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Aboriginal use and management of fisheries in British Columbia 1996

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ABORIGINAL USE AND MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ROSANNE MARIE KYLE L.L.B., University of Western Ontario, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Law) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1996 © Rosanne Marie Kyle, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. DeptrrtmOT of L-f\ W The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^ f ^ ^ W £ 3 ^ DE-6 (2/88) 11 ABSTRACT B o t h t h e u s e o f a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r m a n y F i r s t N a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i s t o r i c a l l y , f i s h p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t s p i r i t u a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c r o l e i n n u m e r o u s A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s . T h e s e s o c i e t i e s h a d v a r i o u s m e t h o d s o f m a n a g i n g t h e r e s o u r c e a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y t o o v e r - e x p l o i t t h e f i s h e r i e s , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n s u s t a i n a b l e l e v e l s o f f i s h . F o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w e r e i n i t i a l l y a b l e t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f f i s h i n g a s w e l l a s e x p a n d t h e i r u s e o f t h e f i s h e r i e s t h r o u g h t r a d e w i t h n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s . H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e c a n n e r i e s o n t h e c o a s t t h e f i s h e r i e s g r e w i n e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e t o n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e w a s g r a d u a l l y b u t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t a k e n o v e r b y t h e s t a t e , w i t h v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i e s b e i n g u s e d t o j u s t i f y t h e t a k e - o v e r . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s l o s t n o t o n l y t h e i r c o n t r o l o v e r m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e , b u t a l s o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u s e it a s e x t e n s i v e l y a s t h e y o n c e h a d . O v e r t h e y e a r s , A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b o t h t h e f o o d a n d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s h a s d e c l i n e d a l t h o u g h v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d p r o g r a m s h a v e b e e n i n i t i a t e d t o a t t e m p t , w i t h o n l y p a r t i a l s u c c e s s , t o r e m e d y t h i s p r o b l e m . In t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s h a s b e e n b a t t l i n g o t h e r p r o b l e m s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s , i n c l u d i n g o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f l e e t a n d d e p l e t i o n o f f i s h s t o c k s . M a n a g e m e n t o f s a l m o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , b e c a u s e it i s a n a n a d r o m o u s s p e c i e s w h i c h IU t r a v e l s t h r o u g h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s , h a s b e c o m e e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x . It i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t m u c h l i t i g a t i o n o v e r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g h a s b e e n l a u n c h e d . O n l y a f e w o f t h e i s s u e s h a v e b e e n c l a r i f i e d b y t h e j u d g m e n t s w h i c h h a v e r e s u l t e d a n d c e r t a i n m y t h s a n d i d e o l o g i e s h a v e s u r f a c e d r e p e a t e d l y i n m a n y o f t h e d e c i s i o n s . It i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a o n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l a n d m a n a g e m e n t r i g h t s w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y . H o w e v e r , p r o b l e m s o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s , i s n o t u n i q u e t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r e v e n C a n a d a . S i m i l a r p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n e x p e r i e n c e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e w o r l d a n d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h s o m e o f t h e s e i s s u e s a n d t o r e c o g n i z e a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . It i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r , a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t , c o - m a n a g e m e n t w i l l b e a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o r w h a t t h e r o l e o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s m i g h t b e i n s u c h a r e g i m e . E v e n if c o - m a n a g e m e n t i s e s t a b l i s h e d , it i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s t a t e ' s u n d e r l y i n g r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e w i l l r e m a i n i n t a c t . H o w e v e r , c o - m a n a g e m e n t m a y r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b o t h t h e u s e a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t ii T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t v i C h a p t e r O n e I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r T w o M a n a g e m e n t o f t h e R e s o u r c e 11 A . T r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l S y s t e m s o f M a n a g e m e n t 11 B . T h e N o n - A b o r i g i n a l R e g u l a t o r y F r a m e - W o r k a n d Its E f f e c t o n A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r s 1 5 C . T h e N o n - A b o r i g i n a l M a n a g e m e n t R e g i m e i n R e v i e w : H o w W e l l H a s it W o r k e d ? 3 3 D. I d e o l o g i e s a n d M y t h s i n F i s h e r i e s R e g u l a t i o n s 4 2 C h a p t e r T h r e e S c a l e s o f J u s t i c e : T h e C a s e l a w 5 5 A . Pre-Constitution Act, 1982 5 5 B . Sparrow a n d Its W a k e 6 0 (1) T h e Sparrow D e c i s i o n 6 0 (2) A p p l i c a t i o n o f Sparrow 7 0 (3) T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n t h e P o s t - S p a r r o w E r a 8 4 C h a p t e r F o u r A l t e r n a t i v e M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m s 1 1 0 A . S o m e P r o b l e m s w i t h F o r m u l a t i n g A l t e r n a t i v e s 1 1 0 B . Is C o - M a n a g e m e n t t h e S o l u t i o n ? 1 1 5 (1) C o - M a n a g e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 1 8 (i) T h e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s S t r a t e g y 1 1 8 (ii) T h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n 1 2 1 (iii) T h e N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t - i n - P r i n c i p l e 1 2 5 (2) C o - M a n a g e m e n t O u t s i d e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 3 1 (i) T h e W e s t e r n A r c t i c 1 3 1 (ii) S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n 1 3 5 (iii) N e w Z e a l a n d . 1 5 0 C . S o m e C o n c l u s i o n s A b o u t C o - M a n a g e m e n t 1 6 0 C h a p t e r F i v e C o n c l u s i o n 1 6 5 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 8 0 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k C h i e f R i c h a r d K a h g e e o f t h e S a u g e e n F i r s t N a t i o n f o r h i s p a t i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g m e a b o u t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s s u e s a n d f o r i n s p i r i n g m e t o p u r s u e f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k m y t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r D o u g l a s S a n d e r s , f o r a l l o f h i s a s s i s t a n c e a t b o t h t h e r e s e a r c h i n g a n d w r i t i n g s t a g e s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e a l l o f t h e t i m e h e s p e n t r e v i e w i n g d r a f t s a n d m e e t i n g w i t h m e t o d i s c u s s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t . H i s k n o w l e d g e , p e r c e p t i o n s a n d c o m m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d m u c h t o t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . T h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s o t h e r p e o p l e w h o a l s o h a v e m y t h a n k s f o r t a k i n g t h e t i m e t o d i s c u s s A b o r i g i n a l i s s u e s w i t h m e a n d t o p r o v i d e m e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g m a n y o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n l a w s t u d e n t s a t t h e F a c u l t y o f L a w ; P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l J a c k s o n , F a c u l t y o f L a w ; R o b e r t F r e e d m a n , R a t c l i f f & C o m p a n y ; L e e M o n t g o m e r y , S p e c i a l A d v i s o r - F i s h e r i e s , F e d e r a l T r e a t y N e g o t i a t i o n O f f i c e ; M a r k W a r r e n , M a n a g e r , C l a i m s I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e N . W . T . ; A l i s o n W e l c h , L i b r a r i a n , G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e N . W . T . ; a n d P r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d P r i c e , S c h o o l o f N a t i v e S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . I a l s o a p p r e c i a t e a l l o f t h e h e l p w h i c h w a s g i v e n t o m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r b y L i l l i a n O n g , G r a d u a t e S e c r e t a r y , a n d b y t h e L a w L i b r a r y s t a f f . A s w e l l , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k m y f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n t h e 1 9 9 5 - 1 9 9 6 M a s t e r o f L a w s p r o g r a m w h o m a d e m y y e a r n o t o n l y m o r e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g , b u t m u c h m o r e f u n a s w e l l . L a s t l y , I w a n t t o t h a n k m y h u s b a n d , G r e g , f o r e n c o u r a g i n g m e t o o b t a i n m y M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e a n d f o r a l w a y s s u p p o r t i n g a n d h a v i n g f a i t h i n m e . H e h a s b e e n m y c o m p a s s d u r i n g t h e t i m e s I m a y h a v e o t h e r w i s e l o s t m y w a y a n d f o r t h a t I w i l l a l w a y s b e g r a t e f u l . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n i n t h e s p o t l i g h t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f m u c h n e g o t i a t i o n a n d l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T o m a n y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s 1 , t h e f i s h a r e n o t o n l y a p o t e n t i a l m e a n s t o a c h i e v e e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e y h i s t o r i c a l l y h a v e b e e n , a n d c o n t i n u e t o b e , a c r i t i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e , s p i r i t u a l i t y a n d i d e n t i t y . F o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s , F i r s t N a t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y l o s t c o n t r o l o v e r m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e a n d w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e v e n t e d f r o m u t i l i z i n g it, e v e n i n t h o s e a r e a s w h e r e t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h w a s o s t e n s i b l y p r o t e c t e d b y t r e a t i e s . S i n c e t h e n , t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e h a s b e c o m e a n i m p o r t a n t a n d l u c r a t i v e i n d u s t r y f o r m a n y n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s , a n d s o m e A b o r i g i n a l s , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h r e a t e n e d f i s h s t o c k s , t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e , i n c l u d i n g a l l o c a t i o n a m o n g u s e r g r o u p s , h a s b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t e n t i o u s . R e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n h a s e x a c e r b a t e d m a n a g e m e n t *I use the terms "Aboriginal" and "First Nations" synonymously throughout this thesis. However, since the former term in particular encompasses Metis, non-status Indians (that is, those who do not fall within the legal definition set out in the Indian Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. 1-5) and Inuit, and the focus of my thesis is on "Indian" fishing specifically, I use these terms restrictively to refer only to the latter unless otherwise stated. 2 p r o b l e m s a n d h e i g h t e n e d c o n f l i c t a m o n g t h e u s e r g r o u p s . It h a s a l s o c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c u r r e n t m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e l i n e a t e h o w s a l m o n f i s h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r h a s b e e n m a n a g e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e e f f e c t t h e s e m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e s h a v e h a d o n A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . 2 T h e w a y i n w h i c h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d b y g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e c o u r t s i s a l s o r e v i e w e d . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h i n C a n a d a a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t r e a t i e s o r f r o m A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . A s w e l l , i n t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s T r a n s f e r A g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n C a n a d a a n d M a n i t o b a , S a s k a t c h e w a n a n d A l b e r t a s u p p o r t f i s h i n g r i g h t s . 3 S i n c e 1 9 8 2 , e x i s t i n g A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y r i g h t s h a v e b e e n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d i n s . 3 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e Constitution Act, 19824. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s g e n e r a l l y 2 Although there are many species of fish on the Pacific coast and within the interior of British Columbia, salmon have played the most important role in Aboriginal cultures. As well, because salmon are anadromous, management of them presents problems which are probably the most complex of any fish species. It is for these reasons that the focus will be on salmon. However, many of the issues and problems raised are also present in other fisheries and in other parts of the country. For instance, similar fact situations and issues arise with respect to the Ojibway in Ontario and Manitoba and First Nations in the Yukon. See various essays in K. Abel and J. Friesen, eds., Aboriginal Resource Use in Canada: Historical and Legal Aspects (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1991). 3The Agreements contain the following clause: "In order to secure to the Indians of the Province the continuance of the supply of game and fish for their support and subsistence, Canada agrees that the laws respecting game in force in the Province from time to time shall apply to Indians within the boundaries thereof, provided, however, that the said Indians shall have the right, which the Province hereby assures to them, of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food at all seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which the said Indians may have a right of access." See, for example, The Natural Resources Act of Manitoba, RSM 1954, c. 180. "Being Schedule B of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. Section 35(1) provides as follows: "The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed." 3 p r e s e n t e d a s a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t , s i n c e t h e r e a r e v e r y f e w t r e a t i e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . 5 O n e o f t h e m o s t c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s w i t h i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t g e n e r a l l y a n d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g p o l i c i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i s h o w t h e f i s h a r e t o b e a l l o c a t e d a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s u s e r g r o u p s . A l l o c a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f t e n t h e b a s i s f o r m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s a n d p r o g r a m s a n d e v e n w h e r e a l l o c a t i o n i s n o t a n e x p r e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c y , m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t h o w t h e r e s o u r c e i s a l l o c a t e d a m o n g u s e r g r o u p s . T h e i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n m a n a g e m e n t a n d a l l o c a t i o n c a n b e s e e n i n t h e d r a m a t i c d e c l i n e i n A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g o v e r t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . In t h e l a t e 1 8 0 0 s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f f i s h e r s w e r e A b o r i g i n a l . It h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t b y 1 9 5 1 , o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s f i s h e r s w e r e A b o r i g i n a l . B e t w e e n 1 9 6 4 a n d 1 9 7 7 , t h e n u m b e r o f f i s h i n g v e s s e l s o w n e d o r o p e r a t e d b y A b o r i g i n a l s d e c r e a s e d b y a n a v e r a g e o f 3 . 8 p e r c e n t p e r a n n u m . B y 1 9 7 9 , A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s a l m o n f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y w a s d o w n t o 8 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a l m o n f l e e t . A l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l o w n e r s h i p o f l i c e n s e d s a l m o n v e s s e l s i n c r e a s e d b e t w e e n 1 9 8 5 a n d 1 9 9 1 t o a b o u t 1 8 t o 1 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i s s t i l l m u c h l o w e r t h a n it w a s 1 0 0 y e a r s a g o . 6 sFourteen First Nations on Vancouver Island entered into treaties between 1850 and 1854. As well, a portion of northeastern British Columbia is included in Treaty 8, which initially covered northern Alberta but was ultimately extended into part of British Columbia. In R. v. Cooper (1969), 1 D.L.R. (3d) 113 (B.C.S.C.), the Court held that the fishing provisions in the Vancouver Island treaties were subordinate to the Fisheries Act. James, Historic and Present Native Participation in Pacific Coast Commercial Fisheries (Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services, 1984) at pp. iii-iv and D. Newell, Tangled Webs of History: Indians and 4 G i v e n t h i s t r e n d , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s a n d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e m i n t h i s t h e s i s . H o w e v e r , t h e a b i l i t y t o c a t c h f i s h , h o w e v e r t h o s e f i s h m a y b e a l l o c a t e d , i s o b v i o u s l y p r e d i c a t e d o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f i s h t o c a t c h . A c c o r d i n g l y , m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e m u c h m o r e t h a n m e r e l y d e c i d i n g w h o c a n c a t c h f i s h . W h i c h p a r t y i s p e r m i t t e d t o m a k e t h o s e m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s h a s b e c o m e a n o t h e r c r i t i c a l i s s u e i n t h e f i s h e r i e s d e b a t e . T h e r i g h t t o m a n a g e t h e r e s o u r c e i s s e e n b y m a n y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a s a f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e w h i c h i s l i n k e d t o t h e i r d e m a n d s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t ; w i t h o u t t h e r i g h t t o m a n a g e t h e r e s o u r c e , t h e y b e l i e v e t h e y w i l l h a v e n o c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u l t i m a t e f a t e o f t h e f i s h a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r o w n f u t u r e s . M a n y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s , a m o n g o t h e r s , h a v e c o m e t o q u e s t i o n t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e f e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n m a n a g e m e n t t o d a t e a n d d i r e p r e d i c t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e t h a t w e s t c o a s t s a l m o n w i l l s o o n b e c l o s e t o e x t i n c t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , o n e o f t h e c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d b y s o m e r e s o u r c e m a n a g e r s , n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a n d o t h e r s i s t h a t if j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e r e s o u r c e i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d a n d A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t p o w e r s r e c o g n i z e d , e f f e c t i v e m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e s c a n n o t b e e n s u r e d a n d t h e a l r e a d y d e p l e t e d f i s h s t o c k s w i l l b e e v e n f u r t h e r o v e r - f i s h e d . C e n t r a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e s o u r c e i s s e e n a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i s h . In a n a t t e m p t t o a n a l y z e t h e s e v a r i o u s p r o p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e s u l t s o f the Law in Canada's Pacific Coast Fisheries (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993) at pp. 132, 168 and 170. 5 t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s i s r e v i e w e d . A l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s - i n c l u d i n g s o m e w h i c h a r e b e i n g i n i t i a t e d t o s o m e e x t e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d a n d s o m e c a s e s t u d i e s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d p r e s e n t e d . A t t h i s s t a g e , it m a y b e h e l p f u l t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e w a y s o f r e g u l a t i n g t h e f i s h e r i e s : f i r s t l y , b y l i c e n s i n g b o a t s o r f i s h e r s ; s e c o n d l y , b y r e g u l a t i n g t h e t i m e s a n d m e t h o d s o f f i s h i n g ; t h i r d l y , b y a l l o c a t i n g f i s h i n g r i g h t s t o p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s ; f o u r t h l y , b y a l l o c a t i n g q u o t a t o i n d i v i d u a l f i s h e r s ; o r , f i f t h l y , b y u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e . T h e s e r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k s r e f l e c t t w o b a s i c , a n d s o m e t i m e s c o n f l i c t i n g , u n d e r l y i n g m a n a g e m e n t m o d e l s : i n c r e a s e d g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n a n d s e m i - p r i v a t i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e . In t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s h a s u s e d b o t h l i c e n s i n g a n d r e g u l a t i o n o f t i m e s a n d m e t h o d s o f f i s h i n g . In t h e r e v i e w o f a l t e r n a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s i n C h a p t e r F o u r , c o - m a n a g e m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . T h e s a m e f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k s a r e u s e d i n t h e s e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s , b u t t h e y d i f f e r i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h r e g u l a t i o n s a r e d e c i d e d u p o n a n d e n f o r c e d . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s , s o m e o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i e s w i l l b e i d e n t i f i e d a n d c h a l l e n g e d . H o w t h e s e i d e o l o g i e s a f f e c t m a n a g e m e n t 6 d e c i s i o n s a n d t h e w a y t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e i s p e r c e i v e d i s a d d r e s s e d , a s w e l l a s h o w t h e s e i d e o l o g i e s a p p e a r t o a f f e c t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c h a n g e . It w i l l n o d o u b t b e c o m e a p p a r e n t i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t t h e i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g a r e e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x . N o t o n l y a r e t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o m a n a g e m e n t o f f i s h e r s a n d t h e f i s h t h e m s e l v e s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d , o f t e n , m i s u n d e r s t o o d o r c o m p l e t e l y u n k n o w n , t h e l e g a l h i s t o r y o f " A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s " , a s t h e y a r e n o w r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , i s c o m p l e x a n d o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o r a t i o n a l i z e . W e a r e i n t h e m i d s t o f a j u d i c i a l s h i f t f r o m a p o s i t i v i s t f r a m e w o r k , i n w h i c h o n l y t h o s e m a t t e r s d e c l a r e d b y l e g i s l a t i o n t o b e " r i g h t s " a r e r e c o g n i z e d , t o a r i g h t s - b a s e d f r a m e w o r k i n w h i c h r i g h t s a r e s e e n t o e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f a n y l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t a n d m u s t s o m e h o w b e d e f i n e d a n d r e s p e c t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f m o d e r n s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h t h e c o u r t s a r e g i v i n g s o m e i m p o r t a n t r u l i n g s o n A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , it c a n n o t b e e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w i l l f u l l y d e f i n e s u b s t a n t i v e r i g h t s o r m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s . It i s b e c a u s e l e g a l s o u r c e s d o n o t a p p e a r t o p r o v i d e c o m p l e t e a n s w e r s , a n d c e r t a i n l y n o t s o l u t i o n s , t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t h i s t o r i c a l a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s a r e a l s o a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h e s e o t h e r f a c t o r s d o n o t p r o v i d e a n s w e r s o r s o l u t i o n s e i t h e r , b u t t h e y a s s i s t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g c u r r e n t l e g a l r e a l i t i e s a n d i d e o l o g i e s a n d t h e p r o s p e c t f o r c h a n g e . A s it h a s b e e n s t a t e d , " l a w m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d n o t a s a n 7 i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i s m b u t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m . " 7 It i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h i s t h e s i s i s n o t a m e r e r e c i t a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l l a w s u r r o u n d i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g , b u t r a t h e r a n a t t e m p t t o p l a c e t h a t l a w i n a s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s ' g o a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i s h i n g a r e c o m m u n i t y a n d i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i f i c . T h e r e i s n o c o m p r e h e n s i v e a g r e e m e n t a m o n g o r , o f t e n , w i t h i n F i r s t N a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o w t h e y w o u l d l i k e t h e f i s h t o b e a l l o c a t e d o r w h a t t y p e o f m a n a g e m e n t p o w e r s , if a n y , t h e y w o u l d l i k e t h e i r c o m m u n i t y t o h a v e . M a n y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y i n m a r i n e a r e a s a n d w o u l d o p p o s e a n y r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l m a r i n e f l e e t if r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e a n i n c r e a s e d A b o r i g i n a l s h a r e o f t h e f i s h i n t h e r i v e r s ; o t h e r s w o u l d p r e f e r t o h a v e f i s h i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o r i v e r s b u t s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t o f a c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y ; s t i l l o t h e r s o p p o s e a n y t y p e o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g a n d w o u l d p r e f e r f i s h i n g t o b e r e s t r i c t e d t o f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . T h e r e i s a n a t u r a l d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s b e t w e e n t h e o f f s h o r e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y , w h i c h i n c l u d e s s o m e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s , a n d t h e r i v e r - b a s e d f o o d f i s h e r y . S o m e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s f e e l t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e c o n c e p t o f a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s f i s h e r y . T h e d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n a m o n g A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o n t h e s e i s s u e s a d d s t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m a n a g e m e n t p r o b l e m s a n d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . S o t o o d o e s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l i t i g a t i o n , t h e d i s c o u r s e i s n o t a b o u t t h e g o a l s o f A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a t 7 M . Shapiro, "Political Jurisprudence" (1964) 52 Ken. L. J. 294 at p. 294. 8 a l l , b u t r a t h e r a b o u t h i s t o r i c a l r i g h t s w h i c h o r i g i n a t e i n t h e p a s t : f o r i n s t a n c e , w h e t h e r F i r s t N a t i o n s h a d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s a t c o n t a c t . T h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , a d i s c o r d a n c e b e t w e e n t h e l e g a l a r g u m e n t s w h i c h a r e m a d e w h i c h f o c u s o n t h e p a s t , a n d f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d i d e a s o f g o a l s . A s I a m a n o n - A b o r i g i n a l w h o h a s n o b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , I a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t m y a n a l y s i s i s b i a s e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t I a m a n o u t s i d e r l o o k i n g i n a t t h e s e p r o b l e m s . A s s o m e o n e w h o h a s b e e n r a i s e d a n d e d u c a t e d w i t h i n a W e s t e r n l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n , it i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r m e t o v i e w t h e i s s u e s f r o m a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . I a t t e m p t t o d o s o a s b e s t I c a n . H o w e v e r , it m u s t a l s o b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a r e c u r r e n t l y r e q u i r e d t o f i g h t t h e i r l e g a l b a t t l e s w i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n a n d t h e e x i s t i n g l e g a l s y s t e m : r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , " s t r u g g l e s o v e r a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t o d a y m u s t b e w a g e d o n n o n - i n d i g e n o u s t e r m s a n d u s i n g t h e d i s c o u r s e a n d l e g a l i t i e s o f t h e m o r e p o w e r f u l p a r t i e s . . . . " 8 T h u s , it i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e d i s c o u r s e a n d l e g a l i t i e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s y s t e m c a n t r u l y a c c o m m o d a t e t h e n o t i o n o f a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y a n d t o m a n a g e t h e r e s o u r c e . O n e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h i s a d d r e s s e d i s w h e t h e r A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a s a t y p e o f c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t , c a n fit w i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . A. Hamilton, "The Unity of Hunting-Gathering Societies: Reflections on Economic Forms and Resource Management" in N.M. Williams and E.S. Huhn, Resource Managers: North American and Australian Hunter-Gatherers (Melbourne: Globe Press, 1982) 229 at p. 242. 9 M y a p p r o a c h i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a t t e m p t , f i r s t l y , t o p r o v i d e i n C h a p t e r T w o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s a n d t h e n r e v i e w i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e n o n - A b o r i g i n a l r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . C h a p t e r T h r e e t h e n e x a m i n e s t h e j u r i s p r u d e n c e d e a l i n g w i t h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s s u e s . T h e f o c u s i s o n c a s e s d e c i d e d s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e e n t r e n c h m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y r i g h t s i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , b u t a b r i e f a n d v e r y g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e c a s e l a w p r i o r t o t h a t t i m e i s g i v e n a s w e l l . In b o t h C h a p t e r s T w o a n d T h r e e a n a t t e m p t i s m a d e t o a n a l y z e t h e a p p a r e n t i d e o l o g i e s u s e d t o j u s t i f y t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t h e j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s . C h a p t e r F o u r p r e s e n t s s o m e a l t e r n a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s , a n d i n c l u d e s c a s e s t u d i e s o f m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s i n t h e W e s t e r n A r c t i c , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e a n d N e w Z e a l a n d . T h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m s a r e a n a l y z e d a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n s i d e r e d . C u r r e n t t r e n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f i s h i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e r e c e n t N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e . C h a p t e r F i v e c o n c l u d e s t h e t h e s i s w i t h a g e n e r a l s u m m a r y o f t h e g o a l s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , a n d a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s . A l s o c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y a n d g r o u p r i g h t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f 10 Aboriginal fishing rights. This issue is discussed in relation to the legislative and jurisprudential history of fishing laws in British Columbia, as well as to the alternative management systems discussed in Chapter Four. 11 CHAPTER TWO MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCE A. Traditional Aboriginal Systems of Management O n e o f t h e c o m m o n m y t h s a b o u t A b o r i g i n a l t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s i s t h a t t h e y h a d n o c o n c e p t i o n s o f b o u n d a r i e s , t e r r i t o r i e s o r p o s s e s s i o n s . T h i s i d e o l o g y w a s u s e d b y c o l o n i z e r s t o r a t i o n a l i z e c l a i m s b y t h e C r o w n : if s o m e t h i n g w a s c o m m o n t o a l l , it b e l o n g e d t o n o o n e a n d c o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e c l a i m e d . 9 It w a s a l s o c o m m o n l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e u s e o f l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s w a s s h a r e d e q u i t a b l y . H o w e v e r , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e f o u n d t h a t n o t a l l g r o u p s p r a c t i c e d e g a l i t a r i a n s h a r i n g o f f o o d a n d a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s . It w a s o n l y w h e n r i s k w a s g r e a t ( i . e . r e s o u r c e s w e r e s c a r c e o r c o n d i t i o n s w e r e s t r e s s f u l ) t h a t s h a r i n g p r e d o m i n a t e d . S h a r i n g w a s a r i s k - m i n i m i z i n g b e h a v i o u r , b u t n o t a n e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e o f h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s ; it w a s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l , n o t c u l t u r a l . 1 0 O n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , f o o d a n d r e s o u r c e s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y o w n e d b y k i n s h i p g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s . R e s o u r c e s t e n d e d t o b e p r i v a t e l y o w n e d r a t h e r t h a n s h a r e d e q u a l l y , a l t h o u g h r e c i p r o c a l a c c e s s t o 9Ibidatp. 238. 1 0 R.A. Gould, "To Have and Have Not: The Ecology of Sharing Among Hunter-Gatherers" in Williams and Huhn, eds., ibid, 69 at pp. 71 to 88. 12 r e s o u r c e s d i d t a k e p l a c e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s p e c i f i c o b l i g a t i o n s . T h e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h w e r e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d t o p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p w e r e t h o s e w h i c h w e r e p r e d i c t a b l e a n d a b u n d a n t a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o l i m i t e d a r e a s . 1 1 O f p a r t i c u l a r n o t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n a l l o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s s t u d i e d o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , s a l m o n w a s t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o o d r e s o u r c e . S a l m o n f i s h i n g s i t e s w e r e u s u a l l y o w n e d b y k i n g r o u p s , c o m m u n i t i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s . 1 2 M o s t f i s h i n g t o o k p l a c e i n l a n d o n r i v e r s w h e r e f i s h w e r e m o r e c o n c e n t r a t e d , a n d h a r p o o n s a n d t r a p s w e r e t h e m o s t o f t e n u s e d m e t h o d s o f c a t c h i n g f i s h . 1 3 P r e s e r v e d s a l m o n w a s n o t o n l y t h e p r i n c i p a l f o o d s o u r c e f o r t h o s e s o c i e t i e s l o c a t e d o n t h e c o a s t o r o n s a l m o n r i v e r s , b u t it w a s a l s o u s e d f o r i n t e r - g r o u p t r a d e . T r a d e h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r e c o n o m i e s , w i t h s a l m o n b e i n g t h e p a r a m o u n t i t e m o f t r a d e , f o r m i n g a l m o s t a t y p e o f l e g a l t e n d e r . 1 4 U A . Richardson, "The Control of Productive Resources on the Northwest Coast of North America" in Williams and Huhn, eds., ibid 93 at pp. 93-95. Richardson goes on to delineate the specific arrangements in various First Nation communities along the coast. Variations in the type of ownership resources were noted. Food shortages and seasonal variation increased as one went northward and he concluded through his research that as this occurred, the tendency to have a type of private ownership of resources decreased. See pp. 105 to 108. It should be noted that the term "private ownership" is used loosely here; the Aboriginal concept of ownership differed from the Euro-Canadian concept and involved a complex set of social duties, privileges and mutualities. 1 2For instance, among the central coast Salish, ownership of fishing sites was vested in kin groups, although weirs and traps tended to be owned by villages or larger village clusters; among the southern coast Salish, multi-kin groups held ownership rights. See ibid at pp. 97 to 99. See also Newell, supra, note 6 at pp. 40-42. 13Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 14 and p. 28. '^/W at pp. 29-31. 13 A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s o c i e t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n w h a t i s n o w B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a c t i v e l y m a n a g e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h s t r a t e g i c e c o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n , s o c i a l c o n t r o l a n d p o l i t i c a l m a n e u v e r , o r t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s y m b o l s a n d r i t u a l . 1 5 T h e t y p e o f m a n a g e m e n t w h i c h e x i s t e d d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n w i t h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . B r o a d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c a n n o t b e m a d e a b o u t t h e s e s y s t e m s g i v e n t h e d i v e r s i t y a m o n g F i r s t N a t i o n g r o u p s ; h o w e v e r , s o m e s i m i l a r i t i e s w e r e n o t e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . In a l l t h e g r o u p s a l o n g t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , i n d i v i d u a l m a l e h e a d s o f k i n g r o u p s m a n a g e d t h e r e s o u r c e . 1 6 M a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t e n d e d t o b e s e p a r a t e f r o m o w n e r s h i p p r i v i l e g e s a n d f o r e a c h g r o u p , t r a d i t i o n a l l a w s g o v e r n e d t h e u s e a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y . 1 7 S y s t e m s o f r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t w e r e f o u n d t o b e p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e a n d i d e o l o g y . 1 8 R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s , t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s c o n d u c t i n g t h e s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s " f a c e d m a n y o f t h e s a m e p r o b l e m s o f o r g a n i z e d h u m a n a c c e s s t o s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e y a c h i e v e d w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h w e r e , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o u r o w n , b o t h r e s i l i e n t a n d j u s t . " 1 9 T h e m e t h o d s u s e d b y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t w e r e s u c h t h a t a l l f i s h c o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e v e n t e d f r o m r e a c h i n g t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f 1 5 N.M. Williams and E.S. Huhn, "Introduction" in Williams and Huhn, eds., supra, note 8, 1 at p. 1. 16Richardson, supra, note 11 at p. 101. 17Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 42. 18This type of management regime was found in other First Nation communities across North America as well. For instance, among the Koyukon of Alaska, a well-developed conservation ethic and strict prohibition against over-use and waste was found. Similar situations were found among the Cree, Naskapi and Ojibway. See R.K. Nelson, "A Conservation Ethic and Environment: The Koyukon of Alaska" in Williams and Huhn, eds., supra, note 8, 211 at pp. 211-212. 14 l a r g e s t o c k s o f f i s h n o t e d b y E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s m a n a g e d t h e r e s o u r c e a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r f i s h - b a s e d s o c i e t i e s a n d e c o n o m i e s . 2 0 A l t h o u g h o n e o f t h e p o p u l a r i m a g e s o f A b o r i g i n a l s i n t h e f i s h e r y h a s b e e n a n e g a t i v e o n e w h e r e i n A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a r e s e e n a s b e i n g u n t r u s t w o r t h y t o m a n a g e t h e r e s o u r c e a n d p r o n e t o d e s t r u c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s 2 1 , t h e r e h a s r e c e n t l y e m e r g e d a m o n g s o m e g r o u p s a " r o m a n t i c i z e d i m a g e o f t h e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r a s c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t " d u e t o h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s ' t r a d i t i o n a l l y s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . 2 2 T h e r e m a y b e m u c h t r u t h t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a n a g e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s e f f e c t i v e l y , b u t it d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w e r e i n t r i n s i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s . T h e y t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s e x t e n s i v e l y 2 3 a n d , t h u s , t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e i s p r o b a b l y b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d a s h a v i n g e v o l v e d f r o m t h e i r d e m o g r a p h y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , i d e o l o g i e s , r e l i g i o n , t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d e c o l o g i c a l Williams and Huhn, supra, note 15 at p. 15. 20Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 28. 2 1 This negative ideological representation of Aboriginal fishers will be reviewed in further detail in subsequent sections of this chapter. 22Hamikon, supra, note 8 at p. 240. She suggests that this stereotype first emerged in the mid 1970s. 23Newell actually expressly rejects the theory that British Columbia's Aboriginal peoples were "perfect conservationists". She estimates that the amount caught traditionally by Aboriginal peoples was at least comparable to that which was caught by the pioneer commercial (or, as she prefers to call it, industrial) fishery. See supra, note 6 at p. 45. In the 1879 Annual Report of Inspector of Fisheries for B.C. it is estimated that 17.5 million salmon were taken by Aboriginal fishers, more than ten times what was taken in the commercial fishery at the time. See M.P. Shepherd and A.W. Argue, The Commercial Harvest of Salmon in British Columbia, 1820-1877 (Ottawa: Supply & Services Canada, 1989) at p. 2. Although the authors suggest that this figure may have been somewhat over-estimated, there was a significant harvesting of fish by Aboriginal peoples both before and after contact with Europeans. M.D. James estimates that the value of Aboriginal food fish in 1900 was approximately three million dollars, which was roughly equivalent to the total value of the commercial catch at the time. See supra, note 6 at p. 2. 15 v a r i a b l e s . 2 4 A s o n e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t h a s p o s i t e d , t h e c a u s e o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a l i m i t i n g i d e o l o g y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y i s p r o b a b l y t h e s a m e a s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s : a n i n c r e a s e i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y t o o v e r e x p l o i t t h e r e s o u r c e , o b s e r v a t i o n o f d a m a g e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . 2 5 In o t h e r w o r d s , A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e p a r t f r o m l e s s o n s l e a r n e d f r o m p r e v i o u s o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n , m u c h a s i s t h e c a s e i n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s . O n e c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e m a y b e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e l e s s o n h a s b e e n l e a r n e d i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e s o c i e t i e s . W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a p p e a r s t o h a v e " a s s u r e d e v e r y o n e a d e q u a t e s t o c k s o f f i s h o v e r t h e l o n g t e r m . T h e s a m e c a n n o t b e s a i d f o r t h e s t a t e - r e g u l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l f i s h e r y t h a t r e p l a c e d it i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " 2 6 It i s t o t h i s l a t t e r s y s t e m t h a t w e w i l l n o w t u r n . B. The Non-Aboriginal Regulatory Framework and Its Effect on Aboriginal Fishers F i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s i n C a n a d a a r e m a n a g e d w i t h i n a c o m p l e x j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e p r o v i n c i a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s Hamilton, supra, note 8 at p. 240. 25Nelson, supra, note 18 at p. 225. Similar theories are put forward by various other authors, including R.B. Rettig, F. Berkes and E. Pinkerton in "The Future of Fisheries Co-Management: A Multi- Disciplinary Approach" in E. Pinkerton, ed., Co-operative Management of Local Fisheries (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1989) 273 at p. 280. 26Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 45. 16 t o s a l m o n m a n a g e m e n t , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l b e o n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c i e s a n d i n i t i a t i v e s . T h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r s e a c o a s t a n d i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s u n d e r s e c t i o n 9 1 ( 1 2 ) o f t h e Constitution Act, 1867. S e p a r a t e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e p a s s e d f o r e a c h p r o v i n c e , s e t t i n g o u t t h e t i m e , p l a c e a n d c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h c o m m e r c i a l , s p o r t s a n d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s m a y b e c o n d u c t e d . E a c h p r o v i n c e h a s i t s o w n s e p a r a t e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h , i n s o m e c a s e s a n d f o r s o m e s p e c i e s o f f i s h , a r e a c t u a l l y e n f o r c e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e s t i l l p a s s e d b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t e r s t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o s a l t - w a t e r a n d a n a d r o m o u s s p e c i e s , w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t e r i n g f r e s h w a t e r s p e c i e s r e g u l a t i o n s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o s a l m o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s F i e l d S e r v i c e s B r a n c h r e g u l a t e s t h e c a t c h t a k e n i n c o m m e r c i a l , s p o r t a n d n a t i v e f i s h e r i e s , w h i l e t h e H a b i t a t M a n a g e m e n t B r a n c h a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l t h e d i s c h a r g e o f p o l l u t a n t s a n d d a m a g e t o f i s h h a b i t a t . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s h a s a l s o b e e n i n v o l v e d i n f i s h e r i e s i s s u e s , t h r o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s a n d l o a n s t o a s s i s t A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s e p a r a t e p r o v i n c i a l f i s h e r i e s b u r e a u c r a c y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 1 . T h e M a r i n e R e s o u r c e s B r a n c h o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f 17 E n v i r o n m e n t r e g u l a t e s f i s h p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y a n d c a n g r a n t p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s s u c h a s l i c e n c e s w h e r e t h e p r o v i n c e o w n s r i v e r b e d s . It a l s o r e p r e s e n t s p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n p r o m o t i n g a n d r e g u l a t i n g t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h r e g u l a t e s n o n - a n a d r o m o u s f r e s h w a t e r f i s h e r i e s . T h e p r o v i n c e h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s a l e o f f i s h w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s , b u t C a n a d a h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e e x p o r t o f f i s h o u t s i d e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i r s t N a t i o n s a l s o h a v e l i m i t e d b y - l a w m a k i n g p o w e r s i n r e s p e c t o f f i s h o n t h e i r r e s e r v e , p u r s u a n t t o t h e Indian Act.27 S e c t i o n 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) o f t h e Indian Act p r o v i d e s t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n B a n d C o u n c i l s c a n p a s s b y - l a w s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f f i s h o n t h e i r r e s e r v e . It h a s b e e n h e l d t h a t t h e s e b y - l a w s , if v a l i d , s u p e r s e d e r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h e Fisheries Act t o t h e e x t e n t o f a n y i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 2 8 H o w e v e r , t h i s s e c t i o n o n l y a p p l i e s t o f i s h i n w a t e r s w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e . G e n e r a l l y , r e s e r v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o n o t i n c l u d e t h e l a k e s , r i v e r s o r f o r e s h o r e s . S a l m o n m a n a g e m e n t i n C a n a d a a l s o h a s a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n . C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e P a c i f i c S a l m o n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n i n 1 9 3 7 i n r e l a t i o n t o m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r s o c k e y e a n d p i n k s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s . T h e y a l s o e n t e r e d i n t o t h e P a c i f i c S a l m o n T r e a t y i n 1 9 8 5 , 'R.S.C. 1985, c. 1-5. *R. v. Jimmy (1987), 15 B.C.L.R. 145 (B.C.C.A.). 18 a l t h o u g h s u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e a g r e e m e n t c o l l a p s e d d u e t o a f a i l u r e t o a g r e e u p o n h o w t h e c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h w a s t o b e d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t w a s s p e n t i n 1 9 9 6 a t t e m p t i n g t o r e - n e g o t i a t e a t r e a t y . 2 9 W i t h i n t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k , C a n a d a ' s P a c i f i c C o a s t c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a m o n g t h e m o s t r e g u l a t e d i n t h e w o r l d . 3 0 T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k h a s b e e n c o n s e r v a t i o n . 3 1 T h e b a s i c p r e m i s e u p o n w h i c h t h e r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e i s b u i l t i s t h a t f i s h a r e p u b l i c o r c o m m o n p r o p e r t y , n o t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . T h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o c o n v e n t i o n a l e u r o - c e n t r i c w i s d o m , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e s g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n ; o t h e r w i s e , a t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s w i l l r e s u l t . 3 2 W i t h r e s p e c t t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g , t h e b a s i c i d e o l o g y w h i c h a p p e a r s t o u n d e r l i e s t a t e m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s , a t l e a s t h i s t o r i c a l l y , w a s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a r e i n c a p a b l e o f m a n a g i n g t h e r e s o u r c e a d e q u a t e l y a n d w i l l i n v a r i a b l y c a u s e t h e u l t i m a t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e if left t o t h e i r o w n d e v i c e s . C e n t r a l s t a t e m a n a g e m e n t a u t h o r i t y w a s p r e s e n t e d a s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e t h e f i s h . 2 9For a more detailed break-down of federal and provincial jurisdictions over the fisheries and related industries, as well as international aspects, see A.H.J. Dorcey, Bargaining in the Governance of Pacific Coastal Rescues: Research and Reform (Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, 1986) at pp. 47-48 and p. 63 and Newell, supra, note 6 at pp. 10-21. 30Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 6. No authority is given by Newell on this point. 3llbid. The question which will be addressed later in this chapter is conservation for whom and at whose expense. 32Ibid. The "tragedy of the commons" concept was discussed by G. Hardin in "The Tragedy of the Commons" (1968) 162 Science 1243 wherein he referred to what he believed was the inevitable consequence when individuals are allowed to make unlimited use of public lands, such as grazing cattle in an open pasture. The tragedy is that: "each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit—in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all." See p. 1244. The effect of the portrayal of the fisheries as common property is discussed in subsequent sections of this chapter. 19 T h i s i d e o l o g y m a y n o t b e a s r e l e v a n t t o d a y , b u t it d o e s a p p e a r t o b e t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m . It a r o s e a t a t i m e i n t h e l a t e 1 8 0 0 s w h e n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w e r e b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e o v e r t h e f i s h e r y , n o l o n g e r n e e d i n g A b o r i g i n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i n d u s t r y . T h e " d e m o n i z a t i o n " , a s N e w e l l r e f e r s t o it, o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s b e c o m e s a n i n c i d e n t a l , r a c i s t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e x t e n d i n g n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e f i s h e r i e s . In t h e w o r d s o f N e w e l l : T h e s t a t e a n d i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s a n d c o u r t s , b a c k e d b y p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y a n d n o n - I n d i a n f i s h e r s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d P a c i f i c C o a s t I n d i a n f i s h i n g t r a d i t i o n s a s d e s t r u c t i v e a n d d e m o n i z e d I n d i a n f o o d f i s h e r s a s p r e d a t o r s . T h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d o f f i s h e r y r e g u l a t i o n s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e f l e c t s t h i s t h i n k i n g . 3 3 T h e s e i d e o l o g i e s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d w i l l b e r e v i e w e d i n m o r e d e t a i l i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . In t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f s a l m o n r e g u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e b e g a n i n 1 8 7 0 a n d w a s l e g a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t i d a l a r e a s . 3 4 T h e f i r s t s a l m o n - c a n n i n g f a c t o r y w a s o p e n e d i n 1 8 7 1 a n d t h e f i r s t r e g u l a t i o n s w e n t i n t o e f f e c t i n 1 8 7 8 , i n i t i a l l y a p p l y i n g o n l y t o s a l m o n . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 8 8 8 , l i c e n c e s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o f i s h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d Supra, note 6, at p. 4. 3 4The historical review of fisheries regulations in British Columbia which follows is largely taken from Newell's text, supra, note 6 as well as from The Commission on Pacific Fisheries Policy, Turning the Tide: A New Policy for Canada's Pacific Fisheries (Ottawa: Supply & Services Canada, 1982) [Commissioner: P.H. Pearse]. 20 s u b s e q u e n t r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n e d t h e t y p e o f g e a r w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d , t h e n t h e t i m e s f i s h i n g c o u l d o c c u r a n d f i n a l l y t h e l o c a t i o n s w h e r e it c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . I n i t i a l l y , t h e F i s h e r i e s D e p a r t m e n t ("the D e p a r t m e n t " ) d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g s i n c e A b o r i g i n a l s s t i l l o u t - n u m b e r e d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h r e e - t o - o n e a n d t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w a s n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . N e w e l l d e s c r i b e s A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a s t h e " l a b o u r b a c k b o n e o f t h e s a l m o n c a n n i n g i n d u s t r y d u r i n g its c h a o t i c r i s e i n t h e l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . . . . " 3 5 , w i t h m a n y w o r k i n g s e a s o n a l l y f o r t h e c a n n e r i e s , a b a n d o n i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s t o d o s o . In a d d i t i o n t o i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y A b o r i g i n a l s i n t h e c a n n e r y o p e r a t i o n s , A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o r e l y o n f i s h a s a n i m p o r t a n t f o o d s t a p l e , a s w e l l a s f o r s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . A s h a d b e e n t h e c a s e f o r c e n t u r i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s c o n t i n u e d t o b e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e r i v e r s . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s i n f l u e n c e d b o t h t h e s i z e a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; r e s e r v e s i n c o a s t a l a n d i n l a n d r i v e r a r e a s t e n d e d t o b e q u i t e s m a l l b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e c o n t i n u e d a c c e s s t o t h e f i s h e r i e s t o s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s . A s t h e c a n n e r i e s e x p a n d e d , t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s w e r e i n a " p o l i t i c a l l y v u l n e r a b l e m i d d l e g r o u n d " b e t w e e n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g a n d t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . 3 6 S i n c e m o s t 'Supra, note 6, at pp. 53-54. sIbid at p. 14. 21 A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g t o o k p l a c e i n t h e r i v e r s , c o n f l i c t s s o o n a r o s e b e t w e e n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s a n d A b o r i g i n a l s : c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s d i d n o t w a n t A b o r i g i n a l s t o t a k e f i s h f r o m t h e r i v e r s b e c a u s e o f t e n b y t h a t t i m e t h e r e w e r e n o t e n o u g h f i s h left a f t e r c o m m e r c i a l h a r v e s t i n g t o e n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t e s c a p e m e n t f o r s p a w n i n g p u r p o s e s . D i s p u t e s b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s b e g a n i n t h e l a t e 1 8 8 0 s w h e n A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e s p r e a d o f c a n n e r i e s m a d e it d i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y o n t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s . A C o m m i s s i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a n d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a s k e d f o r a n e x t e n s i o n o f r e s e r v e s a n d a r e s e r v a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s a n d t r a c t s f o r h u n t i n g . T h e r e w a s little r e s p o n s e . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w a s a d d r e s s e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1 8 8 8 w h e r e i n " I n d i a n f i s h i n g " w a s d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f a s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y o n l y . S a l e o f f i s h b y A b o r i g i n a l s w a s p r o h i b i t e d a t t h a t t i m e , a p r o h i b i t i o n w h i c h r e m a i n s t o t h i s d a y . 3 7 U n t i l t h a t t i m e , A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n f i s h i n g f o r f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s , a n d f i s h i n g f o r t r a d e p u r p o s e s . T h u s , t h e r e g u l a t i o n " s e p a r a t e d h a r v e s t i n g a n d p e r s o n a l c o n s u m p t i o n o f f i s h f r o m e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . . . . [ a n d ] s e p a r a t e d p r o d u c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s f r o m m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e m , o f f i c i a l l y t r a n s f e r r i n g a l l m a n a g e m e n t o f t h i s c r u c i a l f o o d a n d c o m m e r c i a l r e s o u r c e f r o m I n d i a n s t o t h e s t a t e . " 3 8 A s N e w e l l 37Order in Council, 26 November 1888, Canada Gazette, vol. XX3I, 956. The only exceptions to that statement are the agreements under the Pilot Sales Arrangement ("PSA") which have been reached with some First Nations under the Aboriginal Fishing Strategy ("AFS"). The PSA and AFS will be discussed in more detail later in the chapter. 38Newell, supra, note 6, at p. 62. 22 g o e s o n t o s a y , t h i s p o l i c y c r e a t e d t h e s t i l l p e r v a s i v e s t e r e o t y p e o f I n d i a n s a s s i m p l e s u b s i s t e n c e p e o p l e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c o m m e r c e - m i n d e d E u r o p e a n s , a l t h o u g h i n r e a l i t y t h e y h a d t r a d e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n f i s h p r o d u c t s b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s . B e t w e e n 1 8 8 9 a n d 1 9 1 4 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s p o l i c i e s w e r e b a s e d o n a b i o l o g i c a l - c o n s e r v a t i o n t h e o r y o f " m a x i m u m s u s t a i n e d y i e l d " . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 8 8 9 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t l i m i t e d t h e n u m b e r o f l i c e n c e s . 3 9 P h e n o m e n a l r u n s h a d a t t r a c t e d a n u m b e r o f i n d e p e n d e n t , m o s t l y w h i t e , f i s h e r s a n d t h e c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s w a n t e d t o k e e p o u t c o m p e t i t i o n . M o s t o f t h e l i c e n c e s w e n t t o t h e c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s . H o w e v e r , p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s r e s u l t e d b e c a u s e t h e w h i t e f i s h e r s r e s e n t e d " a n y d e n i a l o f a c c e s s t o w h a t w a s , a t l e a s t w i t h i n B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n , a c o m m o n - a c c e s s r e s o u r c e . " 4 0 C a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s e x p a n d e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s i n a n a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n m o r e l i c e n c e s a n d , t h u s , l i c e n c e l i m i t a t i o n d i d n o t g u a r a n t e e s u f f i c i e n t e s c a p e m e n t . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , l i c e n c e l i m i t a t i o n s w e r e r e m o v e d i n 1 8 9 2 w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s f o c u s i n g i n s t e a d o n t h e t y p e o f g e a r , a n d a r e a s o f a n d t i m e p e r i o d s f o r f i s h i n g . 4 1 It w a s a l s o d u r i n g t h i s e r a t h a t c o m p l a i n t s b e g a n a b o u t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w e i r s a n d d a m s o n t h e r i v e r s . A s a r e s u l t , n e w r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e p a s s e d i n 1 8 9 4 w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d A b o r i g i n a l s p e a r i n g , t r a p p i n g , o r p e n n i n g o f f i s h o n s p a w n i n g 39Order in Council, 14 March 1890, Canada Gazette, vol. XXIII, 1903. 40Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 70. 41Order in Council, 3 March 1894, Canada Gazette, vol. XXVII, 1579. 23 g r o u n d s o r o n a n y g r o u n d s s e t a s i d e f o r t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f f i s h ; o n l y d i p n e t s , w h i c h h a d n e v e r b e e n w i d e l y u s e d b y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s , w e r e p e r m i t t e d i n n o n - t i d a l w a t e r s . 4 2 A t t h e s a m e t i m e , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a m i l l w h i c h b l o c k e d t h e i r f i s h e r i e s a n d c a n o e a c c e s s t o t h e i r v i l l a g e a n d a b o u t c o m m e r c i a l s e i n e f i s h i n g a n d l o g d r i v e s o n s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s i n C o w i c h a n B a y . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i e f s c o m p l a i n e d t o O t t a w a i n 1 9 0 6 , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e i r p e o p l e w e r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g e n o u g h f i s h f o r t h e i r o w n n e e d s a n d c o u l d n o l o n g e r m a k e l i v i n g s f r o m t h e f i s h e r i e s . M e a n w h i l e , c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s w e r e a s k i n g f o r a l a r g e r s h a r e o f t h e f i s h . G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g b a r r i c a d e s w e r e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i s s u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f i s h e v e n t h o u g h " f i s h . . . h a d s u r v i v e d s u c h m a s s - f i s h i n g d e v i c e s f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . " 4 3 T h u s , t r a p s a n d w e i r s w e r e c o n f i s c a t e d a n d f i s h e r i e s g u a r d i a n s h i r e d t o e n f o r c e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . A s N e w e l l s t a t e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e B a b i n e F i r s t N a t i o n f i s h e r s o n t h e S k e e n a R i v e r : T h e S k e e n a R i v e r s a l m o n n e e d e d t o b e c o n s e r v e d . B u t o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e r u n s h a d t o r e a c h t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . T h e r e w a s a s u r p l u s t o b e f i s h e d , s o w h o w o u l d g e t it—the I n d i a n s o r t h e c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s ? F o r o f f i c i a l s a n d c a n n e r s t h e c h o i c e w a s c l e a r . T h e B a b i n e w e r e u s i n g t h e f i s h f o r f o o d a n d f o r e x c h a n g e . B u t t h e y f i s h e d p r i n c i p a l l y a t t h e e n d o f t h e s a l m o n ' s r e t u r n j o u r n e y t o t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . T h e i n d u s t r i a l s a l m o n f i s h e r y , b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o t i d a l a r e a s , w a s f i r s t i n l i n e i n t h e h a r v e s t i n g c h a i n . F o r b e i n g l a s t i n l i n e , t h e I n d i a n r i v e r i n e f i s h e r i e s w o u l d p a y h e a v i l y . 4 4 420rder in Council, 3 March 1894, S.C., 1894. 43Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 90. 44Ibid at p. 91. Newspaper articles at the time contained headlines such as "Indians wiping out Sockeyes". The ideology of Aboriginal fishing as destructive was widespread, with Aboriginal fishers being portrayed as chronic over-fishers who were destroying "one of the greatest sources of the people's wealth." See pp. 91-92. 24 I n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e a l s o l e d t o o t h e r p r o b l e m s f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . In 1 9 1 3 , r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n b l o c k a g e s o n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r n e a r H e l l ' s G a t e . S p a w n i n g g r o u n d s w e r e r u i n e d a n d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i n t h e c a n y o n a n d t h e w a t e r s a b o v e it w a s d e v a s t a t e d , w i t h f a m i n e s e n s u i n g . T h e g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n d e d b y p r o h i b i t i n g a l l f o o d f i s h i n g i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 1 7 , n e w r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d I n d i a n f o o d f i s h i n g p e r m i t s w h i c h w e r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s a m e r e s t r i c t i o n s a s c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g , s u c h a s a r e a a n d g e a r p r o h i b i t i o n s a n d c l o s e d t i m e s . 4 5 G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s c i t e d t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f s a l m o n c a u g h t i n t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y a n d t h e i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e g u l a t i n g t h a t f i s h e r y a s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l i m i t i n g I n d i a n s f r o m t a k i n g s a l m o n a n y w h e r e o r b y a n y m e a n s e x c e p t u n d e r c o m m e r c i a l s a l m o n l i c e n c e a n d i n w a t e r s o p e n f o r c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . 4 6 It a l s o b e c a m e a n o f f e n c e n o t o n l y t o s e l l f o o d f i s h , b u t a l s o t o b u y it f r o m A b o r i g i n a l s . N e w e l l c a l l s t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o h i b i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l s a l e o f f i s h a " f u n d a m e n t a l h y p o c r i s y " g i v e n t h a t n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l a l l o f t h e i r f i s h , i n c l u d i n g o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y . 4 7 T h e r h e t o r i c o f c o n s e r v a t i o n w a s u s e d t o j u s t i f y r e s t r i c t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g a n d s a l e o f f i s h , b u t t h e o n l y t h i n g t r u l y b e i n g p r o t e c t e d w e r e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c a n n e r y o p e r a t o r s . 450rder in Council, 11 September 1917, S.C., 1918. 46Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 96. 41'ibid at p. 97. 25 F r o m t h e 1 9 2 0 s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r - w a r y e a r s , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s r e c e i v e d v e r y f e w o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s . In 1 9 2 7 , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s r e q u e s t e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y i n c e r t a i n d e f i n e d a r e a s . T h e f e d e r a l d i r e c t o r o f f i s h e r i e s o p p o s e d s u c h a " p r i v i l e g e " , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e f i s h e r y w a s p u b l i c a n d h e c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , g r a n t a n y o n e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s . 4 8 T h e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y n o t i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n r e l i e d u p o n e x t e n s i v e l y w h e n e v e r A b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o t h e f i s h e r y w e r e p u t f o r w a r d . In 1 9 3 1 , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s f o r m e d b y l e a d i n g T s i m s h i a n c h i e f s , a l l o f w h o m w e r e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s , t o a d d r e s s A b o r i g i n a l g r i e v a n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c h o o l i n g , a s w e l l a s h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g a n d t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g r i g h t s o n o f f - r e s e r v e t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s , a n d b y 1 9 3 6 w a s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d o n t h e n o r t h a n d c e n t r a l c o a s t s a m o n g t h e G i t k s a n , H e i l t s u k , N u x a l k a n d H a i s l a . F o l l o w i n g t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e c i s i o n t o i m p o s e i n c o m e t a x o n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 4 0 s , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g c o n c e r n s c a m e t o t h e f o r e f r o n t f o r t h e B r o t h e r h o o d , w h i c h b y t h a t t i m e h a d e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e c o m m u n i t i e s o n t h e s o u t h c o a s t . T h e B r o t h e r h o o d n e v e r e x p a n d e d b e y o n d t h e c o a s t b u t , u l t i m a t e l y , it b e c a m e a n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r ' s u n i o n , a c t i n g a s b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t f o r A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s . B y t h e 1 9 6 0 s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s t h e l o n g e s t - l i v e d A b o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 48Despite his position, the Director did finally acknowledge that the Department had leased whole inlets to canneries and large, non-Aboriginal fishing interests, with no corresponding privileges being granted to Aboriginal fisheries. Of course, this fact made no difference to his position. See ibid at p. 114. 26 C a n a d a a n d it c o n t i n u e s t o p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . 4 9 It c u r r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t s a b o u t 1 , 5 0 0 A b o r i g i n a l i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . 5 0 T h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s a p p r o a c h t o m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g f o c u s e d o n m a x i m i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c y i e l d a s o p p o s e d t o b i o l o g i c a l y i e l d . H o w e v e r , t h e u n d e r l y i n g m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a p p e a r s t o h a v e r e m a i n e d t h e s a m e a s it h a d b e e n s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h i s r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h r e s u l t e d i n a n i n c r e a s e i n c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t a n d a n i n c r e a s e i n m o b i l i t y a n d c a t c h i n g p o w e r o f t h e f l e e t . T h e D e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n e f f i c i e n c y b y d e c r e a s i n g f i s h i n g t i m e s . C l o s u r e s b e g a n i n 1 9 5 6 w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n e v e n h e a v i e r c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t b e c a u s e f i s h e r s w a n t e d t o c a t c h a s m a n y f i s h a s t h e y c o u l d i n t h e f e w d a y s o f o p e n i n g s . M e a n w h i l e , d e s t r u c t i o n o f h a b i t a t c o n t i n u e d i n l a n d , w i t h h y d r o - e l e c t r i c d a m s , l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s , s a w m i l l s , p u l p a n d p a p e r p l a n t s , o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g t o p o l l u t i o n o f a n d b l o c k a g e s i n t h e r i v e r s . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d , s o m e A b o r i g i n a l s c o n t i n u e d t o b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y . H o w e v e r , b y 1 9 5 1 , o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s w e r e A b o r i g i n a l a n d a l m o s t a l l l i c e n c e s w e r e d i r e c t l y h e l d b y 4 9 P. Tennant, Aboriginal Peoples and Politics (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1990) at pp. 116-120. 5 0S. Gilbey, "The Aboriginal Right to a Commercial Fishery" (1995) 4 Dalhousie J. of Legal Studies 231 at p. 238. 27 n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s . L a c k o f c a p i t a l m a d e it d i f f i c u l t f o r A b o r i g i n a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i n d u s t r y . S o m e w e r e a b l e t o p r o c u r e l o a n s f r o m c a n n e r i e s , b u t t h e c a n n e r i e s w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s h u t t i n g d o w n i n m o r e r e m o t e a r e a s a n d c e n t r a l i z i n g i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a n d P r i n c e R u p e r t a r e a s . B e t w e e n t h e m i d - 1 9 4 0 s a n d t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , t h e n u m b e r o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s d r o p p e d b y 3 3 p e r c e n t . 5 1 A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i r f o o d f i s h e r i e s . In t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f a l l A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h w a s c a u g h t i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r s y s t e m . In 1 9 6 7 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t c l o s e d f i s h i n g i n p a r t s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f o r a t h r e e - w e e k p e r i o d o n t h e b a s i s t h a t it w a s r e q u i r e d t o p r o t e c t t h e e a r l y s o c k e y e r u n a t S t u a r t L a k e . T w e n t y - f o u r h o u r p a t r o l s , a r r e s t s a n d c o n f i s c a t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l n e t s r e s u l t e d , w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n b e i n g u s e d a s t h e r a t i o n a l e . M e a n w h i l e , h o w e v e r , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g o n t h e F r a s e r e s t u a r y c o n t i n u e d . A b o r i g i n a l s b e g a n p r e s s u r i n g g o v e r n m e n t f o r l e g i s l a t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r i g h t t o f i s h t h e F r a s e r . A s i m i l a r t h r e e - w e e k c l o s u r e t o o k p l a c e i n 1 9 6 8 , a l t h o u g h o n e 2 4 - h o u r o p e n i n g f o r f o o d f i s h i n g w a s p e r m i t t e d i n t h a t p e r i o d . N e w e l l h e r a l d s w h a t h a p p e n e d o n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n t h o s e y e a r s a s a " r e v i v a l o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d e l s e w h e r e i n C a n a d a . " 5 2 5 1 This figure was cited by the Native Brotherhood in the 1960s when it lobbied government to provide financial assistance to Aboriginal fishers. Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 142. 52Ibidatp. 147. 28 In t h e 1 9 6 0 S i n c l a i r R e p o r t , t h e P a c i f i c f i s h e r i e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d a s a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s p r o b l e m . N o m e n t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w a s m a d e i n t h e r e p o r t e x c e p t i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t e v e r y o n e s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d e q u a l l y i n t h e f i s h e r i e s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e r e p o r t w i t h t h e D a v i s P l a n , o r " S a l m o n V e s s e l L i c e n c e C o n t r o l P l a n " , i n 1 9 6 8 . T h e g o a l o f t h e p l a n w a s t o i m p r o v e t h e f i s h e r i e s ' e c o n o m i c p e r f o r m a n c e , i n c r e a s e i n c o m e s b y r e s t r i c t i n g t h e n u m b e r s o f l i c e n s e d s a l m o n v e s s e l s , a n d d e c r e a s i n g o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n a n d e x c e s s l a b o u r u s a g e i n t h e i n d u s t r y . W h e n t h e D a v i s P l a n l i c e n s i n g p r o g r a m w a s r e v i e w e d i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s a n d e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s , it w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e c o s t o f f i s h i n g h a d s o a r e d w i t h o u t a n y c o m p a r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n r e t u r n s ; t h e n u m b e r o f b o a t s h a d d e c r e a s e d , b u t m o s t l y i n t h e s m a l l v e s s e l f l e e t o n l y ; t o t a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t h a d q u a d r u p l e d b e t w e e n 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 8 0 y e t t h e s i z e o f t h e c a t c h h a d r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t ; a n d n o r e a l r e s p o n s e h a d b e e n m a d e t o t h e t h r e a t s o f i n d u s t r y a n d s p o r t f i s h i n g o n m a n a g e m e n t . T h e S a l m o n E n h a n c e m e n t P r o g r a m w a s i n i t i a t e d i n 1 9 7 7 i n a n a t t e m p t t o b o l s t e r s t o c k s , b u t it w a s g e a r e d m o r e t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f h a t c h e r i e s t h a n t o h a b i t a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . S t u d i e s s h o w e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w e r e t h e h a r d e s t hit b y t h e n e w l i c e n s i n g s c h e m e , w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n a n d c a p i t a l i z a t i o n p u s h i n g t h e m o u t o f t h e i n d u s t r y . T h e w e l f a r e r o l l s e x p a n d e d a s t h e n u m b e r o f l i c e n s e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s d e c r e a s e d . 29 A t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o b o o s t A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s t h r o u g h g r a n t s , l o a n s a n d s p e c i a l , l o w e r c o s t , l i c e n c e s . 5 3 O n l y a h a n d f u l o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e s e p r o g r a m s , w i t h t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s s t i l l l e s s t h a n 5 0 p e r c e n t o f w h a t it h a d b e e n 2 0 y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . A s w e l l , m u c h o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n i n c o m e s w a s e n j o y e d n o t b y t h o s e l i v i n g o n r e s e r v e s , b u t r a t h e r b y t h o s e l i v i n g i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h e p r o g r a m s t e n d e d t o h e l p t h o s e f e w w h o h a d b e e n d o i n g w e l l p r e v i o u s l y a n d , t h u s , c a u s e d g r e a t e r p o l a r i z a t i o n i n i n c o m e s . 5 4 In 1 9 8 6 t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o b o l s t e r A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y b y c r e a t i n g t h e N a t i v e F i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h p r o v i d e d l o w - i n t e r e s t f i n a n c i n g a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . Indian Fishermen's Assistance Programs ("IFAP") were in place between 1968 and 1973 and between 1974 and 1978 with direct grants and government-backed loans being made available to increase the size, quality and safety of the Aboriginal fishing fleet. An emergency assistance program was also initiated between 1980 and 1982. It was administered by the Department of Indian Affairs, the Native Brotherhood and 13 bands of the Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council. The rationale behind these programs was not recognition of an Aboriginal right to fish, but rather an attempt to relieve the economic hardship of Aboriginal peoples. In 1971, special "Indian only" licences were made available at a lower annual cost. The Indian Fisheries Development Board was also established in 1971 and provided financing for Aboriginals to buy boats and gear. It did not, however, provide assistance with respect to the requisite down payments. See ibid at pp. 158 to 166. 54As Newell states, "Because the assistance programs had the same inherent biases as the Davis Plan itself, they ultimately worked against the interests of Indian fish-based communities and favoured the highly successful vessel owners and processing conglomerates." See ibid at p. 162. In his report, P. Pearse also critiqued these programs and concluded that they were not successful in getting large numbers of Aboriginal fishers into the industry. He also noted that the grants and loans contributed to an overcapitalization problem in the fishing fleet. See The Commission, supra, note 34 at p. 155. This report will be reviewed in greater detail below. It should be noted at this point that although increases in incomes may have been enjoyed by only a handful of Aboriginal fishers, average gross incomes of Aboriginal fishers did increase during this period from 61 percent of the average fleet income in 1967 to 109 percent in 1973, with an average of 84 percent between 1975 and 1979. See James, supra, note 6 at p. 14. 30 D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , v a r i o u s A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s c o n d u c t e d " f i s h - i n s " o n p a r t s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , o p e n l y b r e a c h i n g f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n p r o t e s t . S e v e r a l c h a r g e s w e r e l a i d a n d A b o r i g i n a l r e s i s t a n c e i n t e n s i f i e d i n r e s p o n s e . In 1 9 7 7 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t l a u n c h e d its " O p e r a t i o n R o u n d u p " t o e n f o r c e p r o v i s i o n s a g a i n s t i l l e g a l t a k i n g a n d s e l l i n g o f f i s h b y A b o r i g i n a l s . A l t h o u g h a n u m b e r o f c h a r g e s w e r e l a i d , n o c o n v i c t i o n s r e s u l t e d . A t a m e e t i n g i n 1 9 7 8 , t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i o n o f B C I n d i a n C h i e f s c a l l e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s " E n e m y N o . 1 " . 5 5 I l l e g a l s a l e o f f i s h c o n t i n u e d . In 1 9 8 6 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t r a i d e d a G i t k s a n f i s h c a m p . O n e h u n d r e d G i t k s a n f o r m e d a h u m a n b a r r i c a d e a r o u n d t h e s i t e a n d p e l t e d e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s w i t h m a r s h m a l l o w s . M a n y c h a r g e s w e r e l a i d b u t , a s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h m o s t o t h e r c h a r g e s l a i d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d , n o n e r e s u l t e d i n c o n v i c t i o n s . O n M a y 2 5 , 1 9 8 4 , R o n S p a r r o w w a s c h a r g e d w i t h f i s h i n g w i t h a n e t t h a t w a s l o n g e r t h a n w h a t w a s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . 5 6 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a u l t i m a t e l y h e l d t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h f o r f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s w a s p r o t e c t e d b y s e c t i o n 3 5 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t a n d c o u l d o n l y b e o v e r r i d d e n if t h e r e w a s a v a l i d l e g i s l a t i v e o b j e c t i v e , s u c h a s c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e . F o l l o w i n g t h e Sparrow d e c i s i o n , t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e p r i o r r i g h t o f A b o r i g i n a l s t o f i s h f o r f o o d w o u l d b e h o n o u r e d . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s s t a t e d p o l i c y f o r s o m e t i m e h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n t h a t r e a s o n a b l e Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 173. 56R. v. Sparrow (1990), 70 D.L.R. (4th) 385 (S.C.C.). detail in subsequent chapters. The Sparrow decision will be reviewed in greater 31 A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e t o r a n k s e c o n d i n p r i o r i t y t o c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h i s w a s n o t e d b y t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n i t s d e c i s i o n i n Sparrow a n d a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a f a c t o r i n t h a t C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n t o r e c o g n i z e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d p r i o r i t y r i g h t . 5 7 T h e p o l i c y w a s a p p a r e n t l y f i r s t e s p o u s e d b y D e p a r t m e n t M i n i s t e r D a v i s i n t h e 1 9 7 0 s . In 1 9 9 1 , t h e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s C o - o p e r a t i v e M a n a g e m e n t P r o g r a m w a s l a u n c h e d a n d i n 1 9 9 2 , t h e s e v e n - y e a r A b o r i g i n a l F i s h i n g S t r a t e g y ( " A F S " ) w a s a n n o u n c e d , w h i c h i n c l u d e d p i l o t p r o j e c t s f o r t h e s a l e o f f i s h b y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i n s o m e c o m m u n i t i e s . 5 8 T h e p r o g r a m w a s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h i n g a n d t o g i v e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s a g r e a t e r r o l e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . P a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m i n c l u d e d b u y i n g b a c k c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s f r o m n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s o n a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . T h e s e a l l o c a t i o n s w e r e t h e n u s e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e A b o r i g i n a l s h a r e o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h . A l s o p a r t o f t h e A F S w a s a f i s h e r y g u a r d i a n t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t o t r a i n A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i s h e r i e s m o n i t o r i n g , s t o c k m a n a g e m e n t , f i s h e r y e n h a n c e m e n t a n d a s s e s s m e n t , h a b i t a t p r o t e c t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t . U n d e r t h e A F S , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t n e g o t i a t e s i n d i v i d u a l f i s h i n g a g r e e m e n t s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l b a n d s , t r i b a l 51R. v. Sparrow (1987), 36 D.L.R. (4th) 246 (B.C.C.A.) at pp.255 and 277. 58Some 80 agreements, involving 57 First Nations or Tribal Councils were entered into under the AFS in 1992. Agreements under the Pilot Sale Arrangement (PSA) for the commercial sale of salmon were signed with the Lower Fraser Aboriginal Fisheries Commission representing the Sto:lo, Musqueam and Tsawwassen First Nations; the Tsu-ma-uss Fisheries on the west coast of Vancouver Island representing two Nuu-Chah-Nulth First Nations; and the Tsimshian Tribal Council, the Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en Watershed Authorities, and the Nat'oot'en First Nations on the Skeena River. For a more detailed description of the program, see Gardner Pinfold Consulting Economists Limited, An Evaluation of the Pilot Sale Arrangement of Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (1994) [unpublished]. 32 c o u n c i l s a n d o t h e r A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s , t h e a g r e e m e n t s c o v e r i s s u e s s u c h a s h a b i t a t p r o t e c t i o n , h a b i t a t e n h a n c e m e n t t r a i n i n g , f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n e n f o r c e m e n t t r a i n i n g a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . F i s h p l a n s a r e d e v e l o p e d b y t h e b a n d a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t . T h e A F S i s d e s i g n e d t o b e i n p l a c e o n l y u n t i l 1999, a t w h i c h t i m e it i s i n t e n d e d t h a t I n t e r i m M e a s u r e s A g r e e m e n t s u n d e r t h e B . C . T r e a t y C o m m i s s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l b e i n p l a c e . In J u n e 1993, t h e n e w A b o r i g i n a l C o m m u n a l F i s h i n g L i c e n c e s R e g u l a t i o n s w e r e a d o p t e d . T h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d f o r c o m m u n a l f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s t o b e i s s u e d t o b a n d s , a s o p p o s e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s d i r e c t l y . 5 9 T h e b a n d s c a n t h e n a d m i n i s t e r w h o c a n f i s h i n t h e i r f o o d f i s h e r i e s . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s c a n a l s o h o l d r e g u l a r c o m m e r c i a l s a l m o n f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s i n m a r i n e a r e a s a t a r e d u c e d f e e . In 1996, t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s a n n o u n c e d a p l a n t o r e d u c e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o m m e r c i a l s a l m o n f i s h i n g v e s s e l s b y 5 0 p e r c e n t . T h e d e c i s i o n w a s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l o n e a n d m a n y f i s h e r s , a s w e l l a s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t , c a l l e d f o r a m o r e e f f e c t i v e f e d e r a l s t r a t e g y t o d e a l w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s a s w e l l a s t h e d e p l e t e d f i s h r u n s . 6 0 59SOR/93-332, amended SOR/94-390. 6 0 L . Pyrin and S. Simpson, "Fishers Cry Foul Over Licence Cuts" The Vancouver Sun (30 March 1996) A l , A6. Among those calling for a federal strategy to restore depleted runs was Premier Glen Clark. His comment is interesting given that the provincial government has a great deal of control over the condition of the runs through its jurisdiction over industry in the province. Since habitat destruction is one of the causes of the depleted runs, and much of the destruction is caused by industry, federal strategy alone will probably not solve the problem. Provincial action is required as well. 33 D e s p i t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n , t h e p l a n w e n t i n t o e f f e c t o n M a y 2 4 , 1 9 9 6 , a l t h o u g h it w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e p l a n w i l l b e r e v i e w e d . 6 1 T h e D e p a r t m e n t a l s o i n i t i a l l y p r o h i b i t e d c o m m e r c i a l s o c k e y e a n d C h i n o o k s a l m o n f i s h i n g o n t h e s o u t h c o a s t a n d V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d f o r t h e 1 9 9 6 s e a s o n b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e d i c t e d l o w l e v e l o f s t o c k s r e t u r n i n g t o s p a w n . H o w e v e r , t h e e s t i m a t e d r u n s i z e o f s o c k e y e w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y u p g r a d e d a n d s o m e f i s h i n g w a s p e r m i t t e d . 6 2 It c a n b e s e e n t h a t s t a t e c o n t r o l o f t h e f i s h e r i e s h a s e s s e n t i a l l y b e e n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a t i o n o f w h e r e a n d h o w f i s h i n g i s t o t a k e p l a c e o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d a t t e m p t s t o l i m i t e n t r y i n t o t h e i n d u s t r y t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f l i c e n s i n g r e g i m e s o n t h e o t h e r . T h e s e t w o m a n a g e m e n t a p p r o a c h e s a r e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s u s e d t o a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e " t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s " . 6 3 W h a t f o l l o w s i s a r e v i e w o f h o w w e l l t h o s e a p p r o a c h e s h a v e w o r k e d i n p r a c t i c e . C. The Non-Aboriginal Management Regime in Review: How Well Has It Worked? O n e o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w s o f f i s h i n g p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s c o n d u c t e d b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n P a c i f i c F i s h e r i e s P o l i c y w h i c h 6 1 M . Crawley and J. Hunter, "Salmon deal gives B.C. a bigger say" The Vancouver Sun (16 July 1996) A l , A5. 6 2 B. Bouw, "Fraser sockeye fishery to open as run upgraded" The Vancouver Sun (6 August 1996) B l and P. McMartin, "Fraser sockeye estimates rise again, allowing more fishing" The Vancouver Sun (13 August 1996) B l . 6 3 B.J. McCay and J.M. Acheson, eds., The Question of the Commons. The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1987) at pp. xiii-xiv. 34 w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 1 t o r e v i e w f i s h i n g o n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . T h e 1 9 8 2 r e p o r t o f C o m m i s s i o n e r P e t e r P e a r s e w a s t h e f i r s t s u c h r e p o r t t o r e a l l y a d d r e s s t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s s u e . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y w a s d e f i c i e n t d u e t o " u n c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s , w e a k a n d o u t d a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n , b a d o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n t r a d i c t o r y p r o g r a m s a n d c o n f u s i o n . " 6 4 W i t h r e s p e c t t o m a n a g e m e n t o f s a l m o n , h e i d e n t i f i e d d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e u s e o f p r e - s e a s o n m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s . 6 5 T h e D e p a r t m e n t p r e p a r e s t h e s e p r e - s e a s o n p l a n s e a c h y e a r i n a n a t t e m p t t o m e e t t e n t a t i v e h a r v e s t i n g a n d s p a w n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . P e a r s e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a n " a l a r m i n g l a c k o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n o n h o w m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s a r e m a d e ; w h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e d ; h o w it i s i n t e r p r e t e d a n d t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . " 6 6 I n s t e a d , h e c o n c l u d e d , d e c i s i o n s w e r e o f t e n b a s e d o n p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e a n d i n t u i t i o n . P e a r s e a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m o f t h e f i s h e r i e s w a s o v e r c a p a c i t y o f t h e f l e e t , a p r o b l e m h e l i n k e d t o t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d : b e c a u s e t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e o p e n t o l a r g e 6 4The Commission, supra, note 34. He goes on to recommend two policy objectives: firstly, to ensure the resource and its habitat is protected and, where advantageous, enhanced; and secondly to maximize the benefits of the resource by ensuring that the resource is allocated to those who can make the most valuable use of them. Within the goal of economic development, he identified two supplementary goals: improvement of fishers' incomes and development of economic opportunities for coastal communities and Indian people. See pp. 4-5. 6SIbid at p. 40. These problems are: (i) lack of knowledge as to the number of fish which will enter the fishery because the number cannot be accurately assessed until the fish are in the fishery or on the spawning grounds; (ii) inability to predict when the stock will enter a fishery; (iii) lack of knowledge of how many vessels will participate in the fishery; and, (iv) weak information upon which to base escapement targets so that they become essentially guesses. 66Ibid at p. 42. 35 n u m b e r s o f f i s h e r s , h a r v e s t i n g w a s b a s e d o n t h e " r u l e o f c a p t u r e " . T h a t i s , b e c a u s e t h e f i s h w e r e n o t a s s i g n e d t h r o u g h p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , u s e r s h a d t o c o m p e t e w i t h o t h e r s f o r a s h a r e . In s u c h a s c e n a r i o , t e m p o r a r y p r o f i t s a r e t h o u g h t t o s t i m u l a t e f i s h e r s t o e x p a n d t h e i r f i s h i n g c a p a c i t y w h i c h , i n t u r n , d e c r e a s e s n e t r e t u r n s a n d t h r e a t e n s t h e s t o c k s 6 7 ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c l a s s i c t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s p r o b l e m . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e f o r m s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d b e n e f i t t i n g o n e g r o u p o v e r a n o t h e r a n d , a s a r e s u l t , g o v e r n m e n t t e n d e d t o b e r e l u c t a n t t o m a k e t h o s e r e f o r m s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a " p r o f o u n d i n e r t i a . " 6 8 P e a r s e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 93 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a l m o n h a r v e s t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r y t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . 6 9 H e n o t e d t h a t s e r i o u s e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s w e r e c a u s e d b y t h e d e c r e a s e i n A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h e r i e s . In h i s w o r d s , c o a s t a l I n d i a n s h a v e : s t r o n g e r m o t i v a t i o n , g r e a t e r s k i l l a n d m o r e e x p e r i e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g t h a n t h e y d o i n m o s t o t h e r f i e l d s . . . . t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s a f f o r d a h i g h l y p r o m i s i n g m e a n s o f i n v o l v i n g c o a s t a l I n d i a n s i n c o n s t r u c t i v e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . M o r e o v e r , it i s a n a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h m a n y o f t h e m c l a i m a n h i s t o r i c r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h e 6Tbidatpp. 75-76. ^Ibid at p. 6. This statement may be generally true when reforms are not in the interest of the commercial fishing industry. However, given the history of regulation of fishing in the province, it is not so clear that the government has been reluctant-at least historically—to introduce reforms which benefitted commercial interests over those of other groups. Indeed, quite the opposite appears to have occurred. Perhaps, therefore, the reason for any inertia which may currentiy exist is more accurately attributed to the fact that there appear to be no alternatives available which will not negatively affect commercial interests in some way. 69Ibidatp. 10. 36 f i s h e r i e s , t h e n , m u s t b e r e g a r d e d a s a n o b v i o u s b a s e f o r p o l i c i e s a i m e d a t I n d i a n s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . 7 0 P e a r s e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h i n g a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n d r a w n b y m a n y n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s b e t w e e n c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h i n g w a s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e A b o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t , g i v e n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i s h p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e n o t o n l y a s f o o d , b u t a l s o i n t r a d e , s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t " I n d i a n f i s h e r i e s p o l i c y c r i e s o u t f o r r e f o r m . " 7 1 H e s u g g e s t e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s s h o u l d b e c l a r i f i e d a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d , A b o r i g i n a l s p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , a n d A b o r i g i n a l s g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t a k e b e t t e r e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e o f t h e i r r i g h t s t o f i s h . P e a r s e w a s i n v o l v e d i n a f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e f i s h e r i e s a d e c a d e l a t e r . T h e 1 9 9 2 f i s h i n g s e a s o n w a s r i f e w i t h p r o b l e m s a n d c o n t r o v e r s y . A n e s t i m a t e d 4 8 2 , 0 0 0 f e w e r s o c k e y e r e t u r n e d t o t h e s p a w n i n g b e d s t h a n h a d b e e n e x p e c t e d . T h e y e a r m a r k e d t h e f i r s t t i m e i n o v e r a c e n t u r y t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l f i s h o n t h e l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r a s a r e s u l t o f t h e P i l o t S a l e s A r r a n g e m e n t . T h e s i t u a t i o n p r o v o k e d n e a r r i o t s a n d " r e k i n d l e d c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r i v e r f i s h e r y . " 7 2 P e a r s e a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e i n t h e 10Ibidakp. 156. 1lIbid at p. 181. Pearse pointed to a number of problems, including Aboriginal discontent over the prohibition of sale, feelings of being left out in management decisions, and resulting enforcement problems due to bad relations between Aboriginal groups and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 72Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 178. 37 i n v e s t i g a t i o n , P . L a r k i n , r e v i e w e d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 9 2 i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a u s e o f t h e d r a m a t i c s h o r t f a l l i n n u m b e r s o f f i s h . 7 3 P e a r s e n o t e d t h a t s i n c e t h e 1 9 6 0 s t h e r e h a d b e e n a h e a l t h y g r o w t h i n r e t u r n s o f s o c k e y e i n t h e 1 9 9 2 c y c l e y e a r b e c a u s e o f r e g u l a t i o n s , f i s h w a y s a n d e n h a n c e m e n t w o r k s . 7 4 H o w e v e r , t h e n u m b e r s e x p e c t e d f o r 1 9 9 2 d i d n o t e n d u p i n t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . P e a r s e a n d L a r k i n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f i s h h a d b e e n i n t r o u b l e l o n g b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . B y t h e t i m e t h e y h a d r e a c h e d t h e J u a n d e F u c a a n d J o h n s t o n e S t r a i t s , t h e e s t i m a t e d s t o c k s i z e w a s o n l y h a l f o f w h a t h a d b e e n e x p e c t e d . P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s s h o r t f a l l w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e P a c i f i c S a l m o n C o m m i s s i o n t o a g r e e o n a d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a r i n e c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a , t h u s r e s u l t i n g i n a f i s h w a r . A s w e l l , t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e P S A h a d c r e a t e d a n " e n t i r e l y n e w e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e I n d i a n f i s h e r y a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s m a n a g e r s . " 7 5 P e a r s e s p e n t m u c h t i m e i n h i s r e p o r t r e v i e w i n g t h e P S A a n d i t s e f f e c t o n t h e n u m b e r s o f f i s h w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y r e a c h e d t h e i r s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s i n 1 9 9 2 . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l c a t c h h a d e x c e e d e d e s t i m a t e s , b u t h e p l a c e d m o s t o f t h e b l a m e o n t h e D e p a r t m e n t f o r h a s t i l y r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e v a r i o u s F i r s t N a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e P S A w h i l e f i s h i n g w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a l r e a d y u n d e r w a y , P.H. Pearse, Managing Salmon in the Fraser. Report to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on the Fraser River Salmon Investigation (Vancouver: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 1992). 74Sockeye salmon are on a four-year cycle. The 1992 cycle year historically produces the smallest runs of the four cycles on the Fraser. However, in 1992 record numbers were expected because of the stock rebuilding program. See ibid at pp. 4-6. 15Ibidatp. 8. 38 f a i l i n g t o d i s s e m i n a t e a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n o r c o m m u n i c a t e c l e a r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , a n d f a i l i n g t o a d e q u a t e l y e n s u r e c a t c h e s w e r e c o n t r o l l e d t o m e e t e s c a p e m e n t t a r g e t s . P e a r s e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p i l o t s a l e p r o j e c t s s i g n a l e d a m a j o r s h i f t i n p o l i c y a n d " t h r e a t e n e d d e e p l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t e r e s t s . C h a n g e i s o f t e n t e n t a t i v e , u p s e t t i n g a n d f r a u g h t w i t h m i s t a k e s . " 7 6 In P e a r s e ' s o p i n i o n , w h a t h a p p e n e d i n 1 9 9 2 w a s n o t a d i s a s t e r b e c a u s e , a l t h o u g h e s c a p e m e n t t a r g e t s w e r e n o t m e t , t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t n u m b e r o f f i s h f o r t h a t r u n i n s e v e r a l d e c a d e s r e a c h e d t h e s p a w n i n g b e d s . 7 7 T h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n 1 9 9 3 h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d t o h a v e i m p r o v e d a l t h o u g h m o n i t o r i n g a n d e n f o r c e m e n t c o s t s w e r e h i g h . 7 8 In 1 9 9 4 , s i m i l a r c o n t r o v e r s i e s r e s u l t e d w h e n m o r e t h a n a m i l l i o n s o c k e y e e x p e c t e d t o r e t u r n t o s p a w n i n g a r e a s i n t h e F r a s e r n e v e r a r r i v e d . T h e F r a s e r R i v e r S o c k e y e P u b l i c R e v i e w B o a r d w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e s p o n s e . T h e B o a r d c o n c l u d e d t h a t o v e r - r e l i a n c e o n q u a l i t y o f h i s t o r i c i n - s e a s o n e s t i m a t e s a n d a n o p t i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e x p e c t e d r u n s i z e r e s u l t e d i n r i s k y m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s b e i n g m a d e b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 9 4 . A s w e l l , c o n f u s i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e A F S c o n t i n u e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e e n f o r c e m e n t . It s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e " A M at p. 30. "ft/rfatp. 29. 78Gardner Pinfold, supra, note 58 at p. vi. Some $3.3 million was spent with $2.8 being spent in the lower Fraser where enforcement problems were the greatest. 39 D e p a r t m e n t a n d b e t w e e n t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d F i r s t N a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s w i t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l a n d s p o r t f i s h i n g s e c t o r s . It c o n c l u d e d t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s s h o u l d b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f f i s h a n d g i v e n a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n p u t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . 7 9 T h e D a v i d S u z u k i F o u n d a t i o n r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t i n 1 9 9 5 w h e r e i n D r . C a r l W a l t e r s r e v i e w e d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e P a c i f i c f i s h e r i e s . H e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i s w o r k i n g t o s o m e e x t e n t , w i t h t h e l a r g e s t s o c k e y e s a l m o n c a t c h s i n c e 1 9 1 3 b e i n g c a u g h t i n 1 9 9 3 . T h e s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n c a t c h e s o v e r r e c e n t y e a r s w a s a t t r i b u t e d t o s t o c k r e b u i l d i n g a n d p r o t e c t i n g n a t u r a l s t o c k s , a s o p p o s e d t o s a l m o n i d e n h a n c e m e n t p r o j e c t s . 8 0 H o w e v e r , h e a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t f i s h e r y w a s n o t s u s t a i n a b l e i n e c o l o g i c a l o r e c o n o m i c t e r m s . H e d e s c r i b e d t h e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a s p r o d u c i n g : a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a g m i r e , w i t h g r o s s l y o v e r c a p i t a l i s e d a n d b i t t e r l y c o m p e t i t i v e f i s h i n g f l e e t s , a n a l l o c a t i o n s y s t e m a m o n g f i s h e r m e n t h a t i s d o m i n a t e d m o r e b y t h r e a t o f c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e t h a n b y r e a s o n e d a n a l y s i s o f w h e r e r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s o u g h t t o l i e , a n d a p u b l i c l y c o s t l y a n d b u r d e n s o m e a p p a r a t u s f o r b o t h b i o l o g i c a l m a n a g e m e n t a n d e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t o f f i s h e r m e n . 8 1 W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e c e n t c h a n g e s m a d e u n d e r t h e A F S , a n i n i t i a l r e v i e w o f t h e P i l o t S a l e s A r r a n g e m e n t w a s u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t e m p l o y m e n t 79Fraser River Sockeye Public Review Board (Canada), Fraser River Sockeye, 1994: Problems and Discrepancies. Report of the Fraser River Sockeye Public Review Board (Ottawa: Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1995). 8 0 C . Walters, Fish on the Line. The Future of Pacific Fisheries. A Report to the David Suzuki Foundation Fisheries Project, Phase I (Vancouver: The David Suzuki Foundation, 1995) at p. 3. 8 1 /Watpp. 4-5. 40 l e v e l s a m o n g t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m h a v e d o u b l e d a n d t h e i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a n i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m i n c o m m u n i t i e s i n v o l v e d . T h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f i s h c a u g h t h a s b e e n s o m e w h a t l o w e r t h a n o c e a n - c a u g h t f i s h d u e t o l o c a t i o n a n d t i m i n g b u t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s h a v e n o t e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l l i n g t h e i r c a t c h e s . A s w e l l , it w a s f o u n d t h a t t h e P S A h a s l e d t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n f i s h e r y m a n a g e m e n t t h r o u g h g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f e f f o r t a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m o r e r e l i a b l e c a t c h d a t a . H o w e v e r , h i g h m o n i t o r i n g a n d e n f o r c e m e n t c o s t s h a v e b e e n i n c u r r e d i n t h e p r o g r a m . 8 2 T o d a t e , n o c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h i n g S t r a t e g y h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t . 8 3 H o w e v e r , t h e B . C . A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n p r e s e n t e d a r e v i e w o f t h e A F S t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n 1996.** T h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t h a d n o t i m p l e m e n t e d A b o r i g i n a l p r i o r i t y t o f i s h o v e r t h e c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s , a l t h o u g h p o s i t i v e s t e p s h a d b e e n t a k e n t o e n h a n c e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e i n f i s h e r y m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . It f o u n d t h a t m a n y F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d t h e A F S t o " b e o n e o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e a n d i n n o v a t i v e p r o g r a m s t o h a v e g u i d e d t h e f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s f o r m a n y y e a r s . " 8 5 In t h e f o u r c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e P S A w a s o p e r a t i n g , See Gardner Pinfold, supra, note 58 at pp. 53-54. 8 3I have been advised, however, that the Department is currently in the process of drafting a report reviewing the AFS It is expected to be released some time in 1996. 8 4The BC Aboriginal Fisheries Commission, First Nations Review of the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (1996) [unpublished]. sslbid3tp. 3. 41 u n e m p l o y m e n t , w h i c h a v e r a g e d a r o u n d 7 0 p e r c e n t n o r m a l l y , w a s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d d u r i n g t h e t w o - m o n t h p i l o t s a l e s f i s h e r i e s . A s w e l l , t h e D e p a r t m e n t w a s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e b e n e f i t t e d f r o m i m p r o v e d c a t c h d a t a , b e t t e r a n d l e s s e x p e n s i v e m o n i t o r i n g a n d e n f o r c e m e n t , a n d c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n d i d c i t e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . F o r i n s t a n c e , it f o u n d t h a t r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n , s t o c k a s s e s s m e n t , a n d h a b i t a t a n d f i s h p r o d u c t i o n w e r e u n d e r f u n d e d . T r a i n i n g i n f i s h e r y m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s w a s a l s o f o u n d t o b e i n s u f f i c i e n t . It r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e A F S a n d P S A b e e x p a n d e d t o a l l F i r s t N a t i o n s , w i t h a g r e e m e n t s b e i n g n e g o t i a t e d a t t h e c o m m u n i t y l e v e l s o t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g c o m m u n i t i e s c a n b e r e c o g n i z e d a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p o l i c i e s , a n d l o c a l a n d r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n s c a n b e b a l a n c e d w i t h n a t i o n a l o n e s . O f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e w a s t h e n e e d t o i n v o l v e c o m m u n i t i e s o n t h e u p p e r F r a s e r R i v e r i n t h e P S A s o t h a t a l l F i r s t N a t i o n s o n t h e F r a s e r a r e g i v e n e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; o t h e r w i s e , it s t a t e d , t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l " c o n t i n u e t o b e a t o d d s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . " 8 6 A m a j o r i t y o f F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e o n l y w a y t o p r o t e c t A b o r i g i n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f i s h e r y i s t o c r e a t e c o m m u n a l c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w i t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s . T h e C o m m i s s i o n i d e n t i f i e d t h e k e y e l e m e n t s o f a n e f f e c t i v e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s P o l i c y a s i n c l u d i n g a c c e s s t o f i s h e r i e s ; i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o f i s h e r y m a n a g e m e n t , 86Ibidatp. 7. 42 t r a i n i n g a n d e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; h a b i t a t a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g ; t r a n s p a r e n t a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n ; a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e a r e c l e a r l y p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a n d t h e r o l e w h i c h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s p l a y w i t h i n it. N o t o n l y d o s t o c k s a p p e a r t o b e d e c l i n i n g , b u t t h e s t a t u s o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s r e m a i n s u n c l e a r a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . In a n a t t e m p t t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e p r o b l e m s , t h e u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e c u r r e n t s y s t e m w i l l b e r e v i e w e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d . D. Ideologies and Myths in Fisheries Regulations T h e r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m w h i c h h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d f o r t h e f i s h e r i e s i s , p r e s u m a b l y , d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t n o r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f g o v e r n a n c e . T h e l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y h o l d s t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s w h i c h c a n n o t b e v i o l a t e d b y l e g i s l a t u r e s o r c o u r t s . A s w e l l , t h e r e i s a n u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f i n f a i r t r e a t m e n t o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s a n d a b e l i e f t h a t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d w i l l h a v e e q u a l m e r i t i n g o v e r n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s . 8 7 G . B . D o e r n d e s c r i b e s t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e s b e h i n d t h e C a n a d i a n r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e a s f o l l o w s : T h e b a s i c c o n c e p t o f l i b e r a l i s m a n d p l u r a l i s m s a w C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l l i f e a s b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a h i g h d e g r e e o f i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m a n d m a r k e t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a s y s t e m o f 87Dorcey, supra, note 29 at pp. 73-74. 43 d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d g o v e r n m e n t . It a l s o p o r t r a y e d a b e n e v o l e n t c o m p e t i t i o n a m o n g i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , w i t h t h e s t a t e a s i n d e p e n d e n t r e f e r e e r e m o v i n g t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e m a r k e t T h e i d e o l o g y o f l i b e r a l i s m a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t o f e q u a l i t y , e m e r g e s i n g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s a n d p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s s u e s . H o w e v e r , it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e u s e o f t h i s i d e o l o g y i s o f t e n u s e d t o m a s k r e a l i t y : g o v e r n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f i s h e r i e s h a v e o f t e n b e e n m a d e w i t h o u t t h e t r u e i n p u t o f A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s a n d w i t h o u t g i v i n g e q u a l w e i g h t t o A b o r i g i n a l s ' p r e f e r e n c e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s , a n d w i t h a n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e f i s h e r i e s a r e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y a n d t h a t , h e n c e , t h e r e a r e n o p r o p e r t y r i g h t s w i t h w h i c h t o d e a l . G o v e r n m e n t s m a y p r o m o t e t h e i m a g e o f t h e m s e l v e s a s m e r e l y m e d i a t o r s , 8 9 b u t t h a t i s r a r e l y — i f e v e r - t h e c a s e . A s S a l l y W e a v e r s t a t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l i s s u e s g e n e r a l l y : P o l i c y - m a k i n g i s n o t a p r a g m a t i c e x e r c i s e d e v o i d o f p r i n c i p l e s a n d b e l i e f s , b u t a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h v a l u e s t h a t w i l l g u i d e g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n s a r e s e l e c t e d a n d r a t i o n a l i z e d . I n d i a n p o l i c y i n C a n a d a i s m a d e b y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h o l d s t r o n g f e e l i n g s a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t n a t i v e g r o u p s s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . 9 0 8 8 G.B. Doern, "Introduction: The Regulatory Process in Canada" in G.B. Doern, ed., The Regulatory Process in Canada (Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada, 1978) 1 at pp. 3-4. Interestingly, Doern also refers to the myth that private enterprise opposes state regulation. Instead, he states, many actively seek such regulation. See p. 5. Although this premise will not be reviewed here in the fisheries context, it appears plausible that commercial interests would be in favour of government regulation of fishing, particularly when that regulation results in the participation of other user groups in the industry being marginalized. 8 9 D. Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 5. Newell's description essentially mirrors the "government as referee" image described by G.B. Doern in note 84 above. 9 0S. Weaver, "Federal Difficulties with Aboriginal Rights Demands" in M. Boldt and J.A. Long, eds., The Quest for Justice: Aboriginal Peoples and Aboriginal Rights (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985) 139 at pp. 141-142. 44 It h a s a l s o b e e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r t e n d t o h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c r e t i o n t o d e c i d e w h i c h v a l u e s w i l l b e m a x i m i z e d , h o w o p e n t h e p r o c e s s w i l l b e , w h o w i l l b e c o n t a c t e d a n d w h e n . 9 1 W e c a n s e e t h e u s e o f l i b e r a l n o t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y i n l e g i s l a t i o n a n d g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y . T h e Fisheries Act a n d i t s r e g u l a t i o n s h i s t o r i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a s a n i n t e r e s t g r o u p w h o s e n e e d s s h o u l d b e a d d r e s s e d o n t h e s a m e l e g a l b a s i s a s o t h e r u s e r s . T h e c l a i m s t o t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s m u s t c o m p e t e w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r u s e r s , b u t " [ a ] l w a y s , I n d i a n s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s i n g s e c t o r , u s u a l l y i n t h e n a m e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . " 9 2 T h e D a v i s P l a n w a s " p r e d i c a t e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l g r o u p s o f u s e r s h a d t h e s a m e c l a i m o n t h e f i s h . " 9 3 H o w e v e r , a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e e f f e c t o f t h e P l a n w a s a n y t h i n g b u t e q u a l , w i t h e v e n l a r g e r d i s c r e p a n c i e s a m o n g a n d w i t h i n u s e r g r o u p s r e s u l t i n g . W h e n t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n t r o d u c e d t h e A F S , it d e s c r i b e d it a s b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e t o " p r o t e c t a n d c o n s e r v e f i s h r e s o u r c e s w h i l e e n s u r i n g f a i r a n d e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t f o r a l l s t a k e h o l d e r s . " 9 4 It d e s c r i b e d t h e A F S a s f o r m i n g t h e b a s i s f o r a " n e w ' s o c i a l c o n t r a c t ' a m o n g g o v e r n m e n t , A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a n d n o n - N a t i v e f i s h i n g g r o u p s . . . . [ a i m e d at] i n c r e a s i n g ] 91Doern, supra, note 88 at pp. 19-20. 92Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 212. 93Ibidatp. 208. 94Department of Fisheries and Oceans, News Release B-HQ-92-25, "Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy. The Content" (June 1992). 45 e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n C a n a d i a n f i s h e r i e s f o r A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e w h i l e a c h i e v i n g p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , s t a b i l i t y a n d e n h a n c e d p r o f i t a b i l i t y f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . " 9 5 It i s n o t o n l y g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h u s e s l i b e r a l n o t i o n s o f f a i r n e s s a n d e q u a l i t y ; t h e y a r e a l s o u s e d b y i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . W h e n t h e A F S a n d P S A w e r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 9 0 s , t h e y e n g e n d e r e d w i d e p r o t e s t f r o m t h e p r o c e s s o r s . T h e F i s h e r m e n ' s D i r e c t A c t i o n C o m m i t t e e t h r e a t e n e d t o b o y c o t t f i s h p l a n t s w h i c h a c c e p t e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l c a t c h . N o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g g r o u p s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t w a s f a v o u r i n g A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a n d t h a t t h e l a t t e r w e r e b e i n g g i v e n s p e c i a l a c c e s s t o t h e r e s o u r c e a n d t h a t a l l o w i n g A b o r i g i n a l s t o s e l l f i s h c a u g h t f o r t r a d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s " d i s t o r t s t h e m a r k e t b y c r e a t i n g u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n . " 9 6 T h u s , n o n - A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s u s e l i b e r a l n o t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y t o s u p p o r t t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h e r i e s d e s p i t e t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t p a s t r e g u l a t i o n s h a v e n o t r e s u l t e d i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . T h e s a m e t y p e o f d i s c o u r s e i s b e i n g u s e d b y t h o s e d e f e n d i n g a s w e l l a s t h o s e o p p o s i n g s u c h p r o g r a m s . A s w e l l , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s u s u a l l y t o u t e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e f i s h e r y . H o w e v e r , t h e a c t u a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r m a n a g e m e n t 95Department of Fisheries and Oceans, News Release B-HQ-92-24, "Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy. The Program" (June 1992). 9 6 J . Allain and J. Frechette, The Aboriginal Fisheries and the Sparrow Decision (Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1994) at p. 19. 46 i n v o l v e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e c i s i o n s a n d " t h e c h o i c e s a r e o f t e n n o t a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n per se."97 O v e r t h e y e a r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s a n d s p e c i e s o f f i s h , r e g i o n s , g e a r , p r o c e s s i n g m e t h o d s , a n d l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l a n d e t h n i c g r o u p s . T h u s , r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h f a v o u r o n e t y p e o f f i s h , o r l o c a t i o n , o r g e a r t y p e b e n e f i t s o m e g r o u p s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a s t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d its f i s h i n g p o l i c i e s c a n b e s e e n i n its r e s p o n s e t o t h e P e a r s e r e p o r t . It c l a i m e d t h a t a l t h o u g h it r e c o g n i z e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s h a d p r i o r i t y t o t h e f i s h o n c e c o n s e r v a t i o n w a s m e t , it c o u l d n o t e n s u r e a p p r o p r i a t e e s c a p e m e n t l e v e l s w e r e m e t u n l e s s it c u r t a i l e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e a t t h e e n d o f t h e h a r v e s t i n g c h a i n . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t p o r t r a y e d c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g a s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d c o n c e p t s : t h e t w o c a n n o t c o - e x i s t . T h e l o c a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s h a s b e c o m e a m a j o r i m p e d i m e n t t o e f f e c t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h . It i s r e a l l y o n l y w h e n t h e f i s h a r e i n t h e r i v e r s t h a t t h e i r t r u e n u m b e r s c a n b e t a l l i e d a n d t h e e f f e c t o f o c e a n f i s h i n g o n s t o c k l e v e l s t r u l y a s s e s s e d . O f t e n , it i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r s a r e a t s u c h l e v e l s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g c a n n o t b e p e r m i t t e d w i t h o u t r i s k i n g h a v i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r s o f f i s h r e a c h t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . A s a r e s u l t , a l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a r e g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n t h e o r y , i n r e a l i t y , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y t h e g r o u p w h i c h m u s t b e a r t h e c o s t o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h e p a r t y w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y 97Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 7. 47 e n j o y s t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u c h c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s a r e t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s w h o w i l l g e t t h e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e f i s h . O f c o u r s e , i n s t e a d o f p r o h i b i t i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g , t h e D e p a r t m e n t c o u l d s t i l l a c h i e v e i t s c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s b y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c u r t a i l i n g m a r i n e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . H o w e v e r , it h a s h i s t o r i c a l l y c h o s e n n o t t o . T h e r e a r e m a n y v a l i d s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s w h y it h a s c h o s e n n o t t o , b u t it i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t c h o i c e s a r e m a d e a n d o f t e n t h o s e c h o i c e s h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n . I n d e e d , o n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d b e b e s t a c h i e v e d if a l l o c e a n f i s h i n g w a s p r o h i b i t e d a n d o n l y f i s h i n g i n t h e r i v e r s w a s p e r m i t t e d , w h e r e n u m b e r s c a n b e a c c u r a t e l y c o u n t e d a n d r u n s e f f e c t i v e l y t a r g e t e d . 9 8 A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t w a s a l s o h i s t o r i c a l l y n o t p e r m i t t e d o n t h e g r o u n d s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o b e a c k n o w l e d g e d t o s o m e e x t e n t t h r o u g h t h e A F S c o - m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s . O f t e n , l o c a l m a n a g e m e n t w a s d i s c o u n t e d o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s d i d n o t h a v e t h e s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r t i s e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d n o t a d e q u a t e l y c o n s e r v e t h e f i s h a n d "[i]t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r g o v e r n m e n t t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e 98Not everyone agrees with that proposition. For instance, it is Walter's opinion that restricting fishing to rivers only would be "ecologically disastrous" because the Department is not capable of adequately administering the larger number of fisheries which would result, problems of interception of non-targets species would actually increase, and crucial information from offshore fishing required for in season adaptive regulation would be lost. See supra, note 80 at p. 43. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to attempt to analyze the benefits of marine versus in-river fishing. 48 m a y b e v i a b l e m a n a g e m e n t m e t h o d s o t h e r t h a n a p a r t i c u l a r h i e r a r c h i c a l f o r m o f s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e s a n d u s e o f e x p e r t i s e . " 9 9 H o w e v e r , a s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , P e a r s e c o n c l u d e d t h a t m a n a g e r s w i t h i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t , f o r a l l t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e , o f t e n e n d u p u s i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n t u i t i o n i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t s c i e n c e d o e s n o t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o o f f e r t o f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t ; h o w e v e r , it i s i m p o r t a n t t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t s c i e n c e i s n o t a l l t h a t i s u s e d . A s w e l l , s c i e n c e i s " c o n t a m i n a t e d w i t h v a l u e j u d g m e n t s " 1 0 0 ; s c i e n t i s t s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t i v e , n o r c a n t h e y b e e x p e c t e d t o b e . A s a r e s u l t , a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d b e c h a l l e n g e d . 1 0 1 G i v e n t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s f i s h e d i n t h e w a t e r s f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n t u i t i o n i s e q u a l l y , a n d p r o b a b l y m o r e v a l u a b l e , t h a n t h o s e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s m a n a g e r s a n d t h e i r v o i c e s s h o u l d n o t b e e x c l u d e d o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e y a l l e g e d l y l a c k a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t a c h i e v e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . 1 0 2 O f c o u r s e , it c a n n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e h a s n o t b e e n a f f e c t e d b y y e a r s o f m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n a n d e x c l u s i o n f r o m f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . H o w e v e r , it c a n a l s o n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t D e p a r t m e n t e m p l o y e e s d o i n d e e d h a v e t r e m e n d o u s 9 9 E . Pinkerton, "Introduction: Attaining Better Fisheries Management Through Co-Management— Prospects, Problems, and Propositions" in Pinkerton, ed., supra, note 25, 3 at p. 17. 100Dorcey, supra, note 29 at p. 97. mIbid at p. 109. Although Dorcey made this suggestion in the context of bargaining, it is equally applicable to the process of management decision-making as well. 1 0 2In addition to their traditional knowledge, many First Nations have been attempting to increase their technical and scientific knowledge base by hiring fisheries biologists and other scientists. This trend is understandable given that it is often a "war of knowledge" in fisheries management, with the Department claiming to have more scientific knowledge than others and, therefore, more credentials to manage the resource. The increased scientific knowledge of Aboriginal communities can also assist them in their management strategies. 49 e x p e r t i s e . M a n y e m p l o y e e s a r e y o u n g a n d m o v e o n t o o t h e r f i e l d s o r d e p a r t m e n t s . T h u s , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f m a n y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s s o - c a l l e d e x p e r t s a m o u n t s t o o n l y a f e w y e a r s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n m a y w o r s e n w i t h t h e c u r r e n t d o w n s i z i n g o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t w h i c h i s t a k i n g p l a c e . It m a y b e t h a t e x p e r t i s e i s t h i n i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m , A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l a l i k e . A s w e l l , t h e D e p a r t m e n t h a s a l w a y s p r e s e n t e d t h e f i s h e r i e s a s a r e s o u r c e w h i c h r e q u i r e s c e n t r a l m a n a g e m e n t . A s a r e s u l t , a m a c r o - e c o n o m i c s p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h w h i c h p r e j u d i c e s t h e m a n y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r y - b a s e d e c o n o m i e s w h i c h a r e l o c a l l y a n d r e g i o n a l l y b a s e d . 1 0 3 T h e B C A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n i d e n t i f i e d t h e n e e d t o b a l a n c e l o c a l a n d r e g i o n a l n e e d s w i t h n a t i o n a l o n e s i n i t s r e p o r t t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t . It i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h i s i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g d o n e . C o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s a r e a l s o u s e d b y t h e i n t e r e s t s g r o u p s w h i c h o p p o s e i n c r e a s e d A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h e r i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e U n i t e d F i s h e r m e n a n d A l l i e d W o r k e r s ' U n i o n o p p o s e d t h e A F S a n d P S A p r o g r a m s , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w o u l d n o t a b i d e b y t h e q u o t a , w o u l d c o n t i n u e b l a c k m a r k e t s a l e s a n d u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y t h e r e s o u r c e a n d t h e i n d u s t r y . 1 0 4 T h e s t e r e o t y p e o f " I n d i a n a s d e s t r o y e r o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s " Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 214. W a t p. 178. 50 s u r f a c e d y e t a g a i n . T h i s s t e r e o t y p e w a s u n f o r t u n a t e l y r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e e v e n t s o f t h e 1 9 9 2 f i s h i n g s e a s o n . T h e r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m a n d u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i e s h a v e c l e a r l y h a d e f f e c t s o n t h e r e s o u r c e . A s w a s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , o n e o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h c u r r e n t f i s h i n g s t r a t e g y i s t h a t w h e n m o s t o f t h e f i s h a r e c a u g h t i n t h e o c e a n , it i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t r u l y a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f f i s h i n g o n s t o c k s u n t i l t h e y r e a c h t h e r i v e r s a n d o f t e n it i s t o o l a t e a t t h a t p o i n t t o c o r r e c t f o r a n y s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r - f i s h i n g . A s w e l l , it i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e w e a k a n d s t r o n g s t o c k s w h e n t h e y a r e i n t h e o c e a n . A s a r e s u l t , o f t e n t i m e s w e a k s t o c k s a r e o v e r f i s h e d a n d e v e n c o m p l e t e l y d e p l e t e d i n t h e m a d r u s h t o g e t a s m a n y f i s h a s p o s s i b l e . 1 0 5 T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s p r o b l e m c o u l d a r g u a b l y b e a v o i d e d if o n l y i n - r i v e r f i s h i n g w a s a l l o w e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f i s h i s c l e a r l y o n l y o n e g o a l o f t h e r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . D e s p i t e c l a i m s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e p o l i c i e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s a p p e a r t o b e a i m e d m o r e a t r e g u l a t i n g t h e i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n p r o t e c t i n g t h e f i s h . 1 0 6 T h e g o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r s a l s o t o p e r c e i v e i t s e l f a s h a v i n g a n o b l i g a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h c u r r e n t l y l i v e o f f t h e p r e s e n t c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y . A n y d r a m a t i c s h i f t s i n p o l i c y a r e p e r c e i v e d t o t h r e a t e n t h e 105These problems are referred to in more detail by J.A. Crutchfield, "The Fishery: Economic Maximization" in D.V. Ellis, ed., Pacific Salmon Management for People (Victoria: University of Victoria, 1977) at pp. 9-11. 106Newell, supra, note 6 at p. 210. 51 e c o n o m i c b a s e o f s o m e i s o l a t e d c o a s t a l c o m m u n i t i e s . A s P e t e r P e a r s e d e s c r i b e d it: W o r k i n g w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e o f s t o c k s i z e s a n d p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s , u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e f r o m c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s o f f i s h e r m e n , a n d w i t h i n a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l o v e r f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y , m a n a g e m e n t h a s i n m a n y r e s p e c t s b e e n r e d u c e d t o a s e r i e s o f d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t s t o m e e t t h e d e m a n d s o f v o c a l u s e r g r o u p s , w i t h o u t v i s i b l y d e s t r o y i n g t h e r e s o u r c e . 1 0 8 A n o t h e r i d e o l o g y w h i c h i s u s e d i n t h e f i s h e r i e s d e b a t e i s t h a t f i s h a r e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y a n d c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , b e a s s i g n e d t o o n e g r o u p . H o w e v e r , it i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r t h a t it i s a c c u r a t e t o c o n c e i v e o f f i s h a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . A s P a t r i c i a M a r c h a k a r g u e s , t h e r e s u l t o f d e s i g n a t i n g f i s h a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t o b u r y i s s u e s r a t h e r t h a n t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e m . 1 0 9 S h e s u g g e s t s t h a t f i s h a r e b e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s s t a t e o r C r o w n p r o p e r t y s i n c e t h e r e a r e n o t r u e r i g h t s o f n o n - e x c l u s i o n a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . 1 1 0 107This reaction occurred in relation to the recent "Mifflin Plan". See, for instance, Pynn and Simpson, supra, note 60. 108The Commission, supra, note 34 at p. 37. 109"Uncommon Property," in P. Marchak, N. Guppy and J. McMullan, eds., Uncommon Property. The Fishing and Fish-Processing Industries in British Columbia (Toronto: Methuen, 1987) 3 at p. 3. 110It is not clear that complete rights of non-exclusion are a true requirement of common property. In their article, J.C. Juergensmeyer and J.B. Wadley review the historical evolution of the concept of common property and point out that common lands were not necessarily shared equally. In its earliest usage, the concept did mean that certain land was set aside for communal rather than private individual ownership and everyone was equally entitled to use and enjoy it. However, rights of common were distinct and consisted of privileges of use granted by the use and enjoyment of undivided common land under the customs of the neighbourhood or from use and enjoyment granted by lords to tenants. The rights of common idea was ultimately incorporated into the notion of common lands and resulted in the possibility that some members of a given village could be legitimately excluded from the use and enjoyment of the lands. In other words, just because it was common lands did not mean that everyone enjoyed complete rights of common to use that land. See "The Common Lands Concept: A 'Commons' Solution to A Common Environmental Problem" (1974) 14 Nat'l Res. J. 361. In any event, it could be argued that the lack of rights of non-exclusion in the fisheries has resulted from government regulation of the fisheries in an attempt to avoid a tragedy of the commons. In other words, the lack of rights of non- exclusion could be seen as a result of the common property nature of the resource, rather than as evidence 52 T h e s t a t e r e s t r i c t s a n d a l l o c a t e s a c c e s s r i g h t s t o f i s h a n d r e t a i n s e x t e n s i v e m a n a g e m e n t a u t h o r i t y w h i c h a f f e c t s u s e r s i n d i v e r s e w a y s . U n d e r h e r a n a l y s i s , t h e t r a g e d y i s n o t o f t h e c o m m o n s , b u t r a t h e r o f m i s m a n a g e d s t a t e p r o p e r t y s i n c e s h e v i e w s o v e r f i s h i n g a s t h e r e s u l t o f h o w m a n a g e m e n t i s c a r r i e d o u t , a n d n o t d u e t o t h e " a s s u m e d e v i l s o f c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . " 1 1 1 N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i d e o l o g y o f c o m m o n p r o p e r t y c a n p l a y a r o l e i n m o t i v a t i n g f i s h e r s t o a c c e p t s t a t e m a n a g e m e n t t o a v o i d a t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e f i s h e r s p r o f e s s t o b e l i e v e i n t h i s i d e o l o g y , " w h e n t h e s t a t e a b r u p t l y a s s u m e s r i g h t s o f o w n e r s h i p , a s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e a l l o c a t e t h e r e s o u r c e , f i s h e r s m o u n t o p p o s i t i o n . S i n c e t h e i d e o l o g y h a s b e e n p u b l i c l y s t a t e d s o f r e q u e n t l y , it t a k e s o n a l i f e o f i t s o w n a n d b e g i n s t o h a v e l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . " 1 1 2 B e c a u s e t h e r e s o u r c e h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y , f i s h e r s w h o a r e l i c e n s e d i n t h e s y s t e m c l a i m a r i g h t t o u s e it t o t h e i r o w n a d v a n t a g e , a n d t h e y g u a r d t h a t p e r c e i v e d r i g h t j e a l o u s l y . T h i s i s i n d e e d w h a t a p p e a r s t o b e h a p p e n i n g i n r e s p o n s e t o i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h a n d w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e A F S a n d P S A . 1 1 3 It c a n a l s o b e s e e n i n t h e r e c e n t r e s p o n s e t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e f l e e t s i z e t h r o u g h a l i c e n c e b u y - b a c k p r o g r a m . It i s l i k e l y t h a t that it is not common property. No definitive conclusions will be made in this thesis with respect to this issue. However, it should be noted that it is certainly not clear that they are indeed common property. ulMarchak, supra, note 109 at p. 10. 1 , 2 »i«/atp. 29. n 3This response has also been seen more recently in response to the fisheries provisions in the Nisga'a Agreement in Principle, which will be reviewed in Chapter Four. 53 the resistance stems not as a consequence of the portrayal of fish as common property, but rather from the fact that these regulatory changes threaten vested interests in the industry. However, those who feel threatened often use common property ideology to oppose the changes. Thus, the notion of fish as common property becomes, along with the ideology of equality, a way to justify opposition to an Aboriginal fishery. It has also been argued that the assumptions underlying notions of common property result in an under-estimation of the ability of people to cooperate and a failure to recognize the social nature of property institutions and that property rights are embedded in historically specific social contexts. It also reduces environmental problems to property rights instead of linking them to socio-economic systems and tends to polarize local communities and governments.114 Polarization is certainly evident not only between First Nations and non-Aboriginal commercial and recreational fishers, but among and within First Nations as well, particularly along the Fraser River where some First Nations are involved in the PSA and others are not. However, it is not clear that it is the conceptualization of the fish as common property which is the cause of this polarization. The conflicts are probably better characterized as being over wealth, rather than about defending a common property concept of the fish. 1I4These points are taken from McCay and Acheson, "Human Ecology of the Commons" in McCay and Acheson, eds., supra, note 63, 1 at pp. 7-11. 54 C o m m o n p r o p e r t y i d e o l o g y i s u s e d t o a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t t h a t w e a l t h i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e t h e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f l i c t . W h a t s h o u l d a l s o b e r e c a l l e d i s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e o p e n a c c e s s p r o b l e m s b e f o r e c o n t a c t b e c a u s e c u s t o m d e l i n e a t e d a c c e s s r i g h t s , a l l o c a t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s ; i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a c o m m o n s , t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e r e g u l a t e d b y " t e r r i t o r i a l u s e r i g h t s i n f i s h e r i e s " . 1 1 5 S i n c e t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e n o t t r e a t e d a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y , n o t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s a p p e a r s t o h a v e r e s u l t e d . It i s , t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n c e i v e o f t h e f i s h e r i e s a s b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d o n l y i n t e r m s o f c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . A s E. P i n k e r t o n a n d M . W e i n s t e i n f o u n d i n t h e i r r e v i e w o f s e v e r a l f i s h e r i e s f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e c o m m o n s m o d e l d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . 1 1 6 V i e w i n g t h e r e s o u r c e i n o n l y t h a t l i g h t a l s o p r e c l u d e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s b e y o n d i n c r e a s e d g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n o r p r i v a t i z a t i o n . S o m e o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s w i l l b e r e v i e w e d a n d a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . H o w e v e r , b e f o r e t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h e j u r i s p r u d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w i l l b e s u m m a r i z e d a n d d i s c u s s e d . ,15Rettig, et. al., supra, note 25 at p. 276. 1 1 6 E . Pinkerton and M. Weinstein, Fisheries That Work. Sustainability Through Community-Based Management. A Report to the David Suzuki Foundation (Vancouver: The David Suzuki Foundation, 1995) at p. 177. 55 CHAPTER THREE SCALES OF JUSTICE: THE CASE LAW B o t h t h e l a w a n d t h e d i s c o u r s e d e a l i n g w i t h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s h a v e b e e n p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e e n t r e n c h m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y r i g h t s i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e 1 9 9 0 d e c i s i o n o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n R. v . Sparrow.117 I n d e e d , it h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t s , " t h e p r e - 1 9 8 2 f r a m e w o r k f o r h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s i s g o n e . " 1 1 8 A s a r e s u l t , o n l y a b r i e f s u m m a r y o f a f e w pre-Constitution Act, 1982 d e c i s i o n s w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d , w i t h t h e f o c u s o f t h i s c h a p t e r b e i n g o n t h e Sparrow d e c i s i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t c a s e l a w . A. Pre-Constitution Act. 1982 T h e r e a r e a m y r i a d o f c a s e s i n C a n a d a d e a l i n g w i t h b o t h A b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g i s s u e s , d a t i n g b a c k t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . A s w a s n o t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n C a n a d a h a v e h i s t o r i c a l l y b e e n U 1 Supra, note 56. 1 1 8 D. Sanders, "Pre-Existing Rights: The Aboriginal Peoples of Canada" in G.A. Beaudoin and E. Mendes, eds., The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 3rd ed. (Toronto: Carswell, 1996), 17-1 at p. 17-27. 56 i n t e r p r e t e d a s s t e m m i n g f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g t r e a t i e s a n d A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . In s o m e p a r t s o f C a n a d a , t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 h a s a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o a f f e c t A b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . 1 1 9 In t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s A g r e e m e n t s p r o v i d e d f o r f o o d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . T h u s , f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e g i m e s r e l a t i n g t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g a n d h u n t i n g r i g h t s i n C a n a d a w e r e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e j u d i c i a r y : a r e a s c o v e r e d b y t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 , t h e p r o v i n c e s s u b j e c t t o t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s A g r e e m e n t s , r e g i o n s c o v e r e d b y t r e a t i e s , a n d n o n - t r e a t y a r e a s . M a n y o f t h e c a s e s i n v o l v e d t r e a t y r i g h t s a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t e n d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s w h i c h w e r e l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t i n m o s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H o w e v e r , s o m e i m p o r t a n t p r e m i s e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e c a s e s w h i c h , a l t h o u g h c u r r e n t l y o f l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n d u e t o t h e e n t r e n c h m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , h e l p s h e d s o m e l i g h t o n t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s j u r i s p r u d e n c e . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f C a n a d i a n A b o r i g i n a l l a w d u r i n g m u c h o f t h i s c e n t u r y w a s t h e c a s e o f St. Catherine's Milling and Lumber Co. v . The Queen.120 In t h a t c a s e , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l d e a l t w i t h A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w e r e f o u n d t o h a v e s o m e r i g h t s i n t h e i r l a n d s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 ; t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n w a s i n t e r p r e t e d 119There is some uncertainty as to whether the Royal Proclamation of 1763 applies to British Columbia. In Colder x. British Columbia (A.G.) (1973), 34 D.L.R. (3d) 145 (S.C.C.), the court was split 3-3 on this issue. However, as we shall see below, given the findings in the Calder case, this issue is essentially moot. 120(1889), 14 A.C. 46 (J.C.P.C.). 57 a s a g r a n t , u n d e r w h i c h t h e s t a t e g a v e r i g h t s t o I n d i a n s . 1 2 1 H o w e v e r , t h e s e r i g h t s w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s " p e r s o n a l a n d u s u f r u c t u a r y , d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e g o o d w i l l o f t h e S o v e r e i g n " . T h e y w e r e n o t s e e n a s c o n s t i t u t i n g f u l l f e e s i m p l e t i t l e . A b o r i g i n a l h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n 1 9 0 3 i n Ontario Mining Co. v . Seybold.™ 2 In t h a t c a s e , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r e d t h e R o b i n s o n T r e a t y w h i c h c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s g u a r a n t e e i n g A b o r i g i n a l s t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e t o h u n t a n d f i s h t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r s u r r e n d e r e d t e r r i t o r y . T h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o h e l d t i t l e t o l a n d s u b j e c t t o t h e b u r d e n o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l u s u f r u c t u a r y t i t l e . U p o n e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f t h a t t i t l e , t h e p r o v i n c e a c q u i r e d f u l l b e n e f i c i a l i n t e r e s t s u b j e c t o n l y t o s u c h p r i v i l e g e s o f h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g a s w e r e r e s e r v e d i n t h e t r e a t y . A l t h o u g h h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y a t i s s u e i n t h e c a s e , t h i s r u l i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e s e v e r a b l e i n t e r e s t s c a p a b l e o f s u r v i v i n g a s a " n o n - t e r r i t o r i a l i n c i d e n t o f a n o t h e r w i s e e x t i n g u i s h e d a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . " 1 2 3 It w a s , h o w e v e r , l a t e r d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s e r i g h t s w e r e e n f o r c e a b l e i n l i m i t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s o n l y . 1 2 1 Sanders, supra, note 118 at pp. 17-3 to 17-4. Sanders describes this characterization of Aboriginal rights as an example of legal positivism. 122[1903] A.C. 73 (J.C.P.C.). 1 2 3 P. G. McHugh, "Maori Fishing Rights and the North American Indian" (1985) 6 Otago L. Rev. 62 at p. 68. 58 In a l i n e o f c a s e s b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e r i d i c u l e d R. v . Sikyea , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a r u l e d t h a t w h e r e t h e r e w a s a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n g e n e r a l f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s t o f i s h , h u n t o r t r a p , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p r e v a i l e d r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s a t r e a t y o r w h e t h e r t h e a c t i v i t y t o o k p l a c e o n a r e s e r v e . 1 2 5 T h e c o u r t s s u b s e q u e n t l y s p e c i f i c a l l y h e l d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l Fisheries Act a p p l i e d t o A b o r i g i n a l s a n d o v e r r o d e t r e a t y f i s h i n g p r o v i s i o n s . 1 2 6 In 1 9 7 3 , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a d e c i d e d a n i m p o r t a n t c a s e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n a t u r e o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s g e n e r a l l y . In C a / c f e r 1 2 7 , t h e C o u r t a d j u d i c a t e d u p o n t h e N i s g a ' a l a n d c l a i m . T h e C o u r t s p l i t e v e n l y o n t h e i s s u e o f e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f N i s g a ' a A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . H o w e v e r , J u d s o n J . r e c o g n i z e d 124[1964] S.C.R. 642. This case dealt with the question of whether the Migratory Birds Convention Act, R.S.C. 1970, c. M-12, a federal statute, had taken away the treaty protected hunting rights of an Aboriginal in the Northwest Territories. Although the Supreme Court ultimately agreed with the decision of the court below that the Act was inconsistent with the Aboriginal right to hunt for migratory birds and, as a result, the right had been abrogated, it spent most of its time considering whether the duck in question was a wild duck or a tame one. D. Sanders points out that the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in this case was the object of the satire Regina v. Ojibway which dealt with the question of whether a horse covered with feathers was a small bird. See D. Sanders, "Indian Hunting and Fishing Rights" (1972-73) 38 Sask. L. Rev. 45 at pp. 45-46. 125See also R. v. George, [1966] S.C.R. 267 and Daniels v. White, [1968] S.C.R. 517, both of which also dealt with the Migratory Birds Convention Act. It should be noted that provincial game laws can be superseded by a treaty by virtue of s. 88 of the Indian Act which provides that "Subject to the terms of any treaty ... all laws of general application from time to time in force in any province are applicable to and in respect of Indians in the province See/?, v. White and Bob (1964), 52 W.W.R. 193 (B.C.C.A.), afFd [1965] S.C.R. vi. It has been held that s.88 applies only to provincial legislation, and not federal. Thus, federal legislation of general application could affect treaty rights. See R. v. George. Fisheries are within federal jurisdiction, but the Department has delegated some its powers to provincial ministries. In British Columbia, for instance, administration of the regulatory regime for freshwater fish species has been delegated to the province. However, the regulations are still enacted on the authority of a federal statute and are, therefore, federally-derived legislation. See R. v. Derricksan (1976), 71 D.L.R. (3d) 159 (S.C.C.). Thus, s. 88 has little bearing on Aboriginal fishing. As well, the provision has little effect in British Columbia in any event given that there are few treaties in the province and s. 88 refers only to treaty rights, not Aboriginal rights. Because s! 88 refers only to treaty rights, Aboriginals in non-treaty areas historically had less protection from provincial legislation than those with treaties. l26R. v. Derricksan, supra, note 125, R. v. Francis (1970), 10 D.L.R. (3d) 189 (N.B.C.A.) and R. v. Cooper, supra, note 5. 121 Supra, note 119. 59 A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e a s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o u l d e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n a n d w h i c h w a s g r o u n d e d i n A b o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n . H e d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , r u l e t h a t t h i s h i s t o r i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d o c c u p a t i o n m e a n t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s h a d l e g a l r i g h t s t o t h e i r l a n d s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e j u d g m e n t s i g n a l e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a m o v e m e n t a w a y f r o m v i e w i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s f r o m a p o s i t i v i s t f r a m e w o r k , w h e r e i n s u c h r i g h t s a r e o n l y s e e n t o e x i s t w h e r e s o d e c l a r e d b y l e g i s l a t i o n , t o a r i g h t s - b a s e d f r a m e w o r k i n w h i c h r i g h t s a r e s e e n t o e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t o f a n y l e g i s l a t i v e d e c l a r a t i o n . U n d e r t h e r i g h t s - b a s e d a n a l y s i s , it i s i r r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 a p p l i e s t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c a n e x i s t w i t h o u t b e i n g e x p l i c i t l y p r o c l a i m e d b y t h e s t a t e . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e C o u r t i n Guerin v . The Queen126 f o u n d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s w a s b a s e d o n p r e - e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l , t h u s c o n t i n u i n g t h e t r e n d a w a y f r o m p o s i t i v i s m . A s D. S a n d e r s s t a t e s , t h e Calder c a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r a r g u i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n C a n a d a . 1 2 9 A s w a s n o t e d e a r l i e r , s . 3 5 o f t h e Constitution Act, 1982 h a s a l s o c h a n g e d t h a t f r a m e w o r k d r a m a t i c a l l y a n d it i s t o c a s e s d e c i d e d u n d e r t h a t s e c t i o n t h a t w e w i l l n o w t u r n . [1984] 2 S C R . 335. 'Sanders, supra, note 118. 60 B. Sparrow and Its Wake (1) The Sparrow Decision It w a s i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e shift t o a r i g h t s - b a s e d f r a m e w o r k t h a t t h e Constitution Act, 1982 w a s e n a c t e d . T h e A c t c o n t a i n s t h r e e s e c t i o n s w h i c h d e a l w i t h A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f w h i c h i s s e c t i o n 3 5 . S e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) p r o v i d e s that: " T h e e x i s t i n g a b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a a r e h e r e b y r e c o g n i z e d a n d a f f i r m e d . " 1 3 0 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a ' s first i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 3 5 ( 1 ) , w h i c h h a p p e n e d t o b e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , o c c u r r e d i n R. v . Sparrow.131 In t h a t c a s e , t h e C o u r t c o n s i d e r e d o n l y t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h f o r f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . 1 3 2 H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e c a s e d e a l t w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o b e g i v e n t o s . 3 5 i n t h e c o n t e x t o f f i s h i n g r i g h t s , it o b v i o u s l y s h e d s c o n s i d e r a b l e light o n t h e a p p r o a c h w h i c h s h o u l d b e t a k e n b y t h e 130Schedule B of The Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. The other two provisions are s. 25, which protects Aboriginal rights from the equality provisions of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and s. 37, which calls for four First Ministers' Conferences on Aboriginal constitutional issues. ulSupra, note 56. 1 3 2 Although requested by appellant counsel' to deal with the commercial aspect of the right, the Court declined. See Sparrow, ibid at pp. 402 to 403. In his article, " The Sparrow Doctrine: Beginning of the End or End of the Beginning?" (1990) 15 Queen's L.J. 217 at pp. 243 to 244, W.I.C. Binnie refers to the fact that the only reason charges were laid against Mr. Sparrow was because fisheries officers had learned that the First Nation had been selling fish. Charges had actually been laid in relation to the sale offish, but they were dismissed because the seizure of the fish was found to be unlawful. Thus, although the Supreme Court of Canada did not address the issue of commercial fishing, it appears that the First Nation's commercial activity was actually one of the central motivating factors for laying the charges in the case. 61 c o u r t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o t h e r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s - i n c l u d i n g c o m m e r c i a l a n d m a n a g e m e n t r i g h t s - a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d . M r . S p a r r o w w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e M u s q u e a m I n d i a n B a n d . In 1 9 8 4 , h e w a s c h a r g e d u n d e r t h e Fisheries Act w i t h t h e o f f e n c e o f f i s h i n g w i t h a n e t l o n g e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h w a s p e r m i t t e d b y t h e t e r m s o f h i s B a n d ' s f o o d f i s h i n g l i c e n c e . H e a d m i t t e d t h e f a c t s a l l e g e d t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e o f f e n c e , b u t d e f e n d e d t h e c h a r g e s o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t h e h a d b e e n e x e r c i s i n g a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h a n d t h a t t h e n e t r e s t r i c t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e B a n d l i c e n c e w a s c o n t r a r y t o s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . T h e P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t J u d g e c o n v i c t e d M r . S p a r r o w of t h e o f f e n c e . H e h e l d t h a t h e w a s b o u n d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n i n Calder t h a t a p e r s o n c o u l d n o t c l a i m a n A b o r i g i n a l right u n l e s s it w a s s u p p o r t e d b y a t r e a t y , p r o c l a m a t i o n , c o n t r a c t o r o t h e r d o c u m e n t . T h i s r e l i a n c e o n t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l j u d g m e n t h a d b e e n a r g u e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h e s p l i t S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a d e c i s i o n i n Calder. A n a p p e a l t o t h e C o u n t y C o u r t w a s d i s m i s s e d o n s i m i l a r g r o u n d s . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l f o u n d t h a t t h e c o u r t s b e l o w h a d e r r e d i n l a w i n d e c i d i n g t h e y w e r e b o u n d b y t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n i n Calder s i n c e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a h a d r e n d e r e d a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n o n t h a t p o i n t i n its d e c i s i o n i n t h e Calder c a s e . T h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l a l s o f o u n d t h a t a n A b o r i g i n a l right w a s n o t e x t i n g u i s h e d t h r o u g h m e r e r e g u l a t i o n , a l t h o u g h g o v e r n m e n t d i d h a v e t h e p o w e r t o r e g u l a t e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g u n d e r s . 3 5 ( 1 ) , p r o v i d e d s u c h r e g u l a t i o n w a s r e a s o n a b l e f o r t h e p r o p e r m a n a g e m e n t a n d 62 c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e r e s o u r c e . T h e C o u r t d e f i n e d t h e right i n q u e s t i o n a s a r i g h t t o f i s h f o r f o o d a n d a s s o c i a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n p r i o r i t y t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r u s e r g r o u p s . T h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e trial j u d g e ' s f i n d i n g s o f f a c t w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o l e a d t o c o n v i c t i o n . B o t h M r . S p a r r o w a n d t h e C r o w n a p p e a l e d t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n . 1 3 3 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a d e l i v e r e d a u n a n i m o u s , a n d s o m e w h a t c o n v o l u t e d , d e c i s i o n in t h e c a s e . It u l t i m a t e l y f o u n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f a c t u a l f i n d i n g s t o s u p p o r t a c o n v i c t i o n o f M r . S p a r r o w a n d s e n t t h e c a s e b a c k f o r a r e t r i a l s o t h a t t h e i s s u e s it i d e n t i f i e d i n its d e c i s i o n c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d . C h i e f J u s t i c e D i c k s o n a n d J u s t i c e L a F o r e s t , w h o d e l i v e r e d t h e d e c i s i o n f o r t h e C o u r t , s p e n t m u c h t i m e i n t h e d e c i s i o n d e l i n e a t i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . T h e y e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t e d a " f r o z e n r i g h t s " a p p r o a c h t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e r i g h t s w e r e n o t t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o h o w t h e y h a d b e e n r e g u l a t e d in t h e p a s t . T h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e p h r a s e " e x i s t i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s " w a s t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d f l e x i b l y t o p e r m i t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f r i g h t s o v e r t i m e . T h e C o u r t a l s o Mr. Sparrow appealed on the ground that the Court erred in holding that s. 35(1) only protected Aboriginal food fishing and permitted restrictive regulation of the right whenever reasonably justified for proper management and conservation of the resource, and in failing to find the net length restriction inconsistent with s. 35(1). The Crown cross-appealed on the ground that the Court erred in holding that the Aboriginal right had not been extinguished prior to April 17, 1982 and, in the alternative, that it erred in concluding that the right included the right to take fish for ceremonial purposes and societal needs and that the band had priority over all other users of the resource. It also argued that Mr. Sparrow had failed to establish a prima facie case that the restriction on net length unreasonably interfered with his right. There were a number of intervenors in the appeal to the Supreme Court: the National Indian Brotherhood Assembly of First Nations intervened in support of Mr. Sparrow, and the Attorney-Generals of British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Newfoundland, the British Columbia Wildlife Federation, the Fishery Council of British Columbia, and the United Fishermen and Allied Workers Union supported the Crown. 63 h e l d t h a t a right i s n o t e x t i n g u i s h e d m e r e l y b e c a u s e it h a s b e e n c o n t r o l l e d i n g r e a t d e t a i l b y r e g u l a t i o n . T h e s t a t e ' s i n t e n t i o n t o e x t i n g u i s h a n A b o r i g i n a l right m u s t b e c l e a r a n d p l a i n . T h e C o u r t f o u n d n o t h i n g i n t h e Fisheries Act o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t o d e m o n s t r a t e a c l e a r a n d p l a i n i n t e n t i o n t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h f o r f o o d . 1 3 4 H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x t i n g u i s h a n A b o r i g i n a l right , it h e l d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e n o t a b s o l u t e a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t i n u e s t o h a v e p o w e r t o l e g i s l a t e i n r e l a t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . In s u p p o r t o f t h a t f i n d i n g , t h e C o u r t s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e w a s f r o m t h e o u t s e t n e v e r a n y d o u b t t h a t s o v e r e i g n t y a n d l e g i s l a t i v e p o w e r , a n d i n d e e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g title, t o . . . [the] l a n d s v e s t e d i n t h e C r o w n . " 1 3 5 T h u s , f e d e r a l p o w e r t o l e g i s l a t e c o n t i n u e s , a l t h o u g h it i s t e m p e r e d b y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t g o v e r n m e n t j u s t i f y a n y r e g u l a t i o n t h a t i n f r i n g e s u p o n o r d e n i e s a n A b o r i g i n a l right. In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e f e d e r a l p o w e r , a n d p o s s i b l y p r o v i n c i a l p o w e r s , m u s t b e r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e f i d u c i a r y d u t y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d a f f i r m A b o r i g i n a l a n d t r e a t y r i g h t s . 1 3 6 T h e C o u r t t h e n s e t o u t t h e t e s t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a p r o p e r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e . T h e first q u e s t i o n t o b e a s k e d u n d e r t h e Sparrow UASupra, note 56 at pp. 396-397 and pp. 400-401. 135Ibid at p. 404. U6Ibid at pp. 408-410. In the words of the Court: "While ... [s. 35] does not promise immunity from government regulation in a society that, in the twentieth century, is increasingly more complex, interdependent and sophisticated, and where exhaustible resources need protection and management, it does hold the Crown to a substantive promise." See p. 410. 64 t e s t i s w h e t h e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a n e x i s t i n g A b o r i g i n a l right. T o d e t e r m i n e if, a n d w h a t t y p e of, A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s e x i s t , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r i g h t s a r e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e C o u r t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s a r e n o t t r a d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , b u t r a t h e r c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c u l t u r e a n d e x i s t e n c e of t h e g r o u p . It c a u t i o n e d t h a t c o u r t s m u s t b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e right. T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n i n f r i n g e m e n t h a s o c c u r r e d , t h e C o u r t s e t o u t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : f irstly , i s t h e l i m i t a t i o n u n r e a s o n a b l e ; s e c o n d l y , d o e s it i m p o s e u n d u e h a r d s h i p ; a n d , l a s t l y , d o e s it d e n y t o t h e h o l d e r s of t h e right t h e i r p r e f e r r e d m e a n s of e x e r c i s i n g t h e r i g h t . 1 3 7 If a n i n f r i n g e m e n t h a s o c c u r r e d , t h e o n u s t h e n s h i f t s t o t h e C r o w n t o p r o v e t h a t it w a s j u s t i f i e d . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e b e a v a l i d l e g i s l a t i v e o b j e c t i v e w h i c h m u s t b e m o r e m e a n i n g f u l a n d l e s s v a g u e t h a n " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t w e r e c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d o b j e c t i v e s . T h e n e x t r e q u i r e m e n t i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t i s t h a t t h e r e b e a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e o b j e c t i v e a n d t h e e x t e n t o f i n f r i n g e m e n t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l right. In t h e f i s h e r i e s c o n t e x t , t h e C o u r t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d a f f i r m a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s m a y g i v e r i s e t o c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r u s e r s , b u t r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e r e b e a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o b j e c t i v e a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e f i s h e r y . T h e C o u r t e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e M u s q u e a m 1 3 7 7Wrfarp . 411 . 65 f o o d f i s h i n g r i g h t s m e a n s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s m u s t b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n a n y a l l o c a t i o n of f i s h i n g r i g h t s a f t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e m e t , e v e n if t h e r e s u l t i s t h a t o n l y A b o r i g i n a l s a r e a l l o w e d t o f i s h . 1 3 8 T h e C o u r t a l s o i d e n t i f i e d f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s t o b e a d d r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e , i n c l u d i n g w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s a s little i n f r i n g e m e n t a s p o s s i b l e , w h e t h e r f a i r c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d , a n d w h e t h e r t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e i n q u e s t i o n w e r e c o n s u l t e d a b o u t t h e 1 3 9 r e g u l a t i o n s . T h e d e c i s i o n i n Sparrow c a n c e r t a i n l y b e d e s c r i b e d a s a m i l e s t o n e i n t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s b a t t l e . W i t h its r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e a n d e x p r e s s r e j e c t i o n of a f r o z e n r i g h t s a p p r o a c h , it e s t a b l i s h e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r a m u c h b r o a d e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . I n d e e d , t h e d e c i s i o n w a s t h e i m p e t u s f o r a c h a n g e i n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n ("the D e p a r t m e n t " ) a n d its e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s S t r a t e g y ( " A F S " ) . H o w e v e r , at t i m e s t h e C o u r t a p p e a r s t o h a v e h a d s o m e d i f f i c u l t y f o l l o w i n g its o w n d i r e c t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e a n d t o r e f r a i n f r o m v i e w i n g t h e r i g h t s a s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a t e d f o r m . A s w e l l , s o m e o f t h e f i n d i n g s in t h e d e c i s i o n c o n t i n u e t o r e f l e c t m a n y o f t h e s a m e b a s i c p r e m i s e s a n d i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n t h e b a s i s f o r t h e f i s h e r i e s r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e . W a t pp. 413̂ 14. W a t pp. 416-417. 66 F o r i n s t a n c e , b y s e p a r a t i n g t h e f i s h i n g right into t w o d i s t i n c t p a r t s - f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d c o m m e r c i a l o n t h e o t h e r - t h e C o u r t w a s v i e w i n g t h e right a s it w a s d e f i n e d b y r e g u l a t i o n a n d n o t a s it w a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x e r c i s e d b y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s p r i o r t o r e g u l a t i o n . T h e C o u r t ' s e x c u s e f o r v i e w i n g t h e right i n t h i s w a y w a s t h a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l i s s u e w a s n o t d e a l t w i t h i n t h e c o u r t b e l o w . H o w e v e r , it i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e C o u r t s p e n t s o m e t i m e d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s , e v e n m e n t i o n i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i n t e r v e n e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s . It i s q u i t e p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e r e a l r e a s o n t h e C o u r t d e c l i n e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l i s s u e w a s t o a v o i d t h a t c o n f l i c t a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h t h e C o u r t n o t e d t h a t g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n i n a n d of itself c o u l d n o t d e l i n e a t e t h e r i g h t a s o n e i n v o l v i n g f o o d f i s h i n g o n l y , a n d p e r h a p s t h e r e b y a t t e m p t e d t o p a v e t h e w a y f o r a f u t u r e d e c i s i o n f a v o u r i n g c o m m e r c i a l r i g h t s , it stil l c o n f i n e d its r e a s o n s t o f o o d f i s h i n g . T h u s , it e f f e c t i v e l y i g n o r e d its o w n p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Its d e c i s i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d c a n b e s e e n a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y c o u r t s o f t e n h a v e i n t r u l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n s o d o i n g m e a n s n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s c o u l d b e s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d . W h e n t h e r e a r e t o o m a n y o v e r l a p p i n g a n d c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , t h e c o u r t s w i l l o f t e n b e r e l u c t a n t t o d e f i n e r i g h t s t o o b r o a d l y . 1 4 0 1 4 0W.I.C. Binnie makes this observation in "The Sparrow Doctrine: Beginning of the End or End of the Beginning?" supra, note 132 at p. 225. 67 T h i s d i f f i c u l t y c a n b e s e e n a s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e t e n d e n c y o f c o u r t s t o p r o t e c t w h a t M e n n o B o l d t c a l l s " t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " . 1 4 1 T h a t i s , w h e n e v e r r e c o g n i t i o n of a n A b o r i g i n a l right i s p e r c e i v e d a s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a , c o u r t s w i l l r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e it. B o l d t s t a t e s : "It w o u l d s e e m t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e , t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d t h e j u d i c i a r y h a v e r e a c h e d a n i d e o l o g i c a l c o n c o r d t o d e n y t h e h i s t o r i c a l r i g h t s a n d c l a i m s o f I n d i a n s b e c a u s e it w o u l d c o s t t o o m u c h t o h o n o u r t h e m . " 1 4 2 A l t h o u g h t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t d i d n o t e x p l i c i t l y d e n y t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h i n c l u d e d a c o m m e r c i a l e l e m e n t , it c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t a p p e a r t o w a n t t o c o m e t o t h a t c o n c l u s i o n . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e c o s t , a s w e l l a s t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , o f r e c o g n i z i n g a b r o a d e r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g right w a s a f a c t o r i n its d e c i s i o n t o a v o i d t h e i s s u e e n t i r e l y . A s w e l l , t h e C o u r t m a y h a v e h a d s o m e c o n c e r n s a b o u t m a n a g e m e n t of t h e h i g h l y r e g u l a t e d a n d c o m p e t i t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y t h a t t h e y s e n s e d d i d n o t e x i s t f o r t h e f o o d f i s h e r y . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e C o u r t ' s r e f u s a l t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o m m e r c i a l i s s u e i s p e r h a p s t h a t it h a d a v i e w of A b o r i g i n a l s a s t r a d i t i o n a l o r p o o r o r b o t h , b u t n o t a s m o d e r n p l a y e r s w h o c o u l d g e t into c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n a b i g w a y . A s w e l l , t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s w a s C h i e f J u s t i c e D i c k s o n ' s l a s t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c a s e m i g h t h a v e l e d h i m t o i g n o r e t h e f a c t s of i l l e g a l s a l e w h i c h h a d b e e n s e t o u t i n t h e c o u r t s b e l o w , a n d t h e r e b y t h e c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t s of t h e c a s e , a n d f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y o n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e i s s u e t o e n s u r e u n a n i m i t y o f t h e C o u r t . Surviving as Indians. The Challenge ofSelf-Government (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993). W a t p. 17. 68 O n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l front , t h e C o u r t d o e s a p p e a r t o h a v e r e c o g n i z e d s o m e of t h e p r e v a i l i n g m y t h s i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t a n d A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s d i s c o u r s e . B y h o l d i n g t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n s . 3 5 ( 1 ) a r e t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d f l e x i b l y t o p e r m i t t h e i r e v o l u t i o n o v e r t i m e , t h e C o u r t e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t e d t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e a s s t a t i c . T h i s i d e o l o g y , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s a r e n o l o n g e r " r e a l I n d i a n s " if t h e y a d o p t p r a c t i c e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y , h a s b e e n e x p l i c i t l y a n d i m p l i c i t l y u s e d b y o t h e r c o u r t s t o f i n d a g a i n s t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t . 1 4 3 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s e x p r e s s r e j e c t i o n o f t h a t i d e o l o g y i s d e f i n i t e l y a s t e p f o r w a r d . A s w e l l , a l t h o u g h t h e C o u r t d i d n o t q u e s t i o n t h a t g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e p r o p e r p a r t y t o d e t e r m i n e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s , it p o i n t e d o u t t h e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r w h o t h o s e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t . T h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h c o n s e r v a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s i s a v a l i d l e g i s l a t i v e o b j e c t i v e , t h e r e m u s t b e a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e f i s h e r y , w i t h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s b e i n g g i v e n p r i o r i t y o n c e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e m e t . C o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s i n a n d o f t h e m s e l v e s w i l l n o t j u s t i f y a n i n f r i n g e m e n t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h . H o w e v e r , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e C o u r t d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y s t e p o u t s i d e t h e p r e v a l e n t i d e o l o g i c a l f r a m e w o r k . A l t h o u g h it r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r i n 143See M. Kline, "The Colour of Law: Ideological Representations of First Nations in Legal Discourse" (1994) 3 Social and Legal Studies 453 at pp. 463-465. 69 w h o s e b e n e f i t c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s a r e a i m e d , it d i d n o t q u e s t i o n t h a t it i s o n l y g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h c a n d e l i n e a t e a n d a c h i e v e t h o s e g o a l s . O f c o u r s e , t h e i s s u e of A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e w a s n o t d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e C o u r t a n d it w a s p r o b a b l y n o t e v e n a r g u e d i n t h e c a s e . H o w e v e r , i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n t i n u i n g right t o l e g i s l a t e i n r e l a t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g t h e C o u r t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y that , f r o m t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , m a n a g e m e n t of t h e f i s h i s a r g u a b l y a s i n t e g r a l t o t h e i r c u l t u r e a s b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o c a t c h f i s h . It c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s d o n o t r e c o g n i z e a n d r e s p e c t A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t , t h e y a r e a n i n f r i n g e m e n t o f a n A b o r i g i n a l right. T h e C o u r t d o e s n o t a p p e a r e v e n t o h a v e t u r n e d its c o l l e c t i v e m i n d t o t h i s i s s u e , e x c e p t p e r h a p s t o c a s u a l l y n o t e t h a t " t h e r e w a s f r o m t h e o u t s e t n e v e r a n y d o u b t t h a t s o v e r e i g n t y a n d l e g i s l a t i v e p o w e r , a n d i n d e e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g title, t o s u c h l a n d s v e s t e d i n t h e C r o w n . " 1 4 4 T h i s b l i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r A b o r i g i n a l s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t s u r p r i s i n g - a f t e r a l l , t h e C o u r t i s p a r t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d o n e o f its i m p l i c i t j o b s i s t o p r o t e c t t h a t s o v e r e i g n t y . A s w e l l , t h i s d e c i s i o n w a s r e l e a s e d a f t e r t h e O k a i n c i d e n t , w i t h its f o c u s o n s o v e r e i g n t y . H o w e v e r , it d o e s i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y c o u r t s w i l l h a v e i n truly t a k i n g o n a n A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . 1 4 5 It h a s a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s b l i n d a c c e p t a n c e o f C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e C o u r t i s n o t y e t t a k i n g a c o m p l e t e l y i n h e r e n t r i g h t s - b a s e d U4Supra, note 56 at p. 404. 1 4 5 As C. Tennant points out, it may not be possible forjudges to truly ever understand Aboriginal culture in anything other than the dominant society's terms. He suggests that even assuming that knowing difference is possible is a tool of cultural hegemony. See "Justification and Cultural Authority in s. 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982: Regina v. Sparrow" (1991) 14 Dalhousie L. J. 372 at p. 384. 70 a p p r o a c h t o A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . I n s t e a d , it i s stil l u s i n g at l e a s t a p a r t i a l p o s i t i v i s t o r c o n t i n g e n t r i g h t s - b a s e d f r a m e w o r k b e c a u s e i n o r d e r t o a c c e p t w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r A b o r i g i n a l s , o n e m u s t b e l i e v e t h a t if C a n a d a d e c i d e d n o t t o r e s p e c t A b o r i g i n a l s o v e r e i g n t y , it d o e s n o t e x i s t . 1 4 6 D e s p i t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s o m e of t h e f i n d i n g s i n Sparrow, it i s c l e a r l y a n i m p o r t a n t c a s e a n d o n e t o w h i c h l o w e r c o u r t s s h o u l d p a y strict h e e d i n a d j u d i c a t i n g u p o n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s s u e s . W e w i l l n o w r e v i e w h o w s o m e o f t h e s e l o w e r c o u r t s , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n p a r t i c u l a r , h a v e a p p l i e d Sparrow i n t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g c o n t e x t . (2) Application of Sparrow L o w e r c o u r t s h a v e b e e n j u s t a s r e l u c t a n t t o t h r e a t e n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s i n d u s t r y a s t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a p p a r e n t l y w a s in Sparrow. A s w e l l , d e s p i t e t h e r u l i n g i n Sparrow, t h e r e h a v e b e e n v e r y f e w c a s e s 146See M. Asch and P. Macklem, "Aboriginal Rights and Canadian Sovereignty: An Essay on R. v. Sparrow" (1991) 29 Alta L. Rev. 498. Their points are critiqued by T. Isaac in "Discarding the Rose- Coloured Glasses: A Commentary on Asch and Macklem" (1992) Alta L. Rev. 708. Isaac concludes that their article "lacks a sense of the political and legal reality of Canada. Paramount to this reality is Canadian sovereignty. Absolute sovereignty in the forms of an inherent aboriginal right of self- government or aboriginal sovereignty is politically unfeasible and legally unsupported." See p. 712. Although it is not clear to this writer that recognition of Aboriginal sovereignty is legally unsupported, it certainly does not appear to be politically feasible to expect courts to deny the validity of Canadian sovereignty and, hence, their own authority. 71 in w h i c h a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d . W h e r e t h e c o u r t s h a v e r e c o g n i z e d s u c h a right , t h e right h a s b e e n d e f i n e d i n e x t r e m e l y n a r r o w , a n d o f t e n n o n s e n s i c a l , t e r m s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e R. v . Jones d e c i s i o n 1 4 8 , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e S a u g e e n O j i b w a y h a d a c o m m e r c i a l right t o f i s h . H o w e v e r , it m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t t h e C r o w n c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e r e w a s " a n a b o r i g i n a l right of s o m e s o r t t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y " . 1 4 9 In a d d i t i o n , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e right , F a i r g r i e v e J . r e f e r r e d t o it a s a c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y d i r e c t e d a t " s u s t e n a n c e " . 1 5 0 In s u p p o r t o f s u c h a d e f i n i t i o n , h e r e f e r r e d t o t h e d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n of W i l s o n J . i n R. v . Horseman™ w h e r e i n s h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n u s e o f a r e s o u r c e f o r s u s t e n a n c e a n d p u r e c o m m e r c i a l profit . A s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n w a s m a d e m o r e r e c e n t l y b y s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n R. v . Van der Peet152, R. v . Gladstone153 a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse Ltd. v . The Queen154, a s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t (3) b e l o w . T h u s , e v e n w h e n a c o m m e r c i a l right h a s b e e n f o u n d b y e i t h e r t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o r a l o w e r c o u r t , t h e t e r m " c o m m e r c i a l " h a s b e e n d e f i n e d m u c h d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n it i s f o r n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s . T h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n m a y v e r y w e l l b e t h e c o u r t s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o m a k e 147There has, however, been some caselaw giving a broader interpretation to treaty fishing rights. For instance, in Saanichton Marina Ltd. v. Claxton (1989), 36 B.C.L.R. (2d) 79, the British Columbia Court of Appeal was dealing with the fishing provisions in one of the treaties on Vancouver Island. The Court found that although the right to fish granted by the Treaty did not amount to a proprietary interest in the seabed or a contractual right to the fishing grounds, the Treaty did protect their right to fish. The Court found that the right to fish encompassed other rights which are incidental to the Treaty right. The construction of a marina was found to interfere with that right. As a result, the Treaty fishers were successful in blocking the construction of the marina. Although this was not a case about commercial rights to fish or jurisdiction over the fisheries, it could nonetheless have important implications in the fisheries context to the extent that it recognizes incidental rights. ,48(1993), 14 O.R.(3d) 421 (Ont. Ct. (Prov. Div.)). l49Ibid, atpp. 43(M31. 15<W,atp.437. 1 5 1 [1990] 1 SCR. 695 at p. 919. 152[1996] S.C.J. No. 77 (QL). 153[1996] S.C.J. No. 79 (QL). ,54[1996] S.C.J. No. 78 (QL). 72 f i n d i n g s w h i c h w i l l n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t o t h e r i n t e r e s t s t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . A s w e l l , it i s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f c o u r t s ' i n a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e A b o r i g i n a l s i n a n y t h i n g b u t s t e r e o t y p i c a l t r a d i t i o n a l t e r m s ; t h a t i s , t h a t t h e y w e r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h s u r v i v a l a n d n o t i n v o l v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l l y - p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s . It h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a h a s e f f e c t i v e l y f o r e c l o s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of l o w e r c o u r t s r e c o g n i z i n g a n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l right t o f i s h b y d e f i n i n g f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n t e r m s of p r i o r i t i e s . 1 5 5 If c o u r t s a r e t r u l y m o t i v a t e d b y a c o n c e r n t o p r o t e c t t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " ( i . e . n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c a p i t a l i s t s ) , a s B o l d t s u g g e s t s , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o t h e f i s h e r i e s a r e t o b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y m a y v e r y w e l l r e s u l t i n c o u r t s r e f u s i n g t o f i n d t h a t s u c h a right e x i s t s . A l t h o u g h f o o d f i s h i n g i s s o m e w h a t s e l f - l i m i t i n g i n t h a t t h e r e a r e o n l y s o m a n y f i s h a c o m m u n i t y c a n c o n s u m e , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g h a s n o s u c h s e l f - l i m i t a t i o n s a p a r t f r o m t h e b u i l t - i n l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e p o t e n t i a l c o m m e r c i a l m a r k e t . T h u s , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s i s s o p o t e n t i a l l y d e v a s t a t i n g t h a t c o u r t s m a y p r e d i c t a b l y f i n d a g a i n s t t h e right. A t l e a s t i n t h e c a s e of t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l , t h i s i s i n d e e d w h a t a p p e a r s t o h a v e o c c u r r e d . T h e C o u r t f o u n d a g a i n s t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l right t o f i s h i n R. v . Van derPeei156, R. v . Gladstone157 a n d R. See Binnie, supra, note 132 at p. 236. !(1993), 80 B.C.L.R.(2d) 75, affd [1996] S.C.J. No. 77 (QL). (1993), 80B.C.L.R.(2d) 133, rev'd [1996] S.C.J. No. 79 (QL). 73 v. N.T.C. Smokehouse158 A s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t (3) b e l o w , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a a f f i r m e d t h e C o u r t of A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n s i n b o t h Van der Peet a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse, u s i n g s o m e of t h e s a m e r a t i o n a l e s a n d a p p a r e n t u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e r n s . In t h e s e c a s e s , it a p p e a r s t h a t o n e of t h e m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s f o r t h e j u d g e s ' r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y m i g h t h a v e b e e n t h e e f f e c t s u c h a right w o u l d h a v e o n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s , o r w h a t B o l d t w o u l d c a l l t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n Van der Peet, J u s t i c e M a c f a r l a n e s t a t e d : t h i s c a s e i s n o t a b o u t t h e c a s u a l d i s p o s a l of s u r p l u s f o o d f i s h . In e s s e n c e , it i s a b o u t a n a s s e r t e d I n d i a n right t o s e l l f i s h a l l o c a t e d f o r f o o d p u r p o s e s o n a c o m m e r c i a l b a s i s . T h e r e s u l t w o u l d b e t o g i v e I n d i a n f i s h e r s a p r e f e r e n c e o r p r i o r i t y o v e r o t h e r C a n a d i a n s w h o s e e k a l i v e l i h o o d f r o m c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . 1 5 9 W e c a n a l s o s e e m u c h o f t h e o l d i d e o l o g y c o m i n g t o t h e f o r e i n t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , In Van der Peet, M a c f a r l a n e J . A . , s p e a k i n g f o r t h e m a j o r i t y , s t a t e d t h a t n o t a l l A b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e s i n e x i s t e n c e a t t h e t i m e s o v e r e i g n t y w a s a s s e r t e d b y E u r o p e a n s a r e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . T h e p r a c t i c e s m u s t b e i n t e g r a l t o t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e . H e w e n t o n t o s t a t e t h a t a m o d e r n i z e d f o r m o f t h e p r a c t i c e c a n still b e a n A b o r i g i n a l right, b u t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h b e c a m e p r e v a l e n t m e r e l y b e c a u s e o f E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t i s n o t a n A b o r i g i n a l right. In a d d i t i o n , h e h e l d 158(1993), 80B.C.L.R.(2d) 158, affd [1996] S.C.J. No. 78 (QL). X59Van der Peet, supra, note 156 atp. 85. 74 t h a t p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e n o t u n i q u e t o A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s , b u t a r e c o m m o n t o b o t h A b o r i g i n a l a n d E u r o p e a n s o c i e t i e s , a r e n o t t o b e g i v e n t h e s t a t u s of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . S i n c e t h e S t o : l o t r a d e d m o s t e x t e n s i v e l y i n f i s h a s a r e s u l t o f t h e o p e n i n g o f a H u d s o n ' s B a y p o s t , M a c f a r l a n e J . A . f o u n d t h a t t h e s a l e o r b a r t e r o f f i s h c o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t e g r a l t o t h e S t o : l o ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e w a s n o A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l l f i s h . 1 6 0 T h e s e c o m m e n t s r e f l e c t t h e i d e o l o g y o f s t a t i c " I n d i a n n e s s " , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e c a n n o t c h a n g e o r a d a p t a n d stil l b e A b o r i g i n a l i n n a t u r e . T h e m a j o r i t y u s e s t h e s a m e i d e o l o g y of s t a t i c c u l t u r e t o d e n y a c o m m e r c i a l right t o s e l l h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p i n Gladstone. A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e H e i l t s u k F i r s t N a t i o n h a d t r a d e d i n l i t e r a l l y t o n s o f h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p p r e - c o n t a c t , t h e m a j o r i t y f o u n d t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u a l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r o f t h a t a c t i v i t y w a s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s a l e o f t h e s p a w n t o J a p a n e s e b u y e r s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e w a s n o A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y . 1 6 1 In a d d i t i o n , t h e i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y w a s u s e d b y t h e C o u r t t o d e n y t h e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l right a n d t o a t t e m p t t o k e e p A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a s t r a d i t i o n a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n Van der Peet, a f t e r h o l d i n g t h a t M r s . V a n d e r P e e t d i d n o t h a v e a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o s e l l h e r f i s h , M a c f a r l a n e J . A . s t a t e d , W a t pp. 84-86. ' Gladstone, supra, note 157 at p. 145 75 t h a t i s n o t t o s a y p e r s o n s of a b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y a r e p r e c l u d e d f r o m t a k i n g p a r t , w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s , i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y . B u t t h e y m u s t b e s u b j e c t t o t h e s a m e r u l e s a s o t h e r C a n a d i a n s w h o s e e k a l i v e l i h o o d f r o m t h a t 162 r e s o u r c e . W a l l a c e J . A . m a d e s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s i n Van der Peet. H e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : If s . 35 h a d , a s its p u r p o s e , t h e r e c a s t i n g o f t h e n a t u r e a n d s c o p e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o r e f l e c t t h e a b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t y ' s o b j e c t i v e o f s a t i s f y i n g its e c o n o m i c n e e d s , o n e r e s u l t w o u l d b e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n a b o r i g i n a l p r i o r i t y i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y a l o n g t h e c o a s t s a n d r i v e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( s u b j e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s ) . T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s priority w o u l d b e t h a t o t h e r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w i s h i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f i s h h a r v e s t f o r a n y p u r p o s e - b e it f o o d , s p o r t s o r c o m m e r c i a l - c o u l d d o s o o n l y a f t e r t h e a b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h ( a s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i r e c o n o m i c n e e d s ) w a s s a t i s f i e d . O f c o u r s e , t h e n a t u r e o f a c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y , w i t h its i n h e r e n t o b j e c t i v e o f s a t i s f y i n g a p r a c t i c a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e d e m a n d f o r s a l m o n , w o u l d m a k e t h e a b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l p r i o r i t y l i m i t l e s s . 1 6 3 W e a l s o s e e i n t h a t s t a t e m e n t t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f W a l l a c e J . A . t o f i n d a c o m m e r c i a l right b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o o t h e r i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e of t h e f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t of t h e p r i o r i t y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e right w h i c h w a s m a d e b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n Sparrow. H e , t o o , w e n t o n t o r e f e r t o e q u a l i t y a r g u m e n t s a n d s t a t e d that: Van der Peet, supra, note 156 at p. 89. '/A/rfatp. 95 76 e v e r y r e s i d e n t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e , h a s t h e right t o f i s h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n w a t e r s a n d d i s p o s e o f t h e i r c a t c h c o m m e r c i a l l y . T h i s right , h o w e v e r , i s l i m i t e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y a v a r i e t y o f r e g u l a t i o n s . . . . 1 6 4 A n o t h e r u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g y w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a b o v e - n o t e d c o m m e n t i s t h e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y n o t i o n . A l t h o u g h it i s n o t t r u e t h a t e v e r y r e s i d e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o e s i n d e e d h a v e t h e right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y , g i v e n t h e l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l a n d o t h e r h u r d l e s t o e n t e r i n g t h e i n d u s t r y 1 6 5 , W a l l a c e J . A . n o n e t h e l e s s f e l l b a c k o n c o m m o n p r o p e r t y n o t i o n s t o d e n y a n y s p e c i a l r i g h t s f o r A b o r i g i n a l s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o u r t i n t h e s e c a s e s w a s n o t p r e p a r e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e right e v e n e x i s t e d , t h u s n e g a t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a n i n f r i n g e m e n t of t h e right w a s j u s t i f i e d . E v e n w h e r e t h e right w a s f o u n d t o e x i s t , t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s s u e w a s d e a l t w i t h s u m m a r i l y , w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y j u s t i f y i n g a n y a n d a l l i n f r i n g e m e n t s . N o i n q u i r y w a s u n d e r t a k e n i n t o t h e i s s u e of w h o t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e . In Gladstone, f o r i n s t a n c e , H u t c h e o n J . A . f o u n d t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n f r i n g e d a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l l h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p b u t t h a t t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e j u s t i f i e d b y c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t c o n c e r n s . 1 6 6 H o w e v e r , a s L a m b e r t J . A . p o i n t e d o u t i n h i s d i s s e n t , c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e w a s p r e s e n t e d at trial t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o 164Ibid at p. 98. By stating that everyone has a right to fish, Wallace J.A. is effectively elevating the "national interest" to the same level as the aboriginal right. By doing so, he "dismisses the purpose of section 35 in recognizing the uniqueness of aboriginal rights...." See A Bowker, "Sparrow's Promise: Aboriginal Rights in the B.C. Court of Appeal" (1995) U.T. Fac. L. Rev 1 at p. 24. 165Section 4 of the British Columbia Fishery (General Regulations) prohibits fishing unless a licence is obtained. SOR/84-248 166Gladstone, supra, note 157 at p. 141. 77 c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p b e c a u s e t h e a d u l t h e r r i n g a r e n o t k i l l e d i n t h e h a r v e s t i n g p r o c e s s . 1 6 7 C o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o l e g i t i m i z e r e g u l a t i o n i n N.T.C. Smokehouse a s w e l l . 1 6 8 N o t o n l y d i d t h e C o u r t f a l l b a c k o n v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r its d e c i s i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s , it a l s o d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s d i r e c t i o n i n Sparrow t o c o n s i d e r t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n d e f i n i n g t h e A b o r i g i n a l right i n q u e s t i o n . It i s a r g u a b l e t h a t if i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e Van der Peet c a s e t h e C o u r t h a d t r u l y b e e n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , it w o u l d h a v e t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f t h e trial j u d g e ' s f i n d i n g t h a t t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n h a d t r a d e d i n f i s h i n a n o p p o r t u n i s t i c w a y p r i o r t o c o n t a c t . G i v e n t h a t f a c t , it i s a r g u a b l e t h a t t h e S t o : l o t h e r e f o r e h a v e a right t o t r a d e f i s h " o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y " . O n e o f t h e b i g g e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c o m e t o t h e S t o : l o p e o p l e w a s o b v i o u s l y t h e a r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n s w h o w a n t e d t h e i r f i s h a n d it w o u l d s e e m t o f o l l o w f r o m t h e Sparrow a p p r o a c h t h a t t r a d e w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e p r o t e c t e d a s a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t . 1 6 9 A s w e l l , t h e Sparrow a n a l y s i s e x p l i c i t l y p e r m i t s a r i g h t t o b e e x e r c i s e d i n a c o n t e m p o r a r y f o r m . T h e s a l e of f i s h c o u l d c l e a r l y b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a m o d e r n f o r m o f t r a d e . H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l c h o s e i n s t e a d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e m e t h o d b y w h i c h t h e right w a s e x e r c i s e d c o u l d b e m o d e r n , s u c h a s t h e u s e o f m o d e r n i z e d e q u i p m e n t , a n d n o t t h e 167Ibid at pp. 153-154 1 ̂ See Hutcheon J. A.'s oomments in N. T. C. Smokehouse, supra, note 158 at pp 183-184. 169Bowker, supra, note 164 at p. 22. 78 a c t u a l f o r m of t h e r i g h t . 1 7 0 T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e Sparrow d e c i s i o n i t s e l f w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t o b e t a k e n . T h e C o u r t a l s o s e e m e d t o s t a r t w i t h t h e p r e m i s e t h a t s e l l i n g f i s h i s i l l e g a l a n d t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l s m u s t e s t a b l i s h t h e r e i s a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , "Sparrow r e q u i r e s a c o u r t t o s t r i p a w a y t h e l a y e r s of n o n - A b o r i g i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s a n d v i e w t h e right i n its o r i g i n a l f o r m . " 1 7 1 T h i s r e l a t e s a g a i n t o t h e n e e d t o b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a n d t h e r i g h t s - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t o w a r d w h i c h c o u r t s h a v e b e e n m o v i n g r e c e n t l y , r e q u i r e t h e C o u r t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a n d t h e i r c u l t u r e , n o t t h e s t a t e . 1 7 2 R e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , i r r e l e v a n t . M a c f a r l a n e J . A . , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e f e r r e d i n Van der Peet t o t h e i s s u e a s b e i n g w h e t h e r t h e S t o : l o h a v e t h e right t o d i s p o s e of e x c e s s f i s h a l l o c a t e d f o r f o o d , c e r e m o n i a l a n d s o c i a l p u r p o s e s . B y s o c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e i s s u e , h e i s s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e right a s d e f i n e d b y t h e r e g u l a t i o n a n d n o t t h e right a s it m a y i n d e p e n d e n t l y e x i s t . It i s o n l y i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n t h a t t h e S t o : l o u s e o f f i s h f o r f o o d , c e r e m o n i a l a n d s o c i a l p u r p o s e s i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m o t h e r u s e s o f t h e f i s h . T h e a c t u a l right m a y b e m u c h b r o a d e r t h a n w h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o r e g u l a t e . It i s t h i s t y p e o f " f r o z e n r i g h t s " a p p r o a c h w h i c h t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t e d i n Sparrow. See for example Wallace J.A.'s comments in Van der Peet, supra, note 156 at pp. 99-100 'Bowker, supra, note 164 at p. 20 2/&/'rfatp.40. 79 S i m i l a r i d e o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s a r o s e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l c a s e s d e a l i n g w i t h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i s s u e s . T h e C o u r t d e a l t w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s i n N.T.C. Smokehouse173, a s w e l l a s i n R. v . Lewis174 a n d R. v . Nikal175. In a l l t h r e e c a s e s , t h e m a j o r i t y h e l d t h a t t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s h a d n o r i g h t t o p a s s b y - l a w s i n r e l a t i o n t o e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l f i s h e r i e s i n w h i c h t h e i r m e m b e r s h a d r i g h t s t o f i s h f o r f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t u p h e l d t h e d e c i s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e b y - l a w i s s u e i n b o t h Lewis a n d Nikal, b u t o v e r t u r n e d t h e d e c i s i o n i n Nikal for o t h e r r e a s o n s w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n (3) b e l o w . T h e C o u r t ' s r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e a right t o g o v e r n t h e r e s o u r c e m a y s t e m p a r t l y f r o m t h e C o u r t ' s i n a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f A b o r i g i n a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t a n d p o s s i b l y e v e n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o v i e w t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h a s a t r u l y c o l l e c t i v e right a s o p p o s e d t o a n i n d i v i d u a l right , a l t h o u g h t h e s e i s s u e s a r e n e v e r r a i s e d e x p l i c i t l y b y t h e C o u r t . It i s o f n o t e t h a t t h e C o u r t of A p p e a l i n Sparrow e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d a n y n o t i o n of c o - m a n a g e m e n t , c o n f i r m i n g e x c l u s i v e f e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y p o w e r . H o w e v e r , if t h e right i s t r u l y a right o f F i r s t N a t i o n s a s o p p o s e d t o a right o f i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s of a p a r t i c u l a r F i r s t N a t i o n , it w o u l d s e e m t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o r e g u l a t e t h e u s e of t h e r e s o u r c e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e m u s t b e i n t e g r a l t o t h e r i g h t t o u s e t h e r e s o u r c e . 1 7 6 O t h e r w i s e , i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s of t h e g r o u p c o u l d e x e r c i s e t h e i r right i n w a y s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r i g h t o f o t h e r s , ™Supra, note 158. 174(1993), 80 B.C.L.R(2d) 224, affd [1996] S.C.J. No. 46 (QL). 175(1993), 80 B.C.L.R(2d) 245, affd in part, rev'd in part [1996] S.C.J. No. 47 (QL). 1 7 6This argument is made by R Kapashesit and M. Klippenstein, "Aboriginal Group Rights and Environmental Protection" (1991) 36 McGuT L.J. 925 at pp. 955-960 and by Bowker, supra, note 164 at p. 19. 80 i n c l u d i n g t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e . If f i s h i n g i s s e e n t o b e i n t e g r a l t o t h e g r o u p ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e , t h e right t o g o v e r n h o w , w h e n , w h e r e a n d b y w h o m f i s h i n g i s t o b e e x e r c i s e d w o u l d a l s o s e e m t o b e i n t e g r a l . T h a t a p p r o a c h w o u l d b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h v i e w i n g t h e right a s a c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t . 1 7 7 H o w e v e r , it i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h i s l i n e o f a r g u m e n t w a s u s e d b y t h e a p p e l l a n t s i n Lewis i n p a r t i c u l a r . It a p p e a r s t h a t n o a r g u m e n t w a s l e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t m a n a g e m e n t o f f i s h i s p a r t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h . I n s t e a d , a r g u m e n t s w e r e l i m i t e d t o t h e c o r r e c t s t a t u t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s . 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) o f t h e Indian Act a n d t h e p r o p e r d e l i n e a t i o n o f r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , s o m e o f t h e s a m e c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t of r e c o g n i z i n g a n A b o r i g i n a l right a s w e r e f o u n d i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l c a s e s w e r e r a i s e d b y t h e C o u r t i n t h e s e c a s e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n Lewis, W a l l a c e J . A . s e e m e d t o b e i n f l u e n c e d b y h i s c o n c e r n t h a t if t h e r i v e r i s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e , t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s right t o f i s h w o u l d b e c o m e a n e x c l u s i v e right a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r a r y t o t h e i n t e r e s t s of n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s . 1 7 8 A g a i n , t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g a p p e a r s t o r e l a t e t o a c o n c e r n o v e r p r e s e r v i n g o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y . In Nikal, we a l s o s e e t h e e q u a l i t y a r g u m e n t s b e i n g u s e d a g a i n . M a c f a r l a n e J . A . e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a l l r i p a r i a n o w n e r s a n d o c c u p i e r s h a v e t h e s a m e r i g h t s w i t h 177The issue of collective versus individual rights in the context of liberal theory will be dealt with in greater detail in the concluding chapter of this thesis. ™Supra, note 174 at p. 239 81 r e s p e c t t o f i s h i n g i n n o n - t i d a l , n o n - n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s a n d that , t h e r e f o r e , n o s p e c i a l r i g h t s o f g o v e r n a n c e s h o u l d a t t a c h t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o fish.179 O n c e a g a i n , e q u a l i t y s e e m s t o b e p e r c e i v e d a s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e a l l c o m p e t i t o r s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l m a r k e t a r e o n a l e v e l p l a y i n g f i e l d , e v e n t h o u g h h i s t o r i c a l l y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w e r e n o t g i v e n t h a t l u x u r y . M o r e r e c e n t l y , t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l a g a i n h a d t o c o n s i d e r t h e Sparrow t e s t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . In R. v . Jack180 R. v . Sampson™ a n d R. v . Little™2, t h e C o u r t w a s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r c e r t a i n c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s i n s t i t u t e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y r i g h t s t o f o o d f i s h . F o l l o w i n g t h e t e s t i n Sparrow, t h e C o u r t s t a t e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h i n g m u s t b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y a f t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e m e t . T h e C o u r t s p e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e o n t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n i s s u e i n t h e s e c a s e s , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n t h e B a n d s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t d i d n o t m e e t t h e Sparrow c r i t e r i a s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t c o v e r a l l o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s w h i c h w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d a n d w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f o o d f i s h . In Jack, t h e C o u r t s t a t e d that: t h e r e w a s a d u t y o n t h e D F O t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e I n d i a n B a n d w a s p r o v i d e d w i t h f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s a n d t h e i r e f f e c t o n t h e I n d i a n s a n d o t h e r u s e r g r o u p s . T h e D F O h a d a d u t y t o f u l l y i n f o r m itself of t h e f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l g r o u p a n d t h e i r v i e w s of t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s . 1 8 3 ll9Supra, note 175 at p. 263 180[1995] B.C.J. No. 2632 (QL), 16 B.C.L.R. (3d) 201. 1 8 1 [1995] B.C.J. No. 2634 (QL), 16 B.C.L.R. (3d) 226. 182[1995] B.C.J. No. 2633 (QL), 16 B.C.L.R. (3d) 253. li3Supra, note 180 at pp. 53-54 (cited to QL). 82 H o w e v e r , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t it w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e B a n d s o n a l l c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s , a s t h a t w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y g i v e F i r s t N a t i o n s a v e t o p o w e r o v e r a n y c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i s h e d t o i n i t i a t e . A g a i n , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e C o u r t w a s n o t p r e p a r e d t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s a l s o p a r t of t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h . H o w e v e r , b y r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e r e b e c o m p l e t e d i s c l o s u r e of c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n s t o F i r s t N a t i o n s b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t , t h e d e c i s i o n s r e c o g n i z e t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s h a v e a v o i c e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , a l t h o u g h t h a t v o i c e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t o b e h e e d e d . T h e C o u r t w a s a l s o p r e p a r e d t o g o b e y o n d m e r e l y a c c e p t i n g a t f a c e v a l u e t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n w a s a v a l i d o b j e c t i v e . I n s t e a d , it s t a t e d t h a t Sparrow r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e o b j e c t i v e w a s t o b e a t t a i n e d m u s t a l s o b e a n a l y z e d . In o t h e r w o r d s , w h o t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s b e n e f i t t e d , t h r o u g h t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s , i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d . T o p p r i o r i t y m u s t b e g i v e n t o A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h i n g . 1 8 4 A s w e l l , t h e C o u r t a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o s o m e e x t e n t b y r e f u s i n g t o m e r e l y c o n s i d e r t h e n a t u r e o f a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h i n t h e c o n t e x t of i n d i v i d u a l s . It s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e right o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d w h e n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r u n d u e h a r d s h i p w a s s u f f e r e d a s a r e s u l t 'See, for instance, Little, supra, note 182 at pp. 54-69 (cited to QL). 83 of t h e r e g u l a t i o n s in q u e s t i o n . 1 8 5 W h e t h e r t h e C o u r t ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e of t h e right w o u l d g o s o f a r a s t o a c c e p t t h e right o f F i r s t N a t i o n s t o h a v e a r o l e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i s n o t c l e a r s i n c e it w a s n o t a r g u e d i n t h e s e c a s e s . H o w e v e r , t h e C o u r t h a d n o d i f f i c u l t y v i e w i n g t h e f i s h i n g r i g h t a s a c o l l e c t i v e o n e . T h e s e c a s e s c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t m u c h m o r e j u d i c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g c a s e s . T h e C o u r t a p p e a r s t o b e p r e p a r e d t o t a k e t h e Sparrow t e s t s e r i o u s l y a n d t o r e q u i r e strict a d h e r e n c e t o it. H o w e v e r , t h e c a s e s a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n : t h e y d o n o t r e c o g n i z e a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a f o o d f i s h i n g right a n d d o n o t e v e n c o n s i d e r A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t r i g h t s . T h e C o u r t m a y v e r y w e l l h a v e m a d e t h e d e c i s i o n s it d i d p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e it w a s d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h f o o d f i s h i n g a n d , h e n c e , t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f its d e c i s i o n s w o u l d b e s o m e w h a t l i m i t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e c a s e s m a k e it c l e a r t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s c a n n o t b e a c c e p t e d b l i n d l y a n d t h a t m e a n i n g f u l c o n s u l t a t i o n m u s t t a k e p l a c e w i t h F i r s t N a t i o n s . It m a y w e l l b e t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y b e t h e b a s i s f o r a n i n c r e a s e d r o l e f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , a n d p e r h a p s e v e n i n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . See Sampson, supra, note 181 at pp. 40-45 (cited to QL). 84 (3) The Supreme Court in the Post-Sparrow Era T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t h a s n o w h a d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e v i s i t t h e Sparrow d e c i s i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t of b o t h A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g a n d f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . Its d e c i s i o n s i n Van der Peet, Gladstone, N.T.C. Smokehouse, Lewis a n d Nikal r e v e a l that , a s h a s b e e n t h e c a s e w i t h m a n y l o w e r c o u r t s , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a p p e a r s t o b e r e l u c t a n t t o a p p l y t h e Sparrow p r i n c i p l e s i n s u c h a w a y a s t o f u l l y r e c o g n i z e c o m m e r c i a l a n d s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y e l e m e n t s t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g right. I n d e e d , a t t i m e s it c o m p l e t e l y d e p a r t s f r o m t h e s p i r i t o f Sparrow t o a v o i d s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n . In Van der Peet166, L a m e r C . J . , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i s s u e i n t h e c a s e a s w h e t h e r s . 3 5 ( 1 ) r e c o g n i z e s a n d a f f i r m s t h e right o f t h e S t o : l o t o s e l l f i s h . In a n s w e r i n g t h a t q u e s t i o n , h e s t a t e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n a w a y w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e p u r p o s e s u n d e r l y i n g s . 3 5 ( 1 ) a n d t h e i n t e r e s t s t h e p r o v i s i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t . L a m e r C . J . m a d e r e f e r e n c e i n h i s d e c i s i o n t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e c e p t s o f " l i b e r a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t ' , w h i c h h o l d t h a t r i g h t s a r e g e n e r a l a n d u n i v e r s a l , w h e n a p p l i e d t o A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H e s t a t e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r C h a r t e r r i g h t s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r i g h t s w h i c h o n l y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s h o l d d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e A b o r i g i n a l . H e d i d n o t s u g g e s t t h a t ls6Supra, note 152. 85 A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s d o n o t fit w i t h i n a l i b e r a l f r a m e w o r k b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s ; r a t h e r , h e p o i n t e d t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a n d o t h e r C h a r t e r r i g h t s i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , it a p p e a r s t h a t h e w a s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t g r a n t i n g s p e c i a l r i g h t s t o o n e g r o u p i n s o c i e t y a n d , a c c o r d i n g l y , a t t e m p t e d t o n a r r o w t h e d e f i n i t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H e s t a t e d t h a t t h e C o u r t c a n n o t " i g n o r e t h e n e c e s s a r y s p e c i f i c i t y w h i c h c o m e s f r o m g r a n t i n g s p e c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n t o o n e p a r t o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . " 1 8 7 T h u s , u n l i k e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n Sparrow w h i c h d e m a n d e d t h a t s . 3 5 ( 1 ) b e g i v e n a " g e n e r o u s , l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " 1 8 8 , L a m e r C . J . a p p e a r s t o limit its a p p l i c a t i o n . It m a y b e t h a t t h i s s t e m s f r o m h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n fitting A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l f r a m e w o r k , w i t h its f o c u s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d e q u a l i t y , o r it m a y r e l a t e t o o t h e r r e a s o n s s u c h a s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e e f f e c t s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s b r o a d l y . W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n , i n h i s v i e w , if s p e c i a l r i g h t s a r e t o b e g r a n t e d , it w i l l o n l y b e i n s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . L a m e r C . J . h e l d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s s h o u l d b e d e f i n e d t h r o u g h a p u r p o s i v e a p p r o a c h t o s . 3 5 ( 1 ) t o e n s u r e t h a t "that w h i c h i s f o u n d t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e p r o v i s i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i s i o n ' s i n t e n d e d f o c u s : a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e a n d t h e i r r i g h t s i n r e l a t i o n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . " 1 8 9 H e f o u n d t h a t t h e r e a s o n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d a f f i r m e d i n s . 3 5 ( 1 ) i s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e p r e - e x i s t e n c e o f "76/<*atpp. 58-59. 188Supra, note 56 at p. 407. Lamer C.J. later points to this requirement although he apparently does not pay any real attention to it. See supra, note 152 at p. 61. lS9Supra, note 152 at p. 60. 86 A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s w i t h C r o w n s o v e r e i g n t y . A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t b e d e f i n e d s o t h a t t h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d . It a p p e a r s that , a s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l , L a m e r C . J . w a s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e f f e c t o n o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n C a n a d a if A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d , a s a r e s u l t , h e a t t e m p t e d t o t e m p e r t h o s e r i g h t s s o m e w h a t b y r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e y b e d e f i n e d w i t h o t h e r i n t e r e s t s of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n m i n d . It i s a l s o c l e a r , a n d n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h a t h e d i d n o t q u e s t i o n t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s f o r C a n a d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y . A s w e l l , it a p p e a r s t h a t h e m i s a p p l i e d Sparrow t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h e r e q u i r e d t h e i s s u e of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t o b e t a k e n into a c c o u n t at t h e s t a g e w h e n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e b e i n g d e f i n e d , r a t h e r t h a n at t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . In Sparrow, t h e C o u r t s p o k e o n l y of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f j u s t i f y i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h i n f r i n g e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . 1 9 0 L a m e r C . J . a l s o r e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t i n Sparrow t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e b e t a k e n into a c c o u n t i n a s s e s s i n g a c l a i m f o r A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H e s t a t e d that , " C o u r t s a d j u d i c a t i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m s m u s t . . . b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t t h e y m u s t a l s o b e a w a r e t h a t a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s e x i s t w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l l e g a l s y s t e m o f C a n a d a . " 1 9 1 H e r e q u i r e d t h a t e q u a l w e i g h t b e g i v e n t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e a n d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c o m m o n l a w . It i s t r u e t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , a s t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d , d o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r C a n a d i a n l e g a l s y s t e m . H o w e v e r , it i s n o t c l e a r w h y t h a t f a c t m u s t b e t a k e n into a c c o u n t w h e n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e b e i n g d e f i n e d , r a t h e r t h a n at t h e 1 9 0%va,note56atp. 409. mSupra, note 152 at p. 88. 87 justification stage, as was done in Sparrow. Again, it appears that Lamer C.J. departed from the spirit of Sparrow and was more concerned about effects on Canadian society than attempting to adopt the Aboriginal perspective. Lamer C.J. formulated a test in Van der Peet for identifying Aboriginal rights which are protected by s. 35(1). He stated that since one of the purposes of s. 35(1) is to recognize pre-existing Aboriginal societies, Aboriginal rights must be linked to the practices, traditions and customs central to Aboriginal societies prior to contact with Europeans. In support of this requirement, Lamer C.J. referred to the Supreme Court's reference in Sparrow to the fact that the salmon fishery was "an integral part of [the Musqueam's] distinctive culture".192 The Supreme Court never stated that to be an Aboriginal right, the activity must be an integral part of the First Nation's distinctive culture; it merely used those words in the context of describing the importance of fishing to the Musqueam in that case. However, Lamer C.J. found that the Court in Sparrow suggested that it is the test for defining Aboriginal rights and he therefore used it as such. The first stage in Lanier's test is to properly characterize what is being claimed. He stated that the nature of the claim must be delineated in terms of the particular practice, tradition or custom under which it is claimed. The court must also consider other factors, including the nature of the action which the applicant is W a t p. 84. 88 c l a i m i n g w a s d o n e p u r s u a n t t o a n A b o r i g i n a l right, a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d . 1 9 3 T h e n e x t s t e p i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r w h a t i s b e i n g c l a i m e d a s a n A b o r i g i n a l right w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e . T h e c l a i m a n t at t h i s s t a g e m u s t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e , t r a d i t i o n o r c u s t o m b e i n g r e l i e d u p o n w a s a " c e n t r a l a n d s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e s o c i e t y ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e . " 1 9 4 O n l y t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r e w h i c h m a d e it d i s t i n c t i v e w i l l t r a n s l a t e t o A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s s i n c e , i n L a m a r ' s w o r d s , " T o r e c o n c i l e a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s w i t h C r o w n s o v e r e i g n t y it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h o s e s o c i e t i e s ; it i s p r e c i s e l y t h o s e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h n e e d t o b e a c k n o w l e d g e d a n d r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e C r o w n . " 1 9 5 H e s t a t e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d i s w h e t h e r w i t h o u t t h e p r a c t i c e , t r a d i t i o n o r c u s t o m , t h e c u l t u r e w o u l d b e f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d . If n o t , w h a t i s b e i n g c l a i m e d i s n o t a n A b o r i g i n a l right. T h e p r a c t i c e , c u s t o m o r t r a d i t i o n c a n n o t e x i s t a s a n i n c i d e n t t o a n o t h e r p r a c t i c e , c u s t o m o r t r a d i t i o n ; i n c i d e n t a l p r a c t i c e s w i l l n o t q u a l i f y a s A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . T h e r e l e v a n t t i m e f r a m e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e i s i n t e g r a l t o a p a r t i c u l a r F i r s t N a t i o n u n d e r L a n i e r ' s t e s t i s t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o c o n t a c t b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s . L a m e r C . J . s t a t e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e p e r i o d b e c a u s e t h e b a s i s f o r e n t r e n c h i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n t h e !93/6/rfatpp. 90-91. ,94/6;rfatpp. 92. 195/A/rfatp. 94. 89 C o n s t i t u t i o n w a s t h e f a c t t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s l i v e d o n t h e l a n d p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l of E u r o p e a n s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , it i s t o t h e p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d t h a t t h e c o u r t s m u s t l o o k i n d e f i n i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H e a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t it w i l l o f t e n b e n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o d u c e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e f r o m p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c e s , c u s t o m s a n d t r a d i t i o n s of t h e s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n . A s a r e s u l t , h e s t a t e d t h a t a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y h a d its o r i g i n s p r e - c o n t a c t ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h a t t h e r e i s c o n t i n u i t y b e t w e e n p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s , w h i c h a r e i n t e g r a l t o t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e , a n d t h o s e w h i c h e x i s t e d b e f o r e c o n t a c t . 1 9 6 L a m e r C . J . f o u n d t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e o f e x c h a n g i n g f i s h f o r m o n e y o r o t h e r g o o d s w a s n o t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e o f t h e S t o : l o p r i o r t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n s . T r a d e i n s a l m o n w a s f o u n d t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e , b u t it w a s d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g e i t h e r f o r c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s o r o p p o r t u n i s t i c e x c h a n g e s . A s a r e s u l t , M r s . V a n d e r P e e t h a d n o A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l l h e r f i s h a n d t h e a p p e a l w a s d i s m i s s e d . L a m e r C . J . a p p l i e d t h e t e s t h e f o r m u l a t e d i n Van der Peet i n N.T.C. Smokehouse197 a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e trial j u d g e ' s f i n d i n g s o f f a c t d i d n o t s u p p o r t a c l a i m that , p r i o r t o c o n t a c t , t h e e x c h a n g e o f f i s h f o r m o n e y o r o t h e r g o o d s w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e s o f t h e S h e s h a h t o r t h e O p e t c h e s a h t . A l t h o u g h f i s h w e r e t r a d e d o r e x c h a n g e d o n s o m e o c c a s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g at p o t l a t c h e s a n d o t h e r W a t pp. 96-98. 1 Supra, note 154. 90 c e r e m o n i a l e v e n t s , L a m e r C . J . f o u n d t h a t t h e y w e r e i n c i d e n t a l e v e n t s o n l y a n d l a c k e d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o c o n s t i t u t e a n A b o r i g i n a l right. T h e a p p e a l w a s t h e r e f o r e d i s m i s s e d . T h e t e s t f o r p r o v i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d b y L a m e r C . J . e s t a b l i s h e s a v e r y h i g h t h r e s h o l d f o r A b o r i g i n a l c l a i m a n t s t o m e e t . It w i l l o f t e n b e difficult t o p r o v e t h a t a n a c t i v i t y h a d its o r i g i n s i n p r e - c o n t a c t A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y , e v e n t h o u g h L a m e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e s h o u l d b e r e l a x e d s o m e w h a t t o t a k e into a c c o u n t t h i s p r o b l e m . 1 9 8 It i s a l s o a r t i f i c i a l t o a t t e m p t t o s e p a r a t e o u t p a r t s of a c u l t u r e . C u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s a r e i n t e r - r e l a t e d a n d it w i l l b e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e i n c i d e n t a l o n l y a n d c a n b e r e m o v e d w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g c u l t u r e . It i s a l s o n o t c l e a r w h y it i s o n l y t h e d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t s o f A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d b y s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . If s . 3 5 ( 1 ) i s t r u l y d e s i g n e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s p r i o r t o c o n t a c t , it i s a r g u a b l e t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g i n c i d e n t a l p r a c t i c e s , s h o u l d b e p r o t e c t e d w i t h t h e Sparrow t e s t b e i n g u s e d t o j u s t i f y a n y n e c e s s a r y i n f r i n g e m e n t s . L a m e r C . J . a l s o f a i l e d t o a d o p t e v e n a p a r t i a l A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h i s a n a l y s i s . In r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e a p p e l l a n t s p r o v e t h a t t h e s a l e o f f i s h , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e of f i s h g e n e r a l l y , w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s l98Supra, note 152 at p. 102. It is noteworthy, however, that Lamer C.J. nonetheless unquestioningly accepts the trial judge's findings of fact in his judgments in both Van der Peet and N.T.C. Smokehouse without any apparent consideration of whether the evidentiary standards being applied by the trial judge were too high in the circumstances. See ibid at pp. 112-116 and N.T.C. Smokehouse, supra, note 154 at pp. 35-37. 91 d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e , h e d i d w h a t t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n Sparrow e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d s h o u l d n o t b e d o n e . T h a t i s , h e v i e w e d f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n t h e i r r e g u l a t e d f o r m . H e s e p a r a t e d f i s h i n g into f o o d f i s h i n g a n d f i s h i n g f o r t r a d e o r s a l e . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n r e s u l t e d f r o m g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n , n o t A b o r i g i n a l t r a d i t i o n . A s w a s n o t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n s , F i r s t N a t i o n s u s e d f i s h o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y a n d a s a w a y i n w h i c h t o s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s . If t r a d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r o s e , t h e f i s h w e r e u s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . If a truly A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e w a s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d at a l l , t h e a r t i f i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f f i s h i n g into f o o d f i s h i n g a n d f i s h i n g f o r t r a d e o r s a l e w o u l d n o t b e u s e d . A s w e l l , it a p p e a r s t h a t L a m e r C . J . c o n f u s e d t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d a f f i r m a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n s . 3 5 ( 1 ) w i t h t h e c o n t e n t a n d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h o s e r i g h t s . A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s m a y b e p r o t e c t e d b e c a u s e A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s e x i s t e d in N o r t h A m e r i c a p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n s . H o w e v e r , t h a t d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e w a s f r o z e n at t h e m o m e n t o f c o n t a c t a n d c a n n o t l e g i t i m a t e l y c h a n g e w i t h o u t l o s i n g its d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . C u l t u r e i s d y n a m i c , n o t s t a t i c . T h e C o u r t in Sparrow e x p r e s s l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f a c t a n d r e j e c t e d a " f r o z e n r i g h t s " a p p r o a c h . L a m e r C . J . a p p e a r s t o i g n o r e t h a t r e j e c t i o n c o m p l e t e l y , a t l e a s t i n r e l a t i o n t o f o r m u l a t i n g a t e s t f o r d e f i n i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . L a m e r C . J . s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e w a s a c t u a l l y a v o i d i n g a f r o z e n r i g h t s a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o n c e p t of c o n t i n u i t y . H e s t a t e d t h a t p r a c t i c e s , c u s t o m s a n d t r a d i t i o n s c a n e v o l v e i n t o m o d e r n f o r m s , p r o v i d e d t h e r e i s c o n t i n u i t y w i t h p r e - c o n t a c t p r a c t i c e s , c u s t o m s a n d 92 t r a d i t i o n s . 1 9 9 H o w e v e r , l i k e t h e C o u r t of A p p e a l , h e n o n e t h e l e s s u s e d at l e a s t a p a r t i a l f r o z e n r i g h t s a n a l y s i s . A n a c t i v i t y w h i c h a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s w i l l n o t p a s s L a n i e r ' s t e s t , a s h e e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d . 2 0 0 T h u s , h e b r e a t h e s n e w life into t h e i d e o l o g i c a l n o t i o n o f " s t a t i c I n d i a n n e s s " : U n d e r L a n i e r ' s a n a l y s i s , A b o r i g i n a l s a r e n o l o n g e r t r u e A b o r i g i n a l s if t h e y a d o p t p r a c t i c e s o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . In t h e i r d i s s e n t s , b o t h L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e a n d M c L a c h l i n J . J . e a c h t a k e a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e i s s u e o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e e x p r e s s l y r e c o g n i z e d i n h e r d i s s e n t i n Van der Peet a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s d e r i v e f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c o c c u p a t i o n a n d u s e o f a n c e s t r a l l a n d s a n d d o n o t d e p e n d o n a n y l e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t m e n t . S h e t h e r e b y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e i n h e r e n t r i g h t s a p p r o a c h t o A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . S h e a l s o n o t e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e s , t r a d i t i o n s a n d c u s t o m s h a v e c h a n g e d a n d e v o l v e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , i n c l u d i n g a f t e r t h e a r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n s . S h e e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s m u s t b e o p e n t o f l u c t u a t i o n , c h a n g e a n d e v o l u t i o n o v e r t i m e . 2 0 1 A s w e l l , s h e r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n Sparrow t h a t s . 3 5 ( 1 ) b e g i v e n a g e n e r o u s , l a r g e a n d l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h a t u n c e r t a i n t i e s b e r e s o l v e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , a n d t h a t t h e c o u r t b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e m e a n i n g of t h e r i g h t s at s t a k e . S h e h e l d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s s h o u l d b e 199Van der Peet, supra, note 152 at pp. 98-99. 200/&irfatp. 107. 2mIbidatvp. 135-136. 93 d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t o F i r s t N a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r i g h t s w h i c h a r e t o b e p r o t e c t e d r e l a t e t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e " s u f f i c i e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t a n d f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e c u l t u r e a n d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . " 2 0 2 S h e r e j e c t e d t h e f r o z e n r i g h t s a p p r o a c h a n d h e l d t h a t a " d y n a m i c r i g h t s " a p p r o a c h s h o u l d i n s t e a d b e f o l l o w e d s o t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p r a c t i c e s , t r a d i t i o n s a n d c u s t o m s c a n c h a n g e a n d e v o l v e w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r s o c i e t y . A l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e b e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e a n d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t i n u o u s p e r i o d of t i m e . 2 0 3 In b o t h Van der Peet a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse, s h e f o u n d s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e o f t r a d e in s a l m o n f o r l i v e l i h o o d , s u p p o r t a n d s u s t e n a n c e p u r p o s e s f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p e r i o d of t i m e , r o o t e d i n t h e F i r s t N a t i o n ' s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e . M c L a c h l i n J . a l s o e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t e d t h e f r o z e n r i g h t s a p p r o a c h o f t h e majority . S h e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e right at i s s u e a s t h e r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e t o u s e t h e r e s o u r c e in t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w a y t o p r o v i d e f o r t r a d i t i o n a l n e e d s i n t h e i r m o d e r n f o r m . S h e p e r c e i v e d t r a d e a s b e i n g o n e m o d e b y w h i c h t h e m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l right o f d r a w i n g s u s t e n a n c e f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e i s e x e r c i s e d . H o w e v e r , s h e l i m i t e d t h e right t o t h a t w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e i n q u e s t i o n w i t h r e a s o n a b l e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r w h a t t h e y t r a d i t i o n a l l y o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e ; i n m o s t c a s e s , t h a t w o u l d a m o u n t t o w h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e b a s i c h o u s i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c l o t h i n g a n d a m e n i t i e s . 2 0 4 S h e f o u n d i n b o t h Van der Peet a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse t h a t 202Ibidntp. 165. 203Ibid at p p . 174-176. 204Ibid at pp. 260-262. 94 t h e r e w a s a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l l f i s h i n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h it w a s s o l d , t h a t t h e right h a d n o t b e e n e x t i n g u i s h e d , t h a t it h a d b e e n i n f r i n g e d , a n d t h a t t h e C r o w n h a d n o t p r o v e n t h a t t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t w a s j u s t i f i e d . A l t h o u g h b o t h L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e ' s a n d M c L a c h l i n ' s j u d g m e n t s a p p e a r t o b e m o r e in l i n e w i t h t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s a n a l y s i s of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n Sparrow, e v e n t h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t y c o n c e i v i n g o f a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o e n g a g e i n m o d e r n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s . L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d , a s d i d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o u r t i n t h e s e c a s e s a s w e l l a s t h e c o u r t s i n R. v . Jones a n d R. v . Horseman205, b e t w e e n t h e s a l e , t r a d e o r b a r t e r of f i s h f o r l i v e l i h o o d , s u p p o r t a n d s u s t e n a n c e p u r p o s e s o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d t h e s a l e , t r a d e a n d b a r t e r o f f i s h f o r p u r e l y c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d . In Van der Peet, s h e s t a t e d t h a t a n A b o r i g i n a l a c t i v i t y c a n f o r m a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e of a F i r s t N a t i o n if it i s d o n e f o r c e r t a i n p u r p o s e s , s u c h a s t o g a i n a l i v e l i h o o d , b u t n o t if it i s d o n e f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s , s u c h a s p u r e l y c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . 2 0 6 S h e s t a t e d that: c o m m e r c i a l u s e o f t h e f i s h w o u l d s e e m t o b e i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p r e - c o n t a c t o r p r e - s o v e r e i g n t y c u l t u r e o f t h e S t o : l o w h i c h c o m m a n d e d t h a t t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e s a l m o n , i n c l u d i n g its s a l e , t r a d e a n d b a r t e r , b e r e s t r i c t e d t o p r o v i d i n g l i v e l i h o o d , s u p p o r t a n d s u s t e n a n c e , a n d d i d n o t e n t a i l o b t a i n i n g p u r e l y c o m m e r c i a l p r o f i t . 2 0 7 'Supra, notes 148 and 151 respectively. These cases were discussed in Part (2) above. 'Supra, note 152 at pp. 181-191. 'Ibid at p. 217. 95 A s a r e s u l t , s h e e f f e c t i v e l y d r e w a d i s t i n c t i o n f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s t h a t d o e s n o t e x i s t f o r n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . C o m m e r c i a l n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s c a t c h a n d s e l l f i s h t o e a r n a l i v e l i h o o d f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s , y e t t h e y a r e n o t d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a s u s t e n a n c e a c t i v i t y o n l y ; t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a c o m m e r c i a l u n d e r t a k i n g . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e t e r m " s u s t e n a n c e " i s d e f i n e d a s t h e m e a n s of p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f life. T h u s , b y u s i n g t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e right , L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e f o u n d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l " c o m m e r c i a l " f i s h e r s a r e e n t i t l e d t o o b t a i n n o m o r e t h a n t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f life t h r o u g h t h e i r f i s h i n g e n d e a v o u r s . N o s u c h l i m i t a t i o n e x i s t s f o r n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l i n d u s t r y . A l t h o u g h M c L a c h l i n J . d i s a g r e e d w i t h m a k i n g a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f i s h i n g f o r s u s t e n a n c e p u r p o s e s a n d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g , s h e t o o s t a t e d t h a t a l a r g e o p e r a t i o n g e a r e d t o p r o d u c i n g p r o f i t s i n e x c e s s of w h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e h a d h i s t o r i c a l l y t a k e n m i g h t n o t b e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d . I n s t e a d , s h e i n t e r p r e t e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y a s i n c o r p o r a t i n g o n l y t h a t w h i c h w a s r e q u i r e d t o e m u l a t e t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y . 2 0 8 In h e r w o r d s : t h e a b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h f o r c o m m e r c e i s l i m i t e d t o s u p p l y i n g w h a t t h e a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e t r a d i t i o n a l l y t o o k f r o m t h e f i s h e r y . S i n c e t h e s e w e r e n o t g e n e r a l l y s o c i e t i e s w h i c h v a l u e d e x c e s s o r a c c u m u l a t e d w e a l t h , t h e m e a s u r e w i l l s e l d o m , o n t h e f a c t s , b e f o u n d t o e x c e e d t h e b a s i c s o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g a n d h o u s i n g , s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a f e w a m e n i t i e s . 2 0 9 W a t pp. 229-230. W a t p. 287. 96 L ' H e u r e u x - D u b e ' s a n d M c L a c h l i n ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o p e r c e i v e t h e A b o r i g i n a l right a s i n c l u d i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o r u n a c o m m e r c i a l p r o f i t - m a k i n g e n t e r p r i s e m a y s t e m f r o m a n u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l s a s b e i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n s u s t e n a n c e e c o n o m i e s o n l y ; t h e y a r e n o t p e r c e i v e d a s m o d e m p l a y e r s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s . T h i s , a g a i n , r e f l e c t s a " s t a t i c I n d i a n " i d e o l o g y w i t h A b o r i g i n a l s b e i n g v i e w e d in t r a d i t i o n a l t e r m s o n l y . It i s a l s o a w a y t o r a t i o n a l i z e A b o r i g i n a l " c o m m e r c i a l " f i s h i n g r i g h t s w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f Sparrow's p r i o r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t b y i n t e r p r e t i n g t h o s e r i g h t s i n t h e l e a s t t h r e a t e n i n g w a y v i s - a - v i s o t h e r f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e i r f i n d i n g s a r e n o t t h a t s u r p r i s i n g . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t a n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t e x i s t s u n d e r t h e t e s t f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y i n Van der Peet, t h e C o u r t d i d f i n d a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l l f i s h u s i n g t h a t t e s t i n Gladstone.210 In t h a t c a s e , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e t r a d e of h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p f o r m o n e y o r o t h e r g o o d s w a s a c e n t r a l , s i g n i f i c a n t a n d d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e of t h e p r e - c o n t a c t c u l t u r e o f t h e H e i l t s u k p e o p l e a n d t h a t it w a s o n a s c a l e b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s c o m m e r c i a l . F o l l o w i n g t h e Sparrow r e q u i r e m e n t of e v i d e n c e of a c l e a r a n d p l a i n i n t e n t i o n t o e x t i n g u i s h a n A b o r i g i n a l right, t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e right of t h e H e i l t s u k , a l t h o u g h r e g u l a t e d , h a d n e v e r b e e n e x t i n g u i s h e d . T h e C o u r t t h e n w e n t o n t o c o n s i d e r t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e Sparrow t e s t d e a l i n g w i t h i n f r i n g e m e n t a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n . T h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t s i n c e p r i o r t o t h e 210Supra, note 153. 97 a r r i v a l of E u r o p e a n s t h e H e i l t s u k c o u l d h a r v e s t h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p t o a n y e x t e n t t h e y d e s i r e d , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n f r i n g e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l right b y l i m i t i n g t h e a m o u n t t h a t c o u l d b e l e g a l l y h a r v e s t e d f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . W h e n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s s u e , t h e C o u r t n o t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f a c t s o f t h e c a s e a n d t h o s e i n Sparrow. In Sparrow, t h e C o u r t w a s d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r n a l l y l i m i t e d f o o d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , i n Gladstone, t h e c o m m e r c i a l s a l e o f h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p h a d n o s u c h i n t e r n a l l i m i t a t i o n ; t h e o n l y r e s t r a i n t s w e r e t h e e x t e r n a l d e m a n d s o f t h e m a r k e t a n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e f i s h . T h e C o u r t r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n m e a n t t h a t t h e p r i o r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i n Sparrow i s u n s u i t e d t o a c o m m e r c i a l s i t u a t i o n : i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e w h e r e t h e a b o r i g i n a l right h a s n o i n t e r n a l l i m i t a t i o n , t h e n o t i o n of priority , a s a r t i c u l a t e d i n S p a r r o w , w o u l d m e a n t h a t w h e r e a n a b o r i g i n a l right i s r e c o g n i z e d a n d a f f i r m e d t h a t right w o u l d b e c o m e a n e x c l u s i v e o n e . B e c a u s e t h e r i g h t t o s e l l h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l m a r k e t c a n n e v e r b e s a i d t o b e s a t i s f i e d w h i l e t h e r e s o u r c e i s stil l a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e m a r k e t i s n o t s a t e d , t o g i v e priority t o t h a t right i n t h e m a n n e r s u g g e s t e d i n S p a r r o w w o u l d b e t o g i v e t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r e x c l u s i v i t y o v e r a n y p e r s o n n o t h a v i n g a n a b o r i g i n a l right t o p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p f i s h e r y . . . . s u c h a r e s u l t w a s n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n of S p a r r o w . 2 1 1 T h u s , i n s t e a d of b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o g r a n t a p r i o r i t y t o A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s , a l l t h a t g o v e r n m e n t n e e d d o i s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t i n a l l o c a t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e it t o o k into a c c o u n t a n d r e s p e c t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s ; b o t h t h e p r o c e s s 211 Ibid at pp. 82-83. 98 of a l l o c a t i o n a n d t h e a c t u a l a l l o c a t i o n m u s t r e f l e c t t h e p r i o r i n t e r e s t o f A b o r i g i n a l right h o l d e r s . H o w t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s t o b e c a r r i e d o u t b y g o v e r n m e n t i n p r a c t i c e i s n o t c l e a r i n t h e d e c i s i o n a n d , a s t h e C o u r t n o t e d , w i l l b e c a s e - s p e c i f i c . T h e C o u r t d i d , h o w e v e r , s e t o u t a n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s w h i c h m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d , i n c l u d i n g w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n - a s r e q u i r e d b y Sparrow-and w h e t h e r t h e g o v e r n m e n t a c c o m m o d a t e d A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n d u s t r y , t h e e x t e n t of A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n d u s t r y , a n d t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d b y g o v e r n m e n t t o a l l o c a t e c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s a m o n g u s e r s . 2 1 2 In r e j e c t i n g a p r i o r i t y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t i n e x c l u s i v i t y , t h e C o u r t f e l l b a c k o n o n e o f t h e c o m m o n i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h h a s b e e n u s e d i n o t h e r c a s e s : t h e n o t i o n t h a t f i s h a r e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . A l t h o u g h it i s n o t c l e a r t h a t f i s h a r e i n d e e d c o m m o n p r o p e r t y , t h e C o u r t n o n e t h e l e s s u s e d t h i s i d e o l o g y a s a r a t i o n a l e t o limit t h e s c o p e o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l right , s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s s h o u l d n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e right of p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e f i s h e r y . " 2 1 3 T h e r e a s s e s s m e n t a n d r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r i o r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t i n Sparrow in t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o n t e x t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g a n d , i n d e e d , w a s p r e d i c t a b l e g i v e n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of r e c o g n i z i n g a c o m p l e t e p r i o r i t y right o f A b o r i g i n a l s t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y . T o t a l r e c o g n i t i o n of a p r i o r i t y right w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y d i s p l a c e a l l o t h e r 2l2Ibid at pp. 85-90. 2UIbidatp. 93. 99 c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s a n d it i s , t h e r e f o r e , e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y c o u r t w o u l d m a k e t h a t f i n d i n g . C o u r t s c o n t i n u e t o b e r e l u c t a n t t o c o m p l e t e l y t h r e a t e n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , b y m o d i f y i n g t h e p r i o r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t t h e C o u r t w a s at l e a s t a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a c o m m e r c i a l right , h o w e v e r u n c l e a r its p a r a m e t e r s m i g h t b e . If it h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o m a k e t h o s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , it i s l i k e l y t h a t it w o u l d n o t h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e right at a l l . T h e C o u r t ' s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b r o a d e r s o c i e t y i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n its d i s c u s s i o n o f w h a t w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a v a l i d g o v e r n m e n t o b j e c t i v e . T h e C o u r t m a d e it c l e a r t h a t o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o n o n - A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s m a y b e v a l i d . It s t a t e d that: B e c a u s e . . . d i s t i n c t i v e a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s e x i s t w i t h i n , a n d a r e a p a r t of, a b r o a d e r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o m m u n i t y , o v e r w h i c h t h e C r o w n i s s o v e r e i g n , t h e r e a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h , in o r d e r t o p u r s u e o b j e c t i v e s of c o m p e l l i n g a n d s u b s t a n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h a t c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e ( t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s a r e p a r t o f t h a t c o m m u n i t y ) , s o m e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h o s e r i g h t s w i l l b e j u s t i f i a b l e . A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a r e a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s w i t h t h e b r o a d e r p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y of w h i c h t h e y a r e a part; l i m i t s p l a c e d o n t h o s e r i g h t s a r e , w h e r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f u r t h e r e d b y t h o s e l i m i t s a r e o f s u f f i c i e n t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e b r o a d e r c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e , e q u a l l y a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 2 1 4 T h e C o u r t w e n t o n t o s t a t e , a l t h o u g h a s obiter dicta s i n c e it d e c i d e d t o s e n d t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s s u e b a c k f o r a n e w t r i a l , t h a t o b j e c t i v e s s u c h a s t h e p u r s u i t o f Ibid at pp. 98-99. 100 e c o n o m i c a n d r e g i o n a l f a i r n e s s a n d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e l i a n c e u p o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e f i s h e r y b y n o n - A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i s i t e s t a n d a r d f o r a v a l i d o b j e c t i v e s i n c e t h e s e m a t t e r s a r e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a l l C a n a d i a n s . 2 1 5 T h i s i s a n e x p l i c i t e x a m p l e o f t h e C o u r t b e i n g c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p r o t e c t i n g n o n - A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y . L a F o r e s t ' s d i s s e n t i n t h e Gladstone c a s e l a r g e l y r e f l e c t s a f r o z e n r i g h t s a p p r o a c h . H e f o u n d t h a t b a r t e r i n g a n d t r a d i n g i n f i s h w a s i n t e g r a l t o t h e H e i l t s u k F i r s t N a t i o n b e c a u s e of t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h it o c c u r r e d a n d , w i t h o u t t h a t c o n t e x t , it i s n o l o n g e r p a r t o f t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e . In o t h e r w o r d s , b e c a u s e t h e H e i l t s u k n o l o n g e r l i v e a s t h e y d i d p r e - c o n t a c t , a n y b a r t e r i n g o r t r a d i n g o f f i s h t h a t n o w t a k e s p l a c e c a n n o l o n g e r b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s p a r t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e . H e n o t e d : w h e n t h e H e i l t s u k t r a d e h e r r i n g s p a w n o n k e l p i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s t o J a p a n e s e c l i e n t s , t h e y d o s o f o r t h e u n i q u e . . . p u r p o s e of s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r o w n f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s a n d c l e a r l y n o t i n p u r s u a n c e o f t h e v a l u e s r o o t e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . . . . w e a r e light y e a r s a w a y f r o m t h e a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e o f s h a r i n g r e s o u r c e s w i t h f e l l o w b a n d s i n f u r t h e r a n c e o f s p i r i t u a l i d e a l s . 2 1 6 T h e s e c o m m e n t s s e e m t o r e f l e c t t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l v i e w t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e w e r e h i s t o r i c a l l y u n c o n c e r n e d a b o u t i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n life. A s w a s n o t e d i n C h a p t e r T w o , t h i s w a s n o t t h e c a s e , w i t h d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n w e a l t h a n d s t a t u s b e i n g t h e r u l e r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x c e p t i o n a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s o f a F i r s t N a t i o n . 215Ibidatp. 100. 2 1 < Watpp. 118-119. 101 T h u s , o n e o f t h e v a l u e s w h i c h m a y h a v e b e e n r o o t e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , w h i c h L a F o r e s t f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e , w a s c o n c e r n o v e r e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , j u s t a s it i s t o d a y . It i s n o t y e t c l e a r w h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e S u p r e m e C o u r t d e c i s i o n s w i l l b e i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e a r e s o m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n t h e F i s h e r i e s S u r v i v a l C o a l i t i o n , w h o v i e w t h e d e c i s i o n s a s s u p p o r t f o r a b o l i t i o n of t h e A F S a n d t h e c o m p l e t e a b o l i t i o n of a n y " s p e c i a l r i g h t s " f o r A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s . 2 1 7 It i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s d o i n d e e d r e q u i r e t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o a b a n d o n t h e A F S s i n c e t h e C o u r t d i d n o t s t a t e t h a t a l l o t t i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a s h a r e o f t h e f i s h i s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . A s w e l l , t h e A F S i s b a s e d at l e a s t p a r t l y o n t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s r e q u i r e m e n t i n Sparrow t h a t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s b e g i v e n p r i o r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i s h i n g f o r f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s . T h e r e c e n t c a s e s d o n o t a l t e r t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t a n d t h e A F S , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e f e w F i r s t N a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l f i s h u n d e r t h e P i l o t S a l e s A r r a n g e m e n t ( " P S A " ) , i s d e s i g n e d m o r e t o d e a l w i t h t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f f o o d f i s h i n g t h a n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . A l t h o u g h it m a y b e a r g u a b l e n o w t h a t t h e r e i s n o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a l l F i r s t N a t i o n s b e g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o s e l l f i s h u n d e r t h e P S A , t h o s e F i r s t N a t i o n s w h i c h c a n e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e t r a d e o r b a r t e r o f f i s h w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r e s b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i l l h a v e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d right t o s e l l t h e i r f i s h , s u b j e c t t o j u s t i f i e d i n f r i n g e m e n t . T h i s w i l l b e a d i f f i c u l t i s s u e f o r 2 1 7 See, for instance, M. Crawley, "Court limits aboriginal fishing rights" The Vancouver Sun (22 August 1996) A l and A2. 102 t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e f o r e a c h F i r s t N a t i o n a n d , a s a r e s u l t , it m a y d e c i d e , f o r e a s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t o m e r e l y c o n t i n u e a f o r m o f t h e P S A , p e r h a p s i n v o l v i n g e v e n m o r e F i r s t N a t i o n s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t h a s c o n t e n d e d t h a t its p o s i t i o n o n t h e A F S a n d P S A h a s a l w a y s b e e n b a s e d o n a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a v i e w t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s h a v e a right t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y . 2 1 8 A s a r e s u l t , it m a y w e l l d e c i d e t o c o n t i n u e t o f o l l o w t h a t p o l i c y a l t h o u g h it w i l l n o d o u b t b e m o r e d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l l y t o d o s o in t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c u r r e n t c a s e l a w . It i s a l s o n o t c l e a r w h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e d e c i s i o n s w i l l b e o n t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s . S o m e h a v e p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l n o w b e m o r e r e l u c t a n c e t o g r a n t c o m m e r c i a l r i g h t s t o A b o r i g i n a l s i n t h e t r e a t i e s . 2 1 9 T h e p r o v i n c e w a s r e l u c t a n t e n o u g h i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e t o a g r e e t o c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g p r o v i s i o n s , a n i s s u e w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . It i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h h a s b e e n e n g e n d e r e d b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e p r o v i n c e b e i n g e v e n m o r e h e s i t a n t . H o w e v e r , F i r s t N a t i o n s w i l l a l s o p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o b e i n s i s t e n t t h a t c o m m e r c i a l r i g h t s b e i n c l u d e d in t h e t r e a t i e s . U n c e r t a i n t y h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t c o m m e r c i a l r i g h t s m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d o n a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s , w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f e a c h F i r s t N a t i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l . T h u s , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a c o u r t f i n d i n g , it w i l l b e difficult t o d e l i n e a t e i n s o m e c a s e s w h a t r i g h t s a p a r t i c u l a r F i r s t N a t i o n h a s . A s a r e s u l t , if c o m m e r c i a l r i g h t s a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d i n t h e "Vfcrfatp. A2. 219See, for example, the comments of J. Borrows in ibid at p. A2. 103 t r e a t i e s , it c a n b e p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l m o s t o f t e n f a i l , w i t h l i t i g a t i o n t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t . T h u s , w h a t b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g c a s e s i s t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l h a v e a d i f f i c u l t t i m e a d m i n i s t e r i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h t h e C o u r t p r e d i c t a b l y r e j e c t e d a n y n o t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l e x c l u s i v i t y i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s , it d i d n o t r e j e c t o u t r i g h t t h e c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g right. I n s t e a d , it e s t a b l i s h e d a f r a m e w o r k f o r d e f i n i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s o n a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s . T h u s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l e i t h e r h a v e t o f o l l o w s o m e t y p e o f b l a n k e t p o l i c y o r a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a F i r s t N a t i o n c a n e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e t r a d e o r b a r t e r of f i s h w a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f its d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e p r e - c o n t a c t . G i v e n t h e n u m b e r o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e latter a p p r o a c h s e e m s u n l i k e l y . A s w e l l , it i s n o t y e t c l e a r w h a t w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a v a l i d i n f r i n g e m e n t of t h a t right. G i v e n t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s a n d u n c e r t a i n t i e s w h i c h h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n s , m o r e l i t i g a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a c a n d e f i n i t e l y b e a n t i c i p a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e C o u r t e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d t h a t it w a s f o r m u l a t i n g t h e t e s t f o r d e f i n i n g a l l A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e c a s e s w i l l b e u s e d n o t j u s t i n t h e f i s h i n g c o n t e x t b u t i n a l l A b o r i g i n a l , a n d p r o b a b l y T r e a t y , r i g h t s c a s e s . 2 2 0 2 2 0The Supreme Court has indeed already applied the test in Van der Peet to a non-fishing context. In R. v. Pamajewon [1996] S.C.J. No. 20 (QL), the Court used the test to determine whether the First Nations in question had Aboriginal rights to participate in and regulate gambling activities on reserve lands. It found that the First Nations did not have such rights because the evidence did not demonstrate that gambling, or the regulation of gambling, was an integral part of the distinctive cultures of the First Nations at the time of contact. 104 It i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n s i n Lewis221 a n d Nikal.222 In t h o s e c a s e s , b y - l a w s h a d b e e n p a s s e d b y t h e B a n d C o u n c i l s u n d e r s . 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) o f t h e Indian Act w h i c h p e r m i t s a C o u n c i l t o m a k e b y - l a w s f o r t h e " p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f . . . . f i s h . . . o n t h e r e s e r v e . " T h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l f o u n d in b o t h c a s e s t h a t t h e f i s h e r i e s i n q u e s t i o n w e r e n o t p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e s a n d that , t h e r e f o r e , s . 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) d i d n o t a p p l y a n d t h e b y - l a w s w e r e i n e f f e c t i v e a n d c o u l d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a d e f e n c e u n d e r t h e Fisheries Act.223 In Nikal, t h e C o u r t of A p p e a l a l s o f o u n d t h a t r e q u i r i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s t o o b t a i n a l i c e n c e w a s n o t c o n t r a r y t o s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a u p h e l d t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n i n Lewis, b u t o v e r t u r n e d its d e c i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l i c e n c e i s s u e i n Nikal. A s w a s n o t e d i n P a r t (2) a b o v e , a r g u m e n t i n Lewis w a s r e s t r i c t e d t o i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e f i s h e r i e s a n d / o r r i v e r i n q u e s t i o n w e r e p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e s o t h a t s . 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) o f t h e Indian Act w o u l d a p p l y . T h e a p p e l l a n t a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t a r g u e t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h i n c l u d e s t h e i n c i d e n t a l right t o m a n a g e t h e f i s h t h r o u g h b y - l a w s a n d that , t h e r e f o r e , t h e b y - l a w s w e r e v a l i d . T h u s , t h e i s s u e s w e r e n a r r o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a n d d i d n o t a d d r e s s i n h e r e n t s e r f - g o v e r n m e n t r i g h t s o r e v e n A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s g e n e r a l l y . I n s t e a d , t h e f o c u s w a s o n s t a t u t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Indian Act a n d a n a l y s i s of h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f 2 2 1 [1996] S.C.J. No. 46 (QL), 1 S.C.R 921. 222[1996] S.C.J. No. 47 (QL), 1 S.C.R. 1013. 2 2 3 As was discussed in Chapter Two, if valid by-laws are passed in relation to fisheries on the reserve, they take precedence over any inconsistent Fisheries Act provisions. 105 r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s a n d w h e t h e r t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e i n t e n d e d t o b e p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e . T h e C o u r t w a s a p p a r e n t l y n o t a s k e d t o s t e p o u t s i d e a p o s i t i v i s t f r a m e w o r k o n t h i s i s s u e a n d c o n s i d e r i n h e r e n t r i g h t s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e f i n d i n g s o f b o t h t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l a n d t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o n t h a t i s s u e a r e n o t t h a t a s t o n i s h i n g . In Nikal, h o w e v e r , a n a r g u m e n t w a s a l s o m a d e t h a t t h e l i c e n s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n f r i n g e d a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a g r e e d w i t h t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l ' s d e c i s i o n that , a s i n Lewis, t h e f i s h e r y w a s n o t p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e a n d t h a t t h e r e f o r e s . 8 1 ( 1 ) ( o ) o f t h e Indian Act d i d n o t a p p l y a n d t h e b y - l a w w a s of n o f o r c e o r e f f e c t . H o w e v e r , it o v e r t u r n e d t h e l o w e r C o u r t ' s f i n d i n g t h a t t h e l i c e n s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s d i d n o t i n f r i n g e t h e A b o r i g i n a l right i n t h i s c a s e . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t l i c e n s i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w a s n o t , i n a n d o f itself , a n i n f r i n g e m e n t of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , C o r y J . , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o u r t , h e l d t h a t in t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e l i c e n c e i n q u e s t i o n d i d i n f r i n g e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a n d s i n c e t h e C r o w n h a d a d d u c e d n o e v i d e n c e j u s t i f y i n g t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e l i c e n c e w a s i n v a l i d a t e d a n d t h e D e f e n d a n t w a s a c q u i t t e d o f t h e c h a r g e s . In h o l d i n g t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a f i s h i n g l i c e n c e i s n o t i n a n d o f i t s e l f u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , C o r y J . s t a t e d : 106 It h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n s a i d t h a t r i g h t s d o n o t e x i s t i n a v a c u u m , a n d t h a t t h e r i g h t s o f o n e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p a r e n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d b y t h e r i g h t s o f a n o t h e r . T h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e p e r s o n a l o r g r o u p s r i g h t s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d b y t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s . T h e g o v e r n m e n t m u s t u l t i m a t e l y b e a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a n d d i r e c t t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e s e r i g h t s s h o u l d i n t e r a c t . 2 2 4 B y f r a m i n g t h e i s s u e i n t h i s w a y , C o r y J . a p p e a r s t o a s s u m e t h a t o t h e r s h a v e r i g h t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . T h i s m a y w e l l b e a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i d e o l o g y o f f i s h a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . H o w e v e r , a s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t , it i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r t h a t f i s h a r e i n d e e d c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . T h e f a c t t h a t it i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y o p e n f o r a n y o n e t o e n g a g e i n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t f i s h a r e n o t c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . It i s c e r t a i n l y n o t c l e a r t h a t e v e r y o n e h a s a right t o f i s h . P r e d i c t a b l y , t h e C o u r t a l s o u s e d t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e t o v a l i d a t e t h e l i c e n s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o f i s h m u s t b e b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e n e e d t o c o n s e r v e t h e f i s h e r y s t o c k . T h e C o u r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s r e q u i r e t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t b e p e r m i t t e d t o e n a c t a l i c e n s i n g s c h e m e . C o r y J . s t a t e d t h a t " T h e v e r y right t o f i s h w o u l d i n t i m e b e c o m e m e a n i n g l e s s if t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n o t e n a c t a l i c e n s i n g s c h e m e w h i c h c o u l d f o r m t h e e s s e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n o f a c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o g r a m . " 2 2 5 It a p p e a r s t h a t t h e C o u r t h a s a s s u m e d t h a t w i t h o u t a g o v e r n m e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o g r a m , a l l t h e f i s h w o u l d b e d o o m e d . W h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n f a i l s t o a c k n o w l e d g e i s t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s Wikal, supra, note 222 at p. 88 (cited to QL). 'Ibid at p. 90. 107 c o u l d b e m e t i n o t h e r w a y s , i n c l u d i n g t h r o u g h a c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m . G o v e r n m e n t l i c e n s i n g i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e o n l y w a y t o m a n a g e f i s h . H o w e v e r , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e e v e n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t o r c o - m a n a g e m e n t . C o r y J . m a d e t h i s c l e a r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : "If t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r y i s t o s u r v i v e , t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d b y a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . It i s t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o m a n a g e t h e f i s h e r y a n d s e e t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d t h e i n c r e a s e of t h e s t o c k o f t h a t f i s h e r y . " 2 2 6 T h i s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e h o l d i n g a s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l i n Sparrow, a l t h o u g h it w a s n o t e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n t h a t c a s e . A s a r e s u l t , t h i s r u l i n g b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n t h e Nikal a n d Lewis c a s e s m a k e s e x p r e s s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w a s i m p l i e d i n its d e c i s i o n i n Sparrow a n d i s a n o n - e x p r e s s r e j e c t i o n of c o - m a n a g e m e n t . C o r y J . w e n t o n t o s t a t e t h a t l i c e n s i n g i s a l s o r e q u i r e d a s a t y p e o f " p a s s p o r t " t o i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s a s A b o r i g i n a l s a n d , h e n c e , a s h a v i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o t e c t e d f i s h i n g r i g h t s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e , of c o u r s e , b e t w e e n a p a s s p o r t a n d a f i s h i n g l i c e n c e i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r d o e s n o t h a v e c o n d i t i o n s o f c i t i z e n s h i p a t t a c h e d t o it, w h e r e a s a f i s h i n g l i c e n c e d o e s c o n t a i n t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s . T h e C o u r t i m p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n b y f i n d i n g t h a t c o n d i t i o n s o n a f i s h i n g l i c e n c e c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e i n f r i n g e m e n t s o f s . 3 5 ( 1 ) . 76/rfatp. 94. 108 T h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f a l i c e n c e i n n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e , d o e s n o t i m p o s e u n d u e h a r d s h i p a n d d o e s n o t a f f e c t A b o r i g i n a l s ' p r e f e r r e d m e a n s o f e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r f i s h i n g r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , it f o u n d t h a t s e v e r a l m a n d a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s p r i n t e d o n t h e f a c e o f t h e l i c e n c e w e r e c l e a r i n f r i n g e m e n t s o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of f i s h i n g f o r f o o d o n l y ( a s o p p o s e d t o f o o d , s o c i a l a n d c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s ) a n d o f f i s h i n g f o r t h e f i s h e r a n d h i s f a m i l y o n l y . It a l s o f o u n d t h a t o t h e r t e r m s of t h e l i c e n c e c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a n i n f r i n g e m e n t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i n c l u d i n g p r e s c r i b i n g i n w h i c h w a t e r s f i s h i n g c o u l d t a k e p l a c e , t h e t y p e o f g e a r t h a t c o u l d b e u s e d a n d t h e t i m e a n d d a y s f i s h i n g c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . S i n c e t h e C r o w n d i d n o t a d d u c e a n y e v i d e n c e t o m e e t its o n u s o f p r o v i n g t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e j u s t i f i e d , a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e f o u n d t o b e i n s e v e r a b l e f r o m t h e l i c e n c e itself , t h e l i c e n c e w a s f o u n d t o b e i n v a l i d . It i s t h i s latter f i n d i n g of t h e C o u r t w h i c h m a y u l t i m a t e l y h a v e o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t s o n A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . W h e n e v e r a l i c e n c e c o n t a i n s a n y o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s n o t e d b y C o r y J . , it i s a prima facie i n f r i n g e m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s a n d t h e l i c e n c e i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n v a l i d u n l e s s t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e j u s t i f i e d . T h i s w i l l c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e a d e f e n c e t o a n y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r w h o d e c i d e s t o f i s h w i t h o u t a l i c e n c e . O f c o u r s e , in s u b s e q u e n t c a s e s t h e C r o w n m a y a d d u c e s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o m e e t its o n u s u n d e r t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n t e s t . T h e C r o w n m a y a l s o d e c i d e t h a t a t t a c h i n g c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s c a n n o t e a s i l y b e j u s t i f i e d a n d m e r e l y r e f r a i n f r o m a d d i n g t h e m t o t h e l i c e n c e . It m a y b e t h a t u l t i m a t e l y w h a t w i l l o c c u r i s t h a t t h e l i c e n s i n g of 109 A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w i l l s e r v e o n l y a s a m e t h o d of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e w h o a r e e x e r c i s i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s a n d n o t h i n g m o r e . O f c o u r s e , o t h e r s t i p u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o h o w f i s h i n g r i g h t s a r e e x e r c i s e d w i l l , n o d o u b t , b e c o n t a i n e d i n o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . H o w e v e r , it i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t at s o m e p o i n t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i l l f o r m u l a t e s o m e o t h e r t y p e o f m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e , s u c h a s p e r m i t t i n g s o m e o f t h o s e s t i p u l a t i o n s t o b e p r o m u l g a t e d a n d e n f o r c e d b y F i r s t N a t i o n s . S o m e o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s w i l l b e a d d r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , a s w i l l t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 110 CHAPTER FOUR ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A. Some Problems with Formulating Alternatives A l l f o o d - c o l l e c t i n g s o c i e t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d b y t h e e x p a n s i o n o f c o l o n i a l i s m . C o l o n i a l i s m e i t h e r c h a n g e d t h e f o r m s o f t h e i r s o c i e t i e s c o m p l e t e l y , o r a f f e c t e d t h e i r e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s w h i c h i n t u r n p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e b a s e . S t a t e s h a v e t r a n s f o r m e d b o t h t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s o u r c e u s e a s w e l l a s t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a n d t a k e n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f r e s o u r c e s a w a y f r o m i n d i g e n o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2 2 7 T h i s c e r t a i n l y a p p e a r s t o b e t h e c a s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i s h i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H o w e v e r , m a n a g i n g t h e f i s h e r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n it i n v o l v e s a n a d r o m o u s f i s h l i k e s a l m o n , i s c o m p l e x f r o m a b i o l o g i c a l , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s i n v o l v e d i n m a n a g i n g c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s f o l l o w s : d e m a n d s f o r u s e o f c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s h a v e d i v e r s i f i e d a n d e x p a n d e d a n d , a s a r e s u l t , c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n 'Hamilton, supra, note 8 at pp. 237-242. I l l d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s h a v e i n c r e a s e d i n f r e q u e n c y a n d s e v e r i t y ; e v o l v i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l s y s t e m s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s h a v e a d d e d t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e b i o p h y s i c a l s y s t e m s w h i c h m a k e s r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s m o r e d i f f i c u l t ; a n d b o o m a n d b u s t c y c l e s a n d a p o o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t d r i v e s t h e b i o p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s h a v e l e a d t o g r e a t u n c e r t a i n t i e s . 2 2 8 J . H . M u n d i e h a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e p r o b l e m s m o r e s u c c i n c t l y : " T h e p r o b l e m o f P a c i f i c s a l m o n m a n a g e m e n t i s t w o f o l d : t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , a n d i t s a l l o c a t i o n t o p e o p l e w i t h d i v e r s e c l a i m s . T h e s e t t i n g i s t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d o f u r b a n a n d i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h , u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d i n f l a t i o n . " 2 2 9 N o t o n l y a r e t h e r e c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n s e c t o r s ( s u c h a s A b o r i g i n a l v e r s u s c o m m e r c i a l v e r s u s s p o r t s f i s h e r s ) , t h e r e a r e a l s o c o n f l i c t s a m o n g s e c t o r s ( f o r i n s t a n c e , r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t v e r s u s f i s h i n g ) . T h e s e c o n f l i c t s s t e m f r o m c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e p r o b l e m , a n d f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s i n i d e a s a b o u t t h e e n d s t o b e a c h i e v e d a n d a b o u t w h o s h o u l d p a y a n d w h o s h o u l d b e n e f i t , a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p a r t i e s . 2 3 0 A d d e d t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y i s t h e i n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a s p e c t o f f i s h i n g : a l t h o u g h t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s , 228Dorcey, supra, note 29 at p. 3. The existence of uncertainty as one of the most limiting factors in fish management has been identified by many other writers as well, including C.J. Walters in "Management under Uncertainty" in Ellis, supra, note 105, 261 and R. Hilborn and R.M. Petrman, "Changing Management Objectives" in Ellis, ibid ,68. 229"Concluding Remarks: The Problem In Its Setting" in Ellis, supra, note 105, 299 at p. 299. 230Marchak, supra, note 109 at pp. 39-40. 112 p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n s i n a r e a s o f its j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t e n a f f e c t f i s h a n d f i s h h a b i t a t . T h e f i s h a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d b y w h a t o c c u r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d t h e p r i c e o f f i s h i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e w o r l d m a r k e t . T h e r e a r e a l s o d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n F i r s t N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s , b e t w e e n t r i b a l u n i t s , b e t w e e n A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a n d s h o r e w o r k e r s , a n d b e t w e e n c o a s t a l c o m m u n i t i e s a n d u p - r i v e r c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i c a l c o m m i t m e n t s t o c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e s e g r o u p s . 2 3 1 T h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t o k e e p i n m i n d w h e n a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . R e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s t h e b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e t o t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n g o v e r n a n c e o f c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s . 2 3 2 G i v e n t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o m a n a g e a m a r i n e f i s h e r y , P e a r s e s u g g e s t e d i n h i s C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t t h a t a t e r m i n a l f i s h e r y a p p e a r e d t o h o l d m u c h p r o m i s e ; n o t o n l y w o u l d m a n a g e m e n t b e e a s i e r a n d m o r e d i s c r i m i n a t e , b u t t h e e c o n o m y o f f i s h i n g c o u l d b e i m p r o v e d b y r e m o v i n g t h e n e e d f o r a l a r g e f l e e t , a n d p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d b e i n c r e a s e d b y c o n f i n i n g t h e c a t c h t o m a t u r e f i s h . H o w e v e r , h e p o i n t e d t o p r o b l e m s w i t h d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e f i s h a s t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s , w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n a d e c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t v a l u e . 2 3 3 G i v e n t h a t it i s t h e m a r k e t w h i c h d r i v e s t h e e n t i r e f i s h i n g 2 3 1 E . Pinkerton, "Indians in the Fishing Industry" in E. Pinkerton, ed., supra, note 25, 249 at p. 250. 232Marchak, supra, note 109 at p. 39. 2 3 3The Commission, supra, note 34 at p. 44. This is probably no small concern given that what drives the entire system is arguably the market. If Canadian fish are not up to world standards, Canadian fishers might be unable to maintain their market share and economic and social costs will be incurred. In 1994, the economic value of British Columbia's commercial salmon fishery was estimated at one billion dollars annually. See Allain and Frechette, supra, note 96 at p. 1. 113 p r o c e s s , t h i s i s a f a c t o r w h i c h i n a n d o f i t s e l f c o u l d f o r e c l o s e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n i n - r i v e r f i s h e r y o n l y . A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h m u s t b e a d d r e s s e d w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t o n c e a p r o g r a m o r s y s t e m i s i n p l a c e , t h o s e w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n it w i l l i n e v i t a b l y p r o t e s t its r e m o v a l . G . B . D o e r n i d e n t i f i e s a c o m m o n a t t i t u d e i n r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e s : r e g u l a t o r s t e n d t o b e c o m e o b s e s s e d w i t h s u n k c o s t s a n d a b h o r a b a n d o n i n g a n e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . A s w e l l , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o s t r e s s c o n t i n u i t y o f s e r v i c e a n d t h u s p r o t e c t r e g u l a t e d f i r m s f r o m a s m u c h u n c e r t a i n t y a s p o s s i b l e . 2 3 4 In t h e P a c i f i c f i s h e r i e s , m a r i n e f i s h e r s h a v e i n v e s t e d l a r g e s u m s o f m o n e y i n v e s s e l s a n d f i s h i n g e q u i p m e n t , m o s t o f w h i c h w o u l d n o t b e u t i l i z e d i n a r i v e r i n e f i s h e r y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e l a r g e c o r p o r a t e e n t i t i e s w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s a s t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y r e g u l a t e d . It c a n b e p r e d i c t e d t h a t f i s h e r s w o u l d s t r o n g l y o p p o s e a n y c h a n g e f r o m a n o c e a n - b a s e d f i s h e r y t o a r i v e r - b a s e d o n e w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r l o s t i n v e s t m e n t . S i n c e c o r p o r a t i o n s h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e o n g o v e r n m e n t , it i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e w o u l d b e a l t e r e d t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s a r e t h r e a t e n e d g r e a t l y . A s w e l l , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e t y p e o f r e f o r m t o t h e m a n a g e m e n t s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e m i g h t b e s o m e s o c i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t w i t h f i s h e r s b e i n g f o r c e d t o m o v e f r o m c o a s t a l a r e a s t o i n l a n d f i s h i n g a r e a s , t h u s c r e a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y l a r g e s o c i a l a n d 234Doern, supra, note 88 at p. 10. 114 economic costs in some regions. These political, social and economic repercussions make a radical change in fisheries policy unlikely, even if such a change is required to save the resource.235 The reforms which are more likely to take place are in relation to some restricted management activities, with only minimal changes being made to the ways in which fish are caught and by whom they are both caught and managed. In particular, it is extremely unlikely that the recognition of increased Aboriginal participation in the catching, sale and management of salmon will result in a significant abdication of fisheries management by the state. Given the complexity of the salmon fisheries, its inter-jurisdictional character and the divergence of interests among the various groups, including within Aboriginal communities, it is unlikely that any one group would be permitted to have exclusive jurisdiction over the resource. Perhaps, however, a role for First Nations in some management activities will be recognized, and a co- management regime developed.236 It is this alternative which will be the focus of the remainder of the chapter. 2 3 5 As C.J. Walters states, "Vested interest and personal commitment do not provide a very good seed bed for rational thinking and decision making." See supra, note 228 at p. 264. 236Co-management may not be the best alternative with respect to non-anadromous fish. It is possible that some type of separate management regime could be put in place for some isolated species of fish. However, since all fish swim, it is likely that inter-jurisdictional issues will arise when attempting to manage them and, as a result, co-management may virtually always be the only practical alternative. 115 B. Is Co4Manaaement the Solution? C o - m a n a g e m e n t h a s b e e n a c c r e d i t e d w i t h a l t e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g a c t o r s i n t h e f i s h e r y : " b y i n s t i t u t i n g s h a r e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a m o n g t h e s e a c t o r s , c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s s e t u p a g a m e i n w h i c h t h e p a y - o f f s a r e g r e a t e r f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n t h a n f o r o p p o s i t i o n a n d / o r c o m p e t i t i o n . . . , " 2 3 7 In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p a r t i e s h a v e t o w o r k t o g e t h e r if t h e r e s o u r c e i s t o b e s a v e d f o r e v e r y o n e ' s b e n e f i t . T h e n e w r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e c r e a t e d c a n g e n e r a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t r u s t . F o r i n s t a n c e , if f i s h e r s b e c o m e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t o c k r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e y s h o u l d n o l o n g e r b e p e r c e i v e d b y g o v e r n m e n t a s p r e d a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n s h o r t - t e r m g a i n s o n l y . 2 3 8 T h e l o g i s t i c s o f h a r v e s t i n g m a y n o t h a v e t o b e a g o v e r n m e n t c o n c e r n a s l o n g a s o v e r a l l c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s a r e m e t . E . P i n k e r t o n s t a t e s : C o - m a n a g e m e n t c a n a l l o w a b a l a n c e t o b e s t r u c k b e t w e e n t h e n e e d s o f l o c a l g r o u p s f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d t h e n e e d s o f g o v e r n m e n t t o h a v e s o m e a s s u r a n c e t h e r e s o u r c e i s b e i n g w e l l m a n a g e d , a n d t h a t it c a n s t e p i n s h o u l d t h e r e b e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e o f o v e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n . 2 3 9 T h e r e i s a r g u a b l y a n e v e n g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e f o r A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s t o b e e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t o r s s i n c e i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e f i s h e r y m a y b e a m e a n s t o r e i n f o r c e 2 3 7 E. Pinkerton, "Introduction: Attaining Better Fisheries Management Through Co-Management-- Prospects, Problems and Propositions" in Pinkerton, ed., supra, note 25, 3 at pp. 4-5. 23SIbid at pp. 8-9. 239Ibid at p. 14. 116 t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s a n d p r a c t i c e s a n d "[i]f b e i n g v e r y c o m p e t e n t s e l f - r e g u l a t o r s i s a w a y o f a l s o s a v i n g o n e ' s c u l t u r e , t h e f i s h e r y w i l l b e n e f i t a s w e l l . " 2 4 0 D e s p i t e t h e p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s , t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r a c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e a r e a n y t h i n g b u t c l e a r . It h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t b u r e a u c r a c i e s h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n d e f i n i t e l y a n d it i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s ("the D e p a r t m e n t " ) w i l l e a s i l y a l l o w t h e d e v o l u t i o n o f m u c h o f its a u t h o r i t y . 2 4 1 H o w e v e r , it i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t h a s a l r e a d y b e g u n t o m o v e t o w a r d s o m e s h a r i n g o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , it r e c e n t l y a n n o u n c e d a n a g r e e m e n t w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n w h i c h it w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d p o s s i b l y a s s u m e a n e n h a n c e d r o l e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . A r e v i e w o f f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l m a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t o b e c o m p l e t e d b y F e b r u a r y 1 9 9 7 . 2 4 2 T h u s , it m a y w e l l b e t h a t a t r e n d t o w a r d c o - m a n a g e m e n t h a s i n d e e d a l r e a d y b e g u n . N o n e t h e l e s s , o n e o f t h e b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e s i n f o r m u l a t i n g a c o - m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l o c a t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e a m o n g u s e r g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h it h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o - m a n a g e m e n t c a n a l l o w a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s t o b e m a d e b y t h e u s e r s t h e m s e l v e s , i n t h e c u r r e n t c l i m a t e it s e e m s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e g r o u p s w i l l b e a b l e t o w o r k t o g e t h e r t o d e v i s e a n Ibid at p. 17. See also Rettig et al, supra, note 25 at p. 281 and McCay and Acheson, supra, note 114 at p. 24. 241Pinkerton, supra, note 237 at p. 24. 242See Crawley and Hunter, supra, note 61. 117 e f f e c t i v e a n d a c c e p t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e . 2 4 3 It i s n o t e v e n c l e a r t h a t t h e p a r t i e s c a n e s t a b l i s h w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o c o - m a n a g e e v e n t h e l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t s o f f i s h i n g , a s "[t]he s t a k e h o l d e r s w h o a r e t o b e c o m e c o - m a n a g e r s a p p r o a c h t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e s s t r u c k f r o m r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . " 2 4 4 A s w e l l , a s w a s d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f e q u a l i t y , c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d c o m m o n p r o p e r t y h a v e a l l l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p e r c e p t i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g t h e p a r t i e s w h i c h w i l l n o t b e e a s i l y b r o k e n d o w n . T h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y h a v e t o r e m a i n a c r i t i c a l p l a y e r u n l e s s t h e g r o u p s c a n d e v e l o p a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h w i l l p e r m i t t h e m t o w o r k t o g e t h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y o n t h e m o r e p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l l y d i v i s i v e i s s u e s . H a v i n g s a i d a l l t h a t , v a r i a t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n s o m e j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . A s w e l l , t h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y s o m e t r e n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l b e i t o n l y m i n o r o n e s , t o w a r d a s h a r i n g o f m a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h F i r s t N a t i o n s o v e r f i s h e r i e s . It i s t o t h e s e t r e n d s a n d e x t r a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l m o d e l s t h a t w e n o w t u r n . 243Pinkerton acknowledges that difficulty, citing the non-Aboriginal fishers' particularly individualistic ideology as a further barrier to such a co-management structure. Supra, note 237 at p. 20. 2 4 4 N . Dale, "Getting to Co-Management: Social Learning in the Redesign of Fisheries Management" in Pinkerton, ed., supra, note 25, 49 at p. 49. This is not to suggest that it is impossible, however, as Dale goes on to point out in the Washington State context. He reviews how a frame-shift occurred in organizational attitudes in Washington following the controversial "Boldt decisions" when the parties began to meet and attempt to work together in a co-management regime. The Washington model is an interesting one which will be discussed later in this chapter. 118 (1) Co-Manaaement in British Columbia T o d a t e , t h e o n l y t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t b e i n g o f f e r e d t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s r e a l l y t h a t o f g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o e x i s t i n g s t a t e s y s t e m s . G i v e n t h e p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h i s i s n o g r e a t s u r p r i s e a n d it i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y o t h e r t y p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s u c h a s a l l o w i n g t h e m t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r o w n m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s s e p a r a t e a n d a p a r t f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e , w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d . H o w e v e r , it i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t m o s t , if n o t a l l , o f t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e t a k i n g p l a c e c o n t i n u e t o b e m o d e l e d a r o u n d l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . (i) The Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy ("AFS") T h e A F S , a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T w o , i s a n e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e d o m i n a n t s y s t e m o f f i s h e r i e s g o v e r n a n c e c o n t i n u e s t o b e u s e d e v e n i n a c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m . A l t h o u g h t h e A F S i s d e s i g n e d t o a t t e m p t t o s h a r e t h e g o v e r n a n c e o f r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t t o s o m e e x t e n t w i t h F i r s t N a t i o n s , it e f f e c t i v e l y d o e s s o b y f u r t h e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i n t o t h e d o m i n a n t s y s t e m o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . F o r i n s t a n c e , o n e o f t h e p r o g r a m s u n d e r t h e A F S i s t o t r a i n A b o r i g i n a l s a s f i s h g u a r d i a n s o r e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s . T h r o u g h t h i s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , t h e D e p a r t m e n t i s i n d i g e n i z i n g f r o n t - l i n e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y 119 w o r k e r s b u t t h e s a m e m a n a g e m e n t s t r u c t u r e i s i n p l a c e . In o t h e r w o r d s , t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l e n f o r c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s a r e n o t b e i n g r e l i e d u p o n ; i n s t e a d , A b o r i g i n a l s a r e b e i n g t r a i n e d t o e n f o r c e t h e l a w s t h e w a y t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y e n f o r c e s t h e m . T h i s t y p e o f a p p r o a c h i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f w h a t h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s " h y b r i d s o f t h e i m p o s e d s y s t e m o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l w h i c h a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i g e n o u s p e r s o n n e l t p e n h a n c e l e g i t i m a c y . " 2 4 5 N o t o n l y d o e s t h e A F S n o t r e s u l t i n m u c h r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n a l t e r n a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t m o d e l , it c u r r e n t l y d o e s n o t e v e n f u l l y i n t e g r a t e A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . F i r s t N a t i o n s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o e x e r c i s e v e r y l i m i t e d m a n a g e m e n t f u n c t i o n s o n l y . O n e o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e A F S p r o g r a m b y t h e B . C . A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n w a s t h a t it d i d n o t p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l e n o u g h r o l e f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s i n m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e p r o g r a m h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t a r r a n g e m e n t 2 4 6 , it i s s u c h o n l y t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . S t a t e i d e o l o g i e s c o n t i n u e t o d o m i n a t e a n d if A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n m a n a g e m e n t , t h e y m u s t e s s e n t i a l l y p l a y b y t h e r u l e s o f t h o s e i d e o l o g i e s . M e r e l y p e r m i t t i n g A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e t o e n f o r c e t h e s t a t e ' s l a w s o r t o p e r h a p s h a v e s o m e t y p e o f a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e l a w s i s n o t t r u e c o - m a n a g e m e n t . If t h e y a r e t o b e t r u e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n m a n a g e m e n t , 2 4 5P. Havemann, "The Indigenization of Social Control in Canada" in B.W. Morse and G.R. Woodman, eds., Indigenous Law and the State (Providence, R.I.: Fofis Publications, 1988) 71 at p. 91. 246See, for example, the description of the program in Gardner Pinfold, supra, note 58 at p. 48. 120 A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s h a v e t o b e p e r m i t t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s , w h e r e t h e y s t i l l e x i s t , i n t o r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e h a p p e n i n g t o a n y g r e a t e x t e n t u n d e r t h e A F S . H o w e v e r , e v e n if t h i s w e r e p e r m i t t e d , t h e r e i s a r i s k t h a t m a n y o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w o u l d n o t b e t r a n s l a t e d a c c u r a t e l y i n t o s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s : it h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t w h e n e v e r c u s t o m a r y l a w i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o s t a t e l a w , it i n v a r i a b l y e n t a i l s t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e c u s t o m a r y l a w . 2 4 7 T h u s , it m a y b e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t , if n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o d e v i s e a w o r k a b l e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m w h i c h t r u l y a c k n o w l e d g e s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t l e g a l s y s t e m a n d i d e o l o g y . D e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e A F S i s a m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s o m e t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t w i t h A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s , a l t h o u g h a s w a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , it m a y b e t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a ' s d e c i s i o n i n Van der Peet t h e A F S w i l l b e a b a n d o n e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t . In a n y e v e n t , h o w e v e r , a m o r e s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e o f a n a t t e m p t t o i n c o r p o r a t e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n t o t h e r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k c a n b e f o u n d w i t h t h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n . A s w i l l b e s e e n i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e y h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n d o i n g s o t o s o m e e x t e n t w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e A F S . 247See B.W. Morse and G.R. Woodman, "Introductory Essay: The State's Options" in Morse and Woodman, supra, note 245, 5 at p. 15. 121 (Hi The Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en F i s h i n g a m o n g t h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n o n t h e S k e e n a R i v e r h a s c o n t i n u e d t o b e r e g u l a t e d t o s o m e e x t e n t b y l a w s a n d c u s t o m s w h i c h a r e d e e p l y i m b e d d e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . 2 4 8 F i s h i n g a n d p r o c e s s i n g i s a c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i a l e n d e a v o u r i n t h e i r c u l t u r e s a n d t h e f i s h i n g g r o u n d s a r e t r e a t e d a s t h e p r o p e r t y o f k i n s h i p g r o u p s . 2 4 9 A l t h o u g h t h e H o u s e C h i e f s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e p o w e r s a s s t a t e f i s h e r y m a n a g e r s , t h e r u l e s a r e b a s e d o n a s h a r e d p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e v a l u e s o f a n e n t i r e s o c i e t y a n d , a s a r e s u l t , t h e y a r e s e l f - e n f o r c i n g a n d i n v o l v e m i n i m a l c o n f l i c t . M o s t o f t h e c o n f l i c t s w h i c h d o e x i s t a r e t h o s e w h i c h c e n t r e a r o u n d q u e s t i o n s o f s t a t e v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y f o r m a n a g e m e n t a n d c o m m e r c i a l s a l e o f f i s h . 2 5 0 T h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n T r i b a l C o u n c i l p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m b e u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h r i g h t s t o h a r v e s t a n d o b l i g a t i o n s t o s h a r e b e n e f i t s t o b e s t r u c t u r e d a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . N e g o t i a t i o n s t o r e a c h a m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d t h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l b e g a n i n 1 9 7 9 . A l t h o u g h a f e w i n t e r i m a g r e e m e n t s w e r e 2 4 8 M . Morrell, "The Struggle to Integrate Traditional Indian Systems and State Management in the Salmon Fisheries of the Skeena River, British Columbia" in Pinkerton, ed., supra, note 25, 231 at p. 232. See also E. Pinkerton, "Indians in the Fishing Industry" in P. Marchak, et. al., supra, note 109, 249 at pp. 253-254. 2 4 9Among the Gitksan, the Houses own the fishing grounds with the House Chief having ultimate authority and responsibility for those grounds. Among the Wet'suwet'en, ownership of fishing grounds vest with the Clan (a group of several Houses) but final authority remains with one individual. See Morrell, supra, note 248 at p. 233. 250Ibidatpp. 234-235. 122 r e a c h e d , n e g o t i a t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y b r o k e d o w n b e c a u s e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e m a n a g e m e n t a u t h o r i t y o f t h e C h i e f s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s g o a l i n t h e p r o c e s s a p p e a r e d t o b e m e r e l y t o o b t a i n A b o r i g i n a l a g r e e m e n t t o t h e a n n u a l f i s h i n g p l a n s t o r e d u c e t e n s i o n . T h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l ' s p o s i t i o n w a s t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t w a n t e d t o r e d u c e t h e A b o r i g i n a l r o l e i n m a n a g e m e n t t o o n e o f c o n s u l t a t i o n o n l y . 2 5 1 T h e t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d b y t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s d i v e r g e d d r a m a t i c a l l y a n d , a s a r e s u l t , u l t i m a t e a g r e e m e n t s e e m e d u n l i k e l y . H o w e v e r , s o m e c o n c i l i a t i o n h a s m o r e r e c e n t l y b e e n r e a c h e d w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t . In t h e 1 9 8 0 s , t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d e x t e n s i v e b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h e i r f i s h e r i e s a n d c o n d u c t e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e s c i e n c e o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t a n d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m s . W h e n t h e A F S w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n 1 9 8 2 , t h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n e n t e r e d i n t o a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l f i s h u n d e r t h e P i l o t S a l e s A r r a n g e m e n t ( " P S A " ) . In t h e c a s e o f t h e G i t k s a n , t h e r e w e r e 1 0 H o u s e s c o n d u c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s b y 1 9 9 4 . T h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n W a t e r s h e d A u t h o r i t i e s ( " G W W A " ) w a s f o r m e d i n 1 9 9 1 b y t h e H o u s e C h i e f s t o c o - o r d i n a t e f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s u n d e r t h e A F S a g r e e m e n t s . T h e G W W A i s t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n t h e C h i e f s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t . W e e k l y m e e t i n g s a r e h e l d i n - s e a s o n 2 5 1/6/datpp. 246-247. 123 b e t w e e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e G W W A a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o r e v i e w h a r v e s t d a t a . T h i s c o m m i t t e e a l s o d e c i d e s w h e n c l o s u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y . S o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e G W W A h a v e a l s o b e e n t r a i n e d a s f i s h e r y g u a r d i a n s u n d e r t h e A F S . In 1 9 9 4 , G W W A m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d j o i n t s t o c k a s s e s s m e n t ; d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ; m o n i t o r i n g o f h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s ; j o i n t e n f o r c e m e n t o f h a r v e s t r e g u l a t i o n s ; a n d r e s o u r c e u s e c o - o r d i n a t i o n . T h u s , t h e G W W A f o r m a l i z e s s o m e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i e f l y h a r v e s t m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . It h a s a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n i t i a t i v e s u n d e r t h e A F S , D e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s a r e n o w " s e e n a s c o l l e a g u e s w h o a r e h e l p i n g g e t a j o b d o n e . " 2 5 2 A l t h o u g h it i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l a g r e e t o p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e A F S a g r e e m e n t s p e r m i t t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t a n d h a r v e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s w h i c h d o n o t c o n f o r m t o i t s m a n a g e m e n t p h i l o s o p h y , t h e m o d e l a p p e a r s t o b e o n e o f t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o d a t e . In a d d i t i o n , a s p e c t s o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e S k e e n a w a t e r s h e d a r e e x p a n d i n g t o e n c o m p a s s a l l u s e r s o f t h e r e s o u r c e . In 1 9 9 1 t h e G i t k s a n j o i n e d w i t h t h e T s i m s h i a n a n d i n t e r i o r B a b i n e L a k e N a t ' o o t ' e n F i r s t N a t i o n s t o f o r m t h e S k e e n a F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n ( " S F C " ) t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e A F S . T h e S F C c o n t i n u e s t o c o o r d i n a t e A F S a g r e e m e n t s a m o n g i t s m e m b e r s . In 1 9 9 2 , t h e S k e e n a W a t e r s h e d C o m m i t t e e ( " S W C " ) w a s f o r m e d , o f w h i c h t h e G i t k s a n i s a l s o a m e m b e r . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s c o m m e r c i a l a n d s p o r t s f i s h e r s a s m e m b e r s . T h e S W C p e r f o r m s 252Pinkerton and Weinstein, supra, note 116 at p. 67. 124 s e v e r a l i n f o r m a l m a n a g e m e n t f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a d v i s i n g t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o n s t o c k a s s e s s m e n t r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s ; w o r k i n g w i t h g o v e r n m e n t s i n j o i n t h a r v e s t p l a n n i n g ; f o r m u l a t i n g h a r v e s t m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m s ; c o - o r d i n a t i n g r e s e a r c h ; a n d s p o n s o r i n g a n d c o - o r d i n a t i n g a n y i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e w a t e r s h e d r e l a t e d t o f i s h . 2 5 3 H o w e v e r , a c h i e v i n g c o n s e n s u s i n t h e S W C h a s b e e n p r o b l e m a t i c , w i t h t h e U n i t e d F i s h e r m e n a n d A l l i e d W o r k e r s ' U n i o n p u l l i n g o u t o f t h e p r o c e s s i n 1 9 9 5 , p r o t e s t i n g t h a t c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s w e r e n o t b e i n g a l l o c a t e d e n o u g h s o c k e y e . 2 5 4 T h u s , it a p p e a r s t h a t a f o r m o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t i s w o r k i n g t o s o m e d e g r e e i n t h e S k e e n a w a t e r s h e d , w i t h n o t o n l y A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s , b u t o t h e r u s e r s o f t h e r e s o u r c e a l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m a n a g e m e n t f u n c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h o t h e r A F S p r o g r a m s , t h e s t a t e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m , a l o n g w i t h i t s u n d e r l y i n g p r e m i s e s a n d i d e o l o g i e s , i s s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t . A l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l u s e r s c l e a r l y h a v e a g r e a t e r v o i c e i n m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s n o w t h a n t h e y d i d u n d e r p r e v i o u s s y s t e m s , a n d s o m e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s a r e b e i n g u t i l i z e d , t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n m a k e r i s s t i l l t h e s t a t e a n d a t l e a s t s o m e c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e s t a t e r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m i s r e q u i r e d . T h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , g i v e n w h a t h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r p o r t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A s w a s n o t e d , it i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a m o r e r a d i c a l s h i f t i n m a n a g e m e n t w i l l t a k e p l a c e . 'For a more comprehensive review of the SWC, see Pinkerton and Weinstein, ibid at pp. 55-62. 'E. Alden, "How fisheries flourish" The Vancouver Sun (27 July 1996) A19. 125 (iii) The Nisaa'a Aareement-in-PrinciDle A n e v e n m o r e r e c e n t e x a m p l e o f a n a t t e m p t t o m o v e t o w a r d s o m e t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t a r r a n g e m e n t c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e , w h i c h w a s e n t e r e d i n t o o n F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 9 6 . A g r e e m e n t o n t h e f i s h i n g p r o v i s i o n s w a s n o t e a s i l y r e a c h e d a m o n g t h e n e g o t i a t o r s , w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e b e i n g r e l u c t a n t t o a g r e e t o a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y e n t r e n c h e d f i s h i n g q u o t a b e c a u s e it w a s p e r c e i v e d t o b e u n s a l e a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n t h a t it w a s r a c e - b a s e d . T h e f i s h i n g i s s u e s t a l l e d n e g o t i a t i o n s a n d a l m o s t p r e v e n t e d a n a g r e e m e n t f r o m b e i n g r e a c h e d . 2 5 5 W h e n a n a g r e e m e n t w a s f i n a l l y r e a c h e d a n d its d e t a i l s r e l e a s e d , n e w s a r t i c l e s a t t h e t i m e i n d i c a t e d t h a t it w a s t h e f i s h i n g p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h s p a r k e d t h e m o s t c o n t r o v e r s y a n d d e b a t e a m o n g m e m b e r s o f t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y , a n d w i t h i n t h e f i s h i n g c o m m u n i t y s p e c i f i c a l l y . T h e p r o v i s i o n s w e r e c r i t i c i z e d a s b e i n g a s e l l - o u t t o F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s a n d c r e a t i n g a n u n f a i r r a c e - b a s e d f i s h e r y . L i t i g a t i o n w a s i n i t i a t e d i n A p r i l 1 9 9 6 o p p o s i n g a n y s p e c i a l A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r y . It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a t r e a t y . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r e a t y C o m m i s s i o n p r o c e s s p r o v i d e s t h a t a n A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e w i l l c o n t a i n t h e m a j o r p o i n t s o f a g r e e m e n t a m o n g t h e 255News stories at the beginning of 1996 indicated that along with the fishing issue, two other problems remained in the negotiations: the Nisga'a opposed any wording "extinguishing" Nisga'a Aboriginal title and rights and British Columbia sought an end to Nisga'a tax exemptions. See D. Sanders, "The Nisga'a Agreement" (13 April 1996) [unpublished] at p. 2. 126 p a r t i e s o n l y a n d i s n o t a f i n a l a g r e e m e n t . T h e n e x t s t e p i s t o n e g o t i a t e t h e F i n a l A g r e e m e n t o r T r e a t y , w h i c h i s t o e m b o d y t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d i n t h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e i s i n d e e d a n i m p o r t a n t m i l e s t o n e , t h e t r e a t y i t s e l f m a y s t i l l b e m a n y y e a r s a w a y . U n d e r t h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e , t h e N i s g a ' a w i l l b e e n t i t l e d t o a t r e a t y a l l o c a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e h a r v e s t o f f i s h e n t e r i n g t h e N a s s R i v e r s y s t e m f o r d o m e s t i c a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e . 2 5 6 In a d d i t i o n , t h e a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e y w i l l r e c e i v e a n a l l o c a t i o n o f s o c k e y e a n d p i n k s a l m o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e u n d e r a h a r v e s t i n g a g r e e m e n t e n t e r e d i n t o o u t s i d e t h e t r e a t y . 2 5 7 A l l e n t i t l e m e n t s a r e t o b e h e l d c o m m u n a l l y . In t o t a l , t h e N i s g a ' a w i l l b e a b l e t o h a r v e s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a l l o w a b l e c a t c h o n t h e N a s s R i v e r , w h e n r u n s p e r m i t . T h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l r e t a i n t h e r i g h t t o d e t e r m i n e m i n i m u m e s c a p e m e n t l e v e l s a n d w h e r e r u n s a r e l e s s t h a n o r e q u a l t o t h e m i n i m u m e s c a p e m e n t l e v e l , n o h a r v e s t s o f t h e f i s h w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d . A l t h o u g h t h e N i s g a ' a w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d t o s e l l t h e i r f i s h , t h e y w i l l b e s u b j e c t t o m e a s u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d t o l e g i s l a t i o n e n a c t e d f o r t h e 2 5 6 S e e C a n a d a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , N i s g a ' a T r i b a l C o u n c i l , Nisga 'a Treaty Negotiations Agreement in Principle (15 F e b r u a r y 1996 ) [ unpub l i shed ] a n d C a n a d a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d N i s g a ' a T r i b a l C o u n c i l , Nisga 'a Treaty Negotiations Agreement in Principle in Brief (15 F e b r u a r y 1996 ) [ u n p u b l i s h e d ] . 2 S 7 T h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e e x p r e s s l y states tha t the h a r v e s t i n g a g r e e m e n t w i l l no t c rea te t rea ty r i g h t s w i t h i n the m e a n i n g o f s. 3 5 o f the Constitution Act, 1982. It a l s o p r o v i d e s tha t t he ha r ves t a l l o c a t i o n i s t o be g i v e n the s a m e p r i o r i t y as c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e c r ea t i ona l a l l o c a t i o n s i n the D e p a r t m e n t ' s f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . See p p . 36-37 o f the A g r e e m e n t . 127 p u r p o s e s o f p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d s a f e t y . A s w e l l , f i s h c a u g h t p u r s u a n t t o t h e h a r v e s t a l l o c a t i o n s , a s o p p o s e d t o t r e a t y a l l o c a t i o n s , a r e t o b e s o l d o n l y p u r s u a n t t o t h e t e r m s o f t h e h a r v e s t a g r e e m e n t s . N o s a l e s w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d o f a n y f i s h , h o w e v e r a l l o c a t e d , w h e r e t h e r e a r e n o d i r e c t e d h a r v e s t s i n C a n a d i a n c o m m e r c i a l o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f i s h e r i e s o f N a s s A r e a s t o c k s o f t h a t s p e c i e s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e t r e a t y i s n o t t o a l t e r l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s i n f i s h o r m a r i n e p l a n t s . T h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l r e t a i n o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s a n d f i s h h a b i t a t , w i t h t h e N i s g a ' a m a n a g i n g i t s o w n h a r v e s t . T h e N i s g a ' a w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d t o r e g u l a t e h o w t h e h a r v e s t i s t o b e a l l o c a t e d a m o n g N i s g a ' a c i t i z e n s a n d n o n - N i s g a ' a c i t i z e n s f i s h i n g i n t h e i r w a t e r s ; l i c e n s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ; d e s i g n a t i o n a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f N i s g a ' a h a r v e s t e r s ; d i s p o s i t i o n o f h a r v e s t e d f i s h ; a n d d e s i g n a t i o n o f v e s s e l s u s e d f o r c o n d u c t i n g h a r v e s t s . A j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t c o m m i t t e e w i l l b e f o r m e d t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p l a n s , a r r a n g e f o r c o l l e c t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e o f d a t a , p r o v i d e a d v i c e o n e s c a p e m e n t g o a l s a n d m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d t h e N i s g a ' a g o v e r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n n e e d s a n d o t h e r i s s u e s . T h e c o m m i t t e e w i l l b e c o m p o s e d o f t w o m e m b e r s a p p o i n t e d b y e a c h o f t h e N i s g a ' a C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t , C a n a d a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 128 T h e N i s g a ' a m u s t p r e p a r e a n a n n u a l f i s h i n g p l a n a n d e n s u r e f i s h a r e h a r v e s t e d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e p l a n . It m u s t i n c l u d e t h e l o c a t i o n , t i m i n g , m e t h o d o f h a r v e s t a n d a p p l i c a b l e g e a r r e s t r i c t i o n s ; f i s h e r y m o n i t o r i n g p l a n s ; f i s h e r y e n f o r c e m e n t p l a n s ; s t o c k a s s e s s m e n t a n d e n h a n c e m e n t p l a n s ; a n d t h e t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e s a l e o f f i s h . T h e p l a n m u s t b e f o r w a r d e d t o t h e j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t c o m m i t t e e w h i c h w i l l h a v e t h e p o w e r t o m a k e a d j u s t m e n t s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e N i s g a ' a f i s h e r i e s w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d h a r v e s t i n g p l a n s . T h e c o m m i t t e e w i l l t h e n r e c o m m e n d t h e p l a n t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s w h o h a s t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y t o a c c e p t o r v a r y t h e p l a n . T h e N i s g a ' a w i l l a l s o r e c e i v e $ 1 1 . 5 m i l l i o n f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f v e s s e l s a n d l i c e n c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o a s t a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . In a d d i t i o n , a t r u s t w i l l b e e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o m o t e c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f N a s s f i s h s p e c i e s . C a n a d a w i l l a l s o b e r e q u i r e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e N i s g a ' a C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s w h i c h m a y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e F i n a l A g r e e m e n t . T h e f i s h e r i e s p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e N i s g a ' a A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e , if t h e y u l t i m a t e l y b e c o m e p a r t o f a t r e a t y , w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y i n c r e a s e t h e N i s g a ' a s h a r e o f N a s s s a l m o n . T h e p r o v i s i o n s w i l l a l s o p e r m i t t h e N i s g a ' a t o h a v e a g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r h o w t h e i r f i s h a r e m a n a g e d . H o w e v e r , t h e a g r e e m e n t c l e a r l y d o e s 129 n o t e n v i s a g e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e . I n s t e a d , t h e N i s g a ' a a r e p e r m i t t e d t o d e c i d e h o w t h e f i s h a r e t o b e d i v i d e d a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s a n d t o e n s u r e t h e f i s h e r i e s a r e m a n a g e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s o v e r a l l m a n a g e m e n t p l a n . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e a l s o p e r m i t t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r o w n h a r v e s t i n g p l a n s a n d t o d e t e r m i n e e n f o r c e m e n t m e c h a n i s m s , t h e s e p l a n s m u s t u l t i m a t e l y b e a p p r o v e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t . It m a y b e t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l p e r m i t t r a d i t i o n a l h a r v e s t i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p l a n s . H o w e v e r , it s e e m s u n l i k e l y u n d e r t h i s t y p e o f f r a m e w o r k t h a t m u c h d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e n o n - A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d . It i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t w h a t w i l l r e s u l t i s a N i s g a ' a r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k w h i c h m i r r o r s t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e a r e l i m i t e d , it i s a s t e p t o w a r d c o - m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s . T o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t t h e N i s g a ' a w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d a s " o w n e r s " o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n o f N a s s R i v e r f i s h . 2 5 8 T h u s , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a s l i g h t s h i f t f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o c u s o n f i s h a s a c o m m o n p r o p e r t y r e s o u r c e . H o w e v e r , it i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e b a s i c m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m , w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t r e t a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y a l l o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o w e r , i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d b y t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s . G. Holman argues that the Agreement in Principle does indeed privatize a portion of the Nass salmon runs. See "Fishing industry has a chance to swim rather than sink" The Globe and Mail (27 February 1996) A13. 130 A s w e l l , t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h t h e A g r e e m e n t i n P r i n c i p l e e n g e n d e r e d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a n u n w i l l i n g n e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o m o v e t o w a r d a c o - m a n a g e m e n t f i s h e r i e s r e g i m e . T h e p u b l i c , a n d c e r t a i n l y t h o s e w i t h i n t h e f i s h e r i e s i n d u s t r y w h o c r i t i c i z e d t h e a g r e e m e n t , c o n t i n u a l l y p o i n t t o t h e c o m m o n p r o p e r t y n a t u r e o f t h e r e s o u r c e a s s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t p r i o r i t y c a n n o t b e g i v e n t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p t o h a r v e s t it, r e g a r d l e s s o f a n y h i s t o r i c a l o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t h e g r o u p m i g h t h a v e . A s w e l l , t h e r e h a s b e e n m u c h c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s a s b e i n g r a c i a l l y b a s e d . E q u a l i t y a r g u m e n t s a r e u s e d t o s u g g e s t t h a t it i s c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , a n d p e r h a p s e v e n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , t o p e r m i t o n e g r o u p i n s o c i e t y t o h a v e a s p e c i a l h a r v e s t i n g a l l o c a t i o n . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s s o m u c h f o c u s o n t h e r a c e i s s u e i n t h e d i s c o u r s e , g i v e n t h a t t h e f i s h e r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v e b e e n " r a c i a l l y b a s e d " f o r o v e r 1 0 0 y e a r s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e A b o r i g i n a l f o o d f i s h e r y h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s s i n c e 1 8 8 8 a n d w a s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a . T h e c o n c e r n s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a l s o c o n t i n u e t o d o m i n a t e t h e f i s h e r i e s d e b a t e , a n d a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e i n t h e a g r e e m e n t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s t a t e ' s c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e m e t a n d t h a t N i s g a ' a h a r v e s t i n g p l a n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h a r v e s t s i n t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e b a s i c i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h h a v e p e r m e a t e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i s s u e s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y c o n t i n u e t o d o m i n a t e c u r r e n t d e b a t e s a n d t r e n d s i n t h e i n d u s t r y . 131 2. Co-Manaaement Outside British Columbia T h e r e h a v e b e e n s o m e a t t e m p t s i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o f o r m u l a t e a w o r k a b l e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e i n c o r p o r a t i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s . T h r e e e x a m p l e s o f s u c h a t t e m p t s c a n b e f o u n d i n C a n a d a ' s w e s t e r n A r c t i c , W a s h i n g t o n s t a t e a n d N e w Z e a l a n d . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f s u m m a r y a n d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s y s t e m s i n p l a c e i n t h e s e t h r e e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s n o t s u c h s o a s t o p e r m i t a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e t h r e e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s a n d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f o l l o w i n g h o p e f u l l y a t l e a s t p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s p o s s i b l e , a s w e l l a s t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . (i) The Western Arctic In J u n e 1 9 8 4 , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a a n d t h e I n u v i a l u i t e n t e r e d i n t o t h e I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l A g r e e m e n t ("the IFA") i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c . T h e a g r e e m e n t c o v e r s a l a r g e a r e a i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c , i n c l u d i n g t h e n o r t h e r n m o s t r e a c h e s o f t h e Y u k o n T e r r i t o r y a n d t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n c o r n e r o f t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . T h e I F A p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e I n u v i a l u i t w o u l d r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r l a n d c l a i m s i n r e t u r n f o r s p e c i f i c r i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g t i t l e t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 1 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s o f 132 l a n d , $ 4 5 m i l l i o n , a n d r i g h t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g , a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f r e n e w a b l e a n d n o n - r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s . T h e I n u v i a l u i t a n d C a n a d a n o w s h a r e i n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t , w i t h f i v e j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p s h a v i n g b e e n c r e a t e d u n d e r t h e I F A . S e v e r a l l o c a l c o m m i t t e e s , w i t h s o l e l y I n u v i a l u i t m e m b e r s h i p , w e r e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a d v i s e , i n f o r m a n d m a k e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o t h e j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t c o u n c i l s a n d a t t e m p t t o p r o m o t e I n u v i a l u i t i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t . O n e o f t h e j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p s i s t h e F i s h e r i e s J o i n t M a n a g e m e n t C o m m i t t e e ("the F J M C " ) w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 6 t o g i v e a d v i c e t o t h e I n u v i a l u i t a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o n f i s h e r y m a n a g e m e n t w i t h i n t h e I n u v i a l u i t S e t t l e m e n t R e g i o n . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e F J M C w a s i n t e n d e d t o e n s u r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f I n u v i a l u i t k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e a s e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s i n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t . T h e r e a r e f i v e m e m b e r s o n t h e F J M C , t w o o f w h o m a r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e I n u v i a l u i t G a m e C o u n c i l , w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e I F A a s a w h o l l y I n u v i a l u i t m a n a g e m e n t s t r u c t u r e , t w o b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a a n d t h e f i f t h b y t h e o t h e r f o u r m e m b e r s . T h e F J M C i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s i s t i n g C a n a d a a n d t h e I n u v i a l u i t i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g r i g h t s a n d o b l i g a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o f i s h e r i e s u n d e r t h e I F A ; t o a s s i s t t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n m a n a g i n g t h e f i s h e r i e s a n d m a r i n e m a m m a l s i n t h e I S R ; a n d t o a d v i s e t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s o n a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e I n u v i a l u i t a n d I S R f i s h e r i e s . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c u r r e n t h a r v e s t l e v e l s , r e g u l a t i o n o f 133 a c c e s s t o f i s h e r i e s a n d a l l o c a t i o n o f s u b s i s t e n c e q u o t a s a m o n g c o m m u n i t i e s . It a l s o m a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p p r o p r i a t e q u o t a s a n d r e g u l a t o r y a m e n d m e n t s . 2 5 9 T h e F J M C h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g " s u b s t a n t i a l p o w e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f o r m u l a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n a n d r e g u l a t i o n s . " 2 6 0 T h e I F A g i v e s t h e I n u v i a l u i t p r i o r i t y i n t h e h a r v e s t o f m a r i n e m a m m a l s a n d f i s h f o r s u b s i s t e n c e p u r p o s e s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t R e g i o n . " S u b s i s t e n c e p u r p o s e s " i s d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e t r a d e , b a r t e r a n d s a l e t o o t h e r I n u v i a l u i t . A s w e l l , I n u v i a l u i t f i s h e r s c a n b e i s s u e d n o n - t r a n s f e r a b l e c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s t o h a r v e s t a t o t a l w e i g h t o f f i s h e q u a l t o t h e l a r g e s t a n n u a l c o m m e r c i a l h a r v e s t o f t h a t s p e c i e s t a k e n b y I n u v i a l u i t o v e r t h e p r e c e d i n g t h r e e y e a r s . A d d i t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l l i c e n c e s a r e t o b e i s s u e d t o I n u v i a l u i t o n t h e s a m e b a s i s a s t h e y a r e t o n o n - I n u v i a l u i t f i s h e r s . 2 6 1 S i n c e t h e F i n a l A g r e e m e n t r e c o g n i z e s p r e f e r e n t i a l o r e x c l u s i v e h a r v e s t i n g r i g h t s o f I n u v i a l u i t i n s o m e a r e a s , a s w e l l a s c o n t r o l o f a c c e s s t o t h e r e s o u r c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a n a g e m e n t , r e l e v a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e , a n d m o d e r n s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s t o c o n s e r v a t i o n , it h a s b e e n s a i d t o c o n t a i n " a l l t h e 2 5 9For a review of the FJMC's most recent initiatives, see Fisheries Joint Management Committee, Annual Report 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 [unpublished]. It is noteworthy that amendments to fisheries regulations have been undertaken to coordinate the regulatory scheme with the provisions in the IFA. 2 6 0 N.C. Doubleday, "Co-Management Provisions of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement" in Pinkerton, supra, note 25, 209 at p. 216. 2 6 1 Canada, The Western Arctic Claim. A Guide To The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (Ottawa: Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1984) at p. 8. 134 r e q u i r e d i n g r e d i e n t s f o r a c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e . " 2 6 2 It d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t i n a c o m p l e t e d e v o l u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n r e s p e c t o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . A l t h o u g h t h e F i n a l A g r e e m e n t d o e s p r o v i d e f o r w h o l l y I n u v i a l u i t c o m m i t t e e s , t h e i r r o l e i s l i m i t e d t o e n f o r c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a n d p r o v i d i n g n e c e s s a r y d a t a . M a n a g e m e n t p o w e r s a r e g i v e n o n l y t o t h e F J M C , a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e , w i t h f i n a l d e c i s i o n s s t i l l b e i n g m a d e b y t h e M i n i s t e r . A s N . D o u b l e d a y e x p l a i n s , t h e " w e i g h t w i t h i n t h e j o i n t m a n a g e m e n t b o d i e s w i l l b e o n t h e s i d e o f r e g u l a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e t o g o v e r n m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n d e r e g u l a t i o n o f N a t i v e h a r v e s t i n g r i g h t s . " 2 6 3 H o w e v e r , s h e a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s r e c o m m e n d e d b y t h e F J M C c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o b e g e n e r a l l y m o r e f a v o u r a b l e t o I n u v i a l u i t f i s h e r s t h a n r e g u l a t i o n s p a s s e d w i t h o u t i t s i n p u t . A s w e l l , a s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , g i v e n t h e c u r r e n t i d e o l o g i e s a n d t r e n d s i n t h e C a n a d i a n f i s h e r i e s i n d u s t r y a n d r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e , it i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t w i l l d e v o l v e a l l p o w e r i n f a v o u r o f a n A b o r i g i n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e e n c o m p a s s e d w i t h i n t h e F i n a l A g r e e m e n t m a y s t i l l b e b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f s t a t e i d e o l o g y a n d c o n t r o l , w i t h o n l y s o m e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l c u s t o m a r y l a w , it n o n e t h e l e s s m a y b e t h e b e s t m o d e l o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n C a n a d a g i v e n t h e r e a l i t i e s o f o u r s y s t e m . 262 Ibid at p. 221. hbid at p. 221. 135 H a v i n g s a i d t h a t , it m u s t b e a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d g e o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c a n d m u c h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d t r a d i t i o n a l A b o r i g i n a l s y s t e m s o f m a n a g e m e n t m a y w e l l b e m u c h m o r e i n t a c t i n t h e f o r m e r t h a n i n m a n y a r e a s o f t h e l a t t e r . 2 6 4 T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s m a y g r e a t l y a f f e c t t h e t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m w h i c h i s m o s t l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d i n e a c h a r e a a n d it i s p r e m a t u r e t o r e c o m m e n d t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e I n u v i a l u i t m o d e l i n o t h e r p a r t s o f C a n a d a w i t h o u t f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h it h a s a r i s e n . 2 6 5 H o w e v e r , it i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c a p p e a r s t o b e g i v i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a m u c h g r e a t e r v o i c e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t t h a n i n m a n y o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y . (ii) State of Washington T h e h i s t o r y of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e i s r e p l e t e w i t h c o n f l i c t . A s i s t h e c a s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e o f w h a t i s n o w W a s h i n g t o n s t a t e h i s t o r i c a l l y d e p e n d e d o n f i s h f o r f o o d . F i s h a l s o p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n , m y t h s a n d r i t u a l s . 2 6 6 T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e 264It is interesting to note, however, that some studies have shown that much of the traditional culture of the Inuit people has been lost, particularly in the western Arctic and Labrador. See, for example, J. Chartrand, "Survival and Adaptation of the Inuit Ethnic Identity: The Importance of Inuktitut" in B. A. Cox, ed., Native People, Native Lands. Canadian Indians, Inuit and Metis (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1987)241 at p. 251. 265Unfortunately, the scope of this thesis is not such to permit such an interesting analysis to take place. 2 6 6 M.R. Anderson, "Law and the Protection of Cultural Communities: The Case of Native American Fishing Rights" (1987) 9 Law & Poly 125 at p. 126. 136 f i s h e r y t o t h e s e p e o p l e w a s r e c o g n i z e d b y G o v e r n o r S t e v e n s w h e n h e n e g o t i a t e d t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e m i n t h e 1 8 6 0 s . T h e t r e a t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l right t o c o n t i n u e f i s h i n g . 2 6 7 T h e r e a r e m a n y p a r a l l e l s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f f i s h e r i e s r e g u l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d W a s h i n g t o n . T h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s w a s f o r m e d t o p r e v e n t o v e r - f i s h i n g a f t e r s a l m o n b e g a n g a i n i n g v a l u e a s a c o m m o d i t y a n d i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s b e g a n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e i n d u s t r y . T h e D e p a r t m e n t t e n d e d t o p r e f e r m a r i n e f i s h i n g o v e r r i v e r f i s h i n g a s t h e f o r m e r w a s e a s i e r t o c o n t r o l a n d m o r e p e o p l e f i s h e d i n m a r i n e a r e a s . A s w a s t h e c a s e n o r t h o f t h e b o r d e r , t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e f a v o u r i n g of o n e c u l t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d m o d e of f i s h i n g o v e r a n o t h e r , a s t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r m e n t e n d e d t o f i s h i n r i v e r s w h i l e n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r m e n t e n d e d t o f i s h i n m a r i n e a r e a s . O v e r t i m e , r e g u l a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y b e c a m e r e s t r i c t i o n s o n A b o r i g i n a l t r e a t y r i g h t s a n d t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r m e n ' s c a p a c i t y t o f i s h d e c l i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 2 6 8 A s w e l l , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t i m b e r a n d m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c d a m s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e f i s h s t o c k s . 2 6 9 T h e r e s u l t o f a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s h a s b e e n s c a r c i t y o f t h e r e s o u r c e . 2 6 7The Stevens Treaties provided a guarantee that the aboriginal peoples' "right of taking fish, at all usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians, in common with all citizens of the Territory." See ibid, at p. 126. 26*Ibidatp. 127. 269P.CMonson,"United States v. Washington (Phase U): The Indian Fishing Conflict Moves Upstream" (1981- 82) 12 Environ. L. 469 at p. 471. R. Bruun argues that the Department of Fisheries chose to enact conservation regulations to decrease competition for the resource instead of going after industry, which was the true cause of habitat degradation and the consequent depletion of the resource. Since treaty fishermen were less numerous and less politically influential than non-treaty fishermen, she argues, it was easier to cut the former out of the competition through regulation than the latter. The State often rationalized these regulations on the basis that 137 A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s b e g a n a s s e r t i n g t h e i r right i n t h e f i s h e r i e s b y p a r t i c i p a t i n g in " f i s h - i n s " ( f i s h i n g i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n of s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s ) b e g i n n i n g i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s . In t h e 1 9 6 0 s , t h e s e " f i s h - i n s " r e s u l t e d i n a r r e s t s of s e v e r a l A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s a n d c o n f i s c a t i o n s o f g e a r . 2 7 0 T h i s a c t i v i t y r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l r e l u c t a n c e o n t h e p a r t of b o t h t h e s t a t e F i s h e r i e s a n d G a m e D e p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r e a t y right t o f i s h . S p o r t a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s w e r e a l s o o p p o s e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n of s u c h r i g h t s . 2 7 1 It i s i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o m m e n c e d a n a c t i o n o n b e h a l f o f s e v e r a l t r i b e s . 2 7 2 T h e a c t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d w a s d i v i d e d into t w o p a r t s , w h i c h t o g e t h e r c a m e t o b e k n o w n a s t h e " B o l d t d e c i s i o n s " . 2 7 3 T h e t r i b e s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e i r t r e a t i e s g a v e t h e m a r i g h t t o a s p e c i f i c a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e . T h e r e s u l t i n g j u d g m e n t o f D i s t r i c t J u d g e B o l d t i n " P h a s e I" h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s ' t h e m o s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l c o u r t d e c i s i o n i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e h i s t o r y . " 2 7 4 the treaty fishermen were guilty of mismanagement of the fisheries. However, she points out that during the pre- trials in the Boldt cases, the state was unable to provide even one example of conduct of the treaty fishermen which was detrimental to the fish. See R. Bruun, "The Boldt Decision. Legal Victory, Political Defeat" (1982) 4 Law & Policy Q. 271 at pp. 282-283. 2 7 0For a description of these activities, see S. Bentley, "Indians' Right to Fish: The Background, Impact, and Legacy of United States v. Washington" (1992) 17 Amer. Ind. L. Rev. 1 at pp. 2-3. 271Bruun, supra, note 269 at pp. 271-273. 2 7 2This was a somewhat unusual situation. The federal government brought the action in exercise of its trust or guardianship role toward the tribes. However, it appears that it only brought the action after years of tribal requests and only when violence over the fishing issue became imminent. See F.G. Cohen, Treaties on Trial. The Continuing Controversy over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986) at p. 182. United States v. Washington, 384 F.Supp. 312 (W. D. Wash 1974), affirmed 520 F.2d 676 (9th Or. 1975), cert, denied 423 U.S. 1086 (1976) and United States v. Washington, 506 F.Supp. 187 (W. D. Wash 1980), affirmed in part 759 F.2d 1352 (9th Or. 1982), cert denied 106 S. Ct. 407 (1985), hereinafter referred to as the "Boldt decisions" or "Phase I" and "Phase II" respectively. 274Bruun, supra, note 269 at p. 271. 138 In h i s d e c i s i o n , J u d g e B o l d t r e f e r r e d t o t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f i s h t o t h e t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n h i s t o r i c a l l y a n d f o u n d i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t t h e t e r m " i n c o m m o n w i t h " i n t h e t r e a t i e s m e a n s s h a r i n g e q u a l l y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e f i s h . In o t h e r w o r d s , b o t h t r e a t y a n d n o n - t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n w e r e t o h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e u p t o 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e h a r v e s t a b l e n u m b e r o f f i s h t a k e n at t h e u s u a l a n d a c c u s t o m e d f i s h i n g g r o u n d s a n d s t a t i o n s . 2 7 5 W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t a t e ' s p o w e r t o r e g u l a t e , J u d g e B o l d t h e l d t h a t o n l y t h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e r e a s o n a b l e a n d n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t d e m o n s t r a b l e h a r m t o t h e a c t u a l c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i s h c o u l d a f f e c t t r e a t y r i g h t s t o f i s h . 2 7 6 H e s t a t e d t h a t if a l t e r n a t i v e m e a n s o f a c h i e v i n g t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e s t a t e c o u l d n o t r e s t r i c t t r e a t y right f i s h i n g , e v e n if t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e w a s r e s t r i c t i o n . o f f i s h i n g b y n o n - t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n . 2 7 7 In a d d i t i o n , t o b e v a l i d , a n y s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t r e a t y r i g h t s t o f i s h c o u l d n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t t h e t r e a t y t r i b e ' s r i g h t t o f i s h a n d m u s t m e e t a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s o f s u b s t a n t i v e a n d p r o c e d u r a l d u e 278 p r o c e s s . J u d g e B o l d t a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e right of t h e t r i b e s t o r e g u l a t e o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h i n g b y t h e i r m e m b e r s . H o w e v e r , h e l i m i t e d t h e right t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e t h e 21iUnitedStates v. Washington (1974), supra, note 273 at p. 343. 216lbid at p. 342. Judge Boldt went on to define "reasonable" as a specifically identified conservation measure appropriate to its purpose, and "necessary" as essential to conservation. 2Thbid at p. 342. 218Ibid at p. 402. He also stated that to meet the appropriate standards, the regulations must receive full, fair and public consideration and determination. 139 t r i b e h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e y m e t c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f e i t h e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f F i s h e r i e s a n d G a m e o r t h e c o u r t . 2 7 9 H e r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o - j u r i s d i c t i o n i n o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h i n g b y b o t h t h e t r i b e s a n d t h e s t a t e i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 2 8 0 H e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n of f i s h i n g r i g h t s a s b e t w e e n t r i b e s w a s t o b e left t o t h e t r i b e s t h e m s e l v e s t o d e t e r m i n e . J u d g e B o l d t g r a n t e d a n i n j u n c t i o n r e q u i r i n g t h e s t a t e t o i m p l e m e n t i n t e r i m r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e d t h e t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n ' s right t o t a k e f i s h a s g u a r a n t e e d i n t h e t r e a t i e s a n d w h i c h e n s u r e d a n e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f t h e s t a t e ' s f i s h h a r v e s t b e t w e e n t r e a t y a n d n o n - t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n . T h e C o u r t r e t a i n e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e c a s e a n d h i r e d e x p e r t s t o a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a t i o n s . 2 8 1 T h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e d e c i s i o n d e a l t w i t h t h e i s s u e s of, f i r s t l y , w h e t h e r h a t c h e r y - b r e d f i s h w e r e t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n ' s a l l o c a t i o n a n d , s e c o n d l y , w h e t h e r t h e t r i b e s h a d t h e right t o h a v e t h e f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e a n d h a b i t a t p r o t e c t e d f r o m a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . 2 8 2 D i s t r i c t J u d g e O r r i c k , w h o t o o k o v e r j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c a s e f r o m J u d g e B o l d t u p o n t h e tatter's r e t i r e m e n t , h e l d t h a t 219Ibid at p. 340. These qualifications were that the tribe have competent and responsible leadership; well organized tribal government reasonably competent to apply tribal off reservation fishing regulations; Indian personnel trained to enforce the fishing regulations; well qualified experts in fishery science and management; an officially approved tribal membership roll; and provision for tribal membership certification. In addition, the tribe had to provide for full and complete tribal fishing regulations; permit monitoring of off reservation aboriginal fishing by the Fisheries and Game Departments; and provide fish catch reports of both on and off reservation fishing to Fisheries and Game. See pp. 340-341. 2S0Ibid at p. 403. Judge Boldt stated that the jurisdiction of each party to regulate was unimpaired by the exercise of another's regulatory jurisdiction. ™Ibid& p. 408 and p. 413. 2 8 2 United States v. Washington (1980), supra, note 273. 140 h a t c h e r y f i s h w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r e a t y a l l o c a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e t r e a t y right i n c l u d e d a n i m p l i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l right. H i s d e c i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h a t c h e r y f i s h i s s u e w a s a f f i r m e d b y t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l s , N i n t h C i r c u i t , b u t h i s d e c i s i o n o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n i s s u e w a s r e v e r s e d . 2 8 3 P r o b l e m s b e g a n a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e P h a s e I d e c i s i o n w a s r e l e a s e d . W h e n t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of F i s h e r i e s p r o p o s e d r e g u l a t i o n s i n a n effort t o c o m p l y w i t h J u d g e B o l d t ' s r u l i n g , a n u m b e r of p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s c h a l l e n g e d t h e p r o p o s e d r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e S t a t e S u p r e m e C o u r t . 2 8 4 T h e S t a t e S u p r e m e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t C o u r t c o u l d n o t o r d e r a s t a t e F i s h e r i e s D e p a r t m e n t t o p a s s r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h w a s r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a l s o r e j e c t e d J u d g e B o l d t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r e a t i e s , a n d h e l d t h a t r e c o g n i z i n g s p e c i a l r i g h t s f o r A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s v i o l a t e d t h e E q u a l P r o t e c t i o n C l a u s e of t h e F o u r t e e n t h A m e n d m e n t . 2 8 5 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t e n j o i n e d t h e F i s h e r i e s D e p a r t m e n t f r o m e n f o r c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s t o i m p l e m e n t J u d g e B o l d t ' s d e c i s i o n . T h e r e s u l t w a s a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n s t a t e a n d ^United States v. Washington (1982), supra, note 273. This was actually the second decision of the Ninth Circuit in this case. A judgment had earlier been rendered by a panel of three judges of the Ninth Circuit (694 F.2d 1374), but the decision was subsequently vacated (704 F.2d 1141) and the case was reconsidered by the court en banc. This latter decision was the final, and binding, decision of the court. 2 8 4P.F. James, "United States v. Washington: Implied Treaty Rights to Continue Fishing" (1982) 18 Williamette L. Rev. 659 at p. 661. Some of the cases which resulted include Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association v. Tollefson, 89 Wash. 2d 276 (1977); Purse Seine Vessel Owners Association v. Moos, 88 Wash. 2d 799 (1977); Puget Sound Gillnetters Association v. Moos, 88 Wash. 2d 677 (1977). 2 8 5The position of the State Supreme Court is summarized in Washington v Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association, 61L Ed. 2d 823 (1979) at p. 837. R Bruun noted that groups opposed to the recognition of treaty rights to fish have attempted to use "the rhetoric of rights" (i.e. equal rights) in support of their arguments. She suggests that the fact that "rights" arguments can be used by both sides in the dispute is a serious limitation on the rights model. She is of the opinion that the issue is one of resources, not rights. Supra, note 269 at pp. 280 and 285. As was noted in Chapter Three, these "equal rights" arguments are also made in Canadian courts. 141 f e d e r a l c o u r t j u d g m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l n o n - t r e a t y c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n c o n t i n u e d t o f i s h i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n a n d t h e p r o p o s e d r e g u l a t i o n s . C o n f r o n t a t i o n a n d v i o l e n c e b e t w e e n t r e a t y a n d n o n - t r e a t y fishermen r e s u l t e d , i n c l u d i n g t h r e a t s a n d s h o o t i n g s , a n d t h e r e w e r e p e t i t i o n s t o r e m o v e J u d g e B o l d t f r o m o f f i c e . 2 8 6 J u d g e B o l d t u l t i m a t e l y t o o k o v e r m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e F i s h e r i e s A d v i s o r y B o a r d t o e n s u r e e n f o r c e m e n t o f h i s j u d g m e n t . T h e b o a r d w a s m a d e u p o f o n e t r i b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d o n e s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S u p r e m e C o u r t a g r e e d t o h e a r t h e B o l d t c a s e a l o n g w i t h t w o o t h e r c a s e s , t h e Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association a n d Puget Sound Gillnetters Association c a s e s . 2 8 7 In its d e c i s i o n , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e t r i b e s h a d r e s e r v e d t h e right t o t a k e a s h a r e of e a c h r u n t h a t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e t r i b a l f i s h i n g a r e a s . T h e C o u r t s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e b o t h A b o r i g i n a l s a n d n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s a r e e n t i t l e d t o t a k e a f a i r s h a r e of t h e a v a i l a b l e fish, t h e 5 0 p e r c e n t a l l o c a t i o n t o t h e t r e a t y fishermen w a s t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a m a x i m u m a l l o c a t i o n , n o t a m i n i m u m a l l o c a t i o n a s J u d g e B o l d t h a d s u g g e s t e d . T h e a c t u a l a l l o c a t i o n w a s t o b e b a s e d o n w h a t w a s r e q u i r e d t o g i v e t h e t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n a " m o d e r a t e l i v i n g " ; t h e a l l o c a t i o n c o u l d b e d e c r e a s e d if m o d e r a t e l i v i n g s c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a l e s s e r a l l o c a t i o n . 2 8 8 2 8 6The campaign to impeach Judge Boldt was commenced by a group known as "Interstate Congress for Equal Rights and Responsibilities". See Bruun, ibid at pp. 285-287. 281 Washington v. Washington State Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Association, supra, note 285. 2SSIbid at pp. 841 and 845. The Court also reversed Judge Boldt's finding that fish caught on reserve or for food and ceremonial purposes were not to be included in the calculation of the treaty fishermen's allocation. See pp. 846-847. 142 T h e C o u r t a l s o h e l d t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t C o u r t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n t o d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e t h e f i s h e r i e s if s t a t e l a w c o n t i n u e d t o b a r t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e d e c i s i o n . T h e C o u r t d i s m i s s e d t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e E q u a l i t y P r o t e c t i o n C l a u s e o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h A m e n d m e n t w a s b r e a c h e d b y h o l d i n g t h a t t r e a t y f i s h e r m e n h a d t h e right t o a 5 0 p e r c e n t a l l o c a t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e a l l o c a t i o n w a s b a s e d n o t o n r a c e , b u t o n m e m b e r s h i p i n a t r e a t y n a t i o n . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s , b y 1 9 9 2 , W a s h i n g t o n A b o r i g i n a l s ' s h a r e of t h e f i s h h a d i n c r e a s e d f r o m l e s s t h a n t w o p e r c e n t t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l h a r v e s t . 2 9 0 A n i n c r e a s e i n m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s h a s b e e n s h o w n . N e w t r i b a l - o w n e d b u s i n e s s e s e m e r g e d a n d e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o n r e s e r v e s i n c r e a s e d . A n e w i m a g e o f s e l f a n d of c o m m u n i t y h a s e m e r g e d i n m a n y of t h e t r i b e s . 2 9 1 O f p a r t i c u l a r n o t e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s o b t a i n e d a v o i c e i n r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t a s a r e s u l t of t h e d e c i s i o n s . 2 9 2 A f t e r t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s , t h e t r i b e s t o o k s t e p s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o m a n a g e t h e i r f i s h e r i e s t h r o u g h t h e h i r i n g o f b i o l o g i s t s a n d e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s . N i n e t e e n t r i b e s a l s o f o r m e d t h e N o r t h w e s t I n d i a n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n ("the C o m m i s s i o n " ) t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g p r o g r a m s t o p r o t e c t a n d c o - o r d i n a t e t r e a t y f i s h i n g r i g h t s ; t o 2S9Ibidat pp. 841-842 and 852. 290Bentley, supra, note 270 at p. 19. 2 9 1 Anderson, supra, note 266 at pp. 135-136. 292Cohen, supra, note 272 at pp. xxiv-xxvi. 143 p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n ; a n d t o d e v e l o p g o o d w i l l t h r o u g h p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n . T h e C o m m i s s i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r i b e s i n m e e t i n g s w i t h m a n a g e m e n t a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c S a l m o n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n . It a l s o s e r v e s a s a l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e t r i b e s , C o n g r e s s a n d t h e f e d e r a l e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h . T h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r r e d $ 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e t o w o r k w i t h t h e C o m m i s s i o n t o i m p l e m e n t t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s . A s w e l l , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , a n d O r e g o n a n d W a s h i n g t o n s t a t e s n e g o t i a t e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e f i v e - y e a r m a n a g e m e n t p l a n i n 1 9 7 7 . T h e m a j o r g o a l s of t h e p l a n w e r e t o p r e s e r v e a n d e n h a n c e t h e f i s h e r i e s , a l l o c a t e t h e r e s o u r c e f a i r l y a n d a l l o w A b o r i g i n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n m a n a g e m e n t . T h e T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ( " T A C " ) w a s a l s o f o r m e d t o d e v e l o p a n d a n a l y z e d a t a a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f i s h e r i e s p o l i c y . A l s o i n 1 9 7 7 , t h e t r i b e s f o r m e d a n i n t e r - t r i b a l b o d y t o c o - o r d i n a t e f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c i e s a n d p r o v i d e t r i b a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e s e c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s , f i s h s t o c k s c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e , a p p a r e n t l y d u e t o d r o u g h t s i n 1 9 7 5 a n d 1 9 7 6 a n d t h e b u i l d i n g of a d a m . C o n c e r n s w e r e a l s o r a i s e d t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s d i d n o t h a v e e n o u g h s a y i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , w i t h t h e i r i n p u t b e i n g l i m i t e d t o r e s p o n s e s t o o t h e r p a r t i e s ' i n i t i a t i v e s . 2 9 3 B y 1 9 8 2 , m a n y of t h e t r i b e s h a d d e c l a r e d t h e f i v e - y e a r p l a n a f a i l u r e d u e t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e i n s t o c k s , f a i l u r e t o d e v i s e a p p r o p r i a t e o c e a n W a t pp. 122-126. 144 r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d c o n t i n u i n g l i t i g a t i o n . T w o t r i b e s f o r m a l l y w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p l a n a n d t h e r e w a s stil l n o c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r C o l u m b i a R i v e r s a l m o n a n d s t e e l h e a d . 2 9 4 H o w e v e r , b y 1 9 8 3 , t h e t r i b e s w e r e c a t c h i n g m o r e fish a n d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e g i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t p l a n s . S o m e t r i b e s b e g a n l e v y i n g a f i s h t a x w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d t o finance t h e p u r c h a s e o f fishing b o a t s , m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m s a n d o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s . T h e r e w a s a l s o a r e s u r g e n c e i n t r i b a l g o v e r n m e n t . A l l t r i b e s a f f e c t e d b y t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s n o w h a v e t h e i r o w n m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m s , o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o - o p e r a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t . T h e r e h a s b e e n a n e m p h a s i s i n t r i b a l m a n a g e m e n t o n r e s t o r a t i o n o f w e a k r u n s t h r o u g h h a b i t a t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d a u g m e n t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r u n s . A s w e l l , s o m e i n t e r - t r i b a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s h a v e b e e n f o r m e d w h i c h o p e r a t e j o i n t v e n t u r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , f i s h e r i e s p a t r o l s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g . 2 9 5 T h e r e i s s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f B o l d t I's r e q u i r e m e n t o f a n e q u a l d i v i s i o n of t h e h a r v e s t a b l e fish, t h e r e h a s b e e n a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e r e s o u r c e . 2 9 6 T r i b a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s h a v e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e difficult f o r m o r e c e n t r a l i z e d a g e n c i e s t o o b t a i n . T h e r e h a s b e e n a n i n c r e a s e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t r i b e s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s W a t p. 135. W a t pp. 155-165. 5 Bruun, supra, note 269 at pp. 291-292. 145 a s w e l l . In 1 9 8 6 t h e t r i b e s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s e n g a g e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e w a t e r s h e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e s t a t e . T r i b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a v e a l s o b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e P a c i f i c F i s h e r i e s M a n a g e m e n t C o u n c i l , a f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f O r e g o n , C a l i f o r n i a a n d W a s h i n g t o n c o a s t a l w a t e r s . 2 9 8 B y t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s , a t r e n d of j o i n t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g h a d e v o l v e d i n W a s h i n g t o n . 2 9 9 T h e r e a r e s o m e w h o c r i t i c i z e t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s a s m e r e l y s h i f t i n g c o n f l i c t f r o m t r i b e v e r s u s s t a t e t o i n t r a a n d i n t e r - t r i b a l . T h e n a t u r e o f t r i b a l f i s h i n g c h a n g e d r a d i c a l l y a f t e r t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s . T h e s i z e o f t h e t r e a t y f i s h i n g f l e e t i n c r e a s e d f r o m 8 0 0 i n 1 9 7 5 t o 2 , 1 6 3 i n 1 9 8 2 , a n d t h e n u m b e r of m a r i n e f i s h e r m e n i n c r e a s e d f r o m 2 0 t o 3 0 p r e - B o l d t t o 1 , 1 0 6 b y 1 9 8 2 . 3 0 0 It h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n d i d n o t p r o t e c t t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s , b u t i n s t e a d m e r e l y p r o v i d e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a n e n l a r g e d A b o r i g i n a l m a r i n e f i s h e r y . It h a s e v e n b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n e f f e c t i v e l y f o r c e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r m e n t o a d o p t n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f f i s h i n g in o r d e r t o c o m p e t e . 3 0 1 T h e s e t r e n d s h a v e a p p a r e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n Cohen, supra, note 272 at p. 170. 2 9 8 F . G . Cohen, "Treaty Indian Tribes and Washington State: The Evolution of Tribal Involvement in Fisheries Management in the U.S. Pacific Northwest" in Pinkerton, supra, note 25, 37 at pp.44-45. 299Dale, supra, note 244 at p. 62. 300Anderson, supra, note 266 at p. 136. Before Boldt I, there were fewer than 30 Aboriginal-owned power-reel marine gillnets; by 1982 there were 448. Pre-1974 there was one Aboriginal-owned purse-seiner, by 1982, there were 38. 301Bentley, supra, note 270 at p. 24. She argues that the court failed to recognize that traditionally, Aboriginal peoples fished for anadromous fish only at fixed fishing sites on rivers; only non-anadromous fish were fished in marine areas. The fixed fishing sites were essentially owned by various families within a tribe, and income was redistributed throughout the tribe. The families' proprietary interests in the fishing sites resulted in them being "careful stewards". The court's interpretation of the right to fish as being an opportunity to fish eliminated the notion of private ownership of the fishing sites. She argues that, as a result, treaty fishermen are now forced to compete within the dominant "common property" system because if they dont, there is no guarantee that there will be sufficient fish stocks at their traditional fishing sites. Even the exercise of their regulatory power is 146 s o m e t e n s i o n s w i t h i n t r i b e s b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h e r m e n a n d m a r i n e f i s h e r m e n , i n p a r t f r o m j e a l o u s i e s a n d r e s e n t m e n t s t e m m i n g f r o m t h e h u g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n i n c o m e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o . 3 0 2 T h e r e i s a l s o a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t it i s t h e w e a l t h y m a r i n e f i s h e r m e n w h o c o n t r o l t r i b a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d , h e n c e , t r i b a l f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . C o n c e r n s h a v e a l s o b e e n v o i c e d b y v a r i o u s t r i b e s i n s o m e a r e a s t h a t t h e y a r e b a r r e d f r o m h a r v e s t i n g s a l m o n w h i c h p a s s t h r o u g h f i s h i n g s i t e s o f o t h e r t r i b e s b e c a u s e t h e latter, w h i c h t e n d t o h a v e s u p e r i o r h a r v e s t i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s , t a k e t h e e n t i r e A b o r i g i n a l a l l o c a t i o n . 3 0 3 S o m e t r i b e s h a v e a c t u a l l y c o m m e n c e d l i t i g a t i o n a n d / o r m e d i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s i s s u e . 3 0 4 H o w e v e r , it i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c a l l o n e o f t h e m y t h s w h i c h w a s d e b u n k e d i n C h a p t e r T w o ; t h a t i s , t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t c o a s t s h a r e d l a n d s a n d r e s o u r c e s e q u i t a b l y . C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r m y t h , A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s o n t h e c o a s t w e r e n o t e g a l i t a r i a n i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h f o o d a n d r e s o u r c e s w e r e s h a r e d . P r o p e r t y c o n c e p t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o o w n e r s h i p r i g h t s o f s p e c i f i c f i s h i n g s i t e s w e r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s . 3 0 5 T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e r e w e r e dependent upon them being able to fit within the dominant systems of management. Thus, the Court is seen as "simply recreating the relationships of the dominant society." She argues that the better approach would have been to eliminate all marine fishing of anadromous fish since marine areas can only be "commons" and not private property, and give legal force to the traditional aboriginal property-based approach to the anadromous fisheries resource. See pp. 20-29. Similar arguments are made by Bruun, supra, note 269 at pp.291-294. Similar issues were discussed in earlier portions of this thesis. 302Anderson, supra, note 266 at p. 137. Anderson suggests that the average income for a river fisherman was about $5,000, while the average income for a marine fisherman was over $200,000. 303Bentley, supra, note 270 at p. 13. For example, the Lurnrni fleet has grown significantly since pre-Boldt: from 43 vessels to over 330 vessels in 1985 (see p. 15). 3 0 4For example, the Tulalip, Skokomish, Port Gamble Klallam, Lower Elwa Klallam and Jamestown Klallam Tribes have all commenced either litigation or mediation. Ibid at pp. 14-15. 305Cohen, supra, note 272 at p. 22. 147 l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n p r o s p e r i t y a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a n d a m o n g f a m i l i e s . A r i s t o c r a c i e s b a s e d o n w e a l t h w e r e f o u n d i n m a n y t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t c o a s t . T h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c l a s s e s : n o b l e s , c o m m o n e r s a n d s l a v e s , w i t h t h e r i g h t s t o a l l e c o n o m i c a n d c e r e m o n i a l p r o p e r t y b e i n g h e l d b y t h e n o b l e s . 3 0 6 T h e o n l y d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s o f w e a l t h a n d t h a t of t o d a y m a y b e t h a t w e a l t h i s n o w m e a s u r e d i n d o l l a r s ; h o w e v e r , t h a t d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t w e a l t h o r s t a t u s t o d a y i s n e c e s s a r i l y n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l . It i s f a r t o o s i m p l i s t i c t o m e r e l y a s s u m e t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n F i r s t N a t i o n s c o m m u n i t i e s i s a s s i m i l a t i v e a n d c u l t u r e - d e s t r o y i n g . A s w e l l , it i s a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o v i e w A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e a s b e i n g s t a t i c a n d f o s s i l i z e d i n o n e p e r i o d o f t i m e . C u l t u r e i s e v e r - e v o l v i n g a n d c a n a d a p t t o a t l e a s t s o m e d e g r e e o f c h a n g e w i t h o u t b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . T h u s , a l t h o u g h A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l m a r i n e f i s h e r y m a y b e s o m e w h a t a s s i m i l a t i v e , it i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e . A s c a n b e s e e n f r o m t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s a n d t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s , r e s o l v i n g A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s i s s u e s i n W a s h i n g t o n h a s b e e n n o e a s y t a s k . I n d e e d , it m a y v e r y w e l l p r o v e t o b e i m p o s s i b l e t o e v e r c o m p l e t e l y r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e s o u r c e t o A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , t h e e c o n o m i c v a l u e of t h e r e s o u r c e t o a l l u s e r s , a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g s c a r c i t y 306See J.H. Steward, "Determinism in Primitive Society?" in B. Cox, ed., Cultural Ecology: Readings on the Canadian Indians and Eskimos (Toronto: The MacMillan Company of Canada Limited, 1970) 205. For descriptions of social hierarchies in particular tribes, see R. Ruddell, "Chiefs and Commoners: Nature's Balance and the Good Life Among the Nootka" in Cox, ibid, 254 and D. Weinberg, "Models of Southern Kwakiutl Social Organization" in Cox, ibid, 227. 148 of t h e r e s o u r c e . It i s of n o t e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e a d v a n c e s m a d e , m a n y n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s i n W a s h i n g t o n d o n o t s u p p o r t c o - m a n a g e m e n t . 3 0 7 A s w e l l , t h e r e h a s b e e n n o r a d i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p a t t e r n s o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i n W a s h i n g t o n , w i t h t h e f o c u s c o n t i n u i n g t o b e o n o c e a n a s o p p o s e d t o r i v e r i n e f i s h i n g a n d t h e t r i b e s b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o c o n f o r m t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e n o n - A b o r i g i n a l r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e . T r e a t y f i s h e r s m u s t o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e d o m i n a n t c o m m o n p r o p e r t y r e g i m e i n s t e a d o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e r i g h t s s y s t e m . T h e y a r e o n l y p e r m i t t e d t o p a s s t h e i r o w n r e g u l a t i o n s if t h e r e g u l a t i o n s c o m p l y w i t h s t a n d a r d s s e t b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t s of F i s h e r i e s a n d G a m e . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e i r right t o m a n a g e t h e i r o w n f i s h e r i e s m a y a p p e a r t o b e q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , it i s s u b j e c t t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d o p t d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y ' s f o r m s a n d s t r u c t u r e s a n d l i b e r a l v a l u e s . A s w e l l , t h e r o l e o f A b o r i g i n a l s i n m a n a g e m e n t c o n t i n u e s t o b e l i m i t e d t o s o m e e x t e n t i n t h a t t h e i r r o l e i s o n l y a d v i s o r y i n m a n y a r e a s . H o w e v e r , t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s d i d r e s u l t i n s o m e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e w h i c h t h e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s c a n p l a y i n m a n a g i n g t h e r e s o u r c e . D e s p i t e its w e a k n e s s e s , a f o r m of c o - m a n a g e m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e w o r k i n g i n W a s h i n g t o n . A s i n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r a d i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f m a n a g e m e n t w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r b e s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . A s a r e s u l t , t h e o n l y r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e b e c o m e s s o m e h o w i n c r e a s i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s i n t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . T h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s a p p e a r s t o h a v e d o n e t h a t . C e r t a i n l y , 307Dale, supra, note 244 at p. 66. 149 A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s h a v e a m u c h g r e a t e r r o l e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i n W a s h i n g t o n t h a n t h e y d o i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h e t h e r t h e W a s h i n g t o n m o d e l c a n b e a d o p t e d i n C a n a d a i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e t o c o n s i d e r . T h e B o l d t c a s e s w e r e d e c i d e d i n v e r y s p e c i f i c f a c t u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s : t h e A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e h a d t r e a t i e s w h i c h e x p r e s s l y r e s e r v e d t o t h e m t h e right t o f i s h i n c o m m o n . T h e r e a r e v e r y f e w t r e a t i e s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h o s e w h i c h d o e x i s t a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e t r e a t i e s . T h u s , t h e b a s i s f o r f i n d i n g a n A b o r i g i n a l right t o a n e q u a l s h a r e i n t h e f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s t o b e b a s e d o n a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a r g u m e n t . G i v e n t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a ' s r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s it h a s b e c o m e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e w i l l n o t b e a j u d i c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e i n t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s . A s w e l l , a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n s w a s t h e e x t e n t o f i n v o l v e m e n t a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o u r t J u d g e s ; t h e j u d g e s a s s u m e d f a r - r e a c h i n g p o w e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . I n d e e d , J u d g e B o l d t w e n t s o f a r a s t o a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . A l t h o u g h t h i s t y p e of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l b y j u d g e s i s n o t c o m m o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e i s p r e c e d e n t f o r it i n t h e s c h o o l d e s e g r e g a t i o n c a s e s . H o w e v e r , t o t h i s w r i t e r ' s k n o w l e d g e , n o C a n a d i a n c o u r t h a s e v e r a t t e m p t e d t o a s s u m e s u c h a u t h o r i t y . A l t h o u g h it i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r j u d g e s a r e t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i e s t o b e 150 a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n c o m p l e x c a s e s s u c h a s t h e s e , w i t h o u t t h e j u d g e s ' e x t e n s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t in t h e B o l d t c a s e s it i s u n c l e a r t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . T h u s , a l t h o u g h e l e m e n t s of t h e W a s h i n g t o n m o d e l m a y v e r y w e l l b e o n e s w h i c h s h o u l d b e e m u l a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h o w t h a t c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i s a n y t h i n g b u t c l e a r . (iii) New Zealand T h e h i s t o r y o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i n N e w Z e a l a n d h a s a l s o b e e n r i f e w i t h c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e m o s t r e c e n t a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h a t c o u n t r y c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e p a s s a g e o f The Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act 1992. T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e m b o d i e s t h e s o - c a l l e d " S e a l o r d d e a l " b e t w e e n M a o r i f i s h e r s a n d t h e s t a t e , a d e a l w h i c h h a s b e e n h a i l e d a s a h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t . 3 0 8 H i s t o r i c a l l y , a s i n t h e c a s e o f m a n y F i r s t N a t i o n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , f i s h w e r e u s e d b y t h e M a o r i f o r b o t h s u b s i s t e n c e a n d a s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r e c o n o m y . T h e t r i b e s a l s o e x e r c i s e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r f i s h e r i e s i n t h e i n s h o r e s e a s e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . 3 0 9 R e c o g n i t i o n o f M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s s t e m s 308See J. Munro, "The Treaty of Waitangi and the Sealord Deal" (1994) 24 Vic. U. of Well. L. Rev. 389 and R.T. Price, Assessing Modern Treaty Settlements: New Zealand's 1992 Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement and Its Aftermath (1996) [publishing pending]. 3 0 9Munro, supra, note 308 at p. 392. 151 f r o m t h e T r e a t y o f W a i t a n g i o f 1 8 4 0 w h i c h g u a r a n t e e s M a o r i e x c l u s i v e a n d u n d i s t u r b e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e i r f i s h e r i e s . 3 1 0 T h e T r e a t y h a s b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d t o p r o v i d e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r t r i b a l c o n t r o l a r e t o b e m a i n t a i n e d , a n d t h a t t h e M a o r i a r e t o b e g i v e n a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s . A r t i c l e 1 o f t h e T r e a t y h a s a l s o b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d t o m e a n t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e C r o w n h a s t h e r i g h t t o g o v e r n a n d a d m i n i s t e r l a w s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r i g h t t o m a k e l a w s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , its r i g h t t o g o v e r n i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s l i m i t e d b y i t s T r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s . T h u s , t h e s t a t e ' s r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e a r e s o u r c e d o e s n o t i n i t s e l f p e r m i t it t o r e g u l a t e M a o r i i n t h e s a m e w a y a s o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s s i n c e t h e M a o r i h a v e T r e a t y r i g h t s t o c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s w h i l e n o n - M a o r i h a v e o n l y p r i v i l e g e s . D e s p i t e t h e T r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s , M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s h a v e b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y i g n o r e d i n N e w Z e a l a n d ' s f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a n d f i s h i n g c l a i m s h a v e b e e n m a d e c o n t i n u a l l y b y t h e M a o r i f o r t h e l a s t 1 5 0 y e a r s . 3 1 1 T h e s t a t e h a s r e g u l a t e d f i s h i n g s i n c e 1 8 6 6 . T h e v a r i o u s r e g u l a t i o n s h a v e n o t r e c o g n i z e d t h e M a o r i r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t a n d h a v e n o t a d e q u a t e l y p r o t e c t e d t h e i r r i g h t t o f i s h . In a d d i t i o n , n o a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o i n c o r p o r a t e M a o r i i n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , w i t h n o n e o f t h e l o a n s o r i n c e n t i v e s b e i n g o f f e r e d b y t h e s t a t e g o i n g t o t h e t r i b e s . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a s w e l l a s o t h e r s , 3 1 0 A . M . Waetford, "Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act 1992" [1993] Auckland U. L. Rev. 402 at p. 402. 3 ! 1 P.G. McHugh, "Sealords and sharks: The Maori Fisheries Agreement (1992)" [1992] N.Z.L.R. 354 at p. 354. 152 i n c l u d i n g l o s s o f a c c e s s t o t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g g r o u n d s a n d d e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k s d u e t o o v e r f i s h i n g a n d p o l l u t i o n , t h e M a o r i w e r e u n a b l e t o s u s t a i n t h e i r u s e a n d c o n t r o l o f t h e f i s h e r i e s a n d a n y M a o r i c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d u l t i m a t e l y w e n t i n t o d e c l i n e . T h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g w h i c h d i d t a k e p l a c e b y M a o r i t e n d e d t o b e s m a l l s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e v u l n e r a b l e t o i n d u s t r y c h a n g e s . 3 1 2 A s a r e s u l t , M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e t h e s u b j e c t o f m u c h l i t i g a t i o n . A l t h o u g h s e c t i o n 7 7 ( 2 ) o f t h e Fisheries Act 1 9 8 0 p r o v i d e d t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e A c t c o u l d a f f e c t M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s , t h e c o u r t s h a d r u l e d i n e a r l y d e c i s i o n s t h a t t h e p h r a s e r e f e r r e d o n l y t o r i g h t s c o n f e r r e d b y s t a t u t e , a n d n o t t h e T r e a t y . H o w e v e r , i n Te Weehi v . Regional Fisheries Officer313, t h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e D e f e n d a n t c o u l d n o t b e c o n v i c t e d u n d e r t h e Fisheries Act f o r t a k i n g u n d e r s i z e d f i s h b e c a u s e h e w a s e x e r c i s i n g a c u s t o m a r y M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t u n d e r t h e e x c e p t i o n i n t h e A c t . T h i s d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s " t u r n i n g t h e t i d e " t o w a r d r e c o g n i t i o n o f M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n N e w Z e a l a n d . 3 1 4 T h e W a i t a n g i T r i b u n a l , w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t b o d y i n 1 9 7 5 t o a s s i s t i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s p u t e s u n d e r t h e T r e a t y t h r o u g h t h e m a k i n g o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o g o v e r n m e n t , h a s a l s o b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e M a o r i f i s h i n g d i s p u t e s . It r u l e d t h a t t r i b e s h a v e a n e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o t h e f i s h e r i e s s u r r o u n d i n g 3 1 2Munro, supra, note 308 at pp. 398-400. 3,3[1986] 1 N.Z.L.R. 680 (H.C.). 314Waetford, supra, note 310 at p. 403. 153 t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s t o a d i s t a n c e o f 1 2 m i l e s . It a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e M a o r i h a v e a r i g h t t o a r e a s o n a b l e s h a r e o f t h e f i s h e r i e s off t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s b e y o n d t h e 1 2 m i l e l i m i t . T h e s t a t e w a s a l s o r e q u i r e d t o r e s p e c t a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e M a o r i i n r e g u l a t i n g t h e f i s h e r i e s . 3 1 5 It w a s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t i n t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s , t h e N e w Z e a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t a t t e m p t e d t o i m p l e m e n t a n e w f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e i n r e s p o n s e t o c o n c e r n s o v e r t h e d e p l e t i o n o f t h e f i s h s t o c k s a n d o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e f i s h i n g f l e e t . T h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t r o d u c e d p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s q u o t a s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n a n a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s . U n d e r t h e Q u o t a M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m , t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s s e t s t o t a l a l l o w a b l e c a t c h e s f o r a s p e c i e s i n t h e q u o t a m a n a g e m e n t a r e a a n d f r o m t h a t s u b t r a c t s a n a l l o w a n c e f o r M a o r i t r a d i t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d o t h e r n o n - c o m m e r c i a l u s e s o f t h e f i s h e r i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t o t a l a l l o w a b l e c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h . T h e t o t a l a l l o w a b l e c a t c h i s t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s f e r a b l e q u o t a s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a p e r m a n e n t p r o p e r t y r i g h t t o c a t c h a n d s e l l a f i x e d n u m b e r o f f i s h . 3 1 6 T h e n e w r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e r e s u l t e d i n a 5 0 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e n u m b e r s o f f i s h e r s , a l t h o u g h t h e c a t c h w a s r e d u c e d b y a b o u t o n l y 5 p e r c e n t . It h a d a p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t o n s m a l l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s , 3 1 5Munro, supra, note 308 at pp. 392-393. 3 1 ^or a more extensive description of the regulatory process, see ibid at p. 400. 154 i n c l u d i n g m a n y r u n b y M a o r i . 3 1 7 S e v e r a l M a o r i t r i b e s b e c a m e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e n e w r e g u l a t i o n s o n t h e i r T r e a t y r i g h t s t o f i s h . T h e r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e T r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s i n t h a t t h e y g a v e f u l l , e x c l u s i v e a n d u n d i s t u r b e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e f i s h e r i e s t o n o n - M a o r i a n d n o t t o M a o r i , e v e n t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r ' s r i g h t t o s u c h p o s s e s s i o n w a s g u a r a n t e e d i n t h e T r e a t y . A s w e l l , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d o n l y a m i n i m a l r o l e f o r M a o r i i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . 3 1 8 A s a r e s u l t , t h e M a o r i s o u g h t r e d r e s s t h r o u g h t h e W a i t a n g i T r i b u n a l a n d t h e c o u r t s . T h e T r i b u n a l c o n c l u d e d i n i t s f i n a l r e p o r t t h a t t h e n e w r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e w a s i n b r e a c h o f T r e a t y p r i n c i p l e s a n d c a l l e d f o r t h e M a o r i a n d t h e s t a t e t o n e g o t i a t e . T h e c o u r t s s u b s e q u e n t l y m a d e a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g . A n a c t i o n h a d b e e n b r o u g h t b y t h e M u r i w h e n u a a n d N g a i T a h u t r i b e s t o c l a r i f y t h e i r f i s h i n g r i g h t s u n d e r t h e Fisheries Act. T h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e r e w a s a n a r g u a b l e c a s e t h a t t h e M a o r i h a d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g t r e a t y r i g h t s . S i n c e t h e Fisheries Act e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e A c t c o u l d a f f e c t M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s , t h e C o u r t f o u n d t h a t t h e q u o t a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m w a s c o n t r a r y t o t h e A c t i n t h a t it a f f e c t e d M a o r i f i s h i n g r i g h t s . T h e C o u r t d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r w a s n o t t o t a k e a n y f u r t h e r a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e q u o t a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m . 3 1 9 It is estimated that nearly 300 fishers, most of them believed to be Maori, lost their licences in Northland alone between 1984 and 1985. See ibid at p. 400. 318/Z>;</atp.401. 319Price, supra, note 308 at pp. 31-32 and Munro, supra, note 308 at pp. 402-403. 155 A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s c o m p e l l e d t o n e g o t i a t e a n d b y l a t e 1 9 8 7 n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e M a o r i a n d t h e s t a t e w e r e u n d e r w a y . N e g o t i a t i o n s s t a l l e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , w i t h n o a g r e e m e n t h a v i n g b e e n r e a c h e d b y t h e d e a d l i n e o f J u n e 1 9 8 8 . H o w e v e r , a n i n t e r i m a g r e e m e n t w a s r e a c h e d i n 1 9 8 9 , a l t h o u g h it h a d e s s e n t i a l l y b e e n i m p o s e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d e d t h a t 1 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e q u o t a f o r e a c h s p e c i e s w o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e M a o r i o v e r f o u r y e a r s a n d t h a t $ 1 0 m i l l i o n w o u l d b e p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t t h e M a o r i i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . T h e M a o r i F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e a s s e t s a n d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e n t r y o f M a o r i i n t o t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . T h e i n t e r i m a g r e e m e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e M a o r i h a d a T r e a t y e n t i t l e m e n t t o a p o r t i o n o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s . N e g o t i a t i o n s t o r e a c h a f i n a l a g r e e m e n t c o n t i n u e d . S o m e c o n f l i c t a r o s e a m o n g t h e M a o r i w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a p p r o a c h o f t h e M a o r i F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n a n d its m e t h o d o f a l l o c a t i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g q u o t a . D e s p i t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , a t e n t a t i v e a g r e e m e n t w a s r e a c h e d i n A u g u s t 1 9 9 2 . T h e a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e M a o r i w o u l d g e t a 5 0 p e r c e n t s t a k e i n N e w Z e a l a n d ' s b i g g e s t f i s h i n g c o m p a n y , S e a l o r d , w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e i r o b t a i n i n g h a l f o f S e a l o r d ' s 2 6 p e r c e n t q u o t a . W i t h t h e 1 0 p e r c e n t q u o t a w h i c h h a d b e e n o b t a i n e d u n d e r t h e i n t e r i m a g r e e m e n t , t h e M a o r i w e r e t o r e c e i v e a t o t a l o f 2 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s t o t a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g q u o t a . T h e W a i t a n g i 156 F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n w a s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e a g r e e m e n t t o r e p l a c e t h e M a o r i F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n . It h o l d s t h e M a o r i f i s h i n g a s s e t s a n d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i n g t h e q u o t a a m o n g t h e t r i b e s . T h e d e a l a l s o r e c o g n i z e s a s o m e w h a t e x p a n d e d r o l e f o r M a o r i i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , w i t h a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t M a o r i b e r e p r e s e n t e d o n v a r i o u s f i s h e r i e s s t a t u t o r y a d v i s o r y b o d i e s , s u c h a s t h e F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y B o a r d a n d t h e F i s h e r i e s M a n a g e m e n t C o m m i t t e e . T h e W a i t a n g i F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n m u s t a l s o b e c o n s u l t e d b y t h e C r o w n w h e n e v e r it i s s t a t u t o r i l y r e q u i r e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e F i s h i n g I n d u s t r y B o a r d , s u c h a s w h e n t h e t o t a l a l l o w a b l e c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h i s b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d o r a c l o s u r e i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . 3 2 0 T h u s , t h e a g r e e m e n t d o e s e s t a b l i s h a t y p e o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h a t M a o r i m u s t n o w b e c o n s u l t e d a n d c a n h a v e s o m e i n p u t i n t o m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . T h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s m u s t a l s o c o n s u l t w i t h M a o r i a n d d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s t o h e l p r e c o g n i z e t h e u s e a n d m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s o f t h e M a o r i w i t h r e s p e c t t o n o n - c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s a r e a l s o a d d r e s s e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t l y , g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e t o b e p a s s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e r i g h t o f t r i b e s t o r e g u l a t e m e m b e r s f i s h i n g f o r d e f i n e d c u s t o m a r y , n o n - c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . R e g u l a t i o n s m u s t a l s o b e p r o m u l g a t e d t o e n a b l e t r i b e s t o p a s s b y - l a w s r e g u l a t i n g c u s t o m a r y f i s h i n g i n s p e c i f i c s i t e s w h i c h a r e o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r 3 2 0 Munro, supra, note 308 at p. 412. 157 f i s h i n g o r f o r c u l t u r a l o r s p i r i t u a l r e a s o n s . T h e s e b y - l a w s c a n r e g u l a t e f i s h i n g i n c e r t a i n s i t e s , b u t m u s t b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o v e r a l l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s t a t e ' s r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e a n d a p p l y t o a l l i n d i v i d u a l s e q u a l l y . T h e b y - l a w s m u s t a l s o b e a p p r o v e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s . 3 2 1 T h e s e p r o v i s i o n s c o n t e m p l a t e a m u c h m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o - m a n a g e m e n t a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h M a o r i b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o a c t u a l l y r e g u l a t e t h e r e s o u r c e w i t h i n c e r t a i n p a r a m e t e r s , b u t i n l i m i t e d c u s t o m a r y f i s h i n g a r e a s o n l y . T h e d e a l e n g e n d e r e d m u c h c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e a g r e e m e n t i n v o l v e s a l l M a o r i t r i b e s a n d i s t o b e a f u l l a n d f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f a l l M a o r i c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s c l a i m s u n d e r t h e T r e a t y o f W a i t a n g i a n d c o m p l e t e l y d i s c h a r g e s t h e C r o w n ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e M a o r i i n r e s p e c t o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . N e i t h e r t h e c o u r t s n o r t h e W a i t a n g i h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o c o n s i d e r M a o r i c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . S o m e M a o r i q u e s t i o n e d t h e m a n d a t e o f s o m e o f i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o s i g n t h e a g r e e m e n t o n t h e i r b e h a l f a n d v i e w e d t h e a g r e e m e n t a s a s e l l - o u t c o n t r a r y t o t h e t e r m s o f t h e T r e a t y . 3 2 2 T h e y c h a l l e n g e d t h e a g r e e m e n t i n c o u r t , t h e W a i t a n g i T r i b u n a l a n d l a t e r t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s H u m a n R i g h t s C o m m i t t e e , b u t w e r e u n s u c c e s s f u l . L a t e r , t h e r e w a s a d i s p u t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s t o b e a p p o i n t e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n . D e s p i t e t h e s e d i s p u t e s , l e g i s l a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a g r e e m e n t w a s u l t i m a t e l y i n t r o d u c e d i n D e c e m b e r 3 27Watpp. 412-414. 322Somewhere between nine and 13 tribal groupings out of a total of 40 opposed the deal. See Price, supra, note 308 at p. 50. Also, see Waetford, supra, note 310 at p. 406. 158 1 9 9 2 . H o w e v e r , n o n e o f t h e M a o r i m e m b e r s o f t h e H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s u p p o r t e d its e n a c t m e n t . 3 2 3 A l t h o u g h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n h a s b e e n p a s s e d , t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s a r e n o t y e t o v e r . D i s p u t e s h a v e a r i s e n o v e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e w a y f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n t o a l l o c a t e t h e q u o t a a m o n g t h e t r i b e s . H e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s f a v o u r a n a l l o c a t i o n b a s e d o n p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e l e s s p o p u l a t e d a r e a s w i t h l o n g e r c o a s t l i n e s f a v o u r o n e b a s e d o n a c o a s t l i n e f o r m u l a . L i t i g a t i o n w a s c o m m e n c e d b y s o m e t r i b e s o n t h i s i s s u e . G i v e n t h e i m m e n s e v a l u e o f t h e q u o t a , it i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e d i s p u t e s h a v e a r i s e n . A t t e m p t s a r e b e i n g m a d e t o r e a c h a c o m p r o m i s e o n t h i s i s s u e , a n d it a p p e a r s t h a t a w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n w i l l b e f o u n d , w i t h t h e o p p o s i n g g r o u p s h a v i n g b e g u n t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s b y m i d - 1 9 9 5 . 3 2 4 H o w e v e r , o n e o f t h e i s s u e s s t i l l o u t s t a n d i n g i s h o w a s s e t s w i l l b e s h a r e d w i t h u r b a n M a o r i . E v e n if a n a g r e e m e n t c a n b e r e a c h e d , t h e M i n i s t e r w i l l u l t i m a t e l y b e r e q u i r e d t o a p p r o v e a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e . A l t h o u g h t h e S e a l o r d d e a l d o e s r e c o g n i z e a r o l e f o r M a o r i i n r e s p e c t o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , it i s n o t a n e x t e n s i v e o n e . U n d e r t h e d e a l , t h e Q u o t a M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m w i l l a p p l y e q u a l l y t o M a o r i a n d n o n - M a o r i , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o r m e r ' s f i s h i n g r i g h t s a r e t o h a v e s p e c i a l s t a t u s p u r s u a n t t o t h e T r e a t y . Waetford, supra, note 310 at p. 402. It may be that there is a party split explaining this; the Maori members were probably all Labour Party. 324See Price's analysis at supra, note 308 at pp. 56-59 and pp. 66-67. 159 A s w e l l , t h o s e m a n a g e m e n t r i g h t s w h i c h t h e M a o r i h a v e a r e l i m i t e d ; f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , t h e y a r e a d v i s o r y o n l y . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e t o b e g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t p o w e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c u s t o m a r y f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e y a r e l i m i t e d t o a f e w s p e c i f i c s i t e s , r e l a t e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t t o n o n - c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g o n l y , a n d a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s t a t e ' s a p p r o v a l . A s w e l l , a n y b y - l a w s p a s s e d m u s t a p p l y t o e v e r y o n e e q u a l l y , e v e n t h o u g h M a o r i h a v e b e e n g i v e n g r e a t e r r i g h t s t h a n o t h e r s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s b y t h e T r e a t y . S i n c e t h e d e a l i s p r e m i s e d o n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e Q u o t a M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m , t h e f i s h e r i e s c o n t i n u e t o b e r e g u l a t e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e s t a t e , w i t h l ittle r e a l i n p u t f r o m o r s u b s t a n t i v e r o l e f o r M a o r i . I n d e e d , t h e a g r e e m e n t " e f f e c t i v e l y o p e n s t h e w a y f o r g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e v e l o p t h e Q M S w i t h o u t t h e c o n t i n u a l t h r e a t o f M a o r i c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g c l a i m s . " 3 2 5 In t h e w o r d s o f J . M u n r o , t h e s y s t e m i s : s o l e l y t h e C r o w n ' s v i s i o n o f a n a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n t o m a n a g e m e n t a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n n e e d s ; t h e r e w a s n o c o m m i t m e n t t o f i n d i n g a b i c u l t u r a l a p p r o a c h . U n d e r t h e S e a l o r d d e a l , M a o r i h a v e b o u g h t i n t o t h e C r o w n ' s v i s i o n . . . . T h e S e a l o r d d e a l d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e r e f o r e , a n i n a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t p l u r a l i s m , o r t r e a t i n g o n e s e c t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m a n o t h e r . T h e C r o w n h a s p e r p e t u a t e d t h e s i m p l i s t i c n o t i o n o f " o n e n a t i o n u n d e r o n e l a w " . T h u s , t h e S e a l o r d d e a l i n N e w Z e a l a n d i s a l i m i t e d f o r m o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t o n l y . It d o e s n o t r e a l l y c h a n g e t h e u n d e r l y i n g m a n a g e m e n t Waetford, supra, note 310 at p. 407. !6Munro, supra, note 308 at pp. 422-423. 160 s t r u c t u r e o f f i s h e r i e s r e g u l a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e s M a o r i f i s h e r s i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m . E v e n m o r e s o t h a n i s t h e c a s e i n W a s h i n g t o n , it r e q u i r e s A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s t o c o n f o r m t o t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y ' s m o d e l a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y . M a o r i p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e d i c t a t e d b y t h e s t a t e . 3 2 7 S i n c e it i s a r e l a t i v e l y n e w a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h m a n y o f t h e d e t a i l s y e t t o b e w o r k e d o u t , it r e m a i n s t o b e s e e n h o w w e l l it w o r k s i n p r a c t i c e a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h M a o r i p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y w i l l i n c r e a s e a s a r e s u l t o f its p r o v i s i o n s . C. Some Conclusions about Co-Manaaement It i s a p p a r e n t t h a t n o n e o f t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s f r o m t h e s t a t e s ' d o m i n a n t r e g u l a t o r y s c h e m e s . A t b e s t , t h e y a r e a c c o m m o d a t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t o e x i s t i n g f r a m e w o r k s w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n v a r y i n g a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s . T h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i n t h e W e s t e r n A r c t i c , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e c o g n i z e s I n u v i a l u i t k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , a n d p e r m i t s s o m e e x c l u s i v e I n u v i a l u i t h a r v e s t i n g r i g h t s , c o n t r o l o f a c c e s s t o t h e r e s o u r c e a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a n a g e m e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e N e w Z e a l a n d s c e n a r i o i s a m u c h m o r e l i m i t e d c o - m a n a g e m e n t a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h a n y r e m o t e l y s u b s t a n t i a l M a o r i r e g u l a t o r y p o w e r s b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l f o o d f i s h e r i e s . In t h e l a t t e r c a s e , 327Waetford, supra, note 310 at p. 406. 161 t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e n e w s y s t e m i s t o d e a l M a o r i i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s r e g i m e , n o t t o r e c o g n i z e M a o r i s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n r i g h t s . E v e n i n t h o s e j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h e r e a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r A b o r i g i n a l s i s b e i n g s o u g h t , t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y ' s u n d e r l y i n g s y s t e m r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y i n t a c t . W a s h i n g t o n s t a t e h a s o n e o f t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r m s o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s w h i c h w a s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . H o w e v e r , e v e n t h e r e , t h e r e i s n o r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n a l t e r n a t i v e A b o r i g i n a l p e r s p e c t i v e o n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e t r i b e s c a n p a s s f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s m u s t m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y . A s w e l l , t h e f o c u s i s s t i l l o n m a r i n e f i s h e r i e s , a s o p p o s e d t o r i v e r i n e f i s h e r i e s . S i m i l a r l y i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c , I n u v i a l u i t m a n a g e m e n t i s m e r e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t o s o m e e x t e n t i n t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e w i t h f i n a l d e c i s i o n s s t i l l b e i n g m a d e b y t h e s t a t e ; t h e r e i s , a g a i n , n o a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f a n i n d e p e n d e n t s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y r i g h t . T h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t o f w h a t h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . R e c o g n i z i n g m o r e t h a n o n e i n d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m w o u l d a d d y e t a n o t h e r l a y e r o f c o m p l e x i t y t o t h e a l r e a d y c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k o f m a n a g i n g t h e f i s h e r i e s . A s w e l l , t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s m a k e f o r m u l a t i n g a w o r k a b l e c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e d i f f i c u l t . S o m e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s m u s t b e u n d e r t a k e n a n d it i s n o t r e m a r k a b l e t h a t t h e s t a t e ' s f r a m e w o r k i s t h e d o m i n a n t o n e . T h e r e a r e a l s o t o o m a n y v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y i n 162 a l l o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s s t u d i e d t o m a k e c o m p l e t e d e v o l u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y b y t h e s t a t e l i k e l y . It s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y o f t h e m o d e l s p r e s e n t e d c o u l d b e a d o p t e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e I n u v i a l u i t e x p e r i e n c e c a n p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o h o w a c o - m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m c a n w o r k s u c c e s s f u l l y , b u t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , d e m o g r a p h i c a n d g e o g r a p h i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d . It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e I n u v i a l u i t m o d e l w o r k s i n t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c a t l e a s t p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e I n u v i a l u i t c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n t h a t a r e a . A s w e l l , it m a y w e l l b e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e a n d m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s h a v e s u r v i v e d t h e r e b e t t e r t h a n i n m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n W a s h i n g t o n i s d i s t i n c t . In W a s h i n g t o n , t h e c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e w a s f o u n d e d o n a c o u r t d e c i s i o n w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e d a n A b o r i g i n a l t r e a t y r i g h t t o 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l c a t c h , o r a t t h e v e r y l e a s t e n o u g h f i s h t o e a r n a m o d e r a t e l i v e l i h o o d . C a n a d i a n c o u r t s h a v e n o t m a d e s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s , w i t h t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n Van der Peet e x p r e s s l y r e j e c t i n g t h e " m o d e r a t e l i v e l i h o o d " a p p r o a c h w h i c h h a d b e e n e s p o u s e d b y L a m b e r t J . i n h i s d i s s e n t a t t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l . T h e e x p l i c i t a l l o c a t i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e f i s h t o A b o r i g i n a l s i n W a s h i n g t o n p r o v i d e s a m u c h s t r o n g e r b a s i s f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i n t h e s t a t e . W i t h o u t t h a t 163 b a s i s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a it i s n o t c l e a r h o w m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r i e s w i l l b e h a n d l e d . A l t h o u g h t h e N e w Z e a l a n d s i t u a t i o n i s n o t a g o o d e x a m p l e o f a c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e , g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d r o l e t h e M a o r i h a v e i n m a n a g e m e n t , t h e q u o t a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m w h i c h w a s u n d e r t a k e n t h e r e m a y b e a m o d e l w h i c h c o u l d a s s i s t i n m a k i n g f a i r e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i s h e r i e s . If s p e c i f i c q u o t a s f o r s a l m o n w e r e s e t i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e q u o t a c o u l d b e a l l o c a t e d t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . H o w e v e r , m a n a g e m e n t o f s a l m o n i s c o m p l e x a n d i n v o l v e s b o t h p r e - s e a s o n a n d i n - s e a s o n p r e d i c t i o n s . T h e s y s t e m r e q u i r e s f l e x i b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o f t e n a t t h e e l e v e n t h h o u r . It s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t q u o t a s c o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d a h e a d o f t i m e t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e e s c a p e m e n t . T h u s , t h e u s e o f a q u o t a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i n t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s s e e m s i m p r a c t i c a l . T h u s , it i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a n y o f t h e m o d e l s p r e s e n t e d w i l l b e c o m p l e t e l y a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e v e n if c o - m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . E v e n t h o s e c o - m a n a g e m e n t f r a m e w o r k s w h i c h h a v e s t a r t e d t o b e a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u c h a s t h e G i t k s a n a n d W e t ' s u w e t ' e n e x a m p l e , c a n n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e a d o p t e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . O n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e F i r s t N a t i o n s a n d f i s h e r s w i t h v a r y i n g i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s t h a n o n t h e S k e e n a R i v e r . F o r m u l a t i n g a w o r k a b l e c o - 164 m a n a g e m e n t r e g i m e f o r t h e F r a s e r , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l b e a m u c h m o r e c o m p l e x a n d c h a l l e n g i n g e n d e a v o u r . It i s n o t c l e a r t h a t c o - m a n a g e m e n t w i l l i n d e e d b e t h e w a y o f t h e f u t u r e f o r f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y s o m e t r e n d s w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a d o p t i o n o f s o m e f o r m o f c o - m a n a g e m e n t i s a t l e a s t p o s s i b l e . T h e r e c e n t m o v e m e n t i n s o m e a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o c o - o p e r a t i v e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s , t h e c u r r e n t d o w n s i z i n g o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t , a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t ' s r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s a l l p o i n t t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t s o m e c h a n g e s w i l l b e m a d e t o t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k . W h a t t h o s e c h a n g e s w i l l b e r e m a i n s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d . 165 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION It i s c l e a r t h a t f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a n a d r o m o u s f i s h , i s e x t r e m e l y c o m p l e x . F i s h e r i e s s c i e n c e a p p e a r s t o b e a n y t h i n g b u t p r e c i s e , w i t h d e c i s i o n s o f t e n b e i n g m a d e b y f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e r s b a s e d o n e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n t u i t i o n . O f t e n , d e c i s i o n s h a v e t o b e r e c o n s i d e r e d a n d r e m a d e i n r e s p o n s e t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A s w e l l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t i s o f t e n r e l u c t a n t t o p u r s u e a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h w i l l s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e v e r y l ittle c o m m o n g r o u n d a m o n g t h e v a r i o u s u s e r g r o u p s , w i t h d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n o n v a r i o u s i s s u e s b e i n g f o u n d b o t h a m o n g a n d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s . A d d e d t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y i s t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n t o t h e f i s h e r i e s a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e w o r l d m a r k e t . W e h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s e v o l v e d s l o w l y o v e r t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . U n t i l t h e e a r l y 1 8 7 0 ' s , w h e n t h e f i r s t c a n n e r y w a s o p e n e d , t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y left i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s . T h e s e t t l e r s a t t h e t i m e w e r e c o n t e n t w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t b e c a u s e A b o r i g i n a l s h a d s u p e r i o r m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g f i s h a n d c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e s e t t l e r s w i t h f i s h . F i r s t N a t i o n s d e p e n d e d o n t h e f i s h f o r b o t h f o o d a n d t r a d e , 166 b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o n t a c t . F i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t w a s p a r t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e , w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l l a w s g o v e r n i n g t h e u s e o f f i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g y . A l t h o u g h t h e i r t e c h n o l o g y w a s s u c h t h a t t h e y c o u l d h a v e c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d w h o l e s a l m o n r u n s , t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a w s p r e v e n t e d t h e m f r o m d o i n g t h a t . T h e y w e r e e f f e c t i v e m a n a g e r s o f t h e r e s o u r c e . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e f i r s t c a n n e r y w a s o p e n e d i n 1 8 7 1 , a l l t h a t b e g a n t o c h a n g e . T h e s e t t l e r s n o l o n g e r h a d t o d e p e n d o n t h e A b o r i g i n a l s f o r f i s h . N o n - A b o r i g i n a l s b e g a n t o e n t e r t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r y i n g r e a t e r n u m b e r s a s t h e y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e w a s l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a t i m e w h e n t h e A b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m t h e e p i d e m i c s , s o little r e s i s t a n c e c o u l d b e m o u n t e d . F o r a p e r i o d A b o r i g i n a l s w e r e n e e d e d t o s t a f f t h e c a n n e r i e s , b u t o v e r t i m e t h e c a n n e r i e s s h u t d o w n , l e a v i n g w h o l e v i l l a g e s o f u n e m p l o y e d A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s a n d c a n n e r y w o r k e r s i n t h e i r w a k e . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e f i s h e r i e s w a s s l o w l y b e i n g t a k e n o v e r b y t h e s t a t e . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g w a s s u d d e n l y d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e f o o d f i s h i n g o n l y a n d c o m m e r c i a l s a l e o f f i s h b y A b o r i g i n a l s w a s p r o h i b i t e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d , t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d A b o r i g i n a l s a s d e s t r o y e r o f f i s h w e r e u s e d t o j u s t i f y t h e s t a t e ' s a c t i o n s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , A b o r i g i n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r i e s d e c l i n e d . F o o d f i s h i n g a l s o d e c r e a s e d . A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s w e r e n e v e r 167 c o m p l e t e l y r e s t r i c t e d f r o m t h e f i s h e r i e s s i n c e t h i s m e a s u r e w a s n o t s e e n a s n e c e s s a r y a n d , i n d e e d , w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e i n t h a t it w o u l d h a v e e x p a n d e d t h e A b o r i g i n a l w e l f a r e r o l l s . A f t e r t h e D a v i s l i c e n s i n g p r o g r a m w a s i n i t i a t e d i n 1 9 6 8 , t h e n u m b e r o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s d e c l i n e d e v e n m o r e d r a s t i c a l l y . T h e l o a n p r o g r a m s w h i c h w e r e d e v e l o p e d s t e m m e d t h e d e c l i n e s o m e w h a t , b u t o n l y i n l i m i t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . M e a n w h i l e , t h e r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m w a s f a i l i n g . T h e l i c e n s i n g r e g i m e r e s u l t e d i n o v e r - c a p a c i t y a n d o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e f l e e t . S a l m o n s t o c k s w e r e b e i n g d e p l e t e d a n d t h e f i s h e r i e s w e r e n o t s u s t a i n a b l e . It w a s i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l s b e g a n t o o p p o s e t h e r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m i n l a r g e n u m b e r s . V a r i o u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d p r o t e s t s w e r e s t a g e d a n d f i s h w e r e s o l d c o n t r a r y t o r e g u l a t i o n . M a n y c h a r g e s w e r e l a i d a g a i n s t A b o r i g i n a l f i s h e r s f o r v a r i o u s i n f r a c t i o n s . A r o u n d t h e s a m e p e r i o d , t h e C a n a d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n w a s a m e n d e d a n d A b o r i g i n a l a n d T r e a t y r i g h t s w e r e g i v e n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n i n s . 3 5 . T h e f i r s t t i m e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a h a d t o d e a l w i t h s . 3 5 w a s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g . Its d e c i s i o n i n Sparrow s e t t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t w a s f o r c e d t o d e v e l o p t h e A b o r i g i n a l F i s h e r i e s S t r a t e g y ( " A F S " ) i n r e s p o n s e . A s w e l l , a r o u n d t h i s s a m e t i m e , t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s , J o h n C r o s b i e , a n n o u n c e d t h a t f i s h i n g r i g h t s w o u l d b e p a r t o f T r e a t y s e t t l e m e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n d e e d , t h e a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d u n d e r t h e A F S 168 h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d b y s o m e t o b e i n t e r i m a g r e e m e n t s p e n d i n g f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n o f f i s h i n g i s s u e s i n t h e t r e a t y p r o c e s s . C o u r t s i n c a s e s s i n c e t h e Sparrow d e c i s i o n h a v e b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o e x p a n d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t c a s e , i n c l u d i n g t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n Van der Peet, N.T.C. Smokehouse, Lewis a n d Nikal. H o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h h a s b e e n e n g e n d e r e d b y t h o s e d e c i s i o n s , t h e j u r i s p r u d e n c e m a y n o n e t h e l e s s b e t h e i m p e t u s f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o c o n t i n u e t o c h a n g e its p o l i c i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g a n d , p e r h a p s u l t i m a t e l y , t o f o r m u l a t e a n e w r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m w h i c h b e t t e r a c c o m m o d a t e s F i r s t N a t i o n s . In a l l o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e t o d a t e , t h e s a m e b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g i e s a r e o f t e n u s e d r e p e a t e d l y . L i b e r a l n o t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y a r e u s e d t o j u s t i f y d e n i a l o f a n y " s p e c i a l r i g h t s " f o r A b o r i g i n a l s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s . T h e c o n c e p t o f f i s h a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y i s a l s o u s e d a t t i m e s t o d e f e n d t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e a n d t o p r e v e n t A b o r i g i n a l s f r o m g e t t i n g a n y k i n d o f p r i o r i t y i n t h e f i s h e r i e s , a t l e a s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . C o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s r e q u i r i n g e x c l u s i v e g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c o u r t s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o q u e s t i o n f o r w h o s e b e n e f i t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s a r e d e s i g n e d , t h e y a r e n o t q u e s t i o n i n g b y w h o m t h o s e g o a l s a r e b e s t a c h i e v e d . B o t h g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e c o u r t s a s s u m e t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s c a n o n l y 169 b e e s t a b l i s h e d a n d a c h i e v e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t . T h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s c a n h a v e a d i r e c t r o l e t o p l a y w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h e r e a l s o a p p e a r s t o b e a r e a l r e l u c t a n c e b y g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e c o u r t s t o a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h o s e w h o a r e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i n d u s t r y . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e h a s b e e n s o m e r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , it i s n o t y e t , a n d m a y i n d e e d n e v e r b e , f u l l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t . It i s s o m e t i m e s s u g g e s t e d t h a t l e g i s l a t u r e s a n d c o u r t s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y a c k n o w l e d g i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s b e c a u s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s a n d c u l t u r a l u n i q u e n e s s i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s 3 2 8 L i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y i s v e r y m u c h f o c u s e d o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a n d l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c i e s p u r p o r t t o p l a c e a g r e a t d e a l of v a l u e o n e q u a l i t y , i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d f r e e d o m f r o m d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d , t h e i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y h a s b e e n u s e d , a n d c o n t i n u e s t o b e u s e d , i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i s h e r i e s c o n t e x t t o j u s t i f y b o t h t h e r e g u l a t o r y r e g i m e a n d t h e j u r i s p r u d e n c e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n a n o v e r t d e n i a l o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e y a r e c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s a n d t h e r e f o r e u n r e c o g n i z a b l e i n a l i b e r a l s t a t e . I n d e e d , t h e c o u r t s h a v e e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e r i g h t s a s c o l l e c t i v e w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e a f f i r m i n g t h e m . In Sampson, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l n o t e d t h a t w h e n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a n A b o r i g i n a l right h a s b e e n i n f r i n g e d , t h e c o u r t m u s t c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t o n t h e c o l l e c t i v e right o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n a s a w h o l e a n d n o t j u s t o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l 3 2 8 W. Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995) at p. 34 and Kapashesit and Klippenstein, supra, note 176 at pp. 937-939 and S. Weaver, "Federal Difficulties with Aboriginal Rights Demands" in Boldt and Long, supra, note 90 at pp 141-142. 170 d e f e n d a n t s 3 2 9 T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n Sparrow.330 In t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s h a v e b e e n d e n i e d , s u c h a s i n Van der Peet a n d N.T.C, Smokehouse, t h e c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e of A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a s n o t b e e n u s e d a s a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d e n i a l . O f c o u r s e , it c a n n o t b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s n o t b e i n g c i t e d e x p r e s s l y b y g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c o u r t s t o j u s t i f y d e n y i n g t h o s e r i g h t s , it i s n o t n o n e t h e l e s s o n e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l b a r r i e r s t o c o m p l e t e r e c o g n i t i o n . It m a y w e l l b e t h a t t h e l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c f o c u s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r e c l u d e s t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y f r o m b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . H o w e v e r , it h a s a l s o b e e n a r g u e d t h a t it i s a f a l l a c y t o s u g g e s t t h a t c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , W i l l K y m l i c k a a r g u e s t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a c t u a l l y a c c o m m o d a t e d i n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c i e s t h r o u g h p r o t e c t i o n o f c i v i l a n d i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . 3 3 1 H e t a k e s i s s u e w i t h t h e t e r m i n o l o g y " c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s " i n t h e c o n t e x t of g r o u p - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c i t i z e n s h i p , a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t it i s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o s p e a k i n t e r m s o f t h e right t o i n t e r n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s a n d e x t e r n a l p r o t e c t i o n s . 3 3 2 H e a r g u e s t h a t e x t e r n a l p r o t e c t i o n r i g h t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c 329Supra, note 181 at pp. 40-45. 33C)Supra, note 56 at p. 411. 3 3 1 Kymlicka, supra, note 328 at p. 26. 332That is, the ability to protect the group from internal dissent and the right to protect the group from external decisions. Ibid at pp. 34-35. It should be noted that Kymlicka distinguishes between self-government rights and polyethnic rights. He characterizes Aboriginal groups as "national minorities'' and therefore having self- government rights. In contrast, he argues that individuals who immigrate to Canada are not entitled to self- government rights, but merely the right to have the freedom to exercise aspects of their cultures within the larger framework of Canadian society. 171 p r i n c i p l e s . A l t h o u g h i n t e r n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s c a n b e c o n t r a r y t o l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h e n t h e g r o u p l i m i t s t h e r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o q u e s t i o n a u t h o r i t y , h e s u g g e s t s t h a t e v e n i n t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , l i b e r a l s d o n o t n e e d t o f o r c e t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s o n t h e g r o u p s t h r o u g h c o e r c i o n . I n s t e a d , a t t e m p t s s h o u l d b e m a d e t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n a n d l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e g r o u p t o c h a n g e its i n t e r n a l r u l e s . 3 3 3 K y m l i c k a a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f m i n o r i t y r i g h t s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m i s t i e d t o m e m b e r s h i p i n o n e ' s n a t i o n a l g r o u p a n d g r o u p - s p e c i f i c r i g h t s c a n p r o m o t e e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r i t y a n d t h e m i n o r i t y . H e s u g g e s t s t h a t f r e e d o m i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h , a n d d e p e n d e n t o n , c u l t u r e a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o s u p p r e s s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t c l a i m s m a y " s i m p l y a g g r a v a t e t h e l e v e l of a l i e n a t i o n a n d d i v i s i o n . " 3 3 4 H e p o i n t s t o t h e f a c t t h a t l i b e r a l i s m r e q u i r e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o c h o o s e a m o n g d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f " t h e g o o d " a n d h e a r g u e s t h a t g r o u p d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r i g h t s w h i c h p r o t e c t m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s s u p p o r t t h a t p r i n c i p l e . T h u s , h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t r i g h t s ( i . e . t h e p o w e r t o g o v e r n w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r n a l r e s t r i c t i o n a n d e x t e r n a l p r o t e c t i o n ) i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s . 3 3 5 333Ibid at p. 37 and pp. 167-168. Of course, by influencing the group to change its internal rules, an attempt is still being made to liberalize the group. The point is, however, that there is no requirement that the group be liberalized for its self-government rights to be recognized. 3 3 4 /Watpp. 73 to 75. 335/b/rfatpp. 69, 84 and 106. 172 S i m i l a r l y , R a n d y K a p a s h e s i t a n d M u r r a y K l i p p e n s t e i n a r g u e t h a t l i b e r a l t h e o r y d o e s n o t p r o v i d e a n y r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e A b o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s . T h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t s e c t i o n 3 5 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t r e f e r s t o " p e o p l e s " a n d s i n c e t h e t e r m i s n o t u s e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , it m u s t d e n o t e a s p e c i a l m e a n i n g ; t h a t i s , a g r o u p r i g h t . 3 3 6 T h u s , it i s at l e a s t a r g u a b l e t h a t l i b e r a l t h e o r y c a n c o m p l e t e l y a c c o m m o d a t e c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s . If A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s a r e n o t b e i n g f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d , it m a y b e f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e . O n e o f t h o s e r e a s o n s m a y b e t h e d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t w h a t M e n n o B o l d t d e s c r i b e d a s t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " , w h i c h w a s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . 3 3 7 B o l d t ' s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t it i s t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " a n d n o t l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c c o n c e p t s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s h o w d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n t e r p r e t A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . O f c o u r s e , it c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " i s m e r e l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y a n d that , t h e r e f o r e , it i s s t i l l u n d e r l y i n g i d e o l o g y w h i c h i s i n f l u e n c i n g g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c o u r t s . T h e p o i n t w h i c h i s b r o u g h t h o m e , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c o u r t s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s b e c a u s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s m o d e l i n h i b i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s . I n s t e a d , t h e m o t i v a t i o n a p p e a r s t o b e t h e i r d e s i r e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e d o m i n a n t g r o u p c o n t i n u e s t o r e a p t h e b e n e f i t s of c a p i t a l i s m . T h e i s s u e i s o n e r e l a t i n g t o p r o t e c t i o n o f w e a l t h . 336Supra, note 176 at p. 952. 337Boldt, supra, note 141 at p. 12. Boldt notes that the "national interest" paradigm creates the illusion that it constitutes a national homogeneity of interests, but it is actually derived at behind closed doors by politicians, bureaucrats and corporations, without any reference to the "national good" as defined by the Canadian people (see p. 67). 173 K y m l i c k a ' s t h e o r y t h a t A b o r i g i n a l g r o u p r i g h t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y m a y b e c o m p l e t e l y v a l i d . H o w e v e r , u n d e r B o l d t ' s " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " t h e o r y , t h e p o i n t b e c o m e s m o o t s i n c e t h o s e r i g h t s w i l l o n l y b e p e r m i t t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y d o n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t s . T h e p o t e n t i a l f o r t h i s c o n f l i c t i s a r g u a b l y p e r c e i v e d m o s t s t r o n g l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r e s o u r c e s w h e r e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f w e a l t h a r e m o s t s t a r k . C a n a d i a n c o u r t s h a v e i d e n t i f i e d t h i s c o n f l i c t t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p l i c i t c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e e f f e c t of f a r - r e a c h i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s o n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g i n t e r e s t s . 3 3 8 T h a t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y d o e s n o t p l a y a r o l e . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , a s w e h a v e s e e n , g o v e r n m e n t s , c o u r t s a n d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s o f t e n u s e l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , m o s t o f t e n n o t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y , a s a r a t i o n a l e t o a v o i d r e c o g n i z i n g A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . A n d , a s w e s a w i n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s h a v e a l s o b e e n u s e d i n o t h e r l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e s , s u c h a s W a s h i n g t o n , t o o p p o s e r e c o g n i t i o n of A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . T h e s e l i b e r a l n o t i o n s m a y p r o v i d e a c o n v e n i e n t e x c u s e t o a v o i d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g n o n - A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s . A s B o l d t s t a t e s : C a n a d a c o m m i t s its i n j u s t i c e u n d e r t h e g u i s e o f a v e n e r a t e d d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e - ' o n e p e r s o n , o n e v o t e ' , ' r u l e b y majority' . T h i s ' p r i n c i p l e ' m a k e s it p o s s i b l e f o r t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t t o d i s r e g a r d t h e r i g h t s a n d w i l l o f a c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e ( I n d i a n s ) f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 3 3 9 338See, for instance, both the Court of Appeal and Supreme Court of Canada decisions in Van der Peet, supra, notes 156 and 152. 339Supra, note 141 at p. 9. 174 W e h a v e s e e n t h a t t o d a t e , g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c o u r t s i n C a n a d a h a v e b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e b r o a d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s . A l t h o u g h s o m e p r o g r e s s m a y b e g a i n e d t h r o u g h d e c i s i o n s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n Sparrow, Gladstone a n d Nikal, t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u e t o r e f l e c t a c o n c e r n o v e r p r o t e c t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y . A s w e l l , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a p p e a r s t o b e d e v e l o p i n g a m u c h b r o a d e r r a n g e o f o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h w i l l m e e t t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n Sparrow, s u c h a s e c o n o m i c a n d r e g i o n a l f a i r n e s s . W h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r s if t h e A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t t o f i s h i s b r o a d l y c o n s t r u e d , t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g . G i v e n t h e h i s t o r y o f l e g i s l a t i v e a n d j u d i c i a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i s s u e s , it i s difficult t o b e o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c t h a t F i r s t N a t i o n s w i l l b e p e r m i t t e d t o u s e t h e f i s h e r i e s a s t h e y s e e fit, i n c l u d i n g c o m m e r c i a l l y , a n d t o g o v e r n t h e r e s o u r c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o w n m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s . It a p p e a r s t h a t i n t h e f i s h e r i e s c o n t e x t t h e " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t " w i l l a l w a y s p r e v a i l . A l t h o u g h s o m e j u d g e s c o u c h t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n t e r m s o f e q u a l i t y a n d i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t t o b e m a d e t h a t t h e i r t r u e m o t i v a t i o n i s t o a v o i d n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e w e a l t h o f t h o s e w h o a r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i n d u s t r y , m a n y of w h o m a r e l a r g e c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s . B o l d t ' s f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t s m a y i n d e e d b e a p t i n t h e f i s h e r i e s c o n t e x t : A n y o n e w h o i m a g i n e s t h a t C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s a n d c o u r t s w i l l l e g i t i m a t e t h e I n d i a n s ' v e r s i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i s g u i l t y o f ' v u l g a r o p t i m i s m ' . A l l o f t h e l a w s e v e r p a s s e d b y P a r l i a m e n t w e r e d e s i g n e d t o 175 s e r v e C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s , n o t I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s . T h i s a c c u m u l a t e d l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s e r v e s a s a n e d i f i c e o f j u d i c i a l b i a s c o n t r a r y t o I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s , a n d s t a n d s a s a b a s t i o n t o p r o t e c t C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s , n o t I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s . W h e n a l l t h e l a w s a r e s e t u p t o a d v a n c e C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s , t h e n t h e d e c i s i o n s of j u d g e s , w h o u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y f o l l o w t h e s e l a w s , w i l l b e b i a s e d a g a i n s t I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s w h e n e v e r t h e s e c o m e into c o n f l i c t w i t h C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t s , e v e n w h e n j u d g e s a r e n o t r a c i a l l y p r e j u d i c e d . . . . T h e p r o s p e c t s a r e b e t t e r f o r f i n d i n g t h e H o l y G r a i l i n o n e ' s l u n c h p a i l t h a n t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w i l l o b t a i n . . . a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n f r o m t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t of C a n a d a [ d i s c r e d i t i n g l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d p r e c e d e n t s a n d l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e I n d i a n v e r s i o n of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s ] . " 3 4 0 B o l d t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o n l y w a y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w i l l b e a b l e t o s u r v i v e a s A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i s if t h e r e i s a " p a r a d i g m a t i c shift i n C a n a d i a n p o l i c y m a k i n g f r o m t h e i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e ' n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ' t o a c o e q u a l e m p h a s i s o n I n d i a n i n t e r e s t s . " 3 4 1 H e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t t h i s c a n o n l y h a p p e n if m o r e t h a n a c e n t u r y of p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e c e d e n t s a r e s e t a s i d e , a s w e l l a s t h e g r e e d o f l a r g e r s o c i e t y . G i v e n t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e t a s k , it s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s w i l l e v e r o c c u r o r , i n d e e d , t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s a n d c o u r t s w i l l a c t u a l l y w a n t it t o o c c u r . H o w e v e r , w h a t m u s t b e a c k n o w l e d g e d i s t h a t t h e c o u r t s d o a p p e a r t o b e a t t e m p t i n g t o m a n a g e c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g f r o m a s e n s e o f i n j u s t i c e . A s a r e s u l t , w e s e e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n Van der Peet a n d Gladstone t a l k i n g a b o u t a n a t i o n a l g o a l of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , w h i c h r e q u i r e s s o m e r e c o g n i t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e r e h a s b e e n s o m e w h a t o f a p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t , a l t h o u g h o n e o f a m o r e p r a g m a t i c , p o l i t i c a l a n d l i m i t e d c h a r a c t e r t h a n B o l d t d i s c u s s e s . Tbid at p. 31 [Ibid,atp. 116 176 Is t h e r e a n y p r o s p e c t f o r a b r o a d e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s ? It s e e m s t h a t t h e o n l y w a y A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s ' r i g h t s i n t h e f i s h e r i e s w i l l e v e r b e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d a n d r e s p e c t e d i s if t h e y c a n s o m e h o w b e a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t . T h a t r e q u i r e m e n t w i l l , o f n e c e s s i t y , f o r c e t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s t o c o m p r o m i s e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a n d g o a l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . E f f e c t i v e l y , t h e y w i l l h a v e t o p r e s e n t a n d d e f i n e t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s i n a m a n n e r w h i c h m i n i m i z e s t h e e f f e c t of t h o s e a s p i r a t i o n s o n t h e b r o a d e r c o m m u n i t y . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t a p p e a r s t o h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o r e i n t e r p r e t f i s h i n g r i g h t s i n t h a t w a y i n its d e c i s i o n s i n Van der Peet a n d N.T.C. Smokehouse. A s c o u l d b e p r e d i c t e d , t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o f a p r i o r i t y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o n o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o n t e x t w a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e C o u r t a s b e i n g t o o g r e a t . It i s l i k e l y t h a t it w i l l a l w a y s b e p e r c e i v e d i n t h a t m a n n e r , b o t h b y t h e c o u r t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t . E x a c t l y h o w F i r s t N a t i o n s c a n p r e s e n t t h e i r r i g h t s i n a w a y w h i c h i s n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g , o r at l e a s t m i n i m a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g , t o o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i s o b v i o u s l y t h e c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n . A r g u a b l y , a n y d e f i n i t i o n of s u c h r i g h t s w i l l t h r e a t e n n o n - A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s a t l e a s t t o s o m e e x t e n t . H o w e v e r , a s w e s a w f r o m t h e e x a m p l e s i n C h a p t e r F o u r o f f i s h e r i e s m a n a g e m e n t s c h e m e s i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , t h e r e a r e p o t e n t i a l w a y s t o a c c o m m o d a t e A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e e x i s t i n g f r a m e w o r k . T h a t t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m s a c h i e v e o n l y a n a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f A b o r i g i n a l i n t e r e s t s , w i t h t h e b a s i c r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i e t y r e m a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y i n t a c t , i s a f a c t w h i c h m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d . T o s o m e e x t e n t t h i s i s n o d o u b t a r e f l e c t i o n