a m i l e and a h a l f o f good road a l o n g t h e b e a c h o f Semiahmoo Bay. You may s t i l l d r i v e a l o n g p a r t o f t h a t road t o d a y . . . t h e y a l s o c u t a t r a i l from Semiahmoo Bay t o F o r t Lang 1 e y . . . i t was shown on v e r y e a r l y maps..." 2 Where o n c e f o r e s t more o f a b a r r e n  settlement  t r e e s which b l o c k Urban s t o r m w a t e r constant  ocean  as  c o n s t r u c t i o n , paving  populated  l o t s were  gentrification  v i e w s from  strips  l u x u r y homes and  and  resembles away  s i d e o f the  49th  the  the  apartments. consequence  of  deforestation. Ironically,  view c o n s i s t s o f f o r e s t e d h i l l s i d e s  H o m e s t e a d i n g began on 1890  t h e W h i t e Rock h i l l s i d e  runoff i s a s e r i o u s environmental  White R o c k ' s p r i m e lesser  stood,  on  the  parallel.  original  townsite  i n 1886  and  in  subdivided.  "A few y e a r s l a t e r t h e G r e a t N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y r e - l o c a t e d i t s l i n e t o w a t e r l e v e l a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f Semiahmoo Bay and  99 t h e n i n 1909 t h e D o m i n i o n Government made White Rock a p o r t o f e n t r y f o r c u s t o m s and i m m i g r a t i o n p u r p o s e s . In t h e summer o f 1910 a s y n d i c a t e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r men took o v e r t h e o r i g i n a l t o w n s i t e and W h i t e Rock began t o grow becoming known f o r i t s y e a r - r o u n d r e s i d e n c e a s w e l l a s a resort area." 3 Logging of  the Campbell  housed  i n earnest  River  w o r k e r s who  a sawmill the  began  when a s a w m i l l  i n 1913. F u r t h e r  up  the h i l l  were b u i l d i n g r o a d s a s t h e y  on t h e e a s t  s i d e o f White Rock  opened  a t the f o o t  logging  logged  camps  timber  and a s h i n g l e m i l l  for on  west. W h i t e Rock  Water  17 c u s t o m e r s w i t h population other  had  formation  a r t e s i a n well  reached  improvements  Works began o p e r a t i o n  1700.  In 1937  P u b l i c works,  began d u r i n g  of c i t i z e n s '  water.  i n 1913  serving  the White  just  Rock  sewers, s i d e w a l k s  the second world  war  and  following  c o m m i t t e e s s u c h a s t h e Women's C i v i c  League. Surrey municipal  took c o n t r o l o f t h e beach w h i l e  ward  system, with  W h i t e Rock  wards.  In 1954  the Peace Arch  city's  largest  e m p l o y e r , was  acquired Semiahmoo  new  District opened  a d d i t i o n s , the h o s p i t a l  operating  representing  as a  one o f s e v e n  H o s p i t a l , e v e n t u a l l y the  on R u s s e l l Avenue now  serves  and,  having  the e n t i r e  Peninsula.  "In 1890 when l o c a l p i o n e e r l o g g e r J o h n C h r i s t i a n Roper b u i l t h i s b i g house on what i s t h o u g h t t o be t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t i n White Rock. I t was t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y and when h i s 160 a c r e homestead was s u b d i v i d e d l a t e r t h e r o a d a l l o w a n c e p a s s i n g h i s home was g i v e n h i s name." 4  100 The North  R o p e r s were a c t i v e  Bluff  Road a l o n g  intersection. were towed slender Great  Northern  several  Railway  Drive.  the Great  Marine D r i v e base o f time  f o l l o w i n g the  the c i t y mill,  From  two  fruit 1909  the  was  runs  of  River  fish  along  Road  traps.  The  t h e W h i t e Rock  a task  general and  and  built  i n 1913  1500  and  now  environmental  ravaged  which  In J a n u a r y  1951  committee  added  at Oxford  laying  spanned  was  built  on  road  the w a t e r f r o n t  residences, h o t e l s , one  Marine along at  the  i n 1914.  the  saw  At  mill,  meat market  and  I I , weekenders  and  stands.  t o t h e end by  and  S t r e e t and  the w a t e r f r o n t  o f 300  s t o r e s , two  a depot  o f a rough  tracks along  o f World  train  time  r e s i d e n t s numbering The  serves  the c i t y ' s  just  in  museum and  gift  shop.  s t r u c k when a two-week  long  forest  new  lots  the  station  467  was  With  existing  W h i t e Rock  itself  as  disaster  War  to the w a t e r f r o n t  i n 1949.  the h i l l s i d e .  i n a post-war  the  grocery  travelled  about  Railway  comprised  number o f f u l l  1931,  finding  A pier  through  summer v i s i t o r s  growing  still  facilities  f o l l o w e d by  the h i l l .  some s m a l l  fire  Nicomekl  f o r p l a n i n g . West o f S t a y t e  Northern  immigration  T h i s was  In 1916  the  for c o n s t r u c t i o n of  which  trees north  years.  c u s t o m s and  depot,  felled  Road, W h i t e R o c k ' s gateway  began c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1905,  In 1909  shingle  into  Westminster  t r e e s were t a k e n  waterfront  the  Johnston  Logs dumped  t o New  l o g g e r s who  population  began  boom. several  local  ratepayers  for incorporation,  an  met  t o form a  a c t which ended  fact  with  I  101 city  status  population  f o r White Rock s i x y e a r s had  grown t o 7,000. Today  square k i l o m e t r e s of Following residential grew by  plan  per cent  t h e 1986  official  city's  1996  outdated the  official  voicing  Surrey  community  community  plan  growth  the  which  increased  Beach  GVRD t o t a k e b e t t e r  straining  began  actively census.  recreational  i n Surrey  Local  Perhaps  f r o n t a g e would  c a r e o f i t s sewage  and  governments  of beachfront. beach  with  t h e 1986 a  the  border to P o i n t Roberts  of Crescent  such a c q u i s i t i o n  citizens  requested  Rock b e a c h e s f o r swimming and b o a t i n g .  and  earlier  District  However,  following  from t h e U.S.  because o f the p o p u l a r i t y  park d e s i g n a t i o n  an  summer v i s i t o r s  local  and White Rock have o f t e n  t o fund  plan,  department. That  confirms.  and weekend and  to f u r t h e r  zone f o r t h e w a t e r f r o n t  unable  c e n s u s , from  reached c a p a c i t y  planning  t o more t h a n 20,000,  opposition  popular  White Rock t o 20,000, a number which  infrastructure  population  5.05  the p o p u l a t i o n  1991  Vancouver Regional  t h e n had a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e g i o n a l limited  the  occupies  haven,  and  has v i r t u a l l y  to both the c i t y ' s  plan  1964  White Rock became a more  between  p r o p o s e d by t h e G r e a t e r  regional  the c i t y  Boosted as a r e t i r e m e n t  14,387 t o 16,314. The c i t y according  By  land.  incorporation,  site.  13.45  later.  White are  regional  have  prompted  disposition.  "Crescent-Semiahmoo c o v e r s a 9 m i l e s t r e t c h o f s h o r e l i n e , w i t h t h e f o r m e r r e s o r t (and now s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s o f C r e s c e n t Beach and White Rock a t e i t h e r end and u p l a n d b l u f f s r i s i n g d i r e c t l y from t h e narrow shoreline between. F i r m c l e a n sand f o r m i n g r e l a t i v e l y narrow f o r e s h o r e s a t b o t h C r e s c e n t and White Rock has e n a b l e d t h e e a s y d e v e l o p m e n t o f 3 1/2 m i l e s o f b e a c h f o r swimming and  102 o t h e r w a t e r s p o r t s , w h i l e t h e s t e e p b l u f f s and narrow r o c k y s h o r e l i n e have d i s c o u r a g e d b e a c h use i n t h e a r e a between. Some 7 1/2 m i l e s o f t h e s h o r e l i n e i s used f o r t h e G r e a t Northern R a i l w a y t r a c k s and w h i l e t h i s r a i l w a y has not c r e a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a c c e s s p r o b l e m s a t C r e s c e n t Beach (where i t r u n s b e h i n d t h e s h o r e l i n e community) o r a l o n g t h e b l u f f s , i t s l o c a t i o n on t h e s h o r e l i n e dyke t h r o u g h W h i t e Rock r e s u l t s i n r e p e a t e d i n j u r y and l o s s o f l i f e . " 5 DEMOGRAPHICS  Because of citizens,  i t s higher  t h a n a v e r a g e number o f  senior  W h i t e Rock d e m o g r a p h i c s show women outnumber men  9,050 t o 7,260 a c c o r d i n g Gentrification  of  the  to S t a t i s t i c s  city,  Canada  (1991).  which a c c e l e r a t e d  estate  beyond  the  reach  of the  m a r k e t , more a f f l u e n t c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s and  life  to  the  and  o f many s e n i o r s .  city,  bringing  environmental  Demographica11y, predominantly British who  British  ancestry  report  Protestants  no  immigrants States,  by  city's  one,  the  1991  them an  of  luxury  housing  have been p r i c e d  out  f a m i l i e s have  interest in quality  largest ethnic  may  include  of  or  the  British  5,995  handful  the  next  sole  residents  claiming  i n White  Rock—  l a r g e s t g r o u p o f 3,985 r e s i d e n t s The  greatest  (3,570) have a r r i v e d Kingdom as  the  a  grandparentage.  l a r g e s t r e l i g i o u s group  immigrants at  remains  reporting  the  the  United  group  residents  c e n s u s . Many o f  backgrounds,  i n White Rock the  cost  seniors  w i t h 5,915  religious affiliation.  with  White Rock  the  origin,  remain  8,610—followed report  on  with  As  the  early  issues.  mixed e t h n i c  Canadian e t h n i c  escalated  a f t e r the  1980s r e a l  moved  boom, has  by  second  number from  of  the  United  largest source  1.720. Germans make up  who  of  more t h a n h a l f  of  103 the  European  immigrants,  c e n s u s . Some B r i t i s h decades Of  the  only,  citizens  i n Canada t h e y 16,000 t o t a l  360  claim  non-official population  with  population,  French  as  Germans d e n o t e d  remain unable  have not  their  filed  In-migration  only  city,  10  from o t h e r  migration  provinces.  per  cent  because  of  the  of growth,  after  English  1600  speak  o f White  t o Canada, as parts  1991  citizenship.  l a n g u a g e , and  and  l a r g e s t source  other  vote  14,000 r e s i d e n t s speak  r e m a i n s White Rock's from  to  i n the  f o r Canadian  languages. Approximately  have come t o t h e  immigrants.  585  Rock's  recent  Lower  followed  Mainland by  intra-  "The e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n S u r r e y were l a r g e l y o f B r i t i s h e x t r a c t i o n , and many o f them had farm b a c k g r o u n d s . They came i n a v a r i e t y o f ways but the l u r e was t h e same f o r a l l o f t h e m — w e a l t h and a d v e n t u r e i n t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g w i l d west. They worked t h e i r way a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , o r t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s t h e Isthmus o f Panama, o r took t h e l o n g r o u t e by s a i l i n g s h i p a r o u n d t h e h o r n . It was t h e r i c h , b l a c k l a n d t h e y came t o seek i n S u r r e y . Some o f them came b e c a u s e l a n d p r i c e s had r i s e n s h a r p l y i n e a s t e r n Canada and t h e y l a c k e d t h e n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l t o s e t t l e t h e r e . Some had f o u n d p l e n t y o f work and l a n d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as t h e y t r a v e l l e d , but c h o s e t o come b e c a u s e t h e y wanted t o r e m a i n B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . . . t h e r e were s p e c u l a t o r s who b o u g h t l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d i n S u r r e y and n e v e r a p p e a r e d i n p e r s o n . " 6 Today, a b o u t  4500 f a m i l i e s o f  i n the  singles.  One  important  f e a t u r e o f White Rock's  that  makes t h e  city  fact  that  owner-occupied  to 2840, the houses  Twenty p e r  former  (3385) as  conducive  dwellings  including a  well  as  townhouses. Boom p e r i o d s  cent  o r more p e r s o n s  resident  pattern  city.  two  of  to  the  population  live  as  residential  localist  outnumber  are  ideology  is  r e n t a l u n i t s by  the 5120  l a r g e number o f s i n g l e f a m i l y  privately  owned c o n d o m i n i u m s  of c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n the  city  and were between  104 1971  t o 1980, a s w e l l  corresponds The  city  federal  t o t h e time p e r i o d  o f W h i t e Rock riding  necessary province riding.  and  Statistics  i s located  Columbia  will  Canada d a t a  manufacturing  finance  and r e a l  firstly  sciences;  followed  religious,  o f women who c o n s i d e r  in c l e r i c a l  L a n g l e y , and any  occupations,  r i d i n g s to the  and s o c i a l  and government  middle c l a s s b i a s . and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e followed  of c l e r i c a l  followed  order:  services  services.  Males a r e capacities,  by n a t u r a l and  and r e l a t e d  occupations,  p o s i t i o n s . T h i r t y per  themselves working  or administrative  shows employment  i n the following  health  estate  artistic  by a s u n d r y a s s o r t m e n t  managerial  the f a s t e s t growing  f o r the r i d i n g  i n s a l e s and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ,  social  and  i n managerial  project.  r e s u l t i n r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  and c o n s t r u c t i o n ;  D e m o g r a p h i c s show a s t r o n g  cent  within  and o c c u p a t i o n s a r e g r e a t e s t  education;  then  o f the research  o f two o r more f e d e r a l  of British  employed  o f 1986 t o 1991 t h a t  o f Surrey-White Rock-South  additions  opportunites trade,  a s a growth p e r i o d  by s e r v i c e ,  remain  entrenched  s a l e s and  c a p a c i t i e s ; t h e n m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h  teaching. Most o v e r s e a s  Population faces  a 7.4 p e r c e n t rate  Of m a l e s  participants; employed.  i n the area  i n t h e Surrey-White Rock-South  unemployment force.  immigrants a r r i v e d  unemployment  rate  f o r women s e e k i n g 15 o r o v e r ,  riding  f o r men and an 8 p e r c e n t  75.2 p e r c e n t  the greatest  federal  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the labour  o f f e m a l e s , 57.3 p e r c e n t  In f a c t ,  Langley  p r i o r t o 1961.  a r e labour  force  a r e i n the ranks o f the  p e r c e n t a g e o f employed  females  105 occurs  i n the c a t e g o r y o f those with  per c e n t ) .  Retirement  participation (47.8  per  rate  and  affluence  o f women who  s c h o o l age may  children  account  f o r the  have no c h i l d r e n  (70.2 low  living  a t home  cent).  There  a r e two  elementary  schools located  within  city  limits,  4*  White Rock E l e m e n t a r y daughter  attended  and  Peace Arch E l e m e n t a r y .  t h e White Rock E l e m e n t a r y  annex  a M o n t e s s o r i s c h o o l ) f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n i n 1987, Elementary  from  1988  programs, a l l o w i n g city's  In 1987  program, p a r e n t s had daughter's  class  fact  by  noted  other  school  to  included  up  example o f a  a t 5 a.m.  the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l my  Peace  The  Arch  would  of  number  of  provincial  Immersion  number o f g i f t e d  daughter  the  popularity  i n the morning.  in explaining  (now  Immersion  large  the  i n the French  an u n u s u a l  i n the d i s t r i c t  and  drastically.  i s one  a space  line  i n Surrey  s c h o o l s have F r e n c h  have h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t h a n  to ensure  eldest  o p e r a b l e d u r i n g y e a r s when  declined  Immersion p r o g r a m s  r e s i d e n t s who  average.  Both  them t o s t a y  number o f c h i l d r e n  the F r e n c h local  t o 1994.  My  that  My  children, at  a  any  be e n j o y i n g t o p  grades. The  almost  surrounding school  exclusively  Surrey d i s t r i c t  o f about  350  included  a handful  boy,  a girl  and  European  European  n a t u r e o f W h i t e Rock and  i s exemplified  by an  elementary  s t u d e n t s where t h e o n l y c h i l d r e n of F i r s t  with Korean  N a t i o n s s t u d e n t s , an heritage  adopted  the  of  color  Indo-Canadian  by a c o u p l e o f  ancestry.  In 1990  w i t h about  100  members, t h e White Rock  Ratepayers'  106 Association  changed  Association  i n order  owners  and r e n t e r s  Association  i t s name t o t h e White Rock to a t t r a c t  council  1970s  that  holdings  particular  industrial project  part  use.  Vander  o f Surrey  The White Rock D i s t r i c t  his  wife  Hogg's mother  life.  my g r a n d f a t h e r )  that  Society  particularly  CITY  held  t o t h e homes i n  Film  B o a r d (NFB)  to the c o n f l i c t .  localist  o f Women, t o which  was t o b e l o n g  then  with  many  FINANCES  artists  a s e a t on  District  However, a number o f council  and amateur  theatre  t h e White Rock Community  continually  a r t s and t h e a t r e  t o me by  sub-committees,  t o t h e White Rock  local  i n the c i t y ,  f o r the local  committee.  Rock  (as t o l d  t o t h e Peace Arch  design  (which has l o b b i e d  venue  i s the fact  requirement to seeking  were r e c r u i t e d  Also,  a new j o i n t  meeting  Surrey  zoned f o r  i n a National  Council  a virtual  the advisory  performers a c t i v e  for  brother  sewers  o r any o f White Rock c o u n c i l ' s  residents  committees.  Council  (whose  with  ( a l o n g t i m e White Rock r e s i d e n t ) ) and  Typically  White Rock c o u n c i l  Surrey  fight  L a v e r n e b e l o n g e d , was a n o t h e r m a i n s t a y o f White  political  Hospital  Zalm  which had been  She p a r t i c i p a t e d  a t t h e t i m e . The  me s h e had been a c t i v e i n  i n the area) to bring  which b r o u g h t a t t e n t i o n  mayor Gordon  told  Condominium  clout  i n Bridgeview i n a successful  and t h e n mayor B i l l  substantial  political  Pat Kealy,  1  early  The White Rock  considerable  WRRA s new p r e s i d e n t , the  more members from t h e condominium  i n the c i t y .  carried  Residents'  Arts  throughout the past  decade  f a c i l i t y ) remains a popular  establishment.  107 W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l has regional  o r g a n i z a t i o n s : Peace Arch  Valley  Regional  Surrey  school  within  i t s boundaries  district pays is  L i b r a r y board,  board  board),  by  Lower M a i n l a n d  a small  greatest  hall,  city,  was  station  share by  built  rink.  of fire  slowed  indoor  r e m a i n an  Rock c o u n c i l Localism expanded  elementary  t r u s t e e to s e r v e District  t h e r e f o r e the  the  GVRD p a r k s  a s s o c i a t i o n , and In s h o r t ,  Health schools  on  the  (which position  committee,  t h e W h i t e Rock the c i t y  operates  source  of revenue  remains  d e s p i t e a r e l i a n c e on  operating  response the  back-  c o n t i n u a l l y eats budget  ($1  up  million  population source  west  side of  recently constructed  joint  swimming p o o l  annual  time to the  non-descript  provide  city  hall.  funding  located  of  the  new the  police  W h i t e Rock  and  i n South S u r r e y ,  the  tension  in  Contract  in Surrey  of  as  context.  Policing,  beside  Surrey  With a b u r g e o n i n g  facilities  two  of  p r o t e c t i o n ($870,826). A c o n t r o v e r s i a l  architecturally  an  school  m e e t i n g s and  the c i t y ' s  following  Hospital, Fraser  Vancouver Regional  single  taxes.  i n 1992  n e g o t i a t i o n s with rink,  with  larger regional  largest  which has  and  (the c i t y one  the  Boundary Union Board  f o r summer b e a c h p a t r o l l i n g ,  followed  fire  District  c u r r e n t mayor),  municipal  property  from S u r r e y  1989)  the  town w i t h i n a  residential  ice  Greater  the  Chamber o f Commerce.  W h i t e Rock's  the  elects  i t s d i r e c t o r s to a t t e n d  South S u r r e y  up  liaison  the  u s u a l l y taken  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on  a new  ice  joint  f o r Surrey-White  liaisons. conflicted  senior citizens'  with  environmenta1ism  activity  centre  when a  located  newly  i n the  city  of  108 W h i t e Rock s p a r k e d expansion building The  controversy  threatened  perch  city's  commercial  b a s e c o n s i s t s o f two s m a l l  o f North  Road and a s h o p p i n g the s t r e e t  c e n t r e and l i q u o r  on t h e h i l l  south  Marine D r i v e , a c r o s s shops c o v e r  Business  from  licenses  on p r o p e r t y  property  values  strip  down J o h n s t o n .  north  of Thrift  Along  the waterfront, stretch  taxes  Seventy-three  sidewalks  and c u r b s  raised  k i l o m e t r e s o f paved  a d d s t o an u r b a n  storm  Assessment of taxable  the waterfront  glaringly  roads  as well as  run o f f problem  acquired  when i t i n c o r p o r a t e d  t o a GVRD s a n i t a r y sewer t r u n k  an e x i s t i n g  i n 1957 and r e l i e s on  t o pump e f f l u e n t which  which  runs  back up t h e  to Annacis  Island  treatment.  on sewer u s e r  the c i t y  the c i t y  a t $435,254,099.Some o f t h e c o s t s o f  sewer s y s t e m  expenses,  side of  r e s t a u r a n t s and g i f t  o f $6,922,965.  sanitary  Relying  the north  $231,295 i n 1989, w h i l e  t h e b e a c h e s b e l o w . The c i t y  sewage  another  on t h e west b e a c h and t h r e e  pollutes  primary  Avenue where  i n W h i t e Rock have become  obvious.  for  Banks  $771,115,255 f o r 335 h e c t a r e s  assessed  growth and d e v e l o p m e n t  pump s t a t i o n s a l o n g  S u r r e y and  s t o r e a r e l o c a t e d , and r e s t a u r a n t s  generated  reached  itself  Road b o r d e r i n g  shopping  beach.  operated  land, which  Bluff  of Thrift.  a four block  b l o c k s on t h e e a s t  hill  where t h e  was c o n s t r u c t e d .  predominate along shopping  parking l o t  a number o f t r e e s i n t h e p a r k l a n d  centres at the corner Johnston  i n 1991 a s a p r o p o s e d  spent  charges  and f r o n t a g e  taxes  to cover  $655,978 i n 1989 f o r t h e s a n i t a r y sewer  109 service. problem areas  The  balanced  with  sanitary  environment  and  budgetary  bills  be  storm  1989. report that since  sewer/sanitary  sewer  dumped  from  the  rainstorms  they  f r e q u e n t l y pump  Perhaps t h i s overruns,  much as a f t e r  to the  storm  permit,  sewers a t out  r e m a i n s a c o s t s a v i n g measure t o o many snow  t h e p l o w s . Sewer c h a r g e s  prior  seen  rainy  season,  to  storms,  are a p p l i e d to  gambling  on  a dry  May  October. The  has  joint  c o n s i d e r i n g the  t h e b e a c h which has  ministry o f f i c i a l s  legally  c r e w s might p a r k  taxpayers'  a  d u r i n g heavy  effluent.  prevent  with  sewage may  time,  excess  to  on  blessing  o f t h e b e a c h c l o s e d t o swimmers s i n c e  t h e GVRD o p e r a t e s  city  i s a mixed  high c h o l i f o r m counts  Provincial  any  budget  bulk  o f White Rock c o u n c i l ' s o b s t e n s i b l y r o u t i n e agenda  been p r e o c c u p i e d  p r o j e c t s and activities February  debates  weight e f f o r t  year,  about  f o r the c i t y  1990  statements"  with  cites  numerous a p p r o v a l s parking  from  space  f o l l o w e d by  institution  W.W.  o f the year  of p r e p a r i n g the c i t y ' s  apartment  a l l o t m e n t s . A summary  adminstrator  the h i g h l i g h t  o f new  Baldwin being  a  in paper  " m i s s i o n and  values  c o u n c i l ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t  act of  o f a new  smoking  of  the  by-law.  " A g a i n i n A p r i l t h e C l e r k ' s d e p a r t m e n t o r g a n i z e d a most s u c c e s s f u l f i r s t - t i m e m u n i c i p a l Open House i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f M u n i c i p a l Government Awareness Week. The Open House was p r e c e d e d by a number o f a c t i v i t i e s p r o m o t i n g m u n i c i p a l awareness i n c l u d i n g a school p o s t e r c o n t e s t . B e f o r e t h e end o f J u n e a " b l u e - r i b b o n " c o m m i t t e e o f c i t i z e n s and b u s i n e s s p e o p l e from White Rock c o m p l e t e d t h e i r d r a f t E c o n o m i c Development S t r a t e g y p l a n . The p l a n was p u t i n i t s f i n a l form and p r e s e n t e d t o c o u n c i l and a d o p t e d i n September. The T r e a s u r y d e p a r t m e n t a p p l i e d i t s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y t o  110 maximizing  the  investment  In White Rock, c i t y endeavour such as  i n the  localist  r e t u r n on  government tradition  taxes."  remains a  building,  on  and  p u b l i c works s u c h as  landscaping  socialite  of providing s o c i a l  luncheons f o r " p u b l i c s e r v i c e " . C i t y  concentrated  7  road  rewards  officials  reconstruction  and  a promenade.  " In 1989 r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s and s p e c i a l e v e n t s attracted o v e r 5,000 p a r t i c i p a n t s o f a l l a g e s . The Land 'n Sea summer program was p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r and was over-subscribed a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y — 4 6 4 c h i l d r e n were r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e p r o g r a m . The r e c r e a t i o n d i v i s i o n o r g a n i z e d t h e u s u a l s p e c i a l e v e n t s — C e l e b r a t i o n '89 C y c l e Race, Bay Run and Walk, C i v i c P r i d e Day, and t h e T o u r de White R o c k . . . t h e S e n i o r s C e n t r e m a i n t a i n e d a membership o f a l m o s t 1700 o f which a l m o s t h a l f a r e from S u r r e y . The Kent S t . S e n i o r s S o c i e t y was formed t o r a i s e f u n d s f o r an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Centre..." 8 POLITICAL The with in  affluent  increased  the  city.  residential  leisure  For  t i m e c r e a t e s an  instance,  Democratic constituency dramatic  decrease  provincially and in  i n 1991,  province  fundraisers. Parties  and  adults  active political  s i n c e the p a r t y  in particular,  r e m a i n s one  on  number o f  climate  White R o c k - S o u t h S u r r e y  greatest  memberships on  members p r e d o m i n a t e d  emphasized  losing,  the  higher  New  a s s o c i a t i o n ( w h i c h c u r i o u s l y has  Traditionally,  shared  However, as  the  i n membership  t e a c h e r s ) , has the  b a s e and  the  o f the Social  power  party's  life  members  largest  C r e d i t and  a provincia1/federa1 non-partisan  Conservative basis city  and  council.  p a r t i e s become s y s t e m a t i c a l l y de-  in post-industrial  a  environmentalists  number o f h o n o r a r y  a supposedly  mass p o l i t i c a l  took  seen  s o c i e t y , White Rock  political  Ill affiliations  (who  a r e now  i n a state  of flux.  Whereas,  r i g h t - w i n g and l o n g t i m e  actively  campaigns as a " n o n - p a r t i s a n " )  c a n d i d a t e s ' meeting former moved  notes  with  city  candidate  once shared a l l  c e n t r e to support  Louise  former  h i s bid f o r Liberal  member  in  order  the c o z i n e s s o f p o l i t i c a l  White Rock,  I was t h e f i r s t  s c r u t i n e e r s when that  well,  campaigned only  would  former  cooperated  with  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t attempt  t h e NDP  candidate  t h e 1991 e l e c t i o n .  Val Meredith  groups enjoy  White Rock E l e m e n t a r y  d i d succeed  during  campaign,  b u t used  The L i b e r a l s  won  i n winning the  Rock-South  Langley i n  t h e 1993 f e d e r a l  Benno F r i e s e n , a C o n s e r v a t i v e 14 y e a r s .  s u c c e s s f u l membership and f u n d  s c h o o l s have a c t i v e  The W e s t e r n Canada W i l d e r n e s s  membership and meets  Wi 1f Hurd, n o t  workers.  seat f o r Surrey-White  f o r more t h a n  ideology  member Duncan Cameron, who  d r i v e s i n W h i t e Rock. Both P e a c e A r c h  committees.  to use  "good s p o r t s " .  in i t s provincial  at the o f f i c e  the seat  Environmental  strong  Credit  She r e p l a c e d t h e r e t i r i n g  who had h e l d  raising  Social  l a c k o f campaign  Reform c a n d i d a t e  second  aspirants in  candidate  be t r u s t w o r t h y  equipment d u r i n g  despite a decided  election.  council  f o r the successful Liberal  NDP o f f i c e  her  city  As one example,and  I r a n i n 1990, c h a l l e n g i n g t h e l o c a l i s t  a l l candidates As  of Parliament.  Hutchinson  mayor Gordon Hogg  in  to underscore  V i n Coyne  Sharon C h a r l e s , the  a l d e r m a n Ms. C h a r l e s and c o u n c i l l o r to the p o l i t i c a l  councillor  Elementary  parent  and  environmental  Committee e n j o y s a  i n South S u r r e y ,  a s does t h e White  112 Rock-South S u r r e y N a t u r a l i s t s bird  watchers In  response  Society,  formed  b e a c h e s 20  Citizens'  to environmental after  an  based  MLA  i n which S o u t h is active,  Wi1f  Hurd  White Rock r e s i d e n t  prepared  of  f o r B o u n d a r y Bay  grew up  and  the  Wildlife  Surrey  and  Management  Environmental  Surrey c o u n c i l l o r  support  i n White  Judy  Rock.  i n White Rock remembers s i g n i n g  of i t s door-to-door  Surrey-Cloverda1e  who  on White Rock  Conservation Society  active  SPill  i n W h i t e Rock. F r i e n d s o f  S u r r e y NDP  has  who  to L i f e f o r c e .  Committee and  organization  t h e Boundary O i l  washed up  W h i t e Rock. The  w i t h G r e e n p e a c e d u r i n g one belongs  itself  t h e B u r n s Bog  draw members from  Villeneuve  large  disaster  oil spill  A d v i s o r y Committee  Coalition  a  conservationists.  y e a r s ago,  B o u n d a r y Bay,  Area,  and  which has  belongs  t o G r e e n p e a c e , has  MLA  canvasses.  Ken  Jones,  t o t h e W e s t e r n Canada been p u b l i c a l l y  to c h a i n h i m s e l f to p a r k l a n d  He  still  up  also a  Wilderness  quoted  as  trees  rather  see  them  when p l a n n i n g f o r r e g i o n a l  growth  i n an  bu11 d o z e d . Since  1966,  environmentally moved  sensitive  towards e c o l o g i c a l  concurred  with o r i g i n a l  environmental  issues  area f i r s t  began, p u b l i c  preservation. s u r v e y s done  foremost  Opinion  i n 1973  attitudes  surveys  in  have  1990  that placed  i n t h e minds o f p e o p l e  who  lived  in  the r e g i o n . "The 1990 Urban F u t u r e s S u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o l l u t i o n i s the f i r s t c o n c e r n o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e s i d e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g was a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and w r i t t e n b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e GVRD...In 1990, a s i n 1973, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s were f o r e m o s t i n t h e minds o f r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s . P r e s e r v i n g the n a t u r a l environment was  113 ranked  a t the  A secondary  top  concern  cost-effectiveness the o f f i c i a l  of  constantly  local  found  9  polled  government  i n the  r e g i o n and  i n the m e t r o p o l i s , the and  evidenced  by  became so a r b i t r a r y  that  of Municipal  Affairs  South S u r r e y  and  Those  on  living  practically The  Surrey  o f the c e n t u r y  i n the Greater  political  reforms  between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  the p o l i t i c a l  can  s t r u c t u r e to address  n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e manner. As have moved  be  lines  the M i n i s t e r living  i t spatially  boundaries  i n 1991  i n White Rock,  and  and  localist  expected  in  and  Wi1f  results  failure  in a  as of  Pat  purchased  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) the  along  from  cohesive  Hurd and  (having  walkers  small  philosophy.  the  i n s t e a d of e n j o y i n g water  west b e a c h , have become j o g g e r s and  the  to c o n t i n u e  servicing  like  pastures  1993  and  Vancouver area  urban  people  towards greener  i n Langley  urbanites  of  amalgamation.  g o v e r n m e n t s a d j u s t t o g r o w t h p r e s s u r e s and  acreage  type  as a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e g i o n .  turn  Kealy  the  f o r those  the q u e s t i o n o f  t h e Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a see  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  and  class  updating.  Hurd p r e s s u r e d  inappropriateness of municipal  Tensions  1975,  regional plan  to p r o v i d e a referendum  size  local  Wi1f  of  between  W h i t e Rock where b o u n d a r y  i n 1993  W h i t e Rock on  in  the geographic  time-consuming  and  was  With a d o p t i o n  government  F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was tension  survey  Because o f the d i s p a r i t y  w i t h i n the  needed c o s t l y  1975  services.  the p r o v i n c i a l  fragmented.  localities  segregations  surveys."  of those  r e g i o n a l p l a n by  the GVRD c o n s i d e r e d different  i n both  new  s p o r t s on  the  a promenade.  114 The to  p o p u l a t i o n o f W h i t e Rock which was  16,300 i n 1991  well  over  and  15,342 i n 1990,  grew  i s p r o j e c t e d t o e s c a l a t e t o 23,300 i n  2011,  t h e 20,000 l i m i t  s e t by  t h e GVRD as maximum c a p a c i t y i n  1975.The number o f h o u s i n g  units,  primarily  apartments, 8,200 t o only  are p r o j e c t e d to  12,100 i n 2011.  c l e a n up  recreational BREAK UP  OF  THE  contamination  garbage garbage  pollution  recycling  is a  lesser  o n l y heavy  to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l  fear  cent  from  to  not  water  local  southwesterly living  ecological  i s popular,  n e w s p a p e r s and  elsewhere, concern  wind.  the  concerns.  supply,  virulent  milk  jugs.  r e g i o n a l dump  above t h e bay,  to  Although  exists  f o r the  Since  in Delta,  t o W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s . i s that of Cherry the  Point,  s u l p h u r d i o x i d e from  W h i t e Rock o n l y when t h e r e  Despite  as a i r i n v e r s i o n s and  and  i t mostly  plastic  to the  industry v i s i b l e  into  water  which c l o s e s White Rock b e a c h e s  program  blows  local  of o i l s p i l l s  i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , and  refineries  those  per  increased pressure  t h r e a t s to the  t h e main  of b o t t l e s ,  m i l e s away oil  space,  o f t h e bay,  i s trucked  The  50  LOCAL STATE  bathing, are  recycling  be  almost  into  areas.  the e r o s i o n of green  a b l u e box  There w i l l  the beaches, but  Deforestation,  public  i n c r e a s e by  going  sea breezes  which c l e a r  smog i s b e c o m i n g  increased p o l l u t i o n  the  is a the a i r f o r  increasingly  continue  15  visible  to plague  the  L o w e r • M a i n l a n d . However, most White Rock r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those  who  centre.  are  retired,  seem c o m f o r t a b l e  walking  around  the  town  115 Gas  drilling  residents,  and s t o r a g e a r e a w o r r y  and some h a v e  joined  L a n g l e y based group o r g a n i z e d drilling  and s t o r a g e .  underground  aquifers  White  healthier lack  Rock's  proposals  water  supply  be t h r e a t e n e d  Rock r e s i d e n t s  to use c o n t r o v e r s i a l  i n White Rock  chlorine  to protest  bacteria  their  i n September  growth  content  and t h e  1991 when t h e u s e o f t h e by t h e Semiahmoo  killed  i n 1990. The GVRD c o n t e n d s t h a t h a s added  water i s  c h l o r a m i n e . Chloramine caused  and Game C l u b b e c a u s e a c h l o r a m i n e s p i l l  South S u r r e y  f o r such  by u n d e r g r o u n d  think  ammonia c o m b i n a t i o n was p r o t e s t e d  in a stream  Valley, a  i s d e p e n d e n t on  t h a n GVRD w a t e r b e c a u s e o f some m i n e r a l  o f need  concern  White  Rock  Friends of the Fraser  w h i c h would  storage p a r t i c u l a r l y .  f o r White  t o i t s water  because t h e water  supply,  Fish  thousands o f f i s h  c h l o r a m i n e , which i s needed  to control  r u n s from t h e N o r t h  Vancouver  watershed. T h o s e who r e c e i v e potential it  from White  use o f underground  mean t h e d r a i n i n g  seepage. E x p l o s i o n s , a  water  Rock u t i l i t i e s f e a r t h e  gas s t o r a g e because, not only  of aquifers,  but i t w i l l  lead  further  up t h e F r a s e r  Ownership has c r e a t e d additional  rate  o f t h e water  controversy  supply  i n White  by a p r i v a t e  are located  water  u t i l i t y company  Rock. R e s i d e n t s o b j e c t  c o s t s f o r w a t e r o v e r and above  f o rtheir  are less of  Valley.  t a x e s . Homeowners have p r o t e s t e d cut  t o underground  a d a n g e r posed by g a s d r i l l i n g ,  c o n c e r n f o r White Rock b e c a u s e t h e p r o p o s e d s i t e s  will  that  their  apartment  annual  to paying property  d w e l l e r s pay a  ( P e a c e A r c h News, F e b r u a r y 1992).  White  116 Rock c o u n c i l but  has considered  have a l w a y s been  told  W h i t e Rock c i v i c level,  officials  o v e r GVRD r e g i o n a l  guidelines. city  process  Region" being  boost  localism at the regional planning  d e c i s i o n s and  yet f a l l i n g  within  poulation  22 o f them  from  t h e GVRD had begun a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  t h e end p r o d u c t included  eliminated  f o rthe c i t y  i s prohibitive.  planning,  i n 1968, w i t h  government, which minister,  the u t i l i t y  With 78 members on t h e GVRD b o a r d ,  o f Vancouver,  planning  in  the cost  consistently preferring local  control  the  purchasing  a plan  called  "The L i v e a b l e  i n 1975. The S o c i a l  W h i t e Rock MLA B i l l  t h e GVRD p l a n n i n g  public  Credit  Reid  department  as a cabinet  and f u n c t i o n s  1984. In 1990 t h e GVRD began a n o t h e r p u b l i c s u r v e y and i n p u t  process 1992  called  "Urban F u t u r e s " ,  resembling  the o r i g i n a l  leading  t o recommendations i n  plan.  " T h e r e a r e t h r e s h o l d s beyond which r e g e n e r a t i o n becomes i m p o s s i b l e . R i v e r s and s e a s a r e n a t u r a l s y s t e m s . They s h a r e w i t h n a t u r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d y i n g . " 10 Growth p r e s s u r e s cent the  o f the regional regional  million  from  in-migration  growth) f u l f i l l e d  district  would  i n 2004. Between  reach  and i m m i g r a t i o n  t h e GVRD p r e d i c t i o n  i t s saturation point  1975 and 1990 t h e r e g i o n a l  grew by 600,000 p e o p l e . T h e Urban F u t u r e s find as  ways o f i n c r e a s i n g  t o promote  i t s economic development  Issues  raised  cleaner as  the population  originally  a i r , b i c y c l e paths,  preservation  (75 p e r  o f 2.2  population  p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d t o  density  of this  r e g i o n so  i n a l i v e a b l e way.  i n t h e 1975 p u b l i c p r o c e s s  and o t h e r  of agricultural  land,  that  environmental remain  nagging  such as  concerns  such  problems.  117 Aldermen  such a s V i n Coyne  of regional  intervention,  became o u t d a t e d o f White Rock, services, two  have c o n t i n u a l l y espousing  surpassed  particularly  the c i t y ' s  police,  structures  tax b i l l s .  Current  conduct  of Municipal a survey  in h o s t i l e  reaction  Futures"  Affairs  with  a series  v a l u a b l e w e t l a n d s and  which has s u p p o r t e r s  a United  United  Nations designation  Nations'  h a b i t a t s and Since residential  with  marine  has to the to  resulted  Bose. on  "Urban  brochure, the i t s own  Bay  would  change  Conservation  has been  o f the Boundary  which  Bay  calling  region  to p r e s e r v e  as a  bird  life.  t h e Boundary  Bay  region  urban area upland  to be a c c o u n t a b l e  from Hurd  land,  i n White Rock,  the  receive  South Surrey,  The B o u n d a r y  Biosphere Reserve i n order  of  Wi1f Hurd,  h e a r i n g s on  agricultural  of the r e g i o n .  owners  project  of public  city  between  White Rock,  relations  Amalgamation  overlap  f o r the m i n i s t r y  mayor Bob  in a public  includes  Committee,  1992  Democrat  Community P l a n .  the e c o - p o l i t i c s  MLA,  A request  t h e GVRD r e s e a r c h  which c u l m i n a t e d  o f White Rock h e l d  in July  Official  for  opposition  which  f o r South  property  o f an expanded  f r o m New  The  recreational,  when c i t y  idea  surrounds the  o f t e n means a c a l l  Liberal  on c r e a t i o n  Simultaneously  city  and  been a p r o p o n e n t o f a m a l g a m a t i o n .  minister  which  a t the  of localism  population.  fire  S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock a m a l g a m a t i o n  long  ideology  the minute South S u r r e y ,  administrative  their  an  bristled  i n c l u d e s Semiahmoo Bay,  from t h e bay, White Rock would  t o sewage and c o n t a m i n a t i o n  c o n c e r n s have e s c a l a t e d  as  to the p o i n t  that  have  run o f f . E c o l o g i c a l  i n 1992  not o n l y  were  118 beaches c l o s e d c o u n t s but Campbell  high  River  Concerned quality,  to p u b l i c  local  to a d d r e s s the  concentrations along  with  residents problem.  tampons f r e q u e n t l y  b e a c h has  turned  choliform  river  in  1992,  to  a 50  and  beach  yard  water  the  for public  city's  agencies  s t r e t c h of  swimming. A l t h o u g h on  the  kills.  t o p r o v i n c i a l government  In J u l y  wash up  been r e o p e n e d  of massive f i s h  deteriorated  closed  fecal  o f m e r c u r y were r e p o r t e d  fears  about b a d l y  R o c k ' s west b e a c h was and  swimming b e c a u s e o f h i g h  east  toilet  White paper  beaches,  that  swimming.  "On the f i r s t day o f t e s t i n g , t h e B o u n d a r y H e a l t h U n i t r e c o r d e d a c h o l i f o r m c o u n t o f 750. C o l i f o r m i s a b a c t e r i a t h a t i s an i n d i c a t o r o f sewage c o n t a m i n a t i o n . On t h e s e c o n d day, t h a t number jumped to 1950 and on t h e t h i r d day i t r e a c h e d 2,000. A s a f e l i m i t s e t by t h e h e a l t h u n i t i s 200...White R o c k ' s i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s b r i n g i n g more p o l l u t i o n t o t h e a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e b e a c h , and b i r d s and c a t s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o h i g h l e v e l s o f c o l i f o r m . the b u l k o f t h e r e c e n t h i g h l e v e l s came as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e c e n t r a i n t h a t d r a i n e d the p o l l u t i o n i n t o the ocean t h r o u g h t h e c i t y ' s s t o r m sewer s y s t e m . " 11 As washed Spill  well, up  based  dead  b i r d s and  b e a c h e s . Members o f  i n W h i t e Rock,  laid  the  the  three  seals  B o u n d a r y Bay  blame on  Oil  inhumane  practices.  The struggle outcry  more t h a n 50  White rock  Society,  fishing  road  on  i n 1992  struggle  o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t , which up  to p r e s e r v e  single family  to  residential  1992  was  a  a r e a s and  a  o v e r h i g h r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t s , became c o n c e r n e d  ends from d e v e l o p m e n t  greenspace, even  in a desperate bid  i f i t were o n l y  blackberry  to  with  saving  retain  b u s h e s on  a  saturated  h i 11 s i d e . Local  politicians  have a h i s t o r y o f u s i n g  public  rhetoric  to  119 address the environment, while contradiction, fecal  Until  S i g n s warning  and w o r d i n g  the high  city  favor i t s  For instance,  from  hall  minimalist  walk a l o n g local  construction  protest  o f a promenade a l l o w i n g  i s no l o n g e r  b u s i n e s s owners' f e a r s  residents'  Since  complaints  lettered.  kept the  f i t for public  sewage comes down t o t h e w a t e r  overflow,  one may  r e a d i l y assume t h a t  s u r p r i s i n g l y , marine  life  to the research  r a r e l y saw an a c t i v e  advertising election Baptist  rules  front  drop i n despite  Marine  from t h e  and t h e n has t o  t h e GVRD h a s a p e r m i t  summer weekends, o v e r f l o w  Prior  has  stations.  and s i n c e  busy  swimming  o f n o x i o u s o d o u r s coming  uphill,  which  being  people to  of a substantial  pumped  Not  public  b u r e a u c r a t s and c o u n c i l l o r s  c o u n t s on "doggy do". P u b l i c  a b e a c h which  sewage pumping  on  late  and s m a l l  b u s i n e s s . W h i t e Rock r e m a i n s a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n  be  until  i n the p u b l i c eye. Completed  Drive  t h e 1990  the p u b l i c ,  o f p o l l u t i o n were  on t h e s i g n s  t h e 1992 i n c i d e n t ,  blamed  eased  c o u n t s were h i d d e n  commenced.  installed  issue  economic development.  choliform  bathing  their actions  during  will  heavy  be dumped  sewage  rainstorms or  into  t h e bay.  i s p r a c t i c a l l y nonexistent.  period,  the local  political  contest  were not p r e s c r i b e d ,  of environmentalists.  t o dump  election and where  campaign  d i d not f a v o u r the  At t h e White Rock  home, where a p p r o x i m a t e l y  process,  350 r e s i d e n t s  Evergreen vote  in city  120 elections, of  I received  complaints  that  names t o v o t e f o r , ( a l l e g e d l y  r e s i d e n t s were g i v e n  supplied  by t h e p o p u l a r V i n  Coyne) and were h i t by an o l d g e n t l e m a n ' s c a n e My s c r u t i n e e r s the p o l l i n g  reported s t a f f  booth  Another  i f they o b j e c t e d .  a t t h e home i n s t r u c t e d  residents in  on whom t o v o t e f o r .  concern,  since  the returning  officer  i n White Rock  does not n o r m a l l y c r o s s check  polling  lists,  exists  casting  more t h a n one b a l l o t .  to prevent  Complaints with  also  people  exist  attracted  grown from  1980, I was t o l d lived  represents social  Rather candidates  When  large  realtors,  White  they  o f longtime  at the local  newspaper  a newcomer u n t i l The W h i t e Rock  architects,  the local  r u n on a p l a t f o r m o f w a n t i n g  slate,  elections).  I'd  clique  accountants, city  hall  side.  r u n on i s s u e s ,  g o v e r n m e n t " . They  t o v o t e on  and d e v e l o p e r s . They have w e l l - p a i d  on t h e i r than  t o be c a l l e d  f o r 10 y e a r s .  landowners,  Surrey  i n a s h o r t t i m e and h a v i n g  I began w o r k i n g  to expect  i n the c i t y  dilettantes  bureaucrats  hidden  nucleus  system  South  i n federal  h a s l o n g been t h e domain o f a c l i q u e  White Rock r e s i d e n t s .  actually  i n from  no  and a r e r e g i s t e r e d  no l o n g e r a l l o w e d  a small  i s that  a conservative generation of retirees,  Rock p o l i t i c s  in  v o t e r s a r e bussed  requirements  day ( a p r a c t i c e  Having  from  that  no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  election  lists  stress  t h e need  establishment  to provide " r e s p o n s i b l e  t o be "team p l a y e r s " .  take s u p p o r t i n g advertisements  As a  i n the local  121 newspaper under for  the  lack of c l e a r l y  affiliation contests  leads  between  voter  turn-out.  other  cent  apathy  The  voter  level  June had  turnout  1991  people  to vote  for challengers  theory  has  for to  ward  promoted  systems  changes to  in local  political  based  and  t u r n out  on  are  of  just  would  contested. to  t o the the  local  give  apathy I ran 15.3  and  such  cent.  the  50  voter  more o p p o r t u n i t y  i  for  incumbents.This  Municipal  governments s i n c e  low  against  per  reaches  With  people,  government b o d i e s  existing  B.C.  personality  professional  e l e c t i o n s only  wonder a c c l a m a t i o n s turn-out  and  b y - e l e c t i o n i n which  in local  voter  platforms  citizens  ideology.  It a l s o means v o t e r  a voter  common. H i g h e r  localist  business  when m a y o r a l t i e s  i t i s no  "concerned  of candidates  based  in Surrey.  candidates  In Canada,  identified  to e l e c t i o n locally  some o f whom l i v e  per  o f groups such as  r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t " , p l a y i n g on The  two  guise  voter  Act  to  allow  turn-out  tends  be "somewhat h i g h e r u n d e r a ward s y s t e m t h a n one a t l a r g e . . . i t i s i r o n i c t h a t w h i l e one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s w h i c h m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l c o u l d p l a y i s t o a c t a s a p u b l i c forum f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i s s u e s o f community c o n c e r n , c o u n c i l s o f t e n attempt to a v o i d a i r i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l m a t t e r s i n p u b l i c , " 12 The  political to  voter  low  turn-out  platforms  and  the  party  increased  bureaucrats prefer  a p a t h y and  myth o f  power f o r b u r e a u c r a t s tend  closed  t o be  styles  resistant  encouraged  at c i t y  lack  non-partisanship, hall.  to c i t i z e n s '  o f government. S i n c e  by  of lead  These  g r o u p s , and  c o u n c i l l o r s have  they been  122 elected their  in personality  peers,  closed  any  contests  contentious  and  prefer  issues  are  to  remain p o p u l a r  always d i s c u s s e d  with  behind  doors.  "We do need m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l l o r s and s t a f f who are r e c e p t i v e t o more p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , who p u r s u e an open s t y l e o f government, and who a c c e p t t h a t community v i e w s and v a l u e s a r e as i m p o r t a n t as t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e c i d i n g on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . We a l s o need c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n s g r o u p s w i t h an o n g o i n g b r o a d l y b a s e d i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l government, w i l l i n g t o p r o p o s e as w e l l as o p p o s e , and t o be a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o u n c i l . Yet i f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were met, m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s would s t i l l be u n a b l e to r e s p o n d t o many o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s simply b e c a u s e t h e y l a c k t h e power and i n d e p e n d e n c e to do s o . " 13 Such c r i t i q u e , were i n t h e i r political private  infancy,  office  citizens  relations  The  reported  that  prompted  to c i t y  member on  one  campaign  an  airline  pilot,  out  Staub d i d  i s an  seek  my  to  for  movements local  elections  expensive  to m a i n t a i n  campaign  of  public a high  community  team, Duncan Cameron,  f o r alderman with $5,000 t o win not  social  run  However, t h e  councils  Hardy S t a u b , S t a u b f o r k e d As  1970s when new activists  f o r t h o s e who  senior on  early  i n many c i t i e s .  project  profile.  i n the  the  current  e l e c t i o n to c o u n c i l .  have the  luxury  of  considering  h i s c a m p a i g n a b u s i n e s s p r o m o t i o n as  Chamber o f Commerce  can.  ideology  the  However, h i s b e l i e f e x p e n s e needed  contribute My for  in  Localist  t o make him  a  t o h i s community, was  experience  shows t h a t  l e s s t h a n $2500 (I was  mayor  made him  "prominent c i t i z e n "  members  feel  that  and/or  warranted.  i t ' s impossible  to win  $600 s h o r t ) . W i t h o u t  a  campaign  signs i t ' s  123 difficult election lunch  f o r people when c i t y  time,  as  to remember to v o t e ,  staff  I noted  neglected  at  especially  to p u t  the Peace Arch  polling  in a  by-  s i g n s up  Elementary  until  polling  s t a t i on. "With few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e campaign i s d e v o i d o f i s s u e s or c l e a r p o l i c y c h o i c e s . . . c a n d i d a t e s f o r o f f i c e are r e l u c t a n t to o f f e r s p e c i f i c p r o m i s e s w h i c h t h e y may not be a b l e t o f u l f i l l . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n s becomes l a r g e l y a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t e s t , one i n which t h e i n c u m b e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o be f a v o u r e d i f o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e l e n g t h y l i s t o f names and m u l t i p l e b a l l o t s f a c i n g the v o t e r s . . . i t i s a r g u e d t h a t v o t e r t u r n o u t and c i t i z e n i n t e r e s t g e n e r a l l y may be i n h i b i t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s do not c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e community o f i n t e r e s t o f t o d a y ' s popu1 a t i o n . . . p e o p 1 e may i g n o r e m u n i c i p a l boundaries in their p u r s u i t o f employment, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . " 14 The petit  tight  knit  bourgeoisie  towards  local  between s e n i o r c i t y  i s evidenced  citizens.  staff's  an  undisguised  A l d e r m a n V i n Coyne  t h e W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s ' criticizing  by  s t a f f and  A s s o c i a t i o n the  negligence  the  local  arrogance  i s quoted  as  "black-eye  i n f a i l u r e to post  calling  brigade"  beach  for  closure  signs. Ken  Jones c i t e d  in h i s f a i l e d bid  this  hostile  f o r mayor  "friendly  city hall"  youth  senior f a c i l i t i e s ,  and  Victoria their the  and  s i n c e he  attitude  i n 1990  when he  t o White Rock. As  and  Jones f e l t  h i s wife  towards  an  local  pledged  advocate  to b r i n g a of  better able  were on  the  citizens  front  improved  to s e r v e lines  b i d f o r t h e S o u t h S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock swimming p o o l , he  value  of p r o v i n c i a l  government  funding,  acquisition  of  from  in knows such  i24 often  exceeding  the p o l i t i c a l  skills  of  local  mayors.  " M u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s have not matured s u f f i c i e n t l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y in intergovernmental relations... among o t h e r 1 i m i t a t i o n s , t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a service d e l i v e r y r o l e , the absence o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , and t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward p o l i t i c s . They a l s o p o i n t to the absence o f a r a t i o n a l , planned p o l i c y making p r o c e s s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . " 15 Other highlight  than  myself,  J o n e s was  environmental  c o n c e r n s , and  F r i e n d s of the F r a s e r V a l l e y  International,  diehard  who  from  i t s inception,  has  are  actively  o i l and  he,  belonged  two  he  to stop  member o f Amnesty socialist  the o n l y c a n d i d a t e  like  gas  worked  to  with  drilling.  Lindsey  t o t h e New  i n 1990  Peebles,  Democratic  o f the peace a c t i v i s t s  As  a  a  Party  who  are  not  only  also  strong environmentalists. The city  local  petit  government but  Reid's  fall  funnelled  from  bourgeoisie profits with  grace  when, as  tourism  f a d ) , which was  Eco-Clean  owned by  got  local  politicians  long  term  to  t o t h e Semiahmoo House S o c i e t y , a n o t h e r  local end,  politicians,  in order  W h i t e Rock d e c i d e d  recycling  service.  city  doing  practice.  t o s e t up staff  MLA  with Bill  B.C.  (capitalizing  a friend  Reid  go  caught  by  m i n i s t e r , GO  c a m p a i g n manager. B i l l as a  ties  t h e p r o v i n c e , as e v i d e n c e d  money t o a company c a l l e d  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  from  and  what was  The  former  expected  money was breeding  a recycling  on  of  in turn  ground  program.  In  were b e s t a b l e t o p r o v i d e  for the the  125 In an agreement (who  himself  Eco-Clean tainted  later  by l o c a l  prevent  that  of local  petit  environmental up on f i g h t i n g Saltspring  bourgeoisie  activist,  citizens  i n the late rises.  GVRD c l a i m s  Island  and 80 p e r c e n t  B r i a n B r e t t , announced  t h a t he was g i v i n g h i s family to  survey  i n 1990  showed  Vancouver  of the a i r p o l l u t i o n by v e h i c l e s . S u r r e y  that  pollution  r e s i d e n t s . The  i s c a u s e d by contributed to  p r o b l e m s on t h e Semiahmoo p e n i n s u l a by  banned  i n the rapidly  the burning  growing  i n 1993 and s t i l l  area. allows  permits.  Environmental stability.  leftist  i n 1981. One o f them, a s u p p o s e d  f o r land c l e a r i n g  c o u n c i l only  occasional  against  i n 1990.  20 p e r c e n t  burning  around  and e a r l y 1980s t o  d e v e l o p m e n t and t h a t he was moving  massive a i r p o l l u t i o n  Surrey  1970s  lobbying  Two a p p a r e n t l y  t h e number one c o n c e r n o f G r e a t e r  allowing  ended up  has g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d  i s s u e s , with  The GVRD Urban F u t u r e s  for  GO B.C. was a p p a r e n t l y so  citizens  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f high  industry  Gabelman,  circumstances),  t h e NDP government  a l d e r m e n were e l e c t e d t o c o u n c i l  was  Colin  t h e program.  d e n s i t y development local  General,  under q u e s t i o n a b l e  the grant.  politics  Mobilization  the  the Attorney  resigned  repaid half  cancelling  high  with  tensions continue  With t h e i r  hillside  the w a t e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n ,  t o undermine  localist  view o f t h e bay and knowledge o f  White Rock r e s i d e n t s now f i n d  t h e beach  126 pollution Strait  a continual  r e m i n d e r o f t h e dumping  o f G e o r g i a . I t ' s a homefront  residents  t o seek  regional  answers  sewage t r e a t m e n t f o r A n n a c i s as  local  councils  Localist and  White  conflict  "the F r a s e r  will  River  which  only  s h o r t a g e s and the ongoing  compromised,  but i t ' s  partially  the Fraser must now  a slow moving  a d d r e s s e s t h e sewage  "tensions  ( M o l o t c h and L o g a n : 1 9 8 1 ) ,  Only  provide  fire  i n t h e growth  will  service  long  overdue  problem. protection i s machine"  show up i n t h e Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a .  White  are considered  River.  Meadows News, May 7,  s h o r t a g e s mean t h a t  the v i s i b l e  demographica11y,  into  the North  t h e o c e a n , and  secondary treatment p l a n t  areas,  When summer w a t e r  into  o f the four,  t r e a t m e n t " (Maple R i d g e - P i t t  growing  and w i t h  escalate.  areas discharge largest  slow  t o p a y i n g under a  t h e summer w a t e r  Sewer a r e a s d i s c h a r g e  district,  the f a s t e s t  education,  remains  t h e y blame on S u r r e y ' s g r o w t h ,  1995). The $700 m i l l i o n  Since,  arrangement.  t h e GVRD Sewerage and D r a i n a g e D i s t r i c t ,  L u l u and F r a s e r  program  Secondary  on amounts o f new d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e two c i t i e s  S h o r e and V a n c o u v e r  mobilize  an e n g i n e e r ' s dream  over the c o s t - s h a r i n g  f o r m u l a based  between  secondary  is still  With S u r r e y now o b j e c t i n g  beaches  Within  helps  to the problem.  Island  Rock r e s i d e n t s e v i d e n c i n g  overcrowded  i s s u e which  response to environmental d i s a s t e r s  ineffective.  cost-sharing  fight  g o i n g on i n t h e  Rock r e s i d e n t s have  t o be g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  a high  oriented  level of towards a  127 s e n s e o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and tend socialized continue and  over-consumption local  choliform during  counts  local  such  local  politicians  and c i t y  staff  on t h r e e m i s c o n n e c t e d  "false  officials  these  consciousness".  d e a l t with  a b o u t community point  campaigns a g a i n s t  pollution  issues.  r e s i d e n t s , but renders  ineptly  a b o u t and  r e s i d e n t s a r e l i k e l y to  t r y t o blame t h e f e c a l  toilets  t h e 1991 b y - e l e c t i o n , i t i s n o t o n l y  helps d i f f u s e is  activity,  t o be v o c i f e r o u s i n t h e i r  When  of  into p o l i t i c a l  t o be e d u c a t e d  by l o c a l  s u s p e c t and disaster  the c r e d i b i l i t y of but the l o c a l i s t  good c i t i z e n s panel  the c r e d u l i t y  When e n v i r o n m e n t a l  politicians  where an a d v i s o r y d e s i g n  strains  politicians  not o n l y d i m i n i s h e s ,  leaders being  a s was a t t e m p t e d  i s shattered,  belief to the  member, a p r e s i d e n t o f t h e  Chamber o f Commerce and a p r e s i d e n t o f t h e l o c a l  sea f e s t i v a l  society  council  were u n a b l e  t o win enough v o t e s  f o rcity  election  i n 1990. Since began  the long  term p l a n n i n g  process  f o rGreater  Vancouver  i n 1968, growth o f t h e r e g i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n by  more t h a n  50 p e r c e n t .  From  1971 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a  from one m i l l i o n  to a m i l l i o n  people  i n t h e r e g i o n by 2011. The p l a n n i n g  projected  initiated  i n 1968 showed a need  S i n c e Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a , bounded  and a h a l f  with  another  500,000 process  forpreserving agricultural  where W h i t e Rock  by Semiahmoo Bay, t h e U n i t e d  grew  i s perched, i s  S t a t e s B o r d e r , and  land.  128 agricultural other  land,  areas of  the  growth p r e s s u r e Lower  has  been more i n t e n s i f i e d  than  Mainland.  "The R e g i o n ' s s o u t h - w e s t e r n s h o r e l i n e , l o n g t h e s u b j e c t o f numerous d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s , e x t e n d s from P o i n t G r e y t o W h i t e Rock, and i n c l u d e s t h e lower r e a c h e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . W h i l e the B.C. C o a s t g e n e r a l l y f e a t u r e s a s t e e p rocky s h o r e l i n e , our s o u t h - w e s t e r n s h o r e l i n e , s e t i n t h e f l o o d p l a i n d e l t a o f the F r a s e r R i v e r , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v a s t s t r e t c h e s o f i n t e r - t i d a l f l a t . . . i n the f u t u r e a v a r i e t y o f n e e d s — p o r t needs, i n d u s t r i a l needs, r e c r e a t i o n needs, w i l d l i f e needs, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s — w i l l have t o be met a l o n g t h e s e s h o r e s . . . West Richmond, L a d n e r , S o u t h D e l t a , and S o u t h S u r r e y , f a v o u r e d by more s u n s h i n e and l e s s r a i n f a l l t h a n V a n c o u v e r , have a t t r a c t e d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . " 16 Not  only  air quality, agricultural  demands, water d e l i v e r y and addressed  on  fisheries  requires  expertise  or mandate. Yet  local  a regional  Rock, a p o p u l a r Since  Boundary Bay  threatens In likely  the  1968  harm the  commercial  and  Obviously,  with  dramatically. metal  The  f a r beyond  the  harm t h e  local  herring  sports  to  be  of development  on  the  a  local  now  fishing has  government's  industry.  almost  dead  a  White  shores.  spawning g r o u n d , p o l l u t i o n  salmon  that  " f u r t h e r p o l l u t i o n would  f i s h e r y , and fishing  beach c l o s u r e s  "Sewers f e e d i n g  need  industry.  GVRD r e p o r t e d  contamination  sewage  d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n s made by  is a herring  Urban  effect  for crabbing,  fishing the  level.  severely  spot  issues,  service delivery issues  responses  government can  land  as  evidence,  is identified  as  as  well  the  reduce or d i s p e r s e  i n the  run-off  fecal  A n n a c i s and  most  as  the  process."  17  pollution  increased  a source of  heavy  choliform. Iona p l a n t s  also  collect  129 s t o r m r u n - o f f . D u r i n g r a i n y p e r i o d s , t h e volume e n t e r i n g t h e sewerage s y s t e m i n c r e a s e s t o such an e x t e n t t h a t p a r t o f t h e sewage, d i l u t e d w i t h r u n - o f f , must be d i s c h a r g e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e c e i v i n g water b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e p l a n t s . T h e s e wet w e a t h e r o v e r f l o w s and b y - p a s s e s a r e n o t c o v e r e d by t h e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s , and a r e t h e r e f o r e n o t m o n i t o r e d r e g u l a r l y . As a r e s u l t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e p r e c i s e c o n t a m i n a n t l o a d i n g s d i s c h a r g e d by t h e sewerage s y s t e m . " 18 In White Rock, sewage r u n s  downhill  and i s c o l l e c t e d a t  pumping  s t a t i o n s and pumped back up t o t h e main t r u n k  feeding  the Annacis  I s l a n d sewage p l a n t . The s e c o n d a r y  treatment  p l a n t a t Campbell  that  t h e pumping  time  heavy  rainstorms,  line sewage  R i v e r was c l o s e d down i n 1978. S i n c e  stations regularly  which o f t e n occur  just  pump o u t o v e r f l o w before  summer  during  swimming  season. Local problem  which  concerning local  governments a r e unable  t h e GVRD h a s i d e n t i f i e d  discharges  regional reached  monitor  with  sewer  monitoring  board  of health  dramatic  intervention. acknowledged  lines.  effluents  fell  by-laws N e i t h e r can  discharged  from  i t s storm  to the p r o v i n c i a l  i n 1989 a f t e r  fecal  into i t s  B o u n d a r y Bay  choliform  counts  h e i g h t s c a l 1 i n g f o r s e n i o r government  Prior both  sewers t o s t o r m  task  sewage b y — l a w s , a  local  sewers o r t h e e f f l u e n t s emanating  sewers. That  the  t o the branch  governments r e g u l a r l y  municipal  to enforce  to t h i s ,  and a s e a r l y  a s 1978, t h e GVRD  r u n o f f and a c c i d e n t a l c o n n e c t i o n s  sewers c r e a t e d  bacterial  r e g i o n . "Run o f f a l s o c o n t a i n s  pollution  of sanitary problems i n  v a r y i n g amounts o f t o x i c  130 materials" The  19  l a r g e number o f a g e n c i e s ,  stations,  200, makes c o r r e l a t i on  20, and number o f  o f data  o f powers between t h e s e b u r e a u c r a t i c actions  difficult.  agencies  monitoring  The d i v i s i o n  served  to delay  on w a t e r q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  " . . . . i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s from t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t o x i c m a t e r i a l s b e c a u s e o f t h e d a t a ' s l a c k o f a c c u r a c y and l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y . T o x i c i t y d a t a c a n be h a r d t o i n t e r p r e t b e c a u s e d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e used t h a t g i v e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , f o r example t h e d a t a on m e t a l s may be f o r t o t a l e x t r a c t a b l e o r d i s s o l v e d m e t a l s . " 20 Reliance need  f o r job p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  Storm not  on t e c h n o c r a t s ,  run-off  and c h e m i c a l  even p o l i t i c a l l y  together  only  to serve  bureaucrat's  frustrates political  leachates  identified  t h e s e were i s s u e s beyond getting  and t h e n a t u r e o f a  from  sanitary  landfills  as areas f o r study  the usual  scope o f l o c a l  action.  until  were  1978, a s  councillors  on GVRD b o a r d s .  " I n 1975, t h e P r o v i n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a S t e e r i n g Committee o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from government, t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and GVRD t o examine t h e need f o r s e c o n d a r y t r e a t m e n t a t t h e A n n a c i s I s l a n d Sewage T r e a t m e n t P l a n t . The Committee was most c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e b u i l d - u p o f t o x i c m a t e r i a l s from the p l a n t i n t h e s e d i m e n t s and b i o t a o f t h e F r a s e r . The government s u b s e q u e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p o l i c i e s which t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d was o r d e r e d t o implement: t h a t a s o u r c e c o n t r o l program t o c o n t r o l d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e t h e y e n t e r m u n i c i p a l s e w e r s be expanded t o c o v e r t h e e n t i r e G.V.R.D... T h a t a l l f u t u r e m o n i t o r i n g o f w a t e r q u a l i t y , e f f l u e n t s s t o r m r u n - o f f and a q u a t i c b i o t a be c o - o r d i n a t e d a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . " 21 Twenty y e a r s municipalities and  delaying  later,  while  are s t i l l  construction  costs  arguing  have e s c a l a t e d , member  about c o s t - s h a r i n g  o f secondary  treatment  arrangements  a t j u s t one  131 site,  a s opposed  federal  to the f o u r  government, under  regulating  the  sites  needing  the F i s h e r i e s  "deposition  GVRD r e m a i n s  non-accountable local of  directors  b u s i n e s s e s and  their  local  who  sapstain local  areas  must r e s p o n d  revenue  poisoning to s c h o o l ,  Local  o f farm as  bureaucratic  efforts  and  Sun,  environmental  output  aerial  30,  1995),  disruption  Waste-reduction  and  Sun,  1.5  and  fungicides, found  anti-  their  way  into  accidental walking  outstripped  new  population projections  for three m i l l i o n  as w e l l  use i n  use.  creating  projection  people i n  for  2011  more c o n s t r u c t i o n  as g r e a t l y  waste  increasing  waste  systems.  recycling  by White Rock, r e d u c e d  from  t o 1995  public  pesticide  reports of  million  initiated  and  of  per cent  spraying of c h i l d r e n  their  Area c a l l  into already overloaded  1989  1990,  organophosphates  to the Vancouver  May  have  to the concerns  insecticides  to c o n t r o l  d o u b l i n g the o r i g i n a l  (Vancouver  and  steadily,  o f such  the G r e a t e r Vancouver  2021,  and  workers  fish"  i s generated.  newspapers c a r r i e d  t h e use  According for  increased  1970  a g e n t s , h e r b i c i d e s and  waters.  o f government  to  p r o p e r t y owners a t home, where 90  governments'  the  an ad-hoc government o f n o n - e l e c t e d ,  In t h e meantime, between agricultural  With  Act, responsible f o r  of substances d e l e t e r i o u s  a r g u m e n t s between t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s c o n t i n u e d . The  facilities.  programs,  landfill  such as  input  c o n c e r n o v e r water  by  the  12 p e r  one cent  c o n s e r v a t i o n led  132 to a 26 p e r c e n t are  reaching  failure new  d e c l i n e i n water use  their  t o make p r o g r e s s  tried  an F  While agencies politicians quality time  stalled  needed  t h e need  identified. water-contact  standards." began  body,  called  has been  sewage t r e a t m e n t  relations  the  plants. A  Management  process  by  giving  grade.  on a c t i o n ,  for safe  pollution  "water c o n t a c t  controlled  p o i n t and  closures. Politicians  that  Vancouver areas  discharges  water  was of  should  quality  White Rock  t o heed  the water  a t t h e same  " i n these  non-point  Deep Cove and failed  lost  recreation"  t o meet n e c e s s a r y  later  g u i d e l i n e s and  i n the Greater  t h e GVRD r e p o r t e d  recreation,  control  White Rock b e a c h e s  f o r even more b e a c h e s  Ten y e a r s  Landfills  the F r a s e r Basin  the p u b l i c  developed  In 1990  be c a r e f u l l y  i n upgrading  to s i m p l i f y  sewage t r e a t m e n t  times.  c a p a c i t y , but t h e g r e a t e s t a l a r m  inter-governmental  Board,  i n peak  beaches  warnings that  " A c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t h o s e a r e a s h e a v i l y u s e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , b u t which have not been s p e c i f i c a l l y s e t a s i d e o r d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t o p r e s e r v e them a s a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s and t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r management." 22 T h e s e w a r n i n g s came j u s t population  growth  which  surged  before  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n boom and  i n the e a r l y  1980s.  became d r a g g e d down by d i s c u s s i o n s o f d e v e l o p m e n t and d e s i g n p r o c e s s e s occupied  the time  popularity  as the rush  of local  cost  to put out development  councillors,  contests for election  Local c o u n c i l s  and  so d e p e n d e n t  reelection  that  charges permits  on social  133 activities  remained  Population is in  high  growth  now so g r e a t  that  on p r i o r i t y  i n S u r r e y , which  traffic  bottleneck  The reality senior  prior  to closures  that  Y e t t h e White  city  wtih  Rock beach was  Marine D r i v e  b u c k - p a s s i n g between g o v e r n m e n t s ,  politicians  controlled  depend  i n excusing  responsibilities  (compared  Rock,  remained a  e v e r y weekend.  o f a GVRD b e i n g  politics  be t h e l a r g e s t  o f 600,000  1991 c e n s u s o f 4 7 1 , 0 0 0 ) .  so o v e r c r o w d e d  e n c r o a c h e s on White  i n 15 y e a r s S u r r e y w i l l  the province with a population  Vancouver's  lists.  by l o c a l  politicians  on f o r r e - e l e c t i o n ,  the regional  t o keep  and t h e p o l i t i c a l  district  waters c l e a n  whom  h a s made f o r c o s y  from i t s  f o r r e c r e a t i o n and  f i s h e r i e s use. Fines,  which  would  have  t o be p a i d  corporations  f o r exceeding p o l l u t i o n  the r e g i o n a l  district.  C l u b was h i j a c k e d  "handshake  discharged  i n heavy  May  crown  the regional  government  agreement"  rainstorms  d i s c h a r g e and t h o s e f i n e s  counsel,  a r e waived f o r  district  who t h e n d r o p p e d  because  permitting  banked  of a provincial  t h e raw sewage t o be  (Maple R i d g e - P i t t  28 1995). Common s e n s e would  developing  guidelines,  The c a s e b r o u g h t by t h e UFAW and S i e r r a  by p r o v i n c i a l  the c h a r g e s a g a i n s t  by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s o r  Meadows  Times,  s u g g e s t t h e GVRD be f i n e d f o r t o pay f o r t h e c o s t o f  sewage t r e a t m e n t , so t h a t  by t h e t i m e t h e GVRD t o o k  t h e c a s e t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada on a p p e a l o f t h e f i n e s ,  134 the  treatment  bureaucrats been  lost  p l a n t s would  i n charge  i n "the  be  of f r a c t u r e d  review  livelihoods,  a greatly logging  must  now  camp t o s e a s o n a l  Rock's r e s o r t tourist  ruling  and  Central serving  as  sense to  of  localist  of owner-occupied  ehic  of  these  small  though  they  ideology renters affect  into  the  and  i s the  ones,  idea of a  Localism  routine in a  to share  units,  of  localism  called  owners from  responsibility  surrounding  bedroom from  White  i t s current  local  fails  was  landlord  when major  i n the  creation  condominums, w h i c h  Although  localism, would  the p o l i t i c a l  taxes", environmenta1ism  responsibility  from  globalized,  landowner as e n f r a n c h i s e d c i t i z e n ,  "property  gone  are holdovers  politician.  salvation  strata-title  o f r u n - o f f on  t h r e a t e n s the e x i s t e n c e of  property developers.  pay  has  location.  ideology  housing  of shared  their  elite  w h i c h g i v e W h i t e Rock  isolated  economy. The  and  l o g g i n g f o r so  the e f f e c t s  t o r e t i r e m e n t and  e r a . Beach p o l l u t i o n  l a n d l o r d s become a b s e n t e e  landlords  with  on  s l o p e . W h i t e Rock has  political  town p a t r o n  capitalist  which once r e l i e d  resort  oriented businesses  identity  technocrats  g o v e r n m e n t , common s e n s e  grapple  denuded, u r b a n i z e d  community. The  with  process."  White Rock, a community many  o p e r a t i n g . But  a c t s to m o t i v a t e  for monitoring  community. A p p o i n t m e n t  turned  with i t s  exclude  process and  even  its  owners  and  a c t i o n s which o f Condominium  Home Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e members t o W h i t e Rock  council  135 committees  i s now  as  common a s  by  attraction  appointments of  local  business  peop1e. Lured larger will  urban  be  the  setting,  exposed  philosophies.  those  to both  of a who  environment  increases  city  has  of  political  top  and  with  residence  i n White  that  the  into  the  attachment  a gentrified participating  e m p h a s i s on  values  local  and  life  habitat  Rock  to a s m a l l community  maintaining  issues  locale  therefore  agenda. creates  activities  The for  and  the more  local  have s t r a i n e d  increased  an  pleasant  where r e s i d e n t s a r e  i n community  to handle  of  creates  political  However, growth p r e s s u r e s  local  a  environmentalist  the  property  of White Rock's  affairs.  of  up  neighbourhoods. Q u a l i t y of  created  socialized  ability  that  the  popularity  town a t m o s p h e r e w i t h i n  Home o w n e r s h i p e n c o u r a g e s a c c e p t a n c e philosophies  remain at  take  localist  environmentalist  havens out  small  the  housing  construction. The  mounting  regional for  and  senior  level  e c o l o g i c a l damage  financial the  environmental  abilities  concluding  chapter  will  f o r c e s and  groups,  g o v e r n m e n t s , and  the  environmental  beyond  those  outside  seek  r e q u i r e response  o f g o v e r n m e n t s as  lies  of  problems  the  residing within  restitution  local  this  which c a l l  befits  tendency  to  As  blame  outside  localist  f o r wider  and  boundaries.  f o r damages from  corporations,  tensions,  technical solutions  control, expertise  show, a l t h o u g h  from  forms  ideology, of  136 cooperation, localism  signal  a transformation  and f o r m s o f government  into  neighborhoods w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n provincial  areas  small  cost-sharing District  so  (e.g.  formulas  from  problems  with  s u c h a s W h i t e Rock. The f e u d i n g  over  causes p o l l u t i o n  Vancouver  in i t s current  i s unworkable s i n c e attachment  form  Regional  regional  to s p e c i f i c  locales i s  strong. Growing p o p u l a t i o n  employment regional  as a r e g i o n a l  region-wide r a t h e r than  bio-region  proportions,  townships,  strata  localist  further for  local  social  i n the Greater  Beaches w i l l  into  and d e v o l v e s  traditional  19th c e n t u r y  rooms o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d  committees w i l l functions. This  larger geographical on t h e o t h e r  for social  comfort.  be s e e n  As l o c a l i s m grows t o  assume c h a r g e o f reflects a  o f l o c a l i s m s i n c e the b a s i s f o r " l o c a l e "  t h e one hand,  neighbourhoods  resource.  c o u n c i l s and m e e t i n g  and p o l i t i c a l  beaches  be o p p o s e d .  which e x c e e d  f o r stronger  i s o l a t i o n i s m . As growth  on o t h e r  will  c e n t r e s and p l a n n i n g  reconstitution  survival,  t o commute  and d e c r e a s e d  increase, pollution  Vancouver a r e a  community  and a need  and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s h a s made  identification  pressures  on  and nominal  regions. Presently the  within the Greater that,  British  growth  Surrey)  jurisdiction  demonstrates  government  symbolic  government must m e d i a t e when e n c r o a c h i n g  surrounding another  o f 19th c e n t u r y  hand,  entities into  evolves,  f o r economic  smaller  137 So  whereas t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f White  square m i l e s ,  i t contains d i s t i n c t i v e  i n h a b i t a n t s a s town c e n t r e , s i d e and w a t e r f r o n t . storey  the w a t e r f r o n t  buildings Palisades"  u s e and promote  and b e a c h  When p o l l u t i o n  "Pacific  neighbourhoods w i t h view, e a s t  Large apartment  retirement-oriented  rooms f o r community  hillside  Rock encompass  threatened  offer  point  the waterfront,  three  know t o side,  west  such a s t h e s i x -  neighbourhood  remain the f o c a l  just  meeting  i d e n t i t y . Yet  o f White not o n l y  Rock. immediate  r e s i d e n t s b u t t h o s e from s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s who e n j o y )  beachfront and  activity  the wastes  varying  complained about  washing  neighbourhoods  quality.  up on p u b l i c united  hall  that  the regional  district,  City  o f Vancouver  dominance,  Continued to l o c a l  beyond  White  pollution  threatened,  White  Rock's  Rock's  t o sewer  financial  discovered  the p o l l u t i o n  on t h e b e a c h f r o n t  especially  mandate.  discharge  water that  White  p r o b l e m , and d i r e c t o r s and  was u n r e s p o n s i v e .  financial  however, w i l l  respond  several  deteriorating  because o f b i c k e r i n g  watch  frustration,  remains a r e g i o n a l  likely  against  was u n a b l e t o s o l v e  from sewage  b e a c h e s . R e s i d e n t s from  However, t h e s e r e s i d e n t s q u i c k l y  Rock c i t y  led  stench  since  capabilities  new  has, t h e r e f o r e ,  infrastructure i s  and sewage t r e a t m e n t  O n l y when V a n c o u v e r ' s b e a c h e s a r e  the current  outlet  regional  pollution  limitations,  p r o b l e m s . S t y m i e d by  frustrated  times appealed to the p r o v i n c i a l  board o f d i r e c t o r s  citizens  government  have  fora  138 referendum Surrey tax  into  vote promoting c i v i c  merger  o f White Rock and S o u t h  a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a w i t h more p o l i t i c a l  b a s e and more e f f i c i e n t  movement r e f l e c t s  service  delivery.  an new and expanded  Rock and i t s immediate  vicinity.  This  clout,  a  better  amalgamation  sense o f l o c a l i s m  i n White  139 ENDNOTES 1.  M a r g a r e t Lang, A l o n g t h e Way, C i t y Rock, B.C. p. 11.  2.  G. F e r n T r e l e a v e n , Society:  3.  Ibid,  4. 5.  Ibid. L e s Swain,  Surrey,  The S u r r e y  o f White Rock:  Story,  Surrey  White  Historical  B.C. 1992. p.2.  p . 145.  e d . , Our S o u t h w e s t e r n S h o r e s , M i n i s t r y  E n v i r o n m e n t : V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1981. The S u r r e y  Story,  of  p. 21.  6.  G.Fern T r e l e a v e n ,  Ibid.  p. 25.  7.  W i l l i a m B a l d w i n , e d . , Annual R e p o r t , C i t y White Rock, B.C. 1990. p. 1.  8.  Ibid,  9.  Bud E l s i e , e d . , GVRD Development S e r v i c e s B u l l e t i n , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , B u r n a b y , B.C. O c t o b e r , 1990. p. 5.  o f White  Rock:  p. 3.  10. F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y , A L i v i n g R i v e r by t h e Door, M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t : S u r r e y , B.C. 1981. p. 7. 11. D i a n e S t r a n d b e r g , e d . , P e a c e A r c h News, M e t r o V a l l e y Newspapers: White Rock, B.C. J u l y 15, 1992. p. 1. 12. J a c k Masson  and James D. A n d e r s o n , E m e r g i n g P a r t y  Urban Canada,  McClelland  13.  Ibid.  14.  Ibid,  p. 156.  15.  Ibid,  p. 248/249.  16.  Ibid,  p. 181.  Politics in  & S t e w a r t : T o r o n t o . 1972. p. 258.  17. L e s Swain, e d . , Our S o u t h w e s t e r n S h o r e s . I b i d . p. 4. 18. L e s G. Swain and L . J . A l e x a n d e r , F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y Water Q u a l i t y : Boundary Bay, M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t : V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1981. p. 8/9.  140 19. F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y S t e e r i n g Committee, F r a s e r E s t u a r y S t u d y Summary, M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t : V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1978. p. 51. 20.  Ibid,  p.  67.  21.  Ibid,  p.  70.  22.  Ibid.  141 CHAPTER IV CHANGING THE POLITICAL As e v i d e n c e d environmental defined part  CONTEXT: THE POWER OF ENV IRONMENTALISM  by t h e e s c a l a t i n g  problems r a r e l y  locale,  river  disposal  for the c i t y  district  under t h e a u t h o r i t y  quality  o f water  issues.  and e s t u a r y  o f White Rock  High coastal  infiltration  region during  tension  heavy  rainstorms,  outfalls  control demand  flow monitoring of the existing  the i n f i 1 t r a t i o n / i n f I o w for sanitary  beyond t h e  throughout the i n White  on t h e b e a c h . T i d a l  t h e GVRD e n g i n e e r i n g  s i z e and l o c a t i o n s  g o v e r n m e n t . The  unchecked  wasn't  a sewer  Sewage  politicians.  to dissipate  recommended  system.  by C a n a d i a n and U.S.  s h a l l o w bay w a t e r f a i l 1988 t h a t  Semiahmoo Bay i s  and i n f l o w s w h i c h o c c u r  have c a u s e d p r o b l e m s w i t h  until  to a narrowly  o f the p r o v i n c i a l  i n Semiahmoo Bay, s h a r e d  scope o f l o c a l  costly  i s managed by t h e r e g i o n a l  n a t i o n - s t a t e s can cause i n t e r n a t i o n a l diplomatic  problem,  c a n be c o n f i n e d  b u t become r e g i o n a l  o f an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d  sewer  the e f f l u e n t .  program  Rock,  f l o w s and  However, i t  department which c o u l d  define  p r o b l e m and l o o k a t ways t o  i n a system which  shows  increased  flow.  " E x c e s s i v e i n f l o w s a p p e a r t o be o c c u r r i n g a t t h e W h i t e Rock, L a n g l e y and C l o v e r d a l e pumping s t a t i o n s . T h e s e h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e w e r s i m m e d i a t e l y downstream." 1 Tourists closures)  t o White Rock b e a c h e s  (who a r e a f f e c t e d  a r e b o t h r e g i o n - w i d e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  by beach  visitors.  Local  142 b u s i n e s s e s depend small pay  f o r the c i t y ' s  local  hinterland people  provision  street  c a n be  political  the  both  seen  as a r e s u l t  i n the m e t r o p o l i s causes  from  by  of  the  tourism helps  infrastructure  improving  boosting tourist  such  the q u a l i t y  of  as life  appeal.  of the m e t r o p o l i s -  ecological  the problems w i l l  the h i n t e r l a n d .  As  face of further e c o l o g i c a l  mining is  of cosmetic  survival  economy where t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e mass  the c o s t s f o r s o l v i n g drained  f o r economic  income g e n e r a t e d  lighting,  r e s i d e n t s and  Pollution  of  these v i s i t o r s  b u s i n e s s community. The  s i d e w a l k s and for  on  or d e f o r e s t a t i o n ,  those  deterioration,  be b o r n e  by  resources  r e s o u r c e s a r e consumed  d e v a s t a t i o n , such  as  the m e t r o p o l i s - h i n t e r l a n d  yet  from  in  strip  contradiction  intensified. As C l i v e  Ponting  observes:  "I am c o n v i n c e d , t h a t a f t e r n e a r l y twenty y e a r s o f s u p p o r t i n g ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l ' c a u s e s , t h a t 'green' i s s u e s a r e not s i m p l y a b o u t t h e s t a t e o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d b u t have t o i n c l u d e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m s such a s t h e use o f r e s o u r c e s and e n e r g y , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o v e r t y and w e a l t h , how p e o p l e t r e a t o t h e r p e o p l e , and t h e way p e o p l e t h i n k a b o u t t h e w o r l d they i n h a b i t . " 2 Without  government  p r a c t i c e s would  intervention,  predominate.  With  environmentally destructive  government  intervention,  p r a c t i c e s a r e m i t i g a t e d but  rarely  by  with p r o p o s a l s to curb  t h e GVRD i n 1988  came up  eliminated. Studies the  undertaken combined  s t o r m / s e w e r o u t f l o w p r o b l e m s which have p l a g u e d  t h e beach  White Rock and  The  proposal,  other areas  which e n t a i l e d  i n the r e g i o n - w i d e .  further  study,  noted  that  such  at  first zero t o l e r a n c e  143 approach  t o sewage p o l l u t i o n o f beach w a t e r  have added in order A second, place  $134 p e r h o u s e h o l d  report  i n areas already  drafted  second  option  higher  proposal  controls Local had  costs. This  department.  despite  have been  f o r combined  The placed  government  m e e t i n g body t h a t 1988  GVRD r e p o r t  on t h e S o u t h S u r r e y  Rock, h a v i n g  already  the fact  improved  would  politicians.  " f a i r " and  run-off affordable.  this  oversight  not t h e u n e l e c t e d  i t is. also  recommended  Interceptor  high  i t as causing  The GVRD e n g i n e e r i n g  during  heavy  p r i o r i t y be  a t J o h n s t o n Road  failed  report  rainfall  i n White  downstream  s u r c h a r g e on t h e i n t e r c e p t o r w h i c h would a l l o w  excessive  In s h o r t , t h e  by an i m p a c t -  been a c c o u n t a b l e ,  identified  o p e r a t e under p r e s s u r e  the f i n a l  that  to c i t i c i z e  p r o b l e m s on t h e White Rock b e a c h , b u t h a v i n g local  would  causing  have c o n s i d e r e d  "watchdogs" might have been a b l e  privately  flows.  implementation,  sewer o v e r f l o w / u r b a n  at a price politicians  the regional  from  f o rf u r t h e r s t u d i e s , delayed  "poor" water q u a l i t y c o u l d driven  as those  was o m i t t e d  by t h e GVRD e n g i n e e r i n g  opted  incurred  district  run-off  a t $41 p e r h o u s e h o l d  identified  would  w a t e r q u a l i t y downstream.  practical  technocrats and  sewer o u t l e t , u r b a n  f a r less c o s t l y option,  deteriorating This  i n t h e sewage and d r a i n a g e  t o t r e a t t h e combined  controls  i n the region  sewage  to inform  called  for a  the i n t e r c e p t o r to  and t a k e t h e  inflow.  Combined  sewer/storm  outlets result  i n 58 p e r c e n t  summer  144 contribution fecal  and  31  per  c o l i f o r m loads  runoff,  cent  in local  which p o l i t i c i a n s  contamination,  winter  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  rivers  and  and  engineers  contributes only  one  total  beach w a t e r s . blamed  per  the  cent  for  of  Urban  the  the  fecal  c o l i form. Beach p o l l u t i o n ,  along  with  the  stripping  White Rock  landscape,  population  from a n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . P r e s s u r e s  are evidenced  adds to the a l i e n a t i o n  o f t r e e s from  n a t i o n ' s d e p e n d e n c e on  on  cultural  should  (e.g.,  city's  f o r quick  growth  areas  to  a reliance  increasing  reduce  this  movie p r o d u c t i o n  evidenced  by  a t t e n t i o n to the  physical  e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s becomes a  the  leads then  geographical  underlying  to  alienation  increased d i s t r u s t  educate c i t i z e n s  political seen as  process  corrupt  resources  merely  and  by  in  the  foaming beach waters i n  W h i t e Rock draws p e o p l e ' s  for  the  Columbia).  tangible pollution  and  the  industrial  s o c i e t y and  help  due  economy and  instead of  i n f o r m a t i o n and  terrain,  land development  of B r i t i s h  The  land development  o f knowledge and  over  d e p e n d e n c e on province  of Canadian p o l i t i c a l  Emergence o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  production  struggles  the  i n a l l major Canadian m e t r o p o l i t a n  petit-bourgeois character  production.  of  the  to  found  i n the  look a t  of  the  metaphor  environment  and  Environmentalists  t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between  s i n c e the  intensifies  social  of p o l i t i c i a n s .  economic e l i t e s .  voters  degradation  Politicians  response  the environmental  to  come t o  the be  dwindling degradation  in  145 such a way  as  Thus, o f my  own  to b r i n g  t o be  the  use  visible  detrimental  of counter-hegemonic  involvements about  and  social  in local  ideology,  politics,  change w i t h i n  a  to everyday  was  localized  o f e x p l o i t i n g an  array  political  process,  Technological century  gives  an  provide  revolutionize  local  insists  i n the  I first  level,  local  power  deviating their attack  As had  acquiring  local  the  the  t o be  the  and  lead  to  must  then  to e c o l o g i c a l lack  s e r i o u s l y by  i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t wanting  to e s t a b l i s h the  and  w h i c h can  ideologues  taken  twentieth  instance,  t e c h n o l o g y can  to  the  even  a  exert  c r e d e n t i a l s that  would  prestige. reputation required  being  f o r know 1 e d g a b i 1 i t y a bid  elected  c a m p a i g n s and  r i g h t wing  at  the  to a c h i e v e a p o s i t i o n  to c i t y  c o n c i l i a t o r y tone the  political  against  a  an  project  ( i . e . by  from  local  new  the  technology e x i s t s  woes. F o r  means o f p r o d u c t i o n  prestige  some measure o f  After  that  in  capable  level.  h a l f of  that  in trying  ideology  f o r use  global  latter  However, most e c o l o g i c a l  establishment.  confer  i n the  over-consumption  power and  influence,  s t a t e or  r e l a t i o n s of production  preservation. requisite  local,  i d e o l o g i c a l impression  ideology  a change  a  advances  c u r e p o l l u t i o n and ecological  at  events  course  context.  i s a p o p u l i s t counter-hegemonic i s s u e s and  i n the  essential  E n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  of  life.  council)  status  maintaining  r h e t o r i c . In my  case,  of  while  quo  expect  an  aggressive  while  not  in  winning  146 a political prestige In  and  by  environmental  displayed  environmentalists  darkest  Both  the  green of  New  and  an  Liberal  constituencies. for  the  the  attempts local  ideology  p l a y i n g a major r o l e  w h i c h had  demands.  election  influence within  1991,  politics party,  p o s i t i o n , the  an  in defeating  inability  political  to  Ken  British  Columbia  the  Social  my  J o n e s and  following i t s securing  Wi1f  Hurd were in  leave  the  the  their  campaigned  to  of  ,  enviromental  running  first  Credit  for  incorporate  Although e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s  Democratic Party  increase  disregard  candidates  D e m o c r a t s , t h e y were t h e  to  community.  impacted  arrogant  victors,  served  actively  the  New  provincial  reins  of s t a t e . Although environmental promises the  the  Mike H a r c o u r t  i s s u e s , such as  f o r sewage t r e a t m e n t  environmentalist  reflection  government moved on  c r e a t i o n o f more p a r k l a n d f o r the  abandonment o f  that environmentalists  environmental  management. The  outstanding  capital  the  party  wanted  regional can  be  more t h a n  de-alienating struggle  demand  for p o l i t i c a l  morality.  previous  Social  C r e d i t government,  morally The  came t o be  bankrupt  and  s e e n by  some f o r m e r  a  engineered  a strong  D e m o c r a t i c one  district,  s e e n as  ecologists entails L i k e the  and  and  of social the  supporters  New as  hypocritical.  Mike H a r c o u r t  government c o u l d  Leftist.  Environmentalists  struggle  turns against  can  be  n e v e r have been  seen as  neoconservatism,  Leftist  when  termed the  oppression, e x p l o i t a t i o n  147  and  g r e e d . The  e s c a l a t i n g problems posed  marine d e g r a d a t i o n , well  as  deforestation  rapidly depleting  burgeoning relations  population,  resources  can  of production.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism superstructure  be As  other  ozone  depletion,  global  concerns,  in a planet  s e e n as  facing  a crisis  to p r o v i d e  emergent b a s e on  the  which  as  a  pre-figuring  a counter-hegemonic  i s well-placed  f o r an  and  by  new  ideology,  ideological  species  survival  depends. Environmentalists W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s contradictions destructive which  would  broad  now  of a decaying  sense, which a m a j o r i t y  claim  t o be,  capitalist  tendencies of c a p i t a l i s m ,  relies  political  i n the  on  perpetual  struggle  neighbourhood  expansion  against  s o c i e t y and  become a  Yet required since  c l o u t on the  political  a radical  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  positivist  orientaton  i s at of  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  of  traditional  odds w i t h  the  resources  government a c t i o n long  unavailable  to become f r u s t r a t e d and  of  economic  still  expected  could  achieve  Leftist  ideology,  productivist  and  Marxism.  R e s p o n s e from e c o l o g i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d decisive  The  issues.  coalition  rethinking  the  localized,  t h i s a l i e n a t i n g brand  environmental  on  development  world.  d e v e l o p m e n t . P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , however, a r e to c a r r y  the  focus  i . e . economic  in a f i n i t e  i n White Rock has  struggle  crystallize  of  t o end at a  "burned  the  local out".  citizens  who  pollution crisis level.  Local  want requires  activists  Environmental  groups,  tend  148 which  normally  serve a p r o v o c a t i v e or e d u c a t i v e  alliance  with  battles,  putting  Citing R i v e r and  well-funded  groups  them a t r i s k  in order  the seawaters i t feeds  i n c l u d e s Semiahmoo Bay,  D e f e n c e Fund  has u n d e r t a k e n l e g a l  United  F i s h e r m e n and  organization Alliance working  (a g r o u p opposed  five  one u n d e r  Fraser  based S i e r r a  against was  Union  Bay Legal  the G r e a t e r  prompted (UFAW), a  by  the  leftist  t h e Save G e o r g i a  t o sewage i n t h e s t r a i t )  (which the p r o v i n c i a l violations  the Federal The  provincial  The  Fisheries  has  s y s t e m has f a i l e d  Strait  been  government  control,  t h e government.  sewage o u t f l o w w h i c h  local  governments  a b o u t — t h e $700 m i l l i o n  towards r e g i o n a l  This petty cost  the A n n a c i s  Island  yet continually It i l l u s t r a t e s  body, breaks  an  government. $300 m i l l i o n  plants.  to undertake)  t h e GVRD, a s a n o n - e l e c t e d  worth  treatment  private  Waste Management A c t and  fishery,  complain  salmon  1 2 t h , 1995),  Act concerning  i s that  laws s e t by  system o f  (May  o f the p r o v i n c i a l  fact  under p r o v i n c i a l  unworkable  the  The a c t i o n  t o t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun,  sewage o u t f a l l .  the  t h e U.S.  action  Workers'  of the  .  prosecution  falls  legal  s u c h a s t h e Boundary  which has been w o r k i n g w i t h  According  cites  Allied  on p o l l u t i o n  into,  system which  District.  t o wage c o s t l y  need  of co-optation.  t h e 20 y e a r s o f i n a c t i o n  Vancouver Regional  function,  sharing  capital  local  a year i s a f f e c t e d (such as S u r r e y )  cost  attitude  by  o f s e c o n d a r y sewage  by members o f S u r r e y  d e f i e s common s e n s e y e t t i e s  into  a  149 toothless out  n a t i o n - s t a t e government w h i c h p r e f e r s t o throw money  on s h o r t - t e r m  friends  p r o j e c t s such  c a n be a p p o i n t e d ,  $500 a day on f r i e n d l y of a c t i o n  as royal  and p r o v i n c i a l  public  relations  commissions  where  governments which  spend  a d v i s o r s t o promote  myths  where d e c i s i o n s a r e d e l a y e d .  "The p r i v a t e p r o s e c u t i o n f o l l o w s a demand... from f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s M i n i s t e r B r i a n T o b i n t h a t t h e GVRD t a k e a c t i o n w i t h i n 30 d a y s t o u p g r a d e i t s A n n a c i s I s l a n d and L u l u I s l a n d t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s . F a i l u r e t o comply c o u l d r e s u l t i n f i n e s o f up t o $1 M i l l i o n a d a y u n d e r t h e F i s h e r i e s A c t , he s a i d ..." ( t h e UFAW s a i d ) i t i s t o o l i t t l e t o o l a t e . "We've had 20 y e a r s o f b r o k e n p r o m i s e s . I t ' s t i m e f o r s t r o n g e r a c t i o n and laying these charges w i l l r e s u l t i n t h a t . " So f a r , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e $650 m i l l i o n u p g r a d e h a s been f i n a n c e d . The GVRD i s h o p i n g t o r e a c h a c o s t s h a r i n g d e a l w i t h t h e B.C. government f o r t h e n e x t p h a s e , w o r t h $167 m i l l i o n , b u t t h e p r o v i n c e i s lukewarm t o t h e i d e a . " ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, May 12, 1995) Decisively more f l e x i b l e conducive changing  political  Democratic  21st  based  plunging  support,  a n d , t h e r e f o r e , more r e a d i l y  to social  regionally with  i s s u e - o r i e n t e d environmental  change than reality  adaptable  mass p o l i t i c a l  i n Canada, w i t h  Parties)  of traditional and a L i b e r a l  mass p o l i t i c a l  and more  p a r t i e s . The  the r i s e  R e f o r m and B l o c Q u e b e c o i s p a r t i e s  support  suggest  organizationsare  o f the (simultaneous  C o n s e r v a t i v e and New  party with  parties  weak  long-term  may n o t s u r v i v e i n t o t h e  century. Even  to c h o o s e forced  i n the United  S t a t e s with  from, mass p o l i t i c a l  to regroup,  given  just  two t r a d i t i o n a l  parties  party o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e being  the r i s e  of populists  such  a s Newt  150 Gingrich  and new p o l i t i c a l  Party  and R a l p h  voter  backlash  and  Nader's Green P a r t y , against  Congressional Provincial  p a r t i e s such as Ross P e r o t ' s  incumbent  along  politicians  politics  (regional within  i n t h e 1994 S e n a t e  government p o l i t i c a l  battlefields  North  American  s u i t e d to both a d d r e s s i n g  p r o b l e m s s u c h a s a i r and w a t e r p o l l u t i o n ,  political  demonstrated  elections.  standards) appears best  nation-state  with  Reform  and  concrete  debureaucratizing  systems. These  have come t o be p e r c e i v e d  nation-state by c i t i z e n s a s  corrupt,  inefficient  and c o s t l y .  As e v i d e n c e d  regional  cooperation  to properly  r e d u c e sewage p o l l u t i o n ,  environmentalists level,  locally  can best  focussed  barometer o f s o c i a l fit  The push  organization, accountability As  information  of p o l i t i c a l  organizations  with  with.  best  into b i o -  reduces the s c a l e o f and  actions.  focus global  reduced  regional p o l i t i c s  As a  nation-states  movement,  progressive  on i n t e r n a t i o n a l fund politics  resources  raising  w h i c h h a s become  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d as r e a c t i o n s to both technology,  low-  s y s t e m s would  sustainab 1ity of resources  commerce and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g New  political  of dividing  to b i o - r e g i o n s  networks. T h i s m i r r o r s  increasingly  to contend  regional  representative of a social  environmental and  change,  enabling  when p r e s e n t e d  politicians  the e c o l o g i s t s ' theory  regions.  mobilize  by r e l i a n c e on  and  improved  interdependent  initiatives. suggest  the reformation  of local  151 politics  as  more t o t h e  the p o l i t i c a l territorial  metropolis-hinterland to p r o v i d e  street  system  tries  equivalent of  geopolitical  level  to r e c o n s t i t u t e i t s e l f the c i t y - s t a t e  paradigm. O r g i n a l l y  s e r v i c e s to s m a l l  governments a r e p a r a l y z e d  by  s o l v e complex p r o b l e m s and  size,  funding  cities,  crises,  a changing  intended  local  lack of s k i l l s  global p o l i t i c a l South Surrey  to  economy.  However, d e s p i t e i n i t i a t i v e s  from b o t h  and  White  Rock r e s i d e n t s , a m a l g a m a t i o n  f o r t h e Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a  remains  remote. "The c o n c e r n r e m a i n s t o u n d e r s t a n d a new...comp1exity o f r e l a t i o n s between a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i t s r e l a t i o n s t o m a n i f o l d but i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s e s and p r a c t i c e s of consumption."3 If urban a r e a s largely  not  viewed  i n terms o f exchange v a l u e ,  re-zoning product  are  ordinances  o f the  can  be  i n t e r m s o f use then  s e e n as an  value,  pollution,  and  but  stemming  from  example o f a n e g a t i v e  by-  latter.  " . . . t h e c e n t r a l s t a t e d e t e r m i n e s t h e t o t a l amount o f s u r p l u s v a l u e t o be removed from d i r e c t a c c u m u l a t i o n , i . e . t h e s p h e r e o f c a p i t a l t o be d e v a l u e d , w h i l e l o c a l government uses the sphere o f d e v a l o r i z e d c a p i t a l to produce the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s . The two p h a s e s a r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t ; t h e f i r s t c o n c e r n s v a l u e s , t h e s e c o n d c o n c e r n s use v a l u e s and i s l i m i t e d by t h e amount o f v a l u e removed from a c c u m u l a t i o n " 4 If c i t i e s Castells  (The  participation participation, of  are City  to have a use and  value,  the G r a s s r o o t s :  as  1983),  i s r e q u i r e d . Without c i t i z e n s cities  i t s inclusive  would  be  reduced  properties. Therefore,  o u t l i n e d by  Manuel  citizen  and  without  their  to economic exchange where p e o p l e  value  congregate  152 in  large,  s e t t l e d communities,  constantly  c i t i z e n s ' movements  will  be b o r n .  "A s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b a s e d on a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s imposes a new u r b a n meaning i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d u r b a n meaning and a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e dominant c l a s s . I t i s i n t h i s c a s e t h a t we u s e t h e c o n c e p t o f u r b a n s o c i a l movement: a c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n aimed a t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d u r b a n meaning a g a i n s t t h e l o g i c , i n t e r e s t , and v a l u e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t c l a s s . " 5 So  for  instance,  t h e White Rock R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n  composed  o f r e t i r e d businessmen,  typists,  government w o r k e r s ,  managers and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , common bond between them. facing  this political  economic  r e t i r e d housewives,  factory  workers,  with property  was  clerk-  construction  ownership g e n e r a l l y t h e  One o f t h e most c o n t e n t i o u s  issues  c o a l i t i o n was w h e t h e r o r n o t t o p o o l  r e s o u r c e s and r u n a s l a t e o f c a n d i d a t e s  for  city  e 1 e c t i ons. While g e n e r a l l y club"  ( W h i t e Rock c i t y  WRRA r e f e r r e d slate  conceding  to the local  for election,  actually  hall  running  that  being  status  theexecutive  an o r g a n i z e d ,  c a n d i d a t e s . The e x p e r i e n c e  the  "Buena V i s t a o l d  boys'  on Buena V i s t a Avenue, a s t h e quo)  consistently  invariably  shied  centrally-funded  o f both Wi1f  rana hidden away  from  slate of  Hurd and Dave  Martin,  when t h e y c h o s e t o r u n f o r c o u n c i l , and were v i c i o u s l y a t t a c k e d a s a as  slate  i n a "newspaper" promoted  a negative  treasurer,  by a l d e r m a n V i n  Coyne,  served  r e m i n d e r . However, when M a r i a Romanczhuk, WRRA  decided  to run for council  as a last  minute  decision  153 and  as  an  independent,  the  "slate"  label  was  slapped  on  both  of  us. The  sense of  neighbourhood  east  side considering  west  s i d e , and  another  1990  and  residential  services.  e l e c t i o n on  by-election centre. living  This on  w i t h my  the  failure  the  west  and  which  a bureaucratic library  as  low  I polled  the  campaigned  turnout issues  as  rallied  city  around  that  includes  hall,  and  response of  the  fire  department  location  the  west  s i d e houses.  of  traditionally  been viewed  side properties, properties  has  as  however, t h e  changed  the  on  hillside  walking  city  the  distance  i n the  June  and  the  the  side east  which brought  of  November  the  east  east  on  the  1991 town  candidate  side,  combined  residents side.  by  Success  new  voters.  power c l i q u e d e c i d e d  well  the  the  a centralized,  strongly  myself with  new  side  complex  area  from  i n t e r v e n t i o n of a t h i r d  voter  from  voters  the  apartment  West s i d e o f  from  t o west  West s i d e  the  reacquaint a  with a d j o i n i n g  s i d e o f W h i t e Rock, by  s i d e who  resulted  consciousness  hall,  to  strip  neighbourhood  Town C e n t r e w i t h i n  east  only  east  the  Whereas,  resulted  door-knocking, on  the  I won  a separate  Marine D r i v e  n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and  predominantly stores  the  itself  e x i s t s i n W h i t e Rock, w i t h  to  protests would the  against  have t o be  a  new  located  police station  which  severely  the  convoluted  West s i d e  gentrification  of  demographics, causing  in  and  hampers  the  geographical  residents  more a f f l u e n t t h a n  fire  have  those with  east  "hillside"  view  White  Rock's  154 planner  to  term  the  east  side  Participant-observation where p r i c i e r difference local  properties  i n the  residents.  fight This  draw  educators,  i s n e v e r one  ongoing  conflict  soldiers".  of  and  "east"  side  "view" and  issues  of  beautification  and  sewage t r e a t m e n t and  for having  the  formation Operating  status  Rock c i t y  and  and  but  regional  the  Paris  and  quality  of  of  and  opposing  political life  ideology,  "oldtimers"  issues. especially  and  the  challengers.  professional,  managerial  and with  technical "west"  c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . . . quick 1y segregation)  works. F o r  instance,  i t is  usually  Marine  Drive  improvements, a r t s c e n t r e p r o j e c t s ,  con  g r o u p s and  a female p o l i t i c a l political  with C a s t e l l s ' contention such as  quo  improvements c a l 1 f o r a b r o a d e r b a s e o f  of pro as  businessmen  In W h i t e Rock t h e  localism  for public  street  of  more t h a n i t s  successful  "non-view" s p a t i a l  funding  demographic  c l a s s backgrounds  a r e n a wide open t o  residual  community  a well-educated, a r t i c u l a t e  jobs,  "newcomer" the  into a  meet w i t h w o r k i n g c l a s s c i t i z e n s ( i n a c i t y  becoming on  local  between t h e  Where members o f  side  insight  from w h i c h b o t h  political  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  class  Therefore,  for  neighbourhoods.  g e n t r i f i c a t i o n made a  writers,  "foot  l e a v e s the  and  i s noted  base e x i s t s  g r o u p s can  provided  W h i t e Rock  intellectuals.  citizens'  distinct  w e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and  share of a r t i s t s , retired  two  about  Commune, which  1 am  women l e a d i n g "was  support  organizations.  interventionist  arena,  and  i n the  i n c l i n e d to political  d e c i s i v e l y an  White  agree struggles  action  by  the  155 women" ( I b i d , p . 1 8 ) . Women c a n politics  (Klatch:  housewives, or  1987).  small  on and  and  contributes  about  line  Excluded  organizations  Joan  I t was  ideology  are  to  the  doing  council  t o meet t h a t Finding  television  tend  painted on.  knowing  night the  c a m e r a s and fact  that  environmental  crisis  on  the  signs  politics, Since  that  the  council the  and  city  women  find  local  council  voted  good  having  city's  week  a  protest before  summer  alerted  w e a t h e r , an  failed  a  with  be  stage a the  children  that  would  themselves with and  the  decided  to  i n White  groups.  brought  tactics  two  from  most  less  issues  the  demographics  a Monday n i g h t  locked  with  rely  with  "shit  m y s e l f who  guerilla  to p r o v i d e  doors  r e s u l t e d . The  came up  volunteers,  I t was  choosing  to  i t was  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n lobby  focus  (thereby,  city  and  beach being  localist  on  number o f p r o t e s t e r s ,  preferable  Use  spend more t i m e  as  language which o b s c u r e s  motivational.  dependent  women who  television  view c i t y  local  e n v i r o n m e n t . Women have  L i d d i c o a t t ) who  traditional  Rock a s s u r e women a r e  break).  local  sewage on  by  environmentalist  not  in  to f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e r e f o r e ,  protest  against  a  technocratic  Long and  minimal  active roles  b u s i n e s s owners, t h e y  women ( E l l e n  for  play  a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r coping  bureaucratic  hall".  do  Often e i t h e r marginalized  everyday p r a c t i c e w i t h i n developed  and  the  outdoor  t o meet d u r i n g  protest  a time  b e a c h e s made i t p o s s i b l e  of to  c o u n c i l l o r s as s e l f - s e r v i n g . o f media  i s an  essential  for social  movements which  must  156 quickly  rally  financing  and  This  tourist  effect,  information  "watchdogs"  to) w i l l i n g  and  use o f t e l e v i s o n media  such a s a p r o l i f i c distinguishes  to pass  r e q u i r e s group  o t h e r w i s e be  enables a concentration  due  to  White  reaches the educative  strategy  between  sometimes  Patricia  local  the r e g i o n  has t h e s t r o n g e s t  movement becomes a c o n s t a n t , Localism  (a l a b e l  television  t h e r e f o r e , communication  and  they a r e  w h i c h might  which a f f e c t s  number o f c i t i z e n s  requirement.  the r e s o u r c e s  institutions  mecca s t a t u s . B e c a u s e  implementation; social  lack  on t o V a n c o u v e r b a s e d media  unaware o f s u c h  greatest  requires citizen  Duncan Cameron r e f e r  information  Rock's  but  a v a i l a b l e to the p o l i t i c a l  attacking. Kealy  p u b l i c awareness  and  members o f a  nagging on  local  media,  1 e t t e r - t o - t h e e d i t o r s s e c t i o n which  t h e P e a c e A r c h News from o t h e r  w e e k l y and b i - w e e k l y  newspapers. Under  attack  bureaucrats  and  groups while These  by  foes,  politicians)  continuing  tactics,  i n s i t u t i o n a 1 i z e d groups ( i . e .  which  go on t h e o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t  a c t i o n s which  include blocking  the c i t i z e n access  holding  important committee  working  members o f t h e p u b l i c t o a t t e n d ,  council  minutes  groups  will  movements and 1960s.  Their  meetings during  e t c . a r e adopted  survival  oppose,  information,  times d i f f i c u l t  charging  in expectation  c o l l a p s e under p r e s s u r e . g r o u p s have,  to  groups  citizen  for  fees f o r that  the  citizen  Environmental s o c i a l  however, s u r v i v e d  s i n c e the  i s b a s e d on t h e s a l i e n c e o f  late  reproductive  157 issues.  Environmental  reproduction class  as  only  of  well. Species  divisions, term  not  degradation  promoting  survival  expertise  and  self,  change.  each other  overcome, a i d e d  by  perceived and  with  world  and  boundaries,  de-alienation Following  Reid,  the  business in  1995  and  serves  end  for  long  knowledge,  Once " f a l s e  of  notion  of  which, along  t o be  consciousness"  slowly  local  a  with  de-  at peace  metaphors invoked be  of  progressive  works as  with  is  by  overcome i n  o f what Weber c a l l e d  especially  the  left  a human need  s y m b o l s and  "demystification"  bureaucracy, providing a  "community" a i d s  which  local  now  is  identity  i n the  progressive  process. gains  made by  f o r c e s have not  Assembly  president  leftists ceased  former S o c i a l who  had  in c e n t r a l Surrey, as  class  works toward  to a humanist  a l i e n a t i o n can  the  alliances  technology,  nature.  the  disgraced  Legislative  capital  i t q u i c k l y becomes a t o p i c  i n a l l i t s i n e p t i t u d e . By  reactionary  and  which a l l o w  movements, a d d i n g  i n s t i g a t e s new  shift  and  environmentalists,  of the  of the  familiar  alliances  is visible,  and  The  process  conjunction  survival  funding.  more g l o b a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n  alienating  the  c l a s s but  transcends  extraordinary  of eco-po1itica1  conversation  social  working  survival  Because p o l l u t i o n local  the  threatens  of  the  lived I was  i n White Rock, however,  to o p e r a t e .  For  instance,  C r e d i t Member o f i n D e l t a and told  by  Pat  run  Kealy,  White Rock-South S u r r e y  Bill  the a used was  car  elected  Chamber  of  158  Commerce. R e i d ,  whose i d e a o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  apparently  enabled  h i s friends  government  recycling  funds,  and s u p p o r t e r s  h a s used  made a s MLA t o become an e n t r e n c h e d Rock p o l i t i c a l Allowing despite  Reid  continued  the type  of cliquish  activists  dismiss Reid's  would  member o f t h e l o c a l ,  scene;  White  m e n t a l i t y and u s e o f l o c a l  chamber o f commerce p o s i t i o n a s and e x p e r i e n c e d  i n s t e a d been d r a f t e d i n t o  r a t h e r than  Jones transcended  crack  myth  i n W h i t e Rock. S o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i t i c a l  town p o l i t i c s . B u t s o p h i s t i c a t e d have  and c o n t a c t s  r e s i d e n t s damning him a t t h e p o l l s ,  to operate  activists  served  i n on  power, p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e  which c o n t i n u e s  small  h i s time  to cash  establishment.  a majority of local  exemplifies  consciousness  the local  political  the p r o v i n c i a l  political  power b a s e , W i 1 f Hurd and Ken  i t , t a k i n g t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e a c t i v i s t s  with  them. In  any c a s e ,  increasingly  the future o f local  globalized  society,  influence  larger  influence  requires access  understanding continue  i n an  d e p e n d s upon t h e i r  a b i l i t y to  g o v e r n m e n t s and b u r e a u c r a t i c b o d i e s .  both  Such  t o knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n and  of majoritanism  t o judge  power g r o u p s  local  p o l i t i c s . Environmentalists and s t a t e  politicians  and a t t a c k any A c h i l l e s  on  environmental  positions  heel  o f those  deemed e i t h e r  ignorant of environmentalist ideology or  159 environmentally  d e s t r u c t i v e . In C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s ,  s t a t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and o f g o v e r n m e n t , has  demands f o r c o s t - e f f e c t i v e  r e s u l t e d i n a power b o o s t  levels  o f g o v e r n m e n t s , making  access  and  The ministry  i t easier for  influence appropriate  new  provincial  f o r reshaping  Municipal school  and  ecological  commitment hand  to  small  Act,  values  initiatives  r e s i d e n t s amalgamation  f o r the  Objections  from S u r r e y  from  provincial  government  not  appropriate  w i t h i n the  Environmentalists  groups  as  provincial  Environmental will  town  South Surrey  and  the  heavy  politicians.  and  Semiahmoo P e n i n s u l a politicians  control  and  to c o u n t e r a c t small  local  W h i t e Rock still  lack of  seems response  i n d i c a t e s s u c h a r e g i o n a l chunk  "bio" region  the b a s i s o f shared  river,  umbrella  S o c i e t y , based  which  tidal  would  water  i n Tsawwassen,  organization for local  is  area.  systems.  an  to  education  independent  Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n  F r i e n d s o f Boundary Bay operates  through  envision a different  i n c l u d e W h i t e Rock on ecological  other  to erode  i n order  from b o t h  remote. the  and  town power c l i q u e s .  term  power g r o u p s  i n the  preservation require p o l i t i c a l long  downscaling  provincial  local  plans  districts,  of corporations operating Despite  for  versus  authorities.  government moves, have been d e s i g n e d power b a s e s and  city  environmental  ( i . e . t h e White R o c k - S u r r e y N a t u r a l i s t s ) i n o r d e r  to  and  160 promote  preservation  society  has s t r o n g  it  o f Boundary  support  m a i n t a i n s an e d u c a t i o n  ecological  issues within  interrelated,  Bay e s t u a r i e s  and w e t l a n d s . The  i n White Rock and C r e s c e n t and i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e Boundary  outlet.  Bay a r e a  t h e g r o u p h a s been a c t i v e l y  Beach  Since  remain  lobbying f o r  designation  o f t h e D e l t a - S o u t h S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock-Richmond  as a U n i t e d  Nations b i o l o g i c a l  is  s e e n a s an i m p o r t a n t  Reserve d e s i g n a t i o n the  r e s e r v e and b i r d  granted  region  sanctuary.  s t e p up from t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l  already  where  by t h e p r o v i n c e  This  Land  f o r much o f  area. A r e a s s u c h a s B u r n s Bog i n D e l t a  while upland to p r e v e n t  a r e a s s u c h a s White Rock would  pollution  Such a move would  encroachment  severely  a r e a and t r a n s f o r m service  local  the property  environmentalism  into  restrict  development  be t i g h t l y water  regulated systems.  development  which c u r r e n t l y  i n the  e x i s t to  sector.  between  l o c a l i s m and  a r e such as to suggest t h a t  i s an u n w i t t i n g  remain undeveloped,  sensitive  economic  governments  In e s s e n c e , s i m i l a r i t i e s  philosophy  would  precursor  localist  political  to environnmenta1ist  161 ideology.  In t h i s  ideological capitalism relations  context,  adjustment  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism c a n be s e e n a s  to the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l  which undermine  localist  ability  to control  f o r c e s and  of production.  B e c a u s e e x c e s s i v e c o n s u m p t i o n c a n be s e e n a s an h e d o n i s t i c "evil"  by b o t h  those  on a p o l i t i c a l  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism h a s a b r o a d zeal  that  localism  defined  standards.  appeal.  locale,  Certainly,  but l a r g e r  change t h e way l o c a l  elites.  them t o s u c c e s s f u l l y  commanded  local  A  "green  stresses  long-term  home o w n e r s h i p localism" greater  recruited  interests  their  challenge  small  in a  town  i n f l u e n c e and  the bureaucrats In so d o i n g ,  from W h i t e Rock  cooperation,  f o rproperty  promotes a l t e r n a t i v e s t o common  including  instead o f Surrey. i t replaces,  community  distinctive  v a l u e s and  towns and p r o v i d e  owners and r e s i d e n t s .  r e m a i n s a common N o r t h such  who  the local,  community,  the o l d localism  which p r e s e r v e  p u b l i c access  rooted  stems  o f f e n s i v e helped  t o members o f t h e l o c a l  localism", like  stability  traditional  ( s e e Appendix C - 2 ) .  non-partisanship,  collective  however,  stability  That  d i s s i d e n t s exerted  power  can evoke a  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t a t t a c k s on t h e l o c a l  empowered  power b a s e r e t u r n e d  than  right,  my p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n W h i t e Rock  power s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l  councillors  Environmentalism  to return to a s o c i a l  was marked by c o n c e r t e d  having  and r e l i g i o u s  never c o u l d . P a r t o f t h a t z e a l ,  from a d e t e r m i n a t i o n clearly  left  American  goal,  Although  "green  a s c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g and  l a n d s . As w e l l ,  the s e l f l e s s n e s s  162 promoted  by  localism  people's  relationship  This h o l i s t i c authority  localism active  than  citizen  W h i t e Rock has holiday  resort  gentrified evolution  o u t s i d e r s and White Rock economic  their  locals,  chances wasted  males,  "green  i n c l u d e women and public  children  affairs.  from  a  and  have worked  clean-up  to appeal  economic  and  to  regional  senior  the problem.  state  because  w a t e r f r o n t or u n p l e a s a n t are noted  smell  The number  In  and  issues. of  unhealthy  society,  purposes  is virtually  of  return,  governments w i l l  In p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l  a  political  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  into  interests.  to i n f l u e n c e  particularly  now  to a growing  i n the m e t r o p o l i s c l o s e  cities  human  atmosphere.  o f r e z o n i n g W h i t e Rock f o r i n d u s t r i a l  Post-industrial  time  l o g g i n g camp, t o a weekend  with a r e s o r t  political  counts,  to address  as  At a  r e s o u r c e s and  t h e town's a t t e n t i o n  institutions,  choliform  forced  to middle-aged  town, t o a r e t i r e m e n t community and  As more b e a c h e s fecal  than  and  makes i t a n e c e s s a r y i d e o l o g y .  evolved  brought  of  Rather  c o o p e r a t i o n f o r massive  bedroom community has  another.  as a s o u r c e  programs, environmenta1ism's a b i l i t y  constituencies  include  i t replaces.  i n community and  d e p e n d s upon g l o b a l  to  i s less p a t e r n a l i s t i c  economy d e p e n d s upon s h a r e d  preservation broader  to  w i t h one  i s seen  which  localism  localism  participants  survival  localism" the  localism"  n a t u r e as w e l l  participation  extends  when g l o b a l  with  "green  interdependence  f o r "green  more n u r t u r i n g limiting  evolves in  be the  because  of  non-existent.  f o r w a t e r f r o n t r e c l a m a t i o n as  163 valuable post  living  locations.  industrial  age,  As  there  cities  i s need  Environmenta1ism  provides  an  localism",  localist  notions  using  sustainable  crisis  the  potential provides  fact  Combined  i s an with  foundation ideological  program.  Complaints  accustomed  small  comes not  "green promote  but  agencies  which have t h e the  long  operative  hall of  The  ,  term provide  a  Localism  efforts box  from p a r t i c i p a t i n g v o i c i n g concerns  such  as  recycling citizens  who  about  such s e r v i c e s . by  green  which  space  ties  which d e s i r e such  regulatory political  in with  same t i m e the  sustainable  practical localist  communities  sense of  state governing and  is a  space  bodies  economic c l o u t to  s o c i e t y would  and  and initiate  b i o - r e g i o n a l approach  t o d e c e n t r a l i z e n a t i o n - s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s . New  environmentally  of  bio-regions  White Rock b l u e  surrounded  from a r e a s  such p r o j e c t s . At  ideology,  a  However, a mandate f o r s u c h  of place,  i n an  to  goal  becomes  to p r o v i d e  e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism  ideology. only  only  for cooperative  i n the  urban areas by  remains the  ideology  localist  to c i t y  security  attempt  promote a  o f good c i t i z e n s h i p  attempt  to a t r a d i t i o n  promoted  city  in a  p r a c t i c e of s u s t a i n a b i l i t y .  improves d e l i v e r y o f  Planned project  the  support  r e c y c l i n g , as  community,  which c a n  f o r s u s t a i n a b l e community.  community  are  ideology  impedes the  of bio-region  objective.  identities  for reconstituted localism.  s u s t a i n a b l e communities  environmentalists,  notion  new  communities.  Although  following  seek  i s an  governments  therefore  be  164  smaller  than s t a t e  governments  governments  which a l r e a d y  e v e n more r e s t r i c t e d  yet larger  have  of  effective  i n power and  t h e White  delivery  centre area,  policy  localities  of services.  The  influential  be. G r o u p s  which can d e l i v e r  provincial  and  federal  political  effectiveness  i n W h i t e Rock  organized  which  i n the c i t y ' s  town  neighbourhoods can  v o t e r s en masse a r e v a l u e d  political  become  are necessary concepts  a 1 1 - c a n d i d a t e s meetings, based shows how  Local  decisions.  Rock Condominium A s s o c i a t i o n  holds p r i v a t e  ones.  s e e n r e d u c e d power, would  However, n e i g h b o u r h o o d and for  than l o c a l  p a r t i e s as well  a s by  by local  po1i t ic ians. As new values,  g e n e r a t i o n s come t o e x p r e s s  and  articulate  environment,  a desire  "green l o c a l i s m "  S u s t a i n a b l e communities, success, Indeed,  are attainable rather  Rock c i t y  hall  government  which  their  rely  within  programs  and  on  a  clean  in popularity.  shared i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  localities a remote  the s i z e  o f White  power s t r u c t u r e ,  s e r v i c e s c a n be a c c e s s e d  offers  for local  information  citizens and  a g e n c i e s which  knowledge  on how  pollution. t a p new  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c a n empower in  i s gaining  and  c a n be s e e n a s a p l a c e where i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n s u m p t i o n , waste volunteer  f o r community  than s y m b o l i z i n g  Environmenta1ism libraries  'post-materialist'  under  v i a local  and  Rock.  White  on  questioned.  newspapers  and  to address problems o f  With g l o b a l  networks  and  i d e a s and t e c h n o l o g y ,  local  isolated,  citizens  who  would  xenophobic types of  be  limited  localism.  165 State are  governing  necessary  Increased informed  owner-occupation i n the  politics Whereas  deterioration  of property  Localism  candidates  can  a foothold  on  majoritarianism  leads  efficient  political  use  p r o b l e m s s u c h as  21st  power t o  White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s  a movement w h i c h  available  justice  the  the  sense  blame-  bashes Surrey,  seeks  but  physical and  by yet in  majoritarianism  with  and  justice  S i e r r a Legal  environmental,  psychological  i n c l u d i n g human  influence senior  movement u s e s  p o l l u t e r s . The which  a  Environmentalist  beach p o l l u t i o n l i e s  experienced  penalize  tyranny,  Whereas power to s o l v e  the  environmental  and  Such p o s i t i o n i n g i s shown  resources,  conversely,  As  for  f o r q u a l i t y of  which moderates the  century.  protecting  local  resources.  desire  to c o o p e r a t i o n  p h y s i c a l , emotional  of  local  c o m m i t t e e members from S u r r e y  to m i n o r i t y  aims a t  a healthy  maintenance of  which p u b l i c a l l y  and  corporations.  hall.  lead the  and  structure  t o blame o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r s  localism.  elite  rooms o f c i t y  promoting  localist"  keeps p a r t i c i p a n t s  "downstream", t h e  approach of  seeks p o l i t i c a l back  "green  units  of property  i t i s easy  a W h i t e Rock p o l i t i c a l  and  living  ecological responsibility  the-outsider  has  of  a p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t value,  of shared  the  i n such a  counterweights to m u l t i - n a t i o n a l  environments.  life,  bodies  future  and  environmental senior  governments,  government  lies  so  with  activists. f o r communities,  juridical  and  legal  D e f e n s e Fund has  C i t y o f W h i t e Rock d o e s n o t .  In  the forums resources  requesting  to  166  support  f r o m such i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Rock have holistic  to u t i l i s e community  pollution  beyond  to the G r e a t e r which  ideology  i s threatened  Sewer and  D e f e n s e Fund  the wel1-organized  can t h r e a t e n  biological  the s u r r o u n d i n g  D e l t a - S u r r e y - W h i t e Rock r e g i o n ,  authority  governments and  would  status  t h e R o b e r t s Bank s u p e r p o r t ,  t o expand  lawsuits.  achieve  f o r Boundary  become a c c o u n t a b l e  t h e power o f t h e f e d e r a l  District,  with  Bay  N a t i o n s mandated  provincial  reserve  state,  clean,  can complain  Drainage  F r i e n d s o f Boundary  White  by a g g r a v a t e d  White Rock p o l i t i c i a n s  Vancouver Regional Legal  such as  of the importance of a  whose s u r v i v a l i t s control.  the S i e r r a  Should  an  groups, communities  local to a  which  United,  Bay  and  and  global now  i n t h e a r e a would  operates be  preempted. One local  c a n e n v i s a g e an emergent  and  "think  global  local,  ideology  think  i n a micro-macro  global,  s e e n t o be a t once s t r i v i n g also  getting  government versus  back  "green l o c a l i s m "  act local".  Local  t o form r e g i o n a l  to neighbourhood r o o t s .  suggest a s e p a r a t i o n  neighbourhood  social  o f power,  as  connecting  perspective  governments governments,  New  forms o f  of  are while  localist  i . e . regional  policy  service.  E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would web  of s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g  for  the p l a n e t .  s e e W h i t e Rock a s one community  towns and  With a c l e a n  nature  reserves  beach, c l e a n  air,  they  ample  envision green space  and p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t h e town would  c o m f o r t a b l e p l a c e where  long  term r e s i d e n t s c a n  live,  in a  remain a work,  play  167 and  actively  participate in public a f f a i r s .  environmentalist left-of-centre demonstrating  ideology  By  the a l l i a n c e  aiming  my  environmentalist educating say  that  resource  translated into p o l i t i c a l  L i b e r a l s in a formerly  "environmentalist"  participation  able  staff  introduced  L i b e r a l s t o New  staff  the  the  Thus, the  f o r the  legal  t o NDP  the  ideology,  I can  p u b l i c speakers;  publically  and  actions.  encouraged  of Health I helped  White Rock R e s i d e n t s '  the  to  to  Association  i n v o l v i n g environmental through a 11-candidates'  d i s c u s s i o n and  Affairs  local  c o u n c i l l o r s to f o s t e r debate;  Boundary Board  politics  the  which  submitting  resulted  a  brief  i n changes  to  Act.  I can  community.  and  to  challenges,  policy  turning  f o l l o w i n g : added  environmental  M i n i s t r y of Municipal  Municipal  and  activists  Democrats s o c i a l l y ;  i n W h i t e Rock c i v i c  meetings, adding to  on  the  incumbent  assisting  i n p u b l i c f o r a and groups  and  a forum  p r a x i s by  for  community,  Left"  in progressive  i n guest  city  achieve  into p o l i t i c a l  to achieve  bringing  media t o p r o v i d e  "new  i n W h i t e Rock a t  politicians  challenged  influence c i t y  p o s s i b l e between  sympathizers  b a s e by  Conservative  success  political participants.  s t a t u s quo I was  In White Rock,  claim  t o have made a s u c c e s s f u l  intervention in  168 ENDNOTII .  1, GVRD E n g i n e e r i n g ,  Management P l a n p. x i v , C l i v e Environment Martin's p.xi,  Stage  Ponting,  Greater  1, GVRD: B u r n a b y ,  Press:  Cross Arnold  Cultural  Harloe  Civilizations; St.  and E l i z a b e t h L e b a s , e d s . , C i t y  Castells,  Class  P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1981. The C i t y  T h e o r y o f Urban  and t h e G r a s s r o o t s :  Social  P u b l i s h e r s : London. 1983.  p. 305, I b i d .  B. C. J u l y 1988.  New Y o r k . 1991.  and Cap i ta1 ; Edward A r n o l d Manuel  L i q u i d Waste  A G r e e n H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d : The  and t h e C o l l a p s e o f G r e a t  Michael  p.xvii,  Vancouver  Movements;  Edward  A  169 APPENDIX  Research observation covering  for this  field  A  METHODOLOGICAL  newspaper a r c h i v a l  from F e b r u a r y  Participant-observation  1990  m e e t i n g s and  included  (councillor) election  with  the  election  attend  knocking  c a m p a i g n and Surrey  New  the  (running  traditional  and  myself  back  as  room s e l e c t i o n .  activists  researcher  conversations activists.  1991  provincial  the  and  events,  (GVRD) f i e l d  (a g o v e r n m e n t a l voters'  local  voters.  and  January  a  conversations  in a Greater p r o j e c t on  Vancouver "Urban  make-work p r o j e c t )  i n February  list  deputy  accord.  in  to  v o t e r s were a l s o e x a m i n e d .  research  revision,  work f o r E l e c t i o n s Canada d u r i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  accept  R e c o r d s o f phone  local  White  researcher  education  r a t h e r than  also participated  Futures"  enumeration,  a candidate)  by-  various a l l  c h a i r f o r the  meetings, organize  a  and  Democrats. T h i s enabled  District  to  a  s e r v i n g as e d u c a t i o n  Regional  access  1991  telephone  work on  local  "alderman"  o f November  and  joining  n o m i n a t i o n o f a f e d e r a l N.D.P. c a n d i d a t e  political The  meetings,  politicians  work a l s o e n t a i l e d  various p o l i t i c a l  influence  did  election  retrieval,  researcher  as  participant-  1993.  It a l s o included attending  meetings, door  field  Rock-South  with  1992.  for election  W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s , l o c a l The  1992  in a municipal  i n June  candidates'  running  data  to February  v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t t e n d i n g council  NOTES  t h e s i s c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of  work and  a period  :  the  and  1992  Enumerating  1990,  return  officer  f e d e r a l referendum  provided  street  and  level  on  170 Demographics p r o v i d e d Statistics from  Canada  census data,  and r e p o r t s o b t a i n e d  Historical  research  Rock museum  researcher  and l o c a l l y  prioritized  i n campaign  were  through  access  published  environmental  GVRD  staff. t o t h e White  history  books.  frame, the  i s s u e s by p l a c i n g them a t  c a m p a i g n agenda and by p r o m o t i n g  literature  from  retrieved  newspaper a c c o u n t s ,  the p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n time  top of her p o l i t i c a l  issues  data  from W h i t e Rock c i t y  was u n d e r t a k e n  collections  Throughout  the  r e p o r t s . Other demographic  newspaper a c c o u n t s ,  reports,  by t h e f e d e r a l N.D.P. were t a k e n  and newspaper  interviews.  those  Local  j o u r n a l i s t s were s u p p o r f i v e , p r o v i d i n g c a m p a i g n p u b l i c i t y and background the  i n f o r m a t i o n about  interventionist  help  political  period of the s o c i a l  candidates  research,  of the r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , t e l e v i s i o n  utilized.  Content  a n a l y s i s o f newspaper  interviews of candidates were u n d e r t a k e n , "independent's" An  Pollution Health,  in being  and w i t h t h e  news c o v e r a g e  was  advertisements,  of t h e i r  campaign  literature,  of the c o s t of each  review  was u t i l i z e d  f o r environmentalist  social  and i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d  to provide  movement  theory.  by t h e B o u n d a r y  Board  m i n i s t r y o f e n v i r o n m e n t , GVRD  r e p o r t s , and W h i t e Rock and S u r r e y  In-depth activists  literature  the p r o v i n c i a l  engineering  during  campaign.  support data  and r e v i e w  including estimations  extensive  background  of  other  i n t e r v i e w s with  engineering  e s t a b l i s h e d W h i t e Rock  political  Ken J o n e s and W i l f Hurd were u n d e r t a k e n . B o t h e l e c t e d as L i b e r a l  members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  staff.  succeeded  Legislative  171 Assembly  in  the  1991  provincial  ecologists.  Interviews  structured.  The  survey  of  with  researcher  White  Rock  election  other also  residents  and  political  conducted prior  to  both  are  committed  activists  a  random  the  June  were  less  telephone  1991  city  by-  election . The  research  observation,  which  participation number  of  fits is  which  events  plainly  was  a critical  research,  including  eavesdrop  on  and a  unethical,  and  impossible persons  inquisitive  eye  long  to  the  to  look  over  researcher  avoid  and  covert  comprehensive  and  tendency  impossible  utterly  situations  conversations,  both  between  logistically  covered,  developed  activity  somewhere  considering  the  involved.  Having  before  others'  the shoulders  considers  valuable  overt  in  some  and  covert  gathering  vital  informat ion. Any  degree  procedures, to  back-up  so  public  that the  the  the  and  a  social being  eliminated  the  by  Act).  participants  was  process.  ('occupation'  Municipal  such  telephone  researcher  as  as  with  undertaking  aware  of  of  documents  Key  informants  publically  occupation  the  on  in  and  by  as  aware  part  of  ballot  tradition a  revised  political  researchers'  role  notes  were  identified the  localist  activists  or  sources  meticulous  research  government  validation  secondary  keeping  social  vote-catching  community  use  and  researcher by  careful  publ ic  informants  NDP p r o v i n c i a l  also  ample  conversations.  The  one  requires  made  researcher  Local  were  research  researcher  knowledgeable  political  herself  covert  contentions,  questioning of  of  as  a  i72 newspaper The  reporter. advantage  of c o n d u c t i n g  r e s e a r c h i n a community  t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s w e l l - k n o w n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l publish within  accounts  t h e community  observed label  was  a particular  council  from  advocacy By  who  some, b u t  insight  a rule,  unpopular  person's  political  ammunition  election  to p u b l i c  In sum,  separating  political  city  with  informants  co-participant  to  way  issue,  an  or system,  the p u b l i c  to those  rallying  informant can  or block  policy  arena  to prevent  work  an  by  offering  his/her  office.  marginal  i n f o r m a n t s who research  regulation  the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  as  treated  "whistle-blower" c r i t i c  temptation groups;  to  'go  control  r o l e s o f r e s e a r c h e r and  reliability  the  such  other  on a c o n t r o v e r s i a l  entry into  were t h e f o l l o w i n g : politically  being  encourages.  d i v u l g e s i n f o r m a t i o n to a  towards changing  arenas,  the o v e r t n e s s induced  might  'reporter'  when i t p r e v e n t e d  r e s e a r c h e r was  who  activities  when t h o s e  in a co-conspiratorial,  research  providing  The  about  b e h a v i o u r . The  disadvantage  sessions.  more f o r t h c o m i n g  that  in their  being a b l e to enter c l o s e d  "in-camera"  s u s p i c i o n by  journalists  becomes a d i s a d v a n t a g e  a r e more g u a r d e d  researcher  be  or t i p o f f other  reporter  where  posed native'  and  politician.  m i t i g a t e d by  were t h e m s e l v e s  trained  The  Time and  and of  key  in investigative  energy  with  problem  selecting  as newspaper r e p o r t e r s o r  science graduates.  identify  over personal b i a s ;  i n f o r m a t i o n was  methods, e i t h e r  f o r the r e s e a r c h e r  and  university  constraints  across  173 the  researcher's  researcher, that  politico)  prevented  identification The such in  various  with  i n any one r o l e  of v a l i d i t y  has e v o l v e d  researcher  experience develop dialogue  Although  informant  ideology  journalist  some a t t e m p t telephone  versus  survey,  informant  as w e l l as ongoing  self-  methods  interviews  p a r t i c i p a n t and utilized. focus  on i s s u e s  provided  data.  researcher  was a v a i l a b l e a t home w i t h i n  s t u d i e d and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a c t e d  times  o f day and n i g h t with  individual  the researcher  the researcher  being  contact  T r a i n i n g and  observer-as-a  and  whereas  when  was made a t e n u m e r a t i o n s and s a m p l e s ,  helped  relationships,  to achieve  bias.  Qbserving-as-a-participant  The  helped  i n t e r v i e w s were t h e p r i n c i p a l  substantial  movements.  isdifficult  skills  research  and w e l l - s u i t e d t o t h e  o f new s o c i a l  research  communications  objectivity  s u c h a s a random  research as  s y s t e m o f knowledge  has poor communications s k i l l s .  a s a newspaper  about  participatory  society. Certainly, participatory  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  effective  of a c t i v i t i e s  or exclusive  i n t o an a l t e r n a t i v e  However, good p a r t i c i p a t o r y the  plagues  to environmentalist  interpretation  student,  any one p e r s p e c t i v e .  a post-positivist  i s conducive  ( w i f e , mother,  forced a compartmenta1ization  immersion  question  research  roles  zealous  f o r varying  by i n f o r m a n t s  lengths  and/or knowledgeable  observations  collective enterprise.  t h e community  of time. informants  and made t h e r e s e a r c h  at various Such  ongoing  supplemented  experience  a  174  Leaving and  from  the  achieved Rock  the  field,  d i s a s s o c i a t i n g from p o l i t i c a l  possibility  when t h e  of  'going  researcher  demographic  this The  w o r k e r , however,  data,  can  which  of  considerably  research due  have d i f f i c u l t y  problematic  "overboard"  to  two  provides  the  time  in deciding  prioritizing  i s more i m p o r t a n t — a  data hour  a wealth  invested  interview  project  a Monday n i g h t  council  m e e t i n g ? Which  which moments and  research  which a r e  m i n i m i z e as  o b s e r v e r ' s own can  preoccupy  i d e n t i t y or the  i n f o r m a n t s who  that  because the  of  aim  to determine or  vote  is  i n t e g r a l to  the  participant-observer  v a l u e ? Such  Complicating  this  considerations  i s the  use  of  become a u x i l i a r y p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r s . in this  terminated  when a  the the  type of research  point  action-oriented i s to achieve  at which  the  'satisfactory' conclusion  sociology  results, i t is  "research" to  is  the  can  be  project  has  attained. Due  to  constantly the  researcher.  or  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t -  recognition  Another problem  difficult  been  merely u s e f u l  the  i.e.  apartment  which m e e t i n g s a r e  t h o s e which  to s e l e c t .  with a subject  a controversial  significant,  data.  garnering  becomes s u b j e c t i v e  v o t e on  should  White  of  in  what d a t a  a split-second  and  of  different  witnessing at  out  was  make-up.  Participant-observation field  or  physically relocated  t o Maple R i d g e , a community o f  g e o g r a p h y and  The  native'  activity  the  level  under  c o u r s e of  the  of  tension  personal and  research.  involvement,  needs t o On  the  take  the  t i m e out  positive side,  researcher to even  is  reflect failure  on  175 t o consummate  the  intended  project  o b j e c t i v e s by  to  theory  link  and  B e c a u s e an role,  identifying  interventionist  h e / s h e has  t o s t r e s s not  ideology with  education  f u n c t i o n at  the  research  times  can  probably  should  research  process"  societal  s t r u c t u r e s and  researcher  from  of  research  but  leadership  the  counters-  subjects.  This  observation  lives  this  change  of  those  involved  "transformation  of  (Patricia  lead  of M u n i c i p a l  revision  of  approach,  fundamental Doino.  The  participation aspects,  i n f o r m a t i o n and i n the  have t h e e f f e c t  on  Affairs  the p r o v i n c e ' s  the  critical  in i t s p o l i t i c a l  to changes  t h e s t a t u s quo.  researcher  Ministry  in  and  in  helped  empowerment.  which s h o u l d  the  i t can  Maguire,  1987).  t h e s i s r a i s e s such  b e l i e v e s that  elites  in several  consciousness,  relationships"  helped  political field,  a  the problem of  promote s o c i a l  lead to  a sense of  the  In t h i s  can  participation  researcher  the  goal  i s a l s o aware t h a t c o l l e c t i v e  The  local  from  and  Act,  research  i n attempts  on  i s educating  supersedes  the  and/or  She  informants  Municipal  t h e end  raise c r i t i c a l  "improve  hopes t h a t  research,  give  only  takes  Research: a f e m i n i s t approach,  consciousness. the  inherent  sociologist  which h e / s h e  research  research  Participatory  problems  the  subjects.  Participatory ways. Such  meet some o f  praxis.  hegemonic  of  p r a x i s can  was  able  there  can  be  gleaned  province's loosening  Using  to submit  which p r o v i d e d  Municipal  of  data  input  the  information a brief  to  during  Act. no  grip  " r o l e p l a y i n g " by  the  the  176  researcher requiring  because t o t r i v i a l i z e the researcher  number o f s o c i a l  t o look  r o l e s not o n l y  but  the notion  of " r o l e s " plays  the  researcher  has committed  and d e h u m a n i z e t h e p r o c e s s on h i m / h e r s e l f discounts  as a c t i n g out a  the research  i n t o a hegemonic  himself/herself  by  itself,  ideology  which  t o b o t h e x p o s i n g and  end i ng. In script from as  the a c t u a l  or psychological  o r c a r r y i n g o u t an i m p r o v i s a t i o n  various  well  subjects,  the researcher  as the s u b j e c t s  informants personal  existential  as not r o l e p l a y e r s  responds to input  needs t o view  him/herself  p e o p l e . T h i s must be  t o be c o n s c i o u s l y  a c t i n g out a  own  b u t human b e i n g s w i t h  must assume t h a t superficial  the p r a x i s or the  a p p e a r s t o be a c t i n g o u t a r o l e s c r i p t e d  e c o n o m i c and i d e o l o g i c a l power, t h e r e s e a r c h e r this  "player"  h a s been c o e r c e d  r o l e which a l i e n a t e s t h e s u b j e c t  true s e l f ,  v a l u e s and  values.  Where t h e s u b j e c t t h o s e who h o l d  has to  b a s e and view s u b j e c t s and  h i s t o r y which may be f o r o r a g a i n s t  researcher's  her  appears  the d a i l y  r o l e i . e . "mayor". The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t  have a g r i p on h e r / h i s  by  which  as three-dimensional  done e v e n when t h e s u b j e c t social  act of writing  b u t from  those others  with  o r conned  not j u s t  into a  from h i s o r  whom h e / s h e h a s s o c i a l  ties.  The i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s o c i o l o g i s t ,  therefore,  force  f o r d e a l i e n a t i o n and l o o k  t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e and  into  beyond  must s e r v e  as a  the eyes of the s u b j e c t . Interventionist  anthropologist  Marcel  s o c i o l o g i s t s c a n b e n e f i t by F r e n c h Griaule's  approach  to ethnography.  Griaule  177 saw  such  gathering  researcher's  of data  manipulative  i n f o r m a t i o n deemed  as a  "theatrical  skills  vital.  undertaking"  in extracting  B r i a u l e would  see  with  the  valuable  irony  ("a  complex,  1 negotiated, in  historically  t r u t h " ) as  almost u n i v e r s a l  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s — i r o n i e s inherent  ethnographic social  informant's  world,  irony  data.  B r i a u l e , an  birth  of  and  Morally  humanist  and  ethically, an  the  or o t h e r s  researchers  to  in his/her retrieve  of p r a x i s , foresaw designating  interventionist  inherent  faith  the  "both  r o l e and  sociologist  i n the  would be  of such advocacy  the  into a dubious c r i t i q u e  an  researcher  requirements  perspective,  of  s o c i o l o g y by  i n each  n a r r a t i v e s as a c t i v e c r e a t o r s " .  into a contained  version  by  e n e r g e t i c proponent  o f humankind, t h e  fundamental  of h i m s e l f  i n methods used  a humanist. Without  unity  account  interventionist  researchers  be  contingent  equality  unable  research.  must  and  to f u l f i l l Lacking  the  a  interventionist-sociologist  would  lapse  the  would  turn  of  researcher's  research  the own  project  s u b j e c t , based  itself on  a  truncated  consciousness.  1. p. 124, C l i f f o r d , James, "Power and D i a l o g u e i n E t h n o g r a p h y : Marcel G r i a u l e s ' s I n i t i a t i o n , " i n Observers Observed, e d i t e d by G e o r g e W. S t o c k i n g , J r . , U. o f W i s c o n s i n , 1983.  178 APPENDIX B:CHRONOLOGICAL BIOGRAPHY 1960  My  1961  F a m i l y f r i e n d s p u r c h a s e d a s i n g l e f a m i l y home i n White Rock and we began summer Sunday e x c u r s i o n s t o b e a c h e s a t W h i t e Rock and C r e s c e n t B e a c h .  1964  My g r a n d f a t h e r p u r c h a s e d a two bedroom r a n c h e r i n Ocean P a r k n e a r White Rock and moved i n t o t h e home upon r e t i r e m e n t the next y e a r .  1970  My g r a n d f a t h e r s o l d t h e Ocean P a r k p r o p e r t y and purchased a two bedroom a p a r t m e n t w i t h a p a r t i a l o c e a n view on M e r k l i n S t r e e t i n White Rock. I g r a d u a t e d from h i g h s c h o o l , and h a v i n g had two y e a r s o f j o u r n a l i s m c o u r s e w o r k and been e d i t o r o f t h e s c h o o l p a p e r , began d o i n g f r e e l a n c e j o u r n a 1 i sm.  1979  F o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f my g r a n d m o t h e r who had been h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r much o f 20 y e a r s , my g r a n d f a t h e r s o l d t h e M e r k l i n a p a r t m e n t and p u r c h a s e d a one bedroom a p a r t m e n t on M a r t i n S t r e e t i n W h i t e Rock's town c e n t r e c o r e . He became f r i e n d s w i t h a n o t h e r widowed n e i g h b o u r by t h e name o f Sam S h e a r e r , who i t was t o l d t o me, was a l o n g t i m e New Democratic Party a c t i v i s t . L i v i n g i n S u r r e y I began c o v e r i n g S u r r e y s c h o o l b o a r d m e e t i n g s as a r e p o r t e r f o r the S u r r e y D e l t a Messenger f o l l o w i n g s t a f f l a y o f f s at the V a n c o u v e r C o u r i e r where , I had c o v e r e d news e v e n t s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ( i n c l u d i n g W h i t e Rock) s i n c e q u i t t i n g as a r e p o r t e r a t t h e D e l t a O p t i m i s t and t r a v e l l i n g i n Austra1ia.  1980  W h i l e w o r k i n g a s a p h o t o g r a p h e r and r e p o r t e r a t t h e S t e r l i n g owned M e s s e n g e r newspaper, my husband and I p u r c h a s e d and moved i n t o a two bedroom o c e a n view home on C l i f f Avenue, e a s t o f White Rock c i t y h a l l . We m a i n t a i n e d our S u r r e y home a s r e v e n u e p r o p e r t y and I a t t e n d e d S u r r e y c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s as a r e p o r t e r .  1981  I t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e W h i t e R o c k - S u r r e y Sun (another member o f t h e S t e r l i n g newspaper c h a i n ) a s c i t y e d i t o r and began a t t e n d i n g White Rock c i t y c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s a s a reporter. W h i l e I was on m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , S t e r l i n g newspapers t e r m i n a t e d t h e W h i t e Rock newspaper. The c o m p e t i n g P e a c e A r c h News t a b l o i d began t w i c e w e e k l y p u b l i c a t i o n . I  1982  f a m i l y moved  from  Powell  R i v e r to Coquitlam,  B.C.  179 c o n t i n u e d to work v a c a t i o n r e l i e f as a c i t y at the S u r r e y - D e l t a Messenger.  desk  reporter  1983  My husband and I began p l a n s to r e n o v a t e our W h i t e Rock home, d o u b l i n g i t s f l o o r s p a c e . S i n c e t h e house s a t w i t h 25 f e e t o f t h e F i n l a y S t r e e t s i d e i t was c o n s i d e r e d n o n - c o n f o r m i n g by White Rock's O f f i c i a l Community P l a n a t t h e t i m e and my husband was f o r c e d to a p p e a l t o t h e c i t y ' s Board o f V a r i a n c e which r u l e d t h e house would have to be moved two f e e t e a s t , d e s p i t e a p r e v i o u s easement f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g house on t h e s o u t h c o r n e r . My h u s b a n d ' s a n g e r was i n c r e a s e d when he found t h e c h a i r o f t h e b o a r d , J . N e v i l l e Graham l i s t e d as r e s i d i n g In S u r r e y . Moving t h e house p r o v e d so d i s a s t r o u s to t h e r e n o v a t i o n , b u l l d o z i n g t h e house would have been a b e t t e r opt i o n .  1985  I v o l u n t e e r e d w i t h White Rock Summer T h e a t r e and worked a s an u s h e r t h r o u g h o u t i t s summer s e a s o n . The W h i t e Rock t h e a t r e was owned by t h e amateur W h i t e Rock P l a y e r ' s Club. My b r o t h e r moved i n t o o u r N o r t h S u r r e y home and attended Kwantlen C o l l e g e f o r undergraduate c r e d i t s r e q u i r e d Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y .  1986  H a v i n g s w i t c h e d from an E n g l i s h major t o a S o c i o l o g y major w i t h an E n g l i s h m i n o r , I went to Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y t o c o m p l e t e a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s d e g r e e begun i n 1972. We s o l d t h e n o r t h S u r r e y home and had a g u e s t room and bathroom c o m p l e t e d i n our W h i t e Rock home f o r Expo 86 v i s i t o r s . I worked a t S u r r e y P l a c e M a l l p r o m o t i n g department s t o r e c r e d i t c a r d s i n order to earn f a l l semester t u i t i o n .  1987  In September I gave b i r t h to a s e c o n d d a u g h t e r and t h e o l d e r c h i l d began F r e n c h Immersion k i n d e r g a r t e n a t Dawn School i n Surrey.  1988  My e l d e s t d a u g h t e r was t r a n s f e r r e d t o P e a c e A r c h E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l on Roper Avenue i n W h i t e Rock to b e g i n G r a d e One. I began a s s i s t i n g h e r c l a s s w i t h computer e d u c a t i o n and a t t e n d i n g p a r e n t t e a c h e r a u x i l i a r y m e e t i n g s . I c o m p l e t e d my f i n a l u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e i n t h e summer s e m e s t e r . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from M c M a s t e r s ' U n i v e r s i t y a s k i n g me to a p p l y to g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , I d e c i d e d to a p p l y f o r g r a d u a t e s t u d y i n S o c i o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (U.B.C.)  1989  F r u s t r a t e d by a l a c k o f p l a y m a t e s f o r my c h i l d r e n i n White Rock and h a v i n g been a c c e p t e d by U.B.C. I a t t e n d e d my f i r s t c o u n c i l m e e t i n g i n o r d e r to a d d r e s s f a m i l y  180 h o u s i n g and o t h e r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g commenced g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s .  issues.  In September, I  1990  My husband and I j o i n e d t h e W h i t e Rock Homeowner's A s s o c i a t i o n o f w h i c h my d a u g h t e r ' s f r i e n d ' s f a t h e r E l i o A z z a r a (a f o r m e r W h i t e Rock s c h o o l t r u s t e e ) was a member, a f t e r an i n v i t a t i o n from member P a t K e a l y who r e m i n d e d me we had met when she had c o v e r e d W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s w i t h me a s a r e p o r t e r i n 1980. L i k e m y s e l f , she and A z z a r a had a t t e n d e d and a spoken a t some m e e t i n g s r e g a r d i n g r e v i s i o n s t o White R o c k ' s O f f i c i a l Community Plan. In J u n e , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n changed i t s name t o t h e White Rock R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n t o i n c l u d e a p a r t m e n t owning members and r e n t e r s . I had c o n d u c t e d i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n D e l t a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , S u r r e y and White Rock f o r an Urban F u t u r e s s u r v e y . Many o f t h e q u e s t i o n s d e a l t w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . N o t i n g a f a i l u r e o f t h e community p l a n t o e v e n mention environmental g o a l s , p l a n s or r u l e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , I c o n s i d e r e d d o i n g a t h e s i s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i t i c s . I p r e p a r e d a p r o p o s a l f o r a Canada M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) g r a n t t o r e s e a r c h f a m i l y h o u s i n g , which was d e c l i n e d . A l r e a d y a c t i v e a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n l e v e l c o l l e c t i n g data f o r the p r o p o s a l by utilizing investigative journalistic methods, I s w i t c h e d f o c u s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and r a n f o r c i t y c o u n c i l i n a November 1990 e l e c t i o n , emphasizing e n v i r o n m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , and b e a c h c l e a n - u p a s t o p p o l i c y g o a l s i n my c a m p a i g n l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r v i e w s , and p u b l i c addresses.  1991  A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h c o u n c i l l o r James C o l e r i d g e , who had b e a t e n me on t h e November b a l l o t f o r t h e s i x t h s p o t on W h i t e Rock c o u n c i l , and f o r m e r m a y o r a l c a n d i d a t e Ken J o n e s , I d e c i d e d t o r u n a g a i n s t new incumbent S h a r o n C h a r l e s i n a b y - e l e c t i o n f o r t h e s e a t she had r e c e n t l y resigned. Following intervention of a t h i r d candidate, C h a r l e s r e g a i n e d h e r s e a t w i t h a narrow v i c t o r y o v e r me and 48 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e . I t h e n became i n v o l v e d a t t h e l e v e l o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and v o l u n t e e r e d t o a s s i s t N.D.P. c a n d i d a t e Donna O s a t i u k w i t h h e r c a m p a i g n . In O c t o b e r , W h i t e Rock R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n member Wi1f Hurd won t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y f o r t h e L i b e r a l s w h i l e f e l l o w L i b e r a l Ken J o n e s won S u r r e y - C l o v e r d a 1 e . I j o i n e d t h e N.D.P. and was e l e c t e d t o t h e W h i t e R o c k - S o u t h S u r r e y e x e c u t i v e as e d u c a t i o n c h a i r , a p o s i t i o n I saw as f a c i l i t a t i n g my p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h . The t h e s i s p r o p o s a l I had begun i n J u l y was i n t e r r u p t e d by i n j u r i e s s u s t a i n e d by m y s e l f and f a m i l y i n a c a r a c c i d e n t . A second m a j o r c a r a c c i d e n t t h a t my  181 husband writing  was i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r the p r o p o s a l .  delayed  c o n c e i v i n g and  1992  In F e b r u a r y I a t t e n d e d a f e d e r a l N.D.P. s p o n s o r e d t r a i n i n g workshop a t C r e s c e n t B e a c h , p r o m o t i n g women c a n d i d a t e s i n B.C. I d e c i d e d t o seek a f e d e r a l n o m i n a t i o n , a g a i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on e n v i r o n m e n t a l issues. In May, I s e p a r a t e d from a v i o l e n t husband w h i c h a f f e c t e d my a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e a c o h e r e n t t h e s i s p r o p o s a l , a l t h o u g h I was f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n f i e l d work by t h a t t i m e . F o l l o w i n g some a c a d e m i c a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e c h a n g e s , a p r o p o s a l was c o m p l e t e d and a p p r o v e d later t h a t y e a r . In O c t o b e r I worked i n W h i t e Rock on e n u m e r a t i o n and v o t e t a k i n g f o r t h e f e d e r a l r e f e r e n d u m on t h e Char 1 o t t e t o w n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c c o r d .  1993  In J a n u a r y , w i t h m o u n t i n g p r o b l e m s stemming from d o m e s t i c s t r i f e , I r a n u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h e N.D.P. federal nomination. Shortly afterwards, I temporarily w i t h d r e w from p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and i n September, I f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t e d a m e d i c a l l e a v e o f a b s e n c e from g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s f o r one y e a r .  1994  My f a m i l y l a w y e r a d v i s e d me t o q u i c k l y f i n d a j o b b e c a u s e o f a c u s t o d y b a t t l e and I t o o k work a s a l i f e insurance salesperson. In March I worked on t h e S a r g e a n t - a t - A r m s c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l N.D.P. p a r t y c o n v e n t i o n , and i n J u n e I a s s i s t e d t h e N.D.P. a f f i l i a t e d Surrey C i v i c E l e c t o r s with i t s municipal candidate s e l e c t i o n meeting. A f t e r l o s i n g the f a m i l y home t o my e x - h u s b a n d , and q u i c k l y e v i c t e d , my c h i l d r e n and I s t a y e d w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s u n t i l moving i n t o a home i n Maple R i d g e a t t h e end o f S e p t e m b e r . The move proved u s e f u l , r e d u c i n g the g u i l t I f e l t a t dodging W h i t e Rock and S u r r e y p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , b u t t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n and p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s i n t e r r u p t e d work on t h e t h e s i s .  1995  In September I was g r a n t e d a y e a r ' s e x t e n s i o n from t h e F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s a n d , g i v e n my s t r e s s f u l p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , I began a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o f o c u s on c o m p l e t i n g t h e t h e s i s . Newly p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on t h e environmental j u s t i c e movement h e l p e d me t o i n t e r p r e t my p a r t i c i p a t o r y - o b s e r v a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and I was a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e t h e s i s p r o j e c t f o r f a l l g r a d u a t i o n i n 1996.  to  o  E  w ro  •g '> T3 C ~  CD CD  ro  O c  CA  CD  CD  2_  3  CA CO J Q CO  • ai j  <  CD  <D  o  ro o co o o o  ro •a CL ro CA  (A  o o m X  CO  a)  CO ro a>  to  O to  <  .Q  b  CL  ro 'o  . ro  o  D_  c  "O  <  b  ro  CD O  o  CL  o  CQ  "5 V  o  O ro  o  CD >  o c  CD  c  o  (A  >>  2 CO  'ro  _j  c c ro  CL c  §  3  o  (A  5 a)  ro c  g  CD  roCD CD  O  CC  CD  ^  § CO  c  LU  c CD '«A  a>  a  o (A •> •a  <  T3  CD  an  cu <> / c o  O  >< J? Z UJ  ro  no:  ^ o  a> >  CO  b  I s  CD  bk  a.  CD  0)  O  o  "ro2  01  2  o  ro o o  1 *—  "5  8 E> =o co ro  b  Licens  o 0  ro  0 c  wS  E  b  _  mits  'c  o  O  o  CD 3=  o  |g  CD  ro g  o o  ro  ro to  _CD  E E o  CD  CC  D.  5  (A  CL  CD  Q)  c 3  •£ S J3 ro co  ro  o  o  S=  m  in  co  L_  c  & CA ro  b  o3 b  3  CO  o  o  >•  CA  CO  CD  CD o  ro x •a M«= o  -*—'  ro  o -*cu —' CC  ;>< a>  < o  o  i  o j-  O  CO "°  u  cu  o  •>  3  CD  ro -*—»  CD  _c -#-»  CO w  CL CD  a  3 (A  ro  ro  o 'c  E •t: ro CD  > ro  LU  1  c  in  CD CD c 'co c  c o  O CO CD  CM CO  ro >  Fe oci  hamb omm rce  o  CL  g ro[  'cn . a cu ~j  CC  i  •S ro .9  ro 5 -S  5 T 3 CA° G (A  o <  O  <  184 APPENDIX D: COMPARATIVE FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTALIST AND TRADITIONAL LOCALIST FEATURE  ENV I RONMENTAL ISM  Governance  Political  Property  IDEOLOGY  inclusive,  Authority  Rights  Justice  open  LOCAL I SM  exclusive,  closed  participatory  r e p r e s e n t a t i ve  c i t i z e n s h i p,  1andown i ng,  major i t a r i a n i s m  party  pub 1 i c  pr i vate  community  ethos  c1iques  el i te d e t e r m i nat i on  P r o d u c t i on  eco1og i c a 1 1 y  e x p 1 o i t a t i ve  s u s t a i nab 1e  Techno 1ogy  "soft"  Consumpt i on  based  "hard"  on need  based  on s t a t u s  1*5 BIBLIOGRAPHY A p p l e , M i c h a e l , "Why the R i g h t i s Winning: E d u c a t i o n P o l i t i c s o f Common S e n s e " , S t r a t e g i e s , V o l . 2, Aronowitz, Stanley,  Science  As Power. McGraw H i l l ,  B e r g l a n d , D a v i d , L i b e r t a r i a n ! s m i n One L e s s o n . P u b l i c a t i o n s : C o s t a Mesa, CA. 1986. Bish,  and t h e Fall, 1989.  New  York:  1986.  Orpheus  R o b e r t L., L o c a l Government i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Richmond, B.C. 1987.  Union  of  B l e n c o e , R o b i n , M i n i s t e r , M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Loca1 Government E l e c t i o n s L e g i s l a t i o n : A D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r , Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . 1992. Boggs, C a r l , S o c i a l Movements and P o l i t i c a l Power: E m e r g i n g o f R a d i c a l i s m i n t h e West, Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Philadelphia, 1986. B o y l e , P a t r i c k T. , E l e c t i o n s B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r , B.C. 1982  Columbia,  Lions  Gate  Forms  Press,  Bowman, M a r g a r e t and Hampton, W i l l i a m , L o c a l D e m o c r a c i e s : a S t u d y i n C o m p a r a t i v e L o c a l Government, Longman C h e s i r e L t d . , Melbourne: 1983. Bulmer, M a r t i n , e d i t o r , London. 1982.  Social  Research  Ethics,  MacMillan  Press,  C a n n a d i n e , D a v i d , P a t r i c i a n s , Power and P o l i t i c s i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y Towns, L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , N.Y. 1982. C a r n o y , M a r t i n , The S t a t e and P o l i t i c a l P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n N.J. 1984.  Theory.Princeton  University  C a s t e l i s , Manue1, The C i t y and t h e G r a s s r o o t s : A Cross-Cul tural T h e o r y o f Urban S o c i a l Movements, Edward A r n o l d P u b l i s h e r s , London, 1983. C i t y , C l a s s , and York, 1972.  Power, S t . M a r t i n ' s  Press,  New  C l a r k , M.J.R. and K r a h n , P e t e r , F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y , Water Q u a l i t y , Dry Weather Storm Sewer D i s c h a r g e s , P r o v i n c e o f B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, V i c t o r i a , 1981. C h e r r y , G o r d o n , Town P l a n n i n g London, 1970.  in i t s Social  Context.  Leonard  Hill,  186 Coleman, D a n i e l A., E c o p o l i t i c s : B u i l d i n g a G r e e n S o c i e t y , R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New B r u n s w i c k , N.J. 1994. Comack, E l i z a b e t h , " T h e o r i z i n g on t h e C a n a d i a n S t a t e and Social Formations", State Control: Criminal Justice Politics in Canada; R.S. R a t n e r and J o h n L. M c M u l l a n e d i t o r s ; U.B.C. P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r , 1987. , Crawford, Kenneth Grant, Canadian M u n i c i p a l of Toronto Press, Toronto. 1954. Dah1,  Government. U n i v e r s i t y  R o b e r t A., A P r e f a c e t o D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y , The Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956. Democracy and Haven, 1989.  Its C r i t i c s .  A P r e f a c e to E c o n o m i c Press, Berkeley, 1985.  Yale  U n i v e r s i t y of  U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Democracy,  University  of  New California  D a l t o n , R u s s e l l J . and K u e c h l e r , M a n f r e d , e d i t o r s , C h a l l e n g i n g t h e P o l i t i c a l O r d e r : New S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Movements i n W e s t e r n D e m o c r a c i e s ; P o l i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , U.K. 1990. D o r c e y , A n t h o n y H.J. and H a l l , K e n n e t h , J . , S e t t i n g E c o l o g i c a l P r i o r i t i e s f o r Management: t h e A r t o f t h e I m p o s s i b l e i n t h e F r a s e r E s t u a r y . Underwater Reserach C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1981. Femia, Joseph. Gramsci's P o l i t i c a l Oxford, 1981.  Thought. Clarendon  Press:  F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y , A L i v i n g R i v e r by t h e Door. Government o f Canada, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , S u r r e y , B.C. 1981. F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study, R e c r e a t i o n : Report o f the R e c r e a t i o n Work Group. Government o f Canada, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1978. F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y S t e e r i n g Committee, F r a s e r E s t u a r y S t u d y Summary. Government o f Canada, P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1978. F r i e d e n b e r g , E d g a r Z., D e f e r e n c e t o A u t h o r i t y : The M.E. S h a r p e , I n c . , W h i t e P l a i n s , N.Y. 1980. Gagnon, A l a i n G. and I n t r o d u c t i o n to 1990. Friedland,  C a s e o f Canada.  B i c k e r t o n , James P., C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c s : An the D i s c i p l i n e , Broadview P r e s s , Toronto.  R o g e r ; Power, and  Crisis  i n the  City:  Corporations,  187 U n i o n s and  Urban  Policy,  G a l b r a i t h , J o h n K e n n e t h , The Co . , B o s t o n : 1983. The Mass.  Culture 1992.  MacMillan Anatomy  o f Contentment,  Press,  London:  1982.  o f Power. Houghton,  Houghton  Mifflin  Co.:  Mifflin Boston,  G a u c h e r , R o b e r t , " C a n a d i a n C i v i l S o c i e t y , t h e C a n a d i a n S t a t e , and Criminal Justice Institutions: Theoretical Considerations" S t a t e C o n t r o 1 , R.S. R a t n e r and J o h n L . M c M u l l a n e d . , U. B.C. P r e s s : 1987. G o l d i n g , Sue, G r a m s c i ' s D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y : C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a P o s t L i b e r a l Democracy. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o . 1992. Goldsmith, Michael, London: 1980. Gordon, A n i t a Stoddart  Politics.  Planning  and S u z u k i , David, P u b l i s h i n g , Toronto,  and  It's a 1990.  the C i t y : Matter  Hutchinson,  of  G r a f f t e y , Howard, Why C a n a d i a n s Get t h e P o l i t i c i a n s and They Don't Want, S t o d d a r t , T o r o n t o , 199 1.  Survival. Governments  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , W o r k i n g Committee O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n U p d a t e , The Way Ahead: A R e p o r t on t h e S t a t e o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . B u r n a b y , B.C. 1979. Habermas, J u r g e n , C o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e E v o l u t i o n o f S o c i e t y , t r a n s , by Thomas M c C a r t h y , Beacon P r e s s : B o s t o n , 1976. Theory  o f Communicative  Action.  1988.  Hall,  S t u a r t , C. C r i c h t e r , T. J e f f e r s o n , J . C a r k e and B. R o b e r t s . P o l i c i n g t h e C r i s i s : Mugging, t h e S t a t e and Law and O r d e r . M a c M i l l a n : London. 1978.  Hall,  Stuart London,  and J a c q u e s , M. 1983.  (eds.),  The P o l i t i c s  H a l l , S t u a r t , "The G r e a t Moving R i g h t Show" 1 J a n u a r y , 1979. The Hard Road t o Renewal: T h a t c h e r i s m L e f t , V e r s o : London, 1988.  of Thatcherism,  M a r x i s m T o d a y . 23,  and  the C r i s i s  No.  o f the  H a r c o u r t , M i k e , L e a d e r o f t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n , S u s t a i nab 1e D e v e l o p m e n t : B.C.'s G r o w i n g F u t u r e , 1990 L e g i s l a t i v e Program f o r S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t , Queen's P r i n t e r : V i c t o r i a 1990.  188 Harloe, Michael and C a p i t a l , Edward  Lebas, Arnold  Elizabeth, editors, P u b l i s h e r s , London.  City, 1981.  Class  and  H a r r i s o n , P a u l , The T h i r d R e v o l u t i o n : E n v i r o n m e n t , P o p u l a t i o n and a S u s t a i n a b l e W o r l d , I. B. T a u r i s ( w i t h t h e World Wide Fund for Nature): London. 1992. Hawley, W i l l i s D., L i p s k y , M i c h a e l , G r e e n b e r g , S t a n l e y B., G r e e n s t o n e , J . D a v i d , K a t z n e l s o n , I r a , O p r e n , K a r e n , Peterson, Paul, Shefter, Martin and Yates, Douglas, T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Urban P o l i t i c s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . : Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1976. Ham,  C h r i s t o p h e r and H i l l , M i c h a e l , The P o l i c y P r o c e s s i n t h e Modern C a p i t a l i s t S t a t e . H a r v e s t e r P r e s s . London: 1984.  Harding, Sandra, editor, Feminism U n i v e r s i t y Press: Indiana. 1987.  and  Methodology.  H i g g i n s , D o n a l d J.H., L o c a l and Urban P o l i t i c s E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g Company, T o r o n t o , Jennings, Robert E., A u t h o r i t i e s , Gower;  King,  i n Canada. 1986.  Going Corporate in Local Hampshire, England, 1984.  Jorgensen, L., P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n : A S t u d i e s , . Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , London,  Indiana  Methodology 1989.  Gage  Education for  Human  Y n e s t r a , " H e a l i n g t h e Wounds: F e m i n i s m , E c o l o g y and Nature/Culture D u a l i s m " i n A. J a g g a r and S. Bordo (eds). Gender/Body/Know1 e d g e : F e m i n i s t R e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f B e i n g and Knowing. New B r u n s w i c k : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1989  K l a t c h , R e b e c c a . Women o f t h e Philadelphia, 1987.  New  Right,  Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s :  K o r n b e r g , A l l a n , S m i t h , J o e l , C l a r k e , H a r o l d D., e d i t o r s ; C i t i zen P o l i t i c i a n s — C a n a d a : Party O f f i c i a l s in a Democratic S o c i e t y ; C a r o l i n a Academic P r e s s , Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a . 1979. L a c l a u , E r n e s t o and M o u f f e , C h a n t a l ; Hegemony and S o c i a l i s t S t r a t e g y : Towards a R a d i c a l D e m o c r a t i c P o l i t i c s , V e r s o London, 1985. Lamoureux, H e n r i ; Mayer, R o b e r t and Panet-Raymond, J e a n , A c t i o n ; B l a c k Rose Books, M o n t r e a l : 1989.  :  Communitv  L a s c h , C h r i s t o p h e r , "Toward a T h e o r y o f P o s t - 1 n d u s t r i a 1 S o c i e t y " i n P o l i t i c s i n t h e P o s t - W e l f a r e S t a t e , M. Hancock, G. S j o b e r g ( e d s . ) . C o l u m b i a U. P r e s s : N.Y. 1972.  189 L a u e r , R o b e r t , S o c i a l Movements and S o c i a l I l l i n o i s U. P r e s s : C a r b o n d a l e , 111., L e v i t a s , R u t h , ed., C a m b r i d g e , U.K.  The  Ideology 1986.  of  The  Change, 1976.  New  Right,  Southern Polity  Press:  L i e b e r t , R o l a n d J . and I m e r s h e i n , A l l e n , e d i t o r s , Power, P a r a d i g m s and Commun i t y Research ; International Sociological A s s o c i a t i o n , London, 1977. Lipietz, A l a i n , G r e e n Hopes: The P o l i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , U.K.  Future 1995.  of  Political  Ecology,  Lipset, Seymour Martin, Continental Divide: The Values I n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada; R o u t l e d g e , N.Y. 1990.  and  L o r i m e r , James, A C i t i z e n ' s G u i d e t o C i t y P o l i t i c s , Samuel, T o r o n t o , 1972.  James L e w i s  and  L u s t i g e r - T h a 1 e r , H e n r i , e d i t o r , P o l i t i c a l A r r a n g e m e n t s : Power t h e C i t y , B l a c k Rose Books, M o n t r e a l : 1992.  and  Maguire, P a t r i c i a , Doing P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach, The University of Massachusetts, 1987.  Research: A Feminist Massachussets, Amherst,  Marchak, P a t r i c i a , "The New E c o n o m i c R e a l i t y : S u b s t a n c e and Rhetoric" i n The New R e a l i t y : The P o l i t i c s o f R e s t r a i n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . New S t a r Books, V a n c o u v e r . 1984.  in  M a r k o v i t c h , M i h a i l o , . "Marx's C r i t i q u e o f A l i e n a t i o n and i t s E m a n c i p a t o r y C o n s e q u e n c e s " , i n A l i e n a t i o n T h e o r i e s and DeA l i e n a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s ; D. S c h w e i t z e r , R.F. G e y e r ( e d s . S c i e n c e R e v i e w s : M i d d l e s e x , U. K. 1989. Marx,  Karl and International  Engels, Frederick, P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k ,  Marx, K a r l ; E c o n o m i c and by M a r t i n M i l l i g a n ,  The 1970.  German  Ideology,  P h i l o s o p h i c M a n u s c r i p t s o f 1844, trans, International Publishers, N.Y. 1964.  The E i g h t e e n t h B r u m a i r e o f L o u i s B o n a p a r t e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , New York, 1963. C a p i t a l , P a r t V I I I . "The S o - C a l l e d P r i m i t i v e A c c u m u l a t i o n " , S e l e c t e d Works, V o l . 2, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , Moscow, 1969. "The  Civil  War  in France",  Selected  Works,  Vol.  2  190 "Wages, P r i c e  and  Profit",  Selected  Works,  Ibid.  Masson, J a c k and A n d e r s o n , James D., e d i t o r s , E m e r g i n g PartyP o l i t i c s i n Urban Canada, M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d , Toronto. 1972. M c C a l 1 , G e o r g e J . and Simmons, J . L . , I s s u e s i n P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . Addison-Wes1ey Pub 1 i s h i n g , R e a d i n g , Mass. : 1969. McCrone, D a v i d and E l l i o t , B r i a n , M a c M i l l a n , London. 1989.  Property  and Power  M c M u l l a n , J o h n L., " E p i l o g u e : Law, J u s t i c e and C o n t r o 1 , R.S. R a t n e r and J . L . M c M u l l a n , 1987 .  in a  Ci ty.  the S t a t e " i n S t a t e e d s . U.B.C. P r e s s ,  Merelman, R i c h a r d M., P a r t i a l V i s i o n s : C u l t u r e and P o l i t i c s i n B r i t a i n , Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s : London, U.K. 1991. M o l o t c h , H a r v e y and Logan, J . " T e n s i o n s i n t h e Growth Machine: Overcoming Resistance to Value-Free Development", Soc ia1 P r o b l e m s , 31. 1984. Offe,  C l a u s , "New S o c i a l Movements: C h a l l e n g i n g t h e B o u n d a r i e s o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i t i c s " , S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , V o l . 52, No. 4. W i n t e r , 1985.  P a e h l k e , R o b e r t C. , E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m and t h e F u t u r e o f P r o g r e s s i v e P o 1 i t i e s , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , London, 1989. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Harm and C o r p o r a t e C r i m e : , C o r p o r a t e C r i m e : Contemporary Debates. e d i t o r s , F r a n k P e a r c e and Laureen S n i d e r , U. o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o . 1995 Peace  A r c h News, M e t r o V a l l e y 1990 t o November 1991.  News Group,  White  Rock,  B.C.:  P e r r y m a n , Mark; A l t e r e d S t a t e s : P o s t m o d e r n i s m , P o l i t i c s , Lawrence and W i s h a r t L t d . London, U.K. 1994.  June  Culture  P o n t i n g , C l i v e , A G r e e n H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d : T h e E n v i r o n m e n t and t h e C o l l a p s e o f G r e a t C i v i l i z a t i o n s ; S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , New Y o r k : 1991. P l u n k e t t , Thomas J . , Urban Canada and i t s Government: a S t u d y o f M u n i c i p a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . M a c m i l l a n o f Canada, T o r o n t o . 1968. Plunkett, Thomas Organization,  J . , Urban Population Growth and Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n , Ont.  Municipal 1973.  191 P r e s s , D a n i e l , D e m o c r a t i c Dilemmas i n t h e Age U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , London, U. K. 1994. Rabinow, P a u l , e d i t o r , York: 1984.  The  F o u c a u l t Reader.  Reason, Peter, editor, Participation P u b l i c a t i o n s , London: 1994.  o f E c o l o g y , Duke Pantheon  in  Human  Books,  New  Inquiry,Sage  R i f k i n , Jeremy, B i o s p h e r e P o l i t i c s : A New C o n s c i o u s n e s s C e n t u r y , Crown P u b l i s h e r s : New Y o r k . 1991.  for a  New  S a n c t o n , Andrew, G o v e r n i n g Canada's C i t y - R e g i o n s . The I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y , M o n t r e a l , Quebec. 1994. S c h a f f e r , A l b e r t and Ruth C o n n o r , W o o d r u f f : A S t u d y o f Community D e c i s i o n Making, U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , C h a p e l Hi 11 , 1970. Schumacher, People  E.F., S m a l l i s B e a u t i f u l : M a t t e r e d , ; P e n g u i n Books,  A Study London,  o f Economics 1973.  as i f  S c h w e i t z e r , D a v i d . "New L e f t a s R i g h t : C o n v e r g e n t Themes o f P o l i t i c a l Discontent". Journal of S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 27, No. 2. 1971. "Alienation, De-alienation and Changeft Alienation and Anomie Revisited S. Giora Shohamed.) Ramot E d u c a t i o n a l Systems: Messina, I t a l y . 1982. S h a p i r o , Ian and R e e h e r , G r a n t , e d i t o r s , Power, I n e q u a l i t y , and D e m o c r a t i c P o l i t i c s , Westview P r e s s , B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o . 1988. Sharpe, L . J . , D e c e n t r a l i s t Trends i n Western Democracies: P u b l i c a t i o n s ( I S A ) , London, 1978. Smith, Dorothy, Feminism and M a r x i s m : McLlelland, Toronto: 1987.  The  Everyday  Sage  Problematic,  S m i t h , Z a c h a r y A., E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i t i c s and P o l i c y i n t h e West, K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g , Dubuque, Iowa. 1993. S t e w a r t , C h a r l e s , S m i t h , C r a i g and D e n t o n , R o b e r t E., P e r s u a s i o n and S o c i a l Movements. Waveland P r e s s I n c . , P r o s p e c t H e i g h t s , Illinois, 1984. Stocking, George W., editor, Observers Observed: Essays on E t h n o g r a p h i c F i e l d w o r k : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , London: 1983.  192 Swain, L.G. and A l e x a n d e r , L . J . , F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y S t u d y Water Q u a l i t y ; Boundary Bay, P r o v i n c e o f B.C. V i c t o r i a , 1981. T a y l o r , Ian, " T h e o r i z i n g t h e C r i s i s i n Canada", S t a t e C o n t r o 1 . R.S. R a t n e r and J o h n L. M c M u l l a n , e d s . U.B.C. P r e s s , 1987. T e s t e r , F r a n k James, "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G r e e n s : The E c o l o g y o f an Improbable P o l i t i c s " , C a n a d i a n I s s u e s , Volume X I I I , 1991, e d i t o r s , Rowland L o r i m a r , M i c h a e l M ' G o n i g l e , J e a n - P i e r r e R e v e r e t and S a l l y R o s s . A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s , M o n t r e a l : 1991. T i n d a l , C R . and T i n d a l , S. Nobes, L o c a l Government M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , T o r o n t o . 1984.  i n Canada,  Toffler,  1980.  Alvin,  The T h i r d  Wave, Bantam  Power S h i f t : Knowledge, W e a l t h t h e 2 1 s t C e n t u r y . Bantam Books, T r e l e a v e n , G. F e r n , The S u r r e y S t o r y . S u r r e y , B.C.: 1992.  Books,  N.Y.  and V i o l e n c e a t t h e Edge o f New Y o r k : 1990. Surrey H i s t o r i c a l  Vancouver  P r o v i n c e Newspaper, Southam P u b l i s h e r s :  Vancouver  Sun Newspaper, Southam  Publishers:  Society,  Vancouver,  Vancouver,  B.C.  B.C.  W e i n e r , J o n a t h a n , The Next One Hundred Y e a r s : S h a p i n g t h e F a t e o f Our L i v i n g E a r t h . Bantam Books, New Y o r k , N.Y. 1990. Y a t e s , D o u g l a s ; The U n g o v e r n a b l e C i t y : The P o l i t i c s o f U r b a n P r o b l e m s and P o l i c y Making, MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: 1977.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 6 25
China 3 9
France 2 0
Canada 2 0
Japan 2 0
Puerto Rico 1 0
City Views Downloads
Ashburn 5 0
Beijing 3 1
Unknown 3 15
Tokyo 2 0
Guaynabo 1 0
Williams Lake 1 0
Ottawa 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099056/manifest

Comment

Related Items