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The efficacy of visually-based and aurally-based instrumental music instruction techniques in the development… Toren, Stephen C. 1995

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The Efficacy of Visually-based and Aurally-based Instrumental Music Instruction Techniques in the Development of Music Reading Skills of Beginning Instrumental Music Students Stephen C. Toren B. Mus., The University of British Columbia, 1975 A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Music Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the j^quired standard The University of British Columbia February 1995 © Stephen C. Toren, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of MuSfc U.C<S>4 / V n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) The Efficacy of Visually-based i i Abstract This study was undertaken in an effort to determine if there are differences between visual and aural approaches to tonal and rhythm reading instruction. Grade five beginning instrumental music students received instruction using one of two visual treatments or using an aural treatment. No significant difference was found between treatments for tonal or rhythm reading skills. A significant difference was found between students who possess either high or low aptitude levels on tonal reading skills. It was concluded that beginning instrumentalists who possess high tonal audiation ability develop better music reading skills than students who possess low tonal audiation ability. Also, it was concluded that music teachers who are interested in teaching both aural and music reading skills may do so without detriment to beginning instrumentalists. The Efficacy of Visually-based i i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract i i List of Tables v Acknowledgement vi C H A P T E R ONE 1 Introduction, Purpose and Problems 1 Background 1 Music Literacy 1 Audiation 4 Melodic Reading 6 Music Learning and Teaching 6 Pestalozzi's Learning Model 6 Music Learning Readiness V Approaches To Formal Instrumental Music Instruction 9 Visual Approaches to Instrumental Music Instruction 10 An Aural Approach to Instrumental Music Instruction 12 Aural Versus Visual Approaches 14 Purpose and Problems 14 C H A P T E R TWO 16 Review of Related Research 16 Overview 16 The Whitener Study 16 The Kendall Study 20 The Grutzmacher Study.... 27 The Froseth Study 32 Summary 36 C H A P T E R T H R E E 38 Methodology 38 Population and Sample 38 Preparatory Data Collection 38 Experimental Treatments 39 Rhythm Treatment til: Numerical Values/Visual 39 Rhythm Treatment #2: Articulation/Numerical Values/Visual 40 Rhythm Treatment #3: Beat Function/Aural 41 Tonal Treatment #1: Visual 42 Tonal Treatment #2: Aural 43 Post Experiment Data Collection 44 Design and Analysis 45 The Efficacy of Visually-based iv C H A P T E R FOUR 47 Results and Interpretations 47 Sample 47 Pretest Results 48 Interjudge Reliabilities 49 Results of the Data Analysis for Rhythm Achievement 50 Results of the Data Analysis for Tonal Achievement 51 Interpretations 52 C H A P T E R F I V E , 55 Summary and Conclusions 55 Summary 55 Conclusions 57 General Observations and Recommendations for Further Study 58 References 61 Appendix A 63 Criterion Songs in Concert Keys 63 Appendix B 64 Concert Arrangements Performed by A l l Treatment Groups 64 The Efficacy of Visually-based List o f Tables Table 1. Pretest Means and Standard Deviations for I M M A Rhythm Subtest 48 Table 2. Pretest Means and Standard Deviations for I M M A Tonal Subtest 49 Table 3. Interjudge Reliability 49 Table 4. Means and Standard Deviations for Rhythm Reading Achievement Combined Raw Scores 50 Table 5. Analysis of Variance for the Rhythm Reading Achievement Scores 51 Table 6. Means and Standard Deviations for Tonal Reading Achievement Combined Raw Scores 51 Table 7. Analysis of Variance for the Tonal Reading Achievement Scores 52 The Efficacy of Visually-based vi Acknowledgement I wish to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to Dr. Peter Gouzouasis for his time, effort, and advice throughout my course of studies and for his invaluable guidance during the preparation of this document. I wish to thank Dr. Robert Walker and Dr. Marshall Arlin for their insight and suggestions during the preparation of this document and for serving on my thesis committee. Finally, I wish to thank my family for their patience and loving support throughout my course of studies. The Efficacy of Visually-based 1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction, Purpose and Problems Background Since the beginning of the twentieth century, North Americans have taken an interest in the instruction and performance of instrumental music. Initially, music educators provided private instruction to individuals who wished to play in community bands and orchestras for recreation and entertainment. The value of music instruction in the modern school curriculum gained recognition from the early 1920s through the early 1930s due to the efforts of the Music Supervisors National Conference (later to become the Music Educators National Conference; Schleuter, 1984). Instrumental instruction constituted a large part of the music curriculum. John Dewey's (1933) idea of learning by doing contributed to instrumental music's promotion as a cost effective way to provide a musical experience to large numbers of school age children. Those factors were a major influence in the growth of instrumental music as a nearly universal offering within the North American school curriculum. In the lower mainland region of British Columbia, the development of instrumental music instruction followed a similar evolutionary pattern. As early as 1929, a community band for high school age children had been established in the Kitsilano area which is now part of Vancouver City. There were community bands in West Vancouver by 1931 and North Vancouver by 1939. The North Vancouver School district established a high school instrumental music program in 1962. Music Literacy A fundamental goal of music educators, for both classroom and instrumental music instructors, is for their students to become musically literate. In general, literacy The Efficacy of Visually-based 2 may be defined as the ability to read and write. From that perspective, one may assume that comprehension is implied. That is to say, literate people understand what they read and write. Music literacy implies the ability to read and write music with comprehension. Comprehension is more than aural perception of music and an aesthetic judgment of liking or disliking that music. Reading and writing music with comprehension is more than decoding or encoding notation in order that a musician would press the correct keys on an instrument at the appropriate moment. A musically literate person derives meaning from music in terms of understanding meter and tonality (Gordon, 1989). The Harvard Dictionary of Music (Apel, 1969) contains the following definition of meter: "The pattern of fixed temporal units, called beats, by which the timespan (sic) of a piece of music or a section thereof is measured" (p. 523). The Harvard Dictionary of Music (Apel, 1969) also contains a definition of tonality in which it is stated that "- in non-Western cultures, in Gregorian chant, and in harmonized music - practically every single piece gives preference to one tone (the tonic), making this the tonal center to which all other tones are related" (p. 855). In other words, a tonal center or resting tone can be identified in both unharmonized melodic passages and harmonized passages. Thus, meters and tonalities may be defined by music syntax. Syntax in a metric and tonal context refers to the organization and structure of beat and pitch, respectively. While meter is concerned with the systematic organization of beat, tonality is concerned with the systematic organization of pitch (Gouzouasis, 1991). Based on those considerations, the terms meter and tonality may take on a broad, inclusive meaning in a variety of cultural contexts. Though the terms "tonality" and "modality" are often considered as descriptive of separate harmonic systems, for the purpose of this study and the related research presented in Chapter Two, and in terms of the definition of tonality as the relationship The Efficacy of Visually-based 3 of notes in a piece of music to a tonic note, tonal center, or resting tone, the definition of tonality will include major and minor as well as the terms "dorian," "phrygian," "lydian," "mixolydian," "aeolian," and "ionian." According to Apel (1969), the definition of diatonic refers to the "natural scale, consisting of five whole tones and two semitones,..." (p. 231) which indicates the inclusion of major, minor, dorian, lydian, mixolydian, aeolian, and ionian scales. The use of those terms in a study of instrumental music instruction is warranted by the existence of those tonalities in folk, jazz, and popular music of the twentieth century —the dominant styles of music in contemporary Western cultures and many non-western cultures. Moreover, Apel (1969) also cites the use of "modality" by 19th and 20th century composers including Beethoven, Chopin, Vaughn Williams, and Debussy (Apel, p. 534). Meaning in music is dependent on the recognition, identification, and comprehension of fundamental structural elements in music. Using aural skills, a student can learn to comprehend music elements such as metrical structure (e.g., meters such as duple and triple; beat function such as crusis, anacrusis, and metacrusis) (Gordon, 1989), tonal structure (e.g., tonalities such as major or minor; pitch organization in tonic, dominant, and subdominant patterns), form (e.g., phrase, rondo, binary, ternary, sonata, twelve bar blues), and style (e.g., folk, rock, swing, classical). It is through the understanding and use of those elements and structures that a literate musician can write or create meaningful music (Gordon, 1989). Through a process called audiation, the elements and structures of music may be meaningfully interpreted and performed from notation by a musician. Music literacy is therefore based on the interdependence of comprehension, in terms of understanding music syntax, and skill in reading and writing notation. The Efficacy of Visually-based 4 Audiation Hearing is the physical basis for perceiving the aural sensations which may be recognized as musical patterns. Because hearing sound is a function of the ear and neural system which relays stimuli to the brain, listening to music may be considered as a readiness for the activation of the process of audiation. Audiation is a mental process which takes place while listening to music, performing music, remembering music, and writing music. It is the ability to "hear" and comprehend music when the sound is not physically present (Gordon, 1989). Audiation is the cognitive component of the music listening and music performance processes (Gouzouasis, 1993). Imitation and audiation are different processes. Imitation is considered as another readiness for learning to audiate music. Gordon (1989) presents the following analogies to distinguish imitation from audiation. "Imitation is learning through someone else's ears. Audiation is learning through one's own ears. Imitation is analogous to using tracing paper to draw a picture. Audiation is analogous to visualizing and then drawing a picture" (p.9). In other words, imitation may be considered as a reflex action, whereas audiation is a planned movement. Imitation does not necessarily involve comprehension. For example, it is possible to learn new vocabulary in a new language with correct enunciation but not know the meaning of the word or its function in sentence structure. Similarly, in Western music it is possible to sing a tonal pattern in tune without knowing its harmonic function in a melody. Gordon (1989) theorized that there are different types of audiation. A person may audiate when a familiar tune is recalled in their mind. Through audiation, a listener may distinguish between duple and triple meters, major and minor tonalities, binary or ternary forms, jazz and classical styles. Jazz musicians may create improvised solos through the audiation of ideas which they express while concurrently audiating the chord progressions over which the improvised ideas are played. A The Efficacy of Visually-based 5 composer who writes musical thoughts directly to manuscript without the aid of an instrument uses highly developed audiation skills. Also, from that perspective, a musically literate person is one who can audiate the elements of music while reading them from a printed score as one would silently read from a book. Gordon (1989) states that "audiation is the basis of music aptitude. Audiation is also the basis of music learning theory, and thus it is fundamental to music achievement" (p. 7). He theorized that music aptitude occurs in two stages. The first stage is a developmental stage which spans the years from birth through approximately age nine. In the second stage, from age 10 through adulthood, music aptitude stabilizes (Gordon, 1989, p.3). It is hypothesized that the development of the ability to comprehend music and the level at which a person's aptitude stabilizes may be dependent upon the innate audiation ability of an individual and environmental factors which influence the development of that ability during the first nine years of a child's life (Gouzouasis, 1993). The degree to which innate music ability or environmental factors contribute to music aptitude is not known (Gordon, 1987). What is certain is that informal and formal experiences with music must be favourable and should occur early in childhood. Gordon (1990) suggests that young children should have listening experiences that include music in "at least major, harmonic minor, mixolydian, and dorian tonalities, and in at least usual duple, usual triple, unusual paired, and unusual unpaired meters" (p.41). The inclusion of a variety tonalities, derived from scale patterns based on half steps and whole steps, and a variety of meters, including unusual meters (Gordon, 1989, p. 133), are meant to serve as a basis for higher stages of audiation and music learning. If the content of the tonal and metrical experiences is limited, then the learning potential of the child is also limited or at least inhibited. The Efficacy of Visually-based 6 Melodic Reading Melodic reading is a useful skill possessed by most musicians but it is not essential for the performance of music or the creation of meaningful music in spontaneous, improvised performances. Melodic reading involves the fluent, simultaneous interpretation of pitch and rhythm from notation including the determination of keys, tonalities, time signatures, and tempo markings. While many musicians can correctly sing pitches and rhythms from notation, it is possible for instrumentalists to perform pitches on instruments without a prior concept of pitch. In contrast, in traditional approaches to melodic reading on instruments, the translation of notation into sound on an instrument only implies a theoretical understanding of the notation system (e.g., using letter names to represent pitch) as it relates to fingerings on an instrument. It does not necessarily imply comprehension of the music performed. For example, playing music on an instrument without a sense of tonality (including major, minor, dorian, phrygian, mixolydian, lydian and aeolian tonalities) and meter (including duple, triple and unusual meter) is "analogous to typewriting material without understanding the language" (Schleuter, 1984, p. 23). Music Learning and Teaching Pestalozzi's Learning Model The eighteenth century Swiss philosopher J . H . Pestalozzi hypothesized the sequential nature of learning and the need for certain experiences as prerequisites to formal learning. He concluded that the art of teaching is based on a threefold principle. First, that every object be recognized as a unit separate from those objects to which it may seem connected. Second, to teach the form of the object in terms of size and proportions. Third, to acquaint the student with the words and names that describe the object. In learning the sounds of language, Pestalozzi believed that all the sounds which make up language should "be brought to the ear of the child in the cradle, and be The Efficacy of Visually-based 7 deeply impressed and made unforgettable by constant repetition, even before he is able to utter a single one" (Pestalozzi, 1977, p. 137). Pestalozzi's principles are consistent with the way one would apply audiationally based approaches to teaching music reading and the acquisition of music knowledge. Theories of learning in the twentieth century based on an understanding of cognitive processes have similarities to Pestalozzi's philosophy. Knowledge can be represented either as declarative knowledge, that is, things we know as facts, or as procedural knowledge, that is, skills in knowing how to do something. In music, for example, a major triad is recognizable to musicians as a harmonic structure within the framework of Western tonal syntax. The sound of a major triad is something that can be experienced, named, and recalled. As such, that sound can be conceptualized and considered as an item of factual music knowledge. The ability to recognize, audiate, and sing a major triad from notation is dependent on knowledge of how that major triad sounds. On the other hand, to decode notation and operate keys on an instrument is procedural skill or "how to" knowledge that is not necessarily dependent on the comprehension of a music structure like a major triad. Comprehension and decoding notation are not only identifiable elements of music literacy, but may function in unique ways in terms of cognition that would require unique learning and teaching strategies. Music Learning Readiness Recently, music researchers have begun to identify more precisely the sequential steps believed necessary to develop music literacy in young musicians (Schleuter, 1984; Gordon, 1989). The first step in learning music requires an aural experience and readiness in a way similar to Pestalozzi's approach to learning language whereby words are made familiar through hearing before the introduction of language symbols. Heffernan (1968) has stated that "it is apparent that music-reading ability at any point on the scale is dependent upon an amalgamation of the learning experiences previously The Efficacy of Visually-based 8 encountered" (p. 7). Heffernan and Gordon (1989) use the term readiness to describe those activities that prepare young children for formal training in music reading and performance. Both authors agree that music readiness activities should include experience in listening and movement. Gordon (1989) believes a child's listening experience should begin before the age of 18 months and that it should include both recorded instrumental music and songs sung to children by parents or teachers. The content of the music and songs should include many styles, meters, and tonalities. Heffernan (1968) and Gordon (1989) favour experiences that have children moving naturally to music with unstructured motions to develop a basic awareness of beat. Those activities serve as a readiness for the exploration of rhythm. It should be clear that a child cannot respond to music without hearing music. Indeed, one is first attracted to music by hearing it. Exposure to a variety of music would then seem to be the prerequisite to formal music training and reading notation. In the development of music literacy, the readiness activities discussed above are vital to a child's realization of his or her potential to learn music. According to Gordon (1989), the readiness for instrumental music instruction is determined by two criteria. First is the child's ability to develop a sense of tonality in terms of tonic and dominant functions in major and minor as demonstrated by singing tonal patterns. The second is a child's ability to develop a sense of rhythm in terms of the macrobeat and microbeat functions in duple and triple meters, demonstrated by chanting rhythm patterns with consistent tempo. The Gordon (1989) coined term macrobeat is used to describe the pulse in any given meter. The term microbeat is used to describe the subdivision of the pulse beat into two or more parts. In the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, many elementary schools offer primary classroom music programs staffed by specialists trained in teaching techniques such as Orff or Kodaly. Those programs offer music activities such as body The Efficacy of Visually-based 9 movement, patting and clapping rhythms, and singing that may be considered readiness activities for learning music. Unfortunately, not all schools are served equally by specialist music programs. Moreover, the programs may not be consistent in content or taught by practitioners who possess equal teaching skills and levels of musicianship. For example, most teachers may be comfortable teaching songs in duple and triple meter but they may be uncomfortable teaching songs in unusual paired meter (Gordon, 1989, p. 133) like 5/8 (2 + 3 or 3 + 2). Similarly, most teachers may be comfortable teaching songs in major and minor tonalities but they may be uncomfortable teaching songs in dorian or mixolydian tonalities. In fact, the basis of tonal pattern instruction for most Orff or Kodaly based primary programs is pentatonic which excludes the half step interval which is a critical element in Western tonal melody and harmony. For that reason, it cannot be assumed that students who enter a beginning band program possess uniform levels of music readiness or even appropriate types of readiness. If that is the case, heterogeneous audiation and music skill levels should be taken into consideration by the instructor when selecting a band method. Approaches To Formal Instrumental Music Instruction In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of instrumental music methods as a means to develop rhythm and tonal reading skills in instrumental music students, one may observe that most methods contain no specific material or instructional information for the aural development of a sense of meter or tonality. In a study of aural-visual perception, MacKnight (1973) notes that literature on beginning instrumental instruction places too much emphasis on note reading and instrument executive skill and not enough on aural-visual perception of musical patterns necessary for reading comprehension. That observation remains an accurate account of beginning instrumental literature. Furthermore, MacKnight1 s study concluded that training beginning wind instrumentalists using a tonal pattern approach was "superior to the The Efficacy of Visually-based 10 note identification method of teaching instrumental music reading" (p. 98). In 1973 there was little research in the literature of elementary instrumental music instruction concerned with the problem of teaching beginning instrumentalists to read music. That is still reflected in the failure of contemporary authors to adequately address the problems of aural comprehension and of audiational comprehension of notation in their method books. Visual Approaches to Instrumental Music Instruction Over the past six decades, many methods for teaching instrumental music to public school students have been devised in response to the needs of music instructors. The vast majority of traditional instrumental method books have a similar format. In each book, a glossary of fingerings and an illustration of finger placement can be found. The Silver Burdett Instrumental Series. (Phillips, 1969), Learning Unlimited Beginning Band Method (Jenson, 1973), Sessions in Sound (Buehlman and Whitcomb, 1976), Band Today (Ployhar, 1977), and Best in Class (Pearson, 1982), include a student's guide to embouchure formation. The First Division Band Method (Weber, 1962) and Yamaha Band Student (Feldstein and O'Reilly, 1988) offer no information on embouchure formation. The Ed Sueta Band Method (Ed Sueta, 1974) has an embouchure guide for the teacher but not for the student. A glossary of nomenclature can be found in all those traditional beginning method books. It is common for authors to provide anecdotal comments for the teacher and student throughout a method. Those comments usually highlight and explain new concepts or provide definitions for music theory details like tempo and dynamic markings. Sequential music teaching involves a progression from simple songs to more complex songs including duets and rounds. That is the case in most classroom and beginning instrumental methods. In most instrumental methods, those songs constitute The Efficacy of Visually-based 11 the instructional material for learning to read rhythm and pitch. They also represent the fundamental material for the development of instrumental techniques though most methods include scales and arpeggios to further the development of techniques. In the traditional methods, rhythm is taught by assigning numerical values to rhythm symbols. A l l of the traditional methods surveyed by the researcher present the whole note first as the basic rhythm symbol followed by the subdivision of the whole note into two half notes and then four quarter notes. That approach is meant to illustrate the mathematical and theoretical, temporal relationships of the rhythm symbols. Instructions in Sessions in Sound. Learning Unlimited and the Ed Sueta Band Method direct the students to tap their toes while counting to reinforce a sense of steady beat. The common approach of identifying pitches with alphabet letters is presented in most methods. That is, pitch is taught by the association of instrument fingerings with alphabetical pitch names while the corresponding notation is visually located on the music staff. In contrast to most methods, the Ed Sueta Band Method contains a system for learning rhythm whereby vocalized syllables are associated with note symbols. That system is also meant to encourage the development of the embouchure and correct articulation. The use of numbers to identify beats is encouraged after the articulation rhythm syllables are learned. The methods described above focus on the elements of rhythm notation as theoretical facts that relate to the division of time and the elements of pitch notation as theoretical facts which relate to fingerings on an instrument. Aural confirmation of what is represented by the notation in terms of rhythm and pitch occurs only after initiating sound on the instrument. An exception to that fact is the Sueta method The Efficacy of Visually-based 12 wherein a sense of pulse is established by the act of toe tapping and the chanting of rhythms from rhythm charts. An Aural Approach to Instrumental Music Instruction The Jump Right In. The Instrumental Series (Grunow and Gordon, 1989) approach to rhythm reading differs radically from instruction found in traditional instrumental methods. First, a sense of beat is established by the use of body movements such as arm swinging, leg movement, and upper torso movement. Second, rhythms are learned through aural (listening) and oral (singing) activities and through the performance of rote songs with the voice. Aural/oral activities refer to an instruction technique whereby rhythm patterns, without organizational rhythm syllables (e.g., "du" on the macrobeat, "de" on the microbeat), are chanted by a teacher (e.g., on a neutral syllable, "bah") followed by students chanting the same pattern,to the teacher in response. In contrast to other methods, that begin rhythm study with whole notes, aural/oral activities include rhythm patterns composed of macrobeats and microbeats in duple and triple meter. Those patterns contain four macrobeats (e.g., quarter notes for duple meter and^dotted quarter for triple meter) which may be subdivided into microbeats and divisions (e.g., eighths and sixteenths in both duple and triple meter). Third, once the patterns are learned through aural/oral activities without rhythm syllables, the students learn to organize the familiar rhythm patterns with rhythm syllables and to distinguish patterns in duple meter from patterns in triple meter. Fourth, students chant familiar learned patterns from notation using rhythm syllables and perform the patterns on their instruments. The Jump Right In approach to pitch reading instruction also differs radically from instruction found in traditional instrumental methods. As with rhythm, tonal patterns are learned through aural/oral activities and through the vocal performance of rote songs. Aural/oral activities include the use of tonal patterns without organizational The Efficacy of Visually-based 13 tonal syllables (e.g., "do," "re," "mi") sung by a teacher (e.g., on a neutral syllable, "bum") followed by students singing the same pattern to the teacher in response. Second, once the patterns are learned through aural/oral activities without tonal syllables, students learn the familiar tonal patterns with tonal syllables based on the moveable "Do" system. In major tonality, for example, "Do-Mi-Sol" are the tonal syllables used to sing and perform a major tonic tonal pattern. Students are then taught to make connections between the familiar tonal patterns they can sing and fingering patterns on their instruments. That process leads to the development of concepts of how the audiated tonal patterns relate to fingerings on an instrument. Students learn to recognize the same familiar tonal patterns in learned rote songs and to perform those songs without notation. Third, students are taught to recognize the music symbols that represent the previously learned tonal patterns and to sing those patterns with tonal syllables from notation. Fourth, students learn to perform the familiar patterns from notation on an instrument. Students then learn to recognize familiar patterns in unfamiliar order and in unfamiliar songs. As with some of the traditional methods, Jump Right In contains a student guide to embouchure formation, instrument assembly and disassembly, and hand position. However, the fingering charts differ from traditional methods. Rather than alphabet letter names, finger positions are associated with tonal syllable names ("do", "re", "mi", "fa", "so", "la", "ti") in three keys with only "do" and "la" identified by letter name (e.g., "C do"; "A la"). A glossary of theoretical music nomenclature is not found in Book One of Jump Right In. That information is presented in a companion text, Ensemble Book One. The authors of Jump Right In place aural conception before symbolic representation in the sequence of learning to read rhythm and pitch. Performing music on an instrument is meant to be a product of aural conception coupled with correct The Efficacy of Visually-based 14 executive skill. The emphasis on aural conception over executive skill is the fundamental difference between the aural approach and the more traditional visual approaches to instrumental instruction. Aural Versus Visual Approaches Of the methods reviewed, three approaches to rhythm reading instruction and two approaches to tonal reading instruction are evident. The three rhythm reading approaches may be classified as numerical/visual, articulation function syllable/visual, and beat function syllable/aural. The two tonal reading approaches may be classified as visual and aural. The more common visually based instrumental methods contain techniques and music materials that are directed to the development of executive skill. Those methods provide theoretical information about rhythm but most are deficient in kinesthetic components which lead a student to the development of a sense of beat. Those methods use alphabetic names to identify pitches but lack components which lead a student to comprehend music in terms of how pitches relate to a pitch center or resting tone. Since music literacy involves a visual component, namely, reading and writing notation, and an aural component, namely, perceiving and audiating notation, it seems logical to suggest a band method that fully addresses music literacy should have sequential steps that lead to the development of both aural and visual comprehension in music reading and instrumental skills. Purpose and Problems Based on an interest in improving instrumental music instruction, the purpose of this study is to learn more about the efficacy of beginning instrumental music methods in the development of rhythm and tonal reading skills. The specific problems of the study are 1) to determine the comparative effects of three approaches to rhythm instruction—one visual approach with a numerical rhythm system (Yamaha Band Student), one visual approach with an articulation syllable rhythm system (Ed Sueta The Efficacy of Visually-based 15 Band Method), and one aural approach with a beat function syllable rhythm system (Jump Right In)—on the rhythm reading skills of grade five beginning instrumental music students who possess high and low rhythm aptitudes, and 2) to determine the comparative effects of two approaches to tonal instruction—one visual approach with an alphabetic system for naming pitches (Yamaha Band Student. Ed Sueta Band Method) and one aural approach with a moveable do system for naming pitches (Jump Right In)--on the tonal reading skills of grade five beginning instrumental music students who possess high and low tonal aptitudes. The Efficacy of Visually-based 16 CHAPTER TWO Review of Related Research Overview A search of the ERIC and CEI indexes for studies of instruction in instrumental music was undertaken and augmented by a hand search of journals, periodicals, and abstracts. The following studies are representative of the literature relating to beginning instrumental band instruction. The authors of the first three studies perceive a need to improve the sight-reading skills and music comprehension skills of beginning instrumental students either through a comprehensive curriculum or a tonal pattern approach to music reading. The fourth study concerns the use of aptitude test results in relation to instructional objectives in beginning instrumental music classes. The Whitener Study The concept of comprehensive musicianship as an approach to teaching beginning band is the focus of Whitener's (1983) study. Whitener includes performance, analysis, and composition as parts of a comprehensive musicianship approach used in various areas of music education. In the past, music educators using that approach have focused their attention on advanced performing groups rather than beginning groups. Beginning band instruction has been limited to the basics of performance, music notation, and expression markings. Whitener believes that beginners would benefit from a more comprehensive way of learning music. While the effectiveness of a comprehensive method has been demonstrated in studies using advanced band students, no studies could be found using beginning band students. The purpose of Whitener's study is to determine the effects of a comprehensive musicianship approach on beginning band students. The subjects for Whitener's study were seventh and eighth grade students whose ages ranged from 11 to 14 years. The students were members of six junior high school The Efficacy of Visually-based 17 beginning band classes. Three randomly selected classes formed the experimental group (n=57). The other three classes formed the control group (n=45). There were six instructors involved in the study. Lessons were given daily for 24 weeks and each lesson lasted 50 minutes. The comprehensive approach materials were designed by Whitener. Detailed long range goals and short range objectives were established. Included in those goals and objectives were rhythm, timbre, melody, harmony, dynamics, form, composition, and improvisation. Teachers of the experimental groups were asked to include those eight aspects of music in each lesson. The control group received instruction in a performance oriented approach. The basis of that approach was the Bel win First Division Band Method (Weber, 1964). The method included performance fundamentals in tone, rhythm, listening, and correct playing habits. Whitener pretested all subjects using the Music Achievement Test (MAT) (Colwell, 1969) to determine the differences in music sensitivity between the experimental and control groups. Posttests included the M A T test battery and a Test of Performance Skills (TPS) which was designed and pilot tested by Whitener. The TPS was administered one week after the M A T posttest. The TPS included five original exercises to test all aspects of performance. "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" was included as a basis for assessing improvisation skills. Whitener allowed 50 minutes per school for testing. As a result, only 43 experimental and 35 control students were tested. Test performances were recorded on two cassette tape recorders and were judged by three music educators. The composite interjudge reliability coefficient was .90. An analysis of variance on M A T pretest scores indicated that the groups were comparable except for the test of melodic recognition where a significant difference was found. It is not indicated in the study whether the experimental group or the The Efficacy of Visually-based 18 control group was favoured by that test result. Whitener claims the groups were comparable in age, sex, and experience with music. M A T posttest results subjected to an analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in scores on tests measuring interval and meter discrimination. The experimental group achievement was significantly better. Scores were also analyzed to determine the influence of the teacher, treatment and instrument. Scores from tests measuring auditory-visual discrimination and discrimination between major and minor also produced significant differences. The results favoured the experimental group. Whitener suggests that differences discovered in the scores of the M A T posttests may have resulted from the comprehensive teaching approach. He cites the teaching of stepwise and leaping patterns in melodies, the teaching of major and minor sonorities, the emphasis on pulse and stress in different meters, and composition exercises as main factors affecting the results. The teaching of melodic patterns, learning the sound of major and minor tonalities, experiencing the sense of pulse in different meters, and improvisation are similar in concept to material found in the Jump Right In (Grunow and Gordon, 1989) approach. There was no significant difference in scores on the Test of Performance Skills. Whitener, however, considers it notable that no difference was found. He reasons that the experimental group should have been less proficient in performance skills because less class time was devoted to that in comparison with the control (performance) group. He believes the results show that the comprehensive musicianship approach allows for a broader curricular scope without the loss of performance skill. He also notes that many students in the experimental group were able to improvise "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" where none could in the control group. Whitener found reason to believe that the comprehensive approach tested in his study led to improved achievement for the participating beginning band students. The The Efficacy of Visually-based 19 assumption that an enriched program would help students improve their music achievement is a defensible position from which to conduct a study. However, the results of Whitener's study need close scrutiny before they can be considered valid. The comprehensive treatment included objectives in harmony, melody and improvisation, (among other objectives), however, it is not stated whether the study of those aspects of music were presented theoretically or practically other than to say that major and minor sonorities were included in the curriculum. The use of the term sonorities is presumed to imply an aural experience of major and minor tonalities. Whitener includes listening as an aspect of musical development provided by the First Division Band Method (Weber, 1964), which constituted the curriculum for the performance group. An examination of that text revealed that it did not contain listening exercises. The inclusion of listening exercises in teaching the performance group, (beyond the scope of the band method used), could be considered enrichment, which should have been accounted for in the analysis of data. Whitener's omission of the Music Achievement Test (MAT; Colwell, 1969), reliability coefficients leaves the reader without a reference point from which to determine the true homogeneity of the test groups. The reliability of the M A T also should have been indicated. Whitener reports that the groups are comparable on the basis of the M A T pretest except for melodic recognition but he fails to indicate whether the control or experimental group was favoured by the results. Means and standard deviations are reported only for the posttest scores of the control and experimental groups. The means and standard deviations refer to each group as a whole. Whitener might have achieved a more reliable result from which to generalize conclusions if the test groups had been stratified by music ability levels. An analysis of variance that included levels of ability would have allowed for the comparison of groups that were equivalent in music ability, and thereby increased the precision of his study. It is also The Efficacy of Visually-based 20 unusual that the time allotted for testing was limited to 50 minutes at each school. Twenty four students of 102, or, almost 25 percent of the subjects, were not tested. Scores from those 24 students would have increased the power of the statistical tests. The Test of Performance Skills (TPS), designed by Whitener, was used to assess student performance of tone quality, pulse, rhythm, articulation, response to key signature, tempo markings, dynamics, accidentals, and musical directions. He designed a rating system and indicates that some scores were weighted. Rhythm, for example, was given a weight of "4" while pulse was given a weight of " 1". It would be of interest to know why pulse is of less importance than rhythm. No explanation of the rationale for the rating system is given. Whitener's study, while commendable in conception, is confounded by the omission of pertinent data, and questionable methodology. Specifically, the omission of test reliability coefficients, the failure to test all subjects, overlooking the opportunity to group the subjects by music ability level, and the potential inflation of the interjudge reliability coefficients by the use of three judges, are serious threats to the validity of his design. A more compelling argument could be made to accept the results of the study as reported had these aspects of design been given consideration. The results of the study, if accepted, would seem to indicate that beginning students are able to learn concepts and skills in addition to learning to read notation and develop instrument performance skills. Moreover, the enrichment skills which required the student to comprehend differences in tonalities and meters would appear to enhance notation reading skills rather than inhibit them which supports the contention that music literacy is dependent on both comprehension and notation decoding skill. The Kendall Study Kendall (1988) begins his study by defining music reading as a complex process which requires auditory and visual perception in conjunction with an internal The Efficacy of Visually-based 21 integration process. The internal integration process relates previous auditory and visual stimuli to new auditory and visual stimuli allowing an individual to react by converting visual stimuli into sound (Petzold, 1960; Klemish, 1970). However, there is a diversity of opinion among music educators about the most effective way to teach students the complex process of music reading. Research on how to teach music reading is limited. Kendall remarks that even respected music psychologists Seashore (1938), and Shuter (1968), contributed little to the knowledge base about the psychological process of music reading. Kendall discusses the many tasks that face beginning instrumentalists when learning an instrument. Those tasks are generally of an interpretive nature, like reading notation, or a kinesthetic nature, like operating keys and valves. Many educators believe that certain readiness experiences are necessary prior to encountering those tasks in music reading and performance on an instrument. Readiness experiences should include audiation of tonal and rhythm patterns and kinesthetic responses to tonal and rhythm patterns (Gordon, 1971; Schleuter, 1984), The patterns form a music vocabulary which would serve as a foundation for a student's future musical development. According to Kendall, the need for the tonal and rhythm pattern vocabulary is no longer a debatable issue, however, the best technique for acquiring that vocabulary is open to discussion (Bolden, 1967). Kendall considered two approaches to the development of a tonal and rhythm pattern vocabulary. One approach would involve modeling. In that approach students experience aural and kinesthetic music reading readiness activities. The Suzuki violin method is that type of activity. Jump Right In (Grunow and Gordon, 1989) also includes that type of activity. The other approach, a comprehensive approach, would involve a visual component, namely, reading notation, in addition to aural and kinesthetic activities. Kendall presents the argument of some music educators, that the The Efficacy of Visually-based 22 visual component of learning music is over emphasized resulting in students with good technical facility but poor musicianship (Hartshorn, 1963; House, 1966). Other music educators believe that music reading should be introduced as early as possible using aural, visual, and kinesthetic components. The purpose of Kendall's study was to determine whether students taught by the modeling approach would develop significantly better aural musicianship skills than students taught by the comprehensive approach. The problem of the study was to compare the two modes of instruction and investigate the effects of the instruction on the aural and performance skills of beginning instrumental students. Also, Kendall asked two questions. First, what are the advantages to using modeling exclusively in the first four months of beginning instrumental music study? Second, does reading notation impair the aural development of beginning instrumental music students? He further states that the questions would be explored in an effort to determine whether there are any interactions between levels on test scores of the Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP; Gordon, 1965) in relation to melodic verbal association (solfege), ear to hand coordination (aural musicianship skills), and performance skills including sight-reading. Seventy-six grade five students volunteered to play wind and percussion instruments for the purposes of the study. Al l students were beginners on their instruments. One teacher taught the students. She used the Comprehensive Music Instructor (Froseth, 1984a, 1984b, 1984c), as the text for the modeling and the comprehensive instructional sequences. A three by two posttest only design was used to compare effects. The comprehensive and modeling treatments and the M A P composite scores, divided into three levels of music aptitude (above average, average, and below average) are stated as the factors in the design. Treatments were randomly assigned to four intact beginning instrumental music classes. The classes were comparable with regard to sex, instrumentation, and M A P score distribution by levels. The Efficacy of Visually-based 23 Students received two 50 minute instruction periods per week for 16 weeks. The comprehensive approach followed a sequence of reading, imitation, discrimination and verbal association activities. The reading component of that approach included the use of notation flashcards in addition to notation materials from the text. Students who experienced the modeling approach were encouraged to learn songs by ear, imitate solmization patterns demonstrated by the teacher, and, using instruments, imitate patterns that had been modeled by the teacher. The teacher supplemented the ear training exercises for both approaches by using audio tapes supplied as part of the method book. Kendall designed and administered posttests of aural musicianship, instrumental performance, melody sight-reading skills and rhythm sight-reading skills. The Instrumental Ear-to-Hand Coordination Test (IETHCT) posttest measured aural development and musicianship. The Verbal Association Test (VAT) posttest measured aural verbal association of solfege syllables on patterns of three and four pitches within a four beat rhythm framework. The Instrumental Performance Test (IPT) measured performance skill on etudes prepared by the students. The students in the comprehensive group were able to read the etudes and practice them at home. The modeling group learned the etudes through modeling and memorization in class. A further posttest, the Melodic And Rhythmic Sight-Reading Test (MRSRT), measured the development of sight-reading skills in both groups. Why this test was conducted is not clear to this reviewer since the purpose/problem of Kendall's study was to test the effects of instruction with and without notation on aural and performance skills not reading skills. Performances were rated on a five point rating scale where "5" indicated excellent performance and " 1" indicated poor performance. Performances were evaluated by two independent judges. Interjudge reliability coefficients were The Efficacy of Visually-based 24 determined and ranged from .99 on the V A T , to .84 for on the IPT. The analysis of the data revealed significant correlation's between the four posttest measures. A multi-variate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed as an overall test of differences between the treatment groups. Kendall suggests that both approaches were effective in developing aural musicianship skills and performance skills. The evidence from the data analysis of the Instrumental Ear-To-Hand Coordination Test raw scores, which did not yield a significant difference between treatments, supports his contention that the visual component of the comprehensive approach did not impair aural skills. Moreover, the evidence from that the data analysis of the Verbal Association Test raw scores, which did yield a significant difference between treatment groups, supports his contention that reading notation helps students with verbal association skills. Kendall believes that the development of verbal association skills prior to the introduction of notation is necessary because a vocabulary of aurally learned patterns helps students classify, conceptualize, and remember patterns (p. 216) which then leads to better comprehension when familiar and unfamiliar notated music is introduced. Kendall compares the process of learning to read music to a cycle or spiral. Though verbal association should precede music reading in that spiral, a visual component is necessary to reinforce the aurally learned material. The spiral should follow the aural/visual sequence as students progress to new and more complex music elements. The work of several researchers, including Gordon (1971; 1980), is discussed in the introduction to Kendall's study. He uses terms that can be found in Gordon's book Learning Sequences in Music. Skill. Content, and Patterns. A Music learning Theory (1980), but, he fails to adequately define them. "Verbal association," for example, and it's importance and ranking in Gordon's hierarchy of music learning sequences should have been explained. Furthermore, Kendall uses the word "imitation" to describe some The Efficacy of Visually-based 25 of the aural/oral (teacher sings/student sings) activities used in the treatments (aural/oral being the first level of audiation skill development according to Gordon). Though the term "audiation" is used in Kendall's introductory arguments, he should have noted that the definition of audiation does not include imitation. That is, imitation and audiation are not equivalent terms by definition. Audiation involves a cognitive process but imitation can only be considered a reaction (Gordon, 1989, P.9). Kendall's test of aural development could be considered invalid if techniques for the development of aural or audiation skills were imitative and therefore inconsistent with procedures described by Gordon. Kendall's study makes a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of aural and visual learning with regard to music reading. The title of the study should have included a reference to music reading since the effect of the visual process of sight-reading on aural skills is the main focus of the study. That inclusion would allow the reader to more fully appreciate the arguments presented by Kendall in his literature review. The relevance of sight-reading to Kendall's study is not made clear until the statement of the problem and purpose (in that order). Kendall states that the "problem" of the study is an investigation of the effects of music reading activity on aural and instrumental performance skills. The problem statement would then be understood as the purpose of the study. The "purpose" of Kendall's study is stated like a problem. The problem is to determine which of two instructional approaches would develop better aural and instrumental performance skills. The two questions which follow the purpose and problem statements do little more than restate the problem. At the end of the purpose/problem/question statements, the use of M A P scores is discussed as part of the method to determine any interaction by levels of aptitude. The modeling and comprehensive approaches were identified as the levels of the treatment. The only difference in treatments was the inclusion of a visual or reading The Efficacy of Visually-based 26 component (p. 211) in the comprehensive approach. The comprehensive (experimental) approach and the modeling (control) approach constitute the A dimension of the design and the three levels of music aptitude constitute the B dimension of the design. For the purposes of clarity and focus, Kendall should have limited his posttests to one test of aural development and one test of performance by ear so that both groups could have been compared fairly on skills that all subjects had an equal chance to develop. The sight-reading test was unnecessary and irrelevant (not to mention unfair to the modeling group) since the specific problem of the study was to determine if a visual instruction component impaired aural development. Kendall's conclusion that both groups developed good aural skills should not be surprising if both groups were equivalent and had received the same training. It is noteworthy in the context of the current study that reading notation did not appear to inhibit aural development which supports Kendall's contention that note reading is a necessary part of the music learning spiral. Gordon (1980) also describes the process of music learning as a spiral. Learning can take place on several levels in the music learning sequence provided that higher level learning is preceded by an appropriate readiness activity. From that point of view, it is interesting that the comprehensive group achievement was significantly better than the modeling group on the verbal association test. That data seems to support Kendall's statement that "the absence of a visual mode will impede the development of music reading skills (p. 217)". He believes that the visual component is not only necessary for reading but that it contributes to the aural development of verbal association skills. It is evident from the data on the Instrumental Eye-to-Hand Coordination Test in Table 2 (p. 214) that students who were rated below average in the modeling group scored higher than students who were rated below average in the comprehensive group and also higher than students who were rated average in the modeling group. The The Efficacy of Visually-based 27 standard deviation for the below average modeling group was 14.32 compared with 31.61 for the below average comprehensive group. Though those results were pointed out by Kendall, he found no significant main effect for aptitude levels. A significant main effect would have either contradicted Kendall's generalization that the visual mode did not impede eye to hand coordination for below average students or it would have underscored a need for appropriate aural reading readiness experiences for students with below average music aptitude. That information may be of interest to teachers of below average students. The conclusions derived by Kendall from his study seem to support the music learning theory of Gordon (1980). Kendall found reason to support the development of audiation skills through aural/oral and verbal association activities prior to reading activities. The question of when to introduce reading is cause for further study. The Grutzmacher Study Grutzmacher believes it is important for instrumental music students to possess a well developed sense of tonality. She found agreement among several researchers including Heffernan, Krumhansl, Leonhard & House, MacKnight, and Schleuter, that a high degree of sight-reading skill can be achieved when students possess a concept of sound, specifically a sense of tonality, before learning music symbols. Research is cited which supports the theory that sense of tonality is best developed within the harmonic context of tonal patterns. That approach appears to be a more efficient way to improve music reading comprehension than learning pitches one at a time. Sense of tonality or tonal concept, described in by Gordon (1971), requires the use of aural perception to discern tonal relationships within an harmonic context. The process of conceptualizing tonal patterns is accomplished through audiation. Grutzmacher defines audiation as the ability to derive meaning from music by "mentally hearing music by means of recall, musical composition, or viewing musical notation (notational The Efficacy of Visually-based 28 audiation) (p. 172)". She contends that the development of tonal concept in students is dependent on the cultivation of a tonal pattern vocabulary, the improvement of the aural perception of harmonic tonal relationships, and the improvement of audiation skills. Those skills are best developed through singing activities. A major goal of instrumental music education is the development of instrumentalists who possess good sight-reading skill (p. 172). Grutzmacher expresses the concern that current practice in teaching instrumental music does not reflect what is known about how to effectively teach music reading. That dichotomy between learning theory and current practice is evidence of a need for further research in beginning instrumental music instruction. Currently, performance and technique are emphasized while conceptual development is given little consideration. Other deficiencies in instrumental method books are the lack of exercises in tonalities other than major and the use of notation to introduce pitches one at a time. The purpose of Grutzmacher's study was to investigate the relationship of harmonized and vocalized tonal pattern instruction to tonal concept development and the performance achievement of beginning wind instrumentalists. The problem of the study was to compare two approaches to beginning band instruction to determine the effect of one (experimental), which emphasized tonal concept development through the use of tonal patterns and the other (control), which did not use tonal patterns. Grutzmacher describes the method of analysis as a one factor design with one independent variable and three dependents variables though the inclusion of aptitude levels as measured by the Musical Aptitude Profile (Gordon, 1965) would make the analysis a two factor design. The instructional treatments were considered the independent variable. The experimental treatment included 10 tonal patterns in major tonality and 10 tonal patterns in minor tonality. The three dependent variables stated were the Iowa Tests of Musical Literacy (ITML) Level 2, Tonal Aural Perception The Efficacy of Visually-based 29 subtest (Gordon, 1970); the Iowa Tests of Musical Literacy (ITML) Level 2, Tonal Reading Recognition subtest, and the Melodic Sight-Reading Achievement Test (MSRAT), (constructed by Grutzmacher). The ITML were pretested and posttested. A l l subjects were pretested using the Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP) Tonal Imagery subtest (Gordon, 1965). The three separate null hypotheses state that there would be no significant difference between experimental and control group mean scores on the two I T M L posttests and the MSRAT posttest. Results were obtained through a multi-variate analysis of variance. A multi-variate analysis of covariance was performed to determine any relationship between the pretest scores of ITML, M S R A T and M A P , and the posttest scores of both ITML and the MSRAT. The M A P scores were used to control for the effect of the varied levels of student music aptitude in the two groups. The level of significance stated was p< .05. Subjects were drawn from a typical, middle-class Ohio school system. Forty-eight fifth and sixth grade students from three elementary schools were randomly assigned to homogeneous instrumental classes within each school. Those classes were then randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group within each school. Grutzmacher taught each group one, 30 minute class each week for fourteen weeks. Controls for experimenter bias included withholding music aptitude scores from Grutzmacher in addition to random observations and critiques of her lessons. Alfred's Basic Band Method (1977) was used as the text for all groups. Tonal patterns were taught only to the experimental group. Tonal patterns and procedures for instruction are clearly stated in the tables and text of Grutzmacher's study. Forty students completed all tests and the results were presented in a table of means and standard deviations. Significant difference was found in favour of the experimental group in melodic sight-reading achievement (MSRAT) and the identification of major and minor tonalities (ITML, tonal aural perception). The The Efficacy of Visually-based 30 posttest mean score of tonal aural perception was slightly lower than the pretest score for the control group. No significant difference was found in the posttest scores of the I T M L tonal reading recognition. Analysis of the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group on M S R A T and the ITML tonal reading test indicated that there was no significant correlation. Grutzmacher explains that the experimental group may have been in a transitional phase of development of aural and visual sensory modes. At the time of the posttest, the experimental group demonstrated superior aural skills and weaker visual skills. She suggests that if the treatment had lasted longer, the visual skills may have developed to a level equal to the aural skills. Grutzmacher concludes that instruction using tonal patterns appears to improve sight-reading skills without inhibiting technical skill development and that conceptual understanding of tonality is improved by instruction using tonal patterns in major and minor. Furthermore, the experimental group appeared to be developing a balance between the aural perception and the visual perception of music. Also, there was a correlation between aptitude scores and achievement scores that would indicate that vocalizing and harmonization of tonal patterns is an efficient way to develop music potential in students. Recommendations for further research included replication of the study with a larger sample and the application of the treatment over a longer term. A need was articulated for research into learning programs which emphasize the development of aural skills prior to reading skills and in understanding the relationship of tonal pattern instruction to learning processes. Also recommended is the development of a method book using tonal patterns as a basis for learning music reading. And finally, the need to impress upon new instrumental music teachers the value of tonal pattern training for beginning instrumentalists. Grutzmacher's argument supporting the need for music students to develop a tonal concept appears to be sound and well documented. In reference to the works of The Efficacy of Visually-based 31 Gordon (1971 and 1980), Grutzmacher should have clarified the purely physical aspect of aural perception in contrast to the conceptual process called audiation. Gordon's (1980) definition of audiation states that one audiates when hearing and comprehending music for which musical sound is not necessarily physically present. While aural perception is necessary to physically hear music, audiation is a mental process independent of the immediate physical perception of musical sound. For that reason, Gordon's later work, Learning Sequences in Music. (1989), being the source of the most recent definition of audiation, should be considered more valid and refined in terms of understanding tonal concept development. Grutzmacher's contention that current method books are poorly conceived is well stated. The situation requires an urgent reassessment of the methods and techniques used in instrumental music instruction. The investigation of tonal pattern training, stated in the purpose of the study, is appropriately linked to the improvement of current instrumental instruction technique. The basic two factor design, which compared achievement between an experimental and a control group, could reasonably be expected to yield useful data. Music Aptitude Profile (MAP) Tonal Imagery subtest (Gordon, 1965) was used to control for different levels of aptitude. The high, moderate, and low M A P scores, which constituted the B dimension levels in the design add precision to the analysis. Grutzmacher provides insight and direction for further research in the study of music sight-reading. The results suggest value in tonal pattern instruction. Other studies, (MacKnight, 1973; Gordon, 1980), corroborate this conclusion. As noted by Grutzmacher, there is a need to study the development of aural and visual skills after a longer treatment period with tonal patterns. In addition, her recommendation for the development of an effective teaching technique based on tonal patterns should be heeded. The Efficacy of Visually-based 32 The Froseth Study Froseth investigated the educational uses of the Musical Aptitude Profile (MAP; Gordon, 1965) test battery in an instrumental setting. The fundamental purpose of the M A P is to evaluate basic music aptitude. Initially, aptitude tests provide teachers with a means to identify musically talented students and encourage their participation music programs. The application relevant to this study is the use of M A P scores in planning lessons tailored to individual student abilities. Another use of the test scores is to provide parents with objective information about their child. Froseth surmised that if those ideas were successfully implemented in elementary instrumental programs, students may achieve at a more rapid pace and with greater fulfillment of latent abilities. Froseth's stated problem, based on previously demonstrated findings, (Gordon, 1965; Hatfield, 1967), was to compare the achievement levels of students whose teachers had knowledge of student M A P scores to the achievement levels of students whose teachers had no knowledge of student M A P scores. A related consideration of the study was the development of individualized teaching techniques and materials to address musical differences among students revealed by M A P scores. The subjects for this experiment were grade five and six students (n = 190) from eight public schools is Kenosha County, Wisconsin. Students were considered in four ability levels (high, above average, below average, low), according to their M A P composite scores and randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. Care was taken to ensure a balanced distribution in the groups according to sex, grade, and instrument. The treatments were administered by seven instrumental music teachers. It was not stated how the teachers were assigned to teach the control and experimental groups. The teachers used the same basic text for instructional purposes. Lesson length, class The Efficacy of Visually-based 33 size, and supplemental instructional materials were comparable for both groups. Supplementary materials developed for the study and designed to address differences in student aptitudes were made available to the experimental and control group. Teachers of the experimental group were apprised of the student's composite and subtest scores. That information was withheld from teachers of the control group. Evaluation of student achievement involved three steps. First, student performances of three etudes (composed for the study by Froseth) were tape recorded. To ensure reliability, the performances were recorded twice with a one week interval between performances. Each etude was prepared differently. One was prepared with teacher help, one without teacher help, and one was sight-read without teacher help. That allowed for the evaluation of achievement under varying circumstances. Second, two independent judges scored the performances. Interjudge reliability was measured by correlating the teacher rating scores. Third, an analysis of variance was performed on the criterion scores to determine the interaction between treatments and levels, the main effect of the treatments, and the main effect of the levels. A l l statistical tests were conducted at the .05 level of confidence (sic). Reliability was demonstrated by comparison of split-half reliability coefficients for the M A P scores of the study groups and the corresponding coefficients found in the M A P manual. Group reliability coefficients are reported for Tonal Imagery, Rhythm Imagery, and Musical Sensitivity with a range from .82 (melodic imagery), to .65 (style), with a composite reliability coefficient of .94. Equivalence was demonstrated in tables showing an identical number of boys and girls in each group, and a comparable distribution by grade and by instrumentation. It was pointed out that the instrumentation conformed to a distribution pattern consistent with that usually found in elementary instrumental music programs. The Efficacy of Visually-based 34 There was a very high degree of agreement between judges in their assessment of student performances with reliability coefficients ranging from .90 to .97. An analysis of variance was performed on the scores from each of the three etudes and on the combined scores of the three etudes. When comparing the results from one aptitude level to another, teacher knowledge of a student's music aptitude did not significantly affect achievement for a particular level of aptitude. However, when comparing the main effects between the experimental and control groups over all levels, instruction that included knowledge of M A P scores was significantly better. Also, students who scored higher on the M A P consistently demonstrated higher achievement to a statistically significant level. Froseth believes that M A P serves as a reliable instrument for the practical and objective assessment of student musical ability. More significantly, music aptitude assessment would appear to have value in adapting instruction to the needs of the individual student and thereby improve musical achievement. Froseth observed that greater differences in the results may have been obtained if teachers had been given better training in suggested techniques and supplementary materials, i f materials specifically designed for teaching to students with differing musical abilities had been used exclusively, and if more lesson time had been allotted to implement the treatments. Some of the strengths of Froseth's study are confirmed by the design, documentation, and analysis of the data though it is not clear why he would risk Type I error by analyzing each criterion etude separately rather than using a multi-variate analysis. Two concerns with regard to the treatments are the unusual number of teachers involved in the treatment, and the like instrument only lessons. While no reason is given for the use of seven instructors to implement the treatments, doing so may have lessened the impact of varied teacher style and effectiveness, and improved The Efficacy of Visually-based 35 the reliability of the results. Froseth is correct in suggesting that the teachers would have benefited from more thorough training in the use of the special materials and more time to implement the techniques and materials used in the study. The fact that instruction was given to groups of students playing on like instruments should not be overlooked. The homogeneous instrumentation would have allowed for more focused and effective lessons and thereby improved the quality of the treatment. However, it is more likely in a typical Canadian public school setting that a teacher will encounter a class with heterogeneous instrumentation. Progress may be less rapid in that situation. The procedures for testing student instrumental achievement in this study seem well considered. The use of three etudes, each prepared under different conditions, could serve as a model for assessment in an instrumental music program. It is a concern that no information is presented on how student performance of the test etudes was rated. The etudes were constructed so that they began with simple material followed by progressively more difficult material. The degree of simplicity and difficulty with regard to both rhythm and tonal structure should have been illustrated to allow researchers to assess validity in comparison to standardized music reading tests and to allow replication. One of the most difficult aspects of teaching instrumental music is the assessment and evaluation of the observable differences in the ability of students to learn music. Froseth illustrated a means of qualifying and quantifying observed differences. The evidence which indicates greater gains for students of the experimental group with either high or low aptitude, strengthens the case for teaching to musical differences of individual students. Froseth noted that perhaps the published methods might best be abandoned in favour of the special materials developed for the study to address individual student abilities. Additional information about the content of those special materials would have been valuable for the purposes of replication and The Efficacy of Visually-based 36 for the improvement of instruction in instrumental music education. Above all, the study results emphasize the importance of having materials that are appropriate for each level of aptitude. Froseth shows the value of assessing student aptitude in music, and provides a rationale for developing better instrumental instruction techniques and materials. Summary The improvement of beginning instrumental instruction techniques is the underlying purpose of the four studies reviewed in chapter two. A common concern for three of the researchers is the lack of attention given to the development of aural skills in the teaching of instrumental music. The Kendall and Grutzmacher studies in particular, refer to the development of tonal and rhythm vocabularies as a basis for the development of aural/oral and verbal association skills which serve as a readiness for reading music symbols. In each case where the treatments included aural and verbal association components prior to reading components, improved aural and reading skills were evident. The need for aural experiences prior to the introduction of visual experiences is well documented though Kendall expressed concern about when it is appropriate to introduce a visual component into the learning sequence. Whitener did not specifically refer to tonal and rhythm vocabularies however, he considered it desirable to include a listening component within the enrichment program developed for his study. Although Froseth's study is concerned with the diagnostic and instructional uses for aptitude tests, he also developed special materials to replace or enrich those found in the standard instrumental method book used in his study. Froseth believes that an important relationship exists between identifying student music aptitude and student achievement and that music instruction should be tailored to the learning potential of the individual concerned. Therefore, when learning to read music and perform on an The Efficacy of Visually-based 37 instrument, appropriate activities must occur in an appropriate sequence and for a sufficient amount of time. In general, the development of music concepts learned through aural instruction, teaching tonal and rhythm patterns aurally and visually, and the consideration of individual learning potential are aspects of music instruction that the four researchers believe would be improvements on published instrumental methods which currently over-emphasize the visual aspects of reading and learning music. Recommendations from these studies relate directly to the purpose of the current study. The need is evident for an instructional technique that includes rhythm and tonal pattern development within its scope and sequence in addition to executive skill development. The comparison of an aurally based approach like Jump Right In. The Instrumental Series (Grunow and Gordon 1989) to current standard band instruction methods is timely. Jump Right In contains material and activities that may rectify the specific method book deficiencies noted above. There is a need to demonstrate effective techniques for aurally based instruction so that beginning instrumental music students can benefit from any improvement in instruction afforded by such an approach. The Efficacy of Visually-based 38 CHAPTER THREE Methodology Population and Sample This study was conducted at schools located in the North Vancouver School District #44, British Columbia. The district enrolls approximately 16,000 students from kindergarten to grade twelve. An instrumental music program is offered from grade five through grade twelve. Total instrumental music enrollment in the school year 1993/94 was 2,455'. Of that number, 1,521 were enrolled in the elementary program. The subjects for this study were students who entered grade five and began the instrumental music program in the Fall of 1993. The program is voluntary. The subjects were members of six intact school bands. The schools were grouped into three treatment zones according neighborhood proximity and according to the number of subjects at each site so that there was a relatively even distribution of subjects. Therefore, at one of the schools, 24 subjects received Treatment #1, at three of the schools 34 subjects received Treatment #2, and at of the two schools, 32 subjects received Treatment #3. Students were permitted to select an instrument of their choice, but guidance was provided to the parents based on test results from the Instrumental Timbre Preference Test (Gordon, 1984). Though they were not obligated to accept the instrument indicated from their test results, students also knew their tested preferences to help guide them in their instrument selection. Preparatory Data Collection A l l students who were registered at their school for the instrumental music program were pretested for rhythm and tonal audiation abilities using the Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation. ( IMMA; Gordon, 1986) though for the purposes of the 'Enrollment as of October 1993 as reported by the office of the Assistant Superintendent for the North Vancouver School District. The Efficacy of Visually-based 39 study, the data were used only after parental and student approval had been granted. I M M A is a standardized test that measures developmental music aptitude in terms of a student's ability to conceptually determine if a pair of tonal patterns sound the same or different and whether a pair of rhythm patterns sound the same or different. The complete test contains 40 pairs of melodic patterns and 40 pairs of rhythmic patterns on two separate subtests. In the test manual (Gordon, 1986), percentile norms are reported for students from grade 1 through 6. Reliabilities for the I M M A are separately reported for Grades 1 through 4. The grade 4 reliability for the tonal and rhythm sub-tests is .86 and .84, respectively and the composite reliability is .76 (p. 92). Experimental Treatments Based on content, the Yamaha Band Student (Feldstein and O'Reilly, 1988), and the Ed Sueta Band Method (Sueta, 1974) were considered as visually based instruction texts. Jump Right In. The Instrumental Series (Grunow and Gordon, 1989) was considered as an aurally based instruction text. Students were divided into three groups. One group of students received instruction based on the Yamaha method, another on the Sueta method, and the other received instruction based on the Jump Right In method. Students received two classes of instruction per week for thirty-five weeks and each class was forty minutes in duration. Regardless of the method used, the instructor endeavored to teach the correct posture, hand position, embouchure, and use of breath required for each instrument. Students in all treatment groups were encouraged to do their best work at all times. Rhythm Treatment #1: Numerical Values/Visual The Yamaha Band Student (1988) is a recently published example of a method which contains a visually-based approach to rhythm instruction. That is, the system in common use today by which beats are grouped and numbered according to a time The Efficacy of Visually-based 40 signature and by which rhythm symbols are defined by numerical values. A beat numbering system is used throughout the entire method. Exercises that involve clapping and adding bar lines to music examples according to a given time signature are also included throughout the text. In this treatment group, rhythm reading was combined with pitch reading in that students learned pitch names simultaneously with the rhythm values of notes through performance of simple reading exercises that are performed instrumentally on a limited number of adjacent pitches. Rhythm Treatment #2: Articulation/Numerical Values/Visual A distinctive feature of the visually-based Sueta (1972) method is the articulation function syllables used to teach rhythm. Sueta believes that his articulation function syllables simultaneously facilitate both articulation and rhythm reading skills. In this treatment group, students learned the duration of notes by the association of the following syllables with notation symbols: "too" for a.quarter note, "ta" for an eighth note, "t" for a sixteenth note. For notes longer than one beat, the syllable "too" was extended as necessary. For example, a half note was pronounced as "too-oo." The teacher demonstrated the correct syllable for each note value before students attempted the syllables. Twelve rhythm charts included in Sueta's approach were used to facilitate the instruction of rhythm separately from the instruction of pitches. Students were instructed to tap their toes to a steady pulse while chanting patterns from the rhythm charts. Once the students could chant the rhythm patterns with syllables, a beat numbering system was introduced and learned in conjunction with the articulation function syllables. Rhythm syllables always preceded numbers when new rhythm patterns were introduced. Rhythm reading was combined with pitch reading through the inclusion of exercises that consisted of previously learned rhythm patterns performed instrumentally on a single pitch. The Efficacy of Visually-based 41 Rhythm Treatment #3: Beat Function/Aural Jump Right In (Grunow and Gordon, 1989) is an aurally-based approach to instrumental music instruction, wherein equal emphasis is placed on the development of audiation ability and executive skills. Executive skill is the term used by Grunow and Gordon (1989) to describe the technique-based skills necessary to produce sound on an instrument and to operate either the keys, valves, slide, or mallets efficiently and effectively. Rhythm readiness activities which included moving the body, arm swinging, and tapping heels on the floor preceded all other activities. Rhythm instruction began with chanted articulation exercises (using the syllable "doo" for a legato articulation and the syllable "too" for a staccato articulation) and rhythm patterns (with neutral syllables and beat function syllables) that were echoed by the students. Rhythms were formally organized into identifiable types of patterns with the use of beat function syllables. The beat function syllable system is organized so that the syllable "du" is always associated with the strong beat (i.e., macro beat) in both duple and triple meters. The syllables used for the subdivision of a beat are dependent on the meter and are used to help students recognize and identify different meters. In duple meter, a macro beat is divided into two temporally equal micro beats that are pronounced "du de." In triple meter, a macro beat is divided into three temporally equal micro beats that are pronounced "du da di." Beat function syllables are enrhythmic. For example, in triple meter, the syllables correspond with the audiated rhythm whether the rhythm is notated with a time signature of either 3/4, 3/8, or 6/8. In duple meter, the syllables correspond with the audiated rhythm whether the rhythm is notated with a time signature of either 4/4, 2/4 or 2/2. Rhythm patterns used in the beat function approach have a duration of four macro beats, for both duple and triple meter patterns, and The Efficacy of Visually-based 42 include micro beat subdivisions of eighth notes and sixteenth notes in a variety of combinations. Students are expected to tap the macrobeat with their heels and lightly tap microbeats (in the appropriate meter) on their knees while aurally performing rhythm patterns. Clapping rhythm patterns was not done. Rhythm reading was not taught until the students could accurately audiate and aurally identify different types of meters and chant specific given rhythm patterns. Next, students chanted rhythms from notation and performed those rhythms on their instruments. A cassette tape that contained rhythm patterns that were chanted in class was included with each method book and used for home practice. Two companion books that contained material to further develop the rhythm skills learned in the lesson book were available. The ensemble book for the development of aural skills, sight reading, and group performance was used by students in this treatment group. The solo book and tape of songs for individual performance was not used in the present study. Tonal Treatment #1: Visual Both the Yamaha Band Student and Ed Sueta Band Method involve techniques for learning pitches through the visual association of notes on a music staff with alphabet letters, and for learning the corresponding instrument fingerings of those notes on an instrument. Through the Yamaha approach, technique was developed through a sequence that began with simple songs and progressed to more complex songs, duets, and band arrangements. Also, scales and arpeggios in C major, F major, A flat major, and G major were included in that sequence. Through the Sueta approach, executive technique was developed through a sequence that began with technically simple songs and progressed to more complex songs. Those songs included arpeggios in C major, D major, G major, F major, B flat major, and E flat major. Also, major scales in B flat and E flat concert and chromatic scales were included in the Sueta approach. The Efficacy of Visually-based 43 Tonal Treatment #2: Aural In the Jump Right In approach, the development of aural skills and tonal reading skills are systematically linked to the development of executive skills in terms of operating either keys, valves, or slides on instruments. First, tonal skills were developed by having students audiate and vocally perform rote songs and tonal patterns in major tonality and minor tonality (without rhythm) first on neutral syllables and then on tonal syllables in the moveable "do" system. Executive skills were developed by having students sing those same tonal patterns, with tonal syllables in the moveable "do" system while simultaneously operating the correct mechanisms for those patterns on their instruments. Students learned to sing and perform tonic, dominant, and subdominant tonal patterns in B flat major, E flat major, F major, and C minor. As students acquired executive skills (including correct embouchure and articulation), they were asked to audiate and perform rote songs on their instruments that were previously performed vocally. For those exercises, the students were aurally given the key (e.g., B flat is "do") and the starting pitch (e.g., start on "sol"). Tonal reading was taught after the students could audiate and sing two and three note tonal patterns and several rote songs, and after they had developed sufficient executive skill to perform those patterns and songs on their instrument without notation. Familiar tonal patterns were first sung (without rhythm) from notation and then performed on the instrument from notation. A cassette tape that contains the same tonal patterns chanted in class by the teacher was provided for home practice. Two companion books that contained material to further develop the tonal skills learned in the lesson book were available. The ensemble book for the development of aural skills, sight reading, and group performance was used by students in this treatment group. The solo book and tape of songs for individual performance was not used in the present study. The Efficacy of Visually-based 44 Post Experiment Data Collection To record the rhythm and tonal reading achievement data, the students were videotaped by a hidden video camera. The videotaped performances were assessed by two independent examiners. The examiners were instrumental music instructors who possess certification from the British Columbia College of Teachers and who are independent of the North Vancouver School District instrumental music program. One examiner was a certified public school teacher who teaches instrumental music to Grade 5 through 12 students, and the other examiner was a saxophone instructor at the university level with certification to teach instrumental music in the public schools. To assess instrumental achievement, students performed three criterion songs of equivalent difficulty to those found in the method books. The criterion songs were composed by the researcher (see Appendix A). Two songs were given to the students prior to testing and one song was sight-read at the time of testing. One learned criterion song was in major tonality (F major) and duple meter, and the other was in minor tonality (C minor) and triple meter. The sight read criterion song was in major tonality (B flat major) and duple meter. Two continuous five point rating scales were used for the student assessment. One scale was used to assess rhythm reading skills, and the other scale was used to assess tonal reading skills. The Instrumental Performance Rating Scales are as follow. Rhythm 5 points: Student performs with a steady beat and with excellent accuracy with regard to note values. 4 points: Student performs with a steady beat and good accuracy with regard to note values. 3 points: Student performs with a steady beat but fair accuracy with regard to note values. 2 points: Student performs with an unsteady beat and poor accuracy with regard to note values. The Efficacy of Visually-based 45 1 point: Student performs without a sense of beat and without rhythmic accuracy. Tonal 5 points: Student performs pitches with excellent accuracy and excellent intonation. 4 points: Student performs pitches with good accuracy and good intonation. 3 points: Student performs pitches with fair accuracy and fair intonation. 2 points: Student performs pitches with poor accuracy and poor intonation. 1 point: Student is unable to perform pitches with any accuracy. The scores of both judges on each scale were combined to create a composite score for each criterion song. Therefore, the maximum pooled reading achievement score for each student was 30 (5 points maximum on each five point rating scale, per song (3), by two judges) while the minimum score was 6. The performance ratings from each examiner were compiled and compared to determine the interjudge reliabilities. Design and Analysis The null hypotheses for the two research problems are as follow. H G : There will be no difference between the means for students who possess high or low audiation ability and who learn to read rhythm by either the numerical system, the articulation syllable system, and the beat function syllable system. H G : There will be no difference between the means for students who possess high or low audiation ability and who learn to read tonal notation by either the visual or the aural system. There are two independent variables in the current study, instruction and aptitude. The instrumental instruction treatments constitute the dimensions of the A effect. Levels of audiation ability constitute the B effect. Based on I M M A pre-test composite raw scores, a median-split technique was used to group the subjects into either the high audiation ability group or the low audiation ability group. The dependent variables are the Instrumental Performance Rating Scales. The Efficacy of Visually-based 46 For the first problem, the data were organized into a 3 x 2 design (three levels of rhythm treatment by two levels of rhythm aptitude). A N O V A was used to analyze the data at the .05 level of significance. For the second problem, the data were organized into a 2 x 2 design (two levels of tonal treatment by two levels of tonal aptitude). A N O V A was used to analyze the data at the .05 level of significance. The Efficacy of Visually-based 47 CHAPTER FOUR Results and Interpretations Sample Of the 90 grade five students enrolled at the beginning of the study, 3 were percussionists and not included in the study and 9 dropped out of the band program (n = 78). The data for one student was found to be corrupt in that the student had copied answers from another student's answer sheet, therefore, complete Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) (Gordon, 1986) pretest data were collected for 77 students (36 girls; 41 boys). Twenty students did not complete the researcher's Rhythm and Tonal Reading Achievement Test. That was due to either lack of permission or illness. A further 4 performances were lost due to video recording equipment error. Complete data were collected for only 53 students (24 girls; 29 boys) on the Rhythm and Tonal Reading Achievement Test. Of the twenty-three students (16 girls, 7 boys) who were part of Treatment Group 1 at the beginning of the study, 10 students (7 girls, 3 boys) completed all tests. Of the thirty-three students (16 girls, 17 boys) who were part of Treatment Group 2 at the beginning of the study, 23 students (11 girls, 12 boys) completed all the tests. Of the thirty-four students (10 girls, 24 boys) who were part of Treatment Group 3 at the beginning of the study, 20 students (6 girls, 14 boys) completed all the tests. Attrition and video recording error (Treatment Group 1), resulted in small cell sizes. The small cell sizes and high variability in the scores (see Table 4 and Table 6) may be considered a threat to any generalized inferences based on the results of the study. Also, because the three treatments were carried out in a public school setting, the study must be considered as quasi-experimental and any significant or practical findings must be interpreted in that context. Students who received instruction with the Yamaha Band Student (Treatment 1) (Feldstein and O'Reilly, 1988), and Ed Sueta Band Method (Treatment 2) (Sueta, The Efficacy of Visually-based 48 1974), were able to complete the entire introductory text within the school year. Students who received instruction with Jump Right In. The Instrumental Series (Treatment 3) (Grunow and Gordon, 1989), did not complete all the material presented in the method within the school year. Pretest Results Data for the I M M A Rhythm subtest are reported in Table 1. Gordon (1986), in the I M M A manual, reports a mean of 33.6 for the Rhythm subtest based on a norms sample of 752 grade 4 students (p. 88). Only percentile norms are reported for grades 5 and 6 for the Rhythm subtest (p.64). Raw scores of 33 to 35 on the rhythm subtest would correspond with percentile ranks of 40 to 60. For the study sample, the composite group mean was 33.90. Treatment Group 1 (33.3) was slightly below the mean, Treatment Group 2 (33.60) was close to the mean, and Treatment Group 3 (34.55) was slightly above the mean. Table 1 Pretest Means and Standard Deviations for IMMA Rhythm Subtest Treatment 1 2 3 Composite Standardized m 33.3 33.61 34.61 33.90 33.6 SD 3.19 2.56 3.14 2.60 3.50 n 10 23 20 53 752 Note. Treatments: 1 = Numerical/Visual; 2 = Articulation/Visual; 3 = Beat Function/Aural. The data for the I M M A Tonal subtest are reported in Table 2. Gordon (1986), in the I M M A manual, reports a mean of 35.2 for the Tonal subtest based on a norms sample of 752 grade 4 students (p.88). Only percentile norms are reported for grades 5 and 6 for the Tonal subtest. A raw score of 36 or 37 on the tonal subtest would correspond with a percentile rank of 50 or 65 (p.64). For the study sample, the composite group mean was 36.43. The mean for students in Treatment Group 1 (36.12) was slightly below the composite mean. The mean for students in Treatment Group 2 (36.95) was slightly above the composite mean. The Efficacy of Visually-based 49 Table 2 Pretest Means and Standard Deviations for IMMA Tonal Subtest Treatment 1 2 Composite Standardized m 36.12 36.95 36.4 35.2 SD 2.27 2.18 2.32 3.03 n 33 20 53 752 Note. Treatments: 1 = Visual; 2 = Aural. Interjudge Reliabilities Table 3 is a report of the interj udge reliabilities for each criterion measure. Composite reliabilities range from r — .11 for Song 1 to r = .883 for Song 3 with a composite reliability of r = .882. Those correlations may be interpreted as moderately strong positive levels of agreement between the judges in their assessment of the student performances on the individual criterion songs and a strong positive level of agreement for the overall composite reliability. Table 3 Interjudqe Reliability r_ Reading Song #1 Rhythm .637 Tonal .726 Composite .77 n 53 Reading Song #2 Rhythm .777 Tonal .824 Composite .832 n 53 Reading Song #3 Rhythm .711 Tonal .717 Composite .883 n 53 Composite Reliability for the three songs .882 n 53 The Efficacy of Visually-based 50 The researcher observed that in most cases the second judge rated the performances lower than the first judge. That may have been due to the second judge having more familiarity and experience with high school and university student instrumental skill levels and less familiarity with elementary beginning student instrumental skill levels. Results of the Data Analysis for Rhythm Achievement Means and standard deviations for the rhythm reading achievement scores are reported in Table 4. In consideration of a maximum possible pooled raw score of 30, raw scores for the rhythm reading achievement test may be considered low, with group mean scores of 12.6, 12.0, and 11.1, respectively. Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations for Rhythm Reading Achievement Combined Raw Scores Treatment Aptitude 1 2 3 Composite High m 13.83 12.2 12.08 12.70 SD 4.62 6.38 3.16 n 6 15 12 33 Low m 10.75 11.62 9.62 10.66 SD 3.77 4.10 3.54 n 4 8 8 20 Composite m 12.29 11.41 10.85 11.68 n 10 23 20 53 Note. Treatments: 1 = Numerical/Visual; 2 = ArticulationA/isual; 3 = Beat Function/Aural A two factor ANOVA was performed on the data from the rhythm reading achievement scores. As can be seen on the following page in Table 5, no significant The Efficacy of Visually-based 51 differences were found between treatment groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found for levels of aptitude. Table 5 Analysis of Variance for the Rhythm Reading Achievement Scores Source SS df MS F Treatment 19.2642 2 9.6321 0.4371 Aptitude 54.9954 1 54.9954 2.4957 Interaction 41.6672 2 20.8336 0.945 Error Within 1035.6844 47 22.0358 Results of the Data Analysis for Tonal Achievement Means and standard deviations for the tonal reading achievement scores are reported in Table 6. Raw scores for the tonal reading achievement test seem higher than the rhythm test but the group mean scores of 14.66 and 14.5, respectively may be considered low relative to the maximum possible pooled raw score of 30. Table 6 Means and Standard Deviations For Tonal Reading Achievement Combined Raw Scores Treatment Aptitude 1 2 Composite High m 17.23 . 16.0 16.61 SD 5.4 4.60 n 13 13 26 Low m 13.0 11.71 12.66 SD 5.01 6.49 n 20 7 27 Composite m 14.66 14.5 14.60 n 33 20 Note. Treatments: 1 = Visual; 2 = Aural. The Efficacy of Visually-based 52 A two factor A N O V A was performed on the data from the tonal reading achievement scores. No significant difference was found between treatment groups however, a significant difference was found for aptitude. Students who possessed high tonal audiation ability scored significantly higher on the tonal reading criteria than students who possessed low tonal audiation ability. Table 7 Analysis of Variance for the Tonal Reading Achievement Scores Source SS df MS F Treatment 0.238098 1 0.238098 0.0087 Aptitude 206.53398 1 206.53398 7.5535* Interaction 17.17564 1 17.17564 0.62816 Error Within 1339.78141 49 27.34247 *p < .05. Interpretations Based on the results of the data analysis for the tonal and rhythm reading achievement scores, two issues may be considered for interpretation. One issue concerns why a significant effect was found for tonal aptitude whereas a significant effect was not found for rhythm aptitude. The second issue concerns why there was no significant difference either between the three rhythm treatments or between the two tonal treatments. In this study, tonal reading achievement appeared to be dependent on audiation ability and familiarity. That is because while general intelligence may be a factor in learning to associate pitch notation with fingerings on an instrument, learning to perform a given pitch would be more dependent on the ability to audiate the pitch. A student must be able to find a pitch by first audiating and then sounding the pitch especially when performing on a brass instrument (Jacobs, 1987). It can be observed in most lower mainland primary music programs, including North Vancouver, that The Efficacy of Visually-based 53 students in those programs are more likely to learn to read rhythm notation than to learn to read tonal notation. Also, in those programs, when students are required to perform pitches on metalophones and xylophones, they learn tonal patterns either by rote instruction or by alphabet letter names written over notated rhythm patterns. That is because the alphabet note names are written on the tone bars of the metalophones and xylophones commonly used in primary programs and therefore easily located by young students. Tonal patterns are not audiated in those instances nor do the students see the location of the pitches on a staff. Furthermore, as stated in Chapter One, students in primary music programs are likely to experience tonal patterns that are exclusively based on pentatonic scales which do not contain half step intervals. That means that tonal pattern instruction in primary music programs does not necessarily contain essential elements of major and minor tonality such as the leading tone ("ti - do" in major, "si - la" in minor; also, the semitones "mi - fa" in major and "ti - do" in minor) which define the tonic/dominant relationship that is the basis of Western classical tonal harmony. When tonal patterns with half steps are sung, it is unlikely that the patterns will be labeled by the instructor as tonic, dominant, or subdominant. Instrumental music students must, therefore, rely more on tonal audiation ability to learn tonal patterns because the tonal patterns found in instrumental instruction books may be unfamiliar in both symbolic representation and harmonic relationship. A significant effect for rhythm aptitude was not found in the study. That may have been because the criterion songs used in the study (see Appendix A) , which were based on rhythm patterns found in the three treatment texts, contained rhythm patterns that were familiar to the students from their primary music program experience. Students in primary music programs often read simple rhythm patterns that include quarter notes and eighth notes as did the criterion songs for this study. Had the rhythm patterns been unfamiliar, in terms of listening experience and symbolic representation, The Efficacy of Visually-based 54 then a student's ability to audiate may have been a stronger factor in the learning process and the instrumental performance of students in this study. Although the aural treatment group audiated, experienced, and performed more complex patterns that included sixteenth notes in duple and triple meter that were grouped by twos, fours, and sixes, they were not included in the criterion songs to avoid treatment bias. There was no significant difference between the treatments in either rhythm reading achievement or tonal reading achievement. One reason may have to do with the amount of time that students in the study read notation. The students who learned to read tonal and rhythm notation using the visual treatments read notation for the duration of the study and may have benefited from having a full school year of practice associating tonal notation with fingerings on their instrument. That does not mean that they could either sight-read from notation or audiate the notated pitches. The rhythms, as has been suggested, may have been familiar to the students and it is likely that they were more easily understood and performed. Students who used the aural treatment to learn to read tonal and rhythm notation, though their achievement was not significantly different from the other treatments, were not introduced to notation until half way through the study. In other words, the aural treatment group appears to have been able to read with similar skill in comparison to the visual treatment groups even though less time was spent on the visual aspect of learning to read music notation. The Efficacy of Visually-based 55 CHAPTER FIVE Summary and Conclusions Summary For most of this century, instrumental music instruction has been available to students through community organizations or school programs. Instrumental music programs are a generally accepted way to provide music instruction to school age children. The instrumental music curriculum usually includes instruction in performance techniques and notation reading, however, while music literacy is a stated goal of music educators, teachers often lack techniques for teaching comprehension in music notation reading. The result is that students become technically proficient instrumentalists and good decoders of notation but have little meaningful understanding of the music they perform. Gordon's (1989) theory of music learning is based on the proposition that a cognitive faculty which he called audiation is the basis for learning music and the ability to comprehend elements of music such as meter and tonality. Audiation is the process that functions when one meaningfully performs, reads, and listens to music. Gordon believes that, prior to learning notation, students should develop basic concepts about beat, meter, pitch centre, and tonality by audiating those elements of music in songs that they hear, sing, and respond to with body motion. Heffernan (1968) and Schleuter (1984) have also supported the idea of music instruction that is based on the development of concepts of music through aural, oral, and body motion experiences prior to the introduction of symbolic representation. A variety of methods and techniques have been designed for the purpose of teaching the melodic reading skills required for instrumental performance. Most of those methods and techniques are based on teaching tonal notation reading skill through The Efficacy of Visually-based 56 the association of alphabet note names with the location of notes on a staff and with fingerings on an instrument. The teaching of rhythm notation reading skill is based on learning the numerical values of each type of note in rhythm notation. The tonal and rhythmic functions of notation are taught simultaneously in those methods. That is, students learn the name and location of a pitch on the staff as well as the rhythmic value of the note at the same time. Gordon's (1989) theory of music learning is the basis for an aural approach to instrumental music instruction. In that approach, tonal and rhythm patterns are first taught separately within the context of tonal function and metrical function. Tonal patterns and rhythm patterns are learned through singing and chanting activities prior to the teaching of the symbolic representation of the patterns. After the tonal and rhythm patterns have been learned separately, both aurally and symbolically, the patterns are combined symbolically into melodic phrases. At that point, the students learn to simultaneously interpret, through performance on an instrument, tonality and meter from notation. Since tonal and rhythm reading is an important aspect of music literacy, the purpose of this study was to learn more about the efficacy of beginning instrumental methods in the development of tonal and rhythm reading skills. The specific problems of the study were 1) to determine the comparative effects of three approaches of instrumental music rhythm instruction—one visual approach with a numerical rhythm system (Yamaha Band Student), one visual approach with an articulation syllable rhythm system (Ed Sueta Band Method), and one aural approach with a beat function syllable rhythm system (Jump Right In)-on the rhythm reading skills of grade five instrumental music students who possess high and low rhythm aptitude, and 2) to determine the comparative effects of two approaches to tonal instruction—one visual approach with an alphabetic system for naming pitches (Yamaha Band Student. Ed The Efficacy of Visually-based 57 Sueta Band Method) and one aural approach with a moveable do system for naming pitches (Jump Right In)—on the tonal reading skills of grade five beginning instrumental music students who possess high and low tonal aptitude. Subjects for the study were grade five beginning instrumental music students from six elementary schools in North Vancouver, British Columbia. The six schools were divided into three groups and randomly assigned one of the three methods. The treatments lasted for the duration of a school year. Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) (Gordon, 1986) was given at the beginning of the school year to assess each students' audiation ability. Each of the instructional treatments was taught to the students as prescribed in the instructor's manuals. At the end of the study, student performances of three criterion songs were video taped and evaluated for rhythmic and tonal accuracy by two independent judges. A two factor A N O V A was performed on the data from the rhythm reading achievement scores. No significant differences were found between treatment groups. Moreover, no significant differences were found for levels of aptitude. Also, a two factor A N O V A was performed on the data from the tonal reading achievement scores. No significant difference was found between treatment groups, however, a significant difference was found for aptitude. Conclusions Based on the results, it may be concluded that beginning instrumental students who possess high tonal audiation ability develop better instrumental music reading skills than students who possess low tonal audiation ability. Furthermore, because music is an aurally based activity, instrumental music teachers who are interested in teaching both aural and instrumental music reading skills may do so without detriment to beginning instrumentalists. The Efficacy of Visually-based 58 General Observations and Recommendations for Further Study There are many positive aspects to each of the three approaches to rhythm reading and the two approaches to tonal reading. A majority of the students developed the basic reading and instrumental skills necessary for the performance of beginning level band arrangements (see Appendix B). Students appeared to enjoy the particular method used at their schools, though students who used the Jump Right In (JRI) approach, particularly those who were enrolled in piano lessons, were initially apprehensive. One reason for that may have been because some of the conceptual terminology used in JRI is different from traditional music approaches. For example, students were confused by the use of moveable "do" which was different from fixed letter names traditionally used for note identification in piano instruction. Learning to recognize duple and triple meter aurally rather than by counting the number of quarter notes in a measure also appeared to cause some initial confusion. Second, other students appeared to be uncomfortable because they had not expected to use their singing voices in an instrumental music class to the extent required in the JRI approach. Third, it was also observed that students working with the aural approach did not immediately recognize that, for example, the notation for a C major tonic triad was the same as the notation for C major dominant in F major or the C major subdominant in G major. That is not necessarily a criticism of the approach, but an indication that the students were learning the harmonic patterns as patterns with specific functions within a given key and tonality. Over time, it is likely that students would learn to recognize triads that are common to specific keys and tonalities. On several occasions in the visual treatment group classes it was observed that familiar songs (e.g., Christmas songs) were played with greater ease than unfamiliar songs. That was true even if an unfamiliar song had virtually the same rhythmic structure as a familiar song but different tonal patterns. When asked why one song was The Efficacy of Visually-based 59 easier to perform than another, students invariably responded that it was "easier to play something that they already knew than something that they did not already know." After pointing out the rhythmic similarities between certain songs, students still had more difficulty with an unfamiliar song. In Gordon's (1989) music learning model, whereas familiar songs and patterns involve discrimination aspects of audiation, (i.e., the rote recall of familiar music elements), unfamiliar songs and patterns involve inferential aspects of audiation (i.e., the generalization of familiar music elements to unfamiliar music elements). It would appear that the students may have performed familiar songs by using tonal notation as a prompt for executing the tonal sequences on their instruments while they performed the rhythm patterns based on prior knowledge of those rhythm patterns rather than using rhythm notation reading skill. Those incidents illustrate the strong effect of previously learned knowledge and mental concepts on music performance. As noted in Chapter Four, students who learned instruments with the aural approach did not begin to read notation until half way through the treatment period, yet their achievement did not significantly differ from the achievement of students who learned instruments with the visual approaches. It would be worthwhile to conduct an investigation of the effect of aural instruction on the rate at which students are able to learn tonal and rhythm notation. Moreover, a longitudinal study of the effects of aural and visual instruction methods on music reading achievement, retention, and comprehension (as measured by a standardized test like the Iowa Tests of Music Literacy. Gordon, 1991), would be worthwhile to assess any long term benefit of one instrumental music learning approach over another. As has been suggested, the type, content, and quality of the music experience that occurs prior to instrumental instruction may be an important factor in achievement. For that reason, a study of the effects of different types of primary music experiences The Efficacy of Visually-based 60 (e.g., Orff, Kodaly, Education Through Music, Music Learning Theory) on the achievement of beginning instrumental students might also be of value. That is because instrumental music is part of a music learning continuum not a beginning and end in itself. The Efficacy of Visually-based 61 References Apel, W. (1969). Harvard dictionary of music (second edition). Cambridge, M A . The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Buehlman, B. and Whitcomb, K. (1976). Sessions in sound. Dayton, O H : The Heritage Music Press. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Chicago: Gateway Edition, Henry Regnery Co. Feldstein, S. and O'Reilly, J. (1988). Yamaha band student. Van Nuys, C A : Alfred Publishing. Froseth, J.O. (1971). Using M A P scores in the instruction of beginning students in instrumental music. Journal of Research in Music Education. 19(1). 98-105. Gordon, E. E. (1986). Primary measures of music audiation and the intermediate measures of music audiation. Chicago: G.I. A . Publications. Gordon, E . E. (1987). The nature, description, measurement, and evaluation of music aptitudes (English Edition). Chicago: G.I .A. Publications. Gordon, E. E. (1989). Learning sequences in music, skill, content, and patterns. A music learning theory. Chicago: G.I .A. Publications. Gordon, E. E. (1990). A music learning theory for newborn and young children. Chicago: G.I .A. Publications. Gordon, E .E . (1991). Iowa tests of music literacy (rev. ed.). Chicago: G.I .A. Publications. Gouzouasis, P. (1991). A progressive developmental approach to the music education of preschool children. Canadian Music Educator. 32(3), 45-53. Gouzouasis, P. (1993). An investigation of the musical abilities of Canadian children of various ethnic backgrounds. Canadian Music Educator. 34(5), 31-34. Grunow, R. F. and Gordon, E. E. (1989). Jump right in. the instrumental series. Chicago: G.I .A. Publications. Grutzmacher, P. A . (1987). The effect of tonal pattern training on the aural perception, reading recognition, and melodic sight-reading achievement of first-year instrumental music students. Journal of Research in Music Education. 35(5). 171-181. The Efficacy of Visually-based 62 Heffernan, C. W. (1968). Teaching children to read music. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Jacobs, A . (1987). Lecture given by Arnold Jacobs at the Second International Brass Congress Indiana University, June 4, 1984. M . Dee Stewart (Ed.), Arnold Jacobs: The legacy of a master ( pp. 130-131). Northfield, IL: The Instrumentalist Publishing Co. Jenson, A . C. (1973). Learning unlimited, a complete beginning band method. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation. Kendall, M . J. (1988). Two instructional approaches to the development of aural and instrumental performance skills. Journal of Research in Music Education. 36(4), 205-219. MacKnight, C. B. (1973). The development and evaluation of tonal pattern instruction in music reading for beginning wind instrumentalists. University Microfilms International 73-14. 655. Pearson, B. (1982). Best in class. San Diego: Kjos West. Pestalozzi, J. H . (1977). How Gertrude teaches her children; Pestalozzi's educational writings. In Significant Contributions to the History of Psychology 1750-1920. Series B. Psychometrics and Educational Psychology. D. N . Robinson (Ed.), Washington: University Publications of America. Phillips, H . I. (1969). Silver Burdett Instrumental Series, vol. 1. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett. Ployhar, J. D. (1977). Band today contemporary band course. Melville, N Y : Bel win Mills . Schleuter, S. L . (1984). A sound approach to teaching instrumentalists: an application of content and learning sequences. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. Sueta, E. (1974). Ed Sueta band method. Dallas: Macie Publishing Company. Weber, F . (1962). First division band method. Melville, N Y : Belwin Mills. Whitener, W. (1983). Comparison of two approaches to teaching beginning band. Journal of Research in Music Education. 3_1, 5-13. The Efficacy of Visually-based 63 Appendix A Criterion Songs in Concert Keys M e l o d i c Reading Song #1 -iT un- t f i r y\t Hr r r ir LTM • - 1 F -m— f—=— • r » — y r 11 1 M e l o d i c Reading Son] p 5 # 2 </ 1 Lura p— 1 T r e a • tment) ff=i • — • • 1 1 * — p — i y " » r PI -)- 1 < i — 4*=t sE5 M e l o d i c Reading Song #2 ( V i s u a l Treatment) i s * rr [r r r M e l o d i c Reading Song #3 # = = f -p-p i p P p i ' , r r f 1 • r • r j r r • - p—r- p p I 9 1 i r L i 1 i • r . =M= 1 The Efficacy of Visually-based 64 Appendix B Concert Arrangements Performed by Al l Treatment Groups Feldstein, S. and O'Reilly, J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Rockin' the Blues. Alfred Publishing Co. , Inc. McGinty, A . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . This Old Band. Edmondson & McGinty, Inc. Queenwood Publications. McGinty, A . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . Windsor Overture. Edmondson & McGinty, Inc. Queenwood Publications. Sebesky, G. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Rock, Roll Row Your Boat. Melville, N Y . Belwin Mills . 


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