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The beginnings of foster care in British Columbia : 1900-1930 O’Donnell, Dorothy-Jean 1996

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THE BEGINNINGS OF FOSTER CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1900-1930 by Dorothy-Jean  O'Donnell  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 LL.B., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f H i s t o r y He accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1996 © Dorothy-Jean O'Donnell, 1996  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  University  of  available for reference  copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis by  of this  for  his thesis  or  partial  fulfilment  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  and study.  scholarly purposes her  Department of  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  requirements that the  agree  may  be  It  is  representatives.  for financial  permission.  The University of British Vancouver, Canada  I further  the  gain shall  not  that  an  advanced  Library shall  make it  permission for extensive  granted  by the  understood be  for  allowed  that  head  of  my  copying  or  without my written  ABSTRACT A l t h o u g h much has since  Phillipe  foster  care  Themes guite  often  discuss  kin  in  the  in  articles  century.  and neighbours shortages,  adopted  in  in  direct.  are  influence,  B.C. established  1927  the  supervised government  foster and  Although as  1901,  societies  reports  the  and  of  ignored.  issue  did  until  CASs  turn  to  use  1900-1930  of  respectively  about of  the  social  orphans the  foster  homes  meet  study. policies  were  security  under  for  women and  recommendations  for  care  in  most  1920  "approved placement  could  the  CASs,  Children  show  overcrowding foster  period  of  subsidized  by  workers.  temporary  of  to  B.C.  women's p e n s i o n s  mandated  such  role  from O n t a r i o b e i n g  economic  of  appear  c h i l d r e n and orphans  articles,  influences  summaries  until  foster  is,  Neglected Not  the  of  attention.  however,  Brazil  that  envisaged  (CAS)  and  W e l f a r e made  by  study  works.  Child  legislation  and d i s c h a r g e  Superintendent largely  supervised the  in  some l e v e l  care,  history  framework and s o c i a l w e l f a r e  with  of  the  less  background to  establishment  B . C . Survey  family  (1962),  c h i l d r e n do,  and the  as  of  received  Iceland  care,  discussed  Columbia  and c h i l d r e n w i t h the  aid  has  from these  foster  field  Childhood  foster  from  Themes  British  Anglo-American  early  the  and d r a m a t i c  The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l - l e g a l  in  of  forms  and  literature  in  h i s t o r i c a l material r e l a t i n g to 19th  labour  various  orphans  academic  written  Centuries  its  concerning  Two  in  Aires'  been  care  be  foster with  found,  and the that  this  an  option.  as  children's the  records  and m e d i c a l as  homes"  annual of  option  crises  the was  forced  TABLE  OF C O N T E N T S  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents List  of  • • . .  i i i  Tables  iv  Acknowledgement  v  Chapter  1  1  Introduction  .. .  1  A L i t e r a r y Overview Comparative  Research  4. from  Iceland  Constitutional-Legal  Background  Mothers'  Professional  British  Pensions  Columbia's  The  1927  B.C.  or  Experience  B.C. Child  Superintendent  with  Welfare of  and  Analysis,  Casework  Foster  12 17  C a r e 1900-1930  Study  Neglected  1922-1930  7 .  21 21  Children  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s (Vancouver, Vancouver C a t h o l i c ) 1901-1930 Data  Brazil  1919-1930...  Victoria  23  and 29 35  Conclusion  38  Notes  41  Bibliography  49  Appendix  54  -iii  LIST  Table  Table  Table  Table  1  2  OF T A B L E S  Discharge Sumaries Vancouver R e p o r t e d M o n t h l y 1922-1929  Children's  54  Discharge Sumaries Vancouver C a t h o l i c S o c i e t y R e p o r t e d M o n t h l y 1922-1929  3a D i s c h a r g e Summaries V a n c o u v e r C u m u l a t i v e by Y e a r 1922-1929  Children's Aid 57  Children's  3a D i s c h a r g e Summaries V a n c o u v e r C a t h o l i c S o c i e t y C u m u l a t i v e by Y e a r 1922-1929  iv-  A i d Society  A i d Society 58  Children's Aid ,.  58  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to t h a n k my m o t h e r , A n n a - M a r i e O ' D o n n e l l , a n d my f o s t e r b r o t h e r , M a r c e l M a y e r , w h o s e l i v e s i n s p i r e d me t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s p r o j e c t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e m e m b e r s o f my g r a d u a t e seminar i n Canadian History at U . B . C . a n d my i n s t r u c t o r Dianne N e w e l l , w h o s e p a t i e n t s u g g e s t i o n s k e p t me o n t r a c k . A n d f i n a l l y , I e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e t o my l i f e - p a r t n e r C a r d y C h a p m a n , w h o s e w a r m t h , s u p p o r t a n d w i s d o m h e l p e d me b r i n g t h i s p r o j e c t t o completion.  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION In  recent  family as  a  years  history subset  developed how  studies  have  studies  and  been  dealing  with  a  not  —• h a v e  since  of  childhood.  Joy  Parr ,  foundation  for  concerns.  and s t u d i e s  7  organizational  dynamics  a  in  about  feminist  devising  Aires  and  published  family  history,  for  more in  and the  of  bureaucracy,  in Centuries  women's  and  4  of  good  instance,  Sutherland ,  gender  many  2  Scholarship  of  further  with  Family Life ,  number  6  in  1  Canada  Neil  3  been  sociology  Phillipe  of  In  and  women  H i s t o r y of field  has  combined  of  intrest  internationally,  interest  strategies.  the  c h i l d welfare issues,  This  years  in  academic  Canada and  contribution  done  provided  policy  the  do  survival  of  in  and  from psychology  Childhood: A Social  those  5  and  the  studies  Bradbury  social  and  thirty-four  of  both  derived  economic  the  popular  history.  —  about  implementing  as  social  work  perspectives  works  developed,  insights  families  Centuries  considerable  has  of  as  In  a  Bettina  recent the  works  fields  welfare have  9  such  of  state  also  8  made  contributions.  that the This  The  perspective  Aires developed  one  consequence  of  family,  the  thesis  has  Harevan's the  exclusion been  that  Time  that  labour  public refined  and  families  impact of m i g r a t i o n to from  of  further  Industrial  assumption  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was  and  kin  the  elements  Time. groups  is  the  importance  1  in  the such  Harevan  1 0  break  urban i n d u s t r i a l centres.  study  C h i l d h o o d was  privatization  from  and t e s t e d  Family  of  of  down  household. studies  as  challenges under  An i n s i g h t kinship  of  the  flowing  ties  and  extended  family  played  England working-class show t h a t in  a  a  large  New  in  the  community.  number o f  England  textile  their  family  links  each  other  over  including written  considerable working  on care  foster  care  is  the  largely  modern  various  settings  orphans  are  experience writing.  is  of  foster  guite  often  of  of  and  care  of  in  in  less  literary  the mainstream of  has  and  who  been  and  the  lived  in  especially  in  firmly  in  Western  foster  work  families,  families  orphans  Although  to  to  1 1  studying  s y s t e m was  situation  able  origin,  time.  children  theme  featured  of  informal,  New  generations,  much  A popular  care.  clearly outside  paper  I will  British  Columbia  B.C.  in  this  1931  it  had grown t o  p o l i c y was  in  the  p e r i o d was  a n d b r e a k down o f greatly  However,  features  the  stable  set  literary  and c h i l d r e n  in  children  and/or  works,  ' their  Canadian  historical  1 2  In t h i s  U.S.  is  done  Canada,  formal  foster  unrecorded.  and d r a m a t i c t r a d i t i o n s  been in  place  period  experience  both  a  migrated  including surrogate  The  arrangements,  of  several  their  extended has  who  over  with  families  experience.  period before  place,  an  "broken" f a m i l i e s ,  foster  the  ties  work  class  families,  factory  both  While  dynamics  I n p a r t i c u l a r , H a r e v a n was  Quebec  maintained with  family  look period  extended  1 3  to  .  beginnings  1900-1930.  This  its  it.  I  2  care  in  The p o p u l a t i o n  base  in  but  by  rapid  g r o w t h meant  own see  foster  in  1901,  The c l i m a t e  by t r e n d s  had  of  small  families.  influenced  particular  the  relatively  694,263  B.C. also  at  178,657,  of  in Ontario, history  the  in  period  dislocation  social Britain  this  welfare and  regard  1900-1930  the with  as  a  transitional  phase  Columbia  -  transition  informal  arrangements,  welfare  a  state  that  stage of  the  or  social  welfare  state"  proclamation of 9]  and  the  the  Social  Work  a  In  this  dealing  with  articles, children studies  and  excellent  fostering  foster  a 1  care  modern  have  "proto" In  4  1927  took  in  and  two  in  sense, as  a  at  [S.B.C.  1901  overview  of  the  ch. and  mark  the  Welfare a  in  (CASs),  changes  of  the  government's  which  founding  in  "proto-  mainly  societies  Child  as  to  the  Survey  Department  1 5  ,  of  1930. a  brief  and  a  orphans, and  19th  different of first,  children is  the  -  an  intervention  place  including  B.C.  social  stage  that  State  changes  work,  and  identified  identified  aid  British  beyond.  care.  of  the  Iceland  orphans  the  on  care  from  In  as  c o u l d be  foster  social  after  examples  approaches.  the  scholars  children's  Survey],  paper,  reflect  of  and  development  in  community-based  B . C . Child Protection Act  of  U.B.C.  one  periods,  cluster  1927  at  1930's  foster  of  following the  the  period of  1901  professionalization  [hereafter  beginnings  care  The p e r i o d opens w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l  with  legislation  in  foster  traditional  1900-1930,  formation  concludes  the  supervising  level.  the  of  "proto-nationalist" .  I am l o o k i n g a t ,  provincial  to  historical  period  and  from  historical  "proto-industrial"  organizing  development  emerged  In d i s c u s s i n g earliest  in  the the  one  century  I  will  from  discuss  Brazil,  context.  scholarly  demonstrated.  3  of  In t h e  second,  foster  two and  and and  recent  about  traditions  kinfolk  works  two  These  legal/juridical role  literary  recent provide  demographic neighbours  the  way i n  in  which  orphans  were  consider  the  used  to  insights  meet  labour  material  concerning  the  years  the  After of  of  method  foster  twentieth  discussing  their  the  and  two  security  articles  their  welfare  and  Children,  and the  examine  for  records  of  i n the  British  from the  consider  professional  materials  in  conclusions,  the  Children's Aid Societies  Orphanage  care  shown.  I  will  context  of  Columbia  in  century.  constitutional-legal-background, economic  is  d e r i v e d from these a r t i c l e s  available early  shortages  I  the  of  will  view  offer  tension  casework  both some  between  approach to  Superintendent  and the  concerning  point  of  the  social  Neglected  Alexander Non-Sectarian  foster  care  in  the  study  period. I will by the it  argue that  1927  Survey,  drastically  promoted  by  rather  changed  the  professional  1927  and  A Literary  Overview  the  Bible  children Child  1 8  derived A are  who  is  lost  one  of  from the popular  orphans  and  and  U.S.  theme  was  the  children  foster  have  The  foster  care, social  plaintiff  of  the  introduced surrounding new  aspect  care";  the  subsidized  by  workers.  commentaries  The  evocative  cry  on  the  fate  of  of  Motherless  traditional  spirituals  experience.  Western in  care.  "supervised  to  parents.  slave in  1 7  a new c o n c e p t  foster  by p r o f e s s i o n a l  Koran  most  not  and developments  of  approach  their the  survey  form  Survey,  supervised  1 6  c a r e was  the  the  casework  government  Both  foster  literary  various  4  and  settings  dramatic of  foster  traditions care,  from  Charles  Dickens'  most  famous  Lucy  Maude  closing  novels,  of  the  by  her  the  set  CBC's  of  build  after  loss  Road  an  from  her  foster  h a d no  Orphan  Annie.  Green  Gables,  Prince to  of  Edward  Avonlea,  the  in  that  gave  care  of  official  the  care  during  her  earliest  to  died  time  the  the  is  described  of  an  like  Little  and Superman, t a k e n  exemplify  U.S.  popular  Recent  musicals  Saigon,  premise  of  emotional these  have  Walt effect  examples  children sense of  is  that  theme.  loss,  approached  Disney's on t h e  the  her  the  sent  away  Although  m o t h e r who father  and  Diaries aid  profile  the  raised  depicted.  Stone  the The  falls  societies  of  which  The  the  culture such  same  has  as  theme  Hunchback of  that  lends  impetus  to  experience  itself overcome  5  to  taken  i n by the  Les more  Notre  childhood background of  illustrate  one  traces  S h e was  Orphan A n n i e ,  arms m e r c h a n t W a r b u c k s ,  foster/orphan  Governor  forms  of  period.  characters  ways  series  1993  children's  overall  199 6  The  vividly in  that  Shields,  with  The  by  citizens  foster  links  created  good  childbirth.  protagonist  part  on  the  the  years.  in  recordkeeping of  forms the  to  parental  arrangement  experience  Cartoon  Miss  of  1912.  One o f  Island.  based  efforts  orphanage  mother  real  foster  that  Little  in  a depiction  protagonist  child  of  outside but  and  the  to  C a n a d a ' s Anne o f  s e n t money f r o m t i m e  the  kind  Twist  award w i n n i n g Stone D i a r i e s , by C a r o l  father,  father  sense  of  community t o  of  her,  is  Montgomery  includes  General's life  orphans,  season  of  Oliver  of  in  Kent  the  Miserables  and  seriously.  The  Dame  orphans  adversity,  the  family,  treated  relies  Quasimodo.  dramatic  by  and  A l l of foster  expression. and the  for  claim  The for  sympathy  all  contribute  Margaret in  Laurence's  Western Canada  of  cultural  experience the  and  -  are  similar  of  two  to  of  those  noting.  coeur,  a  abuse  1950's.  For  real  her,  describes  her her  clearly  outlines  create  ongoing  chilling assume  author  loss.  she  as  sur  la  at  problems into  for just  neiqe  set  themes  childhood  The m y s t e r y  concerning  in  death  Morag's of  and  the  daughter,  the  of  a  Elisa  tensions  child  in T.'s  are  noeud the  in  dans  le  horrendous  Quebec  and  also  in  the  placement  of  foster  care,  was  a  second  book,  which  her m a r r i a g e and  difficulties  very  insight.  significant  childhood  remove  abuse,  Both  necessary  to  Un  sixteen  generations. how  and  siblings  provides  from Canada,  describes  as  abuse.  responsibility  treats  father's  both  age  younger  scars  1995,  evocative  T. ,  a young a d u l t ,  how t h e  The D i v i n e r s ,  through  heritage  experienced  her  compelling.  children.  Elisa  children,  insight the  foster  from systemic  own  of  in  forged  which are  apprehension  life  raising  a CBC m o v i e  Tonnerre's  fleurs  and e v e n t u a l l y  liberation  novel,  and N a t i v e  by  Pes  that  Canadian  literary writers,  Quebecoise  chronic  herself  In  theme  theme  subplots  faced  the  identity  Skinner  the  Two n o n - f i c t i o n worth  into  the  Scottish of  makes  classic  personal  including  intertwining  what  a n d made  circumstances  Pigue,  to  it  if  books is  for  children  It  not  healed,  also  provide  society  from  to  such  a  circumstance. Denise fiction  Chong's  h i s t o r y of  descriptions  of  the abuse  popular  The  author's  mother's  and  Concubine's  neglect,  6  Children,  f a m i l y of  concerns  origin,  which  a  non-  includes  would  have  justified  a  determination  protection" (e.g.  p.  83,  short-term family  according, p.  95,  and  without  supervision,  at  pp.  We  hardly  to  p.  any  century.  In  false  persona  extensive of  an  research.  Two southern  parents  made  and w i t h o u t  to  uncover kept  the  by  any  the state  also  that  Greer  in  the  the  the  about  her  emerges  that  years  he  created  past,  an  is  early  uncovered  provides  system  in  It  narrative It  truth  a mystery.  obliterate  which  The book  instructive.  in Australia  to  himself  Research  studies  interesting challenging  from  of  Iceland,  northeastern  foster  describes  only  interesting early  of a  after account  years  of  this  1 9  Comparative  the  or  from  conclusions  Especially  19th  1993  of a  Campina  2 0  on  other  studying  Canadian  7  on  care  set  in  orphans,  set  in  Brazil,  provide  perspective attitudes  and  towards  provinces.  study,  combines  foster  Grande,  methodological  anyone in  one  and the  Icelandic  Dogs'"  Brazil  century,  for  and orphans  the  and  Arnessysla,  insights  children  Iceland  municipality  Gunnlaugsson's Me,  search  attempt  for  of  standards  also  arrangements  similarly  Australian child protection  century.  the  author's  is  b a c k g r o u n d , which had been  this  judicial  The book  agency,  need  Germaine G r e e r ' s n o n - f i c t i o n  You! ,  foster  "in  141)  father's  by  was  current 109)  state  of  raised  child  care  account  h e was  the  Knew  p.  foster  The A u s t r a l i a n f e m i n i s t Daddy  to  105-106,  recourse 117,  the  least,  long-term  (p.  that  " ' E v e r y o n e ' s Been Good  demographic  and  to  anecdotal  material  to  construct  arrangements between  and to  the  belonged"  2 1  with  parish  comparative The  author  written David  to date I.  the  foster  placement  Southern study  Iceland,  of  seven  Gunnlaugsson child  in The  a  high  1845  and  immediate intimate  in  were  in  50  almost  some  fifth  beyond  that  foster  56%  and  in  1870,  fostered  neighbourhood than  of  we  by  the  might  the  1816.  in  or  2 3  household not  related  incidents  In  one  foster-  2 4  to  reconstruct  they The  became  families 2 5  .  the  foster  results  show  illegitimate,  majority  natal-parents"  of  living  These  fosterin  were  expect.  F o s t e r i n g i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o u t h e r n I c e l a n d does not seem to have been as closely linked with child a b a n d o n m e n t i n t h e s e n s e i t h a s i n many o t h e r E u r o p e a n countries, where p a r e n t s v o l u n t a r i l y or involuntarily 8  of  Arnessysla,  included a  point.  by  citing  1870" .  until  "the  been  children in  c h i l d r e n were  that  kin  of  all  material  from b i r t h  has  nineteenth-century  of  did  census  children,  that in  18.3%  they  combined  literature  studies  found  ties  countries.  and f o s t e r  to  proportion of  either  settings  to  available  cases  registers,  fourth household  every  children  on  c h i l d r e n who a r e  .1801  "every  analyses.the  both  children  parishes  relies  common  r a n g i n g f r o m 2.5%  study  of  to  relatively  while  and  in  were  study  "typical  care  "kinship which  European  Gunnlaugsson  1845,  children,  36%  .  2 2  concludes,  life-histories  that  head"  were  foster  to  historical  given  of  families  catechetical  in is  there  this  c h i l d abandonment  no a t t e n t i o n  household  and  little  that  frequency  the  from other  that  Kertzer,  composition, to  material  about  and  demographic,  records  notes  of•the how o f t e n  children  Primarily  statistics,  picture  investigate  foster  .  a  the more  left He  their  suggests  legitimate (2)  that  difficulties  his  of  of  provides  Columbia  such in  differences  was  questions the  person food  the  who  same  i n the a  of a  alone,  or  review  asked of  in  offspring"  of  and  provided  they  original  census  resided  him t o  children  conclude  of  slightly  foster  in  any  of  number  servants had  no  of  e.g.  home  only  9  was  one  2 8  to  ,  why.  British of  the  for B.C.  shows  B u t one  that  of  2 9  reveals  of  the  census  it  "one their  parents,  Examination that  a  having  several  one  of  families  defined  roof  with  constitute  themselves  and  data  number  family  elsewhere".  historic  an i n d i r e c t measure  the  under  study  because  Canada  was  kin."  care,  children.  b o a r d i n g house  would  documents  people  dominant  the  available of  living  Iceland  to  period  of  was A  the  applied directly  foster  habitation.  or  2 7  Icelandic  foster  Census  children,  grandparents  that  the  later  1891  In  persons  approach  and q u a n t i t y the  child.  one  southern  in  and He  impoverished  provocative  be  a parent,  of  with  of  .  non-related  employed  provided for  provided together,  children  account  Canadians, which provides  house or  number o f  a detailed  participated  quality  no c a t e g o r y  presence  residing  large  an approach c o u l d not  example,  there  of  leads  and  placements  premature death  with  method  2 6  foster  nineteenth-century  interesting of  for  resided  r e a r i n g the  reconstruction However,  in  homes.  reasons  the  with  This  demographic an  "(1)  20%  care  relatives  The  main  foster-children  Another  foster  foundling  providing for  close vicinity.  "close  For  two  scenario  60%  uncles/aunts.  form  in  each  sample,  the  the  in  c h i l d r e n were:  illustrates  in  children  family of  should  the be  possible not  to  determine  related  (Son)  and  related. that  to D  the  the  number a n d i d e n t i t y  head  of  (Daughter)  were  The p r o b l e m w i t h  no  information  household,  other  of  because  utilized  for  such  indirect  than  the  c h i l d r e n who the  designation  children  who  measuring, . of  name  and  age  were  of  S  were  so  course,  is  the  child  is  provided. Whether applied  or  not  directly  to  British  Columbia,  insights  into  More  formal made  of  Grande,  to  the  state  study  study  in  care  the  for  can  be  care  in  important  arrangements.  the  reality  that  establishment  fostering  provide  foster  provides  highlights  informal to  of  such f o s t e r  involvement  system,  investigation  beginnings  influence  that,  the  Brazilian  Free Labour  climate  by  and  attempt  to  labour  Meznar historical  examines  Brazilian  the  perspective,  guardianship law of  of  discover  invoking guardianship  study,  the  of  arrangements care  "Orphans and  in Northeast  Joan  and an e x a m i n a t i o n  author's  of  to  1850-1888"  economic  for  care  the  of  of  a  were  children  in  need.  Slave  period,  that  than  method  Gunnlaugsson  k i n and neighbours  Turning from  the  direct  foster  by  times  any  comparable  researching  factors  generally  preceding  a  Meznar crisis  3 0  Brazil:  ,  we  in  a  extent  of  immediate  the  Campina  profile  n o t a r i a l and j u d i c i a l the  Transition  The Case o f  find  the  the  of  the  post-slavery  records  economic  in  the  motivation  arrangements. economic  through the  appointments.  role  of  records of  Certain  the  unique  guardianship are discussed,  10  orphans  from  judicial features  a  legalprocess of  in particular that  the the  prospective  guardian  stipend  for  he/she  reached  guardian  each  had  arrangement actively and in  the the  of  her  the  single  of  it  was  a p a r t of  natural  mothers arose  of  or  one  of  an  its  would  developed  increase.  to  their  The  lack  of  when the the  state  children,  important to  the  role next.  to  the  poor orphans  prospective the  integrity  vulnerability  an  as  When l a b o u r was  against  3 2  of  between  accusations  the  application  labour shortage.  wars" this,  that  generation  in  child  guaranteeing  rights  played  yearly-  children,  explains  system  or  the  female  property  from  soldada  provided to  soldada  limited  from  In M e z n a r ' s  a  u t i l i z e d with respect  "bidding  and as  a  the  property not  be  Meznar  3 1  tutoria,  was  post  case  posting  protect or  to  to  the  during periods  supply,  protector.  In  of  to  classes;  mothers  funds  marriage.  system  especially  short  the  option  transmission  guardians, of  the  the  required  maturity.  guardianship,  propertied  in  child,  intervened  However,  well,  was  honourable  of  male  words:  T h e l a w s t i p u l a t e d t h a t o n l y w i d o w s who l i v e d honestly s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f raising c h i l d r e n without a f a t h e r . Thus, accusations against the moral rectitude of single mothers might free their children to work for others. As the cotton boom accelerated after 1861, so too d i d such accusations against poor mothers. 3 3  She  further  from slave  argues  slavery  to  labour,  especially  free and  during  The B r a z i l i a n p e r i o d of  that  tutorias  labour. were  the  labour shortage  used  The t u t o r e s  utilized  labour  study  were  ease  of  demonstrates in Northeast  the  transition  b o r e many s i m i l a r i t i e s  extensively  crisis  11  to  in  1865-70.  Campina  Grande  3 4  convincingly that Brazil,  to  during  orphans were  used  the to  meet  that  shortage  instrument stands the  for  in  and  the  making  those  marked- c o n t r a s t  state  system  a c t u a l l y pays  of  guardianship  arrangements.  to  the  modern  a stipend to  the  The  the  system  foster foster  was  care  of  legal soldada  system  parents  where  to  care  for  turn  of  the  children.  Constitutional-Legal The century  Background  circumstances were  quite  of  c h i l d r e n whose informal  described, Chong's  For human  in  Columbia.  But laws  census,  twenty  conquered not  in nor  novel  the  3 5  the  after  At  authorities  Stone of  what  imposed. B.C.  just no  southern the  Iceland  problem of  so.  Besides  or  or  caring  the  type  Gunnlaugsson  Diaries,  state  have is  in  and  Denise  intervention  over  now  at  By  one  were  lived  the  a  were  time  third Native  of  the  12  of the  people anyone.  levels  from  and making d e c i s i o n s  with  of  province  j u r i s d i c t i o n to various  in  known as  century  became  time  over Native peoples  Federal  do  nineteenth  surrender  governments  to  the  was  period.  t e r r i t o r y of  represented B.C.  face  human b e i n g s  institutions  years  of  at  r e c o r d e d by  system  years,  until  d i d they  prevent  jurisdiction them.  and  peoples  population  on t h e  had to unable  the  formal  of  not  values,  in  B.C. during  thousands  societies  Native  a  were  that  arrangements  example,  account,  crystallized  care  Columbia  from  But B . C . too  parents  foster for  British  different  Northeastern B r a z i l . for  of  collaboration  organized British European the  Canada, recorded in  B.C.  That  did  assuming  f o r and of  1891  about  religious  orders  established  which  by  design  assimilation  education, reserved  the  municipalities  was  provinces' peoples  Force  and  the  of  Union  to  and  areas  in B.C.  achieve  the  full  and  Within  provincial  to  law  concerned  "Indians  and lands  government, social  1867  British  as  health,  such  rights,  be  providing  of  was  formed.  Columbia  3 6  In  notes  B . C . was came  appointed. The  has  a  in  B.C.  1986  this  law  much  Wardship of  discusses  Court  federal  system  unit  Liveries.  Canada  Schools  enforcement  jurisdiction,  with  "the  relief  reserved to  a l t h o u g h by the welfare  were  Indians"  1950's,  services  of  to  the  Native  established.  Begbie  tradition.  "education"  modified,  civil  delegated  in  judicial  was  British  the  role  territorial Justice  to  was  The  it  J u r i s d i c t i o n over  reserved  Terms  provinces.  were  Residential  genocide.  1871  and  Indian  beyond  which  property to  poverty".  the  Act  of  far  cultural  to  America  system  went  and  According North  a  established  into In  being  that  affecting older  roots  children  dated  decision,  background.  Re  same  and  in the  year  the  guardianship in  the  back Eve,  Justice  3 7  to  1857  of  the  Chief  B.C.  Police  common  Court  Supreme  La Forest,  of  Court  speaking  Wardship of c h i l d r e n had a q u i t e s e p a r a t e o r i g i n as a property right arising out of the feudal system of tenures. The original purpose of the wardship j u r i s d i c t i o n was t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e g u a r d i a n r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e w a r d . . . . When t e n u r e s a n d t h e C o u r t o f Wards were a b o l i s h e d , t h e c o n c e p t o f w a r d s h i p s h o u l d , i n t h e o r y , h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d . I t was k e p t a l i v e , h o w e v e r , b y t h e C o u r t o f C h a n c e r y , w h i c h j u s t i f i e d i t as an a s p e c t o f i t s parens p a t r i a e j u r i s d i c t i o n . "  13  in law  Wards  that:  3 8  the  first  children  British the  when  of for  The  parens  patriae  takes precedence sees  itself  as  o v e r any s p e c i f i c  the  protector  circumstances,  act  question  —  arises  authorize  or  Brazilian  guardianship  protection was  are  state  to  their  and  system)  become  sanction  children  a c h i l d to  Court  for  of  (CASs) w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d  but  that  guardianship  Justice  to  Meznar.  One i s  state  the  the  about --  left  to  there  institutions  social  that  there  The  statutory  out  in  1880  Brazilian  the  a  The  were  never  responsibility  Municipalities Act  was  established  Child  of  and to  Protection  would  (like  welfare  the  state  requiring  suggest  that  it  children's One c a n n o t of  the  are  in  the  as  aid help  earlier  guardian  sounds  described  protected  for  the  the  [S.B.C. Sick  provide  Act  British  i n B . C . were based  when  by the  14  "relief 1871  Fund"  to  care  of  the  ch.  35]  directly  relief  [S.B.C.  on  Columbia, assumptions  E l i z a b e t h a n P o o r Law ( 1 6 0 1 )  a public responsibility  Poor  I  system  rights  Court  children  transition.  poorhouses  d a t i n g back to  existed  social  concept,  child.  established  welfare  "Destitute,  M.L.A.'s  a  the  charitable  guardianship  troubling  another,  state".  rights  appropriate  from the  description  wonder whose  guardian of  Although British  Forest's  in  and  The C o u r t  One  that  that  of  s y s t e m as p r o t e c t i n g t h e  similar  is  La  occur  modern  this  enactment.  ward of  the  creation  societies note  the  the  underlies  and w i l l ,  earlier,  be  to  "wards  Court  interests.  determines  the  the  transition  century  the  of  legislative  protect  19th  sanction  which  of  how d i d t h e  in  in  the  to  developed  model  jurisdiction  outside  1901,  ch.  9]  for the poor"  of  1871  poor.  was and  administered  set in by  municipalities. was  adopted  in  1901  and  formed  children's  that  same  establishment which  under  neglected of  local  the  Act  The  Child  would  such  3(a))  legislation that  assume  and t o  see  was  the  providing suitable The B r i t i s h  for  duty foster  relied  heavily  Australia's  [S.B.C.  Prison  including  support,  Reform  ch.  107]  protection  1920  the  of  amended t o  provide  of  the  and  legislation  leases,  children Aid  etc.  Societies In  1918,  a Superintendent  first  Superintendent  His  duties  were,  reports  the  Attorney  amongst  General.  15  In  (Sec  3(b)).  of of  5)  It,  3 9  of  1872,  the  1891  Infants  Act  minors,  minors,  infant  children's  offenders.  the  on  turn,  of  r e l a t i n g to  were  7(1))  in  Act  the  of  and  diligence  (Sec.  illegitimate  and y o u t h f u l  4 1  foster  was b a s e d  findings 1911,  The  visit  (Sec.  1901  decade.  the  transfer  special  Protection  In  4 0  to  children".  previous  Child  abandoned,  legal  homes"  "use  such  societies,  records  apprenticeship  Municipalities. for  the  1889  and  appointed. to  in  consolidated  Children's  of  year,  to  the  societies.  Police  foster  CASs  Commission.  settlements,  Inspector  next  Act  guardianship  contracts,  to  on  Protection  1911,  of  Columbia C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Act of adopted  aid for  aid  CASs k e p t  homes f o r  legislation  Ontario  the  the  Ontario  England's  children's  were  envisioned  provided for the  "approved of  Act  responsibility  It  that  and V i c t o r i a  children's  Superintendent  provided  it  Protection  c h i l d r e n to  the  Vancouver  called  and orphaned c h i l d r e n .  (Sec.  stated  The  in  charities,  Act provided for  homes  societies  year.  guardianship of  1901  in  of  aid  From  monitored Infant's  1911  by  the  Act  was  Neglected  Children.  The  Neglected  Children  was  other  things,  1920,  the  to  first  make  annual  Adoption  Act  [S.B.C.  1920,  practical was  matter  review,  three  all  Societies  the  Section  "and  68  stated  Prior  2  between  society to  1923  Infant's  the  be  "direct  to  foster  society.  the  Infants  ch.  128  existed early  that  care  A c t was  date  and  as  a  adoption  legislative  a  1920,  the  protector  of  Judge  of  to  an  child  24  s.  same  form,  it  was  were of  not  put  state  makes  it  In  to  in a  In  the  clear  to  late  1936 homes"  1920's  16  and  them. the  report  the  on  of  December  Province  resort:  One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s we h a d t o c o n t e n d w i t h t h a t many h a d t h e m i s t a k e n i d e a t h a t i t was t h e  of  children,  legislature the  be  children's  supervise  for  his  addition  [R.S.B.C.  first  that  to  consolidation  the  place  C h i l d r e n to the  Superintendent  home".  "approved f o s t e r  protection  child protector.  Neglected  1924  until  in  or  Superintendent  language.  for  home  a J u d g e may b y  children The  need  society  temporary foster  Act  in  aid  Superintendent"  2].  the  Infant's  children's  the  under  Vancouver  c h i l d was  approved  to  provision  appearance  last  a  their  may c o m m i t  repeats  mechanisms  reluctant  Superintendent  the  1923.ch.  in  was  in  a  the  1911  amended by a d d i n g t h a t  Although the  the  child  placed  of  a  57]  Despite state  that  The  period  Children's Aid  and  that  to  the  viz.  1901,  finding  child  such  area,  1905.  home a p p r o v e d b y t h e  (1924)  that  B.C. in  in  in  on  the  send  until  s.  1930's  Society  commit  [S.B.C. Act  in  Vancouver  a Judge  delivery  provision  aid  Aid  may  kept  placed in a foster the  established  and  that  shall  shelter,  a  proclaimed.  Vancouver or V i c t o r i a  Children's  such  order  were  Victoria  protection  23,  was  distinction  CASs  i n the  of  Catholic  to  37]  blurred. Only  of  ch.  . . . was duty of  was  t h i s D e p a r t m e n t t o f o l l o w up a l l c o m p l a i n t s a n d r e p o r t s o f a l l e g e d n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n a n d t o a p p r e h e n d same a n d b r i n g them b e f o r e t h e Judge f o r commitment, f o r t h e y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s was t h e d u t y o f t h e c i t i e s a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h a t our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d i d not b e g i n u n t i l a f t e r the c h i l d had been b e f o r e the C o u r t and had been p r o v e d t o be neglected. 4 3  From  the  inception  functionary, provincial  of  the  the  Superintendent's  deflecting  government  onto  of  was a c o n s t a n t  were  in  not  three  formed  such  period  societies,  under  Mothers' State  regulation  child  protection policy.  Canada  and  in  programmes modern  Times of  child  and the took  the  local  from  As  communities,  mentioned  legislation,  the  societies  above,  existed  only in  the  has  U.S.  Present  researching  the  introduced  in  4 4  care  of  the  to  broader  development  social  and  the  work.  Mimi  discusses in  the  .U.S.  the  This  situation. in  children  and  its  discussion Mothers'  1911. peaked  In  the  the  deal of  interplay of  social  of  Abramovitz's from  study  development to  the  instructive  for  pensions U.S.  year  the  Colonial  relationship is  in  security  development  the  with  both  income  background to  U.S.  to  context  interesting  children,  movement".  of  an  a  institutions  Women; S o c i a l W e l f a r e P o l i c y  Canadian the  of  within  been  and  policy  pension  institutional  place  Lives of  Casework  development  approach  welfare  "mothers'  of  away  Yet c h i l d r e n ' s a i d  communities.  Professional  women  the  the  or  the  casework  to  theme.  mandated by  There  for  Regulating  shoulders  government  review.  Pensions  welfare  local  as  responsibility  the  (municipalities)  role  as  before,  were a in  first whole, 1910,  when m o r e 1,000  of  17,999 about  than  the  children,  child population,  lived the  126,000  in  U.S.  representing  to  than  three  were p l a c e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n s .  rudimentary foster-care apply  more  arrangements.  per  Another  Her remarks  Canada:  (h)igh infant mortality rates, outbreaks of contagious diseases, the exploitation of child, labour, and the o v e r a l l p o o r c a r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n who s u r v i v e d d i s c r e d i t e d t h e o r i g i n a l c h i l d - s a v i n g m e t h o d s a s a way t o socialize c h i l d r e n and conserve them as an i m p o r t a n t national resource. 4 5  As  of  1900,  foster 1,000  care New of  because  of  She  majority  had  York  illness  along  a  widowed family  with  home. until the the  4 7  of  to  care  the  welfare  of  and  an  for  up  family  of  in  and  in  1913,  orphanages 2,716  to  for  school  the  the  move  home.  organize  the of  social  management  c h i l d r e n at  mother  living  institutions  due  were  and  nearly to  the  committed  4 6  emergence  possible  American  additional  facilitated  the  could  work  from  Both s o c i a l  and  f a m i l y and i n f l u e n c e  the  w o r k was  felt  in  and  casework  the  of  children  established  S o c i a l w o r k was  be  (notably  institutions  proper maintenance  social  profession,  techniques,  c h i l d - s a v i n g t h e o r y and s o c i a l  Ontario  founded at  in B.C. U.B.C.,  work t e c h n i q u e practice  of  at  from  social  in B.C.  Similarly, U.S.  ended  when a D e p a r t m e n t o f  influence U.S.  the  sophisticated  A l t h o u g h no  1930,  mothers;  in  parent  children  that  g r o u p w o r k made i t training  one  poverty.  pensions),  placinq-out  children  least  State  argues  mothers'  at  of  Abramovitz  patriarchal  mothers' argues  norms  and  pensions  that to  were  mothers'  distinguish 18  a  concept  pensions between  developed  in  were  used to  the  "deserving"  the  enforce and  "undeserving" to  race.  of  state  poor  and t h a t  The m o t h e r s '  the  pension  intervention  in  programme d i s c r i m i n a t e d  also  family  signalled  a change  according  i n the  nature  life.  Instead of d i s r u p t i n g family l i f e to assure the proper r e p r o d u c t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e and the maintenance of the non-working poor, the state stepped i n to protect some h u s b a n d l e s s women from the insecurities of the market. 4 8  Tracing U.S.  the  development  and Canada  on C h i l d r e n Security justly  in  in  i n the 1909,  Canada  famous,  removed  from  pensions  his  that  home  the  for an  "in  part  but  increased  understanding  dislocations" .  1911  5 1  .  introduced British before time. effort  5  primarily  It  mothers'  Similar  to  reasons  of  W h i t e House  in  a  that  a  child  to  ground i n  because of  of  to  true  the  late  and  not  problem  of  demand  for  war y e a r s  problems  of  attitudes  costs  be  Mothers'  4 9  the  the  changing  the  should  that  the  Social  "first  alone".  address  the  Conference  Conference's  response  pensions,  Manitoba  likely win  as  in  The Emergence o f  poverty  effort  measures, in  mothers'  provincial is  in  movement"  the  and  of  in  an  social  0  Columbia, a  the  House  declared  enormous  orphanages,  in  notes  White  early  gained  Columbia,  fist  Guest  pension  H i s t o r i a n D i a n e M a t t e r s comments  pensions  The  "mothers'  period following  Dennis  thus,  child poverty.  British  the  recommendation  were,  mothers'  of  women's  first  called  1916,  and  pensions  election  the  were  in  t i m i n g of votes.  the The  19  mothers' in  were  which  introduced i n the allowances  Ontario adopted  women  measure pension  in in  voted was  U.S.  19 2 0 .  1920 for  the  influenced  fund  was  were 5 2  In  shortly first by  the  initially  administered Children,  by  but  Compensation economy to  of  women  Board  took  professional  at  some  the  that  developed  Welfare for  was  the  asked of  by  the  Depression.  by  of The  to  the  the  was  half  of  that  the  back  on  the  of  Neglected  the  Workmen's  boom  and  economic  bust  security  "the  of  government  dictates  services  and  to  pensions,  and s u p p o r t e r s  work.  Guest  pension Council  on  Child  federally-supported  Act,  in  a  and f a m i l i e s child of  other  to  their  "grateful and  20  the  to  a time  in  and  and  residents.  their  when of  report  mothers'  sound  social  custody".  the  5 4  recommendations to  Guest  rationale  children  on  social  her  receiving  municipalities  a  The  report  Ontario  Whitton's  have  agency  and p r o v i s i o n f o r  guardianship  require  mothers  were  protection  accepted  (and  Welfare.  at  concluded  allowance,  in  financial pressure  prominent  C.C.C.W.,  of  1931,  of  discusses  concept,  B . C . S u r v e y on C h i l d  Whitton,  allowances was  Canadian  s t r a i n i n g under the  c h i l d r e n under  costs  social  mothers'  Pension  mothers  eligibility  to mothers,  same  D i r e c t o r of  of  of mothers'  B . C . P r o v i n c i a l Government to  Charlotte  numbers  the  1927  p r o v i n c i a l government  tighten  some  supporters  the  work would r e q u i r e c a n c e l l a t i o n care  volatile  provided  the  Mothers'  and E x e c u t i v e  when  on  pivotal  p r o v i n c i a l budget  pensions'  the  security  (C.C.C.W.),  the  large  In  5 3  operation,  approach to  attack  operation  that  of  pension  economic  the  worker  over.  casework  length  responsible  the  months  e x i s t e d between the  the  particular  Superintendent  children.  providing direct  C.C.C.W.  six  B . C . , mothers'  and  Family)  provincial  after  A tension of  the  pay  concludes  for  from  one  cutting such  an  impeccable  source"  opposition  of  a  widening  1931  its  the  of  a  f i e l d of  It  interesting  security  The  Studies  Child of  "beginnings" carried  note  it  5 8  ,  Vancouver  the  tactically  as  1927  Survey  in  to  income  "demonstrated  security  measures  implementation" .  workers  5 9  The  is  to  the  5 6  income  same  trend  1900-1930  three  approach  the but  1927  in  largely  various  The  take  1927 in  were:  exactitude,  B.C. Child  my  Survey,  on C h i l d W e l f a r e  "discursive  to  administrative care  Columbia  opposition  point,  Society,  financed a  profess  casework  The  Aid  agencies,  foster  of  in B.C. usually  endpoint.  professional  supervised  income  WITH F O S T E R CARE  the  casework".  for  to  5 7  beginning  professional  need  and s o c i a l  Canadian Council  it  of  outset,  this  Welfare  opposition  its  trend  the  marks  Adamoski d e s c r i b e s  British  impede t h e i r  the  U.S.  in  that  Survey  Children's  aid  from  and t o  EXPERIENCE  as  had,  suggests  and F a m i l y  work  relevance  charities for  Child  social  that  welfare  out by the  children's  to  to  Welfare  social  Survey  the  on  Guest  5 5  protection  of  child welfare  COLUMBIA'S  Welfare  the  ignore  by p r i v a t e  1927  security  The C o u n c i l  by Abramovitz  BRITISH  Council  tradition  to  to the  noted  Canadian  measures.  willingness  is  Charlotte Whitton.  social  continues  security  as  was  local  which  audiences  the  which  preventative and  the  study  with  service  instrument  elements  a  of  (C.C.C.W.)  cooperation by  study  for  other clubs.  functioned virtues  made  up  of this  casework,  advisability  the of  a  model. was  only  the  21  first  of  more  than  fifteen  surveys  done  by the  C.C.C.W.  "played a fundamental of  the  the  Canadian  1927  merely,  Survey nor  child  even  should  financed on  Province 1931.  is  restrictions  entirely  noteworthy  Although  the  Depression  coffers,  the  C.C.C.W.  cuts  to  as  the  the  put  a  pensions  structure  As  6 0  was  in  the  of  greater  wards or  basis.  year  were  strain  persuading  also  be  proponent  in  B . C . of  rose  in the  introduced.  on  government  government  supported.  the  The  that  that  c a s e w o r k a p p r o a c h was n e c e s s a r y ,  could  get  Vancouver,  same  above,  not  to  of  provincial  the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society  principal  rather  cost  to  been  maintenance  City  discussed  preface  has  but  capita  the  the  survey  report the  and  s t i l l  succeeded  organizational  the  per  1931  pensions  Adaraoski,  government,  diem,  that  a  that  1930,  a professional  mothers'  manoeuvers,  in  of  write  by  per  this  on m o t h e r s '  t r a n s i t i o n to  to  according to  network".  purpose  proposed  actual  accepted It  6 2  survey  an  shaping the  "the  primarily,  6 1  municipal  The  in  surveys,  care/control  states  results." be  role  whose  while  Through to  the  these  prominence  professional  casework  approach. While Child Act  Protection  (1911)  fully  children's  government  Vancouver the  societies  (1901)  and  and amendments),  organizations  In  Act  aid  lower  Home a n d t h e  financed,  operating  operated  the  a  in  Creche,  mainland,  subsequent children's  and the  there  or  had t h e i r  were child  statutory  legislation aid  only  some  welfare  Loyal  were  the  field. from  not  several  The  City  of  1912-1919.  Orange  and  P r o v i d e n c e O r p h a n a g e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  the  22  the  of  the  (Infant's  societies  " f o u n d l i n g home"  were  basis  True  6 3  Blue  Alexandra  Non-Sectarian  Orphanage and the  Salvation  and f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l ethnic of  basis.  If  c r i t i c i s m over  of  care  CAS  institutions An  two  changed  half  its  This  provides was  survey  wished  diversion,  as  to  The  the of  problem  in  to  to  of  many  Annual  the  foster  a  Family  care.  Work  scandal  of  of  the  the  itself,  the  Wall  of  It  the  own  of  to  C h i l d r e n ' s Home a n d  for  its  6 4  the  Home  management,  which  served  the  organizational  23  the  as  a  by  the  that  the  away  from  the  need  r e g u l a t o r y a n d b u d g e t a r y r e s t r u c t u r i n g . By survey defined  came  brought  CAS  to  the  scandal  being  suggests  1927  of  reform  attention  the  Home'  least,  Vancouver  divert  Vancouver  that  at  charges  "Some  'Foster  the  part  the  account  proponents  Adanoski  a b i l i t y to  of  states:  Children's  with  the charity  Department.  the  in  St.  Children.  its  as  impetus  CAS  f o r p u b l i c debate" a way  review  culminated  Neglected  s u r v e y was  a  standard  Report  Society's  an  subject  private  'Institutional'  Rather,  Superintendent  legislative, agenda  up  the  on  therefore,  Children's Aid Society  added  Vancouver cover  the  criticism  of  1929  as  shift  "external"  suggest.  the and  of  the  insight  that  same t i m e  Superintendent success  from  Survey,  one  in  the  organized  some c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f A d a m o s k i ' s t h e s i s  (1925-1927). against  ago  1927  only  policy  years  not  within  an  arrangements  Vancouver,  C h i l d r e n ' s Home a n d t h e  the  "slip"  the  the  Survey  "the  field.  policy  and at  for  the  Home i n  V a n c o u v e r CAS h a d b e e n its  to  really  in  care  from  Prior  CAS p r o v i d e s  a  of  was  t i m i n g of  and  the  state  interesting  Vancouver the  the  provided.  Vancouver  of  anything,  Army  child  interests  setting welfare of  the  CAS.  B.C.  Superintendent  The  records  the  B.C. Provincial  for  putting  children social  onto  in  the  "keep  Children  bureaucratic of  The  actual  as:  CAS  proceedings;  vouchers of  of  and  for  employed  1930 to  about  the  in  Canada  c h i l d r e n to  police  directed  "look  in  on"  concern. of  a  Neglected  process  conflict  materials  of  concerning  committal  the  equivalent or  in  children  to  the  including  the  transcripts  of  6 8  Superintendent  functionary other  costs.  Vancouver f o l l o w i n g  and pay  in  (This  re  for  7 0  4)  arrival  includes  an O r d e r  of  other  countries;  i n c l u d i n g telegrams  travel  24  public to  CAS  cases,  subject  neglecting of  Catholic  between  and  general  parents  several  arrangements for  province  6 6  Vancouver  the  of  routinely  manage  the  of  out  reveals  from  payment  concerning  of  complaints  and  policies  B . C . Superintendent  correspondence  travel  be  of  and  instrument  the  range  within of  to  identify  principal  from  fascinating  the  Children,  were  that  to  complaints  made 3)  6 9  the  1919  reports  Children  confirmation  transport  1)  2)  6 7  jurisdictions  and  a  the  studies  thought  children.  including  Orders  Neglected  files  cover  support;  Vancouver  the  period  as  requests  families  neglected  Neglected  Requests  home  were  collaboration  such  responses,  period.  on"  the  files  matter,  child  of  1919-1930  Superintendent's  for  as  of  (B.C.P.P.)  the  agencies  for  care  Police  initial  eye  Children  Superintendent  B.C.P.P,  an  Neglected  effect  the  A review  the  the  welfare  towards and  of  of  both  Delivery  and  transport  conductor the  or  by  train  the  but  also  view  are of  child.  foster  we  the  various  a  parents  instrument,  only  what  the  5)  parents.  of  the  and  the  B.C.P.P.,  in  of  "home  between  neglect,  studies"  In o n l y the from  s t i l l ,  Superintendent  the  from  and  results  train  [hereinafter  p i c t u r e does  obtaining  the  potential  called  7 1  rarer  of  Police  situation  a rather vivid by  care  correspondence  Provincial  w o u l d now b e  concerned,  employed  and  in  investigation  glimpse  materials  means  B.C.  and a d o p t i v e  given  From t h e  of  provinces  Army.);  the  not  conduct  prospective cases  and  concerning the  other  Salvation  Superintendent  B.C.P.P.]  to  rarest  of  point  of  that  of  the  of  the  emerge his  of  principal  mandated  in  the  legislation. In the (1919) the  period directly  there  is  delineation  with are  regard to  function been  to  as For  Courts.  himself  as  the  protection  their  care,  fact  the  theme  proper  the  example, in  only  Despite  not  and t h i s tension  Superintendent the  role  of  some  to  the  various  of  the  oversee later  the  care  that  files  of  show  would  have  between  the  become  more  not  those the  within  the  files,  the  is  his  not  a child so  has  committed  Superintendent  children in  away  from  obvious  investigative,  25  it  or  Obviously f i n d i n g the compartmentalized  concerning  responsibilities  early  terms  appointed  functionaries  ambiguities  c o n c e r n i n g whether  this,  be  blunt  was  correspondence  obvious  rather  complainant. could  in  in  complaints  but  the  c h i l d r e n . C o n f l i c t s over  are  states  bring  neglected,  the  the  neglected  Superintendent  of  of  apparent,  bureaucracy.  by  a distinct  after  need  overseeing  over  time.  adjudicative  In and  intervention problem  of  functions  child  of  social  clearly  Although  the  Children's which were Vancouver children Act  had  meant  from  who to  were  be  from  precisely  the  of  school  care  all  for  the  mentioned  and  a  one  contemporary-  the  through the  order  March  her  south.  third it  was  the  7 2  )  to  that  the  in  the  Fraser  by  it  the  policy  was  of  this  of  of  those  covered  26  by  Catholic  the  transporting is  of  can only the  or  many  Valley  already  at The  children example  of  the  infer  Act,  the  CAS n o t  an  implementation  one  were  grandparents.  n a r r o w scheme  enforcement,  turn  without  was  Vancouver and V i c t o r i a and  in  (Exceptions  Bulkley  her brothers for  that  contain  Lake,  cared  of  mainland  Vancouver  from the  any  Columbia  arrangements.  child  The p o l i c y  Given  This  lower  the  that  provisions  agencies.  1922,  One o f  extreme  police.  than  a  being  clear  province in  of  operating  r a t h e r clumsy method of cases  in  of  societies  meant  Superintendent  transport  generated.  such  British  to  the  he  Vancouver CAS,  the  these  communities  placement  makes  of  throughout  of  only  CAS. This to  participation  establishment  A c t were the  Victoria  care  case  the  pursuant  from  "half-breeds".  over  the  such r a i l  sending  for  other  provided  records  the  centralization  policy the  In  religious  from a l l of  case  approved  correspondence to  records  the  their  r e c o r d s .of  necessity  in  children  The  a  the  apprehended  placed  recorded.  a  Superintendent's of  as  CAS a n d  Victoria.  with  viewing  Societies,  Catholic  that  C.A.S.  the  i n c o r p o r a t e d under that  transported  were  a  of  legislation  Aid  remains  protection.  The c e n t r a l i z i n g n a t u r e emerges  workers  social Act that  and in  informal  arrangements  of  Amongst  were  recognized  During  the  that  in  welfare  led  the  w h i c h has  1890's,  as  of  the in  removal  Prosecutors, where  the  native  low  Strange  of  the  the  a family  home.  There  Residential  School  until  the  responsibility  mother  in  1950's for  This,  in  foster  the turn,  homes,  period  of  foster  care  in  (Toronto)  in  in  the  but  I  is  also  fact  in  found  the  one  of  a  and her  offering  one  can  that  instance local  for  recorded  meant  acted  the  records  took  confidence to  as  Crown  urging that  support  in  capital  (police,  community  and the  a  have  in  children,  the  explained  committal  process  concrete  instance  be  must  expressing  succeeded  27  rape  a community,  members  The p e t i t i o n  York  on c o n v i c t i o n  brutal  a mother  and  for for  n o t be removed f r o m h e r c a r e ,  at  of  rate  involved  etc.)  and o t h e r  support  together.  of. state  not  placed  which  of  r e f e r r i n g to  argues  7 5  children  family  form  children  punishment  way,  parties  Judges,  a  adoptive  advantage  Columbians.  were  in  as  system  was  native  petition  potential  It  scoop",  conviction  only  all  neighbours  kinship  Indian  assumed  children  or  taken  the  British  "60's  foster  dominant  orders.  of  about.  7 4  similar  on  formal  the  was  Native  the  severity a  review  placement  Carolyn  from not  restraint  of  a  rarely  Government  labeled  when  that  offence,  a  been  of  families  brought  informal  but  religious  needs  numbers.  Just  terms  by  massive  1960's  massive  under  were  7 3  part  resource,  Provincial  social to  a  Native  operated  the  the  as  nature  people  actually  period  intervention system,  community  aboriginal  arrangements was  a  in  keep  up  a  the her the  children  remained  where  Cowichan  a  Committee of of  the  and  to  discuss  The  to  12,  work  duties  of  your  Orange  1922  asking  for  not  the  c o m m i t t a l as  one  that  voluntary letter  from  particular branch  July  of  the to  16.,  1920,  "neglected  had  a  stipend  was  and I  to  the  all In  for  of  the  stating  to a  to  of  system  were  day  being  reality  responsibility  three  Ontario  years,  examples  of  to  receive  $1,000  had  the  order.  by a m a g i s t r a t e " ,  7 7  comments  children  who  and suggests  28  that  October  The  follow  for  the  concerning  the  that  another any  letter, only  been the  to  G o v e r n m e n t made  funded by  he  True  describing  third  that have  in  of  all,  point  a  Loyal  Government  be  part  institution  indication In  is  that  the  the  the  no  at  the  committed  institution.  child will  T h e r e was  Court  i.e.  the  thanking  the  been  wards  jurisdictional  that  the  that  same t i m e , to  it  Superintendent who  from  comments  but  instance,  the  child  Superintendent  children,  from  another  Orphanage,  organization.  the  day  give  The r e p l y p o i n t e d o u t  entitled  conceded  change  the  Superintendent  these  " i r r e g u l a r " . At the  the  children  areas  will  request  done  office."  Court.  child,  taken  neglected  letter  contribution  contribution,  was  a  the  explain  s h o w how t h e  issues.  Orphanage wrote  c a r e by the  was  I  to  Superintendent  addressed.  1920  of  the  7 6  compromise.  were  area  where  records  CAS a c c o m p a n y i n g  and  up  and  kind  their  CAS.  invited  their  case  jurisdictional  July  Blue  a  Vancouver  matters  Vancouver  to  particular  diplomacy  how t h e s e  the  a  come  Superintendent's  required  A  CAS t o  the  managing  "This  Children's Aid Society  Vancouver  committed  of  the  step dated  deals  with  committed  parties  could  as go  to  the  Alexandra  There is prosecution the  f o r any o f Code,  correspondence under  The  the  one  down a a  14  Sexual  old  In  8 1  response  to  to out  arrangements  Vancouver Foster  after his  to  who  suggested, cases,  of  in  B.C.  the  appear  to  the  r e c o r d makes  ,  are  in  c h i l d r e n on t h e  death  with  the  a  the  wide  Ontario  Superintendent in  his  with  daughter.  reference  involved "home in  a parent  tracking  country  no  requests;  of  Act.  cover  been  doing  8 4  Infant's  the  but  in  take  involved  have  in  to  from  not  police  quoted  associated  travelling  local  in  to  making  studies"  in  attending  to  where  there  are  8 5  Aid Societies Catholic)  c a r e was  (Vancouver,  a f a m i l i a r concept  in  V a n c o u v e r CAS r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e l y  in  its  founding extent  Victoria  and  1901-1930  the  significant  duties  become  or  8 3  of  may  8 2  criminal  exhorted  or  children  of  were  counterpart,  been  the  province  police  correspondence  have  may  sections  provisions  departments  transport  for  relatives.  Children's  is  other  arrangements  no  girl,  assault  charges.  appears  Code  and the  police  files  c h i l d r e n which existed  Superintendent  to  police  t r a m p who  year  the  instance,  various  ,  8 0  protection  the  Keslo  against  relevant time  7 8  Superintendent's  crimes  to  of  of  Superintendent Brankin,  the  child  Blue Orphanage.  i n the  though  7 9  involvement  In  True  from time  responsibilities range.  the  no e v i d e n c e  Criminal  action  or  documents, in  its  and  of  used  initial  29  the  1900's.  the  effect  foster  phase  Founded i n of  foster  placements  before  it  built  1901, homes to  a its  "Children's Home" home  was  built,  and  provide  Children's  Society  purpose  since  today, of  were  small,  example, the  Since  each  which  once  the  preoccupation  was  "Children's to  be of  service"  front"  (i.e.  children  reports  tally  1901.  keep  are  the  to  period,  (paid  from  wage  soldiers  is  to  one  extent  respect  to  the  category  the  of  charitable  numbers o f the  or  children  "put  care  of  is  of  it  the  is  degree  problem  the  all  "adopted"  is  30  the  as  "dead",  of  obviously  "grown that  and a d o p t i n g , were  up".  the  infant  categories  "professions",  I),  what  t r a c e backward  by  had  in  to  listed  another  out"  serviced  follows:  number  married,  For  141 28 21 25 124  worth noting that  War  as  for  larger.  children  forth  possible  high  seem  653  set  donations  children cared  numbers  a tally  d i s t i n c t i o n between f o s t e r i n g  track  solicit  made  World  to  to  the  was  While  was  perhaps understandable because  work),  in  reports,  the  for  some  it  by  unsatisfactory  cumulative,  Apart  used  c h i l d r e n under the  1901.  The t a l l y  who  little  in  annual  returned to parents transferred dead to front W a r d s i n t h e home  explained the  its  number o f  Since  188 47 10 61 8  category.  can  the  approach is  since  record-keeping, in  report, provides  figures  mortality  poor  changed  of  Society,  of  running  1917  Society  the  method  assistance.  Adopted married r a n away at service professions  with  principal  inception  annual  the  the  its  the  the  and government  "at  But t h i s  Aid  a running t a l l y  analysis  in  the  unsatisfactory  Vancouver  by  1904.  going. An  the  Home" i n  and  "to  refer One  of  to  point  Society  made  and i n f a c t  kept  called  "free  homes"  (unpaid care states being  "the sent  percentage out  systematic of  in private  state  indication  institutional from  annual  according  the  to  children  the  cost  appears  to  have  the  from  care  This  is  1910.  as  The  $7.17,  of  or  at  Report  inflation.  $10.00  being  1916  comparative  increases  Home.  Report  of  relevant  the  "at  of  that  picture  only of  for  Court  a developing  of  $10.00 cites  factors  such  One c a n  not  the  the  child is  crunch".  31  data Home, will  193.  Many  8 7  This  Building",  with  of  maintenance  the  $8.48,  are  general notice once  figures  the in  $9.59.  but  never  $8.73 at  figures  8 8  of  child  one  1909,  and  the  1915 is  no  a r r i v e d at  nor  cost that  reached  to  monthly  There  the  can begin  of  to  living  the  1908  again  cost  ( $ 6 . 0 0 p e r m o n t h f r o m 1910  ordered wards)  of  verandahs."  Report c i t e s  at  help  costs  "the  each  costs  cost  as  lack  date".  the 1917  of  homes.  per month,  1908,  Comparing these  "cash  that  for  in  how t h e s e  per diem p r o v i d e d by government and  early  after  Lack  8 6  foster  "Fire-Proof  T h e 1910  $8.31,  p e r month p e r  p e r i o d under review.  an  on  Report  Home  comparison  allowed  heading  the  around the  y e a r . . . average  1913  in  of  states  sleep  Annual  a c o r o l l a r y of  following  a discussion  as  been  report  Matron)  built  p e r month  the  1916  the  be  1917  negligible".  pressures  measurement  children.  such  the  "supervision"  financial  proper  (also  or  The  explanation  the  almost  emerges  instructive  in  report  level  be  c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the  of  $8.12  to  i n c l u d e d under the  urging that Also  of  the 132  p a s s a g e was an  care  as  funding of  For example,  c h i l d r e n being returned to  small  reports.  accommodate of  so  of  record keeping  systematic An  is  homes).  to  of  in the  1922,  form  the  The  Adoption  Legislature children's between  child  the  Society  on  children number  children  the  was to  kept be  of  addresses  the  seemed t o  foster  the  foster  later  Report as  the  indicated  One  scholar  has  parents, the  the are  were  admitted  passed  care  homes,  reports  as  was  little  Because  8 9  2],  take  "adopted"  of  ch.  that,  by  in  issue  to  care.  earlier  Annual  prior  foster  children in  B.C.S.  'adopted'."  O t h e r s were  1929  and  and  placed  who  [1920  societies  adoption  a  care".  1920  aid  "if  the  in  Act  to  he  the  distinguish  suggested  that by  did  not  up  follow  quoted  certain  to  as  above  have  being  for  included  in  "foster  "lost".  For  example  Children's  Aid  Society  been  Vancouver  above,  considered  figures  have  the  was  VCAS  listed  to  by  follows:  I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t o n D e c e m b e r 1, 1929 26 w a r d s o f t h e S o c i e t y who w e r e p l a c e d some y e a r s p a s t in foster homes h a v e been lost and 70 c h i l d r e n , who had been returned to their parents without having the legal responsibility of the Society removed, for various r e a s o n s a r e n o t u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e number of c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y under s u p e r v i s i o n i s 383. 9 0  The a  inclusion  consequence  1927  Survey:  field  of  this  of  one  the  societies  foster  the  necessity  in  care  the  the  other for  1929  Annual  important  accurate  child  the  labour  understandable questions  administered  earlier  homes w e r e l a t e r  these  of  in  Report  reflects  recommendations  record-keeping  and  of  the  social  work. The  of  material  p e r i o d was  subject  and  other  i n the  all  not  the  B.C. children's  supervised,  o f much c r i t i c i s m f o r forms  defensiveness even  by  of  of  abuse.  children's  earlier  32  9 1  A  aid  p e r i o d c a n be  and the  the  aid  "free"  exploitation  measure societies gleaned  of  the  around from  the  1905  Report  Children the  of  that  the  the  their  year  "It  being  earliest  the  of  concerns,  that  the  crisis  A review too,  a  of  formal  "foster" later.  these  care  occurred,  Report  fire  any  foster  note  the  Dependent  also,"  writes  number t h u s  placed  showing  conclusively  immediate  by  their  prospect  of  are clear  were  in It  foster  not  to  care  the  once  the  became  an  utilized  until  -  the  crisis  and grave  health  foster  the  Victoria  care  CAS s h o w s  "institutional  although  CAS o p e r a t e d  the  change  a home a t  was  and  in  construction  language  overcrowding, turned  that  made t o  the  was  evident  as  a  way  orphanages.  from  Home,  is  1904,  reflected  of  hazard,  it  children.  by  care  commitments  institutions  rejection  Children's  overcrowding,  to  financing,  materials  The V i c t o r i a  Vancouver  was  the  faced  of age,  with  facilities,  inadequate  of  societies,  This  out"  years  taken  and f i n a n c i a l  "putting  t h i n g to  and  9 2  the  approach.  on by  six  not  institutional  ancillary  of  of  Neglected  nearly one-half  references  reports  large  brought  were  of  a pleasant  under  service."  organizational  out  were  of  is  "that  children  Although  that  Superintendent  in Ontario.  Superintendent,  during  of  the  the  care" in  in  St.  subject  of  care.  there  favour  Victoria  Fern  inadequate  that  which,  occurred like  criticism  The  1929  of  the for  Matron's  states:  The Committee t r i e d t o adopt C h i l d r e n where f e a s i b l e but i n many c a s e s t h i s c a n n o t b e d o n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s w h e n we a s k e d f o r f o s t e r p a r e n t s f o r a l i t t l e b a b y , we h a d t w e n t y two applications and were able to place it very successfully. 9 3  The  1931  Medical  H e a l t h O f f i c e r ' s R e p o r t comments  33  that  the  "Home  is  sadly  overcrowded  facilities"  and p r e s e n t s  following: homes care  the  would  to  make  In  1931, It  1927  at  the  was  than  the  the  use  of  as  the  Director  care" the  example,  the  the  is  of  the  "that  It  Victoria  recommendations That  of  earlier  Society of  toilet  crisis  cases  in  City  Victoria which  the  private  might  were  not  swing  the  out  into  late  Victoria stated  is  more  the  1931  for  specific that  embrace is  backward  from in  the  "foster  notable  Home c o n t a i n e d  to  community  1930's  It  of  gradually the  homes  step  in  over  enthusiastically  a  Welfare  offshoots  One p r o p o s a l  suitable  until  Child  recommendations  children  took  had  the  the  intervention.  1931  survey  new  Society  find not  that  Victoria  the  concerning the  a  had been.  to is  selected  surveys  getting  able  Survey  of  to  and  9 4  produced  "modern method"  Victoria  Survey.  is  However,  9 5  time."  washrooms  solution  expenditure  Survey  B o a r d i n g Homes  of  as  1927  adequate  a dozen  series  The t o n e  for  reports  a  of  an  present  of  more  a possible  C.C.C.W.  one  survey,  children".  involve  the  Survey.  cautious  as  "The b o a r d i n g o u t  which  Survey.  and r e q u i r e s  the  that the 1927  emphatically:  The b u i l d i n g i s v e r y b a d l y o v e r - c r o w d e d , and i n any c a s e presents certain ~ difficulties of arrangement for p r o v i d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y care f o r such a v a r i e d group. It is more the type of building that would be a good r e c e i v i n g home o r c l e a r i n g h o u s e a s p a r t o f a larger programme o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y homes. 9 6  In  a  similar  substantially "conversion" substantial its  child  vein,  commitment of  the  funds welfare  the  Vancouver  to  institutional  V a n c o u v e r CAS. In  to  establish  work.  In  Catholic  1924  care the  a new o r p h a n a g e ,  Cote's 34  study  CAS, maintained  of  well  after  a  the  C a t h o l i c CAS r a i s e d the the  centrepiece history  of  of the  Vancouver for  the  C a t h o l i c C A S , he d e v o t e s  period  orientations  1920-1936.  which  institutional children not  in  care,  declined,  adopted  percentage 69.6%  or  of  91.1%  with  8.9%  Data  Analysis  in  From foster  foster,  care,  "approved not  abandoned,  neglected  thereafter. sometimes  in  of  of  underfunding  Children's  institutions,  or  as  a  crisis.  Until  or  in  to  comparison,  even  for  with  several  were.  1923,  the  being of  of the  years  Orphanages,  overcrowding,  concerns.  outbreaks  care  before  c a r e was o c c a s i o n a l l y were  to  existence  chronic  health  with  foster  B.C.  in  9 7  reference  the  a  compared  experience  1901,  in  As  represented  Despite  since  faced  deal  of  foster  own h o m e .  arrangements.  emerge.  facilities  35  number  institutions,  care - orphanages,  an a u x i l i a r y measure w h i l e to  in  children  foster  in  the  By  Columbia's  recurring  children  later  care.  response  Homes,  an  of  their  the  legislation  as  housing  in  own home  Survey  the  mid-1930's  number were  care,  clearly  192 7  " s t o p gap" m e a s u r e  that  British  to  urgent  Care  V a n c o u v e r C a t h o l i c CAS h a d  for  orphaned  and p e r s i s t e n t l y  state-regulated  or  the  although  Society  cared  Rather, congregate called  double  official  or  the  their  i n the  the  1938,  institutional  were  principal  By  by the  points  homes"  recommendations  proportion  adoption  several  the  the  than  discussion  foster  in  under  30.4%  children  this  Survey by  care with  more  children  of  1927  care.  supervised  compared to  1928  was  foster  institutional  greatly  Institutional  the  reflected  and  to  T h e V a n c o u v e r C a t h o l i c CAS a c c e p t e d  and approach of  acceptance  a chapter  For  these  resorted  constructed, disease  B.C. legislative  or  an  framework  provided be  committed to  three the  for a l l  were  c h i l d r e n found by the the  care  formed.  After  Superintendent  placement with the CAS was the  the  late  last  to  children's  that,  although  place  embrace  children  and as  the  late  being neglected  aid societies, the  foster  1924  was  which  df  to  only  permitted  care  continued.  "modern" c o n c e p t  as  of  legislation  in  children's aid societies  to  1930's,  of  C o u r t s as  directly,  The C a t h o l i c  foster  care  involved in building a  in new  orphanage. The the  attached  tables  V a n c o u v e r CAS a n d  1922-1930.  the  based  the  discharge  Vancouver C a t h o l i c  reports,  submitted  on  Superintendent of  Neglected  Children,  are  Table  totals  2.  records by the  These  are  9 8  Yearly show  amongst  Catholic  discharge  summaries  and address scope  of  of  location  if,  of  the  foster study  the full  do  foster  computers  it  foster  would  1922  it  w o u l d be  the  can  lower  be  be  the  basis  to  In  most  possible mainland  the is  to on  of  a  the name  the  map  to  geographic  analyze  with  the  data  to  what  to  extent  same  foster  parents  took  multiple  placements.  summaries,  seasonal  fluctuations  36  the  plot  parents  discharge  made  beyond  Similarly,  whether  The  cases,  foster  the  1 and  and from  Although i t  to  the  3b.  the  From  determine  and  concerning the  period to  concerning  observed.  from  placements  1930,  patterns  possible  3a  care  period.  extent,  children  Table  concerned.  in  what  monthly  information  so,  placements to  same  parents  to  the  CAS, f o r  summarized i n Table in  p e r i o d from  provide  and  of  contained  things,  CAS f o r  foster  distribution aid  the  this  of  determine  the  other  V a n c o u v e r CAS i n  Vancouver  the  are  a  summaries  and  can  be  seen to  some e x t e n t ,  affected  show  marked i n c r e a s e  that  the  homes  record-keepers  "foster"  foster  was  with  "Other" of  Orphanage  and one  a  going or  on  from  as  of  an  "help"  were  of  ethnic  I  Table  have  1  Children's  one  in  the  "adoption  field.  in  work  the  instance at  the  some  period  of  the  latter  This which  children for  wages  (1927-1929).  common. N o t o n l y do t h e  in  of  Jewish  School.  service",  later  the  greater.  The number o f "at  on  probation".  one  placement  year  category  parents  institutions,  Home" t o  increase  the  3b  "free"  point  in  include of  same  between  From t h a t  as  3a a n d  the  Indian Residential  h o s p i t a l w o r k e r s were  placements  1926,  included  2  other  increases  Tables  return to  and  an  were  basis,  in  homes.  minimal,  at  year.  make a d i s t i n c t i o n  described  are  there  also  as  foster  to  used.  placement  that  the  Placements  placements  Doukhoubour c h i l d r e n ,  reminder  operated  which  columns  school  subsidized)  relatives  placement  is  began  rarely  placements  Placements The  in. foster  and b o a r d i n g ( i . e .  term  by the  period,  numbers but  r e p o r t i n g becomes more f r e q u e n t  and more p r e c i s e ,  the  Survey for improved r e c o r d - k e e p i n g .  recommendations The  period  large  provides  analysis  of  the  of  the  number  of  shocking depths  1927  deaths  and  the  crisis  one  of  hospitalizations  in  corroboration of  Adamoski's  statistical  of  reflecting  the  at  the  Wall  Street  1927-28  Children's  Home. Dianne Orphanage class  in  Purvey  1 0 0  that  Vancouver provided a  families  actively  argues  in  times  encouraged  of  ongoing  crisis. ties  the  Alexandra  short She  term  notes  between the  37  Non-Sectarian  respite that  the  for  working  institution  children it  cared  for  and t h e i r p a r e n t s . the  Examination of  Alexandra Orphanage  organizational Firstly,  features  large  expected  for  their  keep.  in  periods  study  when It  1 0 2  orphanages Her  parent  alive.  19th the  parents  true  pattern  was  The r e c o r d s century  the  of  parents  up  to  a  twelfth  to  foster  placements  were  Abbotsford  and  to  have  care placements, for  years.  Loyal  these  in  fact  Langley been  in in  some  there  for  is  the  just  as  the  pay  Abramovitz  residents  50% by  in  having had  no  at  U.S.  parents  least  Gunnlaugsson  correspondence this  True  farm  to  the  one  in  the  the  38  between  applies  is  true  the  intended  of  Orphanage  in  in B.C.  O r p h a n a g e was  Blue  both  the  .  Within  i n d i v i d u a l case  records  if  not  Valley.  require  1 0 4  desperate Many  communities  no i n d i c a t i o n o f  placements.  trend  children.  Fraser  effort  to  financial  This  the  the  care  serious  than  that  birthday,  placement  its  under  A l e x a n d r a O r p h a n a g e show d e t e r m i n e d  find  appear  the  in  Orphanage by  Vancouver A l e x a n d r a Orphanage  suggest  12  this  especially  noted  indicate  months  child's  the  that  sense.of  show v o l u m i n o u s  records  only  also  of  system.  the  more  number  payment,  of the  a  of  for  note,  in  (1906-1933)  reveals  children  was  that  and  the  the  to  orphans  Orphanage  of  and  care  majority  Alexandra of  of  out  indicate  Orphanage  the  and v a r i o u s  children  clearly  indicates  The  Secondly, for  not  20th  Orphanage  foster  worthwhile  that  study  century. early  the  of  the  is  were  alive.  this  T h e r e were r e g u l a r demands  does,  1 0 3  the  extant records  bears  these records  and  pressure.  1 0 1  the  efforts  such  of  foster  Chilliwack,  Although  references  any s y s t e m a t i c  there for  does foster  follow  up  CONCLUSION For short  one  term  reason  or  or  long  term  arrangements  for  neighbours,  without  "official  child  the  record".  intervention  was  saving  another  When  these  children primarily  the  Infant's  the  late  children's  orphanages Blue  in  children In  result  addition  to  the  were  no  community  relatives  of  necessary forms  of  by  the  broke  its  out"  foster  if  we  in  Vancouver  normal  care  in  care  made  by  with at  typical  or  when  police,  the  Protection  or  and  Act, placed  homes.  the  Until  was  for  and  for  Loyal  placement  placements other  kin  and  a  local  organized  fathers  their  True  when  of  to  have period.  39  arranged  neighbours, level. on  an  who h a d l o s t  the  full  and as  These ethnic  basis,  placing  them  evidence  of  be a d a u n t i n g of  the  a  would  wives,  picture  the care  their  s e a r c h i n g out  a  by  informal foster  children while  The t a s k  the  down,  12.  arrangements  are  the  .children,  and q u a n t i f y i n g them w o u l d a p p e a r t o  one,  of  wards,  of  or  part  the  Child  a  made  relatives  and c h i l d r e n ' s  and orphanages,  of  through  or  on  children  b e s t an a n c i l l a r y s o l u t i o n ,  interventions  custody  their  unable,  becoming  c h i l d r e n as  foster  doubt  or neighbours.  arrangements  at  were  charities  "putting  the  and i n f o r m a l arrangements formal  local  i n orphanages  aid societies  for  children  mandated  Westminster,  institutional  retained  by  the  who  arrangements  Alexandra  age  of  include  the  the  arrangements  these  received  reached  children's  for  1920's,  as  care  arrangements  aid societies  such  New  Act,  parents  to  these  bureaucracy  the  into  of  those  later  well  basis,  care  called  the  who with such but  various  The brought played  federally-funded an agenda  a  role  interests  of  the  to  of  desire  a  great work  the  itself,  deflect  institutional  following  extent  professional to  crash  in  department  in  of  the  "supervised  exploitation care  were  and abuse  sidestepped  "supervised" effect  of  Canada from  at  policy the  inexorable  bureaucratic  move  of  all  the  the  toward  care  from  rationality  and s t a t e  dysfunction.  40  to  the  s t i l l  the  care  and t h e i r  work  consolidation of  of  foster  "free"  given  the  and  to  the  autonomously with  the  in  drift  occurring in  But w i t h i n  sanctioned  to  families.  level,  oriented  in  trend  social  between  intervention  kin  of  framework  was  the  shortfalls  a  the  developed  manner.  informal  of  also  regimes.  B . C . The p r o b l e m s  federal  professional  and d i f f u s e  and  It  reform,  budgetary  distinction  p r o v i n c i a l and to  in  children  foster  Welfare,'  professional  standard  founding  consideration  between  the  contributed  model  the  supervision  America,  children within  through  ties  work  sporadic  in  Child  legislative  severe  North  care"  Less  civic,  charitable  piecemeal, an  homes.  severing  State  1930,  foster  advancing  through  the  reflected  U.B.C.  of  on  child protection.  t r a i n i n g and  setting,  1929  to  c r i t i c i s m over  professionalization at  Council  professionalism  social  establishment The  of  Canadian  this  a  drift  was  arrangements  to  solutions  for  family  NOTES 1. B e t t i n a B r a d b u r y , " T h e F r a g m e n t e d F a m i l y : F a m i l y S t r a t e g i e s i n the Face of Death, I l l n e s s , and P o v e r t y , M o n t r e a l , 1860-1885" i n Joy P a r r , ed. C h i l d h o o d and F a m i l y i n Canadian H i s t o r y Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1982 and Bettina Bradbury, Working Families: Age, Gender and Daily Survival in Industrializing Montreal Toronto: McClelland & Stewart 1993  2.  Phillipe  Aries,  Centuries  of  Childhood,  New  York,  Knoff,  1962  3. J o y P a r r , e d . C h i l d h o o d and F a m i l y i n C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1982; and Joy P a r r , Labouring Children: B r i t i s h Immigrant A p p r e n t i c e s i n Canada 1869-1924 M o n t r e a l , M c G i l l Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988 4. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , Children in English-Canadian Society: the Twentieth Century Consensus Toronto, University of Press, 1976 5.  See  footnote  1  Framing Toronto  above.  6. F o r e x a m p l e J o h n B u l l e n , " J . J . K e l s o a n d t h e 'New' Child-savers: The G e n e s i s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Movement i n O n t a r i o " i n Russell Smandych e t a l . D i m e n s i o n s o f C h i l d h o o d : E s s a y s on t h e H i s t o r y o f C h i l d r e n and Youth i n Canada, W i n n i p e g , University of Manitoba, 1991; Jane U r s e l , P r i v a t e L i v e s , P u b l i c P o l i c y : 100 Y e a r s o f S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e F a m i l y T o r o n t o , W o m e n ' s P r e s s , 19 9 2 . 7. Dennis Vancouver,  Guest, U.B.C.  The Emergence Press, 1980  of  Social  Security  in  Canada,  8. D i a n e M a t t e r s , D e v e l o p m e n t o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s 19101920, V i c t o r i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1973 a n d J a n e . U r s e l , "The S t a t e and the Maintenance of P a t r i a r c h y : A Case Study of Family, Labour and W e l f a r e L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada" i n James D i c k s o n and Bob Russell (eds.) Family, E c o n o m y a n d S t a t e New Y o r k : St. Martin's P r e s s , 1986 a n d J a n e U r s e l , P r i v a t e L i v e s , P u b l i c P o l i c y : 100 Y e a r s o f S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e F a m i l y T o r o n t o , Women's P r e s s , 1992  9. Robert L. Adamoski, The Profession of Casework: The Organizational Expediency, of the B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Welfare Survey Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1988 10. Tamara K. Harevan, Family Time and Industrial Time: The Relationship between the Family and Work in a New England Industrial Community Cambridge: New Y o r k : Cambridge University Press, 1982  41  11.  See  for  example  pp.  368-370.  12. Carl Berger, The Writing of Canadian History, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1986. Berger notes that genealogical research, biographies, and town and c o u n t y h i s t o r i e s made u p a large p r o p o r t i o n of V i c t o r i a n h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g i n Canada, p. 2. Such writing typically obscures family dysfunction and would m a i n t a i n " f a m i l y s e c r e t s " s u c h as t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s u r r o u n d f o s t e r care. 13. Canada Census respectively.  figures  for  British  Columbia  for  1901  and  14. See, f o r example, A n t o i n e t t e F a u v e - C h a m o u x ' s d i s c u s s i o n proto-industrial period in "Beyond A d o p t i o n : Oprhans and Strategies i n P r e - I n d u s t r i a l F r a n c e " The H i s t o r y of the V o l u m e 1, N u m b e r 1, 1996 p . 1. 15. R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d W e l f a r e W e l f a r e S u r v e y C o m m i t t e e , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 1927.  Survey, .  1931  of the Family Family  B.C. Child  16. See, f o r example, the s t o r y of Samuel, (1st Sam. c h . 2:1-10) and o f Moses (Ex. ch. 1, 2:11-25). T h e s t o r i e s o f Naamaw, (2nd Kings c h . 5), D a n i e l , (Dan. c h . 1), and J o s e p h , (Gen c h . 3 7 : 3 9 - 4 5 ) i n v o l v e t h e a b d u c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . The Book o f Exodus s p e a k s o f t h e "fields of the fatherless" (Prov ch. 23:10) and the Epistle of James e n j o i n s t h e f a i t h f u l t o " v i s i t t h e f a t h e r l e s s a n d widows i n their affliction". (James c h . 1 : 2 7 ) . The H o l y B i b l e 17. Thomas C l e a r y e d . and t r a n s l a t o r The E s s e n t i a l Koran, San F r a n c i s c o , H a r p e r , 1 9 9 3 . F o r i n s t a n c e t h e K o r a n s a y s "Do j u s t i c e b y t h e o r p h a n s " ( p . 30) " A n d b e g o o d . . . t o o r p h a n s a n d p a u p e r s " (p.34) 18. Gingard, C . One N.Y. General Music,  Hundred and 1963  One  Gospel  19. Germaine G r e e r , D a d d y We H a r d l y Knew H a m i l t o n , 1989 S e e f o r e x a m p l e p p . 2 5 8 - 2 6 8 .  and  You!  Spiritual  Songs,  London,  Hamish  20. The f u l l t i t l e o f the a r t i c l e by G i s l i A g u s t G u n n l a u g s s o n is " ' E v e r y o n e ' s Been Good t o Me, E s p e c i a l l y t h e D o g s ' : F o s t e r - C h i l d r e h and Young Paupers i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Southern Iceland" J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l H i s t o r y V o l 27 N o . 2 W i n t e r 1993 p . 341 21.  Gunnlaugsson,  Ibid.  p.  342  22. D a v i d I . K e r t z e r , "Gender I d e o l o g y and I n f a n t Abandonment i n Nineteenth-Century Italy" J o u r n a l of I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y H i s t o r y V o l . X X I 1 , No. 1 1991, p . 3 . c i t e d i n G u n n l a u g s s o n p . 354. See a l s o the Fauve-Chamoux article at Note 14, for a discussion of the background concerning foster children and adoption in PreIndustrial France. 42  23.  Gunnlaugsson,  p.  341.  24.  Gunnlaugsson,  P-  347 .  25.  Gunnlaugsson,  P-  329.  26.  Gunnlaugsson,  P-  349 .  27 .  Gunnlaugsson,  P-  350.  2 8 . T h e C e n s u s was c o n d u c e d o n A p r i l 6, 1891 u n d e r t h e C e n s u s A c t [ 4 9 V i c c . 58 ( 1 8 8 6 ) ] T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o p u l a t i o n was 9 8 , 1 7 3 o f whom 3 5 , 3 0 2 w e r e N a t i v e . T h e B . C . p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e was a 98.5% i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e 1881 census. 29.  1891  Census,  B.C. Archives  and Record S e r v i c e ,  Introduction.  30. J o a n M e z n a r , "Orphans and the T r a n s i t i o n from S l a v e t o Free Labour i n N o r t h e a s t B r a z i l : The Case o f Campina G r a n d e , 1850-1888" J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l H i s t o r y V o l 27 No 3 S p r i n g 1994 p . 4 9 9 - 5 1 5 3 1 . M e z n a r , p . 5 0 1 . T h e a u t h o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e t e r m o r p h a n was u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s p e r i o d t o r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n who h a d l o s t one p a r e n t . I f a c h i l d ' s f a t h e r d i e d , mothers would have t o a p p l y f o r t u t o r e s a n d , as t h e s t u d y shows, o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t y in winning guardianship, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n circumstances where there w e r e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e s . See f o r e x a m p l e p . 507. 32.  Meznar,  pp.  507-510.  3.3.  Meznar,  p.  507  34.  Meznar,  p.  511.  35.  See  footnote  22,  above.  3 6 . B y 1 9 0 0 , t h e B . C . P o l i c e F o r c e ( B . C . F . P . ) h a d 100 m e m b e r s . role of the B.C.P.F. in implementing the policies of S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below.  The the  37. S e e f o r e x a m p l e Re E v e 31 D . L . R . 1 for a discussion of the common l a w c o n c e p t o f g u a r d i a n s h i p a n d i t s r o o t s i n p r o p e r t y l a w . See a l s o R u t h I n g l i s , Sins of the F a t h e r s A Study of P h y s i c a l and E m o t i o n a l A b u s e o f C h i l d r e n L o n d o n , P e t e r Owen, e s p . p p . 14-33. 38.  La Forest  J,  Re E v e  31  D.L.R.  (4th)  1 at  p.  14.  39. An A c t f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of C r u e l t y t o , and B e t t e r P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n S . O . 1893, c. 45, c i t e d as The C h i l d r e n ' s A c t .  43  40. These three sources a r e c i t e d as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t i o n i n J o h n B u l l e n " J . J . K e l s o a n d t h e 'New' C h i l d - s a v e r s : The G e n e s i s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Movement i n O n t a r i o " i n R u s s e l l Smandych e t a l . D i m e n s i o n s o f C h i l d h o o d a t p . 142. The R e p o r t o f t h e O n t a r i o P r i s o n R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n c a n be f o u n d a t Sessional P a p e r s (1891) V o l 2 3 , p a r t 4, N o . 18. 4 1 . B . C . A . R . S . GR 2 2 7 . V o l . 1 c o n t a i n s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n i n d i v i d u a l cases where the CAS i s seeking government aid to pay travel e x p e n s e s o f CAS p e r s o n n e l t o i n v e s t i g a t e a n d / o r t r a n s p o r t c h i l d r e n . V o l . 2 F i l e s 1-4 c o n t a i n m o n t h l y r e t u r n s o f t h e C A S f o r 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 7 . C. f. the returns submitted i n the later period to the Superi n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e s 1, 2 , a n d 3 . 42. E . F . Watson and N . I Watson, H i s t o r y and Problems of Child Welfare Services i n Vancouver, 1960 unpublished manuscript. By c o n t r a s t t h e f i r s t A d o p t i o n A c t i n F r a n c e was e n a c t e d i n 1 9 2 3 . See Note 14. 43; and  R e p o r t on N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n December 23, 1920. B . C . A r c h i v e s Records S e r v i c e , Superintendent of Neglected Children.  44. Mimi A b r a m o v i t z , R e g u l a t i n g the L i v e s P o l i c y from C o l o n i a l Times to the P r e s e n t , 1988. 45.  Mimi  46.  Ibid.  Abramovitz, pp.  Ibid.  p.  o f Women: S o c i a l W e l f a r e Boston, South End P r e s s ,  196.  196-197.  47. I b i d . p . 198. She n o t e s t h a t M a r y R i c h m o n d a n d o t h e r social workers began to conceptualize the process of casework which i n c l u d e d "study ( i n v e s t i g a t i o n by a p a i d a g e n t ) , d i a g n o s i s (case planning by a committee of volunteers), and treatment ( r e h a b i l i t a t i o n by a f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r ) " c i t i n g her S o c i a l D i a g n o s i s (1917). 48. the  I b i d . p . 2 0 6 . The d i s c u s s i o n on E n f o r c i n g P a t r i a r c h a l Norms a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e programme o c c u r s on p a g e s 2 0 0 - 2 0 6 .  49. G u e s t , Op C i t . p . 4 9 . T h e p h r a s e " p e n s i o n " was u s e d i n a n e f f o r t t o l e s s e n the stigma a t t a c h e d to poor house r e l i e f . M o t h e r s ' p e n s i o n s were the p r o t o t y p e of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Guest a l s o c i t e s an a r t i c l e by Tamara K . H a r e v e n , "An A m b i g u o u s A l l i a n c e : Some A s p e c t s o f A m e r i c a n I n f l u e n c e s on C a n a d i a n S o c i a l W e l f a r e " H i s t o i r e s o c i a l e / S o c i a l H i s t o r y 3 ( A p r i l 1969): 82-98. 5 0 . D i a n n e M a t t e r s , P u b l i c W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s p . 6 2 . She d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n c e p t as " p u b l i c a i d t o dependent c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r homes", and she too notes that "organized charity and s o c i a l workers presented the only s i g n i f i c a n t objections to the concept", pp. 6263. 44  51.  Abramovitz,  Op C i t .  52. and  Ursel, 344.  Jane.  53.  Dennis  Guest,  pp.  Private  Op C i t .  196-197.  Lives,  p.  Public  Policy  see  pages  154-159  54.  54. Provincial Secretary, B . C . R e p o r t on t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of M o t h e r s ' P e n s i o n s i n B . C . 1 9 2 0 - 1 t o 1 9 3 0 - 1 : Summary o f F i n d i n g s a n d Recommendations [n.d.] p. 21 cited in Guest, Ibid, p. 57. In P r i v a t e L i v e s , P u b l i c P o l i c y , Jane U r s e l d i s c u s s e s a s i m i l a r r e p o r t done by W h i t t o n f o r t h e M a n i t o b a Government i n 1928. p. 148. 55.  Guest,  Ibid  p.  58.  56. Ibid. p. 58. Guest characterizes the "traditional private c h a r i t y viewpoint" as b e i n g t h a t "financial a i d , without social work s u p e r v i s i o n , was w o r s e t h a n no a i d a t a l l " , p . 59. 57.  See  Note  61  and  66.  58. See n o t e 14. F o r a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f t h e B . C . S u r v e y , and how i t s o u t c o m e was a p r o d u c t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l dynamics of f o r c e s w i t h i n the V a n c o u v e r C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y see Adamoski, The P r o f e s s i o n o f Casework. 59. Robert L. Adamoski, The Profession of Casework: The Organizational Expediency of The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d Welfare S t u d y M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o 1988 a t p . 68. 60.  Ibid.  p.  i i i .  61.  B.C. Child  62.  Watson  Welfare  Survey,  Preface,  and Watson,  Op C i t .  p.  p.  7.  27.  63. Evidence of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l a x i t y discussed elsewhere in t h i s paper, i s found i n the Records of the Creche, which purport to show t h e c o n s e n t o f p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n o f each c h i l d , b u t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e no s u c h e n t r i e s a r e n o t e d i n the Record book. Vancouver C i t y Creche fonds, Vancouver A r c h i v e s . 64. Children's Report for Year 65.  Adamoski,  Aid Society of E n d i n g December  Op C i t .  pp.  26ff.  Vancouver, Twenty-Eighth Annual 31, 192 9 V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 3 0 . p. 5. See  also  p.  61.  66. B . C . A r c h i v e s and R e c o r d S e r v i c e , GR2738 - access obtained by permission under the Freedom of Information A c t . There are five b o x e s o f f i l e s c o n t a i n i n g 296 f i l e s , organized alphabetically by t h e name o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o n c e r n e d , c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d 1919-1943. This study w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e records i n the p e r i o d up to 45  1930.  For  similar  reports  from the  period  1910-1917,  67.  See  for  example  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738  Box  3 No.  2  68.  See  for  example  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738  Box  3 No.  27  69.  B.C.A.R.S.,  GR2738,  Box  3 No.  2 and  see  and and  Note  4.  3. 62.  62.  7 0 . F o r e x a m p l e f o r A l b e r t a , B . C . A . R . S . GR2728 Box 2 N o . 38, Box 3 No. 2 a n d 38, Box 4 N o . 7, Box 5 N o . 1 a n d 28; f o r M a n i t o b a Box 3 No. 3 5 , B o x 2 N o . 8; f o r S a s k a t c h e w a n Box 2 No. 44, Box 3 N o . 33 a n d B o x 4 N o . 52 a n d 6 1 ; f o r O n t a r i o B o x 3 N o . 3 9 ; f o r Q u e b e c B o x 3 N o . 44; f o r M a s s a c h u s e t t s Box 4 N o . 32; a n d f o r , L o n d o n , E n g l a n d B o x 4 N o . 4 , 25 a n d 5 8 . 7 1 . S e e B . C . A . R . S . G R 2 7 3 8 B o x 3 N o . 1 0 , 3 4 , 3 6 , 4 9 , 50 F o r r e q u e s t s from other p r o v i n c e s h a n d l e d by t h e p o l i c e see f o r example Box 2 No. 44, Box 3 N o . 9, N o . 35, 38, 44. 72.  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738  No.  62.  73. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of I n d i a n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l s see f o r example James R e d f o r d , "Attendance at Indian R e s i d e n t i a l Schools i n B . C . 1890-1920" B.C. Studies 44 (Winter 79-80) 41-56; Isabelle Knockwood, Out of the D e p t h s : The E x p e r i e n c e s of Mi'naw C h i l d r e n a t the Indian Residential School at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia Lokeport, N.S., Roseway P u b l i s h i n g , 1992; for a discussion of family relations and "country marriages" i n the fur trade period see Jennifer S . H . Brown S t r a n g e r s in Blood: F u r T r a d e Company Families i n Indian Country Vancouver, U . B . C . Press, 1980; for a c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w o f N a t i v e p e o p l e s and the f o s t e r c a r e system see Patrick Johnson Native C h i l d r e n and the Child Welfare System T o r o n t o , L o r i m e r , 1983 a n d E v a J a c o b s a n d L a v i n a W h i t e , L i b e r a t i n g Our C h i l d r e n / L i b e r a t i n g Our N a t i o n s , Report of the aboriginal Committee Community Panel, Family and Children's Services L e g i s l a t i o n Review i n B r i t i s h Columbia, O c t o b e r , 1992. 74.  Patrick  Johnson,  Ibid,  page  23.  75. C a r o l y n S t r a n g e " P a t r i a r c h y M o d i f i e d : The C r i m i n a l Prosecution of Rape in York County, Ontario, 1880-1930" p. 207, in Jim Phillips, Tina Loo and Susan Lewthwaite, Crime and Criminal Justice, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1994 76. I n s p e c t o r o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s - C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y B . C . A . R . S . GR 227 F i l e 2 . A v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h w i t h p e r m i s s i o n t h r o u g h the Freedom of I n f o r m a t i o n A c t . 77.  B.C.A.R.S.  78.  B.C.A.  R.S.  GR2738 GR2738  Box Box  3 No.  54.  3 No.  58.  46  79.  The C r i m i n a l  Code  of  Canada  was  adopted  in  1898.  8 0 . S e e f o r e x a m p l e , B . C . A . R . S . , G R 2 7 3 8 B o x 3 N o . 16 w h e r e t h e C i t y S o l i c i t o r suggests to the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l that charges c a n b e l a i d a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t s u n d e r S e c t i o n 242 o f t h e C r i m i n a l C o d e when c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n l e f t i n t h e c a r e o f t h e h o s p i t a l f o r nine months. I n t h e r e s u l t , some t i m e l a t e r , V . G . H . a p p l i e s t o t h e C o u r t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n be c o m m i t t e d t o t h e c a r e o f t h e Catholic C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society of Vancouver. 81.  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738 B o x 3 N o .  9.  82.  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738 Box 3 N o .  10.  8 3 . F o r e x a m p l e , B . C . A . R . S . G R 2 7 3 8 B o x 3 N o . 3 3 , 35 a n d 4 4 . I n later case the Saskatchewan Superintendent requests of c o u n t e r p a r t t h a t he "have one o f y o u r i n s p e c t o r s l o o k i n t o " s i t u a t i o n , and the r e q u e s t i s t u r n e d over to the p o l i c e , and results forwarded. 84.  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738 Box  3 No.  36  85.  B.C.A.R.S.  GR2738 Box  3 No.  34  86. 1917 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f Stuart Co. Vancouver, B . C . 87.  1916  Annual  88.  Adamoski,  Report  Op C i t  p.  the C h i l d r e n ' s 1917  Aid  Society,  the his the the  Clarke  &  8.  p.19.  89. M a u r i c e N . C o t e , The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of the Catholic A r c h d i o c e s e o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 5 3 , M . A . T h e s i s , U . B . C . , 1953 p . 8 . A g a i n a t p a g e 17 h e w r i t e s : " A l t h o u g h f o s t e r homes w e r e b e i n g u s e d t h e r e was l i t t l e o r n o s u p e r v i s i o n b y t h e S o c i e t i e s . I f a c h i l d was n o t r e t u r n e d t o t h e S o c i e t y i t was c o n s i d e r e d ' a d o p t e d ' . " 90. Children's Report f o r the 10.  A i d Society of Vancouver, Twenty-Eighth Annual Year E n d i n g December 31, 1929 V a n c o u v e r , 1930. p.  91. Adanoski, d i s c r e d i t e d as  for example outlines a b u s e s w e r e made p u b l i c .  how "free Op. C i t . p.  homes" 87.  9 2 . J . J . K e l s o , R e c o r d o f Work f o r N e g l e c t e d a n d D e p e n d e n t O n t a r i o K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , T o r o n t o , 1906. p . 16.  were  Children  93. C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V i c t o r i a M a t r o n ' s R e p o r t , 1929, B . C . A r c h i v e s . T h e same r e p o r t a l s o s t a t e s " T h i s y e a r q u i t e a n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n have been p l a c e d i n homes".  94. B . C . A . R . S . Children's Aid Society O f f i c e r ' s Report, 1931. 95.  Family  Victoria  Welfare,  Victoria,  96.  Report  97.  Cote,  of  the  Op C i t .  Relief  Victoria  and  Survey  of  Child  Medical  Protection  Committee  B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d p.  Victoria,  in  Health  Greater  1931-32.  Welfare  Survey  p.  7.  74  98. B . C . A . R . S . GR2738 Box 1. A v a i l a b l e f o r r e v i e w b y researchers w i t h p e r m i s s i o n under the Freedom of I n f o r m a t i o n A c t . ' 9 9 . T h e C h i l d r e n ' s Home was a n o r p h a n a g e p l a c e m e n t arm o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C . A . S .  which  was  the  principal  100. D i a n n e P u r v e y , " A l e x a n d r a Orphanage and F a m i l i e s i n C r i s i s Vancouver, 1892-1938" in Russell Smandych e t al. Dimensions C h i l d h o o d 107-133  in of  101. B . C . A . R . S . G . R . 2733. T h i s f i l e i s , c o m p r i s e d 6 boxes of files c o n t a i n i n g 279 c a s e f i l e s , organized alphabetically, covering the p e r i o d of t h e O r p h a n a g e ' s o p e r a t i o n 1906-1933. As w i t h t h e r e c o r d s of the Superintendent of Neglected Children, these records are available through B.C. Archives and Record Service with authorization for research purposes through the Freedom of I n f o r m a t i o n A c t . R e c o r d s on f o s t e r c a r e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f the Roman C a t h o l i c A r c h d i o c e s e o f V a n c o u v e r a r e c l o s e d t o researchers. 102. B . C . A . R . S . GR2733. Box 2 P a r e n t s were t y p i c a l l y a s k e d t o pay $10 p e r month f o r the care of their children, and where such agreements to pay e x i s t e d there i s r e c o r d of e f f o r t s to enforce. 103.  Abramovitz,  Op C i t .  at  page  196-197.  104. The l e t t e r h e a d of the L o y a l True B l u e and d e s c r i b e s t h e a i m o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as b e i n g t o c h i l d r e n "aged 2 t o 12".  48  Orange Orphanage provide care for  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abramovitz, Mimi. 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C . 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 1 5 V i c t o r i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1973 u n p u b l i s h e d manuscript Superintendent  of  Neglected  Children 53  (1917-1943)  GR 2 7 3 8 9  f  TABLE 1 DISCHARGE SUMMARIES VANCOUVER CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY Reported Monthly 1922-1929  APPENDIX  Date  Foster/ Board/Free  1922 Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec  2 2 1 1 1 1  1926 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec  Other  2 7  3 2  2  1 1 2  2  1 3 1 1 1 9  1 6 4 3 7 4  1  Industrial School  1  2  2  2 1  5 2  1 3 1 6 4  1  1 10 6 1  1  Abducted by mother  C.A.S. Home guaranteed Home quarantined Oct, Nov, Dec  1 1  f Feb J Mar  Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov  at S e r v i c e  3  1924 Jan Mar Apr Aug Sept Oct ^  1925 Jan  Help/wage 18 years  3 1  1923 Jan Feb May June July Aug Sept\ Oct / Nov Dec  Nov Dec  Returned t o Parents Relative  6 2 4 3  -  2 1  6 2 2 11 4 6 8/1/ 1 /7/1 3 IM 6/3/  1 7  3 8 4 1  1  Hospital  2  1  Industrial School  2  2 1  to C.A.S. transferred Merchant Marine  1 1 1 1  Catholic C.A.S. Home Jewish Orphanage Girls' Industrial School In training hospital  3  4 1 1 3 4 (3 by Court) 2 3 1 3 6 1 1  2 1  2 3 2  1 1  2 2  3  5  54  TABLE 1 continued DISCHARGE SUMMARIES VANCOUVER CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY Reported Monthly 1922-1929 Date  1927 Jan Feb Mar  Foster/ Board/Free  18 years  1  June  3  July  1/1/  Aug  3  Sept  /1/1  Oct Nov  13/4  Dec  /5/4  6/4/ 10/  /12/2  1 3 20 1  4  4  1 1 1  3  Mar Apr  /5/3  6 7  May  7 /16/5  2 3 3  June  1 3 2 6 10 2 1 8 1 1 1 1  3  /12/ /6/1  /4/ nm  1 13  Aug  4  m nn  /5/3 7//1 1215  m  Sept  1  BI2  2 1  1  2  1 3 1  4  3  2  23 1 2 1 1 2 13 1 6 12 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 3 1 1  4  1  3  5  /6/1  ni  3 3  1  1/11/3  /11/1  Other  3 2 2 1 1  Feb  July  Help/wage at Service  2/5/ 1 3  Apr May  1928 Jan  Returned to Parents Relative  1  55  1  2 2 5 1 7 12 7  Died Board Salvation Army Died C.A.S. on order SS Dept. Vancouver Hospital Died Alexander Orphanage Out summer holidays to United Church Protective Home for Girls to mother without permission Home for Incurables Detention Home to Hospital and returned Hospital Essondale Detention to Industrial School Hospital Essondale Deaf Industrial Hospital  Hospital Married Hospital Died Other Hospital Hospital Holiday Hospital Hospital Industrial School Hospital Industrial School Out without permission Visit father Pass Through Holiday Holiday Essondale Holiday C.A.S. camp to board Returned to free Returned to board Hospital Holiday Died Hospital Died  T A B L E 1 continued DISCHARGE SUMMARIES V A N C O U V E R C H I L D R E N ' S AID S O C I E T Y R e p o r t e d Monthly 1922-1929 Date Oct  Dec  Foster/ Board/Free  15/ ni ni  Returned to Parents Relative  18 years  2  1  2  1  1/7/1  1  4  1 1 1  2  1/4/2  ,1  1929  Jan  4 3  /B/1  ni  3  Feb Mar  /4/4 1/2  1  Apr  /1/6 2/3/3  3  May  /6/4 7  2  1  2  1 2  3 1 3  June  3 1  3 2 /3/3 July  151 nn \ni  Aug  6 /5/2 /7/1  Sept  /B/1 /8/1 /15/ /9/4 /1/  Oct  Nov Dec  9  ni2  Other  3  1/1/5 2/8/2 /4/3  m  Help/wage at Service  4  1 1  1 1  3  (by Court)  5 4 1  1  4 1 6  1  8 4  in  2/8/2 /1/4  Hospital  2 1 1 3 1 3 1 7  Hospital Free to board Board to free Hospital Shelter Industrial School Holiday Ran away from foster Hospital  8 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 8 6 1 3 2 6 1 5 1 10 11 11 6 1 14 3 14 10  Returned to home Hospital Returned Essondale Hospital to Home Finland Industrial School Hospital Deported Hospital To Shelter Hospital Essondale Catholic Married To Shelter Holiday Hospital YMCAWage To Shelter Camp 1 Holiday Hospital Camp Holiday with father To Shelter Free Holiday . Hospital To Shelter  3  2  (by Court)  4  1  2  4  1  4  5  5 1 1 2 8 4 3 1 1 5 18 3  To Shelter Industrial School Pays own board Hospital Industrial School (Doukhobour) To Shelter Hospital Essondale Detention To Shelter, To Hospital To Shelter  Source: Superintendent of Neglected Children G R 124 Vol 3 B.C. Archives and Records Services, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. The original categories have been retained wherever possible. Note: Included under the category of foster children, are discharges recorded as "adoption probation." The figures should be approached with caution since the reporting categories shift over time, and the meaning ascribed to those categories also changes.  56  TABLE 2 DISCHARGE SUMMARIES VANCOUVER CATHOLIC CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY Reported Monthly 1922-1929 Date  Foster/ Board/Free  Returned t o Parents Relative  18 years  Help/wage at Service  Other  1922  Died  May July Dec  1923  Transfer to Monastery  Apr May June Sept Oct  1924  Other St. Paul's Sisters to Sisters of Immaculate Conception (adoption)  Jan Mar May July Nov  1925  Mar Apr May July Aug Sept Dec  1926  10  June  1  2 1  to Cabin Boy to Monastery "halfbreed"  1 2 1  Monastery Died Other  2 1 1 5 1 1 2  Died Died Kamloops Indian School Died Monastery Other Died  1 1  Monastery Hospital  1  Sisters of St. Joseph's Hospital  1 1  Work at St. Joseph's Hospital Arrested by Police  1  Boy's Home  July  1927 Jan May Dec  1928  Apr July  3* 3  Sept Oct Nov  1  1929  Jan Feb  1 1 1  June Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec  1  1 4  (2)* 6  1 3  1  2 2 3 10  1 3  1  • no change • 2  * 2 of the 3 foster placements were to relatives Source: Superintendent of Neglected Children GR 124 Vol 3 B.C. Archives and Records Services. Although the reports are to be submitted monthly, there are gaps in the material which are shown. The relative chosen most often for return was a grandparent.  57  TABLE 3a DISCHARGE SUMMARIES VANCOUVER CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY Cumulative bv Year 1922-1929 Date  1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929  Foster/ Board/Free 10 33 17 18 47/12/1 43/20/5 24/174/53 24/27/44  Returned t o Parents Relative 7 3  7  1  1 3 8 9  23 32 44 44 42  18 years  Help/wage at Service  34 37  19 15 6 13 31 26 25  2  Other 14 1 3 2 7 71 142 185  TABLE 3b DISCHARGE SUMMARIES VANCOUVER CATHOLIC CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY Cumulative bv Year 1922-1929 Date  1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929  Foster/ Board/Free  2 4 3 3 13 8 7  Returned t o Parents Relative 3 10 2 13 7 22 9 19  18 years  Help/wage at Service  Other  1  5 2 2 3 11 4 8 1  1 1 3 3 1 13 3 3  1 1 7 1  Source for Tables 3 a and 3b: Superintendent of Neglected Children B.C.A.R.S. G R 124 Vol. 3. Note: The above are summaries of Tables 1 and 2 respectively.  58  

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