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Planning for the planning school: making the case for enhanced applied learning opportunities at the… Nicol, Jerome Sowle 1996

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PLANNING FOR THE PLANNING SCHOOL: MAKING THE CASE FOR ENHANCED APPLIED LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  by  JEROME SOWLE NICOL B.A., University of Waterloo, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1996 (g) Jerome Sowle Nicol, 1996  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be  department  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  -11-  ABSTRACT  The nature and role of higher education is changing. The relationship between the University, the student, and greater society is shifting. Internal (e.g., concerns about accessibility and inclusion) and external (e.g., funding and market demands) forces are converging in a way that demands a reconceptulization of higher education and the learning process. This thesis tries to identify and integrate varying facets that contribute to the changing landscape of university education, specifically focusing on the increased interest in applied learning opportunities at the post-secondary level, and the ways in which different professional and academic programs are incorporating such opportunities into their programs. These findings are interpreted in the context of graduate planning education at the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP). This qualitative study is grounded in an analytical reflection informed by my own experiences as a graduate planning student, by a review of academic, professional, government, and public press literature, and by interviews with various academics, administrators, and practitioners. The thesis presents an overview of literaturefromthe field of planning education, and an introduction to the literature of higher education. This is followed by an examination of graduate planning schools in Canada and analogous professional/academic programs in British Columbia, which provide ample evidence and support for the emerging practice of incorporating  -indifferent types of applied learning opportunities (e.g., co-op program, internship, and practicum). A summary of trends, models of innovation, best practice ideals, and recommendations for graduate planning education at SCARP conclude the thesis. Most importantly, the recommendation is made for the school to continue and improve its trial internship program as well as persist in exploring ways of providing applied learning opportunities to students. Programs in higher education must continue to link theory and practice in ways that best serve students in today's changing society.  -ivT A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables Acknowledgement Dedication Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Context 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Research Questions 1.4 Approach, Scope, and Methodology 1.5 Terminology 1.6 Rationale 1.7 Thesis Outline Chapter Two: Literature Review  ii iv vi vii viii 1 1 5 6 6 9 9 10 12  2.1 Introduction 2.2 The Early Years 2.3 Contributions of Perloff and Friedmann 2.4 Late-1960s Expansion 2.5 Planning in Turbulence 2.6 Welcome to the'80s 2.7 What do the 1990s offer? 2.8 Focus on Applied Learning Opportunies 2.9 Summing up  12 12 15 17 18 21 25 30 32  2.10 Theories from Higher Learning and Concepts of Profession  34  Chapter Three: Models in Action 3.1 Historical Development of Applied Learning Opportunities 3.2 The Role of the Government 3.3 University of Waterloo and the Advancement of Co-op  37 38 39 44  -V-  3.4 Models in Action 3.4.1 Analogous Professional/Academic programs 3.4.1.1 University of Northern British Columbia 3.4.1.2 University of Victoria 3.4.1.3 Simon Fraser University 3.4.1.4 University of British Columbia 3.4.2 Graduate Planning Schools 3.4.2.1 Technical University of Nova Scotia 3.4.2.2 University of Toronto 3.4.2.3 York University 3.4.2.4 University of Calgary 3.5 Summary Chapter Four: Analytical Perspectives 4.1 Summarizing the trends 4.2 Models of Innovation 4.2.1 UNBC 4.2.2 UVIC 4.2.3 SFU 4.2.4 UBC 4.2.5 Graduate Planning Schools 4.3 What is best practice? 4.4 Recommendations for graduate planning education at SCARP 4.4.1 History of SCARP 4.4.2 Current Situation at SCARP 4.4.3 Applied Learning Opportunites 4.4.4 Potential for change at SCARP Chapter Five: Conclusions 5.1 Summary of Implications/Applications 5.2 Ideas for further research and follow-up 5.3 Concluding Remarks Bibliography  46 46 46 48 50 52 56 56 57 58 59 60 62 62 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 77 77 82 82 90 90 93  -viTJST OF TABLES  Table 1.  Summary of Programs Surveyed  -Vll-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish to acknowledge the contributions that two individuals have made to this undertaking. First, I wish to thank my supervisor Thomas Hutton for providing me with support, encouragement, and guidance. Next, I wish to thank my wife Jennifer for her timely editing, proofreading, and reassurance that I would carry this project through to its conclusion.  -Vlll-  DEDICATION  I dedicate this thesis to my son Keegan, who proves every day that if you have a why, you will certainly find a how.  -1CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Context This thesis is about professional/academic education, planning education, and the School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at the University of British Columbia. It is about change in what and how things are taught. It is also about the relationship of the student to the university, the university to the community, and the student to the community. This thesis is a synthesis of ideas, a convergence of understanding. Higher education and by extension planning education, is under assualt from many sides, both internal and external. Internal confrontations centre around issues of race and gender (e.g., the recent debacle in the political science department at the University of British Columbia). Debates about political correctness sour the public's perception of higher education and poison the academic environment for students, faculty, and staff (Galloway, 1992). Critical works such as Allan Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind (1987). Dinesh D'Souza's Illiberal Education (1991), and Wilfred Cude's The Phd Trap (1987) concentrate on the deficiencies of higher (and graduate) education, particularly in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. In Canada, critics focus on the mediocre quality of education and the uneven quality of university administration (Fulford, 1987; Frum, 1988). A recent survey conducted at the University of British Columbia revealed that graduate students have a high level of dissatifation with the  -2-  career advising that they receive from their advisors and departments (Guppy & Trew, 1995). On the externalfront,the Federal government and most provincial governments are engaged in cost-cutting measures in order to rein in government spending. This action is being taken in order to reduce or eliminate deficits and begin to paydown the accumulated national and provincial debts. Along with health and welfare, education budgets are targeted for cutbacks. Universities budgets are being frozen or cut, which is resulting in programs being trimmed, amalgamated or eliminated, faculty positions left vacant, tutorial sessions chopped, support staff positions eliminated, faculty wagesfrozen,and/or student tuition fees dramatically increased (Lewington, 1995a). This trend begun in the 1990s will probably continue over the next several years. To bridge the funding gap, partnerships are sought between university programs and the private sector, typically with industry (Birenbaum, 1995). University development officers are kept busy soliciting alumni, philanthropists, and endowment funds. At the University of British Columbia, the "World of Opportunity" fundraising effort proved enormously successful — witness the massive construction boom across the campus. At the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning, the Vancouver Real Estate Foundation helped establish an endowment "to support activities which focus on Real Property Development and Planning through curriculum development, instruction, scholarships and research" (UBC  School of Community and Regional Planning, 1994:2.2). Despite the problems, criticisms, and cutbacks, accessibility to and participation in post-secondary education is routinely championed as important to the economic wellbeing (not to mention social and political health) of any nation that wishes to remain competitive in the global economy (Porter, 1991; Berube & Nelson, 1994). For the individual citizen, post-secondary education and a position in the "knowledge" sector is cited as the difference between being a "have" and "have-not" in the information economy (Lasch, 1995). However, a university degree does not necessarily guarantee the positive employment prospects that it once did, partly because of the poor economic climate but also because of a mismatch between what employers are seeking and what graduates have to offer (Lewington, 1995a). However, the lack of at least some post-secondary education or skills training will almost guarantee economic hardship. On the job and skills front, co-op education ("learning and earning") programs and other forms of applied learning are recognized as important to human resource development and economic competitiveness (Porter, 1991). Nationally, the government hires students through the Federal Summer Student Employment Program (Public Service Commission of Canada, 1994). In British Columbia, the Ministry of Skills, Training, and Labour funds university and college programs to establish and administer co-op programs in the range of $3 million (or more)  -4annually (Cooperative Education Funding Review Advisory Committee, 1992). My research suggests that there is a great deal of interest in this kind of opportunity in many professional/ academic programs at post-secondary institutions across British Columbia. The move to implement co-op programs, internships, or practicum is very real and pertinent and has been done for a variety of reasons — both internal and external — which reflect the present day realities of post-secondary education and the labour market. These experiential models are considered vital to enhanced learning opportunities, career preparation, post-graduate success and increased links between the professional and academic worlds. Primary concerns in addressing these issues are the increased cost of education, the length of graduate and professional/academic programs, and the applicability and relevance of the knowledge and skills acquired in these programs. Interestingly, researchers in the field of higher learning suggest that applied learning opportunities, referred to as "situated learning", can assist students and trainees to bridge the gap between theory and practice (Rubenson & Schutze, 1992). How does this general situation relate to the specific situation of planning practice, planning education, and the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning? In a recent survey of planners, "sixty-seven percent of respondents believe that the profession faces or is already in a state of crisis" (Witty, 1994:156). A review of recent literature on the topic of planning education suggests that the debate over course content and  -5field education has gained renewed currency (Feldman, 1994; Friedmann & Kuester, 1994). There are calls for increased links between the professional and academic world (Galloway, 1992). A t S C A R P , there has been considerable student and some faculty interest i n community outreach, increasing links between the profession and the school, and applied learning opportunities, interest which has been noted i n the minutes from Planning Students Association and General Purpose Committee meetings from 1990 to 1995.  1.2 Problem Statement M y purpose i n doing this thesis is to examine how planning and analogous professional/academic education programs are responding to the changing realities (e.g., shrinking market demands; decreased education funding) o f post-secondary and graduate education i n the 1990s. I w i l l overview what education institutions are doing and how these realities manifest at S C A R P . In essence, this paper integrates relevant literature from planning education, theories from higher education, and specific examples from practice that exist i n university academic and professional programs across British Columbia as well as i n Canadian graduate planning schools. B y synthesizing and interpreting this information, I w i l l examine the applications o f these realities i n the current planning education context and then make specific recommendations on the aspects I believe might be considered i n the S C A R P context. This is a pertinent time to be examining the role o f education i n society. It is a  -6-  contentious period characterized by heated debate about the nature of higher education (e.g., reflection versus relevancy, critical thinking versus vocational skills, applied knowledge versus theoretical understanding). Those programs that have their feet in two communities (professional and academic) seem particularly involved in the debates, though they are potentially the best able to provide students with the best of both worlds. Ideally this is not an either/or proposition but rather, an opportunity to give students both applied and theoretical learning opportunities. To cling too closely to one position is torisklosing out on the benefits offered by the other position.  1.3 Research Questions There are three general research questions that emerge from the problem statement: 1. What does the literature on planning education and higher education reveal about the topic of applied learning? 2. What are these applied learning models? Why are these models being adopted? 3. How might this new focus on applied learning be interpreted in the SCARP context? Why might SCARP be a suitable application for these models?  1.4 Approach. Scope, and Methodology This is a qualitative study grounded in analytical reflection that is informed by my own experiences as a graduate planning student, by readings in academic, professional, government,  and public press literature, and by interviews and correspondence with different academics, administrators, and planning practitioners. I am engaged in a cross-disciplinary research investigation, with an eye toward drawing on the experiences of other professional schools (planning and planning-related) and relevant learning theories to understand how these experiences might be brought to bear on the SCARP program. My research objectives are: 1. ) to review the relevant literature from planning education and higher learning; 2. ) to gather and analyze programme curriculum information from relevant faculties, departments, and professional/academic programs at post-secondary institutions in British Columbia that have instituted co-op programs, internships, or practicums; 3. ) to gather and analyze programme curriculum informationfromgraduate planning schools across Canada that have instituted internship,co-op, or practicums; 4. ) to interview key informants (i.e., program administrators) about their programs and in particular the applied learning aspects of their programs; 5. ) to detail the history, current situation, applied learning opportunities, and potential for change at SCARP; 6. ) to integrate and use the information generated from these sources to examine what the relevance to planning education and SCARP is; 7. ) to draw conclusions from the findings and suggest ideas for further research.  My reason for examining professional/academic graduate and undergraduate programs at the four British Columbia University campuses, is to provide a broad context for understanding the change at the post-secondary level. In deciding which planning programs to examine, I culled information from the Guide to Graduate Education in Urban and Regional Planning (Prakash & Brusi Amador, 1992). There are 87 schools listed in the index of which nine are Canadian. A review of the Canadian schools indicated that seven of them have Canadian Institute of Planners member status. These schools are: University of British Columbia, University of Calgary, Universite de Montreal, Technical University of Nova Scotia, University of Toronto, University of Waterloo, and York University. Of these seven, three of them (TUNS, Toronto, and York) have some form of applied learning opportunity tacitly stated in the formal degree requirements section of the guide. Recently, the University of Calgary added a preceptorship (similar to an internship) to their program. I chose to examine these four schools in order to discover each school's rationale for having such a program and how these programs operate. The blend of professional/academic programs in British Columbia and the four Canadian planning schools offers a good representation of various kinds of programs and models. Additionally, I will examine the University of Waterloo co-op education program because it operates the oldest and most comprehensive co-op programs in Canada, and has served as a model for other Canadian universities.  -91.5 Terminology Before going any further, it is necessary to give definitions of the relevant terminology: co-op, internship, and practicum. For the purposes of this thesis, a co-op program is described as "an academic program combined with integrated work experience in alternating terms....(t)he practical experience complements academic studies" (University of Waterloo, 1995:5.2). An internship is "a class offered to . . . students enabling them to spend a number of hours in an office under the direction of a professional" (Woodcock & Dubois, 1994). A practicum is "the opportunity to develop the capacities needed to begin a career" (UBC Teacher Education Program, 1994/95:2). All of these models provide students an opportunity to practice for what they are being trained while under the watchful eye of a professional. In most instances, the practicum is a requirement of the profession (e.g., education, social work, nursing, counselling psychology). 1.6 Rationale Why am I doing this thesis project? As an interested and active M.A. student, former planning school student president, and a participant in the thesis review committee (1992-93), I supported the concept of internships at SCARP. I believe that a professional/academic program such as SCARP could be enhanced if it gave students an opportunity to be engaged outside the school in an applied learning environment. Also, I believe that a professional/academic program  -10such as SCARP can and should give students a degree of choice beyond the 16 courses and a thesis which presently comprise the current requirement. Further support for this position is evidenced by the trial internship program established in the Fall of 1995. Besides providing a degree of choice and flexibility, an internship program can provide students with a connection to the community and to the profession. Additionally, the learning experience could be enhanced by the interplay between theory and practice. 1.7 Thesis Outline The thesis is organized in the following way: 1. Introduction - setting the context. Problem statement. Research questions. Approach, scope, and methodology. Terminology. Rationale. 2. Literature Review - historical overview of the literature on planning education from the post-World War II era forward to the nineties. An introduction to literature on the topic of higher learning, in particular the idea of "situated learning", and concepts of profession. 3. Models in Action - historical development of applied learning opportunities. The role of government in supporting advanced education. Examples from planning and analagous professional/academic programs. 4. Analytical Perspectives - analysis of material presented and relevance, if any, to graduate planning education at SCARP. Summarizing the trends in higher education. Models  -11-  of innovation. What is best practice? Recommendations for graduate planning education at SCARP. 5. Conclusion - summary of implications/applications. Suggestions for further research. Concluding remarks. 6. Bibliography.  -12CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction  This chapter will outline some critical aspects of planning education as the twenty first century is approached. Planning has metamorphised - from the early 1950s, a time of organization and recognition, to the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time of expansion and turbulence, to the 1980s, a time of retrenchment, and to the 1990s, a time for renewed response. There has been much written on the topic of planning education; this chapter selects many varied ideas and concepts from the literature. The review of planning education literature pays special attention to those articles that discuss applied learning opportunities. For purposes of clarity, the development of the field will be presented chronologically. The history of planning educationfrompost-World War n onwards will be overviewed. Later in the chapter, theories of higher learning and concepts of profession will be summarized to provide context to my argument. 2.2 The Early Years  Prior to World War II, planning - and by extension planning education - was not well established in any country in the world, with the possible exception of Britain. Only a few Western countries had schools that offered courses in planning (e.g., United States, Britain, France, Germany). Planning was done by architects, landscape architects, and civil engineers  -13(Perloff, 1957). In the few institutions where planning schools existed, they were primarly an extension of schools in architecture, engineering, or fine arts (ibid). The instructors were drawn from the ranks of practitioners, and from other departments on campus. The post-war era saw the establishment of more planning schools and more emphasis on standardizing planning education curricula. There was also an important move to formalize planning processes and legislation during this period of social and physical reconstruction (Wolfe, 1994). There was little analysis of planning education at this time; the focus was on recognition and organization. The available literature consists of surveys about who taught planning and what they taught. For example, in 1952 a multi-country survey done by the International Federation for Housing and Town Planning attempted to address "(t)he problem of the most suitable education of planners" (IFHTP, 1952:5). A twelve-point questionnaire was mailed out to the national planning institutes of twenty-eight countries, including Canada. Overall, the paper concluded that the profession was barely developed in Third World countries and modestly developed in a few of the larger Western countries: Canada fell somewhere in between. More specifically, a profile sketched out by the chair of research for the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Humphrey Carver, revealed a profession very much in its infancy, though beset by change and growth. Education for town planning was established at four universities: McGill (1947), Manitoba (1949), British Columbia (1950), and Toronto  -14-  (1951). Only the University of British Columbia (UBC) required a two year program, the other programs were of a maximum one year duration. Based upon their program outlines and course descriptions, the primary focus of the schools appeared to be on architecture, land use planning, and public administration. In 1954, the chair of the American Institute of Planners (ATP), Fredrick Adams, wrote Urban Planning Education in the United States . "a report on the present status and adequacy of such professional education" (iv). The purpose for conducting this investigation was to discover, not simply what the planning schools offered, but how to attract more people into the profession, which was suffering from a shortage of qualified personnel (ibid). In 1959, a signpost on the profession's road to maturity was reached when a guide to planning education in the United States and Canada was produced by ATP and the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO). The guide listed twenty-eight American schools and four Canadian schools. It was also noted that "(n)early half of the programs include a requirement which is unusual for professional education~a required period of practical experience... usually during the summer months between his years of residence at school" (ATP & ASPO, 1959: 3). In 1960, the Community Planning Association of Canada reviewed planning education in Canada (CPAC, 1961). This was the first planning review undertaken by a Canadian organization. Modest in its efforts, this study of planning education was designed to extend the  -15discussion of planning education and the planning field to those with no direct connection to the field. Probably the most important finding was the discovery that "there (was) a shortage of fully-trained planners in Canada" (CPAC, 1961: 7). In 1964, the Town Planning Institute of Canada published a more comprehensive review, Education for Town Planning in Canada written by John Willis, a law professor at the University of Toronto. At this time, there were five planning schools in Canada; University of Montreal: Institut dTJrbanisme joined the other four in 1961. Of interest to this investigation was the author's finding that there was little agreement about core curriculum, and much uncertainty about the logistics of incorporating "practical experience" into planning programs (38-39). Willis concluded that three major areas needed to be addressed: (1) professional problems; (2) problems of sub-professional and super-professional education; and (3) planning school problems (1964: 40-41). 2.3 Contributions of Perloff and Friedmann The thoughts of two giants in the field of planning education and practice - Harvey Perloff and John Friedmann - will be presented as manifested in their works, which defined and set the direction for planning education and practice through the next several years. Perloffs Education for Planning: City. State, and Regional was published in 1957. The author's purpose in writing the book was to "raise the question of what is an appropriate  -16intellectual, practical, and 'philosophical' basis for the education of city and regional planners and attempt some tentative answers" (vii.). The book was divided into three parts: (1) Education of City Planners: Past, Present, and Future; (2) Education for Regional Planning and Development; and (3) Education and Research in Planning: A Review of the University of Chicago Experiment. Perloff s work denoted a shift toward a social science approach to planning that was at the heart of the interdisciplinary Chicago program. A leader in planning education, Perloff s work is considered seminal because he laid out a framework for planning education whereby the "professional planner (would be) trained as generalist with a speciality through a course of studies organized around a common core curriculum" (Feldman, 1994: 89). In 1966, Friedmann's influential piece, "Planning as a Vocation," appeared in Plan, the journal of the Town Planning Institute of Canada. Based on the author's experiences as a planner and educator, Friedmann (1966a) highlighted some of the major themes, theories, and issues in planning. The article had the following sub-headings: (1) Nature of Planning; (2) Planning and the Public Interest; (3) Planning and Politics; (4) The Ideology of Planning; (5) The Ways of Planning Thought; and (6) A Planning Society. Many of the ideas expressed in the fourth section were more fully articulated in a later work, Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action (Friedmann, 1987). Friedmann (1966b) suggested that in a planning society, the planner must participate in the "self-articulation of a social system" (25). He  -17viewed planning not simply as a job, but as a calling imbued with a sense of higher moral purpose. Friedmann did not underestimate the hazards or hardships of this calling: ...the planner must bring to his work a "natural inclination" to deal with the imprecise, the ambiguous, and the uncertain in an objectively rational way and to press forward to the clarity required by potential choice. Exposed to criticism, if not to outright hostility, from politicians-for being too idealistic;fromscientists-for being to rash in his handling of empirical data; from theoreticians-for being too practical-minded; from bureaucrats and scribes-for being too much oriented towards the future, he must have...the "nerve of failure": the capacity to bear up under strain, even defeat, and to persist in the unpopular.(1966b: 20-21) This work was very influential because the author demystified the planning field and an entire generation of planners were challenged to live up to "high societal and vocational ideals" (Galloway, 1988: 76). 2.4 Late-1960s Expansion The anticipated shortage of planners mentioned earlier was met by a great expansion of planning programs in Canada, which coincided with a general expansion of university programs across North America. In a relatively short period eight new schools were established: York (1968), Ryerson (1969), Saskatchewan (1969), Waterloo (1969), Queen's (1970), Calgary (1971), Laval (1971) and Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (1971) (Wolfe, 1994). In the United States, the number of students enrolled in graduate planning schools increasedfrom187 in 1954 to over 2500 in 1969 (Nutt & Susskind, 1970). In Britain, planning students became actively involved in planning and reviewing their education (Association of Student Planners, 1969). In  -18that same year, Harder (1969) conducted a review of American planning internships. Overall, the internship experience was rated highly, though Harder recommended that planning schools be more responsible in supervising the internships (ibid). 2.5 Planning in Turbulence The ideals of the 1960s reached maturation in the 1970s, as many of the concepts advanced during this earlier era were formalized. To elaborate, the notion of social change was met with an expansion of government activity designed to foster social equity. This was an exciting, yet tumultous period in planning education because many new ideas were forwarded about planning education and the positive role that planners could play in the "just", "great", or "open" society. The decade began with a special issue of the Journal of the American Institute of Planners devoted to planning education. As noted by the editor, "the impetus for this special issue of the Journal arose from the wide-spread feeling that there is something wrong with the state of urban planning education" (Hartman, 1970: 218). In what amounted to a call to arms, this issue featured the writings of numerous practioners and academics who called for a new approach to planning that emphasized the importance of activism, advocacy (first forwarded by Davidoff, 1965), and citizen empowerment for social change. Some of the writers (e.g., Schon, 1970; Doebele, 1970) considered field work and clinical practice vital to this new approach. Other authors (e.g., Rich, 1970; Jakobson et al, 1970) commented on curricular experiments  -19designed to reflect a more collaborative and open or humanistic approach to learning, as advocated by the noted psychogist Carl Rogers (1969). What was going on? These writers seemed to be responding to a period of persistent and unrelenting social change. Critical issues included widespread urban poverty (identified by Harrington, 1962), the protest over the war in Vietnam, the civil and women's rights movements, and incipient ecological concerns. The state's role in society expanded with initiatives such as the "war on poverty", affirmative action programs, and environmental protection. An important development that grew out of this concentrated effort and interest in "the crisis of the cities" was the introduction of urban studies programs that attempted to deal with the specific problems of cities, in particular the situation of the urban poor and minority groups (Council of University Institutes for Urban Affairs, 1970). Hosken (1972) considered it vital that "the widening gap between academic and city life be closed" (8). Others touted the importance of training students to be urban policy analysts (Seelig, 1972) and the value of urban studies programs (Rodwin, 1975). By the mid-1970s some of the energy that infused the profession dissipated, as planners and planning educators moved toward either a policy-orientation (Glazer, 1974), a focus on professionalism and practice (Susskind, 1974), or interest in planning methodology (Isserman, 1975). Planning in America: Learning from Turbulence (Godschalk, 1974) reflected the field of  -20planning in repose. This book was seen as a follow-up to Fredrick Adams' Urban Planning Education in the United States written twenty years previously (ibid). A thoughtful and comprehensive work, the contributing authors examined several of the current trends in planning education and the profession from four critical vantage points ~ planning theory; planning method; planning practice; and planning education — in order to evaluate the current situation and future prospects of the profession. Despite varied opinions, there was consensus that: (1) relationships should be strengthened between planning practice/education and societal action, and (2) the experience of social turbulence should be used to enrich planners understanding and skills (ibid: 12). In the same year the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning published their first Guide to Graduate Education in Urban and Regional Planning (Hightower & Susskind, 1974) for prospective students of planning. Since that year, this organization has published six more guides to graduate planning education and in the 1980s, began publishing a guide to undergraduate planning education. On the international front, the work pioneered by the IFHTP in the 1950s was continued and expanded by the International Association for Urban and Regional Research and Education (IAURRE), an organization founded in 1975. A primary objective of this organization was "to establish permanent communication in order to exchange information and experiences among  -21the member institutions dedicated to education and research in the field or urban development" (IAURRE, 1977: IV). On the Canadian scene, there was an increased interest in urban affairs (particularly housing), public participation, and ecological issues (Wolfe, 1994). The importance of urban management, as distinct from planning skills and issues, was magnified (Canadian Council on Urban and Regional Research. 1970). A major achievment in this regard was the establishment of the Ministry of State for Urban Affairs (Oberlander & Fallick, 1987), though it was not to last the decade because it ran counter to the nation's constitutional division of powers . The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation lent assistance to the co-op housing and neighbourhood conservation movements (Wolfe, 1994). Increasing awareness of environmental issues led to the establishment of environmental studies programs at several Canadian universities (Nash, 1973). The interest and concern about urban and ecological issues led Hodge (1973) to propose that planning education be focused on what he termed regional studies, though urban-regional studies may be a more appropriate term. In the late 1970s, three more schools of planning were recognized: University of Quebec at Montreal (1977), Technical University of Nova Scotia (1978), and Guelph (1980). 2.6 Welcome to the '80s This decade reflected a profession beseiged; critics were found on the left andrightof the  -22political spectrum (Gunton, 1984). The hope and promise of an earlier era that had witnessed an expansion of governmental activities in many areas of the society were slowed or reversed; the era of the good, just, or open society was at a close. Neoconservative governments were elected in Britain (1979), the United States (1980), and Canada (1984). Driven by ideology (see Freidman & Freidman, 1980) and under the guise of deficit reduction, these regimes began the process of deregulation and privatization (Wolfe, 1994). In British Columbia, a newly re-elected Social Credit government (1983) instituted a "restraint" program to cut government costs, and abolished statutory regional planning, echoing the move in the UK to limit local planning authority (Healey, 1985). At the same time, a protracted recession (1982-84) decimated the provincial economy throwing many resource-based employees out of work. Food banks began to appear in major Canadian cities for the first time since the 1930s depression; there were more homeless people. Terms such "restructuring", "information economy" and "globalization" entered our lexicon. As planners faced a "crisis of confidence", they had to grapple with the new realities of their profession. The development industry led some planners into entreprenurial or consulting positions, while others turned to community development work (Wolfe, 1994). Concern about the profession led to much reflection on the role and responsiblities of the planner in society (Rodwin, 1980; Batey, 1985; Gunton, 1984). Consequently, there was a "selective retreat from  -23context and a rediscovery of function in planning"(Dear & Laws, 1986: 249). On the educational front, the decade opened with the establishment of a new journal. In 1981, the first Journal of Planning Education and Research was published. As Perloff (1981) noted in the introduction to the first journal, the establishment of this type of journal marked a sign of maturity in the profession. Many different ideas about what was essential to planning education were advanced. There was a definite focus on skill development: e.g., negotiation/mediation, social planning, communication skills, urban design, geographic information systems (GIS) and so on. In 1986, a special issue of Plan Canada was devoted to the topic of planning education. This intriguing collection of articles reflected the great diversity of opinion and thought that has come to characterize the planning profession. Some of the topics discussed were third-world planning (Oberlander, 1986; Webster, 1986), the problems of professional accreditation (Grant, 1986; Lang, Keeble & Carrothers, 1986), the needs of practioners (Witty, 1986; Friedmann, 1986), and an examination of politics, power, ethics and practice (Forester, 1986). Forester developed these ideas further in his book, Planning in the Face of Power (1989). In the United States, similar concerns were faced as students turned awayfromplanning and the social sciences, and moved toward business and applied professions such as computer science (Krueckeberg, 1985). Isserman (1985) decried planning education's response, which was  -24to emphasize problem solving skills over the consideration of a future orientation. The ambiguity of planning education and professional standing seemed to be generating disinterest in the field; graduates from professionally-oriented and policy-oriented programs (e.g., landscape architecture) began to assume certain tasks and functions formerly associated with planning (Sawicki, 1988). Some planning educators argued for a return to the basics of physical planning, design, and land use (Weiss, 1988), while others suggested that planners focus on applied social design and practice (Hemmens, 1988). A growingriftbetween academics and practioners became very apparent (Zisser, 1988). Towards the late 1980s two movements emerged that seemed to give a much needed relevancy, focus, and direction to the planning profession: (1) healthy communities; and (2) sustainable development (Wolfe, 1994). Infused with concern about individual, community, and planetary well-being, these movements gave new meaning to the term, "Think Globally, Act Locally." Across Canada, healthy community projects were initiated, and national, provincial, and local roundtables on the environment and the economy were established in direct accordance with the suggestions of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987). To much fanfare, Canada's Green Plan was unveiled in 1990. Links were made between a healthy environment, a healthy society, and a healthy economy. The term "sustainability" came to denote a type of development that would not only be sustainable, but  -25also equitable (British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, 1992). 2.7 What do the 1990s offer? There were several critical events that marked the closing of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The dissolution of Communist governments in Eastern Bloc countries, the dismantling of the Berlin wall, and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of the "cold war." For some, the end of the Cold War signified a triumph of the West over the East; of one ideology, capitalism, over another ideology, communism (Heilbroner, 1989). Others imbued the situation with deeper meaning — not only was liberal democracy victorious, but the historical dialectic had ended with its triumph (Fukuyama, 1992). At first glance, this hypothesis was borne out by the rush towardfreemarket reform in Eastern Bloc countries and Third World countries, and the ratification of the Free Trade Agreement in North America. There was a great deal of optimism during this period, particularly in Europe, which was moving toward economic and social union and looking forward to future prosperity and enlightenment (Havel, 1992). Nascent democracies were appearing in many regions of the world: Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A new world order was emerging! What happened? Instead of a new world order, chaos and confusion has emerged. The break-up of the Soviet Union and the breakdown of the "cold war" order has resulted in several wars of ethnic nationalism (Ignatieff, 1994). The United Nations has failed in its efforts to stop  -26the fighting in the former Yugoslavia; one million people died in ethnic fighting in Rwanda. Analysts concerned with global security issues suggest that a host of social, economic, and ecological factors are leading to world of increasing scarcity, which is causing societal breakdown and resource conflict (Homer-Dixon, 1991; Kaplan, 1994). The era has been marked by an acceleration in disparity between the wealthy and the poor; some analysts suggest that government policies support this trend (Galbraith, 1992; Lasch, 1995). Unemployment has become endemic in many Western countries. Farrightparties in Europe (e.g., France and Germany) have gained support based on platforms recommending cuts to immigration and deportation of non-citizens. In the United States, the Republican-led Congress unleashed Contract with America (Gillespie & Schellhas,1994), which is designed to further rollback the role of government in society. Neoconservatives across Canada and the United States (e.g., Newt Gingrich, Peter Wilson, Preston Manning, Ralph Klein, and Michael Harris) have grabbed the spotlight. Different from the 1980s, this conservative agenda is as much about fiscal responsibility as about moral imperative (Frum, 1994). Conversely, in assorted Asia Pacific countries (e.g., Singapore, South Korea) the public sector has played a major role in the economic success and vitality of these nations: a type of neo-mercantilist trade approach that meshes national development interests with aggressive state control (Quah, 1988). In Canada, the Liberal government has begun the difficult task of cutting the national deficit and debt and  -27rethinking the role of government in society. Indeed, "what role for government?" may be the biggest policy question of the next century, as nations look for a balance between the market, the state, and so-called "third force" or non-profit voluntary sector (Valpy, 1995). The uncertainty of this post-modern era has been reflected in planning education, planning knowledge, and the planning field. On a globalfront,the United Nations has forged ahead with important conferences on "Environment and Development" (Rio, 1992), "Population and Development" (Cairo, 1994), "World Summit for Social Development" (Copenhagen, 1995), "Conference on Women" (Beijing, 1995), and "Habitat" (Istanbul, 1996). In the Vancouver region, initiatives such as "Choosing Our Future/Creating Our Future" and "CityPlan" have involved thousands of citizens in lengthy planning processes (Kellas, 1995; McAfee, 1995). According to some critics, the results of these exercises in public participation are somewhat dubious (Dakin, 1994; Seelig; 1995). As an alternative to public participation, Artibise (1995) has suggested that planners become more visionary and offer informed leadership. Others have forwarded the notion of sustainable community development with increased local participation and bottom-up community development (Boothroyd, 1991; Nozick, 1992). In 1994, the Canadian Institute of Planners published a special edition of Plan Canada to mark their 75th anniversary. This edition featured an abundance of rich essays divided into two distinct sections: historical and reflections. The "reflections" focused considerable attention on the state of the  -28profession (Dakin, 1994; Grant, 1994; Fielding & Couture, 1994) with much concern about ecological and social problems (Jewczyk, 1994; Chamberland, 1994; Tyler, 1994). Interestingly (and perhaps tellingly), only one of the articles was specifically about planning education (Hendler & MacGregor, 1994). In the United States, there has been considerable interest in the split between "field and academy" (Mandelbaum, 1993:140). Much of this concern stems from the precarious positions of some graduate planning programs in these times of government cutbacks (Galloway, 1992; Wachs, 1994). Some writers have suggested that planning educators must work to establish a core curriculum based more closely on a physical planning model and with closer ties to architecture (Carter, 1993; Dagenhart & Sawicki, 1992), while Dyck (1994) has recommended a design approach. Branch (1993) has argued passionately for the importance of orienting planning schools toward teaching "comprehensive planning (and) planning process" (250), whereas Christensen (1993) has focused on the need to teach students "savvy" (202), essentially an appreciation and understanding of power relationships. In an effort to revive planning education and practice, other academics have suggested collaborative models that link teaching, research, and public service (Galloway, 1992; Spain, 1992). In a similar vein, Wachs (1994) has pushed for more practitioner faculty. Conversely, Feldman (1994) has suggested that planning educators must focus on more traditional academia. Also, there has been recent attention on the  -29role that undergraduate planning education plays in training planners (Dalton & Hankins, 1993). Globally, there is keen interest in the former Eastern Bloc countries and in Third World education (Maier, 1994; Burayidi, 1993). Comparative or cross-national reseach has also attracted attention (Alterman, 1992). On the international front, planning educators from the Association of European Schools of Planning and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning met in Oxford, England in 1991 to discuss international planning issues (ibid). There is a plethora of competing ideas and thoughts about the nature of planning and what comprises planning education. Brooks (1993) has suggested that planners "call off the search for a defining paradigm" (144). A recent article by Friedmann and Kuester (1994) is of considerable interest because their findings were significant and relatively current. These authors began by suggesting that the pillars of planning education advocated by Perloff (1957) rational decision-making, comprehensiveness, positivism, and value neutrality — are eroding and have been contested for some time. In a effort to learn more about the state and direction of planning education toward the twenty first century, they sent surveys to 40 planning educators enquiring about challenges, skills, and roles associated with planning. The major challenges identified were concerns about global and domestic instability, and shrinking resources. The respondents identified the following five critical skill areas: (1) analytic/research, (2) multicultural awareness, (3) communication, (4) management, and (5) data processing (GIS).  -30The respondents suggested four important roles that planners can and could assume: (1) entrepreneur, (2) community activist, (3) mediator/ negotiator, and (4) program manager. Friedmann and Kuester (1994) concluded that five major concerns surround the planning education dialogue: (1) planning pluralism and collective identity; (2) core curriculum; (3) role definition; (4) curriculum integration; and (5) global/local dialect. In true post-modern fashion, the authors posed questions, not answers. Their final question was quite despairing: "(h)ow shall we teach our students not simply an awareness but also the tools (if there are any) for making sense of a world on the brink of chaos?" (Friedmann & Kuester, 1994:62). 2.8 Focus on Applied Learning Opportunities  This section summarizes those articles that specifically addressed the concept of applied learning opportunities. A theme that emphasizes the importance and necessity of practical training runs through the literature on planning education. Along with theory, research, and a grounding in the social sciences, Perloff (1957) listed practical training as elemental to the University of Chicago program. Later, the joint AIP and ASPO guide to planning schools (1959) stated that an internship was required by half of the programs. A review of internships a decade later focused on the importance of a well-monitored internship (Harder, 1969). In the 1970 special edition of the Journal of the American Institute of Planners, planning reformers recommended that field work become  -31integral to the education of planners (Doebele, 1970; Schon, 1970; Hartman, 1970). Susskind (1974) recommended that planning theory courses become more practically linked. In a later review of the field education model, Susskind, Emerson and Hildebrand (1977) outlined some of the problems or "tensions" that exist in this type of training. Heskin (1978) reviewed the "learning systems approach" introduced at U C L A , an approach that integrated theory and practice. Other academics highlighted the importance of the teaching/learning dichotomy and adopted an experiential learning approach that placed students at the centre of the process (Tyson & Low, 1987). Some concerned planning educators have looked outward and proposed establishing stronger links between the profession, public service, and research (e.g., Galloway, 1992; Spain, 1992). Woodcock and Dubois (1994) proposed the internship model as a method to bridge the gap between planning theory and planning practice, that has the potential benefit of providing students with skill development, networking opportunities, and resume enhancement. Friedmann and Kuester's (1994) survey of planning educators elicited a very thoughtful response that "planning education should become more practically focused and socially involved, and should prepare action-oriented community-centred leaders" (60). This thread of interest in bridging theory and practice has been part of the planning profession for the past forty years. At certain times, particularly during the 1950s, 1970s and the 1990s, the field has been infused with the interest, desire, and need to provide this type of  -32training. In the 1950s, the shortage of trained planners led the profession to offer summer internships to students as a way to experience the field. In the 1970s, the desire for social change, indeed social transformation, was a particularly strong and driving force that led planning students to work in neglected urban areas: reminiscent of the 1930s when planners were engaged in rural development work (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979). In the 1990s, several factors seem to be contributing to the renewed interest in applied learning: planning educator concerns about shrinking government resources, planning student fears about post-graduate employment prospects, and planning practioner worries about professional articulation. (Not to the mention the grave alarm about societal breakdown, habitat disintegration, and economic chaos.) By offering students the opportunity to do meaningful internships, there might be a potential for the re-invigoration of education, research, and the profession. As for the wider problems, Feldman (1994) stated very eloquently: ...it is essential that planning educators stay focused on the fundamental point that the value of planning education is its ability to make a difference for the world. Planning schools must take the leadership in making planning truly about designing and creating urban futures serving the interests of most citizens and making cities better places for all. If we succeed, this will be a significant step not only for planning, but also for the world in which we live.(lOl) 2.9 Summing up The past fifty years has seen a great deal of change and growth in the planning field and planning education. The struggle continues. There is much diversity of thought and opinion on  -33planning education and in many ways the debates have changed little over the past two decades. However, one important change is that planners are no longer secure with the knowledge that their profession offers them. The confidence in the profession that was apparent in earlier times has given way to uncertainty. Optimism has turned to resignation and doubt. This concern about the state of the profession has led to reflection on ethics and values (Dalton, 1992). In 1994, the Canadian Institute of Planners adopted an eight point Statement of Values: (1) to respect and integrate the needs of future generations; (2) to overcome or compensate for jurisdictional limitations; (3) to value the natural and cultural environment; (4) to recognize and react positively to uncertainty; (5) to respect diversity; (6) to balance the needs of communities and individuals; (7) to foster public participation; (8) to articulate and communicate values; and a three part Code of Professional Conduct: (1) the Planner's Responsibility to the Public Interest; (2) the Planner's Responsibility to Clients and Employers; (3) the Planner's Responsibility to the Profession (Canadian Institute of Planners, 1994a). Planning is still less about forward thinking than about response; yet as can be noted in the recent literature, attempts are being made to relate specific concepts to general principles that encourage a future orientation. The dichotomy in the profession between the anticipatory and the ameliorative can be summed up in the motto of the Canadian Institute of Planners, "The Managment of Change" (Canadian Institute of Planners, 1994b). The professional struggles that  -34marked planning in the 1980s are now being grappled with at the educational level. Students struggle for understanding in an attempt to come to terms with the profession itself and its place in the wider society. The value of planning education and the planning profession is noted frequently, but its place in the public eye is still regarded with doubt, hostility, and suspicion. Who and what does a planner serve? Is it the politicians as a policy expert, the public as a process-oriented facilitator, or posterity as an advocate for future generations of (all) global inhabitatants? Perhaps the time is nigh for a concentration of resources in order to advance the cause of planning; not for the sake of the profession, but for the sake of society. It will be important to rejuvenate the profession and the schools, not by justifying the relevance of the profession, but by accepting the need of society for planning and planners in all areas. It will be difficult, but then Friedmann (1966) warned that it would not be easy. 2.10 Theories from H i g h e r L e a r n i n g and Concepts of Profession  In this section, I deviate from the discussion of planning education towards theories of higher learning and concepts of profession that are relevant to the contexual aspects of this paper. It is important to touch upon the notion of "situated cognition" or "situated learning" that addresses "how knowledge is constructed and the context in which learning-instruction take place" (Rubenson & Schutze, 1992:3). These concepts have gained currency in recent years as cognitive scientists have posited new ideas about the interaction between knowledge,  -35experience, and process (Resnick, 1989). Taking their cue from craft apprenticeship, Brown, Collins, and Duguid (1989) have made the case for "cognitive apprenticeships that embed learning in activity and make deliberate use of the social and physical context" (32). Other researchers have focused their attention on a synthesis between general and specific knowledge; that is, how knowledge is acquired (Perkins & Salomon, 1989). Although not conclusive, there seems to be a general thrust in the direction of more contextual (or applied) learning opportunities (Rubenson & Schutze, 1992). Concepts of profession are also relevant to this discussion because there is concern about the state of the professions and the role of professionals in society. Some critics have suggested that the professions, and by extension higher education, have become part of the problem instead of the solution (e.g.Jllich, 1977; Orr, 1991). One critic (Glazer, 1974) noted that a problem with certain 'minor' professions (e.g., planning) is an inability to articulate a core body of knowledge and to set a professional standard as compared to 'major' professions (e.g., law). Of course planning is more generally defined and synoptic in approach than the more narrowly specialist major professions. Others have examined ways that professionals can improve their profession by linking theory to action (Argyris & Schon, 1974). Schon (1983) suggested that the crisis of the professions is a result of an overriding faith in technical rationality, which could be countered were professionals encouraged to "place technical problem solving within a broader  context of reflective enquiry" (69).  -37C H A P T E R T H R E E : M O D E L S IN A C T I O N  In this chapter, I will describe the various planning and planning-related professional/ academic programs that have instituted applied learning opportunities. As mentioned in Chapter One, there are three models that provide applied learning opportunities: co-op, practicum, and internship. A short history of the development of these applied learning opportunity models begins this chapter, followed by a summary of relevant documents from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Government of Canada, and the British Columbia Ministry of Skills, Training, and Labour. Next, the long-standing tradition of co-op at the Univesity of Waterloo will be presented in order to provide a context for what is occurring in faculties, departments, and professional programs at post-secondary institutions across the country. In British Columbia, Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia, University of Northern British Columbia, and University of Victoria have all started to incorporate more applied learning opportunities into their programs. Specific examples of programs transforming their curricula to give students more hands-on learning opportunities will be outlined. This will be followed by information culled from graduate planning schools in Canada that offer applied learning oprx>rtunities as part of their programs: Technical University of Nova Scotia, University of Calgary, University of Toronto, and York University. The chapter will conclude with a summary and interpretation of the information presented in this section.  -38-  3.1 Historical Development of Applied Learning Opportunities In the past, professions such as Medicine, Law, and Education included applied learning opportunites in their training programs, in keeping with the apprenticeship model "that was common in trades and crafts" (Carr-Saunders & Wilson, 1933: 289). Apprenticeship was described as "any system of practical professional training where the student enters the employment of a practicing professional man at less than the market rate of salary, the employer undertaking to instruct him in the practice of the profession" (ibid:7). Beginning in the twelfth century, the earliest established professional associations involved teachers and students who formed "gilds (sic) of learning" (ibid). These guilds were similar to those instituted by the artisans and were the forerunners of the modern university. The early universities were strongly influenced by the Church, thus anyone attending these institutions needed ecclesiastical training. With time, the non-secular influence waned and the university became a place for privileged study that served specialized functions. A division existed between the university and the professional or lower (i.e., vocational) school that lasted for several centuries. However, in the early twentieth century there was a wide scale incorporation of numerous professional programs into the American university system (Schon, 1983:36). Along with this influx of professional programs came the first co-operative education program at the University of Cincinnati in 1906 (Cooperative Education Funding Review  -39Advisory Committee, 1992:3). Co-op did not exist in Canada until 1957 when the University of Waterloo was established (for further discussion on co-op see section 3.3 below). 3.2 The Role of the Government  Governments around the world have begun to take considerable interest in the role of education in the economic development of a nation. The links between basic and higher education and the economic success of individuals and the economic development of the nation have been well-established (Porter, 1990). The relationship between higher education and employment is of particular interest to this study. At a supra-national level, the Organization For Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has undertaken several studies recently on the associations between higher education, employment, and economic development. In 1990, ministers of the OECD Education Committee emphasized the need to provide comprehensive educational and training opportunities for all (OECD, 1992). A learning society should "encourage all individuals to learn actively and continuously throughout their lives" (ibid:36). A later comprehensive review, From Higher Education To Employment (OECD, 1992), examined the "(t)he flows of graduates from higher education and their entry into work life"(3) in eighteen member countries, including Canada. A synthesis of the results suggested that Canada's problems were common to many of the industrialized countries surveyed (OECD, 1993a). More specifically, the review noted that despite the federal government's endorsement  -40-  of recorrrmendations to maximize the potential role of education in enhancing individual and economic goals, governments are also under pressure from taxpayers to demonstrate fiscal restraint (MacDowell, 1992). Skills mismatching -which creates overcrowding in certain professions, and decrowding in others (ibid) - was another important finding. Another study (OECD, 1993b) involved the analysis of humanities and social sciences (HSS) programs and the role of these programs in professional education. Major challenges for the HSS programs were (1) to give students the opportunity to develop generic skills, (2) narrow the gap between theory and practice, (3) transcend the limitations of discipline-based programs, and (4) incorporate different ways of knowing (ibid). Finally, the most recent report The Curriculum Redefined: Schooling For the 21st Century (OECD, 1994) examined curriculum reform in the wake of momentous technological, social, and economic changes. The underlying question in this book was "(c)an we shape the curriculum to strengthen our societies and enhance the quality of personal life?" (ibid.l 1) At the national level in Canada, Porter's (1991) report for the federal goverenment and the Business Council on National Issues, Canada At The Crossroads: The Reality Of A New Competitive Environment, pointed to the importance of adequately preparing citizenry for an increasingly competitive global environment. The author stated that "(h)uman capital is becoming perhaps the most important source of competitive advantage in the contemporary  -41world economy." (166) A two-pronged objective was outlined: (1) the needs of those requiring basic adult education (i.e., literacy and numeracy) must be met; and (2) more attention must be paid to advanced skills training, particularly in the area of skilled trades (167-69). Porter suggested that technical education needed to be strengthened, vocational training given a higher profile (170-71), and more "factor specialization" be encouraged at Canadian universities (178). The author defined specialized factors as those "that are relevant to one or a limited range of industries" (57) and further posited that this type of production is critical to a nation's competitive health. He also lauded the advancement of co-op education in the applied sciences as an encouraging sign of an education-government-industry partnership. Even closer links between this triumvirate were recommended in order to facilitate the "factor specialization" process (179). Porter encouraged a long-term investment in education and specialized skills upgrading, and amongst his priority policy recommendations, he promoted more extensive co-op program participation, particularly among those in the social sciences and the arts (383). Similar conclusions were made by the Commission of Inquiry on Canadian University Education (1991) headed by Stuart Smith (former head of the Science Council of Canada). In the short term, Canada could not afford all of Porter's prescription, that is, a custom-tailored national economic and educational strategy. However, various aspects of Porter's report have been acted upon through the establishment of University-based "Centres For  -42-  Excellence," and co-op education participation has more than doubled in the past ten years (Lewington, 1995c). The federal government does attempt to provide employment opportunities for students through the Public Service Commission of Canada's Federal Summer Student Employment Program (1995) and a variety of co-op placements, though as the government continues to downsize, these positions will probably be harder to come by. At the same time, the federal government has significantly curtailed its role in the economy and advanced the Free Trade agenda as recommended by the "Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada" (Coyne, 1995). The focus of the current government is on debt reducation, social policy reform, privitization, and enhanced global trade links (witness Prime Minister Jean Chretien's trips to Asia and Latin America). The senior level of government is cutting transfer payments and will likely download more responsibilites to the provincial governments. This trend could have both economic and political consequences. As the provincial governments assume even greater responsibilities (e.g., Health, Education, Welfare, Skills and Training), and Quebec voters lean toward some form of sovereignty association, Canadians could witness an era of unprecendented decentralization. Ironically, Canada could end up with - "de facto Meech Lake" - a strong economic union and a diminished political union. British Columbia provides an excellent illustration of this case. The New Democratic  -43government has unveiled "Investing In Our Future: A Plan For B.C.," the first provincial economic strategy in fifty years (1995). The objectives of this plan are to build a solid economic foundation that creates jobs, maintains a high quality of life, and attracts investment (Government of British Columbia, 1995: 4). The economic strategy is based on a three-pronged effort that centres around investments in "skills training, natural resources, and infrastructure" (ibid: 13). The government has particularly emphasized skill development because of estimates that approximately seventy-five percent of all jobs in 2000 will require some form of post-secondary training compared to fifty percent in 1992 (ibid). Through the "Skills Now" initiative, the government is linking highschool classrooms and workplaces; targeting welfare recipients for job training; creating more spaces at colleges and universities; investing in more advanced technology and applied education programs; investing in apprenticeships; and engaging in worker retraining (ibid). Interestingly, this type of economic planning mirrors the European (e.g., Switzerland) and Asian (e.g., Singapore) models, and does indeed echo some of Porter's suggestions. On the issue of co-op education, British Columbia has published several reports in recent years that demonstrate increased interest in this model of applied learning. The Cooperative Education Funding Review Advisory Committee (1992) outlined many benefits of the co-op model. For example, the cost benefits of co-op are substantial: for a $3 million investment,  -44employers paid out over $40 million in wages to co-op students. A survey of public sector co-op education employers that same year indicated a high level of support for the program, although a need to raise the profile of co-op was indicated (Mclntyre, 1992). From the mid-1980s to the present, the Ministry of Skills, Training, and Labour's Co-operative Education Fund increased its allocation of grants from $800,000 to $3.3 million (Annual Report, 1993-94). Of the $3.3 million, $2 million went to Universities and $1.3 million went to Colleges. The money provides program support and wage subsidization. In the same period, the number of students engaged in co-op activities, measured in "placement weeks", increased from 30,000 to 105,000 (ibid). The increased interest in co-op education among institutes of higher learning reflects a development of partnerships between education, business, and industry. 3.3 University of Waterloo and the Advancement of Co-op A pioneer of co-op education in Canada, the University of Waterloo has been in the business of co-op since its inception in 1957. Initially established in the Faculty of Engineering, co-op is now available in six faculties (Applied Health Studies, Arts, Engineering, Science, Environmental Studies, and Mathematics) representing 40 departments. Instituted in 1991, the Co-op Japan program offers students enrolled in engineering, science, or computer science programs the opportunity to work overseas for up to one year. There are graduate co-op programs in Applied Statistics, Computer Science, and Chemistry. Administered by  -45Co-operative Education & Career Services, the University of Waterloo has the largest co-op program in Canada with a participation of close to 9000 students and 2500 employers. The University of Waterloo is a founding member of the Canadian Association for Co-operative Education (CAFCE), which in 1979 established the following guidelines for co-op education in Canada: 1. each work situation is developed and/or approved by the co-operative educational institution as a suitable learning situation; 2. the co-operative student is engaged in productive work rather than merely observing; 3. the co-operative student receives remuneration for the work performed; 4. the co-operative student's progress on the job is monitored by the co-operative educational institution; 5. the co-operative student's performance on the job is supervised and evaluated by the student's co-operative employer; 6. the total co-operative work experience is normally fifty percent of the time spent in academic study, and in no circumstances less than thiry percent. (University of Waterloo, 1995:5:5) The success of the University of Waterloo co-op program has advanced co-op in Canada. There are now over 85 post-secondary institutions in Canada "that offer at least one co-op program" (CAFCE, 1992:46). Co-op is available in a variety of disciplines: Administration, Agricultural Studies, Architectural Studies, Arts/Applied Arts, Computing Science Studies, Design, Engineering/Technology, Environmental Studies, Hospitality/Tourism, International Studies, Recreation/Parks/Forestry, Sciences/Applied Studies, Social Sciences, Trades, and Transportation (ibid:44).  -46 3.4 Models in Action  The core of the paper, this section will be divided into two parts: those professional/ academic programs analogous to planning, and graduate planning programs. The programs surveyed are noted in Table 1. 3.4.1 Analogous Professional/Academic programs  A variety of professional/academic programs (graduate and undergraduate) and representational models of applied learning from universities across British Columbia will be presented in an institution by institution basis. 3.4.1.1 University of Northern British Columbia  Officially opened in August, 1994, the University of Northern British Columbia is Canada's newest university, and it appears to be adopting a progressive and pragmatic approach to higher learning. UNBC states that it will have a strong commitment to "service, teaching, and research" and "a particular commitment to the service of students" (UNBC, 199 5:5). The University stresses that courses will be designed to have "practical benefits for students and their future employment, and students can benefit from relevant work placements" (ibid: 5). In order to further this end, UNBC has established an Office of Cooperative Education to adminster the co-op placements and internships. In adopting the co-op philosophy, UNBC outlines the benefits of such a program for the students, employers, and the University. In particular, "a co-op student  -47-  Table 1 Summary of Programs Surveyed University and Program Name  Type of Applied Learning Opportunity  (1) Canadian Graduate Planning Schools: Technical University of Nova Scotia Master of Urban and Rural Planning University of Calgary Master of Environmental Design University of Toronto Master of Science in Planning York University Master of Environmental Studies (2) Other Programs: Simon Fraser University Community Economic Development Criminology Resource Management University of British Columbia Business Administration Department of Wood Science Engineering and Science Faculty of Medicine Fligher Education School of Library Sciences University of Northern British Columbia Management and Administration Natural Resources and Environmental Studies University of Victoria Faculty of Law Master of Public Administration  Co-op Internship Internship Practicum  Internship Internship Co-op option Internship Co-op option Co-op option Practicum Internship Internship Internship or co-op Internship or co-op Co-op option Co-op option  Note. Co-op is an academic program combined with work experience in alternating terms; internship is a class enabling students to spend time in an office supervised by a professional; practicum is an opportunity to develop career skills.  -48has a much higher probability of securing relevant permanent employment immediately after graduation" (ibid: 44). Presently, co-op is limited to students enrolled in the faculties of Management and Administration and Natural Resources and Environmental Studies. Four work terms generally alternating with study terms are required. Co-op is available to students in their 3rd and 4th years who maintain a "B" average. In addition to co-op, UNBC has developed a unique innovation, the internship program, that is "more academically intensive and is for one semester rather than four." (ibid: 45) The internship is for credit rather than pay. In consultation with an employer and faculty member, the student produces an assignment that the student must defend at the completion of the term. Also of note is UNBC's mandate to give due attention to the needs of northern B.C., and to establish links and exchanges with other universities in northern regions and the Pacific Rim. Critical to the Univerisity's approach is the recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary learning through the development of programs such as Environmental Studies, First Nations Studies, International Studies, and Women's Studies (ibid: 5). By putting forth such initiatives, UNBC is attempting to bridge the gap between the campus and the local/global community, and to provide a welcoming environment that offers opportunities such as co-op and internships. UNBC's interest in the careers of their students beyond the immediate academic scope is an important step in enhancing the interchange between the University, the Community, and the Student.  -49-  3.4.1.2 University of Victoria In 1975, the University of Victoria (UVIC) became thefirstuniversity in British Columbia to establish co-operative education programs. The establishment of a Co-operative Education Employer Advisory Council in 1977 provided and continues to provide important input to the Co-op Education program that helps to develop new co-op programs, suggest changes to individual programs, assess curriculum relevance, and follow labour market trends (UVIC, 1995). Initially offered in only physics and chemistry, UVIC co-op programs are now established in fourteen undergraduate programs, graduate studies and three graduate programs (Applied Economics, Coaching Studies, and Public Administation). There is also a Co-op Japan option. Co-op programs are available in various faculties — Arts, Business, Engineering, Science, Social Sciences, and Law — and students work 4 to 6 terms depending on the program. There are approximately sixteen hundred work terms available each year and there are over five hundred participating co-op employers across Canada (Public Sector - Federal, Provincial, Municipal; Private Sector; and International). The co-op program's expansion into graduate studies in of particular interest to this investigation. Graduate students in M.A., M.Sc, M.Ed, M.F.A., M.P.A., and Ph.D programs can participate. These placements are negotiated individually and generally provide students with the opportunity to work up to one year in an area related to their thesis research. Students can  -50also undertake work related to their discipline in a non-thesis option program. The graduate co-op thesis can be initiated by the student, departmental representative, or employer. The three graduate programs - Applied Economics, Coaching Studies, Public Administration — offering the co-op option contrast in their application of the model. In Applied Economics, students complete their core courses (generally one year) before commencing their work terms that form the basis of the thesis, which is completed on return to the campus. In Coaching Studies, which leads to an M.Ed, degree, students complete two summers of course work, a comprehensive exam, a major project, and an eight month co-op education placement. The non-thesis oriented Master of Public Administration (MPA) program offers a co-op option that alternates four campus and three work terms. The MPA program was established in 1974 and the co-op program in 1976. Students can complete the degree on a part or full-time basis, though only full-time students can participate in the co-op option. In conjunction with the Faculty of Law, the MPA program offers a joint degree that also incorporates co-op. Established in 1989, the UVIC Law co-op program is unique in Canada. Students participating in the co-op program complete one year of study before beginning the first of three or four co-op terms. The co-op terms lengthen the program by four to eight months, but "students graduate with sixteen months of work experience, an impressive resume and a network of contacts" (UVIC Faculty of Law, 1995). Students have worked for provincial governments in  -51-  B.C., Alberta, and Ontario, agencies and tribunals, private law firms, and foreign law firms. UVIC has a strong emphasis on co-op and offers a range of programs noted for their flexibility as well as a large degree of cooperation between departments. The availability of co-op at the graduate level MPA and in professional programs such as Law indicates the potential for co-op in other professional/academic programs, though the vagaries of the economy are important. Of 2602 undergraduate students enrolled in co-op in the spring of 1995, only 672 were placed (personal correspondence, J. Thomas, 1995). 3.4.1.3 Simon Fraser University Simon Fraser University established co-operative education late in 1975. Currently there are 39 undergraduate and two graduate (Mathematics, and the School of Resource and Environmental Management) programs participating in co-op. The co-op program in Resource and Enviromental Management, an undergraduate program in Criminology, and the post-Baccalaureate Diploma in Community Economic Development (CED) program will be presented in more detail. Each of these programs has applied learning opportunities that are integral to the educational experience. The School of Resource and Environmental Management initiated their co-op program in 1990 to give students with no previous program-related experience work an opportunity to engage in a co-op program. Students do one or two work terms between their four campus  -52terms. Co-op participants have worked for governments, industrial sector firms, nonprofit organizations, and consulting firms. Often the co-op assignment offers students appropriate material for completing their required research project. On average six students per year elect to participate in the co-op option (telephone interview, J. Runzer, August 17,1995). The undergraduate Criminology program gives students the opportunity to engage in a semester offieldpractice at the conclusion of their studies. The purpose offieldpractice is fourfold: (1) to operationalize theories and concepts learned in the classroom, (2) to offer Criminology students an opportunity to learn in a work environment, (3) to expose students to the particulars of life in a criminal justice setting, (4) to allow the students to evaluate their suitablity for work in the field (SFU School of Criminology, 1995: 4). Placements can be initiated by the School, the Agency, or the Student. The student is graded on "performance in the field, participation in feedback seminars and submission of two written papers" (ibid: 7). SFU's Community Economic Development Centre (CEDC) offers a diploma program in CED. Students entering the program are required to take four core courses: (1) The Context for Community Economic Development, (2) Techniques and Concepts for Community Economic Development, (3) Models and Cases in Community Economic Development, and (4) Project in Community Economic Development. The project is described as: ...an individual directed studies requiring advance planning on the part of the student. It consists of working in a community economic development group or agency of the  -53student's choice, with the project goal of "solving a problem in CED." It is initiated and designed by the student in collaboration with their course advisor. Students working toward this practicum course will need to exercise initiative in order to obtain volunteer or employment placement with a CED organization. (SFU CEDC, 1994:15) Students must complete and defend a report reflecting "the experience obtained during the internship" (ibid). Since the CED program's 1992 inception, six students have received diplomas. 3.4.1.4 University of British Columbia The University of British Columbia (UBC) offers arichand varied array of applied learning examples to scrutinize. The following is a representative rather than exhaustive list of UBC programs that incorporate applied learning opportunities: Forestry, Medicine, Library Sciences, Higher Education, Business Administration, Engineering and Science, Nursing, Counselling Psychology, Social Work and Education. These last four programs have long-established programs that include some form of practicum, placement, or internship because professional accreditation procedures demand that individuals graduating from these programs must have clinical or practical experience before entering the field as paid practioners. Conversely, the first six programs have recently instituted, or will institute, curricula changes that provide increased applied learning opportunities for their students. The Faculty of Forestry's Department of Wood Science has completely revamped its program. As the result of a two year evaluation process, the Department of Wood Science established a co-op education model in order to better match the skills and knowledge that  -54students acquire at the University with the requirments of the wood products industry (UBC Department of Wood Science, 1994). This change was initiated to better reflect the changes in industry, and to ease the transition from school to work (telephone interview, D. Barrett, June 1, 1995). This new option was implemented in September 1995 and engages students in a five year program involving two eight month co-op terms. In September 1996, the Faculty of Medicine will phase in a new program based on the results of a one year investigation by the Strategic Planning Committee on Curricular Revision (telephone interview, H. Summers, June 2,1995). The committee suggested that a more casebased approach to learning, which emphasizes student-centred learning, patient-based learning, scholarly activity, and faculty development be adopted (UBC Faculty of Medicine, 1994). The School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies (SLAIS) recently made changes to its program in response to student demands for more practical experience (interview with S. Crooks, May 2,1995). A "Professional Experience" project was initiated in 1994 that allows students to gain practical experience working on a particular project under the supervision of a qualified librarian working in the community (UBC SLAIS, 1995). This one term course is worth three credits and students are expected to spend approximately ten hours per week on the project (120 hours total). With an eye to ensuring good will, stipulations state that student projects must not take paid work away from others. This internship option has proven to be very  -55successful (interview, S. Crooks, May 2,1995). Library students have completed a variety of projects for university and college libraries, public libraries, and special libraries or information agencies/ organizations. The initiative seems to enhance the education of library students as well as allow them to make meaningful contributions (and contacts) in the library community. The Faculty of Education's Higher Education program is in the midst of establishing an internship for its Masters students. Students will have the option of doing credit work with the director of the University's Office of Budget and Planning. The program should begin in January 1996 though pertinent details are still being established (interview, L. Anders, April 25,1995). The Master of Business Administration (MBA) program has undergone profound changes recently. Following a rigorous two year review, a new concentrated program has been designed and introduced that includes an internship program as a key part of the new curriculum (interview, P. Shanahan, May 10,1995). In recognition of major changes that have occurred in the corporate and business world, and in response to criticisms of the program, the department responded by offering students a completely revamped program that began operation in September 1995. The program has been shortened to 15 months, and the emphasis is placed squarely on linking specific knowledge with generalized skills (i.e., a generalist-with-aspecialty). Therefore, practical skills (e.g., teamwork, leadership, and analytical abilities), professional experience opportunites (e.g., internship, group project or work abroad), and  -56professional development are considered as necessary and important as content knowledge (UBC Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, 1995). Starting in January 1996, a part-time option that takes three years to complete will be available also. Co-op education in the Sciences has existed at UBC since 1978, though it is still a relatively minor endeavor with few programs that offer co-op. Initially, the co-op program was introduced in order to encourage more female participation in Applied Sciences and Forestry (Chivers, 1994). It was hoped that hands-on experience might attract more women to these fields. Currently the following Applied Science Engineering and Science programs are engaged in co-op education: Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Metals and Materials Engineering, Computer Science, Engineering Physics, Physics, Statistics, and Microbiology-Biotechnology. The Science co-op program co-ordinator plans to expand and include students from Chemistry and Mathematics (interview, M. Iqbal, May 2,1995), and the Applied Science Engineering co-ordinators want to increase the number of students participating in co-op (Chivers, 1994). 3.4.2 Graduate Planning Schools There are four graduate planning schools in Canada that include applied learning opportunities in their programs. These schools are the Technical University of Nova Scotia, University of Toronto, York University, and recently the University of Calgary. Additionally,  -57the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning established a trial internship program in September 1995, a program that will be discussed in the next chapter.  3.4.2.1 Technical University of Nova Scotia The Master of Urban and Rural Planning (MURP) program at the Technical University of Nova Scotia (TUNS) is a department in the Faculty of Architecture. Founded in 1978, MURP's primary objective is "the education of individuals who intend to become Professional Planners" (TUNS MURP, 1994). Students complete four school terms and one work term with 13 courses (six core and seven elective) taken in the first three academic terms and the thesis completed in the fourth academic term. The mandatory work term is positioned in the summer term between the first and second year. Each year the co-op coordinator helps about twenty students find suitable employment (personal correspondence, F. Palermo, June 14,1995). The students receive pay (unless they do volunteer work) and credit for their work term. Work performances are evaluated by the employers. In the past, students have engaged in work that reflects the diverse nature of planning: "(r)esearch, feasibility studies, regulation interpretation, report writing, graphic presentation, land use planning and environmental impact assessment" (ibid).  3.4.2.2 University of Toronto The University of Toronto's program in Planning is situated in the Department of Geography. Since its inception in 1951, the program has undergone numerous changes. Initially  -58the school offered a two term diploma program, which was superceded by a Master of Science in Planning in 1963 (Willis, 1964). In 1982, the current arrangement came into effect. Students are now required to complete "7 semester core courses including a current issues paper, 5 semester courses for specialization, and 4 semester elective courses" (University of Toronto, 1994). The internship is not required, but it is strongly recommended because: (p)rofessional work experience in a Canadian planning environment is a valuable part of a student's education. Students will normally be expected to obtain this experience between the first and second year of the Program. This may also provide students with an opportunity to develop the basic background data needed to prepare their planning report. The staff of the Program will assist students in finding placements appropriate to their research and career interests, (ibid) If paid employment cannot be obtained, students can undertake volunteer internships. The opportunity to undertake a paid internship varies from year to year. In the late-1980s approximately 90% of students found internships, while in the 1990s' the average was much lower; 25% in 1994 and 60% in 1995 (personal correspondence, M . Ishibashi, July 31,1995). It seems that the economic recession of the early 1990s influenced the downturn in internships; however, the major difference between 1994 and 1995 rates of placement was due to the initiatives of a new director who encouraged faculty to approach potential employers (ibid). Between 20 and 30 students enter the program each year. 3.4.2.3 York University The Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University was established in 1968 to  -59-  offer a Master of Environmental Studies (MES) degree. In 1991, the program expanded to include Bachelor and PhD programs in Environmental Studies. Reflecting the nature of environmental studies, the programs are interdisciplinary and faculty have a wide range of backgrounds. The MES curriculum is described as open and flexibile (personal correspondance, J. Nonnekes, August 17,1995) and accomodates about 150 students each year. Except for an introductory course offered each fall to incoming students, there is no core curriculum. Students proceed through three stages in order to complete the MES: MES I, MES n, and MES III. An oral defence is required after each level. In the first stage, MES I, the "Plan of Study" is developed. In consultation with the faculty, students design individual programs that can include courses from other graduate departments and/or other universities (York University Faculty of Environmental Studies, 1995). In MES n, the Field Experience or Individual Directed Study component is started as well as related course work that defines the "Area of Concentration". The Field Experience option must relate to students plans of study and areas of concentration, and can be project-oriented or either paid or voluntary positions. The field experience option is divided into two parts: an introductory course that allows students to formulate their ideas for field experience, and the operationalization of the field experience itself. Ph.D students are also eligible for the field experience option. In MES HI, a major paper, project, or thesis that integrates thought and action is undertaken.  -603.4.2,4 University of Calgary Established in 1972, the University of Calgary's Faculty of Environmental Design (Planning) offers students a Master of Environmental Design (MED). Similar to York University, students are expected to undertake a "Program of Study". The MED is the most recent planning program to offer applied learning opportunities and it seems to reflect the University of Calgary's shift toward interdisciplinary studies and combined degree programs such as Law and Environmental Studies (University of Calgary, 1994). In 1994, the planning school initiated a "preceptorship program" that currently attracts about 20 students a year. This program is described as "a study/training arrangement made between a student and private industry or government agency" (University of Calgary, 1994:120). The purpose of the "preceptorship program" is to afford students "the possibility of conducting independent research, acquiring knowledge and skills which may be better obtained outside the University, developing an awareness of professional practice and preparing them for more focused studies in the Faculty" (ibid). The preceptorship is completed as directed studies in a triad arrangment between student-faculty-employer. Monthly progress reports and a final report must be submitted by the student. The employer and faculty member must submit final evaluations. The student can undertake the preceptorship for one or two terms depending upon the project involved. Initial reaction to the program amongst potential employers has been decidely cool as  -61-  only three planning agencies responded to a letter sent out by the school (personal correspondence, G. Beck, August 10,1995). 3.5 Summary Applied learning has a long and varied history, though the relationship of such practice to University programs is still relatively new. As witnessed by the OECD reports, this trend is occurring in many countries around the world as governments attempt to deal with endemic unemployment, technological change, social transformation, and economic upheaval. The concepts of continuous or lifelong learning have come to be seen as integral to individual and societal prosperity and well-being. In Canada, Porter's (1991) report singled out the University of Waterloo for its role in advancing co-op. Porter recommended that co-op education be extended to include more of the social science and the arts programs. Across the country, professional/academic programs at the graduate and undergraduate level are implementing minor or even dramatic changes in curricula in order to increase their practicalness and give students "real world" experience. In British Columbia, the government has invested in skills training as an integral part of the provincial economic strategy. In universities across British Columbia, numerous professional/academic programs have recently implemented variations on the theme of applied learning. Canadian graduate planning schools have also started to offer these opportunities to their students.  -62CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES In this chapter, analytical perspectives will be offered on the materials gathered and presented thus far. This will involve: (1) summarizing of the trends that are driving change and transformation at the post-secondary level; (2) advancing models of innovation based upon the programs examined; (3) identifying the best practice in terms of combining scholarship, applied program elements, and vocational relevance; (4) offering some general and specific recommendations for graduate planning education at the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning. 4.1 Summarizing the trends What is driving professional/academic programs to re-evaluate their curriculums and in some cases fundamentally restructure their programs? By summarizing the major trends I will attempt to draw some conclusions and answer this question about the nature of this change in post-secondary education. It seems that there are several important forces at work, which can be characterized as both internal and external to the University. Some of these were touched upon in Chapters One and Two: (1) the inclusion debate, which is essentially a demand that other voices and perspectives be included not only in the curriculum, but also in the practice and policies of the University administration, particularly in regards to race, culture, gender, and sexual orientation; (2) spending cuts to post-secondary education; (3) market demands for  -63increased relevancy (i.e., an emphasis on skills and practice); (4) a very competitive job market for University graduates; (5) government, students and some faculty desire change in the way that universities are administered and operated; (6) the potential for enhanced partnerships with businesses and community organizations as funding from the traditional government sources diminishes; (7) technological and communication changes; (8) concepts from higher learning (i.e., how we learn and how we know what we know); (9) ideas about career and professional development; (10) a movement toward more technical and vocational training. The most critical factor that seems to be propelling universities towards change is the potential for massive government cutbacks to post-secondary education (Lewington, 1995a). As the ministries responsible for post-secondary education examine how to allocate their decreased operating grants, university administrators are scrambling to make up the difference in their operating budgets. There are several possible options: raise tuition fees, slash departmental budgets, freeze or attempt roll to back wages and salaries (or demand concessions), and/or cut specific programs. In some cases, students in specific programs (e.g., business or dentistry) may be targeted for tuition fee increases (so-called differential tuition fees) because graduates from these programs often have greater earning potential than graduates from other programs. Or, these programs may be forced to raise more of their operating budget from the private sector. If one regards university programs like business and commerce as essentially subsidies for the  -64private sector, than perhaps it is not unreasonable that students in these programs should cover more of their own expenses, particularly if their prospective financial remuneration is much higher than for graduates in other programs. The University may also seek new sources of funding by appealling to corporations, philanthropists, and alumni. Lucrative licencing agreements may be sought to help defray costs (e.g., UBC and the AMS recently gave Coca-Cola exclusive rights to place cold beverage vending machines on campus). Universities may seek more collaboration with the private sector; many campuses already have industrial liason offices for such purposes. If students are faced with significant tuition fee increases — as is already the case in some programs: MBA students at UBC pay annual fees of $7000 (UBC Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, 1995) — then students will face difficult choices about how to pay for their tuition and living expenses. Traditionally students rely upon one or a combination of these sources: summer employment, part-time jobs while attending school, financial assistance from parents, loans, bursaries, and/or scholarships. However, with the emerging context of extreme financial burden, the co-op model becomes increasingly attractive since students can earn money while completing course requirements. The co-op model potentially lessens or negates the need for student loans, which have become increasingly onerous. Simultaneously, students also gain valuable experiences that enhances their opportunity for immediate employment upon  -65completion of their programs. Although the co-op program may increase the length of time it takes to complete a degree, evidence suggests that upon graduation co-op students find employment faster and earn more than non-co-op students (Cooperative Education Funding Revew Advisory Committee, 1992). Additionally, students reap other benefits from co-op such as "improved interpersonal relations, self confidence, and autonomy" (ibid: 4). Conversely, students may seek to accelerate their progress through academic programs in order to avoid paying additional tuition fees. The MBA program at UBC shortened its program from 2 years to 15 months, in order to meet student demands for a more intensive program. Other students may choose to do their programs on a part-time basis, so they do not have to give up full-time jobs. Recently, the MBA program initiated a three year part-time program. The increasing potential of distance education through institutions such as the Open Learning Agency, the interest in continuing education, and advancements in communication technology (e.g., video-conferencing, internet, worldwide web) could have a profound effect on the future of the traditional classroom setting. The movement toward more relevant skills and practice based programs is another indicator of change. For example, forest products companies approached the department of Wood Sciences at the University of British Columbia to re-orient the program in order to facilitate the establishment of a co-op program. There was a perception that students did not  -66have enough specific industry-based knowledge and experience; thus, the co-op option was established in order to give students adequate grounding in skills development. Evidence on co-op suggests that employers save money on recruitment and training, when students have particular or specific co-op experiences (Cooperative Education Funding Review Advisory Committee, 1992). In the MBA program, the business community was active in their committment to revamp the program in order to educate students to work in the business environment: leadership, communication, and interpersonal skills are considered as vital to an individual's success as an understanding of traditional subjects. In both the Wood Sciences and MBA programs, applied learning was deemed essential in the restructuring of these respective programs. In Wood Sciences, a fullblown co-op program was established, while in the MBA program, an internship program was formalized. Applied learning opportunities are viewed as an important bridge between the theoretical and the practical. On another front there is a move a foot to have life experiences, such as paid and unpaid volunteer work, be given more credit by post-secondary institutions (Lewington, 1995b). For example, mature students or highschool drop-outs could receive credit for specific work experiences that would advance them in their studies. In this way, education would become increasingly "individualized" (ibid). Factors such as the restructuring of the economy, government layoffs, and free trade are  -67-  having a profound effect on the job market. There is considerable competition for positions with the government, private sector, and non-profit agencies. As the number of full-time jobs decline, individuals are obliged to take two or three part-time jobs, or engage in temporary or contract work. Or they may start there own businesses, as more Canadians are doing. A recent Statistics Canada report found that there are now more individuals self-employed than working in government (Little, 1995). [The very idea of employment is changing, some authors (e.g., Rifkin, 1995) speculate that a "job-less", but certainly not a "work-less" society could emerge for a greater number of individuals.] These changes impact at the university level because graduating students want to acquire marketable skills in order to compete and/or develop unique niches for themselves. Acquiring identifiable and portable skills (e.g., entrepreneurship and self-reliance, interpersonal and communication skills, co-operation and group dynamics, creativity and critical thinking, organzational and social understanding, computer and technological), lifelong learning, and career exploration/life planning could become very important aspects of the career/life path that graduates will follow in the future. 4.2 Models of Innovation All the professional/academic programs that I have examined have incorporated innovative models into their programs. Each has recognized — or been forced to recognize shortcomings in their programs, and each has responded by incorporating some form of applied  -68-  learning. In some cases the changes have been minimal, while in others the changes are more overt and dramatic. This said, I will choose and summarize what seem to be the most unique and innovative aspects of specific programs. In narrowing the focus, my thought is to keep an eye on how these concepts and ideas pertain to the University of British Columbia's School of Community and Regional Planning. 4.2.1 UNBC The University of Northern British Columbia appears to provide a promising example of an overarching approach and philosophy that gears towards the perceived and demonstrated needs of students. The post-graduate life of students is considered as important as time spent at the University. The University's concern about the welfare of its' students seems to be an innovation not only in approach, but also in attitude. It will be interesting to witness how the UNBC model works, as it attempts to provide a solid academic program complemented by vocational relevance. 4.2.2 UVIC The University of Victoria's Master of Public Administration program affords a very sound example of a program that provides its students with an strong balance between course content and work terms. This model has been in place for nearly twenty years, and is an excellent example of co-op being implemented at the graduate level. This program is a  -69particularly noteworthy in light of the fact that students come from different backgrounds, and may not have first hand experience working in government.  4.2.3 S F U Programs of note at Simon Fraser University are the School of Resource and Environmental Management (SREM) and Community Economic Development (CED). By offering students a co-op option in the program, SERM recognizes that students come from diverse backgrounds and may lack relevant work experience. The co-op option can provide students with necessary experience that will assist them after graduation. The CED program offers a unique and innovative program that includes an internship. By giving students the opportunity to live in a community and work with a "real world" problem, the program offers an invaluable experience that will probably enhance students' self-knowledge as well as appreciation for the potential for CED as well as the limitations/delimitations of different approaches. It seems that the internship could give students the opportunity to engage in interesting and hopefully meaningful frontline work in a community setting, somewhat similar to the Social Work outreach model.  4.2.4  UBC  The University of British Columbia offers excellent examples of innovation, many of them quite recent. I have identified the the School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies,  -70-  the Master of Business Administration, and Higher Education for more specific attention. Each of these programs operates at the graduate level and gives interested students the opportunity to become engaged in an internship, professional experience, or groupwork situation. These programs are new and relatively untested, so it remains to be seen if and how they will work. 4.2.5 Graduate Planning Schools Of the graduate planning schools that I identified, each has aspects that are unique, though the programs differ enough from SCARP to make direct comparisons difficult. The planning schools at University of Calgary, Technical University of Nova Scotia, York University, and University of Toronto all have different specialities, yet each has incorporated or attempted to incorporate some form of applied learning opportunity into their program. The York University model (mimicked by the University of Calgary) seems to provide an excellent example of student involvment and direction, as the student is required to map out a "Plan of Study" that he or she will follow. 4.3 What is best practice? Identifying a "best practice" ~ in terms of combining scholarship, applied program elements, and vocational relevance ~ is a very subjective exercise. Overall, I would suggest that the University of Victoria's Master of Public Administration (MPA) program provides an excellent example of "best practice" because students take foundation and elective courses, can  -71-  participate in up to three co-op terms, and have the opportunity to engage in professional development seminars during and after the program (UVIC School of Public Administration, 1995). However, there is no thesis component in the MPA program. Therefore, a composite approach will be employed to determine the "best practice". In terms of scholarship, I would suggest that the department of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia provides some excellent guidelines about theses. The department requires that Master of Arts theses not exceed 50 double spaced pages and "should resemble articles found in academic journals (and) "need not be based upon original research" (UBC Anthropology Graduate Studies Committee, 1995: 4). This was implemented because: students and faculty fail to distinguish between the two levels of scholarship (Ph.D. and M.A.) and students spend five years or more preparing monograph-length studies based upon original fieldwork. (h)owever valuable the final product, this situation invariably creates frustration for both candidates and their advisors and may delay a student's career, (ibid) This kind of statement can be very reassuring to a student because the M. A. thesis is explicitly defined and clearly distinguished from the Ph.D. dissertation. As such, students and faculty members have similar expectations, and guidelines to follow should differences of opinion arise. At the same time, the student's work is valued, and quite possibly, publishable. By imposing a page limit, the department assures that the work is kept at a reasonable length and forces the student to be concise. As a result, student and advisor time and energy is  -72-  used more efficiently, and students may finish more quickly, thereby saving on additional tuition fee payments. In fact depending on the program, it might be appropriate to offer students an opportunity to engage in some exercise other than a thesis. For example, a major paper, individual or group project may be more appropriate and more valuable than a thesis requirement for some. In terms of applied program elements, the University of Victoria's MPA program and the University of British Columbia's MBA program both offer contrasting ideas about how to operate such a program. The MBA program is geared towards placing their students in a business environment, the MPA program toward placing students in a government environment. Each program provides foundation courses, but also offers a variety of elective courses that are chosen based upon students specialization interests. An applied learning opportunity is offered: the MBA program offers a six week internship, while the MPA program offers up to three terms of co-op. Other interesting parallels to consider are that each of these programs can be taken on a part-time basis. All these ideas facilitate program flexibility so that individual student needs might be met. In terms of vocational relevance, the School of Library, Information, and Archival Studies' "professional experience" opportunity offers an excellent example of a successful attempt to bridge the professional and academic worlds. By engaging in a "work world" project,  -73the student is given a chance to work on a project which is of some benefit and relevance to an employer, and can act as a springboard toward a career in the field. 4.4 Recommendations for graduate planning education at SCARP At this point it is important to refer back to Chapter Two. There is a longstanding thread of interest in applied learning that has been part of planning education since the post-World War II era. The connection between the planningfieldand the academy may have been much closer in that era than it is now. In the 1950s, students were engaged in work situations between the first and second year of the program; in the 1960s and 1970s, students became active in social change; and in the 1980s and 1990s there was and continues to be concern with employment prospects in an era of downsizing. The debate about practice versus theory has been part of planning education for some time. What I am recommending in this thesis is not new; it may just be more pressing in this era of economic upheaval and technological change that is so affecting citizens, and the appropriate role of the University in society is in such question. A critical component of this thesis is to apply what I have learned to graduate planning education at SCARP. The literature from planning education and higher education and the context of change in related professional/academic programs might be argued to bear on SCARP: what the SCARP program is doing and what SCARP might do. What is the relevance of this research to the planning school at UBC? Before delving  -74further into such a question, it is necessary to review the salient history and recent history (1991-present) of SCARP. 4.4.1 History of SCARP The School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at the University of British Columbia was established in 1950. One of the first planning schools in Canada, the program was initially established as a two year post-graduate diploma program. By the early-1960s, the diploma was turned into a Masters' degree (M.A. or M.Sc), in recognition of the time and effort needed to complete the program. The first SCARP planning students graduated in 1953. Initially a course-based program, the school later added a thesis component that was to be completed in the second year of the program. The emphasis of the program was to train planning generalists, an emphasis that remains as a primary focus today. Only forty-four students graduated from SCARP during its first decade of operation: an average of four per year (Willis, 1964). For many years, the school had a faculty of two including the program director, Peter Oberlander. These faculty taught core planning courses that were supplemented by courses offered by faculty in other departments. This early interdisciplinary activity has remained a central part of the school, as students are offered a variety of courses in the curriculum. In the mid-sixties the school underwent a considerable expansion adding several more faculty. Over time the school has developed a reputation for excellence in research. Critical developments in  -75the school's history were the establishment of a Ph.D. program (1967), the establishment of the Westwater Research Centre (1971), and Centre for Human Settlements (1976). Both centres have strong connections to SCARP. In 1990, CHS was designated a Centre of Excellence for International Development and given a $5.8 million reseach grant by the Canadian International Development Agency. In 1991, Real Property Development and International Development streams were added to complement the existing four streams: Community and Regional Development Planning, Natural Resources and Regional Planning, Urban Physical Planning and Design, and Urban Policy Planning. The school has expanded to the point where it currently has eleven full-time and fifteen part-time faculty. In the past forty-two years, the school has granted over six hundred degrees. SCARP graduates can be found in a variety of research, teaching, and planning positions. In the late-1970s, the school attempted an internship program that lasted for a few years. According to the director of the school at that time, the program failed because of poor organization and a lack of faculty understanding and support for the internship (interview with B. Wiesman, August 16,1995). 4.4.2 Current Situation at SCARP Since 1991 there has been a great deal of change at SCARP: the introduction of six new faculty and the expansion of the program to include International Development and Real Property Development. A new director, longtime faculty member Professor William Rees  -76assumed office in January 1994. The school was reaccredited by the Planning Accreditation Board and the Canadian Institute of Planners in the Spring of 1994. Faculty and students have been active in examining the program. A thesis review committee spent over a year collecting information on the role of the thesis and the potential for change; but, the committee proposal that students undertake either a project option or a thesis was not accepted by the faculty-at-large. There has been much interest in change in the school: a review of minutes from Planning Students Association and General Purpose Committee minutesfromthe past four years indicates that there has been ongoing interest in applied learning opportunity models such as internships or co-op programs. In the Fall of 1994, two students under the supervision of Professor Thomas Hutton did an internship at Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, with mixed results, but on the balance positive. In the Spring of 1995, students presented the director of the school with a petition recommending that the school adopt an internship program. In the Summer of 1995, students under the supervision of Professor Tony Dorcey began a curriculum review that examined future planning knowledge and skill requirments. That same summer, a first year planning student undertook a community outreach/internship project with the intention of implementing a trial internship program in the Fall of 1995. In the Winter of 1996, several SCARP faculty have held meetings to examine further changes in the structure and content of the program.  -774.4.3 Applied Learning Opportunities at SCARP SCARP does offer students the opportunity to do make "real world" contacts through the mentorship program and through group planning projects. These simulation models and contacts while valuable, could be complemented by actual work experience, such as the internship program introduced in the Fall of 1995. Perhaps what is needed is a more rigorous and formal system of education/training and perhaps a restructuring of the program to give students the opportunity to engage in more individual applied learning experiences. 4.4.4 Potential for change at SCARP The changes that have occurred at other schools and programs are hitting SCARP too. The evidence overwhelmingly favours giving students more hands-on learning opportunities and replacing some current requirements: The literature on higher learning recommends it, many professional/academic programs are doing it, and other planning schools do it. Why not SCARP? Or perhaps, why SCARP? A few reasons are: (1) the length of time it takes for students to finish program, (2) the heavy course load, (3) the increasing cost of education, (4) the need for hands-on experience to make contacts and enhance the Curriculum Vitae. Incorporating applied learning opportunities and changing some course requirements addresses these concerns. But there can be pitfalls as well as benefits. What model and what structure or form would be best adopted? There are several models to choose from: co-op, practicum, and  -78-  internship. As mentioned, the internship model is being evaluated in the 1995/96 academic year. Whatever model SCARP chooses, it seems clear that an applied learning perspective must be supported by the Faculty, and an administrator must be given the duty of running the program, making contacts, talking with students, meeting prospective employers, and so on. This type of job, to be done well, cannot be squeezed in or around other duties. For this model to even potentially work and be successful, it seems that there must be an a fulltime administrator responsible for the operation of the program. It is my bias that the benefits of this type of endeavour to the school, students, and the profession could only be for the good, and well worth the effort. Initially, the school might start with a type of professional experience option (e.g., an internship). The practicum model, as evidenced in teacher or social work training may not be as appropriate because the experiences that the students have are going to vary considerably based on the placement. Later, SCARP may want to consider a full-blown co-op model. There is a great potential for sharing of resources between other graduate programs such as the School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies (SLAIS). SLAIS is interested in a co-op program (interview with Crooks, May 2, 1995). Perhaps the Dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies could be approached to provide co-ordination efforts on behalf of those schools and other graduate programs at UBC that want to participate in co-op. The University's Centre for Faculty  -79Development and Instructional Services could be approached to provide support for any kind of endeavour of this sort. The Faculty of Education's Policy Studies Centre would be a useful resource in providing background material. There is much information about co-op available to the school through the British Columbia Ministry of Skills, Training, and Labour which assists in defraying the administrative costs. The Canadian Association for Co-operative Education in Ottawa could be approached for information about co-op. There are good models of co-op across the Georgia Strait at the University of Victoria, the Master of Public Administration, and up the hill at Simon Fraser University, the School of Resource and Environmental Management. Since both programs cater to studentsfroma variety of backgrounds (BA, BSc), an important goal of the programs is to provide students with an opportunity to get some training in afieldthat they may have had no experience in prior to entering graduate school. SCARP is not unlike these two programs. Since it attracts students from a wide variety of backgrounds, often with no planning experience, providing an opportunity to do some work in the field while in school seems reasonable and appropriate. As the co-ordinator of the School of Social Work'sfieldplacement stated, "an important part of the placement may be the opportunity to find out what you don't want to do" (Interview with H. Summers, May 9,1995). Reviewing other programs also provides guidelines for anticipating difficulties: e.g., lack of faculty support, insufficient number of work sites, poor quality of work  -80site, and scheduling conflicts for students. In the context of planning education, planning research, and planning scholarship, I hope to see this program enhanced. The evidence at hand seems to suggest that this thirst for relevancy cannot be ignored. The University of Northern British Columbia is placing students at the front and centre of its mandate: the students post-university career is just as important to the University as the education that the students receive in the classroom. In this regard, the University's Student Career Resource centre could be approached to provide guidance on helping students maximize their opportunies for employment following graduation (telephone interview, B. Grabinsky, October 5,1995). Or perhaps similar to the Council of Logistics Management (CLM, 1994), a national clearinghouse could be established by the Canadian Institute of Planners to locate internships across the country for students. The role of the Faculty, the Planning Institute of British Columbia, the Canadian Institute of Planners, and the Universities in providing longterm visions for their students is more of a reality today than it was twenty years ago. The increased costs of tuition, the competitive job market, and a host of other factors indicate that there is a greater need to consider making changes not only at SCARP, but at planning schools across the country, including the two new planning school's that may appear in British Columbia sometime soon (UNBC and SFU). The crisis in confidence that is witnessed across the profession and identified by Witty (1994) and  -81others suggests a need to unite the academic, the community, and the professional. In this era of cutbacks, particularly to post-secondary education, government agencies, and advocacy groups (Delacourt, 1995), students could assist in bridging the gap between the University and the greater society.  -82CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS In this chapter, I will summarize the implications/applications of what I have learned, suggest ideas for further research and follow-up, and end with some concluding remarks. First however, I will recap my research objectives in order to link them to the conclusions that follow: (1) to review the relevant literature from planning education and higher education; (2) to gather and analyze programme information from graduate planning schools that have instituted some form of applied learning opportunity; (3) to gather and analyze programme information from analogous professional/academic programs that have instituted some form of applied learning opportunity; (4) to interview key informants (e.g., program administrators) about the applied learning aspects of their programs; (5) to detail the history, current situation, applied learning opportunities, and potential for change at SCARP; (6) to integrate and use the information generated from these sources to examine what the relevance to planning education and SCARP is; and (7) to draw conclusions and suggest ideas for further research and follow-up. 5.1 Summary of Implications/Applications Higher education is being challenged from within by the students and faculty, and from without by employers and government. Given the context of diminished employment prospects, decreased federal transfer payments, heightened sensitivity to inclusive policies, and higher tuition fees, the stakes are much higher for all concerned parties. Students, employers, and  -83-  government alike are concerned about the relevancy of the knowledge and skills acquired in university. Students have further concerns about the time requirements of professional/academic programs, and supporting themselves during this time. Faculty are concerned about maintaining academic rigor. More than ever before, it seems that the gap between theory and practice must be bridged. One solution rests with applied learning models. There is substantial support for adopting co-op, practicum, and internship programs in order to increase links between the professional and academic worlds, and to enhance learning opportunities, career preparation and development, and post-graduate success. The literature on situated or cognitive learning suggests that greater learning takes place if individuals have the opportunity to practically apply what they learn in a contextual situation that mirrors the experience of everyday life, and thus eases the transition from school to work. This type of situation provides not only an active and vital learning experience, but an opportunity for reflection. A primary concern in this thesis has been to address the way in which learning occurs as well as address the needs and concerns of students. The reality of the post-graduate situation has changed in the past twenty years. There is a glut of professionals, an overabundance of persons with at least some post-secondary experience, and governments at all levels that are downsizing. At the same time, tuition fees for post-secondary education continue to increase because of cuts in federal transfer payments. The notion of an accessible post-secondary education could  -84become an impossibility because of the heavy debt burden students are forced to accrue. Coupled with the uncertainty of employment prospects when students finish, universities and government may need to rethink student aid programs or face decreased enrolments. Indeed, in 1995 for the first time in two decades full-time university enrollment has declined (Lewington, 1996). This may reflect increased tuition as well as the decision of some individuals to opt for technical, trade, or vocational programs instead of university. SCARP has already experienced a downturn in applications for the past two years (interview, T. Hutton, December 8,1995). The lack of accessiblity to higher education might exacerbate the already perilous situation that is occuring in North America today: the creation of a two-tiered society and the growth of a permanent underclass. This situation could be construed as drastic in a democratic and pluralistic society, given the prevailing high rate of youth unemployment and uncertainty about the longterm viability of our social safety net. Canada's present and future prosperity is reliant on a well- educated and civic-minded populace. UBC's School of Community and Regional Planning currently requires that students complete 16 courses and a thesis in three years. Most students now take almost eight terms (2 2/3 years) to finish (interview, T. Hutton, December 8,1995). Yet, by the end of the program, students are assured of only three possible applied learning experiences: participating in two planning project courses and being involved in a mentoring program. My mentoring experience  -85was unsuccessful primarily because of a lack of clarity about our mutual responsibilities and expectations for the relationship. My planning projects involved a class of 25 students acting as consultants to a neighbourhood association, and a class of 40 students hearing invited speakers, visiting community planning organizations, and doing a professionally-oriented group project report. While these were worthwhile experiences, my time was limited as I carried three other courses, and individual guidance was minimal. An opportunity to engage in an individually tailored applied learning opportunity probably would have enhanced my educational experience, a view that is supported by the literature and reflected in SCARP students support for the implementation of an internship option. With this in mind, I would recommend that the school consider the following three options, all of which would incorporate substantial applied learning opportunities into the program: (1) the school could rework the existing configuration of courses to intensify the current applied learning opportunities; (2) the school could incorporate a one-term internship experience; or (3) the school could implement a co-op program. In the first option the school might consider making the planning project course worth more credits so that additional time could be committed to this endeavour. Allotting more time for the planning project is the most significant recommendation. Other ideas that might help facilitate a more intensive experience would be smaller class sizes or team teaching,  -86flexibility in the classroom format (e.g., monthly class meetings and bi-weekly small group seminars), and careful selection of projects (e.g., ability of the community group to enrich students learning - "sharing the teaching"). The mentoring relationship could be made very explicit with clear responsibilities for both parties, and might include job shadowing, for example. In keeping with these entreprenurial times, SCARP could establish a consultancy program (similar to the UBC Legal Aid Clinic) run by students and supervised by faculty. Interested students could work on various projects that contribute meaningfully to the community and for which they would receive credit. A thesis topic could emerge from the clinic work and would be subject to strict guidelines in terms of page length and content (similar to the Master of Arts in Anthropology at the University of British Columbia). In the second option, the number of courses would remain roughly the same (12-16), but students would receive credit (and possibly money) for completing an internship term (similar to the UNBC approach or SFLTs Community Economic Development requirement) which would occur during the summer after first year or during the final spring term. The internship itself would be worth anywherefrom6-12 credits and would include attendance at weekly seminars (perhaps one evening a week) so that students would have the opportunity to discuss and reflect on their experiences. The thesis component could emerge from the work that the student does in the internship, and be accompanied by strict guidelines. This program of studies could take as  -87few as five consecutive terms to complete. Given the intense nature of the program, interested students would have to minimize outside non-planning work and other committments. But students could also undertake this committment with fair confidence in its benefits, which would include saving on tuition fees, gaining outside work experience, and making professional contacts. In the third option, students could alternate study and paid work terms. The program would take seven or eight terms to complete, assuming that the school start offering courses in the summer months. Students would complete 12-16 courses depending on whether a term was set aside to complete a thesis, and whether students received credits for their work terms. Again the thesis would be accompanied with strict guidelines. This program would take longer, but students would benefit from the additional co-op earnings and enhanced post-graduate prospects. It seems that any of these three options would enhance SCARP's strong academic program by allowing students the opportunity to be in a supervised planning situation, thus easing the transition between school and work. I am partial to the implementation of the second option of providing one-term internship opportunities. I envision this internship as being more intense than the current internship program because students would give all of their attention to the internship. There would be no other coursework except for a seminar to discuss the internship. Students would devote an academic semester to working, and receive appropriate  -88credits to reflect the high degree of involvement and committment required. While the current internship program is laudable for its intentions, it does not fulfill the potential opportunities of an internship. As one of three or four courses, the current internship is just another course to be completed, rather than fully experienced. Appointing a internship co-ordinator would underscore the faculty's committment, and the program's value to the school. Regardless of which option is pursued, there would be many details to be worked out regarding the thesis, the number of required courses, sequencing and scheduling problems, accreditation issues, plausibility of paid internships or co-op terms, and so on. It seems apparent that the nature and purpose of the thesis must be clearly explicated. Currently the school suggests between 80-100 pages. The 50 page limit and accompanying guidelines established by Anthropology might be used to initiate a dialogue about thesis requirements. It seems reasonable that the number of courses required to graduate be kept high (at least 12) since the school does accept applicants from a variety of backgrounds and a fundamental grounding in core knowledge is necessary. Whether or not the school keeps the traditional course and thesis option is dependent on many factors, most importantly accreditation. For students pursuing a traditional scholarly degree and who can afford up to three years to complete their degree, than this option should be continued. However, increased tuition rates might make this option much more difficult for students since part-time work, summer employment, family  -89responsiblities, and volunteer work can take up much time. Whatever model or models that this school chooses, it is important to consider the broad context that SCARP is operating in. Graduates from this school are not only competing for postions against other planning students, but also against graduates from a multiplicity of backgrounds (e.g., Public Administration, Business Administration, Natural Resource Management, etc.). Employment prospects are changing from secure fulltime government/ corporate postions to more private sector, contract, part-time, or entreprenuerial opportunities. Also, the nature of the University and post-secondary education is being altered because of government cutbacks, market demands for increased relevancy, and the potential of communication technology to bridge distances. By necessity, but also by design, universities are changing to reflect the emerging needs of Canadian society. Realistically, the potential for developing a program that offers students different options may be difficult for a program with limited resources such as SCARP. Is there a place for a less theoretical and a more applied program at SCARP? Indeed the scope of my research may simply be beyond the capability of this program. The school has an extremely strong research-oriented program, academic excellence, and excellent professors. It is possible that this might be diminished in trying to create a program that tries to offer its students more choice and diversity: that is, academic excellence, strong applied program elements, and vocational relevance.  -90Is it not better to do one or two things well, than several things poorly? My answer would be yes; however, as reseach into learning suggests, learning can be enhanced with a more vibrant interplay between theory and practice. Furthermore, as Freidmann and Kuester (1994) discovered in their survey of planning educators, there is considerable interest in developing programs that address critical skill areas: (1) analytic/research, (2) multicultural awareness, (3) communication, (4) management, and (5) data processing (GIS). This change is necessary because planners are going to be assuming different roles in society: (1) entrepreneur, (2) community activist, (3) mediator/negotiator, and (4) program manager. Additionally, other authors (Galloway, 1992; Spain, 1992) suggest that stronger links between the profession, public service, and research can benefit all three, particularly in an era of shrinking resources. 5.2 Ideas for further research and follow-up There is much potential for more specific research in this area. The following is a list of ideas and techniques for further research and follow-up: (1) interviews with academics, professionals, and students regarding interaction between field and academy; (2) interviews with incoming students regarding expectations; (3) attitudinal studies (e.g., Why do you want to be a planner? What kind of planner do you want to be?); (4) drawing from the literature in career and life-skills planning; (5) increased interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research; (6) concept of twinning with other planning schools allowing students to spend a term off-campus; (7) potential  -91for the faculty of graduate studies to co-ordinate co-op at UBC at grad level; (8) exploring links between grad programs and other professional/academic programs; (9) student participation in planning school: faculty-student interaction; and (10) examining collaborative approaches to learning. 5.3 Concluding Remarks From an initial reading of this paper, one might suspect that I am arguing for a practical, skills-based approach to education. However, the broader social context from which this paper is being presented must be considered. It seems that the social-political-economic-technical change sweeping us along is unrelenting; there are global forces at work that threaten our very existence. It seems that post-secondary institutions, and indeed the whole apparatus of education, must be part of the search that finds answers to our most pressing social, economic, and ecological concerns. At the same time, our universities and other post-secondary institutions are becoming "focused, relevant, differentiated, and confident" (Globe and Mail Editorial, 1995). They are looking for ways to become more efficient while still maintaining a high level of scholarship. In philosophical and practical terms, it is critical to 'link the abstract to the concrete'. The apparent divide between relevancy and reflection is not so much a divide or an either/or propositon, one must do both well. Indeed how can one be relevant, if one is not reflective?  -92-  Finally, if planners are responsible for the "management of change" in society as the Canadian Institute of Planners proclaims, then I would suggest that this same ethos be applied to the relationship between the schools and the profession in order to manage the change that is ushering in a new era at post-secondary institutions across the country and changing the face of society. It is necessary to understand more about the nature of higher learning and the process of education. The interdisciplinary character of planning eduation, the interactive process that is planning, and the self-reflective nature of the profession seem to make "planning" ideally suited to bridge the gaps between theory and practice, and play a leadership role in the advancment of this kind of thinking. I can think of no better or fitting way to end than with this Chinese proverb: To hear is to forget. To see is to remember. 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