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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Outreach in community archives in British Columbia: four case studies O’Donnell, Christine Ann 1995

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OUTREACH I N COMMUNITY A R C H I V E S I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA FOUR C A S E S T U D I E S b y C h r i s t i n e A n n O ' D o n n e l l B . A . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , 1 9 8 9 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R C H I V A L S T U D I E S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l a n d I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A u g u s t , 1 9 9 5 © C h r i s t i n e A n n O ' D o n n e l l , 1 9 9 5 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT I n t h e p a s t , l i t t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f o u t r e a c h . T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e v a l u e o f o u t r e a c h a n d h o w i t i s p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o m m u n i t y a r c h i v e s . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h m a n a g e r s o f f o u r c o m m u n i t y a r c h i v e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d . T h e f i n d i n g s r e v e a l t h a t t h r e e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s r e g a r d o u t r e a c h a s a h i g h p r i o r i t y a n d a f u n d a m e n t a l p a r t o f r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y . F o r t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s , o u t r e a c h a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b e e n p o s i t i v e a n d b e n e f i c i a l . T h e y h a v e s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d o u t r e a c h t o a u g m e n t a n d a s s i s t w i t h a c q u i s i t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d u s e o f a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . O n l y o n e i n t e r v i e w e e p r e s e n t e d a p a s s i v e a n d c a u t i o u s a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s o u t r e a c h . R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t o u t r e a c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g o r t h e b u d g e t o f t h e a r c h i v e s . T h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d t h e e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d d e l i v e r y o f s u c c e s s f u l o u t r e a c h i n i t i a t i v e s a s : a r e g u l a r s o u r c e o f f u n d i n g , i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o a n a n n u a l w o r k p l a n , d i s t r i c t g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e m a n d a t e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e , c o m m u n i t y c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t , a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . T h i s s t u d y r e a f f i r m s t h e v a l u e o f a r c h i v i s t s p r a c t i s i n g o u t r e a c h , a n d p r o v i d e s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h o s e w h o a r e l o o k i n g f o r c o n c r e t e m e t h o d s o f a p p r o a c h i n g o u t r e a c h . i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i INTRODUCTION 1 METHODOLOGY 2 INTERVIEW PROCESS 3 CHAPTER ONE: IN SEARCH OF OUTREACH 6 THE EARLY PERIOD: 1940-1970 6 IN SEARCH OF A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 7 IDENTIFYING THE BROADER ISSUES 20 WORDS OF CAUTION 25 SUMMARY 29 CHAPTER TWO: EXPERIENCE AND OPINION OF OUTREACH 38 CASE STUDY ONE 39 1. General D e f i n i t i o n 40 2. Budget Requirements 41 3. Creative Aspects 42 4. P u b l i c i t y 43 5. Implementation of Programs 43 6. Museum Involvement 50 7. Evaluation 50 CASE STUDY TWO 51 1. General D e f i n i t i o n 52 2. Budget Requirements 53 3. Creative Aspects 54 4. P u b l i c i t y 55 5. Implementation of Outreach 55 6. Museum Involvement 59 7. Evaluation 60 CASE STUDY THREE 61 1. General Defi n i t i o n s 62 2. Budget Requirements 63 3. Creative Aspects 63 4. P u b l i c i t y 63 5. Implementation of Programs 64 6. Museum Involvement 68 7. Evaluation 68 CASE STUDY FOUR 69 1. General D e f i n i t i o n 70 2. Budget Requirements 71 3. Creative Aspects 72 4. P u b l i c i t y 72 5. Implementation of Outreach 73 6. Museum Involvement 78 i i i 7. Evaluation 78 CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS 82 CONCLUSION 99 RECOMMENDATIONS 101 OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 APPENDIX 1 110 i v INTRODUCTION Although i t i s a comparatively recent topic i n the a r c h i v a l f i e l d , outreach has begun to gain recognition and a measure of c r e d i b i l i t y . During the 1970s, several a r t i c l e s e x t o l l e d the benefits to be gained through outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . The writers suggested that a r c h i v i s t s could use outreach i n i t i a t i v e s to improve the public's awareness and support of a r c h i v a l programs, and to increase the use of ar c h i v a l resources. A small core of outreach advocates encouraged a r c h i v i s t s to expand t h e i r service mission to include a wide variety of users, to play a prominent r o l e i n education and to regard outreach as an es s e n t i a l component of a successful a r c h i v a l program. Although a r c h i v i s t s had l i t t l e experience, and most had no t r a i n i n g i n t h i s area, they slowly began to respond to these new challenges. The lack of a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, as r e f l e c t e d i n very broad d e f i n i t i o n s of outreach, may i n part be responsible for the confusion and caution surrounding the matter. A tendency to regard outreach as peripheral to the t r a d i t i o n a l functions of appraisal, arrangement, description, and reference often resulted i n the implementation of sporadic or ad hoc a c t i v i t i e s unrelated to the goals and objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n . More recently, a r c h i v i s t s have recognized that when properly and thoughtfully planned with consideration of the o v e r a l l objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n , outreach a c t i v i t i e s can promote ac q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use of records, and are therefore relevant to the entire mandate of the archives. 2 Although outreach, public r e l a t i o n s , and public programming are terms that are often used interchangeably, for the purposes of t h i s thesis the word outreach w i l l be used. To a s s i s t i n a broader understanding of the topic, outreach w i l l be defined as a wide range of planned, audience directed a c t i v i t i e s that contribute to a greater awareness of the purposes, r o l e s , and functions of an archives thereby supporting o v e r a l l goals of acq u i s i t i o n , preservation and use of ar c h i v a l records. The majority of arc h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the subject of outreach i s based on speculation rather than on observation or experiment. Because the l i t e r a t u r e lacks an empirical base, we know l i t t l e about experiences and perceptions of outreach. This study aims to f i l l t h i s void by uncovering some facts and opinions about outreach and some of the issues that community a r c h i v i s t s believe are relevant to the implementation and delivery of successful outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . METHODOLOGY This thesis examines the development, implementation, and evaluation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s i n four community archives, and reports the findings. Although t h i s number includes only archives i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s u n l i k e l y that the circumstances are very d i f f e r e n t from those of community archives across Canada. This study includes i n s t i t u t i o n s from the Lower Mainland, Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley, serving a wide range of population bases and operating within four d i f f e r e n t administrative structures. To meet c r i t e r i a f or choosing the i n s t i t u t i o n s the archives had to be mandated to 3 acquire the private records of the community, to have been established for at least f i v e years, and to have a s a l a r i e d a r c h i v i s t who has held the p o s i t i o n for a minimum of one year. Afte r consideration of the various research strategies a v a i l a b l e to c o l l e c t data about outreach i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community archives, the author chose interviewing as the most appropriate methodology. Qualitative research conducted through interviews allows the opportunity to explore the subject i n d e t a i l through conversation and discussion. INTERVIEW PROCESS This thesis adopts the focused interview, i n which the respondent i s interviewed only once for a short period of time. Focused interviews are usually conducted by following a set of pre-defined questions, but s t i l l allow the interview to remain 1 open-ended and to assume a conversational manner. As such, the focused interview an appropriate methodology to acquire detailed information about the respondents 1 opinions about outreach and t h e i r experiences with the p r a c t i c a l aspects of the development and implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . In addition, the single focused interview allows the researcher to gather a l l the necessary data during one interview, and as such i s suited to interviewing four respondents with busy schedules. Each of the interviews was guided by the questions developed f o r the interview schedule, (see appendix A) The time span for a l l the interviews for t h i s study was September 1994 to January 1995. I n i t i a l contact and an interview appointment was made by phone. In addition, each of the interviewees was sent a l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g the objectives and methodology of the study. Due to the amount of data the researcher anticipated c o l l e c t i n g during the interview process, a tape-recorder was used. This thesis i s organized into three main chapters. Chapter one consists of a review of the a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to outreach. The l i t e r a t u r e review investigates the development of outreach over time, and provide context for the presentation of data c o l l e c t e d during the interview process. Questions asked during the interviews are based on the relevant issues raised i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter two provides a description of the h i s t o r y and administrative structure of the four archives and presents a straightforward account of the findings of the interviews, while the t h i r d chapter analyzes these findings. The conclusion summarizes and comments on the findings, and makes recommendations to the a r c h i v a l community. ENDNOTES - INTRODUCTION Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods (Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1984), 83-4. 6 CHAPTER ONE: IN SEARCH OF OUTREACH An examination of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s an appropriate s t a r t i n g point for discussion of outreach within community archives i n B r i t i s h Columbia. An h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the development and trends i n outreach provides context and a s s i s t s i n an understanding of the current issues. THE EARLY PERIOD: 1940-1970 One of the e a r l i e s t a r t i c l e s on the subject was written by William David McCain i n 1940, on "The Public Relations of Archival Depositories." He observed a lack of attention given to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ar c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the p u b l i c . He goes on to say that archival o f f i c i a l s have devoted i n s u f f i c i e n t attention to the c u l t i v a t i o n of f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s 1 . . . . . . with the general public. McCain's view i s i n d i c a t i v e of early a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e , which indicates that p r i o r to the 1970s outreach a c t i v i t i e s were v i r t u a l l y non-existent i n Canada and the United States. U n t i l t h i s time, scholars were regarded as the primary users of archives, and the main r o l e of the archives was to foster and support scholarly research. Only sporadic attempts were made to generate the i n t e r e s t and support of the general public, through exhibitions, showing of l a n t e r n - s l i d e s , and occasional school v i s i t s . 2 In Canada, W. Kaye Lamb r e f l e c t e d on t h i s matter i n the Public Archives of Canada Report for the Year 1949, noting that "many inquiries...have come from teachers i n elementary schools, 7 or from high school pupils, whereas Archives publications have always been prepared with research and u n i v e r s i t i e s p r i marily i n mind."3 Not u n t i l the 1970s were a r c h i v i s t s a c t i v e l y encouraged to expand t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l view of "the p u b l i c " to include more than scholarly patrons. IN SEARCH OF A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Early l i t e r a t u r e reveals that the decade of 1970 was a time of change and new d i r e c t i o n for the a r c h i v a l community. A r c h i v i s t s such as E l s i e Freeman, Ann Pederson, and Sandra Powers were instrumental i n awakening the profession to the seemingly endless p o s s i b i l i t i e s and benefits to be gained through outreach and public programming. This small core of outreach advocates encouraged a r c h i v i s t s to reorient t h e i r attitudes towards users, play a more prominent r o l e i n education, and regard outreach as an i n t e g r a l component of a successful a r c h i v a l program. Cautiously, and with some trepidation, a r c h i v i s t s responded to the challenges issued by Freeman and her contemporaries. There began a gradual s h i f t towards a more active attitude towards outreach, as a r c h i v i s t s recognized that i t could be used to heighten the public's awareness and appreciation of archives and the a r c h i v a l profession. The establishment of a Committee on the Wider Use of Archives i n 1975 by The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s i s evidence of the s h i f t i n attitude of the profession. The committee strongly believed that "experience with h i s t o r y - i n -the-raw i s everyone's r i g h t , " and was successful i n obtaining 8 support at annual meetings for sessions devoted to a wide va r i e t y of topics related to outreach. The committee defined outreach as encompassing a l l a c t i v i t i e s and programs promoting a greater awareness or use of archives. This very broad d e f i n i t i o n they hoped would "lead a r c h i v i s t s to look more cl o s e l y at t h e i r own programs to rediscover those a c t i v i t i e s that serve to increase c l i e n t s ' awareness and appreciation of the work and c o l l e c t i o n s of the archives." 5 Later, i n 1976, E l s i e Freeman defined outreach as "any a c t i v i t y that brings the records or means of using them closer to the public, multiplying i n some way the effectiveness of the records or access to them.1,6 In The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s 1 Basic Manual Series on Public Programs, Pederson and Casterline also o f f e r a broad d e f i n i t i o n . A public program i s any a c t i v i t y that contributes to a greater awareness of archives and what they do.... they are tools that support and enhance other a r c h i v a l functions including research, reference, preservation and c o l l e c t i o n . During 1976, the committee conducted an ambitious and det a i l e d survey of outreach programs i n four hundred a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s across North America. The i n i t i a l goal of the committee was to provide a r c h i v i s t s with a reference t o o l for outreach programs, by describing a wide v a r i e t y of i n i t i a t i v e s with regards to type and scope, s k i l l s , resources necessary for implementation, and methods of evaluating success. In addition, the committee hoped to encourage a r c h i v i s t s to pay 9 p a r t i c u l a r attention to o v e r a l l planning of outreach a c t i v i t i e s . 8 Although the r e s u l t s of the survey were li m i t e d by a poor response rate, only 23% or 90/400 i n s t i t u t i o n s returning the questionnaire, i t can s t i l l be regarded as having an impact on the future of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . T h i r t y percent of the i n s t i t u t i o n s that responded had no outreach programs, perhaps confirming the committee's concern that there was a reluctance to view outreach as a worthwhile a r c h i v a l function. The survey provided e s s e n t i a l information regarding the unfortunate status of outreach i n a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and assisted i n formulating a plan f o r future development. Based on the r e s u l t s of the 1976 survey, Ann Pederson challenged a r c h i v i s t s to expand t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l view of users and seize opportunities to develop the support and appreciation of archives among the " c i t i z e n r y of society." Pederson argues that i n i d e n t i f y i n g scholars and fellow a r c h i v i s t s as major c l i e n t s , a r c h i v i s t s are neglecting an entire segment of society who hold a great deal of p o t e n t i a l as supporters of the value of a r c h i v a l services. She recognized that i n i t i a t i n g the " t o t a l neophyte" requires a great deal of time, e f f o r t , and imagination, but believes that these e f f o r t s may guarantee the . . . . . 10 continuing existence and appreciation of a r c h i v a l programs. In a Canadian context, T.H.B. Symons, i n a chapter devoted to archives i n h i s report on Canadian Studies i n 1976, expressed a s i m i l a r sentiment when he i d e n t i f i e d two important tasks for Canadian Archives: the development of a comprehensive a r c h i v a l 1 0 system and "the promotion of much greater public awareness of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of archives." The second task he thought would be the more d i f f i c u l t of the two.11 In the same vein, E l s i e Freeman argued that a r c h i v i s t s may be able to generate support for a r c h i v a l programs by providing services to a wider audience. She i d e n t i f i e d a wide spectrum of users including i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y connected researchers, teachers and students from a l l lev e l s of the education system, genealogists, the media, government employees, h i s t o r i a n s and . 1 2 . . . . . p u b l i c i s t s . In her view, i t i s very important f o r a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to i d e n t i f y a l l of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l users and match service to t h e i r needs. Outreach i n i t i a t i v e s allow i n s t i t u t i o n s to i d e n t i f y the interests of a wide var i e t y of users, and are therefore an e s s e n t i a l support of reference s e r v i c e . 1 3 The tendency to mount outreach a c t i v i t i e s sporadically sets them apart from what Freeman refe r s to as "the more orderly stream of a c t i v i t y we c a l l a r c h i v a l administration, 1 1 and may account f o r the attitude that they are decorative and therefore expendable. She believes that the solution to t h i s problem i s to regard outreach as a d i s t i n c t administrative function of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Freeman recognized that although an education i n a r c h i v a l administration provides the s k i l l s necessary to carry out t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l functions such as arrangement and description, l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n i s devoted to outreach. The solution, she maintains, i s to provide a r c h i v i s t s with formal t r a i n i n g i n the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . She goes 11 on to say that " i d e a l l y , such a course would be given i n conjunction with a museum education program, since many of the techniques are s i m i l a r . " 1 5 Although there are some basic s i m i l a r i t i e s between archives and museums, Freeman's solut i o n disregards the differences with respect to mandates, c o l l e c t i o n s , and user needs. Clearly, these differences would di c t a t e that any i n s t r u c t i o n a r c h i v i s t s receive regarding the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s should take into consideration the unique nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n s and records they are attempting to promote. Advocates of outreach believed that i t s overriding goal i s to generate public support and understanding of a r c h i v a l programs. To achieve t h i s goal they searched continuously for new opportunities to expand service to d i f f e r e n t segments of society. To quote E l s i e Freivogel, " i f a public i n s t i t u t i o n does not b u i l d constituencies larger than those of the academic 16 researcher, the i n s t i t u t i o n i s doomed." During the 1970s, a small group of outreach advocates were exploring ways to respond to changes i n the education system. They believed that the education system offered a r c h i v i s t s a r i c h untapped resource. Richard H. Brown at a session sponsored by The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s Committee on the Wider Use of H i s t o r i c a l Records predicted that changes i n the education system would have serious implications f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s such as archives. Brown noted that 12 new st y l e s of teaching and learning, and new int e r e s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r types of h i s t o r y study, have produced a need and market for packaged archives and manuscript collections, at v i r t u a l l y every l e v e l of American education. At t h i s session, Brown encouraged a r c h i v i s t s to develop projects that provide what he referred to as "packaged archives and manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s . " He assured his audience that such projects would be low-cost, and through the sale of the materials would pay for themselves. S i m i l a r l y Freivogel, observed: To the museum educator, the term museum education means the education of the public. To the a r c h i v i s t , a r c h i v a l education means education of other a r c h i v i s t s . In fact...the a r c h i v i s t does not o r d i n a r i l y perceive^the education of the public to be h i s job. In the l a t e 1970s, the Committee for the Wider Use of H i s t o r i c a l Records placed a high p r i o r i t y on funding these s p e c i a l projects. Archival l i t e r a t u r e provides examples of a r c h i v a l education projects. For instance, Hugh Taylor recognized the benefits of using a r c h i v a l materials to enhance the teaching of h i s t o r y . At the same time, he cautioned against using education k i t s that are too structured and would lead to only one conclusion. He pointed to examples of B r i t i s h archives i n Lancashire and Essex that had success i n t h i s area during the 1950s. These programs included t r a v e l l i n g exhibits of o r i g i n a l documents which were interpreted by an a r c h i v i s t . The primary goal was to expose students to a wider range of primary material than would otherwise unavailable to them. As well, they were encouraged to study o r i g i n a l records i n l o c a l record o f f i c e s , and prizes were given for essays involving research using a r c h i v a l materials. Although the projects had some success, i t soon became apparent that the passive nature of exhibitions i n h i b i t e d f a m i l i a r i z i n g students with archives on a large scale. I t was for t h i s reason that teaching k i t s were developed. In England early a r c h i v a l teaching k i t s were developed i n S h e f f i e l d by the Teachers' Training College, i n conjunction with the l o c a l record o f f i c e . Their co-operative e f f o r t s established a precedent f o r further 19 development of teaching k i t s of a l l kinds. Taylor noted that "unquestionably the tendency has been to involve school children i n the records and the use of them."20 However, not everyone was convinced of the benefits of t h i s approach. In the f i r s t issue of Teaching History i n 1969, the h i s t o r i a n G.R. Elton expressed reservations about the teaching of h i s t o r y to school children i n general. There i s a danger of o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n by the bright i n t e l l e c t , untarnished by experience, and also of confusing an2iabsence of understanding with c l a r i t y of v i s i o n . G. Jones and D. Watson would seem to disagree, for they argued not only that h i s t o r y i s a v a l i d study, but that i t should include contact with archives. The chief j u s t i f i c a t i o n for use of archives i n school i s that only by t h e i r use can we introduce pupils to the o r i g i n a l documents which form the working material of the professional h i s t o r i a n and the r e a l l i f e blood of history. . .Only through t h i s method i s i t possible for the c h i l d to experience what history r e a l l y i s and to f e e l that he i s a true h i s t o r i a n . 14 Structuring a set of documents to reach only one conclusion goes against both the nature of h i s t o r i c a l inquiry and the nature of a r c h i v a l records. As Taylor pointed out, h i s t o r i a n s spend a great deal of time searching for references. Conclusions are reached through exhaustive reading of a fonds or s e r i e s , rather than a set of documents from many sources selected to " t e l l a story." This may not always be r e f l e c t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n s published for students' use. For example, the k i t s i n the Jackdaw series, each of which were comprised of v i s u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e documents do not always pay close attention to the 23 organic q u a l i t i e s of a r chival records. In her 1978 a r t i c l e "History Resource Units from the Minnesota H i s t o r i c a l Society," V i c k i Sand maintained that increasingly the public are looking to t h e i r past to "understand . . 24 the forces that have affected t h e i r l i v e s . " The author viewed t h i s expanded in t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y as a new opportunity for the a r c h i v a l profession. Passing i t by runs the r i s k of losing public support. Education programs she argued should be developed i n order to f a m i l i a r i z e the general public with the 25 values and uses of a r c h i v a l records. She stressed that public programs and c o l l e c t i o n s must never be i s o l a t e d from one another, and maintained that regardless of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the records or how well they are preserved, they are of minimal 26 value unless they are exposed through public programs. As an example, Sand discussed resources units produced by the Minnesota H i s t o r i c a l Society. The units were prepared by the Educational Services D i v i s i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Society, also 15 responsible for administering teacher t r a i n i n g , adult education, museum lessons, c a p i t o l tours, and exhibit programs. Those responsible for the design of the k i t s f i r m l y believed that unless the materials were designed with an understanding of how curriculum programs were developed iri school d i s t r i c t s and how teachers used the materials i n t h e i r classrooms, the program would be a wasted e f f o r t . The resource k i t s were designed a f t e r much consultation with s o c i a l studies consultants and teachers. The r e s u l t was three single-subject k i t s , each requiring two years to develop: eighteen months for research and writing, and s i x months for production. The production costs were s i x t y - f i v e thousand d o l l a r s , with funding provided by the state l e g i s l a t u r e , and the resource units were sold to schools at a cost ranging from one hundred twenty-five to one hundred 27 seventy-five d o l l a r s each. The Resource units produced by the Minnesota H i s t o r i c a l Society provide an example of a public program thoughtfully planned and implemented based on s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i v a l resources. In Canada, the same subject was opened up by Ken Osborne, a geographer. He noted that, while the B r i t i s h have experimented successfully with several innovative approaches to t r a i n i n g teachers and students about the use of archives, Canadians have been slow to follow s u i t . The author's main premise i s that " a r c h i v i s t s should be more than hi s t o r i a n s or records-managers— 28 there i s an important r o l e awaiting them as educators." His a r t i c l e i d e n t i f i e s many options for a r c h i v i s t s interested i n strengthening the l i n k between the a r c h i v a l system and the education community. He discusses such projects such as teacher education projects, classroom units of i n s t r u c t i o n , exhibits and v i s i t s , student a r c h i v a l research projects, and archives based teaching k i t s . Osborne i s the only author who o f f e r s both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l information to a s s i s t archives to develop p o s i t i v e relationships with the education system. I t i s clear that Osborne's advice has not been completely ignored. For instance, Ann ten Cate has provided an account of a p o s i t i v e example of an education program developed by a small community archives i n Ontario. The a r t i c l e explains how the Region of Peel Archives and the Peel Board of Education cooperated i n the production of a series of teaching k i t s designed to introduce students to the h i s t o r y of t h e i r community through facsimile archival documents. Through analysis of researcher r e g i s t r a t i o n forms the Region of Peel Archives had determined that teachers and students were "under-represented" i n t h e i r user s t a t i s t i c s . Once they had targeted t h e i r prospective audiences and assessed a v a i l a b l e resources, they 29 began t h e i r f i r s t ventures into outreach. Ten Cate referred to curriculum guidelines developed by the Ministry of Education as "the backbone" of education k i t s . Developing and using such guidelines she maintained are the single most important steps i n designing an educational program. Unless your a c t i v i t i e s and k i t s are based on curriculum guidelines, you w i l l be t r y i n g to market a product that has no audience because i t has no relevance to what i s being done i n the classroom. 17 The author also gives c r e d i t to the Peel Board of Education for evaluating the k i t s and including information about the archives and i t s education programmes i n t h e i r teaching units, to f a m i l i a r i z e teachers with the Peel Archives. Ten Cate cautioned that education k i t s are not without t h e i r p i t f a l l s , and pointed out p o t e n t i a l problems. Outreach, she says, has taken i t s t o l l on other portions of the a r c h i v a l program, and less time i s available for basic functions such as processing, and the implementation of d e s c r i p t i v e standards. 3 1 Ten Cate has provided a rare example of evaluation of an outreach a c t i v i t y . A few writers such as Ann E. Pederson and Timothy Ericson recognized the importance of evaluation. Pederson and Casterline b r i e f l y referred to the evaluation 32 . process, while Ericson noted that a r c h i v i s t s need to "concentrate more on the impact of our outreach a c t i v i t i e s , and the lessons we have learned from them - i n other words to evaluate our e f f o r t s . " 3 3 Other than some b r i e f p r a c t i c a l advice on surveys found i n Pederson and Casterline's manual, the l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s l i t t l e i n the way of concrete suggestions as to the best method of evaluating outreach a c t i v i t i e s . Although exhibitions are not a primary function of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , they are recognized as one of the most popular and e f f e c t i v e methods of outreach. Bradsher and Ritzenthaler noted that "perhaps no other aspect of public programs reaches so many people or touches them i n such a manner that g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s the goals and contributions of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 34 . . i n preserving h i s t o r i c a l records." Casterline views exhibits 18 as "the f o c a l point of a va r i e t y of programs that stimulate i n t e r e s t i n a subject and expand awareness of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s c o l l e c t i o n s . " 3 5 Archival exhibitions accomplish a wide v a r i e t y of functions, and are undertaken for a number of reasons. Exhibitions serve to "inter e s t , inform, stimulate, entertain, and educate viewers." 3 6 As well, they have a r o l e to play i n making the public aware and appreciative of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , they encourage the use of archives, and popularize holdings. They also educate people regarding a r c h i v a l functions and services, encourage donations, increase a c q u i s i t i o n s , and foster research. As early as 1949, The Council of the B r i t i s h Records Association recognized the importance of exhibitions by appointing a subcommittee to study the r o l e of exhibits i n arc h i v a l administration. The committee reported: ...the best means of arousing l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n the preservation of records, and of demonstrating t h e i r educational value i s by holding displays of documents, maps, views, etc., of an e s s e n t i a l l y l o c a l nature. I f documents deposited by private owners, are to remain buried i n the vaults of a l o c a l Repository they m^ght almost have been l e f t with the owner. The l i t e r a t u r e indicates that mounting exhibitions was based on a vari e t y of motivations. Albert H. Leisinger J r . , emphasized that one reason for undertaking an exhibit program i s the obl i g a t i o n to make " i n s t i t u t i o n s centres of popular 38 education." In 1971, at the B r i t i s h Records Association's annual conference, an a r c h i v i s t reported that "many exhibitions 19 were mounted for e s s e n t i a l l y s u p e r f i c i a l reasons: such as we've 39 had no e x h i b i t i o n f o r some time, or we owe i t to the p u b l i c . " Casterline takes a d i f f e r e n t approach. As she points out, not only do exhibits of a r c h i v a l material show what a repository c o l l e c t s , preserves, and makes available to users, but they have the p o t e n t i a l to educate, communicate, and serve a v a r i e t y of other functions. They can encourage people to study the past and to save and donate items of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t ; teach them something about the nature of archival and h i s t o r i c a l work; inform them of new a c q u i s i t i o n s ; t e l l an i n t e r e s t i n g story; commemorate an important event; and make a major contribution to scholarship. Among the benefits are a greater and more imaginative use of a r c h i v a l materials by a wider c l i e n t e l e and the reinforcement of a favourable public image that r e f l e c t s the a r c h i v i s t ' s i n t e r e s t and involvement i n the larger community. Pederson and Casterline caution a r c h i v i s t s to i d e n t i f y the audience before i n i t i a t i n g any outreach program. I t follows that, before mounting an exhibit, the audience must be defined i n terms of both e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l users. According to Bradsher and Ritzenthaler, the time devoted to determining the p r o f i l e of the target audience i s well spent, for t h i s information can be used to develop exhibit goals and parameters. Such guidelines help to provide a sense of what exhibits can accomplish and t h ^ types of presentations that are most suitable. E l s i e Freeman Freivogel reminds a r c h i v i s t s that they have many publics, and must keep i n mind a l l of the p o t e n t i a l users of archives when planning an e x h i b i t . 4 2 James Gregory Bradsher and Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler i d e n t i f i e d only two basic types of e x h i b i t s : thematic or 43 . . . . . i n s t i t u t i o n a l , while Casterline categorized exhibitions as 20 44 either promotional or educational. More recently Heather Gordon has i d e n t i f i e d four basic types of exhibitions usually mounted i n ar c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s : thematic, celebratory, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and functional. The author concludes that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l exhibitions showing wider audiences that a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r holdings a c t u a l l y e x i s t and functional exhibitions mounted to educate viewers about a r c h i v a l theory, methodology and practice may be more valuable components of an archives' e x h i b i t i o n program than most a r c h i v i s t s consider them to be. Consequently she determines " a r c h i v i s t s need to focus t h e i r e x h i b i t i o n resources on the creation of these type of exhibitions, rather than on the creation of the less useful, museum-oriented thematic and celebratory exhibitions that send the wrong messages to the audience." 4 5 IDENTIFYING THE BROADER ISSUES During the 1980's public programs gained greater c r e d i b i l i t y and acceptance. Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline's manual Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs, i s a measure of the growing i n t e r e s t i n and implementation of outreach programs. The manual provides a r c h i v i s t s with the f i r s t d e t a i l e d resource devoted e n t i r e l y to the discussion of implementation of a va r i e t y public programs including exhibits, lectures, publications and i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. The manual provides assistance i n the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s by suggesting four necessary steps before beginning any outreach a c t i v i t y : assess the goals of your i n s t i t u t i o n , evaluate the needs of your agency and the resources available, assess the needs of your c l i e n t s , and choose an appropriate type 46 of program, plan the l o g i s t i c s and execute them. In addition, the authors b r i e f l y discuss the p u b l i c i t y , evaluation and funding of public programs. Although t h e o r e t i c a l issues are not discussed, the manual offers p r a c t i c a l advice and guidance for a r c h i v i s t s undertaking outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . During the 1980's E l s i e Freeman Freivogel continued her s p i r i t e d approach to outreach and public programming. In her a r t i c l e "In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration from the User's Point of View," Freeman once again examines the re l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i v i s t s and users. Freeman i n s i s t s that although genealogists and avocationists comprise the majority of our researchers, a r c h i v i s t s have an adversarial r e l a t i o n s h i p with users to whom research i s a hobby. Freeman maintains that "historians are neither our p r i n c i p a l nor our most s i g n i f i c a n t users", yet we continue to concentrate our attention on those who are pr o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d . 4 7 In t h i s a r t i c l e , Freeman pushes the u s e r - f i r s t argument to the l i m i t by advocating that a r c h i v i s t s "must begin to think of archives administration as client-centred, not materials-48 . . . centred." Many of the ideas proposed i n t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l a r t i c l e run counter to ar c h i v a l theory. Freeman c a l l s into question t r a d i t i o n a l methods of arrangement, desc r i p t i o n and appraisal, favouring a "quick s t r i k e " approach that would accommodate the schedules of those researchers who do not have the time to search through finding aids. The author asserts that 22 "a look at how and why users approach records w i l l give us new c r i t e r i a for appraising records." 4 9 Freeman also proposes making changes to the education of a r c h i v i s t s arguing that: Archival trainees learn to appraise records with l i t t l e serious consideration of t h e i r use; to organize and describe records according to t r a d i t i o n a l rules which have l i t t l e or no bearing on the ways i n which these records are a c t u a l l y used or by whom; and to provide reference service to a public perceived monolithically. A revised t r a i n i n g course for a r c h i v i s t s would include i n s t r u c t i o n i n public programming which i s often omitted e n t i r e l y from our t r a i n i n g programs. The a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e of the 1980s r e f l e c t s a growing concern regarding the image of the a r c h i v a l profession. David B. Gracy lamented the stereotypical view of a r c h i v i s t s as "permanently humped, moleish, aged creatures who s h u f f l e musty documents i n d u s t - f i l l e d stacks for a purpose uncertain, while the majority has no image of us at a l l . " 5 1 Gracy pointed out that negative misconceptions held by resource a l l o c a t o r s have a d i r e c t impact on the a r c h i v a l profession's i n a b i l i t y to secure funding, as they " s t r i k e at the heart of our existence and a b i l i t y to function." Gracy proposed several solutions to the image problem of the a r c h i v a l profession. He maintained foremost, that i n order to project a p o s i t i v e image to others, a r c h i v i s t s must be confident of the image they have of themselves. Gracy also applauds those r e p o s i t o r i e s committed to outreach i n order to expand public awareness of archives, which 23 he maintained i s "paying o f f i n both numbers and so p h i s t i c a t i o n of the products." 5 2 In a l a t e r a r t i c l e , Gracy proposed that a r c h i v i s t s break with t r a d i t i o n and concentrate on the present rather than the future. In order to demonstrate to resource a l l o c a t o r s that a r c h i v i s t s have a v i t a l r o l e to play i n contemporary society, he suggests adopting the motto "Archives: Records from the Past Working for the Present." 5 3 In 1984, the Council of The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s commissioned Professor Sidney J. Levy, Chair of the Marketing Department of the J.L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University, to study the attitudes and perceptions of resource a l l o c a t o r s towards a r c h i v i s t s . The Levy Report grew out of the work of The Society of American A r c h i v i s t ' s Task Force on Archives and Society to recommend ways i n which the arc h i v a l profession could counteract popular negative stereotypes of a r c h i v i s t s and t h e i r work that often r e s u l t i n inadequate resources. Findings of the study were based on interviews conducted with fo r t y four resource a l l o c a t o r s from government, u n i v e r s i t i e s , colleges, h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , museums, private businesses, industry and s o c i a l organizations. In the report Levy proposes a solution to the t r a d i t i o n a l negative stereotypes of a r c h i v i s t s , To improve t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , a r c h i v i s t s need to define more coherent i d e n t i t y objectives, and communicate greater freshness and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n imagery by t h e i r t r a i n i n g , programs, s e l f -assertion, p u b l i c i t y , advertising, and relevance to modern l i f e 24 While Gracy and Levy focused on the a r c h i v i s t ' s need to improve t h e i r image with resource a l l o c a t o r s , Bruce Dearstyne investigated ways i n which a r c h i v i s t s can promote themselves to the public. Dearstyne suggests that although i t i s the ultimate goal of a r c h i v a l work, a r c h i v i s t s have not paid close enough attention to the use of records. The author encouraged a r c h i v i s t s to develop new approaches to the issue of the use of ar c h i v a l material, and proposed s i x areas where analysis and new approaches are needed: tracking and studying research use, in t e r p r e t i n g and reporting on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of that use, promoting increased use, emphasizing use as a means of garnering program support, reaching out to the researcher community, and expanding the concept of reference service to a broader notion of researcher service or public service. Dearstyne noted that reference service i s often i s o l a t e d from other facets of an ar c h i v a l program because i t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d out i n a passive and reactive manner. In order to address t h i s problem Dearstyne proposed a broader notion of researcher service that would merge reference, outreach, and public programs into an "aggressive, proactive public service concept that i s integrated into the t o t a l a r c h i v a l program." 5 5 Joel Wurl takes a d i f f e r e n t approach. He suggested that to enhance the profession's image amongst the public, a r c h i v i s t s should encourage an appreciation of the c u r a t o r i a l methods they employ. Wurl wrote, "although a r c h i v i s t s work hardest at marketing c o l l e c t i o n s , i t may be a r c h i v a l methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y 25 preservation s k i l l s , that most intrigue the general p u b l i c . " He argued that, people who are wholly unfamiliar with the s i g n i f i c a n c e , usefulness, or even the meaning of archives often are extremely interested i n learning how to manage and care for t h e i r own records. For instance, how many a r c h i v i s t s , a f t e r t r y i n g to explain what they do for a l i v i n g , have been greeted with the reply,"I have these old photographs, i n my a t t i c what should I do with them?" The a r c h i v i s t ' s a b i l i t y to s a t i s f y such interests o f f e r s the opportunity to c u l t i v a t e closer t i e s between tj^e a r c h i v a l community and the r e s t of society. Wurl 1s a r t i c l e describes a unique mini-course implemented by The University of Toledo focusing on the recognition, appreciation and basic care of h i s t o r i c a l records commonly found i n the home. WORDS OF CAUTION In Canada the debate on outreach began i n earnest at the 1990 Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s . The theme "Facing Up, Facing Out: Reference, Access and Public Programming " provided Canadian a r c h i v i s t s with an opportunity to discuss and debate the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l issues r e l a t i n g to i t s service mission. The conference had two objectives: to encourage participants to recognize t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to the v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups that use archives, and to compel a r c h i v i s t s to pursue strategies that w i l l r e s u l t i n greater responsiveness to user needs to increased public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s . Papers presented by Ian Wilson, Gab r i e l l e B l a i s and David Ens, and Tim Ericson challenge the a r c h i v a l professional to re-examine t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to users. Terry Cook i n the counterpoint 26 presentation, prefers a more cautious approach to outreach and public programming. Ian Wilson observes that although museums, archives and l i b r a r i e s have holdings of i n t e r e s t to the community at large, archives do not enjoy the same popularity and recognition as i t s s i s t e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Wilson suggests that a r c h i v i s t s need to explore a l t e r n a t i v e ways to introduce a broader population to our holdings, pointing out that public service and exhibitions have been very successful i n the museum world. Wilson notes that although most a r c h i v i s t s strongly believe i n the ethic of free and equitable service to the entire population, they rou t i n e l y impose r e s t r i c t i o n s and b a r r i e r s that l i m i t the use of a r c h i v a l holdings. Limited reference hours, r e s t r i c t i v e service to those at a distance, lack of consideration for the v i s u a l l y impaired or f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e and imprecise f i n d i n g aids r e s u l t i n l i m i t e d service to a small segment of the population. 5 7 To address the problem of use and inequitable service, Wilson proposes the development of what he c a l l s a National Archival Services Strategy that would "include a s t r a t e g i c partnership with other information providers who share 58 our goals of open and equitable public access." Timothy L. Ericson*s a r t i c l e begins with the premise that the a r c h i v a l profession has been unsuccessful i n promoting the use of a r c h i v a l materials. Ericson believes that t h i s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to that way i n which a r c h i v i s t s have regarded t h e i r mission: "to ensure the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , preservation, and 59 . use of records of enduring value." This t r a d i t i o n a l approach 27 relegates use and outreach to an afterthought, and i s responsible for the lack of appreciation and u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of ar c h i v a l materials. The author proposes that a r c h i v i s t s redefine t h e i r mission as follows: "To ensure the a v a i l a b i l i t y and use of records of enduring value by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n , description, and preservation. 1 , 6 0 Ericson reports that outreach r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to use because i t ensures records w i l l be used, and suggests that a r c h i v i s t s change t h e i r basic approach to outreach a c t i v i t i e s by regarding outreach as a basic a r c h i v a l function rather than an added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t y i n g i t to the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s mission statement, making i t an on-going component of an a r c h i v a l program, balancing i t with other a c t i v i t i e s , and integrating i t with other a c t i v i t i e s such as a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use. Ericson*s l a s t recommendation was also raised by Kathleen D. Roe who thinks that public programs can be used to expand the "basic archival functions of acquiring and preserving records, and well as increasing the use of a r c h i v a l materials. 1 , 6 1 G a b r i e l l e B l a i s and David Enns maintain that many factors such as an increase i n popular i n t e r e s t i n archives and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , public awareness of the increased a v a i l a b i l i t y of information and c u l t u r a l services, and the r e l i a n c e on the public for support i n generating government funding, have led to a recognition that a r c h i v i s t s now have new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with respect to the public. In order to meet the challenge of these new obligations, the authors c a l l for the "integration of public 28 programmes into what have been regarded as core a r c h i v a l functions." B l a i s and Enns define public programming as, those a c t i v i t i e s that r e s u l t i n d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n with the public to guarantee the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and support necessary to achieve an a r c h i v a l Repository's mission and f u l f i l i t s mandate. They maintain that i n t h i s context, public programming has four components; i t supports the a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n by creating an image of archives, promotes awareness, educates users and the general public about the value and p o t e n t i a l use of archives, and enables use of the a r c h i v a l record. Terry Cook's counterpoint a r t i c l e c r i t i c i z e s the viewpoint of some advocates of outreach. Cook believes that writers such as Freeman Freivogel, B l a i s and Enns have extended t h e i r theory of user-centred archives too f a r , and are treading on dangerous ground. Clearly, he presents a v a l i d argument as i t r e l a t e s to arrangement, description and a p p r a i s a l . 6 3 Undoubtedly, these t r a d i t i o n a l functions are sacrosanct, and the p r i n c i p l e s on which they are based must never be altered to accommodate the transient need of a s p e c i f i c group of users. However, outreach, with i t s aim to increase the use and appreciation of archives, need not a f f e c t how appraisal and description are c a r r i e d out. Outreach i n i t i a t i v e s can be user-centred without running counter to fundamental ar c h i v a l theory. Whether or not arrangement, description and appraisal could ever be user-centred i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t matter. The opening session at the Archives Association of B r i t i s h Columbia Conference i n 1991 discussed both the r i s k s and 29 benefits of a r c h i v a l outreach. Richard J. Huyda asserted that any a r c h i v a l outreach a c t i v i t y has both benefits as well as drawbacks. The speaker cautioned a r c h i v i s t s that increased expectation of demands for service and support may not be met with an adequate increase i n resources. The archives "can become by association, perceived as proponents and supporters of those they reach out to; whereas the sole intention of the archives may be only to carry out the basic objective of preserving t h e i r records." The author maintains that regardless of the costs and r i s k s associated with outreach a r c h i v i s t s should not be deterred from implementing outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , noting that "whenever possible, archives should opt i n favour of committing themselves to outreach." Huyda believes that planning, p r i o r discussion, and s e t t i n g p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s w i l l overcome most problems. SUMMARY The foregoing review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that there are some unanswered questions regarding the subject of outreach. The l i t e r a t u r e may be characterized as rather tentative and amorphous, r e f l e c t i n g a sense that because outreach i s a comparatively new f i e l d , a r c h i v i s t s are s t i l l f i n d i n g t h e i r way. Although authors appear to be i n general agreement that outreach i s b e n e f i c i a l , the l i t e r a t u r e provides l i t t l e i n the way of p r a c t i c a l and concrete suggestions regarding the implementation of outreach a c t i v i t i e s . During the 1970's, most authors were attempting to generate an i n t e r e s t i n outreach and stimulate the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . There appears to have been a reluctance to 30 provide boundaries or a structured d e f i n i t i o n i n the event that these may r e s t r i c t outreach a c t i v i t i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n the opposite of what advocates were t r y i n g to accomplish. Early l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s the view that anything that could be done i n regard to outreach would be b e n e f i c i a l and better than what was being done at the time, which was almost nothing. Although laudable attempts, these broad d e f i n i t i o n s lacked structure and focus. As a r e s u l t , many outreach a c t i v i t i e s were responsive and imitative rather than deliberate, planned, and innovative i n t h e i r approach, at least so f a r as can be determined from the l i t e r a t u r e . Goals and objectives became more s p e c i f i c i n the 198 0s as the issue of f i n a n c i a l support was brought into sharper focus. Very quickly, writers recognized that the squeaky wheel gets the f i n a n c i a l grease. The l i t e r a t u r e during t h i s time focused on outreach as a means to garner f i n a n c i a l support by countering negative stereotypes and improving the resource a l l o c a t o r ' s image of a r c h i v i s t s . Clearly, there i s a recognition of the need to do something i n regard to outreach, but the question remained — what? The l i t e r a t u r e provides a l o t of opinion, but very few concrete proposals on how to actually achieve these goals. L i t e r a t u r e of t h i s sort tosses out ideas which are for the most part untested i n p r a c t i c e . Pederson and Casterline i d e n t i f i e d what they considered the four necessary elements of a successful outreach program. 6 5 However, short of the case study provided by Ann ten Cate, 6 6 there i s no further evidence to suggest whether other a r c h i v i s t s have implemented outreach based on these p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to evaluate whether or not they have i d e n t i f i e d the most appropriate method of implementing outreach a c t i v i t i e s . One of the most important trends i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s the user-oriented argument presented by E l s i e Freeman Freivogel, who becomes more expressive, f o r c e f u l and assertive with the passing of time, eventually advocating a near wholesale dismissal of a r c h i v a l theory to accommodate client-centred rather than materials centred archives. While i n agreement with the user-oriented approach, authors such as B l a i s and Enns, and Timothy Ericson advocate a more measured approach to outreach. During the l a t e 1980s, writers adopted a more rigorous approach to the subject, placing i t i n the context of the a r c h i v i s t ' s other functions, to which of course outreach r e l a t e s . Recently, Kathleen Roe and Timothy Ericson suggest that outreach can be used to f a c i l i t a t e the basic a r c h i v a l functions of a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use. Directing outreach a c t i v i t i e s towards the mandate of the i n s t i t u t i o n provided more s p e c i f i c goals and objectives. The l i t e r a t u r e had moved from a " l e t ' s do anything" attitude to a more structured and focused approach. Unfortunately, the l i t e r a t u r e does not provide evidence that connecting outreach a c t i v i t i e s to the mandate of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s the best approach. Case studies of i n i t i a t i v e s employing t h i s method would be a valuable asset. 32 Terry Cook and Richard Huyda are among the few writers to o f f e r words of caution regarding the implementation of outreach. Although Cook c r i t i c i z e s some advocates of outreach, he does not advocate the abandonment of public programming. He encourages a r c h i v i s t s to use outreach to d e l i v e r the r i g h t message rather than giving into the temptation of becoming what he terms "The McDonald's of Information." 6 7 While Cook ra i s e s concerns rel a t e d to the t h e o r e t i c a l r i s k s associated with outreach, Richard Huyda focuses on p r a c t i c a l problems and i d e n t i f i e s solutions. Although the l i t e r a t u r e has paid rigorous attention to exhibitions and education programs, l i t t l e has been written on the wide v a r i e t y of other types of outreach. Ann Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline are the only authors who provide p r a c t i c a l advice on the implementation of a wide range of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Clearly, a r t i c l e s focusing on the implementation of a v a r i e t y of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s would be a valuable contribution to the l i t e r a t u r e . Recently, writers have proposed some innovative ideas for d i f f e r e n t types of outreach a c t i v i t i e s . Heather Gordon and Joel Wurl take a d i f f e r e n t approach to outreach, providing a r c h i v i s t s with new methods of educating the public about the value of archives. Gordon's thesis encourages a r c h i v i s t s to implement 68 functional exhibits, while Wurl discusses lectures that educate the public about ar c h i v a l methodology. 6 9 This type of outreach i s a new area worthy of further attention and exploration. The evaluation process i s an extremely important component of any outreach i n i t i a t i v e . Evaluation enables a r c h i v i s t s to determine the strengths and weaknesses of t h e i r outreach a c t i v i t i e s , providing valuable information for future planning. This i s the area i n which the l i t e r a t u r e i s weakest. There i s d e f i n i t e l y a lack of managerial rigour attached to outreach. While a few authors recognize the need for evaluation, there i s l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l advice on how t h i s i s to be accomplished. Therefore, i n an attempt to discover more about the actual experience of outreach a c t i v i t i e s , the problems encountered i n administering outreach, and attitudes towards i t , interviews of the managers of four community archives were conducted. A summary of the interviews constitutes the next chapter. 34 ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 1 1. William David McCain, "The Public Relations of Archival Repositories," American A r c h i v i s t 3 (October 1940): 235. 2. Ken Osborne, "Archives i n the Classroom," Arc h i v a r i a 23 (Winter 1986-87): 16. 3. W. Kaye Lamb, Public Archives of Canada Report for the Year 1949 (1950): p. x x x i i i , quoted i n Ken Osborne, "Archives i n the Classroom," Archivaria 23 (Winter 1986-87): 16. 4. Ann E. Pederson, "Archival Outreach: SAA's 197 6 Survey," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 (Ap r i l 1978): 155. 5. Ibid. 6. E l s i e Freeman Freivogel, "Education Programs: Outreach as an Administrative Function," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 (Ap r i l 1978): 148. 7. Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982), 8. 8. Pederson, 155. 9. Ibid., 156. 10. Ibid., 161. 11. T.H.B. Symons, "Archives and Canadian Studies," Archivaria 15 (Winter 1982-83): 58. 12. E l s i e Freeman Freivogel, "Education Programs: Outreach as an Administrative Function," 148. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid., 152. 16. Howard L. Applegate, Richard Brown, and E l s i e Freeman Frievogel. "Wider Use of H i s t o r i c a l Records," The American A r c h i v i s t 40 (July 1977): 332. 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid. 35 19. Hugh A. Taylor, " C l i o i n the Raw: Archival Materials and the Teaching of History," The American A r c h i v i s t 35 (July/October 1972): 332. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid., 326. 22 . Ibid., 327. 23. Ibid., 328. 24. V i c k i Sand, H i s t o r i c a l £ 163. 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid. 27. Ibid. 28. Ken Osborne, "Archives i n the Classroom, 1 1 Archivaria 23 (Winter 1986-87): 16. 29. Ann ten Cate, "Outreach i n a Small Archives: A Case History," Archivaria 28 (Summer 1989): 29. 30. Ibid. 31. Ibid. 32. Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline, "Archival Outreach: SAA's 1976 Survey," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 ( A p r i l 1978): 159. 33. Timothy L. Ericson, "Preoccupied with Our Own Gardens," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 (Winter 1990-91): 121. 34. James Gregory Bradsher and Mary Lynn Ritzenthaler, "Archival E x h i b i t s , " i n Managing Archives and Archival I n s t i t u t i o n s , ed. James Gregory Bradsher, (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1989),228. 35. G a i l Farr Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Exhibits (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1980), 47. 36. Bradsher and Ritzenthaler, "Archival Exhibits," 228. 37. B r i t i s h Records Association, "Exhibition of Documents: Report of a Sub-Committee Appointed by the Council of the B r i t i s h Records Association," Archives 1 ( F a l l 1950): 42. 36 38. Albert H. Leisinger, J r . "The Exhibit of Documents," The American A r c h i v i s t 26 (January 1963): 77. 39. B r i t i s h Records Association, "The Place of Exhibitions i n The Use of Archives," Archives 10 (A p r i l 1972): 107. 40. Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Exhibits. 8. 41. Bradsher and Ritzenthaler, "Archival E x h i b i t s , " 229. 42. E l s i e Freeman Freivogel, "Education Programs: Outreach as an Administrative Function," 282. 43. Bradsher and Ritzenthaler, "Archival Exhibits," 23 0. 44. Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: E x h i b i t s f 11. 45. Heather Marie Gordon, "Archival Exhibitions: Purposes and P r i n c i p l e s " (MAS Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1994), 114. 46. Pederson and Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs. 8. 47. E l s i e Freeman Freivogel, "In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration from the User's Point of View," The American A r c h i v i s t 47 (Spring 1984): 116. 48. Ibid. 49. Ibid. 50. Ibid. 51. David B. Gracy 11, "Archives and Society: The F i r s t A r c hival Revolution," The American A r c h i v i s t , 47 (Winter 1984): 7. 52. Ibid. 53. David B. Gracy 11, "Is There a Future i n the Use of Archives?" Arc h i v a r i a 24 (Summer 1987), 9. 54. Sidney J . Levy and Albert G. Robles, The Image of A r c h i v i s t s : Resource Allocator's Perceptions (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 4. 55. Bruce Dearstyne, "What i s the Use of Archives? A Challenge for the Profession," The American A r c h i v i s t 50 ( A p r i l 1987): 78. 56. J o e l Wurl, "Methodology as Outreach: A Public Mini-Course on Archival P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques," The American A r c h i v i s t (Spring 1986): 184. 37 57. Ian E. Wilson, "Towards a Vis i o n of Archival Services," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 117. 58. Ibid. 59. Timothy L. Ericson, "Preoccupied with our Own Gardens," 117. 60. Ibid. 61. Katherine D. Roe, "Public Programs," 219. 62. Gabriele B l a i s and David Enns, "From Paper Archives to People Archives," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 103 63. Terry Cook, "Viewing the World Upside Down: Reflections on the Theoretical Underpinnings of Archival Public Programming," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 124. 64. Richard J . Huyda, "Reaching Beyond Our Grasp: A Dilemma for A r c h i v i s t s , " Unpublished paper presented at annual meeting of the Archives Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, Simon Fraser University, 6 A p r i l 1991. 65. Pederson and Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs. 8. 66. Ann ten Cate, "Outreach i n a Small Archives: A Case Study," 28-35. 67. Terry Cook, "Viewing the World Upside Down: Theoretical Underpinnings of Archival Public Programming," 131. 68. Heather Marie Gordon, "Archival Exhibitions: Purposes and P r i n c i p l e s , " 114. 69. Jo e l Wurl, "Methodology as Outreach: A Public Mini-Course on Archival P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques," 184. 38 CHAPTER TWO: EXPERIENCE AND OPINION OF OUTREACH This chapter consists of a straightforward account of the data c o l l e c t e d from the four a r c h i v i s t s during the interview process. 1 Each case study i s preceded by an i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o f i l e , providing context to the presentation of data. The time span for a l l the interviews f o r t h i s study was from September 1994 to January 1995. Each of the a r c h i v i s t s was interviewed for approximately one hour, with the exception of A r c h i v i s t A, whose interview was one and a h a l f hours i n duration. Due to technical d i f f i c u l t i e s , A r c h i v i s t D had to be interviewed twice. This does not post a problem as mostly fa c t u a l data rather than personal opinion was gathered. A l l of the respondents were forthcoming with t h e i r answers and opinions. Each of the a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s study has held positions of authority for a minimum of f i v e years. Three of the a r c h i v i s t s have t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a r c h i v a l t r a i n i n g at the master's l e v e l , while one has an undergraduate degree, the archives course offered by the National Archives of Canada and considerable experience. Each of the interviews was guided by the questions developed for the interview schedule. The schedule was designed to c o l l e c t data i n seven areas: general d e f i n i t i o n , budget requirements, creative aspects, p u b l i c i t y , implementation, museum involvement and evaluation. 39 Edward Ives advises that the l i s t of questions be used as a guide, rather than something to "get locked into by checking 2 things o f f or reading d i r e c t l y from i t . " In the attempt to conduct a conversational s t y l e interview, questions were not always asked i n the same order, although each respondent was asked a l l of the questions on the schedule. The interview schedule i s comprised of a t o t a l of twenty-four questions, with supplementary questions added when relevant. The data c o l l e c t e d from the interviewees i s presented i n order of the interview schedule, although some of the questions were not asked i n s t r i c t order of the schedule. For purposes of t h i s study, the researcher chose to present only those portions of data d i r e c t l y relevant to the interview schedule, as presentation of the entire t r a n s c r i p t would be i r r e l e v a n t to the subject. The selected data from the interviews w i l l be presented one i n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r another, based upon when the interviews were conducted. Within t h i s thesis, i d e n t i t y has been protected by naming the four a r c h i v i s t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s involved as Archives A, B, C, and D, according to the order i n which the interviews were conducted. CASE STUDY ONE Archives A was formally established i n 1982 with the creation of a part-time a r c h i v i s t ' s p o s i t i o n . In July 1983, a f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t was hired, and a vault was b u i l t i n the museum to store archival records. U n t i l 1982, the museum and archives were housed i n the same f a c i l i t y and were administratively part of the Parks and Recreation Department. 40 In 1987, the archives was administratively transferred to the Clerk's Department and became the o f f i c i a l repository f o r municipal records, and a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n was created s p e c i f i c a l l y to acquire and service private records. During the f a l l of 1993, the archives moved to a new f a c i l i t y , housing the ar t g a l l e r y , museum, l i b r a r y , and arts centre. Archives A i s fortunate to have the support of a group of "Friends of the Archives," who i n 1987 were incorporated as a non-profit society. The purpose of the group i s to promote the archives' p r o f i l e i n the community through fund-raising and s p e c i a l projects. The i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p o l i c y statement indicates that one of the purposes of the Archives i s to " i n i t i a t e educational programming designed to increase public awareness and appreciation of the municipality's h i s t o r y and development." 3 At present, a f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t and assistant a r c h i v i s t are employed by the municipality to oversee the operation and development of the archives program. The archives i s open to the public Monday to Thursday from 9:30 a.m. to 4:45 p.m. and Fridays by appointment only. 1. General D e f i n i t i o n A r c h i v i s t A admits that he does not know a formal d e f i n i t i o n of outreach but regards i t as "anything that helps to promote the archives, to get people to come i n and use records and to enable them to understand the potentials, such as displays, publications, community involvement and the media." 41 A r c h i v i s t A believes that outreach i s a "very important" part of an a r c h i v a l program, "because everything we do to get people to use records i s part of outreach, and we spend a l o t of time on that because most people don't know what archives are, they might not understand the research po t e n t i a l s of the records and may not be u t i l i z i n g them e f f e c t i v e l y . " He notes that outreach "may help archives to e s t a b l i s h a good base of users, r e s u l t i n g i n s o l i d a r c h i v a l programs that w i l l continue to develop." 2. Budget Requirements Funding for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s comes from a number of sources. The a r c h i v i s t has access to $700 d o l l a r s i n a sub-account c a l l e d "advertising" which i s primarily used for outreach. The amount i n t h i s account has been stable for over f i v e years. Another budget category related to internships and t r a i n i n g allows for the production of brochures and displays. The a r c h i v i s t reports that as a r u l e the money i n these categories usually "gets chipped back f i v e percent each budget cycle." Archives A has access to extra funding from the "Friends" f o r outreach. This money i s i n addition to funding received from the municipality. More than f i v e years ago, the i n t e r e s t accumulated on $10,000 i n a memorial account was made ava i l a b l e to the archives for projects promoting the archives. Expenditures from t h i s account are subject to the approval of the "Friends." During the f i r s t year, t h i s account had 42 accumulated $700 in t e r e s t . This money continues to be a source for the archives. In addition to t h i s money, the "Friends" also has money from the sale of a l o c a l h i s t o r y publication. Although the book was written i n 1979, i t continues to generate revenue, allowing the archives to make spe c i a l purchases such as display panels. The a r c h i v i s t notes that he would have been unable to make t h i s purchase from h i s regular budget. A r c h i v i s t A estimates that i n the l a s t year he has spent approximately $1,2 00 on outreach projects, not including s t a f f time of the a r c h i v i s t and assistant a r c h i v i s t which, he notes, was "more than I care to remember." The a r c h i v i s t i s responsible for f i n a l decisions regarding resource a l l o c a t i o n for outreach projects. P o t e n t i a l projects are discussed with s t a f f members, contractors, and volunteers. They may have an idea for a project, but the a r c h i v i s t must approve i t and al l o c a t e resources. 3. Creative Aspects Creative ideas for outreach are discussed by a l l s t a f f members, contractors and volunteers, and i n i t i a t e d depending on the resources available. The a r c h i v i s t finds i t " f a i r l y easy to develop creative ideas that f i t the budget." He also r e l i e s on the "Friends" for advice and ideas for spe c i a l outreach projects. This group comprised of interested members of the community, provides input from the public. 43 Creative ideas for outreach are also developed by other s t a f f committees comprised of representatives from the f i v e departments of the Cultural Centre. 4. P u b l i c i t y A r c h i v i s t A admits that they have been reluctant to spend money on advertising, and have not taken f u l l advantage of the media for advertising outreach programs. P u b l i c i t y includes a regular newspaper a r t i c l e , occasional press releases, as well as f l y e r s and posters produced for j o i n t projects within the C u l t u r a l Centre. The a r c h i v i s t reports that on average the archives i s covered by the l o c a l media ten to f i f t e e n times per year. 5. Implementation of Programs Archives A has implemented a wide v a r i e t y of outreach such as in-house and o f f - s i t e exhibits, education oriented projects, printed material, media related i n i t i a t i v e s , and lectures. Some of these are e n t i r e l y archives i n i t i a t i v e s , while others are c a r r i e d out i n co-operation with the various departments of the C u l t u r a l Centre. In 1992, the archives produced an exhibit for i t s reference room of the new f a c i l i t y . This permanent ex h i b i t i o n documents the h i s t o r y of the municipality using photographic and textual records. The archives also has a small exhibit space facing the main rotunda, i n which a new exhibit i s i n s t a l l e d every two months. In addition, the archives i s also responsible for i n s t a l l a t i o n of exhibits i n a small display case located i n C i t y 45 hundred d o l l a r s . Proceeds from the sale of the postcards are returned to the memorial fund i n order to generate additional funds. The a r c h i v i s t believes that postcards have an advantage over calendars because they are not dated, "we've got a good stock and they're paid for, so i t doesn't matter i f i t takes ten years to s e l l them." Last year, the postcards were given away to c i t y s t a f f during the United Way Campaign. The a r c h i v i s t admits that although the postcards are f a i r l y successful, "they are not big s e l l e r s . " In the near future, he hopes to set aside time to market the postcards to l o c a l community businesses. A quarterly newsletter e n t i t l e d "City L i f e " produced for c i t y employees, includes a regular feature "From the Archives." The a r t i c l e s written by the a r c h i v i s t focus on the r o l e of the archives i n l o c a l government, and are an excellent form of i n t e r n a l outreach to members of c i v i c government. During the past four years Archives A has co-operated with a cable t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n to produce a program e n t i t l e d "Cultural Connections." Topics included a e r i a l photographs and an extensive discussion about r a i l and a i r transportation augmented with relevant by-laws, maps and photographs from the a r c h i v a l holdings. The a r c h i v i s t admits that these types of i n i t i a t i v e s require a "great deal of time and preparation." The archives also contributes to segments produced by other departments of the Cultural Centre, s e l e c t i n g photographs for the programme's commercial i n t e r v a l s . Archives A started using volunteers for the f i r s t time i n 1993. The a r c h i v i s t believes that i n order to be e f f e c t i v e , 44 H a l l near the Clerk's Department. O f f - s i t e exhibits have also been produced i n conjunction with the C u l t u r a l Centre. Archives A has produced a vari e t y of printed material such as: guides, brochures, postcards, publications and h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s to promote public awareness and use of a r c h i v a l holdings. The majority of these are done in-house using a personal computer. Most recently, a publication e n t i t l e d A Guide to H i s t o r i c a l S i t e Research was written to provide researchers with information necessary to access community records, photographs, maps, government records and publications. This nineteen page guide was written and produced e n t i r e l y by archives s t a f f , then d i s t r i b u t e d to l o c a l archives as well as departments of the municipal government. The a r c h i v i s t notes that the pub l i c a t i o n of the guide cost approximately seven hundred d o l l a r s , the "entire outreach budget for the year." To p u b l i c i z e the guide the a r c h i v i s t wrote a press release and newspaper a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Booklet Takes Mystery out of Archives." Three years ago the archives s t a f f produced a brochure describing the photograph holdings and o u t l i n i n g costs for photographic reproduction. In addition, the archives has recently produced a series of postcards. To date, the postcards are the only project completed with funds accumulated from i n t e r e s t on money i n the memorial account. The a r c h i v i s t approached the "Friends" for additional funds because t h i s project cost more than the seven hundred d o l l a r s a v a i l a b l e to the archives for spe c i a l projects. The project was e n t i r e l y funded by the "Friends" at a t o t a l cost of approximately twelve 46 volunteers need a "defined r o l e and s p e c i f i c projects." Archival volunteers are not involved i n any public contact work, but have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r two outreach projects that paid s t a f f do not have the time to do. Since 1988, the archives has submitted an h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e and photograph to a l o c a l newspaper (on a regular basis, approximately one per month). Although the a r c h i v i s t recognized that the a r t i c l e s provided exposure for the archives, they were not regarded as a p r i o r i t y for paid s t a f f . A year ago, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s project was delegated to a volunteer. Last year, a volunteer began the research for a small publication documenting the h i s t o r y of the various c i t y h a l l buildings over time. The f i n a l product w i l l be produced by archives s t a f f using desk-top publishing. Some outreach opportunities are p r i m a r i l y used as educational tools to d i s p e l misunderstandings of the roles of the a r c h i v i s t and the h i s t o r i a n . Recently, when i n v i t e d to give a lecture on l o c a l history, he informed the audience that he was there under f a l s e pretences, because rather than discussing the a r c h i v i s t as h i s t o r i a n , "he was going to t e l l them what an a r c h i v i s t r e a l l y does." A r c h i v i s t A noted that the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t i s to acquire records so they may be interpreted by h i s t o r i a n , but a r c h i v i s t s do not write h i s t o r y . Recognizing the need to develop a more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the archives and the schools, Archives A developed an educational k i t for high school students. The Archives Exploration Series, produced i n 1992, required a substantial commitment of resources. A contract a r c h i v i s t worked on the project f o r nearly three months, at a cost of approximately three thousand d o l l a r s . In addition, the a r c h i v i s t and assistant a r c h i v i s t contributed many hours to the planning, development and implementation of t h i s project. A r c h i v i s t A said that "the jury i f s t i l l out" on i t s success. The series "came out of the need to introduce high school students to archives i n a p o s i t i v e sense." Problems i n the past he notes resulted from "students coming to the archives for the f i r s t time to complete an assignment, and they haven't the f a i n t e s t idea of what they're doing, teachers haven't prepared them and as a r e s u l t one student w i l l f i n d a ton of information and get an A, while another works d i l i g e n t l y and can't f i n d anything because there simply i s n ' t anything on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c . " The Archives Exploration Series was an attempt to address some of these problems. A r c h i v i s t A describes the serie s as a set of "pre-cooked exercises" based on the Social Studies 11 curriculum. Students use work sheets to complete tasks related to three themes: i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , l o c a l government, and urbanization. On return to the classroom, an exercise work sheet i s used to f a c i l i t a t e group discussions. A Teacher's Guide duplicating a l l of the student work sheets, provides teachers with answers. With the completion of one module, the archives held a meeting with the head of the Social Studies Department and s i x teachers from a l o c a l high school. Teachers were very enthusiastic about the series and indicated that they intended 48 to make good use of i t . After the i n i t i a l meeting the module was " f i e l d tested" with a group of students. The f i e l d t e s t was judged as a " f a i r success," but l i t t l e feedback was received from the teacher. In addition, a group of teachers tested the module as part of t h e i r Professional Development Day. Afte r the f i e l d t e s t , i t was more than six months before any students came to the archives. The archives received l i t t l e response from the schools about the Archives Exploration Series. The archives had no i n q u i r i e s to use the series, and only one teacher expressed an i n t e r e s t a f t e r the f i e l d t e s t was complete. This poor response prompted the a r c h i v i s t to develop a questionnaire evaluating the s e r i e s . The questionnaire was very d i r e c t , asking questions such as: do you intend to use the series, i s the series too d i f f i c u l t or too easy for students, what changes would you recommend i f any, and would you be w i l l i n g to a s s i s t i n producing a revised version. When the a r c h i v i s t d i d not receive even one completed questionnaire, teachers were contacted, again with no r e s u l t s . A r c h i v i s t A acknowledges that once the f i r s t module had been completed and presented to teachers at the i n i t i a l meeting, i t may have been too l a t e to turn back. Perhaps he notes, " i t i s possible that we had gone too far already and they...were too p o l i t e to say what have you done a l l t h i s work f o r ? " The a r c h i v i s t had not given up on t h i s project, and has plans to re-i n i t i a t e contact with the schools at the beginning of the next school year. Three times a year the archives develops outreach programs i n co-operation with the Cultural Centre. During 1994 they were involved i n Science and Technology Week, Professional Development Days, and Environmental Awareness Day. A r c h i v i s t A reports that within the administration of the Cu l t u r a l Centre, "there's a f e e l i n g that we need to be seen as working together." Ideas f o r j o i n t programs are i n i t i a t e d by the Staff Operating Committee comprised of the a r c h i v i s t , curator, l i b r a r i a n and di r e c t o r of the art g a l l e r y . These ideas are further developed and programs implemented by ad-hoc committees made up of s t a f f representatives from each of the departments. The Staff Operating Committee meets each September to develop a master plan for the following year. Recently, Archives A took part i n the Cu l t u r a l Centre's Science and Technology Week. The archives segment of t h i s outreach project focused on computer use i n the archives. The archives provided information sessions for the public, and produced a f l y e r stressing why archives embrace new technologies such as the computer. Recently, the archives p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a Professional Development Day hosted by the Cultural Centre. During the hour long program, pa r t i c i p a n t s were asked to write down t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of either "Archives" or " A r c h i v i s t " as well as general ideas about "what's the use of archives?" In addition, teachers were introduced to A Guide to H i s t o r i c a l S i te Research and The Archives Exploration Series. This program has been very successful, with plans to make i t an annual event. In the f a l l of 1994 Archives A collaborated with the Cult u r a l Centre for an Environmental Awareness Day. A display was mounted at a l o c a l mall, and the archives launched t h e i r new publ i c a t i o n A Guide to H i s t o r i c a l S i te Research. A r c h i v i s t A reports that j o i n t e f f o r t may not always be a po s i t i v e experience for the archives. He notes that, "there i s a problem with people's perception as f a r as what an archives should be doing for outreach." The Cul t u r a l Centre has planned outreach i n i t i a t i v e s that the archives has not pa r t i c i p a t e d i n because "they are not relevant to the archives and I w i l l not all o c a t e resources for i r r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s . " The a r c h i v i s t notes that at j o i n t C u l tural Centre meetings, he sounds l i k e a broken record constantly repeating "that's not an appropriate a c t i v i t y f o r the archives." Recently, the archives declined the of f e r to "bring out old books or something" for the Cul t u r a l Centre's Wine and Cheese F e s t i v a l . 6. Museum Involvement Although the museum and archives are p h y s i c a l l y housed within the same building, these two operations are administratively separate. The archives does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n co-operative exhibitions with the museum, but the a r c h i v i s t notes that "there i s n ' t any reason why we would not do t h i s , but as of yet the r i g h t opportunity hasn't presented i t s e l f . " 7. Evaluation A r c h i v i s t A admits that he does not have a formal on-going method of evaluating outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . P a r t i c i p a n t evaluations are done on an ad-hoc basis, such as the questionnaires sent to teachers regarding the Archives Exploration Series. Archives s t a f f produce documentation r e l a t i n g to outreach i n i t i a t i v e s i n order to a s s i s t with future planning. There i s no formalized procedure for t h i s documentation. A r c h i v i s t A has plans for a future outreach project directed towards elementary school students. Teachers w i l l be asked to sel e c t approximately ten images from the archives photograph c o l l e c t i o n r e l a t i n g to a s p e c i f i c theme. The images, w i l l be sent to the school resource centre where the school board w i l l then take over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or housing and d i s t r i b u t i n g the photographs. Reproduction costs w i l l be paid for by the archives. A r c h i v i s t A believes " i t ' s money well spent i f i t helps get another generation of kids knowing what we're a l l about." CASE STUDY TWO Archives B was formally established i n 1978, with the appointment of a part-time a r c h i v i s t . U n t i l t h i s time, a r c h i v a l material was acquired, documented and preserved by the museum. With the formal establishment of the archives, a r c h i v a l material was separated from museum a r t i f a c t s . The museum and archives are ph y s i c a l l y located i n the same f a c i l i t y . The archives i s located i n one of the fa s t e s t growing mu n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Canada and serves a population of 270,000. The archives i s administratively part of the Museum Heritage Services D i v i s i o n of the Parks and Recreation Department. The Museum Heritage Services D i v i s i o n encompasses the f a c i l i t i e s and 52 services provided by the museum, archives and one h i s t o r i c s i t e . The Parks and Recreation Commission appoints a Museum and Archives Advisory Board annually to operate i n an advisory capacity providing community input and support for the o v e r a l l operations of the museum and archives. The Board i s made up of representatives from The Chamber of Commerce, The School Board, The H i s t o r i c a l Society, two Parks and Recreation Commissioners, and volunteer groups. Next year two i n d i v i d u a l members at large w i l l be added. The Public Programs Poli c y defines public programmes as "services provided for the public i n order to educate, enliven or entertain i n areas d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the content of the c o l l e c t i o n , providing a means of disseminating information connected with the history and development of the municipality." 4 Four types of programmes are offered: exhibitions, programmes for school students, s p e c i a l events and a r c h i v a l reference service. At present, the archives i s operated by one f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t and one part-time a r c h i v i s t who works four days a week. Hours of operation are Tuesdays to Saturdays, 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 1. General D e f i n i t i o n A r c h i v i s t B defined outreach as "any a c t i v i t i e s that we would undertake either i n d i v i d u a l l y or j o i n t l y with the museum or education departments; these i n i t i a t i v e s are over and above our reference service." A r c h i v i s t B believes that outreach i s an " i n t e g r a l and important component of a successful a r c h i v a l 53 program." The archives, as part of Museum Heritage Services, i s part of a "three pronged program" : 1. c o l l e c t i o n and preservation 2. public access and 3. outreach and extension. Outreach i s an " i n t e g r a l component" of i t s a r c h i v a l program, and " i t i s b u i l t into the o v e r a l l program as having equal importance with c o l l e c t i o n s management and public access, rather than something done on an ad hoc basis i f time or resources permit." The Heritage Services D i v i s i o n consists of three departments: archives, education and c u r a t o r i a l . Heritage services are provided to the community through the integration and co-operation of these separate sections. 2. Budget Requirements Resources necessary for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are taken into account during the annual planning process of the Museum Heritage Services D i v i s i o n . Although she receives advice and assistance from The Museum and Archives Advisory Board, the a r c h i v i s t i s responsible for f i n a l decisions regarding the a l l o c a t i o n of resources for outreach. The funding for outreach comes from three separate accounts. A photography account for the archives consists of $900 s p e c i f i c a l l y for the archives ex h i b i t i o n program. As well, the archives has access to $4,500 i n an administrative p u b l i c i t y account available to a l l three sections f o r promotional materials. A general material and supplies account provides $2,900 but no more than one quarter of i t i s spent on public programs. 54 Archives B has also received a number of d i f f e r e n t grants from outside funding agencies to a s s i s t with outreach. Sponsorship proposals are an i n t e g r a l component of the annual work plan, and are planned a year i n advance. The Museum and Archives Advisory Board has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t s t a f f to pursue sponsorships so that "sponsorship i s n ' t j ust e n t i r e l y a s t a f f i n i t i a t i v e i t can be perceived by the person or agency or the business that we're approaching that there i s a community commitment to generate these funds." The archives has received additional funds from The Ministry of Forests, The Bank of Montreal, The H i s t o r i c a l Society, as well as l o c a l businesses. Last year, Archives B spent a t o t a l of $3,2 00 on outreach. The t o t a l does not include s t a f f time, because " s t a f f time i s allocated to outreach because i t i s a p r i o r i t y and part of our regular duties and work plan." 3. Creative Aspects A r c h i v i s t B admits that s t a f f do not have any problems developing innovative and creative ideas f o r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s and notes that "often we have more ideas than our resources w i l l allow us to pursue." Archives B has i n place a formal and established process for a r t i c u l a t i o n of creative ideas. The a r c h i v i s t and assistant a r c h i v i s t are responsible for preparing a submission every year with suggestions for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Staff members keep an on-going f i l e of ideas that "usually come from working with the a r c h i v a l records." In July, the a r c h i v i s t , curator and education curator meet to discuss ideas for the annual public program for the coming year. The 55 goal i s to develop a program with an archives, museum and education component. The fini s h e d plan i s then submitted to the board f o r approval. Although i t does not have any input, the Parks and Recreation Commission receives the plan as a matter of course. Members of the Museum and Archives Advisory Board represent the general public to insure that the public program r e f l e c t s the best i n t e r e s t s of the community. Although Archives B has a systematic and well planned approach to outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , i t s t i l l leaves a certa i n amount of f l e x i b i l i t y i n i t s plans i n order to respond to spontaneous requests from community organizations. Requests are discussed by a l l s t a f f members i n terms of additional resources required, and i f at a l l possible, additional requests from community groups are accommodated. 4. P u b l i c i t y Advertising of outreach and public programming i s also included as a component of the annual work plan. Media announcements are sent to l o c a l newspapers, radio and t e l e v i s i o n stations according to a d i s t r i b u t i o n schedule o u t l i n i n g when and to whom announcements w i l l be released. A r c h i v i s t B estimated that the archives i s covered i n the l o c a l media twenty to twenty-fives times a year. This p u b l i c i t y , she notes, i s substantial, and includes much more than an advertisement of open hours. Programs are also advertised by f l y e r s , posters and a quarterly brochure produced by the Parks and Recreation Department. 5. Implementation of Outreach Archives B has implemented a wide var i e t y of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s such as exhibits, lecture series, brochures, t e l e v i s i o n productions and school programs. The archives i s responsible for both temporary in-house exhibits as well and t r a v e l l i n g exhibits. Exhibits are i n s t a l l e d every two months into the temporary exhibit case i n the Archives' entrance and every s i x months on the corridors leading to the archives. As well, the Pioneer Exhibit and 1881 H a l l are permanent a r c h i v a l exhibits redone every f i v e years. The archives has also developed an extensive t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n program or "extension exhibits" that t r a v e l to l o c a l public f a c i l i t i e s such as l i b r a r i e s , senior centres, and c i t y h a l l . Last year the exhibit "Men, Beasts and Trees" t r a v e l l e d to l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and t h i s year w i l l t r a v e l outside the c i t y . Special event exhibits such as The City Celebration exhibit also t r a v e l l e d to a number of venues i n the c i t y . Museum, archives and education s t a f f are j o i n t l y responsible for the delivery and i n s t a l l a t i o n of exhibitions at each of the scheduled venues. In 1989, the archives provided l i b r a r i e s i n the c i t y with standardized exhibit cases, so that the same exhibit could t r a v e l to s i x d i f f e r e n t venues. In addition to in-house and t r a v e l l i n g exhibits, the archives has also implemented a wide var i e t y of other forms of outreach. Regularly scheduled h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s are published i n a l o c a l newspaper twelve times a year. The archives, the museum, and the l i b r a r y are each responsible for submitting four a r t i c l e s during the year, with the archives responsible f o r co-57 ordinating the program and acting as l i a i s o n with the newspaper. In 1989, a h i s t o r i c a l retrospective "Conversations with the Past" was produced i n conjunction with a l o c a l cable s t a t i o n . I t i s a ired on a regular schedule throughout the year. The "Community Connections" Program produced by a l o c a l cable s t a t i o n also provides an opportunity for s t a f f members to advertise the services of the museum and archives. The a r c h i v i s t has used photographs, maps and textual records on t h i s program to promote the awareness and use of a r c h i v a l records. Archives B uses printed material such as brochures, calendars and postcards to promote public awareness and use of a r c h i v a l holdings. They have produced three d i f f e r e n t brochures for t h i s purpose: a genealogical brochure, an h i s t o r i c a l photographs brochure and a general archives brochure. The general archives brochure emphasizes the l e g a l value of a r c h i v a l records and the importance of accountability through record-keeping. Also, the archives had a r e g u l a r l y scheduled lectures series focusing on a variety of topics such as: h i s t o r i c photographs, genealogical research, preserving family records, h i s t o r i c architecture and book-binding. Unfortunately, the lectures were not popular enough to warrant continuing t h i s i n i t i a t i v e and a j o i n t decision was made to cancel them. However, the s t a f f are going to launch t h i s project again i n 1995, and hope that Saturday lectures w i l l prove more popular i f they are offered during day time hours. Although Archives B has not produced education k i t s , they have "worked at fostering the use of the archives with teachers, 58 not on any kind of co-ordinated l e v e l with the school d i s t r i c t , but we have promoted the various uses of ar c h i v a l resources and they bring t h e i r classes i n . " Students come to the archives because "coming to the archives i s part of the educational experience as a whole." Students come to the archives i n groups of ten and work on a research project assigned by t h e i r teacher. The archives has also worked co-operatively with the education and museum sections on a school program c a l l e d Family Treasures. This very successful project resulted i n strong t i e s between the school d i s t r i c t and the Museum Heritage Services D i v i s i o n . As part of t h e i r annual program plan, the archives has commitments to regularly scheduled community events. Every year, the archives produces an exhibit focusing on pioneer settlement as part of c i t y council's appreciation for senior c i t i z e n s . In addition, the archives also takes part i n the l o c a l l i b r a r y ' s genealogy open house by giving lectures on researching at l o c a l archives. A partnership has been established with the organization responsible for the l o c a l f a l l f a i r . The archives mounts an exhibit at the f a i r , and s t a f f are able to promote awareness of the archives. This has been a very p o s i t i v e experience, and has generated an "incredible response from the publi c . " Archives B has four volunteers who provide assistance i n many areas of the outreach program. Volunteer s t a f f are involved i n a l l stages of the exhibition process, and are also important i n the recruitment of new volunteers. During recruitment, displays are set up i n malls and e x i s t i n g volunteers promote 59 awareness and use of the archives and t a l k to the public about t h e i r p o s i t i v e experiences as volunteers. Volunteers have also been instrumental i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v a l records. The archives was approached by the past Deputy F i r e Chief who wanted to document the hi s t o r y of the f i r e department through an o r a l h i s t o r y program. The archives provided the t r a i n i n g necessary and a l i s t of contacts and he went into the community to record interviews with f i r e f i g h t e r s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s project, the archives established a very p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Professional Pioneer F i r e Fighters Association, an organization dedicated to preserving the h i s t o r y of f i r e f i g h t i n g and emergency services. The a r c h i v i s t reports that t h i s volunteer has been such an advocate for the archives that a l l the volunteer f i r e h a l l s and the f i r e department have donated t h e i r records. She notes that " t h i s very successful outreach program has resulted i n an in c r e d i b l e donation of s i g n i f i c a n t records to the archives - and that was just responding to an int e r e s t on the part of an i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n . " 6. Museum Involvement A r c h i v i s t B reports that Outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are undertaken to promote support and awareness of a l l three sections of the Museum Heritage Services D i v i s i o n . However, not a l l outreach i s a co-operative e f f o r t among the three d i v i s i o n s . There i s the recognition that some i n i t i a t i v e s may not lend themselves well to co-operation and "could be s o l e l y an archives or museum i n i t i a t i v e . " 60 The majority of exhibitions produced by Archives B are thematic or celebratory. Exhibits displayed i n the archives temporary exhibit case are designed using a combination of textual records and h i s t o r i c photographs r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r subject. The archives also produces exhibits that are representative of the fonds of a p a r t i c u l a r organization or i n d i v i d u a l . An exhibit of a series of photographs from the fonds of a commercial photographer or records of an organization such as The Oddfellows emphasizes that a r c h i v a l records are n a t u r a l l y accumulated as a r e s u l t of the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and functions of t h e i r creators. Based on an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "A Day i n the L i f e of an A r c h i v i s t " i n a publication from The American Association of State and Local History, the a r c h i v i s t proposed to mount an exhibit t r a c i n g the a c t i v i t i e s an a r c h i v i s t would undertake during the day. This proposal was not well received by the Museum and Archives Advisory Board because they believed " i t was boring and the public would not be interested." The a r c h i v i s t notes however, that she f e e l s t h i s type of exhibit can be very valuable and hopes to pursue the idea again next year. 7. Evaluation Archives B conducts written evaluations of a l l exhibits i n the extension or t r a v e l l i n g e xhibition program. The a r c h i v i s t reports that a l l public i n s t i t u t i o n s involved i n the e x h i b i t i o n program have reviewed i t as p o s i t i v e . In addition, the archives i n i t i a t e d t h e i r f i r s t survey i n 1994. The goal of the v i s i t o r ' s survey was to judge the success of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , and to 61 assess the resources allocated to t h i s facet of the operation. The survey developed j o i n t l y by museum, archives and education s t a f f was available only at the Museum and Archives f o r a s i x month period. This short survey only asked seven questions: where do you l i v e , have you or anyone i n your household v i s i t e d here before, what i s the reason for your v i s i t , how did you hear about us, what did you l i k e best, was there anything missing that you expected to f i n d , what could we improve? In addition to par t i c i p a n t evaluation forms, the archives keeps de t a i l e d records r e l a t i n g to a l l of i t s outreach a c t i v i t i e s . These f i l e s provide e s s e n t i a l information documenting funding and s t a f f time allocated to a s p e c i f i c project. Archives B has many innovative plans f o r future outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . During 1995, i t w i l l begin a program e n t i t l e d Community Curators Series. Museum and Archives s t a f f w i l l provide interested members of the public with the s k i l l s necessary to curate an exhibit. Co-ordination and assistance w i l l be provided by museum and archives s t a f f who w i l l t r a i n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l aspects of exhibit work including: research, handling and preservation. The Community Curators Series i s an attempt to "allow the community to t e l l us what i s important, the f e e l i n g i s that we need to be empowering the c i t i z e n r y to t e l l us what they want rather than us deciding what's good for them." CASE STUDY THREE Archives C i s located on Vancouver Island and serves a 62 population of seventy thousand. In 19 66 an a r c h i v i s t was paid f i v e hundred d o l l a r s to prepare a preliminary study o u t l i n i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y of establishing an archives. The a r c h i v i s t ' s p o s i t i o n was paid by honorarium u n t i l 1973, at which time he was given an a r c h i v a l budget and part time c l e r i c a l help. Administratively, the archives operates as part of the o f f i c e of the Director of Administration. Presently, the archives has an archives manager, a r c h i v i s t and an archives assistant. The mandate of the i n s t i t u t i o n states that "The archives endeavours to promote a greater awareness and appreciation of the heritage of the c i t y through the a c q u i s i t i o n and presentation of a r c h i v a l records and co-operation with other heritage organizations and a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n . " 5 Archives C has recently extended open hours to Monday through Friday nine-t h i r t y a.m. u n t i l four p.m. 1. General D e f i n i t i o n s When asked to define outreach A r c h i v i s t C uses the d e f i n i t i o n i n the archives mandate "we endeavour to promote a greater awareness and appreciation of heritage through the a c q u i s i t i o n and presentation of archival records i n co-operation with other a r c h i v a l organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n s . " Outreach he notes " i s not important i n the sense that i t ' s a great consumer of resources, and i n f a c t I have reduced the amount of outreach that's gone on." A r c h i v i s t C regards outreach as a low p r i o r i t y i n terms of time and resources and admits that "I may have that aversion to i t because i t was such a high component to the exclusion of other things when I came, and I f e l t i t had received f a i r due and had to be tempered." However, he notes that although i t i s "quite low down on the p r i o r i t y l i s t , a thread of i t runs through everything we do." His philosophy about outreach i s to look for opportunities that w i l l r e s u l t i n maximum p r o f i l e using a minimum of resources. 2. Budget Requirements Archives C has no s p e c i f i c money set aside i n the budget for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A category e n t i t l e d o f f i c e supplies i s used to produce photograph reproductions f o r exhibitions. Grants from outside sources are regularly received for projects involving arrangement and description, but the a r c h i v i s t has never applied for money from outside sources for outreach noting that "my philosophy i s that you only have a li m i t e d number of successful grant applications." The a r c h i v i s t has complete control over the budget for the archives. 3. Creative Aspects Archives C does not have a defined process f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of creative ideas for outreach, taking a more passive than active approach to outreach. The majority of ideas fo r outreach projects are conceived by various heritage groups, who approach the archives. 4. P u b l i c i t y Archives C has not developed a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p with the media, and very r a r e l y uses t e l e v i s i o n , newspaper or radio to promote awareness of the archives or advertise outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A vast majority of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are implemented as a r e s u l t of a requests from community groups, and therefore advertising of the programs i s judged to be seen as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 5. Implementation of Programs Archives C has implemented outreach programs such as exhibitions, school tours, publications, lectures and co-operative a c t i v i t i e s with h i s t o r i c a l l y oriented organizations. The majority of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the archives assistant, who i s technical support s t a f f not professional s t a f f . A r c h i v i s t C reports that outreach i s not included the professional s t a f f ' s regular duties. Archives C does not have any volunteers. Previously, the archives was responsible for mounting s i x thematic displays a year at the City H a l l . The present a r c h i v i s t has reduced the archives portion of the exhibit program, but encourages other heritage groups to use the cases. The archives i s now only responsible for two exhibits, one i n the f a l l and the other at Christmas. The remainder of the year, community heritage organizations are in v i t e d to produce exhibits l a s t i n g three months each. The archives books the cases three years i n advance, and reports a tremendous response to t h i s new program. The archives does o f f e r assistance to some organizations, while others may not require any help. The a r c h i v i s t reports that "the nice thing about i t i s , i t f i l l s the cabinets and i t uses v i r t u a l l y none of our resources except some administrative time." Archives C responds to requests to become involved i n the larger heritage community. Recently, i t was approached by the 65 l o c a l museum to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a community showcase event. The archives mounted two displays focusing on women's h i s t o r y and c i v i l defense. The a r c h i v i s t notes that although these exhibitions required a great deal of preparation, they provided wide exposure for the archives. Although Archives C has never i n i t i a t e d a lecture s e r i e s , the a r c h i v i s t w i l l give s p e c i a l lectures i f approached by outside groups. The a r c h i v i s t reports that, "we c e r t a i n l y don't a c t i v e l y search out opportunities, but i f people c a l l and are looking for a speaker I w i l l go." He has a standard lecture focusing on the research potentials of maps and plans. Also the a r c h i v i s t has provided lectures to a wide v a r i e t y of community groups on the nature of archives and ar c h i v a l material. He has done twelve of these i n the l a s t four years. Once or twice a year the archives i s featured i n a newspaper a r t i c l e focusing on a new a c q u i s i t i o n . Recently, a f t e r completion of arrangement and description of a large series of maps, a report on the project appeared on the second page of a l o c a l newspaper. Although A r c h i v i s t C admits that s t a f f have often talked about producing a brochure promoting the archives, t h i s has not yet been done. He notes that "brochures become dated, and I don't know how useful they r e a l l y are." However, he does admit that they may be useful to send out to other f a c i l i t i e s l i k e l i b r a r i e s . The archives has attempted to develop re l a t i o n s h i p s with secondary and post-secondary schools by providing "tours" of the archives, acquainting students with the research potentials of primary source material. The tours, targeted mainly towards un i v e r s i t y students, have been moderately successful, but he notes that the students are "slow i n coming back". Tours he says are d i f f i c u l t i n that they are time consuming and the s i z e of the reference room only allows small groups. The archives does not promote t h e i r tours, and w i l l only provide t h i s service when they are contacted. The a r c h i v i s t notes that he would l i k e to further develop t h i s area, because i t "physically brings people to the archives." Archives C has not produced an education k i t for students, and the a r c h i v i s t expressed some reservations regarding t h i s type of outreach. He remarks that "we would be happy i f the school wanted to produce a school k i t , and would be pleased to a s s i s t them, but our job i s to provide access to the materials with the school having the r o l e of researcher." A r c h i v i s t C recommends that rather than providing a l l the s t a f f and resources to complete a project l i k e t h i s , a r c h i v i s t s should take t h e i r ideas to the consumer and have them produce i t . I t i s very r i s k y for archives supplying a l l of the resources for any project, because as he says "there i s no commitment or investment from the other i n s t i t u t i o n . " Scarcity of resources also dictates that t h i s type of outreach i s a low p r i o r i t y . Another component of the archives' outreach i n i t i a t i v e s beyond exh i b i t i o n i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the larger heritage community. The a r c h i v i s t regularly attends regional and 67 p r o v i n c i a l heritage meetings such as C i v i c Heritage Trust, and the Heritage Council of B.C. A r c h i v i s t C sees the archives* primary r o l e as a "service to the c i t y bureaucracy" and believes he has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to r a i s e the p r o f i l e of the archives within the Clerk's Department. The archives produces an annual report o u t l i n i n g new ac q u i s i t i o n s , outreach a c t i v i t i e s , reference services and a f i n a n c i a l statement. The report i s a valuable source of information for c i t y council and employees, as well as a wide va r i e t y of heritage groups. The archives p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s t a f f o r i e n t a t i o n courses, giving tours of the archives as well as speaking to each session. In addition, the archives d i v i s i o n provides advice and service to a l l c i t y departments i n regard to the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act. Archives C also p a r t i c i p a t e s i n r e g u l a r l y scheduled community events such as Heritage Week. In conjunction with t h i s event, the archives has produced three thematic exhibitions; a map exhibit, architecture then and now and an e x h i b i t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l photographs of l o c a l people that are rotated every year so they can be used more than once. A r c h i v i s t C notes that "the thing I hate about displays i s you invest t h i s huge amount of time i n i t and you do i t for two months and you're done, so I l i k e to rotate them and use them more than once." A r c h i v i s t C has been asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an outreach i n i t i a t i v e s that he f e l t were inappropriate. For instance, a t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n requested that he p a r t i c i p a t e i n a program discussing a water tower, which i s a well known landmark. 68 Although he does not want the media to f e e l he i s uninterested, neither does he want to perpetuate the myth of the a r c h i v i s t as the c i t y h i s t o r i a n . He notes that " i f you promote yourself exclusively as a heritage vehicle then you play a d i f f e r e n t r o l e and heritage to me i s a hungry monster, i t could consume a l l your resources e a s i l y and to me i t ' s not the job." A r c h i v i s t C notes that previous to h i s appointment, the archives was only open i n the afternoon, l i m i t i n g public a c c e s s i b i l i t y . There was, he maintains, a philosophy that a r c h i v a l material was "special and unique and should be preserved forever," but use was not an issue. His philosophy i s "that i n using i t over a hundred years i f i t becomes destroyed f i f t y years f a s t e r than i t would before, well so be i t , because the whole purpose i s to use i t , otherwise we could destroy everything and i t wouldn't matter because no one would be using i t anyway." A r c h i v i s t C has attempted to promote the use of records by increasing open hours to Monday to Friday a l l day. 6. Museum Involvement This section of the interview schedule was not applicable. 7. Evaluation Archives C has never undertaken p a r t i c i p a n t evaluations of outreach a c t i v i t i e s . They do create documentation r e l a t i n g to the e x h i b i t i o n space at the City H a l l , but only to serve administrative needs rather than future planning and development. A r c h i v i s t C reports that he has no s p e c i f i c plans f o r the future regarding outreach, but would rather "look for 69 opportunities as they come up." He does note however that he hopes to provide more tours of the archives, and has often considered implementing an outreach i n i t i a t i v e e n t i t l e d "Archives i n Your A t t i c " i n cooperation with other regional archives. This programme promotes the publics' awareness of the values of records they may have i n t h e i r own homes, and focuses on preservation concerns. CASE STUDY FOUR Archives D i s located i n a small municipality i n the Fraser Valley. In 1974, the h i s t o r i c a l society established the museum and archives. The archives served as an a u x i l i a r y operation of the museum u n t i l the mid 1980s when the l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l society established an Archives Advisory Committee to develop guidelines for the care and management of arc h i v a l materials. In 1994, a grant was secured from the municipality and a new three thousand square foot archives was constructed. At the same time, the f i r s t a r c h i v i s t was hired for twenty hours a week. The archives r e l i e s heavily on volunteer labour for a l l facets of i t s operation, and would not be able to provide the present l e v e l of public service i f i t were not f o r the extraordinary contribution of volunteers. Archives personnel include volunteer senior management and volunteer support s t a f f . Senior management positions are comprised of: archives assistant, administrative assistant, s t a f f coordinator and f a c i l i t i e s coordinator. In addition, there are twenty-two volunteer support s t a f f responsible for reference service and relat e d duties. The D i s t r i c t H i s t o r i c a l Society i s governed by an operating board comprised of four o f f i c e r s and s i x trustees responsible for administering the archives with an operating grant provided by the municipality. The Community Archives Statement of Purpose and Objectives notes that one of the objectives of Archives D i s to "increase public awareness, knowledge and understanding of the Archives r o l e and programs to preserve the community's documentary heritage." 6 The archives i s located i n a new f a c i l i t y p h y s i c a l l y separate from the museum, and serves a public of t h i r t y thousand. Hours of operation are Wednesday to Friday from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and Saturday 9 a.m. u n t i l 12 p.m.. 1. General D e f i n i t i o n A r c h i v i s t D defines outreach as "a range of programs that are undertaken to communicate the purpose, roles and functions of an archives i n a community" i t "should promote a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use of records, and i s relevant to the entire mandate of the i n s t i t u t i o n . " She believes that outreach i s an important component of an archives program and notes that "to t r u l y be a community archives, and to become the main repository for the materials of value to the community, outreach i s the only way to do i t . " Outreach i s at the top of her p r i o r i t y l i s t at a l l times. "I have always f e l t outreach was important, and r e a l i z e d r i g h t away that i t was one of the major functions of an a r c h i v i s t because you have to educate people." She further notes that "to hear 71 that another a r c h i v i s t does not think outreach i s important or does not see i t as a p r i o r i t y , I f i n d that hard to understand, because to make a program work, i t i s an i n t e g r a l part of a successful a r c h i v a l program." 2. Budget Requirements Although Archives D does receives a grant from the municipality for wages and the general operations of the archives f a c i l i t y , i t does not allow for the a l l o c a t i o n of any funds f o r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Funding from outside granting agencies, sponsorships and fund-raising a c t i v i t i e s are necessary to implement any outreach programs. Although she has l i t t l e c ontrol over money received from the municipality, the a r c h i v i s t maintains f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for f i n a l decisions regarding the a l l o c a t i o n of money received from a l l outside sources, admitting that "when i t comes to fund-raising there probably i s n ' t anything I haven't done." A r c h i v i s t D does not believe that outreach has to be a c o s t l y endeavour. Projects may cost as l i t t l e as two hundred d o l l a r s , but are "invaluable i n terms of the support and awareness they can generate for the i n s t i t u t i o n . " She makes a v a l i d point when she says "the thing about outreach i s focus and knowing what your purpose i s , you must ask, why i s the a r c h i v i s t doing t h i s and why are we a l l o c a t i n g resources to t h i s project and what do we hope to gain from i t . " Last year, the archives spent a t o t a l of three thousand d o l l a r s on outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A l l the money was acquired from outside sources. 72 In 1992, Archives D received f o r t y f i v e thousand d o l l a r s from B.C. Heritage Trust, the Japanese Redress Foundation and The New Horizons Program to mount an extensive exhibit. A r c h i v i s t D reports that l o c a l sponsorship also plays an important part i n the implementation of outreach programs, "we c e r t a i n l y always approach l o c a l groups and organization f o r money." However, she emphasises money i s not the only benefit of sponsorships. More importantly, they help to involve l o c a l businesses and organizations with the archives, generating community support and a p o s i t i v e p r o f i l e . 3. Creative Aspects The a r c h i v i s t reports that she does not f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to come up with creative ideas for outreach programs, " I t i s not hard to be creative, I have so many ideas when i t comes to t h i s sort of thing." Creative ideas for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are developed by the a r c h i v i s t and outside sources such as members of the general public and community groups. The a r c h i v i s t reports that sometimes members of community groups and organizations approach the archives asking for assistance with a p a r t i c u l a r project. Some groups have a d e f i n i t e idea of what they would l i k e to do, and take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the project themselves. However, more often they provide the resources necessary for materials, but r e l y on the archives for the creation and implementation of the project. 4. P u b l i c i t y Archives D has made an e f f o r t to develop strong re l a t i o n s h i p s with the media. Newspaper a r t i c l e s , cable T.V. and radio a s s i s t the archives i n the advertisement of outreach programs, and to promote community awareness and support. During the past year, the archives has preferred to use newspapers to promote the archives, i n p a r t i c u l a r the a c q u i s i t i o n of new records. F u l l page newspaper a r t i c l e s provide an excellent way to promote awareness and use of the archives. These a r t i c l e s appear on average s i x times a year. 5. Implementation of Outreach Archives D has implemented a wide v a r i e t y of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s including school programs, spe c i a l lectures, s l i d e shows, brochures and exhibitions. The majority of these programs are c a r r i e d out co-operatively with other community organizations. The a r c h i v i s t believes that "we can't do a l o t by ourselves i n community archives, we r e a l l y have to draw other people i n for support with resources and s t a f f . " The archives has developed a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p with the school d i s t r i c t , and provides educational programs for students i n grades ten, eleven, and twelve. Students are introduced to primary source material, and acquainted with research potentials i n t h e i r community archives. The a r c h i v i s t reports that t h i s program has been a tremendous success, and both the students and teachers were "very excited and impressed with t h e i r experience." Special lectures by the a r c h i v i s t and outside lecturers are also a component of the outreach program. During Heritage Week, the archives co-operates with the museum to provide a lecture series covering a wide range of topics of h i s t o r i c a l 74 i n t e r e s t . Also, the a r c h i v i s t r e g u l a r l y speaks to groups such as the l i b r a r i a n s and school teachers. The archives has developed a s l i d e show presentation used to promote the archives to community businesses and organizations. The primary goal of the presentation i s to educate records creators about the services offered by the archives. The a r c h i v i s t reminds community organizations that they "are an i n t e g r a l part of t h i s community and need to consider what i s happening to the records they generate." Records creators are encouraged to donate t h e i r records to the archives as a resource for the community and also to " f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r own work." This successful program has resulted i n acquis i t i o n s from The Rotary Club and The A g r i c u l t u r a l Association. In 1988, the archives developed a brochure advertising the archives i n terms of acquisitions, preservation and public service. The present brochure i s outdated, and the archives has plans to produce a new one. The a r c h i v i s t reports that "the Board of Directors f e l t very strongly that they wanted a j o i n t brochure advertising the museum and archives." A combined brochure has not been written because neither the curator nor a r c h i v i s t f e l t i t was appropriate to s p l i t a brochure "50/50." The curator has since developed a museum brochure using desktop publishing, and the a r c h i v i s t has plans of her own. Exhibitions account f o r the largest component of the outreach program. The archives has produced a v a r i e t y of exhibitions, including small temporary exhibits i n the archives 75 f a c i l i t y , an elaborate exhibition that was displayed i n the l o c a l arena and exhibitions produced i n conjunction with a var i e t y of community organizations. Although the majority of these are thematic or celebratory i n nature, they have also mounted functional exhibitions. An e x h i b i t i o n mounted i n 1992 resulted i n a dramatic improvement of the archive's p r o f i l e within the community. Funding for the project was provided through grants from B.C. Heritage Trust the Japanese Redress Foundation and The New Horizons Program. The a r c h i v i s t describes t h i s project as "multi-dimensional" with many goals: to acquire records of a p a r t i c u l a r group, acknowledge t h e i r unique contributions and educate the community about t h e i r history. A r c h i v i s t D reported that "many people came to the exhibit having no idea about what archives were and the uses of records." A r c h i v i s t D believes that an increase i n the archives' p r o f i l e within the community and user s t a t i s t i c s were a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s exhibit. A r c h i v i s t D adamantly maintains that the success of t h i s exhibit was responsible for the archives acquiring a new building i n 1994. Archives D also uses sponsorship money to produce exhibitions i n the archives' temporary g a l l e r y . The new archives f a c i l i t y includes an environmentally controlled e x h i b i t i o n space with windows d i r e c t l y facing the street. The a r c h i v i s t has approached four community sponsors with a unique idea to promote awareness of the archives through temporary exhi b i t s . Four l o c a l businesses or community organizations are asked f o r f i f t y 76 d o l l a r s to sponsor an exhibit of t h e i r choice. The organization receives free p u b l i c i t y for four months and a tax receipt, while the archives i s able to pay for a portion of the e x h i b i t costs and fosters strong t i e s with the community. The a r c h i v i s t notes that while the i t i s important to t r y to generate some revenue to cover the cost of exhibiting, t h i s i s not the only goal. She points out that " i t ' s not only a monetary issue, i t goes a l o t deeper. The important thing i s to bring i n these other groups and for them to become spokespeople for the archives. People r e a l l y do respond to t h i s and i t generates a good f e e l i n g i n the community about the archives." Sponsorships she says "provide the opportunity to bring i n other groups and get them involved i n the archives, our new s e t t i n g allows us to reach many new audiences and that i s worth i t s weight i n gold." Although the majority of t h e i r exhibits have been subject based, Archives D has also used functional exhibits to promote awareness and support of t h e i r a r c h i v a l program. An e x h i b i t e n t i t l e d "What are Archives" explained a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and public service. Another, "Your Community Archives" emphasized that archives play an i n t e g r a l and i n t e r a c t i v e r o l e i n the community. Both of these exhibits were very well received by the public. Archives D often co-operates with other i n s t i t u t i o n s and organizations to implement outreach programs. The archives has a formal r e l a t i o n s h i p with the genealogy club who use the archives f a c i l i t y for t h e i r meetings once a month. In exchange, the club permits t h e i r genealogy resources to be housed i n the archives, allowing public access. The a r c h i v i s t has also approached the l o c a l genealogy club regarding a j o i n t production of a brochure e n t i t l e d "A Genealogical Guide to the Archives." The a r c h i v i s t points out that "we r e a l l y can't do a l o t by ourselves i n community archives, we r e a l l y have to draw other people i n for support with resources and s t a f f . " The archives does p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g u l a r l y scheduled community events i f resources permit. An annual trade-show provides an opportunity to p u b l i c i z e the archives through exhib i t s . This event i s very successful f o r volunteer recruitment and often r e s u l t s i n new acquisitions of a r c h i v a l records. Archives D r e l i e s heavily on volunteer senior management and volunteer support s t a f f to carry out a l l facets of t h e i r a r c h i v a l program. However, A r c h i v i s t D remarks that " a l l volunteers are interviewed and ninety percent of them aren't the le a s t b i t interested i n outreach and public r e l a t i o n s , which amazes me." She does have a small core of volunteers with whom she works well who a s s i s t with a l l phases of exhibit work as well as other outreach projects involving contact with the general public. The majority of volunteers though prefer working with the a r c h i v a l records and performing reference duties. In addition, the a r c h i v i s t reports that she contributes an average of s i x t y volunteer hours per month, and i n 1994 she accumulated f i v e hundred hours from A p r i l to December. A r c h i v i s t D does recognize that anyone replacing her may not give as 78 f r e e l y of t h e i r time. However, she stresses that, "I'm doing i t because I want to, i t ' s a desire and need on my part because I do s t i l l want to be part of that volunteer corps apart from being paid s t a f f . " She notes that The Board of Directors "expect me to put those hours i n , but I don't do i t f o r them." 6. Museum Involvement Archives D i s administratively and p h y s i c a l l y separate from the museum, with d i s t i n c t i o n s made between museum outreach and archives outreach. Although the curator and a r c h i v i s t both report to the Board of Directors past r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two departments have been somewhat strained. The present a r c h i v i s t and curator are attempting to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The board has expressed concerns that the museum and archives are not working together, and as a r e s u l t formalized structured meetings are held every two weeks to work on a long-range plan for co-operation between the two. The museum and archives have recently co-operated on a number of outreach projects such as Heritage Week, a lecture series and exhibitions. At the same time, the a r c h i v i s t does recognizes that exhibits educating the public to the functions of archives and record use w i l l be e n t i r e l y an arc h i v a l i n i t i a t i v e , and plans to continue with these. 7. Evaluation A r c h i v i s t D admits that to date a formal on-going method of par t i c i p a n t evaluation has not been implemented. However, i n t e r n a l documentation r e l a t i n g to the development and 79 implementation of a l l outreach a c t i v i t i e s i s generated i n order to a s s i s t with evaluation and future planning. A r c h i v i s t D has implemented a wide v a r i e t y of outreach programs, and has many creative ideas for the future. Programs for 1996 including outreach services have already been planned and are included i n the Public Support and Use P r o f i l e . The a r c h i v i s t has taken advantage of the free services of the Community Marketing Resource Bureau, and w i l l be "exploring e f f e c t i v e ways to market the archives, and develop a business side i n order to generate revenue." She i s also prepared to ask for money once a year from community organizations and businesses who have donated t h e i r records to the archives. Pointing out that "sometimes people don't r e a l i z e that even with a volunteer s t a f f i t costs money to preserve them." Although A r c h i v i s t D i s comfortable and f a m i l i a r with a wide v a r i e t y of fund-raising techniques, she admits that, "I can't recommend t h i s for every a r c h i v i s t , i t has to be something you're comfortable with." A r c h i v i s t D also has plans to a s s i s t with the development of i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs f o r high school and u n i v e r s i t y students. She fir m l y believes that such a proposal w i l l only be successful i f i t i s developed i n conjunction with teachers and the school board. Their assistance and input w i l l ensure that they have an investment i n the project. Although the archives w i l l provide assistance, the k i t s w i l l be produced by representatives of the school system. A r c h i v i s t D has plans to 8 0 explore funding options for t h i s project through the Ministry of Education. A r c h i v i s t D also has plans to stage many s p e c i a l exhibits i n cooperation with community organizations, including; Scouts Canada, the Chamber of Commerce, Celebration of the Arts, Arts C o u n c i l / A r t i s t s Association and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Association. The a r c h i v i s t i s also exploring ideas for an annual fund-r a i s i n g event for the archives, to recognize the unique contributions of members of the community to heritage preservation. A r c h i v i s t D hopes t h i s event w i l l be a co-operative project that w i l l also " f a c i l i t a t e our s i s t e r operation" (the museum). 81 ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 2 1. Vancouver C i t y Archives was used as a t e s t s i t e . An interview was conducted with C i t y A r c h i v i s t Sue Baptie, i n order to i d e n t i f y any problems, and ensure that each of the four subsequent interviewees could be asked the same questions. This interview was conducted at Vancouver C i t y Archives September 14, 1995. 2. Edward Ives, The Tape-Recorded Interview: A Manual for F i e l d Workers i n Folklore and Oral History (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1974): 45. 3. Archives A, Pol i c y and Procedures Manual. 1983, 6. 4. Archives B, Parks and Recreation Commission, Public Programmes Policy, 1989, 1. 5. Archives C, Annual Report, 1994, 3. 6. Archives D, Statement of Purpose and Objectives, 1987, 2. 82 CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS This chapter provides analysis and comparison of the data c o l l e c t e d during the interviews. The f i r s t question discussed i s the p r i o r i t y or importance of outreach. Three of the four community a r c h i v i s t s interviewed f o r t h i s study regard outreach as a high p r i o r i t y . They believe that outreach i s not only important, but a fundamental part of regular a c t i v i t y . Their on-going commitment to outreach i s demonstrated through regular a l l o c a t i o n s of funding and s t a f f time to a f u l l range of on-going and creative outreach a c t i v i t i e s directed towards a wide var i e t y of user groups. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that a r c h i v i s t s operating within three d i f f e r e n t administrative settings strongly believe that outreach i s an important component of an a r c h i v a l program. They c i t e many benefits to be gained from the implementation of outreach a c t i v i t i e s , including; e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of records, increased public awareness and support, and promotion of the a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use of records. A r c h i v i s t C i s the only interviewee that does not regard outreach as important, st a t i n g that "I place i t quite low down on my p r i o r i t y l i s t . " A r c h i v i s t C notes that he has tempered outreach a c t i v i t i e s because previous to h i s appointment they took precedence over basic a r c h i v a l functions. 1 This interviewee's lack of regard for outreach may be more d i r e c t l y 83 rela t e d to past negative experiences rather than the f a c t that Archives C i s administratively part of a Clerk's Department. A r c h i v i s t A also operates as part of a Clerk's Department, but regards outreach as a high p r i o r i t y , r e g u l a r l y implementing a wide range of creative outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . The second top i c discussed with the interviewees was the budget requirements for the implementation of outreach. The phrase " i f i t costs money i t ' s out" d e f i n i t e l y does not apply to the majority of a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s study. Three out of four of the interviewees are not discouraged by a lack of resources for outreach projects, and demonstrate a va r i e t y of unique and creative approaches to securing the necessary funding for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline recommend that regular and separate budget categories be established for outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Separate budgets they note solve the problem of d i v e r t i n g money from other programs to fund outreach 2 . . . . i n i t i a t i v e s . Three of the four a r c h i v i s t s interviewed reported having access to money from separate budget categories for outreach a c t i v i t i e s . A r c h i v i s t C allocates only minimal funding to outreach, and consequently does not have a separate budget category for t h i s function. The s i z e of the i n s t i t u t i o n does not appear to d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the amount of money spent on outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Archives A and B reported spending $1,200 and $3,000 respectively on outreach during the past year, while Archives D, the smallest i n s t i t u t i o n , spent $3,000. Archives D i s also the 84 only i n s t i t u t i o n r e l y i n g e n t i r e l y on funding from outside sources to implement outreach a c t i v i t i e s . Although i t receives a grant from the municipality, i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to wages and the general operations of the archives f a c i l i t y . A r c h i v i s t C was the only interviewee without a separate budget category f o r outreach and unable to give the cost of outreach a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out during the past year. Ann E. Pederson i n her account of the SAA's 1976 Survey believes that the only way to obtain an accurate account of the f u l l cost of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s i s to include s t a f f time i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s . 3 The a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s study reveal that often the cost of outreach i s calculated based s o l e l y on the fi n i s h e d product, such as the exhibition, p u b l i c a t i o n or education k i t , and does not take into account s t a f f time. Both a r c h i v i s t s A and C could not accurately give the f u l l cost of t h e i r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s as they had not kept complete documentation of the s t a f f time required. A r c h i v i s t A's comment that the s t a f f time involved "was more than he cared to remember"4 suggests that a f a i r computation of true cost would be much higher. I t i s probably t h i s higher cost including s t a f f time which deters some managers from undertaking outreach. A r c h i v i s t B notes that the three thousand two hundred d o l l a r s spent on outreach does not include s t a f f time, because " s t a f f time i s allocated to outreach because i t i s a p r i o r i t y and part of our regular duties and work plan." 5 This proper allotment of s t a f f time i s the reasonable way to account f o r cost. 85 Although three of the four archives have separate and regular budget categories for the implementation of outreach a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s money i s not s u f f i c i e n t , and must be augmented with funding from outside sources such as granting agencies, community sponsorships and non-profit s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. Three of the four a r c h i v i s t s interviewed believe that outreach i s an important component of an a r c h i v a l program, and are w i l l i n g to explore creative options for funding outreach projects. A r c h i v i s t C i s the only interviewee who has not explored funding options from community sponsorships or external granting agencies, noting that "my philosophy i s that you only have a lim i t e d number of successful grant a p p l i c a t i o n s . " 6 Sponsorships from community organizations and businesses provide an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t source of funding than external granting agencies. Archives B and D receive regular funding from community sponsorships. Detailed sponsorship packages o u t l i n i n g the goals and objectives of the project are developed the year before the i n i t i a t i v e w i l l take place, and presented to a community business or organization. Community sponsorships allow archives to carry out projects that would not be possible with e x i s t i n g funding. Recently Archives B used sponsorship money to purchase t r a v e l l i n g e xhibition panels, while Archives D r e l i e s on money from community sponsorship to produce in-house exh i b i t s . Although sponsorships provide f i n a n c i a l assistance to community archives, t h e i r benefits extend further than t h i s . As A r c h i v i s t 86 D points out, they play an important r o l e i n generating community support and awareness. 7 External granting agencies are another important source of funding for outreach projects i n community archives. A r c h i v i s t B and D are both very well informed regarding money availab l e from outside sources, and are w i l l i n g to write the necessary grant applications to secure funding. Grants have been received from B.C. Heritage Trust, the Japanese Redress Foundation, the New Horizons Program and The Ministry of Forestry. A r c h i v i s t A has access to money from the "Friends", and therefore does not need to explore external sources of funding. The t h i r d issue discussed related to c r e a t i v i t y . The respondents interviewed for t h i s project d i s p e l the ster e o t y p i c a l view of the a r c h i v i s t as "permanently humped, moleish aged creatures who shuffle musty documents i n dust-f i l l e d stacks for a purpose uncertain." They provide a d i f f e r e n t picture of a r c h i v i s t s as highly creative and talented professionals, a c t i v e l y involved i n promoting the awareness and use of archives and ar c h i v a l records. Three of the four a r c h i v i s t s interviewed displayed a great deal of c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e i r approach to the conception and development of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s A, B and D a l l report that they do not f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to be creative. Three of the a r c h i v i s t s interviewed have no d i f f i c u l t y developing creative ideas for outreach programs, and i n fac t often have more ideas than resources w i l l 87 allow. Only one of the interviewees, A r c h i v i s t C takes a more passive approach to outreach, r e l y i n g on community organizations and groups to provide creative ideas for outreach. The majority of the creative ideas for outreach programs are developed i n t e r n a l l y by archives s t a f f and volunteers. However, Archives A, B and D have a formal structure i n place to ensure that the public have some input into outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Archives A receives input from the "Friends", a group comprised of interested members of the community, while Archives B r e l i e s on assistance from the Museum and Archives Advisory Board. The D i s t r i c t H i s t o r i c a l Society provides interested members of the public with an opportunity to contribute to outreach i n i t i a t i v e s developed by Archives D. This study reveals that archives prefer to have a defined process i n place for the a r t i c u l a t i o n of creative ideas. Although some projects are developed through informal discussions, three of the four have developed a formalized method for the discussion of ideas, ensuring that outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are an i n t e g r a l component of the annual work plan, rather than projects c a r r i e d out on an ad hoc or sporadic basis. Archives C i s the only i n s t i t u t i o n without a defined process for the a r t i c u l a t i o n of creative ideas, r e l y i n g e n t i r e l y on informal meetings and discussions. The next top i c of discussion was the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Outreach advocates such as Ann Pederson and E l s i e Freeman Freivogel have encouraged a r c h i v i s t s to expand t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l view of users, and recognize that they have 88 many publics. The respondents interviewed for t h i s study have demonstrated a commitment to provide a r c h i v a l services to a wide audience including; primary, secondary and post-secondary students, professional groups such as teachers and l i b r a r i a n s , l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s , environmental consultants, community businesses and organizations, and genealogists. The wide v a r i e t y of creative outreach i n i t i a t i v e s implemented by the respondents demonstrates an acute awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and obligations of p u b l i c l y funded i n s t i t u t i o n s . This study indicates that a r c h i v i s t s recognize the importance of developing p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a broad spectrum of the community. The a r c h i v i s t s interviewed f o r t h i s project p a r t i c i p a t e i n a wide range of regul a r l y scheduled community events such as: Heritage Week, f a i r s , open houses, pioneer celebrations, trade-shows and f e s t i v a l s . These events draw large crowds, and provide excellent opportunities to increase public awareness and strengthen t i e s with the community. In addition, a l l of the respondents have co-operated with various groups i n t h e i r communities to implement outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A r c h i v i s t D makes a v a l i d point when she says, "we can't do a l o t by ourselves i n community archives, we r e a l l y have to draw other people i n for support with resources and s t a f f . " 9 The four a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s project have implemented a wide var i e t y of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s r equiring s k i l l s that are not part of a professional a r c h i v i s t ' s 89 education. Unlike t h e i r colleagues i n the museum f i e l d , a r c h i v i s t s are not provided with t r a i n i n g i n exhib i t design, school programming or graphic a r t . Despite t h e i r lack of t r a i n i n g i n these areas, t h i s study would indicate that a r c h i v i s t s are w i l l i n g to acquire the s k i l l s necessary to implement highly professional outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . This study also indicates that exhibitions are the most popular form of outreach i n community archives. Although the scope of exhibitions programs varies considerably, a l l four a r c h i v i s t s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for a regular e x h i b i t i o n program. They mount four types of exhibitions: thematic, celebratory, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and functional. Thematic exhibits "informing the audience about a chosen subject from an h i s t o r i c a l point of view" and celebratory exhibits "drawing attention to a person, place or thing that 10 warrants s p e c i a l recognition" are the most popular type of exhibitions mounted by the four respondents. Both Archives B and D reg u l a r l y mount exhibitions using a combination of textual records and h i s t o r i c photographs, augmented with a r t i f a c t s from the museum c o l l e c t i o n . Despite the fac t that unique a r c h i v a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be l o s t when records are taken out of the context of the fonds and treated as discreet items, thematic and celebratory exhibitions remain very popular. Although not as popular as thematic and celebratory exhibitions, i n s t i t u t i o n a l exhibitions promoting the holdings of the archives and the arc h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n have been mounted by two respondents. Archives A and D have both produced exhibitions 90 that are representative of the fonds of a p a r t i c u l a r community organization or i n d i v i d u a l . Archives A has exhibited a series of photographs from the fonds of a commercial photographer and the records of The Oddfellows to emphasize that a r c h i v a l records are n a t u r a l l y accumulated as the r e s u l t of the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and functions of t h e i r creators. Archives D r e g u l a r l y mounts an i n s t i t u t i o n a l e xhibition at an annual trade-show to promote community awareness of the archives and r e c r u i t volunteers. Functional exhibitions serve to educate the audience about a r c h i v a l theory, methodology, and p r a c t i c e . 1 1 Although often considered d u l l and uninteresting, r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that a r c h i v i s t s have successfully mounted t h i s type of exh i b i t i o n . Two functional exhibitions mounted by Archives D "What are Archives" and "Your Community Archives", have become a regular component of the exhibition program because they were so well received by the community. Archival l i t e r a t u r e i s replete with examples of the benefits to be gained from strengthening the l i n k between the a r c h i v a l system and the education community. Results of t h i s study indicate that a l l four a r c h i v i s t s are a c t i v e l y engaged i n outreach i n i t i a t i v e s to strengthen r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the archives and a l l l e v e l s of the school system. The most popular type of education oriented outreach are information sessions and school tours for secondary and post-secondary students. Used to promote the awareness and use of a r c h i v a l records i n the education system, these i n i t i a t i v e s have been met with very p o s i t i v e response from teachers and students. 91 A r c h i v i s t A i s the only respondent who has developed an education k i t . The negative experiences of Archives A may warrant a word of caution to other i n s t i t u t i o n s planning a s i m i l a r project. As reported by A r c h i v i s t A, The Archives Exploration Series required a substantial amount of s t a f f time and resources. In the case of Archives A, the project was i n i t i a t e d , developed and funded e n t i r e l y with a r c h i v a l resources. The lack of commitment of resources on behalf of the education system may i n part be responsible for t h e i r lack of i n t e r e s t i n using the product. A r c h i v i s t D also plans to develop an education k i t during 1996, but cautions that archives education k i t s " w i l l only be successful i f developed i n conjunction with teachers and the school board. Their assistance and input w i l l ensure that they have an investment i n the p r o j e c t . 1 , 1 2 Advocates of outreach assert that i t can be used to expand ar c h i v a l functions such as a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and use, therefore supporting the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s mandate. Kathleen D. Roe i n her essay "Public Programs" notes that the basic a r c h i v a l functions of acquiring and preserving records with a r c h i v a l value can be expanded through the use of public programs. Secondly, public programs can increase and encourage use of a r c h i v a l materials. Respondents interviewed for t h i s project bear t h i s out. This study indicates that outreach i n i t i a t i v e s can be used to successfully support the mandate of an a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Consider for example, the outreach i n i t i a t i v e implemented by Archives D involving an o r a l h i s t o r y project r e s u l t i n g i n numerous acquisitions of s i g n i f i c a n t records from volunteer f i r e h a l l s and the f i r e department. S i m i l a r l y , Archives D developed a s l i d e show presentation directed towards l o c a l community businesses and organizations has resulted i n a c q u i s i t i o n s of records from The Rotary Club and The A g r i c u l t u r a l Association. A r c h i v i s t D also adamantly maintains that outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r an exhibit mounted i n 1992, are d i r e c t l y responsible for a dramatic improvement of the archives' p r o f i l e i n the community, and are ultimately responsible f o r the new a r c h i v a l f a c i l i t y . Results of t h i s study indicate that the administrative structure of an i n s t i t u t i o n has an impact on the type of outreach i n i t i a t e d by the archives. Archives A and C, both part of a Clerk's Department, and the designated r e p o s i t o r i e s for government records, are a c t i v e l y involved with i n t e r n a l outreach projects promoting awareness and support of the archives within the c i t y bureaucracy. Although Archives C takes a rather passive approach to outreach i n i t i a t i v e s directed to the community, i n t e r n a l outreach i n i t i a t i v e s such as the Annual Report and regular tours and information sessions for c i t y s t a f f are provided on a regular basis. Archives B and D both acquire records generated by t h e i r respective l o c a l governments, but are not the o f f i c i a l designated r e p o s i t o r i e s . Outreach i n i t i a t i v e s implemented by these archives are directed externally to the community rather than i n t e r n a l l y towards the l o c a l government. Archives B and D implement the majority of the outreach i n i t i a t i v e s i n conjunction with community groups and 93 organizations. The majority of t h e i r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s take place i n the community rather than i n the archives. A r c h i v i s t A who i s very enthusiastic about outreach, implements the majority of i n i t i a t i v e s within the Cultural Centre, only occasionally going into the community or co-operating with community organizations or businesses. This study indicates that volunteers play a v i t a l r o l e i n the implementation of outreach a c t i v i t i e s i n community archives. Archives A, B and D a l l r e l y on volunteers to a s s i s t them with outreach a c t i v i t i e s that would not take place otherwise. Archives A uses volunteers for research projects such as h i s t o r i c a l newspaper a r t i c l e s and short publications, while Archives B and D heavily r e l y on volunteers f o r a l l facets of t h e i r outreach program. In the short term, volunteers can a s s i s t the i n s t i t u t i o n to accomplish o v e r a l l i t s goals and objectives, but more importantly as A r c h i v i s t B and D have discovered they are excellent ambassadors for the archives. Although three of the four respondents are pro-active and enthusiastic about outreach, they reveal a reluctance to a l l o c a t e s t a f f time and funding to i n i t i a t i v e s that may communicate the wrong message to the public. None of the respondents demonstrate a willingness to abandon established a r c h i v a l theory i n exchange for increased awareness and support. The i n i t i a t i v e s reported i n t h i s study do not run counter to accepted a r c h i v a l theory, i n d i c a t i n g that the interviewees regard the a r c h i v a l record as t h e i r f i r s t p r i o r i t y . 94 The interviewees do not hesitate to r e j e c t outreach i n i t i a t i v e s regarded as inappropriate. As an example, A r c h i v i s t A rejected an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a Wine F e s t i v a l when i t was suggested he "bring out old books or something." S i m i l a r l y , A r c h i v i s t C turned down an opportunity to appear on T.V. as the l o c a l h i s t o r i a n . Opportunities for outreach present themselves on a d a i l y basis, but unless they are evaluated with respect to the mandate and goals of the archives they may be detrimental rather than b e n e f i c i a l . Ian Wilson i n his essay "Towards a V i s i o n of Archival Services" notes that "many a r c h i v i s t s l i m i t use by continuing to set t h e i r reference and r e t r i e v a l hours to coincide with the working day...effectively eliminates a substantial portion of the population." Two of the respondents interviewed for t h i s study, A r c h i v i s t B and C, have changed t h e i r hours of public access i n order to accommodate the needs of t h e i r community. After conducting a user survey, Archives B changed open hours to Tuesday through Saturday i n order to provide access on a day outside of the average work week. A r c h i v i s t C f e l t that l i m i t e d hours of access did not serve the public's best i n t e r e s t , and has s u b s t a n t i a l l y increased the archives* open hours during the week. The majority of a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s study believe that advertising i s an important component of successful outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s have the necessary s k i l l s and t a l e n t s required for the production of advertising, only r a r e l y contracting the services of outside consultants. The most popular types of p u b l i c i t y ; brochures, posters, f l y e r s and press releases, are developed in-house by a r c h i v a l s t a f f . A r c h i v i s t s A and B report that t h e i r archives also receive substantial coverage by the l o c a l media anywhere from ten to twenty-five times per year. A r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e suggests that evaluation i s an e s s e n t i a l component of outreach. Ann E. Pederson maintains that a r c h i v i s t s who commit thousands of hard-won d o l l a r s to creating a product without any thought for i t s success, are g u i l t y of being "penny-wise and d o l l a r f o o l i s h . " 1 5 S i m i l a r l y , i n a recent a r t i c l e Timothy Ericson notes that a r c h i v i s t s need to "concentrate more on the impact of our outreach a c t i v i t i e s , and the lessons we have learned from them - i n other words to 16 evaluate our e f f o r t s . " The evaluation process enables a r c h i v i s t s to determine the strengths and weaknesses of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , providing valuable information for future planning and development. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that although the respondents are aware of the need for systematic evaluation of outreach a c t i v i t i e s , evaluations are not done on a formal, on-going basis. There i s a tendency to carry out evaluations on a sporadic or p r o j e c t - s p e c i f i c basis. Two types of evaluations most commonly implemented by community a r c h i v i s t s are surveys/questionnaires directed at p a r t i c i p a n t s , and reports generated by a r c h i v i s t s for i n t e r n a l administrative purposes. Pederson and Casterline recommend questionnaires or surveys be short, clear, concise and include questions such as "how did 96 you learn about t h i s program". Questionnaires directed at pa r t i c i p a n t s should also ask for suggestions for improvement.17 The surveys administered by Archives B and C met these requirements, asking a maximum of seven concise questions, including a question related to how the program could be improved. A l l four of the community a r c h i v i s t s interviewed f o r t h i s study create permanent written records documenting outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Ideally these records should include: the purpose and h i s t o r y of the project, the amount of s t a f f time required, t o t a l costs including s t a f f time, any revenue generated, p u b l i c i t y related to the project, a summary of the contents and an o v e r a l l assessment of the programs p o s i t i v e and negative 18 a t t r i b u t e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that a l l of the a r c h i v i s t s create documentation consistent with the recommendations of Pederson and Casterline. Although reports do not always include a l l of these elements, i t i s cl e a r that a r c h i v i s t s are aware of the importance of generating records to a s s i s t i n the evaluation process and are making attempts to create records necessary for the future planning and development of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Three of the four interviewees have outreach a c t i v i t i e s planned for the coming year. By January 1995, archives A, B, and D had already scheduled outreach i n i t i a t i v e s for 1996. Annual work plans a l l o c a t e funding and s t a f f time to outreach i n i t i a t i v e s ensuring that outreach i s an i n t e g r a l component of 97 the archives' future projects rather than sporadic or i s o l a t e d events implemented on an ad hoc basis. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of t h i s study indicate that outreach can be a p o s i t i v e experience for community archives. When outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are t i e d to the mandate of the archives they can be used to accomplish the o v e r a l l goals and objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Community archives have an o b l i g a t i o n to provide service to the public. Well planned and properly implemented outreach a c t i v i t i e s can provide a r c h i v i s t s with new and e x c i t i n g opportunities to f u l f i l t h i s o b l i g a t i o n . 98 ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 3 1. Interview with A r c h i v i s t C, November 14, 1994. 2. Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982), 62. 3. Ann E. Pederson, "Archival Outreach: SAA's 1976 Survey," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 ( A p r i l 1978): 159. 4. Interview with A r c h i v i s t A, September 29, 1994. 5. Interview with A r c h i v i s t B, October 24, 1994. 6. Interview with A r c h i v i s t C, November 14, 1994. 7. Interview with A r c h i v i s t D, January 28, 1995. 8. David B. Gracy II, "Archives and Society: The F i r s t Archival Revolution," The American A r c h i v i s t . 47 (Winter 1984): 7. 9. Interview with A r c h i v i s t D, January 28, 1995. 10. Heather Marie Gordon, "Archival Exhibitions: Purposes and P r i n c i p l e s " (MAS Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1994), 112. 11. Ibid. 12. Interview with A r c h i v i s t D, January 28, 1995. 13. Kathleen D. Roe, "Public Programs," 219. 14. Ian E. Wilson, "Towards a V i s i o n of A r c h i v a l Services," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91):97. 15. Ann E. Pederson, "Archival Outreach: SAA's 1976 Survey," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 (April 1987): 160 16. Timothy L. Ericson, "Preoccupied with our Own Gardens," Arch i v a r i a 31 (Winter 1990-91): 121. 17. Ann E. Pederson and G a i l Farr Casterline, Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs. 61. 18. Archives Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, Manual f o r Small Archives, (Vancouver, 1988): 178. 99 C O N C L U S I O N The decision to embark on t h i s project was made because of a lack of ar c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e dedicated to the examination of the p r a c t i c a l aspects of outreach. Its aim was to investigate the value of outreach and how i t i s put into p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia's community archives. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are very p o s i t i v e . Once on the periphery of fundamental a r c h i v a l functions, outreach a c t i v i t i e s have gained recognition and c r e d i b i l i t y as important elements of a successful and well-rounded a r c h i v a l program. Three of the four community a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s study regard outreach as a high p r i o r i t y . Their on-going commitment to outreach i s demonstrated through regular a l l o c a t i o n s of funding and s t a f f time to a f u l l range of creative a c t i v i t i e s directed towards a va r i e t y of user groups. Interestingly, the administrative s e t t i n g of the archives does not appear to have a strong influence on the p r i o r i t y given to outreach or the willingness to implement outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s operating within three d i f f e r e n t administrative settings strongly believe that outreach i s an important component of an arc h i v a l program. A r c h i v i s t C i s the only respondent who presented a cautious and passive approach towards outreach. This has been attributed to past negative experience rather than administrative s e t t i n g . A review of the arc h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e revealed many unanswered questions r e l a t i n g to the practice of outreach. This 100 empirical study was able to address some of these questions. Results of t h i s study c l e a r l y indicate that successful outreach i n i t i a t i v e s require several e s s e n t i a l components. These have been i d e n t i f i e d as: a regular source of funding from either the archive's governing body, or an external source, incorporation into an annual work plan, d i s t i n c t goals and objectives that are relevant to the mandate of the i n s t i t u t i o n , attention to the target audience, community co-operation and support, and a method of on-going evaluation. The a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s project reported that these components were c r u c i a l to the success of t h e i r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . The r e s u l t s suggest that successful outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are not dependent on an extensive budget. For small community archives with li m i t e d budgets, these r e s u l t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraging. Many of the i n i t i a t i v e s reported i n t h i s project were r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive yet very successful. This study has suggested that community sponsorships and external granting agencies are valuable sources of funding. For those archives committed to the implementation of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s , sponsorships and grants are an area worthy of exploration. The a r c h i v i s t s interviewed for t h i s project provided many examples of outreach a c t i v i t i e s that were used to augment and to a s s i s t a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation, and use of a r c h i v a l records. This supports the theory that outreach i n i t i a t i v e s can be used to enhance the o v e r a l l goals and objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n . For the majority of respondents, outreach a c t i v i t i e s have been very p o s i t i v e and b e n e f i c i a l . 101 As p u b l i c l y funded i n s t i t u t i o n s , community archives are obligated to provide service to the public. One of the purposes of t h i s study was to determine to what extent a r c h i v i s t s were committed to an ethic of public service. Results of t h i s study reveal that the majority of a r c h i v i s t s interviewed are not content to provide passive service. They believe t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to serve the public extends beyond the reference desk into the community. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, several recommendations for the ar c h i v a l community are offered. 1. That a r c h i v i s t s regard outreach as an es s e n t i a l component of an ar c h i v a l program, integrating outreach a c t i v i t i e s into annual work-plans. This recommendation recognizes that sporadic and ad hoc outreach a c t i v i t i e s are a waste of ar c h i v a l resources. Clearly, outreach a c t i v i t i e s are b e n e f i c i a l only i f they are pre-planned and well thought out according to the o v e r a l l goals and objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n . In t h i s way, they can be used to augment and support the acq u i s i t i o n , preservation and use of ar c h i v a l records. 2. That a r c h i v i s t s explore external sources of funding i n order to implement outreach a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s clear from t h i s study that the budgets of community archives alone are not extensive enough to allow f o r the development and implementation of a high standard of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . External sources of funding such as community 102 sponsorships are very valuable. Not only do they provide the necessary resources, they also help the archives to develop strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the community i t serves. 3. That a r c h i v i s t s implement at least h a l f of t h e i r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s outside of the archives. Regularly scheduled community events such as open houses, f e s t i v a l s , heritage celebrations and trade-shows provide high exposure, and present archives with excellent opportunities to increase public awareness. In addition, these occasions also provide opportunities for co-operation and resource sharing between the archives and various community organizations. 4. That a r c h i v i s t s not engage i n i n i t i a t i v e s i n which the target audience has no investment or commitment. This recommendation recognizes that i n order to be successful, some outreach i n i t i a t i v e s need to be f u l l y co-operative. Results of t h i s study indicate that projects implemented s o l e l y as an archives i n i t i a t i v e have a high chance of f a i l u r e . A r c h i v i s t s should not a l l o c a t e considerable s t a f f time and funding to projects without a commitment and investment from the target audience. 5. That a r c h i v i s t s use outreach as a way of educating the public about the nature and values of a r c h i v a l records. Unfortunately, a r c h i v i s t s are often presented with opportunities to implement inappropriate outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . Such a c t i v i t i e s send the wrong message to the public, and are a waste of time and money. Functional and i n s t i t u t i o n a l exhibits, s p e c i a l lectures and s l i d e shows are only a few of the 103 p o s s i b i l i t i e s for educating the public about the true nature of a r c h i v a l records. A r c h i v i s t s need to pay more attention to these unique and e x c i t i n g opportunities. 6. That a r c h i v i s t s implement on-going, structured methods of evaluating t h e i r outreach i n i t i a t i v e s . This recommendation recognizes that evaluation i s an e s s e n t i a l component of any outreach a c t i v i t y . The evaluation process allows a r c h i v i s t s to determine why projects f a i l or succeed, and provides the information e s s e n t i a l f o r planning future i n i t i a t i v e s . In order to be objective and b e n e f i c i a l , formal written evaluations should be c a r r i e d out i n t e r n a l l y by s t a f f members, and p a r t i c i p a n t s . OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH A l l of the conclusions which can be drawn from t h i s study are highly tentative. Further study of a d d i t i o n a l community archives i s needed to bear out these tentative findings. Results of t h i s study have suggested that outreach i n i t i a t i v e s are b e n e f i c i a l to community a r c h i v i s t s as they can a s s i s t i n the promotion of the o v e r a l l goals of the i n s t i t u t i o n . A future study investigating the p o t e n t i a l of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s i n church, u n i v e r s i t y or p r o v i n c i a l archives would a s s i s t i n providing an even broader understanding of the to p i c . An i n depth investigation of the various types of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s was outside the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . A further inve s t i g a t i o n focusing on the development, implementation and evaluation of the various types of outreach i n i t i a t i v e s would be b e n e f i c i a l . 104 Hi l a r y Jenkinson, reknowned a r c h i v a l t h e o r i s t writes that, "the a r c h i v i s t s then i s the servant of h i s archives f i r s t and afterwards of the public." The r e s u l t s of t h i s study c l e a r l y indicate that outreach a c t i v i t i e s do not jeopardize the a r c h i v i s t ' s f i r s t duty to the record. Outreach a c t i v i t i e s properly planned and implemented can a s s i s t the a r c h i v i s t to successfully carry out h i s duty to the public and to the records. This study reaffirms the value of a r c h i v i s t s p r a c t i s i n g outreach, and provides i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement to those who are looking for concrete methods of approaching outreach. 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY Applegate, Howard L, Richard H. Brown and E l s i e F. Frievogel, "Wider Use of H i s t o r i c a l Records," i n "Setting P r i o r i t i e s f o r H i s t o r i c a l Records: A Conference report." Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s . A Manual fo r Small Archives, Vancouver: Association of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s , 1988. Association of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s . B l a i s , G a b r i e l l e and David Enns. "From Paper Archives to People Archives: Public Programming i n the Management of Archives." A r c h i v a r i a 31 (Winter 1990-91): 101-113. B r i t i s h Records Association. "Exhibition of Documents: Report of a Subcommittee Appointed by the Council." Archives 1 (1950): 42-45. Casterline, G a i l Farr. Archives and Manuscripts: Exhibits: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s Basic Manual Series. Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1980. Casterline, G a i l Farr and Ann E. Pederson. Archives and Manuscripts: Public Programs. Society of American A r c h i v i s t s Basic Manual Series. Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1982. Chrislock, Dallas Lindgren. "Mini-Classes: A Way to Introduce Researchers to Resources." The Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 4 (1979): 25-33. Cook, Terry. "Viewing the World Upside Down: Reflections on the Theoretical Underpinnings of Archival Public Programming." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 123-34. Cox, Richard. "The Concept of Public Memory and It s Impact on Archival Public Programming." The American A r c h i v i s t 36 (Autumn 1993): 122-135. Cushman, Judith. "Creating and Managing an Exhibit Program." The Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 1 (1976): 28-37. Dearstyne, Bruce. "What i s the Use of Archives: A Challenge f o r the Profession." The American A r c h i v i s t 50 (Winter 1987): 76-87. Edwards, Rhianna Helen. " A r c h i v i s t s ' Outlook on Service to Genealogists i n Selected Canadian P r o v i n c i a l Archives. M.A.S. Thesis. School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1993. 106 Ericson, Timothy L. "Preoccupied with our own gardens: Outreach and A r c h i v i s t s . " Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 114-22. Freeman, E l s i e T. "Buying Quarter Inch Holes: Public Support Through Results." The Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 10, No. 2 (1985): 89-87. "Education Programs: Outreach as an Administrative Function." In Maygene F. Daniels and Timothy Walch, eds., A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Arch i v a l Theory and Practice. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984, pp. 281-289. "In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration from the User's Point of View." The American A r c h i v i s t 47 (Spring 1984): 111-123. "Making Sure They Want I t : Managing Successful Public Programs." The American A r c h i v i s t 56 (Winter 1993): 70-75. Goerler, Raimund E. "Play i t Again, Sam: H i s t o r i c a l S l i d e Presentations i n Public Programming—A Case Study." The American A r c h i v i s t 54 (Summer 1991): 378-388. Gordon, Heather. "Archival Exhibitions: Purposes and P r i n c i p l e s . " M.A.S. Thesis. School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1994. Gracy, David B. "Is There a Future i n the Use of Archives?" Archivaria 24 (Summer 1987): 3-9. "What's Your Totem? Archival Images i n the Public Mind." Midwestern Archivst 10 (1985): 17-23. "Archives and Society: The F i r s t A r c hival Revolution." The American A r c h i v i s t 47 (Winter 1984): 7-10. Hackman, Larry J. "A Perspective on American Archives." Public Historian Vol. 8 (Summer 1986): 11-28. Huyda, Richard J. "Reaching Beyond Our Grasp: A Dilemma for A r c h i v i s t s . " Paper presented at annual meeting of the Archives Association of B r i t i s h Columbia, Simon Fraser University, 6 A p r i l , 1991. Ives, Edward D. The Tape-Recorded Interview: A Manual for F i e l d Workers i n Folklore and Oral History . Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1980. Jenkinson, H i l a r y . A Manual of Archival Administration. London: Humphries and Co. Ltd., 1965. 107 Jones, H. G. "The Pink Elephant Revisited." The American A r c h i v i s t 43 ( F a l l 1980): 473-483. Kohl, Michael F. " I t Only Happens Once Every Hundred Years: Making the Most of the Centennial Opportunity." The American A r c h i v i s t 54 (Summer 1991): 390-397. Levy, Sidney J., and Robles, Albert G. The Image of A r c h i v i s t s : Resource Allocator's Perceptions. Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t , 1984. McCain, William D. "The Public Relations of A r c h i v a l Depositories." The American A r c h i v i s t 3 (October 1940): 235-244. Motley, Archie. "Out of the Hollinger Box: The A r c h i v i s t as Advocate" Midwestern A r c h i v i s t Vol. 9, No. 2 1984: 66-73. Myres, Sandra. "Public Programs for Archives: Reaching Patrons, O f f i c i a l s and the Public." Georgia Archive 7 (Spring 1979): 10-15. Osborne, Ken. "Archives i n the Classroom." Archivaria 23 (Winter 1986-87): 16-40. Pederson, Anne E. "Archival Outreach: SAA's 1976 Survey." The American A r c h i v i s t 41 ( A p r i l 1978): 155-162. Powers, Sandra. "Why Exhibit? The Risks Versus the Benefits," The American A r c h i v i s t 41 (July 1978): 297-306. Rabins, Joan, "Archival Exhibits: Considerations and Caveats." A Modern Archives Reader. Eds. Maygene Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1984. 289-296. Sand, V i k i . "History Resource Units from the Minnestora H i s t o r i c a l Society." The American A r c h i v i s t 41 ( A p r i l 1978): 163-168. Symons, T.H.B., "Archives and Canadian Studies." A r c h i v a r i a 15 (Winter 1983): 58. Taylor, Hugh. " C l i o i n the Raw: Archival Materials and the Teaching of History." The American A r c h i v i s t 35 (July/October, 1972): 317-330. ten Cate, Ann. "Outreach i n a Small Community Archives: A Case Study." Archivaria 28 (Summer 1989): 28-35. Wilson, Ian E. "Towards a V i s i o n of Archival Services." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-1991): 91-100. 108 W i l l s , Linda. "Advocacy and Outreach i n Community Archives." Parts 1-3, ACA B u l l e t i n (March 1990): 5-6; (May 1990): 8-9; (July 1990): 9-10. Wurl, J o e l . "Methodology as Outreach: A Public Mini-Course on Arc h i v a l P r i n c i p l e s and Strategies." The American A r c h i v i s t 49 (Spring 1986): 184-186. Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design an Methods. Beverly H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1984. PRIMARY SOURCES Archives A, Pol i c y and Procedures Manual, 1983. Archives B, Parks and Recreation Commission, Public Programmes Polic y . 1989. Archives B, Annual Report. 1993. Archives B, By-Law No., 11331, June 22, 1992. Archives C, Annual Report, 1994. Archives D, Statement of Purpose and Objectives. 1987. INTERVIEWS Interview with A r c h i v i s t A, September 29, 1994. Interview with A r c h i v i s t B, October 24, 1994. Interview with A r c h i v i s t C, November 14, 1994. Interview with A r c h i v i s t D, January 28, 1995. BROCHURES, FLYERS AND SURVEYS Archives A, "A Guide to H i s t o r i c a l Site Research," 1994. Archives A, "Invest i n Your Future..Explore Science and Technology Week," 1994. Archives A, "City L i f e : For and About City Employees," Vol. 1, F a l l , 1994. Archives A, "Professional Day: Got Something Planned f o r So c i a l Studies?' 1993. Archives A, "Archives Exploration Series Questionaire," 1994. Archives A, "Your Repository for O r i g i n a l Documents that Provide Evidence of the Past," 1994. Archives B, "An In v i t a t i o n to Explore," 1993. Archives B, "Genealogical Research," 1992. Archives B, " V i s i t o r ' s Survey," 1994. Archives D, " O f f i c i a l Opening Ceremony," 1994. 110 APPENDIX 1 OUTREACH / PUBLIC PROGRAMMING INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. GENERAL DEFINITION - how do you define outreach - i s outreach an important component of an a r c h i v a l program, why or why not 2. BUDGET REQUIREMENTS - does your budget include money for programming/outreach, i f so how much - are there separate categories i n your budget for programmes, publications, exhibitions - have you ever sought outside funds for outreach, i f so from what source - what d i d i t cost to carry out the programmes you have implemented over the past year who makes the decisions about resource a l l o c a t i o n for programmes/outreach 3 . CREATIVE ASPECTS - who develops the ideas for programmes/outreach, i s there a process for a r t i c u l a t i n g ideas, i s there any public input - do you r e l y on outside sources for creative ideas, i f so who, what - do you f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to come up with creative ideas to f i t your budget - where does the impetus for programming/outreach come from, sponsoring agency, the public or other sources - do you ever collaborate with other i n s t i t u t i o n s , i f so for costs or advice I l l 4. PUBLICITY - how are the programmes advertised - i n an average year how often do you think your archives i s covered i n the l o c a l media, just to mention that i t i s open, or i s the coverage more extensive 5. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMMES - what types of programmes have you t r i e d ; exhibits, education k i t s , s p e c i a l seminars/lectures, press releases, brochures, newspaper a r t i c l e s , newsletters - any others - are these c a r r i e d out on a regularly schedule basis or ad hoc - have you ever taken a r c h i v a l materials outside the f a c i l i t y f o r a display, educational programme etc. - do you have a l i s t of regularly scheduled community events that the archives takes part i n - are programmes ca r r i e d out by paid s t a f f , or do you have some volunteer assistance - have you ever co-operated with other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , genealogical s o c i e t i e s , other museums and archives or l o c a l organizations or businesses 6. MUSEUM INVOLVEMENT i s there a d i s t i n c t i o n made between museum outreach and ar c h i v a l outreach, how do they work together - i f museum and archives co-operate on outreach/programming do you emphasize the ar c h i v a l nature of records or are they regarded only as h i s t o r i c a l 7. EVALUATION - have e f f o r t s been successful, how was the success of programmes evaluated - what types of programmes i f any do you have planned f o r the future 

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