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The effects of dot/line and bar/line combination graphs on proficiency of search, evaluation, and choice… Forrester, Darlene Aura 1995

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THE EFFECTS OF DOT/LINE AND BAR/LINE COMBINATION GRAPHS ON PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH, EVALUATION, AND CHOICE OF GRAPHICAL FORMAT IN A POLICY DECISION CONTEXT by DARLENE AURA FORRESTER B.Sc. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1995 ®Darlene Aura Forrester, 1995 In p resen t ing this thesis in part ial fu l f i lment o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e at the Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a , 1 agree tha t t h e Library shall make it f reely available f o r re ference and s tudy. I fu r ther agree that pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f this thesis f o r scholar ly pu rposes may be g ran ted by t h e head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t or by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thesis f o r f inancial ga in shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rmiss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f W ej/ The Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a Vancouver , Canada Date V DE-6 (2788) 11 A B S T R A C T Graphs r e v e a l complex d a t a by d i s p l a y i n g answers t o q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s (Wainer, 1992). T h i s s t u d y e v a l u a t e d c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e v e r s u s d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s i n terms o f p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e s e t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s . The f o r m a t s were e x p l o r e d f o r p r o f i c i e n c y , t i me t o complete, and p r e f e r e n c e when p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r t y v o l u n t e e r t r u s t e e s o f h e a l t h c a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o two groups. The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t (Wainer, 1980) was examined as a p r e t e s t f o r g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . N e i t h e r g r a p h i c a c y , e d u c a t i o n , s e r v i c e on a board, o r f i n a n c i a l management e x p e r i e n c e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e . Each group r e a d f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s i n two p r e s e n t a t i o n s : one i n c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e and t h e o t h e r i n c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t . The f i n d i n g s were d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The b a r / l i n e graph was found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e format f o r t h e p r o f i c i e n t s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s when i n t h e second p r e s e n t a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s e v a l u a t e d t h e f o r m a t s i n terms o f ease o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use. A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g b o t h f o r m a t s , t h e y r a t e d t h e b a r / l i n e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t r u s t e e s chose t h e c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e format f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the experiment and i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . X X I TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i Chap t e r One INTRODUCTION: 1.01 R e s e a r c h I s s u e s 1 1.02 The Problem Statement and Re s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 4 The P r i m a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 6 1.03 C o n t e x t o f the Study 6 1.04 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the I n v e s t i g a t i o n 9 Cha p t e r Two LITERATURE REVIEW 2.01 G r a p h i c a l Theory o f P r e s e n t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n 11 Three L e v e l s o f S e a r c h 12 Dot C h a r t s 14 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Bar, Dot, and L i n e Graphs 16 Com b i n a t i o n Graphs 17 The Advantages o f Reading Graphs f o r I n f o r m a t i o n 19 2.02 R e s e a r c h i n G r a p h i c a c y and Graph P r e s e n t a t i o n Formats...20 G r a p h i c a c y R e s e a r c h 2 0 Ex p e r i m e n t s i n L e v e l s of Searc h . 22 The E f f e c t s o f Format on Time i n E x p e r i m e n t s 23 F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Graph Formats 25 2.03 V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n i n I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g 25 V i s u a l C a p a c i t i e s 26 S a l i e n c e 26 The P e r c e p t i o n o f Dot C h a r t s v s Bar and L i n e Graphs..25 A n c h o r i n g . 27 M u l t i p l e Cues 29 2.04 V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h 30 V i s u a l P r e t e s t s 30 2.05 C o g n i t i v e T h e o r i e s 31 D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g I n t u i t i o n 32 Reader R e a c t i o n t o G r a p h i c a l Formats 32 i v Complex Tasks 34 E x p e r t s and E x p e r i e n c e 34 2.06 C o g n i t i v e R e s e a r c h 3 6 E x p e r t - N o v i c e R e s e a r c h 3 6 R e s e a r c h - C o n f i d e n c e i n D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 37 2.07 Summary o f t h e Review o f L i t e r a t u r e 3 8 Ch a p t e r Three METHODOLOGY 3.01 Overview 41 3.02 D e s i g n o f Study 42 H y p o t h e s i s 42 3.03 S u b j e c t s 44 R e c r u i t i n g and Consent Forms 45 3.04 P r o c e d u r e s f o r C o n d u c t i n g Each Experiment 45 3 . 05 I n s t r u m e n t s / M a t e r i a l s •.... 46 Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 47 P r e t e s t : The G r a p h i c a c y Test 48 P r e t e s t - R e c o r d i n g Time t o Complete. 54 P r e t e s t - P r e f e r e n c e R a t i n g o f f o r m a t s . 54 Background I n v e s t i g a t i o n 55 Data f o r Graphs 55 D e s i g n i n g the Graphs 56 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Experiment. 62 Q u e s t i o n s f o r measuring P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h 62 E v a l u a t i o n o f Formats 62 3.06 Data P r o c e s s i n g : 63 Data C o l l e c t i o n and R e c o r d i n g 63 E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Assignment 64 Dependent V a r i a b l e s 64 3.07 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 66 Graph One 6 6 Graph Two 67 W i t h i n S u b j e c t s 68 C o v a r i a t e s 68 V i s u a l A n a l y s i s . .69 3.08 SUMMARY OF DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 69 Cha p t e r Four RESULTS: 4.01 Demographics and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Sample: 73 Assignment t o E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s 74 4.02 Graph One - P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s 74 V (a) P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h 75 (b) Time of C o m p l e t i o n 77 (c) Format P r e f e r e n c e 79 4.03 Graph - Two C u m u l a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n 81 (a) P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h 83 (b) Time of "Completion 84 (c) Format P r e f e r e n c e 86 4.04 E v a l u a t i o n and C h o i c e o f Formats 88 4.05 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s t o examine p o s s i b l e c o v a r i a t e s . 9 0 The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t 90 P e r c e i v e d F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Graphs 92 Weighted Work, Board, E d u c a t i o n and T o t a l E x p e r i e n c e . 9 3 4.06 Summary of O b s e r v a t i o n s , W r i t t e n , and O r a l Comments ....96 4.0 7 Summary of Chapter Four 100 C h a p t e r F i v e : DISCUSSION OF RESULTS: C o n t e x t o f t h e Study 103 5.01 Main F i n d i n g s o f t h e Study 104 a) F i r s t H y p o t h e s i s 104 C o m b i n a t i o n Graphs 104 Graph c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . 107 b) Second H y p o t h e s i s 108 Measurement of P r e f e r e n c e 108 c) T h i r d H y p o t h e s i s 109 The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t 110 R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e I l l P e r c e i v e d F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h graphs 112 5.02 Unexpected f i n d i n g s 112 R e l a t i o n s h i p Comparisons 112 Open End-dots were Confused W i t h Zeros 114 A c c u r a c y o f Graphs... 114 5.03 I m p l i c a t i o n s 115 P e o p l e Need T r a i n i n g t o use graphs 115 Need t o Compare T a b u l a r 115 5.04 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 117 E f f e c t S i z e and S t a t i s t i c a l Power 117 P i l o t t e s t i n g 117 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m i n g 118 More R e s e a r c h on t h e Time of Day 119 5.05 Recommendations 119 P e r c e i v e d Speed 120 5.06 Summary of Chapter F i v e 120 v i REFERENCES: 123 GLOSSARY: 131 APPENDICES: 135 v i i LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e 1 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 44 T a b l e 2 P r e t e s t D e s i g n 54 T a b l e 3 Graph One- Mean p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h a t t h r e e l e v e l s 75 T a b l e 4 Graph One - The e f f e c t o f g r a p h i c a l format on p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h 77 T a b l e 5 Graph One - Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n a t t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s 78 T a b l e 6 Graph One - The e f f e c t of g r a p h i c a l format on t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h 79 T a b l e 7 Graph One - Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r p r e f e r e n c e o f b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e format 80 Ta b l e 8 Graph One - The e f f e c t o f g r a p h i c a l format on p r e f e r e n c e o f format 81 T a b l e 9 Graph Two - Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h a t t h r e e l e v e l s . . . . . . . . . 82 T a b l e 10 Graph Two - The e f f e c t o f g r a p h i c a l format on p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h . . . . 83 T a b l e 11 Graph Two - Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n a t t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s 84 T a b l e 12 Graph Two - The e f f e c t o f g r a p h i c a l format on t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h 85 T a b l e 13 Graph Two - Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r p r e f e r e n c e of b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e format 87 Ta b l e 14 Graph Two - P r e f e r e n c e f o r format 8 8 T a b l e 15 E v a l u a t i o n s f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . 89 V l l l T a b l e 16 C h o i c e s o f f o r m a t s f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . . . 90 T a b l e 17 C o r r e l a t i o n s between b o t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h p r e t e s t one and two . 93 T a b l e 18 C o r r e l a t i o n s between graph one and two outcome v a r i a b l e s w i t h w e i g h t e d work e x p e r i e n c e , b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e s . 95 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. A t h e o r e t i c a l model o f p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h . . . 14 F i g u r e 2. Graph 1, D o t / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n New York . 50 F i g u r e 3. Graph 1, B a r / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n New York . 51 F i g u r e 4. Graph 2, D o t / l i n e : R a i n f a l l i n San F r a n c i s c o . . 52 F i g u r e 5. Graph 2, B a r / l i n e : R a i n f a l l i n San F r a n c i s c o . . 53 F i g u r e 6. Graph One, D o t / l i n e : P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s 5 8 F i g u r e 7. Graph One, B a r / l i n e : P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s 59 F i g u r e 8. Graph Two, D o t / l i n e : C u m u l a t i v e S t r a t e g i c Review 60 F i g u r e 9. Graph Two, B a r / l i n e : C u m u l a t i v e S t r a t e g i c Review 61 F i g u r e 10. Graph One, Mean c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n s e a r c h P r o f i c i e n c y 76 F i g u r e 11. Mean e l a p s e d time f o r t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s w i t h Graph One 78 F i g u r e 12. Mean r a t i n g s o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r Graph One 80 F i g u r e 13. Mean c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h w i t h Graph Two 82 F i g u r e 14 Mean c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h w i t h Graphs One and Two 82 F i g u r e 15. Mean e l a p s e d time f o r t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s w i t h Graph Two • 85 F i g u r e 16. Time t o Complete w i t h Graphs One and Two 85 F i g u r e 17. Mean r a t i n g s of p r e f e r e n c e f o r Graph Two . . . . . 87 F i g u r e 18. P r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g w i t h Graphs One and Two . . . . 87 X F i g u r e 19. A e v a l u a t i o n o f the D o t / L i n e and B a r / L i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e experiment 8 9 F i g u r e 20. F r e q u e n c i e s o f C h o i c e o f Format f o r "Mercy H o s p i t a l " , f o r t h e exp e r i m e n t , and f o r s u b j e c t s ' o w n o r g a n i z a t i o n . 90 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o acknowledge a l l t h e encouagement and s u p p o r t I have r e c e i v e d from my dear husband, f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . I know I have d i s c o v e r e d a g r e a t d e a l from g o i n g t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s e s o f w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s and I want t o thank my committee members Dr. Nand K i s h o r , Dr. J a n e t Jamieson, and Dr. Joseph Tan f o r a l l t h e i r h e l p and d i r e c t i o n . I a p p r e c i a t e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 1 Chapter One INTRODUCTION The b a s i c problem f o r communicators o f n u m e r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s how t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t r e a d e r s u n d e r s t a n d and f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r knowledge. Graphs 1 have been s u g g e s t e d as a t o o l f o r v i s u a l i z i n g d a t a but t h e r e a r e many g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s and a p p l i c a t i o n s . C hoosing a format t h a t h i g h l i g h t s key f a c t s and t r e n d s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i n g f o r e c a s t s i s a c h a l l e n g e . T h i s s t u d y examined two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s d e s i g n e d t o p r e s e n t complex i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . 1.01 R e s e a r c h I s s u e s : There have been many comparisons of graphs f o r d e c i s i o n a c c u r a c y w i t h s i m p l e d a t a ( f o r r e v i e w s see: D e s a n c t i s , 1984; Hard, 1989; Vessey & G a l l e t t a , 1991), but t h e r e has been l i t t l e e x p l o r a t i o n of c o m b i n a t i o n g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , f o r a n a l y z i n g t r e n d s and e v a l u a t i n g f o r e c a s t s i n complex d a t a . L i n e s a r e o f t e n i n c l u d e d on o t h e r t y p e s o f graphs t o add g u i d e l i n e o r s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; however, t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n e f f e c t has not been r e c o g n i z e d . The Dot c h a r t has been su g g e s t e d as a s u p e r i o r ^•Terms p e c u l i a r t o the f i e l d which a re d e f i n e d i n the g l o s s a r y a r e u n d e r l i n e d the f i r s t time t h e y appear i n t h e t e x t . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 2 method f o r p r e s e n t i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s ( C l e v e l a n d , 1993; C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985); as y e t t h i s format has not been combined w i t h l i n e s and compared t o a c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graph, i n a p r a c t i c a l s e t t i n g . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s have t e s t e d o n l y t h e a c c u r a c y o f r e a d e r s ' a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( D a v i s , 1989; D e s a n c t i s & J a r v e n p a a , 1989), i n s t e a d o f e x a m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s on i n f o r m a t i o n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use i n the p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s . The e f f e c t s o f f o r m a t s on making d e c i s i o n s have been r e s e a r c h e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s (Hard, 1989; Ja r v e n p a a , 1990), but t h e r e has been i n a d e q u a t e measurement o f use and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h g r a p h f o r m a t s i n t h e f i e l d . The q u e s t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r one g r a p h i c a l format remains u n r e s o l v e d . R e s e a r c h s u b j e c t s have u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y one format and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s were l o o k i n g f o r s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s o f r a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample s i z e s and l i m i t e d i n s t r u m e n t s (Jarvenpaa, 1986) . When s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e b o t h f o r m a t s i n a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c o n t e x t , and r a t e t h e s e f o r m a t s on s e v e r a l a s p e c t s , t h e i r judgement and c h o i c e s h o u l d be c l e a r e r t o them and more m e a n i n g f u l t o format d e s i g n e r s . I mportant i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s need t o be measured and a c c o u n t e d f o r i n g r a p h i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s . U s i n g measures o f B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 3 g r a p h i c a c y and e x p e r i e n c e as c o v a r i a t e s c o u l d remove some p r e d i c t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and g i v e a more p r e c i s e measure of t h e e f f e c t s o f the g r a p h i c a l format. When comparing g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , r e s e a r c h e r s have p r e t e s t e d v i s u a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s , a component of g r a p h i c a c y , but not t h e b a s i c a b i l i t y t o r e a d and u n d e r s t a n d graphs ( B a r f i e l d & R o b l e s s , 1989; Brown, 1992; Head & Moore, 1991; Vessey & G a l l e t t a , 1991). There has been some work done w i t h c h i l d r e n t o t e s t a b a s i c l e v e l o f g r a p h i c r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and t o measure the g r a p h i c a t e age, but t h i s has not been extended t o a d u l t s (Sofo, 1985; Wainer, 1980). R e a d i n g w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g means a c t i v e l y r e l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o background knowledge and j u d g i n g the w r i t e r ' s message ( H i e b e r t , 1991). I n e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g graphed f i n a n c i a l d a t a , e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g i n f i n a n c i a l management have been measured, but not t r e a t e d as a c o v a r i a t e , (Hard, 1989; J a r v e n p a a , 1986). P r i o r knowledge would improve r e a d e r s ' v i s u a l s e a r c h by h e l p i n g them t o a n t i c i p a t e what t o l o o k f o r , t o s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l , and t o group symbols i n t o m e a n i n g f u l chunks (Winn, 1993). T h e r e f o r e , background knowledge of the s u b j e c t a r e a s h o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r when t e s t i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g r a p h i c message. To summarize, r e s e a r c h i s needed on p r e s e n t i n g complex d a t a i n new c o m b i n a t i o n s o f graph fo r m a t s w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f g r a p h i c a c y and e x p e r i e n c e . S t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f g r a p h i c a l format on the comprehension of d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s i n q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n a B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 4 n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . 1.02 The Problem Statement and R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s : The problem t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e d was how t o improve t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . I compared two c o m b i n a t i o n s o f graph f o r m a t s f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o summarize and o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n t o examine i f t h e r e was more u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n an eye-view and i f memory and e x p e r i e n c e c a p a b i l i t i e s were expanded. I t was i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d out i f co m b i n i n g graph d e s i g n s would s u c c e s s f u l l y b l e n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d t o do t , b a r o r l i n e graphs ( C l e v e l a n d , 1993; C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985; Tan & Benbasat, 1990). Readers s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n s t a n t l y g r a s p s i n g l e d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s from i n f o r m a t i o n as i t i s p r e s e n t e d (Wainer, 1982, 1992). To t e s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f knowledge t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s i n c l u d e d second and t h i r d l e v e l c o g n i t i v e t h i n k i n g as w e l l as s i m p l e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d a t a v a l u e s (Royer, C i s e r o , & C a r l o , 1993; Wainer, 1992). E x p e r i e n c e was e x p e c t e d t o a f f e c t a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o s e a r c h f o r and use i n f o r m a t i o n . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was e x p l o r e d as a means t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r e - e x p e r i m e n t r e a d i n g l e v e l o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on e d u c a t i o n , employment background i n f i n a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e on a board. These a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 5 were t e s t e d f o r s u i t a b i l i t y as c o v a r i a t e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s . T h i s was an e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f the e f f e c t s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on t h e e f f i c i e n t use o f i n f o r m a t i o n . E f f i c i e n c y assumes maximum communication w i t h minimum time and e f f o r t . The s u b j e c t s were g i v e n two s e t s o f d a t a : one f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t i n a b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format and t h e o t h e r f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t i n a d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t . W i t h each format, t h e y answered q u e s t i o n s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y , i n t e r m e d i a t e , and comprehensive s e a r c h l e v e l s . The f o r m a t s were compared f o r the p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f s e a r c h e s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f o r e c a s t e d outcomes. S u b j e c t s n o t e d t h e time when t h e y s t a r t e d and ended each l e v e l o f s e a r c h and t h e t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n , o r d u r a t i o n o f time spent w i t h t h e two f o r m a t s , were compared. They r a t e d t h e f o r m a t s f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and s u i t a b i l i t y t o i n f o r m a t i o n s e a r c h a f t e r r e s p o n d i n g t o q u e s t i o n s w i t h each g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t , and, i n c o n c l u s i o n , completed an a t t i t u d e s u r v e y on b o t h t y p e s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . F i n a l l y , s u b j e c t s were asked t o g i v e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a g r a p h i c a l format f o r t h e experiment and f o r t h e f u t u r e m o n i t o r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n . Dependent v a r i a b l e s : a. P r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f o r e c a s t e d outcomes. b. Time t o complete each of t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 6 c. P r e f e r e n c e f o r format. Independent v a r i a b l e : H o s p i t a l monthly f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s p r e s e n t e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e graphs. C o v a r i a t e s : G r a p h i c a c y and e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l , and t r u s t e e s h i p e x p e r i e n c e . The P r i m a r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s : 1. What a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n graphs on p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s t o u n d e r s t a n d f o r e c a s t s ? 2. I n a f i e l d s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h format i s p r e f e r r e d , b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n graphs? 3. Can t h e e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a p h i c a c y and e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l o r t r u s t e e s h i p e x p e r i e n c e be c o n t r o l l e d i n e x p e r i m e n t s measuring r e a d e r s ' p r o f i c i e n c y o r t i m e t o complete s e a r c h e s o f g r a p h i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n ? B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 7 1.03 C o n t e x t o f t h e Study: T h i s e xperiment was conducted i n a h e a l t h c a r e s e t t i n g w i t h s u b j e c t s who were members of a b o a r d of t r u s t e e s . One o f t h e c r u c i a l problems f a c i n g h e a l t h c a r e i s the communication o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o l a y b oards. Umbdenstock, Hageman, & Amundson (1990) emphasize t h e need o f h o s p i t a l F i n a n c i a l Committees t o u n d e r s t a n d the v a s t amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n them. The s u c c e s s f u l b o a r d has t o marry r e s o u r c e management w i t h program s e r v i c e s t o p r o v i d e q u a l i t y c a r e . Boards must en s u r e t h a t t h e r e a r e s u i t a b l e m o n i t o r i n g and r e p o r t i n g systems i n p l a c e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n , management, and development o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s ( B r i t i s h Columbia H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1991). However, t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s l a c k of r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h on ways t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e a l t h c a r e . Informed p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t r u s t e e s s h o u l d be r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a c o n c i s e , o r g a n i z e d format r e a d y f o r t h e i r use ( C a r v e r , 1989; Canadian Comprehensive A u d i t i n g F o u n d a t i o n , 1987; D r u c k e r , 1989). C a r v e r (1989) a d v i s e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s e d f o r comparisons w i t h p o l i c y -b ased c r i t e r i a , such as the budget. so t h a t a l l t r u s t e e s can judge management performance a t a g l a n c e . I n f o r m a t i o n systems and communication t h e o r i e s suggest a graph format might improve r e a d e r s 1 u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t r e n d s because graphs p r e s e n t d a t a w i t h o r d e r and arrangement. Umbdenstock e t a l . (1990) recommend u s i n g more g r a p h i c s i n r e p o r t i n g t o the b o a r d i n f i n a n c i a l and s e r v i c e B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 8 u t i l i z a t i o n a r e a s . At p r e s e n t , t a b l e s a r e used e x t e n s i v e l y t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o b o a r d members i n Canadian h o s p i t a l s . Members of Boards of T r u s t e e s are g i v e n f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n e v e r y month t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o h e l p them govern our p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s but t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s not summarized t o c l e a r l y show t r e n d s and p r e d i c t i o n s ( B r i t i s h Columbia H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1991; Canadian Comprehensive A u d i t i n g F o u n d a t i o n , 1987). I n s t e a d , many non-p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s g i v e t r u s t e e s t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s g i v e n t o management (C a r v e r , 1989). C u r r e n t l y , h o s p i t a l Boards ar e g i v e n f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n two documents: the b a l a n c e sheet and t h e statement of Revenue and Expense. S i x h o s p i t a l s s u r v e y e d gave t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t a b u l a r form f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d a c c o u n t i n g p r o c e d u r e s (see Appendix A.9. and Monnery, 1993) . Graphs a r e r o u t i n e l y used i n many m e d i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , f o r example, m o n i t o r i n g h e a r t - r a t e and o t h e r v i t a l s i g n s . A few h o s p i t a l s use graphs t o show s i m p l e census s t a t i s t i c s l i k e w a i t i n g l i s t s o r p a t i e n t days (Appendix 9 and Monnery, 1993) . T h i s e xperiment took a c t u a l d a t a from one month's f i n a n c i a l packages g i v e n t o r e a l b o a r d members and p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e g raphs. The t o t a l s from th e f i n a n c i a l t a b l e s were rounded t o s i m p l i f y t h e numbers and much o f t h e management d e t a i l s were o m i t t e d . The key components o f t h e r e p o r t t h a t show t r e n d s and p r e d i c t e d outcomes were p r e s e n t e d i n t h e g r a p h s : revenue and expense t o t a l s w i t h p a t i e n t r e v e n u e s , s a l a r y expenses and budget t o t a l s . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 9 The d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Boards of T r u s t e e s e x p e r i e n c e i n g o v e r n i n g and r e l a t i n g monthly r e p o r t s t o t h e d e p l e t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s might be s o l v e d by s h i f t i n g t h e emphasis from the a c c u r a c y o f t a b l e s t o f o r m a t s t h a t h i g h l i g h t e x c e p t i o n s and t r e n d s ( B o u l t o n , 1978; B r i t i s h Columbia H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1991; Y a t e s , 1985) . By e x a m i n i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r y e a r - t o - d a t e compared t o f o r e c a s t e d y e a r - e n d b a l a n c e s , T r u s t e e s would be a b l e t o m o n i t o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r budget (The Board D o c t o r , 1991). C o m b i n a t i o n graphs s h o u l d a s s i s t memory by showing revenues and expenses o v e r t i m e , i n c l u d i n g b o u n d a r i e s such as t h e budget, as w e l l as showing th e t r e n d s i n key components. 1.04 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n : The outcome o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l e x t e n d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s by t e s t i n g w h i c h o f t h e s e new g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s promotes th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n c e p t s o f q u a n t i t y and management of r e s o u r c e s . P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h e o r y s u g g e s t s o r g a n i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m u l t i p l e cues i n c r e a s e t h e r e a d e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( B r a n s f o r d & S t e i n , 1984; E i n h o r n & H o g a r t h , 1981; G i c k , 1986). N o v i c e o r l a y i n d i v i d u a l s need a i d s t o judge t h e r e l a t i v e i mportance o f amounts and t o o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g what i s m i s s i n g , b e f o r e making d e c i s i o n s . I b e l i e v e graphs w i l l show the c o n c e p t s o f q u a n t i t y B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 10 and d e p l e t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s c l e a r l y and more c o n c i s e l y t h a n pages o f management f i n a n c i a l t a b l e s . The f i n d i n g s from t h i s p r a c t i c a l s e t t i n g may suggest changes i n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s i n h o s p i t a l s o r o t h e r p u b l i c l y funded o r g a n i z a t i o n s . M o n i t o r i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s c o v e r i n g t r e n d s and i n f e r r i n g v a l i d i t y of f o r e c a s t s i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l b o a r d members. I n our p r e s e n t economy, because l e s s money i s a v a i l a b l e f o r government funded i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t Board Members r e c o g n i z e and q u i c k l y e v a l u a t e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s when d e t e r m i n i n g f i s c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . F o r s o c i e t y ' s b e n e f i t we must be c e r t a i n g o v e r n i n g boards a r e g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n i n an improved d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r m a t . C h a p t e r Two r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h g i v e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and advantages o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r a p h c o m b i n a t i o n s . V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s t h a t form the b a s i s f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the experiment a r e d i s c u s s e d . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 11 Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW I n t h i s c h a p t e r , f i r s t t h e o r i e s and t h e n r e c e n t r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r i n g graphs, p e r c e p t i o n , and c o g n i t i o n w i l l be r e v i e w e d as t h e y a p p l y t o i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f format on t h e l e v e l s of s e a r c h s t r e s s t h e need t o s e p a r a t e t h e t a s k s f o r measuring the dependant v a r i a b l e s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d o t , b a r , and l i n e graphs g i v e a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e two e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m a t s . P e r c e p t i o n t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g r e a d e r s ' a d a p t a t i o n t o anchors and s a l i e n c e form p a r t o f our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the d e c o d i n g o f f o r m a t s . C o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s e x p l a i n the s t r a t e g i e s used t o s e t up a mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e problem and how graphs communicate i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p r i o r knowledge, time t o c o m p l e t e , and c o n f i d e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g suggest i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c h o o s i n g a format. There i s a f o u n d a t i o n o f knowledge l e a d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t c o n c e r n f o r s t u d y i n g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , e f f i c i e n t use, and a c c e p t a n c e o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . 2.01 G r a p h i c a l Theory of I n f o r m a t i o n P r e s e n t a t i o n : The t h e o r i e s t h a t e x p l a i n how graphs p r e s e n t complex i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r c h o o s i n g the two e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m a t s . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 12 G r a p h i c a l p a t t e r n s d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o f i n d d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s . S u c c e s s f u l graphs m i r r o r our m ental image o f the problem. F u r t h e r s t u d y i s needed t o compare the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f new graph t y p e s . Three L e v e l s o f S e a r c h : B e f o r e s e l e c t i n g a format t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n , we must u n d e r s t a n d t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n s e a r c h . Wainer (1992) combined th e t h i n k i n g of P i e r c e (1891) and B e r t i n (1983) t o e x p l a i n t h a t graphs c o u l d answer q u e s t i o n s a t t h r e e l e v e l s . Each l e v e l cannot be c o n s t r u c t e d from, o r reduced t o , a l o w e r one and we have no need f o r a concept of " f o u r t h n e s s " ( P i e r c e , 1981). At t h e f i r s t l e v e l , r e a d e r s conduct an e l e m e n t a r y s e a r c h f o r s i m p l e d a t a e x t r a c t i o n ; a t the second, o r i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l , t h e y examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s ; a t t h e t h i r d , o r o v e r a l l l e v e l o f s e a r c h , r e a d e r s make a comprehensive s t u d y t o compare t r e n d s and see g r o u p i n g s . S e p a r a t i n g the t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h makes i t e a s i e r t o c o n s t r u c t t e s t s o f g r a p h i c a c y and u n d e r s t a n d w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f g r a p h i c a c y we a r e measuring (Wainer, 1992) . A t e s t o f an i n f o r m a t i o n format s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l t h r e e l e v e l s , because r e a d e r s need t o f i n d answers at t h e t h r e e l e v e l s t o comprehend complex i n f o r m a t i o n (Anderson, 1982; C a m p b e l l , 1988; G u t h r i e , Weber, & Kimmerly, 1993). A format would be u n s u c c e s s f u l i n showing complex d a t a i f any l e v e l was l e f t out o r p o o r l y d i s p l a y e d . For f i r s t l e v e l s e a r c h e s i t i s not n e c e s s a r y B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e .13 t o decode p r e c i s e , minute v a l u e s but the s c a l e s h o u l d g i v e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e amounts, and the r e a d e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o decode q u a n t i t i e s t o d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s i n t h e d a t a . I n a t e s t o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r s e a r c h e s a t t h e second l e v e l , we s h o u l d not r e q u i r e r e a d e r s t o do c o m p l i c a t e d c o m p u t a t i o n s w i t h a c q u i r e d v a l u e s ; the g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e and symbols s h o u l d g i v e an a c c u r a t e i m p r e s s i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e elements graphed. F o r t h i r d l e v e l s e a r c h e s t h e r e s h o u l d be no need t o m e n t a l l y r e s t r u c t u r e the i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e v e a l t r e n d s . Changes i n t h e l e v e l s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s o v e r time s h o u l d be e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d . P r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h i s a measure o f how w e l l g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s can be r e a d t o a s s e s s complex d a t a . We do not know t o what e x t e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n s of the symbol systems o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s a f f e c t the r e a d e r s ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f d e t a i l s o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n f i g u r a t i o n (Winn, 1993). T h i s s t u d y compared two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , p r e s e n t i n g the same i n f o r m a t i o n , by a s k i n g r e a d e r s t o answer q u e s t i o n s a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . L e v e l One: Can t h e y see the d e t a i l o f one v a l u e and r e a d t h e s c a l e a c c u r a t e l y ? Are t h e d a t a p o i n t s e a s i l y c o n n e c t e d t o the component l a b e l s ? L e v e l Two: Can t h e y compare two e n t i t i e s t o d e t e c t t h e s i z e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s ? Can t h e magnitude o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e be d e t e r m i n e d v i s u a l l y ? Bar/line vs do t / l i n e 14 Level Three: Can they note how the e n t i t i e s vary over time and compare these lev e l s to guidelines or s t a t i s t i c s ? Can they reach conclusions about the whole picture? G R A P H I C A L F O R M A T S - P R O V I D E I N F O R M A T I O N I N : R E A D E R S U N D E R S T A N D & U S E I N F O R M A T I O N B Y : D E T A I L S R E L A T I O N S H I P S T R E N D S P E R C E I V I N G E N V I S I O N I N G E V A L U A T I N G I F T H E R E I S A M A T C H L E A R N I N G R E S U L T S Figure 1. A Theoretical model of p r o f i c i e n c y of search. The meta-analysis concerning the effects of formats on decision-making performance by Schaubroeck and Murlidhar (1991) discourages further comparative studies of tables versus graphs. A comparison of dot/line versus bar/line should increase our knowledge of the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t graphical formats on presenting information. Dot Charts: Cleveland (1993) maintained that v i s u a l i z a t i o n was c r i t i c a l to data analysis and he was cert a i n that one t o o l , the dot chart, led to e f f i c i e n t , accurate v i s u a l decoding. He reported that the B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 15 dot c h a r t gave i n s i g h t s i n t o d a t a w h i c h were not ap p a r e n t when u s i n g s t a t i s t i c s t o a s s e s s l i n e a r i t y because t h e s t a t i s t i c s suspended t h e use o f p r i o r knowledge. The dot c h a r t p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and the p a t t e r n s i n the d a t a a l l o w e d i n f e r e n c e s t o be drawn. C l e v e l a n d wrote t h a t the dot c h a r t gave him a more p o w e r f u l s u m m a r i z a t i o n o f d a t a . I n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s i n g e r s ' h e i g h t t o t h e i r v o i c e p a r t , he f e l t t h e dot c h a r t improved t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r a h i s t o g r a m u s i n g b a r s . "The f i n a l r e s u l t i s a c o n v i n c i n g , q u a n t i f i e d p i c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e i g h t and p i t c h i n t e r v a l . " ( C l e v e l a n d , 1993, p. 4 1 ) . When s t a t i s t i c i a n s used two-way t a b l e s t o r e c o r d and examine b a r l e y c r o p y i e l d s , t h e y m i s s e d i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n s made apparent by the use o f dot c h a r t s . I n C l e v e l a n d ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e same d a t a , m u l t i p l e dot c h a r t s p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s t r u c t u r e d r e p o r t t h a t r e v e a l e d the p a t t e r n s i n t h e d a t a . "The p o v e r t y o f t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not a l l o w even an e x c e p t i o n a l d a t a a n a l y s t t o see the p a t t e r n i n t h e r e v e r s a l t h a t t r i g g e r s s u s p i c i o n . V i s u a l i z a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . T o o l s M a t t e r . " ( C l e v e l a n d , 1993, p. 340). What i s a dot c h a r t ? A dot c h a r t i s a new g r a p h i c a l format t h a t B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 16 uses d o t t e d l i n e s , a s e r i e s o f p r i n t e d p e r i o d s t h a t end i n a l a r g e r c i r c l e a t the d a t a p o i n t ( C l e v e l a n d , 1993; C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985). Examples of the dot c h a r t s used i n the' e x p e r i m e n t appear i n F i g u r e s 2, 4, 6, and 8. A dot c h a r t r e s e m b l e s a b a r graph, but u n l i k e b a r graphs the l i n e o f p e r i o d s does not v a r y i n w i d t h o r c a r r y s h a d i n g , c o l o u r o r h a t c h i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e e n t i t i e s . The rows of d o t t e d l i n e s b e g i n a t t h e l e f t edge of t h e graph, one row f o r each v a r i a b l e l a b e l . The f i n a l c i r c l e may be open, o r f i l l e d i n , t o r e p r e s e n t two d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s . Dot c h a r t s f o l l o w t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h a t o r d e r e d v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e g o i n g from l e f t t o r i g h t on the h o r i z o n t a l s c a l e and from bottom t o t o p on t h e v e r t i c a l s c a l e . The d o t t e d l i n e s v i s u a l l y c onnect a graphed v a l u e w i t h i t s name o r l a b e l . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Bar. Dot and L i n e Graphs: Tan and Benbasat (1990) p r e d i c t e d t h a t i f the a n c h o r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from t h e i r graph and t a s k taxonomies a r e matched, performance would be f a c i l i t a t e d . The a n c h o r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s i m p l e b a r graphs s u i t e l e m e n t a r y a c q u i s i t i o n t a s k s , where r e a d e r s anchor f i r s t on a x i s l a b e l s t o d i r e c t t h e i r , s e a r c h . Dot g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s s h o u l d e x h i b i t s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s because each d o t t e d l i n e a l s o b e g i n s a t the l a b e l on t h e a x i s . Dot B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 17 g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , because t h e y a l s o emphasize d a t a p o i n t s may e x h i b i t some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o s c a t t e r p l o t s , and t h e y may g i v e moderate a i d t o t h e comprehension o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s . The s e q u e n t i a l a n c h o r i n g on d a t a p o i n t s c o n n e c t e d i n a s e r i e s , w h i c h i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l i n e g r a phs, f a c i l i t a t e s t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f comprehensive r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s . The elements o f b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n graphs show complementary and c o i n c i d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o m b i n a t i o n Graphs: How t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g used and the t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r e s e n t e d o r q u e s t i o n e d a f f e c t s the c h o i c e o f g r a p h (Macdonald-Ross, 1977). Graphs a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r communication o r a n a l y s i s purposes ( K o s s l y n , 1989). Bar graphs a r e u s e f u l f o r making s t a t i c c o mparisons; l i n e graphs a r e s u p e r i o r f o r dynamic comparisons (Wright, 1977). Simcox (1984) e x p l a i n s t h a t we a r e bi a s e d " t o l o o k a t the h e i g h t and s l o p e o f l i n e s ; t h i s makes t r e n d and l e v e l i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y n o t i c e a b l e . Bar c h a r t s show d i s c r e t e a r e a s f o r each segment o f i n f o r m a t i o n and can be sub-d i v i d e d i n t o d i v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e make-up o f t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y ( W i l d b u r , 1989). Golen and L i n n (1985) suggest t h a t i n B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 18 b u s i n e s s r e p o r t i n g , f o r i t e m comparisons, b a r graphs a r e b e s t , whereas f o r time comparisons, l i n e g raph a r e more s u i t a b l e . Dot c h a r t s have been used t o p r e s e n t s c i e n t i f i c d a t a f o r v i s u a l a n a l y s i s but have not been i n c l u d e d i n p r e v i o u s r e v i e w s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Tan & Benbasat (1990) s u g g e s t e d t h a t composite d e s i g n s would combine t h e e l e m e n t a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h graph t y p e s merged. C o m b i n a t i o n graphs have not been e x p l o r e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and D e s a n c t i s (1984) c a u t i o n s t h a t s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s p l a y s may have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on u s e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d e c i s i o n -making. A c o m b i n a t i o n graph s h o u l d improve the e f f i c i e n c y o f p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( H i g g i n s , 1989). P a t t e r n s p r e s e n t e d by complex graphs e x t e n d the meaning i n a p e r s o n ' s immediate v i s i o n o r "eye-v i e w " (Dukes, 1976; Gross 1990). G r a p h i c a l d i s p l a y s s h o u l d encourage t h e eye t o compare d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s o f d a t a ( T u f t e , 1983). One way t o add i n f o r m a t i o n t o graphs i s t o merge two g r a p h t y p e s t o g e t h e r . G r a p h i c communicative power can be enhanced by the c o m b i n a t i o n o f graphs i n a s i n g l e p r e s e n t a t i o n (Gross, 1990) . W i t h p r e s e n t computer s o f t w a r e , l i n e s showing t r e n d and l e v e l i n f o r m a t i o n can be merged w i t h b a r s o r d o t t e d B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 19 l i n e s t h a t show i t e m comparisons o r d i f f e r e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n . L i n e s can be i n c l u d e d i n graphs t o show summary s t a t i s t i c s , s u ch as a v e r a g e s , o r maximum l e v e l s , so t h a t r e a d e r s do not have t o compute o r remember t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s when j u d g i n g q u a n t i t i e s . Connected l i n e s can be used t o show the t r e n d s o f components of t h e t o t a l i t e m s b e i n g compared. Merged graphs r e v e a l new p a t t e r n s i n t h e d a t a when t h e y combine d e t a i l , t r e n d , and r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n c e p t s . K o s s l y n (1985) s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f g r a p h t y p e , g r a p h i c e l e m e n t s , and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s was a c r i t i c a l f i r s t s t e p i n t h e comprehension p r o c e s s . L i n e and b a r graphs a r e t h e most common i n p r i n t ; a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two s h o u l d be an e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e f o r m a t , however, t h e r e has been no r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d on how p e o p l e r e a c t t o dot g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s combined w i t h l i n e s . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h compares the e f f e c t s when the i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e o r b a r / l i n e f o r m a t . The Advantages of Reading Graphs f o r I n f o r m a t i o n : T u f t e d e c l a r e d " G r a p h i c a l e x c e l l e n c e i s t h a t w h i c h g i v e s t h e v i e w e r t h e g r e a t e s t number of i d e a s i n t h e s h o r t e s t t i m e w i t h t h e l e a s t i n k i n t h e s m a l l e s t space" ( T u f t e , 1983, p. 5 1 ) . I n h i s r e v i e w o f g r a p h i c l i t e r a c y , Sofo (1985) r e a l i z e d t h a t w o r k e r s used r e a d i n g - t o - d o s k i l l s , where i n f o r m a t i o n was r e a d and used B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 20 d i r e c t l y from s p a t i a l d i s p l a y w i t h o u t b e i n g memorized. He s u g g e s t e d one can l e a r n by eye as w e l l as one can l e a r n by e a r , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t t r a n s l a t i n g l e a r n i n g i n t o v e r b a l o r word t e x t . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n r e a d e r s o f graphs, who a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s p a t i a l sense, c o u l d use i t d i r e c t l y t o r e l a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a n t i t i e s . B a r s of c e r t a i n h e i g h t s o r l i n e s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s would be d i r e c t l y compared. The i n f o r m a t i o n would not be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o numbers b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s o f q u a n t i t y a r e made, and t h e c o n c l u s i o n would be h e l d i n terms of p e r c e i v e d amounts. T h i s m ental image would a l l o w g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o be i m m e d i a t e l y compared and i n c o r p o r a t e d . 2.02 R e s e a r c h i n G r a p h i c a c y and Graph P r e s e n t a t i o n Formats: R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a p h i c r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o v e r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t a s k s form a b a s i s f o r t h e methodology used i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t . T i m i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t s , and e r r o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s suggest l i n k s t o c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s o f e x p e r t i s e . G r a p h i c a c y R e s e a r c h : I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d graphs s h o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d i n e x p e r i m e n t s s t u d y i n g the use o f graphs f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Hard (1989) d i s c o v e r e d p e r c e i v e d g r a p h i c a l knowledge was i n a d e q u a t e f o r j u d g i n g g r a p h i c a l p erformance i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n her e x p e r i m e n t , t h e s e l f -B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 21 r a t i n g o f . g r a p h i c a l knowledge by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s d i d not c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s ; s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h s e l f -r a t i n g s d i d e q u a l l y w e l l w i t h t a b l e s o r graphs. A p r e t e s t o f b o t h f o r m a t s s h o u l d g i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n o f b a s i c a b i l i t y (Hard, 1989). T h i s experiment r e p e a t e d the same s e l f - r a t i n g t o o l t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e s u l t s were d i f f e r e n t when h e a l t h c a r e t r u s t e e s r a t e d t h e i r p r e - e x p e r i m e n t g r a p h i c a l knowledge. Wainer (1980) d e v e l o p e d a t o o l t o i n v e s t i g a t e g r a p h i c a c y i n c h i l d r e n . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t used r a i n f a l l d a t a f o r f o u r c i t i e s and a s k ed e l e m e n t a r y , i n t e r m e d i a t e , and comprehensive l e v e l q u e s t i o n s . A c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graph, a m o d i f i e d p i e c h a r t , and a t a b l e gave e q u a l r e s u l t s . Wainer (1980) found i t e m d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a s e d w i t h q u e s t i o n l e v e l and g r a p h i c a c y i n c r e a s e d w i t h age. The t e s t i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f g r a p h i c a c y w i t h a r e l i a b i l i t y o f o v e r .80 u s i n g a Rasch model ( K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n 20) and had h i g h f a c e v a l i d i t y . I t was pr o p o s e d t h a t The G r a p h i c a c y Test be used w i t h a d u l t s t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s i c l e v e l o f g r a p h i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The f a c e v a l i d i t y seemed t o s u i t t h e purpose t h a t t h i s e x p e r i m e n t r e q u i r e d . Wainer i n d i c a t e d "The t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o m i r r o r a c c u r a t e l y t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f g r a p h i c s t h a t a l i t e r a t e a d u l t would be e x p e c t e d t o d e a l w i t h i n a day-to-day e x i s t e n c e . " (Wainer, 1980 p. 337). H i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t g r a p h i c a c y i n c r e a s e d w i t h age s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h a d u l t s was i n d i c a t e d . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 22 The q u e s t i o n s t h e t e s t asks were based on p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h : "1. E l e m e n t a r y . The e x t r a c t i o n o f e x a c t i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g., how much r a i n f e l l i n F e b r u a r y i n San F r a n c i s c o ? 2. I n t e r m e d i a t e . The d e t e c t i o n o f t r e n d s , e.g., d u r i n g what season d i d t h e amount of r a i n f a l l d e c r e a s e each month? 3. Comprehensive. The comparison of whole s t r u c t u r e s , e.g., w h i c h season has t h e most r a i n ? " (Wainer, 1980 p. 332) One o f t h e graphs t e s t e d i n Wainer's experiment used b a r s f o r t h e r a i n f a l l d a t a and a l i n e t o show the r a i n f a l l a v erage. T h i s was a c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format p r e s e n t i n g s i m p l e d a t a . The f i n d i n g t h a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t f o r m a t s gave almost e q u a l r e s u l t s (Wainer, 1980) s u g g e s t e d t h a t any g r a p h i c a l format c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d and t e s t e d . I t was thought t h a t a d o t / l i n e g r a p h c o u l d be used t o p r e s e n t t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e G r a p h i c a c y T e s t would t h e n p r e t e s t g r a p h i c a c y w i t h b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m a t s . E x p e r i m e n t s i n L e v e l s of S e a r c h : I t i s c r u c i a l t h a t a l l l e v e l s o f s e a r c h be p a r t o f a c o m p a r i s o n of two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . G u t h r i e , Webber, and Kimmerly (1993) found t h e r e was a s e p a r a t e f a c t o r t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d g l o b a l o r t h i r d l e v e l s e a r c h e s w h i c h t h e y l a b e l l e d " a b s t r a c t i o n " . There were g r e a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a b i l i t y t o make g l o b a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . G l o b a l , o r l e v e l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , r e q u i r e B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 23 r e a d e r s t o a b s t r a c t o r i n t e g r a t e new i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge. I n t h e i r s t u d y w i t h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , t h e y found g l o b a l s e a r c h e s f o r t r e n d s had more e r r o r s t h a n l o c a l s e a r c h e s f o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l . L o c a l o r l e v e l one s e a r c h e s t h a t r e q u i r e d s h o r t answer r e p l i e s had l e s s room f o r e r r o r . G l o b a l s e a r c h e s , where s u b j e c t s needed t o summarize r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s gave more e r r o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n o m i s s i o n as w e l l as i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P i n k e r (1983) agreed. He d i s c o v e r e d e r r o r s , and a l s o the time t o answer, i n c r e a s e d w i t h g l o b a l q u e s t i o n s . Wainer (1993) found e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l q u e s t i o n s had a l o w e r mean d i f f i c u l t y s c o r e t h a n secondary o r t h i r d l e v e l q u e s t i o n s . Hard (1989) used s e p a r a t e t a s k s f o r each l e v e l and d e t e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between graphs and t a b l e s on two o f t h r e e t a s k s . T h i s f o l l o w e d t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h where t a s k s d e f i n e d t h e outcome and no " b e s t " format was f o u n d between s i m p l e graphs and t a b l e s ( D e s a n c t i s , 1984). Formats u s e d i n t e s t c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f p r e s e n t i n g complex d a t a a t a l l s e a r c h l e v e l s but the r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t q u e s t i o n s be s e p a r a t e d out by l e v e l . More i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between new f o r m a t s and t a s k s . The E f f e c t s o f Format on Time i n E x p e r i m e n t s : A s h o r t time spent s e a r c h i n g graphs may i n d i c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n was conveyed e f f i c i e n t l y but i t depends on t h e l e v e l o f s e a r c h ; g e n e r a l l y , second and t h i r d l e v e l s t a k e l o n g e r t h a n s i m p l e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v a l u e s . P e t e r s o n (1983) found graphs and t a b l e s B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 24 s h o r t e n e d t h e r e a d i n g time o f a n a r r a t i v e , and she measured a s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r r e a d i n g time and b e t t e r r e a d e r r e t e n t i o n w i t h t a b l e s t h a n w i t h graphs. However, her s t u d e n t s were s e a r c h i n g f o r f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n from the p r e s e n t a t i o n , so a c t u a l numbers from t a b l e s would s u i t the q u e s t i o n s more t h a n g r a p h g e n e r a l i t i e s . The more r e v e r s a l s i n t r e n d l i n e s , t h e more ti m e was used t o s t u d y graphs and t h e more i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e r e was o f l o c a l d e t a i l s ( C a r s w e l l , Emery, & Lonon, 1993). I n t h e C a r s w e l l e t a l . s t u d y , l o n g e r t i m e s r e s u l t e d i n more complete i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t h e g o a l o f t h e t a s k . P i n k e r (1983) a g r e e d t h a t q u e s t i o n s about g l o b a l p r o p e r t i e s o r a l t e r n a t i o n t o o k l o n g e r t o answer t h a n q u e s t i o n s about l o c a l p r o p e r t i e s o r c o n s i s t e n c y . From t h i s r e v i e w o f the r e s e a r c h we would e x p e c t speed o f c o m p l e t i o n t o be a f f e c t e d by the l e v e l o f s e a r c h . An i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f speed w i t h graphs i s t h a t we do not know t h e impact o f graph competency on d e c i s i o n speed ( D e s a n c t i s , 1984). E x p e r t s a r e not always f a s t e r t h a n n o v i c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t i m e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t , e x p e r t r e a d e r s , who had more p r i o r knowledge t o p r o c e s s , appeared t o t a k e l o n g e r t o r e s p o n d t o se c o n d a r y t a s k s t h a n n o v i c e r e a d e r s ( B r i t t o n & T e s s e r , 1982) . E x p e r i e n c e d managers took l e s s time t h a n n o v i c e managers t o s o l v e a p r o d u c t i o n management problem from graphs on computer but n o v i c e managers were f a s t e r t h a n e x p e r i e n c e d managers when u s i n g graphs on paper ( B a r f i e l d & R o b l e s s , 1989). There has been c o n f l i c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d r e g a r d i n g time i n e x p e r i m e n t s B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 25 w i t h g r a p h i c f o r m a t s . Time t o complete was measured as a dependent v a r i a b l e i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y as p a r t o f t h e t o t a l e f f e c t s o f e i t h e r d o t / l i n e o r b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format w i t h complex d a t a and t a s k s t h a t emphasised th e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . F a m i l i a r i t y W i t h Graph Formats: S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have p o s t u l a t e d t h a t graph r e a d e r s have t o go t h r o u g h a f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n o r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s b e f o r e t h e g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n becomes m e a n i n g f u l ( D a v i s , 1989; Hard, 1989; V e ssey & G a l l e t t a , 1991). We s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by n a i v e r e a d e r s . D e s a n c t i s & J a r v e n p a a (1985) found t h e r e i s a l e a r n i n g c u r v e w i t h the use o f graphs o v e r o n l y f i v e g raph p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The performance c u r v e f o r graphs ( i n t h e D e s a n c t i s & J a r v e n p a a experiment) c o n t i n u e d t o improve and showed no s i g n o f l e v e l l i n g o f f ( J a r v e n p a a , 1986). 2.03 V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n i n I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g : T h i s s e c t i o n r e l a t e s the c o n c e p t s o r v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n t o i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . How i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d when i t i s p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y depends on t h e r e a d e r ' s v i s u a l c a p a c i t i e s , t h e a t t e n t i o n demanded by the format and the v i s u a l cues g i v e n . Complex i n f o r m a t i o n demands complex g r a p h i c d e s i g n , l i k e c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e f o r m a t s . V i s u a l p r e t e s t s need t o r e l a t e t o the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g g r a p h s . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 26 V i s u a l C a p a c i t i e s : A c q u i s i t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n from graphs i s dependent on our v i s u a l c a p a c i t i e s . V i s u a l d e c o d i n g i s t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l f i e l d w h i c h comes w i t h o u t a p p arent mental e f f o r t and a l l o w s us t o d e t e c t g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s and a s s e s s magnitudes ( C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985). The human v i s u a l system can r e c o g n i z e l e n g t h , h e i g h t , o r i e n t a t i o n , c u r v a t u r e , shape, p a r a l l e l i s m , smoothness, and compactness o f a l i n e o r s e t o f l i n e s q u i c k l y and w i t h minimum e f f o r t ( P i n k e r , 1983). Our eyes can make 25,281 d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n a square i n c h , v a r i a t i o n s o f one p r o p e r t y can be combined w i t h v a r i a t i o n s o f o t h e r s , a l l o w i n g a s i n g l e mark t o convey a l a r g e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( T u f t e , 1983). Graphs e x p l o i t the f i r s t s t a g e o f v i s u a l p r o c e s s i n g by making t h e p a t t e r n s i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and m e a n i n g f u l . S a l i e n c e : S e n s o r y i n p u t from graphs i s i n f l u e n c e d by s i z e o r c o n t r a s t c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f e a t u r e ' s s a l i e n c e . Graphs s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t one n o t i c e s the more i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s f i r s t ( K o s s l y n , 1985). S a l i e n c e may be t h e i n t e n s i t y , f r e q u e n c y , f a m i l i a r i t y , o r g e n e r a l l y , the " s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e " r a t i o o f t h e f e a t u r e s (Tversky, 1977). The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a d i s p l a y makes some s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s more c o s t l y o r c o g n i t i v e l y e f f o r t f u l t h a n o t h e r s , so n o v i c e s may be more a f f e c t e d by s a l i e n c e (Jarvenpaa, 1990) mo d i f y v i s u a l cues. Emphasis B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 27 d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n and may The P e r c e p t i o n o f Dot C h a r t s v s . Bar and L i n e Graphs: C l e v e l a n d and M c G i l l (1985) c l a i m e d dot c h a r t s were s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s because t h e y p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s i t i o n s a l o n g a common s c a l e , t h e most a c c u r a t e l y j u d g e d a s p e c t of e l e m e n t a r y p e r c e p t i o n t a s k s i n t h e i r l i s t o f g r a p h i c r e a d i n g t a s k s . They contended t h a t dot c h a r t s d i d not ask r e a d e r s t o judge l e n g t h , a n g l e , s l o p e , a r e a , volume, d e n s i t y , c o l o u r s a t u r a t i o n , o r c o l o u r hue. They s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f t h e d o t t e d l i n e s were made l i g h t t h e y would not impose o r ob s c u r e t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s . The r e a d i n g o f b a r s graphs, on t h e o t h e r hand, i n c l u d e d judgements o f l e n g t h , a r e a , volume, and d e n s i t y as w e l l as p o s i t i o n , and c o u l d i n c l u d e c o l o u r . The r e a d i n g o f l i n e graphs demanded judgements o f l e n g t h , s l o p e , and a n g l e as w e l l as p o s i t i o n , and c o u l d i n c l u d e c o l o u r . C l e v e l a n d and M c G i l l (1985) p r o p o s e d t h a t b a r and l i n e graphs r e q u i r e d r e a d e r s t o p e r f o r m more e r r o r r i d d e n t a s k s of p e r c e p t u a l judgement t h a n dot c h a r t s . A n c h o r i n g : C o m b i n a t i o n graphs f i r s t g i v e p e r i p h e r a l anchors t o a c t as cues t o d i r e c t a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e n r e a d e r s use d a t a as a n c h o r s w i t h i n t h e graph f o r v i s u a l c o mparison. These two v i s u a l p r o c e s s e s e x p l a i n how we get i n f o r m a t i o n from g r a p h s . I n an e x p e r i m e n t , we can ask q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e r e a d e r s t o do B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 28 one l e v e l o f s e a r c h - t a s k a t a t i m e . However, we must remember t h a t t o comprehend complex d a t a r e a d e r s combine t h e s e a n c h o r i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . Tan and Benbasat (1990) e x p l a i n e d t h a t we decode i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g s p e c i f i c p a r t s o f the graph as g u i d e s , o r a n c h o r s f o r e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The d i v i s i o n s a l o n g b o t h axes a c t as a n c h o r s . Bar graphs a r e s u i t e d t o t a s k s r e q u i r i n g c o m p a r i s o n s because b a r s b e g i n a t t h e X a x i s , a l l o w i n g r e a d e r s t o a nchor on component l a b e l s and t r a c e b a r l e n g t h s t o d i s c o v e r t h e component q u a n t i t i e s . L i n e graphs a i d d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t r e n d s because the d a t a p o i n t s a c t as s e q u e n t i a l anchors f o r j u d g i n g a n g l e s and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f change. However, when comparing p r o p o r t i o n s w i t h i n the graph, a n c h o r i n g i n v o l v e s eye c o n t a c t w i t h the f i r s t q u a n t i t y and t h e n s c a n n i n g , p r o j e c t i n g o r u s i n g s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s t o e s t i m a t e v a l u e s ( S i m k i n & H a s t i e , 1987). F o r example, when comparing two b a r s we anchor on t h e t o p l e v e l o f t h e f i r s t b a r , move the eye p a r a l l e l t o t h e second b a r , match and/or scan the r e s i d u a l t o judge th e amount o f d i f f e r e n c e , t h e n p r o j e c t t o t h e Y a x i s s c a l e t o decode v a l u e s . P o i n t s on a l i n e , and s u p p o s e d l y end-dots, a r e s i m i l a r l y eyed t o decode v a l u e s . The graph i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t o o l t h a t a l l o w s comparisons of d a t a on common s c a l e s . The l o n g e r t h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r i n s p e c t i o n , the more i n t e r m e d i a t e a n c h o r s and a d j u s t m e n t s a r e used, p r o d u c i n g g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y ( S i m k i n & B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 29 H a s t i e , 1987) . M u l t i p l e Cues: G r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s p r e s e n t d a t a c ompactly, g i v i n g c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h p a s t r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d i c a t e c o n c u r r e n t , m o d e r a t i n g , o r c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e s . P r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o v e r time enhances r e p e t i t i o n of cues, compresses a l o t o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s m a l l space, and extends human judgement. When we p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n u n i t s o f time p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e , t h e r e i s a means o f comparison where d i s t a n c e i s a measure o f t i m e t r a v e l l e d . T h i s moving measurement a l l o w s a p a t t e r n t o grow o r i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r p a t t e r n s so m u l t i p l e elements can be b u i l t up s t e p - b y - s t e p and s e v e r a l l a y e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n can be combined. M u l t i - f u n c t i o n i n g g r a p h i c a l elements can e f f e c t i v e l y d i s p l a y complex, m u l t i - v a r i a t e d a t a ( T u f t e , 1983). The s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n graphs i s l i m i t e d w i t h o u t l a r g e l o s s e s i n p r e d i c t i v e a c c u r a c y , a t t e n t i o n i s h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e , and r e l i a b i l i t y o f cues i s a s s u r e d by h a v i n g m u l t i p l e measures o f t h e same cue a v a i l a b l e ( E i n h o r n & Hogarth, 1981). M u l t i p l e b a r s and l i n e s i n c r e a s e the i n f o r m a t i o n . i n t h e eye v i e w by g i v i n g numerous anchors and d a t a v a l u e s . P e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s e s d e t e c t s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , w h i l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s connect d a t a i n t o groups o f c l e a r e s t , s i m p l e s t forms (Winn, 1993). The v i s u a l shape o f p a t t e r n s i s i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and remembered even a f t e r t h e B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 30 d a t a v a l u e s a r e f o r g o t t e n (Wildbur, 1989). M u l t i p l e l i n e s show s u b - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s w i t h i n components. L i n e s encourage eye movement t o draw comparisons between r e l a t e d l e v e l s and time p e r i o d s . I t i s easy t o m e n t a l l y c o n t i n u e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o make p r e d i c t i o n s based on t h e p a t t e r n s o f p a s t t r e n d s . K i r k & H o w e l l (1983) found s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o use a l l f o u r c ases when p r e s e n t e d i n g r a p h i c form, but o n l y s e l e c t e d ones when t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n was d i s p l a y e d n u m e r i c a l l y . C o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs s h o u l d p r e s e n t a l o t o f summarized i n f o r m a t i o n . 2.04 V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h : The r e s u l t s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g graphs p o i n t out t h e need t o f i n d v i s u a l p r e t e s t s w h i c h d i s c l o s e p e r t i n e n t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . None of the p r e t e s t s used i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d p r o d u c e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . V i s u a l P r e t e s t s : V i s u a l - t y p e p r e t e s t s have not been s u c c e s s f u l i n m e a s u r i n g c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s f o r g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h ( B a r f i e l d & R o b l e s s , 1989; Brown, 1992; Head & Moore, 1991; Vessey & G a l l e t t a , 1991). B a r f i e l d and R o b l e s s (1989) used a Cube Comparison P o s t - T e s t , but found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between 3-D S p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c c u r a c y o r speed w i t h two and t h r e e -B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 31 d i m e n s i o n a l graphs. The Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t , e i t h e r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups, has been used t o i n d i c a t e a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e o f f i e l d dependence o r f i e l d independence. F i e l d i ndependent p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o p e r c e i v e an 'object as d i s t i n c t from i t s background and would be more a n a l y t i c a l t h a n f i e l d dependent p e r s o n s . Brown (1992) c o n c l u d e d t h a t g r a p h i c a i d s and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n , a f f e c t e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s c o n f i r m e d t h a t s e a r c h i n g graphs r e q u i r e s the r e a d e r t o f i n d shapes and p a t t e r n s i n the format but would not h e l p us t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . I n a s t u d y by Head and Moore (1991) th o s e who were f i e l d dependent when r e a d i n g graphs g e n e r a l l y d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e who were f i e l d i n d e p endent, and i n t h e i r e xperiment, t h i s was not a f f e c t e d by g r a p h t y p e (Head & Moore, 1991). However, h i g h e x p e r i m e n t a l s c o r e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , i n d i c a t i n g a c e i l i n g e f f e c t , may have p r e v e n t e d t h e d e t e c t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n from graphs (Head & Moore, 1991). The problems p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had i n c o n t r o l l i n g p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a b i l i t i e s prompted t r i a l s w i t h The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t . 2.05 C o g n i t i v e T h e o r i e s : C o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p e r t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use o f graphs. Graphs s h o u l d be l i k e e x p e r t mental models of t h e problem. E x p e r i e n c e i n the s u b j e c t a r e a s h o u l d be measured and used as a c o n t r o l l a b l e element of e x p e r t i s e . We want r e a d e r s t o B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 32 base t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e on how w e l l graphs a i d t h e i r i n s i g h t i n t o complex t a s k s and make them e x p e r t s a t r e a d i n g n u m e r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g I n t u i t i o n : Graphs s h o u l d g e n e r a t e a c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d s i n d a t a and promote c r e a t i v e i n s i g h t . Payne e t a l . (19 92) s u g g e s t e d i n t u i t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was a r a p i d , smooth p r o c e s s o f comparing one's image ( v a l u e s o r g o a l s ) w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e . Graphs use time and n a t u r a l n u m e r i c a l sequence t o o r d e r d a t a . T h i s arrangement of the d a t a p r e d i s p o s e s r e a d e r s t o d e t e c t s e r i e s and s e t s . Wainer (1992) s t a t e d : "We can be f o r c e d t o d i s c o v e r t h i n g s from a graph w i t h o u t knowing i n advance what we a r e l o o k i n g f o r . " (p. 14). The spaces i n graphs encourage a c t i v e and open minds t o s e a r c h , e x t e n d v i s i b l e t r e n d s , match e v i d e n c e o f components, and compare outcomes o r g o a l s (Baron, 1988). We can examine a g r a p h o f revenue and a graph o f expense, but t h e i n t e r e s t i n g comparison i s found by p u t t i n g them t o g e t h e r - i t i s t h e space between t h a t has e s s e n t i a l meaning. Graphs s h o u l d a i d i n s i g h t f u l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Reader R e a c t i o n t o G r a p h i c a l Formats: We want r e a d e r s t o base t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a g r a p h i c a l format on how w e l l t h e g r a p h i c a l type h e l p s them t o f i n d and use i n f o r m a t i o n . Anderson (1982) p r e s e n t e d the t h e o r y t h a t p r o d u c t i o n s , o r p r o c e d u r e s f o r p e r f o r m i n g a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l , were B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 33 b e s t e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o whether t h e y a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d g o a l s . Graphs s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n i n a format t h a t s h o u l d s i m p l i f y s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s f o r a n a l y z i n g d a t a . We would e x p e c t a g r a p h i c a l format t o be chosen by r e a d e r s i f i t h e l p e d them t o make d e c i s i o n s and a i d e d memory. Campbell (1991) advanced t h e t h e o r y t h a t p e o p l e chose a t a s k performance s t r a t e g y (TSP) t h a t was p e r c e i v e d t o r e q u i r e the l e a s t e f f o r t . D e s a n c t i s (1989) s u g g e s t e d t h e a d d i t i o n a l s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by graphs s h o u l d s e r v e as a cue i n r e c a l l and i n c r e a s e c o n f i d e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s . R e c a l l i n g from memory slows l e a r n i n g because i n f o r m a t i o n has t o be c o n t i n u a l l y e v a l u a t e d and matched t o g o a l s . I f a gr a p h r e a d i l y p r e s e n t s p a s t and f u t u r e t r e n d s , memory l o a d s a r e eased, and r e a d e r s a r e a b l e t o p r o c e s s a d d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and r e c o g n i z e new a l t e r n a t i v e s . Many e r r o r s and slowness i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o w o r k i n g memory e r r o r s (Anderson, 1982). Graphs p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p a c t l y , showing p a s t t r e n d s , c r e a t i n g l e s s s t r a i n on memory. M e t a c o g n i t i o n , t h e c a p a c i t y t o govern one's own l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i s l i k e l y t o be domain s p e c i f i c (Royer, C i s e r o , & C a r l o , 1993) . E n s u r i n g t h a t each t a s k r e q u i r e s a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h w i l l c o n t r o l f o r o n l y s e l e c t i n g a graph t h a t i s b e s t f o r one t y p e of q u e s t i o n . To p r e v e n t t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n b e i n g b i a s e d by t h e r e c e n c y e f f e c t o f t h e l a s t format e n c o u n t e r e d , we can p r ecede t h e c h o i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n s o f B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 34 the e x p e r i m e n t . S u b j e c t s were asked t o choose a format t h e y j u d g e d was b e s t f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s and a l s o t o s e l e c t a format f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e c h o i c e r e f l e c t s t h e b e s t format f o r t r u s t e e s o f h e a l t h c a r e and o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . Complex Tasks: Campbell (1988) s u g g e s t e d complex t a s k s p l a c e h i g h c o g n i t i v e demands i f t h e y had s e v e r a l i n t e g r a t e d elements o r u n c e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e s . Judgement t a s k s , which r e q u i r e t h e doer t o i n t e g r a t e d i v e r s e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p r e d i c t t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a f u t u r e e vent, were complex t a s k s . Complex t a s k s r e q u i r e an i n d i v i d u a l t o d e v e l o p a t a s k - p e r f o r m a n c e s t r a t e g y (Campbell, 1991). L o c a l s e a r c h e s f o r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e s e t t i n g g o a l s , s e l e c t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and i n t e g r a t i n g . G l o b a l s e a r c h e s , t o get the main i d e a , mean i d e n t i f y i n g and i n t e r r e l a t i n g a l l c a t e g o r i e s and f o r m i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s t o compare c a t e g o r i e s and g e n e r a l i z e s i m i l a r i t i e s ( G u t h r i e , Weber, & Kimmerly, 1993). T h i r d l e v e l , o v e r a l l s e a r c h e s a r e complex t a s k s . E x p e r t s and E x p e r i e n c e : W r i t e r s and g r a p h i c a l d e s i g n e r s p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t r y t o make a l l r e a d e r s e x p e r t s . E x p e r t s see d e t a i l i f t h e t a s k s e t s them up t o see i t , but t h e y g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n more a b s t r a c t l y and can answer q u e s t i o n s on i n f e r e n c e s b e t t e r t h a n B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 35 n o v i c e s . T h e i r g e n e r a l model a l l o w s s k i l f u l t h i n k e r s t o e l a b o r a t e o r change an element i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g t h e l i m i t s o f w o r k i n g memory (Adelson, 1984) . E x p e r t s s o r t and p e r f o r m a c t i v i t i e s i n l e s s time and w i t h fewer s t e p s whereas n o v i c e s a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e f e r r i n g back (Royer e t a l . , 1993). We need t o know wh i c h g r a p h i c a l format p r e s e n t s t h e r i g h t amount o f d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l , o r g a n i z e d form t o make r e a d e r s e x p e r t s . The d i f f e r e n c e we wanted t o d e t e c t between t h e two gr a p h s , e i t h e r d o t / l i n e o r b a r / l i n e , i s t h a t w h i c h makes r e a d e r s more p r o f i c i e n t , s p e e d i e r and c o n f i d e n t : i n s h o r t , e x p e r t s . The format o f t h e gr a p h s h o u l d match t h e b e s t i n t e r n a l p r o b l e m space of t h e r e a d e r . The g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l l i n one eye-view s h o u l d be e q u i v a l e n t t o the mental p i c t u r e o f t h e problem p r o d u c e d by p r o f i c i e n t c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a graph l i f t s t he burden o f memory, because p a s t t r e n d s and g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e c i s i o n s can be p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h c u r r e n t d a t a . I n a w e l l - d e s i g n e d g r a p h , t h e d a t a would be e f f i c i e n t l y o r g a n i z e d t o e q u a l e x p e r t s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e t a s k . One i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e x p e r t i s e i s a b a s i c knowledge i n the s u b j e c t a r e a . The way t o become an e x p e r t i s t o a c q u i r e c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a c t i v e l y seek l i n k a g e s between new e v i d e n c e t o knowledge t h a t i s a l r e a d y s t o r e d ( G l o v e r , Ronning, & B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 36 B r u n n i n g , 1990). E x p e r t s f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s , r e c o g n i z e adequacy o f d a t a f o r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y , and p r e d i c t p r o b a b l e consequences ( G i c k , 1986). I f we c o u l d c o n t r o l f o r t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a r e a , we would be b e t t e r a b l e t o i s o l a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f the p r e s e n t a t i o n format on t h e r e a d e r s 1 p r o f i c i e n c y . 2.06 C o g n i t i v e R e s e a r c h : We o f t e n equate e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e and c o n c l u d e t h a t b o t h w i l l l e a d t o c o n f i d e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . E x p e r t s have t o have e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e a r e a o f s t u d y . E x p e r i e n c e does a f f e c t how e x p e r t l y we s e a r c h and use i n f o r m a t i o n . S u c c e s s f u l comprehension does g i v e c o n f i d e n c e . We have some r e s e a r c h on w h i c h t o base t h e s e i d e a s but more i s needed. E x p e r t - N o v i c e R e s e a r c h : E x p e r t s have a s t o r e o f domain s p e c i f i c knowledge t h e y r e l a t e and i n t e g r a t e w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n . Egan and Swartz (1979) s t u d i e d e x p e r t and n o v i c e e l e c t r o n i c t e c h n i c i a n s . S k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n s chunked o r grouped symbols i n t o f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s and were a b l e t o r e c a l l more. The s i z e of the chunks i n c r e a s e d w i t h s t u d y t i m e . E x p e r t s i d e n t i f i e d the whole c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r y and were a b l e t o r e t r i e v e e l ements. A d e l s o n (1984) found n o v i c e s r e p r e s e n t e d problems c o n c r e t e l y and answered q u e s t i o n s about d e t a i l s b e t t e r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 37 t h a n e x p e r t s , but e x p e r t s were s u p e r i o r a t a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r making i n f e r e n c e s . P i n k e r (1983) c o n c l u d e d t h a t when gra p h r e a d e r s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h a gr a p h format and t h e t r e n d s a r e d i s p l a y e d as r e c o g n i z a b l e shapes t h e y m e n t a l l y t r a n s l a t e t h e t r e n d d i r e c t l y w i t h o u t e s t i m a t i n g p o i n t v a l u e s and c a l c u l a t i n g t h e t r e n d by numbers. R e s e a r c h - C o n f i d e n c e i n D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e were i n c o n c l u s i v e r e p o r t s as t o w h i c h format s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d as " b e s t . " F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a s u b j e c t a c t e d as a boundary o r l i m i t e r i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g (Payne & Bettman, 1992). J a r v e n p a a (1986) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a c o n d i t i o n i n g bond towards t a b l e s i n s t a n d a r d b u s i n e s s r e p o r t i n g t h a t may t a k e some time t o break down. Vessey and G a l l e t t a (1991) c o n c l u d e d t h a t problem s o l v e r s p r e f e r t o work w i t h t a b l e s r a t h e r t h a n graphs, but t h e y had o n l y MBA s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s . D e s a n c t i s and J a r v e n p a a (198 9) r e p o r t e d t h e groups showed i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r c o n f i d e n c e , i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t , between t h e f i r s t and f i f t h t r i a l s , however, t h e r e was a t r e n d f o r c o n f i d e n c e t o grow w i t h graphs ( D e s a n c t i s & J a r v e n p a a , 1989). I n p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t i n t e r v i e w s p e o p l e p r e f e r r e d graphs when t h e y gave a s p e c i f i c v i s u a l cue (D a v i s , 1989). These f i n d i n g s a l l a r e based on mean s c o r e s o f groups which e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y one format i n t h e experiment and no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. A t r u e r gauge o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f one format o v e r a n o t h e r would be shown i f s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o use and compare b o t h B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 38 f o r m a t s f o r s i m i l a r t a s k s , r a t e s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f p r e f e r e n c e , and make a f i n a l c h o i c e . 2.07 Summary o f the Review o f L i t e r a t u r e : T h e o r i e s and r e c e n t r e s e a r c h form t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u g g e s t i n g t y p e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t s , and c r i t i c a l a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The h e a l t h c a r e and g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e s uggest a f i e l d e xperiment would e x t e n d t h e l a b o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s on l e v e l s o f s e a r c h , g r a p h i c p e r c e p t i o n and the use o f graphs t o m o n i t o r i n f o r m a t i o n . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs p r e s e n t summarized m u l t i p l e cues d i f f e r e n t l y and a comparison o f t h e s e two graphs would c l e a r up some o f the c o n f u s i o n o v e r the s e l e c t i o n o f a format f o r i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y . The g r a p h i c a c y t e s t a ppears t o be a p o s s i b l e way o f c o n t r o l l i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g and u s i n g graphs. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s s u p p o r t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d s t r e s s e d the importance o f i n c l u d i n g a l l l e v e l s o f s e a r c h w i t h complex d a t a . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e was t o compare t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h shows d e t a i l s , a l l o w s c o r r e c t c o m p a r i s o ns o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t r e n d s . The d a t a f o r the graphs i n t h i s experiment were t a k e n from r e a l h o s p i t a l f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s and s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f r e a l l i f e . The B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 39 r e a d e r s were asked t o make l o c a l and g l o b a l s e a r c h e s . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t a s k s was a c h a l l e n g e t o t e s t t h e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r s u c c e s s f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e was t o t e s t r e a d e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r a format i n a f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . P r e f e r e n c e i s based on p e r c e i v e d e f f i c i e n c y . T h i s s t u d y examined many a s p e c t s o f p r e f e r e n c e by a s k i n g them t o judge the format a f t e r each use and i n a summary e v a l u a t i o n . S u b j e c t s a l s o r e c o r d e d t h e time as t h e y p r o c e e d e d t h r o u g h t h e experiment and t h i s made them aware o f e l a p s e d time but d i d not add t h e p r e s s u r e o f a t i m e d e x p e r i m e n t . Readers' c o n f i d e n c e i n a d e c i s i o n i s a r e s u l t o f f i n d i n g t h e answers t o q u e s t i o n s e a s i l y , e f f i c i e n c y , and i n t h e i r p r e f e r r e d manner. The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e was t o d i s c o v e r measures o f g r a p h i c a c y and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c o u l d reduce t h e e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and a l l o w a t r u e r comparison on the e f f e c t s o f t h e f o r m a t s . To t h i s end, t h e G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was used t o measure p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l g r a p h i c r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y , speed, and p r e f e r e n c e and t h e s e were compared t o the outcome v a r i a b l e s . E d u c a t i o n , work, and bo a r d e x p e r i e n c e were examined i n d i v i d u a l l y and as a composite c o v a r i a t e t o attempt t o c o n t r o l f o r e x p e r i e n c e as a f a c t o r i n g r a p h i c a l e x p e r t i s e . The ne x t c h a p t e r s p e c i f i e s the h y p o t h e s i s and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t h a t has d e v e l o p e d from t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and g i v e s a B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 40 d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s . The p r o c e s s e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e experiment i n c l u d i n g the s c o r i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t o measure the dependent v a r i a b l e s and samples of t h e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s used a r e g i v e n . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 41 Chapter Three METHODOLOGY 3.01 Overview: The p r o b l e m t h i s r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s e d was how t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o ensure p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s t h a t would l e a d t o an i n f o r m e d e v a l u a t i o n o f f o r e c a s t s . T h i s experiment t e s t e d combined b a r / l i n e v e r s u s combined d o t / l i n e graphs t o f o l l o w e x p l o r a t o r y work w i t h b a r v e r s u s l i n e Graphs (Tan & Benbasat, 1990) and dot c h a r t s ( C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985). E d u c a t i o n , work e x p e r i e n c e , and e x p e r i e n c e on a h e a l t h c a r e b o a r d were assembled u s i n g a background q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by Hard (1989) t o l o o k a t e x p e r i e n c e c o v a r i a t e s w i t h n o n - u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . The v a l u e o f the G r a p h i c a c y T e s t as a p r e t e s t f o r g r a p h i c a b i l i t y o f a d u l t s was e x p l o r e d as w e l l (see Wainer, 1980) . I n h e a l t h c a r e , t r u s t e e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s u r i n g t h e y a r e r e c e i v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . They approve an an n u a l budget w h i c h s e r v e s as a s t a n d a r d t o judge what has been done i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s judged from th e f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d whether a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was m a i n t a i n i n g budget e x p e c t a t i o n s , and whether the f o r e c a s t e d outcome was adequate. They were a l s o a s k ed t o r a t e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t s w i t h each use, and t o s t a t e t h e i r c h o i c e o f a format f o r t h e f u t u r e B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 42 p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . They e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h f o r m a t s i n s t r e n u o u s s e a r c h c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e t h e y chose one format o v e r the o t h e r . 3.02 D e s i g n o f t h e Study: T h i s s t u d y f o l l o w e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n u s i n g a p r e t e s t w i t h random assignment of s u b j e c t s t o groups. G r a p h i c a l f o r m a t , t h e s i n g l e e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e , was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i n t h e expe r i m e n t t o a l l o w b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t and w i t h i n - s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t (Wainer, 1980) was m o d i f i e d f o r use as a p r e t e s t t o measure a d u l t p r o f i c i e n c y o f r e a d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e two graph type's. H y p o t h e s i s : I n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b a r / l i n e v e r s u s d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s were f o r m u l a t e d : 1. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s t o u n d e r s t a n d f o r e c a s t s . 2. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on p r e f e r e n c e f o r a f o r m a t . 3. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a p h i c a c y and e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l o r b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e w i l l not a f f e c t r e a d e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 43 f o r a for m a t , p r o f i c i e n c y , o r time t o complete s e a r c h e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n b a r / l i n e of d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . When t e s t i n g t h e s e h y p o t h e s i s t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s were (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , (b) time t o complete, and (c) p r e f e r e n c e f o r format measured f o r t h e two g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h was d i v i d e d i n t o two p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t each s u b j e c t c o u l d e x p e r i e n c e b o t h f o r m a t s and g e t a complete p i c t u r e of monthly f l u c t u a t i o n s as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s i n c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s . Q u e s t i o n s were chosen t o r e f l e c t t h e c h i e f c o n cerns o f a h o s p i t a l g o v e r n i n g b o a r d when m o n i t o r i n g f i n a n c i a l d a t a : "How a r e we d o i n g ? " , and, " I s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we a r e g e t t i n g adequate t o make e v a l u a t i o n s ? " • The q u e s t i o n s t o measure the p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h and p r e f e r e n c e f o r a format a r e l i s t e d i n Appendices A.8, A.9, and A.10. R a t h e r t h a n compare two groups o f s u b j e c t s who had v i e w e d d i f f e r e n t f o r m a t s t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h a l l o w e d e v e r y s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i e n c e b o t h f o r m a t s i n s t r e n u o u s s e a r c h o v e r two g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Making o n l y minor changes i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e s c a l e o f the graphs a l l o w e d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used t w i c e . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. R e s e a r c h Design: B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 44 Ta b l e 1 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n GRAPH CONTENT GROUP (N=4 0) FORMAT COMBINATION DEPENDANT VARIABLES Periodic Totals I (n=20) II (n=20) Dot/Line Bar/Line Pro f i c i e n c y of Search Time to Complete Preference f o r Format Cumulative Totals I II Bar/Line Dot/Line Prof i c i e n c y of Search Time to Complete Preference f o r Format 3.03 S u b j e c t s : The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was b o a r d members who r e g u l a r l y m o n i t o r q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and make judgements r e g a r d i n g f o r e c a s t e d outcomes. The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y was members o f boar d s o f t r u s t e e s o f f a c i l i t i e s / a g e n c i e s i n B.C. The sample f o r the s t u d y was r e c r u i t e d from h o s p i t a l s and c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t : S t . V i n c e n t ' s H o s p i t a l , D e l t a H o s p i t a l , The Burnaby H o s p i t a l , Y o u v i l l e R e s i d e n c e , and Dogwood Lodge. The s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . B o ard members o f h o s p i t a l s and c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e u n p a i d and t h e y v o l u n t e e r e d f o r t h i s e xperiment as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , so t h a t no monetary i n c e n t i v e was n e c e s s a r y . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 45 R e c r u i t i n g and Consent forms: To r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e expe r i m e n t , t h e P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e h o s p i t a l s and c a r e f a c i l i t i e s were asked t o suggest p e o p l e from t h e i r b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s o r from t h e i r s t a f f who would f i t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n was t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s be members o f boards o f t r u s t e e s o f QUANGOS ( q u a s i autonomous non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h a t i s : s e m i - p u b l i c b o d i e s w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from, and s e n i o r a p p o i n t m e n t s made by government). T h i s was t o ensure t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s had a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the elements o f -the f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s and t h e budget r e v i e w p r o c e s s . The Board c h a i r p e r s o n s were i n f o r m e d about t h e experiment and were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . H o s p i t a l b o a r d members were se n t a l e t t e r o f i n v i t a t i o n t o t a k e p a r t i n the s t u d y and a consent form. A l l i n d i v i d u a l s who v o l u n t e e r e d were c o n t a c t e d by phone t o a r r a n g e a c o n v e n i e n t time t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I c o l l e c t e d the consent forms b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g each e x p e r i m e n t . 3.04. P r o c e d u r e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g each e x p e r i m e n t : The s e t t i n g was e i t h e r i n t h e b o a r d rooms o f t h e h e a l t h c a r e f a c i l i t i e s o r i n i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e s , where s u b j e c t s were used t o r e a d i n g r e p o r t s . Appointments were made from June t o August 1994. The appointment t i m e s v a r i e d from n i n e i n t h e morning t o s e v e n - t h i r t y a t n i g h t . I b e l i e v e t h e v a r i e t y o f t i m e s would c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e many d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t h a t b o a r d members would B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 46 n o r m a l l y r e a d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s . D u r i n g t h e experiment t h e s u b j e c t s s a t a t a t a b l e o r t h e i r desk, and I s a t d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e . I r e a d a l o u d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and the i n s t r u c t i o n s t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t s (See Appendix A . 7 ) . D u r i n g the exper i m e n t , I wrote down a l l q u e s t i o n s asked and my answers as w e l l . I t r i e d t o g i v e o n l y "yes" o r "no" answers t o t h e i r q u e s t i o n s . I used a s t o p - w a t c h i d e n t i c a l t o t h e ones g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s , and f o l l o w e d t h e s u b j e c t s i n r e c o r d i n g the t i m e s d u r i n g the expe r i m e n t . F o r each s u b j e c t , I f i l l e d i n t h e b l a n k s on a time sheet (see Appe n d i x A . 4 ) . The i n t e r - r a t e r agreement between the s u b j e c t s ' t i m i n g and mine was an average c o r r e l a t i o n o f .92. I a l s o wrote down t h e i r o r a l comments w i t h as l i t t l e d i s t r a c t i o n as p o s s i b l e . When t h e y had f i n i s h e d t h e exper i m e n t , I asked them f o r a f i n a l comment I might w r i t e down r e g a r d i n g t h e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . 3.05. I n s t r u m e n t s / M a t e r i a l s : The i n s t r u m e n t s used t o measures the v a r i a b l e s were: a) Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e b) G r a p h i c a c y Test c) Graph One - P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s d) Graph Two - Cu m u l a t i v e S t r a t e g i c Review e) E v a l u a t i o n of Formats B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 47 The m a t e r i a l s used were b o o k l e t s o f t h e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s , m e t a l pens, and i n d i v i d u a l d i g i t a l s t o p -watches. a) Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : A Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on age, sex, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , e x p e r i e n c e as b o a r d members, f i n a n c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h graphs i n a framework s i m i l a r t o Hard (1989) (See Appendices A.5 and A.14). A com p o s i t e s c o r e o f t h e s e was p l a n n e d t o be used as a c o v a r i a t e i n the a n a l y s i s t o r u l e out e x p e r i e n c e as a f a c t o r e x p l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . S u b j e c t s were asked t o c o n f i r m t h e y had normal o r c o r r e c t e d t o normal v i s i o n . E d u c a t i o n was s c o r e d out o f a p o s s i b l e t o t a l o f 11, by a d d i n g 1 f o r each l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l t o d o c t o r a t e degree and 1 f o r each f i n a n c i a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s p e c i a l i t y . F o r example, a B a c h e l o r Degree i n B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n would add 2 t o t h e t o t a l s c o r e . Work e x p e r i e n c e was measured by y e a r s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l r e l a t e d work e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g , f o r a p o s s i b l e w e i g h t e d t o t a l o f 11. The s c o r i n g o f y e a r s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work was as f o l l o w s : 1-5 y e a r s = 1, 6-17 y e a r s = 2, 18-25 y e a r s = 3, and o v e r 25 y e a r s = 4; y e a r s o f f i n a n c i a l work and y e a r s of s e r v i c e on a b o a r d were s c o r e d s i m i l a r l y . E x p e r i e n c e as a t r u s t e e was computed by a d d i n g w e i g h t i n g s f o r t h e y e a r s o f s e r v i c e as a t r u s t e e and t h e e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s h e l d f o r a p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 11. The s c o r i n g B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 48 f o r e x e c u t i v e e x p e r i e n c e was: f i n a n c e committee = 1, t r e a s u r e r = 2, and chairman = 3 . I t was s u r m i s e d t h a t t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s o f e x p e r i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n , work, and b o a r d s e r v i c e would c o n t r i b u t e e q u a l l y t o a v a r i a b l e o f t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e . The h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e w e i g h t e d s c o r e f o r t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e was 33. b) P r e t e s t : The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t d e v e l o p e d by Wainer (1980) was used t o t e s t each s u b j e c t ' s p r o f i c i e n c y a t r e a d i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e two graph t y p e s (See Appendix A.14). P r e v i o u s l y , t h e t e s t showed good p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s w i t h K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n 20 r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s g e n e r a l l y o v e r .80. The t e s t was d e s i g n e d t o f i n d t h e g r a p h i c a t e age o f c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s , when t h e y c o u l d r e a d graphs and answer e l e m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s e x t r a c t i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r m e d i a t e q u e s t i o n s d e t e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and comprehensive q u e s t i o n s comparing whole p a t t e r n s . These t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h used i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . Wainer found t h a t by t h e f o u r t h grade c h i l d r e n had a c q u i r e d an a c c e p t a b l e m i n i m a l l e v e l o f g r a p h i c a c y . I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s t e s t was used t o i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t o f s u b j e c t ' s p r i o r competence w i t h t h e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was m o d i f i e d f o r use w i t h a d u l t s . One i n t e r m e d i a t e and one comprehensive l e v e l q u e s t i o n were added t o e q u a l i z e t h e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t e d . Only two f o r m a t s were t e s t e d , c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e g raphs. The d a t a f o r B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 49 two c i t i e s were used, New York and San F r a n c i s c o . The d a t a v a l u e s were o m i t t e d from t h e top o f the b a r s because i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a d u l t s would e a s i l y decode v a l u e s . F i g u r e s 2 - 5 show c o p i e s o f t h e graphs used. B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 50 Graph 1 Monthly Rainfall in New York Winter Dec Jan Feb Spring Mar Apr May Summer June July Aug Fall Sept Oct Nov 83 mm Average/ Month • -••• • • 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Rainfall (mm) 80 90 100 110 120 F i g u r e 2. Graph 1, D o t / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n New Yor k c i t y . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 51 Graph 1 Monthly Rainfall in New York Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov W i n t e r S p r i n g S u m m e r F a l l F i g u r e 3. Graph 1, B a r / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n New York c i t y . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 52 Graph 2 Monthly Rainfall in San Fransisco Winter Dec Jan Feb Spring Mar Apr May Summer June July Aug Fall Sept Oct Nov 42 mm Average/Month D O D •"••••O o 10 20 30 40 50 70 60 Rainfall (mm) 80 90 100 110 120 F i g u r e 4. Graph 2, D o t / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n San F r a n c i s c o . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 5 Graph 2 Monthly Rainfall in San Fransisco 120 - • 110 ~ 100 " 90 ~ 80 " 70 ~ Rainfall (mm) 60 " 50 1 42 mm Average/Month 40 "I 30 1 20 "I 10 "1 0 Dec Jan Feb Winter Mar Apr May Spring June July Aug Summer Sept Oct Nov Fall F i g u r e 5. Graph 2, B a r / l i n e : M o n t h l y r a i n f a l l i n San F r a n c i s c o B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 54 P r e t e s t - R e c o r d i n g Time t o Complete: The s u b j e c t s were prompted t o r e c o r d t h e t i m e s as t h e y p r o c e e d e d t h r o u g h The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t i n boxes c o n t a i n i n g t h e words and the t i m e a f t e r f i n i s h i n g q u e s t i o n f i v e , and t h e ti m e a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n w i t h each p r e s e n t a t i o n format (see Appendix A.6 f o r time p r o m p t s ) . T h i s t i m i n g s e r v e d as a p r a c t i c e o f t i m i n g p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h e exper i m e n t . P r e t e s t - P r e f e r e n c e R a t i n g o f Formats: They r a t e d each format f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and com p l e t e n e s s t o q u e s t i o n s asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r i n i t i a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e f o r m a t s . The s u b j e c t s responded t o f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - s c a l e s w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e word headings i e . " v e r y c o n f u s i n g l y " t o " v e r y c l e a r l y " . The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n o f the p r e t e s t a l l o w e d b o t h groups t o e x p e r i e n c e s i m p l e graphs i n d o t / l i n e and b a r / l i n e f o r m a t s . The d e s i g n f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r e t e s t i s summarized i n Ta b l e 2. b l a n k s "TIME: M They wrote down t h e ti m e t h e y began, Ta b l e 2 P r e t e s t D e s i g n GRAPH GROUP (N=4 0) FORMAT COMBINATION DEPENDANT CONTENT VARIABLES R a i n f a l l i n San Francisco I (n=20) II (n=20) Dot/Line Bar/Line Pr o f i c i e n c y of Search Time to Complete Preference f o r Format R a i n f a l l i n New York I II Bar/Line Dot/Line Pro f i c i e n c y of Search Time to complete Preference f o r Format B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 55 Background I n v e s t i g a t i o n , ; T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d the need t o f i n d a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n f o r p r e s e n t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h o s e who must use i t t o g o v e r n . C o p i e s of monthly f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s g i v e n by s i x h o s p i t a l s t o t h e i r b o a r d of t r u s t e e s were examined t o n o t e th e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f c o n t e n t and need f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . The w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s accompanying th e f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s emphasized t h e need t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e monthly v a r i a n c e s i n l i g h t o f t h e budget and y e a r end f o r e c a s t . None of the r e p o r t s used graphs t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , however, i t seemed t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e a d e r s o f t h e r e p o r t s would remember p a s t t r e n d s . I t was assumed b o a r d members would r e v i e w o r remember the p r e v i o u s months f i g u r e s . The r e p o r t s were f i l l e d w i t h t h e same d e t a i l u sed by management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I i n t e r v i e w e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f i n a h o s p i t a l f i n a n c e department t o l e a r n what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and how graphs were p r e s e n t l y produced. T h e i r comments emphasised th e need f o r t r u s t e e s t o u n d e r s t a n d g e n e r a l t r e n d s , b o t t o m - l i n e t o t a l s , comparisons t o budget and f o r e c a s t e d y e a r -end. There was s o f t w a r e a v a i l a b l e t o produce s t a n d a r d g r a p h s . I a l s o r e v i e w e d h o s p i t a l r e p o r t s where graphs were used. The graphs were e i t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graphs o r p i e c h a r t s . Data f o r Graphs: Two s e t s o f d a t a were p r e p a r e d u s i n g the a c t u a l numbers f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 56 p e r i o d 8, November 5, 1992, from S t . V i n c e n t ' s H e a l t h Care S o c i e t y ' f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t . The d e t a i l s o f t h e Statement o f O p e r a t i o n s were reduced t o budget revenues, p a t i e n t r e v e n u e s , a c t u a l revenues, budget expenses, s a l a r y expenses, and a c t u a l expenses. The d a t a were g i v e n i n 13 r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s , w i t h a c t u a l t o t a l s f o r t h e e i g h t p e r i o d s t o date and f o r e c a s t e d t o t a l s f o r t h e f i v e p e r i o d s t o y e a r end. The amounts were rounded t o thousands o f d o l l a r s . The f i r s t s e t gave t h e t o t a l amounts f o r each r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d , t h e second d a t a s e t used t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n but c a l c u l a t e d the c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s f o r each p e r i o d . D e s i g n i n g t h e Graphs: c) F i r s t G r a p h i c a l P r e s e n t a t i o n - Graph One: C o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graphs were produced u s i n g t h e f i r s t d a t a s e t . The X - a x i s was d i v i d e d i n t o the 13 r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s . The Y - a x i s s c a l e r a n from 0 t o 3,000 thousand d o l l a r s i n 500 thousand d o l l a r i n c r e m e n t s . Bars were used f o r revenues and expenses; f i l l e d b l a c k b a r s f o r revenues and open b a r s f o r expenses. On the same graph, a wavy l i n e was used f o r budget revenues and s o l i d l i n e s were used f o r budget expenses, s a l a r y expenses, and p a t i e n t revenues. The l i n e s were l a b e l l e d o u t s i d e t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e g r a p h and a key showed revenue and expense s h a d i n g s on b a r s . A y e a r was shown i n r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s 1-13, p e r i o d 8 was l a b e l l e d " Y e a r - t o - D a t e " and p e r i o d 13 was l a b e l l e d "Year End". A l i n e was drawn between p e r i o d s 8 and 9; l e f t o f t h e l i n e was l a b e l l e d " F o r e c a s t e d " and t h e r i g h t a r e a l a b e l l e d " A c t u a l " . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 5 Dot graphs were p r e p a r e d f o r each d a t a s e t u s i n g t h e same l a b e l s Budget revenues, budget expenses, s a l a r y expenses, p a t i e n t r e v enues, f o r e c a s t e d and a c t u a l l a b e l s were shown i n t h e same way. D o t t e d l i n e s f o r each r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d ended i n l a r g e r dot r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a l u e s f o r revenues and expenses; f i l l e d b l a c k d o t s f o r revenues and open d o t s f o r expenses. d) Second G r a p h i c a l P r e s e n t a t i o n - Graph Two: The second d a t a s e t i n c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s was used t o p r e p a r e b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs f o r the second g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . The s c a l e on the Y - a x i s r a n from 0 t o 40,000 thousand d o l l a r s i n 5,000 thousand d o l l a r i n c r e m e n t s . The Graphs were c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( C l e v e l a n d , 1985; C l e v e l a n d & M c G i l l , 1985 & 1988; H i g g i n s , 1989; Johnson e t a l . , 1980; K o s s l y n , 1988; Simcox 1984; Tan, 1990; T u f t e , 1983; Wainer, 1982)'. C o p i e s o f Graphs One and Two i n b o t h f o r m a t s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e s 6, 7, 8, and 9. Part One: Review of Operations B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e Mercy Hospital - Period 8, November 5 Budgeted and Total Revenues and Expenses with Patient Revenues and Salary Expenses for each Reporting Period Patient Revenues Year End Year- 8 To-Date Reporting Period 6 . Salary Budgeted Budgeted Expenses Expenses Revenues L Forecasted Actual $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 Dollars (Thousands) Revenues o Expenses F i g u r e 6. Graph One, D o t / l i n e : The Review o f O p e r a t i o n s . Part One: Review of Operations B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e Mercy Hospital - Period 8, November 5 Budgeted and Total Revenues and Expenses with Patient Revenues and Salary Expenses for each Reporting Period $3,500-Actual Forecasted $3,000 H $2,500 H $2,000 H Dollars (Thousands) $1,500 - \ $1,000 H $500 H $0-1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Year-To-Date , Budgeted Revenues Budgeted Expenses _ Salary Expenses - Patient Revenues 9 10 11 12 13 Year E n d Reporting Period Revenues • Expenses F i g u r e 7. Graph One, B a r / l i n e : The Review o f O p e r a t i o n s . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 60. Part Two: Strategic Review Mercy Hospital - Period 8, November 5 Cumulative Budgets, Revenues, and Expenses with Patient Revenues and Salary Expenses Year End Year-To-Date 8 Reporting Period Patient Revenues Salary Expenses Budgeted Budgeted Revenues Expenses Forecasted Actual i 1 1 1 1 1 r $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000 $40,000 Dollars (Thousands) Revenues o Expenses F i g u r e 8 . G r a p h T wo , D o t / l i n e : The S t r a t e g i c R e v i e w . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 61 Part Two: Strategic Review Mercy Hospital - Period 8, November 5 Cumulative Budgets, Revenues, and Expenses with Patient Revenues and Salary Expenses $40,000 $35,000-4 $30,000 H Actual Forecasted $25,000-^ Dollars (Thousands) $20,000 H $15,000 H $10,000 J $5,000 -\ Budgeted Revenues Budgeted Expenses Salary Expenses Patient Revenues Year End Reporting Period Revenues • Expenses F i g u r e 9. Graph Two, B a r / l i n e : The S t r a t e g i c Review. B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 62 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the e x p e r i m e n t : An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e experiment was w r i t t e n . The s u b j e c t s were asked t o imagine t h a t as members of t h e Board o f d i r e c t o r s o f "Mercy H o s p i t a l " t h e y had r e c e i v e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d w i t h an agenda f o r t h e i r next b o a r d meeting. They were t o l d t h a t t h e agenda s t a t e d the b o a r d p l a n n e d t o d i s c u s s a s t r a t e g i c r e v i e w o f t h e h o s p i t a l ' s o p e r a t i o n s , and a system f o r r e p o r t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the b o a r d . Q u e s t i o n s f o r measuring P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h : The q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o each graph were w r i t t e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . The q u e s t i o n s were based on the h e a l t h c a r e l i t e r a t u r e and t h e background r e s e a r c h conducted. These q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e d o n l y a . b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and d i d not r e q u i r e any complex c a l c u l a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s were r e v i e w e d by a h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . e) E v a l u a t i o n o f the Formats: The e v a l u a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e n a s k s t h e s u b j e c t s t o r a t e the b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e f o r m a t s s e p a r a t e l y , and ends w i t h them s t a t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e o f a f o r m a t . The s u b j e c t s j u d g e d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and how l o n g t h e y f e l t t h e y would remember the i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e i m p r e s s i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 63 f e e l i n g towards t h e f o r m a t s , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a l s o s e r v e d t h e purpose o f g e t t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s t o t h i n k g e n e r a l l y about t h e whole ex p e r i m e n t and a v o i d any r e c e n c y e f f e c t o f t h e l a s t format t h e y had used when t h e y r a t e d the two e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m a t s f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n and f i n a l l y chose t h e i r p r e f e r r e d f o r m a t . . ' 3.06 Data P r o c e s s i n g : Data C o l l e c t i o n and R e c o r d i n g : E x p e r i m e n t a l b o o k l e t s were made up c o n t a i n i n g : c o p i e s o f t h e consent form; t i t l e page; background q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; p r e t e s t -graph 1 w i t h d a t a i n c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e f o r m a t ; The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t ; judgement o f c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and comple t e n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; p r e t e s t - graph 2; The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t ; judgement o f c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and co m p l e t e n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t ; g r a p h one, p e r i o d i c r e v i e w o f o p e r a t i o n s ; q u e s t i o n s f o r graph one, p e r i o d i c r e v i e w o f o p e r a t i o n s ; judgement o f graph one f o r : c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; graph two, c u m u l a t i v e s t r a t e g i c r e v i e w ; q u e s t i o n s f o r graph two, c u m u l a t i v e s t r a t e g i c r e v i e w ; judgement o f g r a p h i c a l format two f o r : c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness of i n f o r m a t i o n ; and the e v a l u a t i o n o f r e p o r t i n g systems f o r f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n (see Appendices A . l - A.10). These b o o k l e t s were made f o r two groups. Group 1 began t h e B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 64 G r a p h i c a c y T e s t w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e graph format and Group 2 began w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graph t h e n t h e f o r m a t s a l t e r n a t e d • f o r t h e r e s t o f the e x p e r i m e n t . Each page was stamped w i t h a s u b j e c t - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number. The b o o k l e t s , a page of b l a n k paper, and a b l a n k r e t u r n envelope were p l a c e d i n a s e a l e d e n v e l o p e f o r each i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number. E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Assignment: S u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o two groups. A s e t o f 40 code numbers were l i s t e d and group I o r group I I were randomly a s s i g n e d t o each code number. The f i r s t 15 s u b j e c t s were l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and t h e n a s s i g n e d t o the code numbers. Then, as s u b j e c t s were c o n t a c t e d , t h e y were a s s i g n e d c o n s e c u t i v e code numbers. I.c o n d u c t e d t h e experiment w i t h t w e n t y - s i x i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , f o u r p a i r s o f s u b j e c t s , and two groups of t h r e e s u b j e c t s . Dependent V a r i a b l e s : The dependent v a r i a b l e s were (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , (b) c o m p l e t i o n time and (c) p r e f e r e n c e f o r format measured when two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s were p r e s e n t e d . (a) P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h Graph One p r e s e n t e d a c o n d e n s e d . r e p o r t o f t h e monthly f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o l l o w e d by f i f t e e n q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e d f i v e s e a r c h e s a t l e v e l one, f i v e s e condary s e a r c h e s , and f i v e t h i r d B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 65 l e v e l s e a r c h e s . S u b j e c t s made two c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c judgements o f the i n f o r m a t i o n . Graph Two p r e s e n t e d the same i n f o r m a t i o n computed i n c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s , and made the same r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s e a r c h and s i m i l a r c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c judgements. The c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s were t o t a l l e d f o r each l e v e l o f s e a r c h . (b) Time t o Complete: The s u b j e c t s wrote t h e time t h e y began, t h e time a f t e r each s e t of q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g f i r s t , second and t h i r d s e a r c h l e v e l s , and the t i m e t h e y f i n i s h e d a l l the q u e s t i o n s f o r each t a s k . They used i n d i v i d u a l stop-watches w i t h d i g i t a l d i s p l a y s o f mi n u t e s and seconds. The d i s p l a y s o f hours and t e n t h o f seconds were c o v e r e d w i t h masking tape t o m i n i m i z e d i s t r a c t i o n s . I n t h e p r e -expe r i m e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s t h e y were t o l d t o copy t h e i r b e g i n n i n g t i m e s from t h e st o p - w a t c h i n t o boxes above q u e s t i o n one, and a g a i n whenever t h e y saw •" TIME: _" on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l pages. I r e c o r d e d t h e time c o n c u r r e n t l y , . u s i n g an i d e n t i c a l s t o p - w a t c h . The t i m i n g was kept as u n o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e . I s a t o p p o s i t e t h e s u b j e c t a t t h e same t a b l e and matched t h e i r a c t i o n s o f w r i t i n g down t h e t i m e . I f a s u b j e c t was i n t e r r u p t e d w h i l e d o i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n time was n o t e d and s u b t r a c t e d from t h e t o t a l t i me l a t e r . The v o l u n t e e r s had few i n t e r r u p t i o n s and none a f f e c t e d the t i m i n g d u r i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h i n the expe r i m e n t . I computed t h e c o m p l e t i o n t i m e s f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 66 each s u b j e c t . There were some minor d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t i m i n g . Some s u b j e c t s wrote t h e b e g i n n i n g time b e f o r e t h e y s t a r t e d t o l o o k a t t h e graph, o r q u e s t i o n s , some wrote a f t e r t h e y had s t u d i e d t h e graph, and some wrote t h e time when t h e y f e l t t h e y were rea d y t o s e l e c t t h e f i r s t answer. I d i d not time t h e f i r s t t h r e e s u b j e c t s and t h e i r s t o p - w a t c h e s d i d not have the hours and t e n t h s o f seconds r e a d o u t c o v e r e d . (c) P r e f e r e n c e f o r Format: P r e f e r e n c e e v a l u a t i o n s were made w i t h each p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a g r a p h i c a l format a f t e r P r e t e s t 1 and 2, and a f t e r G r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n one and two, and i n summary r a t i n g s a t t h e c l o s e o f the e x p e r i m e n t . The s u b j e c t s r a t e d each graph format used f o r (1) c l a r i t y , (2) r e a d a b i l i t y , and (3) completeness o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e i r c h o i c e o f format f o r t h e expe r i m e n t and f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . 3.07 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s : The SPSS f o r MS Windows r e l e a s e 6.0 s o f t w a r e was used f o r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Graph One: I used m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , MANOVA, t o d e t e r m i n e i f B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 67 (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , o r (b) t h e e l a p s e d t i m e t o complete the r e s p o n s e s d i f f e r e d between groups of s u b j e c t s a t t h e t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s . H o t e l l i n g s M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17) t e s t e d t h e group e f f e c t . An o v e r a l l F - t e s t o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups r e a d i n g e i t h e r t h e b a r / l i n e o f t h e d o t / l i n e f ormat. The c r i t i c a l F - r a t i o f o r 3 and 36 degrees of freedom was 2.88. U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,38) D. F. were used t o i n d i c a t e whether the Group e f f e c t o f u s i n g e i t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s was d i f f e r e n t a t one o r a l l o f the l e v e l s o f s e a r c h : The. c r i t i c a l F - r a t i o a t 1 and 40 degrees of. freedom was 4.08. An a l p h a l e v e l a t 0.05 was used t o a s s e s s th e e f f e c t s i z e and o b s e r v e d power f o r b o t h m u l t i v a r i a t e and u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s . The same s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s of MANOVA and H o t e l l i n g s T e s t were a l s o used t o a n a l y z e Group e f f e c t s on p r e f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r format i n judgements o f : c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , o r c o m p l e t e n e s s of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . , . Graph Two: The a n a l y s i s was r e p e a t e d f o r Graph.Two f o r (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , (b) t ime t o complete, and (c) p r e f e r e n c e o f f o r m a t . L e a r n i n g was c o n t r o l l e d i n . t w o ways, by p r e s e n t i n g th e same i n f o r m a t i o n i n p e r i o d i c and c u m u l a t i v e a c c o u n t s f o r t h e two t a s k s and by c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 68 Group I had t h e p e r i o d i c d o t / l i n e graph f i r s t and t h e c u m u l a t i v e b a r / l i n e g r a p h format second; Group I I had p e r i o d i c b a r / l i n e f i r s t , c u m u l a t i v e d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format second. W i t h i n - s u b j e c t A n a l y s i s : I n t h e measurement o f c h o i c e , t h e same s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o graph format group a t the p r e t e s t and a l t e r n a t e d f o r m a t s t h e r e a f t e r . I t was judged t h a t when s u b j e c t s had e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h f o r m a t s t h e y would be b e t t e r a b l e t o make an i n f o r m e d c h o i c e and m u l t i p l e measures would g i v e p l a u s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e ex p e r i m e n t were examined g r a p h i c a l l y i n Box P l o t s . The s u b j e c t s ' c h o i c e o f format f o r the experiment and f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s was t a l l i e d and t h e f r e q u e n c i e s were r e p o r t e d . C o v a r i a t e s : I l o o k e d a t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l e f f e c t s o f p e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , f a c t o r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and g r a p h i c a c y as t h e y were measured b e f o r e the experiment u s i n g The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t and the background q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i n a n c i a l , i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e i r s e l f - r a t i n g on a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - s c a l e . Weighted t o t a l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l , b o a r d and f i n a n c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , measured on t h e Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , were combined f o r a measure o f E x p e r i e n c e . G r a p h i c a l r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as measured by The B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 6 G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was s c o r e d as the t o t a l number c o r r e c t out o f t e n . These v a r i a b l e s were t h e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , t ime t o complete, and p r e f e r e n c e f o r b o t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n a 2 - t a i l e d t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h an a. l e v e l o f .05. I n t h i s s t u d y , e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t i n g g r a p h i c p r o f i c i e n c y was con-s i d e r e d t o be any one o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , work e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f i n a n c i a l d a t a , and e x p e r i e n c e as a t r u s t e e on a Board. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s from u s i n g b o t h g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on the background s u r v e y was examined f o r v a l u e s above .8 t h a t would i n d i c a t e a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n . V i s u a l A n a l y s i s : Graphs were p r e p a r e d from the summary s t a t i s t i c s t o a i d v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . B a r / l i n e graphs were used t o show comparisons o f means f o r each graph p r e s e n t a t i o n . L i n e graphs were used t o show the t r e n d s f o r t h e two f o r m a t s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y c o m p l e t i o n t i m e s and p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s . B a r graphs p r e s e n t e d the r a t i n g s o f each graph format f o r a c c u r a c y and s a t i s f a c t i o n , and f r e q u e n c y d a t a on c h o i c e o f f o r m a t s . SUMMARY OF METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN: The d e s i g n was e x p e r i m e n t a l , w i t h random assignment o f s u b j e c t s B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 70 t o two groups. The s i n g l e independent v a r i a b l e was p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t , e i t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e g r a p h s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were (a) p r o f i c i e n c y and (b) c o m p l e t i o n time f o r t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h and (c) p r e f e r e n c e f o r f o r m a t . The s e t t i n g was i n a h o s p i t a l boardroom o r i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' o f f i c e s u s i n g 40 v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s who were a l l members o f boards o f t r u s t e e s . The e x p e r i m e n t was d i v i d e d i n t o two p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . C o m b i n a t i o n b a r / L i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs were made u s i n g d a t a from S t . V i n c e n t ' s H e a l t h Care S o c i e t y ' s f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t f o r R e p o r t i n g P e r i o d 8, November 5, 1992. "Mercy H o s p i t a l " was t h e f i c t i t i o u s name used i n the e x p e r i m e n t . Group I v i e w e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n a d o t / l i n e g r a p h f o r Graph One and i n a b a r / l i n e graph f o r Graph Two. Group I I r e v e r s e d t h e o r d e r o f g r a p h i c a l formats'. Graph One p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t o t a l s f o r each r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d . Graph Two p r e s e n t e d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n computed i n c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s . W i t h each Graph the s u b j e c t s answered m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e d f i v e s e a r c h e s a t L e v e l 1 f o r d e t a i l s , f i v e s e a r c h e s a t L e v e l 2 t o u n d e r s t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and f i v e s e a r c h e s a t L e v e l 3 t o use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n about t r e n d s i n the d a t a . S u b j e c t s r e c o r d e d t h e time as t h e y p r o c e e d e d t h r o u g h the experiment and t h e e l a p s e d t i m e s were c a l c u l a t e d . . • M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was used t o e v a l u a t e B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 71 t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r the t h r e e l e v e l s . Graphs were p r e p a r e d o f t h e summary s t a t i s t i c s t o a i d v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . The p r e f e r e n c e f o r the f o r m a t s was r a t e d on L i k e r t s c a l e s . The s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h f o r m a t s and e v a l u a t e d t h e f o r m a t s f o r t h e c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n . MANOVA was used t o examine r e a d e r s ' r a t i n g o f t h e s e t h r e e elements o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e two f o r m a t s . They a l s o r a t e d t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e f o r m a t s and t h e i r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . The s u b j e c t s ' c h o i c e o f format f o r Mercy H o s p i t a l , f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t , and f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s were t a l l i e d . The s u b j e c t s were p r e t e s t e d w i t h a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t (Wainer, 1980) and t h e y c o mpleted a Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g i v e a measure of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t and e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d t o outcome v a r i a b l e s o f t h e two g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s but were not used as c o v a r i a t e s i n a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . C h a p t e r Four r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s and a summary of t h e w r i t t e n and o r a l comments. The demographic d a t a c o l l e c t e d on t h e s u b j e c t s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e G r a p h i c a c y T e s t a r e t e s t e d f o r t h e i r v a l u e as c o v a r i a t e s 'in the a n a l y s i s . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 72 Chapter Four RESULTS I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the sample a r e d i s c u s s e d f i r s t ; t h e n , the r e s u l t s a r e o r g a n i z e d as two s e p a r a t e g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s - Graph One and Graph Two. Graph One p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n p e r i o d i c t o t a l s under the t i t l e : Graph One P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s . Graph Two p r e s e n t e d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n i n c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s under the t i t l e : Graph Two Cu m u l a t i v e S t r a t e g i c Review. W i t h b o t h g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s , t h e group e f f e c t r e p r e s e n t s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n by e i t h e r d o t / l i n e o r b a r / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n f o r m a t . W i t h Graph One, Group I r e a d t h e d o t / l i n e and Group I I r e a d t h e b a r / l i n e . W i t h Graph Two t h e form a t s were c r o s s e d , Group I used t h e b a r / l i n e and Group I I used t h e d o t / l i n e . W i t h Graph One, t h e two form a t s were compared a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s of s e a r c h u s i n g measures o f a) p r o f i c i e n c y , t h e sum o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s and b) e l a p s e d time t o complete. A l s o , t h e two f o r m a t s were compared on c) t h r e e a s p e c t s o f p r e f e r e n c e : c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . The same a n a l y s i s was completed w i t h Graph Two, f o r t h e second g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . Data c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e and d u r i n g the experiment were compared. The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t , g i v e n as a p r e t e s t , was a n a l y z e d f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 73 p r o f i c i e n c y , time t o complete, and p r e f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s . The e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n G r a p h i c a c y , e d u c a t i o n , b o a r d and work e x p e r i e n c e were examined t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . Graphs were made t o show the means and f r e q u e n c i e s o f s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s f o r v i s u a l a n a l y s i s . O r a l and w r i t t e n comments a r e summarized. The c h a p t e r ends w i t h a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s . 4.01 Demographics and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample: The s t u d y took p l a c e i n the g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a o f B.C. where, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , boards o f t r u s t e e s have been g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o govern a c u t e c a r e h o s p i t a l s , e x t e n d e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , and r e l a t e d h e a l t h c a r e a g e n c i e s . The s t u d y i n v i t e d v o l u n t e e r s from the s t a f f and boards o f St V i n c e n t ' s H e a l t h Care, The Burnaby H o s p i t a l , Y o u v i l l e R e s i d e n c e , D e l t a H o s p i t a l , and Dogwood Lodge. A l l v o l u n t e e r s were members o f boards o f t r u s t e e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e c e i v i n g government f u n d s . F o r t y p e o p l e , 17 men and 23 women, f i l l e d i n a background s u r v e y b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e expe r i m e n t . They ranged i n age from 3 8 t o 81, a l t h o u g h t h e average age was 53. Only one s u b j e c t had not comp l e t e d H i g h S c h o o l and o n l y one h e l d a PhD. Twenty-nine had a B a c h e l o r ' s Degree. Twenty-nine s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n had i n c l u d e d some f i n a n c i a l background and 24 o f t h e 4 0 s a i d t h e y had t a k e n some f i n a n c i a l c o u r s e s . One p e r s o n had t a k e n 15 c o u r s e s i n f i n a n c e but the average number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n was B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 74 f o u r . F o u r t e e n p e o p l e had no work e x p e r i e n c e i n a c c o u n t i n g , f i n a n c e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Ten p e o p l e had an average o f 14 y e a r s each o f work e x p e r i e n c e i n f i n a n c e s and 21 p e o p l e had an average of t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e each i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; s i x p e o p l e had work e x p e r i e n c e i n b o t h . A l t h o u g h seven p e o p l e r e p o r t e d a y e a r o r l e s s e x p e r i e n c e on a board, and f i v e r e p o r t e d more t h a n 18 y e a r s on a board, t h e average o f t h e sample was 8.7 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e s e r v i n g on a board. S e r v i n g on t h e e x e c u t i v e o f a bo a r d might g i v e more e x p e r t i s e i n f i n a n c e s t h a n j u s t b e i n g a bo a r d member. Tw e n t y - e i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t s had been e x e c u t i v e s o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and f i v e had s e r v e d i n a l l t h r e e o f f i c e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i n a n c e s : chairman, t r e a s u r e r , and as a member o f t h e f i n a n c e committee. Assignment t o E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s : The 4 0 s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o two gro u p s ; 2 0 i n Group I and 2 0 i n Group I I . The two groups were almost e q u a l i n t h e a s p e c t s o f gender and age. Group I had t e n males and t e n fe m a l e s w i t h an average age o f 54. Group I I had seven males and t h i r t e e n f e m a l e s w i t h an average age of 53. 4.02 Graph One - P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s : The g o a l o f t h e f i r s t graph p r e s e n t a t i o n was t o r e v i e w Mercy H o s p i t a l ' s f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t l o o k i n g a t p e r i o d i c t o t a l s f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 75 R e p o r t i n g P e r i o d 8. Group I r e a d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d o t / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n graph and Group I I r e a d a b a r / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n graph. The r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n were a n a l y z e d f o r (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , (b) time o f c o m p l e t i o n , and (c) format p r e f e r e n c e . (a) Graph One - P r o f i c i e n c y o f Se a r c h To t e s t p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , t h e s u b j e c t s answered f i v e i t e m s a t each l e v e l o f s e a r c h and the c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s were t o t a l l e d . The t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h a r e : (1) s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , (2) s e a r c h f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and (3) s e a r c h f o r t r e n d s . The means, p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 and F i g u r e 10, f o r t h e two groups were compared a t t h e t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s . Group II,- r e a d i n g t h e b a r / l i n e f o r m a t , c o n s i s t e n t l y had a h i g h e r mean re s p o n s e i n a c q u i r i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s i n the d a t a . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was about one and a h a l f r e s p o n s e s e x c e p t f o r t h e b a r / l i n e graph i n the s e a r c h f o r t r e n d s . The g r a p h ( F i g u r e 10) shows t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two fo r m a t s i s g r e a t e s t f o r l e v e l two. Ta b l e 3 Graph one - Mean P r o f i c i e n c y o f Se a r c h a t Three L e v e l s GROUP I GROUP I I DOT/LINE BAR/LINE SEARCH LEVELS MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS 3.2 (1.44) 3.6 (1.64) LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS 2.85 (1.39) 3.45 (1.50) LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS 3.8 (1.36) 4.0 ( .68) AVERAGE MEAN 3 .28 3 . 68 B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 76 M a M z 0 a. w w K H U U K E 0 u I ^ • • • • • • • ^ 1 LEUEL 1. D E T A I L S • BMI/LI • • • • • • • 4 • • • • • • • « ^ • • • • • • 4 ' • • • • • • 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (i • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • < AUERAGE BAR/LIME AVERAGE DOT/LINE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • L E V E L 3 R E L A T I O N S H I P S T R E N D S CX] DO T/LI NE F i g u r e 1 0 . G r a p h O n e , M e a n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n s e a r c h p r o f i c i e n c y . A MANOVA r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e F - t e s t s (p) f o r t h e t h r e e l e v e l s a r e h i g h e r t h a n . 0 5 . H o w e v e r , c a r e m u s t b e t a k e n i n r e j e c t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s b e c a u s e t h e g r o u p r e a d i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t was more p r o f i c i e n t a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h t h a n t h e g r o u p r e a d i n g t h e d o t / l i n e f o r m a t . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f o r m a t s was n o t d e t e c t a b l e d u e t o l o w p o w e r a n d t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f m a k i n g a T y p e I I e r r o r i f t h e h y p o t h e s e s i s r e j e c t e d . The e f f e c t s i z e a n d p o w e r t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e l o w f o r t h i s s a m p l e . The r e s u l t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 4 . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 77 Ta b l e 4 Graph one - The E f f e c t o f G r a p h i c a l Format on P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Te s t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .046 .55 3 36 .65 M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l T e s t Name E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .044 .15 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1.38) p Power PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH: LEVEL 1 - DETAILS 2 36842 68 .42 . 16 LEVEL 2 - RELATIONSHIPS 2 09211 1 72 .20 .25 LEVEL 3 - TRENDS 1 18947 34 . 57 . 06 (b) Graph One - Time t o Complete: To t e s t f o r t h e time t o complete the t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h , the time was n o t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g and a t t h e end o f each s e t o f it e m s a t each l e v e l , and t h e e l a p s e d time was compared f o r t h e two groups. The l a r g e S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e means, a l l more t h a n a minute, r e f l e c t t he wide range o f c o m p l e t i o n t i m e s and may i n d i c a t e some i n e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e t i m i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The t o t a l t i m e t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h Graph One ranged from 431 seconds t o 1706 seconds. A t each s e a r c h l e v e l , l o w e r mean-scores i n d i c a t e , on average, the group i s f a s t e r . The groups were v e r y s i m i l a r when s e a r c h i n g f o r d e t a i l s and t r e n d s but Group I I , u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e , format was s l i g h t l y f a s t e r when s e a r c h i n g f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 78 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as i s shown i n T a b l e 5 and F i g u r e 11. T a b l e 5 Graroh One - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Time of Convoletion a t Three S e a r c h L e v e l s GROUP I GROUP I I DOT/LINE BAR/LINE SEARCH LEVELS MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS 261.53 (107.5) LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS 276.79 (102.6) LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS 206.84 (118.2) 265.1 (158.7) 251.65 (103.6) 182.6 ( 86.0) to fi r 8 0 U M a t s w ft. M J u • • • • • • •< > • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • AUERAGE DOT/LIME AVERAGE BAR/LIHE L E U E L i . D E T A I L S B H f l H / L I M E L E V E L Z R E L A T I O M S H I P S L E U E L 3 T R E N D S CZ] D O T ^ L I N E F i g u r e 11. Graph One - Mean e l a p s e d t i m e s f o r t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s . A MANOVA i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e F s t a t i s t i c s (p) a r e a l l above t h e .05 l e v e l . T h i s means t h a t f o r t h i s g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n and sample s i z e , we cannot d e t e c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f the e f f e c t o f t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on t h e speed o f r e a d i n g a t t h e each s e a r c h - l e v e l . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 79 Ta b l e 6 Graph One - The E f f e c t of G r a p h i c a l Format on Time o f C o m p l e t i o n at Three L e v e l s o f Se a r c h M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Te s t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .035 .41 3 35 .77 M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t . 05 L e v e l TEST NAME E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .034 . 12 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1.38) P Power TIME OF COMPLETION: LEVEL 1 - DETAILS 18552 5 . 006 . 94 . 04 LEVEL 2 - RELATIONSHIPS 10635 67 . 58 .45 . 14 LEVEL 3 - TRENDS 792 0 25 . 72 .40 . 16 (c) Graph One - P r e f e r e n c e o f format A f t e r a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n w i t h Graph One t h e s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e i r format on f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - s c a l e s f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness of p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . I f a s u b j e c t gave a h i g h r a t i n g o f f o u r o r f i v e i t means t h a t t h e y l i k e d t h e g r a p h t h e y worked w i t h . Three and above a r e p o s i t i v e r a t i n g s o f p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e format. The means f o r t h e group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e format was h i g h e r t h a n t h e means f o r t h e group u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e format f o r a l l judgements o f p r e f e r e n c e . As i s shown i n F i g u r e 12, Group I I r a t e d t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format h i g h e r t h a n Group I r a t e d the d o t / l i n e format f o r c l a r i t y , B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 80 r e a d a b i l i t y and completeness o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . T a b l e 7 Graph One - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P r e f e r e n c e o f B a r / l i n e o r D o t / l i n e Format GROUP I GROUP I I DOT/LINE BAR/LINE JUDGEMENT OF PREFERENCE MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. CLARITY READABILITY COMPLETENESS 2.1 ( .79) 2.45 ( .76) 3.1 (1.12) 2.75 (.79) 3.0 ( .65) 3.35 (.99) z M H K 1 » • • • • • • ••»»»»»»»« » • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • ^ • • • • • • 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • } • • • • • • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A V E R A G E BA R v X I NE A V E R A G E D O T / L I PfE C L A R X TV R E A D A B I L 1 T V c o n r L E TEFIESS ^iJ D O T / L I NE F i g u r e 12. Graph One - Mean r a t i n g s o f p r e f e r e n c e . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s (MANOVA), i n T a b l e 8, shows t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i s r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e g r a p h w i t h Graph One f o r c l a r i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n , and a l t h o u g h the r a t i n g o f completeness o f the i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o h i g h e r f o r the b a r / l i n e graph, i t i s not an emphatic d i s t i n c t i o n . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 81 Ta b l e 8 Graph one - The E f f e c t o f G r a p h i c a l Format on P r e f e r e n c e f o r Format M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Te s t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .02 2.52 3 36 .07 M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l TEST NAME E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .174 .57 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1.38) p. Power PREFERENCE OF FORMAT: CLARITY .61974 6.82 .01 * .72 READABILITY .49868 6.07 .02 * .67 COMPLETENESS 1.11447 .56 .46 .14 (* p < .05) 4.03 Graph Two - C u m u l a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n The o b j e c t i v e o f the second p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h Graph Two was t o l o o k a t c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s o f budgeted expenses and rev e n u e s , a c t u a l expenses and revenues, w i t h s a l a r y expenses and p a t i e n t revenues t o e v a l u a t e the f o r e c a s t e d outcomes t o t h e y e a r end. The same f i n a n c i a l d a t a were used t o make up b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs showing c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s . The g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s were r e v e r s e d ; Group I was p r e s e n t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n i n a b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format and Group I I was p r e s e n t e d t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format. The r e s u l t s w i t h Graph Two were a l s o a n a l y z e d f o r (a) p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , (b) time o f c o m p l e t i o n , and (c) format p r e f e r e n c e . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 82 (a) Graph Two - P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h To t e s t P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h the s u b j e c t s answered f i v e i t e m s a t each l e v e l o f s e a r c h and the res p o n s e s were t o t a l l e d . The means f o r t h e two groups were compared a t t h e t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s i n T a b l e 9 and F i g u r e 13. The group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g raph, t h i s t i m e Group I , had a h i g h e r average on a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . When we compare graphs One and Two we see t h a t t h e r e were more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h Graph One t h a n w i t h Graph Two, a l t h o u g h t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i s r e p e a t e d f o r b o t h f o r m a t s (see F i g u r e 1 4 ) . Ta b l e 9 Graph Two - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P r o f i c i e n c y o f Se a r c h a t Three L e v e l s SEARCH LEVELS GROUP I BAR/LINE MEAN S.D. GROUP I I DOT/LINE MEAN S.D, LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS AVERAGE MEAN 3.2 (1.01) 2.40 ( .88) 3.40 (1.27) 2.45 (1.28) 1.35 ( .93) 2.3 (1.08) 3 . 0 2 .03 A V E R A G E H A R / L I M E - - A V E R A G E DO TSl. I ME L E U E L 1 L E V E L Z L E U E L Z L E U E L 3 D E T A I L S R E L A T I O N S H I P S • B A R / L I N E TRENDS [3 D O T / L I N E F i g u r e p r o f i c 13. Mean c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n i e n c y o f s e a r c h w i t h Graph Two. L E U E X . 1 D E T A I L S R E L A T I O N S H I P S TRENDS B M l / L I t l E • - • € ) - - D O T / L I H E 1 B f t H / ' L . I N E — < > — • D O T V L I N E F i g u r e 14. P r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h w i t h Graphs One & Two B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 83 a) Graph Two - P r o f i c i e n c y o f Se a r c h A MANOVA r e v e a l e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two sampled groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e f o r p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h . The e f f e c t s i z e and power t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s were h i g h a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The u n i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c , i n Ta b l e 10, r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two groups u s i n g e i t h e r g r a p h were s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n e i t h e r a b a r / l i n e o r d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format w i l l l i k e l y a f f e c t t he r e a d e r ' s a b i l i t y t o s e a r c h p r o f i c i e n t l y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . W i t h Graph Two, t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n b e t t e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e f o r m a t , so t h a t t h e r e a d e r s c o u l d more e a s i l y and e f f i c i e n t l y f i n d and u n d e r s t a n d the d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t r e n d s . T a b l e 10 Graph two - The E f f e c t o f G r a p h i c a l Format on P r o f i c i e n c y o f Se a r c h M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Tes t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .31 5.43 3 36 .003* M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l T e s t Name E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .312 .91 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1.38) p Power PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH: LEVEL 1 - DETAILS 1.31974 4.26 .046* .529 LEVEL 2 - RELATIONSHIPS .82500 13.36 .001* .94 LEVEL 3 - TRENDS 1.39474 8.68 .005* .82 * p < .05 B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 84 (b) Graph Two - Time t o Complete To t e s t f o r t h e time t o complete each l e v e l o f s e a r c h , t h e ti m e was n o t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and a t the end o f each s e t o f i t e m s i n each l e v e l , and t h e e l a p s e d time was compared f o r t h e two groups. The t o t a l t i m e w i t h Graph Two ranged from 342 seconds t o 1325 seconds. Group I , u s i n g the b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t , was f a s t e r f o r s e a r c h i n g f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s but Group I I u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e format was f a s t e r f o r s e a r c h i n g f o r d e t a i l s and t r e n d s as i s shown i n T a b l e 11. No c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n r e l a t e d t o g r a p h i c a l format emerges when we compare t h e means w i t h b o t h graphs i n F i g u r e 16. The t i m e s f o r b o t h graphs a r e v e r y c l o s e i n s e a r c h e s f o r d e t a i l s and t r e n d s . There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the t i m e s t a k e n t o r e a d and u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . T a b l e 11 GraDh Two - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Time of C o m p l e t i o n at Three S e a r c h L e v e l s GROUP I GROUP I I BAR/LINE DOT/LINE SEARCH LEVELS MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS 313.4 (127.78) 299.65 (129.47) LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS 178.8 ( 48.42) 216.65 (122.28) LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS 218.25 ( 70.22) 198.7 (103.23) B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 85 r a o u U r A U 0. u « u L E U E L 1 D E T A I L S @ B A R / L X f l E L E U E L Z R E L A T I O N S H I P S W E H f t G E B A m i H E >•• • • • • •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 •••••4 I > • • • • • TRENDS Q D O T / L I H E F i g u r e 15. Mean e l a p s e d time f o r t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s w i t h Graph Two. L E V E L 1 D E T A I L S B A R / L I N E L E U E L Z R E L A T I O N S H I P S L E U E L . 3 TRENDS - - D O T / L I N E B A R / L I N E ' D O T / L I N E F i g u r e 16. Time t o Complete w i t h Graphs One and Two. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s (MANOVA) showed t h a t t he d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups f o r any o f the tim e s t o complete r e a c h a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h t h e a l p h a l e v e l of .05. The s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. Tab l e 12 Graph two - The E f f e c t o f G r a p h i c a l Format on Time o f C o m p l e t i o n a t Three L e v e l s o f S e a r c h M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Test Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF Sig.- o f F H o t e l l i n g s 11 1.30 36 29 M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l TEST NAME E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s 098 32 B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 86 (Table 12 c o n t i n u e d ) U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1.38) Power COMPLETION TIME: LEVEL 1 - DETAILS 16545.30 LEVEL 2 - RELATIONSHIPS 8648.94 LEVEL 3 - TRENDS 7793.21 1. 66 . 11 .49 . 74 .21 .49 . 05 .24 . 11 (c) Graph Two - P r e f e r e n c e o f format To t e s t f o r p r e f e r e n c e o f format w i t h Graph Two t h e s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e f o r m a t s on t h r e e L i k e r t s c a l e s f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and completeness of p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e n the means of t h e two groups were compared. A g a i n , t h e group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format gave a h i g h e r r a t i n g t h a n t h e group u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e format f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and c o m p l e t e n e s s . As i s shown i n T a b l e 13, g e n e r a l l y t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format was r a t e d 3 and the d o t / l i n e format was r a t e d 2 out o f a p o s s i b l e 5. However, the d o t / l i n e graphs were r a t e d on the n e g a t i v e s i d e o f the l i k e r t s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t c o n f u s e d . B o t h groups r a t e d the b a r / l i n e g r a p h s i m i l a r l y f o r t h e t h r e e a r e a s o f p r e f e r e n c e ( F i g u r e 1 8 ) . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 87 Tab l e 13 Graph Two - Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P r e f e r e n c e o f B a r / l i n e o r D o t / L i n e Format GROUP I BAR/LINE JUDGEMENT OF PREFERENCE MEAN S.D, GROUP I I DOT/LINE MEAN S.D. CLARITY 2.55 READABILITY 2.85 COMPLETENESS 3.4 AVERAGE MEAN 2.9 ( .83) ( .59) ( -99) 1.75 2 . 1 2 . 8 2.2 ( .79) ( .85) (1.24) z « A V E R A G E B A R / L I N E 3 | -- A V E R A G E D O T / L I H E C L A R I T Y R E A D A B I L I T Y c o n r L E T E N E S S D A R / L I N E R E A D A B I L I T Y C O M P L E T E N E S S D O T / L I N E B A R / L I N E —-G-- D O T / L I M E B A R / L I N E . . <>— • D O T / L I N E F i g u r e 17. Mean r a t i n g s o f p r e f e r e n c e w i t h Graph Two. F i g u r e 18. P r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s w i t h Graphs One and Two. In T a b l e 14, t h e MANOVA d i s c l o s e s t h a t the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups, and t h e h i g h e r average r a t i n g o f c l a r i t y B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 88 and r e a d a b i l i t y a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , but t h e judgement o f completeness i s n o t . These s t a t i s t i c s r e p l i c a t e t h e f i n d i n g s f o r Graph One i n d i c a t i n g b o t h groups agree t h a t t h e b a r / l i n e graph i s c l e a r e r and more r e a d a b l e . T a b l e 14 Graph Two - The E f f e c t o f G r a p h i c a l Format on P r e f e r e n c e f o r Format: M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 17 ) Tes t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .35489 4.25865 3 36 .011* M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l TEST NAME E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .262 .82 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s V a r i a b l e MSe F (1,38) p Power PREFERENCE OF FORMAT: CLARITY .65 9.85 .003* .86 READABILITY .54 10.50 .002* .88 COMPLETENESS 1.26 2.85 .100 .38 * p < .05 4.04 E v a l u a t i o n and Choice of Formats: When s u b j e c t s were asked t o e v a l u a t e t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e y r a t e d t h e b a r / l i n e g raph h i g h e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e graph f o r b o t h , as i s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 15. A t - t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h e d i f f e r n c e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a .05 l e v e l . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 89 Tab l e 15 E v a l u a t i o n s o f G r a p h i c a l Formats f o r A c c u r a c y and O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n . ACCURACY SATISFACTION FORMAT MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. DOT/LINE GRAPH 2.19 (.78) 1.87 ( .84) BAR/LINE GRAPH 3.23 (.90) 3.08 (1.22) C5 Z M H <L K >•••••••••••' ••••••••••••I • • • • • • • • • • • • < • • • • • • • • • • • • < A C C U R A C Y S A T I S F A C T I O N F i g u r e 19 • B A R / L I N E H D O T / U M E R a t i n g s f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , When s u b j e c t s were asked t o choose between d o t / l i n e and b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s t h e y o v e r w h e l m i n g l y chose the b a r / l i n e f o r m a t . They were asked t o recommend a c h o i c e f o r t h e Mercy H o s p i t a l Board (the f i c t i o n s h o s p i t a l i n the e x p e r i m e n t ) , f o r t h e m s e l v e s t o do t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , and f o r t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . S i x t e e n s u b j e c t s chose t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h f o r a l l t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and one s u b j e c t chose t h e d o t / l i n e format f o r a l l t h r e e . U s u a l l y , when t h e y chose t h e " o t h e r ' B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 9 c a t e g o r y , t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y wanted t o r e c e i v e e i t h e r e x p l a n a t o r y comments o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f graphs p l u s numbers i n t a b u l a r f o r m a t s . The t a l l y i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 16. Tab l e 16 C h o i c e s o f Formats f o r P r e s e n t i n g F i n a n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n CHOICE FOR: FORMAT Mercy H o s p i t a l : The e x p e r i m e n t : Own o r g a n i z a t i o n : B a r / L i n e D o t / L i n e O t h e r 19 5 16 29 8 3 21 4 15 z M H <E K 35 2 5 2 8 1 5 > • • • • • • • • • M E R C Y H O S P I T A L . E X P E R I M E H T O U N O R G A N I Z A T I O N • B A R / L I N E 0 D O T / L I N E F i g u r e 20. F r e q u e n c i e s o f Choice of Format f o r "Mercy H o s p i t a l " f o r t he experiment, and f o r s u b j e c t s ' own o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4.05 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s t o examine p o s s i b l e c o v a r i a t e s : The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t : B o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the G r a p h i c a c y T e s t were a n a l y z e d t o d i s c o v e r i f i t would be a good p r e t e s t o f g r a p h i c r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . The b a r / l i n e format produced s l i g h t l y h i g h e r mean-B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 91 s c o r e s t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e i n p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h and p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r b o t h p r e t e s t s and t h e s u b j e c t s r e a d i n g t h e b a r / l i n e took s l i g h t l y l o n g e r t o complete t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s r e a d i n g the d o t / l i n e graph (see T a b l e s A.6, A.7, and A.8 i n A p p e n d i x 1 3 ) . However, t h e r e were few e r r o r s and a l l o f t h e mean s c o r e s and r a t i n g s were h i g h . There was not enough v a r i a n c e c a p t u r e d t o i s o l a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b j e c t s o r between f o r m a t s . I n s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s (MANOVA), none o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means r e a c h e d a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups when t h e y r e a d e i t h e r g r a p h i c a l format i n The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t . The outcome v a r i a b l e s w i t h b o t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s were compared w i t h t h e G r a p h i c a c y T e s t t o t a l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , t i m e , and p r e f e r e n c e i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s (see T a b l e 2 0 ) . To compare t h e groups when t h e y used the same g r a p h i c a l format P r e t e s t 1 and Graph One; P r e t e s t 2 and Graph Two were p a r a l l e l . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a t the .05 l e v e l f o r 3 o f the 6 s e a r c h l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y , 2 o f 6 s e a r c h l e v e l s f o r e l a p s e d t i m e , and f o r completeness o f i n f o r m a t i o n r a t i n g s w i t h Graph One, but the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was o n l y .51. A c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t above .80 would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g r a p h i c a c y of the s u b j e c t s a c c o u n t e d f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s . None o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s r e a c h e d t h i s c u t - o f f v a l u e , as i s de m o n s t r a t e d i n B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 92 T a b l e 17. P r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s from th e Graph One p r e s e n t a t i o n were compared w i t h p r o f i c i e n c y s c o r e s from the G r a p h i c a c y T e s t as a c o v a r i a t e . I t was found t h a t t h e l i n e s Of r e g r e s s i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T h i s v i o l a t e d an e s s e n t i a l a s s u m p t i o n o f c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s . The means c o u l d not be a d j u s t e d because th e s l o p e s o f the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s were not p a r a l l e l and i t was c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e measurements from the G r a p h i c a c y T e s t s c o u l d not be u sed i n an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e (See Appendix A13). P e r c e i v e d F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Graphs: G e n e r a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t s thought t h e y were somewhat f a m i l i a r w i t h graphs f o r p r e s e n t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a r a t i n g o f f o u r out o f f i v e on t h e L i k e r t S c a l e . F i v e r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s e x t r e m e l y f a m i l i a r , a r a t i n g o f f i v e , and t h r e e r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s e x t r e m e l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h graphs, a r a t i n g o f one. " P e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h g r a p h s 1 produced v e r y low and sometimes n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s t o t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s w i t h b o t h Graphs One and Two. T h e r e f o r e , t h e s u b j e c t s ' prejudgment of t h e i r competence w i t h graphs was not a u s e a b l e c o v a r i a t e . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 93 T a b l e 17 C O R R E L A T I O N S C O E F F I C I E N T S B E T W E E N B O T H G R A P H I C A L P R E S E N T A T I O N S W I T H P R E T E S T O N E A N D TWO S E A R C H P R O F I C I E N C Y T O T A L T I M E T O T A L P R E F E R E N C E O U T C O M E V A R I A B L E S P R E T E S T 1 P R E T E S T 2 P R E T E S T 1 P R E T E S T 2 P R E T E S T 1 P R E T E S T 2 P E R C E I V E D G R A P H O N E P R O F I C I E N C Y : D E T A I L S 1 | P = 4 8 1 9 | . 0 0 2 * P= 4 2 2 0 . 007 P= 0 2 9 2 . 858 P= 4 3 9 6 . 005 P= 0 9 8 8 . 5 4 4 P= 1 0 1 3 . 5 3 9 P= 1 9 6 3 . 2 2 5 R E L A T I O N S H I P S | P = 3 8 9 8 . 0 1 3 * P= 3 8 0 7 . 015 P= 0 3 7 3 . 819 P= 2 3 3 0 . 148 P= 1 8 5 7 . 2 5 1 P= 2 9 8 7 . 065 P= 0 2 3 3 . 8 8 7 T R E N D S 1 | P = 2 9 0 7 . 069 P= 2 4 8 8 . 122 P= 3 7 6 7 . 017 P= 4 9 9 9 . 001 P= 0 2 7 3 . 867 P= 3 2 5 5 . 043 P= 2 3 7 7 . 140 G R A P H TWO P R O F I C I E N C Y : D E T A I L S P= 1 7 7 0 . 2 7 4 1 | P = 2 7 1 6 . 090 P= 2 5 9 7 . 1 0 6 P= 2 0 5 6 . 2 0 3 P= 0 1 5 7 . 923 P= 1 4 3 7 . 3 8 3 P= 0 4 4 6 . 7 8 5 R E L A T I O N S H I P -P= 0663 . 684 1 -| P = 0 3 7 5 . 8 1 8 P= 4 2 8 2 . 006 P= 4 0 7 3 . 009 P= 0 3 8 6 . 813 P= 2 3 1 0 . 1 5 7 P= 0 6 9 8 . 6 6 9 T R E N D S P= 2 3 5 4 . 144 1 | P = 3 9 3 0 . 0 1 2 * P= 3 7 3 9 . 0 1 7 P= 3 1 3 9 . 049 P= 0 2 9 1 . 8 5 9 P= 1 0 2 7 . 534 P= 0 1 1 3 . 945 G R A P H O N E T I M E : D E T A I L S P= 4 3 7 0 . 005 P= 5 9 2 3 . 000 | P = 2 6 3 9 | . 1 0 4 j P= 3 5 4 8 . 027 P= 1 7 4 6 . 2 8 8 P= 1 7 7 7 . 2 8 6 P= 1 5 1 8 . 3 5 6 R E L A T I O N S H I P S -P= 2 8 5 5 . 078 P= 2 3 3 8 . 152 1 | P = 4 5 1 4 | . 0 0 4 * j P= 4 8 3 8 . 002 P= 3 3 5 1 . 037 P= 3 8 5 6 . 0 1 7 P= 0 7 5 5 . 648 T R E N D S P= 1844 . 2 6 1 P= 1893 . 2 4 9 1 | P = 5 1 5 7 | . 0 0 1 * | P= 5 8 9 2 . 000 P= 0 9 0 7 . 5 8 3 P= 1 3 5 2 . 4 1 8 P= 0 9 6 7 . 558 G R A P H TWO T I M E : D E T A I L S P= 0 6 9 9 . 668 P= 1 0 4 1 . 523 P= 0 0 5 0 . 976 j P= 0714 | . 6611 P= 1 2 9 9 . 4 2 4 P= 2 8 3 9 . 080 P= 3 2 8 1 . 0 3 9 * R E L A T I O N S H I P S P= 0 4 7 5 . 7 7 1 P= 1 9 2 9 . 2 3 3 P= 0 2 5 3 . 8 7 7 1 P= 1 5 5 3 | . 3 3 9 j P= 3 3 3 4 . 036 P= 0 1 1 8 . 943 P= 0 4 5 9 . 7 7 9 T R E N D S P= 1 8 8 1 . 2 4 5 P= 2 2 7 5 . 1 5 8 P= 0 3 0 1 . 854 1 p= 0493 | . 762 | P= 0 6 3 3 . 6 9 8 P= 1 3 6 1 . 4 0 9 P= 1 4 6 9 . 3 6 6 G R A P H O N E P R E F E R E N C E : C L A R I T Y P= 1 7 3 3 . 2 8 5 P= 3 1 6 9 . 046 P= 0 6 8 9 . 673 P= 0566 . 7 2 9 1 | P = 2 1 3 1 | . 1 8 7 j P= 1 0 1 5 . 5 3 9 P= 0 8 0 5 . 6 2 2 R E A D A B I L I T Y P= 1 9 0 9 . 2 3 8 P= 1 2 5 7 . 4 4 0 P= 0 6 1 0 . 7 0 8 P= 0518 . 7 5 1 1 | P = 1 2 1 6 | . 4 5 5 | P= 0 0 1 0 . 9 9 5 P= 0194 . 905 C O M P L E T E N E S S -P= 1 7 8 1 . 2 7 1 P= 1 9 9 1 . 2 1 8 P= 2 7 9 7 . 080 P= 0 6 6 3 . 684 1 | P = 4 7 0 4 | . 0 0 2 * j P= 2 5 3 4 . 120 P= 0 3 2 3 . 843 G R A P H TWO P R E F E R E N C E : C L A R I T Y P= 2 9 1 7 . 068 P= 2 1 8 3 . 176 P= 0 7 1 0 . 663 P= 1 3 2 3 . 4 1 6 P= 0 6 3 1 . 6 9 9 1 p= 1 8 4 5 | . 2 6 1 j P= 0 9 7 8 . 548 R E A D A B I L I T Y P= 2 3 8 0 . 139 P= 2 1 1 4 . 190 P= 0 2 1 2 . 8 9 7 P= 1 1 9 8 . 4 6 2 P= 0 6 9 1 . 672 j P= 1 6 4 6 | . 3 1 7 | P= 0 4 1 6 . 7 9 9 C O M P L E T E N E S S P= 0 5 7 6 . 7 3 1 P= 1 0 2 8 . 539 P= 2 3 9 8 . 1 4 7 P= 0 4 8 9 . 7 7 1 P= 2 7 8 0 . 0 9 1 j P= 3 2 7 9 | . 0 4 8 * i P= 1 5 7 8 . 344 Weighted Work. Board. E d u c a t i o n and T o t a l E x p e r i e n c e The second p r e m i s e o f the experiment was t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s and/or e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f i n a n c i a l management would g i v e r e a d e r s the knowledge t o be more s e l e c t i v e i n s e a r c h i n g and more competent i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . E x p e r i e n c e w i t h f i n a n c i a l managements was jud g e d t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n y e a r s o f work e x p e r i e n c e i n f i n a n c e o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r y e a r s o f s e r v i c e on a board. There were few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e outcome measures and e i t h e r g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h t h e w e i g h t e d v a r i a b l e s o f work e x p e r i e n c e , b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e , e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o r t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e . None o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were above .8. Y e a r s o f work e x p e r i e n c e was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o time t o complete and b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e a l s o was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o many o f t h e measures. None o f t h e v a r i a b l e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , as measured i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y enough w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s t o be u s e f u l c o v a r i a t e s , as i s demonstrated i n Ta b l e 18. B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e T a b l e 18 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Graph One and Two Outcome V a r i a b l e s w i t h Weighted Work E x p e r i e n c e , Board E x p e r i e n c e . E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e , and T o t a l E x p e r i e n c e V a r i a b l e s . WEIGHTED EXPERIENCE FOR: O U T C O M E V A R I A B L E S WORK B O A R D E D U C A T I O N T O T A L G R A P H O N E P R O F I C I E N C Y : D E T A I L S P= . 1 7 5 9 . 2 7 8 P= . 0 8 9 7 . 5 8 2 . 3134 P= . 0 4 9 * . 1 7 2 3 P= . 2 8 8 R E L A T I O N S H I P S P= . 2 3 7 9 . 1 3 9 P= . 0 6 7 5 . 6 7 9 . 3 5 2 9 P= . 0 2 6 * - . 0 7 0 5 P= . 6 6 6 T R E N D S P= 0 5 8 1 . 722 P= 0954 . 558 . 1 2 5 1 P= . 4 4 2 . 1 4 7 0 P= . 3 6 6 G R A P H TWO P R O F I C I E N C Y : D E T A I L S P= . 0453 . 7 8 1 P= . 0804 . 6 2 2 . 2 1 8 9 P= . 1 7 5 - . 0 0 1 8 P= . 9 9 1 R E L A T I O N S H I P S P= . 1 2 4 8 . 4 4 3 P= . 0 3 3 7 . 836 - . 0 3 8 0 P= . 8 1 6 . 0 4 5 8 P= . 7 7 9 T R E N D S P= . 0 8 0 2 . 623 P= . 0 4 7 2 . 772 . 1 9 5 8 P= . 2 2 6 . 1 5 5 9 P= . 3 3 7 G R A P H ONE T I M E : D E T A I L S P= . 1 1 1 6 . 4 9 9 P= . 0 1 0 8 . 948 - . 3 5 6 4 P= . 0 2 6 * - . 1 9 5 1 P= . 2 3 4 R E L A T I O N S H I P S P= . 0 4 0 9 . 8 0 5 P= . 1 4 1 3 . 3 9 1 . 1 2 8 7 P= . 4 3 5 - . 0 7 2 5 P= . 6 6 1 T R E N D S P= 1 5 1 6 . 3 5 7 P= 0 5 4 9 . 7 4 0 . 0 5 7 0 P= . 7 3 0 - . 0 4 1 4 P= . 8 0 2 G R A P H TWO T I M E : D E T A I L S P= 0 0 9 9 . 952 P= 1758 . 2 7 8 . 0 6 2 0 P= . 7 0 4 - . 0 9 9 1 P= . 5 4 3 R E L A T I O N S H I P S P= . 0 5 9 6 . 7 1 5 P= . 1 8 2 7 . 2 5 9 . 2 8 7 9 P= . 0 7 2 - . 0 5 3 0 P= . 7 4 5 T R E N D S P= 0 2 7 1 . 8 6 8 P= 0 6 0 3 . 7 1 1 . 2 8 2 3 P= . 0 7 8 . 1 6 1 6 P= . 3 1 9 G R A P H O N E P R E F E R E N C E : C L A R I T Y P= 3 1 0 8 . 0 5 1 •P= 0 1 3 9 . 932 - . 0 5 7 9 P= . 7 2 3 - . 2 3 4 6 P= . 1 4 5 R E A D A B I L I T Y P= 4 0 0 6 . 0 1 0 * P= 0 4 0 6 . 804 - . 0 2 7 2 P= . 8 6 7 - . 2 9 9 9 P= . 0 6 0 C O M P L E T E N E S S P= . 1 7 4 8 . 2 8 1 P= . 0 1 1 2 . 945 . 0 3 6 2 P= . 8 2 5 - . 1 0 8 8 P= . 5 0 4 G R A P H TWO P R E F E R E N C E : C L A R I T Y P= 2 5 2 5 . 116 P= 1 4 1 8 . 3 8 3 - . 2 2 7 2 P= . 1 5 9 - . 3 4 2 8 P= . 0 3 0 R E A D A B I L I T Y P= 1 5 3 1 . 3 4 6 P= 0 2 0 1 . 902 - . 4 2 9 1 P= . 0 0 6 * - . 2 7 2 1 P= . 0 8 9 C O M P L E T E N E S S - . 1 4 3 7 . 0 7 0 6 . 1 6 3 5 . 0 0 8 4 P= . 3 8 9 P= . 6 7 4 P= . 3 2 7 P= . 9 6 0 B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 9 4.06 Summary of o b s e r v a t i o n s , w r i t t e n , and o r a l comments: O b s e r v a t i o n s : F o u r t e e n s u b j e c t s used paper, pen o r f i n g e r s as r u l e r s . E l e v e n s u b j e c t s c o n v e r t e d some d a t a p o i n t s t o numbers and d i d c a l c u l a t i o n s . Not everyone wrote out comments but most d i d . Many p e o p l e c h a t t e d w h i l e t h e y were w o r k i n g and everyone had comments t o make when t h e y were f i n i s h e d . The f o l l o w i n g g i v e s examples of t h e most common comments. Many r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e numbers b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d : "Most d i f f i c u l t i e s because of when w o r k i n g w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . . . Because i t was u n f a m i l i a r . . . I'm a d a t a a n a l y s t . . . I l i k e d t h e dot f o r t h e monthly - but I wasn't f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e numbers.... I p r e f e r t a b l e s . . . you g e t a sense o f what i s happening o v e r time...I'm not used t o t h i s s c a l e o f d o l l a r s " There was some c o n f u s i o n w i t h t h e l i n e s on the c o m b i n a t i o n g r a p h s : " I t i s not c l e a r i f p a t i e n t revenues a r e p a r t o f t o t a l r e v e n u e s . . . so I ' l l say somewhat c l e a r . . . I d i d n ' t l i k e i t t o o much." ( S u b j e c t was u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e graph.) Some wanted a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n : " I ' d l i k e t o get statement accompanied by a graph. We g e t q u a r t e r l y s t a t e m e n t s and a d e t a i l e d statement a t y e a r end." " D i f f i c u l t t o r e a d w i t h o u t g uidance I would l i k e a c t u a l f a c t s -p r e s e n t e d by t h e f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e r i n charge." "We sometimes get i t i n b a r graphs, but t h e n t h e y a r e e x p l a i n e d B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 97 o r a l l y . I l i k e i t when t h e y e x p l a i n even though no one a s k s . " "...need a combined approach. M a t e r i a l must be p r e s e n t e d i n many ways. I l i k e t o ask q u e s t i o n s o f p e r s o n who i s r e s p o n s i b l e . " " I need someone t h e r e t o t e l l me where t h e y a r e . . . P e o p l e a r e t h e r e (board meeting) f o r t h e e v e n i n g . . . p e o p l e do not r e a d i t ( f i n a n c e r e p o r t ) b e f o r e . . . t h e y r e l y on i n t e l l i g e n c e a t t h e moment... I'm a computer programmer but I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s ! " I do b e t t e r a t o r a l t h i n g s . I l i k e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f i n a n c e s . " Many r e a d e r s wanted a c t u a l numbers: "Bar g r a p h i s a h e l p . . . I l i k e t o l o o k a t a c t u a l numbers and compare t o y e a r b e f o r e and t o budget. Numbers ar e m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s you marry them t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e h o s p i t a l . . need t o l o o k a t p a t i e n t days, f o r example... o r c e r t a i n departments and t h e n key f i n a n c e s w i t h a c t i v i t i e s of the h o s p i t a l o r you w i l l be f o o l e d . " Many wanted a c o m b i n a t i o n o f graphs and o t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n methods: "a g r a p h i s o n l y as good as the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t accompanies i t . . . I t i s not a b o a r d members p l a c e t o s t r u g g l e t o i n t e r p r e t . . . I s e t a budget p l a n . . . as we go t h r o u g h the y e a r . . . and a n y t h i n g t h a t happens I want t o know an e x p l a n a t i o n why... was i t something t o meld i n t o t h e budget?... and a f f e c t the p l a n t h a t has been done?... so j u s t t o show a graph of ups and downs.... There a r e n ' t c o m p a r i s o ns t h a t a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r me... need more by h o s p i t a l program....board has t o ask q u e s t i o n s . . . t h e y s h o u l d be g e t t i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n o f what i s happening and why t h e r e a r e v a r i a n c e s . . . " Many d i d n ' t l i k e dot graphs: "Dot graph r e a l l y tough t o r e a d . . . as I get o l d e r my e y e s . . . may not s e e . . . I n p a r t b a r graphs used d a r k e r l i n e s . . . b e t t e r t h a n l i g h t d o t t e d l i n e s " " I found th e dot graph d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . " B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 98 "I'm more used t o t a b l e s . Boy i s t h i s a w f u l ( d o t / l i n e g r a p h ) ! I found m y s e l f . . . I got b o r e d q u i c k l y . . . I wasn't f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e terms... More c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h b a r s - more f a m i l i a r . " "Those d o t s were i m p o s s i b l e ! . . . T h e a x i s a r e wrong... I want th e p e r i o d s a l o n g t h e bottom and the d o l l a r s up t h e s i d e . . . I g l a s s e d o v e r when I saw i t . . . The b a r graph was more f a m i l i a r . . . . 1 want t o g e t t h e " g e s t a l t " . . . . b u t I found graphs d i d n ' t g i v e me enough d e t a i l f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s . . . The q u e s t i o n s asked f o r d e t a i l . " "That was tough s t u f f . . . i t i s not c l e a r . . . t h e d o t s a r e sooo c l o s e . . . Boy, a r u l e r would s u r e h e l p - but I wouldn't have one i n a b o a r d m e e t i n g . . . . so I c a n ' t t e l l . I s t h i s c a l l e d a dot graph? B000 H i s s s s . . . You can s t u f f t h a t i n y o u r ...1 s h o u l d w r i t e b o a r d - I ' l l r e s i g n . " "Don't u n d e r s t a n d t h i s graph - v i s u a l l y o f f e n s i v e ! " Two s u b j e c t s c o n f u s e d the open dot w i t h a z e r o : "... dot i s z e r o . . means z e r o revenue?" " I would hand t h i s b a c k . . . A c t u a l i s b l a c k . , a r e expenses... and z e r o s a r e r e v e n u e s . , a c t u a l i s b l a c k ? . . . " Some found i t h a r d t o d e c i d e t h e e x a c t v a l u e s shown by d o t s : " I t i s h a r d t o see the d o t s . . . 1 found i t h a r d t o l o o k a t t h e d o t s and I had t o keep l o o k i n g a t the bottom t o see w h i c h one was expenses ... I c o u l d n ' t remember." " I assume t h a t ' s 'under' and not ' a t ' ( p o i n t i n g t o t h e o f o r A p r i l and t r y i n g t o d e c i d e how c l o s e i t was t o t h e average l i n e . ) " " I c a n ' t see an amount... I ' l l put down " S m a l l amount". "are we t a l k i n g the end of the dot o r the m i d d l e o f t h e dot o r t h e back of i t ? . . . I s t h i s a r a i n d r o p ? . . . " "...Are t h e y e q u a l - t h e s e l i t t l e d o t s . . . i t i s h a r d t o t e l l . . . a l t h o u g h t h e y s t a r t e d e q u a l a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r . . . I don't know how t o r e a d t h i s . . . A l i n e has a s t o p p i n g p o i n t but t h e dot B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 99 doesn't have a d e f i n i t e s t o p o r s t a r t . . . . " U n f a m i l i a r i t y was a common comment a g a i n s t dot graph. Twelve p e o p l e commented on t h i s : "That was i n t e r e s t i n g ! Dot graphs... never seen b e f o r e . . . n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h them. I had t o t h i n k . . . T h i s ( p o i n t i n g t o b a r graph) s a i d more t o me... where revenues and expenses were i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the budget and y e a r end....I'm more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h i s . " "I ' v e n e v e r seen i t p r e s e n t e d . . . never seen f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r h o s p i t a l s t h i s way. I t h i n k i t would be the e a s i e s t way t o do i t because you can see where you a r e g o i n g . I would have t o g e t used t o graphs, but i t would s u i t me." " I n t e r e s t i n g . . . . H a d t o f e e l y o u r way around t h e g r a p h t o know whi c h way you a r e g o i n g . . . Graphs a r e more o f a guide...You need t o have t r a i n i n g . but i f you had the t r a i n i n g you would be a b l e t o use them..." " I t h i n k i t i s what you are used t o . . . I can l o o k a t f i g u r e s and see i f t h e y a r e more o r l e s s . . . b u t on t h i s I c a n ' t . . . . e s p e c i a l l y when you a r e not used t o i t . . . I found i t d i f f i c u l t . . . but t h e b a r s a r e e a s i e r . . . I n t h e end i f you were f a m i l i a r . . . . W h e n you l o o k a t t h e d o t s i t i s a q u e s t i o n where t o draw t h e l i n e ...1 guess t h e b a r i s more a c c u r a t e . " " I w i l l u n d e r s t a n d i t e v e n t u a l l y . . . . T h i s i s t h e f u t u r e , i s n ' t i t ? . . . I ' m a n o v i c e a t t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g . " However, a few l i k e d t h e dot graph, a l i t t l e : " I l i k e d o t s . . . F e l t I needed a r u l e r w i t h b a r graph, maybe i t was because I r e a d i t (dot graph) a c r o s s . " " I d e f i n i t e l y want t a b l e s o f numbers and would l i k e a dot graph as an a i d " " W e l l I l i k e t h e dot graph...but I'm not g o i n g t o g i v e i t f u l l marks [Then r a t e d i t 3, 3, and 1] ." B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 100 The most v o c i f e r o u s s u b j e c t on s e e i n g t h e d o t / l i n e g r a p h r a n t e d f o r 5 minutes and r e f u s e d t o do the q u e s t i o n s w i t h Graph One. When he t u r n e d t h e page and saw t h e b a r / l i n e graph, he d i d c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e expe r i m e n t . I was a b l e t o w r i t e down o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f h i s comments: " T h i s h o s p i t a l i s i n t r o u b l e i f t h e s e a r e t h e r e p o r t s we r u n ! Am I supposed t o work t h e s e o u t ? . . . . h a r d e r t o r e a d not used t o work w i t h t h e s e graphs....wouldn't do i t ! maybe i f I had some t r a i n i n g on u s i n g t h e s e g r a p h s . . . but I l i k e t o see t h e f i g u r e s . I guess i f I had l o t s o f time t o l o o k a t i t , and s t u d y t h e t r e n d s , and f i g u r e w h i c h one was what, but w i t h t h e t i m e r g o i n g and knowing t i m e meant something, I j u s t c o u l d n ' t do i t ! I t h i n k b o a r d members would have t o have an e d u c a t i o n t o use graphs. I f we d e c i d e d t o go w i t h g r a p h s , we would have t o i n t r o d u c e i t t o them r i g h t , and show what t h e numbers meant on t h e graph. I guess I'm j u s t t o o o l d f o r gra p h s , I l i k e t o see t h e v a r i a n c e . I work out my own f i g u r e s , and I make s u r e I u n d e r s t a n d i t ! " The comment t h a t summed up most p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s . . " D o t ? . . d e f i n i t e l y n o t ! " 4.07 Summary o f Chapter Four F o r t y v o l u n t e e r s took p a r t i n t h e s t u d y ; 17 men and 23 women; t h e i r average age was 53. The m a j o r i t y h e l d a B a c h e l o r Degree. The s u b j e c t s averaged t e n t o f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f work e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c e and e i g h t y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e on a b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s . They were randomly a s s i g n e d t o two groups o f twenty. B a r / l i n e v s ' d o t / l i n e 101 In a l l e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the means o f the measures t a k e n , t h e group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format was h i g h e r t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e f o r m a t , but the d i f f e r e n c e d i d not always r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e b a r / l i n e graph was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r f o r p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h i n g f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r t r e n d s n o r were t h e r e any s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n speed o f c o m p l e t i n g the t h r e e l e v e l s . W i t h Graph One, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s o f t h e g r a p h i c a l format f o r c l a r i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y , however the r a t i n g of completeness o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n t h e second g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g raph was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n the group u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e graph f o r p r o f i c i e n c y a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . However, a t each l e v e l t h e t i m e t o complete the q u e s t i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . The P r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o l l o w e d t h e same t r e n d as w i t h t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n ; t h e r a t i n g s f o r c l a r i t y , and r e a d a b i l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r t h e b a r / l i n e format but t h e r a t i n g f o r completeness o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h i n t h e two t i m e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but t h e r e was a c e i l i n g e f f e c t i n t h e comparisons between t h e two groups. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two graph t y p e s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 102 p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h , t ime t o complete, o r t o t a l r a t i n g s o f p r e f e r e n c e . None of t h e v a r i a b l e s o f e x p e r i e n c e o r g r a p h i c a c y , as measured i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y enough w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e s t o be u s e f u l c o v a r i a t e s . P e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s a l s o was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e outcome measures o f e i t h e r g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . The o r a l and w r i t t e n comments s u p p o r t e d the p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s o f t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . The b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format was chosen f o r the e x p e r i m e n t and f o r r e p o r t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' s own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The comment t h a t summed up most p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s . . . " D o t ? . . d e f i n i t e l y n o t ! " The f i n a l c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d r e l a t e d t o the o r i g i n a l i s s u e s . A l t e r n a t e c o n c l u s i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s a r e i d e n t i f i e d and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e a r e no t e d . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 103 Chapter Five DISCUSSION T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the main f i n d i n g s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e s u l t s t h a t s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , and some s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t s . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s t u d y a r e r e v i e w e d . Recommendations f o r p r a c t i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e t h e n proposed. C o n t e x t o f t h e Experiment: The a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f " r e a l -w o r l d " h e a l t h c a r e g o v e r n o r s s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d . T h i s s t u d y s o l i c i t e d a c t i v e b o a r d members o f h e a l t h c a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , gave them r e a l d a t a i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , and asked q u e s t i o n s t h a t c h a l l e n g e d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t . T h i s p r o v i d e d e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y and h e l p e d t o a s s u r e t h e f i n d i n g s would have r e l e v a n c e i n p r a c t i c e . A l l t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d t h a t f i n a n c e s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n an o r g a n i z e d summary. They were eager t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e s o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g r a p h i c a l l y , so t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s and f i n a l comments were c o l l e c t e d . When t h e comments of the t r u s t e e s a r e added t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s made from the d a t a i t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s can be f a c i l i t a t e d by p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 104 5.1 Main F i n d i n g s o f t h e Study: a.) F i r s t H y p o t h e s i s : G e n e r a l l y , t h e performance o f t h e s u b j e c t s when r e a d i n g t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format s u g g e s t e d t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s t o u n d e r s t a n d f o r e c a s t s was r e j e c t e d f o r t h e second p r e s e n t a t i o n of the g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . When th e t o t a l s were p r e s e n t e d c u m u l a t i v e l y , t h e group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e format was s t a t i s t i c a l l y h i g h e r i n p r o f i c i e n c y a t a l l t h r e e s e a r c h l e v e l s (p < .05). The b a r / l i n e format p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were more p r o f i c i e n t i n s e a r c h e s f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s b o t h t i m e s t h e s u b j e c t s r e a d graphs. I n e v e r y c o m p a r i s o n of t h e d o t / l i n e and b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y t h e mean c o r r e c t response w i t h t h e b a r / l i n e format was h i g h e r . I n p r a c t i c a l terms, as i s n o t e d i n T a b l e 10 and F i g u r e 13, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s about one more c o r r e c t s e a r c h out o f a p o s s i b l e f i v e . C o m b i n a t i o n Graphs: I t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f gr a p h t y p e s a r e not e q u a l . There a r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e answers as t o why t h e b a r / l i n e was s u p e r i o r t o t h e d o t / l i n e format i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 105 The f i r s t argument i n v o l v e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s a l i e n c e o f b a r and dot graph t y p e s . Readers v i e w i n g the d o t / l i n e g r a p h have more e r r o r s and r e p e a t e d l y gave t h e d o t / l i n e format a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r r a t i n g f o r c l a r i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y . The two g r a p h i c f o r m a t s under s t u d y emphasize i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y w h i c h may account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s found i n t h e s e a r c h and use o f i n f o r m a t i o n . B a r s gave an emphatic i m p r e s s i o n o f s i z e whereas the d o t t e d l i n e may have g i v e n a brok e n g e s t a l t . Perhaps r e a d e r s r e l i e d on t h e image o f volume t o make d e c i s i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i v e amounts o f t h e r e s o u r c e s . I t may be t h a t p r e s e n t i n g d o l l a r v a l u e s w i t h a shape and s i z e h e l p e d r e a d e r s t o compare q u a n t i t i e s . T u f t e (1990) s u g g e s t s t h a t g r a p h i c s s h o u l d convey a s p i r i t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d e pth and "emaciated d a t a - t h i n d e s i g n provoke s u s p i c i o n s about q u a l i t y o f measurement and a n a l y s i s " (p. 32 ) . The l i g h t d o t t e d l i n e s may not have p o r t r a y e d a d i s t i n c t whole q u a n t i t y . The s o l i d d a t a - l i n e s were more emphatic t h a n t h e l i g h t d o t t e d l i n e s and may have been g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r t h e d o t t e d l i n e s i n th e i n i t i a l r e a d i n g o f the graph. Readers may g i v e p r i o r i t y t o heavy marks ( K o s s l y n , 1989). J a r v e n p a a (1990) found t h a t when s u b j e c t s used g r a p h i c a l d i s p l a y s the i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e was a c q u i r e d f i r s t . T h i s might a f f e c t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d o t / l i n e d i s p l a y s i f d a t a - l i n e s d i s p l a y i n g complementary i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d by the end-dots i n t h e gr a p h p a r t o f t h e d i s p l a y . B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 106 S e c o n d l y , t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e ty p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t l i n e s and b a r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e s e n t w e l l g i v e s a c l e a r e r d i s t i n c t i o n t h a n does the i n f o r m a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d by l i n e s and d o t s . The communicative power o f g r a p h i c d i s p l a y i s enhanced by v i s u a l c o n t r a s t (Jarvenpaa, 1986) . B a r s a l l o w comparisons between two q u a n t i t i e s and l i n e s show t r e n d s . These a r e complementary f u n c t i o n s when p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e b a r / l i n e graphs would have t h e q u a l i t i e s t o answer q u e s t i o n s about r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r t r e n d s and f u r t h e r , about t r e n d s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f the b a s i c - l e v e l c o n s t i t u e n t s a r e e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and i n t e r p r e t e d , t h i s w i l l l e a d t o e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the d i s p l a y ( K o s s l y n , 1989). I n t h e immediate v i e w i n g o f t h e b a r / l i n e graphs, r e l a t i o n s h i p s g i v e n by the b a r s and t r e n d s g i v e n by the l i n e s combine t o g i v e an o r g a n i z e d summary t o t h e r e a d e r s . B o t h l i n e and dot graph t y p e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y show t r e n d s w e l l and t h e d o t / l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n may have g i v e n redundant e f f e c t s i n s t e a d o f a i d i n g comparisons. K o s s l y n (1989) says t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y o f s h o r t term memory i s n o t o r i o u s l y l i m i t e d . I n d e c o d i n g t h e d o t / l i n e graphs, r e a d e r s may have m e n t a l l y c o n n e c t e d t h e end d o t s t o "see" t r e n d s i n expenses and revenues but t h e n were n o t a b l e t o h o l d t h i s v i s i o n i n w o r k i n g memory and a l s o make comparisons t o t r e n d s shown by d a t a - l i n e s . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 107 T h i r d l y , d o t s t h a t were c l o s e t o g e t h e r p r e s e n t e d r e a d i n g p r oblems. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e comments and c o m p l a i n t s made by t h e s u b j e c t s and i n t h e i r r educed a b i l i t y t o make c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s . Readers had t r o u b l e d e c i d i n g on the v a l u e t h a t t h e dot format i n d i c a t e d because t h e y were not s u r e whether t o r e a d t h e c e n t r e o f t h e dot o r the o u t e r edges. When comparing two d a t a p o i n t s where t h e d o t s were c l o s e i n v a l u e , the amount of space between was d i f f i c u l t t o judge because of t h e rounded edges, and when d o t s were c l o s e t o g e t h e r , t h e roundness of t h e edges may have s u g g e s t e d o v e r l a p p i n g and e q u a l p r o p e r t i e s more t h a n t h e d i s t i n c t edges o f t h e b a r s . As one p e r s o n commented: "When you l o o k a t d o t s i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f where t o draw the l i n e . " As was s u g g e s t e d by H i g g i n s (198 9 ) , c o m b i n a t i o n graphs appeared t o improve th e e f f i c i e n c y o f p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Readers u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e format found and u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o answer on aveage more t h a n t h r e e o f the f i v e q u e r i e s f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s t e s t e d i n b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Graph C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h i s s t u d y has r e i n f o r c e d t h e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n graphs r e t a i n some of the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e merged gra p h t y p e s . I n t h e i r taxonomy of g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Tan and Benbasat (1990) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t l i n e graphs e x c e l a t showing B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 108 t r e n d s . B o t h f o r m a t s used l i n e s t o d i s p l a y t h e same d a t a . Trends were shown t o be s p e e d i l y found and p r o f i c i e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d i n b o t h c o m b i n a t i o n f o r m a t s . There were fewer e r r o r s and t h e ti m e of c o m p l e t i o n was f a s t e r i n s e a r c h e s f o r t r e n d s t h a n i n s e a r c h e s a t t h e o t h e r l e v e l s w i t h b o t h g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h fewer e r r o r s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b a r / l i n e format i n the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t , b o t h combined f o r m a t s a l l o w e d r e a d e r s t o anchor on a x i s l a b e l s t o d i r e c t t h e i r s e a r c h f o r e l e m e n t a r y a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e t a i l s . There was l e s s v a r i a t i o n between t h e two fo r m a t s i n mean time t o complete s e a r c h e s f o r d e t a i l s t h a n i n mean ti m e t o complete q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r t r e n d s . b) Second H y p o t h e s i s The second h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e o r c o m b i n a t i o n d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s on p r e f e r e n c e f o r a format was g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d f o r b o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e graphs. The s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e b a r / l i n e format f o r c l e a r n e s s and r e a d a b i l i t y were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n e v a l u a t i o n s a f t e r the two p r e s e n t a t i o n s (p < .05). Measurement o f P r e f e r e n c e : P r e f e r e n c e , i n t h i s s t u d y was not j u s t a measure o f o p i n i o n . When a l l t h e measures are t a k e n t o g e t h e r and t h e f i n a l c h o i c e i s made, an a c t u a l p r e f e r e n c e i s i n d i c a t e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t , as p r e d i c t e d by c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s (Anderson, 1982), s u b j e c t s B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 109 chose th e format t h a t t h e y were most s u c c e s s f u l w i t h , t h e b a r / l i n e graph. I n t h e i r judgments of t h e graphs a f t e r each use, b o t h groups of t r u s t e e s r a t e d t h e b a r / l i n e format c l e a r e r and more r e a d a b l e . I n t h i s s t u d y , we i n i t i a t e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r e f e r e n c e g o a l s by a s k i n g them t o r a t e t h e f o r m a t s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h a v i n g used them, f o r c l a r i t y , r e a d a b i l i t y , and c o mpleteness of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . By r e p e a t i n g t h e r a t i n g o f t h e f o r m a t s , t h e i r f i n a l c h o i c e s h o u l d have r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e format t h a t h e l p e d them the most t o i n v e s t i g a t e and comprehend the m a t e r i a l . Graph One p r e s e n t e d p e r i o d i c t o t a l s and Graph Two p r e s e n t e d c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s . W i t h Graph Two, t h e c u m u l a t i v e t o t a l s r e s u l t e d i n v e r y s m a l l d i s c e r n a b l e d i f e r e n c e s , and, as i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 13 and F i g u r e 17, the b a r / l i n e format was j u dged t o be c l e a r e r and more r e a d a b l e . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f the two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . When the i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d so t h a t r e a d e r s had t o make comparisons of s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s t h e b a r / l i n e format was p r e f e r r e d o v e r t h e d o t / l i n e . c) T h i r d H y p o t h e s i s The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a p h i c a c y and e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l o r b o a r d e x p e r i e n c e would not a f f e c t r e a d e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r a format, p r o f i c i e n c y , o r t ime t o complete s e a r c h e s of i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d . None of t h e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s outcome v a r i a b l e s showed B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e between the e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e s a c r i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . 110 and The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t I t was d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o n o te t h a t The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t d i d not s e r v e as a u s e f u l c o v a r i a t e t o remove a d u l t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s t e s t was d e s i g n e d t o examine the c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e w i t h o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n f o r m a t s and t h e q u e s t i o n s were t h e o r e t i c a l l y based on the t h r e e l e v e l s o f s e a r c h . However, the c a p t u r e d v a r i a t i o n w i t h a d u l t r e a d e r s was not h i g h enough t o w a r r a n t a n a l y z i n g the r e s u l t s w i t h g r a p h i c a c y as a c o v a r i a t e . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e means between the two f o r m a t s i n P r e t e s t 1 were o n l y 2% f o r p r o f i c i e n c y , 26 seconds e l a p s e d t i m e , and 1.3% f o r t o t a l p r e f e r e n c e ; the d i f f e r e n c e s were s i m i l a r f o r P r e t e s t 2. These r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e was a c e i l i n g e f f e c t , i n t h a t t h e r e were few e r r o r s . The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t was f i r s t d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n and u sed weather i n f o r m a t i o n . Even w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s , a d u l t s f o u n d i t v e r y easy. The t e s t c o u l d be f u r t h e r r e v i s e d f o r a d u l t s i f each g r a p h p r e s e n t e d more weather i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s . Temperature, h u m i d i t y , and wind i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be added. The p r e t e s t d i d not f u l l y a s s e s s th e s u b j e c t s ' p r e e x i s t i n g a b i l i t y t o r e a d graphs because the i n f o r m a t i o n was t o o s i m p l e . S t i l l , t h e G r a p h i c a c y T e s t d i d r e l a t e t o t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s b e t t e r t h a n p e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y and t h e s e r e s u l t s B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 111 h o l d t h e promise t h a t perhaps an expanded G r a p h i c a c y T e s t would be v a l u a b l e i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . R e l e v a n t E x p e r i e n c e : E x p e r i e n c e on a b o a r d o r f i n a n c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e (as measured i n t h i s study) d i d not g r e a t l y e f f e c t s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y t o s e a r c h f o r and u n d e r s t a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s sample of v o l u n t e e r s had a wide v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l backgrounds, as do most p u b l i c b o a r d s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y would g i v e a d i f f e r e n t and more r e a l i s t i c measure of e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who were used i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The y e a r s o f work o r b o a r d s e r v i c e s h o u l d have a c q u a i n t e d the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e l a t e t o new f i n a n c i a l d a t a , t o spot i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o r t o f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s . I t appeared t h a t t h e form t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was i n was s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r e a d e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l e a r n i n g from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i s p l a y s . Perhaps t h e p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t i n g f o r m a t s t o b oards and y e a r s o f f i n a n c i a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work p r e d i s p o s e s r e a d e r s t o f i n a n c i a l t a b l e s , not t o e x p e r t i s e i n f i n a n c i a l s t u d y . An e n g i n e e r , who found t h e experiment easy, f e l t t h a t h i s t r a i n i n g h e l p e d him t o u n d e r s t a n d and r e l a t e t o g r a p h s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t work r e q u i r i n g v i s u a l a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s o r j o b s t h a t r e q u i r e c o n s u l t i n g s c h e m a t i c drawings might a f f e c t r e a d e r s ' a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d graphs and would s e r v e as a more r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e f a c t o r . B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 112 P e r c e i v e d F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Graphs My f i n d i n g s e m p i r i c a l l y s u p p o r t Hard's (1989) i n h e r s t u d y w i t h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s : p e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h graphs was not a good i n d i c a t o r o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n an e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s s t u d y a s ked s u b j e c t s who were a l l b o a r d members, but who had a v a r i e t y o f b a ckgrounds, t h e same q u e s t i o n , and a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d . t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h graphs t o any o f t h e outcome v a r i a b l e s . The one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n t o a t ime measurement (p <.05) c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by chance r e l a t i o n s h i p s between numbers. By c o m b ining the f i n d i n g s o f b o t h s t u d i e s i t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r c e i v e d g r a p h i c f a m i l i a r i t y i s not a good i n d i c a t o r o f g r a p h i c p r o f i c i e n c y . 5.2 Unexpected f i n d i n g s : R e l a t i o n s h i p Comparisons: I d i d not f i n d a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of s e a r c h e s f o r d e t a i l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s . Wainer (1980) found t h a t w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s e a r c h , as t h e l e v e l o f s e a r c h i n c r e a s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y a l s o i n c r e a s e d . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s would show r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t t e r t h a n d e t a i l s and t r e n d s b e t t e r t h a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( C a r s w e l l e t a l , 1993; G u t h r i e e t a l , 1993; P i n k e r , 1983; Wainer, 1980, 1992), but when we examine the graphed l i n e s o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n F i g u r e 14 t h e y a r e not s t r a i g h t , but v-shaped, i n d i c a t i n g a n o n - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s u b j e c t s had more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 113 s e a r c h e s f o r d e t a i l s and t r e n d s t h a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h e two p r e s e n t a t i o n s u s i n g b o t h g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e (Golen & L i n n , 1985; Macdonald-Ross, 1977; Tan & Benbasat, 1991; W r i g h t , 1977) i t has been a g r e e d t h a t b a r graphs would be s u p e r i o r f o r d e p i c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f o l l o w i n g t h e same l o g i c dot graph f o r m a t s s h o u l d a l s o show r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e l l . One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e o p p o s i t e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t when l o o k i n g a t complex graphs, th e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two d a t a p o i n t s may be more d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e . The " r e a l i n f o r m a t i o n " , t a k e n from a c t u a l h o s p i t a l r e p o r t s , d i d not p r o v i d e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s between expenses and r e v e n u e s . To f i n d t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e o v e r t h e y e a r meant e v a l u a t i n g t h e gaps.between the l e n g t h s o f t h e b a r s o r between the two d o t s on a l i n e o v e r 13 r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s . I n i t i a l l y p e o p l e had t o f i n d the l a r g e s t gaps, and t h e n t h e y had t o e s t i m a t e w h i c h was the l a r g e s t o f two o r t h r e e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I f t h e r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s were not s i d e by s i d e , t h a t i s , i n two c o n s e c u t i v e r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s , t h e y t h e n had t o m e n t a l l y move two s e c t i o n s o f t h e graph t o g e t h e r o r e l i m i n a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n between b e f o r e making a comparison. The s u b j e c t s may have had d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s p o s i n g images w i t h the d o t / l i n e and, t o a l e s s e r degree, w i t h t h e b a r / l i n e f o r m a t s t o compare r e l a t i o n s h i p s between expenses and revenues. The group u s i n g the b a r / l i n e graph d i d b e t t e r t h a n th e group B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 114 u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e a t f i n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . When comparing b o t h graphs t h e mean o f t h e groups i s h i g h e r w i t h t h e b a r / l i n e f o r m a t . T h i s may mean t h a t the b a r / l i n e p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n g e r image t h a t made comparisons e a s i e r , o r t h a t i t was e a s i e r t o c o n v e r t t h e ends o f t h e b a r s t o numbers on the s c a l e t o make co m p a r i s o n s . Open End-dots Were Confused W i t h Zeros The end-dots may have p r e s e n t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n problems t o r e a d e r s . E i n h o r n and Hogarth (1981) e x p l a i n t h a t i n j u d g i n g s i m i l a r i t y p e o p l e a t t e n d more t o common f e a t u r e s . Open d o t s a r e l i k e z e r o s , so perhaps t h i s was not a s u i t a b l e symbol t o p o r t r a y d o l l a r s . Readers who i n t e r p r e t e d t h e open dot as a z e r o , o r n o t h i n g , would not t h e n be a b l e t o t h i n k o f t h e dot r e l a t i n g t o a q u a n t i t y o f d o l l a r s on the s c a l e . There s h o u l d be o n l y one way t o i n t e r p r e t g raph symbols ( K o s s l y n , 1989). The s t u d y may have r e v e a l e d unwanted i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f end-dots o f t h e d o t / l i n e g raph. A c c u r a c y o f Graphs S t a t i s t i c s and p e o p l e ' s comments r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d o t / l i n e graphs were not s u p e r i o r f o r d e c i s i o n a c c u r a c y . B o t h groups e x p e r i e n c e d b o t h f o r m a t s b e f o r e t h e y r a t e d them f o r a c c u r a c y and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . A c c u r a c y i s one a t t r i b u t e on w h i c h graphs are o f t e n c r i t i c i s e d . I n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t s , t h e s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e b a r / l i n e graph s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 115 s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a c y t h a n t h e d o t / l i n e (p < .05) . T h e i r judgment o f t h e graphs, r e p o r t e d i n F i g u r e 18 and T a b l e s 7 and 13, shows t h a t t h e y were not c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h e i t h e r f o r m a t , but t h e y p r e f e r r e d the b a r / l i n e graphs o v e r t h e d o t / l i n e . 5.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s : P e o p l e Need T r a i n i n g t o Use Graphs: One s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s made i n t h e i r comments was t h a t p e o p l e need t r a i n i n g t o use new g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . I n t h e s u r v e y o f h o s p i t a l s conducted as background t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t , none o f t h e h o s p i t a l s s u r v e y e d used graphs t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . There were c o n s i s t e n t l y more e r r o r s w i t h t h e d o t / l i n e t h a n w i t h the b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t . P e o p l e commented on t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h dot graphs and s a i d t h e y f e l t t h e y would do b e t t e r w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b o t h o f t h e f o r m a t s . S e v e r a l s u b j e c t s were o b s e r v e d u s i n g t h e s c r a p paper, t h e i r f i n g e r s , o r pens as a r u l e r . E l e v e n s u b j e c t s c o n v e r t e d some o f t h e d a t a t o numbers and d i d c a l c u l a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n make s p a t i a l judgements. T r a i n i n g t o d e v e l o p g r a p h i c a c y s k i l l s t o e v a l u a t e p a t t e r n s might improve r e a d e r s 1 p r o f i c i e n c y and c o n f i d e n c e . Need t o Compare T a b u l a r Formats: W i t h a l a r g e r group, t a b u l a r f o r m a t s c o u l d have been c o n t r a s t e d B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 116 t o t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s i n t h i s s t u d y and more comparisons would have been p o s s i b l e . T h i s experiment does not a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f how t h e p r e s e n t t a b u l a r format compares t o t h e two f o r m a t s t e s t e d . The h e a l t h c a r e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d t h e r e a r e problems w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s and t h e comments o f t h e v o l u n t e e r t r u s t e e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f e l t graphs would improve the t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n s . However, s t i l l many wanted some form o f a c t u a l numbers. I n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d i n b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e and t h e r e s u l t s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e s e two f o r m a t s . A common comment was t h a t t r u s t e e s would l i k e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f graphs and f i n a n c i a l comment, e i t h e r i n summarized numbers o r words from t h e f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e r o r t h e f i n a n c i a l committee o f the b o a r d . T r u s t e e s come t o t h e boards w i t h d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e . Some have no f i n a n c i a l background, and r e l y on t h e e x p e r t i s e o f an a c c o u n t a n t on the bo a r d o r t h e f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e r t o d i r e c t t h e i r m o n i t o r i n g o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . These t r u s t e e s may have e x p e r t i s e i n t h e s e r v i c e s b e i n g p r o v i d e d o r may be more aware o f t h e needs o f t h e i r community. T o g e t h e r t h e y s e t the budget t o agree w i t h the demands f o r s e r v i c e s and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . A l l agree t h a t t h e y want t o r e c e i v e summarized i n f o r m a t i o n . Graphs, by t h e n a t u r e o f c o n v e r t i n g numbers t o v i s u a l s , c o n s o l i d a t e f a c t s . I n l i g h t o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s , we c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e i f a s i m i l a r group o f t r u s t e e s would r e s p o n d t o the b a r / l i n e and d o t / l i n e graphs i n t h e same way when t h e y compare p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the two c o m b i n a t i o n f o r m a t s B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 117 w i t h and w i t h o u t t a b l e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , we want t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e t r u s t e e s would make d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n s about the a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s o r be more c o n f i d e n t , when t h e y used graphs. 5.4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study: E f f e c t S i z e and S t a t i s t i c a l Power: The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s t u d y c e n t r e on the e f f e c t s i z e i n t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l power was low w i t h Graph One. W i t h b o t h graphs the means of the group u s i n g t h e b a r / l i n e format were h i g h e r t h a n t h e group u s i n g t h e d o t / l i n e however t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e t e c t e d . W i t h Graph Two t h e power was .91 whereas t h e power was .15 w i t h Graph One. To a v o i d making a Type I I e r r o r w i t h t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e j e c t i n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s when t h e r e i s a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, we s h o u l d r e p l i c a t e t h e s t u d y w i t h a l a r g e r group. Rough c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g t h e means and MSe r e p o r t e d w i t h Graph One, w i t h t a b l e s d e r i v e d from t h e P e a r s o n H a r t l e y f u n c t i o n s , would i n d i c a t e a sample s i z e o f 75 t o 100 would g i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s ( G l a s s & H o p k i n s , 1984). The power o f the F - s t a t i s t i c would be above t h e c r i t i c a l F - v a l u e i n t h e l a r g e r sample measuring the same e f f e c t s i z e t h a t was o b t a i n e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . More P i l o t T e s t i n g I n r e t r o s p e c t , more t e s t i n g of t h e q u e s t i o n s asked might have B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 118 p r o v i d e d b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r d e t e c t i n g the e f f e c t s i z e o f t h e f i r s t g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t b o t h f o r m a t s have more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h Graph One t h a n t h e b a r / l i n e format w i t h Graph Two (See F i g u r e 14). T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t the l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e i t e m s w i t h t h e two graphs s h o u l d be b a l a n c e d . I f Graph One had more d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t t h e n perhaps t h e e f f e c t s i z e o f t h e a n a l y s e s would be l a r g e r and a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t would be a c h i e v e d . L i m i t a t i o n s o f T i m i n g : There was not a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e l a p s e d t i m e s w i t h one g r a p h i c format o v e r the o t h e r . There were many p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r i n a c c u r a c y . Comprehension time f o r t h e two graphs i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e from the t o t a l t i me t a k e n . There were no c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e s u b j e c t s ' t ime spent r e a d i n g and t a l k i n g . The time t a k e n t o r e a d and u n d e r s t a n d the q u e s t i o n s o r t o make comments were not i s o l a t e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . These component a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h n e c e s s a r y t o the ex p e r i m e n t , may l i m i t t h e measurement o f e f f i c i e n c y . However, I am not sure more a c c u r a t e t i m i n g methods would improve t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . Reading graphs on computers i s not a common p r a c t i c e t o most t r u s t e e s . To put the experiment on computer may have meant i n c l u d i n g computer t r a i n i n g as w e l l . V i d e o t a p i n g o f the e x p e r i m e n t would have meant a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d s e t - u p t h a t B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 119 might have e l i m i n a t e d m e e t i n g t h e v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e i r own o f f i c e s . Time i n t h i s experiment may have been a f a c t o r o f p e r c e i v e d ease and would be i n c l u d e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s . I n p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , seconds do not count as much of an advantage i n v o l u n t e e r r e a d i n g t i m e . More R e s e a r c h on t h e E f f e c t s o f t h e Time o f Day: A p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h may be t o l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t s o f time o f day i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . S e v e r a l v o l u n t e e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e i r appointment was so l a t e i n day t h e y had t r o u b l e t h i n k i n g c l e a r l y . I'm s u r e t h a t t h e y would n ot be a b l e t o r e a d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s from t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n always a t a time when t h e y were w e l l r e s t e d . But perhaps w i t h f u r t h e r s t u d y we c o u l d f i n d t h e b e s t time o f day t o s c h e d u l e meetings f o r t r u s t e e s . 5.5 Recommendations: I t would be w o r t h w h i l e t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y w i t h graphs t h a t used d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a s t s . White b a r s and d o t s were not r e a d w e l l . Some r e a d e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y d i d not see t h e w h i t e b a r s f o r a w h i l e and two s u b j e c t s f i r s t r e a d t h e open dot as a z e r o . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t open b a r s and d o t s do not have enough s a l i e n c e t o r e g i s t e r as w e l l as d o t s and b a r s t h a t a r e f i l l e d i n . Perhaps when t h e r e i s t o o much c o n t r a s t i n t h e v i s u a l i n t e n s i t y , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f o v e r l o o k i n g the l e s s e r element. There B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 120 s h o u l d be a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s h a d i n g i n b a r s and u l t i m a t e c o n t r a s t may have t o be s a c r i f i c e d . P e r c e i v e d Speed: We need t h e o r y and more e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t s o f p e r c e i v e d speed w i t h d i f f e r e n t f o r m a t s . P e r c e i v e d speed w i t h a d e c i s i o n a i d may a f f e c t the c h o i c e o f one g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t o v e r a n o t h e r . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were asked t o w r i t e down the t i m e s as t h e y proceeded t h r o u g h t h e ex p e r i m e n t . T h i s a c t i o n may have emphasized an advantage of one o f t h e g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s t h a t seemed t o be f a s t e r a t r e v e a l i n g t h e answers t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s . Comments made i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were aware o f t h e i r slowness o r f a s t n e s s i n comprehending t h e graphs. 5.6 Summary o f t h e Experi m e n t : I n t h e p r e s e n t experiment the s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a summarized p i c t u r e o f t h e y e a r - t o date and the f o r e c a s t e d y e a r - e n d . The m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t e d them a t f i r s t t o s e a r c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c v a l u e s of expenses and rev e n u e s ; n e x t , t o f i n d comparisons of i n c r e a s e s , d e c r e a s e s , o r v a r i a n c e between the budget and a c t u a l ; and f i n a l l y , t o e x p l o r e t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e o f each expense and revenue f o r meaning. I n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e a r c h i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and l o o k i n g f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and j u d g i n g t h e gap between the e x p e c t e d and t h e r e a l , i t was B a r / l i n e vs d o t / l i n e 121 a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a r r i v e a t an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e whole, u s i n g t h e i r v i s u a l sense t o i n t u i t i v e l y u n d e r s t a n d p a t t e r n s and make c o n c l u s i o n s . The s u b j e c t s were a l l t r u s t e e s o f h e a l t h c a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s c r u c i a l t h a t T r u s t e e s f i n d the d e t a i l s and u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s i n the f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s . T h i s e x periment r e v e a l e d t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n was b e t t e r comprehended i n b a r / l i n e t h a n i n d o t / l i n e f o r m a t s . B a r / l i n e graphs were p r e f e r r e d and were chosen by r e a d e r s t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Many p e o p l e commented on t h e need f o r r e a l numbers. The f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s t o t h e b o a r d c o u l d r e t a i n some summary f i g u r e s , but t h i s s t u d y would i n d i c a t e t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graphs s h o u l d be used t o p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o boards o f h e a l t h c a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The term " p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h " was used t o d e s c r i b e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n . P r o f i c i e n c y was chosen t o convey t h e i d e a o f mastery, of e v i d e n c e t h a t l e a r n i n g had t a k e n p l a c e , l e a r n i n g b e i n g the t r a n s f e r r i n g and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e a c h a d u l t s . We p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n , s t i m u l a t e t h e need t o know, and the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t h r o u g h an i n t e r n a l , p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s . L e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s more and d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e when t h e need B a r / l i n e v s d o t / l i n e 122 t o know o c c u r s . How i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i s c r i t i c a l ( J a r e t t , 1993). There a r e two approaches t o cha n g i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : f i r s t , t o make c u r r e n t p r o c e s s i n g p r a c t i c e s e a s i e r o r second, t o d e s i g n f o r m a t s t h a t g u i d e e x p e r t c h o i c e s (Payne & Bettman, 1993) . 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B u l l e t i n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r B u s i n e s s Communication. 54., 100-102. W i l d b u r , P. (1989). I n f o r m a t i o n g r a p h i c s . New York, NY: Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Company. Winn, W. (1993) . An account of how r e a d e r s s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n diagrams. Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 18, 162-185. Wood, R. & Bandura, A. (1989) . S o c i a l c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l management. Academy o f Management Review. 14. 361-384. W r i g h t , P. (1977). P r e s e n t i n g t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n : a s u r v e y of r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S c i e n c e . 6., 93-134. 130 Y a t e s , J . (1985). Graphs as a management t o o l : a case s t u d y o f Du Pont's use o f graphs i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s Communication. 22. 5-33. 131 GLOSSARY A n c h o r i n g - v. i s t h e p r o c e s s by which s p e c i f i c and d i v e r s e p a r t s o f an image a r e segmented by graph r e a d e r s t o a c t as s a l i e n t and r e l e v a n t cues, when e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Budget - n. i s a f i n a n c i a l p l a n t h a t i d e n t i f i e s e x p e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s and revenues f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t ime p e r i o d . I t i d e n t i f i e s , s t r u c t u r e s , and a l l o c a t e s r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e some s e r v i c e o r produce a p r o d u c t o v e r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d . D e c i s i o n - n. i s a c h o i c e o f a c t i o n , based on b e l i e f s , made t o a c h i e v e g o a l s . D e c i s i o n a c c u r a c y i s a measure o f a d e c i s i o n r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i f i c q u a n t i t a t i v e v a l u e . E x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k - n. The a c t i v i t i e s a s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o p e r f o r m w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e o f an expe r i m e n t . Eye-view - n. i s the immediate f i e l d of v i s i o n ; a l l i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n i n a t the f i r s t i n s t a n c e of v i e w i n g . F i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s - n. I t i s s t a n d a r d a c c o u n t i n g p r a c t i c e t o g i v e t r u s t e e s monthly r e p o r t s which i n c l u d e a b a l a n c e s h e e t and sta t e m e n t o f o p e r a t i o n s . B a l a n c e sheet - c u r r e n t and f i x e d a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s a r e i t e m i z e d . T o t a l a s s e t s b a l a n c e (equal) t o t a l l i a b i l i t i e s . Statement o f o p e r a t i o n s - An i t e m i z e d account o f revenue and expense f o r t h e c u r r e n t r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d ; u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s m onthly and annua l budget, y e a r t o dat e t o t a l s , and y e a r -end f o r e c a s t s . Govern - v. 1. Conduct p o l i c y and a f f a i r s w i t h a u t h o r i t y 2. M o n i t o r q u a l i t y . Graph - n. diagram showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two v a r i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s , measured a l o n g one o f a p a i r o f axes a t r i g h t a n g l e s . G r a p h i c a c y - n. i s the a b i l i t y t o r e a d g r a p h s . G r a p h i c a l format - n. i n c l u d e s t h e s p e c i a l d e s i g n e lements 132 o f a graph t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s one form the o t h e r . G r a p h i c a t e age - n. i s t h e age when one has a c h i e v e d a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e a d i n g and drawing graphs. G r a p h i c s - n. diagrams used i n c a l c u l a t i o n and d e s i g n . Bar graph - n. A graph u s i n g v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f s t r a i g h t narrow rods t o r e p r e s e n t q u a n t i t y . C o m b i n a t i o n g r a p h i c a l format - n. One graph merging two o r more gr a p h t y p e s on one s e t of axes. A c o m b i n a t i o n D o t / L i n e g r a p h merges a dot graph and a l i n e graph, and a c o m b i n a t i o n B a r / L i n e graph merges a b a r graph and a l i n e g r a p h on one s e t o f axes. Dot c h a r t - n. A dot c h a r t o r graph uses d o t t e d l i n e s t h a t end i n a l a r g e r c i r c l e a t t h e d a t a p o i n t . The rows o f d o t t e d l i n e s b e g i n a t the l e f t edge of t h e graph, one row f o r each v a r i a b l e l a b e l . The f i n a l c i r c l e may be open o r f i l l e d i n . Dot graphs f o l l o w t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h a t o r d e r e d v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e g o i n g from l e f t t o r i g h t on t h e h o r i z o n t a l s c a l e and from bottom t o t o p on t h e v e r t i c a l s c a l e . L i n e g r a p h - n. H o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f c o n n e c t e d p o i n t s on a graph framework, showing how changes i n one q u a n t i t y a r e r e l a t e d t o changes i n a n o t h e r o r c o n v e y i n g time s e r i e s i n f o r m a t i o n . S p i k e d p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e a c c u r a t e d a t a , smooth l i n e s show a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n i s r e p o r t e d a t f i x e d i n t e r v a l s not c o n t i n u o u s l y . I n f e r e n c e - n. 1. T h i n g deduced, c o n c l u d e d , i m p l i e d o r s u g g e s t e d 2. t h e a c t o r an i n s t a n c e o f f o r m i n g a c o n c l u s i o n from f a c t s and r e a s o n i n g 3. Gaps f i l l e d i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e problem i n o r d e r t o e x t r a p o l a t e beyond e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n . I n s i g h t - n. 1. P i e c e o f knowledge o b t a i n e d by mental p e n e t r a t i o n . 2. The c a p a c i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i d d e n t r u t h s . 3. Sudden r e a l i z a t i o n o f a s o l u t i o n , i n v o l v i n g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c l a r i f y the problem and suggest a f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n . IS3> Member o f a Board o f T r u s t e e s - n. i s a v o l u n t e e r , e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d by a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t e body. T r u s t e e s have t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f g o v e r n i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and a r e l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r : the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d , e s t a b l i s h i n g s t r a t e g i c d i r e c t i o n , e n s u r i n g p r o p e r r e s o u r c e management, c h o o s i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e , and a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e i r community. P r e f e r e n c e - n. i s the i n c l i n a t i o n t o choose a f a v o u r i t e . I n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , g r e a t e s t p r e f e r e n c e i s measured as t h e h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e r a t i n g on a L i k e r t s c a l e o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f one format from a l i s t o f f o r m a t s . Problem space - n. mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l t h e a c q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , systems and s t r a t e g i e s used t o s o l v e a problem. P r o c e s s - n. i s a s e l e c t e d s e r i e s o f s t r a t e g i e s . P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h - n. i s a s k i l l measurement o f t h e m a s t e r y o f f i n d i n g and u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t p r o f i c i e n c y o f s e a r c h i s measured as the t o t a l number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . S a l i e n c e - n. q u a l i t y o f prominence, s t a t e where some f e a t u r e s a r e more n o t a b l e because t h e y s t a n d out from s u r r o u n d i n g f e a t u r e s because o f s i z e , i n t e n s i t y o r o t h e r v i s u a l q u a l i t y . Time t o complete - n. i s t h e i n t e r v a l o r d u r a t i o n o f t i m e from b e g i n n i n g t o end. I n t h i s experiment i t i s measured as t h e t o t a l number of seconds t o exe c u t e r e s p o n s e s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t i t e m s . 134 , APPENDICES; EXPERIMENTAL INSTRUMENTS: A. 1. L e t t e r o f I n v i t a t i o n ...135 A. 2. Consent Form 137 A. 3. I n s t r u c t i o n s t o A d m i n i s t e r E x p e r i m e n t a l Instruments.13 8 A. 4. Time sheet f o r experiment 141 A. 5. Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 142 A. 6. G r a p h i c a c y Test 144 A. 7. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Experiment 147 A. 8. Graph One P e r i o d i c Review o f O p e r a t i o n s . 148 A. 9. Graph Two Cumulative S t r a t e g i c Review 152 A. 10. E v a l u a t i o n of Formats 156 A. 11. Assignment t o groups 158 A.12. Table o f H o s p i t a l s Surveyed f o r F i n a n c i a l Packages..159 A. 13. A n a l y s i s of The G r a p h i c a c y Test 160 A. 14. A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e - Graphs One & Two 162 A.15. L e t t e r s o f P e r m i s s i o n from J . Hard and H. Wainer.... 166 A.16. E x p e r i m e n t a l Raw Data 167 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education Faculty of Education 2125 Main M a l l Vancouver, B . C . Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604) 822-8229 Fax: (604) 822-3302 Re: A s t u d y of t h e e f f e c t s of p r e s e n t a t i o n format on i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n and use. Dear T r u s t e e : I am a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. As p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t f o r my M a s t e r s of A r t s Degree from t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n I am d o i n g r e s e a r c h f o r a gr a d u a t e t h e s i s . I would l i k e you t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The purpose of my s t u d y i s t o l e a r n the b e s t way t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o make i t u s e f u l t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . I am a s k i n g you t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y because you a r e a Board Member of a "QUANGO", a member of t h e p u b l i c e l e c t e d or a p p o i n t e d t o ove r s e e a government funded, h e a l t h or s o c i a l s e r v i c e s o c i e t y . You w i l l be asked t o complete a background q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Then, you w i l l be g i v e n two p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g t h e same f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . You w i l l r e v i e w t h e s e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and respond t o q u e s t i o n s about the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n them. A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n s , you w i l l e v a l u a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of the r e p o r t s . The s e s s i o n w i l l t a k e about t h i r t y minutes a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no time l i m i t s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s s t u d y t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h you w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . You w i l l be a s s i g n e d a code number and no names w i l l be used. I n w r i t t e n r e p o r t s or p u b l i c a t i o n s no one w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d or i d e n t i f i a b l e and o n l y summary d a t a w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y . I f you choose t o p a r t i c i p a t e you a r e f r e e t o withdraw from the s t u d y at any time w i t h o u t any consequences. 137 A . 2 . CONSENT FORM: Re: A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n format on i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n and use. You have been asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s t u d y w h i c h w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t s on m o n i t o r i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . We hope t o l e a r n t h e b e s t way t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o a i d t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . I f you d e c i d e t o p a r t i c i p a t e , you w i l l be asked t o complete a b a c k g r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . You w i l l t h e n r e v i e w f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s and r e s pond t o q u e s t i o n s about th e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s , you w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f the r e p o r t s . The s e s s i o n w i l l t a k e about t h i r t y minutes a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no t ime l i m i t s . Any i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s s t u d y t h a t can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h you w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . No names w i l l be u s e d i n w r i t t e n r e p o r t s o r p u b l i c a t i o n s , and o n l y a g g r e g a t e d a t a w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . Your d e c i s i o n whether o r not t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l not a f f e c t y o u r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I f you d e c i d e t o p a r t i c i p a t e , you are f r e e t o d i s c o n t i n u e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y a t any time and you may withdraw w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e a f t e r s i g n i n g t h i s form. You a r e making a d e c i s i o n whether o r not t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Your s i g n a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t you have r e a d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d above and have d e c i d e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . You w i l l r e c e i v e a copy of t h i s consent form f o r y o u r own r e c o r d s . Name - P l e a s e P r i n t S i g n a t u r e Date How may I c o n t a c t you? Telephone: A d d r e s s : Fax Number 138 A. 3 . Instruct ions to administer experimental instruments. My name i s Darlene F o r r e s t e r . I am a graduate s t u d e n t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h i s e x p e r i m e n t t o d a y i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f my M a s t e r s degree. I want t o thank you f o r h e l p i n g w i t h t h i s s t u d y and hope you w i l l b e n e f i t by e x p l o r i n g and enhancing y o u r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s . P l a n t o work i n d e p e n d e n t l y on the m a t e r i a l s you r e c e i v e . P l e a s e do not t a l k t o your neighbour o r o t h e r s i n the room. I f you have any q u e s t i o n s a t any ti m e , p l e a s e r a i s e y o u r hand and I w i l l answer y o u r q u e s t i o n . I w i l l be handing out the m a t e r i a l s and e x p l a i n i n g the e x p eriment i n more d e t a i l . A l l t h a t you w i l l need i s a pen. P l e a s e c l e a r t h e t a b l e t o p s o f a l l o t h e r i t e m s . [ Pass out e x p e r i m e n t a l envelopes. Each envelope has t h e s u b j e c t ' s name and code number on the o u t s i d e . ,Every i n s i d e page has t h e code number o n l y . There i s a b l a n k envelope i n w h i c h t o s e a l t h e f i n i s h e d p a p ers. ] As the m a t e r i a l s a re b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d , p l e a s e l e a v e the packet l a y i n g f a c e down u n t i l I e x p l a i n the p r o c e d u r e t o you. [Pass o u t pens and e x t r a y e l l o w s h e e t s o f paper. ] T h i s i s an e x t r a p i e c e o f paper. D u r i n g t h e exp e r i m e n t , you may use t h i s e x t r a paper i n any way t h a t you w i s h . Does everyone have an enve l o p e , e x t r a p i e c e o f paper, and a pen? The f i r s t page o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l s i s t h e t i t l e page. You can see my name i s D a r l e n e F o r r e s t e r . P l e a s e t u r n t o t h e next page and complete t h e Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s about t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g asked, p l e a s e r a i s e y o u r hand and I w i l l answer y o u r q u e s t i o n . When you have f i n i s h e d t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e p l e a s e s t o p and w a i t u n t i l you a r e t o l d t o c o n t i n u e . [Wait u n t i l everyone i s f i n i s h e d . ] P l e a s e t u r n t o t h e next page which i s a P r e t e s t o f y o u r 139 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t a b l e s and graphs. There a r e two p a r t s t o t h i s e x e r c i s e , one s e t o f q u e s t i o n s w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n graphs and one w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s . You w i l l be a s k e d t o r a t e t h e fo r m a t s a f t e r you have used them. There i s a space t o w r i t e the time when you b e g i n and when you f i n i s h b o t h s e t s o f q u e s t i o n s . P l e a s e use t h e c l o c k a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e room not y o u r w r i s t watch. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t everyone use t h e same t i m e - p i e c e . P l e a s e w r i t e t h e time a t t h e t o p o f t h e page i n t h e b l a n k s p r o v i d e d t h a t l o o k l i k e t h i s . [ P o i n t t o c l o c k and w r i t e the time on a w h i t e c a r d so t h a t t h e y can see.] The time now i s : : When you have f i n i s h e d t he p r e t e s t , and you see t h e p i n k s heet o f paper i n y o u r package, s t o p . The r e s t o f the pages a r e t h e ex p e r i m e n t and I w i l l have some more i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r you. [Wait 15 minutes] Has everyone f i n i s h e d ? [ I f no one i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y need more t i m e , c o n t i n u e . ] D i d you w r i t e the time when you f i n i s h e d ? The time now i s - - :-- :-- . P l e a s e t u r n the page, which b e g i n s S e c t i o n I I , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Experiment. I w i l l r e a d t h i s page as you f o l l o w a l o n g . [ Read the page.] Not everyone w i l l be w o r k i n g on t h e same t a s k . There a r e 3 p a r t s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t : P a r t one i s c a l l e d t he Review o f o p e r a t i o n s , P a r t two i s c a l l e d t he S t r a t e g i c Review, and P a r t t h r e e i s t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f the Formats. When you t u r n t h e page t o P a r t One, you w i l l n o t e t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d f i r s t and the q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w . You may r e f e r t o t h i s f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n as you need t o answer the q u e s t i o n s . Does anyone have any q u e s t i o n s a t t h i s p o i n t ? [ Answer q u e s t i o n s , t h e n c o n t i n u e . ] P l e a s e w r i t e the time a t the top of the page i n the b l a n k s p r o v i d e d as you d i d i n t h e P r e t e s t . There a re no time r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r the remainder o f the experiment. P l e a s e r e a d t h e q u e s t i o n s and respond t o each and e v e r y q u e s t i o n . 140 Use as much time as you need. When you have f i n i s h e d , put a l l y o u r p a p e r s i n t h e b l a n k envelope p r o v i d e d , s e a l i t , and hand i t i n . The time now i s : : . [ When i t appears t h a t everyone i s f i n i s h e d . ] I want t o thank you f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . Would anyone l i k e t o ask q u e s t i o n s about t h e experiment? [ When no more q u e s t i o n s . ] Thank you f o r your h e l p . Here i s y o u r copy o f t h e consent form f o r your r e c o r d s [Give them t h e i r copy o f the consent form and a thank-you n o t e . ] . 141 A.4 . Time sheet f o r experiment Graph One Time: _ Time: _ Time: Graph Two Time: _ : Time: _ Time: _ R Time 1: _ Time 2: Time 3: Time 4: Time 5: S Time 1: Time 2 Time 3 Time 4 Time 5 142 A . 5 BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE B I . BIRTH YEAR /year B2. SEX: Male Female B3. I have normal, o r c o r r e c t e d t o normal, v i s i o n . y e s no. B4. EDUCATION: Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (H) H i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a (A) C e r t i f i c a t e o r d i p l o m a , f i e l d o f s t u d y : (B) B a c h e l o r s Degree, s p e c i f y f i e l d o f s t u d y : (M) M a s t e r s Degree, s p e c i f y f i e l d o f s t u d y : (D) PHD, s p e c i f y f i e l d o f s t u d y : (0) Other, S p e c i f y : B5. How many c o u r s e s i n a c c o u n t i n g o r f i n a n c e have you completed?, c o u r s e s B6. Has y o u r p a s t work e x p e r i e n c e been i n a c c o u n t i n g , f i n a n c e , o r b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? yes _ no _ How many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e do you have? y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n f i n a n c e o r a c c o u n t i n g _ y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n _ B7. How l o n g have you been s e r v i n g on a Board o f D i r e c t o r s ? months, y e a r s B8. Have you h e l d an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n on a Board? yes no B9. I f y e s , w h i c h p o s i t i o n ( s ) ? Chairman T r e a s u r e r F i n a n c e committee p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 143 BIO. Do you r e c e i v e monthly f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s from y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n ? yes no B l l . Do you r e c e i v e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n : graphs t a b l e s B12 . How f a m i l i a r a re you w i t h g r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n ? ( P l e a s e check one.) EXTREMELY RATHER SLIGHTLY SOMEWHAT EXTREMELY UNFAMILIAR UNFAMILIAR FAMILIAR FAMILIAR FAMILIAR (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 144 A. 6 The Graphicacy Test Examine Graph I and t h e n p l a c e an X b e s i d e t h e BEST answer TNB/L1 TIME : NB/L1. HOW much does i t r a i n i n October? a. 95 mm. b. 60 mm. c. 7 0 mm. d. 8 3 mm. NB/L2. Which month has 6 0 mm. of r a i n ? a. F e b r u a r y b. March c. O c t o b e r d. November NB/L3. Which months have the same amount of r a i n ? a. December & F e b r u a r y b. March & May c. June & August d. September & November NB/L4. How many months have l e s s than the monthly average r a i n f a l l ? a. 5 b. 6 c . 7 d. 8 NB/L5. Which season has t h e l e a s t r a i n ? a. W i n t e r b. S p r i n g c. Summer d. F a l l TNB/L2 TIME: P l e a s e t u r n page 145 NB/L6. I n w h i c h season does t h e r a i n f a l l i n c r e a s e each month? a. W i n t e r b. S p r i n g c. Summer d. F a l l NB/L7. I s t h e r e more r a i n i n t h e summer o r the f a l l ? a. More i n summer b. More i n f a l l c. They a r e t h e same NB/L8. Which month i s c l o s e s t t o the monthly average? a. A p r i l b. May c. June d. J u l y NB/L9. I n New York, as t h e weather g e t s c o l d e r , t h e r e i s a. more r a i n . b. l e s s r a i n . c. no r a i n . d. c o n s t a n t r a i n . NB/L10. I n wh i c h season does t h e monthly r a i n f a l l v a r y l e a s t from th e average? a. W i n t e r b. S p r i n g c. Summer d. F a l l TNB/L3 TIME: _: : P l e a s e t u r n page.. 146 [Mark y o u r judgement o f the BAR/LINE GRAPH w i t h an X ] NB/L11. I f e e l t h e BAR/LINE graph p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . VERY SOMEWHAT CONFUSINGLY CONFUSINGLY CLEARLY CLEARLY VERY CLEARLY ; (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) NB/L12. The r e a d a b i l i t y o f th e BAR/LINE graph was.... EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT VERY DIFFICULT DIFFICULT DIFFICULT EASY EASY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) NB/L13. The BAR/LINE graph.. SHOWED SHOWED • LEFT OUT DIDN'T HAD ALL THE MOST OF THE SOME OF THE SOME OF THE HAVE THE INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION (1) (2) (3) _ _ (4) (5) P l e a s e t u r n page. 147 A.7 SECTION II INTRODUCTION P l e a s e imagine t h a t as a member of t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f "Mercy H o s p i t a l " you have r e c e i v e d the e n c l o s e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h an agenda f o r t h e next meeting. The agenda s t a t e s t h e b o a r d p l a n s t o d i s c u s s a s t r a t e g i c r e v i e w o f t h e h o s p i t a l ' s o p e r a t i o n s . They a l s o want y o u r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a system f o r r e p o r t i n g f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the board. The h o s p i t a l ' s f i n a n c e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n 28 day i n t e r v a l s w h i c h c o i n c i d e w i t h the p a y r o l l d a t e s . The f i r s t and t h i r t e e n t h r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s d i f f e r i n l e n g t h because t h e f i s c a l y e a r s t a r t o f A p r i l 1 may not c o i n c i d e w i t h a pay day. The f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s g i v e a c t u a l y e a r - t o - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r e c a s t the year-end. Complete t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e H o s p i t a l ' s f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c u r r e n t p e r i o d . There a r e 3 p a r t s t o t h i s s e c t i o n , P a r t One: Review o f O p e r a t i o n s P a r t Two: S t r a t e g i c r e v i e w P a r t Three: E v a l u a t i o n o f f o r m a t s . When you f i n i s h p a r t t h r e e you have completed t h e ex p e r i m e n t . There i s no time l i m i t , however don't spend t o o much t i m e w i t h any one q u e s t i o n . Choose the b e s t answer g i v e n . p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 148 A . 8 GRAPH ONE - REVIEW OF O P E R A T I O N S ; TR1 TIME: : : R l . Match t h e expense o r revenue i n LIST A, w i t h i t s v a l u e , f o r r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d 8, IN LIST B. P l a c e the i t e m number from LIST A i n t h e spaces p r o v i d e d . LIST A 1. ACTUAL TOTAL REVENUE 2. ACTUAL TOTAL EXPENSES 3. PATIENT REVENUES 4. SALARY EXPENSES LIST B 301 Thousand D o l l a r s 2,849 Thousand D o l l a r s 2,371 Thousand D o l l a r s 3,106 Thousand D o l l a r s 2,736 Thousand D o l l a r s Choose t h e b e s t answer by p l a c i n g an X i n the space p r o v i d e d : R2. Mercy H o s p i t a l ' s November 5 t h . f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e . . . a. 8 t h p e r i o d out o f 13. b. m i d - p o i n t o f t h e budget y e a r . c. 5 t h p e r i o d out o f 12 months. d. l a s t 3 0 days. TR2 TIME : R3 . Which r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d had the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between t o t a l revenues and t o t a l expenses? a. p e r i o d 2. b. p e r i o d 4. c. p e r i o d 6. d. p e r i o d 8. R4. I n t h e c u r r e n t p e r i o d , p e r i o d 8, t o t a l a c t u a l revenues a r e . . a. h i g h e r t h a n t o t a l a c t u a l expenses. b. l e s s t h a n budgeted t o t a l r e v e n u e s . c. h i g h e r t h a n l a s t p e r i o d . d. e q u a l t o t o t a l a c t u a l expenses. p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 149 R5. A c t u a l t o t a l expenses and revenues were h i g h e r t h a n t h e budget i n . . . . a. p e r i o d 1. b. p e r i o d 3 . c. p e r i o d 8 . d. p e r i o d 7. R6. How many r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d s have had e q u a l a c t u a l t o t a l expenses and revenues? a. 0. b. 2. c. 5. d. 8. R7. The t o t a l a c t u a l expenses have i n c r e a s e d from... a. p e r i o d 6 t o p e r i o d 7. b. p e r i o d 6 t o p e r i o d 8. c. 2400 t o 2600 thousand d o l l a r s . d. 2300 t o 3100 thousand d o l l a r s . TR3 TIME : R8. A c t u a l t o t a l expenses show the same t r e n d s a s . . . a. A c t u a l t o t a l revenues. b. Budgeted t o t a l expenses. c. S a l a r y expenses. d. P a t i e n t Revenues. R9. I n each r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d , s a l a r i e s a r e about... a. h a l f o f t o t a l expenses. b. e q u a l t o p a t i e n t revenues. c. t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t o t a l expenses. d. double t h e amount i n the f i r s t p e r i o d . p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 150 RIO. S a l a r y c o s t s a r e f o r e c a s t e d t o . . . _ a. i n c r e a s e monthly t o t h e end o f t h e y e a r . _ b. d e c r e a s e s t e a d i l y . 1_ c. h o l d a t a c o n s t a n t c o s t . _ d. i n c r e a s e a g a i n . R l l . P a t i e n t Revenues a r e f o r e c a s t e d t o . . . a. d o u b l e . b. t r i p l e . c. have a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average. d. e q u a l the d i f f e r e n c e between s a l a r i e s and t o t a l expenses. R12. T o t a l expenses o r revenues are f o r e c a s t e d t o d e c r e a s e . a. t r u e . b. f a l s e . TR4 TIME : RT13. S h o u l d th e Mercy H o s p i t a l b o a r d be c o n cerned w i t h t h e f o r e c a s t e d f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n ? a. yes b. no What r e a s o n would you g i v e f o r y o u r answer? a. The g o a l i s t o have a b a l a n c e d budget. b. Expenses and revenues a r e j u s t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n the budget. c. The f o r e c a s t e d d e f i c i t i s t o o l a r g e . d. O t h er?? RT14 TR5 I s t h e r e enough d e t a i l i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d ? a. yes b. no TIME: p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 151 [Mark y o u r judgement o f the DOT GRAPH w i t h an X ] ND11. I f e e l t h e DOT GRAPH p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . VERY SOMEWHAT CONFUSINGLY CONFUSINGLY CLEARLY CLEARLY VERY CLEARLY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ND12. The r e a d a b i l i t y o f th e DOT GRAPH was EXTREMELY DIFFICULT VERY DIFFICULT SOMEWHAT DIFFICULT EASY VERY EASY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ND13. The DOT GRAPH.. SHOWED SHOWED HAD ALL THE MOST OF THE SOME OF THE INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION LEFT OUT SOME OF THE INFORMATION DIDN'T HAVE THE INFORMATION (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) P l e a s e t u r n page. 152 A . 9 . GRAPH TWO CUMMULATIVE STRATEGIC REVIEW TS1 TIME: Choose t h e b e s t answer by p l a c i n g an X i n t h e space p r o v i d e d : S I . I t i s f o r e c a s t e d the year-end cumulated t o t a l expenses w i l l be a. h i g h e r t h a n t h e budgeted expenses. b. h i g h e r t h a n t o t a l revenues. c. h i g h e r t h a n budgeted revenues. d. a l l o f the above. S2. S a l a r y expenses now a r e almost 18 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . A t y e a r end, i t i s f o r e c a s t e d S a l a r y c o s t s w i l l t o t a l a l m o s t a. 30 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . b. 37 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . c. 360 thousand d o l l a r s . d. 400 thousand d o l l a r s . S3. P a t i e n t revenues r e a c h about $2,500,000.00 i n r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d . . . a. p e r i o d 2. b. p e r i o d 5. c. p e r i o d 8. d. p e r i o d 12. S4. Cumulated t o t a l revenues e q u a l cumulated t o t a l expenses a. f o r y e a r t o d a t e . b. a t f o r e c a s t e d y e a r end. c. i n the budgeted y e a r - e n d . d. from p e r i o d 1 t o p e r i o d 7. S5 I t i s f o r e c a s t e d t h e h o s p i t a l w i l l end the y e a r on a a. d e f i c i t . How much? b. s u r p l u s . How much? c. a z e r o b a l a n c e . TS2 TIME : p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 153 56. The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between cumulated revenues and cumulated expenses i s r e p o r t e d i n a. p e r i o d 5. b. p e r i o d 6. c. p e r i o d 7. d. p e r i o d 8. 57. The f o r e c a s t e d t o t a l expenses a r e 13 t i m e s t h e t o t a l a c t u a l expenses f o r the f i r s t p e r i o d . a. more t h a n b. l e s s t h a n c. the same as 58. The d i f f e r e n c e between t o t a l revenue and t o t a l expenses i s g r e a t e r f o r . . . a. a c t u a l y e a r t o d a t e . b. f o r e c a s t e d y e a r end. 59. The d i f f e r e n c e between budgeted revenue and budgeted expense i s g r e a t e r f o r . . . . a. a c t u a l y e a r t o d a t e . b. f o r e c a s t e d y e a r end. TS3 TIME : S10. From p e r i o d 7 t o p e r i o d 8 the d i f f e r e n c e between revenues and expenses has... a. i n c r e a s e d . b. d e c r e a s e d . c. s t a y e d t h e same. d. r e v e r s e d . S l l . How much o f t h e t o t a l y e a r s revenue has been used t o d a t e ? a. 50 p e r c e n t . b. 60 p e r c e n t . c. 70 p e r c e n t . d. 80 p e r c e n t . p l e a s e t u r n t h e page 154 512. As the y e a r p r o g r e s s e s , cumulated P a t i e n t Revenues and S a l a r y Expenses t e n d t o a. f l u c t u a t e e v e r y r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d . b. m a i n t a i n the same t r e n d s . c. i n c r e a s e 10% each r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d . d. d e c r e a s e towards y e a r end. 513. E x p l a i n the p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l s t a t e o f Mercy H o s p i t a l , as you would t o a new bo a r d member. SG14 . What i s your g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f Mercy H o s p i t a l ' s f i n a n c e s ? T h i n g s a r e g o i n g . . . . a. v e r y w e l l . b. s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . c. p o o r l y . TS4 TIME : SG15. As a Board Member o f Mercy H o s p i t a l , would you v o t e t o c o n t i n u e s u p p o r t f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f management? a. yes b. no Comment: SG16. S h o u l d the Board o f Mercy H o s p i t a l ask t h a t f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n be p r e s e n t e d i n . . . . a. B a r / l i n e graphs. b. Dot Graphs. c. o t h e r TS5 TIME: 155 [Mark y o u r judgement o f th e BAR/LINE graph w i t h an X ] FB/L11. I f e e l the BAR/LINE graph p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . VERY SOMEWHAT CONFUSINGLY CONFUSINGLY CLEARLY CLEARLY VERY CLEARLY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) FB/L12. The r e a d a b i l i t y o f the BAR/LINE graph was.... EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT VERY DIFFICULT DIFFICULT DIFFICULT EASY EASY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) FB/L13. The BAR/LINE graph. SHOWED SHOWED HAD ALL THE MOST OF THE SOME OF THE INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION LEFT•OUT SOME OF THE INFORMATION DIDN'T HAVE THE INFORMATION (1) (2) (3) (4) [S) P l e a s e t u r n page. 156 A.10 PART THREE: Evaluat ion of Formats The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e t o how you c o m p l e t e d t h e e x e r c i s e s and how you f e l t about the t a s k s . P l e a s e t h i n k about the q u e s t i o n s you were asked, the r e p o r t s you reviewed and how you went about a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s . E l . You were p r o v i d e d w i t h a p i e c e of s c r a t c h paper. How d i d you use t h a t p i e c e o f paper? (Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . ) a. I wrote numbers on the paper. b. I d i d math computations on t h e paper. c. I used the paper as a r u l e r . d. I d i d not use t h e s c r a t c h paper. e. Other E2. How were you a b l e t o determine what the d i f f e r e n c e was between revenues and expenses? (Check one response which b e s t d e s c r i b e s how you chose the answers w i t h each format.) a. guessed. b. e s t i m a t e d the v a l u e s and compared numbers. c. imagined a s t r a i g h t l i n e compared t o the a n g l e s on the graph. d. l o o k e d a t t h e p a t t e r n s o f t h e b a r s and d o t s . e. Other E3. C o n c e r n i n g the q u e s t i o n s you were asked t o answer, r a t e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y . (Check t h e one w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r r e a c t i o n t o the t a s k s . ) EXTREMELY VERY DIFFICULT VERY EXTREMELY DIFFICULT DIFFICULT EASY EASY (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E4. Were you i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ? BORED NO INTEREST MILD INTEREST INTERESTED VERY INTERESTED (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E5. Do you f e e l t h a t you c o u l d remember t h e f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e x e r c i s e s ? NOT AT ALL TODAY TOMORROW NEXT WEEK NEXT MONTH (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 157 The i n f o r m a t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d t o you i n two t y p e s o f gr a p h s ; a c o m b i n a t i o n BAR/LINE GRAPH and a DOT GRAPH. Check t h e response which b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o ur e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e two g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t s . ) E6. How a c c u r a t e l y do you f e e l t h e DOT GRAPH p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ? SOMEWHAT MORE MOST INACCURATE ACCURATELY ACCURATELY ACCURATE ACCURATE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E7. How a c c u r a t e l y do you f e e l t he BAR/LINE GRAPH p r e s e n t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ? SOMEWHAT MORE MOST INACCURATE ACCURATELY ACCURATELY ACCURATE ACCURATE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E8. My o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h BAR/LINE GRAPHS f o r making d e c i s i o n s i s . . . SOMEWHAT MORE MOST INEFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E9. My o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h DOT GRAPHS f o r making d e c i s i o n s i s . . . SOMEWHAT MORE MOST INEFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE EFFECTIVE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) E10. When d o i n g the e x e r c i s e s i n t h i s experiment d i d you p r e f e r . . . a. dot graph b. c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graphs E l l . As a board member, how would you p r e f e r t o have the f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n from y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o you? a. dot graph b. c o m b i n a t i o n b a r / l i n e graphs c. t a b l e s o f numbers d. o t h e r 158 A.11 Assignment to Groups Group I = D o t / L i n e B a r / L i n e Group I I = B a r / L i n e D o t / L i n e s# t r e a t m e n t # 01 1 02 2 03 1 04 2 05 1 06 1 07 1 08 1 09 1 10 1 11 2 12 1 13 2 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 2 18 1 19 2 20 2 21 2 22 1 23 2 24 1 25 1 26 2 27 2 28 2 29 1 30 2 31 1 32 2 33 1 34 2 35 2 36 2 37 1 38 2 39 2 40 2 159 A P P E N D I X A . 1 2 . MONTHLY PACKAGE GIVEN TO BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN SIX B. C. HOSPITALS HOSPITALS: #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 TOTAL PAGES 9 10 11 14 17 21 PAGES OF TABLES 7 8 11 9 15 1U BALANCE SHEET: X X X X X STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS: X X X X X X % OF REPORT IN TABLES: 78% 80% 100% 64% 88% 38% EXPLANATORY TEXT PAGES 3 2 0 1 2 1 PAGES OF GRAPHS 3x4 0 0 4 0 FINANCIAL GRAPHS 0 0 0 0 0 0 Board members ... were e x p e c t e d t o r e a d : c a t e g o r i e s + numbers r e f e r e n c e n o t e s o r numbers/notes were g i v e n : t o t a l s , v a r i a n c e s , d i f f e r e n c e s , p e r c e n t s , t o f i n d : c omparisons, t r e n d s , h i s t o r y t o n o t e : e x c e p t i o n s , sameness, s u b t o t a l s t o judge v e r a c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n , whether new p o l i c i e s had t o be su g g e s t e d , and t o r e l a t e t o p a s t and v e r i f y f o r e c a s t s 160 A.13 . Analys i s of The Graphicacy Test: P r e t e s t P r o f i c i e n c y of Se a r c h : An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the means i n Ta b l e 17, shows t h a t t h e b a r / l i n e format produced s l i g h t l y h i g h e r mean-scores w i t h t h e s i m p l e d a t a i n b o t h p r e t e s t s . T a b l e A l The G r a p h i c a c y T e s t - P r o f i c i e n c y o f S e a r c h GROUP I GROUP I I PRETEST GRAPH FORMAT MEAN S. D. GRAPH FORMAT MEAN S.D. ONE DOT/LINE 8 45 (1 85) BAR/LINE 8 . 85 (1.69) TWO BAR/LINE 9 4 (1 19) DOT/LINE 9 . 05 (1.28) P r e t e s t - C o m p l e t i o n Time: On t h e two o c c a s i o n s o f the p r e t e s t , the b a r / l i n e format t o o k s l i g h t l y l o n g e r t o r e a d t h a n the d o t / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format as i n shown i n T a b l e 18. Tab l e A2 A Comparison o f T o t a l Time t o Complete P r e t e s t One and P r e t e s t Two GROUP I GROUP I I PRETEST GRAPH FORMAT MEAN S. D. GRAPH FORMAT MEAN S.D ONE DOT/LINE 199.3 (73.37) BAR/LINE 225.3 (116.49) TWO BAR/LINE 149.1 (67.66) DOT/LINE 147.75 (55.55) 161 P r e t e s t - P r e f e r e n c e f o r format: I n a com p a r i s o n o f the means o f the two groups, r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 19, t h e b a r / l i n e g r a p h i c a l format produced h i g h e r t o t a l P r e f e r e n c e r a t i n g s f o r b o t h P r e t e s t s ; and t h e d o t / l i n e format was r a t e d h i g h e r o n l y f o r r e a d a b i l i t y on t h e second p r e t e s t . T a b l e A3 P r e t e s t s - P r e f e r e n c e R a t i n g s o f Graphs PRETEST JUDGEMENT GROUP I GRAPH MEAN S.D. GROUP I I GRAPH MEAN S.D. ONE CLARITY READABILITY COMPLETENESS DOT/LINE 3.85 .81 3.70 .73 4 .15 1.04 BAR/LINE 3.95 .83 3.90 .55 4.05 1.18 TOTAL PREFERENCE TWO CLARITY READABILITY COMPLETENESS 11 . 7 BAR/LINE 3.8 0 .83 3.75 .55 4.15 1.04 DOT/LINE 11. 9 3.68 .75 3.84 .60 4.05 1.18 TOTAL PREFERENCE 11.7 11 . 57 P r e t e s t - S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s : In s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , none of the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e means reached a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two groups when t h e y r e a d e i t h e r g r a p h i c a l format i n t h e p r e t e s t s . 162 A.14 Analys i s of Covariance with the pretests as covar ia te s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the p r e t e s t r e sponses and the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l , but none were above .8, showing a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p . W i t h Graphs One and Two, u s i n g t h e p a r a l l e l G r a p h i c a c y T e s t as a c o v a r i a t e , r e v e a l e d t h a t groups are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n . T h i s v i o l a t e s an e s s e n t i a l a s s u m p t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . The s l o p e of the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s a re not p a r a l e l l , and so t h e g r a p h i c a c y t e s t s cannot be used i n an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . T a b l e A4 TASK ONE - MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS* FOR PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AT THREE LEVELS Graph One and Graph Two resp o n s e s were low. Some were SEARCH LEVELS GROUP I DOT/LINE GROUP I I BAR/LINE PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS 2.3 3 . 8 2 . 85 4 2 . 7 3.45 COVARIATE - PRETEST ONE 8.45 8 . 85 163 Ta b l e A5 TASK ONE - PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AT THREE LEVELS WITH PRETEST ONE PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AS A COVARIATE EFFECT .. WITHIN+RESIDUAL R e g r e s s i o n M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 16 1/2) Tes t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .307 3.59 3 35 .023* .74 M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l T e s t Name E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .044 .15 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,38) D. F. V a r i a b l e MSe F p Power PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH: LEVEL 1 - DETAILS 2.36842 .67556 .416 .16093 LEVEL 2 - RELATIONSHIPS 2.09211 1.72075 .197 .24686 LEVEL 3 - TRENDS 1.18947 .33628 .565 .05691 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,37) D. F. V a r i a b l e E r r o r MS F S i g . o f F 1 LEVEL 1 1.47 10.67379 .002* 1 LEVEL 2 1.84 6.11220 .018* 1 LEVEL 3 1.12 3.22166 .081 EFFECT .. GROUP M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 16 1/2) Tes t Name V a l u e DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F Power H o t e l l i n g s .03409 3 35 .755 .12 EFFECT .. GROUP (Cont.) U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,37) D. F. V a r i a b l e E r r o r MS E S i g .of F Power 1 LEVEL 1 1.47670 .43359 .514 .08727 1 LEVEL 2 1.84403 1.21836 .277 .18824 1 LEVEL 3 1.12377 .14926 .701 .05400 164 T a b l e A6 TASK TWO - MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS* FOR PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AT THREE LEVELS GROUP I GROUP I I SEARCH LEVELS BAR/LINE DOT/LINE PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH LEVEL 1 - SEARCH FOR DETAILS 2.3 2.7 LEVEL 2 - SEARCH FOR RELATIONSHIPS 2.85 3.45 LEVEL 3 - SEARCH FOR TRENDS 3.8 4 COVARIATE - PRETEST ONE 9.4 9.05 Tab l e A7 TASK TWO - PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AT THREE LEVELS WITH PRETEST TWO PROFICIENCY OF SEARCH AS A COVARIATE EFFECT .. WITHIN+RESIDUAL R e g r e s s i o n M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 16 1/2) Test Name V a l u e Exact F Hypoth. DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F Power H o t e l l i n g s . 3 3 0 4 7 3.85543 3.00 35.00 .017* .78 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,37) D. F. V a r i a b l e E r r o r MS F S i g . o f F 2 LEVEL 1 1.27692 2.27417 .140* 2 LEVEL 2 .83288 .64040 .429 2 LEVEL 3 1.23576 5.88875 .020* EFFECT .. GROUP M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N =16 1/2) Test Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth. DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F Power H o t e l l i n g s .42967 5.01279 3 35 .005* .88 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,37) D. F. V a r i a b l e E r r o r MS F S i g . o f F Power 2 LEVEL 1 1.27692 3.45805 .071 .44020 2 LEVEL 2 .83288 13.80600 .001* .95072 2 LEVEL 3 1.23576 7.54459 .009* .76051 165 Ta b l e A8 TASK TWO - THE EFFECT OF GRAPHICAL FORMAT ON PREFERENCE FOR FORMAT WITH PRETEST PREFERENCE AS A COVATIATE: M u l t i v a r i a t e T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e (S = 1, M = 1/2, N = 16 ) Tes t Name V a l u e E x a c t F Hypoth.DF E r r o r DF S i g . o f F H o t e l l i n g s .35614 4.03622 3 34 .015* M u l t i v a r i a t e E f f e c t S i z e and Observed Power a t .05 L e v e l TEST NAME E f f e c t S i z e Power H o t e l l i n g s .263 .80 EFFECT...WITHIN+RESIDUAL R e g r e s s i o n U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,36) D. F. V a r i a b l e MSe F p Power COMPLETENESS 1.04968 4.87470 .034* .571 U n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s w i t h (1,36) D. F. V a r i a b l e MSe F p. Power PREFERENCE OF FORMAT: CLARITY .65000 9.84615 .003* .86254 CLARITY - w i t h c o v a r i a t e .64574 8.49429 .006* .80773 READABILITY .53553 10.50369 .002* .88344 READABILITY - w i t h c o v a r i a t e .51505 8.85067 .005* .82345 COMPLETENESS 1.26316 2.85000 .100 .37665 COMPLETENESS - w i t h c o v a r i a t e 1.04968 4.43826 .042 .53410 166 A, 15 LETTERS OF PERMISSION FROM J . HARD AND H. WAINER 167 A 16. Experimental Raw Data DATA.THE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ID G YR G V H C . B . M . D . O . B5 6 AC AD MTH E 3 2 1 M G T F 01 1 50 F Y 1 . . 1 03 Y . 1 5 084 N . . . Y . T 4 0047 C A D A A 0200 C A B B B 0327 3 3 2 0407 C B C C A 0508 D B A B B 0550 4 4 2 0853 3 1 4 2 . A 1237 C B D A D 1713 C A C C B 2040 B A . B 2220 3 3 4 2230 D A C C B 1000 3046 A A B B 3354 D B B C B 3811 A W A . 3900 Y Y Y N N N Y N 3 4 4 . . . D . . D . 3 3 4 3 4 4 2 B . B . . . 02 2 38 F Y 1 1 . 1 1 1 01 Y . 0 3 024 N . . . N . T 3 0137 C A D A A 0257 C A B B B 0612 4 3 2 0727 B B C C A 0850 D B A B B 1016 3 3 1 1320 3 1 . 2 4 A 1720 C B D A D 2126 B C C C B 2434 B A . B 2605 2 3 3 2711 D A C B C .... 3312 D C A B 3759 A B B X B 4305 A W C W 4540 Y N Y Y N N N N 1 2 2 A B . . . . A . 3 4 1 2 3 2 1 B . . . D W 03 1 45 F Y 1 1 1 1 02 Y 08 . 060 Y . . . Y G . 3 0110 C A D A A 0230 C A B B B 0327 5 4 1 0414 B B C C A 0508 D B A B B 0554 4 4 1 0940 3 1 4 . 2 A 1240 D B D A D 1603 C C C C B 1909 A A . B 2026 2 2 3 2102 B A D C A $SMA 2349 A A A A 2631 D B B C B 2933 A W A . 3019 Y N N N Y N Y N 3 3 2 . . . D . . B . 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 B . B . . . 168 04 2 45 F Y 1 1 . 1 01 Y . 1 0 048 Y . . . N G T 3 0119 C A . A A 0438 C A B B B 0633 4 3 2 0756 C B C C A 1020 D B A B B 1156 4 4 2 1550 3 2 . . . A 2212 C B . B . 2624 A C C . B 3002 A D . B 3058 1 1 3 3139 A A C . A .... 3755 D . B B 4124 A . C . B 4251 . B . 4330 2 3 3 . . C . . . B . 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 A . . C . . 05 1 34 M Y 1 1 1 1 01 N . . 048 Y 3 . 1 Y . T 4 0117 C A D A A 0258 B A B B B 0457 4 3 2 0602 B B C C A 0742 D B A B B 0916 4 4 1 1132 3 2 4 1 . A 1807 C B D D B 2353 B C C C B 2809 A A . A 2936 2 3 2 3255 A A C B A $SMA 3704 A B B A 3955 D D D C C 4307 A . A . 4339 N N Y N N N N P 2 3 2 . . . D . . D . 3 5 3 2 4 3 2 B . B . . . 06 1 28 M Y 1 . . 1 Y . 2 0 007 Y 3 2 1 Y . T 3 0028 C A D A A 0149 C A C B B 0259 5 5 1 0341 B B C C A 0443 D B A B B 0532 5 5 1 0939 3 . 4 1 2 A 1309 D B D B D 1653 C C C C B 1939 A D W A 2049 3 3 2 2222 D A C . A 0.5M 2528 A A W W 2728 D B A C A 3011 A . B . 3055 N N N N N N N N 3 3 1 . . . D . . B . 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 A A . . . . 07 1 41 M Y 1 . . 1 05 Y . 3 0 048 Y 3 . . Y . T 3 0032 C A D A A 0436 C A B A B 0655 3 3 2 0816 B B/C C A 0940 D B A B B 1117 3 3 2 169 1400 1938 1 1 5 2106 C A C D A .... 2447 D A B B 2644 D C B X C 2926 B W C . 3005 N N N N N Y N N 1 2 5 . . . D . . B . 2 4 1 2 2 1 1 B . . C . . 08 1 42 M Y 1 . . 1 1 10 Y 09 20 240 Y 3 . . Y G T 5 0048 C A D A A 0230 C A C B B 0426 5 4 4 0542 B B C C A 0658 D B A B B 0752 5 4 4 0845 3 . 4 2 . A 1554 D B . C . 2050 C C C C B 2534 A B W A 2657 1 2 4 2808 D A C . C .... 3303 A A B B 3635 D B B C B 3908 A . B W 3930 Y N Y N N N N P 3 3 2 . . . D . . C . 3 5 4 . 3 4 2 B . B C . . 09 1 16 F Y 1 1 1 1 . 1 01 N .. . 130 Y . . . Y G T 4 0050 C A . D D 0330 C-A D B A 0700 5 5 1 1002 C B C C A 1313 D B A C B 1626 4 4 1 2034 4 . . . . A 2503 D B D C A 3032 B C B C A 3840 B A . A 3953 3 3 1 4108 C A C D A .... 4503 C B A A 4945 B B C X B 5412 A W A . 5522 Y Y N N N N N P 4 3 2 . . . D . . B . 3 4 2 . 4 4 . B . . C . . 10 1 44 F Y 1 1 . 1 . 1 02 N . . 060 Y . . . Y . T 2 0126 C A D A A 0309 C A B B B 0557 3 3 2 0715 B B C C C 0820 D B A B B 0925 4 4 1 1138 3 . 4 2 1 A 1649 D B D A D 2046 C C C C A 2331 A B . B 2503 1 1 5 ' 2531 D A C C C .... 3514 A A B B 170 3820 D B B X B 4257 A . C . 4330 N N Y N N N N P 2 3 3 . . . D . . D . 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 B . B . . . 11 2 47 F Y 1 . . 1 . 1 . 1 1 . . 01 N . . 180 Y 3 . . Y . T 2 0141 C A D A A 0314 C A B D B 0530 4 4 1 0625 B B C C A 0732 D B A B B 0843 3 3 1 1147 3 . 4 2 1 A 1617 D B D A D 2052 A C C D B 2440 B A . A 2624 3 3 2 2700 D A C D A 25 T 3814 D A B A 4443 C B B X C 4835 B . A . 4905 Y N N N N N N N 1 1 4 A B . D . W B . 3 3 4 1 3 3 1 B . B C . . 12 1 41 M Y 1 1 1 05 Y 34 28 156 Y 3 2 1 Y G T 4 0008 C A D A A 0149 C A B B C 0252 4 4 1 0735 B B C C A 0837 D B A B B 0948 4 4 1 1209 3 . 4 2 1 A 1554 D B D A D 1857 C C C C B 2142 B A . B 2314 3 3 2 2432 B A C C C .... 2853 A A A A 3211 D B B C B 3647 A . C W 3739 Y Y Y Y N N N P 2 3 2 . B C . . . D . 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 A A . . C . . 13 2 44 F Y 1 1 1 1 1 . Y . 0 3 062 Y 3 . . Y . T 3 0150 C A D A A 0320 C A B B B 0450 4 4 3 0552 B B C C A 0725 D B A B B 0832 4 3 1 1312 3 1 4 2 . A 1608 D B D A W 2045 C C C W B 2315 B A . B 2530 2 3 4 • 2725 A A D W C .... 3240 D W B W 3548 A C B . B 3719 A . A . 3746 N N N N N Y N . 1 2 W . . . D . . C . 3 4 3 2 3 3 1 B . B . . . 14 1 3 1 F Y 1 1 . 1 . 1 . . . 1 1 . N . . 360 Y . 2 . Y . T 5 171 0120 C A D A A 0218 C C C B B 0422 3 3 1 0513 B B C C A 0621 D B A B B 0730 4 3 1 1206 3 1 . 2 4 A 1749 D B A A A 2345 C C C D B 2804 A A . A 4032 1 2 4 4117 A A C A C .... 4648 A C A A 5037 C B B C B 5601 A W C W 5746 Y N N N N N N . 3 3 2 . . . D . W D . 3 4 3 3 4 4 1 B . B . . . 15 1 53 M Y 1 . . 1 1 . . . . 1 1 10 Y 17 17 024 Y . . 1 Y . T 5 0124 C A D A A 0239 C A B B B 0513 4 3 2 0624 B B C C A 0751 D B A B B 0841 5 4 2 1109 3 . 4 2 1 A 1524 C B D B . 2510 C C C C B 2912 A B . B 3102 2 2 4 3144 D A C C A 5000 3745 A A A W 4126 C B A C A 4616 A . C W 4711 Y Y Y N N N N P 3 3 4 . . . . E W B . 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 B . . . D W 16 1 45 F Y 1 . . 1 N . . 012 Y 3 . . Y . T 4 0006 C A D A A 0229 B A C B C 0347 4 4 2 0445 B B C C A 0533 A B A B B 0624 4 4 1 0900 3 1 4 2 . A 1213 C B D . D 1606 C C A D B 1826 B A . B 1915 2 3 2 2100 D A C . A $250 2431 A C B A 2744 D B C X A 2931 A . A W 2953 N N N N N N N P 4 4 2 . . . D . . B . 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 B . B . . . 17 2 55 M Y 1 . . 1 1 10 Y 15 . 192 Y 3 2 1 Y . T 4 0035 C A D A A 0203 C A B B C 0329 4 4 2 0431 B B C C A 0536 D B A B B 0641 3 4 3 0904 3 . 4 2 1 A 1304 D B D A D 172 1551 C C C C B 1925 A D W B 2222 2 2 5 2303 A A C C C .... 2836 D A A A 3116 D C B X C 3942 B W C W 4131 Y Y Y Y N N N . 1 2 5 A . C . . . B . 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 B A B C . W 18 1 30 M Y 1 1 1 . Y 44 . 312 Y . . 1 Y G T 3 0126 C A D A C 0309 B A B A B 0526 3 4 1 0700 B B C C A 0925 D B A B B 1059 2 3 2 1352 A 1636 C C D C . 2259 . . C C A 2103 A C . B 2803 2 3 3 2949 . A A D A $200 3920 A . . . 4210 D B B . C 4528 B . C W 4638 2 2 3 . . . D . . C . 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 A A . . D W 19 2 52 M Y 1 . . 1 . 1 1 . . . . 03 Y . 0 5 001 N . . . N . . 4 0035 C A D A A 0159 C A B B B 0300 4 4 2 0345 B B C C A 0432 D B A B B 0517 5 5 1 0726 3 . 4 2 1 A 1010 D B D A D 1205 C C C C B 1340 A D W B 1452 3 3 3 1528 D A C A A $100 1934 A A . B 2104 D D B C A 2452 A W A . 2530 Y N Y Y Y N N . 3 3 3 . B . . . . D . 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 B . B . . . 20 2 45 F Y 1 . . 1 . 1 1 N . . 001 N . . . N . . 4 0057 C A D A A 0230 C A B B D 0535 4 4 1 0622 B B C B A 0808 . B A B B 0812 4 4 1 1254 3 . 4 2 . A 1844 D B D A D 2149 C C C C A 2416 B A . B 2522 4 4 2 2613 D A D A A 1000 3020 C B B B 3542 B C B C B 4018 A W A . 4118 Y N Y Y Y N N P 173 2 2 2 A B . 3 3 1 3 4 4 2 B . B C . 21 2 28 F Y 1 . . 1 . 1 Y . 1 5 0129 C A . A A 0245 B A D A A 0406 2 3 1 0500 B B C C A 0810 D B A A C 0717 3 4 1 0953 . 1 3 4 2 B 1344 C B A C D 1650 C C C C B 1918 B A . A 2014 3 3 3 2115 A B C C A .... 2348 A C A B 2553 C B B X B 2722 A . A . 2754 N N N N N N N P 2 2 3 . . . D . . A . 3 3 1 3 4 4 3 B . B . . 22 1 4 6 F Y 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . . . . 0 4 N 0100 C A D A A 0202 B A B A A 0316 3 4 4 0415 B B C C A 0522 D B A B B 0602 2 3 4 0840 3 1 4 2 . A 1158 D B C C D 1548 C C C C B 1834 B B . A 1927 2 3 2 2018 D A C C A 1000 2559 A B B B 2837 D B B C B 3435 A . B W 3548 Y N Y N N N N P 3 3 2 . . . D . . . W 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 A A B C . 23 2 42 M Y 1 . . 1 . 1 1 . . . . 04 Y . 3 0 0142 C A D A A 0257 C A B B B 0406 5 4 1 0452 B B C C A 0550 D B A B B 0637 4 4 1 0910 3 . 4 2 1 A 1154 D B D A D 1618 C C C C B 1756 B A . B 1848 2 3 3 2001 B A C A C .... 2559 C B A A 3407 D B B C A 3804 A . A . 3826 Y Y Y N N N N P 1 1 3 . . C . . . D . 1 5 1 1 3 5 1 B . B . . 24 1 56 M Y 1 . . 1 1 10 Y 13 0100 C A D A A 0219 C A B B C 0334 3 3 4 224 Y 3 2 . Y . T 4 025 N . . . N . . 3 W 084 N . . . Y G T 4 W 060 Y . 2 1 Y . T 4 174 0447 B B C C A 0542 D B A B B 0617 4 4 2 0835 3 1 4 2 . A 1131 C B D A B 1406 C C C C B 1540 B A . B 1635 2 2 2 1711 C A C A A .... 1951 A A A B 2104 B B A C B 2335 A . C W 2450 Y Y N N N N N . 2 2 2 . . . D . . B . 3 4 1 2 3 2 1 B . . C . . 25 1 28 M Y 1 1 1 03 Y 30 30 180 Y 3 2 1 Y . T 4 0101 C A D A A 0159 C A B B D 0323 4 4 1 0415 C B C C A 0515 D B A B B 0616 3 3 2 1012 3 2 4 . 1 A 1314 C B . C A 1651 C A C C A 1940 A D W B 2042 1 1 3 2202 D . C B A 8000 2727 A . B B 3013 C C B . B 3402 . . C W 3454 N N N N N Y N . 1 2 3 A A . 2 4 1 2 2 2 2 W . . ,DW 26 2 47 F Y 1 1 1 1 03 Y . 2 2 001 N . . . Y . T 4 0114 C A D A A 0456 C A B B B 0716 4 4 4 0811 B B C C A 0915 D B A C B 1032 4 4 4 1338 3 . 4 2 1 A 1458 . B D C B 1936 C C C . B 2203 A A . B 2251 2 3 3 2404 2704 . . . . 2820 C B C X C 2947 B W C . 3042 Y N N N N Y N . 1 1 5 A B C . . . E W 4 3 1 1 4 2 1 B . B C D W 27 2 38 M 1 01 Y . 2 5 180 Y 3 . . Y G T 4 0003 C A . A A 0249 C A C B C 0357 3 4 2 0450 B B C C A 0542 D B A B B 0625 3 4 2 0843 . . 3 2 1 A 1157 C B D C D 1456 C C C D B 1727 B A . A 1816 3 4 2 175 1756 . A D . C .... 2256 . . . . 2341 . C B 2516 A W A . 2700 N N Y N N N N P 2 3 5 . . . D . . C . 3 3 1 1 4 4 1 B . B . . W 28 2 31 F Y 1 1 N . . 216 Y 3 2 . Y . T 3 0138 C A D A A 0309 C A B B B 0409 5 5 1 0541 B B C C A 0653 D B A C A 0804 5 5 1 1030 . 1 3 2 4 B 1519 D C D A B 1813 C C C C B 2009 B B . B 2048 3 3 2 2139 D A D . A 38 T 2520 B C B B 2803 A A A C B 3118 A W A . 3248 Y N N Y N N N N 2 3 4 . . . D . W D . 3 5 2 2 5 5 2 B . B . . . 29- 1 50 F Y 1 1 . 1 Y . 1 0 180 Y . . 1 Y . T 2 0036 C A D A A 0145 C A B B B 0242 5 5 1 0315 B B C C A 0343 D B A B B 0511 4 4 1 0857 3 1 4 . 2 A 1246 C B D A A 1511 C C C C A 1736 A A . A 1855 2 3 2 2030 D A D D A .... 2428 A C A B 2802 D B B C C 3150 B W B W 3252 Y Y Y N N N N . 2 3 2 . . . D . . D . 3 4 2 4 3 2 4 A A . . . W 30 2 42 F Y 1 Y 25 . 012 Y 3 2 1 Y G T 4 0007 C A D A A 0119 C A B B D 0234 5 4 1 0321 B B C C A 0414 D B A C B 0450 5 4 1 0706 3 . 4 2 1 A 1003 D C D A B 1241 C C C D B 1412 A A . A 1457 3 3 1 1622 . A C A C .... 1821 D . A A 1935 A A B C C 2150 B . A . 2204 Y Y Y N N N N N 2 2 3 . . C . . . D . 3 4 3 2 4 5 2 B . B . ... 176 31 1 55 M Y 1 . . 1 . 1 N . . 084 Y 3 . . Y . T 2 0106 C A D A A 0224 C A B B B 0328 4 4 2 0430 B B C C A 0544 D B A B B 0630 4 4 2 0936 3 2 4 . 1 A 1220 C B D A D 1547 C C C C B 1714 B A . B 1855 3 3 2 1945 D A C D A 1MIL 2334 A C B A 2607 D B B C B 3042 A W C W 3229 Y Y Y N N N N P 3 2 2 . . . D . . D . 3 3 5 3 4 2 2 A A . C D W 32 2 5 6 F Y 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 . . . . 0 2 N . . 042 N . . . Y . T 1 0113 C A D A A 0206 C A B B D 0508 4 4 4 0519 B B C C A 0637 D B A B B 0739 4 3 4 0941 3 . 4 2 1 A 1220 D B D A D 1639 C C C . B 1850 B A . B 2023 3 3 3 2210 D A C D A $100 2734 A B A A 2934 A B C C B 3213 . W A W 3256 N N Y N N Y N P 1 1 5 . . . D . W W W 4 4 1 1 4 4 1 B . B C . . 33 1 44 F Y 1 . . 1 N . . 072 Y 3 . . Y . T 1 0154 C A D A A 0258 C A B B C 0511 3 3 1 0639 B B C C A 0825 D B A . B 1002 4 4 4 1403 3 . 1 2 . A 1810 D B W C W 2327 C C W D B 2901 B B . A 3000 3 3 3 3100 A A C W B NEG 3900 A C . B 4258 D C B . W 4539 W W C . 4622 N N N N N Y N . 3 3 3 . . . D . . D . 2 3 1 W W W W W . . C . W 34 2 47 M Y 1 . . 1 . 1 1 . . 1 1 02 N . . 036 Y 3 . . Y . T 4 0150 C A D A A 0348 C A A B B 0458 4 4 2 0540 B B C C A 0640 B B A B C 0815 3 3 3 177 1109 3 2 4 1 . A 1512 D B D C W 2240 C C C D B 2639 B B . A 2734 3 3 2 2856 D A C C C .... 3238 W A W W 3712 A C B C A 4143 A . A . 4209 Y Y Y N N N N P 3 3 3 W B . 3 3 2 2 4 4 1 B . B . . . 35 2 33 F Y 1 . . 1 . 1 N . . 300 Y 3 . . Y G T 4 0104 C A D A A 0537 C A B A C 1144 3 3 4 1336 B B C C A 1608 D B A B B 1859 3 4 4 2116 3 . 4 2 1 A 2927 D B D A D 3728 C C C C A 4459 A D . B 4840 4 4 4 6139 D W W W W .... 6455 W B W W 6805 D C B . W 7250 B W C W 7502 2 3 3 A B C . . . B W 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 B . B . D W 36 2 49 F Y 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 . . 1 1 15 Y 03 05 012 Y . 2 1 Y . T 5 0117 C A D A A 0223 C A B B B 0356 5 5 1 0455 B B C C A 0536 D B A A B 0624 4 4 1 0938 3 . 4 2 1 A 1046 C B D A D 1343 C C C W B 1610 B B . A 1649 4 3 1 1857 . W C W C .... 2458 W W A A 3039 C B B X A 3403 A W A . 3440 Y N Y N N Y N . 1 1 W . . . D . W B . 4 4 3 2 5 5 1 B . B C . . 37 1 21 F Y 1 1 . Y . 2 0 072 N . . . N . T 1 0002 C A B D B 0120 A B B A C 0225 4 3 2 0541 D B A C A 0639 A B B B . 0808 3 3 2 1339 3 1 . 4 2 . 2314 C C D A B 2850 A A C C B 3149 . A . A 3249 3 3 3 3407 B B A A A 13 3935 A A A A 4140 A B C C B 4335 A W A . 4432 178 Y N N N N N N N 2 3 4 W D . 3 5 4 1 2 2 2 W . . C . . 38 2 13 M Y . 1 Y . 3 0 060 Y . . . Y . T 3 0147 B C A A A D 0347 A A B B C 0504 3 4 3 0843 A B C A A 1012 B B B C B 1113 3 4 3 1430 . 1 3 2 4 A 2506 A A C B A 3255 A C B C B 3711 A B . A 3805 3 3 2 4103 B A A A A 1000 4945 D C A A 5532 A D C X A 5801 A . C . 5832 N N N N N N N P 3 3 3 A B . 3 4 3 2 2 3 3 A . . C . . 39 2 23 F Y 1 . . 1 03 Y 02 03 120 Y . 2 . N . T 3 0112 C A D A A 0232 C A B B B 0407 5 4 1 0458 B B C C A 0655 B B A C B 0810 3 4 2 1449 A 2504 C B D C B 2912 C C C D A 3419 B A . B 3515 3 3 3 3545 A A A B C .... 4045 A C A B 4602 C B A X B 4945 A . C . 5002 N N N N N N N P 3 3 2 . . C . . . D . 3 4 4 2 2 . 2 B . B . D W 40 2 47 M Y 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 . . . . 04 Y .'15 156 Y 3 . 1 Y . T 4 0052 C A D A A 0158 C A B B B 0254 3 4 1 0333 B B C C A 0436 D B A B B 0610 0810 3 1 4 2 . A 1023 D B D C W 1338 C C C D A 1548 A A . B 1630 2 3 2 1706 D A C B A IM 2011 A C B B 2219 D B B C B 2418 A . A . 2436 N N Y N N N N P 1 1 1 . B . . . . B . 3 4 2 3 4 4 2 B . B . . . DATA FORMAT: 179 " c o r r e c t answers" q.# 1 2 3 4 ID G YR G V H C . 6 8 9 10 11 12 B M D 0 B5 6 AC AD MTH E 3 2 1 M G T F 5 4 M Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 09 Y 12 23 360 Y 3 2 1 Y G T 5 C A D A A . . . . . C A B B B .... 1 1 5 B B C C A .... D B A B B .... 5 5 1 3 . 4 2 1 A . . . . D B D A D C C C C B .... B B W A .... 5 D A C C A $165 .... A A B A D B B B .... A W A W .... Y Y Y Y Y N Y P 5 5 1 A B C D E W D W 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 B A B C D W E x p l a n a t i o n o f Coding: IF LEFT BLANK PUT " . " , OR IF 2 ANSWERS ARE MARKED PUT " . " IF YEARS GIVEN ARE LESS THAN SPACES PUT "0" EG 9 YEARS = 09 24 MONTHS =024 IF "YES" PUT "Y", IF NO PUT "N" IF WRITTEN COMMENTS ARE GIVEN PUT "W", OR ? PUT "W" FOR QUESTION "S5. HOW MUCH...." PUT IN AMOUNT GIVEN (4SPACES) $ = RIGHT ANSWER SMALL AMOUNT, 100,000 200,000 FOR TIMING - USE SUBJECT'S NUMBERS OR EXTIMATE BETWEEN MINE AND SUBJECTS'S OR USE MY TIMES SI3 COMMENT ON EXPENSES AND REVENUE | YEAR END TRENDS, FORECAST, OR DEFICIT | BUDGET | SALARY | PATIENT REVENUES | NEGATIVE COMMENTS ABOUT GRAPHS | QUESTION FORECAST | (Y/N) 98% AGREEMENT BETWEEN RATERS. 8 DISSAGREEMENTS ON 320 RATINGS STATE FINANCIAL OUTLOOK ( P / N / . ) P = P o s i t i v e , N=Negative, .= NOT STATED WROTE DOWN ALL WRITTEN COMMENTS WROTE DOWN ALL POSSIBLE ORAL COMMENTS 180 ASKED SUBJECTS FOR "FINAL COMMENT" 13 LINES PER SUBJECT LINE 1 27 2 13 3 3 4 13 5 3 6 13 7 12 8 3 9 12 TO 11 12 8 13 21 TOTAL 14 2 X 4 0 SUBJECTS = 5680 LINE 1 ID 1-2, GROUP 4, BIRTH YEAR 6-7, GENDER 9, VISION 11, EDUCATION: HIGH SCH 12, CERTIF 14, C SPEC 16, BA 18, BASPEC 20, MASTERS 22, MSPEC 24, PHD 26, PHDSPEC 28, OTHER 30, 0TH SPEC 32, TOTAL EDUCATION / l l (ONE PHD .-. /9; ONE SUBJECT NOT HIGH SCHOOL GIVE 1 FOR EACH LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND 1 FOR ALL FINANCIAL OR ADMINISTRATION SPECIALITIES) FINANCE COURSES 34-35 0-15 TOTAL =118 AVG 2.7 GR1=64 GR2=54 0=14 GR1=7;1=6;2=4;3=5;4=3;4=3;7=1;10=3;15=1 WORK EXPERIENCE 36 Y OR N GROUP1 =12 YES GROUP 2=14 YESSES YEARS IN FINANCE OR ACCOUNTING 37-38 YEARS IN ADMINISTRATION 3 9-40 MONTHS ON BOARD 42-44 EXECUTIVE POSITION 46 Y OR N CHAIRMAN 48 3 IF YES TREASURER 50 2 IF YES FINANCE COMMITTEE 52 1 IF YES RECEIVE MONTHLY STATEMENTS 54 Y OR N GRAPHS 56 G IF YES TABLES 58 T IF YES PERCEIVED FAMILIARITY WITH GRAPHS 6 0 1-5 TIME: TOTAL FROM 22 TO 74 MIN. AVERAGE FOR GROUP 1 = 38.2 MIN. 

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